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Sample records for acpa positive arthralgia

  1. The lung in ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis: an initiating site of injury?

    PubMed

    Perry, Elizabeth; Kelly, Clive; Eggleton, Paul; De Soyza, Anthony; Hutchinson, David

    2014-11-01

    Recent findings have highlighted the potential initiation of ACPA in sites away from the joint. Periodontitis is an example of this concept. This process in the gums appears to be independent of smoking, the main environmental risk factor for ACPA-positive RA. There is extensive literature regarding the potential role of smoking in the pathogenesis of ACPA-positive RA. As a consequence of this strong association, the lung has become the focus of research to determine whether processes within the lung are linked to the generation of ACPA. Here we outline the current body of evidence and explore the hypothesis that the lung as an organ of immune defence has a role in the pathogenesis of the autoimmune disease ACPA-positive RA.

  2. Shared Epitope Alleles Remain A Risk Factor for Anti-Citrullinated Proteins Antibody (ACPA) – Positive Rheumatoid Arthritis in Three Asian Ethnic Groups

    PubMed Central

    Chun-Lai, Too; Padyukov, Leonid; Dhaliwal, Jasbir Singh; Lundström, Emeli; Yahya, Abqariyah; Muhamad, Nor Asiah; Klareskog, Lars; Alfredsson, Lars; Larsson, Per Tobias; Murad, Shahnaz

    2011-01-01

    Background To investigate the associations between HLA-DRB1 shared epitope (SE) alleles and rheumatoid arthritis in subsets of rheumatoid arthritis defined by autoantibodies in three Asian populations from Malaysia. Methods 1,079 rheumatoid arthritis patients and 1,470 healthy controls were included in the study. Levels of antibodies to citrullinated proteins (ACPA) and rheumatoid factors were assessed and the PCR-SSO method was used for HLA-DRB1 genotyping. Results The proportion of ACPA positivity among Malay, Chinese and Indian rheumatoid arthritis patients were 62.9%, 65.2% and 68.6%, respectively. An increased frequency of SE alleles was observed in ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis among the three Asian ethnic groups. HLA-DRB1*10 was highly associated with rheumatoid arthritis susceptibility in these Asian populations. HLA-DRB1*0405 was significantly associated with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis in Malays and Chinese, but not in Indians. HLA-DRB1*01 did not show any independent effect as a risk factor for rheumatoid arthritis in this study and HLA-DRB1*1202 was protective in Malays and Chinese. There was no association between SE alleles and ACPA- negative rheumatoid arthritis in any of the three Asian ethnic groups. Conclusion The HLA-DRB1 SE alleles increase the risk of ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis in all three Asian populations from Malaysia. PMID:21698259

  3. 2016 ACPA MEETING ABSTRACTS.

    PubMed

    2016-07-01

    The peer-reviewed abstracts presented at the 73rd Annual Meeting of the ACPA are published as submitted by the authors. For financial conflict of interest disclosure, please visit http://meeting.acpa-cpf.org/disclosures.html. PMID:27447885

  4. T cell subsets: an immunological biomarker to predict progression to clinical arthritis in ACPA-positive individuals

    PubMed Central

    Hunt, L; Hensor, E M; Nam, J; Burska, A N; Parmar, R; Emery, P; Ponchel, F

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Anticitrullinated protein antibody (ACPA)+ individuals with non-specific musculoskeletal symptoms are at risk of inflammatory arthritis (IA). This study aims to demonstrate the predictive value of T cell subset quantification for progression towards IA and compare it with previously identified clinical predictors of progression. Methods 103 ACPA+ individuals without clinical synovitis were observed 3-monthly for 12 months and then as clinically indicated. The end point was the development of IA. Naïve, regulatory T cells (Treg) and inflammation related cells (IRCs) were quantified by flow cytometry. Areas under the ROC curve (AUC) were calculated. Adjusted logistic regressions and Cox proportional hazards models for time to progression to IA were constructed. Results Compared with healthy controls (age adjusted where appropriate), ACPA+ individuals demonstrated reduced naïve (22.1% of subjects) and Treg (35.8%) frequencies and elevated IRC (29.5%). Of the 103 subjects, 48(46.6%) progressed. Individually, T cell subsets were weakly predictive (AUC between 0.63 and 0.66), although the presence of 2 T cell abnormalities had high specificity. Three models were compared: model-1 used T cell subsets only, model-2 used previously published clinical parameters, model-3 combined clinical data and T cell data. Model-3 performed the best (AUC 0.79 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.89)) compared with model-1 (0.75 (0.65 to 0.86)) and particularly with model-2 (0.62 (0.54 to 0.76)) demonstrating the added value of T cell subsets. Time to progression differed significantly between high-risk, moderate-risk and low-risk groups from model-3 (p=0.001, median 15.4 months, 25.8 months and 63.4 months, respectively). Conclusions T cell subset dysregulation in ACPA+ individuals predates the onset of IA, predicts the risk and faster progression to IA, with added value over previously published clinical predictors of progression. PMID:27613874

  5. In Antisynthetase Syndrome, ACPA Are Associated With Severe and Erosive Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Alain; Lefevre, Guillaume; Bierry, Guillaume; Duval, Aurélie; Ottaviani, Sébastien; Meyer, Olivier; Tournadre, Anne; Le Goff, Benoit; Messer, Laurent; Buchdahl, Anne Laure; De Bandt, Michel; Deligny, Christophe; Dubois, Matthieu; Coquerelle, Pascal; Falgarone, Géraldine; Flipo, René-Marc; Mathian, Alexis; Geny, Bernard; Amoura, Zahir; Benveniste, Olivier; Hachulla, Eric; Sibilia, Jean; Hervier, Baptiste

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Anticitrullinated peptide/protein antibodies (ACPA), which are highly specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), may be found in some patients with other systemic autoimmune diseases. The clinical significance of ACPA in patients with antisynthetase syndrome (ASS), a systemic disease characterized by the association of myositis, interstitial lung disease, polyarthralgia, and/or polyarthritis, has not yet been evaluated with regard to phenotype, prognosis, and response to treatment. ACPA-positive ASS patients were first identified among a French multicenter registry of patients with ASS. Additionally, all French rheumatology and internal medicine practitioners registered on the Club Rhumatismes et Inflammation web site were asked to report their observations of ASS patients with ACPA. The 17 collected patients were retrospectively studied using a standardized questionnaire and compared with 34 unselected ACPA-negative ASS patients in a case–control study. All ACPA-positive ASS patients suffered from arthritis versus 41% in the control group (P < 0.0001). The number of swollen joints was significantly higher (7.0 ± 5.0 vs 2.9 ± 3.9, P < 0.005), with a distribution resembling that of RA. Radiographic damages were also more frequent in ACPA-positive ASS patients (87% vs 11%, P < 0.0001). Aside from a significantly higher transfer factor for carbon monoxide in ACPA–ASS patients, lung, muscle, and skin involvements had similar incidences, patterns, and severity in both groups. Although Nonbiologic treatments were similarly used in both groups, ACPA-positive patients received biologics more frequently (59% vs 12%, P < 0.0008), mostly due to refractory arthritis (n = 9). Eight patients received anti-Cluster of differentiation 20 (CD20) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with good efficacy and tolerance, whereas 2 of the 5 patients treated with antitumor necrosis factor drugs had worsened myositis and/or interstitial lung disease. After a

  6. Proposal for the Consolidation of ACPA & NASPA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NASPA - Student Affairs Administrators in Higher Education, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This report presents an overview of a proposed consolidated, comprehensive student affairs association (called "New Association" in this report). The purpose of this report is to provide the memberships of ACPA and NASPA with a rationale, and proposed, organization, professional development, and governance structure based upon which the members…

  7. In antisynthetase syndrome, ACPA are associated with severe and erosive arthritis: an overlapping rheumatoid arthritis and antisynthetase syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Alain; Lefevre, Guillaume; Bierry, Guillaume; Duval, Aurélie; Ottaviani, Sébastien; Meyer, Olivier; Tournadre, Anne; Le Goff, Benoit; Messer, Laurent; Buchdahl, Anne Laure; De Bandt, Michel; Deligny, Christophe; Dubois, Matthieu; Coquerelle, Pascal; Falgarone, Géraldine; Flipo, René-Marc; Mathian, Alexis; Geny, Bernard; Amoura, Zahir; Benveniste, Olivier; Hachulla, Eric; Sibilia, Jean; Hervier, Baptiste

    2015-05-01

    Anticitrullinated peptide/protein antibodies (ACPA), which are highly specific for rheumatoid arthritis (RA), may be found in some patients with other systemic autoimmune diseases. The clinical significance of ACPA in patients with antisynthetase syndrome (ASS), a systemic disease characterized by the association of myositis, interstitial lung disease, polyarthralgia, and/or polyarthritis, has not yet been evaluated with regard to phenotype, prognosis, and response to treatment. ACPA-positive ASS patients were first identified among a French multicenter registry of patients with ASS. Additionally, all French rheumatology and internal medicine practitioners registered on the Club Rhumatismes et Inflammation web site were asked to report their observations of ASS patients with ACPA. The 17 collected patients were retrospectively studied using a standardized questionnaire and compared with 34 unselected ACPA-negative ASS patients in a case-control study. All ACPA-positive ASS patients suffered from arthritis versus 41% in the control group (P < 0.0001). The number of swollen joints was significantly higher (7.0 ± 5.0 vs 2.9 ± 3.9, P < 0.005), with a distribution resembling that of RA. Radiographic damages were also more frequent in ACPA-positive ASS patients (87% vs 11%, P < 0.0001). Aside from a significantly higher transfer factor for carbon monoxide in ACPA-ASS patients, lung, muscle, and skin involvements had similar incidences, patterns, and severity in both groups. Although Nonbiologic treatments were similarly used in both groups, ACPA-positive patients received biologics more frequently (59% vs 12%, P < 0.0008), mostly due to refractory arthritis (n = 9). Eight patients received anti-Cluster of differentiation 20 (CD20) monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with good efficacy and tolerance, whereas 2 of the 5 patients treated with antitumor necrosis factor drugs had worsened myositis and/or interstitial lung disease. After a >7-year mean

  8. Prevalence of Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibodies (ACPA) in Patients with Diffuse Large B-Cell Lymphoma (DLBCL): A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Assmann, Gunter; Shihadeh, Klara; Poeschel, Viola; Murawski, Niels; Conigliarou, Jutta; Ong, Mei Fang; Pfreundschuh, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Background Antibodies against citrullinated proteins (ACPA) have been recognised as the most specific serum marker for rheumatoid arthritis. However, serum autoantibodies such as anti-nuclear antibodies have also been detected in the sera of different lymphatic malignancies without accompanying rheumatologic disease. Therefore, we conducted a study to evaluate the prevalence of ACPA in diffuse large B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphoma (DLBCL). Methods Sera of 395 DLBCL patients and 258 age-matched healthy controls were investigated to evaluate the prevalence of ACPA and RF. ACPA-positive data were stratified into subgroups of RF positivity and established prognostic parameters for DLBCL, including overall survival. In addition, the ACPA serum concentrations levels were compared to an ACPA-positive RA cohort (n = 175). The statistics were performed with χ2 test and Mann- Whitney-U test; Kaplan-Meyer curves (log rank test) were used to analyse the overall survival. P-value <0.05 was statistically significant. Results ACPA, but not RF, occurred significantly more frequently in the sera of DLBCL patients than in healthy controls (3.5% versus 0.8%, p = 0.030). However, the ACPA serum concentration levels were significantly lower than in RA patients (median 10.4 versus 124.1 U/ml, p = 0.0001). After subgroup stratification, ACPA positivity in DLBCL was significantly associated with male gender (4.4% versus 0%, p = 0.022; odds ratio 1.046, CI 1.014–1.079) and with RF-IgM seropositivity (1.77% versus 0%, p = 0.043), but not with prognostic parameters for DLBCL. Conclusions DLBCL is associated with a significantly higher prevalence of ACPA, with an increased prevalence in male patients, and simultaneous RF-IgM positivity. However, ACPA is not prognostic for DLBCL. The prevalence of RF-IgM, -IgA, or -IgG did not differ from healthy controls. PMID:24516607

  9. Analysis of Criteria for MRI Diagnosis of TMJ Disc Displacement and Arthralgia

    PubMed Central

    Shaefer, Jeffry R.; Riley, Cara Joy; Caruso, Paul; Keith, David

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To improve diagnostic criteria for TMJ disc displacement (DD). Methods. The standard protocol for MRI diagnosis of DD, using a 12 o'clock reference position, was compared to an alternative protocol. The alternative protocol involves the functional relationship between the condyle and articular eminence, using a line perpendicular to the posterior slope of the eminence as a reference for disc position. The disc location was examined using both protocols, and disc diagnoses were compared in their relationship with joint pain. Statistical analyses included P value, sensitivity, specificity, odds ratio, and kappa statistic. Results. 58 MRIs were interpreted. 36 subjects reported arthralgia; 22 did not. Both protocols demonstrated significance (standard P = 0.004, alternative P < 0.001) for the ability to predict arthralgia. The odds of arthralgia increased in DD patients diagnosed by standard methods 9.71 times and in DD diagnosed by alternative means 37.15 times. The diagnostic sensitivity decreased 30% using the alternative versus the standard protocol (0.6389 versus 0.9444), while specificity increased 60% (0.9545 versus 0.3636). Conclusions. A stronger relationship occurs between DD and arthralgia when using a function-based protocol. The alternative protocol correctly identifies subjects without arthralgia, who by standard methods would be diagnosed with DD, as having nondisplaced discs, providing a more clinically relevant assessment of TMJ disc displacement. PMID:23304143

  10. A Case of Chikungunya Virus Induced Arthralgia Responsive to Colchicine.

    PubMed

    Redel, Henry

    2016-04-01

    Chikungunya virus is an emerging infectious disease that has started circulating throughout the Americas and Caribbean. It can lead to persistent arthralgia lasting months to years. Treatment has been symptomatic with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications. This case report describes a trial of colchicine for chikungunya arthralgia in 1 patient. PMID:27419183

  11. Anti-Citrullinated Peptide Antibody (ACPA) Assays and their Role in the Diagnosis of Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Rohit; Liao, Katherine; Nair, Raj; Ringold, Sarah; Costenbader, Karen H.

    2010-01-01

    Increasingly, assays for the detection of anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) are used in RA diagnosis. This review summarizes the biologic basis and development of ACPA assays, available ACPA assays and their performance characteristics, and diagnostic properties of ACPA alone and compared to rheumatoid factor (RF) in early RA. We also review correlations, precision, costs and cost-effectiveness, availability, stability and reproducibility of the available assays. Taken together, data indicate that ACPA has a higher specificity than RF for early RA, good predictive validity, high sensitivity, apparent cost-effectiveness and good stability and reproducibility. Given its superior performance characteristics and increasing availability, ACPA is emerging as the most useful single assay for the diagnosis of RA. PMID:19877103

  12. Regulatory CD4+ T-Cell Subsets and Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibody Repertoire: Potential Biomarkers for Arthritis Development in Seropositive Arthralgia Patients?

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Koen M. J.; Westra, Johanna; Chalan, Paulina; Boots, Annemieke M. H.; de Smit, Menke J.; van Winkelhoff, Arie Jan; Vissink, Arjan; Brouwer, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    Objective Seropositive arthralgia patients (SAP) are at high risk of developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). This prospective study aimed to determine whether altered peripheral regulatory T-cells (Tregs) and defined subsets, besides a broadened anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) response, may qualify as biomarkers for RA development in SAP. Methods Thirty-four consecutive SAP were prospectively assessed every 6 months for minimally 2 years. At inclusion, peripheral Treg (CD4+CD25+FoxP3+) numbers and subsets, defined as CD45RA+FoxP3low naive Tregs (Fr I), CD45RA-FoxP3high activated Tregs (Fr II) and CD45RA-FoxP3low non-Tregs (Fr III), were compared to age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC, n = 16) and treatment-naive RA patients (n = 12). SAP that developed RA were compared to non-switchers and analyzed for Treg numbers and Treg subsets at inclusion. Also, Treg numbers and subsets were compared in switched SAP before and at diagnosis. To assess the ACPA repertoire, IgG and IgA reactivity was measured against citrullinated peptides from fibrinogen, α-enolase and vimentin. Results Treg numbers were similar between HC, SAP and RA patients. Although the bonafide Treg subsets Fr I and Fr II were comparable between groups, Fr III was increased in SAP compared to HC (p = 0.01). Fourteen (41%) SAP developed RA during follow-up. Their Treg numbers and subsets were comparable to non-switched SAP. At RA diagnosis, Treg numbers in switched SAP were similar to 6 months before. Switched SAP displayed a more diverse IgG ACPA repertoire compared to non-switched SAP (p = 0.046) and showed more IgA reactivity than non-switched SAP reaching significance for Fib1 only (p = 0.047). Conclusion Numbers of Total Treg and bonafide Treg subsets are not indicative for RA development in SAP, opposed to the ACPA repertoire. PMID:27585422

  13. The disproportionate impact of chronic arthralgia and arthritis among women.

    PubMed

    Buckwalter, J A; Lappin, D R

    2000-03-01

    The heterogeneous group of diseases that causes chronic arthralgia and arthritis is the most common cause of activity limitation and disability among middle age and older women. For reasons that remain poorly understood this group of diseases affects women substantially more frequently than men. In particular, the prevalence rates of the most common causes of arthralgia and arthritis, osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis, and the prevalence rates of less common diseases that cause arthralgia, including systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and fibromyalgia, are between two and 10 times higher in women. Prevalence rates for most of these conditions increase with age, and may vary among populations. For example, in the United States, systemic lupus erythematosus is approximately three times as common among African-American women as among white women. All of these disorders typically have an insidious onset and variable course that can make diagnosis difficult. Yet, most patients with these diseases benefit from early diagnosis and early nonoperative treatments including patient education, patient participation in disease treatment, activity modification, assistive devices, and medications. Furthermore, early aggressive medical therapy may prevent development of permanent joint and visceral damage in patients with inflammatory diseases including rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, and systemic sclerosis. Failure to make the diagnosis of an underlying disease in patients with arthralgia may lead to inappropriate treatment or delay in treatment that can result in irreversible impairment. Because many women with these conditions seek medical care from orthopaedists, orthopaedic residency education and continuing medical education should place emphasis on early diagnosis and nonoperative treatment of patients with arthralgia and arthritis, and, when appropriate, early referral to rheumatologists. PMID:10738425

  14. Arthralgia and digital clubbing in a child: hypertrophic osteoarthropathy with inflammatory pseudotumour of the lung.

    PubMed

    Pichler, G; Eber, E; Thalhammer, G; Muntean, W; Zach, M S

    2004-01-01

    Arthralgia in childhood is an unspecific symptom. One rare cause of arthralgia is hypertrophic osteoarthropathy associated with digital clubbing. We present a child where hypertrophic osteoarthropathy led to the rare diagnosis of an inflammatory pseudotumour of the lung. In a 12-year-old girl with arthralgia and digital clubbing, a chest radiograph disclosed a large round mass in the right upper lobe, and the following chest computed tomography scan showed a large solid homogenous, round, well marginated lesion with little contrast enhancement. A lobectomy of the right upper lobe was performed, and histological examination showed an inflammatory pseudotumour. The postoperative course was without problems: arthralgia and digital clubbing disappeared.

  15. The hippocampal NMDA receptors may be involved in acquisition, but not expression of ACPA-induced place preference.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Sharaf-Dolgari, Elmira; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-12-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the functional interactions between the endocannabinoid and glutamate systems in the hippocampus. The present study was made to test whether N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors of the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) are implicated in ACPA (a selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist)-induced place preference. Using a 3-day schedule of conditioning, it was found that intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of ACPA (0.02mg/kg) caused a significant conditioned place preference (CPP) in male albino NMRI mice. Intra-CA1 microinjection of the NMDA or D-[1]-2-amino-7-Phosphonoheptanoic acid (D-AP7, NMDA receptor antagonist), failed to induce CPP or CPA (condition place aversion), while NMDA (0.5μg/mouse) potentiated the ACPA (0.01mg/kg)-induced CPP; and D-AP7 (a specific NMDA receptor antagonist; 0.5 and 1μg/mouse) reversed the ACPA (0.02mg/kg)-induced CPP. Moreover, microinjection of different doses of glutamatergic agents on the testing day did not alter the expression of ACPA-induced place preference. None of the treatments, with the exception of ACPA (0.04mg/kg), had an effect on locomotor activity. In conclusion, these observations provide evidence that glutamate NMDA receptors of the CA1 may be involved in the potentiation of ACPA rewarding properties in the acquisition, but not expression, of CPP in mice.

  16. Views on clinically suspect arthralgia: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Newsum, Elize C; van der Helm-van Mil, Annette H M; Kaptein, Adrian A

    2016-05-01

    The rheumatology field is moving towards identifying individuals with an increased risk for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) at a stage when arthritis is still absent but persons having clinically suspect arthralgia (CSA). Incorporating patients' views in rheumatologic care is pivotal; however, the views of persons with CSA on their condition are unknown. We aimed to help fill this gap by exploring illness perceptions of persons with CSA and their views on hypothetical prognoses for developing RA. Persons with CSA were invited to participate in a semi-structured focus group discussion. Illness perceptions according to the Common Sense Model (CSM) and four a priori formulated themes were explored in detail during the group discussion. The discussion was audio-taped and transcribed verbatim. Transcripts were analysed in an interpretative phenomenological approach manner, on the basis of the dimensions of the CSM by three researchers independently. The views of four participants with CSA were explored during one focus group discussion. Four dimensions of the CSM were mainly observed: Identity, Consequences, Personal Control and Concern. None of the patients identified themselves as being a patient. They did experience pain and impairments in daily functioning and were concerned that their symptoms would progress. In the absence of physician-initiated treatment, some patients changed lifestyle in order to reduce pain and to promote health. Patients unanimously said that they could not interpret prognostic information on RA development expressed in hypothetical chances. Persons with CSA do not consider themselves patients. Prognostic information related to the development of RA based on risk percentages was considered as not useful by persons with CSA. Understanding of the illness perceptions of persons with CSA by health care professionals might improve medical management and facilitate shared decision-making.

  17. Expression and specificity profile of the major acetate transporter AcpA in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Sá-Pessoa, Joana; Amillis, Sotiris; Casal, Margarida; Diallinas, George

    2015-03-01

    AcpA has been previously characterized as a high-affinity transporter essential for the uptake and use of acetate as sole carbon source in Aspergillus nidulans. Here, we follow the expression profile of AcpA and define its substrate specificity. AcpA-mediated acetate transport is detected from the onset of conidiospore germination, peaks at the time of germ tube emergence, and drops to low basal levels in germlings and young mycelia, where a second acetate transporter is also becoming apparent. AcpA activity also responds to acetate presence in the growth medium, but is not subject to either carbon or nitrogen catabolite repression. Short-chain monocarboxylates (benzoate, formate, butyrate and propionate) inhibit AcpA-mediated acetate transport with apparent inhibition constants (Ki) of 16.89±2.12, 9.25±1.01, 12.06±3.29 and 1.44±0.13mM, respectively. AcpA is also shown not to be directly involved in ammonia export, as proposed for its Saccharomyces cerevisiae homologue Ady2p. In the second part of this work, we search for the unknown acetate transporter expressed in mycelia, and for other transporters that might contribute to acetate uptake. In silico analysis, genetic construction of relevant null mutants, and uptake assays, reveal that the closest AcpA homologue (AN1839), named AcpB, is the 'missing' secondary acetate transporter in mycelia. We also identify two major short-chain carboxylate (lactate, succinate, pyruvate and malate) transporters, named JenA (AN6095) and JenB (AN6703), which however are not involved in acetate uptake. This work establishes a framework for further exploiting acetate and carboxylate transport in filamentous ascomycetes. PMID:25708319

  18. The effect of BLA GABA(A) receptors in anxiolytic-like effect and aversive memory deficit induced by ACPA

    PubMed Central

    Kangarlu-Haghighi, Katayoon; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Nasehi, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-01-01

    The roles of GABAergic receptors of the Basolateral amygdala (BLA) in the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist (arachydonilcyclopropylamide; ACPA)-induced anxiolytic-like effect and aversive memory deficit in adult male mice were examined in elevated plus-maze task. Results showed that pre-test intra-peritoneal injection of ACPA induced anxiolytic-like effect (at dose of 0.05 mg/kg) and aversive memory deficit (at doses of 0.025 and 0.05 mg/kg). The results revealed that Pre-test intra-BLA infusion of muscimol (GABAA receptor agonist; at doses of 0.1 and 0.2 µg/mouse) or bicuculline (GABAA receptor antagonist; at all doses) impaired and did not alter aversive memory, respectively. All previous GABA agents did not have any effects on anxiety-like behaviors. Interestingly, pretreatment with a sub-threshold dose of muscimol (0.025 µg/mouse) and bicuculline (0.025 µg/mouse) did not alter anxiolytic-like behaviors induced by ACPA, while both drugs restored ACPA-induced amnesia. Moreover, muscimol or bicuculline increased and decreased ACPA-induced locomotor activity, respectively. Finally the data may indicate that BLA GABAA receptors have critical and different roles in anxiolytic-like effect, aversive memory deficit and locomotor activity induced by ACPA. PMID:26648818

  19. Involvement of the nucleus accumbens shell glutamatergic system in ACPA-induced impairment of inhibitory avoidance memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Rasekhi, Khalil; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Nasehi, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2014-08-01

    Interactions between cannabinoid and glutamate systems have been demonstrated in some brain areas associated with mnemonic functions. This study investigates the effects of bilateral post-training intra-nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell administrations of glutamate NMDA receptor agents on memory impairment induced by cannabinoid CB1 receptor activation during a step-through inhibitory avoidance (IA) task. Our results showed post-training administration of ACPA (CB1 receptor agonist; 3 ng/side) impairs IA memory consolidation, whereas AM251 (CB1 receptor antagonist; 0.3, 3 and 30 ng/side), NMDA (0.3, 3 and 30 ng/side), and d-AP7 (NMDA receptor antagonist; 3, 30 and 300 ng/side) were ineffective. However, co-administration of AM251 (30 ng/side) or NMDA (30 ng/side) with ACPA (3 ng/side) prevented the memory-impairing effect of ACPA. Meanwhile, co-administration of NMDA (30 ng/side) and a subthreshold dose of ACPA (0.15 ng/side) decreased memory consolidation. Moreover, post-training microinjection of AM251 (30 ng/side) or d-AP7 (300 ng/side) prevented memory impairment induced by co-administration of subthreshold doses of NMDA and ACPA. The data indicated that NMDA receptor mechanism(s), at least partly, play(s) a role in modulating the effect of ACPA on memory consolidation in the NAc shell.

  20. Involvement of the serotonergic system of the ventral hippocampus (CA3) on amnesia induced by ACPA in mice.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Kafi, Faezeh; Khakpai, Fatemeh; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-06-01

    Interactions between the cannabinoid and serotonin systems have been reported in many studies. In the present study, we investigated the influence of the serotonergic receptor agents on amnesia induced by the cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, arachydonilcyclopropylamide (ACPA). Bilateral guide-cannulae were implanted to allow intra-CA3 microinjection of the drugs. The results showed that the intra-peritoneal (i.p.) injection of ACPA induce amnesia but did not alter head dip latency, head dip counts, and locomotion. Moreover, intra-CA3 injection of M-Chlorophenylbiguanide (M-CHL, a 5-HT3 serotonin receptor agonist), Y-25130 (a 5-HT3 serotonin receptor antagonist), RS67333 (a 5-HT4 serotonin receptor agonist), and RS23597-190 (a 5-HT4 serotonin receptor antagonist) impaired memory but have no effect on head dip latency and locomotor activity. In addition, intra-CA3 injection of Y-25130, RS67333, and RS23597-190 heighten the ACPA-induced amnesia and head dip counts while did not alter head dip latency and locomotor activity. On the other hand, intra-CA3 microinjection of M-CHL could not modify the ACPA-induced amnesia, head dip latency and locomotor activity whereas increased head dip counts. It can be concluded that the amnesia induced by i.p. administration of ACPA is at least partly mediated through the serotonergic receptor mechanism in the CA3 area.

  1. Identification of Genes Required for Secretion of the Francisella Oxidative Burst-Inhibiting Acid Phosphatase AcpA.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Ky Van; Chen, Carolyn G; Koopman, Jacob; Moshiri, Jasmine; Adcox, Haley E; Gunn, John S

    2016-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a Tier 1 bioterror threat and the intracellular pathogen responsible for tularemia in humans and animals. Upon entry into the host, Francisella uses multiple mechanisms to evade killing. Our previous studies have shown that after entering its primary cellular host, the macrophage, Francisella immediately suppresses the oxidative burst by secreting a series of acid phosphatases including AcpA-B-C and HapA, thereby evading the innate immune response of the macrophage and enhancing survival and further infection. However, the mechanism of acid phosphatase secretion by Francisella is still unknown. In this study, we screened for genes required for AcpA secretion in Francisella. We initially demonstrated that the known secretion systems, the putative Francisella-pathogenicity island (FPI)-encoded Type VI secretion system and the Type IV pili, do not secrete AcpA. Using random transposon mutagenesis in conjunction with ELISA, Western blotting and acid phosphatase enzymatic assays, a transposon library of 5450 mutants was screened for strains with a minimum 1.5-fold decrease in secreted (culture supernatant) AcpA, but no defect in cytosolic AcpA. Three mutants with decreased supernatant AcpA were identified. The transposon insertion sites of these mutants were revealed by direct genomic sequencing or inverse-PCR and sequencing. One of these mutants has a severe defect in AcpA secretion (at least 85% decrease) and is a predicted hypothetical inner membrane protein. Interestingly, this mutant also affected the secretion of the FPI-encoded protein, VgrG. Thus, this screen identified novel protein secretion factors involved in the subversion of host defenses. PMID:27199935

  2. Identification of Genes Required for Secretion of the Francisella Oxidative Burst-Inhibiting Acid Phosphatase AcpA

    PubMed Central

    Hoang, Ky Van; Chen, Carolyn G.; Koopman, Jacob; Moshiri, Jasmine; Adcox, Haley E.; Gunn, John S.

