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Sample records for acoustooptic tunable filters

  1. Display system employing acousto-optic tunable filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    An acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) is employed to generate a display by driving the AOTF with a RF electrical signal comprising modulated red, green, and blue video scan line signals and scanning the AOTF with a linearly polarized, pulsed light beam, resulting in encoding of color video columns (scan lines) of an input video image into vertical columns of the AOTF output beam. The AOTF is illuminated periodically as each acoustically-encoded scan line fills the cell aperture of the AOTF. A polarizing beam splitter removes the unused first order beam component of the AOTF output and, if desired, overlays a real world scene on the output plane. Resolutions as high as 30,000 lines are possible, providing holographic display capability.

  2. Display system employing acousto-optic tunable filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambert, James L. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) is employed to generate a display by driving the AOTF with a RF electrical signal comprising modulated red, green, and blue video scan line signals and scanning the AOTF with a linearly polarized, pulsed light beam, resulting in encoding of color video columns (scan lines) of an input video image into vertical columns of the AOTF output beam. The AOTF is illuminated periodically as each acoustically-encoded scan line fills the cell aperture of the AOTF. A polarizing beam splitter removes the unused first order beam component of the AOTF output and, if desired, overlays a real world scene on the output plane. Resolutions as high as 30,000 lines are possible, providing holographic display capability.

  3. Materials for imaging acousto-optic tunable filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Neelam

    2014-05-01

    Research and development of robust compact hyperspectral imagers that can acquire both spectral and spatial features from a scene of interest is of utmost importance for standoff detection of targets as well as chemical and biological agents and backgrounds. Hyperspectral imagers can acquire images with a large number of narrow spectral bands and take advantage of the characteristic spectral signatures of different materials making up the scene. At the Army Research Laboratory (ARL), we are developing hyperspectral imagers based on acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) that can provide adaptive no-moving-parts imagers from the ultraviolet (UV) to the long wave infrared (LWIR) to acquire a two-dimensional spectral image and build up a two-dimensional image cube as a function of time instead of using traditional grating or prism based approach that requires relative motion between sensor and scene. Here, we will review the development of different imaging AOTFs operating from the UV to the LWIR based on a variety of birefringent materials and include the spectral imaging carried out with these filters including both with single and double piezoelectric transducers. We will also include the theoretical background needed to carry out the filter design and discuss development of mercurous halide crystals that can be used to develop AOTFs operating over a wide spectral region from the visible to the LWIR.

  4. Recent advance in application of acousto-optic tunable filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khansuvarov, Ruslan A.; Shakin, Oleg V.; Vaganov, Mikhail A.; Zhdanov, Arseniy Y.; Prokashev, Vadim N.

    2014-09-01

    This paper aims to inform those interested in the scientific work of a large group of scientists: workers of the Department of Electronics and Optical communications of St. Petersburg State University of Aerospace Instrumentation in collaboration with workers of the Department of Quantum Electronics of St. Petersburg State Technical University in the area of researches and development of acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF). Paper discusses the important features of the AOTF structure and their parameters that affect its work, such as: spectral range of optical radiation, spectral resolution, active aperture of the optical radiation, optical transmission of the working spectral range, optical radiation polarization (linear, circular or arbitrary) , diffraction efficiency, contrast, distortion of the optical radiation's front, frequency range of elastic waves, switching time, maximum electric control power, impedance. Also the AOTF using is considered: AOTF's implications for control of laser radiation, AOTF's application to determine the counterfeit money. The last part of the report focuses on materials that act as antireflection thin films. Spectral characteristics of "clean" and enlightened substrates of ZnSe and Ge are shown. As seen from the examples in the report, antireflection thin films increase transmittance of optical elements.

  5. Electronically tunable coherent Raman spectroscopy using acousto-optics tunable filter.

    PubMed

    Petrov, Georgi I; Meng, Zhaokai; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2015-09-21

    Fast and sensitive Raman spectroscopy measurements are imperative for a large number of applications in biomedical imaging, remote sensing and material characterization. In this report, by introducing an electronically-tunable acousto-optical filter as a wavelength selector, we demonstrated a novel instrumentation to the broadband coherent Raman spectroscopy. System's tunability allows assessing Raman transitions ranging from <400 cm(-1) to 4500 cm(-1). We validated the use of the new instrumentation by collecting coherent anti-Stokes spectra and stimulated Raman spectra of various samples. PMID:26406668

  6. Tunable broadband light coupler based on two parallel all-fiber acousto-optic tunable filters.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wending; Huang, Ligang; Gao, Feng; Bo, Fang; Zhang, Guoquan; Xu, Jingjun

    2013-07-15

    Based on the evanescent-field coupling between the cladding modes of two adjacent and parallel all-fiber acousto-optic tunable filters, tunable broadband light coupling with relatively uniform insertion loss of trapping spectrum was achieved. In the experiments, a wide spectral tuning range from 1490 nm to 1610 nm, covering the whole C- and L-band and parts of S-bands, was demonstrated with a wavelength tunability slope of -0.72 nm/kHz. The insertion loss of the trapping spectrum was uniform (around -5.0 dB, which can be improved with a longer evanescent-field coupling length) within the whole tuning spectral range. Such a light coupling structure would be useful in tunable broadband light coupler and broadband optical fiber add/drop multiplexer for applications in coarse wavelength division multiplexing systems. PMID:23938513

  7. Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter Hyperspectral Microscope Imaging Method for Characterizing Spectra from Foodborne Pathogens.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral microscope imaging (HMI) method, which provides both spatial and spectral characteristics of samples, can be effective for foodborne pathogen detection. The acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF)-based HMI method can be used to characterize spectral properties of biofilms formed by Salmon...

  8. JPL activities on development of acousto-optic tunable filter imaging spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, Li-Jen; Chao, Tien-Hsin; Reyes, George

    1992-01-01

    Recent activities of JPL in the development of a new type of imaging spectrometers for earth observation and planetary exploration are reported. This instrument uses the acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) as high resolution and fast programmable bandpass filter. AOTF operates in the principle of acousto-optic interaction in an anisotropic medium. This filter can be tuned in sequential, random, and multiwavelength access modes, providing observational flexibility. The diffraction process in the filter generates two diffracted monochromatic beams with polarization orthogonal to each other, creating a unique capability to measure both polarimetric and spectral properties of the incoming light simultaneously with a single instrument. The device gives wide wavelength operations with reasonably large throughput. In addition, it is in a compact solid-state structure without moving parts, providing system reliability. These attractive features give promising opportunities to develop a new generation of airborne/spaceborne and ground, real-time, imaging spectrometer systems for remote sensing applications.

  9. Double-filtering method based on two acousto-optic tunable filters for hyperspectral imaging application.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengchong; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2016-05-01

    A hyperspectral imaging system was demonstrated based on two acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs). Efficient regulation of the incoherent beam was executed by means of the wide-angular regime of Bragg diffraction in the birefringent materials. A double-filtering process was achieved when these two AOTFs operated with a central wavelength difference. In comparison with the single-filtering method, the spectral bandwidth was greatly compressed, giving an increment of 42.02% in spectral resolution at the wavelength of 651.62 nm. Experimental results and theoretical calculations are basically identical. Furthermore, the sidelobe was found to be suppressed by the double-filtering process with the first order maximum decreased from -9.25 dB to -22.35 dB. The results indicated high spectral resolution and high spectral purity were obtained simultaneously from this method. The basic spectral resolution performance was examined with a didymium glass by this configuration. We present our experimental methods and the detailed results obtained. PMID:27137600

  10. Study on spectrally agile staring sensor using acousto-optic tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yan; Zhang, Minghui

    1992-08-01

    The spectrally agile staring sensor (SASS) is an instrument system that is able to get image and spectrum information. This paper analyzes the expression of signal-to-noise ratio and overall performance of the SASS system that uses an acousto-optic tunable filter as its spectral filter, and points out improving methods and limiting factors of the system performance. The complete SASS system experimental set-up is constructed. Using this set-up, the theory is verified, and the image and spectrum information of the simulated target is acquired.

  11. [Preliminary study on using acousto-optic tunable filter as wavelength selector for atomic absorption spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li-wei; Zhang, Yi-hua; Wang, Mei-jia; Song, Da-qian; Zhang, Han-qi; Jin, Qin-han

    2002-06-01

    An acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) is an all-solid-state, electronic monochromator that is based on the diffraction of light by an acoustic wave in an anisotropic crystal. It is a new kind of tunable small filter with narrow band compared with traditional unicolor filter. The filter can diffract incident white light at a specific wavelength when a specific radio frequency is applied into it. An AAS experimental setup using a microwave plasma torch (MPT) as the atomizer, and a visible AOTF as the wavelength selector was developed and the analytical performance was evaluated by determination of Na. The effect on the absorption signal of some operating conditions, including the observation height, the microwave forward power and the carrier and support gas flow rates for MPT, were investigated. The detection limit for Na was shown to be 0.23 microgram.mL-1 and the relative standard deviation was 2.6% (n = 6). PMID:12938338

  12. A tunable dye laser with a CaMoO4 acoustooptical filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazur, M. M.; Makhmudov, Kh. M.; Pustovoit, V. I.

    1988-04-01

    A new optical scheme is proposed and an electronically tunable laser with a CaMoO4 acoustooptical filter (AOF) used as the dispersing element is experimentally tested. For rhodamine C dye, an emission wavelength tuning range of about 40 nm with a line width of 0.3 nm is obtained. Single and dual frequency operation is described. It is shown that the CaMoO4 AOF allows for laser operation with a driving RF power of 1 W, making it possible to use the laser in the CW mode.

  13. A Lyman-alpha tunable acousto-optic filter for detecting superthermal flare protons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mickey, Donald L.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this project was to develop and characterize a narrow-band, tunable filter for use near the Lyman-alpha line of hydrogen at 121.6 nm. Such a filter could form the critical component of an instrument to observe asymmetries in the solar Lyman-alpha line, caused by energetic protons accelerated during the impulsive phase of solar flares. Characteristic charge-exchange nonthermal emission at Lyman alpha should be produced when sub-MeV protons are injected into the chromosphere, but no instrument suitable for their detection has been developed. Such an instrument would require a narrow-band (less than 0.01 nm) tunable filter with aperture and throughput consistent with imaging a solar active region at 0.1 second intervals. The development of acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF) suitable for use as compact, simple tunable filters for astronomical work suggested an investigation into the use of an AOTF at Lyman-alpha.

  14. LIGHT MODULATION: Quasi-collinear tunable acousto-optic paratellurite crystal filters for wavelength division multiplexing and optical channel selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molchanov, V. Ya; Voloshinov, V. B.; Makarov, O. Yu

    2009-04-01

    Quasi-collinear acousto-optic interaction is studied in acoustically and optically anisotropic paratellurite crystals. The possible applications of this interaction in acousto-optic tunable filters with a high spectral resolution are discussed. Different modifications of devices are compared and variants of devices intended for processing light beams and selection of light signals in fibreoptic communication systems with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) at λ simeq 1550 nm are considered.

  15. Quasi-collinear tunable acousto-optic paratellurite crystal filters for wavelength division multiplexing and optical channel selection

    SciTech Connect

    Molchanov, V Ya; Makarov, O Yu; Voloshinov, V B

    2009-04-30

    Quasi-collinear acousto-optic interaction is studied in acoustically and optically anisotropic paratellurite crystals. The possible applications of this interaction in acousto-optic tunable filters with a high spectral resolution are discussed. Different modifications of devices are compared and variants of devices intended for processing light beams and selection of light signals in fibreoptic communication systems with wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) at {lambda} {approx_equal} 1550 nm are considered. (light modulation)

  16. Effect of metal coating in all-fiber acousto-optic tunable filter using torsional wave.

    PubMed

    Song, Du-Ri; Jun, Chang Su; Do Lim, Sun; Kim, Byoung Yoon

    2014-12-15

    Torsional mode acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) is demonstrated using a metal-coated birefringent optical fiber for an improved robustness. The changes in acoustic and optical properties of a metal-coated birefringent optical fiber induced by the thin metal coating were analyzed experimentally and theoretically. The filter wavelength shift is successfully explained as a result of combined effect of acoustic wavelength change and optical birefringence change. We also demonstrated a small form-factor configuration by coiling the fiber with 6 cm diameter without performance degradation. The center wavelength of the filter can be tuned >35 nm by changing the applied frequency, and the coupling efficiency is higher than 92% with <5 nm 3-dB bandwidth. PMID:25607036

  17. Electro-optic tuning and sidelobe control in acousto-optic tunable filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aronson, L. B.

    1995-01-01

    Both the center wavelength and the sidelobe structure of an integrated acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) are determined by the effective waveguide birefringence along the length of the device. By altering the birefringence by means of the electro-optic effect, one can control these device characteristics in potentially useful ways. Electro-optic tuning of the center frequency of an AOTF is demonstrated, and it is shown that this tuning mode, while limited to smaller ranges than acoustic frequency tuning, is many orders of magnitude faster. By use of multisection electrodes, dynamic control over the shape of the filter function is demonstrated. Finally, a number of practical uses of this technique are discussed.

  18. All-fiber tunable laser based on an acousto-optic tunable filter and a tapered fiber.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ligang; Song, Xiaobo; Chang, Pengfa; Peng, Weihua; Zhang, Wending; Gao, Feng; Bo, Fang; Zhang, Guoquan; Xu, Jingjun

    2016-04-01

    An all-fiber tunable laser was fabricated based on an acousto-optic tunable filter and a tapered fiber. The structure was of a high signal-to-noise ratio, therefore, no extra gain flattening was needed in the laser. In the experiment, the wavelength of the laser could be tuned from 1532.1 nm to 1570.4 nm with a 3-dB bandwidth of about 0.2 nm. Given enough nonlinearity in the laser cavity, it could also generate a sliding-frequency pulse train. The laser gains advantages of fast tuning and agility in pulse generation, and its simple structure is low cost for practical applications. PMID:27137035

  19. Deep-UV Based Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter for Spectral Sensing Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, recent progress made in the development of quartz and KDP crystal based acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF) are presented. These AOTFs are developed for operation over deep-UV to near-UV wavelengths of 190 nm to 400 nm. Preliminary output performance measurements of quartz AOTF and design specifications of KDP AOTF are presented. At 355 nm, the quartz AOTF device offered approx.15% diffraction efficiency with a passband full-width-half-maximum (FWHM) of less than 0.0625 nm. Further characterization of quartz AOTF devices at deep-UV wavelengths is progressing. The hermetic packaging of KDP AOTF is nearing completion. The solid-state optical sources being used for excitation include nonlinear optics based high-energy tunable UV transmitters that operate around 320 nm and 308 nm wavelengths, and a tunable deep-UV laser operating over 193 nm to 210 nm. These AOTF devices have been developed as turn-key devices for primarily for space-based chemical and biological sensing applications using laser induced Fluorescence and resonance Raman techniques.

  20. Configurable-bandwidth imaging spectrometer based on an acousto-optic tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vila-Francés, Joan; Calpe-Maravilla, Javier; Muñoz-Mari, Jordi; Gómez-Chova, Luis; Amorós-López, Julia; Ribes-Gómez, Emilio; Durán-Bosch, Vicente

    2006-07-01

    This article presents a new imaging spectrometer called autonomous tunable filtering system. The instrument acquires sequential images at different spectral wavelengths in the visible and near infrared range of the electromagnetic spectrum. The spectral selection is performed by an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), which is driven by a custom radio-frequency (rf) generator based on a direct digital synthesizer (DDS). The DDS allows a high flexibility in terms of acquisition speed and bandwidth selection. The rf power is dynamically controlled to drive the AOTF with the optimum value for each wavelength. The images are formed through a carefully designed optical layout and acquired with a high performance digital camera. The application software controls the instrument and acquires the raw spectral images from the camera. This software optionally corrects the image for the AOTF nonidealities, such as diffraction efficiency variations, spatial nonuniformity, and chromatic aberration, and generates a single multiband image file. Moreover, the software can calculate the reflectance or transmittance of the acquired images. The instrument has been calibrated to give precise and repetitive measurements and has been validated against a high performance point spectrometer. As a case example, the instrument has been successfully used for the mapping of chlorophyll content of plant leaves from their multispectral reflectance images.

  1. Acousto-optic tunable filter for dispersion characterization of time-domain optical coherence tomography systems.

    PubMed

    Chin, Catherine; Toadere, Florin; Feuchter, Thomas; Leick, Lasse; Moselund, Peter; Bradu, Adrian; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2016-07-20

    A broadband supercontinuum light source with an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) are used to characterize dispersion in two time-domain OCT systems, at 850 and 1300 nm. The filter is designed to sweep across two spectral ranges, which are restricted here from 800 to 900 nm and from 1200 to 1500 nm, respectively. Dispersion compensation for 850 nm was achieved with a spectral delay line. Dispersion compensation for 1300 nm was achieved using BK 7 rod glasses in the reference arm. The AOTF allows evaluation of dispersion in under as well as overcompensated systems. The AOTF method is based on wavelength dependence of the optical path difference corresponding to the maximum strength of the interference signal recorded using a mirror as object. Comparison is made between the AOTF method and the more usual method based on measurement of the full width at half-maximum of the autocorrelation peak. This comparison shows that the AOTF method is more accurate in terms of evaluation of the dispersion left uncompensated after each adjustment. The AOTF method additionally provides information on the direction of dispersion compensation. PMID:27463927

  2. An acousto-optic tunable filter enhanced CO{sub 2} lidar atmospheric monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, L.H.; Suhre, D.R.; Mani, S.S.

    1996-12-31

    The atmospheric monitor conceptual design is based on a pulsed CO{sub 2} laser. The narrow laser lines provide high spectral selectivity in the 9-11 {mu}m region, within the 8-14 {mu}m ``fingerprint`` region where most large molecules have unique spectral absorption signatures. Laser power has been chosen so that topological objects, e.g., trees or buildings, as far as 4 km can be used as backreflectors, but the laser intensity is sufficiently low that the laser beam is eye-safe. Time-of-flight measurements give the distance to the topological reflector. The lidar system is augmented with an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) which measures the thermal emission spectra from 3 to 14 {mu}m with a 3 cm{sup -1} passband. Sensitivity to narrow emission lines is enhanced by derivative spectroscopy in which the passband of the AOTF is dithered via the rf drive. Path-averaged concentrations are determined from the emission intensity and laser- determined range.

  3. Radiometric calibration and noise estimation of acousto-optic tunable filter hyperspectral imaging systems.

    PubMed

    Katrašnik, Jaka; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2013-05-20

    The accuracy of the radiometric response of acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) hyperspectral imaging systems is crucial for obtaining reliable measurements. It is therefore important to know the radiometric response and noise characteristics of the hyperspectral imaging system used. A radiometric model of an AOTF hyperspectral imaging system composed of an imaging sensor radiometric model (CCD, CMOS, and sCMOS) and an AOTF light transmission model is proposed. Using the radiometric model, a method for obtaining the fixed pattern noise (FPN) of the imaging system by displacing and imaging an illuminated reference target is developed. Methods for estimating the temporal noise of the imaging system, using the photon transfer method, and for correcting FPN are also presented. Noise estimation and image restoration methods were tested on an AOTF hyperspectral imaging system. The results indicate that the developed methods can accurately calculate temporal and FPN, and can effectively correct the acquired images. After correction, the signal-to-noise ratio of the acquired images was shown to increase by 26%. PMID:23736239

  4. Double tungsten coil atomic absorption spectrometer based on an acousto-optic tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jora, M. Z.; Nóbrega, J. A.; Rohwedder, J. J. R.; Pasquini, C.

    2015-01-01

    An atomic absorption spectrometer based on a quartz acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) monochromator operating in the 271-453 nm range, is described. The instrument was tailored to study the formation and evolution of electrothermal atomic cloud induced either by one or two tungsten coils. The spectrometer also includes a fast response programmable photomultiplier module for data acquisition, and a power supply capable of driving two parallel tungsten coils independently. The atomization cell herein described was manufactured in PTFE and presents a new design with reduced size. Synchronization between the instant of power delivering to start the atomization process and the detection was achieved, allowing for monitoring the atomization and thermal events synchronously and in real time. Absorption signals can be sampled at a rate of a few milliseconds, compatible with the fast phenomena that occur with electrothermal metallic atomizers. The instrument performance was preliminarily evaluated by monitoring the absorption of radiation of atomic clouds produced by standard solutions containing chromium or lead. Its quantitative performance was evaluated by using Cr aqueous solutions, resulting in detection limits as low as 0.24 μg L- 1, and a relative standard deviation of 3%.

  5. Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter Spectroscopic Instrumentation for Quantitative Near-Ir Analysis of Organic Materials.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilert, Arnold James

    1995-01-01

    The utility of near-IR spectroscopy for routine quantitative analyses of a wide variety of compositional, chemical, or physical parameters of organic materials is well understood. It can be used for relatively fast and inexpensive non-destructive bulk material analysis before, during, and after processing. It has been demonstrated as being a particularly useful technique for numerous analytical applications in cereal (food and feed) science and industry. Further fulfillment of the potential of near-IR spectroscopic analysis, both in the process and laboratory environment, is reliant upon the development of instrumentation that is capable of meeting the challenges of increasingly difficult applications. One approach to the development of near-IR spectroscopic instrumentation that holds a great deal of promise is acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) technology. A combination of attributes offered by AOTF spectrometry, including speed, optical throughput, wavelength reproducibility, ruggedness (no -moving-parts operation) and flexibility, make it particularly desirable for numerous applications. A series of prototype (research model) acousto -optic tunable filter instruments were developed and tested in order to investigate the feasibility of the technology for quantitative near-IR spectrometry. Development included design, component procurement, assembly and/or configuration of the optical and electronic subsystems of which each functional spectrometer arrangement was comprised, as well as computer interfacing and acquisition/control software development. Investigation of this technology involved an evolution of several operational spectrometer systems, each of which offered improvements over its predecessor. Appropriate testing was conducted at various stages of development. Demonstrations of the potential applicability of our AOTF spectrometer to quantitative process monitoring or laboratory analysis of numerous organic substances, including food materials, were

  6. Study on the characteristics of an imaging spectrum system by means of an acousto-optic tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Yan; Cui, Dunjie; Tang, Jiu-Hua

    1993-11-01

    The spectrally agile staring sensor (SASS) is an instrument system that is able to acquire image and spectrum information simultaneously. We analyze the expression of SNR and overall performance of the SASS system consisting of an acousto-optic tunable filter and point out improvement methods and limiting factors of the system performance. The complete SASS system setup is constructed. By means of this setup, the theoretical analysis is verified and the image and spectrum information of the simulated target is obtained. These results demonstrate the ability of the SASS to acquire image and spectrum information.

  7. Use of acousto-optic tunable filter in fluorescence imaging endoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouhifd, Mounir; Whelan, Maurice; Aprahamian, Marc

    2003-10-01

    A prototype instrument for fluorescence-based medical diagnostics in vivo is described. The system consists of a rigid endoscope comprising a UV laser-source for fluorescence excitation and a white light source for direct imaging. An acousto-optic tuneable filter (AOTF) is employed as a full-field tuneable bandpass filter. This allows fast continuous or random-access tuning with high filtering efficiency. A study of the diagnostic potential of fluorescence imaging for pancreatitis was conducted on a rat model. In particular, the aim was to detect autofluorescence of endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) that has been shown to accumulate in early-stage diseased tissue undergoing an inflammatory response.

  8. Pure electrical, highly-efficient and sidelobe free coherent Raman spectroscopy using acousto-optics tunable filter (AOTF)

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Zhaokai; Petrov, Georgi I.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2016-01-01

    Fast and sensitive Raman spectroscopy measurements are imperative for a large number of applications in biomedical imaging, remote sensing and material characterization. Stimulated Raman spectroscopy offers a substantial improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio but is often limited to a discrete number of wavelengths. In this report, by introducing an electronically-tunable acousto-optical filter as a wavelength selector, a novel approach to a broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy is demonstrated. The corresponding Raman shift covers the spectral range from 600 cm−1 to 4500 cm−1, sufficient for probing most vibrational Raman transitions. We validated the use of the new instrumentation to both coherent anti-Stokes scattering (CARS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) spectroscopies. PMID:26828198

  9. Pure electrical, highly-efficient and sidelobe free coherent Raman spectroscopy using acousto-optics tunable filter (AOTF)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Petrov, Georgi I.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2016-02-01

    Fast and sensitive Raman spectroscopy measurements are imperative for a large number of applications in biomedical imaging, remote sensing and material characterization. Stimulated Raman spectroscopy offers a substantial improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio but is often limited to a discrete number of wavelengths. In this report, by introducing an electronically-tunable acousto-optical filter as a wavelength selector, a novel approach to a broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy is demonstrated. The corresponding Raman shift covers the spectral range from 600 cm-1 to 4500 cm-1, sufficient for probing most vibrational Raman transitions. We validated the use of the new instrumentation to both coherent anti-Stokes scattering (CARS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) spectroscopies.

  10. Pure electrical, highly-efficient and sidelobe free coherent Raman spectroscopy using acousto-optics tunable filter (AOTF).

    PubMed

    Meng, Zhaokai; Petrov, Georgi I; Yakovlev, Vladislav V

    2016-01-01

    Fast and sensitive Raman spectroscopy measurements are imperative for a large number of applications in biomedical imaging, remote sensing and material characterization. Stimulated Raman spectroscopy offers a substantial improvement in the signal-to-noise ratio but is often limited to a discrete number of wavelengths. In this report, by introducing an electronically-tunable acousto-optical filter as a wavelength selector, a novel approach to a broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy is demonstrated. The corresponding Raman shift covers the spectral range from 600 cm(-1) to 4500 cm(-1), sufficient for probing most vibrational Raman transitions. We validated the use of the new instrumentation to both coherent anti-Stokes scattering (CARS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) spectroscopies. PMID:26828198

  11. A rapid excitation-emission matrix fluorometer utilizing supercontinuum white light and acousto-optic tunable filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Wenbo; Wu, Zhenguo; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2016-06-01

    Scanning speed and coupling efficiency of excitation light to optic fibres are two major technical challenges that limit the potential of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectrometer for on-line applications and in vivo studies. In this paper, a novel EEM system, utilizing a supercontinuum white light source and acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs), was introduced and evaluated. The supercontinuum white light, generated by pumping a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with an 800 nm femtosecond laser, was efficiently coupled into a bifurcated optic fiber bundle. High speed EEM spectral scanning was achieved using AOTFs both for selecting excitation wavelength and scanning emission spectra. Using calibration lamps (neon and mercury argon), wavelength deviations were determined to vary from 0.18 nm to -0.70 nm within the spectral range of 500-850 nm. Spectral bandwidth for filtered excitation light broadened by twofold compared to that measured with monochromatic light between 650 nm and 750 nm. The EEM spectra for methanol solutions of laser dyes were successfully acquired with this rapid fluorometer using an integration time of 5 s.

  12. A rapid excitation-emission matrix fluorometer utilizing supercontinuum white light and acousto-optic tunable filters.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wenbo; Wu, Zhenguo; Zhao, Jianhua; Lui, Harvey; Zeng, Haishan

    2016-06-01

    Scanning speed and coupling efficiency of excitation light to optic fibres are two major technical challenges that limit the potential of fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) spectrometer for on-line applications and in vivo studies. In this paper, a novel EEM system, utilizing a supercontinuum white light source and acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs), was introduced and evaluated. The supercontinuum white light, generated by pumping a nonlinear photonic crystal fiber with an 800 nm femtosecond laser, was efficiently coupled into a bifurcated optic fiber bundle. High speed EEM spectral scanning was achieved using AOTFs both for selecting excitation wavelength and scanning emission spectra. Using calibration lamps (neon and mercury argon), wavelength deviations were determined to vary from 0.18 nm to -0.70 nm within the spectral range of 500-850 nm. Spectral bandwidth for filtered excitation light broadened by twofold compared to that measured with monochromatic light between 650 nm and 750 nm. The EEM spectra for methanol solutions of laser dyes were successfully acquired with this rapid fluorometer using an integration time of 5 s. PMID:27370436

  13. A novel acousto-optic tunable filter for use in hyperspectral imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stedham, C.; Draper, M.; Ward, J.; Wachman, E.; Pannell, C.

    2008-02-01

    The design and performance characteristics of a novel Acousto Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) are presented. Particular attention has been paid to the reduction of optical side lobes, maximising the light throughput and achieving efficient wideband RF matching of a device for use in hyperspectral imaging systems. Conventional AOTFs are known to yield an optical pass band with side lobes at unacceptable levels of ~-10dB relative to the transmission peak. It is known that shaping the acoustic beam ("apodisation") can suppress the side lobe transmission of the AOTF and improve its imaging capabilities. Results of a novel electrode apodisation pattern are presented, reducing sidelobes to ~-25dB. This produces an AOTF which is capable of being placed in a diffraction limited optical system and introduces negligible amounts of image degradation. The large transducer area (associated with the large optical aperture) and acoustic impedance mismatch between the AO substrate (TeO II) and transducer (LiNbO 3) pose a challenge in achieving wideband RF performance. Acoustic mismatch between substrate and transducer has been addressed by the introduction of a special acoustic matching layer in the bond. The layer reduces dispersion in the transducer impedance easing broadband matching. The transducer has a low (<1 Ohm) radiation resistance which must be matched to the RF driver (typically 50 ohms). This very low impedance may be swamped by the parasitic impedances of the electrode, bond layers and wire bonds used for electrical connection. Thus, the transducer is split into series-connected sections to increase the "bare" impedance. We present results to show the performance increase that can be obtained this way.

  14. Improvement in the synchronization between the radio frequency signal and the image detector in an acousto-optic tunable filter imaging spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Huijie; Li, Chongchong; Zhang, Ying; Xu, Zefu

    2014-04-10

    An improved synchronization between the radio frequency (RF) signal and the image detector in an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) imaging spectrometer is proposed to optimize power consumption and eliminate image smear. The RF signal is controlled on and off alternately to match the exposure of the image sensor. This scheme reduces the RF power and rejects the light illumination on the image sensor in the interval of charge transfer. An experiment using a visible AOTF, a frame transfer charge-coupled device camera, and an incandescent lamp is conducted for demonstration. The average RF power decreases 7.6%, and the image smear is eliminated. PMID:24787400

  15. Instrumentation for time-resolved dynamic and static dichroic measurements of polymers with a near-IR acoustooptic tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweat, Joseph Allen

    1999-11-01

    The optical measurement of the orientational response of chemical functional groups of a polymer as it is subjected to conventional dynamic mechanical analysis can give insight into the rheological behavior of the polymer while under repetitive strain based on the chemical structure. Instrumentation used in the mid infrared has included the use of grating monochromators and interferometers. The use of a multiply modulated optical signal has decreased the level of noise to observe the small amplitude changes (typically >10-3 absorbance units) associated with the repetitive oscillatory strain. The use of digital signal processing to replace phase sensitive detection for demodulation of the optical signal has greatly reduced the spectral collection time. In addition, multiplexing gained with the use of step-scan interferometry in making time resolved measurements has aided in making the procedure more practical. However, instrumental complexity and expense are drawbacks. By incorporating the high throughput, polarized tuned beam, and rapid wavelength switching capability of an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF), a dynamic instrument with integrated centralized control by a single microprocessor has been built. it operates in the near infrared with a rapid dynamic data collection time and requires the use of only a single modulation in the form of the sample oscillatory strain. The near infrared permits thicker samples to reduce sample preparation tune or allows polymers to be tested without pretreatment. The use of Fourier based digital filtering improves the signal to noise ratio of the dynamic differential spectra. The instrument is cost effective and rugged in comparison to step-scan interferometers yet has a rapid data collection rate allowing use in a routine industrial setting. Information from these measurements can aid in determining the rheological properties necessary for the end use functionality of a polymer. Additionally, AOTF instrumentation can be used

  16. Wide-aperture acousto-optic tunable filters for visible and UV lights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ponomarev, Andrei N.; Rodionov, Igor D.; Teterin, George E.

    1995-02-01

    Acousto optic filters (AOF) with optical size approximately 8 - 10 mm for visible and ultraviolet spectrum on the base of TeO2 and KH2 PO4 crystals correspondingly are developed and manufactured. The spectral resolution is better than 1 nm. The frequency bandwidth of both filters is 55 - 90 MHz, that allows us to use the only high frequency generator with two different power amplifiers. Acoustic power level for the AOFs on the base of TeO2 and KH2PO4 was about 1 W and 5 W, respectively. The optical tuning is carried out by means of a computer program.

  17. Effect of direction of incident light on the basic performance of a TeO2 acousto-optic tunable filter.

    PubMed

    Wang, Pengchong; Zhang, Zhonghua

    2016-08-01

    The selection of the ultrasonic polar angle is vitally important to the performance of an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF). The effects of ultrasonic angle on various properties of AOTFs were studied. Then, according to the selected ultrasonic angle, the changes of internal and external separation angles were analyzed in detail when the light was incident upon the crystal surface in two different ways. Additionally, the drift of diffracted light caused by chromatic aberration was analyzed, and an appropriate compensation wedge angle was calculated by the improved derivation formula. The external separation angle increased obviously after placing a wedge angle on the output end. Finally, the effect of incident beam with a cone angle on spectral bandwidth and diffraction efficiency is discussed. PMID:27505364

  18. Contrast enhancement in microscopy of human thyroid tumors by means of acousto-optic adaptive spatial filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yushkov, Konstantin B.; Molchanov, Vladimir Y.; Belousov, Pavel V.; Abrosimov, Aleksander Y.

    2016-01-01

    We report a method for edge enhancement in the images of transparent samples using analog image processing in coherent light. The experimental technique is based on adaptive spatial filtering with an acousto-optic tunable filter in a telecentric optical system. We demonstrate processing of microscopic images of unstained and stained histological sections of human thyroid tumor with improved contrast.

  19. Acousto-optic filter for electronic laser tuning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harris, S. E.

    1972-01-01

    Electronically tunable lithium niobate filter utilizes acoustic-optic diffraction for tuning laser to desired frequencies. Filter placed inside laser cavity diffracts incident optical signal of one polarization into orthogonal polarization by collinearly propagating acoustic beam to desired wavelength.

  20. Characterization of an erbium-doped fiber amplifier as a light source and development of a near-infrared spectrophotometer based on the EDFA and an acoustooptic tunable filter.

    PubMed

    Tran, C D; Gao, G H

    1996-07-01

    A novel light source for the near-infrared region which has the highest intensity and widest spectral bandwidth of all near-IR light sources has been developed. The system is based on a single-mode fiber (about 18 m long) doped with Er3+ ion. The doped ion produces amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) in the near-IR region (from 1500 to 1600 nm) when it is excited by a diode laser at 980 nm. Because the diode laser is fusion-spliced directly to the doped fiber, the system is compact, all-solid-state, reliable, and stable and requires little maintenance. Its ASE output intensity was found to be comparable with those of diode lasers currently available for this near-IR region and is much higher than those of conventional halogen-tungsten lamps and the so-called (high-intensity) superluminescent light emitting diodes (SLEDs). Its spectral bandwidth is, however, much wider than those of the diode lasers and the SLEDs. Even higher intensity can be obtained from the doped fiber when a low-intensity (1 mW) light from a 1550-nm laser diode is introduced into the doped fiber. The intensity is enhanced (up to 7 times compared to the ASE) because the input light is amplified by the doped fiber. Furthermore, the output intensity of this erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) can be appropriately adjusted to provide relatively higher output intensity at any range of wavelengths (within this 1500-1600-nm region) by simply changing the temperature and/or the driven current of the input diode laser. Subsequently, an acoustooptic tunable filter was used to provide a means to spectrally tune the EDFA rapidly and to develop an all-solid-state, compact near-IR spectrophotometer which not only is very sensitive, stable, and reliable but also has a very high throughput. This spectrophotometer can detect water in ethanol at a limit of detection of 10 ppm. More importantly, the high through-put makes it possible to use the instrument to measure spectra of highly absorbing samples (e

  1. Optically tunable optical filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, Robert T. B.; Wah, Christopher; Iizuka, Keigo; Shimotahira, Hiroshi

    1995-12-01

    We experimentally demonstrate an optically tunable optical filter that uses photorefractive barium titanate. With our filter we implement a spectrum analyzer at 632.8 nm with a resolution of 1.2 nm. We simulate a wavelength-division multiplexing system by separating two semiconductor laser diodes, at 1560 nm and 1578 nm, with the same filter. The filter has a bandwidth of 6.9 nm. We also use the same filter to take 2.5-nm-wide slices out of a 20-nm-wide superluminescent diode centered at 840 nm. As a result, we experimentally demonstrate a phenomenal tuning range from 632.8 to 1578 nm with a single filtering device.

  2. Optimization of spectral filtering parameters of acousto-optic pure rotational Raman lidar for atmospheric temperature profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jianhua; Wan, Lei; Nie, Guosheng; Guo, Xiaowei

    2003-12-01

    In this paper, as far as we know, it is the first time that a novel acousto-optic pure rotational Raman lidar based on acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) is put forward for the application of atmospheric temperature measurements. AOTF is employed in the novel lidar system as narrow band-pass filter and high-speed single-channel wavelength scanner. This new acousto-optic filtering technique can solve the problems of conventional pure rotational Raman lidar, e.g., low temperature detection sensitivity, untunability of filtering parameters, and signal interference between different detection channels. This paper will focus on the PRRS physical model calculation and simulation optimization of system parameters such as the central wavelengths and the bandwidths of filtering operation, and the required sensitivity. The theoretical calculations and optimization of AOTF spectral filtering parameters are conducted to achieve high temperature dependence and sensitivity, high signal intensities, high temperature of filtered spectral passbands, and adequate blocking of elastic Mie and Rayleigh scattering signals. The simulation results can provide suitable proposal and theroetical evaluation before the integration of a practical Raman lidar system.

  3. Narrow linewidth broadband tunable semiconductor laser at 840 nm with dual acousto-optic tunable configuration for OCT applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamorovskiy, Alexander; Shramenko, Mikhail V.; Lobintsov, Andrei A.; Yakubovich, Sergei D.

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate a tunable narrow linewidth semiconductor laser for the 840 nm spectral range. The laser has a linear cavity comprised of polarization maintaining (PM) fiber. A broadband semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) in in-line fiber-coupled configuration acts as a gain element. It is based on InGaAs quantum-well (QW) active layer. SOA allows for tuning bandwidth exceeding 25 nm around 840 nm. Small-signal fiber-to-fiber gain of SOA is around 30 dB. A pair of acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF) with a quasi-collinear interaction of optical and acoustic waves are utilized as spectrally selective elements. AOTF technology benefits in continuous tuning, broadband operation, excellent reproducibility and stability of the signal, as well as a high accuracy of wavelength selectivity due to the absence of mechanically moving components. A single AOTF configuration has typical linewidth in 0.05-0.15 nm range due to a frequency shift obtained during each roundtrip. A sequential AOTF arrangement enables instantaneous linewidth generation of <0.01 nm by compensating for this shift. Linewidth as narrow as 0.0036 nm is observed at 846 nm wavelength using a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer with 50 MHz spectral resolution. Output power is in the range of 1 mW. While the majority of commercial tunable sources operate in 1060-1550 nm spectral ranges, the 840 nm spectral range is beneficial for optical coherence tomography (OCT). The developed narrow linewidth laser can be relevant for OCT with extended imaging depth, as well as spectroscopy, non-destructive testing and other applications.

  4. Tunable acousto-optic spectral imager for atmospheric composition measurements in the visible spectral domain.

    PubMed

    Dekemper, Emmanuel; Loodts, Nicolas; Van Opstal, Bert; Maes, Jeroen; Vanhellemont, Filip; Mateshvili, Nina; Franssens, Ghislain; Pieroux, Didier; Bingen, Christine; Robert, Charles; De Vos, Lieve; Aballea, Ludovic; Fussen, Didier

    2012-09-01

    We describe a new spectral imaging instrument using a TeO(2) acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF) operating in the visible domain (450-900 nm). It allows for fast (~1 second), monochromatic (FWHM ranges from 0.6 nm at 450 nm to 3.5 nm at 800 nm) picture acquisition with good spatial resolution. This instrument was designed as a breadboard of the visible channel of a new satellite-borne atmospheric limb spectral imager, named the Atmospheric Limb Tracker for the Investigation of the Upcoming Stratosphere (ALTIUS), that is currently being developed. We tested its remote sensing capabilities by observing the dense, turbulent plume exhausted by a waste incinerator stack at two wavelengths sensitive to NO(2). An average value of 6.0±0.4×10(17) molecules cm(-2) has been obtained for the NO(2) slant column density within the plume, close to the stack outlet. Although this result was obtained with a rather low accuracy, it demonstrates the potential of spectral imaging by using AOTFs in remote sensing. PMID:22945175

  5. Finite-difference time-domain simulation of compact acousto-optic filters based on multireflection beam expanding

    SciTech Connect

    Tsarev, Andrei V

    2007-04-30

    The results of numerical simulation of acousto-optic (AO) tunable filters of a new type based on multireflection beam expanding in waveguide structures are discussed. Planar waveguide filters based on thin chalcogenide (As{sub 2}S{sub 3}) films of lithium niobate (LiNbO{sub 3}) are considered. The operation of filters is analysed by the finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) method by using the license FullWAVE software package (RSoft Design Group, Inc.). It is shown that AO filters have very good dispersion properties and AO filters of extremely small size provide a narrow filtration line within the tuning range of more than 100 nm (at a wavelength of 1.54 {mu}m). It is important that the normalised linewidth (measured in units of the reciprocal filter length) is an order of magnitude smaller than the theoretical limit for AO filters produced from the same material in the conventional way, without the use of multireflection beam expanding. (acoustooptics)

  6. Tunable thin-film optical filters for hyperspectral microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Favreau, Peter F.; Rich, Thomas C.; Prabhat, Prashant; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2013-02-01

    Hyperspectral imaging was originally developed for use in remote sensing applications. More recently, it has been applied to biological imaging systems, such as fluorescence microscopes. The ability to distinguish molecules based on spectral differences has been especially advantageous for identifying fluorophores in highly autofluorescent tissues. A key component of hyperspectral imaging systems is wavelength filtering. Each filtering technology used for hyperspectral imaging has corresponding advantages and disadvantages. Recently, a new optical filtering technology has been developed that uses multi-layered thin-film optical filters that can be rotated, with respect to incident light, to control the center wavelength of the pass-band. Compared to the majority of tunable filter technologies, these filters have superior optical performance including greater than 90% transmission, steep spectral edges and high out-of-band blocking. Hence, tunable thin-film optical filters present optical characteristics that may make them well-suited for many biological spectral imaging applications. An array of tunable thin-film filters was implemented on an inverted fluorescence microscope (TE 2000, Nikon Instruments) to cover the full visible wavelength range. Images of a previously published model, GFP-expressing endothelial cells in the lung, were acquired using a charge-coupled device camera (Rolera EM-C2, Q-Imaging). This model sample presents fluorescently-labeled cells in a highly autofluorescent environment. Linear unmixing of hyperspectral images indicates that thin-film tunable filters provide equivalent spectral discrimination to our previous acousto-optic tunable filter-based approach, with increased signal-to-noise characteristics. Hence, tunable multi-layered thin film optical filters may provide greatly improved spectral filtering characteristics and therefore enable wider acceptance of hyperspectral widefield microscopy.

  7. Thin-film tunable filters for hyperspectral fluorescence microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Favreau, Peter; Hernandez, Clarissa; Lindsey, Ashley Stringfellow; Alvarez, Diego F.; Rich, Thomas; Prabhat, Prashant

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. Hyperspectral imaging is a powerful tool that acquires data from many spectral bands, forming a contiguous spectrum. Hyperspectral imaging was originally developed for remote sensing applications; however, hyperspectral techniques have since been applied to biological fluorescence imaging applications, such as fluorescence microscopy and small animal fluorescence imaging. The spectral filtering method largely determines the sensitivity and specificity of any hyperspectral imaging system. There are several types of spectral filtering hardware available for microscopy systems, most commonly acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) and liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTFs). These filtering technologies have advantages and disadvantages. Here, we present a novel tunable filter for hyperspectral imaging—the thin-film tunable filter (TFTF). The TFTF presents several advantages over AOTFs and LCTFs, most notably, a high percentage transmission and a high out-of-band optical density (OD). We present a comparison of a TFTF-based hyperspectral microscopy system and a commercially available AOTF-based system. We have characterized the light transmission, wavelength calibration, and OD of both systems, and have then evaluated the capability of each system for discriminating between green fluorescent protein and highly autofluorescent lung tissue. Our results suggest that TFTFs are an alternative approach for hyperspectral filtering that offers improved transmission and out-of-band blocking. These characteristics make TFTFs well suited for other biomedical imaging devices, such as ophthalmoscopes or endoscopes. PMID:24077519

  8. Mid infra-red hyper-spectral imaging with bright super continuum source and fast acousto-optic tuneable filter for cytological applications.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farries, Mark; Ward, Jon; Valle, Stefano; Stephens, Gary; Moselund, Peter; van der Zanden, Koen; Napier, Bruce

    2015-06-01

    Mid-IR imaging spectroscopy has the potential to offer an effective tool for early cancer diagnosis. Current development of bright super-continuum sources, narrow band acousto-optic tunable filters and fast cameras have made feasible a system that can be used for fast diagnosis of cancer in vivo at point of care. The performance of a proto system that has been developed under the Minerva project is described.

  9. Spread function of acousto-optic filter with high-speed spectral image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zadorin, Anatoly S.; Nemtchenko, Andrei S.

    1998-08-01

    The contradictory requirements are presented to acousto- optic tunable filters (AOF) of spectral image analysis. On the one hand AOF should have high speed. On the other hand it should have good spectral resolution and wide angular aperture. Thus when AOF is fastly tuned with chirp transients, the diffracted wave intensity at different moments of transient process can considerably diverge form its quasistatic level. It means that spread function (SF) depends on the velocity of frequency tuning, i.e., it is described by 2D function with variables - wave length and velocity of frequency tuning. In Cartesian frame this dependence is presented by some surface being dynamic SF (DSF). It characterizes speed and selectivity properties of AOF. In this work DCF mathematical model was constructed and basic properties of spectral image analysis AOF were investigated. It has been established that the greatest distortions of DSF occur if velocity of frequency tuning has exceeded some critical value connected with acousto-optic interaction geometry and aperture sizes of beams. In this case the side lobes of SF will make 'false' maxima which begin to prevail over the basic. In addition under the conditions of phase mismatch DSF loses the symmetry to position of the main maximum. These effects reduce the accuracy of spectral measurements when tuning velocity is high.

  10. Wide-aperture diffraction of unpolarised radiation in a system of two acousto-optic filters

    SciTech Connect

    Magdich, L N; Yushkov, K B; Voloshinov, V B

    2009-04-30

    Light diffraction is studied in two tandem acousto-optic cells filtering unpolarised radiation with a wide angular spectrum. It is shown that the side lobes of the ultrasonic radiation pattern of a piezoelectric transducer produce side diffraction intensity maxima at the output of the system consisting of two filters. Diffraction in paratellurite filters is studied experimentally at 1.06 {mu}m. (light modulation)

  11. Tunable-Bandwidth Filter System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, John W.

    2004-01-01

    A tunable-bandwidth filter system (TBFS), now undergoing development, is intended to be part of a remote sensing multispectral imaging system that will operate in the visible and near infrared spectral region (wavelengths from 400 to 900 nm). Attributes of the TBFS include rapid tunability of the pass band over a wide wavelength range and high transmission efficiency. The TBFS is based on a unique integration of two pairs of broadband Raman reflection holographic filters with two rotating spherical lenses. In experiments, a prototype of the TBFS, was shown to be capable of spectral sampling of images in the visible range over a 200 nm spectral range with a spectral resolution of 30 nm. The figure depicts the optical layout of a prototype of the TBFS as part of a laboratory multispectral imaging system for the spectral sampling of color test images in two orthogonal polarizations. Each pair of broadband Raman reflection holographic filters is mounted at an equatorial plane between two halves of a spherical lens. The two filters in each pair are characterized by steep spectral slopes (equivalently, narrow spectral edges), no ripple or side lobes in their pass bands, and a few nanometers of non-overlapping wavelength range between their pass bands. Each spherical lens and thus the filter pair within it is rotated in order to rapidly tune its pass band. The rotations of are effected by electronically controlled, programmable, high-precision rotation stages. The rotations are coordinated by electronic circuits operating under overall supervision of a personal computer in order to obtain the desired variation of the overall pass bands with time. Embedding the filters inside the spherical lenses increases the range of the hologram incidence angles, making it possible to continuously tune the pass and stop bands of the filters over a wider wavelength range. In addition, each spherical lens also serves as part of the imaging optics: The telephoto lens focuses incoming light

  12. Tunable-Bandwidth Filter System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aye, Tin; Yu, Kevin; Dimov, Fedor; Savant, Gajendra

    2006-01-01

    A tunable-bandwidth filter system (TBFS), now undergoing development, is intended to be part of a remote-sensing multispectral imaging system that will operate in the visible and near infrared spectral region (wavelengths from 400 to 900 nm). Attributes of the TBFS include rapid tunability of the pass band over a wide wavelength range and high transmission efficiency. The TBFS is based on a unique integration of two pairs of broadband Raman reflection holographic filters with two rotating spherical lenses. In experiments, a prototype of the TBFS was shown to be capable of spectral sampling of images in the visible range over a 200-nm spectral range with a spectral resolution of .30 nm. The figure depicts the optical layout of a prototype of the TBFS as part of a laboratory multispectral imaging system for the spectral sampling of color test images in two orthogonal polarizations. Each pair of broadband Raman reflection holographic filters is mounted at an equatorial plane between two halves of a spherical lens. The two filters in each pair are characterized by steep spectral slopes (equivalently, narrow spectral edges), no ripple or side lobes in their pass bands, and a few nanometers of non-overlapping wavelength range between their pass bands. Each spherical lens and thus the filter pair within it is rotated in order to rapidly tune its pass band. The rotations of the lenses are effected by electronically controlled, programmable, high-precision rotation stages. The rotations are coordinated by electronic circuits operating under overall supervision of a personal computer in order to obtain the desired variation of the overall pass bands with time. Embedding the filters inside the spherical lenses increases the range of the hologram incidence angles, making it possible to continuously tune the pass and stop bands of the filters over a wider wavelength range. In addition, each spherical lens also serves as part of the imaging optics: The telephoto lens focuses

  13. Narrowband multispectral liquid crystal tunable filter.

    PubMed

    Abuleil, Marwan; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Multispectral tunable filters with high performance are desirable components in various biomedical and industrial applications. In this Letter, we present a new narrowband multispectral tunable filter with high throughput over a wide dynamic range. It is composed from a wideband large dynamic range liquid crystal tunable filter combined with a multiple narrowbands spectral filter made of two stacks of photonic crystals and cavity layer in between. The filter tunes between nine spectral bands covering the range 450-1000 nm with bandwidth <10  nm and throughput >80%. PMID:27128048

  14. A RAPIDLY-TUNABLE ACOUSTO-OPTIC SPECTROMETER FOR A SPACE ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    D. THOMPSON; C. HEWITT; C. WILSON

    2000-08-01

    As a complement to our work developing rapidly-tunable ({approximately}10-100 kHz) CO{sub 2} lasers for differential absorption lidar (DIAL) applications,l we have developed a rapidly-tunable spectrometer. A rapid spectral diagnostic is critical for a high speed DIAL system, since analysis of the return signals depends on knowing the spectral purity of the transmitted beam. The spectrometer developed for our lidar system is based on a double-passed large- (75 mm) aperture acousto-optic deflector, a grating, and a fast single-element room temperature mercury-cadmium-telluride detector. The spectrometer has a resolution of {approximately}0.5 cm{sup {minus}1}, a tuning range of 9.0-11.4 pm, a random-access tuning speed of greater than 80 kHz and a S/N ratio of greater than 100:1. We describe the design and performance of this device, as well as of future devices featuring improved resolution, higher speed and easier and more robust alignment. We will also briefly discuss the applications and limitations of the technique in a space environment.

  15. Tunable Optical Filters for Space Exploration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crandall, Charles; Clark, Natalie; Davis, Patricia P.

    2007-01-01

    Spectrally tunable liquid crystal filters provide numerous advantages and several challenges in space applications. We discuss the tradeoffs in design elements for tunable liquid crystal birefringent filters with special consideration required for space exploration applications. In this paper we present a summary of our development of tunable filters for NASA space exploration. In particular we discuss the application of tunable liquid crystals in guidance navigation and control in space exploration programs. We present a summary of design considerations for improving speed, field of view, transmission of liquid crystal tunable filters for space exploration. In conclusion, the current state of the art of several NASA LaRC assembled filters is presented and their performance compared to the predicted spectra using our PolarTools modeling software.

  16. Tunable filters using wideband elastic resonators.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Michio; Ogami, Takashi; Kimura, Tetsuya; Daimon, Katsuya

    2013-10-01

    Currently, an ultra-wideband resonator is greatly needed to realize a tunable filter with a wide tunable range, because mobile phones with multiple bands and cognitive radio systems require such tunable filters to simplify their circuits. Although tunable filters have been studied using SAW resonators, their tunable range was insufficient for the filters even when wideband SAW resonators with a bandwidth of 17% were used. Therefore, the fabrication of wider-bandwidth resonators has been attempted with the goal of realizing tunable filters with wide tunable ranges. In this study, an SH0- mode plate wave resonator in a 27.5°YX-LiNbO3 plate with an ultra-wide bandwidth of 29.1%, a high impedance ratio of 98 dB, and a high Q (Q(r) = 700 and Q(a) = 720) was realized. Two types of tunable filters were constructed using such SH0-mode resonators and capacitors. As a result, tunable ranges (bands) of 13% to 19% were obtained. The possibility of applying the SH0-mode resonator in the high-frequency gigahertz range is discussed. PMID:24081261

  17. LIGHT MODULATION: Wide-aperture diffraction of unpolarised radiation in a system of two acousto-optic filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magdich, L. N.; Yushkov, K. B.; Voloshinov, V. B.

    2009-04-01

    Light diffraction is studied in two tandem acousto-optic cells filtering unpolarised radiation with a wide angular spectrum. It is shown that the side lobes of the ultrasonic radiation pattern of a piezoelectric transducer produce side diffraction intensity maxima at the output of the system consisting of two filters. Diffraction in paratellurite filters is studied experimentally at 1.06 μm.

  18. Use of Multiband Acousto-optic Filters for Spectrally Encoded Signals Generation in Incoherent Optical Communication Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byshevski-Konopko, O. A.; Proklov, V. V.; Filatov, A. L.; Lugovskoi, A. V.; Korablev, E. M.

    New acousto-optical (AO) coder of spectrally optical signals for optical code division multiple access systems (O-CDMA) was proposed and investigated. The coder was developed on a base of multi-frequency acousto-optical filter (MAOF). Control RF signals for MAOF were synthesized taking into account intermodulation distortions and interferences between different carrier frequencies incoming to MAOF. An industrial LED was used under system investigation.

  19. Recent development of infrared tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Dafu; Xu, Qinfei; Mo, Defeng

    2015-04-01

    Researchers are engaging on tunable infrared (IR) filters, miniature Fabry-Perot optical devices, to operate IR detector like a spectrometer. This kind of devices was used in astronomical detection field in the 1950s. To meet the miniature, lightweight requirements of the optical detection system, researchers began to make small, lightweight, and cheap tunable IR filters. Nowadays researchers have applied a variety of different structures and the IR filter, and are attempting to integrate them with IR detectors directly. Tunable filter thin film mechanical and thermal properties, and working conditions will affect the tunable filter optical performance. In this article we give two main influencing factors, interface roughness and curvature effect. we also present and discuss the current development of FPF in different groups around the world.

  20. Characterizing the performances of an advanced acousto-optical filter exploiting the collinear calcium molybdate crystalline cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S.; Maximov, Je.; Sanchez Lucero, Daniel; Sanchez Perez, Karla J.

    2011-03-01

    In 1970 - 80s, novel optical spectral devices, electronically tunable acousto-optical filters (AOFs) had been proposed and developed. During the years gone AOFs have been remarkably progressed, and now they are widely exploited, for instance, in astrophysical observations. Schematically, AOFs can be separated on collinear and non-collinear filters, depending on the relative directions of passing the waves through crystalline cell, as well as on sequential and parallel ones, depending on the algorithm of spectrum analysis. Their features are characterized by the amplitude and spectral parameters. Here, we consider a few estimations of an advanced collinear AOF based on calcium molybdate single-crystal. In principle, this new AOF with a 15-microsecond time-aperture operates over all the visible range exhibiting 60%-efficiency at the electric power 1.0 W. Direct square-law dependence for crystal's length and inverse square-law dependence for its bandwidth on this minimal size make possible optimizing this advanced collinear AOF.

  1. Polarization independent, integrated optical, acoustically tunable wavelength filters/switches with tapered acoustical directional coupler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, H.; Schaefer, K.; Sohler, W.

    1994-11-01

    Enhanced sidelobe suppression of the filter characteristics of tunable acousto-optical mode converters in LiNbO3 has been achieved using for the first time tapered acoustical directional couplers. A sidelobe suppression of more than 15.5 dB could be demonstrated in a single stage device. By combining the mode converter with two integrated optical polarization splitters a polarization independent filter/wavelength selective switch has been fabricated with less than 3 dB intrinsic insertion loss, a polarization dependence of less than 1 dB, and a sidelobe suppression exceeding 14 dB.

  2. Advanced fluorescence imaging endoscopy using an acousto-optic tuneable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whelan, Maurice P.; Bouhifd, Mounir; Aprahamian, Marc

    2004-07-01

    Two novel prototype instruments for in vivo fluorescence-based medical diagnostics are described. The devices are based on an acousto-optic tuneable filter (AOTF) and can be easily attached to the eyepiece of most commercially available endoscopes. The instruments developed offer significant advantages over typical fixed-filter or filter-wheel fluorescence imaging systems in terms of flexibility, performance and diagnostic potential. Any filtering center-wavelength in the range from 450 to 700 nm can be rapidly selected either by random access or sequential tuning using simple commands delivered over a PC serial interface. In addition, both filtered and unfiltered light can be imaged to facilitate the direct association of fluorescence signals with specific anatomical sites. To demonstrate the system in vivo, a study of the diagnostic potential of fluorescence imaging for pancreatitis was conducted on rats. The aim was to detect extremely low-levels of endogenous protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) that has been shown to accumulate in early-stage diseased tissue undergoing an inflammatory response. Results show clearly that the device is effective in diagnosing mild pancreatitis in rats without the necessity of administering PpIX promoting agents such as ALA. Planning of human clinical trials is currently underway to demonstrate its potential as a tool for non-invasive early diagnosis of gastroenterological diseases.

  3. Integrated optical, acoustically tunable wavelength filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frangen, J.; Herrmann, H.; Ricken, R.; Seibert, H.; Sohler, W.

    1989-11-01

    A TM/TE convertor is combined with a TE-pass polarizer on a common LiNbO3 chip to obtain an integrated optical, acoustically tunable wavelength filter. Its tuning range is 1.45-1.57 micron wavelength with a filter half-width of 2.8 nm. Due to the combined acoustical/optical strip guide structure used in the mode convertor, a very low acoustic drive power of only 9 mW is required.

