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Sample records for acpa positive arthralgia

  1. 2016 ACPA MEETING ABSTRACTS.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The peer-reviewed abstracts presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the ACPA are published as submitted by the authors. For financial conflict of interest disclosure, please visit http://meeting.acpa-cpf.org/disclosures.html. PMID:27447885

  2. Risk for ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis is driven by shared HLA amino acid polymorphisms in Asian and European populations.

    PubMed

    Okada, Yukinori; Kim, Kwangwoo; Han, Buhm; Pillai, Nisha E; Ong, Rick T-H; Saw, Woei-Yuh; Luo, Ma; Jiang, Lei; Yin, Jian; Bang, So-Young; Lee, Hye-Soon; Brown, Matthew A; Bae, Sang-Cheol; Xu, Huji; Teo, Yik-Ying; de Bakker, Paul I W; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2014-12-20

    Previous studies have emphasized ethnically heterogeneous human leukocyte antigen (HLA) classical allele associations to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk. We fine-mapped RA risk alleles within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in 2782 seropositive RA cases and 4315 controls of Asian descent. We applied imputation to determine genotypes for eight class I and II HLA genes to Asian populations for the first time using a newly constructed pan-Asian reference panel. First, we empirically measured high imputation accuracy in Asian samples. Then we observed the most significant association in HLA-DRβ1 at amino acid position 13, located outside the classical shared epitope (Pomnibus = 6.9 × 10(-135)). The individual residues at position 13 have relative effects that are consistent with published effects in European populations (His > Phe > Arg > Tyr ≅ Gly > Ser)--but the observed effects in Asians are generally smaller. Applying stepwise conditional analysis, we identified additional independent associations at positions 57 (conditional Pomnibus = 2.2 × 10(-33)) and 74 (conditional Pomnibus = 1.1 × 10(-8)). Outside of HLA-DRβ1, we observed independent effects for amino acid polymorphisms within HLA-B (Asp9, conditional P = 3.8 × 10(-6)) and HLA-DPβ1 (Phe9, conditional P = 3.0 × 10(-5)) concordant with European populations. Our trans-ethnic HLA fine-mapping study reveals that (i) a common set of amino acid residues confer shared effects in European and Asian populations and (ii) these same effects can explain ethnically heterogeneous classical allelic associations (e.g. HLA-DRB1*09:01) due to allele frequency differences between populations. Our study illustrates the value of high-resolution imputation for fine-mapping causal variants in the MHC. PMID:25070946

  3. A new classification of HLA-DRB1 alleles based on acid–base properties of the amino acids located at positions 13, 70 and 71: impact on ACPA status or structural progression, and meta-analysis on 1235 patients with rheumatoid from two cohorts (ESPOIR and EAC cohort)

    PubMed Central

    Ruyssen-Witrand, Adeline; van Steenbergen, Hanna W; van Heemst, Jurgen; Gourraud, Pierre-Antoine; Nigon, Delphine; Lukas, Cédric; Miceli-Richard, Corinne; Jamard, Bénédicte; Cambon-Thomsen, Anne; Cantagrel, Alain; Dieudé, Philippe; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M; Constantin, Arnaud

    2015-01-01

    Objective To group HLA-DRB1 alleles based on acid–base properties of amino acids at positions 13, 70 and 71 and analyse their association with the presence of anticitrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) and structural progression in 2 cohorts of early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods Patients with RA (N=612) from ESPOIR cohort and from EAC cohort (n=624) were genotyped for HLA-DRB1 alleles. The alleles containing the RAA sequence at positions 72–74 were classified into 3 groups according to the amino acid at positions 13, 70 and 71: BB encoding basic amino acids at positions 13, 70 and 71; A encoding acidic amino acids at positions 70 and 71; and BN encoding either neutral amino acids at position 13 and basic amino acids at positions 70 and 71, or basic amino acid at position 13 and neutral amino acids at positions 70 and 71. The associations between the different alleles and (1) the ACPA presence, and (2) the structural progression were assessed by χ2 test; a meta-analysis was performed on the 2 cohorts using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Results After meta-analysis, BB alleles were significantly associated with ACPA presence (OR (95% CI) 4.08 (3.14 to 5.31)) and structural progression (OR (95% CI) 2.33 (1.76 to 3.09)). The alleles protected significantly against ACPA presence (OR (95% CI) 0.37 (0.28 to 0.50)) and structural progression (OR (95% CI) 0.34 (0.23 to 0.50)). This acid–base classification allowed to separate another group BN with an intermediate risk of ACPA production (OR (95% CI) 1.14 (0.91 to 1.44)) and structural progression (OR (95% CI) 1.01 (0.77 to 1.33)). Conclusions This new classification permitted to make a hierarchy of HLA-DRB1 alleles in terms of association with ACPA presence or structural progression in early RA. PMID:26629363

  4. In Antisynthetase Syndrome, ACPA Are Associated With Severe and Erosive Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Alain; Lefevre, Guillaume; Bierry, Guillaume; Duval, Aurélie; Ottaviani, Sébastien; Meyer, Olivier; Tournadre, Anne; Le Goff, Benoit; Messer, Laurent; Buchdahl, Anne Laure; De Bandt, Michel; Deligny, Christophe; Dubois, Matthieu; Coquerelle, Pascal; Falgarone, Géraldine; Flipo, René-Marc; Mathian, Alexis; Geny, Bernard; Amoura, Zahir; Benveniste, Olivier; Hachulla, Eric; Sibilia, Jean; Hervier, Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Anticitrullinated peptide/protein antibodies (ACPA), which are highly specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), may be found in some patients with other systemic autoimmune diseases. The clinical significance of ACPA in patients with antisynthetase syndrome (ASS), a systemic disease characterized by the association of myositis, interstitial lung disease, polyarthralgia, and/or polyarthritis, has not yet been evaluated with regard to phenotype, prognosis, and response to treatment. ACPA-positive ASS patients were first identified among a French multicenter registry of patients with ASS. Additionally, all French rheumatology and internal medicine practitioners registered on the Club Rhumatismes et Inflammation web site were asked to report their observations of ASS patients with ACPA. The 17 collected patients were retrospectively studied using a standardized questionnaire and compared with 34 unselected ACPA-negative ASS patients in a case–control study. All ACPA-positive ASS patients suffered from arthritis versus 41% in the control group (P < 0.0001). The number of swollen joints was significantly higher (7.0 ± 5.0 vs 2.9 ± 3.9, P < 0.005), with a distribution resembling that of RA. Radiographic damages were also more frequent in ACPA-positive ASS patients (87% vs 11%, P < 0.0001). Aside from a significantly higher transfer factor for carbon monoxide in ACPA–ASS patients, lung, muscle, and skin involvements had similar incidences, patterns, and severity in both groups. Although Nonbiologic treatments were similarly used in both groups, ACPA-positive patients received biologics more frequently (59% vs 12%, P < 0.0008), mostly due to refractory arthritis (n = 9). Eight patients received anti-Cluster of differentiation 20 (CD20) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with good efficacy and tolerance, whereas 2 of the 5 patients treated with antitumor necrosis factor drugs had worsened myositis and/or interstitial lung disease. After a

  5. In antisynthetase syndrome, ACPA are associated with severe and erosive arthritis: an overlapping rheumatoid arthritis and antisynthetase syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Alain; Lefevre, Guillaume; Bierry, Guillaume; Duval, Aurélie; Ottaviani, Sébastien; Meyer, Olivier; Tournadre, Anne; Le Goff, Benoit; Messer, Laurent; Buchdahl, Anne Laure; De Bandt, Michel; Deligny, Christophe; Dubois, Matthieu; Coquerelle, Pascal; Falgarone, Géraldine; Flipo, René-Marc; Mathian, Alexis; Geny, Bernard; Amoura, Zahir; Benveniste, Olivier; Hachulla, Eric; Sibilia, Jean; Hervier, Baptiste

    2015-05-01

    Anticitrullinated peptide/protein antibodies (ACPA), which are highly specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), may be found in some patients with other systemic autoimmune diseases. The clinical significance of ACPA in patients with antisynthetase syndrome (ASS), a systemic disease characterized by the association of myositis, interstitial lung disease, polyarthralgia, and/or polyarthritis, has not yet been evaluated with regard to phenotype, prognosis, and response to treatment. ACPA-positive ASS patients were first identified among a French multicenter registry of patients with ASS. Additionally, all French rheumatology and internal medicine practitioners registered on the Club Rhumatismes et Inflammation web site were asked to report their observations of ASS patients with ACPA. The 17 collected patients were retrospectively studied using a standardized questionnaire and compared with 34 unselected ACPA-negative ASS patients in a case-control study. All ACPA-positive ASS patients suffered from arthritis versus 41% in the control group (P < 0.0001). The number of swollen joints was significantly higher (7.0 ± 5.0 vs 2.9 ± 3.9, P < 0.005), with a distribution resembling that of RA. Radiographic damages were also more frequent in ACPA-positive ASS patients (87% vs 11%, P < 0.0001). Aside from a significantly higher transfer factor for carbon monoxide in ACPA-ASS patients, lung, muscle, and skin involvements had similar incidences, patterns, and severity in both groups. Although Nonbiologic treatments were similarly used in both groups, ACPA-positive patients received biologics more frequently (59% vs 12%, P < 0.0008), mostly due to refractory arthritis (n = 9). Eight patients received anti-Cluster of differentiation 20 (CD20) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with good efficacy and tolerance, whereas 2 of the 5 patients treated with antitumor necrosis factor drugs had worsened myositis and/or interstitial lung disease. After a >7-year mean

  6. Antibodies to Citrullinated Protein Antigens (ACPAs): Clinical and Pathophysiologic Significance

    PubMed Central

    Demoruelle, M. Kristen; Deane, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Antibodies to citrullinated protein antigens (ACPAs) are highly specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and are useful in the diagnosis of RA as well as the prediction of the course and outcomes of disease. Multiple methodologies exist for measuring ACPAs, including the widely available tests for anticyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies and for antibodies to mutated/modified citrullinated vimentin. These methodologies overall have similar diagnostic accuracies for RA, although there is some variability. The discovery of ACPAs and the biology of citrullination have also led to important advances in the understanding of the pathophysiology and development of RA, especially regarding the relationship between potential genetic and environmental risk factors for RA. Going forward, research into autoimmunity to citrullinated proteins may help identify the specific etiology of RA and provide approaches for the prediction of future risk of disease, and ultimately prevention of RA. PMID:21713412

  7. Anti-Citrullinated Peptide Antibody (ACPA) Assays and their Role in the Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Rohit; Liao, Katherine; Nair, Raj; Ringold, Sarah; Costenbader, Karen H.

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, assays for the detection of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) are used in RA diagnosis. This review summarizes the biologic basis and development of ACPA assays, available ACPA assays and their performance characteristics, and diagnostic properties of ACPA alone and compared to rheumatoid factor (RF) in early RA. We also review correlations, precision, costs and cost-effectiveness, availability, stability and reproducibility of the available assays. Taken together, data indicate that ACPA has a higher specificity than RF for early RA, good predictive validity, high sensitivity, apparent cost-effectiveness and good stability and reproducibility. Given its superior performance characteristics and increasing availability, ACPA is emerging as the most useful single assay for the diagnosis of RA. PMID:19877103

  8. A Case of Chikungunya Virus Induced Arthralgia Responsive to Colchicine

    PubMed Central

    Redel, Henry

    2016-01-01

    Chikungunya virus is an emerging infectious disease that has started circulating throughout the Americas and Caribbean. It can lead to persistent arthralgia lasting months to years. Treatment has been symptomatic with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. This case report describes a trial of colchicine for chikungunya arthralgia in 1 patient. PMID:27419183

  9. A Case of Chikungunya Virus Induced Arthralgia Responsive to Colchicine.

    PubMed

    Redel, Henry

    2016-04-01

    Chikungunya virus is an emerging infectious disease that has started circulating throughout the Americas and Caribbean. It can lead to persistent arthralgia lasting months to years. Treatment has been symptomatic with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. This case report describes a trial of colchicine for chikungunya arthralgia in 1 patient. PMID:27419183

  10. Management of arthralgias associated with aromatase inhibitor therapy

    PubMed Central

    Thorne, C.

    2007-01-01

    For the upfront adjuvant therapy of postmenopausal estrogen receptor–positive breast cancer, the third-generation aromatase inhibitors (ais) have shown a more favourable overall risk–benefit profile than has tamoxifen. Benefits of the ais include less frequent gynecologic, cerebrovascular, and thromboembolic adverse events; greater disease-free survival; and lower tumour recurrence. Although approximately 25% of postmenopausal women with early breast cancer report experiencing symptoms of arthralgia with ai therapy, 68-month data from the Arimidex, Tamoxifen, Alone or in Combination trial showed that, compared with tamoxifen, anastrozole treatment was associated with only a modest increase in the incidence of joint symptoms. The events, which were mostly mild-to-moderate in intensity, led to treatment withdrawal in 2% of patients on anastrozole as compared with 1% in the tamoxifen arm. The symptoms and changes correlate with clinical, biochemical, and radiologic findings in symptomatic women. To determine appropriate intervention, it is therefore essential to perform a comprehensive evaluation of musculoskeletal complaints to distinguish natural menopause-related degenerative disease from ai-related effects. The present review explores the advantages of differential diagnosis with an emphasis on history and physical and musculoskeletal examination; laboratory investigations are used to corroborate or rule out clinical impressions. The transient symptoms associated with the ais are manageable with an appropriate combination of lifestyle changes, including exercise and joint protection in conjunction with pharmacologic approaches. PMID:18087604

  11. Proposed medications for taxane-induced myalgia and arthralgia (Review)

    PubMed Central

    IMAI, ATSUSHI; MATSUNAMI, KAZUTOSHI; TAKAGI, HIROSHI; ICHIGO, SATOSHI

    2012-01-01

    Taxanes inhibit the disassembly of microtubules, which are involved in mitosis and axoplasmatic transport, and may cause the degeneration of peripheral, mainly small, sensory nerves. Peripheral neurotoxicity is a dose-limiting side-effect of taxanes. Neuroprotective agents may aid in the reduction of neurotoxicity, thus allowing the intensification of cytostatic therapy in patients. An increasing number of medications for the prevention of taxane-induced arthralgia and myalgia are becoming available to oncology teams. The most widely studied medications include so-called analgesics such as Shakuyaku-kanzo-to (a herbal medicine), corticosteroids and antihistamines. Arthralgias and myalgias (muscle spasms, fasciculations and prolonged contractions) may be extremely distressing for patients. New anti-epileptic drugs, particularly gabapentin and pregabalin, have proven to be safe and effective in the treatment of taxane-induced neurotoxicity. The aim of this review was to examine the topical choices available for the protective management of taxane-induced neurotoxicity monitored in preliminary case studies and clinical trials. At present, there is no standard of care for the prevention of taxane-induced arthralgia and myalgia. In combination with taxane-based chemotherapeutic regimens, these medical agents may be crucial in the treatment of a variety of types of cancer. PMID:22783414

  12. The hippocampal NMDA receptors may be involved in acquisition, but not expression of ACPA-induced place preference.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Sharaf-Dolgari, Elmira; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the functional interactions between the endocannabinoid and glutamate systems in the hippocampus. The present study was made to test whether N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors of the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) are implicated in ACPA (a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist)-induced place preference. Using a 3-day schedule of conditioning, it was found that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of ACPA (0.02mg/kg) caused a significant conditioned place preference (CPP) in male albino NMRI mice. Intra-CA1 microinjection of the NMDA or D-[1]-2-amino-7-Phosphonoheptanoic acid (D-AP7, NMDA receptor antagonist), failed to induce CPP or CPA (condition place aversion), while NMDA (0.5μg/mouse) potentiated the ACPA (0.01mg/kg)-induced CPP; and D-AP7 (a specific NMDA receptor antagonist; 0.5 and 1μg/mouse) reversed the ACPA (0.02mg/kg)-induced CPP. Moreover, microinjection of different doses of glutamatergic agents on the testing day did not alter the expression of ACPA-induced place preference. None of the treatments, with the exception of ACPA (0.04mg/kg), had an effect on locomotor activity. In conclusion, these observations provide evidence that glutamate NMDA receptors of the CA1 may be involved in the potentiation of ACPA rewarding properties in the acquisition, but not expression, of CPP in mice. PMID:26072736

  13. Expression and specificity profile of the major acetate transporter AcpA in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Sá-Pessoa, Joana; Amillis, Sotiris; Casal, Margarida; Diallinas, George

    2015-03-01

    AcpA has been previously characterized as a high-affinity transporter essential for the uptake and use of acetate as sole carbon source in Aspergillus nidulans. Here, we follow the expression profile of AcpA and define its substrate specificity. AcpA-mediated acetate transport is detected from the onset of conidiospore germination, peaks at the time of germ tube emergence, and drops to low basal levels in germlings and young mycelia, where a second acetate transporter is also becoming apparent. AcpA activity also responds to acetate presence in the growth medium, but is not subject to either carbon or nitrogen catabolite repression. Short-chain monocarboxylates (benzoate, formate, butyrate and propionate) inhibit AcpA-mediated acetate transport with apparent inhibition constants (Ki) of 16.89±2.12, 9.25±1.01, 12.06±3.29 and 1.44±0.13mM, respectively. AcpA is also shown not to be directly involved in ammonia export, as proposed for its Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue Ady2p. In the second part of this work, we search for the unknown acetate transporter expressed in mycelia, and for other transporters that might contribute to acetate uptake. In silico analysis, genetic construction of relevant null mutants, and uptake assays, reveal that the closest AcpA homologue (AN1839), named AcpB, is the 'missing' secondary acetate transporter in mycelia. We also identify two major short-chain carboxylate (lactate, succinate, pyruvate and malate) transporters, named JenA (AN6095) and JenB (AN6703), which however are not involved in acetate uptake. This work establishes a framework for further exploiting acetate and carboxylate transport in filamentous ascomycetes. PMID:25708319

  14. The effect of BLA GABA(A) receptors in anxiolytic-like effect and aversive memory deficit induced by ACPA

    PubMed Central

    Kangarlu-Haghighi, Katayoon; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Nasehi, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-01-01

    The roles of GABAergic receptors of the Basolateral amygdala (BLA) in the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist (arachydonilcyclopropylamide; ACPA)-induced anxiolytic-like effect and aversive memory deficit in adult male mice were examined in elevated plus-maze task. Results showed that pre-test intra-peritoneal injection of ACPA induced anxiolytic-like effect (at dose of 0.05 mg/kg) and aversive memory deficit (at doses of 0.025 and 0.05 mg/kg). The results revealed that Pre-test intra-BLA infusion of muscimol (GABAA receptor agonist; at doses of 0.1 and 0.2 µg/mouse) or bicuculline (GABAA receptor antagonist; at all doses) impaired and did not alter aversive memory, respectively. All previous GABA agents did not have any effects on anxiety-like behaviors. Interestingly, pretreatment with a sub-threshold dose of muscimol (0.025 µg/mouse) and bicuculline (0.025 µg/mouse) did not alter anxiolytic-like behaviors induced by ACPA, while both drugs restored ACPA-induced amnesia. Moreover, muscimol or bicuculline increased and decreased ACPA-induced locomotor activity, respectively. Finally the data may indicate that BLA GABAA receptors have critical and different roles in anxiolytic-like effect, aversive memory deficit and locomotor activity induced by ACPA. PMID:26648818

  15. Validity and reliability of the Patient-Reported Arthralgia Inventory: validation of a newly-developed survey instrument to measure arthralgia

    PubMed Central

    Castel, Liana D; Wallston, Kenneth A; Saville, Benjamin R; Alvarez, JoAnn R; Shields, Bradley D; Feurer, Irene D; Cella, David

    2015-01-01

    Background There is a need for a survey instrument to measure arthralgia (joint pain) that has been psychometrically validated in the context of existing reference instruments. We developed the 16-item Patient-Reported Arthralgia Inventory (PRAI) to measure arthralgia severity in 16 joints, in the context of a longitudinal cohort study to assess aromatase inhibitor-associated arthralgia in breast cancer survivors and arthralgia in postmenopausal women without breast cancer. We sought to evaluate the reliability and validity of the PRAI instrument in these populations, as well as to examine the relationship of patient-reported morning stiffness and arthralgia. Methods We administered the PRAI on paper in 294 women (94 initiating aromatase inhibitor therapy and 200 postmenopausal women without breast cancer) at weeks 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 12, 16, and 52, as well as once in 36 women who had taken but were no longer taking aromatase inhibitor therapy. Results Cronbach’s alpha was 0.9 for internal consistency of the PRAI. Intraclass correlation coefficients of test-retest reliability were in the range of 0.87–0.96 over repeated PRAI administrations; arthralgia severity was higher in the non-cancer group at baseline than at subsequent assessments. Women with joint comorbidities tended to have higher PRAI scores than those without (estimated difference in mean scores: −0.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] −0.5, −0.2; P<0.001). The PRAI was highly correlated with the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-Endocrine Subscale item “I have pain in my joints” (reference instrument; Spearman r range: 0.76–0.82). Greater arthralgia severity on the PRAI was also related to decreased physical function (r=−0.47, 95% CI −0.55, −0.37; P<0.001), higher pain interference (r=0.65, 95% CI 0.57–0.72; P<0.001), less active performance status (estimated difference in location (−0.6, 95% CI −0.9, −0.4; P<0.001), and increased morning stiffness duration (r=0.62, 95% CI 0

  16. Involvement of the serotonergic system of the ventral hippocampus (CA3) on amnesia induced by ACPA in mice.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Kafi, Faezeh; Khakpai, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-06-01

    Interactions between the cannabinoid and serotonin systems have been reported in many studies. In the present study, we investigated the influence of the serotonergic receptor agents on amnesia induced by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, arachydonilcyclopropylamide (ACPA). Bilateral guide-cannulae were implanted to allow intra-CA3 microinjection of the drugs. The results showed that the intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection of ACPA induce amnesia but did not alter head dip latency, head dip counts, and locomotion. Moreover, intra-CA3 injection of M-Chlorophenylbiguanide (M-CHL, a 5-HT3 serotonin receptor agonist), Y-25130 (a 5-HT3 serotonin receptor antagonist), RS67333 (a 5-HT4 serotonin receptor agonist), and RS23597-190 (a 5-HT4 serotonin receptor antagonist) impaired memory but have no effect on head dip latency and locomotor activity. In addition, intra-CA3 injection of Y-25130, RS67333, and RS23597-190 heighten the ACPA-induced amnesia and head dip counts while did not alter head dip latency and locomotor activity. On the other hand, intra-CA3 microinjection of M-CHL could not modify the ACPA-induced amnesia, head dip latency and locomotor activity whereas increased head dip counts. It can be concluded that the amnesia induced by i.p. administration of ACPA is at least partly mediated through the serotonergic receptor mechanism in the CA3 area. PMID:25771207

  17. Identification of Genes Required for Secretion of the Francisella Oxidative Burst-Inhibiting Acid Phosphatase AcpA.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Ky Van; Chen, Carolyn G; Koopman, Jacob; Moshiri, Jasmine; Adcox, Haley E; Gunn, John S

    2016-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a Tier 1 bioterror threat and the intracellular pathogen responsible for tularemia in humans and animals. Upon entry into the host, Francisella uses multiple mechanisms to evade killing. Our previous studies have shown that after entering its primary cellular host, the macrophage, Francisella immediately suppresses the oxidative burst by secreting a series of acid phosphatases including AcpA-B-C and HapA, thereby evading the innate immune response of the macrophage and enhancing survival and further infection. However, the mechanism of acid phosphatase secretion by Francisella is still unknown. In this study, we screened for genes required for AcpA secretion in Francisella. We initially demonstrated that the known secretion systems, the putative Francisella-pathogenicity island (FPI)-encoded Type VI secretion system and the Type IV pili, do not secrete AcpA. Using random transposon mutagenesis in conjunction with ELISA, Western blotting and acid phosphatase enzymatic assays, a transposon library of 5450 mutants was screened for strains with a minimum 1.5-fold decrease in secreted (culture supernatant) AcpA, but no defect in cytosolic AcpA. Three mutants with decreased supernatant AcpA were identified. The transposon insertion sites of these mutants were revealed by direct genomic sequencing or inverse-PCR and sequencing. One of these mutants has a severe defect in AcpA secretion (at least 85% decrease) and is a predicted hypothetical inner membrane protein. Interestingly, this mutant also affected the secretion of the FPI-encoded protein, VgrG. Thus, this screen identified novel protein secretion factors involved in the subversion of host defenses. PMID:27199935

  18. Identification of Genes Required for Secretion of the Francisella Oxidative Burst-Inhibiting Acid Phosphatase AcpA

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Ky Van; Chen, Carolyn G.; Koopman, Jacob; Moshiri, Jasmine; Adcox, Haley E.; Gunn, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a Tier 1 bioterror threat and the intracellular pathogen responsible for tularemia in humans and animals. Upon entry into the host, Francisella uses multiple mechanisms to evade killing. Our previous studies have shown that after entering its primary cellular host, the macrophage, Francisella immediately suppresses the oxidative burst by secreting a series of acid phosphatases including AcpA-B-C and HapA, thereby evading the innate immune response of the macrophage and enhancing survival and further infection. However, the mechanism of acid phosphatase secretion by Francisella is still unknown. In this study, we screened for genes required for AcpA secretion in Francisella. We initially demonstrated that the known secretion systems, the putative Francisella-pathogenicity island (FPI)-encoded Type VI secretion system and the Type IV pili, do not secrete AcpA. Using random transposon mutagenesis in conjunction with ELISA, Western blotting and acid phosphatase enzymatic assays, a transposon library of 5450 mutants was screened for strains with a minimum 1.5-fold decrease in secreted (culture supernatant) AcpA, but no defect in cytosolic AcpA. Three mutants with decreased supernatant AcpA were identified. The transposon insertion sites of these mutants were revealed by direct genomic sequencing or inverse-PCR and sequencing. One of these mutants has a severe defect in AcpA secretion (at least 85% decrease) and is a predicted hypothetical inner membrane protein. Interestingly, this mutant also affected the secretion of the FPI-encoded protein, VgrG. Thus, this screen identified novel protein secretion factors involved in the subversion of host defenses. PMID:27199935

  19. Diffraction efficiency improvement in high spatial frequency holographic gratings stored in PVA/AA photopolymers: several ACPA concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Elena; Fuentes, Rosa; Ortuño, Manuel; Beléndez, Augusto; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    High spatial frequency in holographic gratings is difficult to obtain due to limitations of the recording material. In this paper, the results obtained after storing holographic transmission gratings with a spatial frequency of 2656 lines/mm in a material based on polyvinyl alcohol and acrylamide (PVA/AA) are presented. A chain transfer agent, 4, 4‧-azobis (4-cyanopentanoic acid) (ACPA) was incorporated in the composition of the material to improve the response of the material at a high spatial frequency. Different concentrations of ACPA were used in order to find the optimal concentration giving maximum diffraction efficiency for high spatial frequencies.

  20. CTLA4-Ig (abatacept) therapy modulates T cell effector functions in autoantibody-positive rheumatoid arthritis patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rheumatoid arthritis is a chronic inflammatory disease with a strong MHC class II component and where many patients develop characteristic autoantibodies towards the noncoding amino acid citrulline. Such anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) have recently been put forward as an independent predictive factor for treatment response by co-stimulation blockade by CTLA4-Ig (abatacept). We have performed a mechanism of action study to dissect T cell functionality in RA patients with long-standing disease undergoing abatacept treatment and the influence of ACPA status. Results Peripheral blood samples were collected from RA patients as they started CTLA4-Ig treatment and 3 and 6 months later. A general decrease of regulatory T cell subsets was observed in the cohort. Additionally within the ACPA-positive group significant down-regulation of all key T cell effector subsets including Th1, Th2, and Th17 was observed by analyzing cytokines by intracellular flow cytometry and in cell culture supernatants. RA synovial fluid samples were cultured in vitro in the presence or absence of CTLA4-Ig (abatacept). T cell cytokine production was diminished, but without increasing the functional capacity of CD4+CD25hi regulatory T cells as previously demonstrated in the context of TNF-blockade and anti-IL6R therapy. Conclusions Our immunological study of T cell functionality in RA patients, both ACPA-positive and ACPA-negative, starting biological therapy with the co-stimulation blockade abatacept (CTLA4-Ig) supports the recently published registry study implicating ACPA seropositivity as an independent predictive factor to treatment response as we observed the most striking effect on T cell subset modulation in ACPA-positive patients. These data further support the notion of RA as a disease with several sub-entities, where the ACPA-positive fraction represents a classical HLA-associated autoimmune disorder while ACPA-negative patients may have other driving forces apart

  1. Successful treatment of severe arthralgia associated with palmoplantar pustulosis with low-dose oral cyclosporine A.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, T; Kimura, K; Katayama, I; Nishioka, K

    1995-07-01

    Two patients with severe arthralgia associated with palmoplantar pustulosis (PPP) were treated with oral cyclosporine A (CsA). Clinical efficacy was assessed on a 0-4 point scale for erythema, desquamation, infiltration, and pustulation, and on a 0-3 point pain scale. Skin lesions and arthralgia improved within twelve weeks with low dose CsA ranging from 2.1 to 2.2 mg/kg/day. High levels of plasma interleukin-6 (IL-6) were reduced to the normal range. PMID:7560444

  2. Diagnostic performance of a new vimentin-derived ACPA (CCP high sensitive) in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Bertin, Daniel; Dubucquoi, Sylvain; Lakomy, Daniela; Deleplancque, Anne-Sophie; Desplat-Jégo, Sophie

    2016-04-01

    Autoantibodies are a common feature of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and their detection is used as a diagnostic tool in medical practice. Rheumatoid factor (RF) and/or anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) detection in patients' sera are now included in 2010 ACR/EULAR criteria for RA diagnosis. In this study, we evaluated a new vimentin-derived ACPA ELISA, the anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide high sensitive (CCP hs) test, and we compared its performance with the RF IgM and anti-CCP3 tests on a French multicenter cohort of 84 RA patients, 107 non-RA patients and 100 healthy controls. Sensitivities for RA diagnosis were 71.4, 84.5 and 64.3 % and specificities were 88.4, 86.9 and 87.3 % for CCP hs, CCP3 and RF IgM, respectively. There was a moderate correlation between CCP hs and CCP3 titers (Pearson's r = 0.43; p < 0.0001). These results support the contention that anti-CCP hs antibodies are new reliable ACPA with high specificity for RA. PMID:26350265

  3. Time course of arthralgia among women initiating aromatase inhibitor therapy and a postmenopausal comparison group in a prospective cohort

    PubMed Central

    Castel, Liana D.; Hartmann, Katherine E.; Mayer, Ingrid A.; Saville, Benjamin R.; Alvarez, JoAnn; Boomershine, Chad S.; Abramson, Vandana G.; Chakravarthy, A. Bapsi; Friedman, Debra L.; Cella, David F.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND More than 80,000 postmenopausal breast cancer patients in the US each year are estimated to begin a five-year course of aromatase inhibitors (AIs) to prevent recurrence. AI-related arthralgia (joint pain and/or stiffness) may contribute to nonadherence, but longitudinal data are needed on arthralgia risk factors, trajectories, and background in postmenopause. OBJECTIVES To describe one-year arthralgia trajectories and baseline covariates among AI patients and a postmenopausal comparison group. METHODS Patients initiating AIs (n=91) were surveyed at the time of AI initiation and at six repeated assessments over one year. A comparison group of postmenopausal women without breast cancer (n=177) completed concomitantly-timed surveys. Numeric rating scales (0–10) were used to measure pain in eight joint pair groups (bilateral fingers, wrists, elbows, shoulders, hips, knees, ankles, and toes). Poisson regression models were used to analyze arthralgia trajectories and risk factors. RESULTS By week six, the AI-initiating group had more severe arthralgia than did the comparison group (ratio of means=1.8, (95% CI 1.2–2.7, p=0.002), adjusting for baseline characteristics. Arthralgia then worsened further over a year in the AI group. Menopausal symptom severity and existing joint-related comorbidity at baseline among women initiating AI were associated with more severe longitudinal arthralgia. CONCLUSIONS Patients initiating AI should be told about the timing of arthralgia over the first year of therapy, and advised that it does not appear to resolve over the course of a year. Menopausal symptoms and joint-related comorbidity at AI initiation can help identify patients at risk for developing AI-related arthralgia. PMID:23575918

  4. Feasibility Trial of Electro-acupuncture for Aromatase Inhibitor Related Arthralgia in Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Mao, JJ; Bruner, DW; Stricker, C; Farrar, JT; Xie, SX; Bowman, MA; Pucci, D; Han, X; DeMichele, A

    2013-01-01

    Background Arthralgia affects postmenopausal women receiving aromatase inhibitors (AI) for breast cancer. Given the existing evidence for electro-acupuncture (EA) for treatment of osteoarthritis in the general population, this study aims to establish the feasibility of studying EA for treating AI-related arthralgia. Patients and Methods Postmenopausal women with stage I-III breast cancer who reported AI-related arthralgia were enrolled in a single arm feasibility trial. EA was provided twice a week for two weeks followed by six weekly treatments. The protocol was based on Chinese medicine diagnosis of “Bi” syndrome with electro-stimulation of needles around the painful joint(s). Pain severity of the modified Brief Pain Inventory was used as the primary outcome. Joint stiffness, Joint interference, and Patient Global Impression of Change (PGIC) were secondary outcomes. Paired-t tests were used for analysis. Results Twelve women were enrolled and all provided data for analysis. From baseline to the end of intervention, patients reported reduction in pain severity (5.3 to 1.9), stiffness (6.9 to 2.4), and joint symptom interference (4.7 to 0.8), all P<0.001; 11/12 considered joint symptoms “very much better” based on PGIC. Subjects also reported significant decrease in fatigue (4.4 to 1.9, p=0.005) and anxiety (7.1 to 4.8, p=0.01). No infection or development or worsening of lymphedema was observed. Conclusion Preliminary data establishes the feasibility of recruitment and acceptance as well as promising preliminary safety and effectiveness. A randomized controlled trial is warranted to establish the efficacy of EA for AI-related arthralgia in breast cancer survivors. PMID:19679620

  5. Long-Term Arthralgia after Mayaro Virus Infection Correlates with Sustained Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Response

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Felix W.; Halsey, Eric S.; Siles, Crystyan; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Guevara, Carolina; Silvas, Jesus A.; Ramal, Cesar; Ampuero, Julia S.; Aguilar, Patricia V.

    2015-01-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV), an alphavirus similar to chikungunya virus (CHIKV), causes an acute debilitating disease which results in the development of long-term arthralgia in more than 50% of infected individuals. Currently, the immune response and its role in the development of MAYV-induced persistent arthralgia remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated the immune response of individuals with confirmed MAYV infection in a one-year longitudinal study carried out in Loreto, Peru. We report that MAYV infection elicits robust immune responses that result in the development of a strong neutralizing antibody response and the secretion of pro-inflammatory immune mediators. The composition of these inflammatory mediators, in some cases, differed to those previously observed for CHIKV. Key mediators such as IL-13, IL-7 and VEGF were strongly induced following MAYV infection and were significantly increased in subjects that eventually developed persistent arthralgia. Although a strong neutralizing antibody response was observed in all subjects, it was not sufficient to prevent the long-term outcomes of MAYV infection. This study provides initial immunologic insight that may eventually contribute to prognostic tools and therapeutic treatments against this emerging pathogen. PMID:26496497

  6. Long-Term Arthralgia after Mayaro Virus Infection Correlates with Sustained Pro-inflammatory Cytokine Response.

    PubMed

    Santiago, Felix W; Halsey, Eric S; Siles, Crystyan; Vilcarromero, Stalin; Guevara, Carolina; Silvas, Jesus A; Ramal, Cesar; Ampuero, Julia S; Aguilar, Patricia V

    2015-01-01

    Mayaro virus (MAYV), an alphavirus similar to chikungunya virus (CHIKV), causes an acute debilitating disease which results in the development of long-term arthralgia in more than 50% of infected individuals. Currently, the immune response and its role in the development of MAYV-induced persistent arthralgia remain unknown. In this study, we evaluated the immune response of individuals with confirmed MAYV infection in a one-year longitudinal study carried out in Loreto, Peru. We report that MAYV infection elicits robust immune responses that result in the development of a strong neutralizing antibody response and the secretion of pro-inflammatory immune mediators. The composition of these inflammatory mediators, in some cases, differed to those previously observed for CHIKV. Key mediators such as IL-13, IL-7 and VEGF were strongly induced following MAYV infection and were significantly increased in subjects that eventually developed persistent arthralgia. Although a strong neutralizing antibody response was observed in all subjects, it was not sufficient to prevent the long-term outcomes of MAYV infection. This study provides initial immunologic insight that may eventually contribute to prognostic tools and therapeutic treatments against this emerging pathogen. PMID:26496497

  7. Effect of nucleus accumbens shell 5-HT4 receptors on the impairment of ACPA-induced emotional memory consolidation in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khodayar, Ebrahim; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Nasehi, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigates the effects of 5-HT4 receptors of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell on the impairment of emotional memory consolidation induced by cannabinoid CB1 receptor stimulation. The elevated plus maze test-retest paradigm was used to assess memory in adult male Wistar rats. Intra-NAc shell administration of ACPA (selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist 0.006 µg/rat) and RS23597 (5-HT4 receptor antagonist 0.01 µg/rat), immediately after training, decreased emotional memory consolidation, suggesting a drug-induced amnesia, whereas post-training intra-NAc shell microinjections of RS67333 (5-HT4 receptor agonist 0.016 µg/rat) increased emotional memory consolidation. Interestingly, RS67333 exerted a dual effect on ACPA-induced behaviors, potentiating and restoring amnesia caused by the subthreshold and effective doses of ACPA, respectively. However, neither RS23597 nor AM251 (CB1 receptor antagonist 30, 60 and 120 ng/rat) affected emotional memory consolidation. Nonetheless, a subthreshold dose of AM251 (120 ng/rat) reversed the amnesia induced by ACPA (0.006 µg/rat) and RS23597 (0.01 µg/rat). None of the above doses altered the locomotor activity. In conclusion, our results suggest that the NAc-shell 5-HT4 receptors are involved in the modulation of ACPA-induced amnesia. PMID:26340366

  8. [A 39-year-old patient with maculopapular rash, recurrent fever, and arthralgia].

    PubMed

    Freund, V; Budihardja, D; Nilles, M; Mayser, P

    2009-07-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease is a rare disorder of unknown etiology. We report the case of a 39-year-old patient who showed the characteristic symptoms: recurrent attacks of fever, arthralgia, maculopapular rash, sore throat, and lymphadenopathy. After the possibility of an infectious or paraneoplastic process was excluded and the laboratory findings were evaluated (increased C-reactive protein, liver values, and ferritin level), the diagnosis was established according to the criteria of Yamaguchi. Therapy with steroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was started successfully. PMID:19543861

  9. [The effect of L-Glutamine and Shakuyaku-Kanzo-to for paclitaxel-induced myalgia/arthralgia].