    2016-01-01

    Francisella tularensis is a Tier 1 bioterror threat and the intracellular pathogen responsible for tularemia in humans and animals. Upon entry into the host, Francisella uses multiple mechanisms to evade killing. Our previous studies have shown that after entering its primary cellular host, the macrophage, Francisella immediately suppresses the oxidative burst by secreting a series of acid phosphatases including AcpA-B-C and HapA, thereby evading the innate immune response of the macrophage and enhancing survival and further infection. However, the mechanism of acid phosphatase secretion by Francisella is still unknown. In this study, we screened for genes required for AcpA secretion in Francisella. We initially demonstrated that the known secretion systems, the putative Francisella-pathogenicity island (FPI)-encoded Type VI secretion system and the Type IV pili, do not secrete AcpA. Using random transposon mutagenesis in conjunction with ELISA, Western blotting and acid phosphatase enzymatic assays, a transposon library of 5450 mutants was screened for strains with a minimum 1.5-fold decrease in secreted (culture supernatant) AcpA, but no defect in cytosolic AcpA. Three mutants with decreased supernatant AcpA were identified. The transposon insertion sites of these mutants were revealed by direct genomic sequencing or inverse-PCR and sequencing. One of these mutants has a severe defect in AcpA secretion (at least 85% decrease) and is a predicted hypothetical inner membrane protein. Interestingly, this mutant also affected the secretion of the FPI-encoded protein, VgrG. Thus, this screen identified novel protein secretion factors involved in the subversion of host defenses. PMID:27199935

  3. Diffraction efficiency improvement in high spatial frequency holographic gratings stored in PVA/AA photopolymers: several ACPA concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Elena; Fuentes, Rosa; Ortuño, Manuel; Beléndez, Augusto; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2015-01-01

    High spatial frequency in holographic gratings is difficult to obtain due to limitations of the recording material. In this paper, the results obtained after storing holographic transmission gratings with a spatial frequency of 2656 lines/mm in a material based on polyvinyl alcohol and acrylamide (PVA/AA) are presented. A chain transfer agent, 4, 4‧-azobis (4-cyanopentanoic acid) (ACPA) was incorporated in the composition of the material to improve the response of the material at a high spatial frequency. Different concentrations of ACPA were used in order to find the optimal concentration giving maximum diffraction efficiency for high spatial frequencies.

  4. The dual effect of CA1 NMDA receptor modulation on ACPA-induced amnesia in step-down passive avoidance learning task.

    PubMed

    Nasehi, Mohammad; Amin-Yavari, Samaneh; Ebrahimi-Ghiri, Mohaddeseh; Torabi-Nami, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-04-01

    It is well documented that cannabinoids play an important role in certain hippocampal memory processes in rodents. On the other hand, N-Methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs) mediate the synaptic plasticity related to learning and memory processes which take place in the hippocampus. Such insights prompted us to investigate the influence of dorsal hippocampal (CA1) NMDA receptor agents on amnesia induced by cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist, arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA) in male mice. One-trial step-down passive avoidance and hole-board apparatuses were used to examine the memory retrieval and exploratory behaviors, respectively. Based on our findings, pre-training intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of ACPA (0.01mg/kg) decreased memory acquisition. Moreover, pre-training intra-CA1 infusion of NMDA (0.001, 0.0125, 0.025 and 0.2µg/mouse), d-AP7 (0.5 and 1µg/mouse) or AM251 (50ng/mouse) impaired the memory acquisition. Meanwhile, NMDA-treated animals at the doses of 0.0005, 0.05 and 0.1µg/mouse acquired memory formation. In addition, intra-CA1 microinjection of NMDA (0.0005) plus different doses of ACPA potentiated the ACPA response, while NMDA (0.1) plus the lower or the higher dose of ACPA potentiated or restored the ACPA response, respectively. Further investigation revealed that a subthreshold dose of d-AP7 could potentiate the memory acquisition impairment induced by ACPA. Moreover, the subthreshold dose of AM251 did not alter the ACPA response, while the effective dose of the drug restored the memory acquisition impairment induced by ACPA. According to these results, we concluded that activation of the NMDA receptors in the CA1 mediates a dual effect on ACPA-induced amnesia in step-down passive avoidance learning task.

  5. Study of influence of ACPA in holographic reflection gratings recorded in PVA/AA based photopolymer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fuentes, Rosa; Fernández, Elena; García, Celia; Beléndez, Augusto; Pascual, Inmaculada

    2010-05-01

    The performance of a holographic data storage system depends to a great extent on the quality and the physical properties of the recording medium. The storage capabilities of photopolymer materials are under constant study and for some applications a high spatial frequency material is necessary. In this work, we focus on the study of the influence of 4,4´-Azobis(4-cyanopentanoic acid) ACPA on holographic reflection gratings recorded in a polyvinyl alcohol/acrylamide-based photopolymer with the aim of recording reflection gratings with a spatial frequency of up to 5000 lines/mm. The experimental procedure used to examine the high spatial frequency response of this material is explained and the experimental results presented.

  6. [A 39-year-old patient with maculopapular rash, recurrent fever, and arthralgia].

    PubMed

    Freund, V; Budihardja, D; Nilles, M; Mayser, P

    2009-07-01

    Adult-onset Still's disease is a rare disorder of unknown etiology. We report the case of a 39-year-old patient who showed the characteristic symptoms: recurrent attacks of fever, arthralgia, maculopapular rash, sore throat, and lymphadenopathy. After the possibility of an infectious or paraneoplastic process was excluded and the laboratory findings were evaluated (increased C-reactive protein, liver values, and ferritin level), the diagnosis was established according to the criteria of Yamaguchi. Therapy with steroids and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs was started successfully. PMID:19543861

  7. Recurrent Fever, Anemia, Arthralgia, and Genu Varum as Late Manifestations of Congenital Syphilis.

    PubMed

    Quaresma, Liliana; Gonçalves, Juan; Estanqueiro, Paula; Salgado, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    We report an unusual case of recurrent fever, inflammatory knee pain, genu varum, persistent anemia, and high erythrocyte sedimentation rate in a 28-month-old boy as late manifestations of congenital syphilis (CS). Despite standard penicillin treatment at the end of the first month of life, it recurred later in life, more than once. In the first relapse, manifested by a likely gumma lesion, the prior penicillin treatment plus a negative venereal disease research laboratory result unduly led to exclusion of CS. A second treatment with penicillin led to complete clinical resolution. Although rare, bow legs, recurrent fever, anemia, and inflammatory arthralgias may be manifestations of late CS. Congenital syphilis should be considered throughout early childhood, especially if history of syphilis infection is present. A negative venereal disease research laboratory result does not exclude late syphilis, present in nearly 30% of these patients. The possibility of atypical symptoms of this "great masquerader" should always be borne in mind. PMID:26587855

  8. Voriconazole-induced periostitis causing arthralgias mimicking a flare of granulomatosis with polyangiitis.

    PubMed

    Gladue, Heather S; Fox, David A

    2013-12-01

    We describe a case of voriconazole-induced periostitis that occurred in a 68-year-old woman with granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Our patient presented with months of severe hip pain limiting her daily activities, which was initially felt to be a flare of her granulomatosis with polyangiitis. However, upon further review, she had an elevated alkaline phosphatase and periostitis on her hip radiograph; voriconazole was held, and within 2 days she had marked improvement in her pain. Although this clinical syndrome is well documented in transplant patients, it is a rare complication in patients with autoimmune disorders. However, it is important because it may cause severe arthralgias that can mimic a flare of rheumatic diseases.

  9. Effect of nucleus accumbens shell 5-HT4 receptors on the impairment of ACPA-induced emotional memory consolidation in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Khodayar, Ebrahim; Oryan, Shahrbanoo; Nasehi, Mohammad; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigates the effects of 5-HT4 receptors of the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell on the impairment of emotional memory consolidation induced by cannabinoid CB1 receptor stimulation. The elevated plus maze test-retest paradigm was used to assess memory in adult male Wistar rats. Intra-NAc shell administration of ACPA (selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist 0.006 µg/rat) and RS23597 (5-HT4 receptor antagonist 0.01 µg/rat), immediately after training, decreased emotional memory consolidation, suggesting a drug-induced amnesia, whereas post-training intra-NAc shell microinjections of RS67333 (5-HT4 receptor agonist 0.016 µg/rat) increased emotional memory consolidation. Interestingly, RS67333 exerted a dual effect on ACPA-induced behaviors, potentiating and restoring amnesia caused by the subthreshold and effective doses of ACPA, respectively. However, neither RS23597 nor AM251 (CB1 receptor antagonist 30, 60 and 120 ng/rat) affected emotional memory consolidation. Nonetheless, a subthreshold dose of AM251 (120 ng/rat) reversed the amnesia induced by ACPA (0.006 µg/rat) and RS23597 (0.01 µg/rat). None of the above doses altered the locomotor activity. In conclusion, our results suggest that the NAc-shell 5-HT4 receptors are involved in the modulation of ACPA-induced amnesia.

  10. Fever and arthralgia as the initial symptoms of primary bone marrow diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: A case report

    PubMed Central

    REN, SAISAI; TAO, YANLING; JIA, LU; CHENG, PANPAN; ZHANG, JILEI; ZHANG, HAO

    2016-01-01

    Primary bone marrow diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) is rare, and only a few cases have been reported. Fever and arthralgia as the initial symptom are extremely rare; however, awareness must be made of this presentation. The current study describes the clinical and pathological findings of a 41-year-old man affected by fever and arthralgia. Blood tests revealed leukopenia and anemia. Multiple bone marrow biopsies were conducted and confirmed the diagnosis of primary bone marrow DLBCL. Primary bone marrow DLBCL is a rare and frequently misdiagnosed subset of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The current case demonstrates that utility of bone marrow biopsy for diagnosis should not be ignored, and that repeated bone marrow punctures in multiple locations may be necessary. PMID:27123129

  11. Association between RANK, RANKL and OPG polymorphisms with ACPA and erosions in rheumatoid arthritis: results from a meta-analysis involving three French cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Ruyssen-Witrand, Adeline; Degboé, Yannick; Cantagrel, A; Nigon, D; Lukas, C; Scaramuzzino, S; Allanore, Y; Vittecoq, O; Schaeverbeke, T; Morel, J; Sibilia, J; Cambon-Thomsen, A; Dieudé, P; Constantin, A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The RANK/RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system plays a central role in the pathogenesis of bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to test the association between 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located on RANK, RANKL and OPG genes and anticitrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) presence or erosions in RA. Methods Patients: This work was performed on three independent samples of French patients with RA: the Etude de Suivi des PolyArthrites Indifférenciées Récentes (ESPOIR) (n=632), Rangueil Midi-Pyrénées (RMP) (n=249) and French Rheumatoid Arthritis Genetic Consortium (FRAGC) (n=590) cohorts. Genotyping: the genotyping of 11 SNPs located on RANK, RANKL and OPG were performed by PCR. Statistical analyses: The association between the genotypes with ACPA or erosions was first tested in the ESPOIR cohort using a χ2 test and, in the case of significant association, replicated in the RMP and FRACG cohorts. A meta-analysis on the three cohorts was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Results One SNP on RANK (rs8086340) and three SNPs on RANKL (rs7984870, rs7325635, rs1054016) were significantly associated with ACPA presence, while one SNP on OPG (rs2073618) and one SNP on RANKL (rs7325635) were significantly associated with erosions in the ESPOIR cohort. Following meta-analysis performed on the three samples, the SNP on RANK and the GGG haplotype of the three SNPs located on RANKL were both significantly associated with ACPA presence, while only the SNP on OPG remained significantly associated with erosions. Conclusions This study identified one SNP located on RANK, one haplotype on RANKL associated with ACPA presence, and one SNP located on OPG associated with erosions in three different samples of French patients with RA.

  12. Association between RANK, RANKL and OPG polymorphisms with ACPA and erosions in rheumatoid arthritis: results from a meta-analysis involving three French cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Ruyssen-Witrand, Adeline; Degboé, Yannick; Cantagrel, A; Nigon, D; Lukas, C; Scaramuzzino, S; Allanore, Y; Vittecoq, O; Schaeverbeke, T; Morel, J; Sibilia, J; Cambon-Thomsen, A; Dieudé, P; Constantin, A

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The RANK/RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) system plays a central role in the pathogenesis of bone erosions in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The aim of this study was to test the association between 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located on RANK, RANKL and OPG genes and anticitrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) presence or erosions in RA. Methods Patients: This work was performed on three independent samples of French patients with RA: the Etude de Suivi des PolyArthrites Indifférenciées Récentes (ESPOIR) (n=632), Rangueil Midi-Pyrénées (RMP) (n=249) and French Rheumatoid Arthritis Genetic Consortium (FRAGC) (n=590) cohorts. Genotyping: the genotyping of 11 SNPs located on RANK, RANKL and OPG were performed by PCR. Statistical analyses: The association between the genotypes with ACPA or erosions was first tested in the ESPOIR cohort using a χ2 test and, in the case of significant association, replicated in the RMP and FRACG cohorts. A meta-analysis on the three cohorts was performed using the Mantel-Haenszel method. Results One SNP on RANK (rs8086340) and three SNPs on RANKL (rs7984870, rs7325635, rs1054016) were significantly associated with ACPA presence, while one SNP on OPG (rs2073618) and one SNP on RANKL (rs7325635) were significantly associated with erosions in the ESPOIR cohort. Following meta-analysis performed on the three samples, the SNP on RANK and the GGG haplotype of the three SNPs located on RANKL were both significantly associated with ACPA presence, while only the SNP on OPG remained significantly associated with erosions. Conclusions This study identified one SNP located on RANK, one haplotype on RANKL associated with ACPA presence, and one SNP located on OPG associated with erosions in three different samples of French patients with RA. PMID:27651922

  13. Clinical effects of an avocado-soybean unsaponifiable extract on arthralgia and osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint: preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Catunda, I S; Vasconcelos, B C do E; Andrade, E S de S; Costa, D F N

    2016-08-01

    The aim of the present preliminary study was to investigate the effectiveness of an avocado-soybean unsaponifiable extract (ASU) in patients with arthralgia and osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was carried out. Fourteen women diagnosed with arthralgia and osteoarthritis of the TMJ using the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders were included in the statistical analysis. The women were allocated randomly to two groups: ASU group and placebo group. Pain was measured using a visual analogue scale and pressure algometer. Mandibular function was evaluated through measurement of mandibular movements. Quality of life was measured using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). The medication (ASU capsules or placebo capsules) was used for 4 months and the total follow-up was 6 months. Those taking the ASU extract had a decrease in pain symptoms and an improvement in quality of life. Moreover, a significant reduction in the use of rescue medication was found in the ASU group compared to the placebo group. This preliminary study provides strong evidence of the effectiveness of an avocado-soybean unsaponifiable extract in patients with degenerative joint diseases and arthralgia in the TMJ. Further studies with larger samples should be performed. PMID:27026059

  14. Smoking interacts with HLA-DRB1 shared epitope in the development of anti-citrullinated protein antibody-positive rheumatoid arthritis: results from the Malaysian Epidemiological Investigation of Rheumatoid Arthritis (MyEIRA)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a multifactorial autoimmune disease in which genetic and environmental factors interact in the etiology. In this study, we investigated whether smoking and HLA-DRB1 shared-epitope (SE) alleles interact differently in the development of the two major subgroups of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), anti-citrullinated proteins antibody (ACPA)-positive and ACPA-negative disease, in a multiethnic population of Asian descent. Methods A case-control study comprising early diagnosed RA cases was carried out in Malaysia between 2005 and 2009. In total, 1,076 cases and 1,612 matched controls participated in the study. High-resolution HLA-DRB1 genotyping was performed for shared-epitope (SE) alleles. All participants answered a questionnaire on a broad range of issues, including smoking habits. The odds ratio (OR) of developing ACPA-positive and ACPA-negative disease was calculated for smoking and the presence of any SE alleles separately. Potential interaction between smoking history (defined as "ever" and "never" smoking) and HLA-DRB1 SE alleles also was calculated. Results In our multiethnic study, both the SE alleles and smoking were associated with an increased risk of developing ACPA-positive RA (OR SE alleles, 4.7; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.6 to 6.2; OR smoking, 4.1; 95% CI, 1.9 to 9.2). SE-positive smokers had an odds ratio of ACPA-positive RA of 25.6 (95% CI, 10.4 to 63.4), compared with SE-negative never-smokers. The interaction between smoking and SE alleles was significant (attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) was 0.7 (95% CI, 0.5 to 1.0)). The HLA-DRB1*04:05 SE allele, which is common in Asian populations, but not among Caucasians, was associated with an increased risk of ACPA-positive RA, and this allele also showed signs of interaction with smoking (AP, 0.4; 95% CI, -0.1 to 0.9). Neither smoking nor SE alleles nor their combination was associated with an increased risk of ACPA-negative RA. Conclusions The risk

  15. Acupuncture for Treating Aromatase Inhibitor–Related Arthralgia in Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chien, Tsai-Ju; Liu, Chia-Yu; Chang, Yi-Fang; Fang, Ching-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Acupuncture has been used as a complementary medical treatment for arthralgia and other types of pain. The objective of this review is to assess the effectiveness of acupuncture in the treatment of arthralgia in patients with breast cancer who were treated with aromatase inhibitors (AIs). Methods: A literature search was performed, without language restrictions, of 10 databases from their inception through February 2014. The literature reviewed included randomized clinical trials (RCTs) and clinical trials that compared real versus sham acupuncture for the treatment of AI-related musculoskeletal symptoms (AIMSS). The methodologic quality of these trials was assessed by using the modified Jadad Quality Scale. Meta-analytic software (RevMan 5.0) was used to analyze the data. Results: Five To compare the effects of real versus sham acupuncture, five RCTs were assessed by meta-analysis and quality analysis. Three of the RCTs reported favorable effects with regard to use of acupuncture in reducing pain and joint-related symptoms, while the other two RCTs did not. The meta-analysis showed trends toward reduced pain and stiffness in patients given acupuncture compared with those who received sham treatment (n=82; pain, mean difference: −2.07 [95% confidence interval (CI), −4.72 to 0.57]; p=0.12; stiffness, mean difference: −86.10 [95% CI, −249.11 to 76.92]; p=0.30), although these differences were not statistically significant. Conclusions: Acupuncture has been reported as a safe and promising treatment for AIMSS, but the present analysis indicated that the effects were not statistically significant. Other outcome measurements, such as imaging studies, would be worth including in future studies to further confirm the efficacy of acupuncture in AIMSS. PMID:25915433

  16. Protection against Chikungunya virus induced arthralgia following prophylactic treatment with adenovirus vectored interferon (mDEF201).

    PubMed

    Dagley, Ashley; Ennis, Jane; Turner, Jeffrey D; Rood, Kerry A; Van Wettere, Arnaud J; Gowen, Brian B; Julander, Justin G

    2014-08-01

    Recent outbreaks of Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) infection have resulted in millions of cases of disease with significant morbidity. No approved antiviral treatments exist for the prevention or treatment of this viral disease. Infection with CHIKV results in a high rate of symptomatic disease that primarily includes a debilitating arthralgia. To model this cardinal disease manifestation, adult DBA/1J mice were challenged with CHIKV by footpad injection. Viremia and hind limb virus titers increased ∼100-fold while spleen virus increased >1000-fold within 1day post-virus infection (dpi). Footpad swelling was measured over a 10-day period, with peak swelling observed between 6 and 7dpi. Histology of the hind leg at the site of virus challenge showed evidence of myositis and synovitis starting on 5dpi. Cytokine profiling of the hind limb at the site of inoculation revealed a biphasic inflammatory response represented by an increase in IL-6, MCP-1, IFN-γ, MIP-1α, RANTES, and IL-17. To investigate the prophylactic capacity of IFN, mice were treated with mDEF201, an adenovirus-vectored IFN-α. Intranasal administration of a single 10(7)pfu/ml dose of mDEF201 administered 21days to 24h prior to infection, significantly reduced footpad swelling, virus titers in the hind leg and spleen, and several inflammatory cytokines. Efficacy was not observed when treatment was initiated 24h after virus challenge. This arthralgia model of CHIKV recapitulates relevant disease features commonly observed in human disease making it applicable to preclinical testing of therapies that target both viral replication and the associated joint disease.

  17. The involvement of medial septum 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptors on ACPA-induced memory consolidation deficit: possible role of TRPC3, TRPC6 and TRPV2.

    PubMed

    Najar, Farzaneh; Nasehi, Mohammad; Haeri-Rohani, Seyed-Ali; Zarrindast, Mohammad-Reza

    2015-11-01

    The present study evaluates the roles of serotonergic receptors of the medial septum on amnesia induced by arachidonylcyclopropylamide (ACPA; as selective cannabinoid CB1 receptor agonist) in adult male Wistar rats. Cannulae were implanted in the medial septum of the brain of the rats. The animals were trained in a passive avoidance learning apparatus, and were tested 24 hours after training for step-through latency. Results indicated that post-training medial septum administration of CP94253 (5-HT1B/1D receptor agonist) and cinancerine (as 5-HT2 receptor antagonist) reduced the step-through latency showing an amnesic response, while GR127935 (5-HT1B/1D receptor antagonist) and αm5htm (as 5-HT2A/2B/2D receptor agonist) did not alter memory consolidation by themselves. On continuing the test, the results showed that CP94253 increased and GR127935 did not alter ACPA (0.02 µg/rat)-induced memory impairment, respectively. Other data indicated that αm5htm induced a modulatory effect, while cinancerine restored ACPA-induced amnesia. Using SKF-96365 (inhibitor of transient receptor potential TRPC3/6 and TRPV2 channels) demonstrated that TRPC3, TRPC3 and TRPV2 channels have a significant role, according to our results. PMID:26464456

  18. Persisting arthralgia due to Mayaro virus infection in a traveler from Brazil: is there a risk for attendants to the 2014 FIFA World Cup?

    PubMed

    Slegers, C A D; Keuter, M; Günther, S; Schmidt-Chanasit, J; van der Ven, A J; de Mast, Q

    2014-07-01

    The 2014 FIFA World Cup and the 2016 Olympic Games will attract large groups of visitors to Brazil. These visitors will be at risk for different arboviral infections, some of which not well known outside endemic areas. We report a case of a 52-year-old Dutch woman who presented with persistent arthralgia due to a Mayaro virus (MAYV) infection which she contracted in the Amazon basin in Brazil. MAYV is a mosquito-borne alphavirus which primarily circulates in humid tropical forests of South America. Infections are rarely reported in travelers and are characterized by an acute febrile illness which is often followed by a prolonged and sometimes incapacitating polyarthralgia. Both travelers and physicians should be aware of the risk of these arboviral infections and the importance of mosquito bite prevention should be stressed.

  19. Autoantibodies in inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Conigliaro, P; Chimenti, M S; Triggianese, P; Sunzini, F; Novelli, L; Perricone, C; Perricone, R

    2016-07-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic chronic inflammatory disease characterized by extensive synovitis resulting in erosions of articular cartilage and marginal bone with joint destruction. The lack of immunological tolerance in RA represents the first step toward the development of autoimmunity. Susceptible individuals, under the influence of environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, and silica exposure, develop autoimmune phenomena that result in the presence of autoantibodies. HLA and non-HLA haplotypes play a major role in determining the development of specific autoantibodies differentiating anti-citrullinated antibodies (ACPA)-positive and negative RA patients. Rheumatoid factor (RF) and ACPA are the serological markers for RA, and during the preclinical immunological phase, autoantibody titers increase with a progressive spread of ACPA antigens repertoire. The presence of ACPA represents an independent risk factor for developing RA in patients with undifferentiated arthritis or arthralgia. Moreover, anti-CarP antibodies have been identified in patients with RA as well as in individuals before the onset of clinical symptoms of RA. Several autoantibodies mainly targeting post-translational modified proteins have been investigated as possible biomarkers to improve the early diagnosis, prognosis and response to therapy in RA patients. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is distinguished from RA by infrequent positivity for RF and ACPA, together with other distinctive clinical features. Actually, specific autoantibodies have not been described. Recently, anti-CarP antibodies have been reported in sera from PsA patients with active disease. Further investigations on autoantibodies showing high specificity and sensibility as well as relevant correlation with disease severity, progression, and response to therapy are awaited in inflammatory arthritides.

  20. Characterization of Autoantigens Targeted by Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibodies In Vivo: Prominent Role for Epitopes Derived from Histone 4 Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiaobo; Ezzati, Peyman; Smolik, Irene; Bernstein, Charles N.; Hitchon, Carol Ann; El-Gabalawy, Hani S.

    2016-01-01

    Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) have become an integral part of the clinical definition of rheumatoid arthritis, and are hypothesized to be important in the immunopathogenesis of this autoimmune disease. Several citrullinated proteins have been demonstrated to serve as candidate autoantigens for the ACPA, based on in vitro immune reactions between citrullinated peptides/proteins and RA sera. Yet it remains unclear whether the autoantigens identified in vitro are indeed directly and specifically targeted by the ACPA in vivo. Moreover, it is unclear whether ACPA present in RA sera are directed towards the same spectrum of autoantigens as the ACPA present within the synovial compartment. In this study, we isolated ACPA immune complexes from RA synovial fluids (SF) and sera by using immobilized cyclic citrullinated peptides (CCP3) based immune affinity, and characterized the proteins that are directly and specifically associated with them by mass spectrometry. The results demonstrate that four histone proteins are prominent ACPA autoantigens, with the frequency of detection being histone H4 (89%), H2B (63%), H3 (63%), and H2A (58%) in ACPA positive RA SF. We further demonstrate that a histone 4 peptide containing citrulline at position Cit39 was recognized by 100% of ACPA positive RA SF. An adjacent citrulline residue at Cit40 was recognized by 34% of ACPA positive RA SF. An H4 peptide containing Cit39-40 was recognized in the serum of 94% ACPA positive RA, 77% ACPA positive first-degree relatives (FDR) of RA patients, and 2.5% of healthy controls. The Cit39-40 peptide substantially blocked the ACPA reactivity in both SF and serum. Although the spectrum of ACPA we identified was limited to those isolated using immobilized CCP3 peptides, the findings indicate that H4 is a widely recognized RA autoantigen in both the synovial and serum compartments. The identification of this immunodominant ACPA epitope may be valuable in designing approaches to immune

  1. Nursing Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Nursing Positions KidsHealth > For Parents > Nursing Positions Print A ... and actually needs to feed. Getting Comfortable With Breastfeeding Nursing can be one of the most challenging ...

  2. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  3. Positional plagiocephaly

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Cranial asymmetry occurring as a result of forces that deform skull shape in the supine position is known as deformational plagiocephaly. The risk of plagiocephaly may be modified by positioning the baby on alternate days with the head to the right or the left side, and by increasing time spent in the prone position during awake periods. When deformational plagiocephaly is already present, physiotherapy (including positioning equivalent to the preventive positioning, and exercises as needed for torticollis and positional preference) has been shown to be superior to counselling about preventive positioning only. Helmet therapy (moulding therapy) to reduce skull asymmetry has some drawbacks: it is expensive, significantly inconvenient due to the long hours of use per day and associated with skin complications. There is evidence that helmet therapy may increase the initial rate of improvement of asymmetry, but there is no evidence that it improves the final outcome for patients with moderate or severe plagiocephaly. PMID:23024590

  4. Associations of rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated peptide antibody with disease progression and treatment outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Katchamart, Wanruchada; Koolvisoot, Ajchara; Aromdee, Emvalee; Chiowchanwesawakit, Praveena; Muengchan, Chayawee

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA) status with disease progression and treatment outcomes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A total of 276 adult patients who fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology 1987 classification criteria for RA were recruited from the Rheumatology clinic, Siriraj Hospital, from January 2011 to December 2012. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected at baseline and every 3 months up to 1 year of follow-up. RF and ACPA were measured at baseline. Radiography of the hands and feet was performed at baseline and 1 year. Patients with RF+/ACPA+ had significantly more severe disease activity and impaired functional status than those who had RF-/ACPA-. Although they received more aggressive treatment with methotrexate and combination of non-biologic, disease-modifying antirheumatic drug than other groups, fewer patients in this group achieved remission at 1 year of follow-up, especially when compared to RF-/ACPA- group (12 vs. 18 %). For radiographic erosion, patients with the presence of either RF or ACPA had a higher proportion of hand erosion than seronegative patients at baseline (77, 73, 83, and 32 %, p < 0.001 for RF+/ACPA+, RF+/ACPA-, RF-/ACPA+, and RF-/ACPA-, respectively). After 1 year of follow-up, patients who developed new erosion at the hands were more prevalent in RF+/ACPA+ (32 %) and RF+/ACPA- (33 %) groups. However, "newly developed" feet erosion was most common in RF+/ACPA- group (40 %) than in other groups. Patients with positive either RF or ACPA or both have more severe and aggressive disease that requires intensive treatment to improve outcomes.

  5. Satellite positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Oscar L.; Watkins, Michael M.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in satellite positioning techniques and their applications are reviewed on the basis of the theoretical and practical work published by U.S. researchers in 1987-1990. Current techniques are classified into two main categories: satellite laser tracking and radio tracking. Particular attention is given to the Geoscience Laser Ranging System, the Lunar Laser Ranging concept; GPS ephemerides determination, fiducial networks, and reference frame; static GPS positioning; and kinematic GPS positioning.