  4. Tunable filters for JWST Fine Guidance Sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowlands, Neil; Evans, Clinton; Greenberg, Elliot; Gregory, Phil; Scott, Alan; Thibault, Simon; Poirier, Michel; Doyon, Rene; Hutchings, John B.; Alexander, Russ

    2004-10-01

    The Canadian contribution to the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) mission will be the Fine Guidance Sensor (FGS), incorporating a science-observing mode using tunable filters. We describe here the requirements, the opto-mechanical design concept and bread-board test results for the JWST FGS tunable filters. The FGS requires two continuously tunable filters over the wavelength ranges 1.2 - 2.4 microns and 2.4 - 4.8 microns each having a spectral resolution in the range of R~70 to 200. The selected implementation uses dielectric coated Fabry-Perot etalon plates with a small air gaps. The design finesse is ~30 and the filters are used in 3rd order. The operating temperature is ~35K. Current coating designs provide implementations that require only five blocking filters in each wavelength range to suppress unwanted orders. The filters will be scanned via the use of low voltage piezo-electric transducers. We present results from cryogenic tests of coating samples, PZT actuators and a structural model. The PZT actuators were found have a displacement of ~3.3 microns at 30K with an applied voltage of 125V, more than sufficient for the required scan of the Fabry-Perot plate spacing. The prototype etalon coating was found to be very stable cryogenically, having a measured change of transmission of only ~1% at 77K. The same coating on a 12.7 mm thick substrate, similar to that planned for the filter, was found to have a 18 nm peak-to-valley surface figure change when cooled to 30K. These results demonstrate that the development of tunable filters for the JWST FGS is on track to meet the technology readiness requirements of the program.

  5. Cascaded Mach–Zehnder interferometer tunable filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ovvyan, A. P.; Gruhler, N.; Ferrari, S.; Pernice, W. H. P.

    2016-06-01

    By cascading compact and low-loss Mach–Zehnder interferometers (MZIs) embedded within nanophotonic circuits we realize thermo-optically tunable optical filters for the visible wavelength range. Through phase tuning in either arm of the MZI, the filter response with maximum extinction can be shifted beyond one free-spectral range with low electrical power consumption. The working wavelength of our device is aligned with the emission wavelength of the silicon vacancy color center in diamond around 740 nm where we realize a filter depth beyond 36.5 dB. Our approach allows for efficient isolation of the emitted signal intensity in future hybrid nanodiamond-nanophotonic circuits.

  6. Tunable Microwave Filter Design Using Thin-Film Ferroelectric Varactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haridasan, Vrinda

    Military, space, and consumer-based communication markets alike are moving towards multi-functional, multi-mode, and portable transceiver units. Ferroelectric-based tunable filter designs in RF front-ends are a relatively new area of research that provides a potential solution to support wideband and compact transceiver units. This work presents design methodologies developed to optimize a tunable filter design for system-level integration, and to improve the performance of a ferroelectric-based tunable bandpass filter. An investigative approach to find the origins of high insertion loss exhibited by these filters is also undertaken. A system-aware design guideline and figure of merit for ferroelectric-based tunable band- pass filters is developed. The guideline does not constrain the filter bandwidth as long as it falls within the range of the analog bandwidth of a system's analog to digital converter. A figure of merit (FOM) that optimizes filter design for a specific application is presented. It considers the worst-case filter performance parameters and a tuning sensitivity term that captures the relation between frequency tunability and the underlying material tunability. A non-tunable parasitic fringe capacitance associated with ferroelectric-based planar capacitors is confirmed by simulated and measured results. The fringe capacitance is an appreciable proportion of the tunable capacitance at frequencies of X-band and higher. As ferroelectric-based tunable capac- itors form tunable resonators in the filter design, a proportionally higher fringe capacitance reduces the capacitance tunability which in turn reduces the frequency tunability of the filter. Methods to reduce the fringe capacitance can thus increase frequency tunability or indirectly reduce the filter insertion-loss by trading off the increased tunability achieved to lower loss. A new two-pole tunable filter topology with high frequency tunability (> 30%), steep filter skirts, wide stopband

  7. Tunable photonic filters: a digital signal processing design approach.

    PubMed

    Binh, Le Nguyen

    2009-05-20

    Digital signal processing techniques are used for synthesizing tunable optical filters with variable bandwidth and centered reference frequency including the tunability of the low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, and bandstop optical filters. Potential applications of such filters are discussed, and the design techniques and properties of recursive digital filters are outlined. The basic filter structures, namely, the first-order all-pole optical filter (FOAPOF) and the first-order all-zero optical filter (FOAZOF), are described, and finally the design process of tunable optical filters and the designs of the second-order Butterworth low-pass, high-pass, bandpass, and bandstop tunable optical filters are presented. Indeed, we identify that the all-zero and all-pole networks are equivalent with well known principles of optics of interference and resonance, respectively. It is thus very straightforward to implement tunable optical filters, which is a unique feature. PMID:19458728

  8. Generation of spectral-encoded signals in noncoherent optical communication systems based on acousto-optic multiwavelength filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proklov, V. V.; Byshevski-Konopko, O. A.; Filatov, A. L.

    2015-10-01

    New acousto-optical (AO) methods and devices necessary for the creation of noncoherent optical code division multiple access (O-CDMA) systems are considered. Based on an AO multiwavelength filter, an original device generating spectral-encoded signals for O-CDMA systems with optimum WDM has been created and studied. It is shown that modern AO technology is capable of surmounting difficulties that previously hindered the transition of optical communication systems to CDMA data transmission.

  9. Integrated Optical, Acoustically Tunable Wavelength Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frangen, J.; Herrmann, Harald; Ricken, Raimund; Seibert, Holger; Sohler, Wolfgang; Strake, E.

    1989-12-01

    An integrated optical, acoustically tunable wavelength filter, consisting of a combination of TM-TE converter and integrated polarizer in LiNbO3, is demonstrated. The filter bandwidth is 2.8 nm; the center wavelength can be tuned from λ = 1.45 pm to λ = 1.57 pm by adjusting the driving acoustic frequency. Due to the combined acoustical/optical strip guide structure, used in the mode converter, a very low acoustic drive power of only 9 mW is required.

  10. Electro-optical tunable birefringent filter

    SciTech Connect

    Levinton, Fred M.

    2012-01-31

    An electrically tunable Lyot type filter is a Lyot that include one or more filter elements. Each filter element may have a planar, solid crystal comprised of a material that exhibits birefringence and is electro-optically active. Transparent electrodes may be coated on each face of the crystal. An input linear light polarizer may be located on one side of the crystal and oriented at 45 degrees to the optical axis of the birefringent crystal. An output linear light polarizer may be located on the other side of the crystal and oriented at -45 degrees with respect to the optical axis of the birefringent crystal. When an electric voltage is applied between the electrodes, the retardation of the crystal changes and so does the spectral transmission of the optical filter.

  11. Tunable Bragg filters with a phase transition material defect layer.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xi; Gong, Zilun; Dong, Kaichen; Lou, Shuai; Slack, Jonathan; Anders, Andre; Yao, Jie

    2016-09-01

    We propose an all-solid-state tunable Bragg filter with a phase transition material as the defect layer. Bragg filters based on a vanadium dioxide defect layer sandwiched between silicon dioxide/titanium dioxide Bragg gratings are experimentally demonstrated. Temperature dependent reflection spectroscopy shows the dynamic tunability and hysteresis properties of the Bragg filter. Temperature dependent Raman spectroscopy reveals the connection between the tunability and the phase transition of the vanadium dioxide defect layer. This work paves a new avenue in tunable Bragg filter designs and promises more applications by combining phase transition materials and optical cavities. PMID:27607643

  12. MMTF: THE MARYLAND-MAGELLAN TUNABLE FILTER

    SciTech Connect

    Veilleux, S.; Weiner, B. J.; Rupke, D. S. N. E-mail: bjw@as.arizona.edu

    2010-01-15

    This paper describes the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter (MMTF) on the Magellan-Baade 6.5 m telescope. MMTF is based on a 150 mm clear aperture Fabry-Perot (FP) etalon that operates in low orders and provides transmission bandpass and central wavelength adjustable from {approx}5 A to {approx}15 A and from {approx}5000 A to over {approx}9200 A, respectively. It is installed in the Inamori Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph and delivers an image quality of {approx}0.''5 over a field of view of 27' in diameter (monochromatic over {approx}10'). This versatile and easy-to-operate instrument has been used over the past three years for a wide variety of projects. This paper first reviews the basic principles of FP tunable filters, and then provides a detailed description of the hardware and software associated with MMTF and the techniques developed to observe with this instrument and reduce the data. The main lessons learned in the course of the commissioning and implementation of MMTF are highlighted next, before concluding with a brief outlook on the future of MMTF and of similar facilities which are soon coming on line.

  13. MMTF: The Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veilleux, S.; Weiner, B. J.; Rupke, D. S. N.; McDonald, M.; Birk, C.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Dressler, A.; Hare, T.; Osip, D.; Pietraszewski, C.; Vogel, S. N.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the Maryland-Magellan Tunable Filter (MMTF) on the Magellan-Baade 6.5 m telescope. MMTF is based on a 150 mm clear aperture Fabry-Perot (FP) etalon that operates in low orders and provides transmission bandpass and central wavelength adjustable from ~5 Å to ~15 Å and from ~5000 Å to over ~9200 Å, respectively. It is installed in the Inamori Magellan Areal Camera and Spectrograph and delivers an image quality of ~0farcs5 over a field of view of 27' in diameter (monochromatic over ~10'). This versatile and easy-to-operate instrument has been used over the past three years for a wide variety of projects. This paper first reviews the basic principles of FP tunable filters, and then provides a detailed description of the hardware and software associated with MMTF and the techniques developed to observe with this instrument and reduce the data. The main lessons learned in the course of the commissioning and implementation of MMTF are highlighted next, before concluding with a brief outlook on the future of MMTF and of similar facilities which are soon coming on line.

  14. MEMS tunable filter for telecom applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Overstolz, Thomas; Niederer, Guido; Noell, Wilfried; Gale, Michael T.; Herzig, Hans Peter; Obi, Samuel; Thiele, Hans; de Rooij, Nicolaas F.

    2004-08-01

    We report on an angle-tunable oblique incidence resonant grating filter that can be used to drop individual channels from the C-band for incident TE-polarized light. For tuning purpose, the filter is glued onto a tiltable platform of a MEMS device. Continues scanning of the platform allows to monitor channel presence and power. The reflected wavelength is tuned by changing the angle of incidence of the resonant grating filter, which is composed of two thin films with a grating pattern on top of it. The first layer on a glass substrate acts as a waveguide, and the second layer separates the waveguide from the grating. The grating has been patterned by holographic recording and dry etching. The filter works over a wavelength range of 1520-1580 nm and its response has a Lorentian shape with 0.5 nm FWHM peak width. The MEMS part is based on SOI technology and is processed in only two DRIE steps. The platform measures 2 x 2 mm2 with a through-hole of 1.6 x 1.8 mm2 for light transmission. Two arrays of combs attached to the platform as well as a set of four static combs are used to electrostatically incline the platform by +/- 4° with a driving voltage of about 60 V.

  15. Real-time polarization mode dispersion monitoring system for a multiple-erbium-doped fiber amplifier, dense wavelength division multiplexing optical fiber transmission by amplified spontaneous emission modulation and acousto-optic tunable fiber scanning techniques.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Bao-Jang; Tarn, Chen-Wen

    2009-03-01

    Without interruption or affecting the transmission of ordinary payload channels, we propose a real time polarization mode dispersion (PMD) monitoring system for long-haul, multiple erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA), dense wavelength division multiplexing (DWDM) optical fiber transmission using modulated amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) of one of the EDFAs as the supervisory (SV) signal source. An acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) at the receiver side is adopted to scan the spectrum of the transmitted ASE SV signal. Using the fixed-analyzer method, PMDs of different wavelength bands that range from 1545 to 1580 nm of a DWDM fiber-optic communication system can be found by adaptively changing the radio frequency of the AOTF. The resolution and the measuring range of the proposed monitoring system can be significantly improved by cascading the AOTFs at the receiver side. PMID:19252622

  16. Imaging Spectrometer Using a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrien, Tomas G.; Chovit, Christopher; Miller, Peter J.

    1993-01-01

    A demonstration imaging spectrometer using a liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) was built and tested on a hot air balloon platform. The LCTF is a tunable polarization interference or Lyot filter. The LCTF enables a small, light weight, low power, band sequential imaging spectrometer design.

  17. Wideband tunable optoelectronic oscillator based on a phase modulator and a tunable optical filter.

    PubMed

    Xie, Xiaopeng; Zhang, Cheng; Sun, Tao; Guo, Peng; Zhu, Xiaoqi; Zhu, Lixin; Hu, Weiwei; Chen, Zhangyuan

    2013-03-01

    A widely tunable optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) based on a broadband phase modulator and a tunable optical bandpass filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A tunable range from 4.74 to 38.38 GHz is realized by directly tuning the bandwidth of the optical bandpass filter. To the best of our knowledge, this is the widest fundamental frequency tunable range ever achieved by an OEO. The phase noise performance of the generated signal is also investigated. The single-sideband phase noise is below -120 dBc/Hz at an offset of 10 KHz within the whole tunable range. PMID:23455255

  18. Chemical imaging and spectroscopy using tunable filters: Instrumentation, methodology, and multivariate analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, John Frederick, II

    Spectral imaging has experienced tremendous growth during the past ten years and is rapidly becoming a formidable analytical tool. Recent advances in electronically tunable filters and array detectors are enabling high resolution spectral images to be acquired of chemical and biological systems that have traditionally been difficult to study non-invasively. Additionally, the development of powerful and inexpensive computer platforms is broadening the appeal of spectral imaging methods which have historically required costly and computationally adept computer workstations. The emphasis of my research has been to explore high throughput widefield imaging instrumentation and methodology using novel acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) and liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) imaging spectrometers. In order to demonstrate the feasibility of employing multiplexed AOTFs for spectroscopy and chemical imaging applications, a near- infrared (NIR) multiplexed AOTF spectrometer employing Hadamard encoding sequences has been developed. In addition, the use of multiplexed AOTFs as adaptive filters in NIR spectroscopy and fluorescence imaging has been demonstrated. A second type of electronically tunable image filter, the liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) has recently been developed and is well suited to high resolution, diffraction limited imaging applications. The earliest generation of LCTFs was based on the Lyot birefringent filter and possessed small transmittances due to the use of multiple polarizers and imperfect waveplate action. An improved LCTF prototype incorporating split-element Lyot filter stages has been evaluated and compared to the earlier generation of LCTF devices. The high image fidelity, wide acceptance angle, and large clear aperture of the LCTF make it well suited to macroscopic chemical imaging applications. A macroscopic imaging fluorometer employing LCTFs for source tuning and emission filtering has been developed for high throughput microtiter plate

  19. Multiple-bipolar-tap tunable spectrum sliced microwave photonic filter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Yi, Xiaoke; Huang, Thomas; Minasian, Robert A

    2010-12-01

    A spectrum sliced microwave photonic signal processor structure, which is all-fiber based and features simplicity, together with the ability to realize tunability, reconfigurability, bipolar taps, and multiple-tap rf filtering, is presented. It is based on thermally controlled optical slicing filters induced into two linearly chirped fiber Bragg gratings. Experimental results demonstrate the realization of versatile microwave photonic filters with frequency tunable, reconfiguration, and bipolar-tap generation capabilities. PMID:21124570

  20. Microwave photonic comb filter with ultra-fast tunability.

    PubMed

    Jiang, H Y; Yan, L S; Pan, Y; Pan, W; Luo, B; Zou, X H; Eggleton, B J

    2015-11-01

    A microwave comb filter with ultra-fast tunability is proposed based on the fundamental delay-line microwave photonic filter. The central frequency of the passband or stopband in such a filter can be rapidly adjusted, along with the independent tunability of the free spectral range (FSR). Experimental results show that the central frequency of the transfer function is electronically tuned with a frequency difference of half of the FSR at a speed of <100  ps. Such high-speed tunability is vital for high-speed microwave switching, frequency hopping, cognitive radio, and next-generation radar systems. PMID:26512477

  1. On the possibility of developing incoherent fibre-optic data transmission systems based on signal spectral coding with matched acousto-optical filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proklov, Valerii V.; Byshevski-Konopko, O. A.; Grigorievski, V. I.

    2013-06-01

    The scheme is suggested for developing the optical communication line based on the principle of code division of multiple access with matched acousto-optical filters and a 16-bit long Walsh sequence. Results of modelling show that such a line can operate if adjacent spectral lines are separated by at least double the Rayleigh criterion.

  2. Optical single sideband modulation radio over fiber system by using a fiber-Bragg-grating-based acousto-optic filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Song; Pei, Li; Li, Zhuoxuan; Liu, Chao; Wang, Yiqun; Weng, Sijun

    2013-03-01

    An optical single sideband (OSSB) modulation radio over a fiber system, by using an acousto-optic filter (AOF), is proposed and demonstrated. In the AOF, a uniform fiber Bragg grating is etched and modulated by an axially propagating acoustic wave. Due to the acousto-optic superlattice modulation, two secondary reflection peaks, centered on the primary reflection peak, are generated. In the scheme, an optical double-sideband signal passes though the AOF to realize OSSB modulation. Because the reflect depth of the primary peak is much deeper than those of the secondary peaks, the carrier experiences higher attenuation than the upper sideband, which means the carrier-to-sideband ratio (CSR) can be optimized at the same time. We demonstrate this scheme via simulations, and successfully reduce the CSR from 9.73 to 2.9 dB. As a result, the receiving sensitivity improved from -23.43 to -31.18 dBm at BER of 10-9 with 30 km long SMF.

  3. Narrow-Band WGM Optical Filters With Tunable FSRs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohageg, Makan; Matsko, Andrey; Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Maleki, Lute; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Strekalov, Dmitry

    2007-01-01

    Optical resonators of the whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) type featuring DC-tunable free spectral ranges (FSRs) have been demonstrated. By making the FSR tunable, one makes it possible to adjust, during operation, the frequency of a microwave signal generated by an optoelectronic oscillator in which an WGM optical resonator is utilized as a narrow-band filter.

  4. Microwave photonic bandstop filter with wide tunability and adjustable bandwidth.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Yang, Chengwu; Wang, Ling; Yuan, Zhilin; Liu, Jianguo; Li, Ming; Zhu, Ninghua

    2015-12-28

    A microwave photonic bandstop filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated in this work. The filter exhibits promising performance combination of reconfigurability, frequency tunability, and bandwidth adjustment. The phase modulation on two orthogonal polarization states produces a bandpass and a lowpass MPF, respectively. The key concept of destructive interference between the bandpass and lowpass MPF enables the reconfiguration of MPF from bandpass to bandstop. By adjusting the wavelength of two orthogonally polarized optical carriers and the bandwidth of an optical bandpass filter, the bandstop filter is tunable in terms of center frequency and bandwidth. PMID:26832021

  5. Highly tunable microwave and millimeter wave filtering using photonic technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seregelyi, Joe; Lu, Ping; Paquet, Stéphane; Celo, Dritan; Mihailov, Stephen J.

    2015-05-01

    The design for a photonic microwave filter tunable in both bandwidth and operating frequency is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The circuit is based on a single sideband modulator used in conjunction with two or more transmission fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) cascaded in series. It is demonstrated that the optical filtering characteristics of the FBGs are instrumental in defining the shape of the microwave filter, and the numerical modeling was used to optimize these characteristics. A multiphase-shift transmission FBG design is used to increase the dynamic range of the filter, control the filter ripple, and maximize the slope of the filter skirts. Initial measurements confirmed the design theory and demonstrated a working microwave filter with a bandwidth tunable from approximately 2 to 3.5 GHz and an 18 GHz operating frequency tuning range. Further work is required to refine the FBG manufacturing process and reduce the impact of fabrication errors.

  6. Modern collinear LiNbO3 acousto-optical filter for optical spectroscopy: the exploration of efficiency and spectral resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, A. S.; Arellanes, A. O.; Bertone, E.

    2016-02-01

    Our work is devoted to the collinear acousto-optical filter governed by the acoustic waves of finite amplitude. It represents a novel bulk-optical component, namely, the dispersive element for optical spectroscopy. This filter is based on specifically doped lithium niobate single crystal that unexpectedly works in the near ultraviolet range as well as this material usually works in the visible range. We examine the phenomena affecting the filter transmission efficiency and its resolution, i.e. the light-induced absorption and photorefraction. A new nonlinear approach is used to characterize performances of this collinear LiNbO3 acousto-optical filter exploiting our revealed specific acousto-optical nonlinearity. We have carried out the experiments with the collinear filter based on the congruent LiNbO3 crystal of 6.3 cm length at λ = 405 and 440 nm to verify our analysis and estimations. We also explore an opportunity to trade an amount of the efficiency to improve the spectral resolution. The transmission efficiency steeply increases with increasing light wavelength and with decreasing length of the filter, nevertheless the efficiency still remains higher than 30% in the near ultraviolet, if the spectral resolution is limited by δλ = 0.28-0.29 Å. Moreover, we demonstrate the possibility to reach a resolution as high as δλ = 0.12-0.15 Å (R > 24600), preserving at the same time an efficiency higher than 10% over the spectral interval that we considered. It looks like our filter holds the best to our knowledge experimentally confirmed spectral resolution for any collinear acousto-optical spectrometers dedicated to space/airborne operations.

  7. A novel tunable cascaded IIR microwave photonic filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Lina; Zhang, Xinliang; Xu, Enming; Yu, Yuan; Li, Xiang; Huang, Dexiu

    2010-07-01

    A new tunable cascaded infinite impulse response (IIR) microwave photonic filter is presented, based on a novel configuration in which a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) is inserted between two active recirculating delay line (RDL) loops. Due to wavelength conversion with cross-gain modulation (XGM) in SOA, interferences between light beams traveling different paths are canceled, ensuring a stable transmission. By employing this configuration, a cascaded IIR microwave photonic filter is firstly achieved. The free spectral range (FSR) and the Q factor are both increased significantly by adopting "vernier effect" technique in the IIR filter. The structure is also tunable by adjusting the length of one RDL loop.

  8. Variable bandwidth birefringent filter for tunable femtosecond lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Naganuma, K.; Lenz, G.; Ippen, E.P. )

    1992-10-01

    A design for a birefringent filter is described, which is suitable for tunable femtosecond lasers. Using a single plate, which has a steeply diving optic axis, two-octave tunability is attained with negligible deterioration of the stopband rejection. For a specific wavelength region, it means that the filter's bandwidth can be changed by a factor of four. Another characteristic of the design is that, for the same bandwidth, the proposed plate is five times thicker than a conventional plate in which the optic axis is parallel to the surface. Thus, etalon effects can be avoided. Tuning characteristics of color center lasers utilizing the new filter are also presented. 18 refs.

  9. Tunable rubidium excited state Voigt atomic optical filter.

    PubMed

    Yin, Longfei; Luo, Bin; Xiong, Junyu; Guo, Hong

    2016-03-21

    A tunable rubidium excited state Voigt atomic optical filter working at optical communication wavelength (1.5 μm) is realized. The filter achieves a peak transmittance of 57.6% with a double-peak structure, in which each one has a bandwidth of 600 MHz. Benefiting from the Voigt type structure, the magnetic field of the filter can be tuned from 0 to 1600 gauss, and a peak transmittance tunability of 1.6 GHz can thus be realized. Different from the excited state Faraday type filter, the pump efficiency in the Voigt filter is affected a lot by the pump polarization. Measured absorption results of the pump laser and transmittances of the signal laser both prove that the vertical linear polarization pumping is the most efficient in the Voigt filter. PMID:27136803

  10. Narrow bandpass tunable terahertz filter based on photonic crystal cavity.

    PubMed

    He, Jinglong; Liu, Pingan; He, Yalan; Hong, Zhi

    2012-02-20

    We have fabricated a very narrow bandpass tunable terahertz (THz) filter based on a one-dimensional photonic crystal cavity. Since the filter consists of silicon wafers and air spacers, it has a very high quality factor of about 1500. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) of the passband is only about 200 MHz, and the peak transmission is higher than -4 dB. Besides, the central frequency can be tuned rapidly over the entire bandgap with the length of cavity adjusted by a motorized linear stage. Further analytical calculations indicate that a high-Q tunable filter with both high peak transmission and wide tunable range is possible if thinner silicon layers are used. PMID:22358169

  11. Temperature Tunable Air-Gap Etalon Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krainak, Michael A.; Stephen, Mark A.; Lunt, David L.

    1998-01-01

    We report on experimental measurements of a temperature tuned air-gap etalon filter. The filter exhibits temperature dependent wavelength tuning of 54 pm/C. It has a nominal center wavelength of 532 nm. The etalon filter has a 27 pm optical bandpass and 600 pm free spectral range (finesse approximately 22). The experimental results are in close agreement with etalon theory.

  12. Tunable Optical Filters Having Electro-optic Whispering-gallery-mode Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Matsko, Andrey B. (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Tunable optical filters using whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators are described. The WGM optical resonator in a filter exhibits an electro-optical effect and hence is tunable by applying a control electrical signal.

  13. Spectral imaging characterization of MOEM tunable Fabry-Perot filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Neelam

    2012-03-01

    A miniature MOEM tunable Fabry-Perot (FP) filter development program to fabricate filters operating over spectral regions from the visible to the longwave infrared has recently succeeded in fabricating filters operating over visible/near infrared wavelength region from 400 to 800 nm. The main objective of this program is to design miniature hyperspectral imagers by placing such a miniature tunable FP filter in front of a commercial focal plane array with a suitable optical train. This novel MOEM filter design is based on using two semitransparent 30-nm thick silver-film mirrors-one fixed and one moving with application of an electrostatic force. The silver films were grown on low-cost thin commercial quartz wafers with low total thickness variation. The moving mirror is held in place by three leaf spring arm structures which were fabricated by wet etching of the quartz substrate. The size of the MOEM device is 18×24 mm2. The tunable FP filter has a 6-mm optical aperture. The fixed part has three electrodes to apply voltages and the moving mirror is used as a ground electrode. Au bumps were deposited in both parts in order to control the initial air gap distance and an Au-Au bonding was used to bond the two parts together. The electrostatic actuation changes the spacing between the two mirrors which changes the transmitted wavelength. The spectral imaging performance of MOEM filter was characterized using a tunable source and a CCD camera with suitable optics. This paper describes the MOEM filter, its characteristics and present spectral imaging characterization experiment and results.

  14. The Brazilian Tunable Filter Imager for the SOAR Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mendes de Oliveira, Cláudia; Taylor, Keith; Quint, Bruno; Andrade, Denis; Ferrari, Fabrício; Laporte, Rene; Ramos, Giseli de A.; Dani Guzman, Christian; Cavalcanti, Luiz; de Calasans, Alvaro; Ramirez Fernandez, Javier; Gutierrez Castañeda, Edna Carolina; Jones, Damien; Fontes, Fernando Luis; Molina, Ana Maria; Fialho, Fábio; Plana, Henri; Jablonski, Francisco J.; Reitano, Luiz; Daigle, Olivier; Scarano, Sergio; Amram, Philippe; Balard, Philippe; Gach, Jean-Luc; Carignan, Claude

    2013-04-01

    This article presents a description of a new Tunable Filter Instrument for the SOAR telescope. The Brazilian Tunable Filter Imager (BTFI) is a highly versatile new technology to be used both in seeing-limited mode and at higher spatial fidelity using the SAM Ground-Layer Adaptive Optics facility (SOAR Adaptive Module) which is being deployed at the SOAR telescope. Such an instrument presents important new science capabilities for the SOAR astronomical community, from studies of the centers of nearby galaxies and the insterstellar medium to statistical cosmological investigations. The BTFI concept takes advantage of three new technologies. The imaging Bragg Tunable Filter (iBTF) concept utilizes Volume Phase Holographic Gratings in a double-pass configuration as a tunable filter, while a new Fabry-Perot (FP) concept involves the use of commercially available technologies which allow a single FP etalon to act over a very large range of interference orders and hence spectral resolutions. Both of these filter technologies will be used in the same instrument. The combination allows for highly versatile capabilities. Spectral resolutions spanning the range between 25 and 30,000 can be achieved in the same instrument through the use of iBTF at low resolution and scanning FPs beyond R ~ 2,000 with some overlap in the mid-range. The third component of the new technologies deployed in BTFI is the use of EMCCDs, which allow for rapid and cyclical wavelength scanning thus mitigating the damaging effect of atmospheric variability through the acquisition of the data cube. An additional important feature of the instrument is that it has two optical channels which allow for the simultaneous recording of the narrow-band, filtered image with the remaining (complementary) broadband light. This avoids the otherwise inevitable uncertainties inherent in tunable filter imaging using a single detector, which is subject to temporal variability of the atmospheric conditions. The system was

  15. Digital tunable color filter and beam scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Y.

    2000-01-01

    A new technology invented at JPL of color filtering and beam scanning device based on electro-optical switching of internal-reflection states have been proposed for use in DWDM, display and measurement applications.

  16. A tunable microwave plasma photonic crystal filter

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, B.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2015-10-26

    The integration of gaseous plasma elements into a microwave photonic crystal band gap cavity structure allows for active tuning of the device. An alumina rod array microwave photonic crystal waveguide resonator is simulated and characterized through finite difference time domain methods. A gaseous plasma element is integrated into the cavity structure and the effect of plasma density on the transmission properties of the structure is investigated. We show, through both simulations and experiments, that the permittivity of the plasma can be adjusted to shift the peak resonance to allow for both switching and tunability of transmission. The experimentally measured peak shifts in transmission are compared to those simulated and the electron density of the gaseous plasma element is calculated and compared to values determined from the measured discharge current density.

  17. A tunable microwave plasma photonic crystal filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Cappelli, M. A.

    2015-10-01

    The integration of gaseous plasma elements into a microwave photonic crystal band gap cavity structure allows for active tuning of the device. An alumina rod array microwave photonic crystal waveguide resonator is simulated and characterized through finite difference time domain methods. A gaseous plasma element is integrated into the cavity structure and the effect of plasma density on the transmission properties of the structure is investigated. We show, through both simulations and experiments, that the permittivity of the plasma can be adjusted to shift the peak resonance to allow for both switching and tunability of transmission. The experimentally measured peak shifts in transmission are compared to those simulated and the electron density of the gaseous plasma element is calculated and compared to values determined from the measured discharge current density.

  18. A novel collinear LiNbO3 acousto optical tunable filter with the improved range of transmission and spectral resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arellanes, Adan Omar; Shcherbakov, Alexandre S.; Bertone, Emanuele

    2015-02-01

    This investigation represents a deep and advanced analysis of exploiting lithium niobate (LiNbO3) crystals for the collinear acousto-optical tunable filter (AOTF) in violet and near ultraviolet ranges. The selection of this material is motivated by its high birefringence, which is a key parameter for improving the resolution of AOTF. For this matter, we take into account all the important factors that can deteriorate the resolution in order to find extreme conditions for the best performances. In concrete, we analyze the well- known photorefraction effect accompanied by the light induced absorption in those ranges for the LiNbO3 crystals doped by selected materials. The best observed results have been obtained with magnesium (Mg) dopant in the congruent melt of LiNbO3, which also shifts the absorption edge far into the middle UV-range. This analysis had made it possible to formulate the physical criterion determining the enlarged practical limitations of the incident light power density. Together with previously studied non-uniformity and dispersion of the birefringence along the length of acousto-optical interaction in a crystal, we exploit the recently discovered and experimentally confirmed acousto-optical nonlinearity, which can improve the transmission function inherent in the collinear interaction via applying the acoustic waves of finite amplitude in the AOTF. As a result, the obtained spectral resolution is the best available for any collinear AOTF to our knowledge.

  19. Gelled colloidal crystals as tunable optical filters for spectrophotometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugao, Yukihiro; Onda, Sachiko; Toyotama, Akiko; Takiguchi, Yoshihiro; Sawada, Tsutomu; Hara, Shigeo; Nishikawa, Suguru; Yamanaka, Junpei

    2016-08-01

    We examined the performance of charged colloidal crystals immobilized in a polymer gel as tunable optical filters. The colloidal crystals of charged silica particles (particle diameter = 121 nm; particle concentration = 3.5 vol %; and Bragg wavelength λB = 630–720 nm) were produced by unidirectional crystallization under a temperature gradient. Photocurable gelation reagents were dissolved in the sample beforehand; this enabled gel immobilization of the crystals under ultraviolet illumination. The crystals had dimensions of more than 25 mm2 in area and 1 mm in thickness, and spatial λB variations of less than 1%. Upon mechanical compression, λB values shifted linearly and reversibly over almost the entire visible spectrum. Using the gelled crystals as tunable optical filters, we measured the transmittance spectra of various samples and found them to be in close agreement with those determined using a spectrophotometer equipped with optical gratings.

  20. Liquid-crystal tunable filter based on sapphire microspheres.

    PubMed

    Gilardi, Giovanni; Donisi, Domenico; Serpengüzel, Ali; Beccherelli, Romeo

    2009-11-01

    We design an integrated optoelectronic device based on the whispering-gallery modes of a sapphire microsphere integrated with a liquid-crystal tuning medium to produce a narrowband, electrically tunable, channel-dropping filter. The sapphire microsphere is glued over a diffused waveguide in a glass substrate. At the base of the microsphere, a small volume of liquid crystal is infiltrated. We numerically evaluate the performance of the device and demonstrate a voltage tuning of the narrowband resonances. PMID:19881558

  1. Imaging Spectrometer With Liquid-Crystal Tunable Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chrien, Thomas G.

    1996-01-01

    Imaging spectrometer constructed from charged-coupled-device video camera; liquid-crystal tunable filter (LCTF) placed in front of camera lens; and associated digital and analog control, signal-processing, and data-processing circuits. To enable operation of instrument in specific application for which designed (balloon flights in cold weather), camera and LCTF surrounded by electric heating pad. Total operating power, excluding that consumed by heating pad, 16 W. Instrument weighs 4.5 kg.

  2. Compact and tunable silicon nitride Bragg grating filters in polymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ziyang; Novo, Alejandro Maese; Liu, Dongliang; Keil, Norbert; Grote, Norbert

    2014-06-01

    A series of tunable filters based on silicon nitride waveguide Bragg gratings buried in polymer are studied, fabricated and analyzed. The gratings are etched completely through the waveguides to improve the peak reflectivity at short grating lengths. Reflectivity from 1% to 70% can be reached when the third-order grating length varies from 16 µm to 160 µm. The experimental results are in good agreement with numerical simulations. Due to its compact size and the thermal advantages of polymer, the filter can be tuned very efficiently by a micro heater buried beneath. A tuning range of 34.5 nm is demonstrated at a heat power of only 22 mW.

  3. Tunable filter using ferroelectric-dielectric periodic multilayer.

    PubMed

    D'souza, Nirmala Maria; Mathew, Vincent

    2015-03-20

    The microwave optical properties of a photonic crystal-based tunable single and multichannel filter are theoretically investigated using the transfer matrix method, finite difference time domain method, and the plane wave expansion method. By applying an external voltage of 8  V/micron about a 35% frequency tuning is obtained. It is found that the number of transmission peaks is directly proportional to the number of periods (N). In addition to this, the dependence of layer thicknesses, angle of incidence and polarization are also analyzed, and it is noticed that the filtering frequency is invariant in angle and polarization. PMID:25968499

  4. Guided-mode resonant polarization-controlled tunable color filters.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Mohammad Jalal; Khaleque, Tanzina; Magnusson, Robert

    2014-05-19

    We demonstrate efficient guided-mode resonant polarization-controlled tunable color filters. The devices consist of subwavelength gratings that are partially etched into a thin silicon-nitride film deposited on a glass substrate. Two color filters with grating periods of 300 nm and 370 nm are designed and fabricated. The 300-nm device exhibits green and blue colors and the 370-nm device generates red and yellow colors for TE and TM polarization, respectively. The pixels have a spectral bandwidth of ~12 nm with efficiencies exceeding 90% for TE polarization and 80% for TM polarization. The devices may find application in displays, image sensors, and biomedical imaging technologies. PMID:24921349

  5. A tunable hole-burning filter for lidar applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billmers, R. I.; Davis, J.; Squicciarini, M.

    The fundamental physical principles for the development of a 'hole-burning' optical filter based on saturable absorption in dye-doped glasses are outlined. A model was developed to calculate the required pump intensity, throughput, and linewidth for this type of filter. Rhodamine 6G, operating at 532 nm, was found to require a 'warm-up' time of 110 pulses and a pump intensity of 100 kW/sq cm per pulse. The linewidth was calculated to be approximately 15 GHz at 77 K with a throughput of at least 25 percent and five orders of magnitude noise suppression. A 'hole-burning' filter offers significant advantages over current filter technology, including tunability over a 10-nm bandwidth, perfect wavelength and bandwidth matching to the transmitting laser in a pulsed lidar system, transform limited response times, and moderately high throughputs (at least 25 percent).

  6. Tunable Filter Made From Three Coupled WGM Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Maleki, Lute; Matsko, Andrey

    2006-01-01

    A tunable third-order band-pass optical filter has been constructed as an assembly of three coupled, tunable, whispering-gallery-mode resonators similar to the one described in Whispering-Gallery-Mode Tunable Narrow-Band-Pass Filter (NPO-30896), NASA Tech Briefs, Vol. 28, No. 4 (April 2004), page 5a. This filter offers a combination of four characteristics that are desirable for potential applications in photonics: (1) wide real-time tunability accompanied by a high-order filter function, (2) narrowness of the passband, (3) relatively low loss between input and output coupling optical fibers, and (4) a sparse spectrum. In contrast, prior tunable band-pass optical filters have exhibited, at most, two of these four characteristics. As described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, a whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) resonator is a spheroidal, disklike, or toroidal body made of a highly transparent material. It is so named because it is designed to exploit whispering-gallery electromagnetic modes, which are waveguide modes that propagate circumferentially and are concentrated in a narrow toroidal region centered on the equatorial plane and located near the outermost edge. Figure 1 depicts the optical layout of the present filter comprising an assembly of three coupled, tunable WGM resonators. Each WGM resonator is made from a disk of Z-cut LiNbO3 of 3.3-mm diameter and 50-m thickness. The perimeter of the disk is polished and rounded to a radius of curvature of 40 microns. The free spectral range of each WGM resonator is about 13.3 GHz. Gold coats on the flat faces of the disk serve as electrodes for exploiting the electro-optical effect in LiNbO3 for tuning. There is no metal coat on the rounded perimeter region, where the whispering-gallery modes propagate. Light is coupled from an input optical fiber into the whispering-gallery-modes of the first WGM resonator by means of a diamond prism. Another diamond prism is used to couple light from the whispering

  7. Tunable high-q superconducting notch filter

    DOEpatents

    Pang, C.S.; Falco, C.M.; Kampwirth, R.T.; Schuller, I.K.

    1979-11-29

    A superconducting notch filter is made of three substrates disposed in a cryogenic environment. A superconducting material is disposed on one substrate in a pattern of a circle and an annular ring connected together. The second substrate has a corresponding pattern to form a parallel plate capacitor and the second substrate has the circle and annular ring connected by a superconducting spiral that forms an inductor. The third substrate has a superconducting spiral that is placed parallel to the first superconducting spiral to form a transformer. Relative motion of the first substrate with respect to the second is effected from outside the cryogenic environment to vary the capacitance and hence the frequency of the resonant circuit formed by the superconducting devices.

  8. Electronically tunable thulium-holmium mode-locked fiber laser for the 1700-1800 nm wavelength band.

    PubMed

    Noronen, Teppo; Okhotnikov, Oleg; Gumenyuk, Regina

    2016-06-27

    We demonstrate a widely tunable, mode-locked fiber laser capable of producing sub-picosecond pulses between 1705 and 1805 nm. The 100 nm tuning range is achieved by using intracavity acousto-optic tunable filter. The laser delivers highly stable pulses via self-starting hybrid mode-locking triggered by frequency-shifting and nonlinear polarization evolution. PMID:27410623

  9. Tunable, oblique incidence resonant grating filter for telecommunications.

    PubMed

    Niederer, Guido; Herzig, Hans Peter; Shamir, Joseph; Thiele, Hans; Schnieper, Marc; Zschokke, Christian

    2004-03-10

    We have designed a tunable, oblique-incidence resonant grating filter that covers the C band as an add-drop device for incident TE-polarized light. We tune the filter by tilting a microelectromechanical systems platform onto which the filter is attached. The fabrication tolerances as well as the role of finite incident-beam size and limited device size were addressed. The maximum achievable efficiency of a finite-area device as well as a scaling law that relates the resonance peak width and the minimum device size is derived. In good agreement with simulations, measurements indicate a negligible change in shape of the resonance peak from 1526 nm at a 45 degrees angle of incidence to 1573 nm at a 53 degrees angle with a full width at half-maximum of 0.4 nm. In this range the shift of the peak wavelength is linear with respect to changes in the angle of incidence. PMID:15046172

  10. High-speed tunable microwave photonic notch filter based on phase modulator incorporated Lyot filter.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jia; Feng, Hanlin; Scott, Guy; Fok, Mable P

    2015-01-01

    A high-speed tunable microwave photonic notch filter with ultrahigh rejection ratio is presented, which is achieved by semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA)-based single-sideband modulation and optical spectral filtering with a phase modulator-incorporated Lyot (PM-Lyot) filter. By varying the birefringence of the phase modulator through electro-optic effect, electrically tuning of the microwave photonic notch filter is experimentally achieved at tens of gigahertz speed. The use of SOA-polarizer based single-sideband modulation scheme provides good sideband suppression over a wide frequency range, resulting in an ultrahigh rejection ratio of the microwave photonic notch filter. Stable filter spectrum with bandstop rejection ratio over 60 dB is observed over a frequency tuning range from 1.8 to 10 GHz. Compare with standard interferometric notch filter, narrower bandwidth and sharper notch profile are achieved with the unique PM-Lyot filter, resulting in better filter selectivity. Moreover, bandwidth tuning is also achieved through polarization adjustment inside the PM-Lyot filter, that the 10-dB filter bandwidth is tuned from 0.81 to 1.85 GHz. PMID:25531605

  11. MEMS tunable optical filter based on multi-ring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Dessalegn, Hailu E-mail: tsrinu@ece.iisc.ernet.in; Srinivas, T. E-mail: tsrinu@ece.iisc.ernet.in

    2014-10-15

    We propose a novel MEMS tunable optical filter with a flat-top pass band based on multi-ring resonator in an electrostatically actuated microcantilever for communication application. The filter is basically structured on a microcantilever beam and built in optical integrated ring resonator which is placed in one end of the beam to gain maximum stress on the resonator. Thus, when a DC voltage is applied, the beam will bend, that induces a stress and strain in the ring, which brings a change in refractive index and perimeter of the rings leading to change in the output spectrum shift, providing the tenability as high as 0.68nm/μN and it is capable of tuning up to 1.7nm.

  12. Flat top liquid crystal tunable filter using coupled Fabry-Perot cavities.

    PubMed

    Alboon, Shadi A; Lindquist, Robert G

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a coupled Fabry-Perot cavities filter, using the liquid crystal as the tunable medium, is investigate to achieve tunable flat top filtering performance across the C and L bands. A tandem coupled Fabry-Perot is presented for a tunable passband filter with flat top and minimum ripple in the passband. The overall tuning range of the filter is 172 nm. Several designs are shown with comparable performance to the commercial available 100 GHz fixed single channel filters. PMID:18521153

  13. In situ calibration of tunable filters: Lyot and Michelson.

    PubMed

    Mudge, Jason; Tarbell, Theodore

    2014-08-01

    Solar imaging optical filter technology has progressed significantly over the past 75 years, and the ability to tune narrowband filters is particularly valuable for solar atmosphere sensing. For example, imaging while tuning over a narrow solar spectral line (emission or absorption) provides two-dimensional measurements of Doppler shifts and magnetic fields. While tuning ability has improved significantly, tuning accuracy can be a challenge over time given system actuator drifts. For many cases, the ability to calibrate these actuators in situ is convenient and cost effective (e.g., ground-based observatories), and for other cases it is required (e.g., in a spacecraft). It is ideal to calibrate in situ without the need for additional hardware such as a spectrometer, and if that cannot be achieved, the next best thing is to do so with minimum additional hardware. Two examples of solar filters that need to be calibrated periodically are: (1) a liquid crystal variable retarder Lyot filter and (2) a tunable Michelson interferometer. For the first, the filter can have a number of stages back-to-back to achieve the desired finesse. Within each stage there is a liquid crystal variable retarder that adds some amount of retardance to the stage's fixed birefringent crystal; this provides wavelength bandpass tuning. For the second, there can be several Michelson interferometers in series each with an actuator to adjust the optical path length in one of its optical paths for tuning. The stacking of these filters implies there is a need to calibrate more than one actuator. An algorithm has been developed to calibrate these types of stacked and nonstacked filters in situ with minimal, if any, hardware additions. PMID:25090330

  14. Measuring Potassium in Exoplanet Atmospheres with the OSIRIS Tunable Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colón, K. D.; Deeg, H. J.; Ford, E. B.; Redfield, S.; Fortney, J. J.; Shabram, M.; Mahadevan, S.

    2013-05-01

    We report observations of the exoplanet host-star HD 80606 using the OSIRIS tunable filter imager. Very-high-precision, narrow-band photometry in four bandpasses around the K I absorption feature was acquired during the January 2010 transit of HD 80606b, with further off-transit observations taken January and April of 2010. We obtained differential photometric precisions of ~2.08×10^-4 for the in-transit flux ratio measured at 769.91 nm, which probes the K I line core. The observed changes in the depth of the transit across several wavelengths is equivalent to a ~4.2% change in the apparent planetary radius with wavelength, which is much larger than the atmospheric scale height. This implies the observations probed the atmosphere at very low pressures as well as a dramatic change in the pressure at which the optical depth reaches unity across the bands observed. We hypothesize that the excess absorption may be due to K I in a high-speed wind being driven from the exoplanet's exosphere and discuss the viability of this and alternative interpretations. We also present similar observations of the exoplanet XO-2b that were acquired recently and which are currently being analysed. Finally, we discuss future prospects for exoplanet characterization using tunable filter spectrophotometry.

  15. Research on imaging spectrometer using LC-based tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Zhixue; Li, Jianfeng; Huang, Lixian; Luo, Fei; Luo, Yongquan; Zhang, Dayong; Long, Yan

    2012-09-01

    A liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) with large aperture is developed using PDLC liquid crystal. A small scale imaging spectrometer is established based on this tunable filter. This spectrometer can continuously tuning, or random-access selection of any wavelength in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) band synchronized with the imaging processes. Notable characteristics of this spectrometer include the high flexibility control of its operating channels, the image cubes with high spatial resolution and spectral resolution and the strong ability of acclimation to environmental temperature. The image spatial resolution of each tuning channel is almost near the one of the same camera without the LCTF. The spectral resolution is about 20 nm at 550 nm. This spectrometer works normally under 0-50°C with a maximum power consumption of 10 Watts (with exclusion of the storage module). Due to the optimization of the electrode structure and the driving mode of the Liquid Crystal cell, the switch time between adjacent selected channels can be reduced to 20 ms or even shorter. Spectral imaging experiments in laboratory are accomplished to verify the performance of this spectrometer, which indicate that this compact imaging spectrometer works reliably, and functionally. Possible applications of this imaging spectrometer include medical science, protection of historical relics, criminal investigation, disaster monitoring and mineral detection by remote sensing.

  16. Mechanically-tunable composite filter at low frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheeland, Sara; Amirkhizi, Alireza V.; Nemat-Nasser, Sia

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies into the possibility of a plasmonic medium of a coiled conductor array in air have shown promise. This work serves to evaluate the possibility of creating a mechanically-tunable composite filter at low frequencies. Copper springs were created with varying starting pitches using a coil winder. These springs were then embedded into a flexible host polymer. The mechanical and electromagnetic properties of each spring design were predicted and tested. Two horn antennas were used to characterize the overall electromagnetic (EM) properties of the composite. The pitch of each spring was increased mechanically through application of force to the entire polymermetal composite at equal intervals, with an EM test completed at each step. Using an Agilent 8510C Vector Network Analyzer (VNA), the frequency spectrum within the microwave range was scanned. Relative amplitude and phase measurements were taken at equal frequency and pitch steps. With no polymer surrounding the springs, plasmon turn-on frequencies were observed to span the microwave bands as the pitch of the springs were increased. Similar results are expected with the springs embedded in a polymeric matrix. These results suggest a method of creating a mechanically-tunable composite filter for use at low frequencies.

  17. Micromachined Tunable Fabry-Perot Filters for Infrared Astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barclay, Richard; Bier, Alexander; Chen, Tina; DiCamillo, Barbara; Deming, Drake; Greenhouse, Matthew; Henry, Ross; Hewagama, Tilak; Jacobson, Mindy; Loughlin, James; Krebs, Carolyn A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Micromachined Fabry-Perot tunable filters with a large clear aperture (12.5 to 40 mm) are being developed as an optical component for wide-field imaging 1:1 spectroscopy. This program applies silicon micromachining fabrication techniques to miniaturize Fabry-Perot filters for astronomical science instruments. The filter assembly consists of a stationary etalon plate mated to a plate in which the etalon is free to move along the optical axis on silicon springs attached to a stiff silicon support ring. The moving etalon is actuated electrostatically by electrode pairs on the fixed and moving etalons. To reduce mass, both etalons are fabricated by applying optical coatings to a thin freestanding silicon nitride film held flat in drumhead tension rather than to a thick optical substrate. The design, electro-mechanical modeling, fabrication, and initial results will be discussed. The potential application of the miniature Fabry-Perot filters will be briefly discussed with emphasis on the detection of extra-solar planets.

  18. Development, characterization, and modeling of a tunable filter camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sartor, Mark Alan

    1999-10-01

    This paper describes the development, characterization, and modeling of a Tunable Filter Camera (TFC). The TFC is a new multispectral instrument with electronically tuned spectral filtering and low-light-level sensitivity. It represents a hybrid between hyperspectral and multispectral imaging spectrometers that incorporates advantages from each, addressing issues such as complexity, cost, lack of sensitivity, and adaptability. These capabilities allow the TFC to be applied to low- altitude video surveillance for real-time spectral and spatial target detection and image exploitation. Described herein are the theory and principles of operation for the TFC, which includes a liquid crystal tunable filter, an intensified CCD, and a custom apochromatic lens. The results of proof-of-concept testing, and characterization of two prototype cameras are included, along with a summary of the design analyses for the development of a multiple-channel system. A significant result of this effort was the creation of a system-level model, which was used to facilitate development and predict performance. It includes models for the liquid crystal tunable filter and intensified CCD. Such modeling was necessary in the design of the system and is useful for evaluation of the system in remote-sensing applications. Also presented are characterization data from component testing, which included quantitative results for linearity, signal to noise ratio (SNR), linearity, and radiometric response. These data were used to help refine and validate the model. For a pre-defined source, the spatial and spectral response, and the noise of the camera, system can now be predicted. The innovation that sets this development apart is the fact that this instrument has been designed for integrated, multi-channel operation for the express purpose of real-time detection/identification in low- light-level conditions. Many of the requirements for the TFC were derived from this mission. In order to provide

  19. Flexibly tunable multichannel filter and bandpass filter based on long-period fiber gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Young-Geun; Hyuck Kim, Sang; Lee, Sang Bae

    2004-05-01

    The voltage-controllable multichannel filter based on multiply cascaded long-period fiber gratings with a divided coil heater will be proposed and experimentally demonstrated. It has several advantages of the large tuning range in both C- and L-band, multichannel operation, multiwavelength electivity, and bandwidth controllability. The tunable bandpass filter based on long-period fiber gratings ith the broad bandwidth over 6.5 nm, large tuning range over 30 nm, and excellent side mode suppression more than 40 dB will be also discussed.

  20. Whispering-Gallery-Mode Tunable Narrow-Band-Pass Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Iltchenko, Vladimir; Matsko, Andrey; Maleki, Lute

    2004-01-01

    An experimental tunable, narrow-band-pass electro-optical filter is based on a whispering-gallery resonator. This device is a prototype of tunable filters needed for the further development of reconfigurable networking wavelength-division multiplexers and communication systems that utilize radio-frequency (more specifically, microwave) subcarrier signals on optical carrier signals. The characteristics of whispering-gallery resonators that make them attractive for such applications include high tuning speed, compactness, wide tuning range, low power consumption, and compatibility with single-mode optical fibers. In addition, relative to Fabry-Perot resonators, these devices offer advantages of greater robustness and lower cost. As described in several prior NASA Tech Briefs articles, a whispering-gallery resonator is a spheroidal, disk-like, or toroidal body made of a highly transparent material. It is so named because it is designed to exploit whispering-gallery electromagnetic modes, which are waveguide modes that propagate circumferentially and are concentrated in a narrow toroidal region centered on the equatorial plane and located near the outermost edge. The experimental whispering-gallery tunable filter (see figure) is made from a disk of Z-cut LiNbO3 of 4.8-mm diameter and 0.17-mm thickness. The perimeter of the disk is rounded to a radius of curvature of 100 m. Metal coats on the flat faces of the disk serve as electrodes for exploiting the electro-optical effect in LiNbO3 for tuning. There is no metal coat on the rounded perimeter region, where the whispering-gallery modes propagate. Light is coupled from an input optical fiber into the whispering-gallery modes by means of a diamond prism. Another diamond prism is used to couple light from the whispering-gallery modes to an output optical fiber. This device is designed and operated to exploit transverse magnetic (TM) whispering- gallery modes, rather than transverse electric (TE) modes because the

  1. Fully-tunable microwave photonic filter with complex coefficients using tunable delay lines based on frequency-time conversions.

    PubMed

    Mokhtari, Arash; Preußler, Stefan; Jamshidi, Kambiz; Akbari, Mahmood; Schneider, Thomas

    2012-09-24

    A fully electrically tunable microwave photonic filter is realized by the implementation of delay lines based on frequency-time conversion. The frequency response and free spectral range (FSR) of the filter can be engineered by a simple electrical tuning of the delay lines. The method has the capability of being integrated on a silicon photonic platform. In the experiment, a 2-tap tunable microwave photonic filter with a 3-dB bandwidth of 2.55 GHz, a FSR of 4.016 GHz, a FSR maximum tuning range from -354 MHz to 354 MHz and a full FSR translation range is achieved. PMID:23037423

  2. Advanced collinear LiNbO3 acousto-optical filter for astrophysical spectroscopy in the near-ultraviolet: exploring high-spectral resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S.; Arellanes, Adán Omar; Bertone, Emanuele

    2015-10-01

    We explore the potentiality of using an advanced collinear LiNbO3 acousto-optical filter as a dispersive element for a high-resolution optical spectrograph. Our analysis is focused on weak optical signals in the blue to near-ultraviolet range accessible to ground-based facilities. We examine the phenomenon affecting the filter transmission efficiency and its spectral resolution, namely, the light-induced absorption and photorefraction. A new nonlinear approach is used to determine the performance of this collinear LiNbO3 filter governed by acoustic waves of finite amplitude. The highest available spectral resolution attains δλ=0.15 Å at λ=370 nm (the resolving power R˜25,000), with an efficiency of 11%, or δλ=0.18 Å at λ=532 nm (R˜30,000), with an efficiency of 33%. A slight decrease in the spectral resolution would imply a significant increase in transmission efficiency. Then, we carried out proof of principle experiments with the collinear filter based on the congruent LiNbO3 crystal of 6.3-cm length at λ=405 and 440 nm to verify our analysis and estimations. Potential applications are tackling many issues in astronomy, from detailed abundance analysis in a variety of targets to precise radial velocity measurement.

  3. Tunable thin film filters for intelligent WDM networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahill, Michael; Bartolini, Glenn; Lourie, Mark; Domash, Lawrence

    2006-08-01

    Optical transmission systems have evolved rapidly in recent years with the emergence of new technologies for gain management, wavelength multiplexing, tunability, and switching. WDM networks are increasingly expected to be agile, flexible, and reconfigurable which in turn has led to a need for monitoring to be more widely distributed within the network. Automation of many actions performed on these networks, such as channel provisioning and power balancing, can only be realized by the addition of optical channel monitors (OCMs). These devices provide information about the optical transmission system including the number of optical channels, channel identification, wavelength, power, and in some cases optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR). Until recently OCMs were costly and bulky and thus the number of OCMs used in optical networks was often kept to a minimum. We describe a family of tunable thin film filters which have greatly reduced the cost and physical footprint of channel monitors, making possible 'monitoring everywhere' for intelligent optical networks which can serve long haul, metro and access requirements from a single technology platform. As examples of specific applications we discuss network issues such as auto provisioning, wavelength collision avoidance, power balancing, OSNR balancing, gain equalization, alien wavelength recognition, interoperability, and other requirements assigned to the emerging concept of an Optical Control Plane.

  4. Optically tunable acoustic wave band-pass filter

    SciTech Connect

    Swinteck, N.; Lucas, P.; Deymier, P. A.

    2014-12-15

    The acoustic properties of a hybrid composite that exhibits both photonic and phononic behavior are investigated numerically with finite-element and finite-difference time-domain simulations. The structure is constituted of a periodic array of photonic resonant cavities embedded in a background superlattice. The resonant cavities contain a photo-elastic chalcogenide glass that undergoes atomic-scale structural reorganization when irradiated with light having energy close to its band-gap. Photo-excitation of the chalcogenide glass changes its elastic properties and, consequently, augments the acoustic transmission spectrum of the composite. By modulating the intensity of light irradiating the hybrid photonic/phononic structure, the position and spectral width of phonon passing-bands can be controlled. This demonstration offers the technological platform for optically-tunable acoustic wave band-pass filters.

  5. Lumped-element tunable absorptive bandstop filter and its applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Byung Guk

    To avoid the cost, large size, and complexity of going off-chip between individually packaged components, it is desirable to integrate as many components as possible. For on-chip passive filter design, size constraints and the quality factor limit the amount of attenuation that can be achieved. This work demonstrates the use of absorptive bandstop filters which gives anomalously deep notches for a given Q-factor. A lumped-element-only topology enables a realization on a chip for the first time. For reconfigurable RF front-ends, a frequency-agile design is newly developed with Q-tunable resonators because an absorptive bandstop filter must balance both intrinsic Q of the resonators and the resonant frequency of the filter. Despite using small-size, low-Q resonators in the bandstop filter design, a large stopband attenuation with a capability of frequency tuning is achieved with potential to suppress potential interference or an image frequency signal. Higher-order absorptive bandstop filters which give higher selectivity are also demonstrated. The sensing of the unused bands is a pre-requisite and important function so that the cognitive radio system can track and use available frequencies. When the ultra-wideband ADC is utilized for sensing to find the unused bands or read the spectrum availability, both the high power interferences and small power signals are the signals we are interested, but the wideband ADC has a limited dynamic range. Since we have the signals with various frequencies and power levels, it is required to have something that can give different gains at different frequencies. This work proposes a frequency equalizer which gives selective attenuation at desired different frequencies, and absorptive bandstop filter with variable attenuation is proposed in this work. For a wide-band receiver or application, it is not typical for AGC to control different gain or attenuation levels at different frequencies. Using frequency selective attenuation, it is

  6. PHIRST light: a liquid crystal tunable filter hyperspectral sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevenson, Brian P.; Kendall, William B.; Stellman, Christopher M.; Olchowski, Frederick M.