    PubMed

    Hasegawa, Kosei; Mizutani, Yasushi; Kuramoto, Hiroyuki; Nagao, Shoji; Masuyama, Hisashi; Hongo, Atsuhi; Kodama, Jyunichi; Yoshinouchi, Mitsuo; Hiramatsu, Yuji; Kudo, Takafumi; Okuda, Hiroyuki

    2002-04-01

    Myalgia/arthralgia is a crucial side effect of paclitaxel, and may become the major dose-limiting side effect. However, this is a situation where there is little effective preventive treatment. L-Glutamine was reported as a neuroprotective agent for vincristine-induced neurotoxicity. In Japan, there have been reports on steroid and Shakuyaku-Kanzou-to (a herbal medicine) for paclitaxel-induced myalgia/arthralgia. This study aimed to compare the effect of L-Glutamine and Shakuyaku-Kanzou-to, and to discuss the validity of these agents for the paclitaxel-induced myalgia/arthralgia. Our results suggested that Shakuyaku-Kanzou-to showed no remarkable effects against paclitaxel-induced myalgia/arthralgia as had been reported before; however, both L-Glutamine and Shakuyaku-Kanzou-to decreased the duration of grade 2 toxicity (CALGB Expanded Common Toxicity Criteria) in comparison with those who were not treated. L-Glutamine and Shakuyaku-Kanzou-to might therefore a preventive effect against moderate or severer myalgia/arthralgia during paclitaxel-treated chemotherapy. Further trials are needed to confirm the value of these drugs. PMID:11977541

  10. Expression of Prostaglandin E2 Enzymes in the Synovium of Arthralgia Patients at Risk of Developing Rheumatoid Arthritis and in Early Arthritis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Newsum, Elize C.; Maijer, Karen I.; van de Sande, Marleen G. H.; Ramwadhdoebe, Tamara H.; van Schaardenburg, Dirkjan; van Baarsen, Lisa G. M.; Korotkova, Marina; Gerlag, Danielle M.; Tak, Paul-Peter; Jakobsson, Per-Johan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Arthralgia may precede the development of synovial inflammation in autoantibody-positive individuals at risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A major pathway involved in pain is the prostaglandin (PG) E2 pathway. We investigated this pathway in the synovium of individuals with RA-specific autoantibodies and in early arthritis patients. Methods Nineteen autoantibody-positive individuals (IgM-rheumatoid factor and/or anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies) with arthralgia (n=15) and/or a positive family history of RA (n=8), who had been prospectively followed for at least 2 years, were included. In addition, we included early arthritis patients (disease-modifying antirheumatic drug naïve) who after 2 years follow up fulfilled classification criteria for RA (n=63), spondyloarthritis (SpA; n=14), or had unclassified arthritis (UA; n=27). In all subjects we assessed pain and performed synovial biopsy sampling by mini-arthroscopy at baseline. Tissue sections were examined by immunohistochemistry to detect and quantify PGE2 pathway enzymes expression levels (mPGES-1; COX-1 and -2; 15-PGDH). Results In both study groups synovial expression of PGE2 enzymes was not clearly related to pain sensation. Expression levels at baseline were not associated with the development of arthritis after follow up (6 out of 19 autoantibody-positive individuals). However, in early SpA patients the expression levels of mPGES-1 and COX-1 were significantly increased compared to RA and UA patients. Conclusion Pain in autoantibody-positive individuals without synovial inflammation who are at risk of developing RA and in early arthritis patients may be regulated by pathways other than the PGE2 pathway or originate at sites other than the synovium. In contrast, in SpA, the PGE2 pathway may be inherently linked to the pathophysiology/etiology of the disease. PMID:26225917

  11. Possible involvement of the CA1 GABAA receptors upon acquisition and expression of the ACPA-induced place preference in mice.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Kamali-Dolatabadi, Leila; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-07-01

    A plethora of investigations has substantiated a close relationship between cannabinoidergic and GABAergic systems in hippocampal CA1. The crucial role of these two systems in regulation of the addictive behaviors is well described. The aim of the current study was to investigate whether the CA1 GABAA receptors are involved in ACPA (a selective CB1 cannabinoid receptor agonist)-induced rewarding effects using the condition place preference (CPP) protocol. Moreover, the hole-board paradigm was used to measure the exploratory behaviors which may potentially influence this phenomenon. Results showed that ACPA (0.02mg/kg, i.p.) induced CPP. Applying a 3-day conditioning schedule, we found that the sole administration of the GABAA receptor agonist, muscimol (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5μg/mouse; intra-CA1), or the GABAA receptor antagonist, bicuculline (0.0635, 0.125 and 0.25μg/mouse; intra-CA1), fail to induce CPP or CPA (condition place aversion). Similarly, injection of the subthreshold dose of muscimol (0.125μg/mouse, intra-CA1) decreased the CPP acquisition induced by ACPA. Similar intervention with the subthreshold dose of bicuculline (0.125μg/mouse, intra-CA1) did not alter the CPP acquisition induced by ACPA. Furthermore, the sole intra-CA1 administration of muscimol (0.125, 0.25 and 0.5μg/mouse) and bicuculline (0.0635, 0.125 and 0.25μg/mouse; intra-CA1) prior to testing, did not induce CPP or CPA. Similar interventions revealed that muscimol and bicuculline increase and decrease CPP expression induced by ACPA, respectively. The ACPA- and muscimol-induced CPP could be blocked by bicuculline. Taken together, the CA1 GABAA receptors seem to be possibly involved in the modulation of acquisition or expression process upon ACPA-induced CPP. PMID:27090228

  12. Voriconazole-induced periostitis causing arthralgias mimicking a flare of granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    PubMed

    Gladue, Heather S; Fox, David A

    2013-12-01

    We describe a case of voriconazole-induced periostitis that occurred in a 68-year-old woman with granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Our patient presented with months of severe hip pain limiting her daily activities, which was initially felt to be a flare of her granulomatosis with polyangiitis. However, upon further review, she had an elevated alkaline phosphatase and periostitis on her hip radiograph; voriconazole was held, and within 2 days she had marked improvement in her pain. Although this clinical syndrome is well documented in transplant patients, it is a rare complication in patients with autoimmune disorders. However, it is important because it may cause severe arthralgias that can mimic a flare of rheumatic diseases. PMID:24263147

  13. Recurrent Fever, Anemia, Arthralgia, and Genu Varum as Late Manifestations of Congenital Syphilis.

    PubMed

    Quaresma, Liliana; Gonçalves, Juan; Estanqueiro, Paula; Salgado, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    We report an unusual case of recurrent fever, inflammatory knee pain, genu varum, persistent anemia, and high erythrocyte sedimentation rate in a 28-month-old boy as late manifestations of congenital syphilis (CS). Despite standard penicillin treatment at the end of the first month of life, it recurred later in life, more than once. In the first relapse, manifested by a likely gumma lesion, the prior penicillin treatment plus a negative venereal disease research laboratory result unduly led to exclusion of CS. A second treatment with penicillin led to complete clinical resolution. Although rare, bow legs, recurrent fever, anemia, and inflammatory arthralgias may be manifestations of late CS. Congenital syphilis should be considered throughout early childhood, especially if history of syphilis infection is present. A negative venereal disease research laboratory result does not exclude late syphilis, present in nearly 30% of these patients. The possibility of atypical symptoms of this "great masquerader" should always be borne in mind. PMID:26587855

  14. Fever and arthralgia as the initial symptoms of primary bone marrow diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    REN, SAISAI; TAO, YANLING; JIA, LU; CHENG, PANPAN; ZHANG, JILEI; ZHANG, HAO

    2016-01-01

    Primary bone marrow diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is rare, and only a few cases have been reported. Fever and arthralgia as the initial symptom are extremely rare; however, awareness must be made of this presentation. The current study describes the clinical and pathological findings of a 41-year-old man affected by fever and arthralgia. Blood tests revealed leukopenia and anemia. Multiple bone marrow biopsies were conducted and confirmed the diagnosis of primary bone marrow DLBCL. Primary bone marrow DLBCL is a rare and frequently misdiagnosed subset of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The current case demonstrates that utility of bone marrow biopsy for diagnosis should not be ignored, and that repeated bone marrow punctures in multiple locations may be necessary. PMID:27123129

  15. Smoking interacts with HLA-DRB1 shared epitope in the development of anti-citrullinated protein antibody-positive rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Malaysian Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (MyEIRA)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease in which genetic and environmental factors interact in the etiology. In this study, we investigated whether smoking and HLA-DRB1 shared-epitope (SE) alleles interact differently in the development of the two major subgroups of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), anti-citrullinated proteins antibody (ACPA)-positive and ACPA-negative disease, in a multiethnic population of Asian descent. Methods A case-control study comprising early diagnosed RA cases was carried out in Malaysia between 2005 and 2009. In total, 1,076 cases and 1,612 matched controls participated in the study. High-resolution HLA-DRB1 genotyping was performed for shared-epitope (SE) alleles. All participants answered a questionnaire on a broad range of issues, including smoking habits. The odds ratio (OR) of developing ACPA-positive and ACPA-negative disease was calculated for smoking and the presence of any SE alleles separately. Potential interaction between smoking history (defined as "ever" and "never" smoking) and HLA-DRB1 SE alleles also was calculated. Results In our multiethnic study, both the SE alleles and smoking were associated with an increased risk of developing ACPA-positive RA (OR SE alleles, 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.6 to 6.2; OR smoking, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.9 to 9.2). SE-positive smokers had an odds ratio of ACPA-positive RA of 25.6 (95% CI, 10.4 to 63.4), compared with SE-negative never-smokers. The interaction between smoking and SE alleles was significant (attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) was 0.7 (95% CI, 0.5 to 1.0)). The HLA-DRB1*04:05 SE allele, which is common in Asian populations, but not among Caucasians, was associated with an increased risk of ACPA-positive RA, and this allele also showed signs of interaction with smoking (AP, 0.4; 95% CI, -0.1 to 0.9). Neither smoking nor SE alleles nor their combination was associated with an increased risk of ACPA-negative RA. Conclusions The risk

  16. Clinical effects of an avocado-soybean unsaponifiable extract on arthralgia and osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Catunda, I S; Vasconcelos, B C do E; Andrade, E S de S; Costa, D F N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present preliminary study was to investigate the effectiveness of an avocado-soybean unsaponifiable extract (ASU) in patients with arthralgia and osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out. Fourteen women diagnosed with arthralgia and osteoarthritis of the TMJ using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders were included in the statistical analysis. The women were allocated randomly to two groups: ASU group and placebo group. Pain was measured using a visual analogue scale and pressure algometer. Mandibular function was evaluated through measurement of mandibular movements. Quality of life was measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). The medication (ASU capsules or placebo capsules) was used for 4 months and the total follow-up was 6 months. Those taking the ASU extract had a decrease in pain symptoms and an improvement in quality of life. Moreover, a significant reduction in the use of rescue medication was found in the ASU group compared to the placebo group. This preliminary study provides strong evidence of the effectiveness of an avocado-soybean unsaponifiable extract in patients with degenerative joint diseases and arthralgia in the TMJ. Further studies with larger samples should be performed. PMID:27026059

  17. Genetic determinants of aromatase inhibitor-related arthralgia: the B-ABLE cohort study.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Giralt, Natalia; Rodríguez-Sanz, María; Prieto-Alhambra, Daniel; Servitja, Sonia; Torres-Del Pliego, Elisa; Balcells, Susana; Albanell, Joan; Grinberg, Daniel; Diez-Perez, Adolfo; Tusquets, Ignasi; Nogués, Xavier

    2013-07-01

    A major side effect of aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy is AI-related arthralgia (AIA), which often leads to therapy discontinuation. We aimed to identify genetic variants associated with AIA and therapy discontinuation in the first year of AI treatment. Our prospective cohort study included 343 postmenopausal women with early breast cancer starting AI therapy. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in candidate genes involved in estrogen and vitamin D signaling were selected. Univariate and multivariate linear/logistic regressions were fitted in order to asses the association between studied SNPs and AIA intensity (visual analogic scale score) at 3 and 12 months of follow-up, worsening pain, and therapy discontinuation. We also tested for a priori-defined interactions by introducing multiplicative terms in the regression equations. SNPs in CYP17A1 and VDR genes appeared significantly associated with AIA (P = 0.003, P = 0.012, respectively). One SNP in CYP27B1 gene was related to therapy discontinuation [P = 0.02; OR 0.29 (0.09-0.99)]. We revealed interactions between CYP27B1 and both CYP17A1 (P = 0.01) and VDR SNPs (P = 0.06). Furthermore, an additive effect on pain intensity was shown for unfavorable alleles, with two points higher mean absolute pain increase and up to 5.3-fold higher risk of worsening pain compared to favorable genotypes. SNPs in CYP17A1, VDR, and CYP27B1 genes predict the risk of AIA. Their determination would be useful to trigger the monitoring strategies in women at risk of therapy discontinuation. PMID:23868189

  18. [Sick or made sick? Recurrent episodes of cutaneous and subcutaneous ulcers, colitis, arthralgia and hair loss... a systemic disease or iatrogenic?].

    PubMed

    Woitzek, Katja; Dusemund, Frank; Müller, Beat

    2010-12-01

    Recurrent episodes of cutaneous and subcutaneous ulcers, especially in the oral cavity, represent a high psychological and painful burden for the patient. If there in addition are symptoms of arthralgia and/or colitis, an autoimmune disease with vasculitis, particularly a Morbus Behçet has to be considered as a possible differential diagnosis. The therapy therefore would be an immunosuppressive one. Also a wide immunologic diagnostic process has to be started. Furthermore, a chronic inflammatory bowel disease has to be excluded by colonoscopic biopsy. An infectious etiology of the symptoms (viral/bacterial/parasitic) should be investigated by microbiological and laboratory tests. A thrush or a herpes-infection caused by immunosuppression (toxic or due to illness) has to be considered as a further differential diagnosis. Also a precise medical and drug history is very important because of possible toxic adverse effects. Until confirmation of a final diagnosis, only a symptomatic analgetic or antifungal or antiviral therapy in case of a positive thrush or herpes culture respectively should be initiated with respect to the very different kinds of treatment of the diseases included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:21108189

  19. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  20. Acupuncture for Treating Aromatase Inhibitor–Related Arthralgia in Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Tsai-Ju; Liu, Chia-Yu; Chang, Yi-Fang; Fang, Ching-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Acupuncture has been used as a complementary medical treatment for arthralgia and other types of pain. The objective of this review is to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of arthralgia in patients with breast cancer who were treated with aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Methods: A literature search was performed, without language restrictions, of 10 databases from their inception through February 2014. The literature reviewed included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and clinical trials that compared real versus sham acupuncture for the treatment of AI-related musculoskeletal symptoms (AIMSS). The methodologic quality of these trials was assessed by using the modified Jadad Quality Scale. Meta-analytic software (RevMan 5.0) was used to analyze the data. Results: Five To compare the effects of real versus sham acupuncture, five RCTs were assessed by meta-analysis and quality analysis. Three of the RCTs reported favorable effects with regard to use of acupuncture in reducing pain and joint-related symptoms, while the other two RCTs did not. The meta-analysis showed trends toward reduced pain and stiffness in patients given acupuncture compared with those who received sham treatment (n=82; pain, mean difference: −2.07 [95% confidence interval (CI), −4.72 to 0.57]; p=0.12; stiffness, mean difference: −86.10 [95% CI, −249.11 to 76.92]; p=0.30), although these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Acupuncture has been reported as a safe and promising treatment for AIMSS, but the present analysis indicated that the effects were not statistically significant. Other outcome measurements, such as imaging studies, would be worth including in future studies to further confirm the efficacy of acupuncture in AIMSS. PMID:25915433

  1. Protection Against Chikungunya Virus Induced Arthralgia Following Prophylactic Treatment with Adenovirus Vectored Interferon (mDEF201)

    PubMed Central

    Dagley, Ashley; Ennis, Jane; Turner, Jeffrey D.; Rood, Kerry A.; Van Wettere, Arnaud J.; Gowen, Brian B.; Julander, Justin G.

    2014-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection have resulted in millions of cases of disease with significant morbidity. No approved antiviral treatments exist for the prevention or treatment of this viral disease. Infection with CHIKV results in a high rate of symptomatic disease that primarily includes a debilitating arthralgia. To model this cardinal disease manifestation, adult DBA/1J mice were challenged with CHIKV by footpad injection. Viremia and hind limb virus titers increased ~100-fold while spleen virus increased >1,000-fold within 1 day post-virus infection (dpi). Footpad swelling was measured over a 10-day period, with peak swelling observed between 6 and 7 dpi. Histology of the hind leg at the site of virus challenge showed evidence of myositis and synovitis starting on 5 dpi. Cytokine profiling of the hind limb at the site of inoculation revealed a biphasic inflammatory response represented by an increase in IL-6, MCP-1, IFN-γ, MIP-1α, RANTES, and IL-17. To investigate the prophylactic capacity of IFN, mice were treated with mDEF201, an adenovirus-vectored IFN-α. Intranasal administration of a single 107 pfu/ml dose of mDEF201 administered 21 days to 24 h prior to infection, significantly reduced footpad swelling, virus titers in the hind leg and spleen, and several inflammatory cytokines. Efficacy was not observed when treatment was initiated 24 h after virus challenge. This arthralgia model of CHIKV recapitulates relevant disease features commonly observed in human disease making it applicable to preclinical testing of therapies that target both viral replication and the associated joint disease. PMID:24833276

  2. Erythema, papules, and arthralgia associated with liver cancer: report of a rare case of multicentric reticulohistiocytosis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liang; Mei, Jun-Hua; Xia, Jin; Hao, Quan-Shui; Cheng, Li-Ping; Wu, Yao-Hua

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of multicentric reticulohistiocytosis (MRH) associated with liver carcinoma. A 36-year-old man who had been diagnosed as having liver carcinoma for 2 years presented with a 2-month history of multiple papulonodules on the face, ears, neck, and upper chest, accompanied by progressive polyarthralgia of the hands, wrists, elbows and knee joints without fever or chills. Skin histology revealed well defined dermal infiltrate consisting of multinucleated giant cells and macrophages having abundant eosinophilic finely granular cytoplasm with ground glass appearance. Further immunohistochemical studies characterized the lesions as positive for CD68, CD45 and Vimentin. A diagnosis of MRH that was associated with liver cancer was made. Treatment with prednisolone for 2 months resulted in a significant improvement of the skin and joint symptoms, but was discontinued due to his significant enlargement and extensive metastases of the liver carcinoma. PMID:26045857

  3. Analysis of serum immune markers in seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis and in high-risk seropositive arthralgia patients

    PubMed Central

    Chalan, Paulina; Bijzet, Johan; van den Berg, Anke; Kluiver, Joost; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; Brouwer, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Presence of autoantibodies precedes development of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (SP RA) and seropositive arthralgia patients (SAP) are at risk of developing RA. The aims of the study are to identify additional serum immune markers discriminating between SP and seronegative (SN) RA, and markers identifying high-risk SAP. Sera from SAP (n = 27), SP RA (n = 22), SN RA (n = 11) and healthy controls (n = 20) were analyzed using the Human Cytokine 25-Plex Panel. Selected markers were validated in independent cohorts of SP RA (n = 35) and SN RA (n = 12) patients. Eleven of 27 SAP developed RA within 8 months (median follow-up time, range 1–32 months), and their baseline serum markers were compared to 16 non-progressing SAP. SAP and SP RA patients showed a marked overlap in their systemic immune profiles, while SN RA showed a distinct immune profile. Three of 4 markers discriminating between SP and SN RA (IL-1β, IL-15 and Eotaxin, but not CCL5) were similarly modulated in independent cohorts. SAP progressing to RA showed trends for increases in IL-5, MIP-1β, IL-1RA and IL-12 compared to non-progressing SAP. ROC analysis showed that serum IL-5 most accurately discriminated between the two SAP groups (AUC > 0.8), suggesting that baseline IL-5 levels may aid the identification of high-risk SAP. PMID:27189045

  4. Analysis of serum immune markers in seropositive and seronegative rheumatoid arthritis and in high-risk seropositive arthralgia patients.

    PubMed

    Chalan, Paulina; Bijzet, Johan; van den Berg, Anke; Kluiver, Joost; Kroesen, Bart-Jan; Boots, Annemieke M H; Brouwer, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Presence of autoantibodies precedes development of seropositive rheumatoid arthritis (SP RA) and seropositive arthralgia patients (SAP) are at risk of developing RA. The aims of the study are to identify additional serum immune markers discriminating between SP and seronegative (SN) RA, and markers identifying high-risk SAP. Sera from SAP (n = 27), SP RA (n = 22), SN RA (n = 11) and healthy controls (n = 20) were analyzed using the Human Cytokine 25-Plex Panel. Selected markers were validated in independent cohorts of SP RA (n = 35) and SN RA (n = 12) patients. Eleven of 27 SAP developed RA within 8 months (median follow-up time, range 1-32 months), and their baseline serum markers were compared to 16 non-progressing SAP. SAP and SP RA patients showed a marked overlap in their systemic immune profiles, while SN RA showed a distinct immune profile. Three of 4 markers discriminating between SP and SN RA (IL-1β, IL-15 and Eotaxin, but not CCL5) were similarly modulated in independent cohorts. SAP progressing to RA showed trends for increases in IL-5, MIP-1β, IL-1RA and IL-12 compared to non-progressing SAP. ROC analysis showed that serum IL-5 most accurately discriminated between the two SAP groups (AUC > 0.8), suggesting that baseline IL-5 levels may aid the identification of high-risk SAP. PMID:27189045

  5. Rheumatoid arthritis onset in postmenopausal women: Does the ACPA seropositive subset result from genetic effects, estrogen deficiency, skewed profile of CD4(+) T-cells, and their interactions?

    PubMed

    Sapir-Koren, Rony; Livshits, Gregory

    2016-08-15

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) incidence displays a differentiated age-dependent female-to-male ratio in which women outnumber men. Evidence that the peak incidence of RA in women coincides with menopause age, suggests a potential estrogenic role to disease etiology. Estrogens exert physiologically both stimulatory and inhibitory effects on the immune system. Epidemiologic and animal model studies with estrogen deprivation or supplementation suggested estrogens as to play, mainly, a protective role in RA immunopathology. In this review, we propose that some yet unidentified disturbances associated with estrogen circulating levels, differentiated by the menopausal status, play a major role in women's RA susceptibility. We focus on the interaction between estrogen deprivation and genetic risk alleles for anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) seropositive RA, as a major driving force for increased immune reactivity and RA susceptibility, in postmenopausal women. This opens up new fields for research concerning the association among different irregular estrogenic conditions, the cytokine milieu, and age/menopausal status bias in RA. PMID:27178986

  6. Effects of AR7 Joint Complex on arthralgia for patients with osteoarthritis: Results of a three-month study in Shanghai, China

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Qingwen; Shi, Rong; Xu, Gang; Cheng, Lifu; Shao, Liyun; Rao, Jianyu

    2008-01-01

    Background Osteoarthritis-induced arthralgia is a common cause of morbidity in both men and women worldwide. AR7 Joint Complex is a nutritional supplement containing various ingredients including sternum collagen II and methylsulfonylmethane. The product has been marketed in United States for over a decade, but clinical data measuring the effectiveness of this supplement in relieving arthralgia is lacking. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of AR7 Joint Complex on osteoarthritis. Methods A total of 100 patients over the age of 50 who had osteoarthritis were recruited to the double-blind study and randomly assigned into either treatment or placebo control groups. The patients in the treatment group were given AR7 Joint Complex orally, 1 capsule daily for 12 weeks, while the patients in the control group were given a placebo for the same period of time. Prior to and at the end of the study, data including Quality of Life questionnaires (SF-36), visual analog scales (1 to 100 mm), and X-rays of affected joints were collected. Results A total of 89 patients completed the study: 44 from the treatment group and 45 from the control group. No significant change in X-ray results was found in either group after the study. However, there was a significant decrease in patients complaining of arthralgia and tenderness (P < 0.01) in the treatment group and there was also a significant difference between the treatment and control groups at the end of the study. In addition, for Quality of Life data, the body pain index (BP) in the treatment group was significantly improved (P < 0.05) compared to the control group. No significant toxicity was noted in either group. Conclusion AR7 Joint Complex appears to have short-term effects in relieving pain in patients with osteoarthritis. Whether such an effect is long-lasting remains to be seen. PMID:18954461

  7. Persisting arthralgia due to Mayaro virus infection in a traveler from Brazil: is there a risk for attendants to the 2014 FIFA World Cup?

    PubMed

    Slegers, C A D; Keuter, M; Günther, S; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; van der Ven, A J; de Mast, Q

    2014-07-01

    The 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games will attract large groups of visitors to Brazil. These visitors will be at risk for different arboviral infections, some of which not well known outside endemic areas. We report a case of a 52-year-old Dutch woman who presented with persistent arthralgia due to a Mayaro virus (MAYV) infection which she contracted in the Amazon basin in Brazil. MAYV is a mosquito-borne alphavirus which primarily circulates in humid tropical forests of South America. Infections are rarely reported in travelers and are characterized by an acute febrile illness which is often followed by a prolonged and sometimes incapacitating polyarthralgia. Both travelers and physicians should be aware of the risk of these arboviral infections and the importance of mosquito bite prevention should be stressed. PMID:24856445

  8. Electro-acupuncture for fatigue, sleep, and psychological distress in breast cancer patients with aromatase inhibitor-related arthralgia: A randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Mao, J.J.; Farrar, J.T.; Bruner, D.; Zee, J.; Bowman, M.; Seluzicki, C.; DeMichele, A.; Xie, S.X.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Although fatigue, sleep disturbance, depression, and anxiety are associated with pain in breast cancer patients, it is unknown if acupuncture can decrease these co-morbid symptoms in cancer patients with pain. This study aimed at evaluating the effect of electro-acupuncture on fatigue, sleep, and psychological distress in breast cancer survivors who experience joint pain related to aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Patients and methods We performed a randomized controlled trial of an eight-week course of electro-acupuncture (EA) as compared to waitlist control (WLC) and sham acupuncture (SA) in postmenopausal women with breast cancer who self-reported joint pain attributable to aromatase inhibitors. Fatigue, sleep disturbance, anxiety, and depression were measured by the Brief Fatigue Inventory (BFI), Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The effects of EA and SA vs. WLC on these outcomes were evaluated using mixed-effects models. Results Of the 67 randomly assigned patients, baseline pain interference was associated with fatigue (Pearson correlation coefficient r =0.75, p<0.001), sleep disturbance (r=0.38, p=0.0026), and depression (r= 0.58, p<0.001). Compared to the WLC, EA produced significant improvement in fatigue (p=0.0095), anxiety (p=0.044), and depression (p=0.015) and non-significant improvement in sleep disturbance (p=0.058) during the 12 week intervention and follow up period. In contrast, SA did not produce significant reduction in fatigue and anxiety symptoms, but produced significant improvement in depression compared with WLC (p=0.0088). Conclusion Compared to usual care, EA produced significant improvement in fatigue, anxiety, and depression, whereas SA improved only depression in women experiencing AI-related arthralgia. Clinical Trial Registration NCT01013337 PMID:25077452

  9. Association of Valine and Leucine at HLA–DRB1 Position 11 With Radiographic Progression in Rheumatoid Arthritis, Independent of the Shared Epitope Alleles but Not Independent of Anti–Citrullinated Protein Antibodies

    PubMed Central

    van Steenbergen, H. W.; Raychaudhuri, S.; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, L.; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, S.; Berglin, E.; Toes, R. E. M.; Huizinga, T. W. J.; Fernández-Gutiérrez, B.; Gregersen, P. K.; van der Helm-van Mil, A. H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective For decades it has been known that the HLA–DRB1 shared epitope (SE) alleles are associated with an increased risk of development and progression of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recently, the following variations in the peptide-binding grooves of HLA molecules that predispose to RA development have been identified: Val and Leu at HLA–DRB1 position 11, Asp at HLA–B position 9, and Phe at HLA–DPB1 position 9. This study was undertaken to investigate whether these variants are also associated with radiographic progression in RA, independent of SE and anti–citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) status. Methods A total of 4,911 radiograph sets from 1,878 RA patients included in the Leiden Early Arthritis Clinic (The Netherlands), Umeå (Sweden), Hospital Clinico San Carlos–Rheumatoid Arthritis (Spain), and National Data Bank for Rheumatic Diseases (US) cohorts were studied. HLA was imputed using single-nucleotide polymorphism data from an Immunochip, and the amino acids listed above were tested in relation to radiographic progression per cohort using an additive model. Results from the 4 cohorts were combined in inverse-variance weighted meta-analyses using a fixed-effects model. Analyses were conditioned on SE and ACPA status. Results Val and Leu at HLA–DRB1 position 11 were associated with more radiographic progression (meta-analysis P = 5.11 × 10−7); this effect was independent of SE status (meta-analysis P = 0.022) but not independent of ACPA status. Phe at HLA–DPB1 position 9 was associated with more severe radiographic progression (meta-analysis P = 0.024), though not independent of SE status. Asp at HLA–B position 9 was not associated with radiographic progression. Conclusion Val and Leu at HLA–DRB1 position 11 conferred a risk of a higher rate of radiographic progression independent of SE status but not independent of ACPA status. These findings support the relevance of these amino acids at position 11. PMID:25580908

  10. Autoantibodies in inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Conigliaro, P; Chimenti, M S; Triggianese, P; Sunzini, F; Novelli, L; Perricone, C; Perricone, R

    2016-07-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic chronic inflammatory disease characterized by extensive synovitis resulting in erosions of articular cartilage and marginal bone with joint destruction. The lack of immunological tolerance in RA represents the first step toward the development of autoimmunity. Susceptible individuals, under the influence of environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, and silica exposure, develop autoimmune phenomena that result in the presence of autoantibodies. HLA and non-HLA haplotypes play a major role in determining the development of specific autoantibodies differentiating anti-citrullinated antibodies (ACPA)-positive and negative RA patients. Rheumatoid factor (RF) and ACPA are the serological markers for RA, and during the preclinical immunological phase, autoantibody titers increase with a progressive spread of ACPA antigens repertoire. The presence of ACPA represents an independent risk factor for developing RA in patients with undifferentiated arthritis or arthralgia. Moreover, anti-CarP antibodies have been identified in patients with RA as well as in individuals before the onset of clinical symptoms of RA. Several autoantibodies mainly targeting post-translational modified proteins have been investigated as possible biomarkers to improve the early diagnosis, prognosis and response to therapy in RA patients. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is distinguished from RA by infrequent positivity for RF and ACPA, together with other distinctive clinical features. Actually, specific autoantibodies have not been described. Recently, anti-CarP antibodies have been reported in sera from PsA patients with active disease. Further investigations on autoantibodies showing high specificity and sensibility as well as relevant correlation with disease severity, progression, and response to therapy are awaited in inflammatory arthritides. PMID:26970491

  11. Nursing Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Nursing Positions KidsHealth > For Parents > Nursing Positions Print A ... and actually needs to feed. Getting Comfortable With Breastfeeding Nursing can be one of the most challenging ...

  12. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  13. Positional plagiocephaly

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Cranial asymmetry occurring as a result of forces that deform skull shape in the supine position is known as deformational plagiocephaly. The risk of plagiocephaly may be modified by positioning the baby on alternate days with the head to the right or the left side, and by increasing time spent in the prone position during awake periods. When deformational plagiocephaly is already present, physiotherapy (including positioning equivalent to the preventive positioning, and exercises as needed for torticollis and positional preference) has been shown to be superior to counselling about preventive positioning only. Helmet therapy (moulding therapy) to reduce skull asymmetry has some drawbacks: it is expensive, significantly inconvenient due to the long hours of use per day and associated with skin complications. There is evidence that helmet therapy may increase the initial rate of improvement of asymmetry, but there is no evidence that it improves the final outcome for patients with moderate or severe plagiocephaly. PMID:23024590

  14. Positive Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  15. Nucleosome Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Nishida, Hiromi

    2012-01-01

    Nucleosome positioning is not only related to genomic DNA compaction but also to other biological functions. After the chromatin is digested by micrococcal nuclease, nucleosomal (nucleosome-bound) DNA fragments can be sequenced and mapped on the genomic DNA sequence. Due to the development of modern DNA sequencing technology, genome-wide nucleosome mapping has been performed in a wide range of eukaryotic species. Comparative analyses of the nucleosome positions have revealed that the nucleosome is more frequently formed in exonic than intronic regions, and that most of transcription start and translation (or transcription) end sites are located in nucleosome linker DNA regions, indicating that nucleosome positioning influences transcription initiation, transcription termination, and gene splicing. In addition, nucleosomal DNA contains guanine and cytosine (G + C)-rich sequences and a high level of cytosine methylation. Thus, the nucleosome positioning system has been conserved during eukaryotic evolution.

  16. Positive Proof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoffrey

    1988-01-01

    Presents experiments which show that in electrostatics there are logical reasons for describing charged materials as positive or negative. Indicates that static and current electricity are not separate areas of physics. Diagrams of experiments and circuits are included. (RT)

  17. Position indicator

    DOEpatents

    Tanner, David E.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which a position indicator is provided for detecting and indicating the position of a movable element inside a pressure vessel. The movable element may be a valve element or similar device which moves about an axis. Light from a light source is transmitted from a source outside the pressure vessel to a first region inside the pressure vessel in alignment with the axis of the movable element. The light is redirected by a reflector prism to a second region displaced radially from the first region. The reflector prism moves in response to movement of the movable element about its axis such that the second region moves arcuately with respect to the first region. Sensors are arrayed in an arc corresponding to the arc of movement of the second region and signals are transmitted from the sensors to the exterior of the reactor vessel to provide indication of the position of the movable element.

  18. [Positive psychiatry].

    PubMed

    Timmerby, Nina; Austin, Stephen; Bech, Per

    2016-02-01

    Positive psychiatry (PP) is a field within psychiatry with a particular focus on promoting well-being in people who already have or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illness. PP should be considered a supplement to trad-tional psychiatry and a call for therapists in psychiatry to focus on the person as a whole rather than just as a patient. PP is in line with current national and international health policy focus on promoting positive mental health. PMID:26857411

  19. Positive psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Martin E P; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C

    2006-11-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported them to be "life-changing." Delivered on the Web, positive psychology exercises relieved depressive symptoms for at least 6 months compared with placebo interventions, the effects of which lasted less than a week. In severe depression, the effects of these Web exercises were particularly striking. This address reports two preliminary studies: In the first, PPT delivered to groups significantly decreased levels of mild-to-moderate depression through 1-year follow-up. In the second, PPT delivered to individuals produced higher remission rates than did treatment as usual and treatment as usual plus medication among outpatients with major depressive disorder. Together, these studies suggest that treatments for depression may usefully be supplemented by exercises that explicitly increase positive emotion, engagement, and meaning. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115810

  20. Position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, Siegfried (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A radiant energy angle sensor is provided wherein the sensitive portion thereof comprises a pair of linear array detectors with each detector mounted normal to the other to provide X and Y channels and a pair of slits spaced from the pair of linear arrays with each of the slits positioned normal to its associated linear array. There is also provided electrical circuit means connected to the pair of linear array detectors and to separate X and Y axes outputs.

  1. Positive Psychologists on Positive Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article by McNulty and Fincham (see record 2011-15476-001). In their article, the authors offered compelling evidence that constructs such as forgiveness and optimism can have both beneficial and adverse consequences, depending on the context. Their caution about labeling particular psychological processes as "positive" is…

  2. Living positively as HIV positive.

    PubMed

    Garraty, Sarah J

    2011-01-01

    A nursing student records a brief biography of a Zambian nurse and certified midwife living with HIV/AIDS while shadowing the nurse during an undergraduate cross-cultural course in Macha, Zambia in January 2009. The nurse strives to live positively, educating, encouraging, and empowering others. PMID:21294466

  3. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-05-06

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  4. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  5. POSITIONING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Wall, R.R.; Peterson, D.L.

    1959-09-15

    A positioner is described for a vertical reactor-control rod. The positioner comprises four grooved friction rotatable members that engage the control rod on all sides and shift it longitudinally. The four friction members are drivingly interconnected for conjoint rotation and comprise two pairs of coaxial members. The members of each pair are urged toward one another by hydraulic or pneumatic pressure and thus grip the control rod so as to hold it in any position or adjust it. Release of the by-draulic or pneumatic pressure permits springs between the friction members of each pair to force them apart, whereby the control rod moves quickly by gravity into the reactor.

  6. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

    1983-07-07

    An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

  7. Significant association of periodontal disease with anti-citrullinated peptide antibody in a Japanese healthy population - The Nagahama study.

    PubMed

    Terao, Chikashi; Asai, Keita; Hashimoto, Motomu; Yamazaki, Toru; Ohmura, Koichiro; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Takahashi, Katsu; Takei, Noriko; Ishii, Takanori; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Tabara, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Meiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Fujii, Takao; Yamada, Ryo; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2015-05-01

    Anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) is a highly specific autoantibody to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies have revealed that periodontal disease (PD) is closely associated with RA and production of ACPA in RA. Analyses of associations between PD and ACPA production in a healthy population may deepen our understandings. Here, we analyzed a total of 9554 adult healthy subjects. ACPA and IgM-rheumatoid factor (RF) was quantified and PD status was evaluated using the number of missing teeth (MT), the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and Loss of Attachment (LA) for these subjects. PD status was analyzed for its association with the positivity and categorical levels of ACPA and RF conditioned for covariates which were shown to be associated with PD, ACPA or RF. As a result, all of MT, CPI and LA showed suggestive or significant associations with positivity (p = 0.024, 0.0042 and 0.037, respectively) and levels of ACPA (p ≤ 0.00031), but none of the PD parameters were associated with those of RF. These association patterns were also observed when we analyzed 6206 non-smokers of the participants. The significant associations between PD parameters and positivity and levels of ACPA in healthy population support the fundamental involvement of PD with ACPA production. PMID:25819755

  8. Citrullinated peptide dendritic cell immunotherapy in HLA risk genotype-positive rheumatoid arthritis patients.

    PubMed

    Benham, Helen; Nel, Hendrik J; Law, Soi Cheng; Mehdi, Ahmed M; Street, Shayna; Ramnoruth, Nishta; Pahau, Helen; Lee, Bernett T; Ng, Jennifer; Brunck, Marion E G; Hyde, Claire; Trouw, Leendert A; Dudek, Nadine L; Purcell, Anthony W; O'Sullivan, Brendan J; Connolly, John E; Paul, Sanjoy K; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Thomas, Ranjeny

    2015-06-01

    In animals, immunomodulatory dendritic cells (DCs) exposed to autoantigen can suppress experimental arthritis in an antigen-specific manner. In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), disease-specific anti-citrullinated peptide autoantibodies (ACPA or anti-CCP) are found in the serum of about 70% of RA patients and are strongly associated with HLA-DRB1 risk alleles. This study aimed to explore the safety and biological and clinical effects of autologous DCs modified with a nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor exposed to four citrullinated peptide antigens, designated "Rheumavax," in a single-center, open-labeled, first-in-human phase 1 trial. Rheumavax was administered once intradermally at two progressive dose levels to 18 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) risk genotype-positive RA patients with citrullinated peptide-specific autoimmunity. Sixteen RA patients served as controls. Rheumavax was well tolerated: adverse events were grade 1 (of 4) severity. At 1 month after treatment, we observed a reduction in effector T cells and an increased ratio of regulatory to effector T cells; a reduction in serum interleukin-15 (IL-15), IL-29, CX3CL1, and CXCL11; and reduced T cell IL-6 responses to vimentin(447-455)-Cit450 relative to controls. Rheumavax did not induce disease flares in patients recruited with minimal disease activity, and DAS28 decreased within 1 month in Rheumavax-treated patients with active disease. This exploratory study demonstrates safety and biological activity of a single intradermal injection of autologous modified DCs exposed to citrullinated peptides, and provides rationale for further studies to assess clinical efficacy and antigen-specific effects of autoantigen immunomodulatory therapy in RA. PMID:26041704

  9. Serum Vaspin Levels Are Associated with the Development of Clinically Manifest Arthritis in Autoantibody-Positive Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Maijer, Karen I.; Neumann, Elena; Müller-Ladner, Ulf; Drop, Daniël A. C. A. D.; Ramwadhdoebe, Tamara H.; Choi, Ivy Y. K.; Gerlag, Daniëlle M.; de Hair, Maria J. H.; Tak, Paul P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We have previously shown that overweight may increase the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in autoantibody positive individuals. Adipose tissue could contribute to the development of RA by production of various bioactive peptides. Therefore, we examined levels of adipokines in serum and synovial tissue of subjects at risk of RA. Methods Fifty-one individuals positive for immunoglobulin M rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF) and/or anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA), without arthritis, were included in this prospective study. Levels of adiponectin, vaspin, resistin, leptin, chemerin and omentin were determined in baseline fasting serum samples (n = 27). Synovial tissue was obtained by arthroscopy at baseline and we examined the expression of adiponectin, resistin and visfatin by immunohistochemistry. Results The development of clinically manifest arthritis after follow-up was associated with baseline serum vaspin levels (HR1.5 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.2); p = 0.020), also after adjustment for overweight (HR1.7 (95% CI 1.1 to 2.5); p = 0.016). This association was not seen for other adipokines. Various serum adipokine levels correlated with BMI (adiponectin r = -0.538, leptin r = 0.664; chemerin r = 0.529) and systemic markers of inflammation such as CRP levels at baseline (adiponectin r = -0.449, omentin r = -0.557, leptin r = 0.635, chemerin r = 0.619, resistin r = 0.520) and ESR (leptin r = 0.512, chemerin r = 0.708), p-value<0.05. Synovial expression of adiponectin, resistin and visfatin was not associated with development of clinically manifest arthritis. Conclusions In this exploratory study, serum adipokines were associated with an increased inflammatory state in autoantibody-positive individuals at risk of developing RA. Furthermore, serum vaspin levels may assist in predicting the development of arthritis in these individuals. PMID:26670468

  10. Analgesic effects of NB001 on mouse models of arthralgia.

    PubMed

    Tian, Zhen; Wang, Dong-sheng; Wang, Xin-shang; Tian, Jiao; Han, Jing; Guo, Yan-yan; Feng, Bin; Zhang, Nan; Zhao, Ming-gao; Liu, Shui-bing

    2015-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated the critical roles of calcium-stimulated adenylyl cyclase 1 (AC1) in the central nervous system in chronic pain. In the present study, we examined the analgesic effects of NB001, a selective inhibitor of AC1, on animal models of ankle joint arthritis and knee joint arthritis induced by complete Freund's adjuvant injection. NB001 treatment had no effect on joint edema, stiffness, and joint destruction. Furthermore, the treatment failed to attenuate the disease progression of arthritis. However, NB001 treatment (3 mg/kg) significantly weakened joint pain-related behavior in the mouse models of ankle joint arthritis and knee joint arthritis. Results indicated that NB001 exhibited an analgesic effect on the animal models of arthritis but was not caused by anti-inflammatory activities. PMID:26452469

  11. Identification of a novel chemokine-dependent molecular mechanism underlying rheumatoid arthritis-associated autoantibody-mediated bone loss

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Akilan; Joshua, Vijay; Haj Hensvold, Aase; Jin, Tao; Sun, Meng; Vivar, Nancy; Ytterberg, A Jimmy; Engström, Marianne; Fernandes-Cerqueira, Cátia; Amara, Khaled; Magnusson, Malin; Wigerblad, Gustaf; Kato, Jungo; Jiménez-Andrade, Juan Miguel; Tyson, Kerry; Rapecki, Stephen; Lundberg, Karin; Catrina, Sergiu-Bogdan; Jakobsson, Per-Johan; Svensson, Camilla; Malmström, Vivianne; Klareskog, Lars; Wähämaa, Heidi; Catrina, Anca I

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-specific anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPAs) appear before disease onset and are associated with bone destruction. We aimed to dissect the role of ACPAs in osteoclast (OC) activation and to identify key cellular mediators in this process. Methods Polyclonal ACPA were isolated from the synovial fluid (SF) and peripheral blood of patients with RA. Monoclonal ACPAs were isolated from single SF B-cells of patients with RA. OCs were developed from blood cell precursors with or without ACPAs. We analysed expression of citrullinated targets and peptidylarginine deiminases (PAD) enzymes by immunohistochemistry and cell supernatants by cytometric bead array. The effect of an anti-interleukin (IL)-8 neutralising antibody and a pan-PAD inhibitor was tested in the OC cultures. Monoclonal ACPAs were injected into mice and bone structure was analysed by micro-CT before and after CXCR1/2 blocking with reparixin. Results Protein citrullination by PADs is essential for OC differentiation. Polyclonal ACPAs enhance OC differentiation through a PAD-dependent IL-8-mediated autocrine loop that is completely abolished by IL-8 neutralisation. Some, but not all, human monoclonal ACPAs derived from single SF B-cells of patients with RA and exhibiting distinct epitope specificities promote OC differentiation in cell cultures. Transfer of the monoclonal ACPAs into mice induced bone loss that was completely reversed by the IL-8 antagonist reparixin. Conclusions We provide novel insights into the key role of citrullination and PAD enzymes during OC differentiation and ACPA-induced OC activation. Our findings suggest that IL8-dependent OC activation may constitute an early event in the initiation of the joint specific inflammation in ACPA-positive RA. PMID:26612338

  12. Positive position control of robotic manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Gumusel, L.

    1989-01-01

    The present, simple and accurate position-control algorithm, which is applicable to fast-moving and lightly damped robot arms, is based on the positive position feedback (PPF) strategy and relies solely on position sensors to monitor joint angles of robotic arms to furnish stable position control. The optimized tuned filters, in the form of a set of difference equations, manipulate position signals for robotic system performance. Attention is given to comparisons between this PPF-algorithm controller's experimentally ascertained performance characteristics and those of a conventional proportional controller.