  6. Positive Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  7. Positioning Agility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, Nilay; Abrahamsson, Pekka; Conboy, Kieran

    Agile methods are increasingly adopted by European companies. Academics too are conducting numerous studies on different tenets of agile methods. Companies often feel proud in marketing themselves as ‘agile’. However, the true notion of ‘being agile’ seems to have been overlooked due to lack of positioning of oneself for agility. This raises a call for more research and interactions between academia and the industry. The proposed workshop refers to this call. It will be highly relevant to participants, interested in positioning their company’s agility from organizational, group or project perspectives. The positioning of agility will help companies to better align their agile practices with stakeholder values. Results of the workshop will be shared across participants and they will also have opportunity to continue their work on agile positioning in their companies. At broader level, the work done in this workshop will contribute towards developing Agile Positioning System.

  8. Positive Proof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoffrey

    1988-01-01

    Presents experiments which show that in electrostatics there are logical reasons for describing charged materials as positive or negative. Indicates that static and current electricity are not separate areas of physics. Diagrams of experiments and circuits are included. (RT)

  9. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies are linked to erosive disease in an observational study of patients with psoriatic arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Behrens, Frank; Koehm, Michaela; Thaçi, Diamant; Gnann, Holger; Greger, Gerd; Maria Wittig, Bianca

    2016-01-01

    Objective. ACPAs are associated with bone destruction in RA. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between ACPA and bone destruction in patients with a distinct inflammatory disorder, PsA. Methods. We used baseline data from a large observational study of PsA patients preparing to initiate treatment with adalimumab to analyse demographic and disease characteristics by ACPA status. To ensure a homogeneous PsA study population, only patients with active psoriatic skin manifestations who met Classification of Psoriatic Arthritis criteria for PsA were included in the analyses, thereby minimizing the risk of including misdiagnosed RA patients. Multiple logistic regression analyses were used to explore potential associations between ACPA seropositivity and bone destruction. Results. Of 1996 PsA patients who met the strict inclusion criteria, 105 (5.3%) were positive for ACPA. ACPA-positive patients had significantly higher swollen joint counts and 28-joint DAS values than ACPA-negative patients and significantly higher rates of erosive changes and dactylitis. Multiple logistic regression analysis confirmed the association of ACPA seropositivity with a 2.8-fold increase in the risk of erosive disease. Conclusion. As has been previously shown for RA, ACPA is associated with bone destruction in PsA, suggesting that the osteocatabolic effect of ACPA is not confined to RA but is also detectable in the different pathogenetic context of a distinct disease entity. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01111240 PMID:27330166

  10. Position indicator

    DOEpatents

    Tanner, David E.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which a position indicator is provided for detecting and indicating the position of a movable element inside a pressure vessel. The movable element may be a valve element or similar device which moves about an axis. Light from a light source is transmitted from a source outside the pressure vessel to a first region inside the pressure vessel in alignment with the axis of the movable element. The light is redirected by a reflector prism to a second region displaced radially from the first region. The reflector prism moves in response to movement of the movable element about its axis such that the second region moves arcuately with respect to the first region. Sensors are arrayed in an arc corresponding to the arc of movement of the second region and signals are transmitted from the sensors to the exterior of the reactor vessel to provide indication of the position of the movable element.

  11. Positive psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Martin E P; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C

    2006-11-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported them to be "life-changing." Delivered on the Web, positive psychology exercises relieved depressive symptoms for at least 6 months compared with placebo interventions, the effects of which lasted less than a week. In severe depression, the effects of these Web exercises were particularly striking. This address reports two preliminary studies: In the first, PPT delivered to groups significantly decreased levels of mild-to-moderate depression through 1-year follow-up. In the second, PPT delivered to individuals produced higher remission rates than did treatment as usual and treatment as usual plus medication among outpatients with major depressive disorder. Together, these studies suggest that treatments for depression may usefully be supplemented by exercises that explicitly increase positive emotion, engagement, and meaning. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115810

  12. Positively Adolescent!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Believes that music teachers should reassess their views toward adolescent behavior in the music classroom by learning to see their behavior in a positive light. Describes teaching strategies that build on four adolescent behaviors: (1) desire for peer acceptance; (2) abundant energy; (3) love of fun; and (4) limited time-managing skills. (CMK)

  13. Position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, Siegfried (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A radiant energy angle sensor is provided wherein the sensitive portion thereof comprises a pair of linear array detectors with each detector mounted normal to the other to provide X and Y channels and a pair of slits spaced from the pair of linear arrays with each of the slits positioned normal to its associated linear array. There is also provided electrical circuit means connected to the pair of linear array detectors and to separate X and Y axes outputs.

  14. Positive Psychologists on Positive Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article by McNulty and Fincham (see record 2011-15476-001). In their article, the authors offered compelling evidence that constructs such as forgiveness and optimism can have both beneficial and adverse consequences, depending on the context. Their caution about labeling particular psychological processes as "positive" is…

  15. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

    1983-07-07

    An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

  16. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-05-06

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  17. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  18. POSITIONING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Wall, R.R.; Peterson, D.L.

    1959-09-15

    A positioner is described for a vertical reactor-control rod. The positioner comprises four grooved friction rotatable members that engage the control rod on all sides and shift it longitudinally. The four friction members are drivingly interconnected for conjoint rotation and comprise two pairs of coaxial members. The members of each pair are urged toward one another by hydraulic or pneumatic pressure and thus grip the control rod so as to hold it in any position or adjust it. Release of the by-draulic or pneumatic pressure permits springs between the friction members of each pair to force them apart, whereby the control rod moves quickly by gravity into the reactor.

  19. Influence of HLA DRB1 alleles in the susceptibility of rheumatoid arthritis and the regulation of antibodies against citrullinated proteins and rheumatoid factor

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between HLA-DRB1 alleles with susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and production of antibodies against citrullinated proteins (ACPA) and rheumatoid factor (RF). Methods We studied 408 patients (235 with RA, 173 non-RA) and 269 controls. ACPA, RF and HLA-DR typing were determined. Results We found an increased frequency of HLA DRB1 alleles with the shared epitope (SE) in ACPA-positive RA. Inversely, HLA DRB1 alleles encoding DERAA sequences were more frequent in controls than in ACPA-positive RA, and a similar trend was found for HLA DR3. However, these results could not be confirmed after stratification for the presence of the SE, probably due to the relatively low number of patients. These data may suggest that the presence of these alleles may confer a protective role for ACPA-positive RA. In RA patients we observed association between SE alleles and ACPA titers in a dose-dependent effect. The presence of HLA DR3 or DERAA-encoding alleles was associated with markedly reduced ACPA levels. No association between RF titers and HLA DR3 or DERAA-encoding alleles was found. Conclusions HLA DRB1 alleles with the SE are associated with production of ACPA. DERAA-encoding HLA-DR alleles and HLA DR3 may be protective for ACPA-positive RA. PMID:20370905

  20. Significant association of periodontal disease with anti-citrullinated peptide antibody in a Japanese healthy population - The Nagahama study.

    PubMed

    Terao, Chikashi; Asai, Keita; Hashimoto, Motomu; Yamazaki, Toru; Ohmura, Koichiro; Yamaguchi, Akihiko; Takahashi, Katsu; Takei, Noriko; Ishii, Takanori; Kawaguchi, Takahisa; Tabara, Yasuharu; Takahashi, Meiko; Nakayama, Takeo; Kosugi, Shinji; Sekine, Akihiro; Fujii, Takao; Yamada, Ryo; Mimori, Tsuneyo; Matsuda, Fumihiko; Bessho, Kazuhisa

    2015-05-01

    Anti-citrullinated peptide antibody (ACPA) is a highly specific autoantibody to rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Recent studies have revealed that periodontal disease (PD) is closely associated with RA and production of ACPA in RA. Analyses of associations between PD and ACPA production in a healthy population may deepen our understandings. Here, we analyzed a total of 9554 adult healthy subjects. ACPA and IgM-rheumatoid factor (RF) was quantified and PD status was evaluated using the number of missing teeth (MT), the Community Periodontal Index (CPI) and Loss of Attachment (LA) for these subjects. PD status was analyzed for its association with the positivity and categorical levels of ACPA and RF conditioned for covariates which were shown to be associated with PD, ACPA or RF. As a result, all of MT, CPI and LA showed suggestive or significant associations with positivity (p = 0.024, 0.0042 and 0.037, respectively) and levels of ACPA (p ≤ 0.00031), but none of the PD parameters were associated with those of RF. These association patterns were also observed when we analyzed 6206 non-smokers of the participants. The significant associations between PD parameters and positivity and levels of ACPA in healthy population support the fundamental involvement of PD with ACPA production.

  1. Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies suppress let-7a expression in monocytes from patients with rheumatoid arthritis and facilitate the inflammatory responses in rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Lai, Ning-Sheng; Yu, Hui-Chun; Yu, Chia-Li; Koo, Malcolm; Huang, Hsien-Bin; Lu, Ming-Chi

    2015-12-01

    We hypothesized that anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) could affect the expression of miRNAs in monocytes and contribute to the inflammatory responses in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The expression profiles of 270 human miRNAs, co-cultured with ACPAs or human immunoglobulin G (IgG), were analyzed using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Ten miRNAs exhibited differential expression in U937 cells after co-cultured with ACPAs compared with human IgG. The expression levels of these miRNAs were investigated in monocytes from 21 ACPA-positive RA patients and 13 controls. Among these miRNAs, the expression levels of let-7a was decreased in monocytes from ACPA-positive RA patients. The expression levels of let-7a showed a negative correlation with positivity of rheumatoid factor in patients sampled. We found that transfection of U937 cells with let-7a mimic suppressed K-Ras protein expression. In the ACPA-mediated signaling pathway, transfection of U937 cells with let-7a mimic suppressed the ACPA-enhanced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2), and the expression and secretion of interleukin (IL)-1β. In conclusion, ACPA-mediated decreased let-7a expression in monocytes from ACPA-positive RA patients. Decreased let-7a expression was associated with the positivity of RF in ACPA-positive RA patients. The decreased expression of let-7a could facilitate the inflammatory pathway via enhanced ACPA-mediated phosphorylation of ERK1/2 and JNK and increased expression of IL-1β through an increase in the expression of Ras proteins.

  2. Identification of a novel chemokine-dependent molecular mechanism underlying rheumatoid arthritis-associated autoantibody-mediated bone loss

    PubMed Central

    Krishnamurthy, Akilan; Joshua, Vijay; Haj Hensvold, Aase; Jin, Tao; Sun, Meng; Vivar, Nancy; Ytterberg, A Jimmy; Engström, Marianne; Fernandes-Cerqueira, Cátia; Amara, Khaled; Magnusson, Malin; Wigerblad, Gustaf; Kato, Jungo; Jiménez-Andrade, Juan Miguel; Tyson, Kerry; Rapecki, Stephen; Lundberg, Karin; Catrina, Sergiu-Bogdan; Jakobsson, Per-Johan; Svensson, Camilla; Malmström, Vivianne; Klareskog, Lars; Wähämaa, Heidi; Catrina, Anca I

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Rheumatoid arthritis (RA)-specific anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPAs) appear before disease onset and are associated with bone destruction. We aimed to dissect the role of ACPAs in osteoclast (OC) activation and to identify key cellular mediators in this process. Methods Polyclonal ACPA were isolated from the synovial fluid (SF) and peripheral blood of patients with RA. Monoclonal ACPAs were isolated from single SF B-cells of patients with RA. OCs were developed from blood cell precursors with or without ACPAs. We analysed expression of citrullinated targets and peptidylarginine deiminases (PAD) enzymes by immunohistochemistry and cell supernatants by cytometric bead array. The effect of an anti-interleukin (IL)-8 neutralising antibody and a pan-PAD inhibitor was tested in the OC cultures. Monoclonal ACPAs were injected into mice and bone structure was analysed by micro-CT before and after CXCR1/2 blocking with reparixin. Results Protein citrullination by PADs is essential for OC differentiation. Polyclonal ACPAs enhance OC differentiation through a PAD-dependent IL-8-mediated autocrine loop that is completely abolished by IL-8 neutralisation. Some, but not all, human monoclonal ACPAs derived from single SF B-cells of patients with RA and exhibiting distinct epitope specificities promote OC differentiation in cell cultures. Transfer of the monoclonal ACPAs into mice induced bone loss that was completely reversed by the IL-8 antagonist reparixin. Conclusions We provide novel insights into the key role of citrullination and PAD enzymes during OC differentiation and ACPA-induced OC activation. Our findings suggest that IL8-dependent OC activation may constitute an early event in the initiation of the joint specific inflammation in ACPA-positive RA. PMID:26612338

  3. Positive maps, positive polynomials and entanglement witnesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowronek, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol

    2009-08-01

    We link the study of positive quantum maps, block positive operators and entanglement witnesses with problems related to multivariate polynomials. For instance, we show how indecomposable block positive operators relate to biquadratic forms that are not sums of squares. Although the general problem of describing the set of positive maps remains open, in some particular cases we solve the corresponding polynomial inequalities and obtain explicit conditions for positivity.

  4. Positional Plagiocephaly (Flattened Head)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Simple practices like changing a baby's sleep position, holding your baby, and providing lots of "tummy time" ... devices to keep your baby in one position. Alternate positions in the crib. Consider how you lay ...

  5. Benign positional vertigo - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Vertigo - positional - aftercare; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo - aftercare; BPPV - aftercare; Dizziness - positional vertigo ... Your health care provider may have treated your vertigo with the Epley maneuver . These are head movements ...

  6. Positive Education: Positive Psychology and Classroom Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Ernst, Randal M.; Gillham, Jane; Reivich, Karen; Linkins, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Positive education is defined as education for both traditional skills and for happiness. The high prevalence worldwide of depression among young people, the small rise in life satisfaction, and the synergy between learning and positive emotion all argue that the skills for happiness should be taught in school. There is substantial evidence from…

  7. Want Positive Behavior? Use Positive Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Chip; Freeman-Loftis, Babs

    2012-01-01

    Positive adult language is the professional use of words and tone of voice to enable students to learn in an engaged, active way. This includes learning social skills. To guide children toward choosing and maintaining positive behaviors, adults need to carefully choose the words and tone of voice used when speaking to them. Learning to use…

  8. [Positive Activities Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This packet contains four pamphlets that are part of a campaign to encourage adults to provide and promote positive activities for youth and to serve as role models for young people. "Positive Activities: A Campaign for Youth" includes information on what positive activities are, how to get involved in helping to provide positive activities for…

  9. On Positive Functions with Positive Derivatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2002-01-01

    Three proofs are given for the fact that the derivative of an everywhere-positive non-constant real polynomial function must change sign. This self-contained note could find classroom use in courses on calculus or abstract algebra.

  10. Sample positioning in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Govind (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Repulsion forces arising from laser beams are provided to produce mild positioning forces on a sample in microgravity vacuum environments. The system of the preferred embodiment positions samples using a plurality of pulsed lasers providing opposing repulsion forces. The lasers are positioned around the periphery of a confinement area and expanded to create a confinement zone. The grouped laser configuration, in coordination with position sensing devices, creates a feedback servo whereby stable position control of a sample within microgravity environment can be achieved.

  11. Sample positioning in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Govind (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Repulsion forces arising from laser beams are provided to produce mild positioning forces on a sample in microgravity vacuum environments. The system of the preferred embodiment positions samples using a plurality of pulsed lasers providing opposing repulsion forces. The lasers are positioned around the periphery of a confinement area and expanded to create a confinement zone. The grouped laser configuration, in coordination with position sensing devices, creates a feedback servo whereby stable position control of a sample within microgravity environment can be achieved.

  12. Sharing a Faculty Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Kane, Patricia K.; Meyer, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Describes the experience of two nursing faculty members who shared an assistant professor of nursing position. Discusses positive and negative aspects of the experience and notes that a unified and creative approach must be taken for it to succeed. (JOW)

  13. Positive battery plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The power characteristics of a lead acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). Positive plate potential must be kept high enough to prevent reduction of the tin oxide to tin by utilizing an oversized, precharged positive paste.

  14. The Positivity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A.; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

    2012-01-01

    Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure "positivity," defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of college…

  15. Prone positioning for surgery.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Mark

    2012-05-01

    The role of the registered perioperative practitioner (Operating Department Practitioner or Registered Nurse) includes the responsibility for safely positioning patients for surgery. The prone position is in common use for a variety of surgical procedures. The formal term for this surgical position is ventral decubitus (meaning laying face down). PMID:22720505

  16. High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy for rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonitis accompanied by anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 antibody-positive amyopathic dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Hamada-Ode, Kazu; Taniguchi, Yoshinori; Kimata, Takahito; Kawaguchi, Yasushi; Shimamura, Yoshiko; Kuwana, Masataka; Fujimoto, Shimpei; Terada, Yoshio

    2015-01-01

    Anti-melanoma differentiation-associated gene 5 (MDA5) antibody-positive amyopathic dermatomyositis (ADM) associated with rapidly progressive interstitial pneumonitis (RPIP) frequently has a poor prognosis and optimal treatment is not well defined. Here, we report a 62-year-old Japanese man with anti-MDA5 antibody-positive ADM associated with RPIP presented with progressive shortness of breath, Heliotrope rash, Gottron’s papules, arthralgia, and fatigue but no sign of muscle weakness. Laboratory investigation revealed serum levels of the following biomarkers: ferritin, 1393 ng/mL; Krebs von der Lungen-6, 1880 U/mL; and creatine kinase, 85 U/L. Computed tomography (CT) images showed diffuse ground-glass opacity in both lung fields. Because anti-MDA5 was positive, we made a diagnosis of ADM associated with RPIP and initiated treatment. Following five courses of combination therapy with prednisolone, cyclosporine A, and intravenous cyclophosphamide (IVCY), IVCY treatment was switched to high-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy (IVIg) because of the reactivation of interstitial pneumonia with an increased serum ferritin level. Additional treatment with IVIg improved RPIP, with normalization of anti-ADM antibody levels. Therefore, IVIg mayt be a new candidate treatment for anti-MDA5 antibody-positive ADM associated with RPIP. PMID:27708934

  17. Autoantibodies to citrullinated proteins induce joint pain independent of inflammation via a chemokine-dependent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Wigerblad, Gustaf; Bas, Duygu B; Fernades-Cerqueira, Cátia; Krishnamurthy, Akilan; Rogoz, Katarzyna; Kato, Jungo; Sandor, Katalin; Su, Jie; Jimenez–Andrade, Juan Miguel; Finn, Anja; Bersellini Farinotti, Alex; Amara, Khaled; Lundberg, Karin; Holmdahl, Rikard; Jakobsson, Per-Johan; Malmström, Vivianne; Catrina, Anca I; Klareskog, Lars; Svensson, Camilla I

    2016-01-01

    Objective An interesting and so far unexplained feature of chronic pain in autoimmune disease is the frequent disconnect between pain and inflammation. This is illustrated well in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) where pain in joints (arthralgia) may precede joint inflammation and persist even after successful anti-inflammatory treatment. In the present study, we have addressed the possibility that autoantibodies against citrullinated proteins (ACPA), present in RA, may be directly responsible for the induction of pain, independent of inflammation. Methods Antibodies purified from human patients with RA, healthy donors and murinised monoclonal ACPA were injected into mice. Pain-like behaviour was monitored for up to 28 days, and tissues were analysed for signs of pathology. Mouse osteoclasts were cultured and stimulated with antibodies, and supernatants analysed for release of factors. Mice were treated with CXCR1/2 (interleukin (IL) 8 receptor) antagonist reparixin. Results Mice injected with either human or murinised ACPA developed long-lasting pronounced pain-like behaviour in the absence of inflammation, while non-ACPA IgG from patients with RA or control monoclonal IgG were without pronociceptive effect. This effect was coupled to ACPA-mediated activation of osteoclasts and release of the nociceptive chemokine CXCL1 (analogue to human IL-8). ACPA-induced pain-like behaviour was reversed with reparixin. Conclusions The data suggest that CXCL1/IL-8, released from osteoclasts in an autoantibody-dependent manner, produces pain by activating sensory neurons. The identification of this new pain pathway may open new avenues for pain treatment in RA and also in other painful diseases associated with autoantibody production and/or osteoclast activation. PMID:26613766

  18. Precision positioning device

    DOEpatents

    McInroy, John E.

    2005-01-18

    A precision positioning device is provided. The precision positioning device comprises a precision measuring/vibration isolation mechanism. A first plate is provided with the precision measuring mean secured to the first plate. A second plate is secured to the first plate. A third plate is secured to the second plate with the first plate being positioned between the second plate and the third plate. A fourth plate is secured to the third plate with the second plate being positioned between the third plate and the fourth plate. An adjusting mechanism for adjusting the position of the first plate, the second plate, the third plate, and the fourth plate relative to each other.

  19. Perceived positions determine crowding.

    PubMed

    Maus, Gerrit W; Fischer, Jason; Whitney, David

    2011-01-01

    Crowding is a fundamental bottleneck in object recognition. In crowding, an object in the periphery becomes unrecognizable when surrounded by clutter or distractor objects. Crowding depends on the positions of target and distractors, both their eccentricity and their relative spacing. In all previous studies, position has been expressed in terms of retinal position. However, in a number of situations retinal and perceived positions can be dissociated. Does retinal or perceived position determine the magnitude of crowding? Here observers performed an orientation judgment on a target Gabor patch surrounded by distractors that drifted toward or away from the target, causing an illusory motion-induced position shift. Distractors in identical physical positions led to worse performance when they drifted towards the target (appearing closer) versus away from the target (appearing further). This difference in crowding corresponded to the difference in perceived positions. Further, the perceptual mislocalization was necessary for the change in crowding, and both the mislocalization and crowding scaled with drift speed. The results show that crowding occurs after perceived positions have been assigned by the visual system. Crowding does not operate in a purely retinal coordinate system; perceived positions need to be taken into account.

  20. Positive criminology in practice.

    PubMed

    Ronel, Natti; Segev, Dana

    2014-11-01

    The discourse regarding offender rehabilitation has been criticized by various scholars who have claimed that reducing negative causes and managing risk will not automatically prompt positive human development and elements that are associated with desistance. Positive criminology is an innovative concept that challenges the common preoccupation with negative elements, by placing emphasis on human encounters and forces of inclusion that are experienced positively by target individuals and that can promote crime desistance. However, as the concept is relatively new, there are still no guiding principles for the practice of positive criminology that could direct research and the criminal justice system. This article attempts to fill that gap by providing principles that could be practiced by criminal justice personnel and examples of different interventions that reflect positive criminology. The article also provides ideological explanations for adopting the concept of positive criminology in practice.

  1. Beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Alkire, Randy W.; Rosenbaum, Gerold; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2003-07-22

    An apparatus for determining the position of an x-ray beam relative to a desired beam axis. Where the apparatus is positioned along the beam path so that a thin metal foil target intersects the x-ray beam generating fluorescent radiation. A PIN diode array is positioned so that a portion of the fluorescent radiation is intercepted by the array resulting in an a series of electrical signals from the PIN diodes making up the array. The signals are then analyzed and the position of the x-ray beam is determined relative to the desired beam path.

  2. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, Milton L.; Harper, William H.

    1987-01-01

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  3. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1987-06-30

    A positioning and locking apparatus are disclosed including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member. 6 figs.

  4. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1985-06-19

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  5. Position Resolution in DROIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samedov, Victor V.

    2008-04-01

    Since the very beginning, Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs) were proposed to achieve both good position and energy resolutions. In DROIDs, the absorption of primary particle energy occurs in a long superconductive strip. Quasiparticles produced in the absorber diffuse along the strip and counted by the superconductive tunnel junctions positioned at the two ends of the strip. In this paper the formula for estimation DROID’s position resolution from experimental data was derived. This formula takes into account correlation between fluctuations of signals of DROID’s detectors.

  6. CRANE POSITIONING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Landsiedel, F.W.; Wolff, H.

    1960-06-28

    An apparatus is described for automatically accomplishing the final accurate horizontal positioning of a crane after the latter has been placed to within 1/8 in. of its selected position. For this purpose there is provided a tiltable member on the crane mast for lowering into contact with a stationary probe. Misalignment of the tiltable member, with respect to the probe as the member is lowered, causes tilting of the latter to actuate appropriate switches that energize motors for bringing the mast into proper position. When properly aligned the member is not tilted and a central switch is actuated to indicate the final alignment of the crane.

  7. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  8. Benign positional vertigo

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical practice guideline: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 2008;139(5 Suppl 4):S47-S81. ... BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015: ...

  9. Reflection Positivity for Parafermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Arthur; Pedrocchi, Fabio L.

    2015-07-01

    We establish reflection positivity for Gibbs trace states for a class of gauge-invariant, reflection-invariant Hamiltonians describing parafermion interactions on a lattice. We relate these results to recent work in the condensed-matter physics literature.

  10. Art of Positive Principalship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Martha

    1979-01-01

    An elementary school principal explains how she promotes a positive working and learning environment in her school through written and verbal praise, open communications, and the sharing of ideas. (SJL)

  11. Video image position determination

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Wynn; Anderson, Forrest L.; Kortegaard, Birchard L.

    1991-01-01

    An optical beam position controller in which a video camera captures an image of the beam in its video frames, and conveys those images to a processing board which calculates the centroid coordinates for the image. The image coordinates are used by motor controllers and stepper motors to position the beam in a predetermined alignment. In one embodiment, system noise, used in conjunction with Bernoulli trials, yields higher resolution centroid coordinates.

  12. Optimal Centroid Position Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; McClay, W A; Awwal, A S; Ferguson, S W

    2004-07-23

    The alignment of high energy laser beams for potential fusion experiments demand high precision and accuracy by the underlying positioning algorithms. This paper discusses the feasibility of employing online optimal position estimators in the form of model-based processors to achieve the desired results. Here we discuss the modeling, development, implementation and processing of model-based processors applied to both simulated and actual beam line data.

  13. Nucleosome positioning determinants.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Alfonso G; Anderson, John N

    2007-08-17

    A previous report demonstrated that one site in a nucleosome assembled onto a synthetic positioning sequence known as Fragment 67 is hypersensitive to permanganate. The site is required for positioning activity and is located 1.5 turns from the dyad, which is a region of high DNA curvature in the nucleosome. Here, the permanganate sensitivity of the nucleosome positioning Fragment 601 was examined in order to expand the dataset of nucleosome sequences containing KMnO(4) hypersensitive sites. The hyperreactive T residue in the six sites detected as well as the one in Fragment 67 and three in the 5 S rDNA positioning sequence were contained within a TA step. Seven of the ten sequences were of the form CTAGPuG or the related sequence TTAAPu. These motifs were also found in the binding sites of several transcriptional regulatory proteins that kink DNA. In order to assess the significance of these sites, the 10 bp positioning determinant in Fragment 67 was removed and replaced by the nine sequences from the 5 S rDNA and Fragment 601. The results demonstrated that these derivative fragments promoted high nucleosome stability and positioning as compared to a control sequence that contained an AT step in place of the TA step. The importance of the TA step was further tested by making single base-pair substitutions in Fragment 67 and the results revealed that stability and positioning activity followed the order: TA>TG>TT>/=TC approximately GG approximately GA approximately AT. Sequences flanking the TA step were also shown to be critical for nucleosome stability and positioning. Nucleosome positioning was restored to near wild-type levels with (CTG)(3), which can form slipped stranded structures and with one base bulges that kink DNA. The results of this study suggest that local DNA structures are important for positioning and that single base-pair changes at these sites could have profound effects on those genomic functions that depend on ordered nucleosomes. PMID

  14. Local positioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kyker, R.

    1995-07-25

    Navigation systems have been vital to transportation ever since man took to the air and sea. Early navigation systems utilized the sextant to navigate by starlight as well as the magnetic needle compass. As electronics and communication technologies improved, inertial navigation systems were developed for use in ships and missile delivery. These systems consisted of electronic compasses, gyro-compasses, accelerometers, and various other sensors. Recently, systems such as LORAN and the Global Positioning System (GPS) have utilized the properties of radio wave propagation to triangulate position. The Local Positioning System (LPS), described in this paper, is an implementation of a limited inertial navigation system designed to be used on a bicycle. LPS displays a cyclist`s current position relative to a starting location. This information is displayed in Cartesian-like coordinates. To accomplish this, LPS relies upon two sensors, an electronic compass sensor and a distance sensor. The compass sensor provides directional information while the distance sensor provides the distance traveled. This information yields a distance vector for each point in time which when summed produces the cyclist`s current position. LPS is microprocessor controlled and is designed for a range of less than 90 miles.

  15. Beyond Positive Psychology?

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2014-01-01

    The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes—forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness—can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative. PMID:21787036

  16. Taking a Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    "TerrAvoid" and "Position Integrity" combine Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) data with high-resolution maps of the Earth's topography. Dubbs & Severino, Inc., based in Irvine, California, has developed software that allows the system to be run on a battery-powered laptop in the cockpit. The packages, designed primarily for military sponsors and now positioned to hit the consumer market in coming months, came about as the result of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Technology Affiliates Program. Intended to give American industry assistance from NASA experts and to facilitate business use of intellectual property developed for the space program, the Technology Affiliates Program introduced the start-up company of Dubbs & Severino to JPL's Dr. Nevin Bryant four years ago. GeoTIFF is now in the public domain, and its use for commercial product development has evolved into an industry standard over the last year.

  17. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine.

  18. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, P.F.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine. 9 figs.

  19. Uncharged positive electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1977-03-08

    An uncharged positive-electrode composition contains particulate lithium sulfide, another alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound other than sulfide, e.g., lithium carbide, and a transition metal powder. The composition along with a binder, such as electrolytic salt or a thermosetting resin is applied onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within an electrochemical cell opposite to a negative electrode containing a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium. During charging, lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode. Excess negative electrode capacity over that from the transition metal sulfide is provided due to the electrochemical reaction of the other than sulfide alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound.