    2003-09-01

    PHIRST Light is a visible and near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging sensor that has been assembled at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) using off-the-shelf components. It consists of a Dalsa 1M60 camera mated to a CRI VariSpec liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF) and a conventional 75mm Pentax lens. This system can be thought of as the modern equivalent of a filter-wheel sensor. Historically, the problem with such sensors has been that images for different wavelengths are collected at different times. This causes spectral correlation problems when the camera is not perfectly still during the collection time for all bands (such as when it is deployed on an airborne platform). However, the PHIRST Light sensor is hard mounted in a Twin Otter aircraft, and is mated to a TrueTime event capture board, which records the precise GPS time of each image frame. Combining this information with the output of a CMIGITS INS/GPS unit permits precise coregistration of images from multiple wavelengths, and allows the formation of a conventional hyperspectral image cube. In this paper we present an overview of the sensor and its deployment, describe the processing steps required to produce coregistered hyperspectral cubes, and show detection results for targets viewed during the Aberdeen Collection Experiment (ACE).

  7. Transmission type tunable wavelength filters based on polymer waveguide Bragg reflectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Su-Hyun; Seo, Jun-Kyu; Park, Joonoh; Lee, Hak-Kyu; Shin, Jin-Soo; Oh, Min-Cheol

    2016-03-01

    In WDM communication systems, a compact low-cost tunable wavelength filter is highly demanded. Polymeric Bragg reflector devices are suitable for this purpose because the large thermo-optic effect of the polymer enables widely tunable wavelength filters with simple device structure. To direct the filtered signal in the forward direction rather than the backward direction, a waveguide mirror device is integrated. A compact package was then achieved by attaching a fiber-connecting receptacle and a high-speed PD on each side of the chip. The tunable filter exhibited a tuning range of 14 nm, a 3-dB bandwidth of 0.45 nm, and a 15-dB bandwidth of 1.54 nm. The device exhibited a low polarization dependence of 0.08 nm, which is the first demonstration in polymeric tunable filters.

  8. Tunable microwave photonic notch filter based on sliced broadband optical source.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yang; Li, Shangyuan; Zheng, Xiaoping; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhou, Bingkun

    2015-09-21

    A microwave photonic filter is demonstrated with both tunable center frequency and bandwidth. This filter is switchable from all-pass, bandpass to notch filter, and the notch filter is a result of the subtraction of a bandpass filter from an all-pass filter based on a balanced photodetector. The all-pass filter is achieved based on a single wavelength radio over fiber link, and the bandpass one is acquired by using the spectrum-sliced broadband optical source. Theoretical analysis and experimental results show that both the center frequency and the bandwidth of the notch filter can be widely tuned. PMID:26406636

  9. Single passband microwave photonic filter with wideband tunability and adjustable bandwidth.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tong; Yi, Xiaoke; Li, Liwei; Minasian, Robert

    2012-11-15

    A new and simple structure for a single passband microwave photonic filter is presented. It is based on using an electro-optical phase modulator and a tunable optical filter and only requires a single wavelength source and a single photodetector. Experimental results are presented that demonstrate a single passband, flat-top radio-frequency filter response without free spectral range limitations, along with the capability of tuning the center frequency and filter bandwidth independently. PMID:23164884

  10. Acousto-Optic Devices For Use In Radio Frequency Target Simulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchner, Ernst K.

    1980-01-01

    Acousto-optic devices have been analyzed and developed for use as modulators, filters and correlators, and in spectrum analyzers. The ability of the acousto-optic unit to amplitude-modulate, frequency-modulate, and deflect laser beams, makes them suitable for these applications. The various signal processing and control functions provided by the acousto-optic devices are optimized by controlling the ratio of divergence angles of the optical beam and the acoustic beam in the acousto-optic interaction region. Another application of acousto-optic devices is to simulate moving targets to test fuzing altimeters and active missile control systems. The frequency modulation, amplitude modulation, and deflection properties of acousto-optic components are all utilized in a single acousto-optic unit to provide the variable range and Doppler simulation. Development of a suitable acousto-optic component for this simulation application is described, as is a description of a simulator employing this acousto-optic device.

  11. All-optical tunable microwave interference suppression filter based on SOA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Enming; Zhang, Xinliang; Zhou, Lina; Huang, Dexiu

    2008-12-01

    An all-optical filter structure for interference suppression of microwave signals is presented. The filter is based on a recirculating delay line (RDL) loop consisting of a semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) followed by a tunable narrowband optical filter, and a fiber Bragg grating connected after the RDL loop. Negative tap is generated in wavelength conversion process based on cross-gain modulation of amplified spontaneous emission spectrum of the SOA. A narrow passband filter with negative coefficients and a broadband all-pass filter are synthesized to achieve a narrow notch filter with flat passband which can excise interference with minimal impact on the wanted signal over a wide microwave range. Experimental results show that measured and theoretical frequency responses agree well and the filter is tunable.

  12. Combined tunable filters based swept laser source for optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Minghui; Ding, Zhihua; Wang, Cheng; Huang, Yimei; Chen, Rong; Song, Chengli

    2013-03-01

    We demonstrate a novel ultra-broad tunable bandwidth and narrow instantaneous line-width swept laser source using combined tunable filters working at 1290 nm center wavelength for application in optical coherence tomography. The combined filters consist of a fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter (FFP-TF) and a polygon mirror with scanning grating based filter. The FFP-TF has the narrow free spectral range (FSR) but ultra-high spectral resolution (narrow instantaneous bandwidth) driven at high frequency far from resonant frequency. The polygon filter in the Littrow configuration is composed of fiber collimator, polygon mirror driven by function generator, and diffractive grating with low groove. Polygon filter coarsely tunes with wide turning range and then FFP-TF finely tunes with narrow band-pass filtering. In contrast to traditional method using single tunable filter, the trade-off between bandwidth and instantaneous line-width is alleviated. The combined filters can realize ultra wide scan range and fairly narrow instantaneous bandwidth simultaneously. Two semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOA) in the parallel manner are used as the gain medium. The wide bandwidth could be obtained by these parallel SOAs to be suitable for sufficient wide range of the polygon filter's FSR because each SOA generates its own spectrum independently. The proposed swept laser source provides an edge-to-edge scanning range of 180 nm covering 1220 to 1400 nm with instantaneous line-width of about 0.03 nm at sweeping rate of 23.3 kHz. The swept laser source with combined filters offers broadband tunable range with narrow instantaneous line-width, which especially benefits for high resolution and deep imaging depth optical frequency domain imaging.

  13. High-efficiency microwave photonic harmonic down-conversion with tunable and reconfigurable filtering.

    PubMed

    Liao, Jinxin; Zheng, Xiaoping; Li, Shangyuan; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhou, Bingkun

    2014-12-01

    A new optical-frequency comb-based microwave photonic harmonic down-convertor with tunable and reconfigurable filtering is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The coherent evenly spaced optical carriers offer harmonic down-conversion for ultrahigh radio frequency signals with low-frequency local oscillator, and construct a tunable and reconfigurable bandpass filter for the intermediate-frequency (IF) signal combined with dispersion. This implementation features high conversion efficiency. Experimental results show the filtered output IF signal has a clean spectrum with high quality. Measured conversion loss is 8.3 dB without extra electrical amplification. PMID:25490622

  14. Low-power microelectromechanically tunable silicon photonic ring resonator add-drop filter.

    PubMed

    Errando-Herranz, Carlos; Niklaus, Frank; Stemme, Göran; Gylfason, Kristinn B

    2015-08-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a microelectromechanically (MEMS) tunable photonic ring resonator add-drop filter, fabricated in a simple silicon-on-insulator (SOI) based process. The device uses electrostatic parallel plate actuation to perturb the evanescent field of a silicon waveguide, and achieves a 530 pm resonance wavelength tuning, i.e., more than a fourfold improvement compared to previous MEMS tunable ring resonator add-drop filters. Moreover, our device has a static power consumption below 100 nW, and a tuning rate of -62  pm/V, i.e., the highest reported rate for electrostatic tuning of ring resonator add-drop filters. PMID:26258356

  15. Tunable orbital angular momentum mode filter based on optical geometric transformation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hao; Ren, Yongxiong; Xie, Guodong; Yan, Yan; Yue, Yang; Ahmed, Nisar; Lavery, Martin P J; Padgett, Miles J; Dolinar, Sam; Tur, Moshe; Willner, Alan E

    2014-03-15

    We present a tunable mode filter for spatially multiplexed laser beams carrying orbital angular momentum (OAM). The filter comprises an optical geometric transformation-based OAM mode sorter and a spatial light modulator (SLM). The programmable SLM can selectively control the passing/blocking of each input OAM beam. We experimentally demonstrate tunable filtering of one or multiple OAM modes from four multiplexed input OAM modes with vortex charge of ℓ=-9, -4, +4, and +9. The measured output power suppression ratio of the propagated modes to the blocked modes exceeds 14.5 dB. PMID:24690870

  16. Comb-based radiofrequency photonic filters with rapid tunability and high selectivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Supradeepa, V. R.; Long, Christopher M.; Wu, Rui; Ferdous, Fahmida; Hamidi, Ehsan; Leaird, Daniel E.; Weiner, Andrew M.

    2012-03-01

    Photonic technologies have received considerable attention regarding the enhancement of radiofrequency electrical systems, including high-frequency analogue signal transmission, control of phased arrays, analog-to-digital conversion and signal processing. Although the potential of radiofrequency photonics for the implementation of tunable electrical filters over broad radiofrequency bandwidths has been much discussed, the realization of programmable filters with highly selective filter lineshapes and rapid reconfigurability has faced significant challenges. A new approach for radiofrequency photonic filters based on frequency combs offers a potential route to simultaneous high stopband attenuation, fast tunability and bandwidth reconfiguration. In one configuration, tuning of the radiofrequency passband frequency is demonstrated with unprecedented (~40 ns) speed by controlling the optical delay between combs. In a second, fixed filter configuration, cascaded four-wave mixing simultaneously broadens and smoothes the comb spectra, resulting in Gaussian radiofrequency filter lineshapes exhibiting an extremely high (>60 dB) main lobe to sidelobe suppression ratio and (>70 dB) stopband attenuation.

  17. Study on the structure of bridge surface of the micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Qinghua; Luo, Huan; Bao, Shiwei; Zhou, Yifan; Chen, Sihai

    2011-02-01

    Micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filters are widely applied in the area of Pushbroom Hyperspectral imaging, DWDM optical communication system and self-adaptive optics. With small volume, lower consumption and cost, the Micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filter can realize superior response speed, large spectral range, high definition and high reliability. By deposition metal membrane on silicon chip by MEMS technology, the micro Fabry-Perot cavity has been achieved, which is actuated by electrostatic force and can realize the function of an optical filter. In this paper, the micro-bridge structure of the micro Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filter has been studied. Finite element analysis software COMSOL Multiphysics has been adopted to design the structure of the micro-bridge of the micro filter. In order to simulate the working mechanism of the micro Fabry-Perot cavity and study the electrical and mechanical characteristics of the micro tunable filter,the static and dynamic characteriastics are analyzed, such as stress, displacement, transient response, etc. The corresponding parameters of the structure are considered as well by optimizition the filter's sustain structure.

  18. Multifunctional tunable multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on tunable comb filter and intensity-dependent loss modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quan, Mingran; Li, Yuan; Tian, Jiajun; Yao, Yong

    2015-04-01

    A multiwavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on tunable comb spectral filter and intensity-dependent loss modulation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The laser allows fine and multifunctional tunable operations of channel-spacing, peak-location, spectral-range, and wavelength-number. More specifically, channel-spacing switch from 0.4 nm to 0.2 nm and peak-location adjustment within half of free spectrum range are obtained via controlling the tunable comb filter. The wavelength-number and the spectral-range of the lasing lines can be accurately controlled by intensity-dependent loss modulation in the laser cavity, enabled by a power-symmetric nonlinear optical loop mirror. In addition, fine control over the wavelength-number at fixed spectral-range is realized by simply adjusting the pump power. More important, the tunable operation process for every type of specific parameter is individual, without influences for other output parameters. Such features of this fiber laser make it useful and convenient for the practical application.

  19. Investigation of acoustic beam reflection influence on the collinear acousto-optic interaction characteristics.

    PubMed

    Mantsevich, S N

    2016-08-01

    Significant part of acousto-optic devices apply the acoustic beam reflection to arouse the desired type of acoustic mode propagating along the required direction in crystal. The influence of acoustic beam reflection process on the ultrasound field structure in the acousto-optic cell and the collinear acousto-optic diffraction characteristics is examined in this paper. The investigation is carried on the example of the collinear acousto-optic filter fabricated on the base of calcium molybdate crystal. It is shown that the reflection process changes the acoustic field structure and affects the acousto-optic filter transmission function shape and diffraction efficiency. PMID:27153373

  20. Improved tunable external filter for Langmuir probe measurement at low density plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yoon-Min; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Jeon, Sang-Bum; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Kim, Ju-Ho; Chung, Chin-Wook; Department of Electrical Engineering Team; Department of Nanoscale Semiconductor Engineering Team

    2015-09-01

    Measurement of the electron energy probability function (EEPF) at low density plasma, especially in molecular gas discharge, is difficult due to large RF fluctuation. To overcome the problem, an improved tunable external filter was developed. In contrast to an internal filter, the external filter can tune the resonance frequency of the choke filter. However, conventional external filter has low impedance due to a large stray capacitance between a probe tip and the external filter. To reduce the effect of the stray capacitance, an appropriate inductor was connected to the probe tip, and the external filter was designed to tune the first and the second harmonic frequencies independently. Using our filter, the EEPFs were measured at low density plasma with various gases, and the results show the improved performance of the filter as compared to the previous studies.

  1. The development of a tunable, single-frequency ultraviolet laser source for UV filtered Rayleigh scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkelstein, N.; Gambogi, J.; Lempert, Walter R.; Miles, Richard B.; Rines, G. A.; Finch, A.; Schwarz, R. A.

    1995-01-01

    We present the development of a flexible, high power, narrow line width, tunable ultraviolet source for diagnostic application. By frequency tripling the output of a pulsed titanium-sapphire laser, we achieve broadly tunable (227-360 nm) ultraviolet light with high quality spatial and spectral resolution. We also present the characterization of a mercury vapor cell which provides a narrow band, sharp edge absorption filter at 253.7 nm. These two components form the basis for the extension of the Filtered Rayleigh Scattering technique into the ultraviolet. The UV-FRS system is comprised of four pieces: a single frequency, cw tunable Ti:Sapphire seeding source; a high-powered pulsed Ti:Sapphire oscillator; a third harmonic generator system; and an atomic mercury vapor filter. In this paper we discuss the development and characterization of each of these elements.

  2. Tunable millimeter-wave filters using a coplanar waveguide and micromachined variable capacitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jae-Hyoung; Kim, Hong-Teuk; Kwon, Youngwoo; Kim, Yong-Kweon

    2001-11-01

    In this paper, new micromachined tunable bandpass filters for multi-band millimeter-wave telecommunication systems are proposed. Two types of millimeter-wave tunable filters have been fabricated using micromachining technology and the responses of the filters have been measured: one type is a two-pole lumped element filter and the other a two-pole resonator filter. The frequency tunability of the filter has been achieved by changing the gap between a common coplanar waveguide ground plate and a movable cantilever beam connected to the transmission line with a controllable range of 2.5 µm. The deflection of the cantilever beam has been measured with applied dc voltage. With the applied bias voltage from 0 to 50 V, the fabricated filters have shown center frequency shifts of 0.6 GHz (2.3%) at 26.6 GHz and 0.8 GHz (2.5%) at 32 GHz for the lumped element and resonator filters, respectively. The mechanical lifetime of the fabricated gold cantilever structure has been tested by observing the existence of the spring memory phenomenon; there is no memory phenomenon or breakdown until a repeated actuation of 1.6×108 cycles.

  3. Tunable optical bandpass filter with multiple flat-top bands in nanostructured resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Jun; Chen, Yuping; Lu, Wenjie; Chen, Xianfeng

    2011-03-01

    Based on second-order nonlinearity, we present a tunable optical bandpass filter at c-band by introducing a back quasiphase-matching technique with a nanostructured named multiple resonator waveguide. Two injecting forward lights and one backward propagating light interact with difference frequency generation. At that juncture, the transmission of the forward signal can be modulated via changing the forward control power. As a result, a tunable optical bandpass filter with multiple flat-top transmit bands of the forward signal can be formed in the waveguide.

  4. Polarization-Insensitive Tunable Optical Filters based on Liquid Crystal Polarization Gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolescu, Elena

    Tunable optical filters are widely used for a variety of applications including spectroscopy, optical communication networks, remote sensing, and biomedical imaging and diagnostics. All of these application areas can greatly benefit from improvements in the key characteristics of the tunable optical filters embedded in them. Some of these key parameters include peak transmittance, bandwidth, tuning range, and transition width. In recent years research efforts have also focused on miniaturizing tunable optical filters into physically small packages for compact portable spectroscopy and hyperspectral imaging applications such as real-time medical diagnostics and defense applications. However, it is important that miniaturization not have a detrimental effect on filter performance. The overarching theme of this dissertation is to explore novel configurations of Polarization Gratings (PGs) as simple, low-cost, polarization-insensitive alternatives to conventional optical filtering technologies for applications including hyperspectral imaging and telecommunications. We approach this goal from several directions with a combination of theory and experimental demonstration leading to, in our opinion, a significant contribution to the field. We present three classes of tunable optical filters, the first of which is an angle-filtering scheme where the stop-band wavelengths are redirected off axis and the passband is transmitted on-axis. This is achieved using a stacked configuration of polarization gratings of various thicknesses. To improve this class of filter, we also introduce a novel optical element, the Bilayer Polarization Grating, exhibiting unique optical properties and demonstrating complex anchoring conditions with high quality. The second class of optical filter is analogous to a Lyot filter, utilizing stacks of static or tunable waveplates sandwiched with polarizing elements. However, we introduce a new configuration using PGs and static waveplates to replace

  5. Tunable Fabry-Perot filter and grating hybrid modulator to improve dispersive spectrometer resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Liang; Li, Guojun; Yang, Huan; Zhou, Chongxi

    2016-05-01

    We describe a tunable Fabry-Perot filter and grating hybrid modulator to achieve a higher spectral resolution compared with that produced by a single grating with the same period. In the hybrid modulator, a tunable Fabry-Perot filter is designed with a long cavity to accommodate a multi-order narrowband pre-filter. A grating is then utilized to separate these multi-orders spatially. Scanning the air gap of the tunable Fabry-Perot filter within 1/2 wavelength, the entire spectrogram can be achieved by compositing each group of transmitted multi-orders. Light passes first through the Fabry-Perot cavity and then into the grating. Thus, all of the light is incident on the Fabry-Perot cavity at a given angle, which can reduce the requirement for incident beam alignment and simplify the operation of the hybrid modulator. The structural matching conditions of the tunable Fabry-Perot filter and grating were presented based on the operating law of the hybrid modulator. In terms of the Rayleigh criterion, the practical spectral resolution of the hybrid modulator can be increased by at least twice that of the single grating. Experiments with a neon lamp revealed that the spectral resolution of the hybrid modulator was nearly double that of a single grating.

  6. Correlation of Electric Field and Critical Design Parameters for Ferroelectric Tunable Microwave Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanyam, Guru; VanKeuls, Fred W.; Miranda, Felix A.; Canedy, Chadwick L.; Aggarwal, Sanjeev; Venkatesan, Thirumalai; Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2000-01-01

    The correlation of electric field and critical design parameters such as the insertion loss, frequency ability return loss, and bandwidth of conductor/ferroelectric/dielectric microstrip tunable K-band microwave filters is discussed in this work. This work is based primarily on barium strontium titanate (BSTO) ferroelectric thin film based tunable microstrip filters for room temperature applications. Two new parameters which we believe will simplify the evaluation of ferroelectric thin films for tunable microwave filters, are defined. The first of these, called the sensitivity parameter, is defined as the incremental change in center frequency with incremental change in maximum applied electric field (EPEAK) in the filter. The other, the loss parameter, is defined as the incremental or decremental change in insertion loss of the filter with incremental change in maximum applied electric field. At room temperature, the Au/BSTO/LAO microstrip filters exhibited a sensitivity parameter value between 15 and 5 MHz/cm/kV. The loss parameter varied for different bias configurations used for electrically tuning the filter. The loss parameter varied from 0.05 to 0.01 dB/cm/kV at room temperature.

  7. An optically tunable wideband optoelectronic oscillator based on a bandpass microwave photonic filter.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fan; Wong, Jia Haur; Lam, Huy Quoc; Zhou, Junqiang; Aditya, Sheel; Lim, Peng Huei; Lee, Kenneth Eng Kian; Shum, Perry Ping; Zhang, Xinliang

    2013-07-15

    An optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) with wideband frequency tunability and stable output based on a bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Realized by cascading a finite impulse response (FIR) filter and an infinite impulse response (IIR) filter together, the tunable bandpass MPF successfully replaces the narrowband electrical bandpass filter in a conventional single-loop OEO and serves as the oscillating frequency selector. The FIR filter is based on a tunable multi-wavelength laser and dispersion compensation fiber (DCF) while the IIR filter is simply based on an optical loop. Utilizing a long length of DCF as the dispersion medium for the FIR filter also provides a long delay line for the OEO feedback cavity and as a result, optical tuning over a wide frequency range can be achieved without sacrificing the quality of the generated signal. By tuning the wavelength spacing of the multi-wavelength laser, the oscillation frequency can be tuned from 6.88 GHz to 12.79 GHz with an average step-size of 0.128 GHz. The maximum frequency drift of the generated 10 GHz signal is observed to be 1.923 kHz over 1 hour and its phase noise reaches the -112 dBc/Hz limit of our measuring equipment at 10 kHz offset frequency. PMID:23938489

  8. Observation of tunable optical filtering in photosensitive composite structures containing liquid crystals.

    PubMed

    Gilardi, Giovanni; De Sio, Luciano; Beccherelli, Romeo; Asquini, Rita; d'Alessandro, Antonio; Umeton, Cesare

    2011-12-15

    We report on the investigation and characterization of an optically tunable filtering effect, observed in a waveguide grating made of alternated strips of photocurable polymer and a mixture of azo-dye-doped liquid crystal. The grating is sandwiched between two borosilicate glasses, one of which includes an ion-exchanged channel waveguide, which confines the optical signal to be filtered. Exposure to a low power visible light beam modifies the azo-dye molecular configuration, thus allowing the filtered wavelength to be tuned over a 6.6 nm range. Simulations of the filtering response are well described with our experimental findings. PMID:22179873

  9. Magnetic-field tunable multichannel filter in a plasma photonic crystal at microwave frequencies.

    PubMed

    Chang, Tsung-Wen; Chien, Jia-Ren Chang; Wu, Chien-Jang

    2016-02-01

    The microwave magnetic-field tunable filtering properties in a multichannel filter based on use of a one-dimensional finite magnetized plasma photonic crystal (PPC) are theoretically investigated. The considered PPC has a structure of air/(AB)N/air, where A is a dielectric layer, B is a plasma layer, and N is the stack number. First, in the absence of an externally applied magnetic field, the structure can work as a multichannel filter whose channel number is equal to N-1 for N>1. Next, in the presence of an externally applied field, the filtering properties become tunable, i.e., the channel frequencies can be shifted as a function of the applied magnetic field. We find that the effect of the magnetic field will cause the channel frequencies to be blue-shifted or red-shifted depending on the orientation of the applied magnetic field. PMID:26836104

  10. Filter-less frequency-doubling microwave signal generator with tunable phase shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yueqin; Pei, Li; Li, Jing; Wang, Yiqun; Yuan, Jin

    2016-07-01

    A prototype for frequency-doubling microwave signal generator with tunable phase shift based on a filter-less architecture is proposed and analyzed. In the proposal, one dual parallel polarization modulator is used as the key component to generate two ±1st order sidebands along the orthogonal polarization directions with suppressed carrier. Then the polarization states of the two sidebands are aligned with the principal axes of an electro-optical phase modulator (EOPM). Tunable phase shift is implemented by controlling the direct current voltage applied to the EOPM. Without using any filters or wavelength-dependent components, the system possesses good frequency tunability and it can be applied to multi-wavelength operation. Taking advantage of the ability of frequency multiplication, the frequency tuning range can be wider than the operation bandwidth of the modulator. By theoretical analyses and simulated verifications, a frequency-doubling microwave signal ranging from 22 to 40 GHz with full range phase shift is achieved.

  11. Tunable, Strain-Controlled Nanoporous MoS₂ Filter for Water Desalination.

    PubMed

    Li, Weifeng; Yang, Yanmei; Weber, Jeffrey K; Zhang, Gang; Zhou, Ruhong

    2016-02-23

    The deteriorating state of global fresh water resources represents one of the most serious challenges that scientists and policymakers currently face. Desalination technologies, which are designed to extract potable water from the planet's bountiful stores of seawater, could serve to alleviate much of the stress that presently plagues fresh water supplies. In recent decades, desalination methods have improved via water-filtering architectures based on nanoporous graphene filters and artificial membranes integrated with biological water channels. Here, we report the auspicious performance (in simulations) of an alternative nanoporous desalination filter constructed from a MoS2 nanosheet. In striking contrast to graphene-based filters, we find that the "open" and "closed" states of the MoS2 filter can be regulated by the introduction of mechanical strain, yielding a highly tunable nanopore interface. By applying lateral strain to the MoS2 filter in our simulations, we see that the transition point between "open" and "closed" states occurs under tension that induces about 6% cross-sectional expansion in the membrane (6% strain); the open state of the MoS2 filter demonstrates high water transparency and a strong salt filtering capability even under 12% strain. Our results thus demonstrate the promise of a controllable nanoporous MoS2 desalination filter, wherein the morphology and size of the central nanopore can be precisely regulated by tensile strain. These findings support the design and proliferation of tunable nanodevices for filtration and other applications. PMID:26800095

  12. Resolution improvement of grating spectrometer by using a tunable Fabry-Perot filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Liang; Shi, Zhendong; Qiu, Chuankai; Zhou, Chongxi

    2015-10-01

    Aiming at the problem of the resolution reduction in a miniaturized grating spectrometer, we presented a method to improve its spectral resolution by inserting a tunable Fabry-Perot filter into its optical path before the grating. The Fabry-Perot filter was designed to filter out a partial spectrogram and separate the original undistinguishable spectral lines so as to make their actual wavelengths can be detected. The different cavity length of the Fabry-Perot filter is corresponding to the different separated partial spectrogram. Combining all the separated partial spectrograms, an entire spectrogram with improved resolution can be achieved. Experimentally, the spectral resolution of a grating dispersive system was improved from 2 nm to 1.2nm in a broad spectral range by insetting a homemade tunable Fabry-Perot filter, which demonstrated the feasibility of this scheme. The tunable Fabry-Perot filter is fit for miniaturization by using MEMS technology and is able to work as an independent module. The method proposed provides a potential way to improve the spectral resolution without reducing the spectral range of the existing miniaturized grating spectrometers.

  13. Integrated InP-InGaAsP tunable coupled ring optical bandpass filters with zero insertion loss.

    PubMed

    Guzzon, Robert S; Norberg, Erik J; Parker, John S; Johansson, Leif A; Coldren, Larry A

    2011-04-11

    Second and third-order monolithically integrated coupled ring bandpass filters are demonstrated in the InP-InGaAsP material system with active semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs) and current injection phase modulators (PMs). Such integration achieves a high level of tunability and precise generation of optical filters in the RF domain at telecom wavelengths while simultaneously compensating for device insertion loss. Passband bandwidth tunability of 3.9 GHz to 7.1 GHz and stopband extinction up to 40 dB are shown for third-order filters. Center frequency tunability over a full free spectral range (FSR) is demonstrated, allowing for the placement of a filter anywhere in the telecom C-band. A Z-transform representation of coupled resonator filters is derived and compared with experimental results. A theoretical description of filter tunability is presented. PMID:21503092

  14. Tunable light filtering by a Bragg mirror/heavily doped semiconducting nanocrystal composite

    PubMed Central

    Kriegel, Ilka

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tunable light filters are critical components for many optical applications in which light in-coupling, out-coupling or rejection is crucial, such as lasing, sensing, photovoltaics and information and communication technology. For this purpose, Bragg mirrors (band-pass filters with high reflectivity) represent good candidates. However, their optical characteristics are determined during the fabrication stage. Heavily doped semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), on the other hand, deliver a high degree of optical tunability through the active modulation of their carrier density, ultimately influencing their plasmonic absorption properties. Here, we propose the design of an actively tunable light filter composed of a Bragg mirror and a layer of plasmonic semiconductor NCs. We demonstrate that the filtering properties of the coupled device can be tuned to cover a wide range of frequencies from the visible to the near infrared (vis–NIR) spectral region when employing varying carrier densities. As the tunable component, we implemented a dispersion of copper selenide (Cu2−xSe) NCs and a film of indium tin oxide (ITO) NCs, which are known to show optical tunablility with chemical or electrochemical treatments. We utilized the Mie theory to describe the carrier-dependent plasmonic properties of the Cu2−x Se NC dispersion and the effective medium theory to describe the optical characteristics of the ITO film. The transmission properties of the Bragg mirror have been modelled with the transfer matrix method. We foresee ease of experimental realization of the coupled device, where filtering modulation is achieved upon chemical and electrochemical post-fabrication treatment of the heavily doped semiconductor NC component, eventually resulting in tunable transmission properties of the coupled device. PMID:25671163

  15. Tunable First-Order Resistorless All-Pass Filter with Low Output Impedance

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a voltage mode cascadable single active element tunable first-order all-pass filter with a single passive component. The active element used to realise the filter is a new building block termed as differential difference dual-X current conveyor with a buffered output (DD-DXCCII). The filter is thus realized with the help of a DD-DXCCII, a capacitor, and a MOS transistor. By exploiting the low output impedance, a higher order filter is also realized. Nonideal and parasitic study is also carried out on the realised filters. The proposed DD-DXCCII filters are simulated using TSMC the 0.25 µm technology. PMID:24587713

  16. Optofluidic-tunable color filters and spectroscopy based on liquid-crystal microflows.

    PubMed

    Cuennet, J G; Vasdekis, A E; Psaltis, D

    2013-07-21

    The integration of color filters with microfluidics has attracted substantial attention in recent years, for on-chip absorption, fluorescence, or Raman analysis. We describe such tunable filters based on the micro-flow of liquid crystals. The filter operation is based on the wavelength-dependent liquid crystal birefringence that can be tuned by modifying the flow velocity field in the microchannel. The latter is possible both temporally and spatially by varying the inlet pressure and the channel geometry, respectively. We explored the use of these optofluidic filters for on-chip absorption spectroscopy in poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic systems; by integrating the distance-dependent color filter with a dye-filled micro-channel, the absorption spectrum of a dye could be measured. Liquid crystal microflows substantially simplify the optofluidic integration, actuation and tuning of color filters for lab-on-a-chip spectroscopic applications. PMID:23752198

  17. MEMS optical tunable filter based on free-standing subwavelength silicon layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omran, Haitham; Sabry, Yasser M.; Sadek, Mohamed; Hassan, Khaled; Shalaby, Mohamed Y.; Khalil, Diaa

    2014-03-01

    We report a MEMS optical tunable filter based on high-aspect-ratio etching of sub-wavelength silicon layers on a silicon- on-insulator wafer. The reported filter has measured free-spectral and filter-tuning ranges of approximately 100 nm and a finesse of about 20 around a wavelength of 1550 nm, enabled by the use of 1000 nm-thick silicon layers and a balanced tilt-free motion using a lithographically-aligned electrostatic actuator. The average insertion loss of the filter is about 12 dB with a superior wavelength-dependent loss of about 1.5 dB. The filter has an out-of-band to in-band wavelength rejection ratio that is better than 20 dB. The reported filter experimental characteristics and its integrability are suitable for the production of integrated swept sources for optical coherence tomography application and miniaturized spectrometers.

  18. Optofluidic-Tunable Color Filters And Spectroscopy Based On Liquid-Crystal Microflows

    SciTech Connect

    Cuennet, J. G.; Vasdekis, Andreas E.; Psaltis, D.

    2013-05-24

    The integration of color filters with microfluidics has attracted substantial attention in recent years, for on-chip absorption, fluorescence, or Raman analysis. We describe such tunable filters based on the micro-flow of liquid crystals. The filter operation is based on the wavelength dependent liquid crystal birefringence that can be tuned by modifying the flow velocity field in the microchannel. The latter is possible both temporally and spatially by varying the inlet pressure and the channel geometry respectively. We explored the use of these optofluidic filters for on-chip absorption spectroscopy; by integrating the distance dependent color filter with a dye-filled micro-channel, the absorption spectrum of a dye could be measured. Liquid crystal microflows simplify substantially the optofluidic integration, actuation and tuning of color filters for lab-on-a-chip spectroscopic applications.

  19. Tunable coherence-free microwave photonic bandpass filter based on double cross gain modulation technique.

    PubMed

    Chan, Erwin H W

    2012-10-01

    A tunable, coherence-free, high-resolution microwave photonic bandpass filter, which is compatible to be inserted in a conventional fiber optic link, is presented. It is based on using two cross gain modulation based wavelength converters in a recursive loop. The double cross gain modulation technique solves the semiconductor optical amplifier facet reflection problem in the conventional recursive structure; hence the new microwave photonic signal processor has no coherent interference and no phase-induced intensity noise. It allows arbitrary narrow-linewidth telecommunication-type lasers to be used while enabling stable filter operation to be realized. The filter passband frequency can be tuned by using a wavelength tunable laser and a wavelength dependent time delay component. Experimental results demonstrate robust high-resolution bandpass filter operation with narrow-linewidth sources, no phase-induced intensity noise and a high signal-to-noise ratio performance. Tunable coherence-free operation of the high-resolution bandpass filter is also demonstrated. PMID:23188262

  20. Tunable Microstrip Filters Using Selectively Etched Ferroelectric Thin-Film Varactors for Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Carl H.; VanKeuls, Frederick W.; Romanofsky, Robert R.; Subramanyam, Guru; Miranda, Felix A.

    2006-01-01

    We report on the use of patterned ferroelectric films to fabricate proof of concept tunable one-pole microstrip filters with excellent transmission and mismatch/reflection properties at frequencies up to 24 GHz. By controlling the electric field distribution within the coupling region between the resonator and input/output lines, sufficiently high loaded and unloaded Q values are maintained so as to be useful for microstrip filter design, with low mismatch loss. In the 23 - 24 GHz region, the filter was tunable over a 100 MHz range, the loaded and unloaded Q values were 29 and 68, respectively, and the reflection losses were below -16 dB, which demonstrates the suitability of these films for practical microwave applications.

  1. A tunable submicro-optofluidic polymer filter based on guided-mode resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Guohui; Zhu, Qiangzhong; Shen, Yang; Li, Kezheng; Liu, Mingkai; Zhuang, Qiandong; Jin, Chongjun

    2015-02-01

    Optical filters with reconfigurable spectral properties are highly desirable in a wide range of applications. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a tunable submicro-optofluidic polymer guided-mode resonance (PGMR) filter. The device is composed of a periodic grating sandwiched between a high index waveguide layer and a low index capping layer, which integrates submicro-fluidic channel arrays and a PGMR filter elegantly. A finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is employed to understand the spectral properties and determine appropriate device parameters. We fabricated the polymer guided-mode resonance filter with a method combining two-beam interference lithography, floating nanofilm transfer and thermal bonding techniques. Experimental results show that our tunable submicro-optofluidic PGMR filters can provide a broad spectral tuning range (13.181 nm), a narrow bandwidth (<2.504 nm), and a high reflection efficiency (>85%) in the visible region. Such submicro-optofluidic PGMR filters are highly compatible with existing nano/microfluidic technologies and would be valuable for the integrated flexible optical system.Optical filters with reconfigurable spectral properties are highly desirable in a wide range of applications. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a tunable submicro-optofluidic polymer guided-mode resonance (PGMR) filter. The device is composed of a periodic grating sandwiched between a high index waveguide layer and a low index capping layer, which integrates submicro-fluidic channel arrays and a PGMR filter elegantly. A finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is employed to understand the spectral properties and determine appropriate device parameters. We fabricated the polymer guided-mode resonance filter with a method combining two-beam interference lithography, floating nanofilm transfer and thermal bonding techniques. Experimental results show that our tunable submicro-optofluidic PGMR filters can provide a broad spectral tuning

  2. Tunable microwave notch filter created by stimulated Brillouin scattering in a silicon chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas-Bedoya, A.; Morrison, Blair; Pagani, Mattia; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2015-12-01

    We show the first functional signal processing device based on forward stimulated Brillouin scattering from a silicon nanowire. We harness 1dB of SBS gain to create a high performance, energy efficient microwave photonic notch filter. The filter possess 48dB of suppression, 98 MHz linewidth, and is tunable within a 6 GHz bandwidth. This demonstration represents a significant advance in integrated microwave photonics with potential applications in on-chip microwave signal processing and establish the foundation towards the first CMOS-compatible high performance RF photonic filter.

  3. Tunable optical filters with wide wavelength range based on porous multilayers

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A novel concept for micromechanical tunable optical filter (TOF) with porous-silicon-based photonic crystals which provide wavelength tuning of ca. ±20% around a working wavelength at frequencies up to kilohertz is presented. The combination of fast mechanical tilting and pore-filling of the porous silicon multilayer structure increases the tunable range to more than 200 nm or provides fine adjustment of working wavelength of the TOF. Experimental and optical simulation data for the visible and near-infrared wavelength range supporting the approach are shown. TOF are used in spectroscopic applications, e.g., for process analysis. PMID:25232293

  4. Tunable optical filters with wide wavelength range based on porous multilayers.

    PubMed

    Mescheder, Ulrich; Khazi, Isman; Kovacs, Andras; Ivanov, Alexey

    2014-01-01

    A novel concept for micromechanical tunable optical filter (TOF) with porous-silicon-based photonic crystals which provide wavelength tuning of ca. ±20% around a working wavelength at frequencies up to kilohertz is presented. The combination of fast mechanical tilting and pore-filling of the porous silicon multilayer structure increases the tunable range to more than 200 nm or provides fine adjustment of working wavelength of the TOF. Experimental and optical simulation data for the visible and near-infrared wavelength range supporting the approach are shown. TOF are used in spectroscopic applications, e.g., for process analysis. PMID:25232293

  5. Wavelength tunable liquid crystal imaging filters for remote sensing from geosynchronous platforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foukal, Peter

    1992-01-01

    Recent advances in liquid crystal technology have enabled us to construct tunable birefringent filters with bandwidths between approximately 0.1 nm and 50 nm. The center wavelength of these filters can be selected electronically, in a few tens of milliseconds, with no moving parts. These liquid crystal tunable filters (LCTF's), together with existing CCD detectors, make possible a new generation of lightweight, rugged, high-resolution imaging spectrophotometers. Such instruments would be particularly interesting for remote sensing applications from geosynchronous platforms. Important advantages exist in the aperture, absence of image shift, power consumption, size, weight, and absence of high drive frequencies, compared to current instruments used or considered for multispectral scene analysis. In the present work, we have reviewed spectral requirements of planned NASA geosynchronous remote sensing missions and identified several applications of the liquid crystal tunable filter technology. We have modeled the LCTF performance in the visible and near-infrared, and carried out a literature study on space-hardening of the filter components, to evaluate the suitability of LCTF's for geosynchronous missions. We have also compared the power consumption, weight, size, reliability, and optical performance of an imaging spectrophotometer using a LCTF monochromator, to other instruments that have been put forward for remote sensing from geosynchronous platforms. We put forward some conceptual designs for LCTF's that seem to offer important reliability, over the mechanical filter wheels presently baselined for the HEPI and ALM experiments. The extremely wide acceptance angle achievable with LCTF's could also avoid the present need for large-aperture interference filters in the ALM (and LIS) experiments. Thermal vacuum testing and radiation damage analysis is required to investigate the space hardening of these new filters for geosynchronous flight.

  6. Development of stress-induced curved actuators for a tunable THz filter based on double split-ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yu-Sheng; Qian, You; Ma, Fusheng; Liu, Zhen; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Lee, Chengkuo

    2013-03-01

    Using stress-induced curved cantilevers to form double split-ring resonator (DSRR) in three-dimensional configuration, an electrically tunable microelectromechanical system (MEMS) based out-of-plane metamaterials THz filter is experimentally demonstrated and characterized. While the achieved tunable range for the resonant frequency is 0.5 THz at 20 V bias, quality factor of the resonant frequency is improved as well. This MEMS based THz filter using released DSRR structures shows its potential in tunable metamaterials applications such as sensors, optical switches, and filters.

  7. CMOS-compatible temperature-independent tunable silicon optical lattice filters.

    PubMed

    Lu, Liangjun; Zhou, Linjie; Sun, Xiaomeng; Xie, Jingya; Zou, Zhi; Zhu, Haike; Li, Xinwan; Chen, Jianping

    2013-04-22

    We present a CMOS-compatible athermal tunable silicon optical lattice filter composed of 10 cascaded 2 × 2 asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometers. Active tuning experiments show that the filter central wavelength can be red-/blue-shifted by 13.1/21.3 nm with power consumption of 77/96 mW on top/bottom arms. Temperature shift measurements show that the thermal-sensitivity of the filter central wavelength before active tuning is as low as -1.465 pm/°C. The thermal-sensitivity is varied within 26.5 pm/°C to -27.1 pm/°C when the filter central wavelength is tuned in the wavelength range of 1534 nm to 1551 nm. We use the transfer matrix method to theoretically model the lattice filter and its thermal-sensitivity before and after tuning is analyzed and discussed. PMID:23609656

  8. Performance Enhancement of Tunable Bandpass Filters Using Selective Etched Ferroelectric Thin Films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.; Mueller, Carl H.; VanKeuls, Fred W.; Subramanyam, Guru; Vignesparamoorthy, Sivaruban

    2003-01-01

    The inclusion of voltage-tunable barium strontium titanate (BSTO) thin films into planar band pass filters offers tremendous potential to increase their versatility. The ability to tune the passband so as to correct for minor deviations in manufacturing tolerances, or to completely reconfigure the operating frequencies of a microwave communication system, are highly sought-after goals. However, use of ferroelectric films in these devices results in higher dielectric losses, which in turn increase the insertion loss and decrease the quality factors of the filters. This study explores the use of patterned ferroelectric layers to minimize dielectric losses without degrading tunability. Patterning the ferroelectric layers enables us to constrict the width of the ferroelectric layers between the coupled microstrip lines, and minimize losses due to ferroelectric layers. Coupled one-pole microstrip bandpass filters with fundamental resonances at approx. 7.2 GHz and well defined harmonic resonances at approx. 14.4 and approx. 21.6 GHz, were designed, simulated and tested. For one of the filters, experimental results verified that its center frequency was tunable by 528 MHz at a center frequency of 21.957 GHz, with insertion losses varying from 4.3 to 2.5 dB, at 0 and 3.5 V/micron, respectively. These data demonstrate that the tuning-to-loss figure of merit of tunable microstrip filters can be greatly improved using patterned ferroelectric thin films as the tuning element, and tuning can be controlled by engineering the ferroelectric constriction in the coupled sections.

  9. A tunable submicro-optofluidic polymer filter based on guided-mode resonance.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Guohui; Zhu, Qiangzhong; Shen, Yang; Li, Kezheng; Liu, Mingkai; Zhuang, Qiandong; Jin, Chongjun

    2015-02-28

    Optical filters with reconfigurable spectral properties are highly desirable in a wide range of applications. We propose and experimentally demonstrate a tunable submicro-optofluidic polymer guided-mode resonance (PGMR) filter. The device is composed of a periodic grating sandwiched between a high index waveguide layer and a low index capping layer, which integrates submicro-fluidic channel arrays and a PGMR filter elegantly. A finite difference time domain (FDTD) method is employed to understand the spectral properties and determine appropriate device parameters. We fabricated the polymer guided-mode resonance filter with a method combining two-beam interference lithography, floating nanofilm transfer and thermal bonding techniques. Experimental results show that our tunable submicro-optofluidic PGMR filters can provide a broad spectral tuning range (13.181 nm), a narrow bandwidth (<2.504 nm), and a high reflection efficiency (>85%) in the visible region. Such submicro-optofluidic PGMR filters are highly compatible with existing nano/microfluidic technologies and would be valuable for the integrated flexible optical system. PMID:25630880

  10. Tunable Band-Stop Filters for Graphene Plasmons Based on Periodically Modulated Graphene.

    PubMed

    Shi, Bin; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Xinzheng; Xiang, Yinxiao; Zhan, Yu; Geng, Juan; Ren, Mengxin; Xu, Jingjun

    2016-01-01

    Tunable band-stop filters based on graphene with periodically modulated chemical potentials are proposed. Periodic graphene can be considered as a plasmonic crystal. Its energy band diagram is analyzed, which clearly shows a blue shift of the forbidden band with increasing chemical potential. Structural design and optimization are performed by an effective-index-based transfer matrix method, which is confirmed by numerical simulations. The center frequency of the filter can be tuned in a range from 37 to 53 THz based on the electrical tunability of graphene, while the modulation depth (-26 dB) and the bandwidth (3.1 THz) of the filter remain unchanged. Specifically, the bandwidth and modulation depth of the filters can be flexibly preset by adjusting the chemical potential ratio and the period number. The length of the filter (~750 nm) is only 1/9 of the operating wavelength in vacuum, which makes the filter a good choice for compact on-chip applications. PMID:27228949

  11. Tunable Band-Stop Filters for Graphene Plasmons Based on Periodically Modulated Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Bin; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Xinzheng; Xiang, Yinxiao; Zhan, Yu; Geng, Juan; Ren, Mengxin; Xu, Jingjun

    2016-01-01

    Tunable band-stop filters based on graphene with periodically modulated chemical potentials are proposed. Periodic graphene can be considered as a plasmonic crystal. Its energy band diagram is analyzed, which clearly shows a blue shift of the forbidden band with increasing chemical potential. Structural design and optimization are performed by an effective-index-based transfer matrix method, which is confirmed by numerical simulations. The center frequency of the filter can be tuned in a range from 37 to 53 THz based on the electrical tunability of graphene, while the modulation depth (−26 dB) and the bandwidth (3.1 THz) of the filter remain unchanged. Specifically, the bandwidth and modulation depth of the filters can be flexibly preset by adjusting the chemical potential ratio and the period number. The length of the filter (~750 nm) is only 1/9 of the operating wavelength in vacuum, which makes the filter a good choice for compact on-chip applications. PMID:27228949

  12. Tunable Band-Stop Filters for Graphene Plasmons Based on Periodically Modulated Graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Bin; Cai, Wei; Zhang, Xinzheng; Xiang, Yinxiao; Zhan, Yu; Geng, Juan; Ren, Mengxin; Xu, Jingjun

    2016-05-01

    Tunable band-stop filters based on graphene with periodically modulated chemical potentials are proposed. Periodic graphene can be considered as a plasmonic crystal. Its energy band diagram is analyzed, which clearly shows a blue shift of the forbidden band with increasing chemical potential. Structural design and optimization are performed by an effective-index-based transfer matrix method, which is confirmed by numerical simulations. The center frequency of the filter can be tuned in a range from 37 to 53 THz based on the electrical tunability of graphene, while the modulation depth (‑26 dB) and the bandwidth (3.1 THz) of the filter remain unchanged. Specifically, the bandwidth and modulation depth of the filters can be flexibly preset by adjusting the chemical potential ratio and the period number. The length of the filter (~750 nm) is only 1/9 of the operating wavelength in vacuum, which makes the filter a good choice for compact on-chip applications.

  13. An acousto-optical imaging spectrometer for astrophysical measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anikin, S. P.; Esipov, V. F.; Molchanov, V. Ya.; Tatarnikov, A. M.; Yushkov, K. B.

    2016-07-01

    An optical scheme of an acousto-optical imaging spectrometer for observing extended astrophysical objects with line emission spectra is proposed. The use of an additional prism with a specified angular dispersion makes it possible to separate images of an extended object at different emission lines and images generated by minor maxima of the acousto-optical filter transmission function. A prototype of the imaging spectrometer has been designed.

  14. Tunability of multichannel optical filter based on magnetized one-dimensional plasma photonic crystal

    SciTech Connect

    Jamshidi-Ghaleh, K. Karami-Garehgeshlagi, F.; Mazloom, A. A.

    2015-10-15

    A one dimensional plasma photonic crystal (1DPPC) structure was proposed to design a tunable compressing/broadening multi-channel optical filter with external controllability. The 1DPPC with arrangement of (AP){sup n}D(PA){sup n}, where A and D are the dielectric materials, P is a magnetized plasma layer and n is the number of the periodicity, was proposed. The well-known transfer matrix method was employed for analysis. In linear transmittance spectrum, n − 1 defect modes were appeared inside the photonic band gap. The results were shown that by increasing the applied magnetic field intensity and its direction, a red-shift and blue-shift were, respectively, observed in defect mode frequencies. On the other hand, the modes were compressed and broadened with increasing the intensity and the direction of the applied magnetic field, respectively. Externally controllable defect modes can be useful in designing a multichannel tunable optical filter.

  15. Tunable optoelectronic oscillator incorporating an all-optical microwave photonic filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Cheng-Xin; Chen, Fu-Shen; Zhang, Jia-Hong

    2015-01-01

    A tunable optoelectronic oscillator (OEO), which employs an all-optical microwave photonic filter (MPF) consisting of two laser sources (LD1 and LD2), an optical coupler (OC, 50:50), a Mach-Zehnder modulator (MZM), and a chirped fiber Bragg grating, is proposed. Because the central frequency of the all-optical MPF can be shifted by changing the wavelength spacing between the two laser sources, the frequency tunability of the OEO can be realized by incorporating such an all-optical MPF into an optical domain dual-loop OEO without any electronic microwave filters. A detailed theoretical analysis is presented and the results are confirmed by an experiment. A microwave signal with a frequency-tuning range from 4.057 to 8.595 GHz is generated. The phase noise, the long-term stability, and the side-mode suppression performance of the generated microwave signal are also investigated.

  16. Tunability of multichannel optical filter based on magnetized one-dimensional plasma photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jamshidi-Ghaleh, K.; Karami-Garehgeshlagi, F.; Mazloom, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    A one dimensional plasma photonic crystal (1DPPC) structure was proposed to design a tunable compressing/broadening multi-channel optical filter with external controllability. The 1DPPC with arrangement of (AP)nD(PA)n, where A and D are the dielectric materials, P is a magnetized plasma layer and n is the number of the periodicity, was proposed. The well-known transfer matrix method was employed for analysis. In linear transmittance spectrum, n - 1 defect modes were appeared inside the photonic band gap. The results were shown that by increasing the applied magnetic field intensity and its direction, a red-shift and blue-shift were, respectively, observed in defect mode frequencies. On the other hand, the modes were compressed and broadened with increasing the intensity and the direction of the applied magnetic field, respectively. Externally controllable defect modes can be useful in designing a multichannel tunable optical filter.

  17. An ultrawide tunable range single passband microwave photonic filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Yongchuan; Guo, Jing; Wu, Kui; Qu, Pengfei; Qi, Huajuan; Liu, Caixia; Ruan, Shengping; Chen, Weiyou; Dong, Wei

    2013-02-11

    A single passband microwave photonic filter with ultrawide tunable range based on stimulated Brillouin scattering is theoretically analyzed. Combining the gain and loss spectrums, tuning range with 44GHz is obtained without crosstalk by introducing two pumps. Adding more pumps, Tuning range multiplying with the multiplication factor equaling to the total quantity of pump can be achieved, which has potential application in microwave and millimeter wave wireless communication systems. PMID:23481728

  18. Development of a Compact Imaging Spectrometer Using Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Faust, Jessica A; Biswas, Abhijit; Bearman, Gregory H.; Chrien, Thomas; Miller, Peter J.

    1996-01-01

    Liquid crystal tunable filters are useful in building compact multi-spectral instruments. The system is portable and adaptable for use in a variety of fields of study in the visible and near-infrared regions of the spectrum.We will present data from calibration targets and some applications, results of the spectral calibration of a spectrometer system, and results of environmental (vibration, radiation, shock, and thermal) testing. Data acquisition and system design are also discussed.

  19. A Bragg grating tunable filter based on temperature control system to demodulate a voltage sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ribeiro, Bessie A.; Werneck, Marcelo M.; de Nazaré, Fabio B. V.; Gonçalves, Marceli N.

    2015-09-01

    This work presents an innovative automated Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) based tunable optical filter (TOF) controlled by temperature to be used in temperature compensating schemes in FBG sensing set-ups. Mechanical and electronic aspects are discussed, and the implemented FBG-TOF viability and reliability in sensing systems are showed. The system was employed to demodulate a high voltage AC signal applied to a FBG-PZT sensor, showing good linearity and sensitivity.

  20. Long wave infrared tunable filter based on guided mode resonant effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mirotznik, Mark S.; Gupta, Neelam; McElhiney, Morgan; Carey, Victoria

    2016-05-01

    We describe here a tunable long wave infrared (LWIR) band filter based on the guided mode resonant filter (GMRF) effect. The device consists of a subwavelength dielectric grating sandwiched between planar layers of contrasting dielectric materials. Using a rigorous electromagnetic design and analysis method we demonstrate how a strong narrow band reflectance can be induced. Moreover, the resonant wavelength can be easily tuned over the entire 8-12 micron band by mechanically tilting the device with respect to the optical axis. Simulation and experimental results are presented demonstrating the effectiveness of the device.

  1. Wavelength-selective orbital-angular-momentum beam generation using MEMS tunable Fabry-Perot filter.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sujoy; Lyubopytov, Vladimir S; Schumann, Martin F; Cesar, Julijan; Chipouline, Arkadi; Wegener, Martin; Küppers, Franko

    2016-07-15

    We demonstrate an on-chip device capable of wavelength-selective generation of vortex beams, which is realized by a spiral phase plate integrated onto a microelectromechanical system (MEMS) tunable filter. This vortex MEMS filter, being capable of functioning simultaneously in both wavelength and orbital-angular-momentum (OAM) domains at the 1550 nm wavelength regime, is considered as a compact, robust, and cost-effective solution for simultaneous OAM- and wavelength-division multiplexed optical communications. The experimental OAM spectra for azimuthal orders 1, 2, and 3 show an OAM state purity >92% across a wavelength range of more than 30 nm. PMID:27420507

  2. Tunable microwave band-stop filters using ferromagnetic resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Baolin; Shi, Yu; Zhong, Hui; Wang, Hualei

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we present some results on FeCoB-based microwave band-stop filters. These structures, prepared on GaAs substrates, are compatible in size and growth process with on-chip high-frequency electronics. The band-stop filters have been realized with microstrips which incorporate ferromagnetic and dielectric layers to absorb microwave energy at the ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) frequency. The absorption notch in transmission can be tuned to various frequencies by varying an external applied magnitic field. For our devices, which incorporate FeCoB as the ferromagnetic material, the resultant FMR frequencies range from 12-22 GHz for applied fields up to only 1000 Oe. Comparatively, the frequency range of those devices using permalloy and Fe is substantially lower than FeCoB-based devices for applied the same fields. We constructed devices using monocrystalline FeCoB films grown in a sputtering system. Our devices are of different construction than other dielectric microstrips and show much improvement in terms of notch width and depth. The maximum attenuations of 3.5 dB/cm and 90dB/cm are observed respectively in two different structures.

  3. Spectral imaging characterization of quartz MOEM tunable Fabry-Perot filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Neelam; Tan, Songsheng

    2012-07-01

    Recently, prototype MOEM tunable Fabry-Perot filters operating from 400 to 800 nm were fabricated under a program to design miniature hyperspectral imagers operating from the visible to the longwave infrared. The filter design uses two semitransparent 30 nm thick silver-film mirrors, one fixed and the other moving, on a low-cost thin commercial quartz substrate. The moving mirror is supported by three leaf spring arms, which are fabricated by wet etching of the quartz substrate. The tuning of the transmitted wavelength of light from the filter is achieved by electrostatically actuating the moving mirror to vary the distance between the two mirrors. The size of the device is 18×24 mm2. The fixed part has a 6 mm diameter mirror and three electrodes to apply voltages, and the moving mirror is used as a ground electrode. Au bumps deposited on both parts control the initial air gap distance, and an Au-Au bonding is used to bond the two parts together. The spectral imaging performance of the MOEM filter is characterized using a spectrally tunable source and a CCD camera with suitable optics. The authors present a brief description of the filter, its characteristics, spectral imaging characterization experiment and results.

  4. All-fiber widely wavelength-tunable thulium-doped fiber ring laser incorporating a Fabry-Perot filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Y.; Hu, K.; Sun, B.; Wang, T.

    2012-04-01

    We demonstrate 1940 to 2010 nm continuous CW wavelength-tuning in a thulium-doped fiber laser (TDFL), using only fiber-format components. A fiber Fabry-Perot (FP) tunable filter is employed to achieve the wavelength tunability of 70 nm. By imposing a 200 Hz triangle wave signal on the filter, rapid wavelength-sweeping is demonstrated from 1952 to 1992 nm every 5 ms, corresponding to 8 nm/ms. This all-fiber wavelength-tunable and swept laser may find applications such as gas monitoring in the wavelength region of 2 μm.

  5. Acousto-Optic Imaging Spectrometers for Mars Surface Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glenar, D. A.; Blaney, D. L.

    2000-01-01

    NASA's long term plan for Mars sample collection and return requires a highly streamlined approach for spectrally characterizing a landing site, documenting the mineralogical make-up of the site and guiding the collections of samples which represent the diversity of the site. Ideally, image data should be acquired at hundreds of VIS and IR wavelengths, in order to separately distinguish numerous anticipated species, using principal component analysis and linear unmixing. Cameras with bore-sighted point spectrometers can acquire spectra of isolated scene elements, but it requires 10(exp 2) to 10(exp 2) successive motions and precise relative pointing knowledge in order to create a single data cube which qualifies as a spectral map. These and other competing science objectives have to be accomplished within very short lander/rover operational lifetime (a few sols). True, 2-D imaging spectroscopy greatly speeds up the data acquisition process, since the spectra of all pixels in the scene are collected at once. This task can be accomplished with cameras that use electronically tunable acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) as the optical tuning element. AOTFs made from TeO2 are now a mature technology, and operate at wavelengths from near-UV to about 5 microns. Because of incremental improvements in the last few years, present generation devices are rugged, radiation-hard and operate at temperatures down to at least 150K so they can be safely integrated into the ambient temperature optics of in-situ instruments such as planetary or small-body landers. They have been used for ground-based astronomy, and were also baselined for the ST-4 Champollion IR comet lander experiment (CIRCLE), prior to cancellation of the ST-4 mission last year. AIMS (for Acousto-optic Imaging spectrometer), is a prototype lander instrument which is being built at GSFC with support by the NASA OSS Advanced Technologies and Mission Studies, Mars Instrument Definition and Development Program (MIDP

  6. Fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter for high-speed optical packet switching

    SciTech Connect

    Taranenko, N.L.; Tenbrink, S.C.; Hsu, K.; Miller, C.M.

    1997-01-01

    Tunable optical filters are important building blocks for All-Optical systems and networks. Fast optical tuning in several microseconds is necessary to perform high-speed optical packet switching. Multi- Gigabit/sec packet-switching will provide flexibility and higher network throughput when large numbers of users communicate simultaneously. One approach to achieve fast wavelength tuning is to use high-speed piezoelectrically-driven Fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filters (FFP-TFs). The requirement for tuning in microseconds raises a whole new set of challenges, such as ringing, thermostability and mechanical inertia control. It was shown that correlation between the mechanical resonance and optical response of the filter is important for the filter`s speed and for mounting hardware and control circuitry optimization. These features together with the FFP-TF`s high capacitance (approximately 0.25-0.5 microfarad) are being folded into building a special controller to substantially improve the shape of the driving signal and the response of the filter. The resultant controller enables tuning the high-speed FFP-TF three-orders-of- magnitude faster than that possible with standard commercial FFP-TFS. The fastest switching time achieved is 2.5 microseconds. As the result, a new packet-switched media access control protocol is being designed to minimize the searching time. The filter scans only once through the entire optical region and then tunes to all the required channels one after another in a few microseconds. It can help update Rainbow-2 Broadcast-and-Select High-Speed Wavelength Division Multiplexing All-Optical network that currently has a circuit- switched protocol using standard FFP-TFS.