  13. Positional Plagiocephaly (Flattened Head)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Simple practices like changing a baby's sleep position, holding your baby, and providing lots of "tummy time" ... devices to keep your baby in one position. Alternate positions in the crib. Consider how you lay ...

  14. Want Positive Behavior? Use Positive Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Chip; Freeman-Loftis, Babs

    2012-01-01

    Positive adult language is the professional use of words and tone of voice to enable students to learn in an engaged, active way. This includes learning social skills. To guide children toward choosing and maintaining positive behaviors, adults need to carefully choose the words and tone of voice used when speaking to them. Learning to use…

  15. Positive Classroom Environments = Positive Academic Results

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson-Fleming, LaTerra; Wilson-Younger, Dylinda

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the effects of a positive classroom environment and its impact on student behavior and achievement. It also provides strategies for developing expectations for student achievement and the importance of parental involvement. A positive classroom environment is essential in keeping behavior problems to a minimum. There are a…

  16. Positive Education: Positive Psychology and Classroom Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Ernst, Randal M.; Gillham, Jane; Reivich, Karen; Linkins, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Positive education is defined as education for both traditional skills and for happiness. The high prevalence worldwide of depression among young people, the small rise in life satisfaction, and the synergy between learning and positive emotion all argue that the skills for happiness should be taught in school. There is substantial evidence from…

  17. Identification of anticitrullinated protein antibody reactivities in a subset of anti-CCP-negative rheumatoid arthritis: association with cigarette smoking and HLA-DRB1 ‘shared epitope’ alleles

    PubMed Central

    Wagner, Catriona A; Sokolove, Jeremy; Lahey, Lauren J; Bengtsson, Camilla; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Alfredsson, Lars; Delanoy, Michelle; Lindstrom, Tamsin M; Walker, Roger P; Bromberg, Reuven; Chandra, Piyanka E; Binder, Steven R; Klareskog, Lars; Robinson, William H

    2015-01-01

    Introduction A hallmark of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is the development of autoantibodies targeting proteins that contain citrulline. Anticitrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) are currently detected by the commercial cyclic citrullinated peptide (CCP) assay, which uses a mix of cyclised citrullinated peptides as an artificial mimic of the true antigen(s). To increase the sensitivity of ACPA detection and dissect ACPA specificities, we developed a multiplex assay that profiles ACPAs by measuring their reactivity to the citrullinated peptides and proteins derived from RA joint tissue. Methods We created a bead-based, citrullinated antigen array to profile ACPAs. This custom array contains 16 citrullinated peptides and proteins detected in RA synovial tissues. We used the array to profile ACPAs in sera from a cohort of patients with RA and other non-inflammatory arthritides, as well as sera from an independent cohort of RA patients for whom data were available on carriage of HLA-DRB1 ‘shared epitope’ (SE) alleles and history of cigarette smoking. Results Our multiplex assay showed that at least 10% of RA patients who tested negative in the commercial CCP assay possessed ACPAs. Carriage of HLA-DRB1 SE alleles and a history of cigarette smoking were associated with an increase in ACPA reactivity—in anti-CCP+ RA and in a subset of anti-CCP− RA. Conclusions Our multiplex assay can identify ACPA-positive RA patients missed by the commercial CCP assay, thus enabling greater diagnostic sensitivity. Further, our findings suggest that cigarette smoking and possession of HLA-DRB1 SE alleles contribute to the development of ACPAs in anti-CCP− RA. PMID:24297382

  18. Sharing a Faculty Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Kane, Patricia K.; Meyer, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Describes the experience of two nursing faculty members who shared an assistant professor of nursing position. Discusses positive and negative aspects of the experience and notes that a unified and creative approach must be taken for it to succeed. (JOW)

  19. Positive battery plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The power characteristics of a lead acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). Positive plate potential must be kept high enough to prevent reduction of the tin oxide to tin by utilizing an oversized, precharged positive paste.

  20. The Positivity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A.; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

    2012-01-01

    Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure "positivity," defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of college…

  1. Prone positioning for surgery.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Mark

    2012-05-01

    The role of the registered perioperative practitioner (Operating Department Practitioner or Registered Nurse) includes the responsibility for safely positioning patients for surgery. The prone position is in common use for a variety of surgical procedures. The formal term for this surgical position is ventral decubitus (meaning laying face down). PMID:22720505

  2. Autoantibodies to citrullinated proteins induce joint pain independent of inflammation via a chemokine-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wigerblad, Gustaf; Bas, Duygu B; Fernades-Cerqueira, Cátia; Krishnamurthy, Akilan; Rogoz, Katarzyna; Kato, Jungo; Sandor, Katalin; Su, Jie; Jimenez–Andrade, Juan Miguel; Finn, Anja; Bersellini Farinotti, Alex; Amara, Khaled; Lundberg, Karin; Holmdahl, Rikard; Jakobsson, Per-Johan; Malmström, Vivianne; Catrina, Anca I; Klareskog, Lars; Svensson, Camilla I

    2016-01-01

    Objective An interesting and so far unexplained feature of chronic pain in autoimmune disease is the frequent disconnect between pain and inflammation. This is illustrated well in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) where pain in joints (arthralgia) may precede joint inflammation and persist even after successful anti-inflammatory treatment. In the present study, we have addressed the possibility that autoantibodies against citrullinated proteins (ACPA), present in RA, may be directly responsible for the induction of pain, independent of inflammation. Methods Antibodies purified from human patients with RA, healthy donors and murinised monoclonal ACPA were injected into mice. Pain-like behaviour was monitored for up to 28 days, and tissues were analysed for signs of pathology. Mouse osteoclasts were cultured and stimulated with antibodies, and supernatants analysed for release of factors. Mice were treated with CXCR1/2 (interleukin (IL) 8 receptor) antagonist reparixin. Results Mice injected with either human or murinised ACPA developed long-lasting pronounced pain-like behaviour in the absence of inflammation, while non-ACPA IgG from patients with RA or control monoclonal IgG were without pronociceptive effect. This effect was coupled to ACPA-mediated activation of osteoclasts and release of the nociceptive chemokine CXCL1 (analogue to human IL-8). ACPA-induced pain-like behaviour was reversed with reparixin. Conclusions The data suggest that CXCL1/IL-8, released from osteoclasts in an autoantibody-dependent manner, produces pain by activating sensory neurons. The identification of this new pain pathway may open new avenues for pain treatment in RA and also in other painful diseases associated with autoantibody production and/or osteoclast activation. PMID:26613766

  3. Cytokines as Biomarkers in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Burska, Agata; Boissinot, Marjorie; Ponchel, Frederique

    2014-01-01

    RA is a complex disease that develops as a series of events often referred to as disease continuum. RA would benefit from novel biomarker development for diagnosis where new biomarkers are still needed (even if progresses have been made with the inclusion of ACPA into the ACR/EULAR 2010 diagnostic criteria) and for prognostic notably in at risk of evolution patients with autoantibody-positive arthralgia. Risk biomarkers for rapid evolution or cardiovascular complications are also highly desirable. Monitoring biomarkers would be useful in predicting relapse. Finally, predictive biomarkers for therapy outcome would allow tailoring therapy to the individual. Increasing numbers of cytokines have been involved in RA pathology. Many have the potential as biomarkers in RA especially as their clinical utility is already established in other diseases and could be easily transferable to rheumatology. We will review the current knowledge's relation to cytokine used as biomarker in RA. However, given the complexity and heterogeneous nature of RA, it is unlikely that a single cytokine may provide sufficient discrimination; therefore multiple biomarker signatures may represent more realistic approach for the future of personalised medicine in RA. PMID:24733962

  4. Beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Alkire, Randy W.; Rosenbaum, Gerold; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2003-07-22

    An apparatus for determining the position of an x-ray beam relative to a desired beam axis. Where the apparatus is positioned along the beam path so that a thin metal foil target intersects the x-ray beam generating fluorescent radiation. A PIN diode array is positioned so that a portion of the fluorescent radiation is intercepted by the array resulting in an a series of electrical signals from the PIN diodes making up the array. The signals are then analyzed and the position of the x-ray beam is determined relative to the desired beam path.

  5. Interval polynomial positivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bose, N. K.; Kim, K. D.

    1989-01-01

    It is shown that a univariate interval polynomial is globally positive if and only if two extreme polynomials are globally positive. It is shown that the global positivity property of a bivariate interval polynomial is completely determined by four extreme bivariate polynomials. The cardinality of the determining set for k-variate interval polynomials is 2k. One of many possible generalizations, where vertex implication for global positivity holds, is made by considering the parameter space to be the set dual of a boxed domain.

  6. "Positive Discipline": Beginnings Workshop.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stephens, Karen; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Four articles in this special section discuss (1) ideas for making discipline a positive experience for child care staff and children (Karen Stephens); (2) scenarios illustrating the power of adult messages to children (Karen Stephens); (3) classroom environments that facilitate positive discipline (Marjorie K. Kostelnik); and (4) strategies for…

  7. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1985-06-19

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  8. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1987-06-30

    A positioning and locking apparatus are disclosed including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member. 6 figs.

  9. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, Milton L.; Harper, William H.

    1987-01-01

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  10. HLA and anti-citrullinated protein antibodies: Building blocks in RA.

    PubMed

    van der Woude, Diane; Catrina, Anca I

    2015-12-01

    Antibodies against citrullinated proteins (ACPAs) are specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). ACPA-positive RA is a chronic inflammatory disease resulting from the complex interaction between genetic (mainly HLA class II genes) and environmental factors (mainly smoking). Recent findings have offered new insights into where, when and how anti-citrulline immunity develops. Some studies have found that a mucosal site, such as the lungs, may function as the initiating site for the immune response against citrullinated proteins, in line with the known association between smoking and ACPA. Other studies, focusing rather on the HLA associations, have suggested that cross-reactivity between microbial sequences and citrullinated self-proteins may lead to ACPA formation. Once ACPAs have developed, they can circulate throughout the body and upon reaching the joints exert direct pathogenic effects themselves. ACPAs can target first the bone compartment of the joints to activate osteoclasts and release interleukin (IL)-8 that in turn will promote bone loss and pain-like behaviour. In the current review, we will present the current understanding of the genetic associations in RA contributing to ACPA occurrence and offer insight in the latest findings explaining how and why autoimmunity generated in the lungs of genetically susceptible hosts might lead to chronic inflammation in the joints. PMID:27107507

  11. CRANE POSITIONING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Landsiedel, F.W.; Wolff, H.

    1960-06-28

    An apparatus is described for automatically accomplishing the final accurate horizontal positioning of a crane after the latter has been placed to within 1/8 in. of its selected position. For this purpose there is provided a tiltable member on the crane mast for lowering into contact with a stationary probe. Misalignment of the tiltable member, with respect to the probe as the member is lowered, causes tilting of the latter to actuate appropriate switches that energize motors for bringing the mast into proper position. When properly aligned the member is not tilted and a central switch is actuated to indicate the final alignment of the crane.

  12. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  13. Benign positional vertigo

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical practice guideline: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 2008;139(5 Suppl 4):S47-S81. ... BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015: ...

  14. Video image position determination

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Wynn; Anderson, Forrest L.; Kortegaard, Birchard L.

    1991-01-01

    An optical beam position controller in which a video camera captures an image of the beam in its video frames, and conveys those images to a processing board which calculates the centroid coordinates for the image. The image coordinates are used by motor controllers and stepper motors to position the beam in a predetermined alignment. In one embodiment, system noise, used in conjunction with Bernoulli trials, yields higher resolution centroid coordinates.

  15. Optimal Centroid Position Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; McClay, W A; Awwal, A S; Ferguson, S W

    2004-07-23

    The alignment of high energy laser beams for potential fusion experiments demand high precision and accuracy by the underlying positioning algorithms. This paper discusses the feasibility of employing online optimal position estimators in the form of model-based processors to achieve the desired results. Here we discuss the modeling, development, implementation and processing of model-based processors applied to both simulated and actual beam line data.

  16. Local positioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kyker, R.

    1995-07-25

    Navigation systems have been vital to transportation ever since man took to the air and sea. Early navigation systems utilized the sextant to navigate by starlight as well as the magnetic needle compass. As electronics and communication technologies improved, inertial navigation systems were developed for use in ships and missile delivery. These systems consisted of electronic compasses, gyro-compasses, accelerometers, and various other sensors. Recently, systems such as LORAN and the Global Positioning System (GPS) have utilized the properties of radio wave propagation to triangulate position. The Local Positioning System (LPS), described in this paper, is an implementation of a limited inertial navigation system designed to be used on a bicycle. LPS displays a cyclist`s current position relative to a starting location. This information is displayed in Cartesian-like coordinates. To accomplish this, LPS relies upon two sensors, an electronic compass sensor and a distance sensor. The compass sensor provides directional information while the distance sensor provides the distance traveled. This information yields a distance vector for each point in time which when summed produces the cyclist`s current position. LPS is microprocessor controlled and is designed for a range of less than 90 miles.

  17. Beyond Positive Psychology?

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2014-01-01

    The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes—forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness—can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative. PMID:21787036

  18. The positivity scale.

    PubMed

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

    2012-09-01

    Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure positivity, defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of college participants. In Study 2, the unidimensionality of the P Scale was corroborated with confirmatory factor analysis in 2 independent samples (N₁ = 322; N₂ = 457). In Study 3, P Scale invariance across sexes and its relations with self-esteem, life satisfaction, optimism, positive negative affect, depression, and the Big Five provided further evidence of the internal and construct validity of the new measure in a large community sample (N = 3,589). In Study 4, test-retest reliability of the P Scale was found in a sample of college students (N = 262) who were readministered the scale after 5 weeks. In Study 5, measurement invariance and construct validity of P Scale were further supported across samples in different countries and cultures, including Italy (N = 689), the United States (N = 1,187), Japan (N = 281), and Spain (N = 302). Psychometric findings across diverse cultural context attest to the robustness of the P Scale and to positivity as a basic disposition. PMID:22250591

  19. Positive quadrature formulas III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peherstorfer, Franz

    2008-12-01

    First we discuss briefly our former characterization theorem for positive interpolation quadrature formulas (abbreviated qf), provide an equivalent characterization in terms of Jacobi matrices, and give links and applications to other qf, in particular to Gauss-Kronrod quadratures and recent rediscoveries. Then for any polynomial t_n which generates a positive qf, a weight function (depending on n ) is given with respect to which t_n is orthogonal to mathbb{P}_{n-1} . With the help of this result an asymptotic representation of the quadrature weights is derived. In general the asymptotic behaviour is different from that of the Gaussian weights. Only under additional conditions do the quadrature weights satisfy the so-called circle law. Corresponding results are obtained for positive qf of Radau and Lobatto type.

  20. Automated stereotactic positioning system.

    PubMed

    Goerss, S J; Kelly, P J; Kall, B A

    1987-01-01

    An automated stereotactic machine has been interfaced to a surgical computer to complete a totally interactive surgical system capable of locating tumor volumes. Stepper motors, activated by the host computer, drive a three-dimensional slide to position the patient's head with respect to a fixed arc, locating the surgical target. Linear encoders on each axis create a closed-loop positioning system and a digital display for visual inspection of the slide's position. The 160-mm arc directs all instrumentation to its isocenter, regardless of the two angular settings, providing maximum freedom in selecting a safe trajectory to the target. Phantom test points compatible with computerized tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging were repeatedly scanned to determine the overall system accuracy, which approached 0.6 mm, depending on the spatial resolution of the image. This stereotactic device may be used to perform stereotactic laser craniotomies, biopsies, 192Ir implants for interstitial radiation, third ventriculostomies and functional procedures. PMID:3329830

  1. [Mammaplasty: the "love position"].

    PubMed

    Petit, F; Paraskevas, A; Lantieri, L

    2004-02-01

    The authors describe a new position of the patient that enables the surgeon to perform a bilateral and synchronous mammaplasty, without switching sides. The patient is first raised in the sitting position, then the thigh and leg holders of the operating table are spread out to a 45-60 degrees angle. The surgeon stands in between the thighs, where he faces the chest and can operate on the breasts. The entire operation is performed by the surgeon, approaching both breasts simultaneously without the need for switching positions. The direct and central access, along with the continuing visual control of the shaping, turns the operation into a simple and faster one with better control of the cosmetic result. PMID:15013529

  2. Taking a Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    "TerrAvoid" and "Position Integrity" combine Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) data with high-resolution maps of the Earth's topography. Dubbs & Severino, Inc., based in Irvine, California, has developed software that allows the system to be run on a battery-powered laptop in the cockpit. The packages, designed primarily for military sponsors and now positioned to hit the consumer market in coming months, came about as the result of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Technology Affiliates Program. Intended to give American industry assistance from NASA experts and to facilitate business use of intellectual property developed for the space program, the Technology Affiliates Program introduced the start-up company of Dubbs & Severino to JPL's Dr. Nevin Bryant four years ago. GeoTIFF is now in the public domain, and its use for commercial product development has evolved into an industry standard over the last year.

  3. Uncharged positive electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1977-03-08

    An uncharged positive-electrode composition contains particulate lithium sulfide, another alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound other than sulfide, e.g., lithium carbide, and a transition metal powder. The composition along with a binder, such as electrolytic salt or a thermosetting resin is applied onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within an electrochemical cell opposite to a negative electrode containing a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium. During charging, lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode. Excess negative electrode capacity over that from the transition metal sulfide is provided due to the electrochemical reaction of the other than sulfide alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound.

  4. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine.

  5. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, P.F.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine. 9 figs.

  6. Nucleosome Positioning and Epigenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, David; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2008-03-01

    The role of chromatin structure in gene regulation has recently taken center stage in the field of epigenetics, phenomena that change the phenotype without changing the DNA sequence. Recent work has also shown that nucleosomes, a complex of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer, experience a sequence dependent energy landscape due to the variation in DNA bend stiffness with sequence composition. In this talk, we consider the role nucleosome positioning might play in the formation of heterochromatin, a compact form of DNA generically responsible for gene silencing. In particular, we discuss how different patterns of nucleosome positions, periodic or random, could either facilitate or suppress heterochromatin stability and formation.

  7. Financial Management for Student Affairs Administrators. ACPA Media Publication No. 48.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuh, John H., Ed.

    This book offers a perspective on the current financial environment in higher education and helps student affairs officers improve their skills in fiscal and budgetary management. "Current Fiscal and Budgetary Perspectives" (John Schuh) describes the fiscal environment in which student affairs operates and discusses budgeting approaches. "Private…

  8. Positive: HIV Affirmative Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kain, Craig D.

    At the end of the 1980s, counselors largely lacked an integrated approach to counseling people living with HIV disease. This book describes the experience of counseling this group of persons. The major premise here is that counselors who counsel HIV-positive clients must come to understand and affirm their clients' experiences. The text defines a…

  9. Nursing Research: Position Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, Laurel; And Others

    The role of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) in encouraging research through the programs and activities of the member schools is discussed. It is suggested that the dean or administrative head of a college of nursing is in a position to influence nursing research activities. The principal role of the academic dean in…

  10. Creating Positive Task Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mally, Kristi K.

    2006-01-01

    Constraints are characteristics of the individual, the task, or the environment that mold and shape movement choices and performances. Constraints can be positive--encouraging proficient movements or negative--discouraging movement or promoting ineffective movements. Physical educators must analyze, evaluate, and determine the effect various…

  11. Positions of minor planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gressmann, M.

    A continuation of Gressman's (1980) observations is given using the Schmidt-camera 34/40 cm, f = 76. Topocentric positions of several minor planets are presented, and reference stars are obtained from the AGK(3), and applied to the two-star method to avoid any major errors. Parallax constants are also given, along with coordinates for the epoch 1950.0.

  12. Magnetic beam position monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Ivanchenkov, S.N.; Khlebnikov, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Many nondestructive beam position monitors are known. However, these devices can not be used for DC particle beam diagnostics. We investigated a method of beam diagnostics applicable for the operative control of DC high power e-beam inside closed waveguide. A design of the detector for determination of{open_quote} center of mass {close_quote} position of DC particle beam was developed. It was shown that the monitor can be used as a nondestructive method for the beam position control in resonators. Magnetic field of the particle beam outside a resonator is used. The detector consists of the steel yokes and magnetic field sensors. The sensors measure magnetic fluxes in the steel yokes fixed outside the resonator. When the particle beam changes its position, these magnetic fluxes also change. Beam displacement sensitivity of the monitor depends on the steel yoke dimensions. The detector sensitivity is equal to 1 Gauss/mm for the conditions adequate to the FOM-FEM project.

  13. Review of HRP Positions

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Reliability Studies

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Human Reliability Program (HRP), published as 10 CFR Part 712, is currently being reviewed and revised to address concerns identified during its implementation. Although these ''page changes'' primarily incorporate clarification of terms and language, the following discussion relates to broadening the definition of positions that require HRP certification that is found in {section}712.10.

  14. Immunizations. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobo, Nichole; Garrett, Jennifer; Teskey, Carmen; Duncan, Kay; Strasser, Kathy; Burrows-Mezu, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that immunizations are essential to primary prevention of disease from infancy through adulthood. Promotion of immunizations by the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is central to the public health focus of school nursing practice…

  15. Positive Attitude Toward Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bethalto Community Unit District 8, IL.

    Project Positive Attitude Toward Learning (PATL) grew out of an identified need by the Bethalto Community Unit No. 8 schools to improve student self-concept and attitudes toward school. The basic approach used in project PATL is to change teacher behavior which, in turn, causes change to take place in student behavior. The mechanism for affecting…

  16. Positive Discipline. (Revised Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelsen, Jane

    Understanding why children do not behave the way they used to, and why both controlling and overly-permissive discipline styles are ineffective, is the first step for parents and teachers who are facing child-discipline problems. This book describes a program of positive discipline principles aimed at assisting parents and teachers in…

  17. A Positive Report Card.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellman, Sally G.

    A high school English teacher found that one easy way to keep the idea of positive reinforcement foremost in her mind when she works with students was to use writing portfolios. A Portfolio Assessment project was designed in which portfolios were used in two sophomore and two junior regular English classes. A flexible plan was developed for using…

  18. Position feedback control system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    Disclosed is a system and method for independently evaluating the spatial positional performance of a machine having a movable member, comprising an articulated coordinate measuring machine comprising: a first revolute joint; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the first joint, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto, wherein the probe tip is pivotally mounted to the movable machine member; a second revolute joint; a first support arm serially connecting the first joint to the second joint; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the first and second revolute joints, for calculating the spatial coordinates of the probe tip; means for kinematically constraining the articulated coordinate measuring machine to a working surface; and comparator means, in operative association with the coordinate processing means and with the movable machine, for comparing the true position of the movable machine member, as measured by the true position of the probe tip, with the desired position of the movable machine member.

  19. INTERMITTENT POSITIVE PRESSURE BREATHING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Efficacy of long-term intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) treatment when used as an adjunct to the overall care of ambulatory outpatients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. The evaluation compared the use of IPPB with use of a powered nebulizer.

  20. Delegation. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board, Connie; Bushmiaer, Margo; Davis-Alldritt, Linda; Fekaris, Nina; Morgitan, Judith; Murphy, M. Kathleen; Yow, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the delegation of nursing tasks in the school setting can be a valuable tool for the school nurse, when based on the nursing definition of delegation and in compliance with state nursing regulations and guidance. Delegation in school nursing is a complex process in which…

  1. Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, K. Brigid; Guest, Elise M.; Horner, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Schools are complex communities that play a major role in the social fabric of culture. Effective schools provide access to both good instruction and a social culture that supports engagement, community, and success. Over the past 10 years, more than 11,000 elementary, middle level, and high schools have adopted schoolwide positive behavior…

  2. The Teacher's Social Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ziiatdinova, Fliura Gazizovna

    1990-01-01

    Discusses a survey conducted in the Tatar Republic of the Soviet Union involving over 800 teachers, students, and parents. Reports that the study investigated opinions about teachers' social position. Indicates widespread agreement concerning the teaching profession's low prestige. Explores reasons for the profession's low prestige through an…

  3. Profiling anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide antibodies in patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPA), have high specificity for rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Some children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA), phenotypically resemble RA and test positive for rheumatoid factor (RF) a characteristic biomarker of RA. We investigated the prevalence of ACPA and its relationship to other serologic markers associated with RA in a well-characterized JIA cohort. Methods Cases were 334 children with JIA, 30 of whom had RF + polyarticular JIA. Sera from all cases and 50 healthy pediatric controls were investigated by ELISA at a single time point for anti-cyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) IgG, RF IgM, IgA and IgG, anti-RA33 IgG, and antinuclear antibodies (ANA). Comparisons between cases and controls were made using Chi-square or Fisher exact tests and T-tests. Results The prevalence of RF was 8% among controls, and 12% among cases (ns). The prevalence of ACPA was 2% in controls and 14.3% in cases (OR 8.2, p <0.01). Children who were ACPA-positive and RF-negative (n = 23) had a significantly earlier onset-age (4.6 years vs. 12.1 years, p <0.00001) and had fewer HLA-DRB1 shared epitope alleles than those positive for both RF and ACPA (n = 25). Prevalence of anti-RA33 was not different between cases and controls. Conclusions ACPAs are detectable in 14% of children with JIA. Children with positive ACPA but negative RF are frequent, and may define a distinct subset of children with JIA. ACPA testing should be included in the classification of JIA. PMID:22931121

  4. Video image position determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, W.; Anderson, F. L.; Kortegaard, B. L.

    1990-04-01

    The present invention generally relates to the control of video and optical information and, more specifically, to control systems utilizing video images to provide control. Accurate control of video images and laser beams is becoming increasingly important as the use of lasers for machine, medical, and experimental processes escalates. In AURORA, an installation at Los Alamos National Laboratory dedicated to laser fusion research, it is necessary to precisely control the path and angle of up to 96 laser beams. This invention is comprised of an optical beam position controller in which a video camera captures an image of the beam in its video frames, and conveys those images to a processing board which calculates the centroid coordinates for the image. The image coordinates are used by motor controllers and stepper motors to position the beam in a predetermined alignment. In one embodiment, system noise, used in conjunction with Bernoulli trials, yields higher resolution centroid coordinates.

  5. Position Sensitive Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadleir, J. E.; Hammock, C.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Stahle, C. K.; Bandler, S.; Saab, T.; Lindeman, M.; Porter, F. S.; Chervenak, J.; Brown, G.

    2004-01-01

    A Position Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensor (PoST) is a microcalorimeter device capable of one-dimensional imaging spectroscopy. The device consists of two Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) connected to the ends of a long X-ray absorbing strip. The energy of a photon hitting the absorber and the position of the absorption event along the strip is measured from the response in the two sensors by analyzing the relative signal sizes, pulse rise times, and the sum of the pulses measured at each sensor, We report on the recent PoST effort at Goddard for applications to large field of view, high-energy- resolution, X-ray astrophysics.

  6. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    A positive isolation disconnect was developed for component replacement in serviced liquid and gaseous spacecraft systems. Initially a survey of feasible concepts was made to determine the optimum method for fluid isolation, sealing techniques, coupling concepts, and foolproofing techniques. The top concepts were then further evaluated, including the fabrication of a semifunctional model. After all tradeoff analyses were made, a final configuration was designed and fabricated for development testing. This resulted in a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) line and 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) line positive isolation disconnect, each unit consisting of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique was incorporated that prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation.

  7. Mapping your competitive position.

    PubMed

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G PMID:18159791

  8. Nuclear core positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Garkisch, Hans D.; Yant, Howard W.; Patterson, John F.

    1979-01-01

    A structural support system for the core of a nuclear reactor which achieves relatively restricted clearances at operating conditions and yet allows sufficient clearance between fuel assemblies at refueling temperatures. Axially displaced spacer pads having variable between pad spacing and a temperature compensated radial restraint system are utilized to maintain clearances between the fuel elements. The core support plates are constructed of metals specially chosen such that differential thermal expansion produces positive restraint at operating temperatures.

  9. SPA: Solar Position Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reda, Ibrahim; Andreas, Afshin

    2015-04-01

    The Solar Position Algorithm (SPA) calculates the solar zenith and azimuth angles in the period from the year -2000 to 6000, with uncertainties of +/- 0.0003 degrees based on the date, time, and location on Earth. SPA is implemented in C; in addition to being available for download, an online calculator using this code is available at http://www.nrel.gov/midc/solpos/spa.html.

  10. Aircraft control position indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Dale V. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An aircraft control position indicator was provided that displayed the degree of deflection of the primary flight control surfaces and the manner in which the aircraft responded. The display included a vertical elevator dot/bar graph meter display for indication whether the aircraft will pitch up or down, a horizontal aileron dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will roll to the left or to the right, and a horizontal dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will turn left or right. The vertical and horizontal display or displays intersect to form an up/down, left/right type display. Internal electronic display driver means received signals from transducers measuring the control surface deflections and determined the position of the meter indicators on each dot/bar graph meter display. The device allows readability at a glance, easy visual perception in sunlight or shade, near-zero lag in displaying flight control position, and is not affected by gravitational or centrifugal forces.

  11. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  12. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, D.

    1995-02-07

    A photon beam position monitor is disclosed for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade ''shadowing''. Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation. 18 figs.

  13. Alignment positioning mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fantasia, Peter M. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    An alignment positioning mechanism for correcting and compensating for misalignment of structures to be coupled is disclosed. The mechanism comprises a power screw with a base portion and a threaded shank portion. A mounting fixture is provided for rigidly coupling said base portion to the mounting interface of a supporting structure with the axis of the screw perpendicular thereto. A traveling ball nut threaded on the power screw is formed with an external annular arcuate surface configured in the form of a spherical segment and enclosed by a ball nut housing with a conforming arcuate surface for permitting gimballed motion thereon. The ball nut housing is provided with a mounting surface which is positionable in cooperable engagement with the mounting interface of a primary structure to be coupled to the supporting structure. Cooperative means are provided on the ball nut and ball nut housing, respectively, for positioning the ball nut and ball nut housing in relative gimballed position within a predetermined range of relative angular relationship whereby severe structural stresses due to unequal loadings and undesirable bending moments on the mechanism are avoided.

  14. Welding nozzle position manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Gutow, David A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a welding nozzle position manipulator. The manipulator consists of an angle support to which the remaining components of the device are attached either directly or indirectly. A pair of pivotal connections attach a weld nozzle holding link to the angle support and provide a two axis freedom of movement of the holding link with respect to the support angle. The manipulator is actuated by a pair of adjusting screws angularly mounted to the angle support. These screws contact a pair of tapered friction surfaces formed on the upper portion of the welding nozzle holding link. A spring positioned between the upper portions of the support angle and the holding link provides a constant bias engagement between the friction surfaces of the holding link and the adjustment screws, so as to firmly hold the link in position and to eliminate any free play in the adjustment mechanism. The angular relationships between the adjustment screws, the angle support and the tapered friction surfaces of the weld nozzle holding link provide a geometric arrangement which permits precision adjustment of the holding link with respect to the angle support and also provides a solid holding link mount which is resistant to movement from outside forces.

  15. Positional information, in bits

    PubMed Central

    Dubuis, Julien O.; Tkačik, Gašper; Wieschaus, Eric F.; Gregor, Thomas; Bialek, William

    2013-01-01

    Cells in a developing embryo have no direct way of “measuring” their physical position. Through a variety of processes, however, the expression levels of multiple genes come to be correlated with position, and these expression levels thus form a code for “positional information.” We show how to measure this information, in bits, using the gap genes in the Drosophila embryo as an example. Individual genes carry nearly two bits of information, twice as much as would be expected if the expression patterns consisted only of on/off domains separated by sharp boundaries. Taken together, four gap genes carry enough information to define a cell’s location with an error bar of along the anterior/posterior axis of the embryo. This precision is nearly enough for each cell to have a unique identity, which is the maximum information the system can use, and is nearly constant along the length of the embryo. We argue that this constancy is a signature of optimality in the transmission of information from primary morphogen inputs to the output of the gap gene network. PMID:24089448

  16. Position from gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Procedures for obtaining position from surface gravity observations are reviewed and their relevance assessed in the context of the application of modern geodetic techniques to programs of Earth and ocean physics. Solutions based on the use of surface layer techniques, the discrete value approach, and the development from Green's theorem are stated in summary, the latter being extended to order e cubed in the height anomaly. The representation of the surface gravity field which is required in order that this accuracy may be achieved is discussed. Interim techniques which could be used in the absence of such a representation are also outlined.

  17. Position statement on cannabis.

    PubMed

    Stein For The Executive Committee Of The Central Drug Authority, Dan Joseph

    2016-01-01

    There is an ongoing national debate around cannabis policy. This brief position statement by the Executive Committee of the Central Drug Authorityoutlines some of the factors that have contributed to this debate, delineates reduction strategies, summarises the harms and benefits ofmarijuana, and provides recommendations. These recommendations emphasise an integrated and evidence-based approach, the need forresources to implement harm reduction strategies against continued and chronic use of alcohol and cannabis, and the potential value of afocus on decriminalisation rather than the legalisation of cannabis. PMID:27245718

  18. Deep Space Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Andrew T. (Inventor); Riedel, Joseph E. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A single, compact, lower power deep space positioning system (DPS) configured to determine a location of a spacecraft anywhere in the solar system, and provide state information relative to Earth, Sun, or any remote object. For example, the DPS includes a first camera and, possibly, a second camera configured to capture a plurality of navigation images to determine a state of a spacecraft in a solar system. The second camera is located behind, or adjacent to, a secondary reflector of a first camera in a body of a telescope.

  19. Positive lubrication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dennis W.; Hooper, Fred L.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the development of an autonomous lubrication system for spin bearings, a system was developed to deliver oil to grease-lubricated bearings upon demand. This positive oil delivery system (PLUS) consists of a pressurized reservoir with a built-in solenoid valve that delivers a predictable quantity of oil to the spin bearing through a system of stainless steel tubes. Considerable testing was performed on the PLUS to characterize its performance and verify its effectiveness, along with qualifying it for flight. Additional development is underway that will lead to the fully autonomous active lubrication system.

  20. Global Positioning Satellite Recorder

    1997-11-10

    The GPS Tracker is a device (automotive unit) that records position (latitude and longitude), date, and time autonomously with time. The data from the GPS Tracker can be used offline with a personal computer and map data base to plot the track of where a vehicle or other mobile battery powered object has been. The invention simplifies field operations for recording location autonomously by obviating the need to execute a set of detailed instructions priormore » to operation. The vehicle combines GPS technology and a cpu with custom software to accomplish the task.« less

  1. A cutaneous positioning system.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bernard J; Lee, Beom-Chan; Sienko, Kathleen H

    2015-04-01

    Our previous work revealed that torso cutaneous information contributes to the internal representation of the torso and plays a role in postural control. Hence, the aims of this study were to assess whether posture could be manipulated by patterns of vibrotactile stimulation and to determine whether resulting modified postures were associated with specific and consistent spatial attitudes. Ten healthy young adults stood in normal and Romberg stances with six vibrating actuators positioned on the torso in contact with the skin over the anatomical locations corresponding to left and right external oblique, internal oblique and erector spinae muscles at the L4/L5 vertebrae level. A 250-Hz tactile vibration was applied for 5 s either at a single location or consecutively at each location in clockwise or counterclockwise sequences. Kinematic analysis of the body segments indicated that postural responses observed in response to single and sequential stimulation patterns were similar, while the center of pressure remained unaltered in any situations. Moreover, torso inclinations followed rectilinear-like path segments chartered by stimuli loci during sequential stimulations. Comparison of torso attitudes with previous results obtained with co-vibration patterns of the same duration showed that torso inclination amplitudes are equivalent for single (one location) and co-vibration (pairs of locations) patterns inducing the same directional effect. Hence, torso cutaneous information exhibits kinesthetic properties, appears to provide a map of upper body spatial configuration, and could assume the role of an internal positioning system for the upper body. PMID:25600816

  2. Government Positions for Physicists.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, David

    2006-03-01

    There are a number of government agencies that employ physicists in a wide variety of jobs -- from student internships to post docs to full time staff positions. You can do real, creative, fore-front physics or pursue a wide range of leadership positions. The possibilities are almost unlimited and so is the impact your work can have on the government, academia, and industry. So how do you go about finding a government job? What qualities or abilities are deemed valuable? What are the advantages and disadvantages to working in the government? I will bring some personal experiences and observations from working in the government (one year as a rotator at the National Science Foundation in the Division of Materials Research and almost 18 years at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, both as a Group Leader and a Division Chief) to bear on these questions and more. Prior to my government career I was a physics professor pursuing research and teaching in academia.

  3. Positional Information, in bits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubuis, Julien; Bialek, William; Wieschaus, Eric; Gregor, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Pattern formation in early embryonic development provides an important testing ground for ideas about the structure and dynamics of genetic regulatory networks. Spatial variations in the concentration of particular transcription factors act as ``morphogens,'' driving more complex patterns of gene expression that in turn define cell fates, which must be appropriate to the physical location of the cells in the embryo. Thus, in these networks, the regulation of gene expression serves to transmit and process ``positional information.'' Here, using the early Drosophila embryo as a model system, we measure the amount of positional information carried by a group of four genes (the gap genes Hunchback, Kr"uppel, Giant and Knirps) that respond directly to the primary maternal morphogen gradients. We find that the information carried by individual gap genes is much larger than one bit, so that their spatial patterns provide much more than the location of an ``expression boundary.'' Preliminary data indicate that, taken together these genes provide enough information to specify the location of every row of cells along the embryo's anterior-posterior axis.

  4. A POSITIONAL DATA SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Forster, G.A.

    1963-09-24

    between master and slave synchros is described. A threephase a-c power source is connected to the stators of the synchros and an error detector is connected to the rotors of the synchros to measure the phasor difference therebetween. A phase shift network shifts the phase of one of the rotors 90 degrees and a demodulator responsive thereto causes the phasor difference signal of the rotors to shift phase 180 degrees whenever the 90 degree phase shifted signal goes negative. The phase shifted difference signal has a waveform which, with the addition of small values of resistance and capacitance, gives a substantially pure d-c output whose amplitude and polarity is proportional to the magnitude and direction of the difference in the angular positions of the synchro's rotors. (AEC)

  5. Inductive Position Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Simmons, Stephen M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An inductive position sensor uses three parallel inductors, each of which has an axial core that is an independent magnetic structure. A first support couples first and second inductors and separate them by a fixed distance. A second support coupled to a third inductor disposed between the first and second inductors. The first support and second support are configured for relative movement as distance changes from the third inductor to each of the first and second inductors. An oscillating current is supplied to the first and second inductors. A device measures a phase component of a source voltage generating the oscillating current and a phase component of voltage induced in the third inductor when the oscillating current is supplied to the first and second inductors such that the phase component of the voltage induced overlaps the phase component of the source voltage.

  6. Inductive Position Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Simmons, Stephen M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An inductive position sensor uses three independent inductors inductively coupled by a common medium such as air. First and second inductors are separated by a fixed distance with the first inductor's axial core and second inductor's axial core maintained parallel to one another. A third inductor is disposed between the first and second inductors with the third inductor's axial core being maintained parallel to those of the first and second inductors. The combination of the first and second inductors are configured for relative movement with the third inductor's axial core remaining parallel to those of the first and second inductors as distance changes from the third inductor to each of the first inductor and second inductor. An oscillating current can be supplied to at least one of the three inductors, while voltage induced in at least one of the three inductors not supplied with the oscillating current is measured.

  7. Solar system positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

    2006-01-01

    Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

  8. Metallic positive expulsion diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleich, D.

    1972-01-01

    High-cycle life ring-reinforced hemispherical type positive expulsion diaphragm performance was demonstrated by room temperature fluid expulsion tests of 13" diameter, 8 mil thick stainless steel configurations. A maximum of eleven (11) leak-free, fluid expulsions were achieved by a 25 deg cone angle diaphragm hoop-reinforced with .110-inch cross-sectional diameter wires. This represents a 70% improvement in diaphragm reversal cycle life compared to results previously obtained. The reversal tests confirmed analytic predictions for diaphragm cycle life increases due to increasing values of diaphragm cone angle, radius to thickness ratio and material strain to necking capacity. Practical fabrication techniques were demonstrated for forming close-tolerance, thin corrugated shells and for obtaining closely controlled reinforcing ring stiffness required to maximize diaphragm cycle life. A non-destructive inspection technique for monitoring large local shell bending strains was developed.

  9. Position paper on mesotherapy.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Rashmi; Garg, Vijay Kumar; Mysore, Venkataram

    2011-01-01

    Mesotherapy is a controversial cosmetic procedure which has received publicity among the lay people, in the internet and in the media. It refers to minimally invasive techniques which consist of the use of intra- or subcutaneous injections containing liquid mixture of compounds (pharmaceutical and homeopathic medications, plant extracts, vitamins and other ingredients) to treat local medical and cosmetic conditions. This position paper has examined the available evidence and finds that acceptable scientific evidence for its effectiveness and safety is lacking. IADVL taskforce, therefore would like to state that the use of this technique remains controversial at present. Further research and well-designed controlled scientific studies are required to substantiate the claims of benefit of this mode of therapy. PMID:21393967

  10. Beyond complete positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominy, Jason M.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2016-04-01

    We provide a general and consistent formulation for linear subsystem quantum dynamical maps, developed from a minimal set of postulates, primary among which is a relaxation of the usual, restrictive assumption of uncorrelated initial system-bath states. We describe the space of possibilities admitted by this formulation, namely that, far from being limited to only completely positive (CP) maps, essentially any C-linear, Hermiticity-preserving, trace-preserving map can arise as a legitimate subsystem dynamical map from a joint unitary evolution of a system coupled to a bath. The price paid for this added generality is a trade-off between the set of admissible initial states and the allowed set of joint system-bath unitary evolutions. As an application, we present a simple example of a non-CP map constructed as a subsystem dynamical map that violates some fundamental inequalities in quantum information theory, such as the quantum data processing inequality.

  11. Shaft Position Optical Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Hakum, Claef F. (Inventor); Johnson, Clarence S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an optical sensor that senses the movement of a shaft. Detection of radial movement is made when a portion of light incident on the shaft sensor-target is blocked. For detection of axial movement, a disk with flat surface is mounted and used to block a portion of light. The variation in the amount of light allowed to pass through is a measure of the position of the shaft. As proposed by this invention, significant improvement is made with respect to sensitivity and linearity of the system when the light is permanently partially blocked. To accomplish this goal this invention adds a boss to the system. To eliminate possible drift of system performance due to LED degradation or temperature variation, a feedback feature is added to the system.