  20. Nucleosome Positioning and Epigenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, David; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2008-03-01

    The role of chromatin structure in gene regulation has recently taken center stage in the field of epigenetics, phenomena that change the phenotype without changing the DNA sequence. Recent work has also shown that nucleosomes, a complex of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer, experience a sequence dependent energy landscape due to the variation in DNA bend stiffness with sequence composition. In this talk, we consider the role nucleosome positioning might play in the formation of heterochromatin, a compact form of DNA generically responsible for gene silencing. In particular, we discuss how different patterns of nucleosome positions, periodic or random, could either facilitate or suppress heterochromatin stability and formation.

  1. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedell, M. V.

    1980-01-01

    Positive-isolation-disconnect (PID) device with two mating halves prevents leakage or spillover when two fluid lines are disconnected. Each half has shutoff poppet to stop fluid flow. When flow is shut, poppets are flush against each other, leaving no space for fluid to remain it.

  2. Positive Discipline. (Revised Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelsen, Jane

    Understanding why children do not behave the way they used to, and why both controlling and overly-permissive discipline styles are ineffective, is the first step for parents and teachers who are facing child-discipline problems. This book describes a program of positive discipline principles aimed at assisting parents and teachers in…

  3. Nursing Research: Position Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, Laurel; And Others

    The role of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) in encouraging research through the programs and activities of the member schools is discussed. It is suggested that the dean or administrative head of a college of nursing is in a position to influence nursing research activities. The principal role of the academic dean in…

  4. Positive: HIV Affirmative Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kain, Craig D.

    At the end of the 1980s, counselors largely lacked an integrated approach to counseling people living with HIV disease. This book describes the experience of counseling this group of persons. The major premise here is that counselors who counsel HIV-positive clients must come to understand and affirm their clients' experiences. The text defines a…

  5. Creating Positive Task Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mally, Kristi K.

    2006-01-01

    Constraints are characteristics of the individual, the task, or the environment that mold and shape movement choices and performances. Constraints can be positive--encouraging proficient movements or negative--discouraging movement or promoting ineffective movements. Physical educators must analyze, evaluate, and determine the effect various…

  6. Position feedback control system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    Disclosed is a system and method for independently evaluating the spatial positional performance of a machine having a movable member, comprising an articulated coordinate measuring machine comprising: a first revolute joint; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the first joint, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto, wherein the probe tip is pivotally mounted to the movable machine member; a second revolute joint; a first support arm serially connecting the first joint to the second joint; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the first and second revolute joints, for calculating the spatial coordinates of the probe tip; means for kinematically constraining the articulated coordinate measuring machine to a working surface; and comparator means, in operative association with the coordinate processing means and with the movable machine, for comparing the true position of the movable machine member, as measured by the true position of the probe tip, with the desired position of the movable machine member.

  7. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Han

    2010-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is characterized by brief recurrent episodes of vertigo triggered by changes in head position. BPPV is the most common etiology of recurrent vertigo and is caused by abnormal stimulation of the cupula by free-floating otoliths (canalolithiasis) or otoliths that have adhered to the cupula (cupulolithiasis) within any of the three semicircular canals. Typical symptoms and signs of BPPV are evoked when the head is positioned so that the plane of the affected semicircular canal is spatially vertical and thus aligned with gravity. Paroxysm of vertigo and nystagmus develops after a brief latency during the Dix-Hallpike maneuver in posterior-canal BPPV, and during the supine roll test in horizontal-canal BPPV. Positioning the head in the opposite direction usually reverses the direction of the nystagmus. The duration, frequency, and symptom intensity of BPPV vary depending on the involved canals and the location of otolithic debris. Spontaneous recovery may be expected even with conservative treatments. However, canalithrepositioning maneuvers usually provide an immediate resolution of symptoms by clearing the canaliths from the semicircular canal into the vestibule. PMID:20607044

  8. Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, K. Brigid; Guest, Elise M.; Horner, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Schools are complex communities that play a major role in the social fabric of culture. Effective schools provide access to both good instruction and a social culture that supports engagement, community, and success. Over the past 10 years, more than 11,000 elementary, middle level, and high schools have adopted schoolwide positive behavior…

  9. Immunizations. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobo, Nichole; Garrett, Jennifer; Teskey, Carmen; Duncan, Kay; Strasser, Kathy; Burrows-Mezu, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that immunizations are essential to primary prevention of disease from infancy through adulthood. Promotion of immunizations by the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is central to the public health focus of school nursing practice…

  10. A Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Richard A.

    This position paper covers possible problems of collective bargaining. (1) The two sides should not bring prejudgments of good or bad to the negotiating table. (2) Neither side should exaggerate its strength or minimize its weakness. (3) Neither side should confuse intransigence with firmness. (4) The composition of each team must be carefully…

  11. Positive reinforcement for viruses

    PubMed Central

    Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

    2010-01-01

    Summary Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al., in PNAS (St Vincent, et al., 2010), designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These Rigid Amphipathic Fusion Inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses. PMID:21035726

  12. Positive reinforcement for viruses.

    PubMed

    Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

    2010-10-29

    Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al. (2010), in PNAS, designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These rigid amphipathic fusion inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses.

  13. Review of HRP Positions

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Reliability Studies

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Human Reliability Program (HRP), published as 10 CFR Part 712, is currently being reviewed and revised to address concerns identified during its implementation. Although these ''page changes'' primarily incorporate clarification of terms and language, the following discussion relates to broadening the definition of positions that require HRP certification that is found in {section}712.10.

  14. Delegation. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board, Connie; Bushmiaer, Margo; Davis-Alldritt, Linda; Fekaris, Nina; Morgitan, Judith; Murphy, M. Kathleen; Yow, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the delegation of nursing tasks in the school setting can be a valuable tool for the school nurse, when based on the nursing definition of delegation and in compliance with state nursing regulations and guidance. Delegation in school nursing is a complex process in which…

  15. Positioning for Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapovsky, Lucie; Hubbell, Loren Loomis

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes results of the 1999 National Association of College and Business Officers tuition discounting survey and identifies trends. Finds colleges and universities are reactively responding to market pressures and proactively trying to analyze and position themselves ahead of the competition, often regional rather than national, for the…

  16. Magnetic beam position monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Ivanchenkov, S.N.; Khlebnikov, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Many nondestructive beam position monitors are known. However, these devices can not be used for DC particle beam diagnostics. We investigated a method of beam diagnostics applicable for the operative control of DC high power e-beam inside closed waveguide. A design of the detector for determination of{open_quote} center of mass {close_quote} position of DC particle beam was developed. It was shown that the monitor can be used as a nondestructive method for the beam position control in resonators. Magnetic field of the particle beam outside a resonator is used. The detector consists of the steel yokes and magnetic field sensors. The sensors measure magnetic fluxes in the steel yokes fixed outside the resonator. When the particle beam changes its position, these magnetic fluxes also change. Beam displacement sensitivity of the monitor depends on the steel yoke dimensions. The detector sensitivity is equal to 1 Gauss/mm for the conditions adequate to the FOM-FEM project.

  17. Position Sensitive Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadleir, J. E.; Hammock, C.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Stahle, C. K.; Bandler, S.; Saab, T.; Lindeman, M.; Porter, F. S.; Chervenak, J.; Brown, G.

    2004-01-01

    A Position Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensor (PoST) is a microcalorimeter device capable of one-dimensional imaging spectroscopy. The device consists of two Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) connected to the ends of a long X-ray absorbing strip. The energy of a photon hitting the absorber and the position of the absorption event along the strip is measured from the response in the two sensors by analyzing the relative signal sizes, pulse rise times, and the sum of the pulses measured at each sensor, We report on the recent PoST effort at Goddard for applications to large field of view, high-energy- resolution, X-ray astrophysics.

  18. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    A positive isolation disconnect was developed for component replacement in serviced liquid and gaseous spacecraft systems. Initially a survey of feasible concepts was made to determine the optimum method for fluid isolation, sealing techniques, coupling concepts, and foolproofing techniques. The top concepts were then further evaluated, including the fabrication of a semifunctional model. After all tradeoff analyses were made, a final configuration was designed and fabricated for development testing. This resulted in a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) line and 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) line positive isolation disconnect, each unit consisting of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique was incorporated that prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation.

  19. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedell, M. V. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A disconnect composed basically of two halves each consisting of a poppet valve operable to isolate fluid with essentially zero fluid loss is presented. The two halves are coupled together by a quickly releasable coupling which may be either a coupling ring tightened or loosened by a twisting motion, or a clamp operated by a pivoted to prevent disconnecting the two halves until both valves are in closed condition. The positive feature of the device is one requiring a valve closing step before a disconnect step, and takes structural form in an accentric lobe mounted on the valve operating stem. If some obstruction prevents the poppet from moving to its seat, the eccentric lobe cannot be rotated to the closed position, and the interlock prevents a disconnect.

  20. Size and position matter.

    PubMed

    Warren, Graham

    2013-12-01

    The 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine emphasizes the progress made in understanding the molecular mechanisms that underpin the vesicular movement of cargo through the exocytic and endocytic pathways. Attention now focuses on those mechanisms that govern the relative size and position of the many different membrane-bound compartments. These homeostatic mechanisms are discussed in this issue of Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology and must be integrated so as to satisfy the needs of the cell and the organism.

  1. Membrane position control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A membrane structure includes at least one electroactive bending actuator fixed to a supporting base. Each electroactive bending actuator is operatively connected to the membrane for controlling membrane position. Any displacement of each electroactive bending actuator effects displacement of the membrane. More specifically, the operative connection is provided by a guiding wheel assembly and a track, wherein displacement of the bending actuator effects translation of the wheel assembly along the track, thereby imparting movement to the membrane.

  2. Nuclear core positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Garkisch, Hans D.; Yant, Howard W.; Patterson, John F.

    1979-01-01

    A structural support system for the core of a nuclear reactor which achieves relatively restricted clearances at operating conditions and yet allows sufficient clearance between fuel assemblies at refueling temperatures. Axially displaced spacer pads having variable between pad spacing and a temperature compensated radial restraint system are utilized to maintain clearances between the fuel elements. The core support plates are constructed of metals specially chosen such that differential thermal expansion produces positive restraint at operating temperatures.

  3. Mapping your competitive position.

    PubMed

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G PMID:18159791

  4. Thermolysis Of Positive Photoresists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Donald W.

    1984-05-01

    Positive photoresists are currently being pushed to their limits to develop new processes for fine line lithography. Much of this processing is done in high temperature environments or with processes which generate a great deal of localized heat. Other processes use highly reactive free radical or ionic species. Further, current requirements demand that this processing be accomplished with minimal degredation of the resist image. All these requirements put increasing demands on the thermal stability of photoresist products. In view of these demands, a more complete understanding of the thermal chemistry of resist products would be of beneficial interest to those utilizing or designing these processes. This is of major importance in the development of new equipment, materials, and processes; especially where considerable heat is generated in the presence of resist materials. This paper attempts to provide a basic background to develop this understanding. It provides a description of the effects of thermal processing on positive photoresists. The paper discusses the thermal chemistry, particularly at temperatures above 100 degrees C, of the major positive photoresists used in microelectronic applications. The major emphasis is placed on common positive photoresist products containing diazo-oxide PAC and novolak resin. The paper gives a brief description of composition of the resists, and then an analysis of the thermolysis products at various temperatures. Analysis of the thermal reactions of the PAC, resin, and resist are given. The chemistry of the bulk films as well as the localized surface effects are examined. Finally, the effects of thermolysis are related to their impact on subsequent processing steps.

  5. Mapping your competitive position.

    PubMed

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G

  6. Chikungunya: acute fever, rash and debilitating arthralgias in a returning traveler from Haiti.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Kathryn B; Pureza, Vincent; Walker, Patricia F

    2014-01-01

    The following case report details a case of chikungunya fever in a returning traveler from Haiti. The report highlights the clinical presentation and natural history of the disease, and emphasizes that chikungunya has become established in the western hemisphere, with a resultant need for heightened provider awareness.

  7. Aircraft control position indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Dale V. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An aircraft control position indicator was provided that displayed the degree of deflection of the primary flight control surfaces and the manner in which the aircraft responded. The display included a vertical elevator dot/bar graph meter display for indication whether the aircraft will pitch up or down, a horizontal aileron dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will roll to the left or to the right, and a horizontal dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will turn left or right. The vertical and horizontal display or displays intersect to form an up/down, left/right type display. Internal electronic display driver means received signals from transducers measuring the control surface deflections and determined the position of the meter indicators on each dot/bar graph meter display. The device allows readability at a glance, easy visual perception in sunlight or shade, near-zero lag in displaying flight control position, and is not affected by gravitational or centrifugal forces.

  8. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  9. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, D.

    1995-02-07

    A photon beam position monitor is disclosed for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade ''shadowing''. Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation. 18 figs.

  10. Welding nozzle position manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Gutow, David A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a welding nozzle position manipulator. The manipulator consists of an angle support to which the remaining components of the device are attached either directly or indirectly. A pair of pivotal connections attach a weld nozzle holding link to the angle support and provide a two axis freedom of movement of the holding link with respect to the support angle. The manipulator is actuated by a pair of adjusting screws angularly mounted to the angle support. These screws contact a pair of tapered friction surfaces formed on the upper portion of the welding nozzle holding link. A spring positioned between the upper portions of the support angle and the holding link provides a constant bias engagement between the friction surfaces of the holding link and the adjustment screws, so as to firmly hold the link in position and to eliminate any free play in the adjustment mechanism. The angular relationships between the adjustment screws, the angle support and the tapered friction surfaces of the weld nozzle holding link provide a geometric arrangement which permits precision adjustment of the holding link with respect to the angle support and also provides a solid holding link mount which is resistant to movement from outside forces.

  11. Positional information, in bits

    PubMed Central

    Dubuis, Julien O.; Tkačik, Gašper; Wieschaus, Eric F.; Gregor, Thomas; Bialek, William

    2013-01-01

    Cells in a developing embryo have no direct way of “measuring” their physical position. Through a variety of processes, however, the expression levels of multiple genes come to be correlated with position, and these expression levels thus form a code for “positional information.” We show how to measure this information, in bits, using the gap genes in the Drosophila embryo as an example. Individual genes carry nearly two bits of information, twice as much as would be expected if the expression patterns consisted only of on/off domains separated by sharp boundaries. Taken together, four gap genes carry enough information to define a cell’s location with an error bar of along the anterior/posterior axis of the embryo. This precision is nearly enough for each cell to have a unique identity, which is the maximum information the system can use, and is nearly constant along the length of the embryo. We argue that this constancy is a signature of optimality in the transmission of information from primary morphogen inputs to the output of the gap gene network. PMID:24089448

  12. The Student Affairs Profession: A Selective Bibliography. Revised Edition. ACPA Media Publication No. 46.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belson, Beverly; Stamatakos, Louis C.

    This bibliography contains a resource guide for persons working with students in postsecondary institutions. Selections related to historical perspectives and philosophical foundations are from materials written over more than 40 years. Entries primarily concerned with programmatic planning, organization, and administration have come predominantly…

  13. The outcomes of Polish patients with advanced BRAF-positive melanoma treated with vemurafenib in a safety clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Rutkowski, Piotr; Mackiewicz, Jacek; Krzemieniecki, Krzysztof; Nawrocki, Sergiusz; Wasilewska-Teśluk, Ewa; Kwinta, Łukasz; Wysocki, Piotr; Koseła-Paterczyk, Hanna; Świtaj, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Aim of the study The BRAF inhibitor vemurafenib has improved progression-free survival and overall survival in patients with BRAFV600-mutation-positive metastatic melanoma. Here we present the results of an open-label safety study with vemurafenib in patients with metastatic melanoma enrolled in Polish oncological centres. Material and methods Patients with untreated or previously treated Stage IIIC/IV BRAFV600 mutation-positive melanoma were treated with oral vemurafenib in an initial dose of 960 mg twice daily. Assessments for safety and efficacy were made every 28 days. For the survival analysis the Kaplan-Meier estimator was used with the log-rank tests for bivariate comparisons. Results In total, 75 Polish patients were enrolled in the safety study across four centres. At data cut-off, 28 patients died (37%), mainly (26) due to disease progression; 33 (44%) patients continued vemurafenib after disease progression. The objective response rate was 46%, including two patients with a complete response and 29 with a partial response. Median progression-free survival was 7.4 months. The one-year overall survival rate was 61.9% (median overall survival was not reached). Seventy-three (97.3%) patients reported adverse events (AEs), and grade 3–5 toxicity was reported in 49.4% (37) patients. The most common AEs were: skin lesions (including rash and photosensitivity), arthralgia, and fatigue. Conclusions The overall safety profile and response rate of vemurafenib were comparable to those reported in previous studies of this drug. Our study confirmed the value of well-established prognostic features for overall survival, such as initial LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) level and AJCC staging. PMID:26557775

  14. Position statement on cannabis.

    PubMed

    Stein For The Executive Committee Of The Central Drug Authority, Dan Joseph

    2016-05-16

    There is an ongoing national debate around cannabis policy. This brief position statement by the Executive Committee of the Central Drug Authorityoutlines some of the factors that have contributed to this debate, delineates reduction strategies, summarises the harms and benefits ofmarijuana, and provides recommendations. These recommendations emphasise an integrated and evidence-based approach, the need forresources to implement harm reduction strategies against continued and chronic use of alcohol and cannabis, and the potential value of afocus on decriminalisation rather than the legalisation of cannabis.

  15. Position from gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Procedures for obtaining position from surface gravity observations are reviewed and their relevance assessed in the context of the application of modern geodetic techniques to programs of Earth and ocean physics. Solutions based on the use of surface layer techniques, the discrete value approach, and the development from Green's theorem are stated in summary, the latter being extended to order e cubed in the height anomaly. The representation of the surface gravity field which is required in order that this accuracy may be achieved is discussed. Interim techniques which could be used in the absence of such a representation are also outlined.

  16. Deep Space Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Andrew T. (Inventor); Riedel, Joseph E. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A single, compact, lower power deep space positioning system (DPS) configured to determine a location of a spacecraft anywhere in the solar system, and provide state information relative to Earth, Sun, or any remote object. For example, the DPS includes a first camera and, possibly, a second camera configured to capture a plurality of navigation images to determine a state of a spacecraft in a solar system. The second camera is located behind, or adjacent to, a secondary reflector of a first camera in a body of a telescope.

  17. Global Positioning Satellite Recorder

    1997-11-10

    The GPS Tracker is a device (automotive unit) that records position (latitude and longitude), date, and time autonomously with time. The data from the GPS Tracker can be used offline with a personal computer and map data base to plot the track of where a vehicle or other mobile battery powered object has been. The invention simplifies field operations for recording location autonomously by obviating the need to execute a set of detailed instructions priormore » to operation. The vehicle combines GPS technology and a cpu with custom software to accomplish the task.« less

  18. A cutaneous positioning system.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bernard J; Lee, Beom-Chan; Sienko, Kathleen H

    2015-04-01

    Our previous work revealed that torso cutaneous information contributes to the internal representation of the torso and plays a role in postural control. Hence, the aims of this study were to assess whether posture could be manipulated by patterns of vibrotactile stimulation and to determine whether resulting modified postures were associated with specific and consistent spatial attitudes. Ten healthy young adults stood in normal and Romberg stances with six vibrating actuators positioned on the torso in contact with the skin over the anatomical locations corresponding to left and right external oblique, internal oblique and erector spinae muscles at the L4/L5 vertebrae level. A 250-Hz tactile vibration was applied for 5 s either at a single location or consecutively at each location in clockwise or counterclockwise sequences. Kinematic analysis of the body segments indicated that postural responses observed in response to single and sequential stimulation patterns were similar, while the center of pressure remained unaltered in any situations. Moreover, torso inclinations followed rectilinear-like path segments chartered by stimuli loci during sequential stimulations. Comparison of torso attitudes with previous results obtained with co-vibration patterns of the same duration showed that torso inclination amplitudes are equivalent for single (one location) and co-vibration (pairs of locations) patterns inducing the same directional effect. Hence, torso cutaneous information exhibits kinesthetic properties, appears to provide a map of upper body spatial configuration, and could assume the role of an internal positioning system for the upper body. PMID:25600816

  19. Positional Information, in bits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubuis, Julien; Bialek, William; Wieschaus, Eric; Gregor, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Pattern formation in early embryonic development provides an important testing ground for ideas about the structure and dynamics of genetic regulatory networks. Spatial variations in the concentration of particular transcription factors act as ``morphogens,'' driving more complex patterns of gene expression that in turn define cell fates, which must be appropriate to the physical location of the cells in the embryo. Thus, in these networks, the regulation of gene expression serves to transmit and process ``positional information.'' Here, using the early Drosophila embryo as a model system, we measure the amount of positional information carried by a group of four genes (the gap genes Hunchback, Kr"uppel, Giant and Knirps) that respond directly to the primary maternal morphogen gradients. We find that the information carried by individual gap genes is much larger than one bit, so that their spatial patterns provide much more than the location of an ``expression boundary.'' Preliminary data indicate that, taken together these genes provide enough information to specify the location of every row of cells along the embryo's anterior-posterior axis.

  20. Government Positions for Physicists.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, David

    2006-03-01

    There are a number of government agencies that employ physicists in a wide variety of jobs -- from student internships to post docs to full time staff positions. You can do real, creative, fore-front physics or pursue a wide range of leadership positions. The possibilities are almost unlimited and so is the impact your work can have on the government, academia, and industry. So how do you go about finding a government job? What qualities or abilities are deemed valuable? What are the advantages and disadvantages to working in the government? I will bring some personal experiences and observations from working in the government (one year as a rotator at the National Science Foundation in the Division of Materials Research and almost 18 years at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, both as a Group Leader and a Division Chief) to bear on these questions and more. Prior to my government career I was a physics professor pursuing research and teaching in academia.

  1. Positioning of bacterial chemoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher W; Armitage, Judith P

    2015-05-01

    For optimum growth, bacteria must adapt to their environment, and one way that many species do this is by moving towards favourable conditions. To do so requires mechanisms to both physically drive movement and provide directionality to this movement. The pathways that control this directionality comprise chemoreceptors, which, along with an adaptor protein (CheW) and kinase (CheA), form large hexagonal arrays. These arrays can be formed around transmembrane receptors, resulting in arrays embedded in the inner membrane, or they can comprise soluble receptors, forming arrays in the cytoplasm. Across bacterial species, chemoreceptor arrays (both transmembrane and soluble) are localised to a variety of positions within the cell; some species with multiple arrays demonstrate this variety within individual cells. In many cases, the positioning pattern of the arrays is linked to the need for segregation of arrays between daughter cells on division, ensuring the production of chemotactically competent progeny. Multiple mechanisms have evolved to drive this segregation, including stochastic self-assembly, cellular landmarks, and the utilisation of ParA homologues. The variety of mechanisms highlights the importance of chemotaxis to motile species.

  2. Thermal motor positions magnetometer sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerwin, W. J.; Scott, S. G.

    1966-01-01

    Reversing, thermal, motor-driven device positions magnetometer sensors for checking zero offset. The device alternately positions two sensors at fixed positions 90 degrees apart. The thermal motor is fabricated completely of nonmagnetic materials.

  3. Metallic positive expulsion diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleich, D.

    1972-01-01

    High-cycle life ring-reinforced hemispherical type positive expulsion diaphragm performance was demonstrated by room temperature fluid expulsion tests of 13" diameter, 8 mil thick stainless steel configurations. A maximum of eleven (11) leak-free, fluid expulsions were achieved by a 25 deg cone angle diaphragm hoop-reinforced with .110-inch cross-sectional diameter wires. This represents a 70% improvement in diaphragm reversal cycle life compared to results previously obtained. The reversal tests confirmed analytic predictions for diaphragm cycle life increases due to increasing values of diaphragm cone angle, radius to thickness ratio and material strain to necking capacity. Practical fabrication techniques were demonstrated for forming close-tolerance, thin corrugated shells and for obtaining closely controlled reinforcing ring stiffness required to maximize diaphragm cycle life. A non-destructive inspection technique for monitoring large local shell bending strains was developed.

  4. Solar system positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

    2006-01-01

    Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

  5. Inductive Position Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Simmons, Stephen M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An inductive position sensor uses three parallel inductors, each of which has an axial core that is an independent magnetic structure. A first support couples first and second inductors and separate them by a fixed distance. A second support coupled to a third inductor disposed between the first and second inductors. The first support and second support are configured for relative movement as distance changes from the third inductor to each of the first and second inductors. An oscillating current is supplied to the first and second inductors. A device measures a phase component of a source voltage generating the oscillating current and a phase component of voltage induced in the third inductor when the oscillating current is supplied to the first and second inductors such that the phase component of the voltage induced overlaps the phase component of the source voltage.

  6. Inductive Position Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Simmons, Stephen M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An inductive position sensor uses three independent inductors inductively coupled by a common medium such as air. First and second inductors are separated by a fixed distance with the first inductor's axial core and second inductor's axial core maintained parallel to one another. A third inductor is disposed between the first and second inductors with the third inductor's axial core being maintained parallel to those of the first and second inductors. The combination of the first and second inductors are configured for relative movement with the third inductor's axial core remaining parallel to those of the first and second inductors as distance changes from the third inductor to each of the first inductor and second inductor. An oscillating current can be supplied to at least one of the three inductors, while voltage induced in at least one of the three inductors not supplied with the oscillating current is measured.

  7. Shaft Position Optical Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Hakum, Claef F. (Inventor); Johnson, Clarence S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an optical sensor that senses the movement of a shaft. Detection of radial movement is made when a portion of light incident on the shaft sensor-target is blocked. For detection of axial movement, a disk with flat surface is mounted and used to block a portion of light. The variation in the amount of light allowed to pass through is a measure of the position of the shaft. As proposed by this invention, significant improvement is made with respect to sensitivity and linearity of the system when the light is permanently partially blocked. To accomplish this goal this invention adds a boss to the system. To eliminate possible drift of system performance due to LED degradation or temperature variation, a feedback feature is added to the system.

  8. The Global Positioning System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a constellation of navigation satellites called Navigation Satellite Timing And Ranging (NAVSTAR), maintained by the U.S. Department of Defense. Many outdoor enthusiasts recognize that a handheld GPS receiver can be an accurate tool for determining their location on the terrain. The GPS receiver helps determine locations on the Earth's surface by collecting signals from three or more satellites through a process called triangulation. Identifying a location on the Earth is more useful if you also know about the surrounding topographic conditions. Using a topographic map with the GPS receiver provides important information about features of the surrounding terrain and can help you plot an effective route from one location to another.

  9. A POSITIONAL DATA SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Forster, G.A.

    1963-09-24

    between master and slave synchros is described. A threephase a-c power source is connected to the stators of the synchros and an error detector is connected to the rotors of the synchros to measure the phasor difference therebetween. A phase shift network shifts the phase of one of the rotors 90 degrees and a demodulator responsive thereto causes the phasor difference signal of the rotors to shift phase 180 degrees whenever the 90 degree phase shifted signal goes negative. The phase shifted difference signal has a waveform which, with the addition of small values of resistance and capacitance, gives a substantially pure d-c output whose amplitude and polarity is proportional to the magnitude and direction of the difference in the angular positions of the synchro's rotors. (AEC)

  10. Beyond complete positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominy, Jason M.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2016-04-01

    We provide a general and consistent formulation for linear subsystem quantum dynamical maps, developed from a minimal set of postulates, primary among which is a relaxation of the usual, restrictive assumption of uncorrelated initial system-bath states. We describe the space of possibilities admitted by this formulation, namely that, far from being limited to only completely positive (CP) maps, essentially any C-linear, Hermiticity-preserving, trace-preserving map can arise as a legitimate subsystem dynamical map from a joint unitary evolution of a system coupled to a bath. The price paid for this added generality is a trade-off between the set of admissible initial states and the allowed set of joint system-bath unitary evolutions. As an application, we present a simple example of a non-CP map constructed as a subsystem dynamical map that violates some fundamental inequalities in quantum information theory, such as the quantum data processing inequality.

  11. Positive Pressure Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Sanders, Mark H.; Montserrat, Josep M.; Farré, Ramon; Givelber, Rachel J.

    2008-01-01

    The sleep medicine community has increasingly recognized the necessity that clinical care be based on high-quality levels of evidence. Although research supports a favorable influence of positive airway pressure (PAP) therapy on risk for significant adverse outcomes in patients with severe obstructive sleep apnea–hypopnea (OSAH), well-designed trials are still required to elucidate the effect of PAP on health, quality of life, and economic risks in patients with milder OSAH. Similarly, although there is strong evidence supporting various PAP titration strategies and PAP modalities in patients with severe OSAH without significant medical and psychiatric comorbidities, there is insufficient high-level evidence assessing and comparing the clinical efficacy and health care cost implications of various titration paradigms and various PAP modalities in individuals with milder OSAH and those with comorbid conditions. For ethical and other reasons, it may not be possible to apply a randomized controlled design to address all questions. However, whichever design is employed, it must be rigorously developed with attention to all potential confounders with adequate power to provide compelling, high-quality evidence. PMID:18250208

  12. Position detectors, methods of detecting position, and methods of providing positional detectors

    DOEpatents

    Weinberg, David M.; Harding, L. Dean; Larsen, Eric D.

    2002-01-01

    Position detectors, welding system position detectors, methods of detecting various positions, and methods of providing position detectors are described. In one embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a base that is configured to engage and be moved along a curved surface of a welding work piece. At least one position detection apparatus is provided and is connected with the base and configured to measure angular position of the detector relative to a reference vector. In another embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a weld head and at least one inclinometer mounted on the weld head. The one inclinometer is configured to develop positional data relative to a reference vector and the position of the weld head on a non-planar weldable work piece.