  7. Double channel mechanically tunable terahertz filter based on parallel plate waveguide cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lin; Zhu, Yiming

    2012-12-01

    Theoretical and experimental works were carried out on a double channel mechanically tunable terahertz filter integrated with parallel plate waveguide cavities. The filter includes two rectangular grooves on upper and bottom plates of waveguide, respectively. The filter frequencies can be quasilinearly tuned by altering the overlap length between two rectangle grooves on metal plates. From the experiment, we found low (high) resonant frequency can be adjusted from 0.417(0.346) THz to 0.399(0.374) THz when the overlap length is altered from 0 to 500 μm, respectively. The Q values can reach 46 with the resonant frequency (0.41THz), overlap length (220 μm) and waveguide spacing (650 μm). Theoretical results show good agreement with experiment.

  8. Tunable and reconfigurable multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on dynamic Brillouin gratings in fibers.

    PubMed

    Sancho, J; Primerov, N; Chin, S; Antman, Y; Zadok, A; Sales, S; Thévenaz, L

    2012-03-12

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate new architectures to realize multi-tap microwave photonic filters, based on the generation of a single or multiple dynamic Brillouin gratings in polarization maintaining fibers. The spectral range and selectivity of the proposed periodic filters is extensively tunable, simply by reconfiguring the positions and the number of dynamic gratings along the fiber respectively. In this paper, we present a complete analysis of three different configurations comprising a microwave photonic filter implementation: a simple notch-type Mach-Zehnder approach with a single movable dynamic grating, a multi-tap performance based on multiple dynamic gratings and finally a stationary grating configuration based on the phase modulation of two counter-propagating optical waves by a common pseudo-random bit sequence (PRBS). PMID:22418495

  9. Photothermally tunable silicon-microring-based optical add-drop filter through integrated light absorber.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xi; Shi, Yuechun; Lou, Fei; Chen, Yiting; Yan, Min; Wosinski, Lech; Qiu, Min

    2014-10-20

    An optically pumped thermo-optic (TO) silicon ring add-drop filter with fast thermal response is experimentally demonstrated. We propose that metal-insulator-metal (MIM) light absorber can be integrated into silicon TO devices, acting as a localized heat source which can be activated remotely by a pump beam. The MIM absorber design introduces less thermal capacity to the device, compared to conventional electrically-driven approaches. Experimentally, the absorber-integrated add-drop filter shows an optical response time of 13.7 μs following the 10%-90% rule (equivalent to a exponential time constant of 5 μs) and a wavelength shift over pump power of 60 pm/mW. The photothermally tunable add-drop filter may provide new perspectives for all-optical routing and switching in integrated Si photonic circuits. PMID:25401557

  10. Compact tunable multibandpass filters based on liquid-filled photonic crystal fibers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yingjie; Wang, Yiping; Sun, Bing; Liao, Changrui; Song, Jun; Yang, Kaiming; Wang, Guanjun; Wang, Qiao; Yin, Guolu; Zhou, Jiangtao

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrated a compact tunable multibandpass filter with a short size of about 9 mm and a high wavelength-tuning sensitivity of up to -2.194  nm/°C by means of filling a liquid with a high refractive index of 1.700 into the air holes of a photonic crystal fiber (PCF). Such a PCF-based filter maintains an almost constant bandwidth and a large extinction ratio of more than 40 dB within the whole wavelength tuning range of more than 100 nm. Moreover, the transmission spectrum of the PCF-based filter is insensitive to the stretch force and the curvature of the fiber. PMID:24686697

  11. Observation of tunable nonlinear effects in an analogue of superconducting composite right/left hand filter.

    PubMed

    Liu, Haiwen; Lei, Jiuhuai; Jiang, Hao; Guan, Xuehui; Ji, Laiyun; Ma, Zhewang

    2015-01-01

    Artificial structures with negative permittivity or permeability have attracted significant attention in the science community because they provide a pathway for obtaining exotic electromagnetic properties not found in natural materials. At the moment, the great challenge of these artificial structures in microwave frequency exhibits a relatively large loss. It is well-known that superconducting thin films have extremely low surface resistance. Hence, it is a good candidate to resolve this constraint. Besides, the reported artificial structures with negative permittivity or permeability are mainly focusing on linear regime of wave propagation. However, any future effort in creating tunable structures would require knowledge of nonlinear properties. In this work, a tunable superconducting filter with composite right/left-hand transmission property is proposed and fabricated. Its nonlinear effects on temperature and power are studied by theoretical analysis and experiments. PMID:26442447

  12. Observation of tunable nonlinear effects in an analogue of superconducting composite right/left hand filter

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haiwen; Lei, Jiuhuai; Jiang, Hao; Guan, Xuehui; Ji, Laiyun; Ma, Zhewang

    2015-01-01

    Artificial structures with negative permittivity or permeability have attracted significant attention in the science community because they provide a pathway for obtaining exotic electromagnetic properties not found in natural materials. At the moment, the great challenge of these artificial structures in microwave frequency exhibits a relatively large loss. It is well-known that superconducting thin films have extremely low surface resistance. Hence, it is a good candidate to resolve this constraint. Besides, the reported artificial structures with negative permittivity or permeability are mainly focusing on linear regime of wave propagation. However, any future effort in creating tunable structures would require knowledge of nonlinear properties. In this work, a tunable superconducting filter with composite right/left-hand transmission property is proposed and fabricated. Its nonlinear effects on temperature and power are studied by theoretical analysis and experiments. PMID:26442447

  13. A Novel K-Band Tunable Microstrip Bandpass Filter Using a Thin Film HTS/Ferroelectric/ Dielectric Configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Subramanyam, G.; VanKeuls, F.; Miranda, F. A.

    1998-01-01

    We report on YBCO/strontium titanate (STO) thin film K-band tunable bandpass filters on lanthanum aluminate substrates. The 2 pole filters were designed for a center frequency of 19 GHz and 4% bandwidth. Tunability is achieved through the non-linear dc electric field dependence of the relative dielectric constant of STO (epsilon-rSTO). Center frequency shifts greater than 2 GHz were obtained at a 400V bipolar dc bias at temperatures below 77K, with minimum degradation in the insertion loss of the filters.

  14. Tunable spin filter and molecular hybridization in a quantum dot molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mireles, F.; Ulloa, S. E.

    2005-03-01

    Spin filtering using few electron semiconductor quantum dots formed in two-dimensional electron gas systems has attracted much recent attention in spintronics. Spin filtering has been achieved in a quantum dot via universal conductance fluctuations and electron magnetic focusing [1]. A bipolar spin filter (SF) has been realized recently using a semiconductor quantum dot which can operate practically as a perfect SF, provided there is a large enough Zeeman splitting [2]. In this work we present calculations showing that the tunable (molecular) hybridization between two quantum dots with few electrons and connected ``in parallel,'' produces a singlet-triplet transition in the ground state which can be used as a robust bipolar SF in both the linear and non-linear regimes of transport. The bipolar SF is found to be fully tunable by only electrical gating at low temperatures. We show that a singlet-triplet transition in the energy spectrum gives rise to the natural spin selectivity in the odd-to-even electron number transition in Coulomb blockade experiments. The competition between the Zeeman, Coulomb, and tunneling energies is studied in detail to determine the optimal conditions to achieve the singlet-triplet transition, so that it becomes broadly useful as a bipolar SF. [1] J. A. Folk et al., Science 299, 679 (2003). [2] R. Hanson et al., cond-mat/0311414 (2003). *Supported by DGAPA-UNAM project 1N114403, CONACYT, projects J40521F and 143673F, and NSF-IMC.

  15. MTF formalism for measurement of spectral resolution of acousto-optical devices with synthesized transmission function.

    PubMed

    Yushkov, Konstantin B; Molchanov, Vladimir Ya

    2013-09-15

    We demonstrate use of the modulation transfer function method in the spectral domain for dynamic measurement of the spectral resolution and modulation contrast of acousto-optic light dispersive delay lines and programmable filters with synthesized transmission. The method is useful for performance characterization of acousto-optic devices for ultrafast pulse shaping and adaptive spectroscopy. PMID:24104818

  16. A Tunable Lyot Filter at Prime Focus: a Method for Tracing Supercluster Scales at z ~ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bland-Hawthorn, J.; van Breugel, W.; Gillingham, P. R.; Baldry, I. K.; Jones, D. H.

    2001-12-01

    Tunable narrowband emission line surveys have begun to show the ease with which star-forming galaxies can be identified in restricted redshift intervals to z~5 with a 4 m class telescope. These surveys have been carried out with imaging systems at the Cassegrain or Nasmyth focus, and are therefore restricted to fields smaller than 10'. We now show that tunable narrowband imaging is possible over a 30' field with a high-performance Lyot filter placed directly in front of a CCD mosaic at the prime focus. Our design is intended for the f/3.3 prime focus of the Anglo-Australian Telescope (AAT) 3.9 m, although similar devices can be envisaged for the Subaru 8 m (f/2), Palomar 5 m (f/3.4), Visible and Infrared Survey Telescope for Astronomy (VISTA) 4 m (f/6), Mayall 4 m (f/2.6), or the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope (CFHT) 3.6 m (f/4). A modified Wynne doublet ensures subarcsecond performance over the field. In combination with the new Wide-Field Imager 8k×8k mosaic (WFI) at the AAT, the overall throughput (35%) of the system to unpolarized light is expected to be comparable to the TAURUS Tunable Filter (TTF). Unlike the TTF, the field is fully monochromatic, and the instrumental profile has much better wing suppression. For targeted surveys of emission line sources at z~1, a low-resolution (R~150 at 550 nm) Lyot filter on a 4 m telescope is expected to be comparable or superior to current instruments on 8-10 m class telescopes. We demonstrate that the 30' field is well matched to superclusters at these redshifts, such that large-scale structure should be directly observable.

  17. Compact spectrophotometer using polarization-independent liquid crystal tunable optical filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolescu, Elena; Escuti, Michael J.

    2007-09-01

    We introduce and demonstrate a simple spectrophotometer system insensitive to input polarization and with strong potential for compact and low-cost implementation. This technology has a wide variety of potential applications ranging from astronomy to medicine and even the cosmetics industry. To enable more powerful and portable microspectrometers we employ a novel design based on a tunable liquid crystal filter with polarization-independence, which is constructed of stacked liquid crystal polarization gratings (LCPGs). These switchable, anisotropic, thin diffraction gratings exhibit unique properties that include diffraction at visible and infrared wavelengths that can be coupled between only the zero- and first-orders (with nearly 100% and 0% experimentally verified efficiencies), depending on the applied voltage and wavelength of incident light. When combined with an elemental spatial filter, polarization-independent bandpass tuning can be achieved with minimum loss. Analogous to Lyot and Solc filters, several LCPGs are layered and introduced into a temporally resolved system using a single photodetector. The unique filter design enables improvement in terms of resolution and sensitivity by eliminating the polarization dependence present in all competing birefringence-based technologies. Also, the temporal detection system has a potential for improved miniaturization compared to any competing relevant approach and decreased cost by avoiding highly sensitive alignment, reflective diffraction components, Fabry- Perot cavities, and expensive detectors. In this work we describe the core principles of the tunable filter, present a representative spectrometer system design, report preliminary experimental data, and discuss the capabilities of the system in terms of spectral range, resolution, and sensitivity.

  18. High-Order Tunable Filters Based on a Chain of Coupled Crystalline Whispering Gallery-Mode Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy A.; Ilchenko, Vladimir S.; Matsko, Andrey B.; Maleki, Lute

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a tunable third-order optical filter fabricated from the three voltage-controlled lithium niobate whispering gallery-mode resonators. The filter operates at 1550 nm with 30-MHz bandwidth and can be electrooptically tuned by 12 GHz in the linear regime with approximately 80-MHz/V tuning rate. With this filter, we have demonstrated 6-dB fiber-to-fiber insertion loss and 30-ns tuning speed, limited by the resonator buildup time.

  19. Development of the Universal Tunable Filter and High-resolution Imaging Observation with the Fuxian Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagino, M.; Ichimoto, K.; Ueno, S.; Kimura, G.; Otsuji, K.; Kitai, R.; Zhong, L.; Xu, Z.; Shinoda, K.; Hara, H.; Suematsu, Y.; Shimizu, T.

    2016-04-01

    We have developed a new narrow-band universal tunable filter to perform imaging spectroscopy of the solar chromosphere. The development stage of the filter has been almost finished and we shifted to the scientific observation phase by using large grand-based telescopes. Using the filter, a series of high-resolution images were obtained with the 1m vacuum solar telescope at the Fuxian Solar Observatory. We succeeded in observing several flares and fine structures of the chromospheric layer.

  20. Dual-band bandpass tunable microwave photonic filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jia-qi; Xiao, Yong-chuan; Dong, Wei; Zhang, Xin-dong

    2016-07-01

    A dual-band bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) is theoretically analyzed and experimentally demonstrated. Two separated tunable laser sources (TLSs) are employed to generate two passbands by implementing phase modulation to amplitude modulation conversion by using SBS induced sideband amplification. The center frequencies of both passbands can be independently tuned ranging from 1 GHz to 19 GHz. High resolution with 3 dB bandwidth less than 30 MHz and large out-of-band rejection about 40 dB under 25 mW optical pump power are achieved.

  1. Ultra-wideband ladder filter using SH(0) plate wave in thin LiNbO(3) plate and its application to tunable filter.

    PubMed

    Kadota, Michio; Tanaka, Shuji

    2015-05-01

    A cognitive radio terminal using vacant frequency bands of digital TV (DTV) channels, i.e., TV white space, strongly requires a compact tunable filter covering a wide frequency range of the DTV band (470 to 710 MHz in Japan). In this study, a T-type ladder filter using ultra-wideband shear horizontal mode plate wave resonators was fabricated, and a low peak insertion loss of 0.8 dB and an ultra-large 6 dB bandwidth of 240 MHz (41%) were measured in the DTV band. In addition, bandpass filters with different center frequencies of 502 and 653 MHz at 6 dB attenuation were numerically synthesized based on the same T-type ladder filter in conjunction with band rejection filters with different frequencies. The results suggest that the combination of the wideband T-type ladder filter and the band rejection filters connected with variable capacitors enables a tunable filter with large tunability of frequency and bandwidth as well as large rejection at the adjacent channels of an available TV white space. PMID:25965686

  2. Wavelength-tunable filter utilizing non-cyclic arrayed waveguide grating to create colorless, directionless, contentionless ROADMs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niwa, Masaki; Takashina, Shoichi; Mori, Yojiro; Hasegawa, Hiroshi; Sato, Ken-ichi; Watanabe, Toshio

    2015-01-01

    With the continuous increase in Internet traffic, reconfigurable optical add-drop multiplexers (ROADMs) have been widely adopted in the core and metro core networks. Current ROADMs, however, allow only static operation. To realize future dynamic optical-network services, and to minimize any human intervention in network operation, the optical signal add/drop part should have colorless/directionless/contentionless (C/D/C) capabilities. This is possible with matrix switches or a combination of splitter-switches and optical tunable filters. The scale of the matrix switch increases with the square of the number of supported channels, and hence, the matrix-switch-based architecture is not suitable for creating future large-scale ROADMs. In contrast, the numbers of splitter ports, switches, and tunable filters increase linearly with the number of supported channels, and hence the tunable-filter-based architecture will support all future traffic. So far, we have succeeded in fabricating a compact tunable filter that consists of multi-stage cyclic arrayed-waveguide gratings (AWGs) and switches by using planar-lightwave-circuit (PLC) technologies. However, this multistage configuration suffers from large insertion loss and filter narrowing. Moreover, power-consuming temperature control is necessary since it is difficult to make cyclic AWGs athermal. We propose here novel tunable-filter architecture that sandwiches a single-stage non-cyclic athermal AWG having flatter-topped passbands between small-scale switches. With this configuration, the optical tunable filter attains low insertion loss, large passband bandwidths, low power consumption, compactness, and high cost-effectiveness. A prototype is monolithically fabricated with PLC technologies and its excellent performance is experimentally confirmed utilizing 80-channel 30-GBaud dual-polarization quadrature phase-shift-keying (QPSK) signals.

  3. Tailoring of the Brillouin gain for on-chip widely tunable and reconfigurable broadband microwave photonic filters.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Amol; Aryanfar, Iman; Shahnia, Shayan; Morrison, Blair; Vu, Khu; Madden, Stephen; Luther-Davies, Barry; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2016-02-01

    An unprecedented Brillouin gain of 44 dB in a photonic chip enables the realization of broadly tunable and reconfigurable integrated microwave photonic filters. More than a decade bandwidth reconfigurability from 30 up to 440 MHz, with a passband ripple <1.9  dB is achieved by tailoring the Brillouin pump. The filter central frequency is continuously tuned up to 30 GHz with no degradation of the passband response, which is a major improvement over electronic filters. Furthermore, we demonstrate pump tailoring to realize multiple bandpass filters with different bandwidths and central frequencies, paving the way for multiple on-chip microwave filters and channelizers. PMID:26907391

  4. Spin-wave band-pass filters based on yttrium iron garnet films for tunable microwave photonic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ustinov, A. B.; Drozdovskii, A. V.; Nikitin, A. A.; Kalinikos, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    The paper reports on development of tunable band-pass microwave filters for microwave photonic generators. The filters were fabricated with the use of epitaxial yttrium iron garnet films. Principle of operation of the filters was based on excitation, propagation, and reception of spin waves. In order to obtain narrow pass band, the filtering properties of excitation and reception antennas were exploited. The filters demonstrated insertion losses of 2-3 dB, bandwidth of 25-35 MHz, and tuning range of up to 1.5 GHz in the range 3-7 GHz.

  5. Full-optical tunable add/drop filter based on nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansouri-Birjandi, Mohammad Ali; Tavousi, Alireza; Ghadrdan, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Here, we propose a full-optical tunable Add/Drop filter based on single (SR) and double-vertically (DR) aligned Kerr-like nonlinear photonic crystal ring resonators (PCRRs). Silicon (Si) nano-crystal is used as the nonlinear material inside and outside of PCRRs. The minimum optical power required to turn-on/turn-off the SR and DR filters are 2000 mW/μm2, and 150 mW/μm2, respectively. We believe since the DR filter has a higher Q-factor rather than SR and also since the optical power reads more nonlinear rods with a longer time to pass the structure, thus the optical power required is much lower (10 folds). In addition, the minimum power required to 1 nm redshift the center operating wavelength of SR filter is 125 mW/μm2 (i.e. ΔnNL = 0.005) and for DR is as low as 8 mW/μm2. Performance of the Add/Drop filter structure is simulated by means of finite difference time domain (FDTD) method, in which the simulations showed an ultra-compact size structure with promising ultrafast tune-ability speeds.

  6. Tunable passively harmonic mode-locked Yb-doped fiber laser with Lyot-Sagnac filter.

    PubMed

    Li, Ming; Zou, Xin; Wu, Jian; Shi, Jindan; Qiu, Jifang; Hong, Xiaobin

    2015-10-10

    A novel passively harmonic mode-locked dissipative soliton Yb-doped fiber laser with all normal dispersion is proposed and experimentally demonstrated based on a semiconductor saturable absorption mirror and tunable Lyot-Sagnac filter. By only tuning the bandwidth of the filter at fixed pump power, the repetition rate of 9.87 to 167.8 MHz (corresponding to 17th-order harmonic) is obtained. This is the highest repetition rate and harmonic order for a passively harmonic mode-locked dissipative soliton Yb-doped fiber laser with all-normal dispersion to the best of our knowledge. The signal-to-noise ratio and super-mode suppression ratio for all harmonic orders are higher than 65 and 35 dB, respectively, which shows the high stability of the fiber laser. PMID:26479821

  7. Compact continuously tunable microwave photonic filters based on cascaded silicon microring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Li; He, Mengying; Dong, Jianji

    2016-03-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a photonic approach to achieving tunable bandpass microwave photonic filters (MPFs) based on cascaded microring resonators (CMRRs). The optical spectrum of the silicon CMRRs could offer two bandpass response to separately filter the optical carrier and one of the sidebands generated by the phase modulation. Thus we could achieve a bandpass MPF. Moreover, as the central frequencies and bandwidths of the two bandpass response can be tuned by adjusting the laser wavelength and voltages applied on one MRR, the central operating frequency or 3-dB bandwidth of the MPF can be continuously tuned in wide ranges respectively. A proof-of-concept experiment illustrates a central frequency tuning range from 19 GHz to 40 GHz, and a wide bandwidth tuning range from 5.5 GHz to 17.5 GHz.

  8. Tunable and reconfigurable single passband filter using stimulated Brillouin scattering and intensity modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Shuling; Xiao, Zeyu; Wang, Huanhuan

    2015-07-01

    A tunable and reconfigurable single passband microwave photonic filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and intensity modulation is presented and theoretically analyzed. Three Brillouin pumps with equal intensity are generated by selecting appropriate bias voltages and modulation indices. Then a reconfigurable passband can be achieved by superposition of the three pumps. Simulation results demonstrate that the proposed filter has a 22-GHz continuous tuning range with a high out-of-band rejection ratio above 40 dB. The -3-dB bandwidth can be tuned from 12 to 95 MHz, and the flatness is less than 1.5 dB. This technique uses a low-frequency (0 to 35 MHz) modulation signal to realize passband reshaping, and has potential applications in communication and radar systems.

  9. Frequency tunable terahertz filter based on dual layered split-ring resonator array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hyunseung; Lee, Hojin

    2014-01-01

    Terahertz frequency tunable filter based on the dual layered split-ring resonator (SRR) array was fabricated on flexible polyimide film using conventional photolithography techniques. The fabricated SRR array was measured by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) and compared with the simulation data. We found that the center frequency could be controlled from 1.04 to 1.65 THz by the dipole coupling effect between upper and lower SRR layers. The bandwidth of the fabricated filter is also confirmed to be tuned validly ranging from 1.04 to 1.72 THz. By using the extracted field distribution, we verified that the localized field enhancement could be manipulated by changing the coupling distance between adjacent layers.

  10. Tunable channel drop filters consisting of a tilted Bragg grating and a mode sorting polymer waveguide.

    PubMed

    Park, Tae-Hyun; Shin, Jin-Soo; Huang, Guanghao; Chu, Woo-Sung; Oh, Min-Cheol

    2016-03-21

    Optical wavelength filters with large tuning range and narrow bandwidth are crucial for enhancing the capability of WDM communication systems. A polymeric tunable filter for C-band, comprising a tilted Bragg grating and a mode sorting waveguide junction is proposed in this work. For dropping a certain wavelength signal, the tilted Bragg grating reflects an odd mode into an even mode and then the reflected even mode propagates towards an output port of the asymmetric Y-junction due to the mode sorting. Consequently, the output port is separated from the input port, which is not possible in an ordinary Bragg reflector. The tilted Bragg reflector with an odd-even mode coupling efficiency of 61% exhibited a maximum reflectivity of 95% for a grating of 6 mm. A linear wavelength tuning of over 10 nm was achieved for an applied thermal power of 312 mW. PMID:27136768

  11. Tunable terahertz multichannel filter based on one-dimensional superconductor-dielectric photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yang; Yi, Lin

    2014-12-14

    By means of the transfer matrix method, the transmission properties of one-dimensional photonic crystals (PCs) consisting of superconductor and dielectric have been systematically investigated within the terahertz frequency range (0.1–10 THz). It is shown that comb-like resonant peaks in transmission band can be formed without adding any defect layer in superconductor-dielectric PCs, which means that such a one-dimensional periodic structure can serve as a tunable terahertz multichannel filter by using the PCs passband. Furthermore, the influences coming from the period of the structure, the thickness of the components, the permittivity of the dielectric layers, temperature, and the normal conducting electrons on the filtering properties are also numerically investigated.

  12. Wavelength-tunable actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber ring laser using a distributed feedback semiconductor laser as mode locker and tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Shenping; Chan, K. T.

    1999-07-01

    A wavelength-tunable actively mode-locked erbium fiber ring laser was demonstrated using a distributed feedback semiconductor laser as an intensity mode locker and a tunable optical filter. Very stable optical pulse trains at gigabit repetition rates were generated using harmonica mode locking. The supermode noise was suppressed to 60 dB below the signal level and the root-mean-square timing jitter (0.45 kHz-1 MHz) was found to be about 1% of the pulse duration. A continuous wavelength tuning range of 1.8 nm was achieved by changing the semiconductor laser temperature from 11.4 to 30 °C.

  13. Tunable complex-valued multi-tap microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-on-insulator microring resonator.

    PubMed

    Lloret, Juan; Sancho, Juan; Pu, Minhao; Gasulla, Ivana; Yvind, Kresten; Sales, Salvador; Capmany, José

    2011-06-20

    A complex-valued multi-tap tunable microwave photonic filter based on single silicon-on-insulator microring resonator is presented. The degree of tunability of the approach involving two, three and four taps is theoretical and experimentally characterized, respectively. The constraints of exploiting the optical phase transfer function of a microring resonator aiming at implementing complex-valued multi-tap filtering schemes are also reported. The trade-off between the degree of tunability without changing the free spectral range and the number of taps is studied in-depth. Different window based scenarios are evaluated for improving the filter performance in terms of the side-lobe level. PMID:21716478

  14. FILTER-INDUCED BIAS IN Lyα EMITTER SURVEYS: A COMPARISON BETWEEN STANDARD AND TUNABLE FILTERS. GRAN TELESCOPIO CANARIAS PRELIMINARY RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    De Diego, J. A.; De Leo, M. A.; Cepa, J.; Bongiovanni, A.; Verdugo, T.; Sánchez-Portal, M.

    2013-10-01

    Lyα emitter (LAE) surveys have successfully used the excess in a narrowband filter compared to a nearby broadband image to find candidates. However, the odd spectral energy distribution (SED) of LAEs combined with the instrumental profile has important effects on the properties of the candidate samples extracted from these surveys. We investigate the effect of the bandpass width and the transmission profile of the narrowband filters used for extracting LAE candidates at redshifts z ≅ 6.5 through Monte Carlo simulations, and we present pilot observations to test the performance of tunable filters to find LAEs and other emission-line candidates. We compare the samples obtained using a narrow ideal rectangular filter, the Subaru NB921 narrowband filter, and sweeping across a wavelength range using the ultra-narrow-band tunable filters of the instrument OSIRIS, installed at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. We use this instrument for extracting LAE candidates from a small set of real observations. Broadband data from the Subaru, Hubble Space Telescope, and Spitzer databases were used for fitting SEDs to calculate photometric redshifts and to identify interlopers. Narrowband surveys are very efficient in finding LAEs in large sky areas, but the samples obtained are not evenly distributed in redshift along the filter bandpass, and the number of LAEs with equivalent widths <60 Å can be underestimated. These biased results do not appear in samples obtained using ultra-narrow-band tunable filters. However, the field size of tunable filters is restricted because of the variation of the effective wavelength across the image. Thus, narrowband and ultra-narrow-band surveys are complementary strategies to investigate high-redshift LAEs.

  15. Photonic chip based tunable and reconfigurable narrowband microwave photonic filter using stimulated Brillouin scattering.

    PubMed

    Byrnes, Adam; Pant, Ravi; Li, Enbang; Choi, Duk-Yong; Poulton, Christopher G; Fan, Shanhui; Madden, Steve; Luther-Davies, Barry; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2012-08-13

    We report the first demonstration of a photonic chip based dynamically reconfigurable, widely tunable, narrow pass-band, high Q microwave photonic filter (MPF). We exploit stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in a 6.5 cm long chalcogenide (As2S3) photonic chip to demonstrate a MPF that exhibited a high quality factor of ~520 and narrow bandwidth and was dynamically reconfigurable and widely tunable. It maintained a stable 3 dB bandwidth of 23 ± 2MHz and amplitude of 20 ± 2 dB over a large frequency tuning range of 2-12 GHz. By tailoring the pump spectrum, we reconfigured the 3 dB bandwidth of the MPF from ~20 MHz to ~40 MHz and tuned the shape factor from 3.5 to 2 resulting in a nearly flat-topped filter profile. This demonstration represents a significant advance in integrated microwave photonics with potential applications in on-chip microwave signal processing for RADAR and analogue communications. PMID:23038523

  16. DKIST visible tunable filter control software: connecting the DKIST framework to OPC UA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Alexander; Halbgewachs, Clemens; Kentischer, Thomas J.; Schmidt, Wolfgang; von der Lühe, Oskar; Sigwarth, Michael; Fischer, Andreas

    2014-07-01

    The Visible Tunable Filter (VTF) is a narrowband tunable filter system for imaging spectroscopy and spectropolarimetry based on large-format Fabry Perot interferometers that is currently built by the Kiepenheuer Institut fuer Sonnenphysik for the Daniel K. Inouye Solar Telescope (DKIST). The control software must handle around 30 motorised drives, 3 etalons, a polarizing modulator, a helium neon laser for system calibration, temperature controllers and a multitude of sensors. The VTF is foreseen as one of the DKISTs first-light instruments and should become operational in 2019. In the design of the control software we strongly separate between the high-level part interfacing to the DKIST common services framework (CSF) and the low-level control system software which guarantees real-time performance and synchronization to precision time protocol (PTP) based observatory time. For the latter we chose a programmable logic controller (PLC) from Beckhoff Automation GmbH which supports a wide set of input and output devices as well as distributed clocks for synchronizing signals down to the sub-microsecond level. In this paper we present the design of the required control system software as well as our work on extending the DKIST CSF to use the OPC Unified Architecture (OPC UA) standard which provides a cross-platform communication standard for process control and automation as an interface between the high-level software and the real-time control system.

  17. Comparative performance studies between tunable filter and push-broom chemical imaging systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinen, Jouko; Saari, Heikki; Kemeny, Gabor; Shi, Zhenqi; Anderson, Carl

    2010-04-01

    This paper reports instrument characterization measurements, which were recently arranged to provide comparative information on different hyperspectral chemical imaging systems. Three different instruments were studied covering both tunable filter and push-broom techniques: The first instrument MatrixNIRTM is based on a LCTF tunable filter and InGaAs camera and covers wavelengths from 1000 to 1700 nm. The second one SisuCHEMATM is based on push-broom technology and MCT camera operating from 1000 to 2500 nm. The third system is an instrument prototype from VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland exploiting high speed Fabry-Perot interferometer and MCT camera, currently calibrated from 1260 to 2500 nm. The characterization procedure was designed to study instrumental noise, signal-to-noise ratio, linearity and spectral as well as spatial resolution. Finally, a pharmaceutical tablet sample was measured with each instrument to demonstrate speed of measurement in a typical application. In spite of differences in wavelength ranges and camera technologies used, the results provide interesting information on relative instrumental advantages and disadvantages, which may be useful for selecting appropriate instrumentation for defined applications. Further, an additional aim of this study is to compare the high speed Fabry-Perot imaging technology under development against the established chemical imaging techniques available on the market today.

  18. Tunable drop filters based on photonic crystal self-collimation ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Junjun; Chen, Xiyao; Xu, Xiaofu; Jiang, Junzhen; Qiang, Zexuan; Lin, Guimin; Zhang, Hao

    2010-10-01

    A tunable drop filter (TDF) based on two-dimensional photonic crystal (PC) self-collimation ring resonator (SCRR) is proposed. The PC consisting of square-lattice air cylinders in silicon has square-shaped equal frequency contours (EFCs) in the wavevector space at the frequencies between 0.172-0.188c/a for TE modes. The SCRR includes two mirrors and two splitters. The air holes inside the SCRR are infiltrated with a kind of liquid crystal whose ordinary and extraordinary refractive indices are 1.522 and 1.706, respectively. The effective refractive index neff of liquid crystal depends on the applied electric field. Simulated with the FDTD method, the transmission spectra at the drop port of SCRR are in the shape of sinusoidal curves with uniform peak spacing between 0.172-0.188c/a. Transmission peaks will shift to the lower frequencies when neff is increased. When neff changes from 1.522 to 1.706, the peaks will experience red-shift over 0.003c/a. So this SCRR can work as a tunable drop filter. For the operating wavelength around 1550nm, its dimensions are only tens of microns.

  19. Investigation of a mercurous chloride acousto-optic cell based on longitudinal acoustic mode.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neelam

    2009-03-01

    A number of spectral imagers using acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTFs) operating from the UV to the longwave infrared (LWIR) using KDP, MgF(2), TeO(2), and Tl(3)AsSe(3) crystals to cover different spectral regions have been developed. In the LWIR there is a lack of high quality acousto-optic (AO) materials. Mercurous halide (Hg(2)Cl(2) and Hg(2)Br(2)) crystals are highly anisotropic with a high AO figure of merit due to slow acoustic velocities and high photoelastic constants and are transparent over a wide spectral region from 0.35 to 20 mum for Hg(2)Cl(2) and from 0.4 to 30 mum for Hg(2)Br(2). AO modulators, deflectors, and AOTFs based on these crystals can operate over a wide spectral range. Single crystals of these materials are being grown and some prototype devices have been fabricated. Results are presented from device characterization for an AO cell fabricated in Hg(2)Cl(2) based on longitudinal acoustic mode propagation. This device was very useful in demonstrating the AO interaction as well as soundness of the transducer bonding technique. Acoustic phase velocity is calculated and measured, diffraction efficiency is obtained from experiments, and the AO figure of merit of the sample is evaluated. PMID:19252608

  20. The Development and Field Testing of the Portable Acousto-optic Spectrometer for Astrobiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chanover, Nancy J.; Uckert, Kyle; Voelz, David; Boston, Penelope

    2014-11-01

    The development of in situ instrumentation for the detection of biomarkers on planetary surfaces is critical for the search for evidence of present or past life in our solar system. In our earlier instrument development efforts we addressed this need through the development of a near-infrared point spectrometer intended for quick-look examinations of samples that could be subsequently analyzed with a laser desorption time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The point spectrometer utilized an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) crystal as the wavelength selecting element. In parallel with the aforementioned development efforts we identified the need for a portable version of the AOTF spectrometer that we could test and demonstrate in a range of field locations on Earth chosen to serve as terrestrial analogs for extreme environments elsewhere in the solar system. Here we describe the development and field testing of the Portable Acousto-optic Spectrometer for Astrobiology (PASA). We demonstrated this instrument in two very different cave environments, a predominantly gypsum and calcite cave in New Mexico and an actively forming cave rich in hydrated sulfates in Tabasco, Mexico. Both of these microbially active environments contain evidence of biologic alteration of minerals, which can be detected using IR spectroscopy. We will describe the instrument operations and present some data acquired with PASA to demonstrate its efficacy as a tool for biomarker detection on planetary surfaces. This work was supported by NASA's EPSCoR program through grant number NNX12AK77A.

  1. Widely tunable single bandpass microwave photonic filter based on Brillouin-assisted optical carrier recovery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wen Ting; Liu, Jian Guo; Sun, Wen Hui; Wang, Wei Yu; Wang, Sun Long; Zhu, Ning Hua

    2014-12-01

    A widely tunable single bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) based on Brillouin-assisted optical carrier recovery in a highly nonlinear fiber (HNLF) with only one optical filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The fundamental principle lies in the fact that the suppressed optical carrier of the phase modulated optical signal could be recovered by the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) amplification effect. When phase modulated optical signals go through an optical filter with a bandpass response, the optical carrier and the upper sidebands suffer from the suppression of the optical filter because they fall in the stopband of that. In our system, the optical carrier could be recovered by the SBS operation around 38 dB. The MPF is achieved by one-to-one mapping from the optical domain to the electrical domain only when one of phase modulated sidebands lies in the bandpass of the optical filter. It shows an excellent selectivity with a 3-dB bandwidth of 170 MHz over a tuning frequency range of 9.5-32.5 GHz. The out-of-band suppression of the MPF is more than 20 dB. Moreover, the MPF shows an excellent shape factor with 10-dB bandwidth of only 520 MHz. The frequency response of the MPF could be widely tuned by changing the frequency difference between the frequency of the optical carrier and the center frequency of the bandpass of the optical filter. A proof-of-concept experiment is carried out to verify the proposed approach. PMID:25606864

  2. Acoustooptical spectrum analysis modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmody, M. J.

    1981-06-01

    A summary of Bragg deflection theory and various approaches to direct detection acoustooptic spectrum analysis (AOSA) modeling is presented. A suitable model is chosen and extended to include the effects of diffraction efficiency, transducer efficiency, irradiance profiles of incident laser illumination, aperture size of the Bragg cell, and the acoustic attenuation experienced by the acoustic wavetrain generated by the input r-f signal. A FORTRAN program is developed to model the AOSA and predict the output image plane intensity profiles. A second version of the program includes a time variable permitting dynamic simulation of the system response.

  3. Tunable integrated optical filter made of a glass ion-exchanged waveguide and an electro-optic composite holographic grating.

    PubMed

    d'Alessandro, Antonio; Donisi, Domenico; De Sio, Luciano; Beccherelli, Romeo; Asquini, Rita; Caputo, Roberto; Umeton, Cesare

    2008-06-23

    We report the fabrication and the optical characterization of a hybrid tunable integrated optical filter. It consists of a diffused ion-exchanged channel waveguide on a borosilicate glass substrate with a cover of the same glass to form a gap filled with a holographic grating. The grating morphology, called POLICRYPS (POlymer LIquid CRYstal Polymer Slices), is made of alternating stripes of polymer and liquid crystal acting as overlayer for the underneath waveguide. The filter structure includes aluminum coplanar electrodes to electrically control the grating properties, allowing the tunability of the filter. The electric driving power required to tune the filter obtained was in the range of submilliwatts due to the efficient liquid crystal electro-optic effect. PMID:18575489

  4. All-fiber widely tunable mode-locked thulium-doped laser using a curvature multimode interference filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, N.; Liu, M. Y.; Gao, X. J.; Zhang, L.; Jia, Z. X.; Feng, Y.; Ohishi, Y.; Qin, G. S.; Qin, W. P.

    2016-07-01

    We demonstrated a widely tunable mode-locked thulium doped fiber laser (TDFL) by using a homemade multimode interference filter (MMIF). The MMIF had a structure of single mode fiber (SMF)—multimode fiber (MMF)—SMF and three main transmission peaks at 1901.2, 1957.2 and 2043.2 nm. By mechanically bending the MMIF, the three main transmission peaks were tuned in the range of 1860–2024 nm due to multimode interference effect. By inserting the MMIF into a passively mode-locked TDFL cavity pumped by a 1570 nm fiber laser, a tunable mode-locked TDFL with a tuning range of 1919.6–2014.9 nm was achieved by adjusting the MMIF. To the best of our knowledge, such a tunable range is the largest among all-fiber tunable mode-locked TDFLs.

  5. Tunable integrated optical filters based on sapphire microspheres and liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilardi, Giovanni; Yilmaz, Hasan; Sharif Murib, Mohammed; Asquini, Rita; d'Alessandro, Antonio; Serpengüzel, Ali; Beccherelli, Romeo

    2010-05-01

    We present an integrated optical narrowband electrically tunable filter based on the whispering gallery modes of sapphire microspheres and double ion-exchanged channel BK7 glass waveguides. Tuning is provided by a liquid crystal infiltrated between the spheres and the glass substrate. By suitably choosing the radii of the spheres and of the circular apertures, upon which the spheres are positioned, arrays of different filters can be realized on the same substrate with a low cost industrial process. We evaluate the performance in terms of quality factor, mode spacing, and tuning range by comparing the numerical results obtained by the numerical finite element modeling approach and with the analytical approach of the Generalized Lorenz-Mie Theory for various design parameters. By reorienting the LC in an external electrical field, we demonstrate the tuning of the spectral response of the sapphire microsphere based filter. We find that the value of the mode spacing remains nearly unchanged for the different values of the applied electric field. An increase of the applied electric field strength, changes the refractive index of the liquid crystal, so that for a fixed geometry the mode spacing remains unchanged.

  6. A wavelength-tunable fiber laser based on a twin-core fiber comb filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Hui; Lou, Shuqin; Yin, Guolu

    2013-02-01

    A wavelength-tunable fiber laser based on a twin-core fiber (TCF) comb filter is proposed and demonstrated. The TCF comb filter is fabricated by splicing a 0.85 m long TCF between two standard single mode fibers (SMFs) and with exhibits a good linear strain characteristic with a sensitivity of 1.23 pm/μɛ. The wavelength of the laser can be linearly tuned from 1558.04 nm to 1553.62 nm by applying an axial strain to the TCF comb filter. The optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) of the fiber laser reaches 45 dB. The 3 dB bandwidth is 0.02 nm. The fluctuation of the laser peak in the output power and the wavelength is less than 0.5 dB and within 0.05 nm, respectively. The fiber laser has the advantages of having a simple structure and stable operation under room temperature.

  7. Microwave photonic filter with multiple independently tunable passbands based on a broadband optical source.

    PubMed

    Huang, Long; Chen, Dalei; Zhang, Fangzheng; Xiang, Peng; Zhang, Tingting; Wang, Peng; Lu, Linlin; Pu, Tao; Chen, Xiangfei

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, a novel microwave photonic filter (MPF) with multiple independently tunable passbands is proposed. A broadband optical source (BOS) is employed and split by a 1:N coupler into several branches. One branch is directed to a phase modulator which is modulated by a radio frequency signal and the other branches are delayed by optical delay lines (ODLs), respectively. All of these branches are combined by another 1:N coupler and sent to a dispersion compensation fiber which is used to introduce group delay dispersion to the optical signal. At a photodetector, each time-delayed broadband lightwave beating with the sidebands produced by the phase modulator forms a passband of the MPF. By tuning the delay of each broadband lightwave, the center frequency of the passband can be independently tuned. An MPF with two independently tunable passbands is experimentally demonstrated. The two passbands can be tuned from DC to 30 GHz with a 3-dB bandwidth of about 250 MHz. The stability and dynamic range of the MPF are also evaluated. By employing more branches delayed by ODLs, more passbands can be generated. PMID:26480071

  8. Switchable and tunable microwave frequency multiplication based on a dual-passband microwave photonic filter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hao; Xu, Zuowei; Fu, Hongyan; Zhang, Shiwei; Wu, Congxian; Wu, Hao; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping

    2015-04-20

    In this paper, a novel approach to implement switchable and tunable microwave frequency multiplication has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. High order harmonics of microwave signal with external modulation technique can be selected by using a novel switchable dual-passband microwave photonic filter (MPF) based on a modified fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (FMZI) and a dispersive medium. By adjusting the polarization controllers in the modified FMZI, the passbands of the MPF can switch between lower frequency, higher frequency or dual-passband states, and by changing the length of the variable optical delay line (VODL) in the modified FMZI, the central frequencies of these passbands can also be tuned. Therefore, tunable and switchable microwave signal frequency multiplication can be achieved. The experimental results show that by modulating a driving signal with frequency of 2.5 GHz, a signal with frequency of 7.5 GHz, which is three times of the driving frequency, the other one with the frequency of 15 GHz, which is six times of the driving frequency can be generated and freely switchable between two frequencies and dual frequency states by simply adjusting the polarization controllers in the modified FMZI. PMID:25969024

  9. Intercomparison of tunable diode laser and gas filter correlation measurements of ambient carbon monoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, Alan; Henry, Bruce; Parrish, David D.; Carpenter, James R.; Buhr, Martin P.

    An intercomparison that involved a standards intercomparison, interferant spiking tests and simultaneous ambient measurements was carried out between two CO measurement systems: a tunable diode laser absorption spectrometer (TDLAS) and a gas filter correlation, non-dispersive infrared absorption instrument (GFC). Both the TDLAS and the GFC techniques responded to CO. No major interferences were found for the TDLAS system; tested species included H 2O, O 3 and OCS. The GFC instrument exhibited no interference from H 2O or O 3, but only a relatively high upper limit could be placed on the O 3 interference. For CO measurements in ambient air at levels from 100 to 1500 ppbv, the results from the two instruments agreed within their combined uncertainties. On average the GFC technique was 6% higher than the TDLAS system, and there was no systematic, constant offset. The precision of the GFC instrument was about 10%, and the precision of the TDLAS system was better than 4%.

  10. New electronically tunable current-mode universal biquad filter using translinear current conveyors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumngern, Montree; Jongchanachavawat, Wirote; Dejhan, Kobchai

    2010-05-01

    In this study, a new electronically tunable current-mode universal filter with two inputs and two outputs employing one translinear current conveyor, one translinear current conveyor with controlled current gain and two grounded capacitors is presented. The proposed circuit offers the following attractive features: realisation of low-pass, band-pass, high-pass, band-stop and all-pass current responses from the same configuration; employment of the minimum active and passive components; no requirement of component matching conditions; independent current-control of the parameters natural frequency (ωo) and quality factor (Q); low active and passive sensitivities; and high impedance output. The characteristics of the proposed circuit are simulated using PSPICE to confirm the theory.

  11. Tunable bandpass microwave photonic filter with ultrahigh stopband attenuation and skirt selectivity.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fan; Yu, Yuan; Tang, Haitao; Xu, Lu; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-08-01

    we propose and demonstrate a bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) with ultrahigh stopband attenuation and skirt selectivity based on a simple signal cancellation technique. By injecting two phase modulated signals located on opposite sides of two resonant gain peaks of a Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifier (FP-SOA), two microwave frequency responses can be generated by the two input signals, respectively. The two frequency responses will add together within the passband but cancel each other out within the stopband, thus generating a MPF with simultaneous ultrahigh stopband attenuation and skirt selectivity. In the experiment the obtained MPF exhibits single passband in the range from 0 to 18 GHz and is tunable from 4 to 16 GHz by adjusting the laser wavelengths. During the tuning process the maximum stopband attenuation is 76.3 dB and the minimum 30-dB to 3-dB bandwidth shape factor is 3.5. PMID:27505828

  12. Correlated color temperature tunable white LED with a dynamic color filter.

    PubMed

    Chen, Haiwei; Zhu, Ruidong; Lee, Yun-Han; Wu, Shin-Tson

    2016-03-21

    We proposed a new device structure to dynamically tune the correlated color temperature (CCT) of a white light-emitting-diode (WLED). The key component is a dynamic color filter, consisting of a liquid crystal (LC) cell sandwiched between two cholesteric LC films whose Bragg reflection band covers the blue wavelength of the WLED. When a voltage is applied to the LC cell, the transmittance of blue light is changed, while the longer wavelength part remains unaffected, resulting in a tunable CCT. Validated by experiment, our design exhibits several advantages, such as reasonably wide tuning range (6916K to 3253K), low operation voltage (~3.2 V), simple device configuration, and low cost. It is a strong contender for next generation smart lighting. PMID:27136890

  13. Rapid spontaneous Raman light sheet microscopy using cw-lasers and tunable filters

    PubMed Central

    Rocha-Mendoza, Israel; Licea-Rodriguez, Jacob; Marro, Mónica; Olarte, Omar E.; Plata-Sanchez, Marcos; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    We perform rapid spontaneous Raman 2D imaging in light-sheet microscopy using continuous wave lasers and interferometric tunable filters. By angularly tuning the filter, the cut-on/off edge transitions are scanned along the excited Stokes wavelengths. This allows obtaining cumulative intensity profiles of the scanned vibrational bands, which are recorded on image stacks; resembling a spectral version of the knife-edge technique to measure intensity profiles. A further differentiation of the stack retrieves the Raman spectra at each pixel of the image which inherits the 3D resolution of the host light sheet system. We demonstrate this technique using solvent solutions and composites of polystyrene beads and lipid droplets immersed in agar and by imaging the C–H (2800-3100cm−1) region in a C. elegans worm. The image acquisition time results in 4 orders of magnitude faster than confocal point scanning Raman systems, allowing the possibility of performing fast spontaneous Raman·3D-imaging on biological samples. PMID:26417514

  14. Tunable microwave bandpass filter integrated power divider based on the high anisotropy electro-optic nematic liquid crystal.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yupeng; Liu, Yang; Li, Haiyan; Jiang, Di; Cao, Weiping; Chen, Hui; Xia, Lei; Xu, Ruimin

    2016-07-01

    A novel, compact microwave tunable bandpass filter integrated power divider, based on the high anisotropy electro-optic nematic liquid crystal, is proposed in this letter. Liquid crystal, as the electro-optic material, is placed between top inverted microstrip line and the metal plate. The proposed structure can realize continuous tunable bandpass response and miniaturization. The proposed design concept is validated by the good performance of simulation results and experimental results. The electro-optic material has shown great potential for microwave application. PMID:27475583

  15. Tunable microwave bandpass filter integrated power divider based on the high anisotropy electro-optic nematic liquid crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yupeng; Liu, Yang; Li, Haiyan; Jiang, Di; Cao, Weiping; Chen, Hui; Xia, Lei; Xu, Ruimin

    2016-07-01

    A novel, compact microwave tunable bandpass filter integrated power divider, based on the high anisotropy electro-optic nematic liquid crystal, is proposed in this letter. Liquid crystal, as the electro-optic material, is placed between top inverted microstrip line and the metal plate. The proposed structure can realize continuous tunable bandpass response and miniaturization. The proposed design concept is validated by the good performance of simulation results and experimental results. The electro-optic material has shown great potential for microwave application.

  16. Tunable photonic microwave notch filter using SOA-based single-longitudinal mode, dual-wavelength laser.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kwanil; Lee, Ju Han; Lee, Sang Bae

    2009-07-20

    A novel photonic microwave notch filter with capability of frequency tuning is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The scheme is based on a fiber Bragg grating (FBG)-based, single longitudinal mode, wavelength-spacing tunable dual-wavelength fiber laser and a dispersive fiber delay line. By using a symmetrical S-bending technique along the FBGs, the wavelength spacing of the laser can be tuned, which enables the microwave notch frequency tuning. Experimental results show that the notch rejection of more than 30 dB and the flexible tunability of notch frequency can be readily achieved in the range of 1.2 approximately 6.7 GHz. PMID:19654727

  17. Superfine resolution acoustooptic spectrum analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Homayoon; Lesh, James R.

    1991-01-01

    High resolution spectrum analysis of RF signals is required in applications such as the search for extraterrestrial intelligence, RF interference monitoring, or general purpose decomposition of signals. Sub-Hertz resolution in three-dimensional acoustooptic spectrum analysis is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated. The operation of a two-dimensional acoustooptic spectrum analyzer is extended to include time integration over a sequence of CCD frames.

  18. Discretely tunable Tm-doped fiber-based MOPA using FBG arrays as spectral filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiess, T.; Junaid, S.; Becker, M.; Rothhardt, M.; Bartelt, H.; Jäger, M.

    2016-03-01

    Over the past years, Thulium (Tm) -doped fiber lasers in the 2μm region have gained a lot of interest due to many potential applications in materials processing and biophotonics. Based on the broad gain regions spanning from 1800nm to 2100nm, they offer the perfect basis to implement broadly tunable and user-friendly light sources like they are increasingly demanded in spectroscopic applications. Recently, a novel tuning mechanism based on a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array as versatile spectral filter has been reported. This concept combines unique spectral freedom for customized tuning ranges and ultrabroad bandwidths with a fiber-integrated setup in order to maintain the advantages of the waveguide geometry. In this work, we demonstrate such a dispersion tuned and pulsed fiber laser in the Tm domain around 1950nm using a modulator and a discrete FBG array to control the emission wavelength. In order to comply with the demands of potential applications in biophotonics, for the first time, this tuning concept is realized in a polarization maintaining (PM) configuration ensuring linearly polarized output. While a simple FBG array is employed containing five gratings inscribed in PM fiber, we also outline the prospect to implement FBGs fabricated in a standard single mode fiber. The emission characteristics of the system are investigated showing pulse durations down to 11ns and a good spectral signal contrast. In order to highlight the prospect for tunable high-power operation, we have also implemented an amplification stage scaling the average power to more than 25W.

  19. The simulation and improved design of tunable channel drop filter using hexagonal photonic crystal ring resonator

    SciTech Connect

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar

    2014-10-15

    In this paper, we have proposed a new design of tunable two dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PhC) channel drop filter (CDF) using ring resonators. The increasing interest in photonic integrated circuits (PIC's) and the increasing use of all-optical fiber networks as backbones for global communication systems have been based in large part on the extremely wide optical transmission bandwidth provided by dielectric materials. Based on the analysis we present novel photonic crystal channel drop filters. Simulations demonstrate that these filters exhibit ideal transfer characteristics. Channel dropping filters (CDF's) that access one channel of a wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) signal while leaving other channels undisturbed are essential components of PIC's and optical communication systems. In this paper we have investigated such parameters which have an effect on resonant wavelength in this Channel Drop Filter, such as dielectric constant of inner, coupling, adjacent and whole rods of the structure. The dimensions of these structures are taken as 20a×19a and the area of the proposed structure is about 125.6μm{sup 2}; therefore this structure can be used in the future photonic integrated circuits. While using this design the dropping efficiency at the resonance of single ring are 100%. The spectrum of the power transmission is obtained with finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. FDTD method is the most famous method for PhC analysis. In this paper the dielectric rods have a dielectric constant of 10.65, so the refractive index is 3.26 and radius r=0.213a is located in air, where a is a lattice constant. In this we have used five scatter rods for obtaining more coupling efficiency; radius of scatter rods is set to 0.215a. The proposed structure is simulated with OptiFDTD.v.8.0 software, the different dielectric constant of rods equal to ε{sub r}−0.4, ε{sub r} and ε{sub r}+0.4 at wavelength of 1570 nm.

  20. The simulation & improved design of tunable channel drop filter using hexagonal photonic crystal ring resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chhipa, Mayur Kumar

    2014-10-01

    In this paper, we have proposed a new design of tunable two dimensional (2D) photonic crystal (PhC) channel drop filter (CDF) using ring resonators. The increasing interest in photonic integrated circuits (PIC's) and the increasing use of all-optical fiber networks as backbones for global communication systems have been based in large part on the extremely wide optical transmission bandwidth provided by dielectric materials. Based on the analysis we present novel photonic crystal channel drop filters. Simulations demonstrate that these filters exhibit ideal transfer characteristics. Channel dropping filters (CDF's) that access one channel of a wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) signal while leaving other channels undisturbed are essential components of PIC's and optical communication systems. In this paper we have investigated such parameters which have an effect on resonant wavelength in this Channel Drop Filter, such as dielectric constant of inner, coupling, adjacent and whole rods of the structure. The dimensions of these structures are taken as 20a×19a and the area of the proposed structure is about 125.6μm2; therefore this structure can be used in the future photonic integrated circuits. While using this design the dropping efficiency at the resonance of single ring are 100%. The spectrum of the power transmission is obtained with finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. FDTD method is the most famous method for PhC analysis. In this paper the dielectric rods have a dielectric constant of 10.65, so the refractive index is 3.26 and radius r=0.213a is located in air, where a is a lattice constant. In this we have used five scatter rods for obtaining more coupling efficiency; radius of scatter rods is set to 0.215a. The proposed structure is simulated with OptiFDTD.v.8.0 software, the different dielectric constant of rods equal to ɛr-0.4, ɛr and ɛr+0.4 at wavelength of 1570 nm.

  1. Collinear Acousto-Optical Transformation of Bessel Light Beams in Biaxial Gyrotropic Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyi, V. N.; Kulak, G. V.; Krokh, G. V.; Shakin, O. V.

    2016-05-01

    The collinear acousto-optical transformation of Bessel light beams in biaxial gyrotropic crystals into two annular, internal conical refraction beams with orthogonal elliptical polarization is studied. It is found that the diffraction efficiency is maximal (~50-60%) for low ultrasound intensities and varies slightly with further increases in acoustic power. At high ultrasound intensities, the intensities of the transmitted and diffracted annular beams differ insignificantly. The possible use of this acousto-optical interaction for creating collinear tuneable narrow-band acousto-optical filters at low ultrasonic frequencies is demonstrated.

  2. Tunable fiber ring laser with an intracavity high resolution filter employing two-dimensional dispersion and LCoS modulator.

    PubMed

    Sinefeld, David; Marom, Dan M

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a tunable fiber ring laser employing a two-dimensional dispersion arrangement filter, with the lasing determined by a liquid crystal on silicon (LCoS) spatial light modulator. Lasing wavelengths can be tuned discontinuously across the communication C-band at an addressable resolution of less than 200 MHz. We introduce full characterization of the laser output including phase and amplitude stability and short and long-term bandwidth measurements. PMID:22212771

  3. Dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with tunable wavelength spacing using a twin core fiber-based filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Guolu; Lou, Shuqin; Wang, Xin; Han, Bolin

    2014-05-01

    A dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser with tunable wavelength spacing was proposed and experimentally demonstrated by using a twin core fiber (TCF)-based filter. Benefiting from the polarization dependence of the TCF-based filter, the laser operated in dual-wavelength oscillation with two orthogonal polarization states. By adjusting the polarization controller, the wavelength spacing was tuned from 0.1 nm to 1.2 nm without shifting the centre position of the two wavelengths. By stretching the TCF, the two wavelengths were simultaneously tuned with fixed wavelength spacing. Such a dual-wavelength fiber laser could find applications in optical fiber sensors and microwave photonics generation.

  4. Electrically tunable spin filtering for electron tunneling between spin-resolved quantum Hall edge states and a quantum dot

    SciTech Connect

    Kiyama, H. Fujita, T.; Teraoka, S.; Oiwa, A.; Tarucha, S.

    2014-06-30

    Spin filtering with electrically tunable efficiency is achieved for electron tunneling between a quantum dot and spin-resolved quantum Hall edge states by locally gating the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) leads near the tunnel junction to the dot. The local gating can change the potential gradient in the 2DEG and consequently the edge state separation. We use this technique to electrically control the ratio of the dot–edge state tunnel coupling between opposite spins and finally increase spin filtering efficiency up to 91%, the highest ever reported, by optimizing the local gating.

  5. Note: Broadly tunable all-fiber ytterbium laser with 0.05 nm spectral width based on multimode interference filter

    SciTech Connect

    Mukhopadhyay, Pranab K. Gupta, Pradeep K.; Singh, Amarjeet; Sharma, Sunil K.; Bindra, Kushvinder S.; Oak, Shrikant M.

    2014-05-15

    A multimode interference filter with narrow transmission bandwidth and large self-imaging wavelength interval is constructed and implemented in an ytterbium doped fiber laser in all-fiber format for broad wavelength tunability as well as narrow spectral width of the output beam. The peak transmission wavelength of the multimode interference filter was tuned with the help of a standard in-fiber polarization controller. With this simple mechanism more than 30 nm (1038 nm–1070 nm) tuning range is demonstrated. The spectral width of the output beam from the laser was measured to be 0.05 nm.

  6. Electro-Mechanical Simulation of a Large Aperture MOEMS Fabry-Perot Tunable Filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuhn, Jonathan L.; Barclay, Richard B.; Greenhouse, Matthew A.; Mott, D. Brent; Satyapal, Shobita; Powers, Edward I. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We are developing a micro-machined electrostatically actuated Fabry-Perot tunable filter with a large clear aperture for application in high through-put wide-field imaging spectroscopy and lidar systems. In the first phase of this effort, we are developing key components based on coupled electro-mechanical simulations. In particular, the movable etalon plate design leverages high coating stresses to yield a flat surface in drum-head tension over a large diameter (12.5 mm). In this approach, the cylindrical silicon movable plate is back etched, resulting in an optically coated membrane that is suspended from a thick silicon support ring. Understanding the interaction between the support ring, suspended membrane, and coating is critical to developing surfaces that are flat to within stringent etalon requirements. In this work, we present the simulations used to develop the movable plate, spring suspension system, and electrostatic actuation mechanism. We also present results from tests of fabricated proof of concept components.