  12. The Global Positioning System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    U.S. Geological Survey

    1999-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a constellation of navigation satellites called Navigation Satellite Timing And Ranging (NAVSTAR), maintained by the U.S. Department of Defense. Many outdoor enthusiasts recognize that a handheld GPS receiver can be an accurate tool for determining their location on the terrain. The GPS receiver helps determine locations on the Earth's surface by collecting signals from three or more satellites through a process called triangulation. Identifying a location on the Earth is more useful if you also know about the surrounding topographic conditions. Using a topographic map with the GPS receiver provides important information about features of the surrounding terrain and can help you plot an effective route from one location to another.

  13. JASMINE position reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, N.; Kobayashi, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Yano, T.; Jasmine Working Group

    We introduce a Japanese plan of infrared space astrometry JASMINE-project operating at z-band whose central wavelength is 0 9 micron JASMINE is the satellite Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for INfrared Exploration which will measure the distances and apparent motions of stars in the Milky Way with yet unprecedented precision It will measure parallaxes positions with the accuracy of 10 micro-arcsec and proper motions with the accuracy of 10 micro-arcsec year for stars brighter than z 14mag JASMINE can observe about ten million stars belonging to the bulge components of our Galaxy which are hidden by the interstellar dust extinction in optical bands Number of stars with sigma pi 0 1 in the direction of the Galactic central bulge is about 1000 times larger than those observed in optical bands where pi is a parallax and sigma is an error of the parallax With the completely new map of the Milky Way it is expected that many new exciting scientific results will be obtained in various fields of astronomy Presently JASMINE is in a development phase with a target launch date around 2015 We adopt the following instrument design of JASMINE in order to get the accurate positions of many stars We adopt a 3-mirrors optical system modified Korsch system with a primary mirror of 1m On the astro-focal plane we put dozens of new type of CCDs for z-band to get a wide field of view The accurate measurements of the astrometric parameters requires the instrument line-of-sight highly stability and the opto-mechanical highly stability of the payload in the JASMINE

  14. SQUID position sensor development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torii, Rodney

    1996-11-01

    I describe the development of an inductance position sensor for the STEP (satellite test of the equivalence principle) accelerometer. I have measured the inductance (with an experimental error of 0.5%) of a single-turn thin-film niobium pick-up coil as a function of the distance from a thin-film niobium disc (both at 4.2 K and superconducting). The circular pick-up coil had a diameter of 4 cm with a track width of 0264-9381/13/11A/022/img1. The disc (mock test mass) had a diameter of 4 cm. The distance range between the coil and disc was set by the range of a low-temperature differential capacitance sensor: 0 - 2 mm with a resolution of 0264-9381/13/11A/022/img2. The full range of the low-temperature translation stage was 0 - 4 mm. The inductance was measured using an LCR meter in a four-wire configuration. The measured inductance was compared to the inductance of a circular loop above a superconducting plane. Due to the fact that the thin-film disc is of finite size, the calculation differed from experiment by as much as 12%. I have also calculated the inductance by segmenting the thin-film niobium disc into 500 concentric rings (each with a width of 0264-9381/13/11A/022/img3). A discrepancy between calculation and experiment of approximately 3% was found.

  15. HIV-Positive-to-HIV-Positive Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Calmy, A; van Delden, C; Giostra, E; Junet, C; Rubbia Brandt, L; Yerly, S; Chave, J-P; Samer, C; Elkrief, L; Vionnet, J; Berney, T

    2016-08-01

    Most countries exclude human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients from organ donation because of concerns regarding donor-derived HIV transmission. The Swiss Federal Act on Transplantation has allowed organ transplantation between HIV-positive donors and recipients since 2007. We report the successful liver transplantation from an HIV-positive donor to an HIV-positive recipient. Both donor and recipient had been treated for many years with antiretroviral therapy and harbored multidrug-resistant viruses. Five months after transplantation, HIV viremia remains undetectable. This observation supports the inclusion of appropriate HIV-positive donors for transplants specifically allocated to HIV-positive recipients. PMID:27109874

  16. Position detectors, methods of detecting position, and methods of providing positional detectors

    DOEpatents

    Weinberg, David M.; Harding, L. Dean; Larsen, Eric D.

    2002-01-01

    Position detectors, welding system position detectors, methods of detecting various positions, and methods of providing position detectors are described. In one embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a base that is configured to engage and be moved along a curved surface of a welding work piece. At least one position detection apparatus is provided and is connected with the base and configured to measure angular position of the detector relative to a reference vector. In another embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a weld head and at least one inclinometer mounted on the weld head. The one inclinometer is configured to develop positional data relative to a reference vector and the position of the weld head on a non-planar weldable work piece.

  17. Positive Psychology and Positive Education: Old Wine in New Bottles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    The recently fashionable theories of positive psychology have educational ramifications at virtually every level of engagement, culminating in the model of positive education. In this critical review, I scrutinize positive education as a potential theory in educational psychology. Special attention is given to conceptual controversies and…

  18. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  19. Videofluoroscopic Investigation of Body Position on Articulatory Positioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Youkyung; Perry, Jamie L.; Kuehn, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively examine the effects of body position on the positioning of the epiglottis, tongue, and velum at rest and during speech. Method: Videofluoroscopic data were obtained from 12 healthy adults in the supine and upright positions at rest and during speech while the participants produced 12 VCV sequences. The effects of body…

  20. Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. A new method is proposed that utilizes analytical redundancy to allow for continued operation during joint position sensor failure. Joint torque sensors are used with a virtual passive torque controller to make the robot joint stable without position feedback and improve position tracking performance in the presence of unknown link dynamics and end-effector loading. Two Cartesian accelerometer based methods are proposed to determine the position of the joint. The joint specific position determination method utilizes two triaxial accelerometers attached to the link driven by the joint with the failed position sensor. The joint specific method is not computationally complex and the position error is bounded. The system wide position determination method utilizes accelerometers distributed on different robot links and the end-effector to determine the position of sets of multiple joints. The system wide method requires fewer accelerometers than the joint specific method to make all joint position sensors fault tolerant but is more computationally complex and has lower convergence properties. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory manipulator. Both position determination methods were shown to track the actual position satisfactorily. A controller using the position determination methods and the virtual passive torque controller was able to servo the joints to a desired position during position sensor failure.

  1. Translation and rotation positioning motor

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Andreas; Schaff, Oliver

    2005-02-01

    A positioning device provides the capability of moving an object in both a linear and a rotational direction. The positioning device includes a first piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device further includes a second piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device also includes a first bearing that is disposed against the first piezo stack. The positioning device further includes a second bearing that is disposed against the second piezo stack. The positioning device also includes a spring element and a fifth bearing that is disposed against the spring element. The first through fifth bearings are disposed around and against the object to be positioned, to provide for positioning of the object in at least one of a linear direction and a rotational direction.

  2. Translation and rotation positioning motor

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Andreas; Schaff, Oliver

    2006-07-04

    A positioning device provides the capability of moving an object in both a linear and a rotational direction. The positioning device includes a first piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device further includes a second piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device also includes a first bearing that is disposed against the first piezo stack. The positioning device further includes a second bearing that is disposed against the second piezo stack. The positioning device also includes a spring element and a fifth bearing that is disposed against the spring element. The first through fifth bearings are disposed around and against the object to be positioned, to provide for positioning of the object in at least one of a linear direction and a rotational direction.

  3. Components of Positive Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Logan

    1971-01-01

    Thirty items designed to measure behavior in the six areas described by Jahoda as comprising positive mental health were administered. The data contraindicate the hypothesis that positive mental health is a unitary factor. (Author)

  4. Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

  5. Enhancing Interaction through Positive Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardew, E. Michelle; Bunse, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Positive touch is an application of the ancient practice of infant massage. Positive touch provides families and caregivers with simple and positive ways to touch their child that contribute to the overall goal of providing a nurturing environment that supports the child's growth and development. This article describes infant massage techniques in…

  6. Aircraft Control-Position Indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, D. V.

    1985-01-01

    Aircraft control-position indicator cockpit-mounted instrument that displays positions of elevator and ailerons to pilot. Display is cruciform array of lights: horizontal row of amber lights and vertical row of green lights representing aileron and elevator positions, respectively. Display used extensively in spin testing and has been trouble-free, with no maintenance required after about 30 hours of operation.

  7. Utilising Discursive Positioning in Counselling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winslade, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Foucault's concern with the production of subjectivity has led to the development of positioning theory, as it has been called by Bronwyn Davies, Rom Harr and Luk van Langenhve. The concept of discursive positioning has particular value for counselling because it shows how people are positioned in discourse in particular moments by their own and…

  8. Arthralgia and Osteolytic Lesions Associated with Traumatic Pancreatitis in a 10-Year-Old Girl

    PubMed Central

    Obatake, Masayuki; Yamane, Yusuke; Tokunaga, Takayuki; Taura, Yasuaki; Inamura, Yukio; Nagayasu, Takeshi

    2009-01-01

    A case of traumatic pancreatitis with subsequent joint pain and osteolytic lesions is presented. A 10-year-old girl was admitted to our hospital with abdominal pain caused by blunt epigastric injury. She was diagnosed with traumatic pancreatitis, and multiple pancreatic pseudocysts subsequently developed. Two weeks after admission, she complained of joint pain, and MR revealed osteolytic lesions of both knee joints. On the 58th day, endoscopic transgastric pseudocyst drainage was performed. Joint pain and osteolytic lesions resolved rapidly, in parallel with the decrease in serum amylase level and pseudocyst size. PMID:20041026

  9. What Good Are Positive Emotions?

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual’s momentary thought–action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual’s physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed. PMID:21850154

  10. Positive affect and psychobiological processes

    PubMed Central

    Dockray, Samantha; Steptoe, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Positive affect has been associated with favourable health outcomes, and it is likely that several biological processes mediate the effects of positive mood on physical health. There is converging evidence that positive affect activates the neuroendocrine, autonomic and immune systems in distinct and functionally meaningful ways. Cortisol, both total output and the awakening response, has consistently been shown to be lower among individuals with higher levels of positive affect. The beneficial effects of positive mood on cardiovascular function, including heart rate and blood pressure, and the immune system have also been described. The influence of positive affect on these psychobiological processes are independent of negative affect, suggesting that positive affect may have characteristic biological correlates. The duration and conceptualisation of positive affect may be important considerations in understanding how different biological systems are activated in association with positive affect. The association of positive affect and psychobiological processes has been established, and these biological correlates may be partly responsible for the protective effects of positive affect on health outcomes. PMID:20097225

  11. Geodetic positioning using a global positioning system of satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fell, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    Geodetic positioning using range, integrated Doppler, and interferometric observations from a constellation of twenty-four Global Positioning System satellites is analyzed. A summary of the proposals for geodetic positioning and baseline determination is given which includes a description of measurement techniques and comments on rank deficiency and error sources. An analysis of variance comparison of range, Doppler, and interferometric time delay to determine their relative geometric strength for baseline determination is included. An analytic examination to the effect of a priori constraints on positioning using simultaneous observations from two stations is presented. Dynamic point positioning and baseline determination using range and Doppler is examined in detail. Models for the error sources influencing dynamic positioning are developed. Included is a discussion of atomic clock stability, and range and Doppler observation error statistics based on random correlated atomic clock error are derived.

  12. Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research. PMID:26624282

  13. Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window.

    PubMed

    Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research. PMID:26624282

  14. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and head position during sleep.

    PubMed

    Shigeno, Kohichiro; Ogita, Hideaki; Funabiki, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether any particular head positions during sleep are associated with BPPV, head position during sleep was monitored for 3 days in 50 BPPV patients after the disappearance of positional nystagmus and in 25 normal control subjects. A gravity sensor was attached to the center of the subject's forehead at home. The positional angle of the head was measured at 5-second intervals during sleep. In BPPV, the posterior semicircular canal was involved in 40 patients and the lateral semicircular canal in 10 patients. Recurrence was found in 22 of 50 BPPV patients. BPPV patients with recurrence were significantly more likely to sleep in the affected-ear-down 45-degree head position than were patients with no history of recurrence (P< 0.02). When the head is in the affected-ear-down 45-degree head position, the non-ampullated half of the posterior semicircular canal and the non-ampullated half of the lateral semicircular canal are nearly in the earth-vertical position, making it easier for detached otoconia to fall into the posterior or lateral semicircular canal and to agglomerate and attain a certain size in the lowest portion of each semicircular canal. Our findings showed that the affected-ear-down 45-degree head position during sleep could be an etiological factor of BPPV, more particularly in patients with recurrent BPPV. PMID:23142834

  15. Positive mood broadens visual attention to positive stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Wadlinger, Heather A.; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to investigate the impact of positive emotions on visual attention within the context of Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build model, eye tracking was used in two studies to measure visual attentional preferences of college students (n=58, n=26) to emotional pictures. Half of each sample experienced induced positive mood immediately before viewing slides of three similarly-valenced images, in varying central-peripheral arrays. Attentional breadth was determined by measuring the percentage viewing time to peripheral images as well as by the number of visual saccades participants made per slide. Consistent with Fredrickson's theory, the first study showed that individuals induced into positive mood fixated more on peripheral stimuli than did control participants; however, this only held true for highly-valenced positive stimuli. Participants under induced positive mood also made more frequent saccades for slides of neutral and positive valence. A second study showed that these effects were not simply due to differences in emotional arousal between stimuli. Selective attentional broadening to positive stimuli may act both to facilitate later building of resources as well as to maintain current positive affective states. PMID:20431711

  16. Positive Behavior Interventions: The Issue of Sustainability of Positive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Craven, Rhonda G.; Mooney, Mary; Tracey, Danielle; Barker, Katrina; Power, Anne; Dobia, Brenda; Chen, Zhu; Schofield, Jill; Whitefield, Phillip; Lewis, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade, positive behavior interventions have resulted in improvement of school behavior and academic gains in a range of school settings worldwide. Recent studies identify sustainability of current positive behavior intervention programs as a major concern. The purpose of this article is to identify future direction for effective…

  17. Observed positions of minor planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bem, J.; Szczodrowska-Kozar, B.

    Photographic positions were determined for the six minor planets Ceres, Vesta, Hebe, Flora, Eunomia, and Melromene, the observations being made from the Wroclaw Astronomical Observatory between February 1981 and February 1982. Tabulated data include UT of the observation, epoch-1950 topocentric positions, standard deviation of a reference star, the number of reference stars, and the exposure time. The AGK3, SAO, and Perth 70 catalogs were used for reference star positions.

  18. Indoor Positioning - An Ad-Hoc Positioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautz, Rainer

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the development of an automatic, low-cost system that exploits current or near future wireless communications technology to enable continuous tracking of the location of devices in all environments. The development of such a wireless sensor network involves system design, digital signal processing, protocol development, extraction of ranges and localisation. This paper focuses on the user requirements, system architecture and network positioning. The user requirements are presented with a focus on applications in geodesy. A high level strategy for the positioning function is presented based on an ad-hoc geodetic network positioning method including issues of accuracy, quality and reliability of the node positions. Results show that it is possible to achieve a position deviation that is of the size of the ranging error.

  19. Variable-Position Acoustic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Stoneburner, J. D.; Jacobi, N.; Wang, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Method of acoustic levitation supports objects at positions other than acoustic nodes. Acoustic force is varied so it balances gravitational (or other) force, thereby maintaining object at any position within equilibrium range. Levitation method applicable to containerless processing. Such objects as table-tennis balls, hollow plastic spheres, and balsa-wood spheres levitated in laboratory by new method.

  20. Acoustic positioning and orientation prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Aveni, Glenn (Inventor); Putterman, Seth (Inventor); Rudnick, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for use with an acoustic positioner, which enables a determination of the equilibrium position and orientation which an object assumes in a zero gravity environment, as well as restoring forces and torques of an object in an acoustic standing wave field. An acoustic standing wave field is established in the chamber, and the object is held at several different positions near the expected equilibrium position. While the object is held at each position, the center resonant frequency of the chamber is determined, by noting which frequency results in the greatest pressure of the acoustic field. The object position which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium position. The orientation of a nonspherical object is similarly determined, by holding the object in a plurality of different orientations at its equilibrium position, and noting the center resonant frequency for each orientation. The orientation which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium orientation. Where the acoustic frequency is constant, but the chamber length is variable, the equilibrium position or orientation is that which results in the greatest chamber length at the center resonant frequency.

  1. A Blueprint for Positive Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Saf Lerman

    1991-01-01

    With support and education from various sources, parents can be introduced to positive, nonhurtful, constructive approaches to child rearing that permit children to grow in an environment which nurtures the body, soul, and mind. The article presents guidelines for positive parenting that teach children to look to adults for support. (SM)

  2. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  3. Positioning Vise for Crystal Cleavage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallberg, F. C.; Morgan, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    Vise manipulates brittle crystals, such as lithium fluoride, so they are in proper position for cleaving. Vise allows crystals as thin as 2 millimeters or less positioned so that cleaved without breakage. Vise holds workpiece firmly but gently. Bushings, shafts and adjusting screw designed to move jaws smoothly and uniformly with great tactile sensitivity.

  4. Serial position encoding of signs.

    PubMed

    Miozzo, Michele; Petrova, Anna; Fischer-Baum, Simon; Peressotti, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    Reduced short-term memory (STM) capacity has been reported for sign as compared to speech when items have to be recalled in a specific order. This difference has been attributed to a more precise and efficient serial position encoding in verbal STM (used for speech) than visuo-spatial STM (used for sign). We tested in the present investigation whether the reduced STM capacity with signs stems from a lack of positional encoding available in verbal STM. Error analyses reported in prior studies have revealed that positions are defined in verbal STM by distance from both the start and the end of the sequence (both-edges positional encoding scheme). Our analyses of the errors made by deaf participants with finger-spelled letters revealed that the both-edges positional encoding scheme underlies the STM representation of signs. These results indicate that the cause of the STM disadvantage is not the type of positional encoding but rather the difficulties in binding an item in visuo-spatial STM to its specific position in the sequence. Both-edges positional encoding scheme could be specific of sign, since it has not been found in visuo-spatial STM tasks conducted with hearing participants. PMID:27244095

  5. Positive Parenting and Challenging Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Positive parenting focuses on developing proactive ways to teach and reinforce desirable behaviors, as opposed to focusing on reacting to and attempting to decrease negative behaviors. Dr. Sheldon Braaten, Executive Director of Behavioral Institute for Children and Adolescents, offers some keys for setting up and using a positive reinforcement…

  6. Updated thinking on positivity ratios.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2013-12-01

    This article presents my response to the article by Brown, Sokal, and Friedman (2013), which critically examined Losada's conceptual and mathematical work (as presented in Losada, 1999; Losada & Heaphy, 2004; and Fredrickson & Losada; 2005) and concluded that mathematical claims for a critical tipping point positivity ratio are unfounded. In the present article, I draw recent empirical evidence together to support the continued value of computing and seeking to elevate positivity ratios. I also underscore the necessity of modeling nonlinear effects of positivity ratios and, more generally, the value of systems science approaches within affective science and positive psychology. Even when scrubbed of Losada's now-questioned mathematical modeling, ample evidence continues to support the conclusion that, within bounds, higher positivity ratios are predictive of flourishing mental health and other beneficial outcomes. PMID:23855895

  7. Positioning performance of a maglev fine positioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Wronosky, J.B.; Smith, T.G.; Jordan, J.D.; Darnold, J.R.

    1996-12-01

    A wafer positioning system was recently developed by Sandia National Laboratories for an Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) research tool. The system, which utilizes a magnetically levitated fine stage to provide ultra-precise positioning in all six degrees of freedom, incorporates technological improvements resulting from four years of prototype development experience. System enhancements, implemented on a second generation design for an ARPA National Center for Advanced Information Component Manufacturing (NCAICM) project, introduced active structural control for the levitated structure of the system. Magnetic levitation (maglev) is emerging as an important technology for wafer positioning systems in advanced lithography applications. The advantages of maglev stem from the absence of physical contact. The resulting lack of friction enables accurate, fast positioning. Maglev systems are mechanically simple, accomplishing full six degree-of-freedom suspension and control with a minimum of moving parts. Power-efficient designs, which reduce the possibility of thermal distortion of the platen, are achievable. Manufacturing throughput will be improved in future systems with the addition of active structural control of the positioning stages. This paper describes the design, implementation, and functional capability of the maglev fine positioning system. Specifics regarding performance design goals and test results are presented.

  8. Airborne lidar global positioning investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabill, W. B.

    1988-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) network of satellites shows high promise of revolutionizing methods for conducting surveying, navigation, and positioning. This is especially true in the case of airborne or satellite positioning. A single GPS receiver (suitably adapted for aircraft deployment) can yield positioning accuracies (world-wide) in the order of 30 to 50 m vertically, as well as horizontally. This accuracy is dramatically improved when a second GPS receiver is positioned at a known horizontal and vertical reference. Absolute horizontal and vertical positioning of 1 to 2 m are easily achieved over areas of separation of tens of km. If four common satellites remain in lock in both receivers, then differential phase pseudo-ranges on the GPS L-band carrier can be utilized to achieve accuracies of + or - 10 cm and perhaps as good as + or - 2 cm. The initial proof of concept investigation for airborne positioning using the phase difference between the airborne and stationary GPS receivers was conducted and is examined.

  9. SWITCHING TRANSMITTER POSITIONING OF SYNCHROS

    DOEpatents

    Wolff, H.

    1962-03-13

    A transformer apparatus is designed for effecting the step positioning of synchro motors. The apparatus is provided with ganged switches and pre- selected contacts to permit the units and tens selection of the desired angular position for the synchro motor rotor with only the movement of two selector knobs required. With the selection thus made, the appropriate pre-selected signal is delivered to the synchro motor for positioning the rotor of the latter as selected. The transformer apparatus is divided into smaller arrangements to conform with coraputed trigonometric relations which will give the desired results. (AEC)

  10. Navstar/Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ananda, M.

    1982-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) was developed to provide highly precise position, velocity, and time information to users anywhere in the area of the Earth and at any time. The GPS, when fully operational, will consist of 18 satellites in six orbital planes. Any GPS user, by receiving and processing the radio signals from the satellite network can instantaneously determine navigation information to an accuracy of about 15 m in position and 0.1 m/s in velocity. The GPS is compared with other systems such as Loran-C, Omega, TACAN and Transit.

  11. Positive technology: using interactive technologies to promote positive functioning.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    It is generally assumed that technology assists individuals in improving the quality of their lives. However, the impact of new technologies and media on well-being and positive functioning is still somewhat controversial. In this paper, we contend that the quality of experience should become the guiding principle in the design and development of new technologies, as well as a primary metric for the evaluation of their applications. The emerging discipline of Positive Psychology provides a useful framework to address this challenge. Positive Psychology is the scientific study of optimal human functioning and flourishing. Instead of drawing on a "disease model" of human behavior, it focuses on factors that enable individuals and communities to thrive and build the best in life. In this paper, we propose the "Positive Technology" approach--the scientific and applied approach to the use of technology for improving the quality of our personal experience through its structuring, augmentation, and/or replacement--as a way of framing a suitable object of study in the field of cyberpsychology and human-computer interaction. Specifically, we suggest that it is possible to use technology to influence three specific features of our experience--affective quality, engagement/actualization, and connectedness--that serve to promote adaptive behaviors and positive functioning. In this framework, positive technologies are classified according to their effects on a specific feature of personal experience. Moreover, for each level, we have identified critical variables that can be manipulated to guide the design and development of positive technologies. PMID:22149077

  12. Impedance based automatic electrode positioning.

    PubMed

    Miklody, Daniel; Hohne, Johannes

    2015-08-01

    The position of electrodes in electrical imaging and stimulation of the human brain is an important variable with vast influences on the precision in modeling approaches. Nevertheless, the exact position is obscured by many factors. 3-D Digitization devices can measure the distribution over the scalp surface but remain uncomfortable in application and often imprecise. We demonstrate a new approach that uses solely the impedance information between the electrodes to determine the geometric position. The algorithm involves multidimensional scaling to create a 3 dimensional space based on these impedances. The success is demonstrated in a simulation study. An average electrode position error of 1.67cm over all 6 subjects could be achieved. PMID:26736345

  13. The Power of Positive Emotions

    MedlinePlus

    ... toes, crossing a boundary, or violating our trust. Anger can be a signal that we might need ... lot of negative feelings such as fear, sadness, anger, frustration, or stress. Building a daily positivity habit ...

  14. Negative effects of positive reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Perone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Procedures classified as positive reinforcement are generally regarded as more desirable than those classified as aversive—those that involve negative reinforcement or punishment. This is a crude test of the desirability of a procedure to change or maintain behavior. The problems can be identified on the basis of theory, experimental analysis, and consideration of practical cases. Theoretically, the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement has proven difficult (some would say the distinction is untenable). When the distinction is made purely in operational terms, experiments reveal that positive reinforcement has aversive functions. On a practical level, positive reinforcement can lead to deleterious effects, and it is implicated in a range of personal and societal problems. These issues challenge us to identify other criteria for judging behavioral procedures. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:22478391

  15. Astrographic Positions of Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naskrecki, W.; Swierkowska, S.

    The paper presents the photographic position of minor planets taken in the years 1986/1987 at the Astronomical Observatory of A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan, with an astrograph of the F=1500 mm, d=300 mm.

  16. Astrographic Positions of Minor Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nasrecki, W.; Swierkowska, S.

    The paper presents the photographic position of minor planets taken in the years 1985-1986 at the Astronomical Observatory of A. Mickiewicz University, Poznan, with a astrograph of the F=1500 mm, d=300 mm.

  17. VESPA: False positive probabilities calculator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, Timothy D.

    2015-03-01

    Validation of Exoplanet Signals using a Probabilistic Algorithm (VESPA) calculates false positive probabilities and statistically validates transiting exoplanets. Written in Python, it uses isochrones [ascl:1503.010] and the package simpledist.

  18. Positioning your baby for breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adjust your baby's position if you need to. FOOTBALL HOLD Use the football hold if you had a C-section. This ... large breasts or flat nipples also like the football hold. Hold your baby like a football. Tuck ...

  19. Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP)

    MedlinePlus

    ... these issues. What Are the Alternative Treatments For Sleep Apnea? Lifestyle change including weight loss and exercise can help to improve sleep apnea and its related health problems. Sleep positioning and ...

  20. Positivity of the English Language

    PubMed Central

    Kloumann, Isabel M.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Harris, Kameron Decker; Bliss, Catherine A.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2012-01-01

    Over the last million years, human language has emerged and evolved as a fundamental instrument of social communication and semiotic representation. People use language in part to convey emotional information, leading to the central and contingent questions: (1) What is the emotional spectrum of natural language? and (2) Are natural languages neutrally, positively, or negatively biased? Here, we report that the human-perceived positivity of over 10,000 of the most frequently used English words exhibits a clear positive bias. More deeply, we characterize and quantify distributions of word positivity for four large and distinct corpora, demonstrating that their form is broadly invariant with respect to frequency of word use. PMID:22247779

  1. Optical positions of active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meurs, E. J. A.

    1984-04-01

    Optical positions are calculated for 26 active galaxies (mainly Markarian dn Arakelian objects), using the plate-measuring apparatus at Leiden Observatory on the O plates of the Palomar Sky Survey and applying AGK-3 data in the reductions. The results are presented in a table and have accuracy 0.5 arcsec; a comparison with the positions determined by Clements (1981, 1983) for 19 objects reveals a possible offset of -0.28 arcsec in the right-ascension determinations.

  2. Reflection positivity in simplicial gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, Robert

    2016-05-01

    Within the context of piecewise linear manifolds we establish reflection positivity with a Hilbert action given in terms of the Regge curvature and a cosmological term. Using this positivity a Hilbert space for a quantum theory is constructed and some field operators and observables are given. The set-up allows to introduce time reversal though no time exists. All constructions are non-perturbative.

  3. Positive amplitudes in the amplituhedron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Hodges, Andrew; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2015-08-01

    The all-loop integrand for scattering amplitudes in planar SYM is determined by an "amplitude form" with logarithmic singularities on the boundary of the amplituhedron. In this note we provide strong evidence for a new striking property of the superamplitude, which we conjecture to be true to all loop orders: the amplitude form is positive when evaluated inside the amplituhedron. The statement is sensibly formulated thanks to the natural "bosonization" of the superamplitude associated with the amplituhedron geometry. However this positivity is not manifest in any of the current approaches to scattering amplitudes, and in particular not in the cellulations of the amplituhedron related to on-shell diagrams and the positive grassmannian. The surprising positivity of the form suggests the existence of a "dual amplituhedron" formulation where this feature would be made obvious. We also suggest that the positivity is associated with an extended picture of amplituhedron geometry, with the amplituhedron sitting inside a co-dimension one surface separating "legal" and "illegal" local singularities of the amplitude. We illustrate this in several simple examples, obtaining new expressions for amplitudes not associated with any triangulations, but following in a more invariant manner from a global view of the positive geometry.

  4. Positive Surface over Positive Scattered Data Sites.

    PubMed

    Ibraheem, Farheen; Hussain, Malik Zawwar; Bhatti, Akhlaq Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a local positivity preserving scheme when the data amassed from different sources is positioned at sparse points. The proposed algorithm first triangulates the irregular data using Delauny triangulation method, therewith interpolates each boundary and radial curve of the triangle by C¹ rational trigonometric cubic function. Half of the parameters in the description of the interpolant are constrained to keep up the positive shape of data while the remaining half are set free for users' requirement. Orthogonality of trigonometric function assures much smoother surface as compared to polynomial functions. The proposed scheme can be of great use in areas of surface reconstruction and deformation, signal processing, CAD/CAM design, solving differential equations, and image restoration. PMID:26057122

  5. Positive Surface over Positive Scattered Data Sites

    PubMed Central

    Ibraheem, Farheen; Hussain, Malik Zawwar; Bhatti, Akhlaq Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a local positivity preserving scheme when the data amassed from different sources is positioned at sparse points. The proposed algorithm first triangulates the irregular data using Delauny triangulation method, therewith interpolates each boundary and radial curve of the triangle by C¹ rational trigonometric cubic function. Half of the parameters in the description of the interpolant are constrained to keep up the positive shape of data while the remaining half are set free for users’ requirement. Orthogonality of trigonometric function assures much smoother surface as compared to polynomial functions. The proposed scheme can be of great use in areas of surface reconstruction and deformation, signal processing, CAD/CAM design, solving differential equations, and image restoration. PMID:26057122

  6. Positional demands of professional rugby.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Angus; Draper, Nick; Lewis, John; Gieseg, Steven P; Gill, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union is a physically intense intermittent sport coupled with high force collisions. Each position within a team has specific requirements which are typically based on speed, size and skill. The aim of this study was to investigate the contemporary demands of each position and whether they can explain changes in psychophysiological stress. Urine and saliva samples were collected before and after five selected Super 15 rugby games from 37 players. Total neopterin (NP), cortisol and immunoglobulin A were analysed by SCX-high performance liquid chromatography and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Global positioning system software provided distance data, while live video analysis provided impact data. All contemporary demands were analysed as events per minute of game time. Forwards were involved in more total impacts, tackles and rucks compared to backs (p < 0.001), while backs were involved in more ball carries and covered more total distance and distance at high speed per minute of game time (p < 0.01). Loose forwards, inside and outside backs covered significantly more distance at high speed (p < 0.01), while there was a negligible difference with number of impacts between the forward positions. There was also minimal difference between positions in the percentage change in NP, cortisol and sIgA. The results indicate distance covered and number of impacts per minute of game time is position-dependent whereas changes in psychophysiological stress are independent. This information can be used to adapt training and recovery interventions to better prepare each position based on the physical requirements of the game. PMID:25830235

  7. Head and neck position sense.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, Bridget; McNair, Peter; Taylor, Denise

    2008-01-01

    Traumatic minor cervical strains are common place in high-impact sports (e.g. tackling) and premature degenerative changes have been documented in sports people exposed to recurrent impact trauma (e.g. scrummaging in rugby) or repetitive forces (e.g. Formula 1 racing drivers, jockeys). While proprioceptive exercises have been an integral part of rehabilitation of injuries in the lower limb, they have not featured as prominently in the treatment of cervical injuries. However, head and neck position sense (HNPS) testing and re-training may have relevance in the management of minor sports-related neck injuries, and play a role in reducing the incidence of ongoing pain and problems with function. For efficacious programmes to be developed and tested, fundamental principles associated with proprioception in the cervical spine should be considered. Hence, this article highlights the importance of anatomical structures in the cervical spine responsible for position sense, and how their interaction with the CNS affects our ability to plan and execute effective purposeful movements. This article includes a review of studies examining position sense in subjects with and without pathology and describes the effects of rehabilitation programmes that have sought to improve position sense. In respect to the receptors providing proprioceptive information for the CNS, the high densities and complex arrays of spindles found in cervical muscles suggest that these receptors play a key role. There is some evidence suggesting that ensemble encoding of discharge patterns from muscle spindles is relayed to the CNS and that a pattern recognition system is used to establish joint position and movement. Sensory information from neck proprioceptive receptors is processed in tandem with information from the vestibular system. There are extensive anatomical connections between neck proprioceptive inputs and vestibular inputs. If positional information from the vestibular system is inaccurate or

  8. Relativistic positioning systems: Numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchades Colmenero, Neus

    The position of users located on the Earth's surface or near it may be found with the classic positioning systems (CPS). Certain information broadcast by satellites of global navigation systems, as GPS and GALILEO, may be used for positioning. The CPS are based on the Newtonian formalism, although relativistic post-Newtonian corrections are done when they are necessary. This thesis contributes to the development of a different positioning approach, which is fully relativistic from the beginning. In the relativistic positioning systems (RPS), the space-time position of any user (ship, spacecraft, and so on) can be calculated with the help of four satellites, which broadcast their proper times by means of codified electromagnetic signals. In this thesis, we have simulated satellite 4-tuples of the GPS and GALILEO constellations. If a user receives the signals from four satellites simultaneously, the emission proper times read -after decoding- are the user "emission coordinates". In order to find the user "positioning coordinates", in an appropriate almost inertial reference system, there are two possibilities: (a) the explicit relation between positioning and emission coordinates (broadcast by the satellites) is analytically found or (b) numerical codes are designed to calculate the positioning coordinates from the emission ones. Method (a) is only viable in simple ideal cases, whereas (b) allows us to consider realistic situations. In this thesis, we have designed numerical codes with the essential aim of studying two appropriate RPS, which may be generalized. Sometimes, there are two real users placed in different positions, which receive the same proper times from the same satellites; then, we say that there is bifurcation, and additional data are needed to choose the real user position. In this thesis, bifurcation is studied in detail. We have analyzed in depth two RPS models; in both, it is considered that the satellites move in the Schwarzschild's space

  9. Cryogenic actuator for subnanometer positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bree, B. v.; Janssen, H.; Paalvast, S.; Albers, R.

    2012-09-01

    This paper discusses the development, realization, and qualification of a positioning actuator concept specifically for cryogenic environments. Originally developed for quantum physics research, the actuator also has many applications in astronomic cryogenic instruments to position optical elements with nanometer level accuracy and stability. Typical applications include the correction of thermally induced position errors of optical components after cooling down from ambient to cryogenic temperatures or sample positioning in microscopes. The actuator is nicknamed the ‘PiezoKnob’ because it is piezo based and it is compatible with the typical manipulator knob often found in standard systems for optical benches, such as linear stages or tip/tilt lens holders. Actuation with high stiffness piezo elements enables the Piezoknob to deliver forces up to 50 Newton which allows relatively stiff guiding mechanisms or large pre-loads. The PiezoKnob has been qualified at 77 Kelvin and was shown to work down to 2 Kelvin. As part of the qualification program, the custom developed driving electronics and set point profile have been fine-tuned, by combing measurements with predictions from a dynamic model, thus maximizing efficiency and minimizing power dissipation. Furthermore, the actuator holds its position without power and thanks to its mechanical layout it is absolutely insensitive to drift of the piezo elements or the driving electronics.

  10. Parity and the risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Swedish EIRA study

    PubMed Central

    Orellana, Cecilia; Wedrén, Sara; Källberg, Henrik; Holmqvist, Marie; Karlsson, Elisabeth W.; Alfredsson, Lars; Bengtsson, Camilla

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the impact of parity history on the risk of ACPA- (antibodies to citrullinated peptides antigens) positive/-negative rheumatoid arthritis (RA), in different age-groups. Method Data from a population-based case-control study of female incident RA cases were analysed (2035 cases, 2911 controls, aged 18-70). Parity history was assessed through questionnaire. Parous women were compared with nulliparous, by calculating odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Results Parity was associated with an increased risk of ACPA-negative RA in the age-group 18-44 (OR=2.1, 95% CI 1.4-3.2), but not in the age-group 45-70 (OR=0.9, 95% CI 0.7-1.3). Among young women, an increased risk of ACPA-negative RA was found in those with delivery during the year of symptom onset (OR=2.6, 95% CI 1.4-4.8) and at young age at first birth (<23) (OR=2.5, 95% CI 1.5-4.1).Parity and the postpartum period were not associated with ACPA-positive RA, but older age at first birth was weakly associated with a decreased risk. Conclusions The increased risk of ACPA-negative RA in parous women of reproductive age seemed to be conferred to an increased postpartum risk and to young age at first birth. Further research is needed to explore the biological mechanisms behind our findings. PMID:23887288

  11. Positive Youth Psychology: Lessons from Positive Peer Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinebach, Christoph; Steinebach, Ursula; Brendtro, Larry K.

    2013-01-01

    Positive Peer Culture (PPC) is a strength-oriented approach developed by Vorrath and Brendtro (1985) to prevent or reverse negative peer influence by building a climate of peer concern and respect. PPC operates in a range of settings including residential treatment, alternative schools, juvenile justice, and youth leadership groups. It is an…

  12. Global Position and Position Taking: The Case of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2007-01-01

    From 1990 to 2003, Australia's share of the global market in cross-border degrees grew from 1% to 9%. Full fee-paying foreign students now constitute one quarter of enrolments, and education is Australia's third largest services export. Positioned as an Anglo-American system on the edge of Asia, Australia has differentiated itself from the United…

  13. Variation in natural head position and establishing corrected head position.

    PubMed

    Barbera, A L; Sampson, W J; Townsend, G C

    2014-06-01

    Corrected head position (CHP) has been simulated by using the Frankfurt horizontal (FH) for over 100 years but FH varies between individuals. Because CHP is biologically relevant for orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, orthognathic surgical planning, and art, this study examined relationships between head position and selected cephalometric planes. Natural head position cephalograms of Aboriginal Australians and two contemporary samples from private orthodontic practices were analysed. Each sample comprised 40 individuals (20 males and 20 females). The Aboriginal Australian sample comprised longitudinal data (T1 early adolescent, T2 late adolescent, and T3 adult), enabling examination of natural head position (NHP) reproducibility over a period of approximately 8 years. Results of reproducibility differences revealed an absolute mean=2.9°, range=-7.9° to 8.2°, and standard deviation=3.6°. Stable basicranial line (SBL), neutral horizontal axis (NHA), FH, palatal plane (P plane), and Krogman-Walker plane (KW plane) demonstrated near parallelism and their mean angulations from the true horizontal (HOR) ranged between -4.6° and 2.4°. While NHP is not consistently reproducible at the individual level, the combined use of multiple planes such as SBL, P plane, and KW plane enables a more consistent CHP to be achieved. PMID:24785580

  14. Asserting a Positive Role: HIV-Positive People in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Brent; Leonard, William

    2005-01-01

    The best HIV prevention programs--those that effect change on a multiplicity of levels by changing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and that are sustained over time--are also those that place HIV-positive people at the center of program design, implementation, and evaluation.

  15. The Secondary Principal Position: Preparatory Position for the Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2007-01-01

    The following paper is a synopsis of a study which examined career paths to the Texas public school superintendency. The most common pathways to the superintendency were identified and delineated by educational attainment and gender. Five career paths were identified as the major pathways to the superintendent position. The secondary teacher,…

  16. Impact micro-positioning actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuerden, Brian (Inventor); Angel, J. Roger P. (Inventor); Burge, James H. (Inventor); DeRigne, Scott T. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An impact micro-positioning actuator. In one aspect of the invention, a threaded shaft is threadably received in a nut and the nut is impacted by an impacting device, causing the nut first to rotate relative to the shaft by slipping as a result of shaft inertia and subsequently to stick to the shaft as a result of the frictional force therebetween. The nut is returned to its initial position by a return force provided by a return mechanism after impact. The micro-positioning actuator is further improved by controlling at least one and preferably all of the following: the friction, the impact provided by the impacting device, the return force provided by the return mechanism, and the inertia of the shaft. In another aspect of the invention, a threaded shaft is threadably received in a nut and the shaft is impacted by an impacting device, causing the shaft to rotate relative to the nut.

  17. INTEGRAL POSITIONING AND INDICATING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Frantz, C.E.; Cawley, W.E.; Warnick, R.F.

    1961-07-25

    A variable capacitor which may be used as an integral positioning and indicating device is descried. The apparatus comprises a hollow metal cylinder with a metal rod mounted fixedly along the axis thereof and insulated therefrom. A hollow shaft is slidably mounted between the cylinder and the rod in electrical connection with the cylinder and insulated from the rod. One end of the shaft is disposed between the cylinder and the rod and the other end extends therefrom and may be connected to an object whose position is to be monitored. Means are provided to move the hollow shaft by pressure fluid in the cylinder whereby the capacitance between the rod and the cylinder is varied and measurement of which is a function of the position of the hollow shaft.

  18. Positive interventions in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Tayyab

    2009-05-01

    Mainstream psychotherapy has made huge strides in treating symptoms and disorders, but it has largely overlooked happiness as a therapeutic goal despite frequently hearing from clients, "Doctor, I want to be happy." This issue of Journal of Clinical Psychology: In Session describes a number of positive interventions for specific clinical problems, such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, loss, grief, and relationship distress. Although the name may suggest it, positive interventions do not imply that rest of psychotherapies are negative. Neither are negatives denied nor minimized. Distinct from self-help recipes proffering instant changes, positive psychology interventions refer to systematic approaches to overcome challenges by using clients' strengths and assets. A hybrid psychotherapy-coaching model and strength-based assessment can ask a client "What is right with you?" All articles are supplemented with rich case illustrations. PMID:19294745

  19. Vehicle positioning using image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Amardeep; Watkins, Steve E.; Swift, Theresa M.