  13. Positive Psychology and Positive Education: Old Wine in New Bottles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    The recently fashionable theories of positive psychology have educational ramifications at virtually every level of engagement, culminating in the model of positive education. In this critical review, I scrutinize positive education as a potential theory in educational psychology. Special attention is given to conceptual controversies and…

  14. Videofluoroscopic Investigation of Body Position on Articulatory Positioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Youkyung; Perry, Jamie L.; Kuehn, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively examine the effects of body position on the positioning of the epiglottis, tongue, and velum at rest and during speech. Method: Videofluoroscopic data were obtained from 12 healthy adults in the supine and upright positions at rest and during speech while the participants produced 12 VCV sequences. The effects of body…

  15. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  16. Positional nystagmus showing neutral points.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Numata, Tsutomu

    2004-01-01

    We encountered patients who had their static direction-changing positional nystagmus canceled at about 20-30 degrees yaw head rotation from the supine position. This nystagmus was also canceled when the head was rotated 180 degrees from this position. We call these head positions neutral points. At the neutral points, the cupula of the horizontal semicircular canal of the affected ear is positioned vertical to the gravitational plane and no deflection of the cupula occurs. The positional nystagmus observed (except the neutral points) was thought to occur due to a "heavy cupula" or "light cupula", which may be determined by the specific gravity of its endolymph.

  17. Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. A new method is proposed that utilizes analytical redundancy to allow for continued operation during joint position sensor failure. Joint torque sensors are used with a virtual passive torque controller to make the robot joint stable without position feedback and improve position tracking performance in the presence of unknown link dynamics and end-effector loading. Two Cartesian accelerometer based methods are proposed to determine the position of the joint. The joint specific position determination method utilizes two triaxial accelerometers attached to the link driven by the joint with the failed position sensor. The joint specific method is not computationally complex and the position error is bounded. The system wide position determination method utilizes accelerometers distributed on different robot links and the end-effector to determine the position of sets of multiple joints. The system wide method requires fewer accelerometers than the joint specific method to make all joint position sensors fault tolerant but is more computationally complex and has lower convergence properties. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory manipulator. Both position determination methods were shown to track the actual position satisfactorily. A controller using the position determination methods and the virtual passive torque controller was able to servo the joints to a desired position during position sensor failure.

  18. Translation and rotation positioning motor

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Andreas; Schaff, Oliver

    2005-02-01

    A positioning device provides the capability of moving an object in both a linear and a rotational direction. The positioning device includes a first piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device further includes a second piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device also includes a first bearing that is disposed against the first piezo stack. The positioning device further includes a second bearing that is disposed against the second piezo stack. The positioning device also includes a spring element and a fifth bearing that is disposed against the spring element. The first through fifth bearings are disposed around and against the object to be positioned, to provide for positioning of the object in at least one of a linear direction and a rotational direction.

  19. Translation and rotation positioning motor

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Andreas; Schaff, Oliver

    2006-07-04

    A positioning device provides the capability of moving an object in both a linear and a rotational direction. The positioning device includes a first piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device further includes a second piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device also includes a first bearing that is disposed against the first piezo stack. The positioning device further includes a second bearing that is disposed against the second piezo stack. The positioning device also includes a spring element and a fifth bearing that is disposed against the spring element. The first through fifth bearings are disposed around and against the object to be positioned, to provide for positioning of the object in at least one of a linear direction and a rotational direction.

  20. Components of Positive Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Logan

    1971-01-01

    Thirty items designed to measure behavior in the six areas described by Jahoda as comprising positive mental health were administered. The data contraindicate the hypothesis that positive mental health is a unitary factor. (Author)

  1. Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

  2. The Kepler False Positive Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kepler False Positive Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Space Telescope has detected thousands of candidate exoplanets by observing transit signals in a sample of more than 190,000 stars. Many of these transit signals are false positives, defined as a transit-like signal that is not due to a planet orbiting the target star (or a bound companion if the target is a multiple-star system). Astrophysical causes of false positives include background eclipsing binaries, planetary transits not associated with the target star, and non-planetary eclipses of the target star by stellar companions. The fraction of Kepler planet candidates that are false positives ranges from about 10% at high Galactic latitudes to 40% at low Galactic latitudes. Creating a high-reliability planet candidate catalog for statistical studies such as occurrence rate calculations requires removing clearly identified false positives.The Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive flags false positives, and will soon provide a high-level classification of false positives, but lacks detailed description of why a KOI was determined to be a false positive. The Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) examines each false positive in detail to certify that it is correctly identified as a false positive, and determines the primary reason(s) a KOI is classified as a false positive. The work of the FPWG will be published as the Kepler False Positive Table, hosted at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive.The Kepler False Positive Table provides detailed information on the evidence for background binaries, transits caused by stellar companions, and false alarms. In addition to providing insight into the Kepler false positive population, the false positive table gives information about the background binary population and other areas of astrophysical interest. Because a planet around a star not associated with the target star is considered a false positive, the false positive table likely contains further planet candidates

  3. What Good Are Positive Emotions?

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual’s momentary thought–action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual’s physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed. PMID:21850154

  4. Geodetic positioning using a global positioning system of satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fell, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    Geodetic positioning using range, integrated Doppler, and interferometric observations from a constellation of twenty-four Global Positioning System satellites is analyzed. A summary of the proposals for geodetic positioning and baseline determination is given which includes a description of measurement techniques and comments on rank deficiency and error sources. An analysis of variance comparison of range, Doppler, and interferometric time delay to determine their relative geometric strength for baseline determination is included. An analytic examination to the effect of a priori constraints on positioning using simultaneous observations from two stations is presented. Dynamic point positioning and baseline determination using range and Doppler is examined in detail. Models for the error sources influencing dynamic positioning are developed. Included is a discussion of atomic clock stability, and range and Doppler observation error statistics based on random correlated atomic clock error are derived.

  5. Steady potential correlates of positive reinforcement: reward contingent positive variation.

    PubMed

    Marczynski, T J; York, J L; Hackett, J T

    1969-01-17

    A positive reinforcement with food produced high-voltage bursts of alpha activity over the posterior marginal gyrus in a cat deprived of food and water. This synchronization was always associated with a large (180 to 300 microvolt), positive steady potential shift comparable to that occurring during the onset of sleep. Since this shift was contingent upon the relative appropriateness and desirability of food reward, it was termed reward contingent positive variation.

  6. Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research. PMID:26624282

  7. Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window.

    PubMed

    Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research.

  8. Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window.

    PubMed

    Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research. PMID:26624282

  9. Accentuate the Positive: Positive Sentiments and Status in Task Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bianchi, Alison J.; Lancianese, Donna A.

    2007-01-01

    We explore the capacity of positive sentiments, those enduring affective states one achieves when one likes another, to impact status structures. Do positive sentiments combine with existing aspects of interaction to create status hierarchies and potentially change the social order, or do they moderate the effects of extant structure by dampening…

  10. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and head position during sleep.

    PubMed

    Shigeno, Kohichiro; Ogita, Hideaki; Funabiki, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether any particular head positions during sleep are associated with BPPV, head position during sleep was monitored for 3 days in 50 BPPV patients after the disappearance of positional nystagmus and in 25 normal control subjects. A gravity sensor was attached to the center of the subject's forehead at home. The positional angle of the head was measured at 5-second intervals during sleep. In BPPV, the posterior semicircular canal was involved in 40 patients and the lateral semicircular canal in 10 patients. Recurrence was found in 22 of 50 BPPV patients. BPPV patients with recurrence were significantly more likely to sleep in the affected-ear-down 45-degree head position than were patients with no history of recurrence (P< 0.02). When the head is in the affected-ear-down 45-degree head position, the non-ampullated half of the posterior semicircular canal and the non-ampullated half of the lateral semicircular canal are nearly in the earth-vertical position, making it easier for detached otoconia to fall into the posterior or lateral semicircular canal and to agglomerate and attain a certain size in the lowest portion of each semicircular canal. Our findings showed that the affected-ear-down 45-degree head position during sleep could be an etiological factor of BPPV, more particularly in patients with recurrent BPPV. PMID:23142834

  11. Positive mood broadens visual attention to positive stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Wadlinger, Heather A.; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to investigate the impact of positive emotions on visual attention within the context of Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build model, eye tracking was used in two studies to measure visual attentional preferences of college students (n=58, n=26) to emotional pictures. Half of each sample experienced induced positive mood immediately before viewing slides of three similarly-valenced images, in varying central-peripheral arrays. Attentional breadth was determined by measuring the percentage viewing time to peripheral images as well as by the number of visual saccades participants made per slide. Consistent with Fredrickson's theory, the first study showed that individuals induced into positive mood fixated more on peripheral stimuli than did control participants; however, this only held true for highly-valenced positive stimuli. Participants under induced positive mood also made more frequent saccades for slides of neutral and positive valence. A second study showed that these effects were not simply due to differences in emotional arousal between stimuli. Selective attentional broadening to positive stimuli may act both to facilitate later building of resources as well as to maintain current positive affective states. PMID:20431711

  12. Positive fractional linear electrical circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczorek, Tadeusz

    2013-10-01

    The positive fractional linear systems and electrical circuits are addressed. New classes of fractional asymptotically stable and unstable electrical circuits are introduced. The Caputo and Riemann-Liouville definitions of fractional derivatives are used to analysis of the positive electrical circuits composed of resistors, capacitors, coils and voltage (current) sources. The positive fractional electrical and specially unstable different types electrical circuits are analyzed. Some open problems are formulated.

  13. Indoor Positioning - An Ad-Hoc Positioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mautz, Rainer

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the development of an automatic, low-cost system that exploits current or near future wireless communications technology to enable continuous tracking of the location of devices in all environments. The development of such a wireless sensor network involves system design, digital signal processing, protocol development, extraction of ranges and localisation. This paper focuses on the user requirements, system architecture and network positioning. The user requirements are presented with a focus on applications in geodesy. A high level strategy for the positioning function is presented based on an ad-hoc geodetic network positioning method including issues of accuracy, quality and reliability of the node positions. Results show that it is possible to achieve a position deviation that is of the size of the ranging error.

  14. Poncet's disease with high titers of rheumatoid factor and anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies mimicking rheumatoid arthritis.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Hirokazu; Inagaki, Masako; Shioda, Mikio; Nagasaka, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Reactive arthritis accompanying tuberculosis (TB), also known as Poncet's disease, is a rare condition. In the present report, we describe the case of a patient with Poncet's disease, who presented with high titers of rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies (ACPA), which mimicked rheumatoid arthritis (RA). A 69-year-old man with a childhood history of chronic left gonitis suffered from right knee arthritis for 3 years. Chronic monoarthritis in his right knee and positive results obtained on interferon-gamma release assay were suggestive of tuberculous arthritis. However, there was no evidence of TB infection. Moreover, the high titers of RF and ACPA suggested a diagnosis of RA. Surprisingly, the culture of a small sample from his bony ankylosed left knee that had no focal signs of infection, exhibited a positive result for TB infection. Thus, based on these findings, the patient was diagnosed with Poncet's disease. His symptoms improved after initiation of anti-TB therapy, which supported the accuracy of the diagnosis. In addition, we analyzed the characteristics of Poncet's disease by conducting a literature review, and identified that the presence of extra-articular manifestation and negative results for RF and ACPA tests were the features that facilitated distinguishing between typical Poncet's disease and RA; however, since tuberculous patients occasionally exhibit positive results for ACPA tests, the differential diagnosis is essential in ACPA-positive arthritic patients.

  15. Positive technology: using interactive technologies to promote positive functioning.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    It is generally assumed that technology assists individuals in improving the quality of their lives. However, the impact of new technologies and media on well-being and positive functioning is still somewhat controversial. In this paper, we contend that the quality of experience should become the guiding principle in the design and development of new technologies, as well as a primary metric for the evaluation of their applications. The emerging discipline of Positive Psychology provides a useful framework to address this challenge. Positive Psychology is the scientific study of optimal human functioning and flourishing. Instead of drawing on a "disease model" of human behavior, it focuses on factors that enable individuals and communities to thrive and build the best in life. In this paper, we propose the "Positive Technology" approach--the scientific and applied approach to the use of technology for improving the quality of our personal experience through its structuring, augmentation, and/or replacement--as a way of framing a suitable object of study in the field of cyberpsychology and human-computer interaction. Specifically, we suggest that it is possible to use technology to influence three specific features of our experience--affective quality, engagement/actualization, and connectedness--that serve to promote adaptive behaviors and positive functioning. In this framework, positive technologies are classified according to their effects on a specific feature of personal experience. Moreover, for each level, we have identified critical variables that can be manipulated to guide the design and development of positive technologies.

  16. Neutral position of persistent direction-changing positional nystagmus.

    PubMed

    Ichijo, Hiroaki

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study was to measure the neutral position of direction-changing apogeotropic positional nystagmus (heavy cupula of the horizontal semicircular canal) and persistent direction-changing geotropic positional nystagmus (light cupula of the horizontal semicircular canal). We conducted a prospective case series study on 31 patients with heavy cupula (12 males, 19 females; mean age, 64.3 years) and 33 patients with light cupula (10 males, 23 females; mean age, 60.9 years). We measured the angle of the neutral position in patients with heavy cupula (θ 1) and that in patients with light cupula (θ 2) using a large protractor. The mean value and standard deviation of θ 1 was 31.6 ± 22.4°, minimum value was 5°, and maximum value was 89°. The mean value and standard deviation of θ 2 was 44.4 ± 20.5°, minimum value was 5°, and maximum value was 85°. θ 2 was significantly greater than θ 1 (p < 0.05). The neutral position varies widely. Some patients exhibit a great angle (more than 40°); therefore, examiners should make patients adopt a completely lateral position in the supine head roll test and should confirm the direction of nystagmus in order to avoid mistaking positional nystagmus for spontaneous nystagmus.

  17. A New Positioning Algorithm for Position-Sensitive Avalanche Photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Olcott, Peter D; Levin, Craig S

    2007-06-01

    We are using a novel position sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) for the construction of a high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) camera. Up to now most researchers working with PSAPDs have been using an Anger-like positioning algorithm involving the four corner readout signals of the PSAPD. This algorithm yields a significant non-linear spatial "pin-cushion" distortion in raw crystal positioning histograms. In this paper, we report an improved positioning algorithm, which combines two diagonal corner signals of the PSAPD followed by a 45° rotation to determine the X or Y position of the interaction. We present flood positioning histogram data generated with the old and new positioning algorithms using a 3 × 4 array of 2 × 2 × 3 mm(3) and a 3 × 8 array of 1 × 1 × 3 mm(3) of LSO crystals coupled to 8 × 8 mm(2) PSAPDs. This new algorithm significantly reduces the pin-cushion distortion in raw flood histogram image. PMID:24307743

  18. Positioning Fixture For Survey Antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinardo, Steven J.; Smith, Mark A.

    1994-01-01

    Improved positioning fixture designed to simplify and accelerate accurate alignment of antenna for use in land survey aided by satellites of Global Positioning System. Holds antenna at fixed height and orientation over station monument so survey measurements made with accuracy and precision.

  19. Positioning Vise for Crystal Cleavage

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallberg, F. C.; Morgan, C. J.

    1984-01-01

    Vise manipulates brittle crystals, such as lithium fluoride, so they are in proper position for cleaving. Vise allows crystals as thin as 2 millimeters or less positioned so that cleaved without breakage. Vise holds workpiece firmly but gently. Bushings, shafts and adjusting screw designed to move jaws smoothly and uniformly with great tactile sensitivity.

  20. Positive Parenting and Challenging Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Positive parenting focuses on developing proactive ways to teach and reinforce desirable behaviors, as opposed to focusing on reacting to and attempting to decrease negative behaviors. Dr. Sheldon Braaten, Executive Director of Behavioral Institute for Children and Adolescents, offers some keys for setting up and using a positive reinforcement…

  1. Positive reinforcement in clinical teaching.

    PubMed

    Gallagher, L M

    1992-01-01

    Contrary to the idea that nursing students are intrinsically motivated, findings in research studies show that students repeatedly report the significance of positive feedback to them. Delivery of positive reinforcement by clinical instructors can be developed so that the reinforcement is more meaningful to students and more effective in promoting or maintaining desired student behaviors.

  2. Acoustic positioning and orientation prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Aveni, Glenn; Putterman, Seth; Rudnick, Joseph

    1990-10-01

    A method is described for use with an acoustic positioner, which enables a determination of the equilibrium position and orientation which an object assumes in a zero gravity environment, as well as restoring forces and torques of an object in an acoustic standing wave field. An acoustic standing wave field is established in the chamber, and the object is held at several different positions near the expected equilibrium position. While the object is held at each position, the center resonant frequency of the chamber is determined, by noting which frequency results in the greatest pressure of the acoustic field. The object position which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium position. The orientation of a nonspherical object is similarly determined, by holding the object in a plurality of different orientations at its equilibrium position, and noting the center resonant frequency for each orientation. The orientation which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium orientation. Where the acoustic frequency is constant, but the chamber length is variable, the equilibrium position or orientation is that which results in the greatest chamber length at the center resonant frequency.

  3. Acoustic positioning and orientation prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Aveni, Glenn (Inventor); Putterman, Seth (Inventor); Rudnick, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for use with an acoustic positioner, which enables a determination of the equilibrium position and orientation which an object assumes in a zero gravity environment, as well as restoring forces and torques of an object in an acoustic standing wave field. An acoustic standing wave field is established in the chamber, and the object is held at several different positions near the expected equilibrium position. While the object is held at each position, the center resonant frequency of the chamber is determined, by noting which frequency results in the greatest pressure of the acoustic field. The object position which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium position. The orientation of a nonspherical object is similarly determined, by holding the object in a plurality of different orientations at its equilibrium position, and noting the center resonant frequency for each orientation. The orientation which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium orientation. Where the acoustic frequency is constant, but the chamber length is variable, the equilibrium position or orientation is that which results in the greatest chamber length at the center resonant frequency.

  4. Serial position encoding of signs.

    PubMed

    Miozzo, Michele; Petrova, Anna; Fischer-Baum, Simon; Peressotti, Francesca

    2016-09-01

    Reduced short-term memory (STM) capacity has been reported for sign as compared to speech when items have to be recalled in a specific order. This difference has been attributed to a more precise and efficient serial position encoding in verbal STM (used for speech) than visuo-spatial STM (used for sign). We tested in the present investigation whether the reduced STM capacity with signs stems from a lack of positional encoding available in verbal STM. Error analyses reported in prior studies have revealed that positions are defined in verbal STM by distance from both the start and the end of the sequence (both-edges positional encoding scheme). Our analyses of the errors made by deaf participants with finger-spelled letters revealed that the both-edges positional encoding scheme underlies the STM representation of signs. These results indicate that the cause of the STM disadvantage is not the type of positional encoding but rather the difficulties in binding an item in visuo-spatial STM to its specific position in the sequence. Both-edges positional encoding scheme could be specific of sign, since it has not been found in visuo-spatial STM tasks conducted with hearing participants. PMID:27244095

  5. Positive Illusion of Exemplary Altruists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jee Y.; Chung, Hae Y.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the relationship between altruism and positive illusion, as formulated by Taylor and Brown (1988). It was predicted that, compared to the non-exemplary, general population, exemplary altruists would exhibit a higher level of positive illusion, which, in turn, suggests a higher level of mental health. Forty exemplary altruists…

  6. A Blueprint for Positive Parenting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Saf Lerman

    1991-01-01

    With support and education from various sources, parents can be introduced to positive, nonhurtful, constructive approaches to child rearing that permit children to grow in an environment which nurtures the body, soul, and mind. The article presents guidelines for positive parenting that teach children to look to adults for support. (SM)

  7. Variable-Position Acoustic Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Stoneburner, J. D.; Jacobi, N.; Wang, T. G.

    1983-01-01

    Method of acoustic levitation supports objects at positions other than acoustic nodes. Acoustic force is varied so it balances gravitational (or other) force, thereby maintaining object at any position within equilibrium range. Levitation method applicable to containerless processing. Such objects as table-tennis balls, hollow plastic spheres, and balsa-wood spheres levitated in laboratory by new method.

  8. Signature Strengths in Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molony, Terry; Henwood, Maureen

    2010-01-01

    Positive psychology can be thought of as the scientific study of what is "right about people" as opposed to the traditional focus on the healing of psychological pain or trauma. The philosophical roots of positive psychology can be traced back to Confucianism, Taoism, Buddhism, Hinduism, Judaism, Christianity, as well as Islamic and Athenian…

  9. Updated thinking on positivity ratios.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, Barbara L

    2013-12-01

    This article presents my response to the article by Brown, Sokal, and Friedman (2013), which critically examined Losada's conceptual and mathematical work (as presented in Losada, 1999; Losada & Heaphy, 2004; and Fredrickson & Losada; 2005) and concluded that mathematical claims for a critical tipping point positivity ratio are unfounded. In the present article, I draw recent empirical evidence together to support the continued value of computing and seeking to elevate positivity ratios. I also underscore the necessity of modeling nonlinear effects of positivity ratios and, more generally, the value of systems science approaches within affective science and positive psychology. Even when scrubbed of Losada's now-questioned mathematical modeling, ample evidence continues to support the conclusion that, within bounds, higher positivity ratios are predictive of flourishing mental health and other beneficial outcomes. PMID:23855895

  10. Positioning performance of a maglev fine positioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Wronosky, J.B.; Smith, T.G.; Jordan, J.D.; Darnold, J.R.

    1996-12-01

    A wafer positioning system was recently developed by Sandia National Laboratories for an Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) research tool. The system, which utilizes a magnetically levitated fine stage to provide ultra-precise positioning in all six degrees of freedom, incorporates technological improvements resulting from four years of prototype development experience. System enhancements, implemented on a second generation design for an ARPA National Center for Advanced Information Component Manufacturing (NCAICM) project, introduced active structural control for the levitated structure of the system. Magnetic levitation (maglev) is emerging as an important technology for wafer positioning systems in advanced lithography applications. The advantages of maglev stem from the absence of physical contact. The resulting lack of friction enables accurate, fast positioning. Maglev systems are mechanically simple, accomplishing full six degree-of-freedom suspension and control with a minimum of moving parts. Power-efficient designs, which reduce the possibility of thermal distortion of the platen, are achievable. Manufacturing throughput will be improved in future systems with the addition of active structural control of the positioning stages. This paper describes the design, implementation, and functional capability of the maglev fine positioning system. Specifics regarding performance design goals and test results are presented.

  11. PHOTOELECTRIC CONTROL FOR TAPE POSITIONING

    DOEpatents

    Woody, J.W. Jr.

    1961-07-25

    A control system is described for producing control impulses which may be used to start, stop, and position a magnetic tape with respect to a transducer, and to locate discrete areas on the tape. Means are provided for positive identification of data blocks, exact positioning of the tape under the magnetic head, drive in either direction, accurate skip-over of imperfect regions of the tape, stopping the tape if equipment malfunction results in a failure to detect the block-identifying signals, and starting and stopping those parts of the tape between of the tape drive clutches.

  12. SWITCHING TRANSMITTER POSITIONING OF SYNCHROS

    DOEpatents

    Wolff, H.

    1962-03-13

    A transformer apparatus is designed for effecting the step positioning of synchro motors. The apparatus is provided with ganged switches and pre- selected contacts to permit the units and tens selection of the desired angular position for the synchro motor rotor with only the movement of two selector knobs required. With the selection thus made, the appropriate pre-selected signal is delivered to the synchro motor for positioning the rotor of the latter as selected. The transformer apparatus is divided into smaller arrangements to conform with coraputed trigonometric relations which will give the desired results. (AEC)

  13. Navstar/Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ananda, M.

    1982-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) was developed to provide highly precise position, velocity, and time information to users anywhere in the area of the Earth and at any time. The GPS, when fully operational, will consist of 18 satellites in six orbital planes. Any GPS user, by receiving and processing the radio signals from the satellite network can instantaneously determine navigation information to an accuracy of about 15 m in position and 0.1 m/s in velocity. The GPS is compared with other systems such as Loran-C, Omega, TACAN and Transit.

  14. Positive technology: using interactive technologies to promote positive functioning.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    It is generally assumed that technology assists individuals in improving the quality of their lives. However, the impact of new technologies and media on well-being and positive functioning is still somewhat controversial. In this paper, we contend that the quality of experience should become the guiding principle in the design and development of new technologies, as well as a primary metric for the evaluation of their applications. The emerging discipline of Positive Psychology provides a useful framework to address this challenge. Positive Psychology is the scientific study of optimal human functioning and flourishing. Instead of drawing on a "disease model" of human behavior, it focuses on factors that enable individuals and communities to thrive and build the best in life. In this paper, we propose the "Positive Technology" approach--the scientific and applied approach to the use of technology for improving the quality of our personal experience through its structuring, augmentation, and/or replacement--as a way of framing a suitable object of study in the field of cyberpsychology and human-computer interaction. Specifically, we suggest that it is possible to use technology to influence three specific features of our experience--affective quality, engagement/actualization, and connectedness--that serve to promote adaptive behaviors and positive functioning. In this framework, positive technologies are classified according to their effects on a specific feature of personal experience. Moreover, for each level, we have identified critical variables that can be manipulated to guide the design and development of positive technologies. PMID:22149077

  15. A spectrum of susceptibility to rheumatoid arthritis within HLA-DRB1: stratification by autoantibody status in a large UK population.

    PubMed

    Mackie, S L; Taylor, J C; Martin, S G; Wordsworth, P; Steer, S; Wilson, A G; Worthington, J; Emery, P; Barrett, J H; Morgan, A W

    2012-02-01

    Previously-proposed rheumatoid arthritis (RA) HLA-DRB1 susceptibility and protective models were compared, based on amino acids at positions 67-74 and autoantibody combinations. 3 657 RA patients and 1 357 controls were studied using logistic regression, with secondary stratification by anti-citrullinated peptide antibodies(ACPA) and rheumatoid factor(RF). Susceptibility models were based on previously defined HLA-DRB1 shared epitope(SE) subgroups. (70)DERAA(74), D(70) and I(67) protective models were compared, adjusting for HLA-DRB1 SE. A hierarchy of risk was observed within the HLA-DRB1 SE, particularly for ACPA-positive and RF-positive RA: HLA-DRB1(*)0401∼(*)0404>(*)0101∼(*)1001 ((*)0404>(*)0101: P=0.0003). HLA-DRB1(*)0401/(*)0404 compound heterozygosity conferred a risk similar to (*)0401 homozygosity (P=0.70). Protective effects of D(70) and I(67) were similar. Predictions of the D(70) model fitted the data better than those of the I(67) model. The protective effect of D(70) showed a gene-dose effect (OR 0.82, 95% CI 0.73-0.92, P=5.8 × 10(-4)), but was only seen in RA patients positive for RF or ACPA. HLA-DRB1 SE alleles were also associated with ACPA-negative, RF-positive RA (OR 1.42 (1.15-1.76), P=0.0012). In conclusion, HLA-DRB1 SE alleles show heterogeneity in RA susceptibility; their major effect appears to be mediated by ACPA positivity, but a significant association of HLA-DRB1 SE with RF-positive, ACPA-negative RA was also observed. D(70) specifically protected against antibody-positive RA. PMID:21881596

  16. The Case for Positive Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, S. M.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses both three basic strategies, preferences, allocational priorities, and incentives--and four principles of positive discrimination--compensation and rectification, appropriate meritocratic criteria, the development of the discriminated, and fairness. (JM)

  17. Policy Statements and Position Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1984

    1984-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools position is presented on dental school curriculum and administration, peer review, freedoms and responsibilities of individuals and institutions, national health programs, interdisciplinary education, ionizing radiation in dental education facilities, and due process. (MSE)

  18. Negative effects of positive reinforcement

    PubMed Central

    Perone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Procedures classified as positive reinforcement are generally regarded as more desirable than those classified as aversive—those that involve negative reinforcement or punishment. This is a crude test of the desirability of a procedure to change or maintain behavior. The problems can be identified on the basis of theory, experimental analysis, and consideration of practical cases. Theoretically, the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement has proven difficult (some would say the distinction is untenable). When the distinction is made purely in operational terms, experiments reveal that positive reinforcement has aversive functions. On a practical level, positive reinforcement can lead to deleterious effects, and it is implicated in a range of personal and societal problems. These issues challenge us to identify other criteria for judging behavioral procedures. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2 PMID:22478391

  19. Negative effects of positive reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Perone, Michael

    2003-01-01

    Procedures classified as positive reinforcement are generally regarded as more desirable than those classified as aversive-those that involve negative reinforcement or punishment. This is a crude test of the desirability of a procedure to change or maintain behavior. The problems can be identified on the basis of theory, experimental analysis, and consideration of practical cases. Theoretically, the distinction between positive and negative reinforcement has proven difficult (some would say the distinction is untenable). When the distinction is made purely in operational terms, experiments reveal that positive reinforcement has aversive functions. On a practical level, positive reinforcement can lead to deleterious effects, and it is implicated in a range of personal and societal problems. These issues challenge us to identify other criteria for judging behavioral procedures.

  20. The Power of Positive Emotions

    MedlinePlus

    ... toes, crossing a boundary, or violating our trust. Anger can be a signal that we might need ... lot of negative feelings such as fear, sadness, anger, frustration, or stress. Building a daily positivity habit ...

  1. Positioning your baby for breastfeeding

    MedlinePlus

    ... Adjust your baby's position if you need to. FOOTBALL HOLD Use the football hold if you had a C-section. This ... large breasts or flat nipples also like the football hold. Hold your baby like a football. Tuck ...