  7. A liquid-crystal-tunable-filter-based multispectral imaging system for prediction of apple fruit firmness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yankun; Lu, Renfu

    2004-11-01

    Firmness of apple fruit is an important quality attribute, which varies greatly in the same lot of fruit due to such factors as climatic condition, cultural practice, harvest time or maturity level, and postharvest handling and storage. This research developed a compact multispectral imaging system with a low cost digital camera and a liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF), and proposed a modified Lorentzian distribution (MLD) function to describe scattering profiles acquired from Red Delicious apples. The LCTF, which allows for the rapid, vibration-less selection of any wavelength in the visible/near-infrared range, was used to find optimal wavelengths over the spectral region between 650 nm and 1,000 nm for predicting apple fruit firmness. Radial scattering profiles were described accurately by the MLD function with four profile parameters for wavelengths between 650 nm and 1000 nm at an interval of 10 nm. Multi-linear regression (MLR) and cross-validation were performed on relating MLD parameters to fruit firmness. The prediction model gave good firmness predictions with the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.82 and the standard error of validation (SEV) of 6.64 N, which were considerably better than those obtained with visible/near-infrared spectroscopy.

  8. Investigation of liquid crystal Fabry-Perot tunable filters: design, fabrication, and polarization independence.

    PubMed

    Isaacs, Sivan; Placido, Frank; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim

    2014-10-10

    Liquid crystal Fabry-Perot tunable filters are investigated in detail, with special attention to their manufacturability, design, tolerances, and polarization independence. The calculations were performed both numerically and analytically using the 4×4 propagation matrix method. A simplified analytic expression for the propagation matrix is derived for the case of nematic LC in the homogeneous geometry. At normal incidence, it is shown that one can use the 2×2 Abeles matrix method; however, at oblique incidence, the 4×4 matrix method is needed. The effects of dephasing originating from wedge or noncollimated light beams are investigated. Due to the absorption of the indium tin oxide layer and as an electrode, its location within the mirror multilayered stack is very important. The optimum location is found to be within the stack and not on its top or bottom. Finally, we give more detailed experimental results of our polarization-independent configuration that uses polarization diversity with a Wollaston prism. PMID:25322437

  9. Hyperspectral imaging with liquid-crystal tunable filter for biological and agricultural assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Chengye; Heitschmidt, Jerry

    1999-01-01

    A hyperspectral imaging system has been developed to provide the capability of both airborne and ground/laboratory data acquisitions. The system consists of modular front imaging optics with a liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF), a CCD video camera, a frame grabber and a portable computer system. The spectral range is form 450 nm to 750 nm with a 10 nm bandpass for each band acquired. The system can capture different spectral images at a rate up to 14 images per second. Hyperspectral imaging with an LCTF provides a new method for hyperspectral image acquisition. The system allows the user to define a wavelength sequence of up to thirty-two spectrums specifically required for individual application, and can quickly switch from the current wavelength to the next during automated image acquisition. Hyperspectral images of crop fields, vegetation, fruits, and meat were successfully captured during laboratory experiments and airborne image acquisition. The constructed spectral image cube not only shows the spatial features of the target, but also reveals the individual pixels with unique spectral signatures. The imaging system with LCTF is, therefore, very useful in biological and agricultural assessment for detecting variations in crop fields, or defects in samples and products.

  10. Idler-free microwave photonic mixer integrated with a widely tunable and highly selective microwave photonic filter.

    PubMed

    Zou, Dan; Zheng, Xiaoping; Li, Shangyuan; Zhang, Hanyi; Zhou, Bingkun

    2014-07-01

    A novel structure consisting of an idler-free microwave photonic mixer integrated with a widely tunable and highly selective microwave photonic filter is presented, which is comprised of a spectrum-sliced broadband optical source, a dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator (DPMZM), and a spatial light amplitude and phase processor (SLAPP). By adjusting the optical phase shift in the DPMZM, the dispersion-induced mixing power fading can be eliminated. By applying a phase processor with the SLAPP, the distortion of the mixing filter brought upon by third-order dispersion is also compensated. Experiments are performed and show that the up/down-conversion signal has a clean spectrum and the mixing filter can be tuned from 12 to 20 GHz without any change to the passband shape. The out-of-band suppression ratio of the mixing filter is more than 40 dB, and the 3 dB bandwidth is 140 MHz. PMID:24978780

  11. A Bio-Realistic Analog CMOS Cochlea Filter With High Tunability and Ultra-Steep Roll-Off.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shiwei; Koickal, Thomas Jacob; Hamilton, Alister; Cheung, Rebecca; Smith, Leslie S

    2015-06-01

    This paper presents the design and experimental results of a cochlea filter in analog very large scale integration (VLSI) which highly resembles physiologically measured response of the mammalian cochlea. The filter consists of three specialized sub-filter stages which respectively provide passive response in low frequencies, actively tunable response in mid-band frequencies and ultra-steep roll-off at transition frequencies from pass-band to stop-band. The sub-filters are implemented in balanced ladder topology using floating active inductors. Measured results from the fabricated chip show that wide range of mid-band tuning including gain tuning of over 20 dB, Q factor tuning from 2 to 19 as well as the bio-realistic center frequency shift are achieved by adjusting only one circuit parameter. Besides, the filter has an ultra-steep roll-off reaching over 300 dB/dec. By changing biasing currents, the filter can be configured to operate with center frequencies from 31 Hz to 8 kHz. The filter is 9th order, consumes 59.5 ∼ 90.0 μW power and occupies 0.9 mm2 chip area. A parallel bank of the proposed filter can be used as the front-end in hearing prosthesis devices, speech processors as well as other bio-inspired auditory systems owing to its bio-realistic behavior, low power consumption and small size. PMID:25099631

  12. Acousto-optic tunable filter near-infrared spectroscopy for in-line monitoring liquid-liquid extraction of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis based on statistical analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Sha; Jin, Ye; Liu, Qi-An; Wu, Jian-Xiong; Bi, Yu-An; Wang, Zhen-Zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to monitor liquid-liquid extraction of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis (Zhizi in Chinese) using in-line near-infrared spectroscopy. Shanzhiside (SZS), deacetyl asperulosidic acid methyl ester (DAAME), genipin-1-β-D-gentiobioside (GG), geniposide (GS), total acids (TA) and soluble solid content (SSC) were selected as quality control indicators, and measured by reference methods. Both partial least-squares regression (PLSR) and back propagation artificial neural networks (BP-ANN) were applied to create models to predict the content of above indicators. Paired-samples t-test and nonparametric test were used to compare differences in predictive values between two models of each indicator. Relative standard error of prediction (RSEP) and mean absolute percentage error (MAPE) were used to evaluate the predictive accuracy of the established models. The results showed that there was no significant difference in predicting DAAME, GS and TA between two models. However, PLSR model gave better accuracy in predicting GG and SZS than BP-ANN model. The BP-ANN model of SSC was better than PLSR model. This study shows that NIR spectroscopy can be used for rapid and accurate analysis of quality control indicators in the liquid-liquid extraction of Zhizi. Simultaneously, this study can serve as technical support for the application of NIR spectroscopy in the industrial production process. PMID:26601419

  13. High Voltage Ramp Generator for Electro-Optically Tunable Filter for the MSE-CIF Diagnostics on NSTX.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ying; Levinton, Fred

    2004-11-01

    The motional Stark effect (MSE) diagnostic is routinely used to determine the q-profile in large fusion devices. To apply the MSE diagnostic to experiments with low magnetic fields such as NSTX (<1 T), a tunable birefringent Lyot filter is used with high throughput and high resolution which allows for a good signal-to-noise ratio. The birefringent filter is made from lithium-niobate crystals, which are coated with a layer of indium tin-oxide (ITO). The ITO layer is a transparent conductive coating. By applying an electric field across the crystal the index of refraction is varied. This allows tunability of the filter. Putting multiple crystals together and tuning them individually it is possible to pass certain wavelengths of light and reject others. A high voltage ramp generator circuit is under development to ramp a 5 kV signal using a simple design involving MOSFET ladders. The goal is to design the circuit so that it can ramp ±5000 volts at a frequency of around 1 kHz. This would allow the filter to sweep over a range of ˜ 1nm.

  14. A continuously tunable multi-tap complex-coefficient microwave photonic filter based on a tilted fiber Bragg grating.

    PubMed

    Shahoei, Hiva; Yao, Jianping

    2013-03-25

    The coupling coefficients of the cladding-mode resonances of a tilted fiber Bragg grating (TFBG) are linearly increasing or decreasing in different wavelength regions. Based on the Kramers-Kronig relations, when the coupling coefficients are linearly increasing, the phase shifts are linearly increasing correspondingly. This feature is employed, for the first time, for the implementation of a multi-tap continuously tunable microwave photonic filter with complex coefficients by using a TFBG. By locating the optical carriers of single-sideband-modulated signals at the cladding-mode resonances of the TFBG which has linearly increasing depths, linearly increasing phase shifts are introduced to the optical carriers. By beating the optical carriers with the single sidebands, the phase shifts are translated to the microwave signals, and thus complex coefficients with the required linearly increasing phase shifts are generated. The tunability of the complex coefficients is realized by optically pumping the TFBG which is written in an erbium/ytterbium (Er/Yb) co-doped fiber. A proof-of-concept experiment is performed; a three- and four-tap filter with a frequency tunable range of 150 and 120 MHz, respectively, are demonstrated. PMID:23546134

  15. Dual cut-off direct current-tunable microwave low-pass filter on superconducting Nb microstrips with asymmetric nanogrooves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobrovolskiy, Oleksandr V.; Huth, Michael

    2015-04-01

    We present a dual cut-off, dc-tunable low-pass microwave filter on a superconducting Nb microstrip with uniaxial asymmetric nanogrooves. The frequency response of the device was measured in the range 300 KHz-14 GHz at different temperatures, magnetic fields, and dc values. The microwave loss is most effectively reduced when the Abrikosov vortex lattice spatially matches the underlying washboard pinning landscape. The forward transmission coefficient S21(f) of the microstrip has a dc-tunable cut-off frequency fd which notably changes under dc bias reversal, due to the two different slope steepnesses of the pinning landscape. The device's operation principle relies upon a crossover from the weakly dissipative response of vortices at low frequencies when they are driven over the grooves, to the strongly dissipative response at high frequencies when the vortices are oscillating within one groove. The filter's cut-off frequency is the vortex depinning frequency tunable by the dc bias as it diminishes the pinning effect induced by the nanopattern. The reported results unveil an advanced microwave functionality of superconducting films with asymmetric (ratchet) pinning landscapes and are relevant for tuning the microwave loss in superconducting planar transmission lines.

  16. Tunable filter comparator for spectral calibration of near-ambient temperature blackbodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khromchenko, V. B.; Mekhontsev, S. N.; Hanssen, L. M.

    2007-09-01

    The calibration of infrared (IR) radiometers, thermal imagers and electro-optical systems relies on use of extended area blackbodies (BB) operating in the ambient environment. "Flat plate" designs, typically using a thermoelectric heat pump backed with an air- or liquid-cooled radiator, allow one to adequately meet the requirements of geometrical size and temperature span. The tradeoff comes in the form of limited temperature uniformity and lower emissivity that such an approach can provide given the limitations in achievable thermal conductivity of the plate and reflectance of the black paint, respectively. The availability of spectrally resolved radiance temperature data for infrared calibrators has become especially vital in the last few years with the widespread use of multi- and hyper-spectral electro-optical systems that enable better detection and identification of targets. In an effort to increase the measurement accuracy of IR spectral radiance of near-ambient BB calibrators, NIST has recently built a dedicated capability which is a part of its new AIRI (Advanced Infrared Radiometry and Imaging) facility. The Tunable Filter Comparator (TFC) is a key new element in this setup, allowing us to perform a precise comparison of the unit under test (UUT) with two reference blackbodies of known temperatures and emissivity. The report describes the major design features of the TFC comparator, the algorithm used for signal processing, and results of a performance evaluation of the TFC. The TFC development has enabled us to achieve BB radiance temperature comparisons with a standard deviation of 5 to 15 mK at temperatures of 15-150 C across the 3 to 5 µm and 8 to 12 µm atmospheric band ranges with a relative spectral resolution of 2 to 3%.

  17. Flux-Calibrated Emission-Line Imaging of Extended Sources Using GTC/OSIRIS Tunable Filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayya, Y. D.; Rosa González, D.; Vega, O.; Méndez-Abreu, J.; Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E.; Bertone, E.; Rodríguez-Merino, L. H.; Muñoz-Tuñón, C.; Rodríguez-Espinosa, J. M.; Sánchez Almeida, J.; Aguerri, J. A. L.

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the utility of the tunable filters (TFs) for obtaining flux-calibrated emission-line maps of extended objects such as galactic nebulae and nearby galaxies using the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) at the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC). Despite the relatively large field of view (FoV) of OSIRIS (8' × 8'), the change in wavelength across the field (~80 Å) and the long tail of the TF spectral response function are hindrances for obtaining accurate flux-calibrated emission-line maps of extended sources. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate that emission-line maps useful for diagnostics of nebulae can be generated over the entire FoV of OSIRIS if we make use of theoretically well-understood characteristics of TFs. We have successfully generated the flux-calibrated images of the nearby large late-type spiral galaxy M101 in the emission lines of Hα, [N II]λ6583, [S II]λ6716 and [S II]λ6731. We find that the present uncertainty in setting the central wavelength of TFs (~1 Å) is the biggest source of error in the emission-line fluxes. By comparing the Hα fluxes of H II regions in our images with the fluxes derived from Hα images obtained using narrow-band filters, we estimate an error of ~11% in our fluxes. The flux-calibration of the images was carried out by fitting the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) griz magnitudes of in-frame stars with the stellar spectra from the SDSS spectral database. This method resulted in an accuracy of 3% in flux-calibration of any narrow-band image, which is as good as, if not better than, what has been feasible using the observations of spectrophotometric standard stars. Thus time-consuming calibration images need not be taken. A user-friendly script under the IRAF environment was developed and is available on request. Based on observations made with the Gran Telescopio Canarias (GTC), installed in the Spanish Observatorio del Roque de los Muchachos of the

  18. Tunable all-optical single-bandpass photonic microwave filter based on spectrally sliced broad optical source and phase modulation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ming; Pan, Wei; Zou, Xihua; Luo, Bin; Yan, Lianshan; Liu, Xinkai

    2013-01-10

    A tunable all-optical single-bandpass photonic microwave filter (PMF) based on spectrally sliced broadband optical source and phase modulation is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. A broadband optical source and a Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) are used to generate continuous optical spectral samples, which are employed to form a finite impulse response filter with a single-bandpass response with the help of a single-mode fiber. A phase modulator is then adopted to eliminate the baseband components in the filtering response. The center frequency of the PMF can be tuned by changing the free spectral range of the MZI. An experiment is performed, and the results demonstrate that the proposed PMF has a single-bandpass without baseband components and a tuning range of 5-15 GHz. PMID:23314649

  19. Tunable channel-drop filters consisting of polymeric Bragg reflectors and a mode sorting asymmetric X-junction.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin-Soo; Park, Tea-Hyun; Chu, Woo-Sung; Lee, Chang-Hee; Shin, Sang-Yung; Oh, Min-Cheol

    2015-06-29

    A tunable channel-drop filter as essential component for the wavelength-division-multiplexing optical communication system has been demonstrated, which is based on polymer waveguide Bragg reflectors. For an ordinary Bragg reflector, the filtered signal is reflected toward the input waveguide. Thus an external circulator is required to separate the filtered signal from the input port, though it increases the total footprint and cost. For this purpose, we employed dual Bragg reflectors and a mode sorting asymmetric X-junction. The Bragg reflector exhibited a maximum reflectivity of 94% for a 6-mm long grating, a 3-dB bandwidth of 0.39 nm and a 20-dB bandwidth of 2.6 nm. The mode sorting crosstalk in asymmetric X-junction was less than -20 dB, and linear wavelength tuning was achieved over 10 nm at the applied thermal power of 377 mW. PMID:26191731

  20. Tunable Fabry-Perot filter in cobalt doped fiber formed by optically heated fiber Bragg gratings pair

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ying; Zhou, Bin; Zhang, Liang; He, Sailing

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, a tunable fiber Fabry-Perot (F-P) filter by all-optical heating is proposed. Two high reflective fiber Bragg gratings (FBG) fabricated in cobalt doped single mode fiber form the F-P cavity. The cobalt-doped fiber used here is an active fiber, and it transforms optical power from a control laser into heat effectively due to the nonradiative processes. The generated heat raises the refraction index of the fiber and enlarges the F-P cavity's length, realizing the all-optical tuning characteristics. By adjusting the power of the control laser, the resonant wavelength of our proposed fiber F-P filter can be high precisely controlled. The cavity length of the filter is carefully designed to make sure the longitude mode spacing is comparable to the grating bandwidth, making it single mode operating.

  1. Microwave photonic filter with two independently tunable passbands based on paralleled fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometers and dispersive medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zuowei; Fu, Hongyan; Chen, Hao; Wu, Congxian; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping

    2015-09-01

    In this article, we propose and experimentally demonstrate a novel microwave photonics filter (MPF) with two independently tunable passbands. The MPF is based on a sliced broadband optical source and a dispersive medium, and two paralleled fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometers (FMZIs) have been employed as the optical spectrum slicer. A coil of single-mode fiber has been used as a dispersion medium, which introduces time delay for each tap. A stable dual-passband MPF has been obtained, and the experimental results show that each passband of the MPF can be tuned freewill by adjusting the variable optical delay line (VODL) in each of the FMZIs.

  2. Acousto-optic devices for operation with 2μm fibre lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, J. D.; Stevens, G.; Shardlow, P. C.

    2016-03-01

    Fibre lasers operating in the 2μm region are of increasing interest for a range of applications, including laser machining and biomedical systems. The large mode area compared to 1μm fibre lasers combined with operation in an "eye-safe" region of the spectrum makes them particularly attractive. When developing fibre lasers at 1μm and 1·5μm manufacturers were able to call upon enabling technologies used by the telecoms industry, but at longer wavelengths, including 2μm, many such components are either unavailable or immature. We report on recent developments of Acousto-Optic Modulators and Tunable Filters that are specifically optimised for use with fibre systems operating at or around 2μm. AO devices are interesting due to their ability to conserve spatial-coherence, making them appropriate for use with single-mode optical fibres. We describe how the choice of interaction medium is an important consideration, particularly affecting the drive power and the polarisation behaviour of the device - the latter being an important parameter when used in a fibre system. We also describe two designs of AO Tunable Filter intended for laser tuning. Both designs have been demonstrated intracavity in 2μm fibre lasers. The first gives exceptionally narrow resolution (δλ/λ<0·1%). The second design is of a novel type of AOTF where a matched pair of AOTFs is configured to give a substantially net zero frequency-shift with little or no loss of pointing stability, any minor deviations in manufacture being self-compensated. Furthermore, small controlled frequency-shifts (up to about 10kHz) may be introduced with little or no detriment to the alignment of the system.

  3. All-fiber widely tunable thulium laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, G.; Legg, T.

    2016-03-01

    We present results from an all-fibre thulium laser system that can be tuned to any wavelength between 1710 - 2110 nm, without using any moving mechanical parts. An Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) is used as the tuning element, which allows for the wavelength to be tuned in ~ 20 μs. Core-pumped and cladding pumped thulium fibres are used to enable lasing action across the wavelength range. We use in-house fabricated fused fibre couplers and combiners that have a flattened coupling response with wavelength to allow for the system to be built in an all fibre design. These couplers have a coupling response that only varies by +/- 10% over the 400 nm operating range. The laser can output powers between 1-5 mW over 1710 - 2110 nm and has a linewidth of <0.2 nm. An Acousto-optic modulator is used as a switch on the output of the laser to switch the signal between core-pumped and cladding-pumped amplifier stages. This allows for the output signals to be amplified to ~1W levels.

  4. First Light for the Near-Infrared Narrow-Band Tunable Birefringent Filter of the Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, W.; Hartkorn, K.; Ma, J.; Wang, J.; Xu, Y.; Spirock, T.; Denker, C.; Wang, H.

    2005-05-01

    A new near-infrared, narrow-band tunable birefringent filter has been developed by BBSO/NJIT. This filter, one of the first Lyot filters in the near-infrared, has a FWHM of about 2.5 ~Å at the design wavelength of 1.5648 μm and is used to observe the deepest levels of the photosphere. New techniques were employed in the design, including liquid crystal retarders to tune the center wavelength in range of ± 100 ~Å. After finishing the calibration and evaluation of the filter at the Evans Facility of the NSO at Sacramento Peak, high spatial resolution filtergrams and imaging spectroscopy observations were carried out at the Dunn Solar Telescope of NSO in December 2004 with the use of the high-order Adaptive Optics System. For some of these observations, the Lyot filter was combined with a Fabry-Perot Etalon to achieve a much higher spectral resolution. We discuss the calibration methods and present some preliminary observation results.

  5. Versatile tunable current-mode universal biquadratic filter using MO-DVCCs and MOSFET-based electronic resistors.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua-Pin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a versatile tunable current-mode universal biquadratic filter with four-input and three-output employing only two multioutput differential voltage current conveyors (MO-DVCCs), two grounded capacitors, and a well-known method for replacement of three grounded resistors by MOSFET-based electronic resistors. The proposed configuration exhibits high-output impedance which is important for easy cascading in the current-mode operations. The proposed circuit can be used as either a two-input three-output circuit or a three-input single-output circuit. In the operation of two-input three-output circuit, the bandpass, highpass, and bandreject filtering responses can be realized simultaneously while the allpass filtering response can be easily obtained by connecting appropriated output current directly without using additional stages. In the operation of three-input single-output circuit, all five generic filtering functions can be easily realized by selecting different three-input current signals. The filter permits orthogonal controllability of the quality factor and resonance angular frequency, and no inverting-type input current signals are imposed. All the passive and active sensitivities are low. Postlayout simulations were carried out to verify the functionality of the design. PMID:24982963

  6. Versatile Tunable Current-Mode Universal Biquadratic Filter Using MO-DVCCs and MOSFET-Based Electronic Resistors

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a versatile tunable current-mode universal biquadratic filter with four-input and three-output employing only two multioutput differential voltage current conveyors (MO-DVCCs), two grounded capacitors, and a well-known method for replacement of three grounded resistors by MOSFET-based electronic resistors. The proposed configuration exhibits high-output impedance which is important for easy cascading in the current-mode operations. The proposed circuit can be used as either a two-input three-output circuit or a three-input single-output circuit. In the operation of two-input three-output circuit, the bandpass, highpass, and bandreject filtering responses can be realized simultaneously while the allpass filtering response can be easily obtained by connecting appropriated output current directly without using additional stages. In the operation of three-input single-output circuit, all five generic filtering functions can be easily realized by selecting different three-input current signals. The filter permits orthogonal controllability of the quality factor and resonance angular frequency, and no inverting-type input current signals are imposed. All the passive and active sensitivities are low. Postlayout simulations were carried out to verify the functionality of the design. PMID:24982963

  7. Frequency-tunable optoelectronic oscillator using a dual-mode amplified feedback laser as an electrically controlled active microwave photonic filter.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dan; Pan, Biwei; Chen, Haibo; Zhao, Lingjuan

    2015-09-15

    A widely tunable optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) based on a self-injection-locked monolithic dual-mode amplified feedback laser (DM-AFL) is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. In the proposed OEO structure, the DM-AFL functions as an active tunable microwave photonic filter (MPF). By tuning the injection current applied on the amplifier section of the AFL, tunable microwave outputs ranging from 32 to 41 GHz and single sideband phase noises below -97  dBc/Hz at 10 kHz offset from the carriers were realized. PMID:26371931

  8. Acousto-optic-tunable-filter-based spectropolarimetric imagers for medical diagnostic applications--instrument design point of view.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neelam

    2005-01-01

    Compact optical imagers that can detect both spectral and polarization signatures are required in many biomedical applications. An acousto-optic-tunable-filter (AOTF)-based imager is ideally suited to provide both agile spectral and polarization signatures. Such an imager can be readily used for real-time in vivo medical diagnostic applications. We develop a family of small, robust, and programmable hyperspectral imagers operating from the ultraviolet (UV) to the long-wave IR (LWIR). Such imagers require minimal data processing because they can acquire images at only select wavelengths of interest. We use AOTFs made of KDP, TeO2, and TAS with Si-based CCD, InGaAs, InSb, and HgCdTe cameras to cover different spectral regions from the UV to the LWIR. Operation of each of these imagers and image acquisition is computer controlled. The most developed imager covers the visible to near-infrared (VNIR) region from 400 to 900 nm, with a 10-nm spectral resolution at 600 nm, it uses an electronically tunable TeO2 AOTF as a bandpass filter, and a nematic liquid crystal retarder to change polarization. We describe our concept in the development of these imagers and present new results obtained using the VNIR imager. PMID:16292960

  9. MWIR/LWIR filter based on Liquid-Crystal Fabry-Perot structure for tunable spectral imaging detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huaidong; Muhammad, Afzal; Luo, Jun; Tong, Qing; Lei, Yu; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Xie, Changsheng

    2015-03-01

    An electrically tunable medium-wave infrared (MWIR)/long-wave infrared (LWIR) filter based on the key structure of Liquid-Crystal (LC) Fabry-Perot (FP), which works in the wavelength range from 2.5 μm to 12 μm, is designed and fabricated successfully in this paper. According to the optical interference principle of the FP cavity and electrically controlled birefringence of nematic LC molecules, the particular functions including spectral selection and spectral staring and spectral adjustment, can be realized by the developed MWIR/LWIR filter driven and controlled electrically. As to the LC-FP filter, both planar reflective mirrors are shaped by depositing a layer of aluminum (Al) film (∼60 nm) over one side of double-side polished Zinc Selenide (ZnSe) wafer (∼1 mm), and then polyimide (PI) layer with the thickness of ∼100 nm is coated directly on Al film. With typical sandwich architecture, the depth of the cavity with nematic LC molecules sealed in is ∼7.5 μm. To make sure the LC molecules parallel aligned and twist regularly under voltage driving signal applied on Al film, which also acts as electrode, the V-grooves are formed in PI layer with the depth of ∼90 nm and the width of ∼350 nm at average by strong rubbing. The typical transmission spectrum in MWIR&LWIR wavelength range and several spectral images in MWIR wavelength range based on the fabricated LC-FP filter, have been obtained through applying a voltage driving-signal with different root-means-square (RMS) value over the electrodes of LC-FP filter in the selected voltage range from 0VRMS to 19.8VRMS. The testing result demonstrates a prospect of realization smart spectral imaging and further integrating the LC-FP filter with infrared focal plane arrays (FPAs) to achieve the purpose infrared multispectral imaging. The developed MWIR&LWIR LC-FP filters show some obvious advantages such as wide working wavelength range, electrically tunable spectral selection, ultra-compact, low cost, being

  10. Tunable Fabry-Perot filter for imaging spectroscopy in the infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarze, Craig R.; Rentz, Julia R.; Carlson, David L.; Vaillancourt, Robert M.; Genetti, George J.; Engel, James R.

    2002-02-01

    We present a new hyperspectral imaging system for the long wave infrared (LWIR) based on a tunable first-order Fabry-Perot Scanning Spectrometer (FPSS). The FPSS operates over 8 O 12 micrometers with a spectral resolution of 1% of the wavelength. The FPSS has a 22 degree field of view and a spatial resolution of 0.11 degrees. The key components of the FPSS system are the collection optics, a tunable Fabry-Perot etalon, optical position sensors, a closed-loop positioning system, an uncooled microbolometer focal plane array, a digital frame grabber card, and a user-friendly Graphical User Interface (GUI).

  11. First Light of the Near-Infrared Narrow-Band Tunable Birefringent Filter at Big Bear Solar Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Wenda; Hartkorn, Klaus; Ma, Jun; Xu, Yan; Spirock, Tom; Wang, Haimin; Goode, Philip R.

    2006-10-01

    We discuss a near-infrared (NIR) narrow-band tunable birefringent filter system newly developed by the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). This is one of the first narrow-bandpass NIR filter systems working at 1.56 μm which is used for the observation of the deepest solar photosphere. Four stages of calcite were used to obtain a bandpass of 2.5 Å along with a free spectral range (FSR) of 40 Å. Some unique techniques were implemented in the design, including liquid crystal variable retarders (LCVRs) to tune the bandpass in a range of ±100 Å, a wide field configuration to provide up to 2° incident angle, and oil-free structure to make it more compact and handy. After performing calibration and characteristic evaluation at the Evans Facility of the National Solar Observatory at Sacramento Peak (NSO/SP), a series of high-resolution filtergrams and imaging polarimetry observations were carried out with the Dunn Solar Telescope of NSO/SP and the 65-cm telescope of BBSO, in conjunction with the high-order adaptive optics system and the Fabry-Pérot Interferometer (FPI). In this paper, we describe the optical design and discuss the calibration method. Preliminary observations show that it is capable of serving as either a stand-alone narrow-band filter for NIR filtergram observations or an order-sorting filter of a FPI applied to NIR two-dimensional imaging spectro-polarimetry.

  12. The Aerosol Limb Imager: acousto-optic imaging of limb scattered sunlight for stratospheric aerosol profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elash, B. J.; Bourassa, A. E.; Loewen, P. R.; Lloyd, N. D.; Degenstein, D. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Aerosol Limb Imager (ALI) is an optical remote sensing instrument designed to image scattered sunlight from the atmospheric limb. These measurements are used to retrieve spatially resolved information of the stratospheric aerosol distribution, including spectral extinction coefficient and particle size. Here we present the design, development and test results of an ALI prototype instrument. The long term goal of this work is the eventual realization of ALI on a satellite platform in low earth orbit, where it can provide high spatial resolution observations, both in the vertical and cross-track. The instrument design uses a large aperture Acousto-Optic Tunable Filter (AOTF) to image the sunlit stratospheric limb in a selectable narrow wavelength band ranging from the visible to the near infrared. The ALI prototype was tested on a stratospheric balloon flight from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) launch facility in Timmins, Canada, in September 2014. Preliminary analysis of the hyperspectral images indicate that the radiance measurements are of high quality, and we have used these to retrieve vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosol extinction coefficient from 650-1000 nm, along with one moment of the particle size distribution. Those preliminary results are promising and development of a satellite prototype of ALI within the Canadian Space Agency is ongoing.

  13. Wavelength-spacing-tunable multichannel filter incorporating a sampled chirped fiber Bragg grating based on a symmetrical chirp-tuning technique without center wavelength shift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Young-Geun; Dong, Xinyong; Lee, Ju Han; Lee, Sang Bae

    2006-12-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple and flexible scheme for a wavelength-spacing-tunable multichannel filter exploiting a sampled chirped fiber Bragg grating based on a symmetrical modification of the chirp ratio. Symmetrical bending along a sampled chirped fiber Bragg grating attached to a flexible cantilever beam induces a variation of the chirp ratio and a reflection chirp bandwidth of the grating without a center wavelength shift. Accordingly, the wavelength spacing of a sampled chirped fiber Bragg grating is continuously controlled by the reflection chirp bandwidth variation of the grating corresponding to the bending direction, which allows for realization of an effective wavelength-spacing-tunable multichannel filter. Based on the proposed technique, we achieve the continuous tunability of the wavelength spacing in a range from 1.51 to 6.11 nm, depending on the bending direction of the cantilever beam.

  14. Development and Acceptance Testing of the Dual Wheel Mechanism for the Tunable Filter Imager Cryogenic Instrument on the JWST

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leckie, Martin; Ahmad, Zakir

    2010-01-01

    The James Webb Space Telescope (JWST) will carry four scientific instruments, one of which is the Tunable Filter Imager (TFI), which is an instrument within the Fine Guidance Sensor. The Dual Wheel (DW) mechanism is being designed, built and tested by COM DEV Ltd. under contract from the Canadian Space Agency. The DW mechanism includes a pupil wheel (PW) holding seven coronagraphic masks and two calibration elements and a filter wheel (FW) holding nine blocking filters. The DW mechanism must operate at both room temperature and at 35K. Successful operation at 35K comprises positioning each optical element with the required repeatability, for several thousand occasions over the five year mission. The paper discusses the results of testing geared motors and bearings at the cryogenic temperature. In particular bearing retainer design and PGM-HT material, the effects of temperature gradients across bearings and the problems associated with cooling mechanisms down to cryogenic temperatures. The results of additional bearing tests are described that were employed to investigate an abnormally high initial torque experienced at cryogenic temperatures. The findings of these tests, was that the bearing retainer and the ball/race system could be adversely affected by the large temperature change from room temperature to cryogenic temperature and also the temperature gradient across the bearing. The DW mechanism is now performing successfully at both room temperature and at cryogenic temperature. The life testing of the mechanism is expected to be completed in the first quarter of 2010.

  15. Wavelength modulation spectroscopy at 1530.32 nm for measurements of acetylene based on Fabry-Perot tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun-Long, Li; Bing-Chu, Yang; Xue-Mei, Xu

    2016-02-01

    Sensitive detection of acetylene (C2H2) is performed by absorption spectroscopy and wavelength modulation spectroscopy (WMS) based on Fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter (FFP-TF) at 1530.32 nm. After being calibrated by Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG), FFP-TF is frequency-multiplexed and modulated at 20 Hz and 2.5 kHz respectively to achieve wavelength modulation. The linearity with 0.9907 fitting coefficient is obtained by measuring different concentrations in a 100 ppmv-400 ppmv range. Furthermore, the stability of the system is analyzed by detecting 50 ppmv and 100 ppmv standard gases for 2 h under room temperature and ambient pressure conditions respectively. The precision of 11 ppmv is achieved by calculating the standard deviation. Therefore, the measuring system of C2H2 detection can be applied in practical applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61172047 and 61071025).

  16. Electrically tunable infrared filter based on the liquid crystal Fabry-Perot structure for spectral imaging detection.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaidong; Muhammmad, Afzal; Luo, Jun; Tong, Qing; Lei, Yu; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Xie, Changsheng

    2014-09-01

    An electrically tunable infrared (IR) filter based on the liquid crystal (LC) Fabry-Perot (FP) key structure, which works in the wavelength range from 5.5 to 12 μm, is designed and fabricated successfully. Both planar reflective mirrors with a very high reflectivity of ∼95%, which are shaped by depositing a layer of aluminum (Al) film over one side of a double-sided polished zinc selenide wafer, are coupled into a dual-mirror FP cavity. The LC materials are filled into the FP cavity with a thickness of ∼7.5  μm for constructing the LC-FP filter, which is a typical type of sandwich architecture. The top and bottom mirrors of the FP cavity are further coated by an alignment layer with a thickness of ∼100  nm over Al film. The formed alignment layer is rubbed strongly to shape relatively deep V-grooves to anchor LC molecules effectively. Common optical tests show some particular properties; for instance, the existing three transmission peaks in the measured wavelength range, the minimum full width at half-maximum being ∼120  nm, and the maximum adjustment extent of the imaging wavelength being ∼500  nm through applying the voltage driving signal with a root mean square (RMS) value ranging from 0 to ∼19.8  V. The experiment results are consistent with the simulation, according to our model setup. The spectral images obtained in the long-wavelength IR range, through the LC-FP device driven by the voltage signal with a different RMS value, demonstrates the prospect of the realization of smart spectral imaging and further integrating the LC-FP filter with IR focal plane arrays. The developed LC-FP filters show some advantages, such as electrically tunable imaging wavelength, very high structural and photoelectronic response stability, small size and low power consumption, and a very high filling factor of more than 95% compared with common MEMS-FP spectral imaging approaches. PMID:25321356

  17. Tunable laser diode system for noninvasive blood glucose measurements.

    PubMed

    Olesberg, Jonathon T; Arnold, Mark A; Mermelstein, Carmen; Schmitz, Johannes; Wagner, Joachim

    2005-12-01

    Optical sensing of glucose would allow more frequent monitoring and tighter glucose control for people with diabetes. The key to a successful optical noninvasive measurement of glucose is the collection of an optical spectrum with a very high signal-to-noise ratio in a spectral region with significant glucose absorption. Unfortunately, the optical throughput of skin is low due to absorption and scattering. To overcome these difficulties, we have developed a high-brightness tunable laser system for measurements in the 2.0-2.5 microm wavelength range. The system is based on a 2.3 microm wavelength, strained quantum-well laser diode incorporating GaInAsSb wells and AlGaAsSb barrier and cladding layers. Wavelength control is provided by coupling the laser diode to an external cavity that includes an acousto-optic tunable filter. Tuning ranges of greater than 110 nm have been obtained. Because the tunable filter has no moving parts, scans can be completed very quickly, typically in less than 10 ms. We describe the performance of the present laser system and avenues for extending the tuning range beyond 400 nm. PMID:16390586

  18. An arrayed infrared filter based on liquid crystal Fabry-Perot effect for electrically tunable spectral imaging detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Jiuning; Tong, Qing; Luo, Jun; Lei, Yu; Zhang, Xinyu; Sang, Hongshi; Xie, Changsheng

    2015-12-01

    An arrayed electrically tunable infrared (IR) filter based on the key structure of liquid crystal Fabry-Perot (LC-FP) working in the wavelength range from 2.5 to 12 μm, is designed and fabricated successfully. According to the electrically controlled birefringence characteristics of nematic LC molecules, the refractive index of LC materials filled into a prefabricated microcavity can be adjusted by the spatial electric field stimulated between the top aluminum electrode patterned by conventional UV-photolithography and the bottom aluminum electrode in the LC-FP. The particular functions including key spectral selection and spectral adjustment, can be performed by the developed LC-FP filter driven and controlled electrically. Our experiments show that the maximum transmittance of the transmission peaks is ~24% and the peaks of transmission spectrum shift through applying different voltage signals with a root mean square (RMS) value ranging from 0 to ~21.7Vrms. The experimental results are consistent with the simulation according to the model constructed by us. As a 4-channel array-type IR filter, the top electrode of the device is composed of four same sub-electrodes, which is powered, respectively, to select desired transmission spectrum. Each of the units in the device is operated separately and synchronously, which means that spectral images of the same object can be obtained with different wavelengths in one shot. Without any mechanical parts, the developed LC-FP filter exhibits several advantages including ultra-small size, low cost, high reliability, high spectral selectivity, and compact integration.

  19. Tunable narrowband microwave photonic filter created by stimulated Brillouin scattering from a silicon nanowire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casas-Bedoya, Alvaro; Morrison, Blair; Pagani, Mattia; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J.

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate the first functional signal processing device based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in a silicon nanowire. We use only 1 dB of on-chip SBS gain to create an RF photonic notch filter with 48 dB of suppression, 98 MHz linewidth, and 6 GHz frequency tuning. This device has potential applications in on-chip microwave signal processing and establishes the foundation for the first CMOS-compatible high performance RF photonic filter.

  20. In-plane deeply-etched optical MEMS notch filter with high-speed tunability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabry, Yasser M.; Eltagoury, Yomna M.; Shebl, Ahmed; Soliman, Mostafa; Sadek, Mohamed; Khalil, Diaa

    2015-12-01

    Notch filters are used in spectroscopy, multi-photon microscopy, fluorescence instrumentation, optical sensors and other life science applications. One type of notch filter is based on a fiber-coupled Fabry-Pérot cavity, which is formed by a reflector (external mirror) facing a dielectric-coated end of an optical fiber. Tailoring this kind of optical filter for different applications is possible because the external mirror has fewer mechanical and optical constraints. In this paper we present optical modeling and implementation of a fiber-coupled Fabry-Pérot filter based on dielectric-coated optical fiber inserted into a micromachined fiber groove facing a metallized micromirror, which is driven by a high-speed MEMS actuator. The optical MEMS chip is fabricated using deep reactive ion etching (DRIE) technology on a silicon on insulator wafer, where the optical axis is parallel to the substrate (in-plane) and the optical/mechanical components are self-aligned by the photolithographic process. The DRIE etching depth is 150 μm, chosen to increase the micromirror optical throughput and improving the out-of-plane stiffness of the MEMS actuator. The MEMS actuator type is closing-gap, while its quality factor is almost doubled by slotting the fixed plate. A low-finesse Fabry-Pérot interferometer is formed by the metallized surface of the micromirror and a cleaved end of a standard single-mode fiber, for characterization of the MEMS actuator stroke and resonance frequency. The actuator achieves a travel distance of 800 nm at a resonance frequency of 89.9 kHz. The notch filter characteristics were measured using an optical spectrum analyzer, and the filter exhibits a free spectral range up to 100 nm and a notch rejection ratio up to 20 dB around a wavelength of 1300 nm. The presented device provides batch processing and low-cost production of the filter.

  1. Tunable multi-wavelength thulium-doped fiber laser incorporating two-stage cascaded Sagnac loop comb filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Lianqing; He, Wei; Dong, Mingli; Lou, Xiaoping; Luo, Fei

    2016-08-01

    A tunable multi-wavelength narrow-linewidth thulium-doped fiber laser employing two-stage cascaded Sagnac loop mirrors is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The designed fiber laser is composed of a pump source, wavelength division multiplex, circulator, thulium-doped fiber, polarization controllers (PCs), couplers and polarization-maintaining fibers (PMFs). Two cascaded Sagnac loops are used as the cavity reflector and filter, and the proposed filter is fabricated using two sections of PMFs with 2-m and 1-m lengths, respectively. In the experiment, the laser threshold is 110 mW, and laser can emit single, double, triple, quadruple and quintuple wavelengths in the spectral range of 1873-1901 nm through the simultaneous adjustment of the two PCs. The power fluctuations and 3-dB linewidth are less than 2.1 dB and 0.2 nm, respectively, over 10 min at room temperature, and the side-mode suppression ratio is greater than 20 dB. The proposed laser will be useful in various fields, such as spectral analysis, fiber sensing and optical communication.

  2. Fast wavelength-tunable picosecond pulses from a passively mode-locked Er fiber laser using a galvanometer-driven intracavity filter.

    PubMed

    Ozeki, Yasuyuki; Tashiro, Daigo

    2015-06-15

    We experimentally investigate fast wavelength-tuning characteristics of a polarization-maintaining Er fiber laser, which is mode-locked with a semiconductor saturable absorber mirror. Wavelength tuning was accomplished with an intracavity filter incorporating a galvanometer mirror and a diffraction grating. Within the tunability of 30 nm, we achieved a wavelength-tuning speed of <5 ms. We also show that the variation of repetition rates can be suppressed to <200 Hz by simply shifting the position of the grating. The presented scheme for generating wavelength-tunable pulses will be potentially useful for coherent Raman spectral imaging. PMID:26193501

  3. Tunable filter and optical buffer based on dual plasmonic ring resonators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Boxun; Li, Hongjian; Zeng, Lili; Zhan, Shiping; Cao, Guangtao; He, Zhihui; Yang, Hui

    2015-02-01

    We demonstrate the realization of on chip plasmon-induced transparency using dual ring resonators coupling to metal-dielectric-metal bus waveguide. The theoretical results agree well with the finite-difference time-domain simulative ones. Moreover, by adjusting the radius, width, as well as the coupling distance can efficiently operate the wavelengths and bandwidths of our filter. In theory, we propose a feasible method to improve the trade-off between transmission and quality factor. Finally, the ultra-compact structure possesses slow light effect and manifests a low group velocity, which provides a guideline to control the light and has potential application in optical filter and optical buffer.

  4. Tunable wavevector and spin filtering in graphene induced by resonant tunneling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Wei-Tao; Li, Wen; Wang, Yong-Long; Jiang, Hua; Xu, Chang-Tan

    2013-08-01

    The resonant tunneling in graphene superlattices with an exchange field is studied theoretically. The results show that a resonant tunneling occurs in the transmission gap by virtue of the transverse wave vector. The position, width, and number of resonant tunneling can be effectively manipulated by adjusting the barrier strength, barrier width, and well width, respectively, which indicates the remarkable wavevector filtering behavior. This resonant effect together with the exchange splitting can be utilized to design an efficient spin filter. It is also found that the energy spectrum in the bound region displays bandlike distribution due to the coupling of eigenstates.

  5. Tunable narrowband microwave photonic filter created by stimulated Brillouin scattering from a silicon nanowire.

    PubMed

    Casas-Bedoya, Alvaro; Morrison, Blair; Pagani, Mattia; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2015-09-01

    We demonstrate the first, to the best of our knowledge, functional signal processing device based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in a silicon nanowire. We use only 1 dB of on-chip stimulated Brillouin scattering gain to create an RF photonic notch filter with 48 dB of suppression, 98 MHz linewidth, and 6 GHz frequency tuning. This device has potential applications in on-chip microwave signal processing and establishes the foundation for the first CMOS-compatible high-performance RF photonic filter. PMID:26368735

  6. Dual-tunable multiferroic active ring filter for microwave photonic oscillators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitko, V. V.; Nikitin, A. A.; Ustinov, A. B.; Kalinikos, B. A.

    2015-12-01

    A theoretical model of a microwave active ring filter based on a ferrite-ferroelectric layered structure serving as a waveguide for spin-electromagnetic waves is developed. An experimental prototype of the device is fabricated and characterized. The device is implemented as an active-ring resonator with a microwave amplifier and a ferrite-ferroelectric delay line. The resonance properties of this system are studied theoretically and experimentally. The results show dual control of central frequency of the filter with magnetic and electric fields. An effective Q-factor of 50 000 and tuning by 5 MHz with an electric field are achieved at 8 GHz.

  7. Widely tunable hybrid semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koh, Ping-Chiek; Plumb, Richard G. S.

    1999-04-01

    A new hybrid design tunable semiconductor laser, with a wide tuning range, a narrow linewidth, simple tuning/control algorithms, low variations in output power across its tuning range and simple fabrication, is introduced. This hybrid laser consists of a large spot reflective amplifier (LS-RA) coupled to a Lithium Niobate Acousto-Optic Filter (AOF), giving wavelength selective feedback. The LS-RA waveguide is angled by 10 degrees to the coupling facet, but is normal to the other facet, giving reflectivities of 5 X 10-5 and 3 X 10-1 respectively. This amplifier structure allows maximum coupling to the AOF without stringent alignment tolerance. THe AOF consists of a 2-stage acoustic TE/TM converter with a high TE reflectivity coating at the end. A propagating surface acoustic wave is employed to phase-match the TE and TM modes of a specific wavelength, achieving a narrow-band feedback into the LS-RA. Output power and wavelength of the hybrid laser are controlled by the LS-RA current and RF drive frequency of the AOF respectively. Simulations using a Time-Domain Model and initial experiments have shown that the hybrid laser have a wide tuning range, narrow linewidth, SMSR >= 30 dB and low power variations across its tuning range.

  8. A strain-tunable nanoimprint lithography for linear variable photonic crystal filters.

    PubMed

    Liu, Longju; Khan, Haris A; Li, Jingjing; Hillier, Andrew C; Lu, Meng

    2016-07-22

    This paper presents the fabrication methodology of a linear variable photonic crystal (PC) filter with narrowband reflection that varies over a broad spectral range along the length of the filter. The key component of the linear variable PC filter is a polymer surface-relief grating whose period changes linearly as a function of its position on the filter. The grating is fabricated using a nanoreplica molding process with a wedge-shaped elastomer mold. The top surface of the mold carries the grating pattern and the wedge is formed by a shallow angle between the top and bottom surfaces of the mold. During the replica molding process, a uniaxial force is applied to stretch the mold, resulting in a nearly linearly varying grating period. The period of the grating is determined using the magnitude of the force and the local thickness of the mold. The grating period of the fabricated device spans a range of 421.8-463.3 nm over a distance of 20 mm. A high refractive index dielectric film is deposited on the graded-period grating to act as the waveguide layer of the PC device. The resonance reflection feature of the device varies linearly in a range of 680.2-737.0 nm over the length of the grating. PMID:27276512

  9. A strain-tunable nanoimprint lithography for linear variable photonic crystal filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Longju; Khan, Haris A.; Li, Jingjing; Hillier, Andrew C.; Lu, Meng

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents the fabrication methodology of a linear variable photonic crystal (PC) filter with narrowband reflection that varies over a broad spectral range along the length of the filter. The key component of the linear variable PC filter is a polymer surface-relief grating whose period changes linearly as a function of its position on the filter. The grating is fabricated using a nanoreplica molding process with a wedge-shaped elastomer mold. The top surface of the mold carries the grating pattern and the wedge is formed by a shallow angle between the top and bottom surfaces of the mold. During the replica molding process, a uniaxial force is applied to stretch the mold, resulting in a nearly linearly varying grating period. The period of the grating is determined using the magnitude of the force and the local thickness of the mold. The grating period of the fabricated device spans a range of 421.8–463.3 nm over a distance of 20 mm. A high refractive index dielectric film is deposited on the graded-period grating to act as the waveguide layer of the PC device. The resonance reflection feature of the device varies linearly in a range of 680.2–737.0 nm over the length of the grating.

  10. Bandwidth-tunable narrowband rectangular optical filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering in optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Wei, Wei; Yi, Lilin; Jaouën, Yves; Hu, Weisheng

    2014-09-22

    We propose a rectangular optical filter based on stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) in optical fiber with bandwidth tuning from 50 MHz to 4 GHz at less than 15-MHz resolution. The rectangular shape of the filter is precisely achieved utilizing digital feedback control of the comb-like pump spectral lines. The passband ripple is suppressed to ~1 dB by mitigating the nonlinearity influences of the comb-like pump lines generated in electrical and optical components and fibers. Moreover a fiber with a single Brillouin peak is employed to further reduce the in-band ripple and the out-of-band SBS gain at the same time. Finally, we analyze the noise performance of the filter at different bandwidth cases and demonstrate the system performance of the proposed filter with 2.1-GHz bandwidth and 19-dB gain by amplifying a 2-GHz orthogonal frequency-division-multiplexing (OFDM) signal with quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) and 16-quadrature-amplitude-modulation (16-QAM) on each subscriber. PMID:25321794

  11. A tunable biquad switched-capacitor amplifier-filter for neural recording.

    PubMed

    Jongwoo Lee; Johnson, Matthew D; Kipke, Daryl R

    2010-10-01

    With the emerging interest in local field potentials (LFPs) as input signals for brain-machine interfaces, there is a need for integrated circuits capable of amplifying spikes and LFPs. A two-stage complementary metal-oxide semiconductor (CMOS) amplifier-filter has been implemented with 0.18-μm CMOS for simultaneous, multimodal recording of extracellular unit spikes and LFPs. For the frequency tuning and the reduction of the 1/f noise, it employs a switched-capacitor technique. The filter bandwidth is reconfigurable by using a different sampling clock frequency. The prototype amplifier has gains of 19.1 dB and 37.5 dB for low-pass only filter and cascaded filter, respectively. With a 100-kHz sampling frequency, the equivalent input noise spectral density is 38.8 nV/√Hz while the total power consumption is 69 μW with a 1.6-V supply, including clock generation and biasing occupying an area of 44 × 148 μm(2). PMID:23853375

  12. Band-gap tunable dielectric elastomer filter for low frequency noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Kun; Wang, Mian; Lu, Tongqing; Zhang, Jinhua; Wang, Tiejun

    2016-05-01

    In the last decades, diverse materials and technologies for sound insulation have been widely applied in engineering. However, suppressing the noise radiation at low frequency still remains a challenge. In this work, a novel membrane-type smart filter, consisting of a pre-stretched dielectric elastomer membrane with two compliant electrodes coated on the both sides, is presented to control the low frequency noise. Since the stiffness of membrane dominates its acoustic properties, sound transmission band-gap of the membrane filter can be tuned by adjusting the voltage applied to the membrane. The impedance tube experiments have been carried out to measure the sound transmission loss (STL) of the filters with different electrodes, membrane thickness and pre-stretch conditions. The experimental results show that the center frequency of sound transmission band-gap mainly depends on the stress in the dielectric elastomer, and a large band-gap shift (more than 60 Hz) can be achieved by tuning the voltage applied to the 85 mm diameter VHB4910 specimen with pre-stretch {λ }0=3. Based on the experimental results and the assumption that applied electric field is independent of the membrane behavior, 3D finite element analysis has also been conducted to calculate the membrane stress variation. The sound filter proposed herein may provide a promising facility to control low frequency noise source with tonal characteristics.

  13. Systolic acousto-optic binary convolver

    SciTech Connect

    Guilfoyle, P.S.

    1984-01-01

    A novel high speed array processing optical architecture is described. A multichannel acousto-optic binary convolver is architecturally configured as a systolic array processor. The architecture provides a high speed means of matrix/vector multiplications using the digital multiplication via an analog convolution algorithm. This algorithm and a systolic acousto-optic implementation permit the speed of optics to be combined with the accuracy of digital computation. 15 references.

  14. Probing potassium in the atmosphere of HD 80606b with tunable filter transit spectrophotometry from the Gran Telescopio Canarias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colón, Knicole D.; Ford, Eric B.; Redfield, Seth; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Shabram, Megan; Deeg, Hans J.; Mahadevan, Suvrath

    2012-01-01

    We report observations of HD 80606 using the 10.4-m Gran Telescopio Canarias and the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) tunable filter imager. We acquired very high precision, narrow-band photometry in four bandpasses around the K I absorption feature during the 2010 January transit of HD 80606b and during out-of-transit observations conducted in 2010 January and April. We obtained differential photometric precisions of ˜2.08 × 10-4 for the in-transit flux ratio measured at 769.91 nm, which probes the K I line core. We find no significant difference in the in-transit flux ratio between observations at 768.76 and 769.91 nm. Yet, we find a difference of ˜8.09 ± 2.88 × 10-4 between these observations and observations at a longer wavelength that probes the K I wing (777.36 nm). While the presence of red noise in the transit data has a non-negligible effect on the uncertainties in the flux ratio, the 777.36-769.91 nm colour during transit shows no effects from red noise and also indicates a significant colour change, with a mean value of ˜8.99 ± 0.62 × 10-4. This large change in the colour is equivalent to a ˜4.2 per cent change in the apparent planetary radius with wavelength, which is much larger than the atmospheric scaleheight. This implies the observations probed the atmosphere at very low pressures as well as a dramatic change in the pressure at which the slant optical depth reaches unity between ˜770 and 777 nm. We hypothesize that the excess absorption may be due to K I in a high-speed wind being driven from the exoplanet's exosphere. We discuss the viability of this and alternative interpretations, including stellar limb darkening, star-spots and effects from Earth's atmosphere. We strongly encourage follow-up observations of HD 80606b to confirm the signal measured here. Finally, we discuss the future prospects for exoplanet characterization using tunable filter spectrophotometry.

  15. Influence of SiO2/In2O3 film acoustical waveguide on the mode index of Ti:LiNbO3 optical waveguide in acousto-optical mode converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Hang-you; Ning, Ji-ping; Geng, Fan

    2004-04-01

    TE/TM mode converter is a key element of integrated acoustooptical tunable filter (AOTF). Employing SiO2/In2O3 film as acoustical waveguide can suppress sidelobes effectively and simplify fabrication technique in integrated quasi-collinear AOTF. In this report, the eigenvalue equation and the field solution of such configuration has been obtained by using modified Wenzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) method. The results are compared with those by using vector finite element method (VFEM). When the optical waveguides are covered by such oxide film, the difference of mode indices of both polarizations and the effective propagation velocity of surface acoustical wave (SAW) will decrease, and these decreases lead the shift of optical wavelength, which mainly results in the change of the former.

  16. Gate-tunable valley-spin filtering in silicene with magnetic barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, X. Q.; Meng, H.

    2015-05-28

    We theoretically study the valley- and spin-resolved scattering through magnetic barrier in a one layer thick silicene, using the mode-matching method for the Dirac equation. We show that the spin-valley filtering effect can be achieved and can also be tuned completely through both a top and bottom gate. Moreover, when reversing the sign of the staggered potential, we find the direction of the valley polarization is switched while the direction of spin polarization is unchanged. These results can provide some meaningful information to design valley valve residing on silicene.

  17. A tunable electrochromic fabry-perot filter for adaptive optics applications.

    SciTech Connect

    Blaich, Jonathan David; Kammler, Daniel R.; Ambrosini, Andrea; Sweatt, William C.; Verley, Jason C.; Heller, Edwin J.; Yelton, William Graham

    2006-10-01

    The potential for electrochromic (EC) materials to be incorporated into a Fabry-Perot (FP) filter to allow modest amounts of tuning was evaluated by both experimental methods and modeling. A combination of chemical vapor deposition (CVD), physical vapor deposition (PVD), and electrochemical methods was used to produce an ECFP film stack consisting of an EC WO{sub 3}/Ta{sub 2}O{sub 5}/NiO{sub x}H{sub y} film stack (with indium-tin-oxide electrodes) sandwiched between two Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/SiO{sub 2} dielectric reflector stacks. A process to produce a NiO{sub x}H{sub y} charge storage layer that freed the EC stack from dependence on atmospheric humidity and allowed construction of this complex EC-FP stack was developed. The refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) for each layer in the EC-FP film stack was measured between 300 and 1700 nm. A prototype EC-FP filter was produced that had a transmission at 500 nm of 36%, and a FWHM of 10 nm. A general modeling approach that takes into account the desired pass band location, pass band width, required transmission and EC optical constants in order to estimate the maximum tuning from an EC-FP filter was developed. Modeling shows that minor thickness changes in the prototype stack developed in this project should yield a filter with a transmission at 600 nm of 33% and a FWHM of 9.6 nm, which could be tuned to 598 nm with a FWHM of 12.1 nm and a transmission of 16%. Additional modeling shows that if the EC WO{sub 3} absorption centers were optimized, then a shift from 600 nm to 598 nm could be made with a FWHM of 11.3 nm and a transmission of 20%. If (at 600 nm) the FWHM is decreased to 1 nm and transmission maintained at a reasonable level (e.g. 30%), only fractions of a nm of tuning would be possible with the film stack considered in this study. These tradeoffs may improve at other wavelengths or with EC materials different than those considered here. Finally, based on our limited investigation and material set

  18. General formulation for the calibration and characterization of narrow-gap etalons: the OSIRIS/GTC tunable filters case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, J. J.; Cepa, J.; González-Serrano, J. I.; Sánchez-Portal, M.

    2014-10-01

    Tunable filters (TFs) are a powerful way of implementing narrow-band imaging mode over wide wavelength ranges, without the need of purchasing a large number of narrow-band filters covering all strong emission or absorption lines at any redshift. However, one of its main features is a wavelength variation across the field of view, sometimes termed the phase effect. In this work, an anomalous phase effect is reported and characterized for the Optical System for Imaging and low Resolution Integrated Spectroscopy (OSIRIS) instrument at the 10.4 m Gran Telescopio Canarias. The transmitted wavelength across the field of view of the instrument depends, not only on the distance to the optical centre, but on wavelength. This effect is calibrated for the red TF of OSIRIS by measuring both normal-incidence light at laboratory and spectral lamps at the telescope at non-normal incidence. This effect can be explained by taking into account the inner coatings of the etalon. In a high spectral resolution etalon, the gap between plates is much larger than the thickness of the inner reflective coatings. In the case of a TF, like that in OSIRIS, the coatings thickness could be of the order of the cavity, which changes drastically the effective gap of the etalon. We show that by including thick and dispersive coatings into the interference equations, the observed anomalous phase effect can be perfectly reproduced. In fact, we find that, for the OSIRIS red TF, a two-coatings model fits the data with an rms of 0.5 Å at all wavelengths and incidence angles. This is a general physical model that can be applied to other TF instruments.