    2009-03-01

    An image-processing approach is described that detects the position of a vehicle on a bridge. A load-bearing vehicle must be carefully positioned on a bridge for quantitative bridge monitoring. The personnel required for setup and testing and the time required for bridge closure or traffic control are important management and cost considerations. Consequently, bridge monitoring and inspections are good candidates for smart embedded systems. The objectives of this work are to reduce the need for personnel time and to minimize the time for bridge closure. An approach is proposed that uses a passive target on the bridge and camera instrumentation on the load vehicle. The orientation of the vehicle-mounted camera and the target determine the position. The experiment used pre-defined concentric circles as the target, a FireWire camera for image capture, and MATLAB for computer processing. Various image-processing techniques are compared for determining the orientation of the target circles with respect to speed and accuracy in the positioning application. The techniques for determining the target orientation use algorithms based on using the centroid feature, template matching, color feature, and Hough transforms. Timing parameters are determined for each algorithm to determine the feasibility for real-time use in a position triggering system. Also, the effect of variations in the size and color of the circles are examined. The development can be combined with embedded sensors and sensor nodes for a complete automated procedure. As the load vehicle moves to the proper position, the image-based system can trigger an embedded measurement, which is then transmitted back to the vehicle control computer through a wireless link.

  20. Low noise optical position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Spear, J.D.

    1999-03-09

    A novel optical position sensor is described that uses two component photodiodes electrically connected in parallel, with opposing polarities. A lens provides optical gain and restricts the acceptance angle of the detector. The response of the device to displacements of an optical spot is similar to that of a conventional bi-cell type position sensitive detector. However, the component photodiode design enables simpler electronic amplification with inherently less electrical noise than the bi-cell. Measurements by the sensor of the pointing noise of a focused helium-neon laser as a function of frequency demonstrate high sensitivity and suitability for optical probe beam deflection experiments. 14 figs.

  1. Low noise optical position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Spear, Jonathan David

    1999-01-01

    A novel optical position sensor is described that uses two component photodiodes electrically connected in parallel, with opposing polarities. A lens provides optical gain and restricts the acceptance angle of the detector. The response of the device to displacements of an optical spot is similar to that of a conventional bi-cell type position sensitive detector. However, the component photodiode design enables simpler electronic amplification with inherently less electrical noise than the bi-cell. Measurements by the sensor of the pointing noise of a focused helium-neon laser as a function of frequency demonstrate high sensitivity and suitability for optical probe beam deflection experiments.

  2. Positive partial transpose from spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, Roland

    2007-11-15

    In this paper we solve the following problem. Let H{sub nm} be a Hilbert space of dimension nm, and let A be a positive semidefinite self-adjoint linear operator on H{sub nm}. Under which conditions on the spectrum has A a positive partial transpose (is PPT) with respect to any partition H{sub n} x H{sub m} of the space H{sub nm} as a tensor product of an n-dimensional and an m-dimensional Hilbert space? We show that the necessary and sufficient conditions can be expressed as a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) on the eigenvalues of A.

  3. Solar cell angular position transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, M. C.; Gray, D. L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An angular position transducer utilizing photocells and a light source is disclosed. The device uses a fully rotatable baffle which is connected via an actuator shaft to the body whose rotational displacement is to be measured. The baffle blocks the light path between the light source and the photocells so that a constant semicircular beam of light reaches the photocells. The current produced by the photocells is fed through a resistor, a differential amplifier measures the voltage drop across the resistor which indicates the angular position of the actuator shaft and hence of the object.

  4. A Positive Psychology That Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Shane L.; Magyar-Moe, Jeana L.

    2006-01-01

    The Major Contribution intended to situate positive psychology in counseling psychology's past and future and in the complex world we live and work in today. The four reactions (Frazier, Lee,& Steger; Gerstein; Linley; Mollen, Ethington,& Ridley) provide new insights into how counseling psychology has and will contribute to the study of human…

  5. Positive Psychology: Transforming Young Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    To reach responsible independence, young people must become invested in setting their life course. A rich history of research and practice shows that democratic group climates foster autonomy and prosocial behavior. This article explores principles and practices for creating positive peer cultures to develop strengths and help youth meet their…

  6. HR Positions on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coghill, Carey Cox; Kirk, James J.

    The question of whether the online job market reflects the trends predicted for the job market was examined in a study of a random sample of 690 Internet job postings over a 6-month period. Each listing was categorized by type of position, desired qualifications, salary, and job specifications. Of the human resources (HR) jobs posted, 7.2% were…

  7. Positioning the Undervalued Metropolitan University.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Herbert E.

    1993-01-01

    It is noted that "undervalued metropolitan universities," which generally have open enrollment, low tuition, and a large proportion of nontraditional students, often also have a diffuse and unclear public image. A model positioning concept for these institutions, used by Wright State University (Ohio) is proposed and described. (MSE)

  8. Remote electrically passive position transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ducharme, Alfred D.; Markos, Constantine T.; Rieder, R. J.; Wijntjes, Geert J.

    1999-02-01

    We will report on the design and testing of a precision, remote, via fiber optics position transducer suitable for incorporation in a closed loop fly-by-light positioning system. The design is based on Visidyne developed technology for an ultra high resolution optical radar based on Continuous Wave modulated light at a frequency of 1 GHz. It produces digital position data with 12 bit precision e.g., for a travel distance, stroke of 6 inches or greater at a bandwidth, update rate of 1 KHz. The passive nature of the transducer at the actuator location and the high operating frequency makes it highly tolerant to even extreme levels of Electro Magnetic Interference and when constructed from high temperature material is can operate at temperatures well in excess of 300 degrees C. We will discuss transducer performance, precision and position stability with particular emphasis on the effects of length changes within the multi-mode optical fibers used to deliver and collect the light to and from the transducer. We will also discuss cost aspects of the design and their effect on overcoming market entry barriers.

  9. Features of Positive Developmental Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Reed; Eccles, Jacquelynne; Gootman, Jennifer Appleton

    2004-01-01

    There is very little research that directly specifies what programs can do to facilitate positive adolescent development, or how to tailor these programs to the individual needs of adolescents. However, there is a broad base of knowledge about how development occurs that can be drawn upon. Research demonstrates that certain features of the…

  10. Caseload Assignments. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuRant, Bonnie V.; Gibbons, Linda J.; Poole, Cynthia; Suessmann, Mary; Wyckoff, Leah

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that schools should employ professionally prepared Registered Nurses, to conduct and supervise school health programs which address the variety of health problems experienced by school children. NASN recommends a formula-based approach with minimum ratios of nurses-to-students…

  11. Positive Culture in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osher, David; Fleischman, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Many urban schools are providing high-quality education and are producing high-achieving students, despite facing high student poverty and mobility rates, large number of English language learners and unsafe neighborhood. Positive behavioral supports, caring connections, and social and emotional learning are very essential in creating positive…

  12. Policy Statements and Position Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1981

    1981-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' policy statements on elements of preprofessional, predoctoral, advanced, continuing, and auxiliary education and research, and delivery of care are presented. Position papers on peer review, freedoms and responsibilities of individuals and institutions, national health programs, interdisciplinary…

  13. Policy Statements and Position Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Policy statements and position papers are presented that are intended as recommendations and guidelines for member institutions. They cover education, research, delivery of care, peer review, freedoms and responsibilities of individuals and institutions, national health programs, interdisciplinary education, radiation, and due process. (MLW)

  14. Marijuana and Children. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endsley, Patricia; Embrey, Mary Louise

    2014-01-01

    Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) promote wellness and disease prevention to improve health outcomes for our nation's children. It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the marijuana plant remain under the United States Drug Enforcement Agency's (DEA) Schedule I…

  15. Positive Peer Culture: An Evaluation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loe, David C.

    Group therapy, in general, and positive peer culture (PPC) programs, in particular, are discussed in terms of treatment characteristics and effects on maladaptive adolescent behavior. Topics covered include the three phases (inclusion, power, and affection) of group treatment, difficulties (negative group experiences) produced by group therapy,…

  16. Does Positive Affect Influence Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressman, Sarah D.; Cohen, Sheldon

    2005-01-01

    This review highlights consistent patterns in the literature associating positive affect (PA) and physical health. However, it also raises serious conceptual and methodological reservations. Evidence suggests an association of trait PA and lower morbidity and of state and trait PA and decreased symptoms and pain. Trait PA is also associated with…

  17. Aerospace Education. NSTA Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) has developed a new position statement, "Aerospace Education." NSTA believes that aerospace education is an important component of comprehensive preK-12 science education programs. This statement highlights key considerations that should be addressed when implementing a high quality aerospace education…

  18. Positive Adolescent Choices Training (PACT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, W. Rodney; And Others

    Positive Adolescent Choices Training (PACT) is a health promotion program providing violence prevention programming targeted at black youth, at high risk for becoming either perpetrators or victims of violence. Conducted by the School of Professional Psychology of Wright State University in Dayton, Ohio, in cooperation with Dayton Public Schools,…

  19. The neurobiology of positive emotions.

    PubMed

    Burgdorf, Jeffrey; Panksepp, Jaak

    2006-01-01

    Compared to the study of negative emotions such as fear, the neurobiology of positive emotional processes and the associated positive affect (PA) states has only recently received scientific attention. Biological theories conceptualize PA as being related to (i) signals indicating that bodies are returning to equilibrium among those studying homeostasis, (ii) utility estimation among those favoring neuroeconomic views, and (iii) approach and other instinctual behaviors among those cultivating neuroethological perspectives. Indeed, there are probably several distinct forms of positive affect, but all are closely related to ancient sub-neocortical limbic brain regions we share with other mammals. There is now a convergence of evidence to suggest that various regions of the limbic system, including especially ventral striatal dopamine systems are implemented in an anticipatory (appetitive) positive affective state. Dopamine independent mechanisms utilizing opiate and GABA receptors in the ventral striatum, amygdala and orbital frontal cortex are important in elaborating consummatory PA (i.e. sensory pleasure) states, and various neuropeptides mediate homeostatic satisfactions. PMID:16099508

  20. Positive Psychology: The Emerging Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2000-01-01

    Discusses positive psychology, which focuses on health and well-being utilizing the elements of belief, hope, self-esteem, responsibility, elation, and wisdom as the basis of psychological theory and practice. Describes efforts to change the psychology field, including identifying promising young professionals, establishing monetary prizes, and…

  1. One School's Positive Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Sammie

    Because they felt that students can be responsible for their own behavior, the staff of Jefferson Elementary School, serving 300 students in grades 1 through 4 in a small rural community, developed a program which promoted self-management. In September 1979, teachers participated in an assertive discipline workshop. A Positive Action Plan evolved,…

  2. Teaching Persuasion: A Positive Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenton, Mary C.

    The synthesis of four instructional models for argumentative writing--the Toulmin, Hiduke, Winder, and Crebbe-Debate approaches--with basic discourse theory produces a practical and positive method of teaching college students to write effective persuasive essays. A battery of questions based on a modified communication triangle--subject…

  3. Centrosome positioning in vertebrate development

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Nan; Marshall, Wallace F.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The centrosome, a major organizer of microtubules, has important functions in regulating cell shape, polarity, cilia formation and intracellular transport as well as the position of cellular structures, including the mitotic spindle. By means of these activities, centrosomes have important roles during animal development by regulating polarized cell behaviors, such as cell migration or neurite outgrowth, as well as mitotic spindle orientation. In recent years, the pace of discovery regarding the structure and composition of centrosomes has continuously accelerated. At the same time, functional studies have revealed the importance of centrosomes in controlling both morphogenesis and cell fate decision during tissue and organ development. Here, we review examples of centrosome and centriole positioning with a particular emphasis on vertebrate developmental systems, and discuss the roles of centrosome positioning, the cues that determine positioning and the mechanisms by which centrosomes respond to these cues. The studies reviewed here suggest that centrosome functions extend to the development of tissues and organs in vertebrates. PMID:23277534

  4. Position observations of comet Hyakutake.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guangjie; Ji, Kaifan

    On March 16 of 1996, the authors used a new developed CCD camera attached to the 1 meter telescope at Yunnan Observatory, to take photometric observations for the comet Hyakutake. The positions have been measured accurately. From images observed, one can clearly see that the cometary coma is very large and basically symmetric with a peach shape.

  5. Independent modal space control with positive position feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.; Fedor, J.

    1989-01-01

    An independent modal space control (IMSC) algorithm is presented, whose modal control forces are generated from a positive position feedback (PPF) strategy. The proposed algorithm combines the attributes of both the IMSC and the PPF, and maintains the simplicity of the IMSC as it designs the controller of a complex structure at the uncoupled modal level. The effectiveness of the algorithm in damping out the vibration of flexible structures is validated experimentally. A simple cantilevered beam is employed as an example of a flexible structure whose multimodes of vibration are controlled by a single actuator. Performance of the active control system is determined in the frequency and the time domains. The experimental results indicate the potential of the proposed methodology as a viable method for controlling the vibration of large flexible structures.

  6. Renewable Energy Positioning System: Energy Positioning: Control and Economics

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    GENI Project: The University of Washington and the University of Michigan are developing an integrated system to match well-positioned energy storage facilities with precise control technologies so the electric grid can more easily include energy from renewable power sources like wind and solar. Because renewable energy sources provide intermittent power, it is difficult for the grid to efficiently allocate those resources without developing solutions to store their energy for later use. The two universities are working with utilities, regulators, and the private sector to position renewable energy storage facilities in locations that optimize their ability to provide and transmit electricity where and when it is needed most. Expanding the network of transmission lines is prohibitively expensive, so combining well-placed storage facilities with robust control systems to efficiently route their power will save consumers money and enable the widespread use of safe, renewable sources of power.

  7. Method and Apparatus for Determining Position Using Global Positioning Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, John L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A global positioning satellite receiver having an antenna for receiving a L1 signal from a satellite is presented. The L1 signal is processed by a preamplifier stage including a band pass filter and a low noise amplifier and output as a radio frequency (RF) signal. A mixer receives and de-spreads the RF signal in response to a pseudo-random noise code, i,e., Gold code, generated by an internal pseudo-random noise code generator. A microprocessor enters a code tracking loop, such that during the code tracking loop, it addresses the pseudorandom code generator to cause the pseudo-random code generator to sequentially output pseudo-random codes corresponding to satellite codes used to spread the L1 signal, until correlation occurs. When an output of the mixer is indicative of the occurrence of correlation between the RF signal and the generated pseudo-random codes, the microprocessor caters an operational state which slows the receiver code sequence to stay locked with the satellite cede sequence. The output of the mixer is provided to a detector which, in turn, controls certain routines of the microprocessor. The microprocessor will output pseudo range information according to an interrupt routine in response detection of correlation. The pseudo range information is to be telemetered to a ground station which determines the position of the global positioning satellite receiver.

  8. Method and apparatus for determining position using global positioning satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, John (Inventor); Ward, William S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A global positioning satellite receiver having an antenna for receiving a L1 signal from a satellite. The L1 signal is processed by a preamplifier stage including a band pass filter and a low noise amplifier and output as a radio frequency (RF) signal. A mixer receives and de-spreads the RF signal in response to a pseudo-random noise code, i.e., Gold code, generated by an internal pseudo-random noise code generator. A microprocessor enters a code tracking loop, such that during the code tracking loop, it addresses the pseudo-random code generator to cause the pseudo-random code generator to sequentially output pseudo-random codes corresponding to satellite codes used to spread the L1 signal, until correlation occurs. When an output of the mixer is indicative of the occurrence of correlation between the RF signal and the generated pseudo-random codes, the microprocessor enters an operational state which slows the receiver code sequence to stay locked with the satellite code sequence. The output of the mixer is provided to a detector which, in turn, controls certain routines of the microprocessor. The microprocessor will output pseudo range information according to an interrupt routine in response detection of correlation. The pseudo range information is to be telemetered to a ground station which determines the position of the global positioning satellite receiver.

  9. Why Aren't We There Yet? Taking Personal Responsibility for Creating an Inclusive Campus. An ACPA Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arminio, Jan, Ed.; Torres, Vasti, Ed.; Pope, Raechele L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Despite seeming endless debate and public attention given to the issue for several decades, those committed to creating welcoming and engaging campus environments for all students recognize that there is considerably more work to be done, and ask "Why aren't we there yet, and when will we be done?" While our campuses have evolved from being…

  10. Position and orientation tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Burks, Barry L.; DePiero, Fred W.; Armstrong, Gary A.; Jansen, John F.; Muller, Richard C.; Gee, Timothy F.

    1998-01-01

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning appaus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle.

  11. Position and orientation tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Muller, R.C.; Gee, T.F.

    1998-05-05

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning apparatus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle. 14 figs.

  12. Revised position on natural hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Folger, Peter

    At the 2000 Fall Meeting in December, the AGU Council reaffirmed a revised version of AGU's position statement, “Meeting the Challenges of Natural Hazards.” This position was first adopted in 1996. The revised version (see accompanying text box) contains the same message as the original, but in concise language more easily understood by policy-makers and other non-scientists.The statement calls for more research in the geophysical processes to help understand the nature of natural hazards. However, it also clearly indicates that research alone will not improve the ability of society to withstand a natural disaster. Multidisciplinary approaches involving groups as disparate as builders, insurers, and relief organizations are required to improve mitigation efforts worldwide. The policy statement also emphasizes the need to communicate the results of scientific research to the public, especially those communities situated in areas particularly susceptible to extreme natural hazards.

  13. The STAR Vertex Position Detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Llope, W. J.; Zhou, J.; Nussbaum, T.; Hoffmann, G. W.; Asselta, K.; Brandenburg, J. D.; Butterworth, J.; Camarda, T.; Christie, W.; Crawford, H. J.; Dong, X.; Engelage, J.; Eppley, G.; Geurts, F.; Hammond, J.; Judd, E.; McDonald, D. L.; Perkins, C.; Ruan, L.; Scheblein, J.; Schambach, J. J.; Soja, R.; Xin, K.; Yang, C.

    2014-09-01

    The 2×3 channel pseudo Vertex Position Detector (pVPD) in the STAR experiment at RHIC has been upgraded to a 2×19 channel detector in the same acceptance, called the Vertex Position Detector (VPD). This detector is fully integrated into the STAR trigger system and provides the primary input to the minimum-bias trigger in Au+Au collisions. The information from the detector is used both in the STAR Level-0 trigger and offline to measure the location of the primary collision vertex along the beam pipe and the event "start time" needed by other fast-timing detectors in STAR. The offline timing resolution of single detector channels in full-energy Au+Au collisions is ~100 ps, resulting in a start time resolution of a few tens of picoseconds and a resolution on the primary vertex location of ~1 cm.

  14. Flight representative positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1977-01-01

    Resolutions were developed for each problem encountered and a tradeoff analysis was performed to select a final configuration for a flight representative PID (Positive Isolation Disconnect) that is reduced in size and comparable in weight and pressure drop to the developmental PID. A 6.35 mm (1/4-inch) line size PID was fabricated and tested. The flight representative PID consists of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation. Future development efforts for the Space Shuttle subsystems that would benefit from the use of the positive isolation disconnect are also recommended. Customary units were utilized for principal measurements and calculations with conversion factors being inserted in equations to convert the results to the international system of units.

  15. Tevatron beam position monitor upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbers, Stephen; Banerjee, B.; Barker, B.; Bledsoe, S.; Boes, T.; Bowden, M.; Cancelo, G.; Forster, B.; Duerling, G.; Haynes, B.; Hendricks, B.; Kasza, T.; Kutschke, R.; Mahlum, R.; Martens, M.; Mengel, M.; Olson, M.; Pavlicek, V.; Pham, T.; Piccoli, L.; Steimel, J.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    The Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) readout electronics and software have been upgraded to improve measurement precision, functionality and reliability. The original system, designed and built in the early 1980's, became inadequate for current and future operations of the Tevatron. The upgraded system consists of 960 channels of new electronics to process analog signals from 240 BPMs, new front-end software, new online and controls software, and modified applications to take advantage of the improved measurements and support the new functionality. The new system reads signals from both ends of the existing directional stripline pickups to provide simultaneous proton and antiproton position measurements. Measurements using the new system are presented that demonstrate its improved resolution and overall performance.

  16. System for precise position registration

    DOEpatents

    Sundelin, Ronald M.; Wang, Tong

    2005-11-22

    An apparatus for enabling accurate retaining of a precise position, such as for reacquisition of a microscopic spot or feature having a size of 0.1 mm or less, on broad-area surfaces after non-in situ processing. The apparatus includes a sample and sample holder. The sample holder includes a base and three support posts. Two of the support posts interact with a cylindrical hole and a U-groove in the sample to establish location of one point on the sample and a line through the sample. Simultaneous contact of the third support post with the surface of the sample defines a plane through the sample. All points of the sample are therefore uniquely defined by the sample and sample holder. The position registration system of the current invention provides accuracy, as measured in x, y repeatability, of at least 140 .mu.m.

  17. Positive signs in massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.

    2016-04-01

    We derive new constraints on massive gravity from unitarity and analyticity of scattering amplitudes. Our results apply to a general effective theory defined by Einstein gravity plus the leading soft diffeomorphism-breaking corrections. We calculate scattering amplitudes for all combinations of tensor, vector, and scalar polarizations. The high-energy behavior of these amplitudes prescribes a specific choice of couplings that ameliorates the ultraviolet cutoff, in agreement with existing literature. We then derive consistency conditions from analytic dispersion relations, which dictate positivity of certain combinations of parameters appearing in the forward scattering amplitudes. These constraints exclude all but a small island in the parameter space of ghost-free massive gravity. While the theory of the "Galileon" scalar mode alone is known to be inconsistent with positivity constraints, this is remedied in the full massive gravity theory.

  18. PAL: A Positional Astronomy Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenness, T.; Berry, D. S.

    2013-10-01

    PAL is a new positional astronomy library written in C that attempts to retain the SLALIB API but is distributed with an open source GPL license. The library depends on the IAU SOFA library wherever a SOFA routine exists and uses the most recent nutation and precession models. Currently about 100 of the 200 SLALIB routines are available. Interfaces are also available from Perl and Python. PAL is freely available via github.

  19. Electronic Tag and Position Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    The intent of this study phase program was to adequately define the Electronic Tag and Position Sensor chip so as to be able to price and schedule the full design and development culminating in a silicon IC. Therefore, even though Hughes Aircraft Company feels that the approach submitted in this document is what should be developed, it is still considered preliminary and could change as the full design is developed.

  20. Capacitive Position Sensor For Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, Thomas R.; Kaiser, William J.; Kenny, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Capacitive position sensor measures displacement of proof mass in prototype accelerometer described in "Single-Crystal Springs for Accelerometers" (NPO-18795). Sensor is ultrasensitive, miniature device operating at ultra-high frequency and described in more detail in "Ultra-High-Frequency Capacitive Displacement Sensor," (NPO-18675). Advances in design and fabrication of prototype accelerometer also applicable to magnetometers and other sensors in which sensed quantities measured in terms of deflections of small springs.

  1. Positive lightning and severe weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, C.; Murphy, B.

    2003-04-01

    In recent years researchers have noticed that severe weather (tornados, hail and damaging winds) are closely related to the amount of positive lightning occurring in thunderstorms. On 4 July 1999, a severe derecho (wind storm) caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators for short-term forecasts of severe weather.

  2. [Positive skin test and age

    PubMed

    Forte, W C; Júnior, F F; Filho, W D; Shibata, E; Henriques, L S; Mastroti, R A; Guedes, M da S

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate positive responses to skin tests for immediate hypersensitivity to allergens in children with asthma and rhinitis at different ages. METHOD: We observed positive skin test reactivity in prick tests using fifteen allergens of same origin (total dust and Dermatophagoides sp.; Dermatophagoides pteronyssinus; Dermatophagoides farinae; Blomia tropicalis; Penicillium sp; Alternaria alternata; Cladosporium herbarium; Aspergillus fumigatus; Bermuda grass; forage grass; dog and cat epithelia; feathers; Blatella germanica and wool). We placed 713 selected patients into different age groups - Group I: 6 to 11 months; Group II: 1 to 3 years and 11 months; Group III: 4 to 8 years and 11 months; and Group IV: 9 to 15 years. We used the chi-square test for statistical analysis. RESULTS: The total significant differences between these groups were: I to II = 5; II to III = 5; II to IV = 5; III to IV = 6; I to III = 10; and I to IV = 10. CONCLUSION: Skin test reactivity is acquired progressively with age, and can be observed as early as at 12 months. Reactivity is significantly more positive from the age of 4 on. PMID:14647601

  3. Procedure for developing Union position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1. Position statements will be restricted to those issues that fall within the guidelines approved by the Council. 2. Requests for position statements are referred immediately to the Public Affairs Committee. 3. If a request seems to fall within Union guidelines, the committee will recommend that the President of the Union appoint an independent panel charged with drafting a statement. The panel will include at least one member nominated by the Public Affairs Committee, the originator of the request, and one member of Council. 4. The Council and the membership will be informed that the panel is working on the issue and that comments are welcome. 5. The panel will prepare a statement for circulation to the Council of the Union. 6. Members of Council (or Executive Committee when timeliness is critical) will be asked to vote or to comment on the proposed statement. This vote is to be taken at regularly scheduled meetings except where timeliness is critical. Concurrence of two thirds is required for adoption. 7. All adopted position statements will be published in Eos as soon as possible. 8. Once a statement has been approved, the Public Affairs Committee will endeavor to apply its expertise to making advocacy of its contents as effective as possible.

  4. Occupational exposure to textile dust increases the risk of rheumatoid arthritis: results from a Malaysian population-based case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Too, Chun Lai; Muhamad, Nor Asiah; Ilar, Anna; Padyukov, Leonid; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars; Murad, Shahnaz; Bengtsson, Camilla

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Lung exposures including cigarette smoking and silica exposure are associated with the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We investigated the association between textile dust exposure and the risk of RA in the Malaysian population, with a focus on women who rarely smoke. Methods Data from the Malaysian Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis population-based case–control study involving 910 female early RA cases and 910 female age-matched controls were analysed. Self-reported information on ever/never occupationally exposed to textile dust was used to estimate the risk of developing anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)-positive and ACPA-negative RA. Interaction between textile dust and the human leucocyte antigen DR β-1 (HLA-DRB1) shared epitope (SE) was evaluated by calculating the attributable proportion due to interaction (AP), with 95% CI. Results Occupational exposure to textile dust was significantly associated with an increased risk of developing RA in the Malaysian female population (OR 2.8, 95% CI 1.6 to 5.2). The association between occupational exposure to textile dust and risk of RA was uniformly observed for the ACPA-positive RA (OR 2.5, 95% CI 1.3 to 4.8) and ACPA-negative RA (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.7 to 7.0) subsets, respectively. We observed a significant interaction between exposure to occupational textile dust and HLA-DRB1 SE alleles regarding the risk of ACPA-positive RA (OR for double exposed: 39.1, 95% CI 5.1 to 297.5; AP: 0.8, 95% CI 0.5 to 1.2). Conclusions This is the first study demonstrating that textile dust exposure is associated with an increased risk for RA. In addition, a gene–environment interaction between HLA-DRB1 SE and textile dust exposure provides a high risk for ACPA-positive RA. PMID:26681695

  5. Geometrical Positioning Schemes Based on Hybrid Lines of Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Jium-Ming; Liu, Wen-Hsiung; Chi, Ching-Lung

    To achieve more accurate measurements of the mobile station (MS) location, it is possible to integrate many kinds of measurements. In this paper we proposed several simpler methods that utilized time of arrival (TOA) at three base stations (BSs) and the angle of arrival (AOA) information at the serving BS to give location estimation of the MS in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments. From the viewpoint of geometric approach, for each a TOA value measured at any BS, one can generate a circle. Rather than applying the nonlinear circular lines of position (LOP), the proposed methods are much easier by using linear LOP to determine the MS. Numerical results demonstrate that the calculation time of using linear LOP is much less than employing circular LOP. Although the location precision of using linear LOP is only reduced slightly. However, the proposed efficient methods by using linear LOP can still provide precise solution of MS location and reduce the computational effort greatly. In addition, the proposed methods with less effort can mitigate the NLOS effect, simply by applying the weighted sum of the intersections between different linear LOP and the AOA line, without requiring priori knowledge of NLOS error statistics. Simulation results show that the proposed methods can always yield superior performance in comparison with Taylor series algorithm (TSA) and the hybrid lines of position algorithm (HLOP).

  6. Basic Concepts of Positional Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruggles, Clive L. N.

    This article describes and defines a number of basic concepts that are commonly used in archaeoastronomy and ethnoastronomy, sometimes in particular ways, and attempts to clarify some of the issues of confusion that frequently arise. It is aimed primarily at archaeologists and ethnographers entering or exploring the field and emphasizes the broad principles that are generally of importance to them, while trying to avoid unnecessary complications as well as technical details. It is not aimed at those studying historical sources from antiquity onward, who need a more sophisticated knowledge of positional astronomy, mathematically formulated. Further detail can be found in a variety of sources, including a number aimed specifically at archaeoastronomers.

  7. Russian Soyuz in Launch Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Soyuz TM-31 launch vehicle is shown in the vertical position for its launch from Baikonur, carrying the first resident crew to the International Space Station. The Russian Soyuz launch vehicle is an expendable spacecraft that evolved out of the original Class A (Sputnik). From the early 1960s until today, the Soyuz launch vehicle has been the backbone of Russia's marned and unmanned space launch fleet. Today, the Soyuz launch vehicle is marketed internationally by a joint Russian/French consortium called STARSEM. As of August 2001, there have been ten Soyuz missions under the STARSEM banner.

  8. Positional Cloning by Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Maniatis, Nikolas; Collins, Andrew; Gibson, Jane; Zhang, Weihua; Tapper, William; Morton, Newton E.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, metric linkage disequilibrium (LD) maps that assign an LD unit (LDU) location for each marker have been developed (Maniatis et al. 2002). Here we present a multiple pairwise method for positional cloning by LD within a composite likelihood framework and investigate the operating characteristics of maps in physical units (kb) and LDU for two bodies of data (Daly et al. 2001; Jeffreys et al. 2001) on which current ideas of blocks are based. False-negative indications of a disease locus (type II error) were examined by selecting one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at a time as causal and taking its allelic count (0, 1, or 2, for the three genotypes) as a pseudophenotype, Y. By use of regression and correlation, association between every pseudophenotype and the allelic count of each SNP locus (X) was based on an adaptation of the Malecot model, which includes a parameter for location of the putative gene. By expressing locations in kb or LDU, greater power for localization was observed when the LDU map was fitted. The efficiency of the kb map, relative to the LDU map, to describe LD varied from a maximum of 0.87 to a minimum of 0.36, with a mean of 0.62. False-positive indications of a disease locus (type I error) were examined by simulating an unlinked causal SNP and the allele count was used as a pseudophenotype. The type I error was in good agreement with Wald’s likelihood theorem for both metrics and all models that were tested. Unlike tests that select only the most significant marker, haplotype, or haploset, these methods are robust to large numbers of markers in a candidate region. Contrary to predictions from tagging SNPs that retain haplotype diversity, the sample with smaller size but greater SNP density gave less error. The locations of causal SNPs were estimated with the same precision in blocks and steps, suggesting that block definition may be less useful than anticipated for mapping a causal SNP. These results provide a guide to

  9. Positive ethics and dental students.

    PubMed

    Abelson, Sigmund H

    2008-01-01

    Recent negative publicity has drawn attention away from recognizing and celebrating the ways today's dental students differ in a positive fashion from previous generations of dental students who may have suffered the same ethical lapses we are hearing about now. Dental students are more diverse than their predecessors and learn to develop a sense of integrity that encompasses more toleration of alternative cultures. They are group-oriented, which expresses itself in sharing responsibility for their colleagues, both in educational settings and in their practices. With guidance from senior dentists and organized dentistry, they will contribute inclusiveness and group responsibility and thus strengthen the profession. PMID:18777890

  10. Fluorescent fluid interface position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2004-02-17

    A new fluid interface position sensor has been developed, which is capable of optically determining the location of an interface between an upper fluid and a lower fluid, the upper fluid having a larger refractive index than a lower fluid. The sensor functions by measurement, of fluorescence excited by an optical pump beam which is confined within a fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the lower fluid, but escapes from the fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the upper fluid.

  11. Diffraction encoded position measuring apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Tansey, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    When a lightwave passes through a transmission grating, diffracted beams appear at the output or opposite side of the grating that are effectively Doppler shifted in frequency (phase) whereby a detector system can compare the phase of the zero order and higher order beams to obtain an indication of position. Multiple passes through the grating increase resolution for a given wavelength of a laser signal. The resolution can be improved further by using a smaller wavelength laser to generate the grating itself. Since the grating must only have a pitch sufficient to produce diffracted orders, inexpensive, ultraviolet wavelength lasers can be utilized and still obtain high resolution detection.

  12. Diffraction encoded position measuring apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Tansey, R.J.

    1991-09-24

    When a lightwave passes through a transmission grating, diffracted beams appear at the output or opposite side of the grating that are effectively Doppler shifted in frequency (phase) whereby a detector system can compare the phase of the zero order and higher order beams to obtain an indication of position. Multiple passes through the grating increase resolution for a given wavelength of a laser signal. The resolution can be improved further by using a smaller wavelength laser to generate the grating itself. Since the grating must only have a pitch sufficient to produce diffracted orders, inexpensive, ultraviolet wavelength lasers can be utilized and still obtain high resolution detection. 3 figures.

  13. Positive Emotion Facilitates Audiovisual Binding

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Miho S.; Watanabe, Katsumi; Kitagawa, Norimichi

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that positive emotions can facilitate integrative and associative information processing in cognitive functions. The present study examined whether emotions in observers can also enhance perceptual integrative processes. We tested 125 participants in total for revealing the effects of emotional states and traits in observers on the multisensory binding between auditory and visual signals. Participants in Experiment 1 observed two identical visual disks moving toward each other, coinciding, and moving away, presented with a brief sound. We found that for participants with lower depressive tendency, induced happy moods increased the width of the temporal binding window of the sound-induced bounce percept in the stream/bounce display, while no effect was found for the participants with higher depressive tendency. In contrast, no effect of mood was observed for a simple audiovisual simultaneity discrimination task in Experiment 2. These results provide the first empirical evidence of a dependency of multisensory binding upon emotional states and traits, revealing that positive emotions can facilitate the multisensory binding processes at a perceptual level. PMID:26834585

  14. Ultra-precision positioning assembly

    DOEpatents

    Montesanti, Richard C.; Locke, Stanley F.; Thompson, Samuel L.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for ultra-precision positioning. A slide base provides a foundational support. A slide plate moves with respect to the slide base along a first geometric axis. Either a ball-screw or a piezoelectric actuator working separate or in conjunction displaces the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis. A linking device directs a primary force vector into a center-line of the ball-screw. The linking device consists of a first link which directs a first portion of the primary force vector to an apex point, located along the center-line of the ball-screw, and a second link for directing a second portion of the primary force vector to the apex point. A set of rails, oriented substantially parallel to the center-line of the ball-screw, direct movement of the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis and are positioned such that the apex point falls within a geometric plane formed by the rails. The slide base, the slide plate, the ball-screw, and the linking device together form a slide assembly. Multiple slide assemblies can be distributed about a platform. In such a configuration, the platform may be raised and lowered, or tipped and tilted by jointly or independently displacing the slide plates.

  15. Inertial Pointing and Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Robert (Inventor); Robbins, Fred (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An inertial pointing and control system and method for pointing to a designated target with known coordinates from a platform to provide accurate position, steering, and command information. The system continuously receives GPS signals and corrects Inertial Navigation System (INS) dead reckoning or drift errors. An INS is mounted directly on a pointing instrument rather than in a remote location on the platform for-monitoring the terrestrial position and instrument attitude. and for pointing the instrument at designated celestial targets or ground based landmarks. As a result. the pointing instrument and die INS move independently in inertial space from the platform since the INS is decoupled from the platform. Another important characteristic of the present system is that selected INS measurements are combined with predefined coordinate transformation equations and control logic algorithms under computer control in order to generate inertial pointing commands to the pointing instrument. More specifically. the computer calculates the desired instrument angles (Phi, Theta. Psi). which are then compared to the Euler angles measured by the instrument- mounted INS. and forms the pointing command error angles as a result of the compared difference.

  16. Independent positioning of magnetic nanomotors.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Pranay; Chopra, Vaishali; Ghosh, Ambarish

    2015-05-26

    There is considerable interest in powering and maneuvering nanostructures remotely in fluidic media using noninvasive fuel-free methods, for which small homogeneous magnetic fields are ideally suited. Current strategies include helical propulsion of chiral nanostructures, cilia-like motion of flexible filaments, and surface assisted translation of asymmetric colloidal doublets and magnetic nanorods, in all of which the individual structures are moved in a particular direction that is completely tied to the characteristics of the driving fields. As we show in this paper, when we use appropriate magnetic field configurations and actuation time scales, it is possible to maneuver geometrically identical nanostructures in different directions, and subsequently position them at arbitrary locations with respect to each other. The method reported here requires proximity of the nanomotors to a solid surface, and could be useful in applications that require remote and independent control over individual components in microfluidic environments. PMID:25824608

  17. Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Fyfe, Richard W.; Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo

    1990-01-01

    An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

  18. Dancing genomes: fungal nuclear positioning

    PubMed Central

    Gladfelter, Amy; Berman, Judith

    2009-01-01

    The many different mechanisms that fungi use to transmit and share genetic material are mediated by a broad range of chromosome and nuclear dynamics. The mechanics underlying nuclear migration are well integrated into detailed models, in which the forces supplied by plus- and minus-end-directed microtubule motors position and move the nucleus in a cell. Although we know much about how cells move nuclei, we know much less about why the cell invests in so many different nuclear ‘dances’. Here, we briefly survey the available models for the mechanics of nuclear migration in fungi and then focus on examples of how fungal cells use these nuclear dances — the movement of intact nuclei in and between cells — to control the integrity, ploidy and assortment of specific genomes or individual chromosomes. PMID:19898490

  19. NASN position statement: caseload assignments.

    PubMed

    Durant, Bonnie V; Gibbons, Linda J; Poole, Cynthia; Suessmanm, Mary; Wyckoff, Leah

    2011-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that schools should employ professionally prepared Registered Nurses, to conduct and supervise school health programs which address the variety of health problems experienced by school children. NASN recommends a formula-based approach with minimum ratios of nurses-to-students depending on the needs of the student populations as follows: 1:750 for students in the general population, 1:225 in the student populations requiring daily professional school nursing services or interventions, 1:125 in student populations with complex health care needs, and 1:1 may be necessary for individual students who require daily and continuous professional nursing services. Other factors that should be considered in the formula-based approach are number of students on free or reduced lunch, number of students with a medical home, and average number of emergency services per year. PMID:21291082

  20. Ode to positive constructive daydreaming

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Rebecca L.; Kaufman, Scott Barry; Singer, Jerome L.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 60 years ago, Jerome L. Singer launched a groundbreaking research program into daydreaming (Singer, 1955, 1975, 2009) that presaged and laid the foundation for virtually every major strand of mind wandering research active today (Antrobus, 1999; Klinger, 1999, 2009). Here we review Singer’s enormous contribution to the field, which includes insights, methodologies, and tools still in use today, and trace his enduring legacy as revealed in the recent proliferation of mind wandering studies. We then turn to the central theme in Singer’s work, the adaptive nature of positive constructive daydreaming, which was a revolutionary idea when Singer began his work in the 1950s and remains underreported today. Last, we propose a new approach to answering the enduring question: Why does mind wandering persist and occupy so much of our time, as much as 50% of our waking time according to some estimates, if it is as costly as most studies suggest? PMID:24065936

  1. Ode to positive constructive daydreaming.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Rebecca L; Kaufman, Scott Barry; Singer, Jerome L

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 60 years ago, Jerome L. Singer launched a groundbreaking research program into daydreaming (Singer, 1955, 1975, 2009) that presaged and laid the foundation for virtually every major strand of mind wandering research active today (Antrobus, 1999; Klinger, 1999, 2009). Here we review Singer's enormous contribution to the field, which includes insights, methodologies, and tools still in use today, and trace his enduring legacy as revealed in the recent proliferation of mind wandering studies. We then turn to the central theme in Singer's work, the adaptive nature of positive constructive daydreaming, which was a revolutionary idea when Singer began his work in the 1950s and remains underreported today. Last, we propose a new approach to answering the enduring question: Why does mind wandering persist and occupy so much of our time, as much as 50% of our waking time according to some estimates, if it is as costly as most studies suggest? PMID:24065936

  2. GPS Position Time Series @ JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Susan; Moore, Angelyn; Kedar, Sharon; Liu, Zhen; Webb, Frank; Heflin, Mike; Desai, Shailen

    2013-01-01

    Different flavors of GPS time series analysis at JPL - Use same GPS Precise Point Positioning Analysis raw time series - Variations in time series analysis/post-processing driven by different users. center dot JPL Global Time Series/Velocities - researchers studying reference frame, combining with VLBI/SLR/DORIS center dot JPL/SOPAC Combined Time Series/Velocities - crustal deformation for tectonic, volcanic, ground water studies center dot ARIA Time Series/Coseismic Data Products - Hazard monitoring and response focused center dot ARIA data system designed to integrate GPS and InSAR - GPS tropospheric delay used for correcting InSAR - Caltech's GIANT time series analysis uses GPS to correct orbital errors in InSAR - Zhen Liu's talking tomorrow on InSAR Time Series analysis

  3. Natural head position: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Meiyappan, N.; Tamizharasi, S.; Senthilkumar, K. P.; Janardhanan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Cephalometrics has given us a different perspective of interpreting various skeletal problems in the dentofacial complex. Natural head position (NHP) is a reproducible, physiologically determined aspect of function. To determine NHP, a horizontal or vertical reference line outside the crania was used, but preference was given generally to the horizontal. Various intra and extracranial cephalometric horizontal reference planes have been used to formulate diagnosis and plan individualized treatment for an integrated correction of the malocclusion cephalometrics is constantly undergoing refinements in its techniques and analyses to improve the clinical applications. Even though various methods for establishing NHP have been proposed, still it remains a challenge to the clinicians to implement the concept of NHP thoroughly in all the stages of treatment because of practical difficulties in the clinical scenario. PMID:26538891

  4. [Empathic leadership: shaping positive change].