  2. Positivity of the English Language

    PubMed Central

    Kloumann, Isabel M.; Danforth, Christopher M.; Harris, Kameron Decker; Bliss, Catherine A.; Dodds, Peter Sheridan

    2012-01-01

    Over the last million years, human language has emerged and evolved as a fundamental instrument of social communication and semiotic representation. People use language in part to convey emotional information, leading to the central and contingent questions: (1) What is the emotional spectrum of natural language? and (2) Are natural languages neutrally, positively, or negatively biased? Here, we report that the human-perceived positivity of over 10,000 of the most frequently used English words exhibits a clear positive bias. More deeply, we characterize and quantify distributions of word positivity for four large and distinct corpora, demonstrating that their form is broadly invariant with respect to frequency of word use. PMID:22247779

  3. Positive Emotion following a Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ostir, Glenn V.; Berges, Ivonne; Ottenbacher, Margaret; Graham, James E.; Ottenbacher, Kenneth J.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES As populations age, interest in exploring the emotional health of adults has increased. In the current study we were interested in investigating the positive emotion of adults with stroke at discharge from in-patient medical rehabilitation and 3 months post discharge. DESIGN A longitudinal study using information from the Stroke Recovery in Underserved Patients database. SETTING Information was collected during in-patient medical rehabilitation stay and approximately 3 months post discharge. PARTICIPANTS The study included 856 persons aged 55 or older with stroke admitted to in-patient medical rehabilitation in the U.S. MEASUREMENTS Positive emotion. RESULTS The average age was 72.5 years, 78.7% were non-Hispanic white and 51.9% were women. The average length of in-patient hospital stay was 20.2 (SD 10.1) days. More than a third (35.6%) reported higher positive emotion over the 3 month follow-up, while 29.7% reported lower positive emotion. In addition to discharge positive emotion, three factors including depression (b = −0.05, SE .02, p = .0001), level of education (b = 0.08, SE .04, p = .04) and functional status (b = 0.04, SE .006, p = .001) significantly predicted higher positive emotion at 3 month follow-up. CONCLUSION A large percentage of adults report high positive emotion in the initial months following a stroke. This finding adds to work on stroke recovery and indicates the resilience of adults when faced with a health challenge. Understanding the role of positive emotion in persons living with stroke may provide critical insight into long-term recovery. PMID:18509564

  4. Sleeping position and rectal temperature.

    PubMed

    Petersen, S A; Anderson, E S; Lodemore, M; Rawson, D; Wailoo, M P

    1991-08-01

    The effects of sleeping position upon body temperature were assessed by continuous monitoring of rectal temperature in 137 babies sleeping at home under conditions chosen by their parents. There were three groups of subjects: (1) normal babies aged 12-22 weeks whose temperature rhythms were developed, (2) normal babies aged 6-12 weeks who were developing their night time temperature rhythms, and (3) babies the night after diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus immunisation, whose temperature rhythms were disturbed. Sleeping in the prone position was not associated with higher rectal temperatures at any time of night in young babies, nor did it exaggerate the disturbance of rectal temperature rhythm after immunisation. In older normal babies the prone position did not disturb rectal temperature in the first part of the night, though prone sleepers warmed a little faster prior to walking, especially in warm conditions. Prone sleepers were, however, born earlier in gestation and tended to be of lower birth weight. Normal babies can therefore thermoregulate effectively whatever their sleeping posture, even in warm conditions, though the prone position may make it slightly more difficult to lose heat. It is difficult to see how the prone position, even interacting with warm conditions, could induce lethal hyperthermia in otherwise normal babies. Perhaps the prone position is associated with other risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome.

  5. Positive amplitudes in the amplituhedron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Hodges, Andrew; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2015-08-01

    The all-loop integrand for scattering amplitudes in planar SYM is determined by an "amplitude form" with logarithmic singularities on the boundary of the amplituhedron. In this note we provide strong evidence for a new striking property of the superamplitude, which we conjecture to be true to all loop orders: the amplitude form is positive when evaluated inside the amplituhedron. The statement is sensibly formulated thanks to the natural "bosonization" of the superamplitude associated with the amplituhedron geometry. However this positivity is not manifest in any of the current approaches to scattering amplitudes, and in particular not in the cellulations of the amplituhedron related to on-shell diagrams and the positive grassmannian. The surprising positivity of the form suggests the existence of a "dual amplituhedron" formulation where this feature would be made obvious. We also suggest that the positivity is associated with an extended picture of amplituhedron geometry, with the amplituhedron sitting inside a co-dimension one surface separating "legal" and "illegal" local singularities of the amplitude. We illustrate this in several simple examples, obtaining new expressions for amplitudes not associated with any triangulations, but following in a more invariant manner from a global view of the positive geometry.

  6. Positive Surface over Positive Scattered Data Sites

    PubMed Central

    Ibraheem, Farheen; Hussain, Malik Zawwar; Bhatti, Akhlaq Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to develop a local positivity preserving scheme when the data amassed from different sources is positioned at sparse points. The proposed algorithm first triangulates the irregular data using Delauny triangulation method, therewith interpolates each boundary and radial curve of the triangle by C¹ rational trigonometric cubic function. Half of the parameters in the description of the interpolant are constrained to keep up the positive shape of data while the remaining half are set free for users’ requirement. Orthogonality of trigonometric function assures much smoother surface as compared to polynomial functions. The proposed scheme can be of great use in areas of surface reconstruction and deformation, signal processing, CAD/CAM design, solving differential equations, and image restoration. PMID:26057122

  7. Positional demands of professional rugby.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Angus; Draper, Nick; Lewis, John; Gieseg, Steven P; Gill, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union is a physically intense intermittent sport coupled with high force collisions. Each position within a team has specific requirements which are typically based on speed, size and skill. The aim of this study was to investigate the contemporary demands of each position and whether they can explain changes in psychophysiological stress. Urine and saliva samples were collected before and after five selected Super 15 rugby games from 37 players. Total neopterin (NP), cortisol and immunoglobulin A were analysed by SCX-high performance liquid chromatography and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Global positioning system software provided distance data, while live video analysis provided impact data. All contemporary demands were analysed as events per minute of game time. Forwards were involved in more total impacts, tackles and rucks compared to backs (p < 0.001), while backs were involved in more ball carries and covered more total distance and distance at high speed per minute of game time (p < 0.01). Loose forwards, inside and outside backs covered significantly more distance at high speed (p < 0.01), while there was a negligible difference with number of impacts between the forward positions. There was also minimal difference between positions in the percentage change in NP, cortisol and sIgA. The results indicate distance covered and number of impacts per minute of game time is position-dependent whereas changes in psychophysiological stress are independent. This information can be used to adapt training and recovery interventions to better prepare each position based on the physical requirements of the game.

  8. Positional demands of professional rugby.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Angus; Draper, Nick; Lewis, John; Gieseg, Steven P; Gill, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    Rugby union is a physically intense intermittent sport coupled with high force collisions. Each position within a team has specific requirements which are typically based on speed, size and skill. The aim of this study was to investigate the contemporary demands of each position and whether they can explain changes in psychophysiological stress. Urine and saliva samples were collected before and after five selected Super 15 rugby games from 37 players. Total neopterin (NP), cortisol and immunoglobulin A were analysed by SCX-high performance liquid chromatography and enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Global positioning system software provided distance data, while live video analysis provided impact data. All contemporary demands were analysed as events per minute of game time. Forwards were involved in more total impacts, tackles and rucks compared to backs (p < 0.001), while backs were involved in more ball carries and covered more total distance and distance at high speed per minute of game time (p < 0.01). Loose forwards, inside and outside backs covered significantly more distance at high speed (p < 0.01), while there was a negligible difference with number of impacts between the forward positions. There was also minimal difference between positions in the percentage change in NP, cortisol and sIgA. The results indicate distance covered and number of impacts per minute of game time is position-dependent whereas changes in psychophysiological stress are independent. This information can be used to adapt training and recovery interventions to better prepare each position based on the physical requirements of the game. PMID:25830235

  9. Relativistic positioning systems: Numerical simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Puchades Colmenero, Neus

    The position of users located on the Earth's surface or near it may be found with the classic positioning systems (CPS). Certain information broadcast by satellites of global navigation systems, as GPS and GALILEO, may be used for positioning. The CPS are based on the Newtonian formalism, although relativistic post-Newtonian corrections are done when they are necessary. This thesis contributes to the development of a different positioning approach, which is fully relativistic from the beginning. In the relativistic positioning systems (RPS), the space-time position of any user (ship, spacecraft, and so on) can be calculated with the help of four satellites, which broadcast their proper times by means of codified electromagnetic signals. In this thesis, we have simulated satellite 4-tuples of the GPS and GALILEO constellations. If a user receives the signals from four satellites simultaneously, the emission proper times read -after decoding- are the user "emission coordinates". In order to find the user "positioning coordinates", in an appropriate almost inertial reference system, there are two possibilities: (a) the explicit relation between positioning and emission coordinates (broadcast by the satellites) is analytically found or (b) numerical codes are designed to calculate the positioning coordinates from the emission ones. Method (a) is only viable in simple ideal cases, whereas (b) allows us to consider realistic situations. In this thesis, we have designed numerical codes with the essential aim of studying two appropriate RPS, which may be generalized. Sometimes, there are two real users placed in different positions, which receive the same proper times from the same satellites; then, we say that there is bifurcation, and additional data are needed to choose the real user position. In this thesis, bifurcation is studied in detail. We have analyzed in depth two RPS models; in both, it is considered that the satellites move in the Schwarzschild's space

  10. The Secondary Principal Position: Preparatory Position for the Superintendency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farmer, Tod Allen

    2007-01-01

    The following paper is a synopsis of a study which examined career paths to the Texas public school superintendency. The most common pathways to the superintendency were identified and delineated by educational attainment and gender. Five career paths were identified as the major pathways to the superintendent position. The secondary teacher,…

  11. Global Position and Position Taking: The Case of Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marginson, Simon

    2007-01-01

    From 1990 to 2003, Australia's share of the global market in cross-border degrees grew from 1% to 9%. Full fee-paying foreign students now constitute one quarter of enrolments, and education is Australia's third largest services export. Positioned as an Anglo-American system on the edge of Asia, Australia has differentiated itself from the United…

  12. Positioning mental health nursing practice within a positive health paradigm.

    PubMed

    Wand, Timothy

    2013-04-01

    Mental health service provision has traditionally been dominated by biomedical models of illness and disorder, a problem-based orientation, and the assessment and management of risk. While psychotherapeutic approaches are numerous and have been widely utilized, psychotropic medications, either as monotherapy or in conjunction with psychological therapies, remain the mainstay for the 'treatment' of mental health problems. This is despite growing uncertainty over the effectiveness of psychotropic medications (particularly antidepressants), as well as their potential for enduring and debilitating side-effects. This discussion paper outlines the emerging field of positive health, which eschews a psychiatric disorder and illness focus, and is instead oriented towards the identification of strengths, abilities, hopes, and the individual's preferred future. The shift in positive health, from illness towards wellness, aims to build health literacy and the capacity of individuals to make decisions conducive to health, and thereby make more effective the use of health-care services. A positioning of mental health nursing practice within a positive health paradigm is promoted. By illustration, a number of solution-focused mental health assessment questions are tabled to contrast the current format for mental health assessment, which rather than being 'comprehensive', is predominantly concerned only with problem and risk identification, and the search for pathology in the individual.

  13. Positive Youth Psychology: Lessons from Positive Peer Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinebach, Christoph; Steinebach, Ursula; Brendtro, Larry K.

    2013-01-01

    Positive Peer Culture (PPC) is a strength-oriented approach developed by Vorrath and Brendtro (1985) to prevent or reverse negative peer influence by building a climate of peer concern and respect. PPC operates in a range of settings including residential treatment, alternative schools, juvenile justice, and youth leadership groups. It is an…

  14. Asserting a Positive Role: HIV-Positive People in Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Brent; Leonard, William

    2005-01-01

    The best HIV prevention programs--those that effect change on a multiplicity of levels by changing knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors and that are sustained over time--are also those that place HIV-positive people at the center of program design, implementation, and evaluation.

  15. The future of positive therapy.

    PubMed

    Wong, Y Joel

    2006-01-01

    Responds to commentary by S. J. Lopez and B. A. Kerr (see record 2006-07640-002) on the current author's original article (see record 2006-07640-001). In their commentary on strength-centered therapy (ST), Lopez and Kerr (2006) called for an open-source approach to developing positive psychological practices. In this rejoinder, the author responds to their comments, provides clarifications on ST, and discusses the future of positive therapy. Specifically, the author calls for future scholarship to address (1) the contributions of social constructionist therapies, (2) positive systemic influences in psychotherapy, and (3) diverse conceptualizations of strengths and optimal human functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. INTEGRAL POSITIONING AND INDICATING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Frantz, C.E.; Cawley, W.E.; Warnick, R.F.

    1961-07-25

    A variable capacitor which may be used as an integral positioning and indicating device is descried. The apparatus comprises a hollow metal cylinder with a metal rod mounted fixedly along the axis thereof and insulated therefrom. A hollow shaft is slidably mounted between the cylinder and the rod in electrical connection with the cylinder and insulated from the rod. One end of the shaft is disposed between the cylinder and the rod and the other end extends therefrom and may be connected to an object whose position is to be monitored. Means are provided to move the hollow shaft by pressure fluid in the cylinder whereby the capacitance between the rod and the cylinder is varied and measurement of which is a function of the position of the hollow shaft.

  17. Impact micro-positioning actuator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuerden, Brian (Inventor); Angel, J. Roger P. (Inventor); Burge, James H. (Inventor); DeRigne, Scott T. (Inventor)

    2006-01-01

    An impact micro-positioning actuator. In one aspect of the invention, a threaded shaft is threadably received in a nut and the nut is impacted by an impacting device, causing the nut first to rotate relative to the shaft by slipping as a result of shaft inertia and subsequently to stick to the shaft as a result of the frictional force therebetween. The nut is returned to its initial position by a return force provided by a return mechanism after impact. The micro-positioning actuator is further improved by controlling at least one and preferably all of the following: the friction, the impact provided by the impacting device, the return force provided by the return mechanism, and the inertia of the shaft. In another aspect of the invention, a threaded shaft is threadably received in a nut and the shaft is impacted by an impacting device, causing the shaft to rotate relative to the nut.

  18. Sleep position and shoulder pain.

    PubMed

    Zenian, John

    2010-04-01

    The overuse theory for musculoskeletal joint pain cannot explain adequately the occurrence of shoulder pain in those who do not engage in activities that involve repeated and stressful use of the shoulder since the percentage of the painful right shoulders usually does not match the percentage of dominant right arms in such individuals. An alternative hypothesis is presented to propose that shoulder pain is caused by postural immobility in the decubitus or side position during sleep. Prolonged pressure on the shoulder caused by the weight of the thorax can produce enough damage to cause subsequent shoulder pain. In order to test this hypothesis, a preliminary study was carried out to compare the laterality of shoulder pain with the laterality of sleep position. The calculated laterality ratios for sleep position and shoulder pain were found to be strikingly similar, suggesting a causal relationship between the two phenomena. However, the prevalence of shoulder pain in the general population was found to be smaller than the percentage of the time people would spend sleeping in the decubitus position. This discrepancy could be explained by the idea that in order for shoulder pain to develop subjects may have to spend longer times in the same decubitus position before changing to another position than the average person would. Additional evidence from published clinical studies also supports the postural theory of shoulder pain. More studies can be done to test this hypothesis by focusing on the sleep habits of patients with shoulder pain. According to the present hypothesis shoulder pain should for the most part occur on the side that the patient preferred to sleep on before the onset of shoulder pain. The postural theory of shoulder pain provides the possibility for a new and noninvasive method to treat shoulder pain by the modification of posture during sleep.

  19. False positives in imaging genetics.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Nicodemus, Kristin K; Egan, Michael F; Callicott, Joseph H; Mattay, Venkata; Weinberger, Daniel R

    2008-04-01

    Imaging genetics provides an enormous amount of functional-structural data on gene effects in living brain, but the sheer quantity of potential phenotypes raises concerns about false discovery. Here, we provide the first empirical results on false positive rates in imaging genetics. We analyzed 720 frequent coding SNPs without significant association with schizophrenia and a subset of 492 of these without association with cognitive function. Effects on brain structure (using voxel-based morphometry, VBM) and brain function, using two archival imaging tasks, the n-back working memory task and an emotional face matching task, were studied in whole brain and regions of interest and corrected for multiple comparisons using standard neuroimaging procedures. Since these variants are unlikely to impact relevant brain function, positives obtained provide an upper empirical estimate of the false positive association rate. In a separate analysis, we randomly permuted genotype labels across subjects, removing any true genotype-phenotype association in the data, to derive a lower empirical estimate. At a set correction level of 0.05, in each region of interest and data set used, the rate of positive findings was well below 5% (0.2-4.1%). There was no relationship between the region of interest and the false positive rate. Permutation results were in the same range as empirically derived rates. The observed low rates of positives provide empirical evidence that the type I error rate is well controlled by current commonly used correction procedures in imaging genetics, at least in the context of the imaging paradigms we have used. In fact, our observations indicate that these statistical thresholds are conservative.

  20. Solar cell angular position transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, M. C.; Gray, D. L. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An angular position transducer utilizing photocells and a light source is disclosed. The device uses a fully rotatable baffle which is connected via an actuator shaft to the body whose rotational displacement is to be measured. The baffle blocks the light path between the light source and the photocells so that a constant semicircular beam of light reaches the photocells. The current produced by the photocells is fed through a resistor, a differential amplifier measures the voltage drop across the resistor which indicates the angular position of the actuator shaft and hence of the object.

  1. Multi-position photovoltaic assembly

    DOEpatents

    Dinwoodie, Thomas L.

    2003-03-18

    The invention is directed to a PV assembly, for use on a support surface, comprising a base, a PV module, a multi-position module support assembly, securing the module to the base at shipping and inclined-use angles, a deflector, a multi-position deflector support securing the deflector to the base at deflector shipping and deflector inclined-use angles, the module and deflector having opposed edges defining a gap therebetween. The invention permits transport of the PV assemblies in a relatively compact form, thus lowering shipping costs, while facilitating installation of the PV assemblies with the PV module at the proper inclination.

  2. Low noise optical position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Spear, J.D.

    1999-03-09

    A novel optical position sensor is described that uses two component photodiodes electrically connected in parallel, with opposing polarities. A lens provides optical gain and restricts the acceptance angle of the detector. The response of the device to displacements of an optical spot is similar to that of a conventional bi-cell type position sensitive detector. However, the component photodiode design enables simpler electronic amplification with inherently less electrical noise than the bi-cell. Measurements by the sensor of the pointing noise of a focused helium-neon laser as a function of frequency demonstrate high sensitivity and suitability for optical probe beam deflection experiments. 14 figs.

  3. Low noise optical position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Spear, Jonathan David

    1999-01-01

    A novel optical position sensor is described that uses two component photodiodes electrically connected in parallel, with opposing polarities. A lens provides optical gain and restricts the acceptance angle of the detector. The response of the device to displacements of an optical spot is similar to that of a conventional bi-cell type position sensitive detector. However, the component photodiode design enables simpler electronic amplification with inherently less electrical noise than the bi-cell. Measurements by the sensor of the pointing noise of a focused helium-neon laser as a function of frequency demonstrate high sensitivity and suitability for optical probe beam deflection experiments.

  4. A Positive Psychology That Matters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Shane L.; Magyar-Moe, Jeana L.

    2006-01-01

    The Major Contribution intended to situate positive psychology in counseling psychology's past and future and in the complex world we live and work in today. The four reactions (Frazier, Lee,& Steger; Gerstein; Linley; Mollen, Ethington,& Ridley) provide new insights into how counseling psychology has and will contribute to the study of human…

  5. Positive Psychology: Transforming Young Lives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brendtro, Larry K.; Mitchell, Martin L.

    2011-01-01

    To reach responsible independence, young people must become invested in setting their life course. A rich history of research and practice shows that democratic group climates foster autonomy and prosocial behavior. This article explores principles and practices for creating positive peer cultures to develop strengths and help youth meet their…

  6. Positive Approaches to Classroom Discipline.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Betty B.; Quilling, Joan

    To provide educators with an alternative perspective on discipline, this handbook examines the concept of discipline, presents four models of disciplinary strategy, and discusses factors related to classroom discipline. After briefly analyzing different definitions of discipline and their positive and negative outcomes, the authors discuss each of…

  7. Marijuana and Children. Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Endsley, Patricia; Embrey, Mary Louise

    2014-01-01

    Registered professional school nurses (hereinafter referred to as school nurses) promote wellness and disease prevention to improve health outcomes for our nation's children. It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the marijuana plant remain under the United States Drug Enforcement Agency's (DEA) Schedule I…

  8. Positive Psychology: The Emerging Paradigm.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly

    2000-01-01

    Discusses positive psychology, which focuses on health and well-being utilizing the elements of belief, hope, self-esteem, responsibility, elation, and wisdom as the basis of psychological theory and practice. Describes efforts to change the psychology field, including identifying promising young professionals, establishing monetary prizes, and…

  9. Perfect imaging with positive refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonhardt, Ulf; Tyc, Tomáš; Danner, Aaron

    2010-10-01

    We present several refractive index profiles for perfect imaging with positive refraction other than Maxwell's fish eye. Numerical simulations show that these profiles may transfer images with, in principle, unlimited resolution. Such profiles could overcome the fundamental limitations of perfect imaging with negative refraction and find practical applications in nanolithography.

  10. Aerospace Education. NSTA Position Statement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Science Teachers Association (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    National Science Teachers Association (NSTA) has developed a new position statement, "Aerospace Education." NSTA believes that aerospace education is an important component of comprehensive preK-12 science education programs. This statement highlights key considerations that should be addressed when implementing a high quality aerospace education…

  11. One School's Positive Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormack, Sammie

    Because they felt that students can be responsible for their own behavior, the staff of Jefferson Elementary School, serving 300 students in grades 1 through 4 in a small rural community, developed a program which promoted self-management. In September 1979, teachers participated in an assertive discipline workshop. A Positive Action Plan evolved,…

  12. Caseload Assignments. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DuRant, Bonnie V.; Gibbons, Linda J.; Poole, Cynthia; Suessmann, Mary; Wyckoff, Leah

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that schools should employ professionally prepared Registered Nurses, to conduct and supervise school health programs which address the variety of health problems experienced by school children. NASN recommends a formula-based approach with minimum ratios of nurses-to-students…

  13. HR Positions on the Internet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coghill, Carey Cox; Kirk, James J.

    The question of whether the online job market reflects the trends predicted for the job market was examined in a study of a random sample of 690 Internet job postings over a 6-month period. Each listing was categorized by type of position, desired qualifications, salary, and job specifications. Of the human resources (HR) jobs posted, 7.2% were…

  14. Bistable Head Positioning Arm Latch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wasson, Ken; Endo, Juro; Mita, Masahiro; Abelein, Nathan

    A simple, low cost, yet effective device has been developed for immobilizing the head-arm assembly in a disk drive or similar mechanism during power-off conditions. The latching scheme also provides a consistent means of releasing the head-arm assembly from the immobilized position upon power up of the disk drive. The latch uses no electrical power in either immobilized or released state. This design is immune to extreme torque and linear shock forces applied to the disk drive case. The latch system can use the energy stored in the spinning disks to drive the head-arm assembly toward a safe position while simultaneously arming the latch mechanism to secure the head-arm assembly in the safe position upon arrival. A low energy five msec pulse of current drives the latch from one state to the other. Solenoids as presently used in latch mechanisms are bulky, expensive, have variable force characteristics, and often generate contaminants. The latch described in this paper is expected to replace such solenoids. It may also replace small magnet latches, which have limited latch force and apply unwanted torque to a proximate head positioning arm.

  15. Positive Adolescent Choices Training (PACT).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammond, W. Rodney; And Others

    Positive Adolescent Choices Training (PACT) is a health promotion program providing violence prevention programming targeted at black youth, at high risk for becoming either perpetrators or victims of violence. Conducted by the School of Professional Psychology of Wright State University in Dayton, Ohio, in cooperation with Dayton Public Schools,…

  16. Positive Culture in Urban Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osher, David; Fleischman, Steve

    2005-01-01

    Many urban schools are providing high-quality education and are producing high-achieving students, despite facing high student poverty and mobility rates, large number of English language learners and unsafe neighborhood. Positive behavioral supports, caring connections, and social and emotional learning are very essential in creating positive…

  17. Position Papers on Career Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Advisory Council on Vocational Education, Washington, DC.

    This document contains position papers presented at a 3-day conference dealing with the implications of career education for minority groups. Texts of these papers are included: (1) "Career Education Improves the Self Concept" by D.R. Baylor, (2) "Career Education and Black Americans" by W.F. Brazziel, (3) "Career Education: Expanded Options for…

  18. Independent modal space control with positive position feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.; Fedor, J.

    1989-01-01

    An independent modal space control (IMSC) algorithm is presented, whose modal control forces are generated from a positive position feedback (PPF) strategy. The proposed algorithm combines the attributes of both the IMSC and the PPF, and maintains the simplicity of the IMSC as it designs the controller of a complex structure at the uncoupled modal level. The effectiveness of the algorithm in damping out the vibration of flexible structures is validated experimentally. A simple cantilevered beam is employed as an example of a flexible structure whose multimodes of vibration are controlled by a single actuator. Performance of the active control system is determined in the frequency and the time domains. The experimental results indicate the potential of the proposed methodology as a viable method for controlling the vibration of large flexible structures.

  19. Renewable Energy Positioning System: Energy Positioning: Control and Economics

    SciTech Connect

    2012-03-01

    GENI Project: The University of Washington and the University of Michigan are developing an integrated system to match well-positioned energy storage facilities with precise control technologies so the electric grid can more easily include energy from renewable power sources like wind and solar. Because renewable energy sources provide intermittent power, it is difficult for the grid to efficiently allocate those resources without developing solutions to store their energy for later use. The two universities are working with utilities, regulators, and the private sector to position renewable energy storage facilities in locations that optimize their ability to provide and transmit electricity where and when it is needed most. Expanding the network of transmission lines is prohibitively expensive, so combining well-placed storage facilities with robust control systems to efficiently route their power will save consumers money and enable the widespread use of safe, renewable sources of power.

  20. Method and apparatus for determining position using global positioning satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, John (Inventor); Ward, William S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A global positioning satellite receiver having an antenna for receiving a L1 signal from a satellite. The L1 signal is processed by a preamplifier stage including a band pass filter and a low noise amplifier and output as a radio frequency (RF) signal. A mixer receives and de-spreads the RF signal in response to a pseudo-random noise code, i.e., Gold code, generated by an internal pseudo-random noise code generator. A microprocessor enters a code tracking loop, such that during the code tracking loop, it addresses the pseudo-random code generator to cause the pseudo-random code generator to sequentially output pseudo-random codes corresponding to satellite codes used to spread the L1 signal, until correlation occurs. When an output of the mixer is indicative of the occurrence of correlation between the RF signal and the generated pseudo-random codes, the microprocessor enters an operational state which slows the receiver code sequence to stay locked with the satellite code sequence. The output of the mixer is provided to a detector which, in turn, controls certain routines of the microprocessor. The microprocessor will output pseudo range information according to an interrupt routine in response detection of correlation. The pseudo range information is to be telemetered to a ground station which determines the position of the global positioning satellite receiver.

  1. Method and Apparatus for Determining Position Using Global Positioning Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, John L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A global positioning satellite receiver having an antenna for receiving a L1 signal from a satellite is presented. The L1 signal is processed by a preamplifier stage including a band pass filter and a low noise amplifier and output as a radio frequency (RF) signal. A mixer receives and de-spreads the RF signal in response to a pseudo-random noise code, i,e., Gold code, generated by an internal pseudo-random noise code generator. A microprocessor enters a code tracking loop, such that during the code tracking loop, it addresses the pseudorandom code generator to cause the pseudo-random code generator to sequentially output pseudo-random codes corresponding to satellite codes used to spread the L1 signal, until correlation occurs. When an output of the mixer is indicative of the occurrence of correlation between the RF signal and the generated pseudo-random codes, the microprocessor caters an operational state which slows the receiver code sequence to stay locked with the satellite cede sequence. The output of the mixer is provided to a detector which, in turn, controls certain routines of the microprocessor. The microprocessor will output pseudo range information according to an interrupt routine in response detection of correlation. The pseudo range information is to be telemetered to a ground station which determines the position of the global positioning satellite receiver.

  2. Positive signs in massive gravity

    DOE PAGES

    Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.

    2016-04-01

    Here, we derive new constraints on massive gravity from unitarity and analyticity of scattering amplitudes. Our results apply to a general effective theory defined by Einstein gravity plus the leading soft diffeomorphism-breaking corrections. We calculate scattering amplitudes for all combinations of tensor, vector, and scalar polarizations. Furthermore, the high-energy behavior of these amplitudes prescribes a specific choice of couplings that ameliorates the ultraviolet cutoff, in agreement with existing literature. We then derive consistency conditions from analytic dispersion relations, which dictate positivity of certain combinations of parameters appearing in the forward scattering amplitudes. These constraints exclude all but a small islandmore » in the parameter space of ghost-free massive gravity. And while the theory of the "Galileon" scalar mode alone is known to be inconsistent with positivity constraints, this is remedied in the full massive gravity theory.« less

  3. Position and orientation tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Burks, B.L.; DePiero, F.W.; Armstrong, G.A.; Jansen, J.F.; Muller, R.C.; Gee, T.F.

    1998-05-05

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning apparatus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle. 14 figs.

  4. Position and orientation tracking system

    DOEpatents

    Burks, Barry L.; DePiero, Fred W.; Armstrong, Gary A.; Jansen, John F.; Muller, Richard C.; Gee, Timothy F.

    1998-01-01

    A position and orientation tracking system presents a laser scanning appaus having two measurement pods, a control station, and a detector array. The measurement pods can be mounted in the dome of a radioactive waste storage silo. Each measurement pod includes dual orthogonal laser scanner subsystems. The first laser scanner subsystem is oriented to emit a first line laser in the pan direction. The second laser scanner is oriented to emit a second line laser in the tilt direction. Both emitted line lasers scan planes across the radioactive waste surface to encounter the detector array mounted on a target robotic vehicle. The angles of incidence of the planes with the detector array are recorded by the control station. Combining measurements describing each of the four planes provides data for a closed form solution of the algebraic transform describing the position and orientation of the target robotic vehicle.