  19. Tunable semiconductor laser at 1025-1095 nm range for OCT applications with an extended imaging depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shramenko, Mikhail V.; Chamorovskiy, Alexander; Lyu, Hong-Chou; Lobintsov, Andrei A.; Karnowski, Karol; Yakubovich, Sergei D.; Wojtkowski, Maciej

    2015-03-01

    Tunable semiconductor laser for 1025-1095 nm spectral range is developed based on the InGaAs semiconductor optical amplifier and a narrow band-pass acousto-optic tunable filter in a fiber ring cavity. Mode-hop-free sweeping with tuning speeds of up to 104 nm/s was demonstrated. Instantaneous linewidth is in the range of 0.06-0.15 nm, side-mode suppression is up to 50 dB and polarization extinction ratio exceeds 18 dB. Optical power in output single mode fiber reaches 20 mW. The laser was used in OCT system for imaging a contact lens immersed in a 0.5% intra-lipid solution. The cross-section image provided the imaging depth of more than 5mm.

  20. Tunable negative-tap photonic microwave filter based on a cladding-mode coupler and an optically injected laser of large detuning.

    PubMed

    Chan, Sze-Chun; Liu, Qing; Wang, Zhu; Chiang, Kin Seng

    2011-06-20

    A tunable negative-tap photonic microwave filter using a cladding-mode coupler together with optical injection locking of large wavelength detuning is demonstrated. Continuous and precise tunability of the filter is realized by physically sliding a pair of bare fibers inside the cladding-mode coupler. Signal inversion for the negative tap is achieved by optical injection locking of a single-mode semiconductor laser. To couple light into and out of the cladding-mode coupler, a pair of matching long-period fiber gratings is employed. The large bandwidth of the gratings requires injection locking of an exceptionally large wavelength detuning that has never been demonstrated before. Experimentally, injection locking with wavelength detuning as large as 27 nm was achieved, which corresponded to locking the 36-th side mode. Microwave filtering with a free-spectral range tunable from 88.6 MHz to 1.57 GHz and a notch depth larger than 35 dB was obtained. PMID:21716440

  1. Ultrasensitive and compact tunable electro-optic filter in a 2D silicon photonic-crystal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ebrahimy, Mehdi N.; Naziri, Mohammad; Andalib, Alireza; Daie Kuzekanani, Ziaddin

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we designed and simulated a high Q-factor photonic crystal cavity with a PN junction to demonstrate a high-sensitivity and high tunable electro-optic filter (EOF). For this purpose, we used a cavity based on 2D photonic crystal structures and created a PN junction with 1 μm width in the center of the cavity to change the refractive index of it. The electro-optic sensitivity of the cavity was improved by reducing modal volume and scattering power. Reverse bias in the range of (‑3.88 V–0.288 V) is applied to the PN junction and the output spectrum is investigated for various bias voltages. The output wavelengths of designed EOF can be tuned by manipulating cavity cells. In final response of EOF the maximum transmission efficiency is more than 93%, the overall Q-factor is more than 14 500. The whole device fits in a compact 102.6 μm2 (17.4 μm  ×  5.9 μm) footprint.

  2. Validity of retinal oxygen saturation analysis: Hyperspectral imaging in visible wavelength with fundus camera and liquid crystal wavelength tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirohara, Yoko; Okawa, Yoshitaka; Mihashi, Toshifumi; Yamaguchi, Tatsuo; Nakazawa, Naoki; Tsuruga, Yasuko; Aoki, Hiroyuki; Maeda, Naoyuki; Uchida, Ichiro; Fujikado, Takashi

    2007-05-01

    The purpose of this paper was to investigate the feasibility of a newly developed hyperspectral fundus imaging camera with a liquid crystal tunable filter. The intensities of different wavelengths of light transmitted through an artery, vein, and the area surrounding these vessels and reflected out were measured, and the differential spectral absorptions were analyzed. Measurements were made from 16 normal eyes and from two artificial capillaries. The ratios of absorption (ROA) of arteries to veins from 500 to 580 nm (range 1) and from 600 to 720 nm (range 2) were calculated. For all eyes, the ROArange1 was larger than ROArange2. The ROA obtained from the artificial capillary filled with blood saturated with oxygen or nitrogen was similar to that of simulated data of oxy- and deoxyhemoglobin extinction rate. Most ROAs of human eyes were lower than those of the simulated data and the artificial capillaries. Oxygen saturation analysis by hyperspectral fundus imaging of retinal vessels were qualitatively in agreement with the in vitro analysis or simulated values. However, further improvements are necessary to evaluate the oxygen saturation quantitatively in the retinal blood vessels.

  3. Ultra-compact, broadband tunable optical bandstop filters based on a multimode one-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide.

    PubMed

    Huang, Qingzhong; Jie, Kun; Liu, Qiang; Huang, Ying; Wang, Yi; Xia, Jinsong

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, ultra-compact, broadband tunable optical bandstop filters (OBSFs) based on a multimode one-dimensional photonic crystal waveguide (PhCW) are proposed and systematically investigated. For the wavelengths in the mini-stopband, the input mode is coupled to a contra-propagating higher order mode by the PhCW and then radiates in a taper, resulting in a stopband at the output with low backreflection at the input. Three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain method is employed to study the OBSFs. The influence of main structural parameters is analyzed, and the design is optimized to reduce the back-reflection and band sidelobes. Using localized heating, we can shift the stopband and tune the bandwidth continuously by cascading the proposed structures. Due to the strong grating strength, our device provides a more compact footprint (40 μm × 1 μm) and much broader stopband (bandwidth of up to 84 nm), compared to the counterparts based on microrings, long-period waveguide gratings, and multimode two-dimensional PhCWs. PMID:27607658

  4. Analysis of one-dimensional photonic band gap structures with a liquid crystal defect towards development of fiber-optic tunable wavelength filters.

    PubMed

    Del Villar, Ignacio; Matias, Ignacio; Arregui, Francisco; Claus, Richard

    2003-03-10

    A theoretical analysis of a fiber optical photonic band gap based tunable wavelength filter is presented. The design presented here is based on the quarter wave reflector with a liquid crystal defect layer in the middle of the structure. The filter generated by the structure is shifted in wavelength as the voltage applied to the structure is modified. Some critical parameters are analyzed: the effect of the consideration of fiber as the first layer and not the input medium in the shape of the filter, the number of layers of the structure, and the thickness of the defect layer. This last parameter determines the width of the wavelength sweep of the filter, but is limited by the creation of more defects. Some rules of practical implementation of this device are also given. PMID:19461749

  5. The Aerosol Limb Imager: acousto-optic imaging of limb-scattered sunlight for stratospheric aerosol profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elash, B. J.; Bourassa, A. E.; Loewen, P. R.; Lloyd, N. D.; Degenstein, D. A.

    2016-03-01

    The Aerosol Limb Imager (ALI) is an optical remote sensing instrument designed to image scattered sunlight from the atmospheric limb. These measurements are used to retrieve spatially resolved information of the stratospheric aerosol distribution, including spectral extinction coefficient and particle size. Here we present the design, development and test results of an ALI prototype instrument. The long-term goal of this work is the eventual realization of ALI on a satellite platform in low earth orbit, where it can provide high spatial resolution observations, both in the vertical and cross-track. The instrument design uses a large-aperture acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) to image the sunlit stratospheric limb in a selectable narrow wavelength band ranging from the visible to the near infrared. The ALI prototype was tested on a stratospheric balloon flight from the Canadian Space Agency (CSA) launch facility in Timmins, Canada, in September 2014. Preliminary analysis of the hyperspectral images indicates that the radiance measurements are of high quality, and we have used these to retrieve vertical profiles of stratospheric aerosol extinction coefficient from 650 to 1000 nm, along with one moment of the particle size distribution. Those preliminary results are promising and development of a satellite prototype of ALI within the Canadian Space Agency is ongoing.

  6. A tunable line filter polychromator for gas temperature measurements using laser Raman scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grossman, J. J.; Muramoto, M.

    1975-01-01

    A proprietary laser line filter spectrograph (LLFS) was modified to test for improved remote measurement of atmospheric temperature by Raman spectroscopy of the rotational bands of N2 and O2. Both grating scan measurements with fixed PMT and polychromator image plane PMT scans with fixed grating setting were made using HeNe and Ar(+) lasers. The LLFS was found to have a laser line rejection ratio at 6A from the laser line and provides resolved rotational Raman spectral display at the polychromator exit plane. Spectral resolution is adequate to measure and correct for background in the Stokes spectrum. It is anticipated that this system should allow measurement of gas or atmospheric temperature to + or - 1 C.

  7. An optimized strain demodulation method for PZT driven fiber Fabry-Perot tunable filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Wenjuan; Peng, G. D.; Liu, Yang; Yang, Ning

    2015-08-01

    An optimized strain-demodulation-method based on piezo-electrical transducer (PZT) driven fiber Fabry-Perot (FFP) filter is proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Using a parallel processing mode to drive the PZT continuously, the hysteresis effect is eliminated, and the system demodulation rate is increased. Furthermore, an AC-DC compensation method is developed to address the intrinsic nonlinear relationship between the displacement and voltage of PZT. The experimental results show that the actual demodulation rate is improved from 15 Hz to 30 Hz, the random error of the strain measurement is decreased by 95%, and the deviation between the test values after compensation and the theoretical values is less than 1 pm/με.

  8. Realization of spectral tunable filter based on thermal effect in microfiber structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nodehi, S.; Mohammed, W. S.; Ahmad, H.; Harun, S. W.

    2016-03-01

    This paper demonstrates a new approach for tuning the extinction ratio of a complex microfiber structure output using thermal effect. The microfiber filter device comprises of a microfiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer followed a knot structure, where temperature is controlled by a DC current applied to a copper wire placed inside the knot. This enables electrical tuning, where applying electrical current increases the temperature and affects the optical path. The change of temperature facilitates the fine tuning of the resonance output spectrum. From the experiment, it was observed that the extinction ratio of the output comb spectrum can be controlled within 2 dB to 10 dB by varying the current rating from 0 A to 1.22 A.

  9. Design of a Mechanical-Tunable Filter Spectrometer for Noninvasive Glucose Measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saptari, Vidi; Youcef-Toumi, Kamal

    2004-05-01

    The development of an accurate and reliable noninvasive near-infrared (NIR) glucose sensor hinges on the success in addressing the sensitivity and the specificity problems associated with the weak glucose signals and the overlapping NIR spectra. Spectroscopic hardware parameters most relevant to noninvasive blood glucose measurement are discussed, which include the optical throughput, integration time, spectral range, and the spectral resolution. We propose a unique spectroscopic system using a continuously rotating interference filter, which produces a signal-to-noise ratio of the order of 10^5 and is estimated to be the minimum required for successful in vivo glucose sensing. Using a classical least-squares algorithm and a spectral range between 2180 and 2312 nm, we extracted clinically relevant glucose concentrations in multicomponent solutions containing bovine serum albumin, triacetin, lactate, and urea.

  10. Tunable ultracompact chip-integrated multichannel filter based on plasmon-induced transparencies

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiaoyu; Chai, Zhen; Lu, Cuicui; Yang, Hong; Hu, Xiaoyong E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn; Gong, Qihuang E-mail: qhgong@pku.edu.cn

    2014-06-02

    Nanoscale multichannel filter is realized in plasmonic circuits directly, which consists of four plasmonic nanocavities coupled via a plasmonic waveguide etched in a gold film. The feature device size is only 1.35 μm, which is reduced by five orders of magnitude compared with previous reports. The optical channels are formed by transparency windows of plasmon-induced transparencies. A shift of 45 nm in the central wavelengths of optical channels is obtained when the plasmonic coupled-nanocavities are covered with a 100-nm-thick poly(methyl methacrylate) layer. This work opens up the possibility for the realization of solid quantum chips based on plasmonic circuits.

  11. Highly-efficient, tunable green, phosphor-converted LEDs using a long-pass dichroic filter and a series of orthosilicate phosphors for tri-color white LEDs.

    PubMed

    Oh, Ji Hye; Oh, Jeong Rok; Park, Hoo Keun; Sung, Yeon-Goog; Do, Young Rag

    2012-01-01

    This study introduces a long-pass dichroic filter (LPDF) on top of a phosphor-converted LED (pc-LED) packing associated with each corresponding tunable orthosilicate ((Ba,Sr)2SiO4:Eu) phosphor in order to fabricate tunable green pc-LEDs. These LPDF-capped green pc-LEDs provide luminous efficacies between 143–173 lm/W at 60 mA in a wavelength range between 515 and 560 nm. These tunable green pc-LEDs can replace green semiconductor-type III-V LEDs, which present challenges with respect to generating high luminous efficacy. We also introduce the highly-efficient tunable green pc-LEDs into tri-color white LED systems that combine an InGaN blue LED and green/red full down-converted pc-LEDs. The effect of peak wavelength in the tunable green pc-LEDs on the optical properties of a tri-color package white LED is analyzed to determine the proper wavelength of green color for tri-color white LEDs. The tri-color white LED provides excellent luminous efficacy (81.5–109 lm/W) and a good color rendering index (64–87) at 6500 K of correlated color temperature (CCT) with the peak wavelength of green pc-LEDs. The luminous efficacy of the LPDF-capped green monochromatic pc-LED and tri-color package with tunable green pc-LEDs can be increased by improving the external quantum efficiency of blue LEDs and the conversion efficiency of green pc-LEDs. PMID:22379669

  12. Filtration at the microfluidic level: enrichment of nanoparticles by tunable filters.

    PubMed

    Boettcher, M; Schmidt, S; Latz, A; Jaeger, M S; Stuke, M; Duschl, C

    2011-08-17

    We present an electrohydrodynamic device for filtration of nanometre-sized particles from suspensions. A high-frequency electric field is locally generated through the action of mutually parallel microelectrodes integrated into a microfluidic channel. Due to the mechanism of ohmic heating, a thermal gradient arises above these electrodes. In conjunction with temperature-sensitive properties of the fluid, an eddy flow behaviour emerges in the laminar environment. This acts as an adjustable filter. For quantification of the filtration efficiency, we tested a wide range of particle concentrations at different electric field strengths and overall external flow velocities. Particles with a diameter of 200 nm were retained in this manner at rates of up to 100%. Numerical simulations of a model taking into account the hydrodynamic as well as electric conditions, but no interactions between the point-shaped particles, yield results that are similar to the experiment in both the flow trajectories and the particle accumulation. Our easy technique could become a valuable tool that complements conventional filtration methods for handling nanometre-scaled particles in medicine and biotechnology, e.g. bacteria and viruses. PMID:21795763

  13. Ultrasonic power measurement system based on acousto-optic interaction.

    PubMed

    He, Liping; Zhu, Fulong; Chen, Yanming; Duan, Ke; Lin, Xinxin; Pan, Yongjun; Tao, Jiaquan

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonic waves are widely used, with applications including the medical, military, and chemical fields. However, there are currently no effective methods for ultrasonic power measurement. Previously, ultrasonic power measurement has been reliant on mechanical methods such as hydrophones and radiation force balances. This paper deals with ultrasonic power measurement based on an unconventional method: acousto-optic interaction. Compared with mechanical methods, the optical method has a greater ability to resist interference and also has reduced environmental requirements. Therefore, this paper begins with an experimental determination of the acoustic power in water contained in a glass tank using a set of optical devices. Because the light intensity of the diffraction image generated by acousto-optic interaction contains the required ultrasonic power information, specific software was written to extract the light intensity information from the image through a combination of filtering, binarization, contour extraction, and other image processing operations. The power value can then be obtained rapidly by processing the diffraction image using a computer. The results of this work show that the optical method offers advantages that include accuracy, speed, and a noncontact measurement method. PMID:27250458

  14. Ultrasonic power measurement system based on acousto-optic interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Liping; Zhu, Fulong; Chen, Yanming; Duan, Ke; Lin, Xinxin; Pan, Yongjun; Tao, Jiaquan

    2016-05-01

    Ultrasonic waves are widely used, with applications including the medical, military, and chemical fields. However, there are currently no effective methods for ultrasonic power measurement. Previously, ultrasonic power measurement has been reliant on mechanical methods such as hydrophones and radiation force balances. This paper deals with ultrasonic power measurement based on an unconventional method: acousto-optic interaction. Compared with mechanical methods, the optical method has a greater ability to resist interference and also has reduced environmental requirements. Therefore, this paper begins with an experimental determination of the acoustic power in water contained in a glass tank using a set of optical devices. Because the light intensity of the diffraction image generated by acousto-optic interaction contains the required ultrasonic power information, specific software was written to extract the light intensity information from the image through a combination of filtering, binarization, contour extraction, and other image processing operations. The power value can then be obtained rapidly by processing the diffraction image using a computer. The results of this work show that the optical method offers advantages that include accuracy, speed, and a noncontact measurement method.

  15. Acousto-optic spectrometer for radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    Recent developments in acousto-optic techniques and in photodetector arrays have made feasible a new type of RF spectrometer, offering the advantages of wide bandwidth, high resolution, large number of channels in compact, lightweight, energy efficient, and relatively low cost systems. Such a system employs an acousto-optic diffraction cell which serves the key role of converting RF signals to ultrasonic traveling-waves modulating the optical index of the cell. The cell is illuminated across its aperture by a monochromatic laser beam. A fraction of the light is diffracted by the acoustic waves. A focusing lens follows the cell and essentially performs a Fourier transform of the RF signal into a far-field intensity pattern. CSIRO in Australia and the Tokyo Astronomical Observatory in Japan have taken the lead in using acousto-optic techniques in astronomical applications. The first practical device was successfully made at CSIRO for obtaining dynamical spectrographs of solar radio emission.

  16. Acousto-optic spectrometer for radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

    1980-01-01

    A prototype acousto-optic spectrometer which uses a discrete bulk acoustic wave Itek Bragg cell, 5 mW Helium Neon laser, and a 1024 element Reticon charge coupled photodiode array is described. The analog signals from the photodiode array are digitized, added, and stored in a very high speed custom built multiplexer board which allows synchronous detection of weak signals to be performed. The experiment is controlled and the data are displayed and stored with an LSI-2 microcomputer system with dual floppy discs. The performance of the prototype acousto-optic spectrometer obtained from initial tests is reported.

  17. Tunable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser by cascading a standard Mach-Zehnder interferometer and a twin-core fiber-based filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Guolu; Lou, Shuqin; Wang, Xin; Han, Bolin

    2013-12-01

    A tunable multi-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser (MEDFL) based on a nonlinear optical loop mirror (NOLM) was proposed and experimentally demonstrated by cascading a standard Mach-Zehnder interferometer (MZI) and a twin-core fiber (TCF)-based filter. Due to the ‘blue shift’ of the transmission band of the TCF-based filter when the TCF was bent, a tunable lasing waveband was realized by moving the transmission band of the TCF-based filter to cover different channels provided by the standard MZI. Experimental results showed that the lasing waveband can be linearly tuned over a range of 24 nm from 1542 to 1566 nm with a channel spacing of 0.4 nm, a maximum lasing line amount of 19, and an optical signal to noise ratio (OSNR) of 39 dB. The stability of the laser spectra was verified with a wavelength drift of 0.04 nm and a power fluctuation of ±0.3 dB.

  18. A novel tunable filter featuring defect mode of the TE wave from one-dimensional photonic crystals doped by magnetized plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kong Xiangkun; Liu Shaobin; Li Chunzao; Zhang Haifeng

    2010-10-15

    A novel tunable filter featuring the defect mode of the TE wave from one-dimensional photonic crystals doped by magnetized plasma is presented. The photonic crystals are composed by SiO{sub 2} and air with one defect layer made by magnetized plasma. By the transfer matrix method and Bloch's theorem, we find out that the frequency of the defect mode can be modulated by plasma density or external magnetic field. Without changing the structure of the photonic crystal, the defect mode can be modulated in a larger frequency range, especially when the left-hand polarized electromagnetic wave is utilized.

  19. Tunable UV Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, Marilyn E. (Principal Investigator); Rosenberg, William A.

    1996-01-01

    This report describes an investigation intended to determine the practical short wavelength limit for Fabry-Perot etalons operating in the far ultraviolet. This portion of the investigation includes a design study of multilayer dielectric reflector coatings that would be required by such an etalon. Results of the study indicate that etalons may be made to operate at wavelengths as short as 121 nm.

  20. Discretely tunable thulium-doped fiber-based polarization-maintaining master oscillator power amplifier using fiber Bragg grating arrays as spectral filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiess, Tobias; Junaid, Saher; Becker, Martin; Rothhardt, Manfred; Bartelt, Hartmut; Jäger, Matthias

    2016-06-01

    Thulium (Tm)-doped fiber lasers offer a broad emission bandwidth in the 2-μm region, providing the perfect basis to develop broadly tunable laser sources, e.g., for spectroscopic applications. Recently, a tuning principle for pulsed fiber lasers has been reported, which is based on a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) array as a discrete spectral filter. This concept uniquely combines an unrivaled spectral freedom for tailored tuning ranges with a monolithic layout preserving the inherent advantages of fiber-integrated systems. In this study, we investigate this discrete tuning method using a Tm-doped fiber laser in the spectral domain around 1950 nm. While the laser emits linearly polarized light based on a polarization-maintaining (PM) resonator, we also examine the possibility of using standard FBG arrays inscribed in non-PM fiber. In order to highlight the prospect for tunable high-power operation, the tunable seed laser is implemented in a master oscillator power amplifier configuration scaling the average power to ˜28 W. With a tuning range of up to 76 nm, the emission characteristics of the system are investigated showing pulse durations down to 11 ns and a very good spectral signal contrast with narrow linewidth.

  1. A tunable terahertz filter and its switching properties in terahertz region based on a defect mode of a metallic photonic crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lin, Shawn-Yu; Wu, Hsin-Ying; Pan, Ru-Pin

    2011-06-01

    We theoretically investigate and discuss an electrically tunable terahertz filter design and its optical switching properties based on the defect mode of a woodpile metallic photonic crystal (MPC). The model filter design is based on a dual use of an MPC as a resonator and as electrodes with a liquid crystal used as a defect layer. The static and the dynamic responses of a realistic liquid crystal are obtained using the Oseen-Frank elastic continuum theory, and the corresponding transmission spectra are calculated using an analytic modal expansion method combined with a transfer-matrix method. The tuning range of f = 1.430˜1.577 THz and the order of milliseconds switching property are observed in our design.

  2. Acousto-optical spectrometers' frequency performance stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Sergei I.; Lavrov, Aleksandr P.; Molodyakov, Sergey A.; Saenko, Igor I.

    2004-02-01

    Performance characteristics of the acoutsto-optical spectrometers for some radioastronomical applications are discussed. The main attention is given to the long-term stability of the acousto-optical spectrometer's frequency characteristics. It is shown that a problem of the frequency scale thermal instabilities can be overcome by using the suitable correction, based on the proposed model of the frequency scale drifts. For the acousto-optical spectrometers under consideration a simple method of the frequency scale drifts correction by using the data from measuring of a single reference signal's frequency was developed and applied for correction of molecular lines observations data. More careful procedure for more exigent applications, such as pulsar timing, is considered.

  3. Chip design of a 5.8-GHz fractional-N frequency synthesizer with a tunable Gm-C loop filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jhin-Fang; Liu, Ron-Yi; Lai, Wen-Cheng; Shin, Chun-Wei; Hsu, Chien-Ming

    2012-08-01

    This paper proposes a novel Gm-C loop filter instead of a conventional passive loop filter used in a phase-locked loop. The innovative advantage of the proposed architecture is tunable loop filter bandwidth and hence the process variations of passive elements of resistance R and capacitance C can be overcome and the chip area is greatly reduced. Furthermore, the MASH 1-1-1 sigma-delta (ΣΔ) modulator is adopted for performing the fractional division number and hence improves the phase noise as well. Measured results show that the locked phase noise is -114.1 dBc/Hz with lower Gm-C bandwidth and -111.7 dBm/C with higher Gm-C bandwidth at 1 MHz offset from carrier of 5.68 GHz. Including pads and built-in Gm-C filter, the chip area of the proposed frequency synthesizer is 1.06 mm2. The output power is -8.69 dBm at 5.68 GHz and consumes 56 mW with an off-chip buffer from 1.8-V supply voltage.

  4. Tunable plasmonic crystal

    DOEpatents

    Dyer, Gregory Conrad; Shaner, Eric A.; Reno, John L.; Aizin, Gregory

    2015-08-11

    A tunable plasmonic crystal comprises several periods in a two-dimensional electron or hole gas plasmonic medium that is both extremely subwavelength (.about..lamda./100) and tunable through the application of voltages to metal electrodes. Tuning of the plasmonic crystal band edges can be realized in materials such as semiconductors and graphene to actively control the plasmonic crystal dispersion in the terahertz and infrared spectral regions. The tunable plasmonic crystal provides a useful degree of freedom for applications in slow light devices, voltage-tunable waveguides, filters, ultra-sensitive direct and heterodyne THz detectors, and THz oscillators.

  5. Tunable Fabry-Pérot filter based on one-dimensional photonic crystals with liquid crystal components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cos, J.; Ferre-Borrull, J.; Pallares, J.; Marsal, L. F.

    2009-03-01

    A theoretical study of a tunable Fabry-Pérot multilayer structure composed of alternating layers of silicon and liquid crystal is presented and analyzed. The structure possesses two resonant frequencies within the stop band with tunable wavelengths and transmission properties. Tuning is achieved by allowing different orientations of the liquid crystal optical axes within the cavity and within the mirrors, while keeping the optical axes parallel to the layers. Applying the transfer matrix method for thin layers of anisotropic materials we demonstrate that the resonant wavelengths depend on the difference between the liquid crystal optical axis orientations. Besides, we are able to obtain a complete characterization of the structure in the form of its Jones matrix. From this, we propose an optical two-channel equalizer for applications around 1.55 μm that allows tuning the two resonant wavelengths and their relative amplitude levels.

  6. Tunable and switchable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser based on in-line tapered fiber filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Zheng-rong; Yang, He; Cao, Ye

    2016-07-01

    A tunable and switchable dual-wavelength erbium-doped fiber laser (EDFL) based on all-fiber single-mode tapered fiber structure has been demonstrated. By adjusting the variable optical attenuator (VOA), the laser can be switched between the single-wavelength mode and the dual-wavelength mode. When the temperature applied on the tapered fiber structure varies, the pass-band varies and the wavelength of the output laser shifts correspondingly. When the temperature changes from 30 °C to 180 °C, the central wavelength of the EDFL generated by branch A shifts from 1 550.7 nm to 1 560.3 nm, while that of branch B shifts from 1 530.8 nm to 1 540.4 nm, indicating the wavelength interval is tunable. These advantages enable this laser to be a potential candidate for high-capacity wavelength division multiplexing systems and mechanical sensors.

  7. On-wafer magnetically tunable millimeter wave notch filter using M-phase Ba hexagonal ferrite/Pt thin films on Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harward, I.; Camley, R. E.; Celinski, Z.

    2014-10-01

    A prototype of a fully integrated on-wafer, magnetically tunable band-stop filter operating at millimeter wave frequencies is demonstrated on a Si substrate. In contrast to earlier studies, the filter uses a very thin barium hexagonal ferrite film incorporated into the dielectric layer of a microstrip transmission line to filter the signal. The zero-field operational frequency is about 34 GHz, increasing linearly with the strength of a static, perpendicularly applied magnetic field at a rate of about 2.7 GHz/kOe. Experimentally, high signal attenuation (33-67 dB/cm) at the resonance frequency and insertion losses as low as 4.5 dB were simultaneously observed, while the 3 dB device bandwidths were generally below 1 GHz. Our calculations are in quantitative agreement with the experimental results. We also find an important result that the thickness and conductivity of the Pt ground plane plays a key role in insertion losses, indicating directions for further improvements.

  8. Theoretical study of Fourier-transform acousto-optic imaging.

    PubMed

    Barjean, Kinia; Ramaz, François; Tualle, Jean-Michel

    2016-05-01

    We propose a full theoretical study of Fourier-transform acousto-optic imaging, which we recently introduced and experimentally assessed in [Opt. Lett.40, 705-708 (2015)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.40.000705] as an alternative to achieve axial resolution in acousto-optic imaging with a higher signal-to-noise ratio. PMID:27140883

  9. Flat-top bandpass microwave photonic filter with tunable bandwidth and center frequency based on a Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifier.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fan; Yu, Yuan; Cao, Tong; Tang, Haitao; Dong, Jianji; Zhang, Xinliang

    2016-07-15

    We propose a flat-top bandpass microwave photonic filter (MPF) with flexible tunability of the bandwidth and center frequency based on optical nonlinearities in a Fabry-Pérot semiconductor optical amplifier (FP-SOA). Phase-inverted modulation induced by cross-gain modulation (XGM) and optical spectral broadening induced by self-phase modulation (SPM) are exploited to achieve flat-top and bandwidth tuning, respectively. Wideband and continuous tuning of the center frequency is achieved by altering the bias current of the FP-SOA. Experimental results demonstrate a flat-top single-passband MPF with its center frequency tunable from 6.0 to 18.3 GHz by adjusting the bias current from 54.05 to 107.85 mA. The 3-dB bandwidth of the passband when centered at 10.0 GHz is shown to be variable from 680 to 1.43 GHz, by increasing the injected optical power from -1 to +5  dBm. During the bandwidth tuning, the amplitude ripple within the passband is maintained at less than ±0.5  dB. Excellent main to secondary sidelobe ratio exceeding 45 dB is achieved when the MPF is centered at 18.3 GHz. PMID:27420520

  10. Tunable Fabry-Perot filter using hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber and micro-fiber for a narrow-linewidth laser.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaozhen; Zhu, Tao; Chen, Liang; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2011-05-01

    A novel tunable fiber Fabry-Perot (FP) filter is proposed and demonstrated by using a hollow-core photonic bandgap fiber (HC-PBF) and a micro-fiber. The interference cavity is a hollow core of HC-PBF. One of the reflection mirrors is the splicing point between a section of HC-PBF and a single mode fiber. The other reflection mirror is a gold-coated end of micro-fiber that uses chemical etching process to obtain the similar diameter as the core of HC-PBF. Hence the movable mirror can be adjusted with long distance inside the hollow core of HC-PBF. Tunable FP filter is used as a mode selecting component in the reflection mode to implement stable single longitudinal mode (SLM) operation in a ring laser. With FP cavity length of 0.25 ± 0.14 mm, the wavelength of SLM laser can be tuned over 1554-1562 nm with a tuning step of 0.2-0.3 nm, a side-mode suppression ratio (SMSR) of 32-36 dB and a linewidth of 3.0-5.1 kHz. With FP cavity length of 2.37 ± 0.37 mm, the SLM laser can be tuned over 1557.3-1560.2 nm with a tuning step of 0.06-0.1 nm, a SMSR of 44-51 dB and a linewidth of 1.8-3.0 kHz. PMID:21643220

  11. Passive long range acousto-optic sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slater, Dan

    2006-08-01

    Alexander Graham Bell's photophone of 1880 was a simple free space optical communication device that used the sun to illuminate a reflective acoustic diaphragm. A selenium photocell located 213 m (700 ft) away converted the acoustically modulated light beam back into sound. A variation of the photophone is presented here that uses naturally formed free space acousto-optic communications links to provide passive multichannel long range acoustic sensing. This system, called RAS (remote acoustic sensor), functions as a long range microphone with a demonstrated range in excess of 40 km (25 miles).

  12. Variable Oblique Incidence for Tunability in a Two-Dimensional Photonic-Crystal Guided-Wave Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciminelli, Caterina; Peluso, Francesco; Armenise, Mario N.; de La Rue, Richard M.

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the tuning mechanism for a two-dimensional (2-D) guided-wave photonic-crystal (PhC) filter obtained by varying the angle-of-incidence in the waveguide plane is demonstrated. Modeling and design of the filter have been carried out by using the Bloch-Floquet formalism. The device shows a resonance wavelength at 1550 nm for the p = 30 order at normal incidence. The free spectral range (FSR) is about 38 nm and can be spanned with an in-plane angle of incidence theta ranging from 0° to 14°. The full width at half maximum (FWHM) is in the range 0.14-0.18 nm. The filter performance is suitable for 50-GHz dense-wavelength-division-multiplexing (DWDM) systems and shows that variable oblique incidence can be exploited as a tuning mechanism.

  13. External cavity quantum cascade lasers with ultra rapid acousto-optic tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Lyakh, A. Barron-Jimenez, R.; Dunayevskiy, I.; Go, R.; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2015-04-06

    We report operation of tunable external cavity quantum cascade lasers with emission wavelength controlled by an acousto-optic modulator (AOM). A long-wave infrared quantum cascade laser wavelength tuned from ∼8.5 μm to ∼9.8 μm when the AOM frequency was changed from ∼41MHz to ∼49 MHz. The laser delivered over 350 mW of average power at the center of the tuning curve in a linewidth of ∼4.7 cm{sup −1}. Measured wavelength switching time between any two wavelengths within the tuning range of the QCL was less than 1 μs. Spectral measurements of infrared absorption features of Freon demonstrated a capability of obtaining complete spectral data in less than 20 μs.

  14. Fast mode-hop-free acousto-optically tuned laser with a simple laser diode.

    PubMed

    Bösel, André; Salewski, Klaus-Dieter; Kinder, Thomas

    2007-07-01

    A mode-hop-free tunable external-cavity Littrow diode laser with intracavity acousto-optic modulators (AOMs) has been built. The modes of the red laser diode without a special antireflection coating are shifted by varying the injection current. The external resonator modes and the grating selectivity are independently electrically alterable by two AOMs. Thus, a tuning of the external resonator over up to 1900 GHz is possible. A precise computer control of laser diode and AOMs allowed a single-mode tuning of the whole laser with a tuning range of 225 GHz in 250 s. Additionally, we demonstrated fast tuning over 90 GHz in 190 micros and a repetition rate of 2.5 kHz. PMID:17603626

  15. External cavity quantum cascade lasers with ultra rapid acousto-optic tuning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyakh, A.; Barron-Jimenez, R.; Dunayevskiy, I.; Go, R.; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2015-04-01

    We report operation of tunable external cavity quantum cascade lasers with emission wavelength controlled by an acousto-optic modulator (AOM). A long-wave infrared quantum cascade laser wavelength tuned from ˜8.5 μm to ˜9.8 μm when the AOM frequency was changed from ˜41MHz to ˜49 MHz. The laser delivered over 350 mW of average power at the center of the tuning curve in a linewidth of ˜4.7 cm-1. Measured wavelength switching time between any two wavelengths within the tuning range of the QCL was less than 1 μs. Spectral measurements of infrared absorption features of Freon demonstrated a capability of obtaining complete spectral data in less than 20 μs.

  16. Actively mode-locked fiber ring laser by intermodal acousto-optic modulation.

    PubMed

    Bello-Jiménez, M; Cuadrado-Laborde, C; Sáez-Rodríguez, D; Diez, A; Cruz, J L; Andrés, M V

    2010-11-15

    We report an actively mode-locked fiber ring laser. A simple and low-insertion-loss acousto-optic modulator driven by standing flexural waves, which couples core-to-cladding modes in a standard single-mode optical fiber, is used as an active mechanism for mode locking. Among the remarkable features of the modulator, we mention its high modulation depth (72%), broad bandwidth (187 GHz), easy tunability in the optical wavelength, and low insertion losses (0.7 dB). The narrowest optical pulses obtained were of 95 ps time width, 21 mW peak power, repetition rate of 4.758 MHz, and 110 mW of pump power. PMID:21081995

  17. Extraction of orientation-and-scale-dependent information from GPR B-scans with tunable two-dimensional wavelet filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanis, A.

    2012-04-01

    GPR is an invaluable tool for civil and geotechnical engineering applications. One of the most significant objectives of such applications is the detection of fractures, inclined interfaces, empty or filled cavities frequently associated with jointing/faulting and a host of other oriented features. These types of target, especially fractures, are usually not good reflectors and are spatially localized. Their scale is therefore a factor significantly affecting their detectability. Quite frequently, systemic or extraneous noise, or other significant structural characteristics swamp the data with information which blurs, or even masks reflections from such targets, rendering their recognition difficult. This paper reports a method of extracting information (isolating) oriented and scale-dependent structural characteristics, based on oriented two-dimensional B-spline wavelet filters and Gabor wavelet filters. In addition to their advantageous properties (e.g. compact support, orthogonality etc), B-spline wavelets comprise a family with a broad spectrum of frequency localization properties and frequency responses that mimic, more or less, the shape of the radar source wavelet. For instance, the Ricker wavelet is also approximated by derivatives of Cardinal B-splines. An oriented two-dimensional B-spline filter is built by sidewise arranging a number of identical one-dimensional wavelets to create a matrix, tapering the edge-parallel direction with an orthogonal window function and rotating the resulting matrix to the desired orientation. The length of the one-dimensional wavelet (edge-normal direction) determines the width of the topographic features to be isolated. The number of parallel wavelets (edge-parallel direction) determines the feature length over which to smooth. The Gabor wavelets were produced by a Gabor kernel that is a product of an elliptical Gaussian and a complex plane wave: it is two-dimensional by definition. Their applications have hitherto focused

  18. Fast spectral coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy with high-speed tunable picosecond laser.

    PubMed

    Cahyadi, Harsono; Iwatsuka, Junichi; Minamikawa, Takeo; Niioka, Hirohiko; Araki, Tsutomu; Hashimoto, Mamoru

    2013-09-01

    We develop a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscopy system equipped with a tunable picosecond laser for high-speed wavelength scanning. An acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) is integrated in the laser cavity to enable wavelength scanning by varying the radio frequency waves applied to the AOTF crystal. An end mirror attached on a piezoelectric actuator and a pair of parallel plates driven by galvanometer motors are also introduced into the cavity to compensate for changes in the cavity length during wavelength scanning to allow synchronization with another picosecond laser. We demonstrate fast spectral imaging of 3T3-L1 adipocytes every 5  cm-1 in the Raman spectral region around 2850  cm-1 with an image acquisition time of 120 ms. We also demonstrate fast switching of Raman shifts between 2100 and 2850  cm-1, corresponding to CD2 symmetric stretching and CH2 symmetric stretching vibrations, respectively. The fast-switching CARS images reveal different locations of recrystallized deuterated and nondeuterated stearic acid. PMID:24013358

  19. Portable AOTF Raman integrated Tunable Sensor (RAMiTS) for chemical and biosensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, K.; Martin, M. E.; Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    2005-11-01

    This paper describes the development of a compact, self-contained, and portable Raman Integrated Tunable Sensor (RAMiTS) for chemical and biosensing. The RAMiTS consists of a frequency-stabilized diode laser for excitation, an acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) for wavelength discrimination, and an avalanche photodiode (APD) for detection. It can provide direct identification and quantitative analysis of chemical and biological samples in a few seconds under field conditions. Instrument control and data acquisition was coordinated by software developed in house using the C language. Evaluation of this instrument was performed by analyzing several model compounds and the high spectral resolution of this instrument was demonstrated by the discrimination of several structurally similar molecules (benzene, toluene and naphthalene) as well as m-, o-, p- isomers of xylene. The potential applications of the RAMiTS coupled with the surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) for the detection of chemical and biological warfare agents will also be discussed in this paper.

  20. A new double FFT-based filter to reduce the effect of 1/f noise spectrum in a tunable diode laser spectrometer (TDLS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdi, Samira; Chen, Youhua; Anderson, Gary

    2013-05-01

    A Tunable diode laser spectrometer (TDLS) system has been designed to scan the near-surface atmosphere for ammonia gas over a wide range of distances (10 m to 1 Km). Since the system is designed for space applications, it needs to be small, lightweight, and low power, which dictates the use of relatively low frequency measurement scans. The spectrometer uses a diode laser, which is subject to a large 1/f noise component at these low frequencies. In this work, digital signal processing techniques are used to maximize the measurement sensitivity of a low frequency TDLS system depending on Double Fast Fourier Transform (DFFT-BF) based- filter. Simulations of the 1/f noise spectrum and ammonia gas absorption peak were performed using a sinusoidal waveform to drive the diode laser. A DFFT-BF-BF method is proposed that reduces the average of the error in the gas readings to nearly 50 percent. Because, this method decreases the effect of 1/f noise while keeping the measurement signal relatively constant.

  1. The design and performance characterization of a tunable external cavity quantum cascade laser utilizing thermo-optically tuned thin film filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Eugene; Marshall, Chip; Kim, Jinhong; Sharp, Richard; Kuehl, Don

    2014-05-01

    Quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) and Interband cascade lasers (ICLs) are promising new mid-IR sources for spectroscopic applications. Desirable characteristics include extremely high brightness, broad emission, very high resolution, compact size, and modest power consumption. For most spectroscopic applications, it is necessary to tune QCLs over a broad emission wavelength range. The conventional approach for broad tuning is to use an external cavity (EC) which incorporates a mechanically tuned diffraction grating within the laser cavity. In this paper we will describe an alternative approach to EC-QCL tuning which utilizes miniature, thermally tuned, MEMS fabricated filters, allowing for a very compact, simple, mechanically stable package with no moving parts. The system is well suited for discrete measurements at multiple wavelengths as needed by many of the industrial spectroscopic analyzers in use today. An accuracy of 0.02 cm-1 over the 50 cm-1 range of the test laser and a precision of 0.002 cm-1 over a 15 cm-1 scan has been demonstrated. High resolution mode hop free CW scanning of a 0.5 cm-1 range at a scan rate of 200 Hz with a wavelength precision of 0.002 cm-1 has also been demonstrated. This makes the design an attractive alternative to current Distributed feedback (DFB) QCLs for high resolution gas phase measurements due to the added advantage of broad tunability for the detection of multiple gases, and the capability to select multiple gas lines of different intensity to extend the dynamic range.

  2. A tunable dual-passband microwave photonic filter based on optical slicing and dual-path fiber delay lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zuowei; Fu, Hongyan; Chen, Hao; Xue, Hao; Wu, Congxian; Huang, Chaohong; Xu, Huiying; Cai, Zhiping; Zhang, Dan

    2015-07-01

    In this article, a dual-passband microwave photonics filter (MPF) based on spectrally sliced broadband optical source (BOS) and a dual-path fiber delay line has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Continuous optical samples are obtained when a BOS is sliced by a fiber Mach-Zehnder interferometer (FMZI). Dual-passband frequency response has been realized by utilizing two dispersive fiber delay lines with different length and recombining two groups of delayed samples on the photodiode (PD). The proposed dual-passband MPF is stable and the central frequencies of the passbands can be tuned continuously by either changing the free spectral range of the FMZI or the length of dispersive fiber delay lines. Furthermore, multi-passband MPF with desirable passband central frequencies can be achieved by using the proposed technique, which shows good application potentials in the wireless communication and measurement systems.

  3. Holographic topography using acousto-optically generated large synthetic wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abeywickrema, U.; Beamer, D.; Banerjee, P.; Poon, T.-C.

    2016-03-01

    Digital holography uses phase imaging in a variety of techniques to produce a three-dimensional phase resolved image that includes accurate depth information about the object of interest. Multi-wavelength digital holography is an accurate method for measuring the topography of surfaces. Typically, the object phases are reconstructed for two wavelengths separately and the phase corresponding to the synthetic wavelength (obtained from the two wavelengths) is obtained by calculating the phase difference. Then the surface map can be obtained using proper phase-unwrapping techniques. Usually these synthetic wavelengths are on the order of microns which can be used to resolve depths on the order of microns. In this work, two extremely close wavelengths generated by an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) are used to perform two-wavelength digital holography. Since the difference between the two wavelengths is on the order of picometers, a large synthetic wavelength (on the order of centimeters) can be obtained which can be used to determine the topography of macroscopic surface features. Also since the synthetic wavelength is large, an accurate surface map can be obtained without using a phase-unwrapping technique. A 514 nm Argon-ion laser is used as the optical source, and used with an AOM to generate the zeroth-order and frequency-shifted first-order diffracted orders which are used as the two wavelengths. Both beams are aligned through the same spatial filter assembly. Holograms are captured sequentially using a typical Mach-Zehnder interferometric setup by blocking one beam at a time. Limitations of the large synthetic wavelength are also discussed.

  4. Spin-filtered Edge States with an Electrically Tunable Gap in a Two-Dimensional Topological Crystallin Insulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Junwei; Hsieh, Timothy H.; Wei, Peng; Duan, Wenhui; Moodera, Jagadeesh; Fu, Liang

    2014-03-01

    Three-dimensional topological crystalline insulators (TCIs) were recently predicted and observed in the SnTe class of IV-VI semiconductors, which host metallic surface states protected by crystal symmetries. In this work, we study thin films of these materials and expose their potential device applications. We demonstrate that thin films of SnTe and Pb1-xSnxSe(Te) grown along the (001) direction are topologically nontrivial in a wide range of film thickness and carry conducting spin-filtered edge states that are protected by the (001) mirror symmetry via a topological invariant. Application of an electric field perpendicular to the film will break the mirror symmetry and generate a band gap in these edge states. This functionality motivates us to propose a novel topological transistor device, in which charge and spin transport are maximally entangled and simultaneously controlled by an electric field. The high on/off operation speed and coupling of spin and charge in such a device may lead to electronic and spintronic applications for TCIs. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering under Award DE-SC0010526.

  5. Acousto-optical properties of metamaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustovoit, V. I.

    2016-02-01

    The possibility of the effective use of metamaterials in acousto-optics is demonstrated. It is shown that photoelastic constants that determine a change in the dielectric constant of a heterogeneous medium under the action of a sound wave can significantly exceed the corresponding constants for conventional crystals. We have analysed the mechanisms of the dielectric constant variation in a heterogeneous medium consisting of nanoparticles in the form of ellipsoids and have found explicitly the values of the photoelastic constants. It is shown that the mechanism of the dielectric constant variation in a longitudinal sound wave is reduced to a change in the local concentration of nanoparticles in the bulk and in a transverse acoustic wave - to a local rotation of space-oriented nanoellipsoids. It is also shown that the use of metamedia with a nonuniform distribution of nanoparticles provides a unique opportunity for designing qualitatively new instruments and devices that cannot be produced on the basis of conventional crystals. It is noted that metamaterials open ample opportunities for creating devices of the IR region of the spectrum due to the absence of restrictions on the size of such media.

  6. Versatile size-dependent sorting of C. elegans nematodes and embryos using a tunable microfluidic filter structure.

    PubMed

    Dong, Li; Cornaglia, Matteo; Lehnert, Thomas; Gijs, Martin A M

    2016-02-01

    The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) is a powerful model organism for addressing fundamental biological questions related to human disease and aging. Its life cycle consists of an embryo stage, four larval stages that can be clearly distinguished by size and different morphological features, and adulthood. Many worm-based bio-assays require stage- or age-synchronized worm populations, for example for studying the life cycle and aging of worms under different pharmacological conditions or to avoid misinterpretation of results due to overlap of stage-specific response in general. Here, we present a new microfluidic approach for size-dependent sorting of C. elegans nematodes on-chip. We take advantage of the external pressure-deformable profile of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) transfer channels that connect two on-chip worm chambers. The pressure-controlled effective cross-section of these channels creates adjustable filter structures that can be easily tuned for a specific worm sorting experiment, without changing the design parameters of the device itself. By optimizing the control pressure settings, we can extract larvae of a specific development stage from a mixed worm culture with an efficiency close to 100% and with a throughput of up to 3.5 worms per second. Our approach also allows us to generate mixed populations of larvae of adjacent stages or to adjust their ratio directly in the microfluidic chamber. Moreover, using the same device, we demonstrated extraction of embryos from adult worm populations for subsequent culture of accurately age-synchronized nematode populations or embryo-based assays. Considering that our sorting device is merely based on geometrical parameters and operated by simple fluidic and pressure control, we believe that it has strong potential for use in advanced, automated, microfluidic C. elegans-based assay platforms. PMID:26755420

  7. Micro-Mechanical Voltage Tunable Fabry-Perot Filters Formed in (111) Silicon. Degree awarded by Colorado Univ., Boulder, CO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patterson, James D.

    1997-01-01

    The MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems) technology is quickly evolving as a viable means to combine micro-mechanical and micro-optical elements on the same chip. One MEMS technology that has recently gained attention by the research community is the micro-mechanical Fabry-Perot optical filter. A MEMS based Fabry-Perot consists of a vertically integrated structure composed of two mirrors separated by an air gap. Wavelength tuning is achieved by applying a bias between the two mirrors resulting in an attractive electrostatic force which pulls the mirrors closer. In this work, we present a new micro-mechanical Fabry-Perot structure which is simple to fabricate and is integratable with low cost silicon photodetectors and transistors. The structure consists of a movable gold coated oxide cantilever for the top mirror and a stationary Au/Ni plated silicon bottom mirror. The fabrication process is single mask level, self aligned, and requires only one grown or deposited layer. Undercutting of the oxide cantilever is carried out by a combination of RIE and anisotropic KOH etching of the (111) silicon substrate. Metallization of the mirrors is provided by thermal evaporation and electroplating. The optical and electrical characteristics of the fabricated devices were studied and show promissing results. A wavelength shift of 120nm with 53V applied bias was demonstrated by one device geometry using 6.27 micrometer air gap. The finesse of the structure was 2.4. Modulation bandwidths ranging from 91KHz to greater than 920KHz were also observed. Theoretical calculations show that if mirror reflectivity, smoothness, and parallelism are improved, a finesse of 30 is attainable. The predictions also suggest that a reduction of the air gap to 1 micrometer results in an increased wavelength tuning range of 175 nm with a CMOS compatible 4.75V.

  8. Tunable circuit for tunable capacitor devices

    SciTech Connect

    Rivkina, Tatiana; Ginley, David S.

    2006-09-19

    A tunable circuit (10) for a capacitively tunable capacitor device (12) is provided. The tunable circuit (10) comprises a tunable circuit element (14) and a non-tunable dielectric element (16) coupled to the tunable circuit element (16). A tunable capacitor device (12) and a method for increasing the figure of merit in a tunable capacitor device (12) are also provided.

  9. High-frequency acousto-optic effects in Bragg reflectors.

    PubMed

    Farmer, D J; Akimov, A V; Gippius, N A; Bailey, J; Sharp, J S; Kent, A J

    2014-06-16

    Picosecond acoustic interferometry was used to study the acousto-optic properties of a distributed Bragg reflector (DBR) manufactured from two immiscible polymers (cellulose acetate and polyvinylcarbyzole). Picosecond strain pulses were injected into the structure and changes in its reflectance were monitored as a function of time. The reflectance exhibited single-frequency harmonic oscillations as the strain pulse traversed the DBR. A transfer matrix method was used to model the reflectance of the DBR in response to interface modulation and photo-elastic effects. This work shows that photo-elastic effects can account for the acousto-optic response of DBRs with acoustically matched layers. PMID:24977613

  10. Tunable PIE and synchronized gating detections by FastFLIM for quantitative microscopy measurements of fast dynamics of single molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Yuansheng; Coskun, Ulas; Ferreon, Allan Chris; Barbieri, Beniamino; Liao, Shih-Chu Jeff

    2016-03-01

    The crosstalk between two fluorescent species causes problems in fluorescence microscopy imaging, especially for quantitative measurements such as co-localization, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET), fluorescence cross correlation spectroscopy (FCCS). In laser scanning confocal microscopy, the lasers can be switched on and off by acousto-optic tunable filters (AOTF) in the microsecond scale for alternative line scanning in order to avoid the crosstalk while minimizing the time delay between two lasers on the same pixel location. In contrast, the pulsed interleaved excitation (PIE) technique synchronizes two pulsed lasers of different wavelengths in the nanosecond scale to enable measuring superfast dynamics of two fluorescent species simultaneously and yet quantitatively without the crosstalk contamination. This feature is critical for many cell biology applications, e.g. accurate determination of stoichiometry in FRET measurements for studying protein-protein interactions or cell signal events, detection of weaker bindings in FCCS by eliminating the false cross correlation due to the crosstalk. The PIE has been used with the time correlated single photon counting (TCSPC) electronics. Here, we describe a novel PIE development using the digital frequency domain (DFD) technique -- FastFLIM, which provides tunable PIE setups and synchronized gating detections, tailored and optimized to specific applications. A few PIE setups by FastFLIM and measurement examples are described. Combined with the sensitivity of Alba and Q2 systems, the PIE allowed us to quantitatively measure the fast dynamics of single molecules.

  11. Kilohertz generation of high contrast polarization states for visible femtosecond pulses via phase-locked acousto-optic pulse shapers

    SciTech Connect

    Seiler, Hélène; Walsh, Brenna; Palato, Samuel; Kambhampati, Patanjali; Thai, Alexandre; Forget, Nicolas; Crozatier, Vincent

    2015-09-14

    We present a detailed analysis of a setup capable of arbitrary amplitude, phase, and polarization shaping of broadband visible femtosecond pulses at 1 kHz via a pair of actively phase stabilized acousto-optic programmable dispersive filters arranged in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer geometry. The setup features phase stability values around λ/225 at 580 nm as well as degrees of polarization of at least 0.9 for any polarization state. Both numbers are important metrics to evaluate a setup's potential for applications based on polarization-shaped femtosecond pulses, such as fully coherent multi-dimensional electronic spectroscopy.

  12. Nonreciprocal acousto-optical effect in planar waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Nanii, Oleg E

    2000-03-31

    The amplitude nonreciprocal effect in planar waveguides during the interaction of waveguide optical modes with a travelling surface acoustic wave was calculated. The possibility of constructing an optical isolator (circulator) by using collinear acousto-optical diffraction with conversion of the type of waveguide mode is demonstrated. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  13. Acousto-optical confirmation of the localized wave phenomena

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, D.K.

    1992-09-09

    An acousto-optical measurement method is described which was used to conduct proof of principle experiments for a novel acoustic pulse system. The pulse theory, the Localized Wave pulse, is discussed and the system explained and described. The results of the experiments confirm the Localized Wave theory.

  14. Guided-wave acousto-optic devices for space applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciminelli, C.; Peluso, F.; Armenise, M. N.

    2005-09-01

    Production of high- performance and low-cost new devices to be used in space applications is strongly required due to the remarkable development of innovative technologies in the last few years. Guided-wave optoelectronics technologies, including integrated optics, acousto-optics and electro-optics can provide some significant benefits to the space applications. In particular, they can overcome the intrinsic limits of the conventional technologies improving also the cost/performance figures, and enabling new services. Earth observation, telecommunications, radar surveillance and navigation control are the main space areas where guided-wave devices can contribute significantly. In this paper, after some general considerations on the potential of optoelectronics for space, on the use of acousto-optic guided-wave devices, a brief description of the acousto-optic interaction is given. Some functional devices reported in literature having significant potential impact in space applications are described with the aim of highlighting the main features of the acousto-optic technology. The performance limits of guided-wave devices for space applications are also shortly discussed.

  15. Bulk and integrated acousto-optic spectrometers for molecular astronomy with heterodyne spectrometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    A survey of acousto-optic spectrometers for molecular astronomy is presented, noting a technique of combining the acoustic bending of a collimated coherent light beam with a Bragg cell followed by an array of sensitive photodetectors. This acousto-optic spectrometer has a large bandwidth, a large number of channels, high resolution, and is energy efficient. Receiver development has concentrated on high-frequency heterodyne systems for the study of the chemical composition of the interstellar medium. RF spectrometers employing acousto-optic diffraction cells are described. Acousto-optic techniques have been suggested for applications to electronic warfare, electronic countermeasures and electronic support systems. Plans to use integrated optics for the further miniaturization of acousto-optic spectrometers are described. Bulk acousto-optic spectrometers with 300 MHz and 1 GHz bandwidths are being developed for use in the back-end of high-frequency heterodyne receivers for astronomical research.

  16. Acousto-optic laser projection systems for displaying TV information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulyaev, Yu V.; Kazaryan, M. A.; Mokrushin, Yu M.; Shakin, O. V.

    2015-04-01

    This review addresses various approaches to television projection imaging on large screens using lasers. Results are presented of theoretical and experimental studies of an acousto-optic projection system operating on the principle of projecting an image of an entire amplitude-modulated television line in a single laser pulse. We consider characteristic features of image formation in such a system and the requirements for its individual components. Particular attention is paid to nonlinear distortions of the image signal, which show up most severely at low modulation signal frequencies. We discuss the feasibility of improving the process efficiency and image quality using acousto-optic modulators and pulsed lasers. Real-time projectors with pulsed line imaging can be used for controlling high-intensity laser radiation.

  17. Acousto-optic deflector of depolarized laser radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, S. N.

    2016-01-01

    An original acousto-optic deflector is based on the anisotropic diffraction in the paratellurite crystal. The deflector is characterized by a relatively high diffraction efficiency for depolarized laser radiation. The deflector consists of two sequential acousto-optic cells. Each cell deflects one of the orthogonally polarized components of the originally depolarized radiation. The first and second cells scan the low- and highfrequency parts of the angular interval, respectively. The simultaneous and independent operation of the cells makes it possible to use the entire optical (laser) power. A frequency band of 32 MHz is almost reached for depolarized radiation with a wavelength of 1.06 µm and the absolute angular interval is 50 mrad at a total efficiency of no less than 70%.

  18. Ultrafast acousto-optic mode conversion in optically birefringent ferroelectrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejman, Mariusz; Vaudel, Gwenaelle; Infante, Ingrid C.; Chaban, Ievgeniia; Pezeril, Thomas; Edely, Mathieu; Nataf, Guillaume F.; Guennou, Mael; Kreisel, Jens; Gusev, Vitalyi E.; Dkhil, Brahim; Ruello, Pascal

    2016-08-01

    The ability to generate efficient giga-terahertz coherent acoustic phonons with femtosecond laser makes acousto-optics a promising candidate for ultrafast light processing, which faces electronic device limits intrinsic to complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Modern acousto-optic devices, including optical mode conversion process between ordinary and extraordinary light waves (and vice versa), remain limited to the megahertz range. Here, using coherent acoustic waves generated at tens of gigahertz frequency by a femtosecond laser pulse, we reveal the mode conversion process and show its efficiency in ferroelectric materials such as BiFeO3 and LiNbO3. Further to the experimental evidence, we provide a complete theoretical support to this all-optical ultrafast mechanism mediated by acousto-optic interaction. By allowing the manipulation of light polarization with gigahertz coherent acoustic phonons, our results provide a novel route for the development of next-generation photonic-based devices and highlight new capabilities in using ferroelectrics in modern photonics.