    PubMed

    Wetterauer, U; Ruhl, S

    2011-12-01

    This paper explains the concept of empathic leadership in the setting of fundamental organisational changes. It deals with the question of how you can establish a culture of leadership, which motivates employees positively and enthuses them for the upcoming changes. It discusses the basics of empathic leadership and considers the question of how handling of emotions influences change processes and how different management styles can be used supportively during changes. With the help of a practical example the different phases of change are presented from a management point of view. Thereby the theory of different levels of employee motivation is explained inter alia. The article shows that empathic leadership also has a lasting economic effect. This can be seen particularly in the power of motivation for change, in addition to recruitment and long-term employee retention. PMID:22159703

  5. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    PubMed

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited. PMID:6913282

  6. Positive Health Practices of Urban Minority Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahat, Ganga; Scoloveno, MaryAnn; Whalen, Colleen

    2002-01-01

    Examined factors related to health practices of urban minority adolescents. Participant surveys highlighted positive correlations between social support and positive health practices and hope and positive health practices. There was no significant relationship between self-esteem and positive health practices. Implications for school nursing…

  7. 17 CFR 150.2 - Position limits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Position limits. 150.2 Section 150.2 Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION LIMITS ON POSITIONS § 150.2 Position limits. No person may hold or control positions, separately or in combination, net...

  8. 14 CFR 31.65 - Position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Position lights. 31.65 Section 31.65... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.65 Position lights. (a) If position lights are installed, there must be one steady aviation white position light and one flashing aviation red (or...

  9. 14 CFR 31.65 - Position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Position lights. 31.65 Section 31.65... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.65 Position lights. (a) If position lights are installed, there must be one steady aviation white position light and one flashing aviation red (or...

  10. 14 CFR 31.65 - Position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Position lights. 31.65 Section 31.65... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.65 Position lights. (a) If position lights are installed, there must be one steady aviation white position light and one flashing aviation red (or...

  11. 14 CFR 31.65 - Position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Position lights. 31.65 Section 31.65... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.65 Position lights. (a) If position lights are installed, there must be one steady aviation white position light and one flashing aviation red (or...

  12. Positionalities, Personal Epistemologies, and Instruction: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Individuals' sense of who they are and what their positions are in relation to others is known to be their positionality. Positionalities influence individuals' conception of the world, thus their epistemologies. A few of the positionalities that exist, and included in this paper, are gender, spirituality, race/ethnicity, and social class. All…

  13. 14 CFR 31.65 - Position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Position lights. 31.65 Section 31.65... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.65 Position lights. (a) If position lights are installed, there must be one steady aviation white position light and one flashing aviation red (or...

  14. Position sensors for segmented mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozière, Didier; Buous, Sébastien; Courteville, Alain

    2004-09-01

    There are currently several projects for giant telescopes with segmented mirrors under way. These future telescopes will have their primary mirror made of several thousand segments. The main advantage of segmentation is that it enables the active control of the whole mirror, so as to suppress the deformations of the support structure due to the wind, gravity, thermal inhomogeneities etc. ..., thus getting the best possible stigmatism. However, providing active control of segmented mirrors requires numerous accurate edges sensors. It is acknowledged that capacitance-based technology nowadays offers the best metrological performances-to-cost ratio. As the leader in capacitive technology, FOGALE nanotech offers an original concept which reduces the cost of instrumentation, sensors and electronics, while keeping a very high level of performances with a manufacturing process completely industrialised. We present here the sensors developed for the Segment Alignment Measurement System (SAMS) of the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). This patented solution represents an important improvement in terms of cost, to market the Position Sensors for Segmented Mirrors of ELTs, whilst maintaining a very high performance level. We present here the concept, the laboratory qualification, and the first trials on the 7 central segments of SALT. The laboratory results are good, and we are now working on the on-site implementation to improve the immunity of the sensors to environment.

  15. Population policy: major party positions.

    PubMed

    Betts, K

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies the major political party positions on population policy (PP) in Australia. Australia has the Governing Coalition, comprised of the Liberal and National Parties, and the Australian Labor Party (ALP), the main opposition party. The ALP adopted a PP at its national conference in 1998. The Government Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (DIMA) does not view a PP as a need. The ALP policy identifies the need to decide on a long term sustainable population size as determined within a PP framework. The visa classification system needs to reflect national priorities. Labor will support a fair refugee and humanitarian program. Skilled labor migration must be linked with labor market needs. Business migration is a means of transferring resources and technology to Australia. The DIMA Minister announced the target intake of 80,000 visa immigrants in 1998- 99, which would produce a peak population of about 23 million in 2050. Settler arrivals from New Zealand would increase population size. A group of scientists and scholars published their recommendations about development of a PP. The Minister of DIMA's defense of the lack of a PP is included in this publication. Labor in several publications indicates support for a larger immigration intake, or an adjustment of the intake within the existing numbers. The Prime Minister, who supports the concept of multiculturalism, argues that people must accept immigration policy. Politics today are more divided over the origin and future of the nation than population size issues. PMID:12294231

  16. [Psychogenic tremor: a positive diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Redondo, L; Morgado, Y; Durán, E

    2010-01-01

    Psychogenic movement disorders are a daily challenge for the neurologist. A mistake in its recognition may have important consequences for the patients. As a result, the diagnosis must be considered very carefully in clinical practice. However, psychogenic movement disorders are not unusual, are mainly tremors, and a wrong diagnosis is common. Psychogenic is an unspecific term that usually masks the real mental disorder, and should be called somatoform disorders, factitious disorders, malingering, depression, anxiety and histrionic personality disorder, although the absence of a psychiatric diagnosis does not preclude a psychogenic cause. The diagnosis may often be difficult and should be made by an expert neurologist. Organic movement disorders must be excluded after a detailed neurological history, examination, and appropriate diagnostic studies. Psychogenic tremor is not only a diagnosis of exclusion, it can be diagnosed positively by its neurological signs, mainly: variability in frequency and amplitude, bilateral and sudden onset, non-progressive with frequent remissions, absence of finger, tongue or face tremor and coactivation of antagonistic muscles. Several tests can be useful in diagnosis, such as: accelerometry, EMG and response to placebo or suggestion. The treatment requires close cooperation between the medical team and patient. The problem must never be minimised and early diagnosis and treatment must be attempted. PMID:20388461

  17. Postdoctoral Positions and Career Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manka, R. H.

    2001-12-01

    Career choices begin to diverge at the time the doctorate is received. A variety of career options are available to pursue including positions in academia, government, and industry as well as non-traditional services. A postdoctoral appointment is worth considering as preparation for a career in academia or basic research. The postdoctoral appointment can expand the recent graduate's background and broaden their scientific perspective and reputation. Postdoctoral experience may even be essential to be competitive for some faculty and research laboratory appointments. However, there is a wide range of postdoctoral choices to consider. There are many opportunities for postdoctoral appointments in universities, and emerging opportunities in some corporate laboratories. We will mention opportunities in federal laboratories such as the National Research Council programs in NASA, NOAA, EPA, and the Dept. of Defense, which are open to U.S. citizens and in some cases to non-U.S. applicants, to pursue research in all areas of the Earth and space sciences. And there are exciting new interdisciplinary programs such as the NASA Astrobiology Institute, as well as international opportunities including the von Humboldt fellowships in Germany and similar programs elsewhere in Europe, Japan, and other countries.

  18. Positivity of spin foam amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baez, John C.; Christensen, J. Daniel

    2002-04-01

    The amplitude for a spin foam in the Barrett-Crane model of Riemannian quantum gravity is given as a product over its vertices, edges and faces, with one factor of the Riemannian 10j symbols appearing for each vertex, and simpler factors for the edges and faces. We prove that these amplitudes are always nonnegative for closed spin foams. As a corollary, all open spin foams going between a fixed pair of spin networks have real amplitudes of the same sign. This means one can use the Metropolis algorithm to compute expectation values of observables in the Riemannian Barrett-Crane model, as in statistical mechanics, even though this theory is based on a real-time (eiS) rather than imaginary-time e-S path integral. Our proof uses the fact that when the Riemannian 10j symbols are nonzero, their sign is positive or negative depending on whether the sum of the ten spins is an integer or half-integer. For the product of 10j symbols appearing in the amplitude for a closed spin foam, these signs cancel. We conclude with some numerical evidence suggesting that the Lorentzian 10j symbols are always nonnegative, which would imply similar results for the Lorentzian Barrett-Crane model.

  19. Sun position sensor for two axis tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Rotolo, G.E.

    1982-11-30

    A sun position sensor includes a plurality of solar sensors sensing solar energy arriving in a respective azimuth and elevational direction, and data encoding means for a series of respective solar azimuth and elevational positions, each position corresponding to a respective solar sensor. Said data encoding means are coupled to the solar sensors to derive a sensed solar position. A solar collector is effective for receiving solar energy in a discrete direction. Drive means positions the solar collector and provides position data corresponding to the position of the solar collector, and comparator means compares the collector position and the solar position and provides a drive signal until the two positions are equal. A geodesic dome portion includes several facets each of which contains a respective plurality of solar sensors to provide an electrical output signal representing the amount of solar incidence on a respective sensor/dome facet.

  20. Gram-Positive Anaerobic Cocci

    PubMed Central

    Murdoch, D. A.

    1998-01-01

    Gram-positive anaerobic cocci (GPAC) are a heterogeneous group of organisms defined by their morphological appearance and their inability to grow in the presence of oxygen; most clinical isolates are identified to species in the genus Peptostreptococcus. GPAC are part of the normal flora of all mucocutaneous surfaces and are often isolated from infections such as deep organ abscesses, obstetric and gynecological sepsis, and intraoral infections. They have been little studied for several reasons, which include an inadequate classification, difficulties with laboratory identification, and the mixed nature of the infections from which they are usually isolated. Nucleic acid studies indicate that the classification is in need of radical revision at the genus level. Several species of Peptostreptococcus have recently been described, but others still await formal recognition. Identification has been based on carbohydrate fermentation tests, but most GPAC are asaccharolytic and use the products of protein degradation for their metabolism; the introduction of commercially available preformed enzyme kits affords a physiologically more appropriate method of identification, which is simple and relatively rapid and can be used in routine diagnostic laboratories. Recent reports have documented the isolation in pure culture of several species, notably Peptostreptococcus magnus, from serious infections. Studies of P. magnus have elucidated several virulence factors which correlate with the site of infection, and reveal some similarities to Staphylococcus aureus. P. micros is a strongly proteolytic species; it is increasingly recognized as an important pathogen in intraoral infections, particularly periodontitis, and mixed anaerobic deep-organ abscesses. Comparison of antibiotic susceptibility patterns reveals major differences between species. Penicillins are the antibiotics of choice, although some strains of P. anaerobius show broad-spectrum β-lactam resistance. PMID:9457430

  1. The Positive Psychology of Youth and Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Grant Jewell

    2003-01-01

    Introduces this theme issue that explores the nature of adolescence and the positive psychology movement that focuses on positive aspects of adolescent development. Articles in this collection provide a window into the exploration of youth strengths. (SLD)

  2. 5 CFR 362.303 - Filling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... possesses a Ph.D. or equivalent degree directly related to the STEM position the agency is seeking to fill... candidate possesses a Ph.D. or equivalent degree directly related to the position the agency is seeking...

  3. 5 CFR 362.303 - Filling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... possesses a Ph.D. or equivalent degree directly related to the STEM position the agency is seeking to fill... candidate possesses a Ph.D. or equivalent degree directly related to the position the agency is seeking...

  4. Positive basis for surface skein algebras

    PubMed Central

    Thurston, Dylan Paul

    2014-01-01

    We show that the twisted SL2 skein algebra of a surface has a natural basis (the bracelets basis) that is positive, in the sense that the structure constants for multiplication are positive integers. PMID:24982193

  5. Senior Living: Staying Positive and Moving Forward

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issues Feature: Senior Living Staying Positive and Moving Forward Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Living / Long Distance Caregiving / Staying Positive and Moving Forward / Former WWII Fighter Pilot Finds New Home Near ...

  6. Satellite-acoustic positioning aids jacket installations

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    Correct bottom positioning of jackets and templates is important, not only for reasons of permanency, but because many fields are located near international boundaries. The accurate positioning of platform jackets and templates on the seabed is accompanied by orienting a set of sealed transponders to known seabed features or through the assistance of satellite position fixing where no known features exist. The satellite-acoustic positioning system is described.

  7. Positive Psychology and Quality Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss concepts of positive psychology related to quality physical education. Positive psychology and the scientific study of happiness refer to three paths or pursuits: the pleasant life (positive emotion), the engaged life (engagement), and the meaningful life (meaning). When individuals are aware of, pursue,…

  8. Positive Psychology versus the Medical Model?: Comment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Stephen; Linley, P. Alex

    2006-01-01

    Comments on "Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions" by Seligman, Steen, Park, and Peterson (see record 2005-08033-003). Seligman and colleagues provided a progress report on positive psychology, reviewing the impressive developments over the past five years. We wholeheartedly support the positive psychology movement…

  9. Corrigendum: How Positive Emotions Build Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Kok, B. E., Coffey, K. A., Cohn, M. A., Catalino, L. I., Vacharkulksemsuk, T., Algoe, S. B., . . . Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). How positive emotions build physical health: Perceived positive social connections account for the upward spiral between positive emotions and vagal tone. Psychological Science, 24, 1123–1132. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0956797612470827) PMID:27140726

  10. 25 CFR 38.4 - Education positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Education positions. 38.4 Section 38.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.4 Education positions. (a) The Director shall establish the kinds of positions required to carry out the Bureau's...

  11. 25 CFR 38.4 - Education positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Education positions. 38.4 Section 38.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.4 Education positions. (a) The Director shall establish the kinds of positions required to carry out the Bureau's...

  12. 25 CFR 38.4 - Education positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Education positions. 38.4 Section 38.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.4 Education positions. (a) The Director shall establish the kinds of positions required to carry out the Bureau's...

  13. 25 CFR 38.4 - Education positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Education positions. 38.4 Section 38.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.4 Education positions. (a) The Director shall establish the kinds of positions required to carry out the Bureau's...

  14. Position Restructuring at Peking University Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zhuo-Xian; Zhang, Sha Li, Trans.

    2001-01-01

    Peking University Library initiated position restructuring in response to the University's requirements and to increasing expectations of users. Goals were to reduce unwanted positions and enhance responsibilities of selection positions. The restructuring promised to improve library services and staff morale. Describes steps in the restructuring…

  15. OI Positive: A Look at Unbreakable Spirits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Priscilla

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reflects on the positive outlook of parents and children with OI (Osteogenesis Imperfecta or simply, brittle bones), who attended the 15th Biennial National OI Conference. The author believes that the attendees positive attitudes comes from the positive influences they have had from the beginning. One example of an…

  16. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  17. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  18. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  19. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  20. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a) Inmate... the objectives and principles of pay classification as a part of the routine orientation of new...

  1. Position Analysis in Education. Team Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boccuzzi, Anthony V.; And Others

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the applicability of position analysis to administrative assignments in education, and to ascertain criteria to be used in adapting position analysis to public education. Position analysis techniques are used to determine the relative worth of jobs in an organization by placing their scope of…

  2. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  3. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  4. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  5. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  6. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  7. 25 CFR 38.4 - Education positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Education positions. 38.4 Section 38.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.4 Education positions. (a) The Director shall establish the kinds of positions required to carry out the Bureau's...

  8. Differentiation of 13 positive emotions by appraisals.

    PubMed

    Tong, Eddie M W

    2015-01-01

    This research examined how strongly appraisals can differentiate positive emotions and how they differentiate positive emotions. Thirteen positive emotions were examined, namely, amusement, awe, challenge, compassion, contentment, gratitude, hope, interest, joy, pride, relief, romantic love and serenity. Participants from Singapore and the USA recalled an experience of each emotion and thereafter rated their appraisals of the experience. In general, the appraisals accurately classified the positive emotions at rates above chance levels, and the appraisal-emotion relationships conformed to predictions. Also, the appraisals were largely judged by participants as relevant to their positive emotion experiences, and the appraisal-emotion relationships were largely consistent across the two countries. PMID:24911866

  9. Decryption of pure-position permutation algorithms.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xiao-Yu; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Dan; Wang, Xiao-Hong; Dong, Guang-Chang

    2004-07-01

    Pure position permutation image encryption algorithms, commonly used as image encryption investigated in this work are unfortunately frail under known-text attack. In view of the weakness of pure position permutation algorithm, we put forward an effective decryption algorithm for all pure-position permutation algorithms. First, a summary of the pure position permutation image encryption algorithms is given by introducing the concept of ergodic matrices. Then, by using probability theory and algebraic principles, the decryption probability of pure-position permutation algorithms is verified theoretically; and then, by defining the operation system of fuzzy ergodic matrices, we improve a specific decryption algorithm. Finally, some simulation results are shown. PMID:15495308

  10. Improving Swift-XRT positions of GRBs

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, P. A.; Beardmore, A. P.; Goad, M. R.; Osborne, J. P.; Burrows, D. N.; Gehrels, N.

    2008-05-22

    Since GRBs fade rapidly, it is important to publish accurate, precise positions at early times. For Swift-detected bursts, the best promptly available position is most commonly the X-ray Telescope (XRT) position. We present two processes, developed by the Swift team at Leicester, which are now routinely used to improve the precision and accuracy of the XRT positions reported by the Swift team. Both methods, which are fully automated, make use of a PSF-fitting approach which accounts for the bad columns on the CCD. The first method yields positions with 90% error radii <4.4''90% of the time, within 10-20 minutes of the trigger. The second method astrometrically corrects the position using UVOT field stars and the known mapping between the XRT and UVOT detectors, yielding enhanced positions with 90% error radii of <2.8''90% of the time, usually 2 hours after the trigger.

  11. The Impact of Economic Pressure on Parent Positivity, Parenting, and Adolescent Positivity into Emerging Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Jeon, Shinyoung; Schofield, Thomas J.; Donnellan, M. Brent

    2014-01-01

    The current study describes how positivity can be incorporated into the Family Stress Model to explain resilience to disrupted family processes in the face of economic distress. Prospective, longitudinal data came from 451 mothers, fathers, and youth participating from their adolescence through early adulthood. Assessments included observational and self-report measures. Information regarding economic pressure, parental positivity, and parenting were collected during early adolescence, positivity was collected in late adolescence and emerging adulthood. Results indicated that economic pressure was indirectly associated with adolescent positivity through parental positivity. Economic pressure was negatively associated with parent positivity, whereas parental positivity was positively associated with parenting. Moreover, parental positivity and parenting were both related to positivity in adolescence. Results suggest that personal resources linked to a positive outlook can foster nurturant parenting, even in times of economic strain. Such parenting seems to positively influence adolescent development into emerging adulthood. PMID:25678730

  12. Fine Mapping Seronegative and Seropositive Rheumatoid Arthritis to Shared and Distinct HLA Alleles by Adjusting for the Effects of Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Han, Buhm; Diogo, Dorothée; Eyre, Steve; Kallberg, Henrik; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Bowes, John; Padyukov, Leonid; Okada, Yukinori; González-Gay, Miguel A.; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Martin, Javier; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Plenge, Robert M.; Worthington, Jane; Gregersen, Peter K.; Klareskog, Lars; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2014-01-01

    Despite progress in defining human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles for anti-citrullinated-protein-autoantibody-positive (ACPA+) rheumatoid arthritis (RA), identifying HLA alleles for ACPA-negative (ACPA−) RA has been challenging because of clinical heterogeneity within clinical cohorts. We imputed 8,961 classical HLA alleles, amino acids, and SNPs from Immunochip data in a discovery set of 2,406 ACPA− RA case and 13,930 control individuals. We developed a statistical approach to identify and adjust for clinical heterogeneity within ACPA− RA and observed independent associations for serine and leucine at position 11 in HLA-DRβ1 (p = 1.4 × 10−13, odds ratio [OR] = 1.30) and for aspartate at position 9 in HLA-B (p = 2.7 × 10−12, OR = 1.39) within the peptide binding grooves. These amino acid positions induced associations at HLA-DRB1∗03 (encoding serine at 11) and HLA-B∗08 (encoding aspartate at 9). We validated these findings in an independent set of 427 ACPA− case subjects, carefully phenotyped with a highly sensitive ACPA assay, and 1,691 control subjects (HLA-DRβ1 Ser11+Leu11: p = 5.8 × 10−4, OR = 1.28; HLA-B Asp9: p = 2.6 × 10−3, OR = 1.34). Although both amino acid sites drove risk of ACPA+ and ACPA− disease, the effects of individual residues at HLA-DRβ1 position 11 were distinct (p < 2.9 × 10−107). We also identified an association with ACPA+ RA at HLA-A position 77 (p = 2.7 × 10−8, OR = 0.85) in 7,279 ACPA+ RA case and 15,870 control subjects. These results contribute to mounting evidence that ACPA+ and ACPA− RA are genetically distinct and potentially have separate autoantigens contributing to pathogenesis. We expect that our approach might have broad applications in analyzing clinical conditions with heterogeneity at both major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and non-MHC regions. PMID:24656864

  13. Intrapartum Ultrasound Assessment of Fetal Spine Position

    PubMed Central

    Noventa, Marco; Di Gangi, Stefania; Anis, Omar; Nardelli, Giovanni Battista

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the role of foetal spine position in the first and second labour stages to determine the probability of OPP detection at birth and the related obstetrical implications. We conducted an observational-longitudinal cohort study on uncomplicated cephalic single foetus pregnant women at term. We evaluated the accuracy of ultrasound in predicting occiput position at birth, influence of fetal spine in occiput position during labour, labour trend, analgesia request, type of delivery, and indication to CS. The accuracy of the foetal spinal position to predict the occiput position at birth was high at the first labour stage. At the second labour stage, CS (40.3%) and operative vaginal deliveries (23.9%) occurred more frequently in OPP than in occiput anterior position (7% and 15.2%, resp.), especially in cases of the posterior spine. In concordant posterior positions labour length was greater than other ones, and analgesia request rate was 64.1% versus 14.7% for all the others. The assessment of spinal position could be useful in obstetrical management and counselling, both before and during labour. The detection of spinal position, more than OPP, is predictive of successful delivery. In concordant posterior positions, the labour length, analgesia request, operative delivery, and caesarean section rate are higher than in the other combination. PMID:25157368

  14. Positive psychiatry: its time has come.

    PubMed

    Jeste, Dilip V; Palmer, Barton W; Rettew, David C; Boardman, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article, we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit nonclinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (eg, well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom-including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall health care of the population. PMID:26132670

  15. Prone positioning: is it safe and effective?

    PubMed

    Dirkes, Susan; Dickinson, Sharon; Havey, Renee; O'brien, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Prone positioning has been used as a treatment option for patients with acute lung injury or acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) since the early 1970s. Prone position and extended prone position ventilation have been shown to increase end-expiratory lung volume, alveolar recruitment, and oxygenation in patients with severe hypoxemic and acute respiratory failure. Prone positioning is not a benign procedure, and there are potential risks (complications) that can occur to both the patient and the health care worker. Notable complications that can arise include: unplanned extubation, lines pulled, tubes kinked, and back and other injuries to personnel. Prone positioning is a viable, inexpensive therapy for the treatment of severe ARDS. This maneuver consistently improves systemic oxygenation in 70% to 80% of patients with ARDS. With the utilization of a standardized protocol and a trained and dedicated critical care staff, prone positioning can be performed safely. PMID:22157493

  16. Positive Cardiovascular Health: A Timely Convergence.

    PubMed

    Labarthe, Darwin R; Kubzansky, Laura D; Boehm, Julia K; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Berry, Jarett D; Seligman, Martin E P

    2016-08-23

    Two concepts, positive health and cardiovascular health, have emerged recently from the respective fields of positive psychology and preventive cardiology. These parallel constructs are converging to foster positive cardiovascular health and a growing collaboration between psychologists and cardiovascular scientists to achieve significant improvements in both individual and population cardiovascular health. We explore these 2 concepts and note close similarities in the measures that define them, the health states that they aim to produce, and their intended long-term clinical and public health outcomes. We especially examine subjective health assets, such as optimism, that are a core focus of positive psychology, but have largely been neglected in preventive cardiology. We identify research to date on positive cardiovascular health, discuss its strengths and limitations thus far, and outline directions for further engagement of cardiovascular scientists with colleagues in positive psychology to advance this new field. PMID:27539179

  17. Fiberoptic intubation with patients in sitting position.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Yung; Chien, Jui-Teng; Huang, Shen-Jer

    2007-09-01

    Flexible fiberoptic endoscope is the most valuable tool for anesthesiologists to manage difficult airways. Correctly positioning of the patient during fiberoptic intubation aids the clinician to rapidly secure the airway, because it not only saves time, but also minimizes the risk of repeated attempts of intubation with possible serious consequences in the wake. In general, fiberoptic intubation is carried out with the patient in the supine position, but there are situations in which the intubation requires the subjects to be in the sitting position. The sitting position also changes the position of performing anesthesiologist relative to the patient, presenting an inverse view contrary to that of traditional laryngoscopy. We can often obtain a superior view from fiberoptic intubation. Fiberoptic intubation in the sitting position can be applied to all patients, as long as there is no contraindication of having a patient be sat. PMID:17972620

  18. ERROR COMPENSATOR FOR A POSITION TRANSDUCER

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, A.H.

    1962-06-12

    A device is designed for eliminating the effect of leadscrew errors in positioning machines in which linear motion of a slide is effected from rotary motion of a leadscrew. This is accomplished by providing a corrector cam mounted on the slide, a cam follower, and a transducer housing rotatable by the follower to compensate for all the reproducible errors in the transducer signal which can be related to the slide position. The transducer has an inner part which is movable with respect to the transducer housing. The transducer inner part is coupled to the means for rotating the leadscrew such that relative movement between this part and its housing will provide an output signal proportional to the position of the slide. The corrector cam and its follower perform the compensation by changing the angular position of the transducer housing by an amount that is a function of the slide position and the error at that position. (AEC)

  19. Quantum states with strong positive partial transpose

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Jurkowski, Jacek; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2008-02-15

    We construct a large class of bipartite M x N quantum states which defines a proper subset of states with positive partial transposes (PPTs). Any state from this class has PPT but the positivity of its partial transposition is recognized with respect to canonical factorization of the original density operator. We propose to call elements from this class states with strong positive partial transposes (SPPTs). We conjecture that all SPPT states are separable.

  20. Target Acquisition and Positioning Study (TAPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Scientific Instruments for the Large Space Telescope (LST) require a high degree of accuracy for positioning targets within their respective entrance apertures. The acquisition, verification of position, and guidance during an experiment must be accomplished with a minimum loss of observing time for the maximum effectiveness of the total mission. This study evaluates several viable concepts and modes of operation that are applicable for a Target Acquisition and Positioning System (TAPS) that is responsive to the LST instrument requirements.

  1. Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

    2014-03-11

    The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

  2. [The emergence of positive occupational health psychology].

    PubMed

    Bakker, Arnold B; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo; Derks, Daantje

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the emerging concept of Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP). We discuss the usefulness of focusing on positive constructs in order to understand the path to health and well-being at work. We describe research findings on several POHP topics, including engagement, psychological capital, and job crafting. Additionally, we review the first positive interventions in this field and conclude by identifying some specific questions for future research. PMID:22269366

  3. Children distinguish between positive pride and hubris.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nicole L; Russell, James A

    2015-11-01

    Adults distinguish expressions of hubris from those of positive pride. To determine whether children (N = 183; 78-198 months old) make a similar distinction, we asked them to attribute emotion labels and a variety of social characteristics to dynamic expressions intended to convey hubris and positive pride. Like adults, children attributed different emotion labels to the expressions, and this tendency increased with age. Girls were more likely to distinguish between the expressions than boys were. Children also associated more positive social characteristics with the expression of positive pride and more negative characteristics with the expression of hubris. PMID:26347987

  4. Two position optical element actuator device

    DOEpatents

    Holdener, Fred R.; Boyd, Robert D.

    2002-01-01

    The present invention is a two position optical element actuator device utilizing a powered means to hold an actuation arm, to which an optical element is attached, in a first position. A non-powered means drives the actuation arm to a second position, when the powered means ceases to receive power. The optical element may be a electromagnetic (EM) radiation or particle source, an instrument, or EM radiation or particle transmissive, reflective or absorptive elements. A bearing is used to transfer motion and smoothly transition the actuation arm from the first to second position.

  5. Optical sensor position indicator for neonatal MEG

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Erich

    2011-01-01

    We have developed an inexpensive PC camera-based system to measure sensor position and to track head motion during MEG recordings. The system employs mirrors to triangulate the position of markers using a single camera. Sensor position measurement and head tracking can be performed without the need to manually digitize markers or fiducial points. The system is capable of measuring relative 3D position within the required volume of interest with an accuracy of ~450μm, and can be constructed for approximately $150. PMID:22010142

  6. The role of positive emotions in positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, B L

    2001-03-01

    In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing. PMID:11315248

  7. Connecting Positive Psychology and Organizational Behavior Management: Achievement Motivation and the Power of Positive Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology is becoming established as a reputable sub-discipline in psychology despite having neglected the role of positive reinforcement in enhancing quality of life. The authors discuss the relevance of positive reinforcement for positive psychology, with implications for broadening the content of organizational behavior management.…

  8. Motor Development of Infants with Positional Plagiocephaly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Eileen; Majnemer, Annette; Farmer, Jean-Pierre; Barr, Ronald G.; Platt, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent with recommendations to place infants to sleep in supine, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of infants with positional plagiocephaly (PP). Recent evidence suggests that infants who have decreased exposure to prone position may have a higher incidence of PP and may be at risk for a delay in the acquisition of certain motor…

  9. Positive Psychology Progress: Empirical Validation of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Steen, Tracy A.; Park, Nansook; Peterson, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology has flourished in the last 5 years. The authors review recent developments in the field, including books, meetings, courses, and conferences. They also discuss the newly created classification of character strengths and virtues, a positive complement to the various editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental…

  10. Constrained tri-sphere kinematic positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Viola, Robert J

    2010-12-14

    A scalable and adaptable, six-degree-of-freedom, kinematic positioning system is described. The system can position objects supported on top of, or suspended from, jacks comprising constrained joints. The system is compatible with extreme low temperature or high vacuum environments. When constant adjustment is not required a removable motor unit is available.

  11. The Position of Dance in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattsson, Torun; Lundvall, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Dance has been a part of the physical education (PE) curriculum in several countries for a long time. In spite of this, studies demonstrate that the position of dance in the subject of PE is contested and that little time is devoted to dance. The overall aim of this article is to examine the position of dance as a pedagogical discourse in Swedish…

  12. Centrosome Positioning in 1D Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlerz, Katrina; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    During cell migration, the positioning of the centrosome and nucleus define a cell's polarity. For a cell migrating on a two-dimensional substrate the centrosome is positioned in front of the nucleus. Under one-dimensional confinement, however, the centrosome is positioned behind the nucleus in 60% of cells. It is known that the centrosome is positioned by CDC42 and dynein for cells moving on a 2D substrate in a wound-healing assay. It is currently unknown, however, if this is also true for cells moving under 1D confinement, where the centrosome position is often reversed. Therefore, centrosome positioning was studied in cells migrating under 1D confinement, which mimics cells migrating through 3D matrices. 3 to 5 μm fibronectin lines were stamped onto a glass substrate and cells with fluorescently labeled nuclei and centrosomes migrated on the lines. Our results show that when a cell changes directions the centrosome position is maintained. That is, when the centrosome is between the nucleus and the cell's trailing edge and the cell changes direction, the centrosome will be translocated across the nucleus to the back of the cell again. A dynein inhibitor did have an influence on centrosome positioning in 1D migration and change of directions.

  13. Empty Consonants in Root-Medial Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlett, Stephen A.

    This analysis of verb morphology in Seri finds evidence that empty consonants occur in root-medial position. Analysis focuses on the parallel conjugation patterns of the verbs for "know" and "give," finding an empty consonant slot in the middle of each. This position is never preceded by a consonant, so it never appears as a geminated consonant,…

  14. Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory

    DOEpatents

    Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

    2005-05-31

    An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

  15. 76 FR 4751 - Position Limits for Derivatives

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ...Title VII of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (``Dodd-Frank Act'') requires the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (``Commission'' or ``CFTC'') to establish position limits for certain physical commodity derivatives. The Commission is proposing to simultaneously establish position limits and limit formulas for certain physical commodity futures and option......

  16. Exhibit 5: Policy Statements and Position Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Policy statements and position papers adopted by the American Association of Dental Schools are presented. Policy statements cover education, research, delivery of care, and health concerns. Position papers concern peer review, freedoms and responsibilities of individuals and institutions, national health programs, interdisciplinary education,…

  17. Positive Behavior Support Training Curriculum. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Dennis H.; Parsons, Marsha B.

    2007-01-01

    The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities' (AAIDD's) Positive Behavior Support Training Curriculum," Second Edition" ("PBSTC"), is a curriculum for training direct support personnel and their supervisors in the values and practices of Positive Behavior Support. The curriculum is designed for direct support persons and…

  18. Children Distinguish between Positive Pride and Hubris

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Nicole L.; Russell, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults distinguish expressions of hubris from those of positive pride. To determine whether children (N = 183; 78-198 months old) make a similar distinction, we asked them to attribute emotion labels and a variety of social characteristics to dynamic expressions intended to convey hubris and positive pride. Like adults, children attributed…

  19. Positional reference system for ultraprecision machining

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jones B.; Burleson, Robert R.; Pardue, Robert M.

    1982-01-01

    A stable positional reference system for use in improving the cutting tool-to-part contour position in numerical controlled-multiaxis metal turning machines is provided. The reference system employs a plurality of interferometers referenced to orthogonally disposed metering bars which are substantially isolated from machine strain induced position errors for monitoring the part and tool positions relative to the metering bars. A microprocessor-based control system is employed in conjunction with the plurality of position interferometers and part contour description data inputs to calculate error components for each axis of movement and output them to corresponding axis drives with appropriate scaling and error compensation. Real-time position control, operating in combination with the reference system, makes possible the positioning of the cutting points of a tool along a part locus with a substantially greater degree of accuracy than has been attained previously in the art by referencing and then monitoring only the tool motion relative to a reference position located on the machine base.

  20. Position Statements of the Arc. 1992 Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arc, Arlington, TX.

    This monograph presents 15 position statements of The Arc, a national organization for persons with mental retardation. A preamble presents the organization's Mission Statement. Principles and assumptions stressing the uniqueness of all people and the importance of a sense of control over one's destiny are listed. The position statements are then…

  1. College Students' Positivity toward Teen Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2011-01-01

    Although teen pregnancy and parenthood are more visible in society than in the past, teen mothers are often stereotyped and stigmatized. The study examined positivity toward teen mothers among college students (N = 316) at a midwestern university. Although students responded positively to some items regarding teen mothers, other statements showed…

  2. Computer-Controlled, Motorized Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vargas-Aburto, Carlos; Liff, Dale R.

    1994-01-01

    Computer-controlled, motorized positioning system developed for use in robotic manipulation of samples in custom-built secondary-ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) system. Positions sample repeatably and accurately, even during analysis in three linear orthogonal coordinates and one angular coordinate under manual local control, or microprocessor-based local control or remote control by computer via general-purpose interface bus (GPIB).

  3. 5 CFR 2634.307 - Outside positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Outside positions. 2634.307 Section 2634.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF GOVERNMENT ETHICS GOVERNMENT ETHICS EXECUTIVE BRANCH FINANCIAL DISCLOSURE, QUALIFIED TRUSTS, AND CERTIFICATES OF DIVESTITURE Contents of Public Reports § 2634.307 Outside positions. (a) In general....

  4. Analysis of strand positions in CIC conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teshima, S.; Nakazawa, S.; Tsuda, M.; Hamajima, T.; Yagai, T.; Nunoya, Y.; Okuno, K.; Takahata, K.

    2011-11-01

    Information of 3D strand locations in a Cable-in-Conduit (CIC) conductor is necessary for accurate estimation of conductor performance, e.g., AC losses, current distribution or strain effect. However, it is difficult to derive strand positions after compaction, and there have been no analytical methods to accurately estimate strand positions. In our previous work, we measured strand positions in the CIC conductor, whose length is about 1 m, with 81 NbTi strands and it was verified that some strands were displaced from their original positions. In order to estimate strand locations in a long conductor, we developed a method to analyze three dimensional strand positions taking into account the cable deformation caused by compaction. In this method, we use strand positions in only one cross section of conductor and twist pitches of each sub-cable to calculate the center of gravity of each sub-cable. The strand positions are obtained in a manner that the same order sub-cables rotate around the center of gravity of one order higher sub-cable according to a function of the cabling pitch. We derive the twist pitches after compaction by using measured and calculated strand positions. The calculated strand locations by using the derived twist pitches agree well with the measured ones, with errors of about 0.7 mm.

  5. 47 CFR 76.57 - Channel positioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel positioning. 76.57 Section 76.57 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.57 Channel positioning. (a)...

  6. Introduction to Positive Psychology in Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Phillips, Brian; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology has received increasing attention in rehabilitation counseling research and practice. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis of personal assets and strengths, which provides a solid foundation for the integration of positive psychology into the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling. In…

  7. 47 CFR 76.57 - Channel positioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channel positioning. 76.57 Section 76.57 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.57 Channel positioning. (a)...

  8. 47 CFR 76.57 - Channel positioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channel positioning. 76.57 Section 76.57 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.57 Channel positioning. (a)...

  9. 47 CFR 76.57 - Channel positioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channel positioning. 76.57 Section 76.57 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.57 Channel positioning. (a)...

  10. 47 CFR 76.57 - Channel positioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channel positioning. 76.57 Section 76.57 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.57 Channel positioning. (a)...

  11. Positive Impact of Intellectual Disability on Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blacher, Jan; Baker, Bruce L.

    2007-01-01

    Understanding positive, as well as negative, impact of a child with mental retardation will lead to a more balanced view of families and disability. In two studies we examined parents' perceived positive impact of a child with MR/DD. Study 1 involved 282 young adults with severe mental retardation; Study 2 involved 214 young children with, or…

  12. Positional asphyxia: reflection on 2 cases.

    PubMed

    Belviso, Maura; De Donno, Antonio; Vitale, Leonardo; Introna, Francesco

    2003-09-01

    Positional asphyxia, a fatal condition arising because of the adoption of particular body positions, causing mechanical interference with pulmonary ventilation, can occur in various circumstances that are likely to come under the observation of the specialist in legal medicine (work, car accidents, torture, kidnapping, etc.). It is difficult to diagnose the cause of death in such cases because they generally present with an aspecific anatomopathologic picture. In some situations, positional asphyxia can be hard to distinguish from asphyxia because of chest compression. The main difference is in the way the event occurred: whether the particular position causing the asphyxia had been adopted by choice or by compulsion or necessity when an extrinsic mechanical action would result in traumatic asphyxia. The diagnosis of positional asphyxia is essentially based on 3 criteria: the body position must obstruct normal gas exchange, it must be impossible to move to another position, and other causes of natural or violent death must be excluded. To illustrate the main physiopathologic and diagnostic causes of positional asphyxia, the authors report 2 cases taken from the records of events that came under the observation of the Medico-Legal Sector of Bari University Hospital throughout the last 10 years. PMID:12960668

  13. Precise Point Positioning in the Airborne Mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Mowafy, Ahmed

    2011-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is widely used for positioning in the airborne mode such as in navigation as a supplementary system and for geo-referencing of cameras in mapping and surveillance by aircrafts and Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAV). The Precise Point Positioning (PPP) approach is an attractive positioning approach based on processing of un-differenced observations from a single GPS receiver. It employs precise satellite orbits and satellite clock corrections. These data can be obtained via the internet from several sources, e.g. the International GNSS Service (IGS). The data can also broadcast from satellites, such as via the LEX signal of the new Japanese satellite system QZSS. The PPP can achieve positioning precision and accuracy at the sub-decimetre level. In this paper, the functional and stochastic mathematical modelling used in PPP is discussed. Results of applying the PPP method in an airborne test using a small fixed-wing aircraft are presented. To evaluate the performance of the PPP approach, a reference trajectory was established by differential positioning of the same GPS observations with data from a ground reference station. The coordinate results from the two approaches, PPP and differential positioning, were compared and statistically evaluated. For the test at hand, positioning accuracy at the cm-to-decimetre was achieved for latitude and longitude coordinates and doubles that value for height estimation.

  14. A Positive Stigma for Child Labor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a simple empirical model that assumes a positive stigma (or norm) towards child labor that is common in some developing countries. We then illustrate our positive stigma model using data from Guatemala. Controlling for several child- and household-level characteristics, we use two instruments for measuring stigma: a child's indigenous…

  15. 29 CFR 825.215 - Equivalent position.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Equivalent position. 825.215 Section 825.215 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR OTHER LAWS THE FAMILY AND MEDICAL LEAVE ACT OF 1993 Employee Leave Entitlements Under the Family and Medical Leave Act § 825.215 Equivalent position. (a)...

  16. The Academy for Positive Peer Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.

    2010-01-01

    Positive Peer Culture [PPC] creates a pro-social climate in schools and youth programs by enlisting youth in helping their peers. Research and training in PPC is coordinated by the Academy for Positive Peer Culture. Established in 2006, the Academy provides networking and is a clearinghouse for resources, training, and consultation for PPC. It…

  17. Positive Action. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Positive Action," a K-12 program, aims to promote a positive self-concept, character development, healthy behavior, and social-emotional skills and to reduce disruptive and problem behavior. The curricula for elementary and middle school students each have seven units per kit, with nine kits per grade level. The high school curriculum has six…

  18. Mental Health of Students. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of School Nurses (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that mental health is as critical to academic success as physical well-being. School nurses play a vital role in the school community by promoting positive mental health development in students through school/community-based programs and curricula. As members of…

  19. Create a Positive Environment | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Family, friends, coworkers, and others who you interact with can affect how you feel about yourself. This includes how you feel about your body. One of the keys to creating a more positive body image is to create a more positive environment for yourself by focusing on:

  20. Building Cohesion in Positively Connected Exchange Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, David R.; Kornienko, Olga

    2009-01-01

    This research investigates the process through which individuals build cohesive relationships in positively connected exchange relations. Positive connections exist any time exchange in one relation must precede exchange in another. Such situations arise through gatekeeping, in generalized exchange contexts, and when resources diffuse across a…

  1. Serial Position Functions in General Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Matthew R.; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M.

    2015-01-01

    Serial position functions with marked primacy and recency effects are ubiquitous in episodic memory tasks. The demonstrations reported here explored whether bow-shaped serial position functions would be observed when people ordered exemplars from various categories along a specified dimension. The categories and dimensions were: actors and age;…

  2. Positive Behavior Support: Sustainability and Continuous Regeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Kent; Turri, Mary G.