  5. Dual optical mechanical position tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Everett, S. L., Jr.

    1985-06-01

    This patent application describes an apparatus for retaining control of moving carriage impact dot matrix print heads when subjected to strong external forces such as shock and/or vibration. Position and direction of carriage movement is provided by a photo emitter-sensor assembly and a slotted timing wheel or disc having a plurality of equally spaced slots whose slot width is equal to the slot separation. The slot width is sufficient to frame a pair of side-by-side emitters which operate in conjunction with a pair of side-by-side sensors on the other side of the timing wheel. The order or sequence in which the sensors receive photo energy from their respective emitters indicates the direction of rotation of the timing wheel while simultaneous reception of photo energy by the side-by-side sensors provides an indication of valid rest position of the carriage drive motor.

  6. SPLASH: Accurate OH maser positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Andrew; Gomez, Jose F.; Jones, Paul; Cunningham, Maria; Green, James; Dawson, Joanne; Ellingsen, Simon; Breen, Shari; Imai, Hiroshi; Lowe, Vicki; Jones, Courtney

    2013-10-01

    The hydroxyl (OH) 18 cm lines are powerful and versatile probes of diffuse molecular gas, that may trace a largely unstudied component of the Galactic ISM. SPLASH (the Southern Parkes Large Area Survey in Hydroxyl) is a large, unbiased and fully-sampled survey of OH emission, absorption and masers in the Galactic Plane that will achieve sensitivities an order of magnitude better than previous work. In this proposal, we request ATCA time to follow up OH maser candidates. This will give us accurate (~10") positions of the masers, which can be compared to other maser positions from HOPS, MMB and MALT-45 and will provide full polarisation measurements towards a sample of OH masers that have not been observed in MAGMO.

  7. Flight representative positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1977-01-01

    Resolutions were developed for each problem encountered and a tradeoff analysis was performed to select a final configuration for a flight representative PID (Positive Isolation Disconnect) that is reduced in size and comparable in weight and pressure drop to the developmental PID. A 6.35 mm (1/4-inch) line size PID was fabricated and tested. The flight representative PID consists of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation. Future development efforts for the Space Shuttle subsystems that would benefit from the use of the positive isolation disconnect are also recommended. Customary units were utilized for principal measurements and calculations with conversion factors being inserted in equations to convert the results to the international system of units.

  8. Tevatron beam position monitor upgrade

    SciTech Connect

    Wolbers, Stephen; Banerjee, B.; Barker, B.; Bledsoe, S.; Boes, T.; Bowden, M.; Cancelo, G.; Forster, B.; Duerling, G.; Haynes, B.; Hendricks, B.; Kasza, T.; Kutschke, R.; Mahlum, R.; Martens, M.; Mengel, M.; Olson, M.; Pavlicek, V.; Pham, T.; Piccoli, L.; Steimel, J.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    The Tevatron Beam Position Monitor (BPM) readout electronics and software have been upgraded to improve measurement precision, functionality and reliability. The original system, designed and built in the early 1980's, became inadequate for current and future operations of the Tevatron. The upgraded system consists of 960 channels of new electronics to process analog signals from 240 BPMs, new front-end software, new online and controls software, and modified applications to take advantage of the improved measurements and support the new functionality. The new system reads signals from both ends of the existing directional stripline pickups to provide simultaneous proton and antiproton position measurements. Measurements using the new system are presented that demonstrate its improved resolution and overall performance.

  9. Positive signs in massive gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Clifford; Remmen, Grant N.

    2016-04-01

    We derive new constraints on massive gravity from unitarity and analyticity of scattering amplitudes. Our results apply to a general effective theory defined by Einstein gravity plus the leading soft diffeomorphism-breaking corrections. We calculate scattering amplitudes for all combinations of tensor, vector, and scalar polarizations. The high-energy behavior of these amplitudes prescribes a specific choice of couplings that ameliorates the ultraviolet cutoff, in agreement with existing literature. We then derive consistency conditions from analytic dispersion relations, which dictate positivity of certain combinations of parameters appearing in the forward scattering amplitudes. These constraints exclude all but a small island in the parameter space of ghost-free massive gravity. While the theory of the "Galileon" scalar mode alone is known to be inconsistent with positivity constraints, this is remedied in the full massive gravity theory.

  10. Electronic Tag and Position Sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-20

    The intent of this study phase program was to adequately define the Electronic Tag and Position Sensor chip so as to be able to price and schedule the full design and development culminating in a silicon IC. Therefore, even though Hughes Aircraft Company feels that the approach submitted in this document is what should be developed, it is still considered preliminary and could change as the full design is developed.

  11. Capacitive Position Sensor For Accelerometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, Thomas R.; Kaiser, William J.; Kenny, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Capacitive position sensor measures displacement of proof mass in prototype accelerometer described in "Single-Crystal Springs for Accelerometers" (NPO-18795). Sensor is ultrasensitive, miniature device operating at ultra-high frequency and described in more detail in "Ultra-High-Frequency Capacitive Displacement Sensor," (NPO-18675). Advances in design and fabrication of prototype accelerometer also applicable to magnetometers and other sensors in which sensed quantities measured in terms of deflections of small springs.

  12. Positive psychology and romantic scientism.

    PubMed

    Brown, Nicholas J L; Sokal, Alan D; Friedman, Harris L

    2014-09-01

    Replies to the comments of Nickerson (see record 2014-36500-010), Guastello (see record 2014-36500-011), Musau (see record 2014-36500-013), Hämäläinen et al. (see record 2014-36500-014), and Lefebvre and Schwartz (see record 2014-36500-015) on the authors article (see record 2013-24609-001). Fredrickson and Losada's (2005) article was the subject of over 350 scholarly citations before our critique (Brown et al., 2013) appeared, and its principal "conclusions" have been featured in many lectures and public presentations by senior members of the positive psychology research community, although its deficiencies ought to have been visible to anyone with a modest grasp of mathematics and a little curiosity. Unfortunately- because human behavior is, after all, complex and difficult to understand-we have no way of knowing whether the fact that it took so long for these deficiencies to be recognized was due to an unwarranted degree of optimism about the reliability of the peer-review process, a reluctance to make waves in the face of powerful interests, a general lack of critical thinking within positive psychology, or some other factor. We hope that our revelation of the problems with the critical positivity ratio ultimately demonstrates the success of science as a self-correcting endeavor; however, we would have greatly preferred it if our work had not been necessary in the first place. PMID:25197852

  13. Positive lightning and severe weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, C.; Murphy, B.

    2003-04-01

    In recent years researchers have noticed that severe weather (tornados, hail and damaging winds) are closely related to the amount of positive lightning occurring in thunderstorms. On 4 July 1999, a severe derecho (wind storm) caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators for short-term forecasts of severe weather.

  14. Procedure for developing Union position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1. Position statements will be restricted to those issues that fall within the guidelines approved by the Council. 2. Requests for position statements are referred immediately to the Public Affairs Committee. 3. If a request seems to fall within Union guidelines, the committee will recommend that the President of the Union appoint an independent panel charged with drafting a statement. The panel will include at least one member nominated by the Public Affairs Committee, the originator of the request, and one member of Council. 4. The Council and the membership will be informed that the panel is working on the issue and that comments are welcome. 5. The panel will prepare a statement for circulation to the Council of the Union. 6. Members of Council (or Executive Committee when timeliness is critical) will be asked to vote or to comment on the proposed statement. This vote is to be taken at regularly scheduled meetings except where timeliness is critical. Concurrence of two thirds is required for adoption. 7. All adopted position statements will be published in Eos as soon as possible. 8. Once a statement has been approved, the Public Affairs Committee will endeavor to apply its expertise to making advocacy of its contents as effective as possible.

  15. Geometrical Positioning Schemes Based on Hybrid Lines of Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Jium-Ming; Liu, Wen-Hsiung; Chi, Ching-Lung

    To achieve more accurate measurements of the mobile station (MS) location, it is possible to integrate many kinds of measurements. In this paper we proposed several simpler methods that utilized time of arrival (TOA) at three base stations (BSs) and the angle of arrival (AOA) information at the serving BS to give location estimation of the MS in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments. From the viewpoint of geometric approach, for each a TOA value measured at any BS, one can generate a circle. Rather than applying the nonlinear circular lines of position (LOP), the proposed methods are much easier by using linear LOP to determine the MS. Numerical results demonstrate that the calculation time of using linear LOP is much less than employing circular LOP. Although the location precision of using linear LOP is only reduced slightly. However, the proposed efficient methods by using linear LOP can still provide precise solution of MS location and reduce the computational effort greatly. In addition, the proposed methods with less effort can mitigate the NLOS effect, simply by applying the weighted sum of the intersections between different linear LOP and the AOA line, without requiring priori knowledge of NLOS error statistics. Simulation results show that the proposed methods can always yield superior performance in comparison with Taylor series algorithm (TSA) and the hybrid lines of position algorithm (HLOP).

  16. Fluorescent fluid interface position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2004-02-17

    A new fluid interface position sensor has been developed, which is capable of optically determining the location of an interface between an upper fluid and a lower fluid, the upper fluid having a larger refractive index than a lower fluid. The sensor functions by measurement, of fluorescence excited by an optical pump beam which is confined within a fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the lower fluid, but escapes from the fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the upper fluid.

  17. Positional Cloning by Linkage Disequilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Maniatis, Nikolas; Collins, Andrew; Gibson, Jane; Zhang, Weihua; Tapper, William; Morton, Newton E.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, metric linkage disequilibrium (LD) maps that assign an LD unit (LDU) location for each marker have been developed (Maniatis et al. 2002). Here we present a multiple pairwise method for positional cloning by LD within a composite likelihood framework and investigate the operating characteristics of maps in physical units (kb) and LDU for two bodies of data (Daly et al. 2001; Jeffreys et al. 2001) on which current ideas of blocks are based. False-negative indications of a disease locus (type II error) were examined by selecting one single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) at a time as causal and taking its allelic count (0, 1, or 2, for the three genotypes) as a pseudophenotype, Y. By use of regression and correlation, association between every pseudophenotype and the allelic count of each SNP locus (X) was based on an adaptation of the Malecot model, which includes a parameter for location of the putative gene. By expressing locations in kb or LDU, greater power for localization was observed when the LDU map was fitted. The efficiency of the kb map, relative to the LDU map, to describe LD varied from a maximum of 0.87 to a minimum of 0.36, with a mean of 0.62. False-positive indications of a disease locus (type I error) were examined by simulating an unlinked causal SNP and the allele count was used as a pseudophenotype. The type I error was in good agreement with Wald’s likelihood theorem for both metrics and all models that were tested. Unlike tests that select only the most significant marker, haplotype, or haploset, these methods are robust to large numbers of markers in a candidate region. Contrary to predictions from tagging SNPs that retain haplotype diversity, the sample with smaller size but greater SNP density gave less error. The locations of causal SNPs were estimated with the same precision in blocks and steps, suggesting that block definition may be less useful than anticipated for mapping a causal SNP. These results provide a guide to

  18. Russian Soyuz in Launch Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Soyuz TM-31 launch vehicle is shown in the vertical position for its launch from Baikonur, carrying the first resident crew to the International Space Station. The Russian Soyuz launch vehicle is an expendable spacecraft that evolved out of the original Class A (Sputnik). From the early 1960s until today, the Soyuz launch vehicle has been the backbone of Russia's marned and unmanned space launch fleet. Today, the Soyuz launch vehicle is marketed internationally by a joint Russian/French consortium called STARSEM. As of August 2001, there have been ten Soyuz missions under the STARSEM banner.

  19. Diffraction encoded position measuring apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Tansey, R.J.

    1991-09-24

    When a lightwave passes through a transmission grating, diffracted beams appear at the output or opposite side of the grating that are effectively Doppler shifted in frequency (phase) whereby a detector system can compare the phase of the zero order and higher order beams to obtain an indication of position. Multiple passes through the grating increase resolution for a given wavelength of a laser signal. The resolution can be improved further by using a smaller wavelength laser to generate the grating itself. Since the grating must only have a pitch sufficient to produce diffracted orders, inexpensive, ultraviolet wavelength lasers can be utilized and still obtain high resolution detection. 3 figures.

  20. Diffraction encoded position measuring apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Tansey, Richard J.

    1991-01-01

    When a lightwave passes through a transmission grating, diffracted beams appear at the output or opposite side of the grating that are effectively Doppler shifted in frequency (phase) whereby a detector system can compare the phase of the zero order and higher order beams to obtain an indication of position. Multiple passes through the grating increase resolution for a given wavelength of a laser signal. The resolution can be improved further by using a smaller wavelength laser to generate the grating itself. Since the grating must only have a pitch sufficient to produce diffracted orders, inexpensive, ultraviolet wavelength lasers can be utilized and still obtain high resolution detection.

  1. Why Aren't We There Yet? Taking Personal Responsibility for Creating an Inclusive Campus. An ACPA Publication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arminio, Jan, Ed.; Torres, Vasti, Ed.; Pope, Raechele L., Ed.

    2012-01-01

    Despite seeming endless debate and public attention given to the issue for several decades, those committed to creating welcoming and engaging campus environments for all students recognize that there is considerably more work to be done, and ask "Why aren't we there yet, and when will we be done?" While our campuses have evolved from being…

  2. Ultra-precision positioning assembly

    DOEpatents

    Montesanti, Richard C.; Locke, Stanley F.; Thompson, Samuel L.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method is disclosed for ultra-precision positioning. A slide base provides a foundational support. A slide plate moves with respect to the slide base along a first geometric axis. Either a ball-screw or a piezoelectric actuator working separate or in conjunction displaces the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis. A linking device directs a primary force vector into a center-line of the ball-screw. The linking device consists of a first link which directs a first portion of the primary force vector to an apex point, located along the center-line of the ball-screw, and a second link for directing a second portion of the primary force vector to the apex point. A set of rails, oriented substantially parallel to the center-line of the ball-screw, direct movement of the slide plate with respect to the slide base along the first geometric axis and are positioned such that the apex point falls within a geometric plane formed by the rails. The slide base, the slide plate, the ball-screw, and the linking device together form a slide assembly. Multiple slide assemblies can be distributed about a platform. In such a configuration, the platform may be raised and lowered, or tipped and tilted by jointly or independently displacing the slide plates.

  3. Inertial Pointing and Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yee, Robert (Inventor); Robbins, Fred (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    An inertial pointing and control system and method for pointing to a designated target with known coordinates from a platform to provide accurate position, steering, and command information. The system continuously receives GPS signals and corrects Inertial Navigation System (INS) dead reckoning or drift errors. An INS is mounted directly on a pointing instrument rather than in a remote location on the platform for-monitoring the terrestrial position and instrument attitude. and for pointing the instrument at designated celestial targets or ground based landmarks. As a result. the pointing instrument and die INS move independently in inertial space from the platform since the INS is decoupled from the platform. Another important characteristic of the present system is that selected INS measurements are combined with predefined coordinate transformation equations and control logic algorithms under computer control in order to generate inertial pointing commands to the pointing instrument. More specifically. the computer calculates the desired instrument angles (Phi, Theta. Psi). which are then compared to the Euler angles measured by the instrument- mounted INS. and forms the pointing command error angles as a result of the compared difference.

  4. Positive Emotion Facilitates Audiovisual Binding

    PubMed Central

    Kitamura, Miho S.; Watanabe, Katsumi; Kitagawa, Norimichi

    2016-01-01

    It has been shown that positive emotions can facilitate integrative and associative information processing in cognitive functions. The present study examined whether emotions in observers can also enhance perceptual integrative processes. We tested 125 participants in total for revealing the effects of emotional states and traits in observers on the multisensory binding between auditory and visual signals. Participants in Experiment 1 observed two identical visual disks moving toward each other, coinciding, and moving away, presented with a brief sound. We found that for participants with lower depressive tendency, induced happy moods increased the width of the temporal binding window of the sound-induced bounce percept in the stream/bounce display, while no effect was found for the participants with higher depressive tendency. In contrast, no effect of mood was observed for a simple audiovisual simultaneity discrimination task in Experiment 2. These results provide the first empirical evidence of a dependency of multisensory binding upon emotional states and traits, revealing that positive emotions can facilitate the multisensory binding processes at a perceptual level. PMID:26834585

  5. Asympotics with positive cosmological constant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonga, Beatrice; Ashtekar, Abhay; Kesavan, Aruna

    2014-03-01

    Since observations to date imply that our universe has a positive cosmological constant, one needs an extension of the theory of isolated systems and gravitational radiation in full general relativity from the asymptotically flat to asymptotically de Sitter space-times. In current definitions, one mimics the boundary conditions used in asymptotically AdS context to conclude that the asymptotic symmetry group is the de Sitter group. However, these conditions severely restricts radiation and in fact rules out non-zero flux of energy, momentum and angular momentum carried by gravitational waves. Therefore, these formulations of asymptotically de Sitter space-times are uninteresting beyond non-radiative spacetimes. The situation is compared and contrasted with conserved charges and fluxes at null infinity in asymptotically flat space-times.

  6. Pavlov's position toward American behaviorism.

    PubMed

    Windholz, G

    1983-10-01

    Pavlov's development of the conditional reflex theory coincided with the rise of American behaviorism. Substituting an objective physiology for a subjective psychology, Pavlov saw in the rise of American behaviorism a clear confirmation of his method and theory. But in the early 1930s, Lashley attacked Pavlov's theory of specific cerebral localization of function, proposing instead the concept of an internal cerebral organization; Guthrie objected to Pavlov's centralist interpretation of conditioning, proposing instead a peripheralist interpretation; while Hull challenged Pavlov's theory of sleep and hypnosis as the manifestations of inhibition. Pavlov replied with critiques of Lashley's, Guthrie's, and Hull's views, and, convinced that Lashley and Guthrie misunderstood his position, repeated his method's and theory's basic propositions. Yet, Pavlov never gave up the expectation that American behaviorism would accept his conditional reflex theory and saw in Hunter's 1932 statements a support of his assumptions.

  7. Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Fyfe, Richard W.; Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo

    1990-01-01

    An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

  8. NASN position statement: caseload assignments.

    PubMed

    Durant, Bonnie V; Gibbons, Linda J; Poole, Cynthia; Suessmanm, Mary; Wyckoff, Leah

    2011-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that schools should employ professionally prepared Registered Nurses, to conduct and supervise school health programs which address the variety of health problems experienced by school children. NASN recommends a formula-based approach with minimum ratios of nurses-to-students depending on the needs of the student populations as follows: 1:750 for students in the general population, 1:225 in the student populations requiring daily professional school nursing services or interventions, 1:125 in student populations with complex health care needs, and 1:1 may be necessary for individual students who require daily and continuous professional nursing services. Other factors that should be considered in the formula-based approach are number of students on free or reduced lunch, number of students with a medical home, and average number of emergency services per year.

  9. GPS Position Time Series @ JPL

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Owen, Susan; Moore, Angelyn; Kedar, Sharon; Liu, Zhen; Webb, Frank; Heflin, Mike; Desai, Shailen

    2013-01-01

    Different flavors of GPS time series analysis at JPL - Use same GPS Precise Point Positioning Analysis raw time series - Variations in time series analysis/post-processing driven by different users. center dot JPL Global Time Series/Velocities - researchers studying reference frame, combining with VLBI/SLR/DORIS center dot JPL/SOPAC Combined Time Series/Velocities - crustal deformation for tectonic, volcanic, ground water studies center dot ARIA Time Series/Coseismic Data Products - Hazard monitoring and response focused center dot ARIA data system designed to integrate GPS and InSAR - GPS tropospheric delay used for correcting InSAR - Caltech's GIANT time series analysis uses GPS to correct orbital errors in InSAR - Zhen Liu's talking tomorrow on InSAR Time Series analysis

  10. Natural head position: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Meiyappan, N.; Tamizharasi, S.; Senthilkumar, K. P.; Janardhanan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Cephalometrics has given us a different perspective of interpreting various skeletal problems in the dentofacial complex. Natural head position (NHP) is a reproducible, physiologically determined aspect of function. To determine NHP, a horizontal or vertical reference line outside the crania was used, but preference was given generally to the horizontal. Various intra and extracranial cephalometric horizontal reference planes have been used to formulate diagnosis and plan individualized treatment for an integrated correction of the malocclusion cephalometrics is constantly undergoing refinements in its techniques and analyses to improve the clinical applications. Even though various methods for establishing NHP have been proposed, still it remains a challenge to the clinicians to implement the concept of NHP thoroughly in all the stages of treatment because of practical difficulties in the clinical scenario. PMID:26538891

  11. Natural head position: An overview.

    PubMed

    Meiyappan, N; Tamizharasi, S; Senthilkumar, K P; Janardhanan, K

    2015-08-01

    Cephalometrics has given us a different perspective of interpreting various skeletal problems in the dentofacial complex. Natural head position (NHP) is a reproducible, physiologically determined aspect of function. To determine NHP, a horizontal or vertical reference line outside the crania was used, but preference was given generally to the horizontal. Various intra and extracranial cephalometric horizontal reference planes have been used to formulate diagnosis and plan individualized treatment for an integrated correction of the malocclusion cephalometrics is constantly undergoing refinements in its techniques and analyses to improve the clinical applications. Even though various methods for establishing NHP have been proposed, still it remains a challenge to the clinicians to implement the concept of NHP thoroughly in all the stages of treatment because of practical difficulties in the clinical scenario.

  12. NASN position statement: caseload assignments.

    PubMed

    Durant, Bonnie V; Gibbons, Linda J; Poole, Cynthia; Suessmanm, Mary; Wyckoff, Leah

    2011-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that schools should employ professionally prepared Registered Nurses, to conduct and supervise school health programs which address the variety of health problems experienced by school children. NASN recommends a formula-based approach with minimum ratios of nurses-to-students depending on the needs of the student populations as follows: 1:750 for students in the general population, 1:225 in the student populations requiring daily professional school nursing services or interventions, 1:125 in student populations with complex health care needs, and 1:1 may be necessary for individual students who require daily and continuous professional nursing services. Other factors that should be considered in the formula-based approach are number of students on free or reduced lunch, number of students with a medical home, and average number of emergency services per year. PMID:21291082

  13. Ode to positive constructive daydreaming

    PubMed Central

    McMillan, Rebecca L.; Kaufman, Scott Barry; Singer, Jerome L.

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 60 years ago, Jerome L. Singer launched a groundbreaking research program into daydreaming (Singer, 1955, 1975, 2009) that presaged and laid the foundation for virtually every major strand of mind wandering research active today (Antrobus, 1999; Klinger, 1999, 2009). Here we review Singer’s enormous contribution to the field, which includes insights, methodologies, and tools still in use today, and trace his enduring legacy as revealed in the recent proliferation of mind wandering studies. We then turn to the central theme in Singer’s work, the adaptive nature of positive constructive daydreaming, which was a revolutionary idea when Singer began his work in the 1950s and remains underreported today. Last, we propose a new approach to answering the enduring question: Why does mind wandering persist and occupy so much of our time, as much as 50% of our waking time according to some estimates, if it is as costly as most studies suggest? PMID:24065936

  14. [Empathic leadership: shaping positive change].

    PubMed

    Wetterauer, U; Ruhl, S

    2011-12-01

    This paper explains the concept of empathic leadership in the setting of fundamental organisational changes. It deals with the question of how you can establish a culture of leadership, which motivates employees positively and enthuses them for the upcoming changes. It discusses the basics of empathic leadership and considers the question of how handling of emotions influences change processes and how different management styles can be used supportively during changes. With the help of a practical example the different phases of change are presented from a management point of view. Thereby the theory of different levels of employee motivation is explained inter alia. The article shows that empathic leadership also has a lasting economic effect. This can be seen particularly in the power of motivation for change, in addition to recruitment and long-term employee retention. PMID:22159703

  15. Positively regulated bacterial expression systems

    PubMed Central

    Brautaset, Trygve; Lale, Rahmi; Valla, Svein

    2009-01-01

    Summary Regulated promoters are useful tools for many aspects related to recombinant gene expression in bacteria, including for high‐level expression of heterologous proteins and for expression at physiological levels in metabolic engineering applications. In general, it is common to express the genes of interest from an inducible promoter controlled either by a positive regulator or by a repressor protein. In this review, we discuss established and potentially useful positively regulated bacterial promoter systems, with a particular emphasis on those that are controlled by the AraC‐XylS family of transcriptional activators. The systems function in a wide range of microorganisms, including enterobacteria, soil bacteria, lactic bacteria and streptomycetes. The available systems that have been applied to express heterologous genes are regulated either by sugars (l‐arabinose, l‐rhamnose, xylose and sucrose), substituted benzenes, cyclohexanone‐related compounds, ε‐caprolactam, propionate, thiostrepton, alkanes or peptides. It is of applied interest that some of the inducers require the presence of transport systems, some are more prone than others to become metabolized by the host and some have been applied mainly in one or a limited number of species. Based on bioinformatics analyses, the AraC‐XylS family of regulators contains a large number of different members (currently over 300), but only a small fraction of these, the XylS/Pm, AraC/PBAD, RhaR‐RhaS/rhaBAD, NitR/PnitA and ChnR/Pb regulator/promoter systems, have so far been explored for biotechnological applications. PMID:21261879

  16. Positively regulated bacterial expression systems.

    PubMed

    Brautaset, Trygve; Lale, Rahmi; Valla, Svein

    2009-01-01

    Regulated promoters are useful tools for many aspects related to recombinant gene expression in bacteria, including for high-level expression of heterologous proteins and for expression at physiological levels in metabolic engineering applications. In general, it is common to express the genes of interest from an inducible promoter controlled either by a positive regulator or by a repressor protein. In this review, we discuss established and potentially useful positively regulated bacterial promoter systems, with a particular emphasis on those that are controlled by the AraC-XylS family of transcriptional activators. The systems function in a wide range of microorganisms, including enterobacteria, soil bacteria, lactic bacteria and streptomycetes. The available systems that have been applied to express heterologous genes are regulated either by sugars (L-arabinose, L-rhamnose, xylose and sucrose), substituted benzenes, cyclohexanone-related compounds, ε-caprolactam, propionate, thiostrepton, alkanes or peptides. It is of applied interest that some of the inducers require the presence of transport systems, some are more prone than others to become metabolized by the host and some have been applied mainly in one or a limited number of species. Based on bioinformatics analyses, the AraC-XylS family of regulators contains a large number of different members (currently over 300), but only a small fraction of these, the XylS/Pm, AraC/P(BAD), RhaR-RhaS/rhaBAD, NitR/PnitA and ChnR/Pb regulator/promoter systems, have so far been explored for biotechnological applications.

  17. High Contrast Positive Resist II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunwald, John; Turner, Edwin J.; Sawoska, David A.; Spencer, Allen C.

    1985-04-01

    The functional performance of ULTRAMAC PR914 positive resist on a 10:1 wafer stepper using monochromatic light at 436 nanometers was described in detail at the last SPIE Conference (March 1984). Submicron resolution capabilities in the order of 0.6 micron with edge wall profiles greater than 85° were shown, using the metal-ion-free developer, ULTRAMAC' MF62. This follow-up paper details the functional performance of ULTRAMAC' PR914 positive resist with a new metal-ion-free developer, ULTRAMAC" MF62A. When used at 1:1 dilution, ULTRAMAC' MF62A reduces the exposure energy necessary to obtain high contrast PR914 images by approximately 50% as compared to a 1:1 dilution of ULTRAMAC' MF62, making it a "fast" photoresist system by accepted industry standards. Data is shown with contact, projection and step-and-repeat alignment equipment. Also, a mechanism is proposed to explain the significant reduction in standing waves when ULTRAMAC' PR914 resist is developed with MF62 or MF62A. New data is shown on a modified version of PR914 resist, designated as ULTRAMAC" PR914 AR, for use on highly reflective surfaces, particularly over nonplanar (stepped) features. Deep UV stabilization of both ULTRAMAC' PR914 and PR914 AR, offering excellent thermal stability of critical dimensions, is also shown. Selectivity data of PR914 resist in plasma/RIE etch conditions is presented in comparison with other resists. The effect of high current ion implant (phosphorus and arsenic) on PR914 resist is also reported.

  18. [Readers' position against induced abortion].

    PubMed

    1981-08-25

    Replies to the request by the Journal of Nursing on readers' positions against induced abortion indicate there is a definite personal position against induced abortion and the assistance in this procedure. Some writers expressed an emotional "no" against induced abortion. Many quoted arguments from the literature, such as a medical dictionary definition as "a premeditated criminally induced abortion." The largest group of writers quoted from the Bible, the tenor always being: "God made man, he made us with his hands; we have no right to make the decision." People with other philosophies also objected. Theosophical viewpoint considers reincarnation and the law of cause and effect (karma). This philosophy holds that induced abortion impedes the appearance of a reincarnated being. The fundamental question in the abortion problem is, "can the fetus be considered a human life?" The German anatomist Professor E. Bleckschmidt points out that from conception there is human life, hence the fertilized cell can only develop into a human being and is not merely a piece of tissue. Professional nursing interpretation is that nursing action directed towards killing of a human being (unborn child) is against the nature and the essence of the nursing profession. A different opinion states that a nurse cares for patients who have decided for the operation. The nurse doesn't judge but respects the individual's decision. Some proabortion viewpoints considered the endangering of the mother's life by the unborn child, and the case of rape. With the arguments against abortion the question arises how to help the woman with unwanted pregnancy. Psychological counseling is emphasized as well as responsible and careful assistance. Referral to the Society for Protection of the Unborn Child (VBOK) is considered as well as other agencies. Further reader comments on this subject are solicited. PMID:6913282

  19. Research priorities: seating and positioning.

    PubMed

    Sprigle, Stephen

    2007-05-01

    The Mobility Rehabilitation Engineering Research Center at the Georgia Institute of Technology held its State of the Science Conference to address challenges in studying the health, activity and participation of wheelchair users. This article summarizes the discussions of four seating and positioning research topics. Attendees were divided into Breakout Groups and assigned specific research topics that were deemed priorities by the attendees. Breakout Groups were charged with configuring the research topic into a research project and were asked to identify research questions, specific aims or hypotheses, significance, study design possibilities, recruitment considerations, measurement variables and tools, analysis considerations, and anticipated challenges. The four research topics selected for discussion were: Impact of a seating and mobility intervention, Defining a systematic clinical approach to cushion selection, Functional impact of wheelchair cushions, and Long term impact of sitting. Group synopses presented in this paper were compiled from Group notes and presentation. They are presented in sequence and reflect variability in discussion, presentation and content. Some research topics were more amenable to the suggested guidelines than others.