  19. Ultrafast acousto-optic mode conversion in optically birefringent ferroelectrics.

    PubMed

    Lejman, Mariusz; Vaudel, Gwenaelle; Infante, Ingrid C; Chaban, Ievgeniia; Pezeril, Thomas; Edely, Mathieu; Nataf, Guillaume F; Guennou, Mael; Kreisel, Jens; Gusev, Vitalyi E; Dkhil, Brahim; Ruello, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The ability to generate efficient giga-terahertz coherent acoustic phonons with femtosecond laser makes acousto-optics a promising candidate for ultrafast light processing, which faces electronic device limits intrinsic to complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Modern acousto-optic devices, including optical mode conversion process between ordinary and extraordinary light waves (and vice versa), remain limited to the megahertz range. Here, using coherent acoustic waves generated at tens of gigahertz frequency by a femtosecond laser pulse, we reveal the mode conversion process and show its efficiency in ferroelectric materials such as BiFeO3 and LiNbO3. Further to the experimental evidence, we provide a complete theoretical support to this all-optical ultrafast mechanism mediated by acousto-optic interaction. By allowing the manipulation of light polarization with gigahertz coherent acoustic phonons, our results provide a novel route for the development of next-generation photonic-based devices and highlight new capabilities in using ferroelectrics in modern photonics. PMID:27492493

  20. Ultrafast acousto-optic mode conversion in optically birefringent ferroelectrics

    PubMed Central

    Lejman, Mariusz; Vaudel, Gwenaelle; Infante, Ingrid C.; Chaban, Ievgeniia; Pezeril, Thomas; Edely, Mathieu; Nataf, Guillaume F.; Guennou, Mael; Kreisel, Jens; Gusev, Vitalyi E.; Dkhil, Brahim; Ruello, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    The ability to generate efficient giga–terahertz coherent acoustic phonons with femtosecond laser makes acousto-optics a promising candidate for ultrafast light processing, which faces electronic device limits intrinsic to complementary metal oxide semiconductor technology. Modern acousto-optic devices, including optical mode conversion process between ordinary and extraordinary light waves (and vice versa), remain limited to the megahertz range. Here, using coherent acoustic waves generated at tens of gigahertz frequency by a femtosecond laser pulse, we reveal the mode conversion process and show its efficiency in ferroelectric materials such as BiFeO3 and LiNbO3. Further to the experimental evidence, we provide a complete theoretical support to this all-optical ultrafast mechanism mediated by acousto-optic interaction. By allowing the manipulation of light polarization with gigahertz coherent acoustic phonons, our results provide a novel route for the development of next-generation photonic-based devices and highlight new capabilities in using ferroelectrics in modern photonics. PMID:27492493

  1. A tunable optoelectronic oscillator based on a tunable microwave attenuator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Zhihu; Wang, Rong; Pu, Tao; Sun, Guodan; Fang, Tao; Zheng, Jilin

    2013-10-01

    A novel realization of a wideband tunable optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) based on dual-port electrode Mach-Zehnder modulator (DMZM), a tunable microwave attenuator (TMA), and a chirped fiber Bragg grating (CFBG) is proposed and demonstrated. By simply adjusting the power ratio between the two arms of DMZM, the chirp of the DMZM will be tuned, and the center frequency of the microwave photonic filter will be tuned. When the OEO loop in the proposed system is closed, the output frequency of OEO is determined by the microwave photonic filter, and a high spectral purity microwave signal with a tunable frequency from 5.8 to 11 GHz is generated. The single sideband (SSB) phase noise of the generated signal could reach -107.4 dBc/Hz at an offset frequency of 10 kHz.

  2. Measurement of acousto-optic interaction in germanium in the far infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Duerr, W.; Schmidt, W.

    1985-10-01

    Acoustooptic interaction in a germanium Bragg cell, which was operated as an acoustic resonator, was measured at 119 microns relative to 10.6 microns. The figure of merit of the material was found to be approximately 20 percent higher in the far infrared. The performance of various acoustooptic materials in the far infrared is briefly discussed. 5 references.

  3. Spectrally tunable pixel sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Langfelder, G.; Buffa, C.; Longoni, A. F.; Zaraga, F.

    2013-01-01

    They are here reported the developments and experimental results of fully operating matrices of spectrally tunable pixels based on the Transverse Field Detector (TFD). Unlike several digital imaging sensors based on color filter arrays or layered junctions, the TFD has the peculiar feature of having electrically tunable spectral sensitivities. In this way the sensor color space is not fixed a priori but can be real-time adjusted, e.g. for a better adaptation to the scene content or for multispectral capture. These advantages come at the cost of an increased complexity both for the photosensitive elements and for the readout electronics. The challenges in the realization of a matrix of TFD pixels are analyzed in this work. First experimental results on an 8x8 (x 3 colors) and on a 64x64 (x 3 colors) matrix will be presented and analyzed in terms of colorimetric and noise performance, and compared to simulation predictions.

  4. Optoelectronic oscillator using an acousto-optic delay line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yim, Sin Hyuk; Kim, Tae Hyun; Lee, Sangkyung; Roh, Hee Sook; Shim, Kyu Min

    2015-05-01

    We demonstrate an optoelectronic oscillator (OEO) based on an acousto-optic modulator (AOM). The free spectral range between the modes is a function of the total loop length of the OEO, which is dependent on the propagation time of the acoustic wave through the AOM. By using the huge difference in the magnitude between the speed of light and the acoustic velocity in the AOM, we can extend the effective loop length of the OEO up to 3.8 km. We have measured phase noise of the OEO. Further developments will be made by using a dual-loop configuration. Agency for Defense Development.

  5. Bulk and integrated acousto-optic spectrometers for radio astronomy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chin, G.; Buhl, D.; Florez, J. M.

    1981-01-01

    The development of sensitive heterodyne receivers (front end) in the centimeter and millimeter range, and the construction of sensitive RF spectrometers (back end) enable the spectral lines of interstellar molecules to be detected and identified. A technique was developed which combines acoustic bending of a collimated coherent light beam by a Bragg cell followed by detection by a sensitive array of photodetectors (thus forming an RF acousto-optic spectrometer (AOS). An AOS has wide bandwidth, large number of channels, and high resolution, and is compact, lightweight, and energy efficient. The thrust of receiver development is towards high frequency heterodyne systems, particularly in the millimeter, submillimeter, far infrared, and 10 micron spectral ranges.

  6. Fiber-coupled Fabry-Pérot notch filter combining in-plane axis, high speed MEMS tunability and large etching depth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabry, Yasser M.; Eltagoury, Yomna M.; Shebl, Ahmed; Soliman, Mostafa; Khalil, Diaa

    2015-02-01

    Notch filters based on fiber-coupled Fabry-Pérot cavity are formed by a reflector placed in close proximity to a dielectric-coated end of an optical fiber. This kind of optical filters is easy to tailor for a given application because the external mirror has less mechanical and optical constraints. In this paper we present a fiber-coupled Fabry-Pérot filter based on dielectric-coated optical fiber inserted into a fiber groove facing a metallized micromirror, where the latter is driven by a high-speed MEMS actuator. The microsystem is fabricated using Deep Reactive Ion Etching (DRIE) technology on SOI wafer. The optical axis is in-plane and the components are self-aligned. The DRIE etching depth is 150 μm; chosen for improving the out-of-plane stiffness of the actuator and increasing the micromirror optical throughput. The MEMS actuator type is closing-gap while its quality factor is improved by slotting the fixed plate. The actuator, therefore, achieves a travel distance larger than 800 nm and has a resonance frequency of 90 kHz. The notch filter exhibits a free spectral range up to 100 nm and a notch rejection ratio of 20 dB around a wavelength of 1300 nm. The presented device provides low cost wafer level production of the filter.

  7. Multi-physics simulation and fabrication of a compact 128 × 128 micro-electro-mechanical system Fabry-Perot cavity tunable filter array for infrared hyperspectral imager.

    PubMed

    Meng, Qinghua; Chen, Sihai; Lai, Jianjun; Huang, Ying; Sun, Zhenjun

    2015-08-01

    This paper demonstrates the design and fabrication of a 128×128 micro-electro-mechanical systems Fabry-Perot (F-P) cavity filter array, which can be applied for the hyperspectral imager. To obtain better mechanical performance of the filters, F-P cavity supporting structures are analyzed by multi-physics finite element modeling. The simulation results indicate that Z-arm is the key component of the structure. The F-P cavity array with Z-arm structures was also fabricated. The experimental results show excellent parallelism of the bridge deck, which agree with the simulation results. A conclusion is drawn that Z-arm supporting structures are important to hyperspectral imaging system, which can achieve a large tuning range and high fill factor compared to straight arm structures. The filter arrays have the potential to replace the traditional dispersive element. PMID:26368101

  8. Experimental demonstration of remote, passive acousto-optic sensing.

    PubMed

    Antonelli, Lynn; Blackmon, Fletcher

    2004-12-01

    Passively detecting underwater sound from the air can allow aircraft and surface vessels to monitor the underwater acoustic environment. Experimental research into an optical hydrophone is being conducted for remote, aerial detection of underwater sound. A laser beam is directed onto the water surface to measure the velocity of the vibrations occurring as the underwater acoustic signal reaches the water surface. The acoustically generated surface vibrations modulate the phase of the laser beam. Sound detection occurs when the laser is reflected back towards the sensor. Therefore, laser alignment on the specularly reflecting water surface is critical. As the water surface moves, the laser beam is reflected away from the photodetector and no signal is obtained. One option to mitigate this problem is to continually steer the laser onto a spot on the water surface that provides a direct back-reflection. Results are presented from a laboratory test that investigates the feasibility of the acousto-optic sensor detection on hydrostatic and hydrodynamic surfaces using a laser Doppler vibrometer in combination with a laser-based, surface normal glint tracker for remotely detecting underwater sound. This paper outlines the acousto-optic sensor and tracker concepts and presents experimental results comparing sensor operation under various sea surface conditions. PMID:15658691

  9. Triple product acousto-optical processor for the astrophysical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S.; Hanessian de la Garza, Ana Virginia; Chavushyan, Vahram; Campos Acosta, Joaquin

    2012-10-01

    This processor is oriented to studies in the extra-galactic astronomy as well as to searching the extra-solar planets, so that algorithm of the space-and-time integrating is desirable for a wideband spectrum analysis with an improved resolution. It includes 1D-acousto-optic cells as the input devices for a 2D-optical data processing. The importance of this algorithm is based on exploiting the chirp Z - transform technique providing a 2D-Fourier transform of the input signals. The system produces the folded spectrum, accumulating advantages of both space and time integrating. Its frequency bandwidth is practically equal to the bandwidth of transducers inherent in acousto-optical cells. Then, similar processor is able to provide really high frequency resolution, which is practically equal to the reciprocal of the CCD-matrix photo-detector integration time. Here, the current state of designing the triple product acousto-optical processor in frames of the astrophysical instrumentation is presented.

  10. Wideband acousto-optic correlator for an ESM receiver upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, C.; Dorsett, A.; Tepper, S.; Zari, M.; Filipov, A.; Adler, E.; Pellegrino, J.

    An acousto-optic (AO) correlator is being constructed that offers a small, lightweight solution to detecting and analyzing wide-bandwidth, spread-spectrum signals. The processor is being inserted into an existing electronic support measure (ESM) test-bed under the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Transition of Optical Processors into Systems (TOPS) program. The correlator has a processing bandwidth of 500 MHz and will be used to detect direct-sequence, phase-modulated signals, frequency-hopped signals, chirps, and impulses. A description of the processor is provided along with experimental results obtained from an interim developmental breadboard. Subsequent digital processing, which includes nonlinear detection and Fourier transformation, is used to determine center frequencies, bandwidths, and band shape. Theoretical descriptions of the post-processing are provided.

  11. Wideband acousto-optic correlator for an ESM receiver upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Christopher S.; Dorsett, Anne-Marie; Tepper, Sandi K.; Zari, Michael C.; Filipov, Andree N.; Adler, Eric D.; Pellegrino, John M.

    1993-09-01

    An acousto-optic (AO) correlator is being constructed that offers a small, lightweight solution to detecting and analyzing wide-bandwidth, spread-spectrum signals. The processor is being inserted into an existing electronic support measure (ESM) test-bed under the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) Transition of Optical Processors into Systems (TOPS) program. The correlator has a processing bandwidth of 500 MHz and will be used to detect direct-sequence, phase-modulated signals, frequency-hopped signals, chirps, and impulses. A description of the processor is provided along with experimental results obtained from an interim developmental breadboard. Subsequent digital processing, which includes nonlinear detection and Fourier transformation, is used to determine center frequencies, bandwidths, and band shape. Theoretical descriptions of the post-processing are provided and simulations results are discussed.

  12. Acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity with Lamb waves in microwave K band

    SciTech Connect

    Tadesse, Semere A.; Li, Huan; Liu, Qiyu; Li, Mo

    2015-11-16

    Integrating nanoscale electromechanical transducers and nanophotonic devices potentially can enable acousto-optic devices to reach unprecedented high frequencies and modulation efficiency. Here, we demonstrate acousto-optic modulation of a photonic crystal nanocavity using Lamb waves with frequency up to 19 GHz, reaching the microwave K band. The devices are fabricated in suspended aluminum nitride membrane. Excitation of acoustic waves is achieved with interdigital transducers with period as small as 300 nm. Confining both acoustic wave and optical wave within the thickness of the membrane leads to improved acousto-optic modulation efficiency in these devices than that obtained in previous surface acoustic wave devices. Our system demonstrates a scalable optomechanical platform where strong acousto-optic coupling between cavity-confined photons and high frequency traveling phonons can be explored.

  13. Near-infrared tunable narrow filter properties in a 1D photonic crystal containing semiconductor metamaterial photonic quantum-well defect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barati, Mahmood; Aghajamali, Alireza

    2016-05-01

    The near-infrared (NIR) narrow filter properties in the transmission spectra of a one-dimensional photonic crystal doped with semiconductor metamaterial photonic quantum-well defect (PQW) were theoretically studied. The behavior of the defect mode as a function of the stack number of the PQW defect structure, the filling factor of semiconductor metamaterial layer, the polarization and the angle of incidence were investigated for Al-doped ZnO (AZO) and ZnO as the semiconductor metamaterial layer. It is found that the frequency of the defect mode can be tuned by variation of the period of the defect structure, polarization, incidence angle, and the filling factor of the semiconductor metamaterial layer. It is also shown that the number of the defect mode is independent of the period of the PQW defect structure and is in sharp contrast with the case where a common dielectric or metamaterial defect are used. The results also show that for both polarizations the defect mode is red-shifted as the number of the defect period and filling factor increase. An opposite trend is observed as the angle of incidence increases. The proposed structure could provide useful information for designing new types of tuneable narrowband filters at NIR region.

  14. Fine-Tunable Absorption of Uniformly Aligned Polyurea Thin Films for Optical Filters Using Sequentially Self-Limited Molecular Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Park, Yi-Seul; Choi, Sung-Eun; Kim, Hyein; Lee, Jin Seok

    2016-05-11

    Development of methods enabling the preparation of uniformly aligned polymer thin films at the molecular level is a prerequisite for realizing their optoelectronic characteristics as innovative materials; however, these methods often involve a compromise between scalability and accuracy. In this study, we have grown uniformly aligned polyurea thin films on a SiO2 substrate using molecular layer deposition (MLD) based on sequential and self-limiting surface reactions. By integrating plane-polarized Fourier-transform infrared, Raman spectroscopic tools, and density functional theory calculations, we demonstrated the uniform alignment of polyurea MLD films. Furthermore, the selective-wavelength absorption characteristics of thickness-controlled MLD films were investigated by integrating optical measurements and finite-difference time-domain simulations of reflection spectra, resulting from their thickness-dependent fine resonance with photons, which could be used as color filters in optoelectronics. PMID:27092573

  15. Theoretical investigation of a tunable external cavity diode laser based on a single cavity all-dielectric thin-film Fabry-Perot filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Zhao; Xiao, Xiao; Bo, Li; Jin, Wang Wen; Yi, Hu; Youqin, Wang

    2016-07-01

    The single cavity all-dielectric thin film Fabry-Perot filter (s-AFPF) has been theoretically investigated in this paper as a means of tuning the wavelength in an external cavity diode laser (ECDL), and the means of limiting longitudinal mode hopping has been also theoretically investigated. When a TE or TM plane wave irradiates an s-AFPF, a quasi-linear relationship is found in a certain wavelength range between the optical intensity peak transmittance wavelength of s-AFPF and the cosine value of plane wave incident angle at s-AFPF. Based on this feature, we proposed and theoretically investigated an ECDL configuration based on an s-AFPF. By theoretical calculation, the actuator flat edge against the steel ball may be replaced by a bent edge to convert the mode-hop wavelength region into mode-hop-free wavelength region. The ECDL can be used in the application of environmental monitoring, atomic and molecular laser spectroscopy research, precise measurements, and so on.

  16. Electro-optic and acousto-optic laser beam scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heberle, Johannes; Bechtold, Peter; Strauß, Johannes; Schmidt, Michael

    2016-03-01

    Electro-optical deflectors (EOD) and acousto-optical deflectors (AOD) are based on deflection of laser light within a solid state medium. As they do not contain any moving parts, they yield advantages compared to mechanical scanners which are conventionally used for laser beam deflection. Even for arbitrary scan paths high feed rates can be achieved. In this work the principles of operation and characteristic properties of EOD and AOD are presented. Additionally, a comparison to mirror based mechanical deflectors regarding deflection angles, speed and accuracy is made in terms of resolvable spots and the rate of resolvable spots. Especially, the latter one is up to one order of magnitude higher for EOD and AOD systems compared to conventional systems. Further characteristic properties such as response time, damage threshold, efficiency and beam distortions are discussed. Solid state laser beam deflectors are usually characterized by small deflection angles but high angular deflection velocities. As mechanical deflectors exhibit opposite properties an arrangement of a mechanical scanner combined with a solid state deflector provides a solution with the benefits of both systems. As ultrashort pulsed lasers with average power above 100 W and repetition rates in the MHz range have been available for several years this approach can be applied to fully exploit their capabilities. Thereby, pulse overlap can be reduced and by this means heat affected zones are prevented to provide proper processing results.

  17. Noise Analysis of Spatial Phase coding in analog Acoustooptic Processors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, Charles K.; Lum, Henry, Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Optical beams can carry information in their amplitude and phase; however, optical analog numerical calculators such as an optical matrix processor use incoherent light to achieve linear operation. Thus, the phase information is lost and only the magnitude can be used. This limits such processors to the representation of positive real numbers. Many systems have been devised to overcome this deficit through the use of digital number representations, but they all operate at a greatly reduced efficiency in contrast to analog systems. The most widely accepted method to achieve sign coding in analog optical systems has been the use of an offset for the zero level. Unfortunately, this results in increased noise sensitivity for small numbers. In this paper, we examine the use of spatially coherent sign coding in acoustooptical processors, a method first developed for digital calculations by D. V. Tigin. This coding technique uses spatial coherence for the representation of signed numbers, while temporal incoherence allows for linear analog processing of the optical information. We show how spatial phase coding reduces noise sensitivity for signed analog calculations.

  18. Heterogeneous quantum dot/silicon photonics-based wavelength-tunable laser diode with a 44 nm wavelength-tuning range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kita, Tomohiro; Yamamoto, Naokatsu; Matsumoto, Atsushi; Kawanishi, Tetsuya; Yamada, Hirohito

    2016-04-01

    A heterogeneous wavelength-tunable laser diode combining quantum dot and silicon photonics technologies is proposed. A compact wavelength-tunable filter with two ring resonators was carefully designed and fabricated using silicon photonics technology. The tunable laser combining the wavelength-tunable filter and an optical amplifier, which includes InAs quantum dots, achieved a 44.0 nm wavelength-tuning range at around 1250 nm. The broadband optical gain of the quantum dot optical amplifier was effectively used by the optimized wavelength-tunable filter. This heterogeneous wavelength-tunable laser diode could become a breakthrough technology for high-capacity data transmission systems.

  19. Compact silicon photonic wavelength-tunable laser diode with ultra-wide wavelength tuning range

    SciTech Connect

    Kita, Tomohiro Tang, Rui; Yamada, Hirohito

    2015-03-16

    We present a wavelength-tunable laser diode with a 99-nm-wide wavelength tuning range. It has a compact wavelength-tunable filter with high wavelength selectivity fabricated using silicon photonics technology. The silicon photonic wavelength-tunable filter with wide wavelength tuning range was realized using two ring resonators and an asymmetric Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The wavelength-tunable laser diode fabricated by butt-joining a silicon photonic filter and semiconductor optical amplifier shows stable single-mode operation over a wide wavelength range.

  20. Electrically tunable materials for microwave applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmed, Aftab Goldthorpe, Irene A.; Khandani, Amir K.

    2015-03-15

    Microwave devices based on tunable materials are of vigorous current interest. Typical applications include phase shifters, antenna beam steering, filters, voltage controlled oscillators, matching networks, and tunable power splitters. The objective of this review is to assist in the material selection process for various applications in the microwave regime considering response time, required level of tunability, operating temperature, and loss tangent. The performance of a variety of material types are compared, including ferroelectric ceramics, polymers, and liquid crystals. Particular attention is given to ferroelectric materials as they are the most promising candidates when response time, dielectric loss, and tunability are important. However, polymers and liquid crystals are emerging as potential candidates for a number of new applications, offering mechanical flexibility, lower weight, and lower tuning voltages.

  1. Electrically tunable materials for microwave applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Aftab; Goldthorpe, Irene A.; Khandani, Amir K.

    2015-03-01

    Microwave devices based on tunable materials are of vigorous current interest. Typical applications include phase shifters, antenna beam steering, filters, voltage controlled oscillators, matching networks, and tunable power splitters. The objective of this review is to assist in the material selection process for various applications in the microwave regime considering response time, required level of tunability, operating temperature, and loss tangent. The performance of a variety of material types are compared, including ferroelectric ceramics, polymers, and liquid crystals. Particular attention is given to ferroelectric materials as they are the most promising candidates when response time, dielectric loss, and tunability are important. However, polymers and liquid crystals are emerging as potential candidates for a number of new applications, offering mechanical flexibility, lower weight, and lower tuning voltages.

  2. Solc filter engineering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, W. J.; Title, A. M.

    1982-01-01

    A Solc (1965) filter configuration is presented which is both tunable and spectrally variable, since it possesses an adjustable bandwidth, and which although less efficient than a Lyot filter is attractive because of its spectral versatility. The lossless design, using only an entrance and exit polarizer, improves throughput generally and especially in the IR, where polarizers are less convenient than dichroic sheet polarizers. Attention is given to the transmission profiles of Solc filters with different numbers of elements and split elements, as well as their mechanical design features.

  3. Transformation of phase dislocations under acousto-optic interaction of optical and acoustical Bessel beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belyi, V. N.; Khilo, P. A.; Kazak, N. S.; Khilo, N. A.

    2016-07-01

    The generation of wavefront phase dislocations of vortex Bessel light beams under acousto-optic (AO) diffraction in uniaxial crystals has been investigated. For the first time the process of AO interaction is studied with participation of Bessel acoustic beams instead of plane waves. A mathematical description of AO interaction is provided, which supposes the satisfaction of two types of phase-matching condition. The acousto-optic processes of transferring optical singularities onto the wavefront of BLBs are investigated and the generation of high-order optical vortices is considered at the interaction of optical and acoustical Bessel beams. The change of Bessel function order or phase dislocation order is explained as a result of the spin–orbital interaction under acousto-optic diffraction of vortex Bessel beams.

  4. Tetravalent chromium (Cr(4+)) as laser-active ion for tunable solid-state lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seas, A.; Petricevic, V.; Alfano, Robert R.

    1992-01-01

    Generation of femtosecond pulses from a continuous-wave mode-locked chromium-doped forsterite (Cr(4+):Mg2SiO4) laser has been accomplished. The forsterite laser was actively mode-locked using an acousto-optic modulator operating at 78 MHz with two Brewster high-dispersion glass prisms for intra-cavity chirp compensation. Transform-limited sub-100-fs pulses were routinely generated in the TEM(sub 00) mode with 85 mW of continuous power (with 1 percent output coupler), tunable over 1230-1280 nm. The shortest pulses of 60-fs pulsewidth were measured.

  5. Investigation of acoustooptic phenomena on the surface of highly absorbing clarified liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunkin, F. V.; Vodopianov, K. L.; Kulevskii, L. A.; Liakhov, G. A.; Mikhalevich, V. G.; Rodin, A. M.

    1985-03-01

    Acoustooptic phenomena on the surfaces of liquids containing hydroxyl groups (water, ethanol, glycerine, and ethylene glycol) were investigated experimentally under conditions of strong absorption and optical clarification. Experiments were carried out for free and fixed boundary conditions using a yttrium-erbium-aluminum-garnet laser operating in Q-switched mode as well as with active mode locking. Results are presented concerning the thermal and evaporative modes of acoustic-field generation by laser radiation. Acoustooptic phenomena arising in the interaction of picosecond laser pulses with water were investigated.

  6. Tunable infrared laser sources and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Libatique, Nathaniel Joseph C.

    Fiber lasers are emerging as attractive alternative technologies for wavelength-selectable WDM sources because of a number of reasons which include: (1) their direct compatibility with the fiber-optic transmission medium, (2) the excellent amplifying properties of rare-earth doped fibers and the rapidly continuing progress in novel fiber gain media (i.e. L-Band, S-band, and Raman fiber amplifiers), (3) the potential for order-of-magnitude power scalability via the use of double-clad geometries, (4) the maturity and robustness of the laser diode pumps used, and (5) the ready availability of fiber-based components and fiber-pigtailed devices (i.e. fused couplers, Bragg gratings, polarization controllers, etalons). The tunable laser applications of interest to this work have two distinct performance requirements, the need for either continuous tunability (the ability to tune the lasing emission through a continuous range of wavelengths) or discrete tunability (the ability to switch the lasing emission to an arbitrarily-fixed set of wavelengths). The latter class of "push-button" switchability to pre-set wavelength channels is especially critical for WDM optical communications. In this Thesis, I will discuss experimental achievements and key issues related to the design and demonstration of these two classes of tunable lasers, with a special emphasis on channel-selectable sources for optical communications. In particular I will discuss: (1) Novel FBG-based rapidly wavelength-selectable WDM sources, the scaling of such FBG-string-based tunable sources to intermediate channel counts, and the demonstration of single frequency tunable WDM sources based on line-narrowed tunable FBGs. (2) The first demonstration of a potentially all-fiber wavelength-selectable WDM laser source based on a fiber Sagnac loop filter. (3) Wavelength-selectable WDM laser sources based on the novel use of a current-tunable (semiconductor Fabry-Perot) grid filter. (4) The first demonstration of a

  7. Underwater tunable organ-pipe sound source.

    PubMed

    Morozov, Andrey K; Webb, Douglas C

    2007-08-01

    A highly efficient frequency-controlled sound source based on a tunable high-Q underwater acoustic resonator is described. The required spectrum width was achieved by transmitting a linear frequency-modulated signal and simultaneously tuning the resonance frequency, keeping the sound source in resonance at the instantaneous frequency of the signal transmitted. Such sound sources have applications in ocean-acoustic tomography and deep-penetration seismic tomography. Mathematical analysis and numerical simulation show the Helmholtz resonator's ability for instant resonant frequency switching and quick adjustment of its resonant frequency to the instantaneous frequency signal. The concept of a quick frequency adjustment filter is considered. The discussion includes the simplest lumped resonant source as well as the complicated distributed system of a tunable organ pipe. A numerical model of the tunable organ pipe is shown to have a form similar to a transmission line segment. This provides a general form for the principal results, which can be applied to tunable resonators of a different physical nature. The numerical simulation shows that the "state-switched" concept also works in the high-Q tunable organ pipe, and the speed of frequency sweeping in a high-Q tunable organ pipe is analyzed. The simulation results were applied to a projector design for ocean-acoustic tomography. PMID:17672628

  8. Noise tolerance in wavelength-selective switching of optical differential quadrature-phase-shift-keying pulse train by collinear acousto-optic devices.

    PubMed

    Goto, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Yasumitsu

    2014-06-01

    Optical switching of high-bit-rate quadrature-phase-shift-keying (QPSK) pulse trains using collinear acousto-optic (AO) devices is theoretically discussed. Since the collinear AO devices have wavelength selectivity, the switched optical pulse trains suffer from distortion when the bandwidth of the pulse train is comparable to the pass bandwidth of the AO device. As the AO device, a sidelobe-suppressed device with a tapered surface-acoustic-wave (SAW) waveguide and a Butterworth-type filter device with a lossy SAW directional coupler are considered. Phase distortion of optical pulse trains at 40 to 100  Gsymbols/s in QPSK format is numerically analyzed. Bit-error-rate performance with additive Gaussian noise is also evaluated by the Monte Carlo method. PMID:24922411

  9. The Stark anomalous dispersion optical filter: The theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yin, B.; Shay, T. M.

    1994-01-01

    The Stark anomalous dispersion optical filter is a wide-frequency-tunable ultra-narrow-bandwidth optical filter. The first theoretical investigation of this filter matched to the wavelength of a doubled Nd:YAG laser is reported. The calculations show that such a filter may provide above 80 percent transmission, and a noise equivalent bandwidth of 3 GHz.

  10. The quantum acousto-optic effect in Bose-Einstein condensate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhattacherjee, Aranya B.

    2009-09-01

    We investigate the interaction between a single mode light field and an elongated cigar shaped Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), subject to a temporal modulation of the trap frequency in the tight confinement direction. Under appropriate conditions, the longitudinal sound like waves (Faraday waves) in the direction of weak confinement acts as a dynamic diffraction grating for the incident light field analogous to the acousto-optic effect in classical optics. The change in the refractive index due to the periodic modulation of the BEC density is responsible for the acousto-optic effect. The dynamics is characterised by Bragg scattering of light from the matter wave Faraday grating and simultaneous Bragg scattering of the condensate atoms from the optical grating formed due to the interference between the incident light and the diffracted light fields. Varying the intensity of the incident laser beam we observe the transition from the acousto-optic effect regime to the atomic Bragg scattering regime, where Rabi oscillations between two momentum levels of the atoms are observed. We show that the acousto-optic effect is reduced as the atomic interaction is increased.

  11. Highly efficient acousto-optic diffraction in Sn2P2S6 crystals.

    PubMed

    Martynyuk-Lototska, I Yu; Mys, O G; Grabar, A A; Stoika, I M; Vysochanskii, Yu M; Vlokh, R O

    2008-01-01

    We have studied the acousto-optic (AO) diffraction in Sn2P2S6 crystals and found that they manifest high values of an AO figure of merit. The above crystals may therefore be used as highly efficient materials in different AO applications. PMID:18157276

  12. Compensation for the temperature drift of the wavelength adjustment in an acoustooptic spectrophotometer

    SciTech Connect

    Vilenskii, A V; Lysoi, B G; Cherednichenko, O B

    2002-03-31

    It is shown that the temperature drift of the wavelength adjustment in acoustooptic spectrophotometers can be compensated by using the reference channel of the spectrophotometer in which the absorption lines of neodymium-doped yttrium - aluminium garnet are employed as reference lines.

  13. Influence of Acoustic Field Structure on Polarization Characteristics of Acousto-optic Interaction in Crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muromets, A. V.; Trushin, A. S.

    Influence of acoustic field structure on polarization characteristics of acousto-optic interaction is investigated. It is shown that inhomogeneity of acoustic field and mechanism of ultrasound excitation causes changes in values of acousto-optic figure of merit for ordinary and extraordinary light beams in comparison with theoretic values. The theoretic values were derived under assumption that acoustic wave is homogeneous. Experimental analysis was carried out in acousto-optic cell based on lithium niobate crystal where the acoustic wave propagates at the angle 13 degrees to Z axis of the crystal. We used three different methods of ultrasound generation in the crystal: by means of external piezotransducer, by interdigital transducer and by two sets of electrodes placed on top of the crystal surface. In the latter case, the first pair of the electrodes was directed along X crystal axis, while the second pair of the electrodes was directed orthogonally to X crystal axis and the direction of ultrasound. Obtained values for diffraction efficiencies for ordinary and extraordinary polarized optical beams were qualitatively different which may be caused by spatial inhomogeneity of the generated acoustic waves in the crystal. Structure of acoustic field generated by these sets of electrodes was examined by laser probing. We performed the analysis of the acoustic field intensity using acousto-optic method. A relation of diffraction efficiencies for ordinary and extraordinary light waves was measured during each iteration of the laser probing.

  14. Tunable Terahertz Hybrid Metal-Graphene Plasmons.

    PubMed

    Jadidi, Mohammad M; Sushkov, Andrei B; Myers-Ward, Rachael L; Boyd, Anthony K; Daniels, Kevin M; Gaskill, D Kurt; Fuhrer, Michael S; Drew, H Dennis; Murphy, Thomas E

    2015-10-14

    We report here a new type of plasmon resonance that occurs when graphene is connected to a metal. These new plasmon modes offer the potential to incorporate a tunable plasmonic channel into a device with electrical contacts, a critical step toward practical graphene terahertz optoelectronics. Through theory and experiments, we demonstrate, for example, anomalously high resonant absorption or transmission when subwavelength graphene-filled apertures are introduced into an otherwise conductive layer. These tunable plasmon resonances are essential yet missing ingredients needed for terahertz filters, oscillators, detectors, and modulators. PMID:26397718

  15. Bit error rate optimization of an acousto-optic tracking system for free-space laser communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofka, J.; Nikulin, V.

    2006-02-01

    Optical communications systems have been gaining momentum with the increasing demand for transmission bandwidth in the last several years. Optical cable based solutions have become an attractive alternative to copper based system in the most bandwidth demanding applications due to increased bandwidth and longer inter-repeater distances. The promise of similar benefits over radio communications systems is driving the research into free space laser communications. Along with increased communications bandwidth, a free space laser communications system offers lower power consumption and the possibility for covert data links due to the concentration of the energy of the laser into a narrow beam. A narrow beam, however, results in a requirement for much more accurate and agile steering, so that a data link can be maintained in a scenario of communication platforms in relative motion or in the presence of vibrations. This paper presents a laser beam tracking system employing an acousto-optic cell capable of deflecting a laser beam at a very high rate (order of tens of kHz). The tracking system is subjected to vibrations to simulate a realistic implementation, resulting in the increase of BER. The performance of the system can be significantly improved through digital control. A constant gain controller is complemented by a Kalman filter the parameters of which are optimized to achieve the lowest possible BER for a given vibrations spectrum.

  16. High-Resolution Broadband Millimeter-Wave Astrophysical Spectrometer with Triple Product Acousto-Optical Processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagostino, Miguel Chavez; Shcherbakov, Alexandre S.; Arellanes, Adan Omar; Chavushyan, Vahram

    An advanced conceptual design of a high-bit-rate triple product acousto-optical processor is presented that can be applied in a number of astrophysical problems. We briefly describe the Large Millimeter Telescope as one of the potential observational infrastructures where the acousto-optical spectrometer can be successfully used. A summary on the study of molecular gas in relatively old (age > 10 Myr) disks around main sequence stars is provided. We have identified this as one of the science cases in which the proposed processor can have a big impact. Then we put forward triple product acousto-optical processor is able to realize algorithm of the space-and-time integrating, which is desirable for a wide- band spectrum analysis of radio-wave signals with an improved resolution providing the resolution power of about 105 - 106. It includes 1D-acousto-optic cells as the input devices for a 2D-optical data processing. The importance of this al- gorithm is based on exploiting the chirp Z-transform technique providing a 2D-Fourier transform of the input signals. The system produces the folded spectrum, accumulating advantages of both space and time integrating. Its frequency bandwidth is practically equal to the bandwidth of transducers inherent in acousto-optical cells. Then, similar processor is able to provide really high frequency resolution, which is practically equal to the reciprocal of the CCD-matrix photo-detector integration time. Here, the current state of developing the triple product acousto-optical processor in frames of the astrophysical instrumentation is shortly discussed.

  17. Tunable resonant structures for photonic integrated circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptasinski, Joanna Nina

    Photonics is an evolving field allowing for optical devices to be made cost effectively using standard semiconductor fabrication techniques, which in turn enables integration with microelectronic chips. Chip scale photonics will play an increasing role in the future of communications as the demand for bandwidth and reduced power consumption per bit continues to grow. Tunable optical circuit components are one of the essential technologies in the development of photonic analogues for classical electronic devices, where tunable photonic resonant structures allow for altering of their electromagnetic spectrum and find applications in optical switching, filtering, buffering, lasers and biosensors. The scope of this work is focused on tunable resonant structures for photonic integrated circuits. Specifically, this work demonstrates active tuning of silicon photonic resonant structures using the properties of dye doped nematic liquid crystals, temperature stabilization of silicon photonics using the passive properties of liquid crystals, and the effects of low density plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) claddings on ring resonator device performance.

  18. Perovskite Superlattices as Tunable Microwave Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christen, H. M.; Harshavardhan, K. S.

    2003-01-01

    Experiments have shown that superlattices that comprise alternating epitaxial layers of dissimilar paraelectric perovskites can exhibit large changes in permittivity with the application of electric fields. The superlattices are potentially useful as electrically tunable dielectric components of such microwave devices as filters and phase shifters. The present superlattice approach differs fundamentally from the prior use of homogeneous, isotropic mixtures of base materials and dopants. A superlattice can comprise layers of two or more perovskites in any suitable sequence (e.g., ABAB..., ABCDABCD..., ABACABACA...). Even though a single layer of one of the perovskites by itself is not tunable, the compositions and sequence of the layers can be chosen so that (1) the superlattice exhibits low microwave loss and (2) the interfacial interaction between at least two of the perovskites in the superlattice renders either the entire superlattice or else at least one of the perovskites tunable.

  19. Widely tunable opto-electronic oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxin, J.; Pillet, G.; Morvan, L.; Dolfi, D.

    2012-03-01

    We present here a widely tunable opto-electronic oscillator (OEO) based on an Er,Yb:glass Dual Frequency Laser (DFL) at 1.53 μm. The beatnote is stabilized with an optical fiber delay line. Compared to classical optoelectronic oscillators, this architecture does not need RF filter and offers a wide tunability. We measured a reduction of 67 dB of the phase noise power spectral density (PSD) at 10 Hz of the carrier optical fiber leading to a level of -27 dBc/Hz with only 100 m optical fiber. Moreover, the scheme offers a microwave signal tunability from 2.5 to 5.5 GHz limited by the RF components.

  20. The Lockheed alternate partial polarizer universal filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Title, A. M.

    1976-01-01

    A tunable birefringent filter using an alternate partial polarizer design has been built. The filter has a transmission of 38% in polarized light. Its full width at half maximum is .09A at 5500A. It is tunable from 4500 to 8500A by means of stepping motor actuated rotating half wave plates and polarizers. Wave length commands and thermal compensation commands are generated by a PPD 11/10 minicomputer. The alternate partial polarizer universal filter is compared with the universal birefringent filter and the design techniques, construction methods, and filter performance are discussed in some detail. Based on the experience of this filter some conclusions regarding the future of birefringent filters are elaborated.

  1. Piezo-optic, photoelastic, and acousto-optic properties of SrB4O7 crystals.

    PubMed

    Mytsyk, Bohdan; Demyanyshyn, Natalia; Martynyuk-Lototska, Irina; Vlokh, Rostyslav

    2011-07-20

    On the basis of studies of the piezo-optic effect, it has been shown that SrB(4)O(7) crystals can be used as efficient acousto-optic materials in the vacuum ultraviolet spectral range. The full matrices of piezo-optic and photoelastic coefficients have been experimentally obtained for these crystals. The acousto-optic figure of merit and the diffraction efficiency have been estimated for both the visible and deep ultraviolet spectral ranges. PMID:21772372

  2. Optical Filter Assembly for Interplanetary Optical Communications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Yijiang; Hemmati, Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Ground-based, narrow-band, high throughput optical filters are required for optical links from deep space. We report on the development of a tunable filter assembly that operates at telecommunication window of 1550 nanometers. Low insertion loss of 0.5 decibels and bandwidth of 90 picometers over a 2000 nanometers operational range of detectors has been achieved.

  3. High-repetition-rate widely tunable LiF : \\mathbf{\\mathsf{F}}_\\mathbf{\\mathsf{2}}^{-} color center lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, Shaojie; Liu, Zhaojun; Cong, Zhenhua; Rao, Han; Zhang, Sasa; Liu, Yang; Zverev, Petr G.; Konyushkin, Vasily A.; Zhang, Xingyu

    2016-02-01

    High-repetition-rate tunable LiF:\\text{F}2- color center lasers pumped by quasi-continuous-wave diode-side-pumped acousto-optically Q-switched Nd:YAG laser are demonstrated. Littrow-grating and Littman-grating tuning schemes are studied respectively. In the Littrow-grating scheme, the tuning range was 1085 nm to 1275 nm, and the maximal average output power was 275 mW. In the Littman-grating scheme, the tuning range was 1105.5 nm to 1215.5 nm, and the maximal average output power was 135 mW.

  4. Polarization-independent operation of an acousto-optical device at the transmit end of a single-laser transmission system using self-heterodyning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, L.; Rocks, M.

    1991-03-01

    This paper describes the way in which a new integrated acousto-optical LiNbO 3 device combining the three functions of an electro-optical phase modulator, an acousto-optical TE/TM or TM/TE mode converter and an acousto-optical frequency shifter can be operated in a polarization-independent manner as a transmitter unit in a single-laser transmission system using self-heterodyning.

  5. Tapered acoustical directional couplers for integrated acousto-optical mode converters with weighted coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrmann, Harald; Rust, Ulrich; Schafer, Klaus

    1995-03-01

    Weighted coupling for strong sidelobe suppression of integrated acoustooptical mode converters in LiNbO3 using acoustical directional couplers has been studied theoretically and experimentally. A parameter free model for the propagation of surface acoustic waves in guiding structures has been developed based on a step-like variation of the acoustic velocity. Comparisons of theoretical results with experimental ones for acoustic waveguides and directional coupler structures confirm the applicability of the model. A coupled mode description of the acousto-optical polarization conversion in converters with acoustical directional couplers has been developed and applied to several tapered acoustical directional couplers. The model reveals that the conversion characteristics are usually strongly asymmetric. If the directional coupler is appropriately designed, a sidelobe suppression of about 30 dB can be achieved. First experimental results with tapered directional couplers confirm within some limits the theoretical predictions.

  6. Note: laser frequency shifting by using two novel triple-pass acousto-optic modulator configurations.

    PubMed

    de Carlos-López, E; López, J M; López, S; Espinosa, M G; Lizama, L A

    2012-11-01

    We report the design of two novel triple-pass acousto-optic modulator systems. These designs are extensions of the well known acousto-optic modulator (AOM) double-pass configuration, which eliminates the angle dependence of the diffracted beam with respect to the modulation frequency. In a triple-pass system, however, the frequency dependence of the angle does not disappear but the frequency shift is larger, spanning 3 times the AOM central frequency. In some applications, such as optically pumped Cesium-beam frequency standards, the frequencies of the two laser beams remain fixed and a triple-pass optical system can be used to reduce to one the number of lasers used in such atomic clocks. The two triple-pass configurations use either a retro-reflecting mirror, or a right angle prism to pass for third time the laser beam through the AOM, obtaining diffraction efficiencies of about 27% and 44%, respectively. PMID:23206109

  7. Tandem-pulsed acousto-optics: an analytical framework of modulated high-contrast speckle patterns.

    PubMed

    Resink, S G; Steenbergen, W

    2015-06-01

    Recently we presented acousto-optic (AO) probing of scattering media using addition or subtraction of speckle patterns due to tandem nanosecond pulses. Here we present a theoretical framework for ideal (polarized, noise-free) speckle patterns with unity contrast that links ultrasound-induced optical phase modulation, the fraction of light that is tagged by ultrasound, speckle contrast, mean square difference of speckle patterns and the contrast of the summation of speckle patterns acquired at different ultrasound phases. We derive the important relations from basic assumptions and definitions, and then validate them with simulations. For ultrasound-generated phase modulation angles below 0.7 rad (assuming uniform modulation), we are now able to relate speckle pattern statistics to the acousto-optic phase modulation. Hence our theory allows quantifying speckle observations in terms of ultrasonically tagged fractions of light for near-unity-contrast speckle patterns. PMID:25985079

  8. Holographic video display based on guided-wave acousto-optic devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalley, Daniel E.; Smithwick, Quinn Y. J.; Bove, V. Michael, Jr.

    2007-02-01

    We introduce a new holo-video display architecture ("Mark III") developed at the MIT Media Laboratory. The goal of the Mark III project is to reduce the cost and size of a holo-video display, making it into an inexpensive peripheral to a standard desktop PC or game machine which can be driven by standard graphics chips. Our new system is based on lithium niobate guided-wave acousto-optic devices, which give twenty or more times the bandwidth of the tellurium dioxide bulk-wave acousto-optic modulators of our previous displays. The novel display architecture is particularly designed to eliminate the high-speed horizontal scanning mechanism that has traditionally limited the scalability of Scophony- style video displays. We describe the system architecture and the guided-wave device, explain how it is driven by a graphics chip, and present some early results.

  9. Note: Laser frequency shifting by using two novel triple-pass acousto-optic modulator configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos-Lopez, E. de; Lopez, J. M.; Lopez, S.; Espinosa, M. G.; Lizama, L. A.

    2012-11-15

    We report the design of two novel triple-pass acousto-optic modulator systems. These designs are extensions of the well known acousto-optic modulator (AOM) double-pass configuration, which eliminates the angle dependence of the diffracted beam with respect to the modulation frequency. In a triple-pass system, however, the frequency dependence of the angle does not disappear but the frequency shift is larger, spanning 3 times the AOM central frequency. In some applications, such as optically pumped Cesium-beam frequency standards, the frequencies of the two laser beams remain fixed and a triple-pass optical system can be used to reduce to one the number of lasers used in such atomic clocks. The two triple-pass configurations use either a retro-reflecting mirror, or a right angle prism to pass for third time the laser beam through the AOM, obtaining diffraction efficiencies of about 27% and 44%, respectively.

  10. Fast spatial beam shaping by acousto-optic diffraction for 3D non-linear microscopy.

    PubMed

    Akemann, Walther; Léger, Jean-François; Ventalon, Cathie; Mathieu, Benjamin; Dieudonné, Stéphane; Bourdieu, Laurent

    2015-11-01

    Acousto-optic deflection (AOD) devices offer unprecedented fast control of the entire spatial structure of light beams, most notably their phase. AOD light modulation of ultra-short laser pulses, however, is not straightforward to implement because of intrinsic chromatic dispersion and non-stationarity of acousto-optic diffraction. While schemes exist to compensate chromatic dispersion, non-stationarity remains an obstacle. In this work we demonstrate an efficient AOD light modulator for stable phase modulation using time-locked generation of frequency-modulated acoustic waves at the full repetition rate of a high power laser pulse amplifier of 80 kHz. We establish the non-local relationship between the optical phase and the generating acoustic frequency function and verify the system for temporal stability, phase accuracy and generation of non-linear two-dimensional phase functions. PMID:26561090

  11. Microelectromechanical tunable inductor

    DOEpatents

    Stalford, Harold L.; Hietala, Vincent M.; Fleming, James G.; Fleming, legal representative, Carol

    2010-05-04

    A microelectromechanical tunable inductor is formed from a pair of substantially-identically-sized coils arranged side by side and coiled up about a central axis which is parallel to a supporting substrate. An in-plane stress gradient is responsible for coiling up the coils which. The inductance provided by the tunable inductor can be electrostatically changed either continuously or in discrete steps using electrodes on the substrate and on each coil. The tunable inductor can be formed with processes which are compatible with conventional IC fabrication so that, in some cases, the tunable inductor can be formed on a semiconductor substrate alongside or on top of an IC.

  12. Trends in gas sensors with tunable thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domash, Lawrence; Cohen, Mitchell; Wagner, Matthias

    2004-10-01

    A new family of miniature nano-tunable narrowband infrared filters has been developed based on the thermo-optic properties of thin film semiconductors. Originally developed for fiber optic telecommunications networks at 1.5 μm, the technology has now been extended to the 3-5 μm range, leading to very compact tunable filters with passbands on the order of 0.5% of center wavelength and tuning ranges up to 4% of center wavelength. Two applications are described. First, a prototype carbon monoxide sensor testbed based on a 4550-4650 nm tunable filter is shown to be capable of detecting less than 20 ppm of CO. Second, we show how nano-tunable thin film filters can be integrated with miniature blackbody sources to create a new family of ultra low cost integrated tunable IR emitters, which we have named Firefly. Packaged in TO cans, Firefly devices enable precision detection of gases including carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, sulphur dioxide, hydrogen cyanide, water vapor, nitric oxide or methane.

  13. Optical filter having coupled whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy (Inventor); Ilchenko, Vladimir (Inventor); Maleki, Lutfollah (Inventor); Handley, Timothy A. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Optical filters having at least two coupled whispering-gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators to produce a second order or higher order filter function with a desired spectral profile. At least one of the coupled WGM optical resonators may be tunable by a control signal to adjust the filtering function.

  14. Acousto-optic interaction in alpha-BaB(2)O(4)and Li(2)B(4)O(7) crystals.

    PubMed

    Martynyuk-Lototska, Irina; Mys, Oksana; Dudok, Taras; Adamiv, Volodymyr; Smirnov, Yevgen; Vlokh, Rostyslav

    2008-07-01

    Experimental studies and analysis of acousto-optic diffraction in alpha-BaB(2)O(4) and Li(2)B(4)O(7) crystals are given. Ultrasonic wave velocity, elastic compliance and stiffness coefficients, and piezo-optic and photoelastic coefficients of alpha-BaB(2)O(4) and Li(2)B(4)O(7) crystals are determined. The acousto-optic figure of merit has been estimated for different possible geometries of acousto-optic interaction. It is shown that the acousto-optic figures of merit for alpha-BaB(2)O(4) crystals reach the value M(2)=(270 +/- 70) x 10(-15) s(3)/kg for the case of interaction with the slowest ultrasonic wave. The directions of propagation and polarization of those acoustic waves are obtained on the basis of construction of acoustic slowness surfaces. The acousto-optic diffraction is experimentally studied for alpha-BaB(2)O(4) and Li(2)B(4)O(7) crystals. PMID:18594591

  15. Optimization of thermochromic VO2 based structures with tunable thermal emissivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voti, R. Li; Larciprete, M. C.; Leahu, G.; Sibilia, C.; Bertolotti, M.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we design and simulate VO2/metal multilayers to obtain a large tunability of the thermal emissivity of infrared (IR) filters in the typical mid wave IR window of many infrared cameras. The multilayer structure is optimized to realise a low emissivity filter at high temperatures useful for military purposes. The values of tunability found for VO2/metal multilayers are larger than the value for a single thick layer of VO2.

  16. Some recollections on acousto-optics research at the University of Gdańsk in the light of international cooperation and of the history of Spring Schools on Acousto-Optics and Applications.

    PubMed

    Kwiek, Piotr; Sliwiński, Antoni

    2009-03-01

    Some historical features of international cooperation that have been a background for originating the idea to organize since 1980 special international meetings named Spring Schools on Acousto-Optics and Applications and for continuing the events until now are presented. Thanks to the establishment of the Spring Schools, the group of acousto-opticians at the Gdańsk University have had the opportunity to exchange scientific experience and continue mutual cooperation in research with several acousto-optic centers and to publish a number of common papers. A few examples from these achievements and some historical facts illustrating research activity in the field of acousto-optics during past 30 years are recollected. PMID:19252605

  17. Tunable eye-safe Er:YAG laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Němec, M.; Šulc, J.; Indra, L.; Fibrich, M.; Jelínková, H.

    2015-01-01

    Er:YAG crystal was investigated as the gain medium in a diode (1452 nm) pumped tunable laser. The tunability was reached in an eye-safe region by an intracavity birefringent filter. The four tuning bands were obtained peaking at wavelengths 1616, 1632, 1645, and 1656 nm. The broadest continuous tunability was 6 nm wide peaking at 1616 nm. The laser was operating in a pulsed regime (10 ms pulse length, 10 Hz repetition rate). The maximum mean output power was 26.5 mW at 1645 nm. The constructed system demonstrated the tunability of a resonantly diode-pumped Er:YAG laser which could be useful in the development of compact diode-pumped lasers for spectroscopic applications.

  18. Tunable pulsed narrow bandwidth light source

    DOEpatents

    Powers, Peter E.; Kulp, Thomas J.

    2002-01-01

    A tunable pulsed narrow bandwidth light source and a method of operating a light source are provided. The light source includes a pump laser, first and second non-linear optical crystals, a tunable filter, and light pulse directing optics. The method includes the steps of operating the pump laser to generate a pulsed pump beam characterized by a nanosecond pulse duration and arranging the light pulse directing optics so as to (i) split the pulsed pump beam into primary and secondary pump beams; (ii) direct the primary pump beam through an input face of the first non-linear optical crystal such that a primary output beam exits from an output face of the first non-linear optical crystal; (iii) direct the primary output beam through the tunable filter to generate a sculpted seed beam; and direct the sculpted seed beam and the secondary pump beam through an input face of the second non-linear optical crystal such that a secondary output beam characterized by at least one spectral bandwidth on the order of about 0.1 cm.sup.-1 and below exits from an output face of the second non-linear optical crystal.

  19. Stack filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wendt, P. D.; Coyle, E. J.; Gallagher, N. C., Jr.

    1986-08-01

    A large class of easily implemented nonlinear filters called stack filters are discussed which includes the rank order operators in addition to the compositions of morphological operators. Techniques similar to those used to determine the root signal behavior of median filters are employed to study the convergence properties of the filters, and necessary conditions for a stack filter to preserve monotone regions or edges in signals, and the output distribution of the filters, are obtained. Among the stack filters of window width three are found asymmetric median filters in which one removes only positive going edges, the other removes only negative going edges, while the median filter removes impulses of both signs.

  20. Graphene: Tunable superdoping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Liming

    2016-04-01

    Doping graphitic materials is desirable to enhance their performance for energy conversion and storage applications, but achieving high dopant concentrations remains a challenge. Researchers now demonstrate synthesis of such materials with very high doping levels and facile tunability.

  1. Tunable semiconductor lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taghavi-Larigani, Shervin (Inventor); Vanzyl, Jakob J. (Inventor); Yariv, Amnon (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    Tunable semiconductor lasers are disclosed requiring minimized coupling regions. Multiple laser embodiments employ ring resonators or ring resonator pairs using only a single coupling region with the gain medium are detailed. Tuning can be performed by changing the phase of the coupling coefficient between the gain medium and a ring resonator of the laser. Another embodiment provides a tunable laser including two Mach-Zehnder interferometers in series and a reflector coupled to a gain medium.

  2. Acousto-optic resonant coupling of three spatial modes in an optical fiber.

    PubMed

    Park, Hee Su; Song, Kwang Yong

    2014-01-27

    A fiber-optic analogue to an externally driven three-level quantum state is demonstrated by acousto-optic coupling of the spatial modes in a few-mode fiber. Under the condition analogous to electromagnetically induced transparency, a narrow-bandwidth transmission within an absorption band for the fundamental mode is demonstrated. The presented structure is an efficient converter between the fundamental mode and the higher-order modes that cannot be easily addressed by previous techniques, therefore can play a significant role in the next-generation space-division multiplexing communications as an arbitrarily mode-selectable router. PMID:24515208

  3. Acousto-optics bandwidth broadening in a Bragg cell based on arbitrary synthesized signal methods.

    PubMed

    Peled, Itay; Kaminsky, Ron; Kotler, Zvi

    2015-06-01

    In this work, we present the advantages of driving a multichannel acousto-optical deflector (AOD) with a digitally synthesized multifrequency RF signal. We demonstrate a significant bandwidth broadening of ∼40% by providing well-tuned phase control of the array transducers. Moreover, using a multifrequency, complex signal, we manage to suppress the harmonic deflections and return most of the spurious energy to the main beam. This method allows us to operate the AOD with more than an octave of bandwidth with negligible spurious energy going to the harmonic beams and a total bandwidth broadening of over 70%. PMID:26192666

  4. Construction and characterization of ultraviolet acousto-optic based femtosecond pulse shapers

    SciTech Connect

    Mcgrane, Shawn D; Moore, David S; Greenfield, Margo T

    2008-01-01

    We present all the information necessary for construction and characterization of acousto optic pulse shapers, with a focus on ultraviolet wavelengths, Various radio-frequency drive configurations are presented to allow optimization via knowledgeable trade-off of design features. Detailed performance characteristics of a 267 nm acousto-optic modulator (AOM) based pulse shaper are presented, Practical considerations for AOM based pulse shaping of ultra-broad bandwidth (sub-10 fs) amplified femtosecond pulse shaping are described, with particular attention paid to the effects of the RF frequency bandwidth and optical frequency bandwidth on the spatial dispersion of the output laser pulses.

  5. Acoustic wave velocities in two-dimensional composite structures based on acousto-optical crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mal'neva, P. V.; Trushin, A. S.

    2015-04-01

    Sound velocities in two-dimensional composite structures based on isotropic and anisotropic acousto-optical crystals have been determined by numerical simulations. The isotropic materials are represented by fused quartz (SiO2) and flint glass, while anisotropic materials include tetragonal crystals of paratellurite (TeO2) and rutile (TiO2) and a trigonal crystal of tellurium (Te). It is established that the acoustic anisotropy of periodic composite structures strongly depends on both the chemical composition and geometric parameters of components.

  6. Acousto-optically tuned isotopic CO{sub 2} lasers for long-range differential absorption LIDAR

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, D.C.; Busch, G.E.; Hewitt, C.J.; Remelius, D.K.; Shimada, Tsutomu; Strauss, C.E.M.; Wilson, C.W.

    1998-12-01

    The authors are developing 2--100 kHz repetition rate CO{sub 2} lasers with milliJoule pulse energies, rapid acousto-optic tuning and isotopic gas mixes, for Differential Absorption LIDAR (DIAL) applications. The authors explain the tuning method, which uses a pair of acousto-optic modulators and is capable of random access to CO{sub 2} laser lines at rates of 100 kHz or more. The laser system is also described, and they report on performance with both normal and isotopic gas mixes.

  7. Addressable, large-field second harmonic generation microscopy based on 2D acousto-optical deflector and spatial light modulator

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yonghong; Liu, Honghai; Qin, Wan; Qu, Junle; Peng, Xiang; Niu, Hanben

    2013-01-01

    We present an addressable, large-field second harmonic generation microscope by combining a 2D acousto-optical deflector with a spatial light modulator. The SLM shapes an incoming mode-locked, near-infrared Ti:Sapphire laser beam into a multifocus array, which can be rapidly scanned by changing the incident angle of the laser beam using a 2D acousto-optical deflector. Compared to the single-beam-scan technique, the multifocus array scan can increase the scanning rate and the field-of-view size with the multi-region imaging ability. PMID:24307756

  8. Spin-to-orbit conversion at acousto-optic diffraction of light: conservation of optical angular momentum.

    PubMed

    Skab, Ihor; Vlokh, Rostyslav

    2012-04-01

    Acousto-optic diffraction of light in optically active cubic crystals is analyzed from the viewpoint of conservation of optical angular momentum. It is shown that the availability of angular momentum in the diffracted optical beam can be necessarily inferred from the requirements of angular momentum conservation law. As follows from our analysis, a circularly polarized diffracted wave should bear an orbital angular momentum. The efficiency of the spin-to-orbit momentum conversion is governed by the efficiency of acousto-optic diffraction. PMID:22505104

  9. Signal interference RF photonic bandstop filter.

    PubMed

    Aryanfar, Iman; Choudhary, Amol; Shahnia, Shayan; Pagani, Mattia; Liu, Yang; Marpaung, David; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2016-06-27

    In the microwave domain, signal interference bandstop filters with high extinction and wide stopbands are achieved through destructive interference of two signals. Implementation of this filtering concept using RF photonics will lead to unique filters with high performance, enhanced tuning range and reconfigurability. Here we demonstrate an RF photonic signal interference filter, achieved through the combination of precise synthesis of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) loss with advanced phase and amplitude tailoring of RF modulation sidebands. We achieve a square-shaped, 20-dB extinction RF photonic filter over a tunable bandwidth of up to 1 GHz with a central frequency tuning range of 16 GHz using a low SBS loss of ~3 dB. Wideband destructive interference in this novel filter leads to the decoupling of the filter suppression from its bandwidth and shape factor. This allows the creation of a filter with all-optimized qualities. PMID:27410650

  10. Passband switchable microwave photonic multiband filter.

    PubMed

    Ge, Jia; Fok, Mable P

    2015-01-01

    A reconfigurable microwave photonic (MWP) multiband filter with selectable and switchable passbands is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, with a maximum of 12 simultaneous passbands evenly distributed from 0 to 10 GHz. The scheme is based on the generation of tunable optical comb lines using a two-stage Lyot loop filter, such that various filter tap spacings and spectral combinations are obtained for the configuration of the MWP filter. Through polarization state adjustment inside the Lyot loop filter, an optical frequency comb with 12 different comb spacings is achieved, which corresponds to a MWP filter with 12 selectable passbands. Center frequencies of the filter passbands are switchable, while the number of simultaneous passbands is tunable from 1 to 12. Furthermore, the MWP multiband filter can either work as an all-block, single-band or multiband filter with various passband combinations, which provide exceptional operation flexibility. All the passbands have over 30 dB sidelobe suppression and 3-dB bandwidth of 200 MHz, providing good filter selectivity. PMID:26521693

  11. Passband switchable microwave photonic multiband filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jia; Fok, Mable P.