    2014-01-01

    Because of its widespread adoption and implementation (in over 13,000 schools in the US; Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, 2010), there has been increasing attention to how School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) systems can be sustained. Sustained implementation can be defined as "continued use of an…

  3. Memory for Chess Positions: Resistance to Interference

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charness, Neil

    1976-01-01

    An information processing model, Memory-Aided Pattern Perceiver (MAPP), that simulates the recall of briefly presented chess positions, was subjected to a test of its assumption that such positions are encoded and stored as chunks in short-term memory. (Editor)

  4. Counseling Higher Education Students: Counselors' Positive Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kadambi, Michaela; Audet, Cristelle T.; Knish, Steve

    2010-01-01

    Concept mapping was used to illuminate counselors' positive experiences of providing counseling/psychotherapy to students in higher education. Counseling professionals (N = 65) in 23 colleges and universities responded to the question "What are the positive aspects that motivate you to provide counseling/psychotherapy to students?" From these…

  5. 30 CFR 56.19009 - Position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Position indicator. 56.19009 Section 56.19009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19009 Position indicator. An...

  6. 30 CFR 56.19009 - Position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Position indicator. 56.19009 Section 56.19009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19009 Position indicator. An...

  7. 30 CFR 56.19009 - Position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Position indicator. 56.19009 Section 56.19009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19009 Position indicator. An...

  8. 30 CFR 56.19009 - Position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Position indicator. 56.19009 Section 56.19009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19009 Position indicator. An...

  9. 30 CFR 57.19009 - Position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Position indicator. 57.19009 Section 57.19009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19009 Position indicator....

  10. 30 CFR 56.19009 - Position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Position indicator. 56.19009 Section 56.19009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 56.19009 Position indicator. An...

  11. 30 CFR 57.19009 - Position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Position indicator. 57.19009 Section 57.19009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19009 Position indicator....

  12. 30 CFR 57.19009 - Position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Position indicator. 57.19009 Section 57.19009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19009 Position indicator....

  13. 30 CFR 57.19009 - Position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Position indicator. 57.19009 Section 57.19009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19009 Position indicator....

  14. 30 CFR 57.19009 - Position indicator.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Position indicator. 57.19009 Section 57.19009 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Personnel Hoisting Hoists § 57.19009 Position indicator....

  15. The Evidence Base for Positive Peer Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the evidence base for Positive Peer Culture (PPC) which is a total system for developing positive youth cultures in youth serving organizations. It challenges a popular belief among some researchers that group programs which bring together troubled youth are inherently negative.

  16. Positive Peer Culture with German Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinebach, Christoph; Steinebach, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Children and youth develop the ability to surmount difficult life challenges through a combination of external supports and internal strengths. Positive peers can contribute substantially to growth in resilient coping and problem-solving skills. Positive Peer Culture (PPC) programs are designed to strengthen supportive social bonds, competence,…

  17. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  18. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  19. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  20. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  1. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  2. Positional reference system for ultraprecision machining

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, J.B.; Burleson, R.R.; Pardue, R.M.

    1980-09-12

    A stable positional reference system for use in improving the cutting tool-to-part contour position in numerical controlled-multiaxis metal turning machines is provided. The reference system employs a plurality of interferometers referenced to orthogonally disposed metering bars which are substantially isolated from machine strain induced position errors for monitoring the part and tool positions relative to the metering bars. A microprocessor-based control system is employed in conjunction with the plurality of positions interferometers and part contour description data input to calculate error components for each axis of movement and output them to corresponding axis driven with appropriate scaling and error compensation. Real-time position control, operating in combination with the reference system, makes possible the positioning of the cutting points of a tool along a part locus with a substantially greater degree of accuracy than has been attained previously in the art by referencing and then monitoring only the tool motion relative to a reference position located on the machine base.

  3. The Mathematics of the Global Positioning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Gail D.; Jabon, David; Nord, John

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity that illustrates the application of mathematics to modern navigation and utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS is a constellation of 24 satellites that enables receivers to compute their position anywhere on the earth with great accuracy. (DDR)

  4. Teaching Positive Reinforcement on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lyle K.

    2004-01-01

    This study is an examination of an Internet-based tutorial that teaches the concept of positive reinforcement. An experimental group of 50 students studied an online tutorial about positive reinforcement, and a control group of 50 students studied an online tutorial in biological psychology. Students in both groups took an 8-item pretest and…

  5. Effective Classroom-Management & Positive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieberer-Nagler, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    This article offers practical information for primary teachers to become more knowledgable, skilled and effective in their work. Aspects of positive teaching and learning are explored. Innovative methods for transforming common classroom management struggles into opportunities for positive change and for changing negative behaviors into positive…

  6. Multilevel Modeling of Item Position Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albano, Anthony D.

    2013-01-01

    In many testing programs it is assumed that the context or position in which an item is administered does not have a differential effect on examinee responses to the item. Violations of this assumption may bias item response theory estimates of item and person parameters. This study examines the potentially biasing effects of item position. A…

  7. Soil Respiration in Response to Landscape Position

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Variations in soil type, due to landscape position, may influence soil respiration. This study was conducted to determine how landscape position (summit, side-slope, and depression) influences heterotrophic and autotrophic soil respiration. Soil respiration was determined at three landscape positio...

  8. [Funktionsoberarzt. Pseudo-title or meaningful position?].

    PubMed

    Histing, T; Burkhardt, M; Rollmann, M; Menger, M D; Pohlemann, T

    2014-06-01

    The position of the Funktionsoberarzt ("functioning senior physician") is to date not specified. Nevertheless, in the majority of hospitals the position exists, although the function and responsibilities are not clearly defined. Frequently, it is thought that the position represents a consultant who works independently, but who is still supported by experienced colleagues to achieve the full qualification for a senior physician. In contrast, others indicate that the position represents a consultant who works as a senior physician with all responsibilities, but without an established post and without the corresponding reimbursement. A critical disadvantage of the position is that frequently the duties of both a resident and senior physician must be managed. Rotation between the two functions results in a higher workload, and the lack of identity and acceptance may lead to frustration. Therefore, we feel that the position is only meaningful if the Funktionsoberarzt works exclusively as a senior physician who is supported for complex surgeries and decisions by more experienced colleagues. In addition, the position should only be temporary and the time period for the position should be defined in advance. PMID:24903505

  9. Characteristics of Positive Autobiographical Memories in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of positive autobiographical memory narratives were examined in younger and older adults. Narratives were content-coded for the extent to which they contained indicators of affect, sensory imagery, and cognition. Affect was additionally assessed through self-report. Young adults expressed more positive affect and less sensory…

  10. The Automated Astronomic Positioning System (AAPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, O. N.

    1973-01-01

    Two prototype systems of The Automated Astronomic Positioning System (AAPS) have been delivered to Defense Mapping Agency (DMA). The AAPS was developed to automate and expedite the determination of astronomic positions (latitude and longitude). This equipment is capable of defining astronomic positions to an accuracy sigma = 0.3 in each component within a two hour span of stellar observations which are acquired automatically. The basic concept acquires observations by timing stellar images as they cross a series of slits, comparing these observations to a stored star catalogue, and automatically deducing position and accuracy by least squares using pre-set convergence criteria. An exhaustive DMA operational test program has been initiated to evaluate the capabilities of the AAPS in a variety of environments (both climatic and positional). Status of the operational test is discussed.

  11. Conditions for positioning of nucleosomes on DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheinman, Michael; Chung, Ho-Ryun

    2015-08-01

    Positioning of nucleosomes along a eukaryotic genome plays an important role in its organization and regulation. There are many different factors affecting the location of nucleosomes. Some can be viewed as preferential binding of a single nucleosome to different locations along the DNA and some as interactions between neighboring nucleosomes. In this study, we analyze positioning of nucleosomes and derive conditions for their good positioning. Using analytic and numerical approaches we find that, if the binding preferences are very weak, an interplay between the interactions and the binding preferences is essential for a good positioning of nucleosomes, especially on correlated energy landscapes. Analyzing the empirical energy landscape, we conclude that good positioning of nucleosomes in vivo is possible only if they strongly interact. In this case, our model, predicting long-length-scale fluctuations of nucleosomes' occupancy along the DNA, accounts well for the empirical observations.

  12. Load positioning system with gravity compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollow, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    A load positioning system with gravity compensation has a servomotor, position sensing feedback potentiometer and velocity sensing tachometer in a conventional closed loop servo arrangement to cause a lead screw and a ball nut to vertically position a load. Gravity compensating components comprise the DC motor, gears, which couple torque from the motor to the lead screw, and constant current power supply. The constant weight of the load applied to the lead screw via the ball nut tend to cause the lead screw to rotate, the constant torque of which is opposed by the constant torque produced by the motor when fed from the constant current source. The constant current is preset as required by the potentiometer to effect equilibration of the load which thereby enables the positioning servomotor to see the load as weightless under both static and dynamic conditions. Positioning acceleration and velocity performance are therefore symmetrical.

  13. Position Estimation of Tranceivers in Communication Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, C A; Dowla, F U

    2003-10-13

    With the rapid development in wireless sensor networks, there is an important need for transceiver position estimation independent of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) [1,3]. While GPS might be useful for outdoor sensor nodes, it is not for indoor node localization. In this case, position estimation is possible through network range estimates from time-of-flight (TOF) measurements, a technique well suited to large bandwidth physical links, such as in ultra-wideband (UWB) communications. For example, in our UWB systems, with pulse duration less than 200 pico-seconds, range can easily be resolved to less than a foot. Assuming an encoded UWB or spread spectrum physical layer, we developed algorithms and simulation tools to test transceiver position localization. Simulations were designed to lend insight into system characteristics such as position error sensitivities to network geometry, to range estimation errors, and to number of sensor nodes.

  14. Tracking Positions and Attitudes of Mars Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Khaled; vanelli, Charles; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey; Martin, Alejandro San; Maimone, Mark; Cheng, Yang; Alexander, James

    2006-01-01

    The Surface Attitude Position and Pointing (SAPP) software, which runs on computers aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers, tracks the positions and attitudes of the rovers on the surface of Mars. Each rover acquires data on attitude from a combination of accelerometer readings and images of the Sun acquired autonomously, using a pointable camera to search the sky for the Sun. Depending on the nature of movement commanded remotely by operators on Earth, the software propagates attitude and position by use of either (1) accelerometer and gyroscope readings or (2) gyroscope readings and wheel odometry. Where necessary, visual odometry is performed on images to fine-tune the position updates, particularly on high-wheel-slip terrain. The attitude data are used by other software and ground-based personnel for pointing a high-gain antenna, planning and execution of driving, and positioning and aiming scientific instruments.

  15. The LEDA beam-position measurement system

    SciTech Connect

    Rose, C.R.; Gilpatrick, J.D.; Stettler, M.W.

    1997-08-01

    This paper describes the beam-position measurement system being developed for the Low Energy Demonstration Accelerator (LEDA) and the Accelerator Production of Tritium (APT) projects at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The system consists of a beam-position monitor (BPM) probe, cabling, down-converter module, position/intensity module, on-line error-correction system, and the necessary control system interfaces. The modules are built on the VXI-interface standard and are capable of duplex data transfer with the control system. Some of the key, system parameters are: position-measurement bandwidth of at least 180 kHz, the ability to measure beam intensity, a beam-position measurement accuracy of less than 1.25 percent of the bore radius, a beam-current dynamic range of 46 dB, a total system dynamic range in excess of 75 dB, and built-in on-line digital-system-error correction.

  16. High-precision positioning of radar scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dheenathayalan, Prabu; Small, David; Schubert, Adrian; Hanssen, Ramon F.

    2016-05-01

    Remote sensing radar satellites cover wide areas and provide spatially dense measurements, with millions of scatterers. Knowledge of the precise position of each radar scatterer is essential to identify the corresponding object and interpret the estimated deformation. The absolute position accuracy of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) scatterers in a 2D radar coordinate system, after compensating for atmosphere and tidal effects, is in the order of centimeters for TerraSAR-X (TSX) spotlight images. However, the absolute positioning in 3D and its quality description are not well known. Here, we exploit time-series interferometric SAR to enhance the positioning capability in three dimensions. The 3D positioning precision is parameterized by a variance-covariance matrix and visualized as an error ellipsoid centered at the estimated position. The intersection of the error ellipsoid with objects in the field is exploited to link radar scatterers to real-world objects. We demonstrate the estimation of scatterer position and its quality using 20 months of TSX stripmap acquisitions over Delft, the Netherlands. Using trihedral corner reflectors (CR) for validation, the accuracy of absolute positioning in 2D is about 7 cm. In 3D, an absolute accuracy of up to ˜ 66 cm is realized, with a cigar-shaped error ellipsoid having centimeter precision in azimuth and range dimensions, and elongated in cross-range dimension with a precision in the order of meters (the ratio of the ellipsoid axis lengths is 1/3/213, respectively). The CR absolute 3D position, along with the associated error ellipsoid, is found to be accurate and agree with the ground truth position at a 99 % confidence level. For other non-CR coherent scatterers, the error ellipsoid concept is validated using 3D building models. In both cases, the error ellipsoid not only serves as a quality descriptor, but can also help to associate radar scatterers to real-world objects.

  17. Clinical implications of positive blood cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, C S

    1989-01-01

    Positive blood cultures can be classified according to their veracity (true-positive or false-positive culture), clinical severity (inconsequential or life threatening), place of origin (community acquired or nosocomial), source (primary or secondary), duration (transient, intermittent, or continuous), pattern of occurrence (single episode, persistent, or recurrent), or intensity (high or low grade). In general, however, positive blood cultures identify a patient population at high risk of death. In my studies, patients with positive blood cultures were 12 times more likely to die during hospitalization than patients without positive blood cultures. Many bacteremias and fungemias occur in complicated clinical settings, and it appears that only about one-half of the deaths among affected patients are due directly to infection. Hence, it is appropriate to speak of "crude mortality" and "attributable mortality." Among hospitalized patients, recent trends include rising incidences of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcal and enterococcal bacteremias and a dramatic increase in the incidence of fungemias. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications of blood cultures positive for specific microorganisms continue to evolve and are the subject of a large and growing medical literature. PMID:2680055

  18. Positivity of linear maps under tensor powers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Hermes, Alexander; Reeb, David; Wolf, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate linear maps between matrix algebras that remain positive under tensor powers, i.e., under tensoring with n copies of themselves. Completely positive and completely co-positive maps are trivial examples of this kind. We show that for every n ∈ ℕ, there exist non-trivial maps with this property and that for two-dimensional Hilbert spaces there is no non-trivial map for which this holds for all n. For higher dimensions, we reduce the existence question of such non-trivial "tensor-stable positive maps" to a one-parameter family of maps and show that an affirmative answer would imply the existence of non-positive partial transpose bound entanglement. As an application, we show that any tensor-stable positive map that is not completely positive yields an upper bound on the quantum channel capacity, which for the transposition map gives the well-known cb-norm bound. We, furthermore, show that the latter is an upper bound even for the local operations and classical communications-assisted quantum capacity, and that moreover it is a strong converse rate for this task.

  19. Uav Onboard GPS in Positioning Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahar, K. N.; Kamarudin, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of ground control points is a critical issue in mapping field, especially for large scale mapping. The fast and rapid technique for ground control point's establishment is very important for small budget projects. UAV onboard GPS has the ability to determine the point positioning. The objective of this research is to assess the accuracy of unmanned aerial vehicle onboard global positioning system in positioning determination. Therefore, this research used UAV onboard GPS as an alternative to determine the point positioning at the selected area. UAV is one of the powerful tools for data acquisition and it is used in many applications all over the world. This research concentrates on the error contributed from the UAV onboard GPS during observation. There are several points that have been used to study the pattern of positioning error. All errors were analyzed in world geodetic system 84- coordinate system, which is the basic coordinate system used by the global positioning system. Based on this research, the result of UAV onboard GPS positioning could be used in ground control point establishment with the specific error. In conclusion, accurate GCP establishment could be achieved using UAV onboard GPS by applying a specific correction based on this research.

  20. SSC Linac Beam Position Monitor System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, G. Roberto; Jones, Alan A.; Mills, Mark R.

    1994-10-01

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), Linac Beam Position Monitor System is designed to measure beam position and phase. Forty-three monitors will be installed in the Linac and Transfer Line. The position measurement provides information on the transverse beam position in the beam pipe with respect to a mechanical reference. The phase measurement provides information on the difference between the longitudinal phase of the beam and the radio frequency reference signal (rf reference), to be used for phase scanning and time of flight measurement. The system design and the prototypes are complete, and the series is under fabrication. The signals to be processed are extracted from four striplines, down-converted to a convenient intermediate frequency and fed into position and phase electronics. The position electronics is realized with the log-ratio technique, and the phase electronics uses a new digital technique that overcomes most of the problems of existing systems. Both position and phase analog electronics are mounted on identical VXI motherboards, containing analog-to-digital converters (ADC's) and digital circuitry.

  1. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  2. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  3. Piezoresistive position microsensors with ppm-accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrov, Vladimir; Shulev, Assen; Stavreva, Galina; Todorov, Vencislav

    2015-05-01

    In this article, the relation between position accuracy and the number of simultaneously measured values, such as coordinates, has been analyzed. Based on this, a conceptual layout of MEMS devices (microsensors) for multidimensional position monitoring comprising a single anchored and a single actuated part has been developed. Both parts are connected with a plurality of micromechanical flexures, and each flexure includes position detecting cantilevers. Microsensors having detecting cantilevers oriented in X and Y direction have been designed and prototyped. Experimentally measured results at characterization of 1D, 2D and 3D position microsensors are reported as well. Exploiting different flexure layouts, a travel range between 50μm and 1.8mm and sensors' sensitivity in the range between 30μV/μm and 5mV/μm@ 1V DC supply voltage have been demonstrated. A method for accurate calculation of all three Cartesian coordinates, based on measurement of at least three microsensors' signals has also been described. The analyses of experimental results prove the capability of position monitoring with ppm-(part per million) accuracy. The technology for fabrication of MEMS devices with sidewall embedded piezoresistors removes restrictions in strong improvement of their usability for position sensing with a high accuracy. The present study is, also a part of a common strategy for developing a novel MEMS-based platform for simultaneous accurate measurement of various physical values when they are transduced to a change of position.

  4. Predicting Nucleosome Positioning Using Multiple Evidence Tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Sheila M.; Weng, Zhiping; Bilmes, Jeff A.; Noble, William Stafford

    We describe a probabilistic model, implemented as a dynamic Bayesian network, that can be used to predict nucleosome positioning along a chromosome based on one or more genomic input tracks containing position-specific information (evidence). Previous models have either made predictions based on primary DNA sequence alone, or have been used to infer nucleosome positions from experimental data. Our framework permits the combination of these two distinct types of information. We show how this flexible framework can be used to make predictions based on either sequence-model scores or experimental data alone, or by using the two in combination to interpret the experimental data and fill in gaps. The model output represents the posterior probability, at each position along the chromosome, that a nucleosome core overlaps that position, given the evidence. This posterior probability is computed by integrating the information contained in the input evidence tracks along the entire input sequence, and fitting the evidence to a simple grammar of alternating nucleosome cores and linkers. In addition to providing a novel mechanism for the prediction of nucleosome positioning from arbitrary heterogeneous data sources, this framework is also applicable to other genomic segmentation tasks in which local scores are available from models or from data that can be interpreted as defining a probability assignment over labels at that position. The ability to combine sequence-based predictions and data from experimental assays is a significant and novel contribution to the ongoing research regarding the primary structure of chromatin and its effects upon gene regulation.

  5. SSC Linac Beam Position Monitor System

    SciTech Connect

    Aiello, G.R.; Jones, A.A.; Mills, M.R. )

    1994-10-10

    The Superconducting Super Collider (SSC), Linac Beam Position Monitor System is designed to measure beam position and phase. Forty-three monitors will be installed in the Linac and Transfer Line. The position measurement provides information on the transverse beam position in the beam pipe with respect to a mechanical reference. The phase measurement provides information on the difference between the longitudinal phase of the beam and the radio frequency reference signal (rf reference), to be used for phase scanning and time of flight measurement. The system design and the prototypes are complete, and the series is under fabrication. The signals to be processed are extracted from four striplines, down-converted to a convenient intermediate frequency and fed into position and phase electronics. The position electronics is realized with the log-ratio technique, and the phase electronics uses a new digital technique that overcomes most of the problems of existing systems. Both position and phase analog electronics are mounted on identical VXI motherboards, containing analog-to-digital converters (ADC's) and digital circuitry.

  6. Predictive value of autoantibodies from anti-CCP2, anti-MCV and anti-human citrullinated fibrinogen tests, in early rheumatoid arthritis patients with rapid radiographic progression at 1 year: results from the ESPOIR cohort

    PubMed Central

    Degboé, Yannick; Constantin, Arnaud; Nigon, Delphine; Tobon, Gabriel; Cornillet, Martin; Schaeverbeke, Thierry; Chiocchia, Gilles; Nicaise-Roland, Pascale; Nogueira, Leonor; Serre, Guy; Cantagrel, Alain; Ruyssen-Witrand, Adeline

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We compared the ability of antibodies against cyclic citrullinated peptides (anti-CCP2), against mutated citrullinated vimentin (anti-MCV) and against citrullinated fibrinogen (AhFibA) to predict 1 year rapid radiographic progression (RRP; total Sharp score variation ≥5 points), in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Methods We analysed 566 patients from the ESPOIR cohort with early RA fulfilling the 2010 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism (ACR/EULAR) criteria at year 1. We assayed the 3 anticitrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) tests on baseline sera. We compared the performance of these 3 ACPA tests to predict first-year RRP, by comparing areas under the receiver operating characteristic curves (ROCs). We assessed the 1 year RRP risk by ACPA titres. We used a logistic multivariate regression to analyse RRP risk in terms either of ACPA positivity or titre: high (>3 times the N cut-off) and low (1 to 3N). Results 145 patients displayed RRP. Areas under the ROCs were similar (0.60) for the 3 tests. High ACPA titres were associated with 1 year RRP, whatever the test was, and with similar ORs. Low+ anti-MCV titres were not associated with 1-year RRP, whereas low+ anti-CCP2 titres (p=0.0226) and low+ AhFibA titres (p=0.0332) were significantly associated. In multivariate analysis, 1 year RRP was associated with anti-CCP2 positivity (p<0.0001), AhFibA positivity (p<0.0001) and high anti-MCV titres (p<0.0001). Conclusions Anti-CCP2 antibodies and AhFibA were predictive of 1 year RRP in early RA whatever their titre was, whereas only high anti-MCV antibody titres were predictive, potentially making them more discriminant to predict 1 year RRP risk. PMID:26635969

  7. Position estimation of transceivers in communication networks

    DOEpatents

    Kent, Claudia A.; Dowla, Farid

    2008-06-03

    This invention provides a system and method using wireless communication interfaces coupled with statistical processing of time-of-flight data to locate by position estimation unknown wireless receivers. Such an invention can be applied in sensor network applications, such as environmental monitoring of water in the soil or chemicals in the air where the position of the network nodes is deemed critical. Moreover, the present invention can be arranged to operate in areas where a Global Positioning System (GPS) is not available, such as inside buildings, caves, and tunnels.

  8. Determining Equilibrium Position For Acoustical Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Aveni, G.; Putterman, S.; Rudnick, J.

    1989-01-01

    Equilibrium position and orientation of acoustically-levitated weightless object determined by calibration technique on Earth. From calibration data, possible to calculate equilibrium position and orientation in presence of Earth gravitation. Sample not levitated acoustically during calibration. Technique relies on Boltzmann-Ehrenfest adiabatic-invariance principle. One converts resonant-frequency-shift data into data on normalized acoustical potential energy. Minimum of energy occurs at equilibrium point. From gradients of acoustical potential energy, one calculates acoustical restoring force or torque on objects as function of deviation from equilibrium position or orientation.

  9. Laparoscopic sterilization in HIV-1-positive women.

    PubMed

    Intaraprasert, S; Taneepanichskul, S; Chaturachinda, K

    1996-11-01

    Laparoscopic sterilizations in HIV-1-positive women were performed. Patients, who were HIV-1-positive, underwent voluntary laparoscopic sterilization. The mean age of patients was 27.5 +/- 3.8 years. Most were of low socioeconomic status. The mean duration of the operation was 14.4 +/- 5.4 min. No accidental injury to the surgical team was recorded, and no complications occurred among the patients. It was concluded that laparoscopic sterilization in HIV-positive patients was safe with low risk of HIV transmission to the surgical team. PMID:8934065

  10. Clinical skills: bed making and patient positioning.

    PubMed

    Pellatt, Glynis Collis

    Providing a clean, comfortable bed and positioning a patient in the optimum posture for prevention of complications and to enable maximum independence are fundamental nursing skills. Bed-making is a daily routine that requires practical and technical skills. Selecting the correct posture for a patient in bed or in a chair is essential for physiological functioning and recovery. In this article bed-making is described, as are positioning and re-positioning in relation to patients in bed, armchairs and wheelchairs. Infection control and moving and handling issues are also considered. PMID:17505378

  11. Aztec arithmetic: positional notation and area calculation.

    PubMed

    Harvey, H R; Williams, B J

    1980-10-31

    Texcocan-Aztec peoples in the Valley of Mexico used both picture symbols and lines and dots for numerical notation. Decipherment and analysis of mid-16th-century native pictorial land documents from the Texcocan region indicate that the line-and-dot system incorporated a symbol for zero and used position to ascribe values. Positional line-and-dot notation was used to record areas of agricultural fields, and analysis of the documentary data suggests that areas were calculated arithmetically. These findings demonstrate that neither positional notation nor the zero were unique to the Maya area, and they imply an equally sophisticated mathematical development among the Aztecs. PMID:17841389

  12. Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator

    DOEpatents

    Brandenburg, Larry Raymond; Miller, John Michael

    2000-06-13

    A crankshaft position sensing apparatus for use with an engine (16) having a combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring (38) with a sensor (36) and bandpass filter (46), having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor (48), and a gain limiter (54). The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor (30) of the combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller (58) and an inner loop controller (60). The starter/alternator assembly (18) in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

  13. Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.R.; Miller, J.M.

    2000-06-13

    A crankshaft position sensing apparatus is described for use with an engine having a combined starter/alternator assembly. The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring with a sensor and bandpass filter, having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor, and a gain limiter. The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor of the combined starter/alternator assembly. The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller and an inner loop controller. The starter/alternator assembly in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

  14. Religion, spirituality, positive youth development, and thriving.

    PubMed

    King, Pamela Ebstyne; Carr, Drew; Boitor, Ciprian

    2011-01-01

    Issues of spirituality and thriving are pertinent to the period of adolescence given the marked changes in body, mind, and relationships. In order to provide an overview of the relationship between religion, spirituality, and positive youth development, this chapter offers a developmental systems perspective and proposes a relational spirituality as a framework for understanding adolescent religious and spiritual development. In addition, the chapter examines various psychological mechanisms through which religion and spirituality may promote positive youth development. Existing empirical research on the relationships between adolescent religion, spirituality, thriving, and specific indicators of positive youth development is reviewed. Finally, future directions for continuing to build the field of study are discussed. PMID:23259192

  15. Reflection positivity for the circle group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neeb, K.-H.; Ólafsson, G.

    2015-04-01

    In this note we characterize those unitary one-parameter groups (Utc)t∈R which admit euclidean realizations in the sense that they are obtained by the analytic continuation process corresponding to reflection positivity from a unitary representation U of the circle group. These are precisely the ones for which there exists an anti-unitary involution J commuting with Uc. This provides an interesting link with the modular data arising in Tomita-Takesaki theory. Introducing the concept of a positive definite function with values in the space of sesquilinear forms, we further establish a link between KMS states and reflection positivity on the circle.

  16. Global positioning system missile test range applications

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge, M.E.

    1986-06-01

    Using the Global Positioning System (GPS), a missile under test could transmit its own position, reducing radar tracking requirements while still providing three-dimensional position and velocity data with the required accuracy. This study investigated minimum package size requirements for GPS implementation on the SRAM II missile as part of the joint test assembly telemetry system. Reported GPS missile test range applications are reviewed. The two missile tracking system implementations considered are a complete GPS package onboard the missile and onboard frequency translator that retransmits the GPS satellite signals. Accuracy and operation of the two methods are compared. A functional description of the GPS is provided.

  17. Position Sensitive Detection System for Charged Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Coello, E. A.; Favela, F.; Curiel, Q.; Chavez, E; Huerta, A.; Varela, A.; Shapira, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The position sensitive detection system presented in this work employs the Anger logic algorithm to determine the position of the light spark produced by the passage of charged particles on a 170 x 170 x 10 mm3 scintillator material (PILOT-U). The detection system consists of a matrix of nine photomultipliers, covering a fraction of the back area of the scintillators. Tests made with a non-collimated alpha particle source together with a Monte Carlo simulation that reproduces the data, suggest an intrinsic position resolution of up to 6 mm is achieved.

  18. High-accuracy discrete positioning device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, John J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An article (30) is controllably and precisely positioned at one of three discrete locations defined by a linkage. The positioning apparatus includes two independently driven cranks (34, 42), with a link (50) pivotably connected between the two cranks (34, 42). Another connector (44) is pivotably connected between one of the cranks (34 or 42) and the article (30) to be positioned. The cranks (34, 42) are rotationally adjusted so that the pivot points (52, 54) of the link (50) are collinear with the axes of rotation of the cranks (40, 48), thereby defining one of the three discrete locations. Additional cranks and links can be provided to define additional discrete locations.

  19. Potential of N-acetylated-para-aminosalicylic Acid to Accelerate Manganese Enhancement Decline for Long-term MEMRI in Rodent Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bade, Aditya N; Zhou, Biyun; McMillan, JoEllyn; Narayanasamy, Prabagaran; Veerubhotla, Ram; Gendelman, Howard E; Boska, Michael D; Liu, Yutong

    2015-01-01

    Background Manganese (Mn2+)-enhanced MRI (MEMRI) is a valuable imaging tool to study brain structure and function in normal and diseased small animals. The brain retention of Mn2+ is relatively long with a half-life (t1/2) of 51 to 74 days causing a slow decline of MRI signal enhancement following Mn2+ administration. Such slow decline limits using repeated MEMRI to follow the central nervous system longitudinally in weeks or months. This is because residual Mn2+ from preceding administrations can confound the interpretation of imaging results. We investigated whether the Mn2+ enhancement decline could be accelerated thus enabling repeated MEMRI, and as a consequence broadens the utility of MEMRI tests. New Methods We investigated whether N-acetyl-para-aminosalicylic acid (AcPAS), a chelator of Mn2+, could affect the decline of Mn2+ induced MRI enhancement in brain. Results and Conclusion Two-week treatment with AcPAS (200 mg/kg/dose × 3 daily) accelerated the decline of Mn2+ induced enhancement in MRI. In the whole brain on average the enhancement declined from 100% to 17% in AcPAS treated mice, while in PBS controls the decline is from 100% to 27%. We posit that AcPAS could enhance MEMRI utility for evaluating brain biology in small animals. Comparison with Existing Methods To the best of our knowledge, no method exists to accelerate the decline of the Mn2+ induced MRI enhancement for repeated MEMRI tests. PMID:26004847

  20. Using Evolutionary Computation on GPS Position Correction

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    More and more devices are equipped with global positioning system (GPS). However, those handheld devices with consumer-grade GPS receivers usually have low accuracy in positioning. A position correction algorithm is therefore useful in this case. In this paper, we proposed an evolutionary computation based technique to generate a correction function by two GPS receivers and a known reference location. Locating one GPS receiver on the known location and combining its longitude and latitude information and exact poisoning information, the proposed technique is capable of evolving a correction function by such. The proposed technique can be implemented and executed on handheld devices without hardware reconfiguration. Experiments are conducted to demonstrate performance of the proposed technique. Positioning error could be significantly reduced from the order of 10 m to the order of 1 m. PMID:24578657

  1. Chain friction system gives positive, reversible drive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidsen, J. S.

    1964-01-01

    By cementing a strip of an elastomer to the smooth metal rim of the pulley and neoprene covered idlers providing suitable tension to the chain around the pulley, a positive reversible drive is accomplished more quietly and with less vibration.

  2. Positive psychology progress: empirical validation of interventions.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Martin E P; Steen, Tracy A; Park, Nansook; Peterson, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology has flourished in the last 5 years. The authors review recent developments in the field, including books, meetings, courses, and conferences. They also discuss the newly created classification of character strengths and virtues, a positive complement to the various editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (e. g., American Psychiatric Association, 1994), and present some cross-cultural findings that suggest a surprising ubiquity of strengths and virtues. Finally, the authors focus on psychological interventions that increase individual happiness. In a 6-group, random-assignment, placebo-controlled Internet study, the authors tested 5 purported happiness interventions and 1 plausible control exercise. They found that 3 of the interventions lastingly increased happiness and decreased depressive symptoms. Positive interventions can supplement traditional interventions that relieve suffering and may someday be the practical legacy of positive psychology. PMID:16045394

  3. Toward a positive psychology of mental retardation.

    PubMed

    Dykens, Elisabeth M

    2006-04-01

    Researchers and practitioners alike have long focused on the external life conditions, adaptive behavior, and inclusion of persons with mental retardation. Using breakthroughs in positive psychology, this article proposes a new research agenda focused on the positive, internal states of those with mental retardation. It shows how major movements in the mental retardation field--quality of life, dual diagnosis, personality motivation, and families--have succeeded in some arenas but failed to address happiness and well-being. Examples of happiness--of positive emotions, flow, strengths, and virtues--are offered in people with genetic causes of mental retardation. Complexities related to etiology, measurement, flow, and a meaningful life are described, as is the vital role that mental retardation can play in the emerging science of positive psychology. PMID:16719637

  4. Couples with dementia: Positioning the 'we'.

    PubMed

    Hydén, Lars-Christer; Nilsson, Elin

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate how spouses in couples with dementia position themselves in relation to each other by analysing their use of pronouns, especially the we. The study uses joint interviews with 11 couples. Based on a quantitative analysis of pronoun use, it is argued that the pronoun we is used by all the spouses; however, it is used less frequently by the spouses with dementia in comparison with healthy spouses. A qualitative analysis of the use of the pronoun we shows that the spouses position, experience and consider themselves as a couple and that they position and experience themselves as individuals in relation to the couple. One of the challenges for couples with dementia is to be able to retain a we in face of the progression of the dementia disease. By positioning themselves in various ways, the spouses establish and negotiate quite a complex and emotionally charged web of relationships. PMID:24339120

  5. Precise CCD positions of Apophis in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, N.; Peng, Q. Y.; Zhang, X. L.; Zhang, Q. F.; Li, Z.; Meng, X. H.

    2015-12-01

    298 CCD observations during the year 2013 have been reduced to derive the precise positions of near-Earth asteroid (99942) Apophis. The observations were made by the 2.4-m telescope at Yunnan Observatory over 10 nights. The position and proper motion errors of the reference stars in the USNO CCD Astrograph Catalogue 4 (UCAC4) star catalogue are corrected by using the newest correction table provided by Farnocchia et al. The geometric distortion of the field of view is also derived from the unbiased star positions in UCAC4 and removed. The theoretical position of Apophis was retrieved from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Horizons system. Our results show that the mean O-Cs (observed minus computed) are 0.016 and 0.034 arcsec in right ascension and declination, respectively. The dispersions of our observations are estimated at 0.041 and 0.045 arcsec in right ascension and declination, respectively.

  6. Position estimator for underground mine equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, G.K.; Stentz, A.; Whittaker, W.L.; Fitzpatrick, K.W. )

    1992-10-01

    This paper describes a 2-D perception system that exploits the accuracy and resolution of a laser range sensor to determine the position and orientation of a mobile robot in a mine environment. The perception system detects features from range sensor data and matches the features to a map of the mine to compute the sensor position. The features used are line segments and corners, which represent the typical geometry of the mine walls and intersections found in room-0and-pillar type mining. The position estimate is refined by minimizing the error between the map and sensed features. This position information can be used for autonomous navigation when a map of the mine is available or to survey the mine to build such a map. The technique is applied to robot navigation in a mine mockup. A refinement of this system could guide machines to yield productive, safe mining operations.

  7. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Could your kids be at risk for substance ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...

  8. [Positioning of patients with acute respiratory failure].

    PubMed

    Bein, T

    2012-11-01

    The collapse of lung tissue, edema and intrapulmonary shunt are the main symptoms in patients with acute respiratory insufficiency. The techniques of ventilation in a prone position and continuous lateral rotational therapy (CLRT) are based on these pathophysiological changes. Ventilation in a prone position was found to improve ventilation and perfusion relationships and reduction in the pleural pressure gradient. In hypoxemic lung failure (PaO(2)/FIO(2) <100) a prone position was found to improve oxygenation as a rescue measure and to improve survival. In contrast CLRT is considered to be an early therapeutic or prophylactic measure aimed at prevention of ventilation-associated complications. In trauma patients these beneficial effects were demonstrated in several studies. Positioning therapy can be accompanied by potentially serious complications (e.g. face and skin ulceration, accidental loss of tubes and catheters and cardiac arrhythmias) and its use requires routine management and exact knowledge of indications and risks. PMID:23086293

  9. Vertical positioning surveillance by magnetostrictive transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, A. S.; Lopes, C.; Pinto, O. O.; Nunes, C. D.; Borges, M. F.; Strohaecker, T. R.

    2015-10-01

    This work purpose is to create a positioning automated system of a tailstock to perform impact resistance tests on silicone mammary implants. This system is capable to measure and oversight the positioning through interrelation between three main components: programmable logic controller, human-machine interface and magnetostrictive transducer. Together, these components form an operational closed loop that ensures an appropriate positioning for the impact device. The paper describes how the closed loop works and also the algorithm implemented in the programmable logic controller which surveys the positioning. As a last topic, the paper presents the operator work on the machine's operation in conjunction with human-machine interface. The results were satisfactory and in accordance with the limits determined on ABNT NBR ISO 14607 for this method of tests.

  10. Position, Navigation, and Timing: GPS Scientific Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilan, Ruth E.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development and deployment of the Global Positioning System (GPS). This presentation also includes measuring space and time, GPS as a tool for science, development of high precision JPL GPS receivers, and technology and applications developments.

  11. Large area position sensitive β-detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaintraub, S.; Hass, M.; Edri, H.; Morali, N.; Segal, T.

    2015-03-01

    A new conceptual design of a large area electron detector, which is position and energy sensitive, was developed. This detector is designed for beta decay energies up to 4 MeV, but in principle can be re-designed for higher energies. The detector incorporates one large plastic scintillator and, in general, a limited number of photomultipliers (7 presently). The current setup was designed and constructed after an extensive Geant4 simulation study. By comparison of a single hit light distribution between the various photomultipliers to a pre-measured accurate position-response map, the anticipated position resolution is around 5 mm. The first benchmark experiments have been conducted in order to calibrate and confirm the position resolution of the detector. The new method, results of the first test experiments and comparison to simulations are presented.

  12. Telling Others You Are HIV Positive

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language: Fact Sheet 204 Telling Others You are HIV Positive WHAT ARE THE ISSUES? GENERAL GUIDELINES SPECIAL ... SPECIAL SITUATIONS People You May Have Exposed to HIV: It can be very difficult to disclose your ...

  13. Teacher Preferences for Various Positive Reinforcements.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Derevensky, Jeffrey L.; Rose, Malcolm I.

    1978-01-01

    Investigated the relationship between applied behavioral training and reinforcement preferences of classroom teachers. Data obtained from the Positive Reinforcement Observation Schedule, a paired comparison task, indicated minimal differential reinforcement preferences for classroom teachers with no training, limited training, or extensive…

  14. Focused-laser interferometric position sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Stephen J.; Barwick, Brett; Batelaan, Herman

    2005-12-15

    We describe a simple method to measure the position shifts of an object with a range of tens of micrometers using a focused-laser (FL) interferometric position sensor. In this article we examine the effects of mechanical vibration on FL and Michelson interferometers. We tested both interferometers using vibration amplitudes ranging from 0 to 20 {mu}m. Our FL interferometer has a resolution much better than the diffraction grating periodicities of 10 and 14 {mu}m used in our experiments. A FL interferometer provides improved mechanical stability at the expense of spatial resolution. Our experimental results show that Michelson interferometers cannot be used when the vibration amplitude is more than an optical wavelength. The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a focused-laser interferometric position sensor can be used to measure the position shifts of an object on a less sensitive, micrometer scale when the vibration amplitude is too large to use a Michelson interferometer.

  15. 17 CFR 151.6 - Position visibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and analytically supported deltas) on a futures-equivalent basis; and (ii) If applicable, by commodity... deltas). (c) 404 filing. A person that holds a position in a Referenced Contract that equals or exceeds...

  16. Class of positive partial transposition states

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2006-08-15

    We construct a class of quantum bipartite d(multiply-in-circle sign)d states which are positive under partial transposition (PPT states). This class is invariant under the maximal commutative subgroup of U(d) and contains as special cases many well-known examples of PPT states. States from our class provide criteria for testing the indecomposability of positive maps. Such maps are crucial for constructing entanglement witnesses.

  17. Tipping the spindle into the right position.

    PubMed

    Akhmanova, Anna; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2016-05-01

    The position of the mitotic spindle determines the cleavage plane in animal cells, but what controls spindle positioning? Kern et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201510117) demonstrate that the microtubule plus end-associated SKAP/Astrin complex participates in this process, possibly by affecting dynein-dependent pulling forces exerted on the tips of astral microtubules. PMID:27138251

  18. Triple positive breast cancer: a distinct subtype?

    PubMed

    Vici, Patrizia; Pizzuti, Laura; Natoli, Clara; Gamucci, Teresa; Di Lauro, Luigi; Barba, Maddalena; Sergi, Domenico; Botti, Claudio; Michelotti, Andrea; Moscetti, Luca; Mariani, Luciano; Izzo, Fiorentino; D'Onofrio, Loretta; Sperduti, Isabella; Conti, Francesca; Rossi, Valentina; Cassano, Alessandra; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello; Mottolese, Marcella; Marchetti, Paolo

    2015-02-01

    Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease, and within the HER-2 positive subtype this is highly exemplified by the presence of substantial phenotypical and clinical heterogeneity, mostly related to hormonal receptor (HR) expression. It is well known how HER-2 positivity is commonly associated with a more aggressive tumor phenotype and decreased overall survival and, moreover, with a reduced benefit from endocrine treatment. Preclinical studies corroborate the role played by functional crosstalks between HER-2 and estrogen receptor (ER) signaling in endocrine resistance and, more recently, the activation of ER signaling is emerging as a possible mechanism of resistance to HER-2 blocking agents. Indeed, HER-2 positive breast cancer heterogeneity has been suggested to underlie the variability of response not only to endocrine treatments, but also to HER-2 blocking agents. Among HER-2 positive tumors, HR status probably defines two distinct subtypes, with dissimilar clinical behavior and different sensitivity to anticancer agents. The triple positive subtype, namely, ER/PgR/Her-2 positive tumors, could be considered the subset which most closely resembles the HER-2 negative/HR positive tumors, with substantial differences in biology and clinical outcome. We argue on whether in this subgroup the "standard" treatment may be considered, in selected cases, i.e., small tumors, low tumor burden, high expression of both hormonal receptors, an overtreatment. This article review the existing literature on biologic and clinical data concerning the HER-2/ER/PgR positive tumors, in an attempt to better define the HER-2 subtypes and to optimize the use of HER-2 targeted agents, chemotherapy and endocrine treatments in the various subsets. PMID:25554445

  19. Practical position-based quantum cryptography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chakraborty, Kaushik; Leverrier, Anthony

    2015-11-01

    We study a general family of quantum protocols for position verification and present a class of attacks based on the Clifford hierarchy. These attacks outperform current strategies based on port-based teleportation for a large class of practical protocols. We then introduce the interleaved product protocol, a scheme for position verification involving only the preparation and measurement of single qubit states for which the best available attacks have a complexity exponential in the number of classical bits transmitted.