    2015-11-01

    A reconfigurable microwave photonic (MWP) multiband filter with selectable and switchable passbands is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, with a maximum of 12 simultaneous passbands evenly distributed from 0 to 10 GHz. The scheme is based on the generation of tunable optical comb lines using a two-stage Lyot loop filter, such that various filter tap spacings and spectral combinations are obtained for the configuration of the MWP filter. Through polarization state adjustment inside the Lyot loop filter, an optical frequency comb with 12 different comb spacings is achieved, which corresponds to a MWP filter with 12 selectable passbands. Center frequencies of the filter passbands are switchable, while the number of simultaneous passbands is tunable from 1 to 12. Furthermore, the MWP multiband filter can either work as an all-block, single-band or multiband filter with various passband combinations, which provide exceptional operation flexibility. All the passbands have over 30 dB sidelobe suppression and 3-dB bandwidth of 200 MHz, providing good filter selectivity.

  12. Passband switchable microwave photonic multiband filter

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Jia; Fok, Mable P.

    2015-01-01

    A reconfigurable microwave photonic (MWP) multiband filter with selectable and switchable passbands is proposed and experimentally demonstrated, with a maximum of 12 simultaneous passbands evenly distributed from 0 to 10 GHz. The scheme is based on the generation of tunable optical comb lines using a two-stage Lyot loop filter, such that various filter tap spacings and spectral combinations are obtained for the configuration of the MWP filter. Through polarization state adjustment inside the Lyot loop filter, an optical frequency comb with 12 different comb spacings is achieved, which corresponds to a MWP filter with 12 selectable passbands. Center frequencies of the filter passbands are switchable, while the number of simultaneous passbands is tunable from 1 to 12. Furthermore, the MWP multiband filter can either work as an all-block, single-band or multiband filter with various passband combinations, which provide exceptional operation flexibility. All the passbands have over 30 dB sidelobe suppression and 3-dB bandwidth of 200 MHz, providing good filter selectivity. PMID:26521693

  13. Wide-band acousto-optic deflectors for large field of view two-photon microscope.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Runhua; Zhou, Zhenqiao; Lv, Xiaohua; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2012-04-01

    Acousto-optic deflector (AOD) is an attractive scanner for two-photon microscopy because it can provide fast and versatile laser scanning and does not involve any mechanical movements. However, due to the small scan range of available AOD, the field of view (FOV) of the AOD-based microscope is typically smaller than that of the conventional galvanometer-based microscope. Here, we developed a novel wide-band AOD to enlarge the scan angle. Considering the maximum acceptable acoustic attenuation in the acousto-optic crystal, relatively lower operating frequencies and moderate aperture were adopted. The custom AOD was able to provide 60 MHz 3-dB bandwidth and 80% peak diffraction efficiency at 840 nm wavelength. Based on a pair of such AOD, a large FOV two-photon microscope was built with a FOV up to 418.5 μm (40× objective). The spatiotemporal dispersion was compensated simultaneously with a single custom-made prism. By means of dynamic power modulation, the variation of laser intensity within the FOV was reduced below 5%. The lateral and axial resolution of the system were 0.58-2.12 μm and 2.17-3.07 μm, respectively. Pollen grain images acquired by this system were presented to demonstrate the imaging capability at different positions across the entire FOV. PMID:22559541

  14. Laser communication system with acousto-optic tracking and modulation: experimental study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikulin, Vladimir V.; Sofka, Jozef

    2009-12-01

    Laser communication systems are highly preferred for broadband applications. This technology uses higher regions of the spectrum, and offers unsurpassed throughput, information security, reduced weight and size of the components, and power savings. Unfortunately, small beam divergence requires precise positioning, which becomes very critical at high data rates. Complex motion patterns of the communicating platforms, vibrations, and atmospheric effects cause significant signal losses due to the pointing errors, beam wander, and other higher order effects. Mitigation of those effects is achieved by fast tracking, which can be successfully combined with signal modulation. In this work, we focus on the application of acousto-optic technology and its effect on communication performance. We present experimental results for a laser communication link affected by pointing distortions. These distortions are generated to emulate specific operation environments with particular spectral characteristics. The acousto-optic technology is used to build an agile tracking system combined with signal modulation in the same device to assure maximum signal reception, in spite of the harsh operational conditions. The received communication signal is recorded and statistically analyzed to calculate the bit error rates. This work presents synthesis of a tracking system and experimental results characterizing the communication performance under uncompensated pointing disturbance and with tracking.

  15. The effect of scattering-medium parameters on signal magnitude under acousto-optic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zyuryukina, O. V.; Volkova, E. K.; Perchenko, M. I.; Solov'ev, A. P.

    2014-04-01

    We have experimentally studied the influence of scattering anisotropy parameter g of a medium on the magnitude of signal S (visualization parameter) at an ultrasonic frequency that is registered upon acoustooptic tomography. Aqueous solutions of mixtures of cream and skimmed milk with different ratios between them were used as scattering media. The optical properties of media (absorption coefficient μa and reduced scattering coefficient μ' S ) have been measured on a spectrophotometer (Perkin-Elmer Lambda 950 UV-VIS-NIR) using the inverse adding-doubling technique. As a result of the investigation, we have found that there is a certain correlation between the value of the scattering anisotropy parameter g of aqueous solutions of investigated mixtures and the percentage of the mixture in the aqueous solution, which ensures the required small value of extinction coefficient μ of the scattering medium. An increase in signal S has been revealed with increasing anisotropy parameter g of the medium at a invariable value of extinction coefficient μ. We have concluded that, to solve an inverse problem on the acousto-optic tomography, it is necessary to take into account possible changes in the g factor in scattering media, including biological ones.

  16. Acousto-optic Imaging System for In-situ Measurement of the High Temperature Distribution in Micron-size Specimens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machikhin, Alexander S.; Zinin, Pavel V.; Shurygin, Alexander V.

    We developed a unique acousto-optic imaging system for in-situ measurement of high temperature distribution on micron-size specimens. The system was designed to measure temperature distribution inside minerals and functional material phases subjected to high pressure and high temperatures in a diamond anvil cell (DAC) heated by a high powered laser.

  17. Tunable optical reflectance using a monolithic encapsulated grating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Tian; Chen, Guoqing; Wang, Yueke; Wang, Benxin; Jiang, Wenwen; Zhao, Tianzhuo; Cai, Shaohong

    2016-09-01

    Tunable optical reflectance using a monolithic encapsulated grating in fused silica is presented based on the guided-mode resonance (GMR) effect. The resonance location can be altered by slightly varying the thickness of the top layer. For small thickness of the grating layer, the variation of the grating thickness can be tailored to create variable optical reflectance at the same operating wavelength with the filter linewidth and the reflection sidebands kept almost the same. By proper choosing the grating thickness, the novel dual functional device that combines functions of narrowband filtering and three-port beam splitting in the resonance domain can be obtained using the monolithic encapsulated grating. Multiline reflection filters can be obtained by increasing the thickness of the top layer, and tunable reflectivity for multiple operating wavelengths can be obtained by changing the grating thickness.

  18. Tunable lasers- an overview

    SciTech Connect

    Guenther, B.D.; Buser, R.G.

    1982-08-01

    This overview of tunable lasers describes their applicability to spectroscopy in the ultraviolet and middle infrared ranges; to rapid on-line diagnostics by ultrashort cavity lasers; to exploration, by the free electron laser, for its wide tuning in the far infrared to submillimeter region; to remote detection, in areas such as portable pollution monitors, on-line chemical analyzers, auto exhaust analyzers, and production line controls; to photochemistry; and to other potential areas in diagnostics, communications, and medical and biological sciences. The following lasers are characterized by their tunability: solid state lasers, primarily alexandrite, with a tuning range of ca 1000 Angstroms; color center lasers; semiconductor lasers; dye lasers; gas lasers, where high-pressure CO/sub 2/ discharges are the best known example for a wide tunability range, and research is continuing in systems such as the alkali dimers; and, at wavelengths beyond 10 micrometers, the possibilities beyond Cerenkov and free electron lasers.

  19. Development of tunable Fabry-Perot spectral camera and light source for medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaarre, M.; Kivi, S.; Panouillot, P. E.; Saari, H.; Mäkynen, J.; Sorri, I.; Juuti, M.

    2013-05-01

    VTT has developed a fast, tunable Fabry-Perot (FP) filter component and applied it in making small, lightweight spectral cameras and light sources. One application field where this novel technology is now tested is medical field. A demonstrator has been made to test the applicability of FP based spectral filtering in the imaging of retina in visible light wavelength area.

  20. Disk filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, Werner

    1986-01-01

    An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

  1. Disk filter

    DOEpatents

    Bergman, W.

    1985-01-09

    An electric disk filter provides a high efficiency at high temperature. A hollow outer filter of fibrous stainless steel forms the ground electrode. A refractory filter material is placed between the outer electrode and the inner electrically isolated high voltage electrode. Air flows through the outer filter surfaces through the electrified refractory filter media and between the high voltage electrodes and is removed from a space in the high voltage electrode.

  2. Tunable terahertz fishnet metamaterial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Cheng-Ling; Wang, Wei-Chih; Lin, Hong-Ren; Ju Hsieh, Feng; Pun, Yue-Bun; Chan, Chi-Hou

    2013-04-01

    This paper describes and demonstrates a terahertz (THz) frequency tunable fishnet metamaterial (TFMM) using an electrically controlled polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) matrix. In contrast to other PDLC-based devices, the TFMM employs a novel method for encapsulating PDLC using a thin (1.5 μm) polyimide "skin layer" to form a uniform surface for metal electrodes while minimizing the Fabry-Perot effect of the skin layer on the TFMM measurements. The tunability was verified by measuring the frequency shift in the reflection coefficient (0.01 THz), with an observed minimum negative refractive index of -15 at 0.55 THz.

  3. Tunable ring laser using a tapered single mode fiber tip.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaozhen; Li, Yi; Bao, Xiaoyi

    2009-12-10

    A tunable ring laser using a tapered single mode fiber tip as a bandpass filter has been proposed and demonstrated for the first time to our knowledge. This is a simple and cost-effective tunable source. It is found that the tuning range and bandwidth of the laser are related to the relaxation time of the optical amplifier, the current of the amplifier, and the steepness of the tip shape. The calculations and experimental results show that the laser has a tuning range of 9 nm in the L-band and the spectral linewidth can be varied from 0.06 nm to 0.17 nm. PMID:20011024

  4. 80 nm tunable DBR-free semiconductor disk laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Z.; Albrecht, A. R.; Cederberg, J. G.; Sheik-Bahae, M.

    2016-07-01

    We report a widely tunable optically pumped distributed Bragg reflector (DBR)-free semiconductor disk laser with 6 W continuous wave output power near 1055 nm when using a 2% output coupler. Using only high reflecting mirrors, the lasing wavelength is centered at 1034 nm and can be tuned up to a record 80 nm by using a birefringent filter. We attribute such wide tunability to the unique broad effective gain bandwidth of DBR-free semiconductor disk lasers achieved by eliminating the active mirror geometry.

  5. Design, fabrication and applications of MEMS tunable blazed gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiang

    Micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology originated from the integrated circuits (IC) industry, and has gradually evolved into a wide range of technologies across multiple disciplines in three decades. With the boom of the IT industry in the late 1990's, micro-opto-electro-mechanical systems (MOEMS) or optical MEMS technology, a branch of MEMS, has rapidly been applied to a large variety of fields including optical telecommunications, information display, spectroscopy and medical imaging. In this dissertation, we focus on optical filtering technology based on diffractive optical MEMS, which manipulate the light by modulating its phase through micro-actuation, or sense mechanical and other physical property changes at the microscale based on the principles of diffractive optics. The fundamental trade-off between the average transmission power and complexity of diffractive optical filters leads us to the concept of tunable blazed gratings, which trade spectral complexity for power transmission efficiency. MEMS tunable blazed gratings (TBG) are blazed gratings whose individual elements can be actuated at the micro-level using MEMS actuators. The TBG not only possess the advantages of high transmission and large dispersion of traditional blazed gratings, but also have the potential to enable novel optical filtering functionality beyond the reach of conventional monolithic blazed gratings with a much larger number of degrees of freedom. Starting from the first principles of diffractive optics, we develop the theoretical understanding of tunable blazed gratings, which serves as guidelines to our design and fabrication of TBG. We show different generations of TBG designs and the corresponding fabrication processes and focus on one the ones based on SOI technology which combine anisotropic wet silicon etching that defines mirror surface on crystalline surfaces of silicon, and deep reactive ion etching that can flexibly define electrostatic actuators. We

  6. Phononic Crystal Tunable via Ferroelectric Phase Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Chaowei; Cai, Feiyan; Xie, Shuhong; Li, Fei; Sun, Rong; Fu, Xianzhu; Xiong, Rengen; Zhang, Yi; Zheng, Hairong; Li, Jiangyu

    2015-09-01

    Phononic crystals (PCs) consisting of periodic materials with different acoustic properties have potential applications in functional devices. To realize more smart functions, it is desirable to actively control the properties of PCs on demand, ideally within the same fabricated system. Here, we report a tunable PC made of Ba0.7Sr0.3Ti O3 (BST) ceramics, wherein a 20-K temperature change near room temperature results in a 20% frequency shift in the transmission spectra induced by a ferroelectric phase transition. The tunability phenomenon is attributed to the structure-induced resonant excitation of A0 and A1 Lamb modes that exist intrinsically in the uniform BST plate, while these Lamb modes are sensitive to the elastic properties of the plate and can be modulated by temperature in a BST plate around the Curie temperature. The study finds opportunities for creating tunable PCs and enables smart temperature-tuned devices such as the Lamb wave filter or sensor.

  7. Subnanosecond time-correlated photon counting with tunable lasers.

    PubMed

    Spears, K G; Cramer, L E; Hoffland, L D

    1978-02-01

    We present several laser based methods to improve the technique of time-correlated photon counting. Our Ar(+) laser pumped tunable dye laser can be operated in three timing configurations: acousto-optically mode locked, cavity dumped, and cavity dumped-mode locked. Performance characteristics of the laser system in various operational modes are described along with measurement techniques for both gas and liquid phase. The subnanosecond pulses generated by mode locking are extremely stable and they maintain identical pulse shapes over a 6-h period, as shown via photon counting measurements at a 15-psec channel resolution. Our RCA C31034 photomultiplier with a red sensitive GaAs photocathode provides wavelength-independent response to detected fluorescence in both the visible and ultraviolet. The present limit of our apparatus is controlled by the accuracy of deconvoluting fluorescence decay from the finite response width caused by photomultiplier transit time dispersion (0.8 nsec FWHM). Our system stability is sufficient to accurately determine exponential decays as short as 50 psec. Furthermore, we can successfully analyze dual exponential decays such as those arising from solution reorientation times of 390 psec competing with a fluorescence lifetime of 725 psec. Examples of the laser performance are selected from a variety of measurements in the gas phase and from the fluorescent dye rose bengal in the liquid phase. PMID:18699071

  8. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Aquaspace H2OME Guardian Water Filter, available through Western Water International, Inc., reduces lead in water supplies. The filter is mounted on the faucet and the filter cartridge is placed in the "dead space" between sink and wall. This filter is one of several new filtration devices using the Aquaspace compound filter media, which combines company developed and NASA technology. Aquaspace filters are used in industrial, commercial, residential, and recreational environments as well as by developing nations where water is highly contaminated.

  9. Tunability enhanced electromagnetic wiggler

    DOEpatents

    Schlueter, R.D.; Deis, G.A.

    1992-03-24

    The invention discloses a wiggler used in synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers, where each pole is surrounded by at least two electromagnetic coils. The electromagnetic coils are energized with different amounts of current to provide a wide tunable range of the on-axis magnetic flux density, while preventing magnetic saturation of the poles. 14 figs.

  10. Tunability enhanced electromagnetic wiggler

    DOEpatents

    Schlueter, Ross D.; Deis, Gary A.

    1992-01-01

    The invention discloses a wiggler used in synchrotron radiation sources and free electron lasers, where each pole is surrounded by at least two electromagnetic coils. The electromagnetic coils are energized with different amounts of current to provide a wide tunable range of the on-axis magnetic flux density, while preventing magnetic saturation of the poles.

  11. Dynamically tunable gyroscopes: Theory and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pel'Por, Dmitrii S.; Matveev, Valerii A.; Arsen'ev, Valerii D.

    The general design, principle of operation, and applications of dynamically tunable gyroscopes are discussed. The discussion covers equations of motion for dynamically tunable gyroscopes, an error model for dynamically tunable gyroscopes and determination of its components, and statics and gas dynamics of dynamically tunable gyroscopes. Attention is also given to thermal processes in dynamically tunable gyroscopes and their effect on the proper precession velocity, design schemes of dynamically tunable gyroscope, and tuning, balancing, and adjustment of dynamically tunable gyroscopes.

  12. Tunable liquid crystal lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woltman, Scott J.

    Liquid crystal lasers are dye-doped distributed feedback lasing systems. Fabricated by coupling the periodic structure of a liquid crystal medium with a fluorescent dye, the emission from these systems is tunable by controlling the liquid crystal system---be it through electric or thermal field effects, photochemical reactions, mechanical deformations, etc. The laser action arises from an extended interaction time between the radiation field, the laser emission, and the matter field, the periodic liquid crystal medium, at the edge of the photonic band gap. In this thesis, several tunable liquid crystal laser systems are investigated: cholesteric liquid crystals, holographic-polymer dispersed liquid crystals and liquid crystal polarization gratings. The primary focus has been to fabricate systems that are tunable through electrical means, as applications requiring mechanical or thermal changes are often difficult to control. Cholesteric liquid crystal lasers are helical Bragg reflectors, with a band gap for circularly polarized light of equivalent handedness to their helix. These materials were doped with a laser dye and laser emission was observed. The use of an in-plane electric field tends to unwind the helical pitch of the film and in doing so tunable emission was demonstrated for ˜15 nm. Holographic-polymer dispersed liquid crystals (H-PDLCs) are grating structures consisting of alternating layers of polymer and liquid crystal, with different indices of refraction. The application of an electric field index matches these layers and switches off the grating. Thus, laser emission can be switched on and off through the use of an electric field. Spatially tunable H-PDLC lasers were fabricated by creating chirped gratings, formed by divergent beams. The emission was shown to tune ˜5 nm as the pump beam was translated across a 1 inch film. Liquid crystal polarization gratings use photo-patterned alignment layers, through a polarization holography exposure, to

  13. Acousto-optic method used to control water pollution by miscible liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferria, Kouider; Griani, Lazhar; Laouar, Naamane

    2012-05-01

    An acousto-optic (A.O.) method has been developed for controlling the quality of water mixed by miscible liquids like acetone or ethanol… The liquid mixture is filled in a rectangular glass cell, which is placed orthogonally to the incident collimated beam of light. This cell consists of a piezoelectric transducer for generating ultrasonic waves. The collimated light while passing through this cell undergoes a diffraction phenomenon. The diffracted dots are collected by a converging photographic objective and displayed in its back focal plane. The location of the diffracted dots and their intensity are sensitive to any variation of the interaction medium. This result leads to decide about the quality of the water.

  14. Dynamic 3D imaging based on acousto-optic heterodyne fringe interferometry.

    PubMed

    Guan, Yingjian; Yin, Yongkai; Li, Ameng; Liu, Xiaoli; Peng, Xiang

    2014-06-15

    An acoustic-optics heterodyne fringe interferometry coupled with a three-camera system is developed for dynamic 3D imaging. In this system, first-order beams with a slight frequency difference diffracted from two acousto-optic deflectors (AODs) form a beat intensity fringe pattern. Setting the frequency of the trigger signal for the CCD cameras into four times the beat frequency, four-step phase-shifting fringe patterns can be obtained, and the wrapped phase map (WPM) can be calculated. Under the epipolar constraint among three cameras, the homologous points can be determined unambiguously with the assistant of a WPM; thus the 3D shape can be reconstructed while skipping the phase unwrapping step. Experimental results are presented to validate this approach. PMID:24978566

  15. Dynamic acousto-optic control of a strongly coupled photonic molecule

    PubMed Central

    Kapfinger, Stephan; Reichert, Thorsten; Lichtmannecker, Stefan; Müller, Kai; Finley, Jonathan J.; Wixforth, Achim; Kaniber, Michael; Krenner, Hubert J.

    2015-01-01

    Strongly confined photonic modes can couple to quantum emitters and mechanical excitations. To harness the full potential in quantum photonic circuits, interactions between different constituents have to be precisely and dynamically controlled. Here, a prototypical coupled element, a photonic molecule defined in a photonic crystal membrane, is controlled by a radio frequency surface acoustic wave. The sound wave is tailored to deliberately switch on and off the bond of the photonic molecule on sub-nanosecond timescales. In time-resolved experiments, the acousto-optically controllable coupling is directly observed as clear anticrossings between the two nanophotonic modes. The coupling strength is determined directly from the experimental data. Both the time dependence of the tuning and the inter-cavity coupling strength are found to be in excellent agreement with numerical calculations. The demonstrated mechanical technique can be directly applied for dynamic quantum gate operations in state-of-the-art-coupled nanophotonic, quantum cavity electrodynamic and optomechanical systems. PMID:26436203

  16. Fast mode-hop-free acousto-optically tuned laser: theoretical and experimental investigations.

    PubMed

    Bösel, André; Salewski, Klaus-Dieter

    2009-02-10

    We developed a theory that describes fast mode-hop-free tuning of an external cavity diode laser in Littrow configuration with two acousto-optic modulators (AOMs) inside the laser cavity. The theory is based on synchronous shifting of the external cavity modes and the Littrow grating selectivity. It allows calculating the driving signals of both AOMs in order to reach a desired temporal variation of the laser frequency, including particularly fast tuning as well as an arbitrary shape of the tuning function. Furthermore, we present a laser setup for which the needed signals for both AOMs are generated by two direct digital synthesizer circuits. Thereby we were able to verify the theoretical predictions experimentally, achieving, e.g., sinusoidal single-mode tuning of the laser frequency over 40 GHz at a repetition rate of 10 kHz and over 12 GHz at 25 kHz. Finally, the limitations of the theory are discussed. PMID:19209191

  17. Acousto-optic interaction in biconical tapered fibers: shaping of the stopbands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramírez-Meléndez, Gustavo; Bello-Jiménez, Miguel Ángel; Cuadrado-Laborde, Christian; Díez, Antonio; Cruz, José Luis; Rodríguez-Cobos, Amparo; Balderas-Navarro, Raúl; Andrés Bou, Miguel Vicente

    2016-03-01

    The effect of a gradual reduction of the fiber diameter on the acousto-optic (AO) interaction is reported. The experimental and theoretical study of the intermodal coupling induced by a flexural acoustic wave in a biconical tapered fiber shows that it is possible to shape the transmission spectrum, for example, substantially broadening the bandwidth of the resonant couplings. The geometry of the taper transitions can be regarded as an extra degree of freedom to design the AO devices. Optical bandwidths above 45 nm are reported in a tapered fiber with a gradual reduction of the fiber down to 70 μm diameter. The effect of including long taper transition is also reported in a double-tapered structure. A flat attenuation response is reported with 3-dB stopband bandwidth of 34 nm.

  18. Gain-switched Ho:YAG ceramic laser with an acousto-optic modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jianing; Shen, Deyuan; Zhang, Jian; Tang, Dingyuan; Chen, Hao

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate a gain-switched Ho:YAG ceramic laser in-band pumped by an acousto-optically modulated thulium fiber laser at ˜1908 nm. The laser pulse repetition rate could be tuned continuously from 60 to 100 kHz with the pulse energy kept constant for a certain pump power level. The shortest pulse width of 204 ns and a maximum peak power of 75 W have been obtained at 60 kHz under the maximum pump power level of 11 W. A maximum average output power of 1.4 W has been achieved with a pulse repetition rate of 100 kHz, corresponding to a slope efficiency of 57% with respect to the incident pump power. The prospects for further improvement in laser performance are discussed.

  19. Acoustooptic Effects of Nematic Liquid Crystals Induced by Elastic Wave Propagating in Glass Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritake, Hiroshi; Seike, Tadaaki; Toda, Kohji

    1999-05-01

    An elastic wave delay line with a glass plate as a propagation medium is investigated in relations to acoustooptic effects of nematic liquid crystals. A nematic liquid crystal cell is mounted on the central region of a glass plate for elastic wave propagation. The elastic wave propagating in the glass plate interacts with the liquid crystal in a wide frequency range. Two types of periodical domain structures are observed in the nematic liquid crystal cell under the existence of the elastic wave. One exists in both homeotropically and homogeneously aligned cells, and depends not on the kind of liquid crystal but on the carrier frequency of the elastic wave. The other is recognized only in homogeneously aligned cells and depends on the layer thickness and the kind of liquid crystal, but not on the carrier frequency of the elastic wave. Both periodical domain structures are induced by the elastic wave propagating in the glass plate.

  20. Emission spectroscopy of laser ablation plasma with time gating by acousto-optic modulator

    SciTech Connect

    Sakka, Tetsuo; Irie, Kyohei; Fukami, Kazuhiro; Ogata, Yukio H.

    2011-02-15

    The capability of acousto-optic modulator (AOM) to perform time-gated measurements for laser ablation plasma spectroscopy has been examined. Especially, we focused on the capability of the ''AOM gating'' to exclude the continuum and extremely broadened spectra usually observed immediately after the laser ablation. Final goal of the use of the AOM is to achieve considerable downsizing of the system for in situ and on-site analyses. In the present paper, it is shown that narrow and clear spectral lines can be obtained with the AOM gating even if the target is submerged in water. Also, application of this technique to the targets in air is demonstrated. It has been revealed that the AOM gating is fast enough to exclude the continuum and broadened lines, while effectively acquiring sufficiently narrow atomic lines lasting slightly longer than the continuum.

  1. An acousto-optic sensor based on resonance grating waveguide structure

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Antonio Jou; Song, Fuchuan; Seo, Sang-Woo

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an acousto-optic (AO) sensor based on resonance grating waveguide structure. The sensor is fabricated using elastic polymer materials to achieve a good sensitivity to ultrasound pressure waves. Ultrasound pressure waves modify the structural parameters of the sensor and result in the optical resonance shift of the sensor. This converts into a light intensity modulation. A commercial ultrasound transducer at 20 MHz is used to characterize a fabricated sensor and detection sensitivity at different optical source wavelength within a resonance spectrum is investigated. Practical use of the sensor at a fixed optical source wavelength is presented. Ultimately, the geometry of the planar sensor structure is suitable for two-dimensional, optical pressure imaging applications such as pressure wave detection and mapping, and ultrasound imaging. PMID:25045203

  2. Mode locking of an all-fiber laser by acousto-optic superlattice modulation.

    PubMed

    Cuadrado-Laborde, C; Diez, A; Delgado-Pinar, M; Cruz, J L; Andrés, M V

    2009-04-01

    Active mode locking of an erbium-doped all-fiber laser with a Bragg-grating-based acousto-optic modulator is demonstrated. The fiber Bragg grating was acoustically modulated by a standing longitudinal elastic wave, which periodically modulates the sidebands at twice the acoustic frequency. The laser has a Fabry-Perot configuration in which cavity loss modulation is achieved by tuning the output fiber Bragg grating to one of the acoustically induced sidebands. Optical pulses at 9 MHz repetition rate, 120 mW peak power, and 780 ps temporal width were obtained. The output results to be stable and has a timing jitter below 40 ps. The measured linewidth, 2.8 pm, demonstrates that these pulses are transform limited. PMID:19340236

  3. Secure chaotic transmission of electrocardiography signals with acousto-optic modulation under profiled beam propagation.

    PubMed

    Almehmadi, Fares S; Chatterjee, Monish R

    2015-01-10

    Electrocardiography (ECG) signals are used for both medical purposes and identifying individuals. It is often necessary to encrypt this highly sensitive information before it is transmitted over any channel. A closed-loop acousto-optic hybrid device acting as a chaotic modulator is applied to ECG signals to achieve this encryption. Recently improved modeling of this approach using profiled optical beams has shown it to be very sensitive to key parameters that characterize the encryption and decryption process, exhibiting its potential for secure transmission of analog and digital signals. Here the encryption and decryption is demonstrated for ECG signals, both analog and digital versions, illustrating strong encryption without significant distortion. Performance analysis pertinent to both analog and digital transmission of the ECG waveform is also carried out using output signal-to-noise, signal-to-distortion, and bit-error-rate measures relative to the key parameters and presence of channel noise in the system. PMID:25967617

  4. Time and space integrating acousto-optic folded spectrum processing for SETI

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, K.; Psaltis, D.

    1986-01-01

    Time and space integrating folded spectrum techniques utilizing acousto-optic devices (AOD) as 1-D input transducers are investigated for a potential application as wideband, high resolution, large processing gain spectrum analyzers in the search for extra-terrestrial intelligence (SETI) program. The space integrating Fourier transform performed by a lens channels the coarse spectral components diffracted from an AOD onto an array of time integrating narrowband fine resolution spectrum analyzers. The pulsing action of a laser diode samples the interferometrically detected output, aliasing the fine resolution components to baseband, as required for the subsequent charge coupled devices (CCD) processing. The raster scan mechanism incorporated into the readout of the CCD detector array is used to unfold the 2-D transform, reproducing the desired high resolution Fourier transform of the input signal.

  5. Compensation of spatial dispersion of an acousto-optic deflector with a special Keplerian telescope.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinglei; Zhou, Zhenqiao; Lv, Xiaohua; Zeng, Shaoqun

    2016-01-15

    Compensation of spatial dispersion caused by the acousto-optic deflector (AOD) when using a femtosecond laser is difficult across the whole scanning range of the system, and this is a significant impediment to its use. In conventional methods, the dispersion of the AOD was compensated only when it was at a particular position, while at other positions, the quality of the light beam was reduced. We developed a novel method for compensating the spatial dispersion within the entire scanning range using a special Keplerian telescope. Our experimental results show that the residual dispersion of the AOD is compensated sufficiently, and the focal spots of the laser reach the diffraction limit within a 40-MHz ultrasound bandwidth. PMID:26766675

  6. Independent acousto-optic separation of the two wavelengths of a polychromatic light beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastelik, J. C.; Gazalet, Marc G.; Haine, F.; Pommeray, Michel

    1997-02-01

    A special configuration based on two successive acousto- optic interactions in uniaxial crystals with two noncollinear acoustic waves is presented. It leads to two angularly split wavelengths from a multiline laser beam with independent acousto-optic efficiencies. General expressions of the angular deviation and the spectral bandwidth are derived. Since the application concerns the restitution of colored images, a novel combination of wavelengths using the blue primary at 458 nm is investigated for trichromatic color matching. Numerical computations have been drawn for paratellurite. A practical separator using the slow shear wave in paratellurite is designed, and experimental results for the independent separation of 514- and 458-nm wavelengths of an Ar laser are reported.

  7. Exact solution for four-order acousto-optic Bragg diffraction with arbitrary initial conditions.

    PubMed

    Pieper, Ron; Koslover, Deborah; Poon, Ting-Chung

    2009-03-01

    An exact solution to the four-order acousto-optic (AO) Bragg diffraction problem with arbitrary initial conditions compatible with exact Bragg angle incident light is developed. The solution, obtained by solving a 4th-order differential equation, is formalized into a transition matrix operator predicting diffracted light orders at the exit of the AO cell in terms of the same diffracted light orders at the entrance. It is shown that the transition matrix is unitary and that this unitary matrix condition is sufficient to guarantee energy conservation. A comparison of analytical solutions with numerical predictions validates the formalism. Although not directly related to the approach used to obtain the solution, it was discovered that all four generated eigenvalues from the four-order AO differential matrix operator are expressed simply in terms of Euclid's Divine Proportion. PMID:19252607

  8. Q-switched fiber laser based on an acousto-optic modulator with injection seeding technique.

    PubMed

    Li, Wencai; Liu, Haowei; Zhang, Ji; Long, Hu; Feng, Sujuan; Mao, Qinghe

    2016-06-10

    The operation mechanism and the pulse property of an actively Q-switched erbium-doped fiber laser based on an acousto-optic modulator (AOM) switch with the injection seeding technique are investigated. Our results show that the Q-switched pulses can be locked to oscillate near a fixed frequency higher than that of the seed laser, though the frequency-shift effect of the AOM impedes stable cavity mode oscillations. The operation mechanism of such Q-switch fiber lasers can be explained by the mutual locking-in among the shifted frequency components originated from the injected coherence seed with the help of the gain dynamics of the Q-switch cavity. Moreover, narrow-linewidth Q-switched pulses with different repetition rates can be obtained with different cavity lengths for incredibly stable output pulses without any use of cavity-stabilized techniques. PMID:27409015

  9. Guided-wave multichannel acousto-optic devices based on collinear wave propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proklov, Valery V.; Korablev, E. M.

    1992-11-01

    Recently, there appeared in acousto-optics (AO) a tendency to develop the optical information processing technology based on AO spatial light modulators, which are very promising in relation to very fast analog signal processing and algebraic data processing with digital accuracy. The best widely distinguished way to win many other marketing counterparts lies in the performance of AO interactions in guided wave structures with highly developed planar technology. In contrast to numerous developments devoted to guided wave AO devices the collinear ones facilitate multichannel or 2-D-devices to increase their throughput and processing gain. We discuss general backgrounds of the guided wave AO devices, especially in the case of the collinear wave propagations. Some applications similar to the multichannel collinear AO Bragg cell on LiNbO for 2-D-beam scanning, AO spectrum analysis, 2-D- Fourier signal processing, frequency multiplexing/demultiplexing, and digital vector-matrix multiplication are presented.

  10. Femtosecond tunable light source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miesak, Edward Jozef

    1999-09-01

    A practical source of continuously tunable coherent visible and infrared light would have an enormous impact on science, medicine and technology. While microwave and radio transmitters offer wide tunability at the ``turn of a knob,'' the best known source of coherent optical radiation, the laser, does not possess the same versatility. Dye lasers provide some degree of tunability, but many dyes are needed to cover even the visible region. Ti:sapphire lasers are tunable only over the red to near infra-red portion of the spectrum (about 65 0 nm to about 1.1μm). This presentation documents the development of a unique pulsed light source tunable across the visible and near infrared portion of the spectrum, a femtosecond optical parametric amplifier (OPA). Much work was expended in developing the system itself. But a great deal of work was also done in developing the support equipment (hardware and software) necessary to build as well as maintain and operate an OPA. Once completed, the system characteristics were measured and documented. Initially it possessed ``personality'' which had to be understood and removed as much as possible. In addition, the pump source for this OPA, a regenerative amplifier, is unique in that it uses Cr3+:LiSGaF as the gain medium. This regen was also characterized and compared to other more standard regenerative amplifiers. System verification was done by performing a standard experiment (Z-scan) on well known samples, several of which are well characterized at specific wavelengths (1.06 μm, 0.523 μm) in the nanosecond and picosecond regimes. The results were compared against previously published results. The OPA was also compared against another very similar system which became commercially available during the time of this research. The results were helpful in analyzing the light source(s) and data acquisition systems for areas that could be improved.

  11. Biological Filters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemetson, S. L.

    1978-01-01

    Presents the 1978 literature review of wastewater treatment. The review is concerned with biological filters, and it covers: (1) trickling filters; (2) rotating biological contractors; and (3) miscellaneous reactors. A list of 14 references is also presented. (HM)

  12. Si₃N₄ ring resonator-based microwave photonic notch filter with an ultrahigh peak rejection.

    PubMed

    Marpaung, David; Morrison, Blair; Pant, Ravi; Roeloffzen, Chris; Leinse, Arne; Hoekman, Marcel; Heideman, Rene; Eggleton, Benjamin J

    2013-10-01

    We report a simple technique in microwave photonic (MWP) signal processing that allows the use of an optical filter with a shallow notch to exhibit a microwave notch filter with anomalously high rejection level. We implement this technique using a low-loss, tunable Si₃N₄ optical ring resonator as the optical filter, and achieved an MWP notch filter with an ultra-high peak rejection > 60 dB, a tunable high resolution bandwidth of 247-840 MHz, and notch frequency tuning of 2-8 GHz. To our knowledge, this is a record combined peak rejection and resolution for an integrated MWP filter. PMID:24104242

  13. Metallic Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Filtration technology originated in a mid 1960's NASA study. The results were distributed to the filter industry, an HR Textron responded, using the study as a departure for the development of 421 Filter Media. The HR system is composed of ultrafine steel fibers metallurgically bonded and compressed so that the pore structure is locked in place. The filters are used to filter polyesters, plastics, to remove hydrocarbon streams, etc. Several major companies use the product in chemical applications, pollution control, etc.

  14. L-band wavelength-tunable dissipative soliton fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Yan, Dan; Li, Xingliang; Zhang, Shumin; Han, Mengmeng; Han, Huiyun; Yang, Zhenjun

    2016-01-25

    A tunable L-band dissipative soliton (DS) fiber laser with nonlinear polarization rotation (NPR) playing the roles of both a saturable absorber (SA) and a tunable filter has been demonstrated experimentally and numerically. By appropriate adjustment of the states of the polarization controllers (PCs) and the pump power, DSs with continuously tunable wavelengths have been observed over the wavelength range from 1583.0 to 1602.4 nm with a 3-dB spectral bandwidth of around 20 nm and from 1581.9 nm to 1602.6 nm with a 3-dB spectral bandwidth of around 4 nm. In addition, we have observed that by increasing the pump power, the 3-dB spectral bandwidth of the DS could be increased without pulse breaking. Numerical results for the characteristics of the DSs are in accord with the experimental data. PMID:26832459

  15. Frequency-tunable superconducting resonators via nonlinear kinetic inductance

    SciTech Connect

    Vissers, M. R.; Hubmayr, J.; Sandberg, M.; Gao, J.; Chaudhuri, S.; Bockstiegel, C.

    2015-08-10

    We have designed, fabricated, and tested a frequency-tunable high-Q superconducting resonator made from a niobium titanium nitride film. The frequency tunability is achieved by injecting a DC through a current-directing circuit into the nonlinear inductor whose kinetic inductance is current-dependent. We have demonstrated continuous tuning of the resonance frequency in a 180 MHz frequency range around 4.5 GHz while maintaining the high internal quality factor Q{sub i} > 180 000. This device may serve as a tunable filter and find applications in superconducting quantum computing and measurement. It also provides a useful tool to study the nonlinear response of a superconductor. In addition, it may be developed into techniques for measurement of the complex impedance of a superconductor at its transition temperature and for readout of transition-edge sensors.

  16. Optimization algorithm based characterization scheme for tunable semiconductor lasers.

    PubMed

    Chen, Quanan; Liu, Gonghai; Lu, Qiaoyin; Guo, Weihua

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, an optimization algorithm based characterization scheme for tunable semiconductor lasers is proposed and demonstrated. In the process of optimization, the ratio between the power of the desired frequency and the power except of the desired frequency is used as the figure of merit, which approximately represents the side-mode suppression ratio. In practice, we use tunable optical band-pass and band-stop filters to obtain the power of the desired frequency and the power except of the desired frequency separately. With the assistance of optimization algorithms, such as the particle swarm optimization (PSO) algorithm, we can get stable operation conditions for tunable lasers at designated frequencies directly and efficiently. PMID:27607701

  17. Water Filters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1987-01-01

    A compact, lightweight electrolytic water filter generates silver ions in concentrations of 50 to 100 parts per billion in the water flow system. Silver ions serve as effective bactericide/deodorizers. Ray Ward requested and received from NASA a technical information package on the Shuttle filter, and used it as basis for his own initial development, a home use filter.

  18. FILTER TREATMENT

    DOEpatents

    Sutton, J.B.; Torrey, J.V.P.

    1958-08-26

    A process is described for reconditioning fused alumina filters which have become clogged by the accretion of bismuth phosphate in the filter pores, The method consists in contacting such filters with faming sulfuric acid, and maintaining such contact for a substantial period of time.

  19. Tunable supercontinuum light vector vortex beam generator using a q-plate.

    PubMed

    Rumala, Yisa S; Milione, Giovanni; Nguyen, Thien An; Pratavieira, Sebastião; Hossain, Zabir; Nolan, Daniel; Slussarenko, Sergei; Karimi, Ebrahim; Marrucci, Lorenzo; Alfano, Robert R

    2013-12-01

    Spatially coherent multicolored optical vector vortex beams were created using a tunable liquid crystal q-plate and a supercontinuum light source. The feasibility of the q-plate as a tunable spectral filter (switch) was demonstrated, and the polarization topology of the resulting vector vortex beam was mapped. Potential applications include multiplexing for broadband high-speed optical communication, ultradense data networking, and super-resolution microscopy. PMID:24281515

  20. Two-dimensionally tunable microwave signal generation based on optical frequency-to-time conversion.

    PubMed

    Ye, Jia; Yan, Lianshen; Pan, Wei; Luo, Bin; Zou, Xihua; Yi, Anlin; Yao, Xiaotian Steve

    2010-08-01

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate an all-fiber-based approach to generate microwave signals with tunable frequency and pulse width. The adjustable optical power spectrum can be achieved using a spectrum shaper, consisting of a variable differential-group-delay element and a bandwidth-tunable optical filter. Through the frequency-to-time conversion in the dispersive fiber, the frequency and pulse width of the obtained microwave signals can be user defined by modifying the optical spectrum shape. PMID:20680073

  1. Tunable surface plasmon devices

    DOEpatents

    Shaner, Eric A.; Wasserman, Daniel

    2011-08-30

    A tunable extraordinary optical transmission (EOT) device wherein the tunability derives from controlled variation of the dielectric constant of a semiconducting material (semiconductor) in evanescent-field contact with a metallic array of sub-wavelength apertures. The surface plasmon resonance wavelength can be changed by changing the dielectric constant of the dielectric material. In embodiments of this invention, the dielectric material is a semiconducting material. The dielectric constant of the semiconducting material in the metal/semiconductor interfacial region is controllably adjusted by adjusting one or more of the semiconductor plasma frequency, the concentration and effective mass of free carriers, and the background high-frequency dielectric constant in the interfacial region. Thermal heating and/or voltage-gated carrier-concentration changes may be used to variably adjust the value of the semiconductor dielectric constant.

  2. Compact acousto-optic modulator operatingin the purely Raman - Nath diffraction regime as a phase modulator in FM spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Baryshev, Vyacheslav N; Epikhin, V M

    2010-08-03

    We report fabrication of a new acousto-optic modulator (AOM-RN) operating purely in the Raman - Nath diffraction regime. This device can be used as an external phase modulator in frequency-modulation (FM) optical heterodyne spectroscopy for fast and broadband frequency control of diode lasers. The AOM-RN design is significantly simplified, and its dimensions are minimised due to a decrease (by almost an order of magnitude in comparison with the existing AOMs) in the acousto-optic interaction length and the absence of impedance matching circuit. The FM spectroscopy based on AOM-RN makes it possible to analyse both absorption and dispersion properties of optical resonances under study; this possibility is shown by the example of saturated-absorption resonances in cesium vapour. The possibility of detecting coherent population trapping resonances using FM spectroscopy with AOM-RN as an external phase modulator is experimentally demonstrated.

  3. An acousto-optical method for registration of erythrocytes' agglutination reaction—sera color influence on the resolving power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doubrovski, V. A.; Medvedeva, M. F.; Torbin, S. O.

    2016-01-01

    The absorption spectra of agglutinating sera were used to determine blood groups. It was shown experimentally that the sera color significantly affects the resolving power of the acousto-optical method of blood typing. In order to increase the resolving power of the method and produce an invariance of the method for sera color, we suggested introducing a probing light beam individually for different sera. The proposed technique not only improves the resolving power of the method, but also reduces the risk of false interpretation of the experimental results and, hence, error in determining the blood group of the sample. The latter is especially important for the typing of blood samples with weak agglutination of erythrocytes. This study can be used in the development of an instrument for instrumental human blood group typing based on the acousto-optical method.

  4. Modern optical signal processing experiments demonstrating intensity and pulse-width modulation using an acousto-optic modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poon, Ting-Chung; McNeill, Mark D.; Moore, Daniel J.

    1997-09-01

    Two experiments are presented to introduce undergraduate students in electrical engineering or physics to modern optical signal processing. Both experiments use an acousto-optic (AO) Bragg cell together with additional electronics to modify the intensity of a laser beam. Specifically, we show how an AO feedback system operating in the Bragg regime can be configured to produce amplitude modulated (AM) and pulse-width modulated optical signals. The basic components of the AO feedback system include a laser, an AO Bragg cell, an electronic AM modulator, a photodetector, an amplifier, and an electronic adder. Except for the laser, the AM modulator, and the Bragg cell, each of these components can be constructed with low cost electronics. A tutorial outlining the principles of acousto-optics is included to provide sufficient understanding of the Bragg cell. The project described in the paper has been used as a demonstration for junior- and senior-level undergraduate students in electrical engineering communications and optics classes.

  5. Tunable Resonant Scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montagu, Jean I.

    1987-01-01

    The most attractive features of resonant scanners are high reliability and eternal life as well as extremely low wobble and jitter. Power consumption is also low, electronic drive is simple, and the device is capable of handling large beams. All of these features are delivered at a low cost in a small package. The resonant scanner's use in numerous high precision applications, however, has been limited because of the difficulty in controlling its phase and resonant frequency. This paper introduces the concept of tunable/controllable resonant scanners, discusses their features, and offers a number of tuning techniques. It describes two angular scanner designs and presents data on tunable range and life tests. It also reviews applications for these new tunable resonant scanners that preserve the desirable features of earlier models while removing the old problems with synchronization or time base flexibility. The three major types of raster scanning applications where the tunable resonant scanner may be of benefit are: 1. In systems with multiple time bases such as multiple scanner networks or with scanners keyed to a common clock (the line frequency or data source) or a machine with multiple resonant scanners. A typical application is image and text transmission, also a printer with a large data base where a buffer is uneconomical. 2. In systems sharing data processing or laser equipment for reasons of cost or capacity, typically multiple work station manufacturing processes or graphic processes. 3. In systems with extremely precise time bases where the frequency stability of conventional scanners cannot be relied upon.

  6. Tunable high pressure lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hess, R. V.

    1976-01-01

    Atmospheric transmission of high energy CO2 lasers is considerably improved by high pressure operation which, due to pressure broadening, permits tuning the laser lines off atmospheric absorption lines. Pronounced improvement is shown for horizontal transmission at altitudes above several kilometers and for vertical transmission through the entire atmosphere. Applications of tunable high pressure CO2 lasers to energy transmission and to remote sensing are discussed along with initial efforts in tuning high pressure CO2 lasers.

  7. Tunable beam displacer

    SciTech Connect

    Salazar-Serrano, Luis José; Valencia, Alejandra; Torres, Juan P.

    2015-03-15

    We report the implementation of a tunable beam displacer, composed of a polarizing beam splitter (PBS) and two mirrors, that divides an initially polarized beam into two parallel beams whose separation can be continuously tuned. The two output beams are linearly polarized with either vertical or horizontal polarization and no optical path difference is introduced between them. The wavelength dependence of the device as well as the maximum separation between the beams achievable is limited mainly by the PBS characteristics.

  8. State estimation Kalman filter using optical processings Noise statistics known

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, J.; Casasent, D.

    1984-01-01

    Reference is made to a study by Casasent et al. (1983), which gave a description of a frequency-multiplexed acoustooptic processor and showed how it was capable of performing all the individual operations required in Kalman filtering. The data flow and organization of all required operations however, were not detailed in that study. Consideration is given here to a simpler Kalman filter state estimation problem. Equally spaced time-sampled intervals (k times T sub s, with k the iterative time index) are assumed. It is further assumed that the system noise vector w and the measurement noise vector v are uncorrelated and Gaussian distributed and that the noise statistics (Q and R) and the system model (Phi, Gamma, H) are known. The error covariance matrix P and the extrapolated error covariance matrix M can thus be precomputed and the Kalman gain matrix K sub k can be precomputed and stored for each input time sample.

  9. Simultaneous multiple-depths en-face optical coherence tomography using multiple signal excitation of acousto-optic deflectors.

    PubMed

    Zurauskas, Mantas; Rogers, John; Podoleanu, Adrian Gh

    2013-01-28

    We present a novel low-coherence interferometer configuration, equipped with acousto-optic deflectors that can be used to simultaneously acquire up to eight time domain optical coherence tomography en-face images. The capabilities of the configuration are evaluated in terms of depth resolution, signal to noise ratio and crosstalk. Then the configuration is employed to demonstrate simultaneous en-face optical coherence tomography imaging at five different depths in a specimen of armadillidium vulgare. PMID:23389175

  10. Calomel-made crystalline acousto-optical cell designed for an advanced regime of noncollinear two-phonon light scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shcherbakov, Alexandre S.; Arellanes, Adan Omar

    2016-03-01

    We study the potentials of a wide-aperture crystalline calomel-made acousto-optical cell. Characterizing this cell is nontrivial due to the chosen regime based on an advanced noncollinear two-phonon light scattering. Recently revealed important features of this phenomenon are essentially exploited in the cell and are investigated in more detail. These features can be observed more easily and simply in tetragonal crystals, e.g., calomel, exhibiting specific acousto-optical nonlinearity caused by the acoustic waves of finite amplitude. This parametric nonlinearity manifests itself at low acoustic powers in calomel possessing linear acoustic attenuation. The formerly identified additional degree of freedom, unique to this regime, is exploited for designing the cell with an eye to doubling the resolution due to two-phonon processes. We clarify the role of varying the central acoustic frequency and acoustic attenuation using that degree of freedom. Then the efficiency of calomel is exploited to expand the cell's bandwidth with a cost of its efficiency. Proof-of-principle experiments confirm the developed approaches and illustrate their applicability to innovative techniques of optical spectrum analysis with the improved resolution. The achieved spectral resolution of 0.205 Å at 405 nm and the resolving power 19,800 are the best for acousto-optical spectrometers dedicated to space or airborne operations to date as far as we know.

  11. A novel acousto-optic modulation-deflection mechanism using refractive index grating as graded index beam router

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jangjoo, Alireza; Reza Baezzat, Mohammad; Razavizadeh, Ahmad

    2014-03-01

    A novel acousto-optic modulation mechanism will be addressed in this paper. Focused Gaussian beam passing through acousto-optic media experiences different refractive index regions arising from acoustic waves generated by ultrasonic source. In this way according to the snell's law of refraction the beam propagation path will be altered when these periodic traveling waves reach the incoming radiation where a typical p-n junction photodiode located inside the rising or falling lobe of the undiffracted Gaussian beam senses these small lateral deflections. Due to small variations of the refractive index the magnitude of deflection will be up to tens of micron outside the modulator. Hence, sharp intensity gradient is required for detecting such small beam movements by appropriate lens configuration to focus the Gaussian profile on the detector junction area. In the other words intensity profile of zero order beam oscillates proportional to the time dependent amplitude of the acoustic waves versus previous methods that intensity of diffracted beam changes with applied ultrasonic intensity. The extracted signal properties depend on the beam collimation, quality of beam profile and depth of focus inside the modulator. The first experimental approach was proceeded using a collimated 532 nm diode laser source (TEM00), distilled water as interaction media and 10 MHz transducer as ultrasonic generator where a cylindrical glass column with input-output flat windows was used for liquid support. The present method has advantages over common acoustooptical techniques as low cost, simplicity of operation, direct modulation of the signal and minimum alignment requirement.

  12. Tunable wavelength terahertz polarization converter based on quartz waveplates.

    PubMed

    Kaveev, A K; Kropotov, G I; Tsypishka, D I; Tzibizov, I A; Vinerov, I A; Kaveeva, E G

    2014-08-20

    We present the results of calculation and experimental testing of the tunable wavelength terahertz polarization converter represented by a set of plane-parallel birefringent plates with an in-plane birefringence axis. An experimental device has been produced and tested. The calculations show that the effect of interference between the interfaces, including air gaps, may be neglected. The considered device may be used as a simple narrow achromatic waveplate, or a Solc band pass filter for the specified wavelength. PMID:25321112

  13. The Archimedes Plasma Mass Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, R. L.; Ohkawa, T.; Agnew, S. F.; Cluggish, B. P.; Freeman, R. L.; Gilleland, J.; Putvinski, S.; Sevier, L.; Umstadter, K. R.

    2001-10-01

    Archimedes Technology Group is developing a plasma technology, called the Archimedes Plasma Mass Filter, which can separate a waste mixture ion by ion into mass groups and as such represents a major advance in waste separations technology. The filter is a plasma device employing a magnetic and electric field configuration that acts as a low-mass-pass filter for ions. Ions with mass above a tunable “cutoff mass” are expelled from the plasma. The Archimedes Plasma Mass Filter satisfies all of the requirements of an economic mass separator system: good single-pass separation, acceptable energy cost per ion, and high material throughput. This technology could significantly reduce the volume of radioactive waste at the Hanford Site in Richland, Washington, which is storing sixty percent of the nation’s defense nuclear waste. The potential waste reduction is dramatic because 82 wtpresently scheduled to be vitrified (immobilized and stored in glass) at Hanford are below mass number 60 while 99.9the radioactivity comes from atoms above mass number 89. We will present the plasma physics basis for the filter effect, the fundamental parameter constraints, and modeling results of filter operation.

  14. Filtering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, Gaurang B.; Dilmore, William J.

    1992-01-01

    A vertical vessel having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas.

  15. Filtering apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Haldipur, G.B.; Dilmore, W.J.

    1992-09-01

    A vertical vessel is described having a lower inlet and an upper outlet enclosure separated by a main horizontal tube sheet. The inlet enclosure receives the flue gas from a boiler of a power system and the outlet enclosure supplies cleaned gas to the turbines. The inlet enclosure contains a plurality of particulate-removing clusters, each having a plurality of filter units. Each filter unit includes a filter clean-gas chamber defined by a plate and a perforated auxiliary tube sheet with filter tubes suspended from each tube sheet and a tube connected to each chamber for passing cleaned gas to the outlet enclosure. The clusters are suspended from the main tube sheet with their filter units extending vertically and the filter tubes passing through the tube sheet and opening in the outlet enclosure. The flue gas is circulated about the outside surfaces of the filter tubes and the particulate is absorbed in the pores of the filter tubes. Pulses to clean the filter tubes are passed through their inner holes through tubes free of bends which are aligned with the tubes that pass the clean gas. 18 figs.

  16. Generation of Widely Tunable Fourier-Transform Pulsed Terahertz Radiation Using Narrowband Near-Infrared Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jinjun; Haase, Christa; Merkt, Frédéric

    2009-06-01

    Widely tunable, Fourier-transform-limited pulses of terahertz (THz) radiation have been generated by optical frequency deference using (i) crystals of the highly nonlinear organic salt 4-N,N-dimethylamino-4^'-N^'-methyl stilbazolium tosylate (DAST), (ii) zinc telluride (ZnTe) crystals, and (iii) gallium phosphide (GaP) crystals. Outputs from two narrowband (Δν<1 MHz, λ˜800 nm) cw titanium-doped sapphire (Ti:Sa) ring lasers with a well-controlled frequency difference were shaped into pulses using acousto-optic modulators, coupled into an optical fiber, pulse amplified in Nd:YAG-pumped Ti:Sa crystals and used as optical sources to pump the THz nonlinear crystals. The THz radiation was detected over a broad frequency range and its bandwidth was determined to be ˜10 MHz. Absorption spectra of gas phase molecules including HF and OCS using the THz source will be presented.

  17. Polarization-independent optical wavelength filter for channel dropping applications

    DOEpatents

    Deri, Robert J.; Patterson, Frank

    1996-01-01

    The polarization dependence of optical wavelength filters is eliminated by using waveguide directional couplers. Material birefringence is used to compensate for the waveguide (electromagnetic) birefringence which is the original cause of the polarization dependence. Material birefringence is introduced in a controllable fashion by replacing bulk waveguide layers by finely layered composites, such as multiple quantum wells using III-V semiconductor materials. The filter has use in wavelength-division-multiplexed fiber optic communication systems. This filter has broad application for wavelength-tunable receivers in fiber optic communication links, which may be used for telecommunications, optical computer interconnect links, or fiber optic sensor systems. Since multiple-wavelength systems are increasingly being used for all of these applications, the filter is useable whenever a rapidly tunable, wavelength-filtering receiver is required.

  18. Polarization-independent optical wavelength filter for channel dropping applications

    DOEpatents

    Deri, R.J.; Patterson, F.

    1996-05-07

    The polarization dependence of optical wavelength filters is eliminated by using waveguide directional couplers. Material birefringence is used to compensate for the waveguide (electromagnetic) birefringence which is the original cause of the polarization dependence. Material birefringence is introduced in a controllable fashion by replacing bulk waveguide layers by finely layered composites, such as multiple quantum wells using III-V semiconductor materials. The filter has use in wavelength-division multiplexed fiber optic communication systems. This filter has broad application for wavelength-tunable receivers in fiber optic communication links, which may be used for telecommunications, optical computer interconnect links, or fiber optic sensor systems. Since multiple-wavelength systems are increasingly being used for all of these applications, the filter is useable whenever a rapidly tunable, wavelength-filtering receiver is required. 14 figs.

  19. High-power widely tunable Q-switched thulium fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Feng; Zhu, Haibin; Zhang, Yong

    2015-09-01

    Based on acousto-optic modulation and grating diffraction, a high-power-pulsed ~2 μm laser with a wide tunable wavelength is realized in double-clad Tm fibers. A maximum average output power of 35.6 W is obtained with the 6 m fiber, which also provides a maximum pulse energy and peak power of 1.58 mJ and 5.6 kW, respectively. For the 6 m fiber length, a  >20 W average power can be achieved over a 100 nm wavelength tuning range. Shortening the fiber length to 2 m and 1 m can extend the wavelength tuning range further to shorter spectral regimes (1892 nm and 1881 nm). Short fiber length also narrows the Q-switched pulse duration to 90 ns. This kind of high-power, high-pulse-energy, widely tunable, and narrow-bandwidth ~2 μm fiber lasers can find wide applications in various regions.

  20. Tunable X-ray source

    DOEpatents

    Boyce, James R.

    2011-02-08

    A method for the production of X-ray bunches tunable in both time and energy level by generating multiple photon, X-ray, beams through the use of Thomson scattering. The method of the present invention simultaneously produces two X-ray pulses that are tunable in energy and/or time.