  20. Nuclear envelope: positioning nuclei and organizing synapses

    PubMed Central

    Razafsky, David; Hodzic, Didier

    2015-01-01

    The nuclear envelope plays an essential role in nuclear positioning within cells and tissues. This review highlights advances in understanding the mechanisms of nuclear positioning during skeletal muscle and central nervous system development. New findings, particularly about Atype lamins and Nesprin1, may link nuclear envelope integrity to synaptic integrity. Thus synaptic defects, rather than nuclear mispositioning, may underlie human pathologies associated with mutations of nuclear envelope proteins. PMID:26079712

  1. Sprites, elf transients, and positive ground strokes

    SciTech Connect

    Boccippio, D.J.; Boldi, R.; Williams, E.R.

    1995-08-25

    In two summertime mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), mesospheric optical sprite phenomena were often coincident with both large-amplitude positive cloud-to-ground lightning and transient Schumann resonance excitations of the entire Earth-ionosphere cavity. These observations, together with earlier studies of MCS electrification, suggest that sprites are triggered when the rapid removal of large quantities of positive charge from an areally extensive charge layer stresses the mesosphere to dielectric breakdown. 46 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  2. Alternative aperture stop position designs for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Paul K.; Dinger, Ann S.

    1990-01-01

    Three designs of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) for a 100,000 high earth orbit are considered with particular attention given to the evaluation of the aperture stop position. The choice of aperture stop position will be based on stray light considerations which are being studied concurrently. It is noted that there are advantages in cost, mass, and astronomical aperture to placing the aperture stop at or near the primary mirror, if the stray light circumstances allow.

  3. Infrared/Ultrasonic Position-Measuring System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberson, Ricky J.

    1995-01-01

    System for measuring positions of sensors at designated points on body suit developed. Measuring system, body suit, and sensors incorporated into interactive virtual-reality system, wherein they provide feedback data on positions and orientations of various parts of wearer's body. Based on straightforward concept of computating three-dimensional coordinates of sensor from simultaneous measurements of distances of sensor from three locations, coordinates of which known.

  4. Rabies vaccines: WHO position paper--recommendations.

    PubMed

    2010-10-18

    This article presents the WHO recommendations on the use of rabies vaccines excerpted from the recently published Rabies vaccines: WHO position paper. This document replaces the WHO position paper entitled Rabies vaccines WHO position paper published in the Weekly Epidemiological Record in December 2007. Footnotes to this paper provide a limited number of core references; their abstracts as well as a more comprehensive list of references may be found at http://www.who.int/immunization/documents/positionpapers/en/index.html. Grading tables which assess the quality of scientific evidence for key conclusions are also available through this link and are referenced in the position paper. In accordance with its mandate to provide guidance to Member States on health policy matters, WHO issues a series of regularly updated position papers on vaccines and combinations of vaccines against diseases that have an international public health impact. These papers are concerned primarily with the use of vaccines in large-scale immunization programmes; they summarize essential background information on diseases and vaccines, and conclude with WHO's current position on the use of vaccines in the global context. This updated paper reflects the recent recommendations of WHO's Strategic Advisory Group of Experts on immunization, or SAGE. PMID:20831913

  5. Positive messaging promotes walking in older adults

    PubMed Central

    Notthoff, Nanna; Carstensen, Laura L.

    2014-01-01

    Walking is among the most cost-effective and accessible means of exercise. Mounting evidence suggests that walking may help to maintain physical and cognitive independence in old age by preventing a variety of health problems. However, older Americans fall far short of meeting the daily recommendations for walking. In two studies, we examined whether considering older adults’ preferential attention to positive information may effectively enhance interventions aimed at promoting walking. In Study 1, we compared the effectiveness of positive, negative, and neutral messages to encourage walking (as measured with pedometers). Older adults who were informed about the benefits of walking walked more than those who were informed about the negative consequences of failing to walk, whereas younger adults were unaffected by framing valence. In Study 2, we examined within-person change in walking in older adults in response to positively- or negatively-framed messages over a 28-day period. Once again, positively-framed messages more effectively promoted walking than negatively-framed messages, and the effect was sustained across the intervention period. Together, these studies suggest that consideration of age-related changes in preferences for positive and negative information may inform the design of effective interventions to promote healthy lifestyles. Future research is needed to examine the mechanisms underlying the greater effectiveness of positively as opposed to negatively framed messages and the generalizability of findings to other intervention targets and other subpopulations of older adults. PMID:24956001

  6. Side-emitting fiber optic position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2008-02-12

    A side-emitting fiber optic position sensor and method of determining an unknown position of an object by using the sensor. In one embodiment, a concentrated beam of light source illuminates the side of a side-emitting fiber optic at an unknown axial position along the fiber's length. Some of this side-illuminated light is in-scattered into the fiber and captured. As the captured light is guided down the fiber, its intensity decreases due to loss from side-emission away from the fiber and from bulk absorption within the fiber. By measuring the intensity of light emitted from one (or both) ends of the fiber with a photodetector(s), the axial position of the light source is determined by comparing the photodetector's signal to a calibrated response curve, look-up table, or by using a mathematical model. Alternatively, the side-emitting fiber is illuminated at one end, while a photodetector measures the intensity of light emitted from the side of the fiber, at an unknown position. As the photodetector moves further away from the illuminated end, the detector's signal strength decreases due to loss from side-emission and/or bulk absorption. As before, the detector's signal is correlated to a unique position along the fiber.

  7. Reading Gate Positions with a Smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Overloop, Peter-Jules; Hut, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide many flow gates are built in water networks in order to direct water to appropriate locations. Most of these gates are adjusted manually by field operators of water management organizations and it is often centrally not known what the new position of the gate is. This makes centralized management of the entire water network difficult. One of the reasons why the measurement of the gate position is usually not executed, is that for certain gates it is not easy to do such a reading. Tilting weirs or radial gates are examples where operators need special equipment (measuring rod and long level) to determine the position and it could even be a risky procedure. Another issue is that once the measurement is done, the value is jotted down in a notebook and later, at the office, entered in a computer system. So the entire monitoring procedure is not real-time and prone to human errors. A new way of monitoring gate positions is introduced. It consists of a level that is attached to the gate and an app with which a picture can be taken from the level. Using dedicated pattern recognition algorithms, the gate position can be read by using the angle of the level versus reference points on the gate, the radius of that gate and the absolute level of the joint around which the gate turn. The method uses gps-localization of the smartphone to store the gate position in the right location in the central database.

  8. EMI sensor positioning using a beacon approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lhomme, Nicolas; Barrowes, Benjamin E.; George, David C.

    2011-06-01

    Discrimination of buried exploded ordnance by inversion of electromagnetic data requires accurate sensor positioning. There are many contaminated areas were dense forest or significant topographic variation reduces accuracy or precludes use of standard geo-location methods, such as satellite-based Global Positioning System (GPS) and laser tracking systems (e.g., Robotic Total Station, RTS), as these rely on line of sight. We propose an alternative positioning system that is based on a beacon principle. The system was developed to survey with the Man-Portable Vector (MPV) EMI sensor. The magnetic moment of the MPV transmitter can be detected at a relatively large distance. The primary field is measured from a portable base station comprised of two vector receivers rigidly attached to either ends of a 1.5 meter horizontal boom. Control tests showed that relative location and orientation could be recovered with centimeter positional and one degree angular accuracy within a 3-4-meter range and 60-degree aperture (relative to boom transverse direction), which is more than sufficient to cover any UXO anomaly. This accuracy level satisfies commonly accepted positional requirement for discrimination. The beacon positioning system can facilitate classification of munitions in any man-trafficable area and was successfully deployed at a field demonstration.

  9. The costs and benefits of positive illusions

    PubMed Central

    Makridakis, Spyros; Moleskis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Positive illusions are associated with unrealistic optimism about the future and an inflated assessment of one’s abilities. They are prevalent in normal life and are considered essential for maintaining a healthy mental state, although, there are disagreements to the extent to which people demonstrate these positive illusions and whether they are beneficial or not. But whatever the situation, it is hard to dismiss their existence and their positive and/or negative influence on human behavior and decision making in general. Prominent among illusions is that of control, that is “the tendency for people to overestimate their ability to control events.” This paper describes positive illusions, their potential benefits but also quantifies their costs in five specific fields (gambling, stock and other markets, new firms and startups, preventive medicine and wars). It is organized into three parts. First the psychological reasons giving rise to positive illusions are described and their likely harm and benefits stated. Second, their negative consequences are presented and their costs are quantified in five areas seriously affected with emphasis to those related to the illusion of control that seems to dominate those of unrealistic optimism. The costs involved are huge and serious efforts must be undertaken to understand their enormity and steps taken to avoid them in the future. Finally, there is a concluding section where the challenges related to positive illusions are noted and directions for future research are presented. PMID:26175698

  10. Combined GPS and GALILEO instantaneous precise positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wielgosz, P.; Paziewski, J.; Stepniak, K.

    2011-12-01

    This presentation provides results of the research aimed at precise positioning using single-epoch GPS and Galileo observations. The main goal was to develop algorithms that allow obtaining reliable centimeter-level position when using just a single epoch of pseudorange and carrier phase GPS and Galileo data in a single functional model. The presented algorithms are based on relative precise positioning using double-differenced observations in both single baseline and network mode. Fast and reliable ambiguity resolution is the key for rapid and single-epoch precise positioning. In order to support ambiguity resolution using small amount of data, special emphasis was put on mitigation of ionospheric and tropospheric delays. The functional model was based on constrained least squares estimation. The LAMBDA method was applied for ambiguity resolution and a multi-criteria statistical tests are used for ambiguity validation. These algorithms were implemented in GINPOS software developed at the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn. The results of combined GPS+Galileo processing were compared to the solutions obtained using GPS-only and Galileo-only data. Since there are just two test Galileo satellites on orbit, Spirent multi-GNSS simulator was used to obtain Galileo and GPS signals. The processed baselines reached up to 35-70 km. The results based on the simulated data show that even though single-epoch precise positioning is possible with GPS only, adding Galileo data increases availability and reliability of the user position.

  11. Pharmacy Residents’ Pursuit of Academic Positions

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Tiffany R.; Mehta, Bella H.; Rodis, Jennifer L.; Pruchnicki, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe pharmacy residents’ interest in and pursuit of academic positions. Methods. An electronic presurvey and postsurvey were sent to pharmacy residents during the 2011-2012 residency year. The initial survey evaluated residents’ job preferences and interest in academia at the beginning of residency, and the follow-up survey focused on job selection and reasons for pursuing or not pursuing positions in academia. Results. Nine hundred thirty-six residents responded to the initial survey and 630 participated in both the initial and follow-up survey. Forty-eight percent of those responding to both surveys strongly considered a career in academia in the initial survey, 28% applied for an academic position, and 7% accepted a position. Second-year postgraduate residents were more likely than first-year postgraduate residents to apply for and be offered a faculty position. Conclusion. Pharmacy residents are interested in academia. While increasing interest among residents is encouraging for faculty recruitment, the academy should also encourage and develop adequate training experiences to prepare residents to succeed in these positions. PMID:25995513

  12. Foramen magnum position in bipedal mammals.

    PubMed

    Russo, Gabrielle A; Kirk, E Christopher

    2013-11-01

    The anterior position of the human foramen magnum is often explained as an adaptation for maintaining balance of the head atop the cervical vertebral column during bipedalism and the assumption of orthograde trunk postures. Accordingly, the relative placement of the foramen magnum on the basicranium has been used to infer bipedal locomotion and hominin status for a number of Mio-Pliocene fossil taxa. Nonetheless, previous studies have struggled to validate the functional link between foramen magnum position and bipedal locomotion. Here, we test the hypothesis that an anteriorly positioned foramen magnum is related to bipedalism through a comparison of basicranial anatomy between bipeds and quadrupeds from three mammalian clades: marsupials, rodents and primates. Additionally, we examine whether strepsirrhine primates that habitually assume orthograde trunk postures exhibit more anteriorly positioned foramina magna compared with non-orthograde strepsirrhines. Our comparative data reveal that bipedal marsupials and rodents have foramina magna that are more anteriorly located than those of quadrupedal close relatives. The foramen magnum is also situated more anteriorly in orthograde strepsirrhines than in pronograde or antipronograde strepsirrhines. Among the primates sampled, humans exhibit the most anteriorly positioned foramina magna. The results of this analysis support the utility of foramen magnum position as an indicator of bipedal locomotion in fossil hominins. PMID:24055116

  13. Serial position functions in general knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Matthew R; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2015-11-01

    Serial position functions with marked primacy and recency effects are ubiquitous in episodic memory tasks. The demonstrations reported here explored whether bow-shaped serial position functions would be observed when people ordered exemplars from various categories along a specified dimension. The categories and dimensions were: actors and age; animals and weight; basketball players and height; countries and area; and planets and diameter. In all cases, a serial position function was observed: People were more accurate to order the youngest and oldest actors, the lightest and heaviest animals, the shortest and tallest basketball players, the smallest and largest countries, and the smallest and largest planets, relative to intermediate items. The results support an explanation of serial position functions based on relative distinctiveness, which predicts that serial position functions will be observed whenever a set of items can be sensibly ordered along a particular dimension. The serial position function arises because the first and last items enjoy a benefit of having no competitors on 1 side and therefore have enhanced distinctiveness relative to mid-dimension items, which suffer by having many competitors on both sides. PMID:26076327

  14. [Mutual inhibition between positive and negative emotions].

    PubMed

    Shimokawa, A

    1994-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the relationship between positive and negative emotions. In study 1, 62 emotional items were selected in order to measure subjective emotional experiences. In study 2, comics, photos and poems were randomly presented to 1,220 college students to induce emotion. Subjects were asked to rate their momentary emotional intensity on two set of 5-point scales (general emotional intensity scale and 62 specific emotional intensity scale). In analysis 1, positive correlations were suggested between general emotional intensity scale and some of the specific emotional intensity scales which were activated by stimuli. In analysis 2, 10 positive and 10 negative emotional items were extracted from 62 items by factor analysis. In analysis 3, 4 and 5, it became clear that the distribution of frequency of correlations of 10 positive x 10 negative items changed according to the general emotional intensity scale. That is, from low to moderate levels of GEIS, the two kinds of emotion had no or slightly positive correlation, but at high level they became to be negatively correlated. From the facts described above, it is concluded that positive and negative emotions is not always independent, but show mutual inhibition in case of high intensity level of one of each emotions. PMID:8201808

  15. 32 CFR Appendix J to Part 154 - ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions J Appendix J to Part 154 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Pt. 154, App. J Appendix J to Part 154—ADP Position Categories...

  16. Young Adolescents' Responses to Positive Events: Associations with Positive Affect and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentzler, Amy L.; Morey, Jennifer N.; Palmer, Cara A.; Yi, Chit Yuen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how maximizing and minimizing responses to positive events were associated with sustained positive feelings about the events and adjustment in a community sample of 56 young adolescents (31 boys and 25 girls, 10-14 years of age). On daily reports, adolescents reported their positive emotional reactions to their best event each…

  17. From Positive Reinforcement to Positive Behaviors: An Everyday Guide for the Practitioner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigler, Ellen A.; Aamidor, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    There are various opinions concerning the value of positive reinforcement when discussing modifying behaviors of young children. In some cases, individuals considered positive reinforcement difficult to implement and, in extreme cases, even felt it to be detrimental. Educators often use praise interchangeably with positive reinforcement when…

  18. The Role of Citrullinated Protein Antibodies in Predicting Erosive Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jilani, A. A.; Mackworth-Young, C. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Autoantibodies to citrullinated peptides have been shown to be valuable in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The expanding repertoire of antibodies to citrullinated peptide antigens (ACPA) has been a topic of great interest in recent reviews and research studies, as has the ability of these autoantibodies to predict disease outcome. Objectives. The aim of this review was to provide an update on the relevance of ACPA as prognostic markers in RA. The ability to identify patients predisposed to an aggressive outcome at the time of initial diagnosis greatly facilitates the selection of appropriate and cost-effective treatment. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was carried out. Studies from 1967 up to June 2014 with data on prognostic value of ACPA were included. Quality assessment was done by using the modified Hayden list for prognostic studies. Meta-analysis was performed using BioStat software. Results. The results of 25 studies were selected for the final review. A total of 6421 patients with RA were included, mainly in inception cohorts, with follow-up duration ranging from one year to ten years. All studies carried prognostic data on all available isotypes of anticyclic citrullinated protein (CCP), while four had data on antimutated citrullinated vimentin (MCV). There was a single relevant study each on anticitrullinated enolase peptide 1 (CEP1) and antichimaeric fibrin/filaggrin citrullinated peptide 1 (CFFCP1). All studies showed ACPA to be strong predictors of joint erosions in RA. Other factors, particularly baseline erosions, showed an additive effect. Anti-MCV appeared to be a marker of a more aggressive form of disease. Ten studies had data on which a meta-analysis could be performed. This gave an overall odds ratio of 4.85 for ACPA (anti-CCP/MCV) positivity being predictive for the development of joint erosions. Two studies with data on anti-CEP1 and anti-CFFCP1 also showed this positive predictive role of ACPA for joint

  19. Inductive Non-Contact Position Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Garcia, Alyssa; Simmons, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Optical hardware has been developed to measure the depth of defects in the Space Shuttle Orbiter's windows. In this hardware, a mirror is translated such that its position corresponds to the defect's depth, so the depth measurement problem is transferred to a mirror-position measurement problem. This is preferable because the mirror is internal to the optical system and thus accessible. Based on requirements supplied by the window inspectors, the depth of the defects needs to be measured over a range of 200 microns with a resolution of about 100 nm and an accuracy of about 400 nm. These same requirements then apply to measuring the position of the mirror, and in addition, since this is a scanning system, a response time of about 10 ms is needed. A market search was conducted and no sensor that met these requirements that also fit into the available housing volume (less than one cubic inch) was found, so a novel sensor configuration was constructed to meet the requirements. This new sensor generates a nearly linearly varying magnetic field over a small region of space, which can easily be sampled, resulting in a voltage proportional to position. Experiments were done with a range of inductor values, drive voltages, drive frequencies, and inductor shapes. A rough mathematical model was developed for the device that, in most aspects, describes how it operates and what electrical parameters should be chosen for best performance. The final configuration met all the requirements, yielding a small rugged sensor that was easy to use and had nanometer resolution over more than the 200-micron range required. The inductive position sensor is a compact device (potentially as small as 2 cubic centimeters), which offers nanometer-position resolution over a demonstrated range of nearly 1 mm. One of its advantages is the simplicity of its electrical design. Also, the sensor resolution is nearly uniform across its operational range, which is in contrast to eddy current and

  20. A general framework for complete positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominy, Jason M.; Shabani, Alireza; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Complete positivity of quantum dynamics is often viewed as a litmus test for physicality; yet, it is well known that correlated initial states need not give rise to completely positive evolutions. This observation spurred numerous investigations over the past two decades attempting to identify necessary and sufficient conditions for complete positivity. Here, we describe a complete and consistent mathematical framework for the discussion and analysis of complete positivity for correlated initial states of open quantum systems. This formalism is built upon a few simple axioms and is sufficiently general to contain all prior methodologies going back to Pechakas (Phys Rev Lett 73:1060-1062, 1994). The key observation is that initial system-bath states with the same reduced state on the system must evolve under all admissible unitary operators to system-bath states with the same reduced state on the system, in order to ensure that the induced dynamical maps on the system are well defined. Once this consistency condition is imposed, related concepts such as the assignment map and the dynamical maps are uniquely defined. In general, the dynamical maps may not be applied to arbitrary system states, but only to those in an appropriately defined physical domain. We show that the constrained nature of the problem gives rise to not one but three inequivalent types of complete positivity. Using this framework, we elucidate the limitations of recent attempts to provide conditions for complete positivity using quantum discord and the quantum data processing inequality. In particular, we correct the claim made by two of us (Shabani and Lidar in Phys Rev Lett 102:100402-100404, 2009) that vanishing discord is necessary for complete positivity, and explain that it is valid only for a particular class of initial states. The problem remains open, and may require fresh perspectives and new mathematical tools. The formalism presented herein may be one step in that direction.

  1. An iterative subaperture position correction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Weng-Hou; Lin, Po-Chih; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2015-08-01

    The subaperture stitching interferometry is a technique suitable for testing high numerical-aperture optics, large-diameter spherical lenses and aspheric optics. In the stitching process, each subaperture has to be placed at its correct position in a global coordinate, and the positioning precision would affect the accuracy of stitching result. However, the mechanical limitations in the alignment process as well as vibrations during the measurement would induce inevitable subaperture position uncertainties. In our previous study, a rotational scanning subaperture stitching interferometer has been constructed. This paper provides an iterative algorithm to correct the subaperture position without altering the interferometer configuration. Each subaperture is first placed at its geometric position estimated according to the F number of reference lens, the measurement zenithal angle and the number of pixels along the width of subaperture. By using the concept of differentiation, a shift compensator along the radial direction of the global coordinate is added into the stitching algorithm. The algorithm includes two kinds of compensators: one for the geometric null with four compensators of piston, two directional tilts and defocus, and the other for the position correction with the shift compensator. These compensators are computed iteratively to minimize the phase differences in the overlapped regions of subapertures in a least-squares sense. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method works to the position accuracy of 0.001 pixels for both the single-ring and multiple-ring configurations. Experimental verifications with the single-ring and multiple-ring data also show the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  2. The positive ion temperature effect in magnetized electronegative plasma sheath with two species of positive ions

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, A. K.; Kar, S.; Goswami, K. S.

    2012-10-15

    The properties of a magnetized multi-component (two species of positive ions, negative ions and electrons) plasma sheath with finite positive ion temperature are studied. By using three fluid hydrodynamic model and some dimensionless variables, the ion (both lighter and heavier positive ions, and negative ions) densities, the ion (only for positive ions) velocities, and electric potential inside the sheath are investigated. In addition, the absence and presence of magnetic field and the orientation of magnetic field are considered. It is noticed that, with increase of positive ion temperature, the lighter positive ion density peaks increase only at the sheath edge and shift towards the sheath edge for both absence and presence of magnetic field. For heavier positive ions, in the absence of magnetic field, the density peaks increase at the sheath edge. But in the presence of magnetic field, the density fluctuations increase at the sheath edge. For both the cases, the density peaks shift towards the sheath edge.

  3. Consequences of False-Positive Screening Mammograms

    PubMed Central

    Tosteson, Anna N. A.; Fryback, Dennis G.; Hammond, Cristina S.; Hanna, Lucy G.; Grove, Margaret R.; Brown, Mary; Wang, Qianfei; Lindfors, Karen; Pisano, Etta D.

    2014-01-01

    Importance False-positive mammograms, a common occurrence in breast cancer screening programs, represent a potential screening harm that is currently being evaluated by the United States Preventive Services Task Force. Objective To measure the impact of false-positive mammograms on quality of life by measuring personal anxiety, health utility and future screening attitudes. Design Longitudinal Digital Mammographic Imaging Screening Trial (DMIST) quality-of-life sub-study telephone survey shortly after screening and one year later. Setting Twenty-two DMIST sites Participants Randomly-selected DMIST participants with positive and negative mammograms. Exposure(s) for observational studies Mammogram requiring follow-up testing or referral without a cancer diagnosis. Main Outcome(s) and Measure(s) The Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Index short-form (STAI-6) and the EuroQol EQ-5D with United States scoring. Attitudes toward future screening measured by women’s self-report of future intention to undergo mammography screening and willingness to travel and stay overnight to receive a hypothetical new mammogram that would detect as many cancers with half the false-positives. Results Among 1,450 eligible women invited to participate, 1,226 women (85%) were enrolled with follow-up interviews obtained for 1,028 (84%). Anxiety was significantly higher for women with false-positive mammograms (STAI-6:35.2 vs. 32.7), but health utility did not differ and there were no significant differences between groups at one year. Future screening intentions differed by group (26% vs. 14% more likely in false-positive vs. negative); willingness to travel and stay overnight did not (11% vs. 10% in false-positive vs. negative). Future screening intention was significantly increased among women with false-positive mammograms (OR: 2.12; 95%CI:1.54, 2.93), younger age (OR:2.78; 95%CI:1.5,5.0) and poorer health (OR: 1.63; 95%CI:1.09, 2.43). Women’s anticipated high-level anxiety regarding

  4. Evolutionary Conserved Positions Define Protein Conformational Diversity.

    PubMed

    Saldaño, Tadeo E; Monzon, Alexander M; Parisi, Gustavo; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Conformational diversity of the native state plays a central role in modulating protein function. The selection paradigm sustains that different ligands shift the conformational equilibrium through their binding to highest-affinity conformers. Intramolecular vibrational dynamics associated to each conformation should guarantee conformational transitions, which due to its importance, could possibly be associated with evolutionary conserved traits. Normal mode analysis, based on a coarse-grained model of the protein, can provide the required information to explore these features. Herein, we present a novel procedure to identify key positions sustaining the conformational diversity associated to ligand binding. The method is applied to an adequate refined dataset of 188 paired protein structures in their bound and unbound forms. Firstly, normal modes most involved in the conformational change are selected according to their corresponding overlap with structural distortions introduced by ligand binding. The subspace defined by these modes is used to analyze the effect of simulated point mutations on preserving the conformational diversity of the protein. We find a negative correlation between the effects of mutations on these normal mode subspaces associated to ligand-binding and position-specific evolutionary conservations obtained from multiple sequence-structure alignments. Positions whose mutations are found to alter the most these subspaces are defined as key positions, that is, dynamically important residues that mediate the ligand-binding conformational change. These positions are shown to be evolutionary conserved, mostly buried aliphatic residues localized in regular structural regions of the protein like β-sheets and α-helix. PMID:27008419

  5. Genes under positive selection in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Lise; Bollback, Jonathan P.; Dimmic, Matt; Hubisz, Melissa; Nielsen, Rasmus

    2007-01-01

    We used a comparative genomics approach to identify genes that are under positive selection in six strains of Escherichia coli and Shigella flexneri, including five strains that are human pathogens. We find that positive selection targets a wide range of different functions in the E. coli genome, including cell surface proteins such as beta barrel porins, presumably because of the involvement of these genes in evolutionary arms races with other bacteria, phages, and/or the host immune system. Structural mapping of positively selected sites on trans-membrane beta barrel porins reveals that the residues under positive selection occur almost exclusively in the extracellular region of the proteins that are enriched with sites known to be targets of phages, colicins, or the host immune system. More surprisingly, we also find a number of other categories of genes that show very strong evidence for positive selection, such as the enigmatic rhs elements and transposases. Based on structural evidence, we hypothesize that the selection acting on transposases is related to the genomic conflict between transposable elements and the host genome. PMID:17675366

  6. Micro-position sensor using faraday effect

    SciTech Connect

    McElfresh, Michael; Lucas, Matthew; Silveira, Joseph P.; Groves, Scott E.

    2007-02-27

    A micro-position sensor and sensing system using the Faraday Effect. The sensor uses a permanent magnet to provide a magnetic field, and a magneto-optic material positioned in the magnetic field for rotating the plane of polarization of polarized light transmitted through the magneto-optic material. The magnet is independently movable relative to the magneto-optic material so as to rotate the plane of polarization of the polarized light as a function of the relative position of the magnet. In this manner, the position of the magnet relative to the magneto-optic material may be determined from the rotated polarized light. The sensing system also includes a light source, such as a laser or LED, for producing polarized light, and an optical fiber which is connected to the light source and to the magneto-optic material at a sensing end of the optical fiber. Processing electronics, such as a polarimeter, are also provided for determining the Faraday rotation of the plane of polarization of the back-reflected polarized light to determine the position of the magnet relative to the sensing end of the optical fiber.

  7. Cup positioning in total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Scheerlinck, T

    2014-09-01

    The "optimal" positioning of the cup in total hip arthroplasty can improve hip function and reduce wear, impingement and dislocation. The cup position is described as the spatial relation between the hip rotation centre and the pelvis and, as the cup orientation around the rotation centre. The first parameter affects hip balance and, if not managed properly, might result in poor function and leg length discrepancy. The second parameter is often "silent", unless impingement or dislocation occurs. However, inappropriate cup orientation can accelerate wear and cause early failure. As such, it is mandatory to get both right, taking into account multiple parameters: the stem position, the approach, the bearing surface, the cup coverage and the pelvic orientation during loading. In most cases a "standard" cup position is adequate. However, specific anatomic features might require an individualized approach. This paper aims at reviewing the parameters that impact on the optimal cup position. This should allow for more judicious choices in those particular cases. PMID:26280607

  8. When Daily Sunspot Births Become Positively Correlated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoval, Alexander; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis; Shnirman, Mikhail; Courtillot, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    We study the first differences w(t) of the International Sunspot Number (ISSN) daily series for the time span 1850 - 2013. The one-day correlations ρ1 between w(t) and w(t+1) are computed within four-year sliding windows and are found to shift from negative to positive values near the end of Cycle 17 ({˜} 1945). They remain positive during the last Grand Maximum and until {˜} 2009, when they fall to zero. We also identify a prominent regime change in {˜} 1915, strengthening previous evidence of major anomalies in solar activity at this date. We test an autoregressive process of order 1 (AR(1)) as a model that can reproduce the high-frequency component of ISSN: we compute ρ1 for this AR(1) process and find that it is negative. Positive values of ρ1 are found only if the process involves positive correlation: this leads us to suggest that the births of successive spots are positively correlated during the last Grand Maximum.

  9. Evolutionary Conserved Positions Define Protein Conformational Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Saldaño, Tadeo E.; Monzon, Alexander M.; Parisi, Gustavo; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Conformational diversity of the native state plays a central role in modulating protein function. The selection paradigm sustains that different ligands shift the conformational equilibrium through their binding to highest-affinity conformers. Intramolecular vibrational dynamics associated to each conformation should guarantee conformational transitions, which due to its importance, could possibly be associated with evolutionary conserved traits. Normal mode analysis, based on a coarse-grained model of the protein, can provide the required information to explore these features. Herein, we present a novel procedure to identify key positions sustaining the conformational diversity associated to ligand binding. The method is applied to an adequate refined dataset of 188 paired protein structures in their bound and unbound forms. Firstly, normal modes most involved in the conformational change are selected according to their corresponding overlap with structural distortions introduced by ligand binding. The subspace defined by these modes is used to analyze the effect of simulated point mutations on preserving the conformational diversity of the protein. We find a negative correlation between the effects of mutations on these normal mode subspaces associated to ligand-binding and position-specific evolutionary conservations obtained from multiple sequence-structure alignments. Positions whose mutations are found to alter the most these subspaces are defined as key positions, that is, dynamically important residues that mediate the ligand-binding conformational change. These positions are shown to be evolutionary conserved, mostly buried aliphatic residues localized in regular structural regions of the protein like β-sheets and α-helix. PMID:27008419

  10. Interoception and Positive Symptoms in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ardizzi, Martina; Ambrosecchia, Marianna; Buratta, Livia; Ferri, Francesca; Peciccia, Maurizio; Donnari, Simone; Mazzeschi, Claudia; Gallese, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    The present study focuses on the multifaceted concept of self-disturbance in schizophrenia, adding knowledge about a not yet investigated aspect, which is the interoceptive accuracy. Starting from the assumption that interoceptive accuracy requires an intact sense of self, which otherwise was proved to be altered in schizophrenia, the aim of the present study was to explore interoceptive accuracy in a group of schizophrenia patients, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, the possible association between interoceptive accuracy and patients' positive and negative symptomatology was assessed. To pursue these goals, a group of 23 schizophrenia patients and a group of 23 healthy controls performed a heartbeat perception task. Patients' symptomatology was assessed by means of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results demonstrated significantly lower interoceptive accuracy in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. This difference was not accounted for participants' age, BMI, anxiety levels, and heart rate. Furthermore, patients' illness severity, attention and pharmacological treatment did not influence their interoceptive accuracy levels. Interestingly, a strong positive relation between interoceptive accuracy and positive symptoms severity, especially Grandiosity, was found. The present results demonstrate for the first time that interoceptive accuracy is altered in schizophrenia. Furthermore, they prove a specific association between interoceptive accuracy and positive symptomatology, suggesting that the symptom Grandiosity might be protective against an altered basic sense of self in patients characterized by higher sensibility to their inner bodily sensations. PMID:27512369

  11. Cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R; Ribeiro, F; Oliveira, J

    2010-03-01

    The effects of cryotherapy on joint position sense are not clearly established; however it is paramount to understand its impact on peripheral feedback to ascertain the safety of using ice therapy before resuming exercise on sports or rehabilitation settings. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cryotherapy, when applied over the quadriceps and over the knee joint, on knee position sense. This within-subjects repeated-measures study encompassed fifteen subjects. Knee position sense was measured by open kinetic chain technique and active positioning at baseline and after cryotherapy application. Knee angles were determined by computer analysis of the videotape images. Twenty-minute ice bag application was applied randomly, in two sessions 48 h apart, over the quadriceps and the knee joint. The main effect for cryotherapy application was significant (F (1.14)=7.7, p=0.015) indicating an increase in both absolute and relative angular errors after the application. There was no significant main effect for the location of cryotherapy application, indicating no differences between the application over the quadriceps and the knee joint. In conclusion, cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense in normal knees. This deleterious effect is similar when cryotherapy is applied over the quadriceps or the knee joint. PMID:20221997

  12. Interoception and Positive Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ardizzi, Martina; Ambrosecchia, Marianna; Buratta, Livia; Ferri, Francesca; Peciccia, Maurizio; Donnari, Simone; Mazzeschi, Claudia; Gallese, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    The present study focuses on the multifaceted concept of self-disturbance in schizophrenia, adding knowledge about a not yet investigated aspect, which is the interoceptive accuracy. Starting from the assumption that interoceptive accuracy requires an intact sense of self, which otherwise was proved to be altered in schizophrenia, the aim of the present study was to explore interoceptive accuracy in a group of schizophrenia patients, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, the possible association between interoceptive accuracy and patients’ positive and negative symptomatology was assessed. To pursue these goals, a group of 23 schizophrenia patients and a group of 23 healthy controls performed a heartbeat perception task. Patients’ symptomatology was assessed by means of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results demonstrated significantly lower interoceptive accuracy in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. This difference was not accounted for participants’ age, BMI, anxiety levels, and heart rate. Furthermore, patients’ illness severity, attention and pharmacological treatment did not influence their interoceptive accuracy levels. Interestingly, a strong positive relation between interoceptive accuracy and positive symptoms severity, especially Grandiosity, was found. The present results demonstrate for the first time that interoceptive accuracy is altered in schizophrenia. Furthermore, they prove a specific association between interoceptive accuracy and positive symptomatology, suggesting that the symptom Grandiosity might be protective against an altered basic sense of self in patients characterized by higher sensibility to their inner bodily sensations. PMID:27512369

  13. Validation of ISTTOK Plasma Position Controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valcárcel, D. F.; Carvalho, I. S.; Carvalho, B. B.; Fernandes, H.; Silva, C.; Duarte, P.; Duarte, A.; Carvalho, P. J.; Pereira, T.

    2008-04-01

    Active control of plasma position on the ISTTOK tokamak is of extreme importance due to the inherent instability caused by an unfavourable curvature of the external equilibrium magnetic field. The consequences of this instability can be suppressed by applying a dynamic equilibrium field. A digital real-time plasma position control system for ISTTOK has been developed to perform this task. This system uses magnetic measurements to determine the plasma position and feeds the control signal to power supplies that generate the equilibrium fields. After commissioning, the results obtained have shown some discrepancies between the magnetic plasma position reconstruction and several other diagnostics, such as tomography. This discrepancy at some extent is due to the effect of the external magnetic fields on the poloidal magnetic measurements. This work presents a study that addresses this issue. In a future work it will lead to the development of a corrected plasma position algorithm, aiming at obtaining improved performance of plasma discharges and controlled plasma column displacements.

  14. A Prototype Wire Position Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei

    2010-12-07

    The Wire Position Monitoring System (WPM) will track changes in the transverse position of LCLS Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) to 1{micro}m over several weeks. This position information will be used between applications of beam based alignment to correct for changes in component alignment. The WPM system has several requirements. The sensor range must be large enough so that precision sensor positioning is not required. The resolution needs to be small enough so that the signal can be used to monitor motion to 1{micro}m. The system must be stable enough so that system drift does not mimic motion of the component being monitored. The WPM sensor assembly consists of two parts, the magnetic sensor and an integrated lock-in amplifier. The magnetic sensor picks up a signal from the alternating current in a stretched wire. The voltage v induced in the sensor is proportional to the wire displacement from the center of the sensor. The integrated lock-in amplifier provides a DC output whose magnitude is proportional to the AC signal from the magnetic sensor. The DC output is either read on a digital voltmeter or digitized locally and communicated over a computer interface.

  15. Positive pressure breathing during rest and exercise.

    PubMed

    den Hartog, E A; Heus, R

    2003-03-01

    The requirements to maintain a positive pressure with respiratory protection during heavy exercise and the effects on ventilation and feelings of discomfort were investigated. Eight male subjects participated, using the respirator system during rest and exercise at about 80% of their individual maximum power. A blower was used at maximum and medium capacity and at two pressure levels (3 and 15 mbar). Additionally, the mouth pressure was used as a feedback for the blower. The blower decreased the fraction of the breathing cycle with negative pressures from 50% (SD 4%) to 15% (SD 10%) during exercise. Negative pressures occurred at all settings of the blower during exercise. Thus, the currently available commercial blower systems do not supply a sufficient airflow to maintain a positive pressure during heavy exercise. Positive pressure breathing did not affect the ventilation and the circulation. But the oxygen consumption was higher with the blower and respirator than without. PMID:12628576

  16. Abnormal head position in infantile nystagmus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  17. An investigation of false positive dosimetry results

    SciTech Connect

    Lewandowski, M.A.; Davis, S.A.; Goff, T.E.; Wu, C.F.

    1996-12-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a facility designed for the demonstration of the safe disposal of transuranic waste. Currently, the radiation source term is confined to sealed calibration and check sources since WIPP has not received waste for disposal. For several years the WIPP Dosimetry Group has operated a Harshaw Model 8800C reader to analyze Harshaw 8801-7776 thermoluminescent cards (3 TLD-700 and 1 TLD-600) with 8805 holder. The frequency of false positive results for quarterly dosimeter exchanges is higher than desired by the Dosimetry Group management. Initial observations suggested that exposure to intense ambient sunlight may be responsible for the majority of the false positive readings for element 3. A study was designed to investigate the possibility of light leaking through the holder and inducing a signal in element 3. This paper discusses the methods and results obtained, with special emphasis placed on recommendations to reduce the frequency of light-induced false positive readings.

  18. Laser focus positioning method with submicrometer accuracy.

    PubMed

    Alexeev, Ilya; Strauss, Johannes; Gröschl, Andreas; Cvecek, Kristian; Schmidt, Michael

    2013-01-20

    Accurate positioning of a sample is one of the primary challenges in laser micromanufacturing. There are a number of methods that allow detection of the surface position; however, only a few of them use the beam of the processing laser as a basis for the measurement. Those methods have an advantage that any changes in the processing laser beam can be inherently accommodated. This work describes a direct, contact-free method to accurately determine workpiece position with respect to the structuring laser beam focal plane based on nonlinear harmonic generation. The method makes workpiece alignment precise and time efficient due to ease of automation and provides the repeatability and accuracy of the surface detection of less than 1 μm. PMID:23338188

  19. Fiber-connected position localization sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Shilong; Zhu, Dan; Fu, Jianbin; Yao, Tingfeng

    2014-11-01

    Position localization has drawn great attention due to its wide applications in radars, sonars, electronic warfare, wireless communications and so on. Photonic approaches to realize position localization can achieve high-resolution, which also provides the possibility to move the signal processing from each sensor node to the central station, thanks to the low loss, immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and broad bandwidth brought by the photonic technologies. In this paper, we present a review on the recent works of position localization based on photonic technologies. A fiber-connected ultra-wideband (UWB) sensor network using optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) is proposed to realize high-resolution localization and moving the signal processing to the central station. A 3.9-cm high spatial resolution is achieved. A wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) fiber-connected sensor network is also demonstrated to realize location which is independent of the received signal format.

  20. The implicit structure of positive characteristics.

    PubMed

    Haslam, Nick; Bain, Paul; Neal, David

    2004-04-01

    The implicit structure of positive character traits was examined in two studies of 190 and 100 undergraduates. Participants judged the pairwise covariation or semantic similarity of 42 positive characteristics using a sorting or a rating task. Characteristics were drawn from a new classification of strengths and virtues, the Five-Factor Model, and a taxonomy of values. Participants showed consistent patterns of perceived association among the characteristics across the study conditions. Multidimensional scaling yielded three consistent dimensions underlying these judgments ("warmth vs. self-control," "vivacity vs. decency," and "wisdom vs. power"). Cluster analyses yielded six consistent groupings-"self-control," "love," "wisdom," "drive," "vivacity," and "collaboration"-that corresponded only moderately to the virtue classification. All three taxonomies were systematically related to this implicit structure, but none captured it satisfactorily on its own. Revisions to positive psychology's classification of strengths are proposed. PMID:15070480