  20. Population policy: major party positions.

    PubMed

    Betts, K

    1998-01-01

    This article identifies the major political party positions on population policy (PP) in Australia. Australia has the Governing Coalition, comprised of the Liberal and National Parties, and the Australian Labor Party (ALP), the main opposition party. The ALP adopted a PP at its national conference in 1998. The Government Minister for Immigration and Multicultural Affairs (DIMA) does not view a PP as a need. The ALP policy identifies the need to decide on a long term sustainable population size as determined within a PP framework. The visa classification system needs to reflect national priorities. Labor will support a fair refugee and humanitarian program. Skilled labor migration must be linked with labor market needs. Business migration is a means of transferring resources and technology to Australia. The DIMA Minister announced the target intake of 80,000 visa immigrants in 1998- 99, which would produce a peak population of about 23 million in 2050. Settler arrivals from New Zealand would increase population size. A group of scientists and scholars published their recommendations about development of a PP. The Minister of DIMA's defense of the lack of a PP is included in this publication. Labor in several publications indicates support for a larger immigration intake, or an adjustment of the intake within the existing numbers. The Prime Minister, who supports the concept of multiculturalism, argues that people must accept immigration policy. Politics today are more divided over the origin and future of the nation than population size issues.

  1. [Psychogenic tremor: a positive diagnosis].

    PubMed

    Redondo, L; Morgado, Y; Durán, E

    2010-01-01

    Psychogenic movement disorders are a daily challenge for the neurologist. A mistake in its recognition may have important consequences for the patients. As a result, the diagnosis must be considered very carefully in clinical practice. However, psychogenic movement disorders are not unusual, are mainly tremors, and a wrong diagnosis is common. Psychogenic is an unspecific term that usually masks the real mental disorder, and should be called somatoform disorders, factitious disorders, malingering, depression, anxiety and histrionic personality disorder, although the absence of a psychiatric diagnosis does not preclude a psychogenic cause. The diagnosis may often be difficult and should be made by an expert neurologist. Organic movement disorders must be excluded after a detailed neurological history, examination, and appropriate diagnostic studies. Psychogenic tremor is not only a diagnosis of exclusion, it can be diagnosed positively by its neurological signs, mainly: variability in frequency and amplitude, bilateral and sudden onset, non-progressive with frequent remissions, absence of finger, tongue or face tremor and coactivation of antagonistic muscles. Several tests can be useful in diagnosis, such as: accelerometry, EMG and response to placebo or suggestion. The treatment requires close cooperation between the medical team and patient. The problem must never be minimised and early diagnosis and treatment must be attempted. PMID:20388461

  2. Postdoctoral Positions and Career Growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manka, R. H.

    2001-12-01

    Career choices begin to diverge at the time the doctorate is received. A variety of career options are available to pursue including positions in academia, government, and industry as well as non-traditional services. A postdoctoral appointment is worth considering as preparation for a career in academia or basic research. The postdoctoral appointment can expand the recent graduate's background and broaden their scientific perspective and reputation. Postdoctoral experience may even be essential to be competitive for some faculty and research laboratory appointments. However, there is a wide range of postdoctoral choices to consider. There are many opportunities for postdoctoral appointments in universities, and emerging opportunities in some corporate laboratories. We will mention opportunities in federal laboratories such as the National Research Council programs in NASA, NOAA, EPA, and the Dept. of Defense, which are open to U.S. citizens and in some cases to non-U.S. applicants, to pursue research in all areas of the Earth and space sciences. And there are exciting new interdisciplinary programs such as the NASA Astrobiology Institute, as well as international opportunities including the von Humboldt fellowships in Germany and similar programs elsewhere in Europe, Japan, and other countries.

  3. Positional Identity and Science Teacher Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Felicia M.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to understand the positional identity of three African American secondary science teachers. Positional identity was operationally defined in terms of race, ethnicity, economic status, gender, religion, and age. Positional identity was posited to inform why diverse teachers with differing knowledge and experiences in…

  4. 14 CFR 31.65 - Position lights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Position lights. 31.65 Section 31.65... STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.65 Position lights. (a) If position lights are installed, there must be one steady aviation white position light and one flashing aviation red (or...

  5. Positionalities, Personal Epistemologies, and Instruction: An Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avci, Omer

    2016-01-01

    Individuals' sense of who they are and what their positions are in relation to others is known to be their positionality. Positionalities influence individuals' conception of the world, thus their epistemologies. A few of the positionalities that exist, and included in this paper, are gender, spirituality, race/ethnicity, and social class. All…

  6. Sun position sensor for two axis tracking

    SciTech Connect

    Rotolo, G.E.

    1982-11-30

    A sun position sensor includes a plurality of solar sensors sensing solar energy arriving in a respective azimuth and elevational direction, and data encoding means for a series of respective solar azimuth and elevational positions, each position corresponding to a respective solar sensor. Said data encoding means are coupled to the solar sensors to derive a sensed solar position. A solar collector is effective for receiving solar energy in a discrete direction. Drive means positions the solar collector and provides position data corresponding to the position of the solar collector, and comparator means compares the collector position and the solar position and provides a drive signal until the two positions are equal. A geodesic dome portion includes several facets each of which contains a respective plurality of solar sensors to provide an electrical output signal representing the amount of solar incidence on a respective sensor/dome facet.

  7. A different perspective: introducing positive criminology.

    PubMed

    Ronel, Natti; Elisha, Ety

    2011-04-01

    Positive criminology is a new conceptual perspective of criminology, encompassing several theories and models. Positive criminology refers to a focus on individuals' encounters with forces and influences that are experienced as positive, which distance them from deviance and crime, whether by means of formal and informal therapy programs and interventions, such as self-help groups; through emphasis of positive social elements, such as exposure to goodness, social acceptance, and reintegrative shaming; or based on positive personal traits, such as resilience and coherence. The perspective of positive criminology broadens that of traditional criminology, which focuses mainly on understanding the factors and processes that lead individuals and groups to what is defined as deviant and criminal behavior. Positive criminology is implemented in treatment and rehabilitation of individuals and groups that have demonstrated deviant and criminal behavior, by emphasizing positive experiences that may potentially prevent or discourage continued criminal behavior. Positive criminology is also expressed in prevention based on a positive approach.

  8. The Positive Psychology of Youth and Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Grant Jewell

    2003-01-01

    Introduces this theme issue that explores the nature of adolescence and the positive psychology movement that focuses on positive aspects of adolescent development. Articles in this collection provide a window into the exploration of youth strengths. (SLD)

  9. Strategic market positions for mental health services.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, D M; Lennox, L

    1988-01-01

    Faced with a rapidly changing market, increased legislation and intense competition, mental health service providers must be sophisticated planners and position themselves advantageously in the marketplace. They can effectively position themselves to be profitable and sustaining through market segmentation and sensitivity. The following article will address one concept of marketing that has received less attention but is of critical importance: positioning. As the market environment becomes increasingly competitive, positioning will be the key to success for mental health programs and institutions.

  10. OBSERVABLE CHANGES OF HYPOTHESES UNDER POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT.

    PubMed

    SUPPES, P; SCHLAG-REY, M

    1965-04-30

    In mathematical models of concept learning it has consistently been assumed that positive reinforcement cannot lead to a change of the hypothesis determining the overt response. When hypotheses are experimentally identified and recorded along with positive and negative reinforcements of stimulus-response pairs, it can be shown that hypotheses may change after a positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement has an information content for subjects that has not yet been adequately recognized in concept formation studies.

  11. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  12. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  13. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  14. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  15. 30 CFR 56.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling positions. 56.7052 Section 56.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling § 56.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not drill from— (a) Positions which...

  16. Positive Psychology versus the Medical Model?: Comment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Stephen; Linley, P. Alex

    2006-01-01

    Comments on "Positive psychology progress: Empirical validation of interventions" by Seligman, Steen, Park, and Peterson (see record 2005-08033-003). Seligman and colleagues provided a progress report on positive psychology, reviewing the impressive developments over the past five years. We wholeheartedly support the positive psychology movement…

  17. 25 CFR 38.4 - Education positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Education positions. 38.4 Section 38.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.4 Education positions. (a) The Director shall establish the kinds of positions required to carry out the Bureau's...

  18. 25 CFR 38.4 - Education positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Education positions. 38.4 Section 38.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.4 Education positions. (a) The Director shall establish the kinds of positions required to carry out the Bureau's...

  19. 25 CFR 38.4 - Education positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Education positions. 38.4 Section 38.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.4 Education positions. (a) The Director shall establish the kinds of positions required to carry out the Bureau's...

  20. 25 CFR 38.4 - Education positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Education positions. 38.4 Section 38.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.4 Education positions. (a) The Director shall establish the kinds of positions required to carry out the Bureau's...

  1. What Does "Positive" Attitude Really Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Di Martino, Pietro; Zan, Rosetta

    2003-01-01

    In this communication we analyze a dichotomy that pervades research on attitude in mathematics education: the classification of attitude as positive/negative. After highlighting the ambiguity of the term "positive", and some problems related to it, we suggest that the positive/negative dichotomy is too simplistic to take into account the deep…

  2. Positive Psychology and Quality Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cherubini, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss concepts of positive psychology related to quality physical education. Positive psychology and the scientific study of happiness refer to three paths or pursuits: the pleasant life (positive emotion), the engaged life (engagement), and the meaningful life (meaning). When individuals are aware of, pursue,…

  3. Corrigendum: How Positive Emotions Build Physical Health

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Kok, B. E., Coffey, K. A., Cohn, M. A., Catalino, L. I., Vacharkulksemsuk, T., Algoe, S. B., . . . Fredrickson, B. L. (2013). How positive emotions build physical health: Perceived positive social connections account for the upward spiral between positive emotions and vagal tone. Psychological Science, 24, 1123–1132. (Original DOI: 10.1177/0956797612470827) PMID:27140726

  4. On Nth roots of positive operators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, D. R.; Omalley, M. J.

    1978-01-01

    A bounded operator A on a Hilbert space H was positive. These operators were symmetric, and as such constitute a natural generalization of nonnegative real diagonal matrices. The following result is thus both well known and not surprising: A positive operator has a unique positive square root (under operator composition).

  5. Position Restructuring at Peking University Library.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gao, Zhuo-Xian; Zhang, Sha Li, Trans.

    2001-01-01

    Peking University Library initiated position restructuring in response to the University's requirements and to increasing expectations of users. Goals were to reduce unwanted positions and enhance responsibilities of selection positions. The restructuring promised to improve library services and staff morale. Describes steps in the restructuring…

  6. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  7. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  8. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  9. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section 345.20 Judicial Administration FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES, INC., DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FEDERAL PRISON INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a)...

  10. OI Positive: A Look at Unbreakable Spirits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Priscilla

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author reflects on the positive outlook of parents and children with OI (Osteogenesis Imperfecta or simply, brittle bones), who attended the 15th Biennial National OI Conference. The author believes that the attendees positive attitudes comes from the positive influences they have had from the beginning. One example of an…

  11. 28 CFR 345.20 - Position classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Position classification. 345.20 Section... INDUSTRIES (FPI) INMATE WORK PROGRAMS Position Classification § 345.20 Position classification. (a) Inmate... the objectives and principles of pay classification as a part of the routine orientation of new...

  12. 25 CFR 38.4 - Education positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Education positions. 38.4 Section 38.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.4 Education positions. (a) The Director shall establish the kinds of positions required to carry out the Bureau's...

  13. Differentiation of 13 positive emotions by appraisals.

    PubMed

    Tong, Eddie M W

    2015-01-01

    This research examined how strongly appraisals can differentiate positive emotions and how they differentiate positive emotions. Thirteen positive emotions were examined, namely, amusement, awe, challenge, compassion, contentment, gratitude, hope, interest, joy, pride, relief, romantic love and serenity. Participants from Singapore and the USA recalled an experience of each emotion and thereafter rated their appraisals of the experience. In general, the appraisals accurately classified the positive emotions at rates above chance levels, and the appraisal-emotion relationships conformed to predictions. Also, the appraisals were largely judged by participants as relevant to their positive emotion experiences, and the appraisal-emotion relationships were largely consistent across the two countries. PMID:24911866

  14. Fine Mapping Seronegative and Seropositive Rheumatoid Arthritis to Shared and Distinct HLA Alleles by Adjusting for the Effects of Heterogeneity

    PubMed Central

    Han, Buhm; Diogo, Dorothée; Eyre, Steve; Kallberg, Henrik; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Bowes, John; Padyukov, Leonid; Okada, Yukinori; González-Gay, Miguel A.; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Martin, Javier; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Plenge, Robert M.; Worthington, Jane; Gregersen, Peter K.; Klareskog, Lars; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2014-01-01

    Despite progress in defining human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles for anti-citrullinated-protein-autoantibody-positive (ACPA+) rheumatoid arthritis (RA), identifying HLA alleles for ACPA-negative (ACPA−) RA has been challenging because of clinical heterogeneity within clinical cohorts. We imputed 8,961 classical HLA alleles, amino acids, and SNPs from Immunochip data in a discovery set of 2,406 ACPA− RA case and 13,930 control individuals. We developed a statistical approach to identify and adjust for clinical heterogeneity within ACPA− RA and observed independent associations for serine and leucine at position 11 in HLA-DRβ1 (p = 1.4 × 10−13, odds ratio [OR] = 1.30) and for aspartate at position 9 in HLA-B (p = 2.7 × 10−12, OR = 1.39) within the peptide binding grooves. These amino acid positions induced associations at HLA-DRB1∗03 (encoding serine at 11) and HLA-B∗08 (encoding aspartate at 9). We validated these findings in an independent set of 427 ACPA− case subjects, carefully phenotyped with a highly sensitive ACPA assay, and 1,691 control subjects (HLA-DRβ1 Ser11+Leu11: p = 5.8 × 10−4, OR = 1.28; HLA-B Asp9: p = 2.6 × 10−3, OR = 1.34). Although both amino acid sites drove risk of ACPA+ and ACPA− disease, the effects of individual residues at HLA-DRβ1 position 11 were distinct (p < 2.9 × 10−107). We also identified an association with ACPA+ RA at HLA-A position 77 (p = 2.7 × 10−8, OR = 0.85) in 7,279 ACPA+ RA case and 15,870 control subjects. These results contribute to mounting evidence that ACPA+ and ACPA− RA are genetically distinct and potentially have separate autoantigens contributing to pathogenesis. We expect that our approach might have broad applications in analyzing clinical conditions with heterogeneity at both major histocompatibility complex (MHC) and non-MHC regions. PMID:24656864

  15. Positive psychiatry: its time has come.

    PubMed

    Jeste, Dilip V; Palmer, Barton W; Rettew, David C; Boardman, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article, we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit nonclinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (eg, well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom-including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall health care of the population.

  16. Positive psychiatry: its time has come.

    PubMed

    Jeste, Dilip V; Palmer, Barton W; Rettew, David C; Boardman, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article, we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit nonclinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (eg, well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom-including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall health care of the population. PMID:26132670

  17. Intergenerational continuity in economic hardship, parental positivity, and positive parenting: The association with child behavior.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Shinyoung; Neppl, Tricia K

    2016-02-01

    The current study examined intergenerational continuity in economic hardship, parental positivity, and positive parenting across generations based on both the family stress model (FSM) and the family resilience framework. The study included 220 generation 1 (G1) parents, their target youth (generation 2: G2) who participated from adolescence through adulthood, and the target's child (generation 3: G3). Assessments included observational and self-report measures. Results indicated that G1 economic hardship negatively influenced both G1 positivity and G1 positive parenting. Similarly, G2 economic hardship was negatively related to both G2 positivity and G2 positive parenting, which in turn was associated with G3 positive behavior to G2. For both G1 and G2, parental positivity mediated the association between economic hardship and positive parenting. G2 economic hardship was indirectly related to G3 positive behavior through G2 parental positivity and positive parenting. An important finding is that the intergenerational continuity of economic hardship, positivity, and positive parenting were transmitted from G1 to G2. Results suggest that even in times of economic adversity, parental positivity and positive parenting were transmitted from G1 parents to their G2 youth during adulthood. Such continuity seems to influence the positive behavior of the G3 children.

  18. Positive Cardiovascular Health: A Timely Convergence.

    PubMed

    Labarthe, Darwin R; Kubzansky, Laura D; Boehm, Julia K; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Berry, Jarett D; Seligman, Martin E P

    2016-08-23

    Two concepts, positive health and cardiovascular health, have emerged recently from the respective fields of positive psychology and preventive cardiology. These parallel constructs are converging to foster positive cardiovascular health and a growing collaboration between psychologists and cardiovascular scientists to achieve significant improvements in both individual and population cardiovascular health. We explore these 2 concepts and note close similarities in the measures that define them, the health states that they aim to produce, and their intended long-term clinical and public health outcomes. We especially examine subjective health assets, such as optimism, that are a core focus of positive psychology, but have largely been neglected in preventive cardiology. We identify research to date on positive cardiovascular health, discuss its strengths and limitations thus far, and outline directions for further engagement of cardiovascular scientists with colleagues in positive psychology to advance this new field.

  19. ERROR COMPENSATOR FOR A POSITION TRANSDUCER

    DOEpatents

    Fowler, A.H.

    1962-06-12

    A device is designed for eliminating the effect of leadscrew errors in positioning machines in which linear motion of a slide is effected from rotary motion of a leadscrew. This is accomplished by providing a corrector cam mounted on the slide, a cam follower, and a transducer housing rotatable by the follower to compensate for all the reproducible errors in the transducer signal which can be related to the slide position. The transducer has an inner part which is movable with respect to the transducer housing. The transducer inner part is coupled to the means for rotating the leadscrew such that relative movement between this part and its housing will provide an output signal proportional to the position of the slide. The corrector cam and its follower perform the compensation by changing the angular position of the transducer housing by an amount that is a function of the slide position and the error at that position. (AEC)

  20. Positive Cardiovascular Health: A Timely Convergence.

    PubMed

    Labarthe, Darwin R; Kubzansky, Laura D; Boehm, Julia K; Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Berry, Jarett D; Seligman, Martin E P

    2016-08-23

    Two concepts, positive health and cardiovascular health, have emerged recently from the respective fields of positive psychology and preventive cardiology. These parallel constructs are converging to foster positive cardiovascular health and a growing collaboration between psychologists and cardiovascular scientists to achieve significant improvements in both individual and population cardiovascular health. We explore these 2 concepts and note close similarities in the measures that define them, the health states that they aim to produce, and their intended long-term clinical and public health outcomes. We especially examine subjective health assets, such as optimism, that are a core focus of positive psychology, but have largely been neglected in preventive cardiology. We identify research to date on positive cardiovascular health, discuss its strengths and limitations thus far, and outline directions for further engagement of cardiovascular scientists with colleagues in positive psychology to advance this new field. PMID:27539179

  1. Fiberoptic intubation with patients in sitting position.

    PubMed

    Lai, Yu-Yung; Chien, Jui-Teng; Huang, Shen-Jer

    2007-09-01

    Flexible fiberoptic endoscope is the most valuable tool for anesthesiologists to manage difficult airways. Correctly positioning of the patient during fiberoptic intubation aids the clinician to rapidly secure the airway, because it not only saves time, but also minimizes the risk of repeated attempts of intubation with possible serious consequences in the wake. In general, fiberoptic intubation is carried out with the patient in the supine position, but there are situations in which the intubation requires the subjects to be in the sitting position. The sitting position also changes the position of performing anesthesiologist relative to the patient, presenting an inverse view contrary to that of traditional laryngoscopy. We can often obtain a superior view from fiberoptic intubation. Fiberoptic intubation in the sitting position can be applied to all patients, as long as there is no contraindication of having a patient be sat. PMID:17972620

  2. Back to basics: positioning the patient.

    PubMed

    Spruce, Lisa; Van Wicklin, Sharon A

    2014-09-01

    Positioning the surgical patient requires special attention from the entire surgical team because anesthetized or sedated patients are not able to reposition themselves when needed to relieve discomfort or alert team members of the need for repositioning. Perioperative nurses must pay attention to positioning details and the possibility of injury at all times during the patient's procedure. This includes assessing the patient's circulatory, respiratory, integumentary, musculoskeletal, and neurological structures to help ensure that the patient is properly positioned and safe from injury. Working as a member of the surgical team, the perioperative RN is key to speaking up when positioning issues need to be addressed and helping to minimize the risk of injury to the patient. This "Back to Basics" article discusses positioning the patient in the prone position.

  3. Automatic Beam Position Control at LASREF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oothoudt, M. A.; Pillai, C.; Zumbro, M. V.

    1997-05-01

    Historically the Los Alamos Spallation Radiation Effects Facility (LASREF) has used manual control to position the 800 kW, 800 MeV proton beam on targets. New experiments, however, require more stringent position control more frequently than can be done manually for long periods of time. Data from an existing harp was used to automatically adjust steering magnets to maintain beam position to required tolerances. Results and details of the system will be presented.

  4. [The emergence of positive occupational health psychology].

    PubMed

    Bakker, Arnold B; Rodríguez-Muñoz, Alfredo; Derks, Daantje

    2012-02-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of the emerging concept of Positive Occupational Health Psychology (POHP). We discuss the usefulness of focusing on positive constructs in order to understand the path to health and well-being at work. We describe research findings on several POHP topics, including engagement, psychological capital, and job crafting. Additionally, we review the first positive interventions in this field and conclude by identifying some specific questions for future research.

  5. Transformation of gram positive bacteria by sonoporation

    DOEpatents

    Yang, Yunfeng; Li, Yongchao

    2014-03-11

    The present invention provides a sonoporation-based method that can be universally applied for delivery of compounds into Gram positive bacteria. Gram positive bacteria which can be transformed by sonoporation include, for example, Bacillus, Streptococcus, Acetobacterium, and Clostridium. Compounds which can be delivered into Gram positive bacteria via sonoporation include nucleic acids (DNA or RNA), proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, viruses, small organic and inorganic molecules, and nano-particles.

  6. Quantum states with strong positive partial transpose

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Jurkowski, Jacek; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2008-02-15

    We construct a large class of bipartite M x N quantum states which defines a proper subset of states with positive partial transposes (PPTs). Any state from this class has PPT but the positivity of its partial transposition is recognized with respect to canonical factorization of the original density operator. We propose to call elements from this class states with strong positive partial transposes (SPPTs). We conjecture that all SPPT states are separable.

  7. Children distinguish between positive pride and hubris.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nicole L; Russell, James A

    2015-11-01

    Adults distinguish expressions of hubris from those of positive pride. To determine whether children (N = 183; 78-198 months old) make a similar distinction, we asked them to attribute emotion labels and a variety of social characteristics to dynamic expressions intended to convey hubris and positive pride. Like adults, children attributed different emotion labels to the expressions, and this tendency increased with age. Girls were more likely to distinguish between the expressions than boys were. Children also associated more positive social characteristics with the expression of positive pride and more negative characteristics with the expression of hubris.

  8. 32 CFR 154.13 - Sensitive positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... be categorized, with respect to security sensitivity, as either nonsensitive, noncritical-sensitive... shall designate each position within their jurisdiction as to its security sensitivity and...

  9. 32 CFR 154.13 - Sensitive positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... be categorized, with respect to security sensitivity, as either nonsensitive, noncritical-sensitive... shall designate each position within their jurisdiction as to its security sensitivity and...

  10. 32 CFR 154.13 - Sensitive positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... be categorized, with respect to security sensitivity, as either nonsensitive, noncritical-sensitive... shall designate each position within their jurisdiction as to its security sensitivity and...

  11. The role of positive emotions in positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions.

    PubMed

    Fredrickson, B L

    2001-03-01

    In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing. PMID:11315248

  12. Connecting Positive Psychology and Organizational Behavior Management: Achievement Motivation and the Power of Positive Reinforcement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiegand, Douglas M.; Geller, E. Scott

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology is becoming established as a reputable sub-discipline in psychology despite having neglected the role of positive reinforcement in enhancing quality of life. The authors discuss the relevance of positive reinforcement for positive psychology, with implications for broadening the content of organizational behavior management.…

  13. Do lightning positive leaders really "step"?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petersen, D.

    2015-12-01

    It has been known for some time that positive leaders exhibit impulsive charge motion and optical emissions as they extend. However, laboratory and field observations have not produced any evidence of a process analogous to the space leader mechanism of negative leader extension. Instead, observations have suggested that the positive leader tip undergoes a continuous to intermittent series of corona streamer bursts, each burst resulting in a small forward extension of the positive leader channel. Traditionally, it has been held that lightning positive leaders extend in a continuous or quasi-continuous fashion. Lately, however, many have become concerned that this position is incongruous with observations of impulsive activity during lightning positive leader extension. It is increasingly suggested that this impulsive activity is evidence that positive leaders also undergo "stepping". There are two issues that must be addressed. The first issue concerns whether or not the physical processes underlying impulsive extension in negative and positive leaders are distinct. We argue that these processes are in fact physically distinct, and offer new high-speed video evidence to support this position. The second issue regards the proper use of the term "step" as an identifier for the impulsive forward extension of a leader. Traditional use of this term has been applied only to negative leaders, due primarily to their stronger impulsive charge motions and photographic evidence of clearly discontinuous forward progression of the luminous channel. Recently, due to the increasing understanding of the distinct "space leader" process of negative leader extension, the term "step" has increasingly come to be associated with the space leader process itself. Should this emerging association, "step" = space leader attachment, be canonized? If not, then it seems reasonable to use the term "step" to describe impulsive positive leader extension. If, however, we do wish to associate the

  14. Automatic Positioning System of Small Agricultural Robot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Momot, M. V.; Proskokov, A. V.; Natalchenko, A. S.; Biktimirov, A. S.

    2016-08-01

    The present article discusses automatic positioning systems of agricultural robots used in field works. The existing solutions in this area have been analyzed. The article proposes an original solution, which is easy to implement and is characterized by high- accuracy positioning.

  15. Introduction to Positive Psychology in Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chan, Fong; Phillips, Brian; Chan, Jacob Yui Chung

    2013-01-01

    Positive psychology has received increasing attention in rehabilitation counseling research and practice. The rehabilitation counseling philosophy shares a similar emphasis of personal assets and strengths, which provides a solid foundation for the integration of positive psychology into the professional practice of rehabilitation counseling. In…

  16. 76 FR 63899 - Positive Train Control Systems

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... regulations requiring certain railroads to implement PTC systems. See 76 FR 52918 (Aug. 24, 2011). Interested... Federal Railroad Administration 49 CFR Part 236 RIN 2130-AC27 Positive Train Control Systems AGENCY... meet certain risk-based criteria in order to avoid positive train control (PTC) system...

  17. Positions of asteroids obtained during 1977

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagerkvist, C.-I.; de Sanctis, G.; Zappala, V.

    1980-04-01

    Precise positions are given for 74 asteroids observed during 1977 at the Uppsala Southern Station and at the Kvistaberg Observatory. In particular, positions are given for main-belt asteroids, Trojans, 190 Ismene, 433 Eros, asteroids marked X or XX in the Ephemerides of Minor Planets (1977), and asteroids in Marsden's critical list (1976).

  18. Exhibit 5: Policy Statements and Position Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Policy statements and position papers adopted by the American Association of Dental Schools are presented. Policy statements cover education, research, delivery of care, and health concerns. Position papers concern peer review, freedoms and responsibilities of individuals and institutions, national health programs, interdisciplinary education,…

  19. Positive and negative symptoms in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Rosen, W G; Mohs, R C; Johns, C A; Small, N S; Kendler, K S; Horvath, T B; Davis, K L

    1984-12-01

    Negative and positive symptoms were determined for 46 drug-free patients who met Research Diagnostic Criteria (RDC) and/or Feighner criteria for schizophrenia. A modified version of the Scale for the Assessment of Negative Symptoms (SANS) was completed for each patient based on items from the Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia (SADS) and other scales. Positive symptoms were scored from the SADS as well as from the following four diagnostic systems: RDC, Schneider's first-rank symptoms, the 12-point Flexible system, and Langfeldt's criteria for poor prognosis schizophrenia. For all patients, there was no correlation of negative symptoms and positive symptoms defined by any diagnostic system. Within the paranoid and undifferentiated subtypes, there was a positive correlation of positive and negative symptoms. Patients moving from stable to exacerbated states had an increase in both positive and negative symptoms, and patients with a poor history of treatment response had both more positive and more negative symptoms than responsive patients in a stable state. These results do not support the view that subgroups of patients have predominantly either negative or positive symptoms.

  20. Children Distinguish between Positive Pride and Hubris

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Nicole L.; Russell, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults distinguish expressions of hubris from those of positive pride. To determine whether children (N = 183; 78-198 months old) make a similar distinction, we asked them to attribute emotion labels and a variety of social characteristics to dynamic expressions intended to convey hubris and positive pride. Like adults, children attributed…

  1. Electronic Position Sensor for Power Operated Accessory

    DOEpatents

    Haag, Ronald H.; Chia, Michael I.

    2005-05-31

    An electronic position sensor for use with a power operated vehicle accessory, such as a power liftgate. The position sensor includes an elongated resistive circuit that is mounted such that it is stationary and extends along the path of a track portion of the power operated accessory. The position sensor further includes a contact nub mounted to a link member that moves within the track portion such that the contact nub is slidingly biased against the elongated circuit. As the link member moves under the force of a motor-driven output gear, the contact nub slides along the surface of the resistive circuit, thereby affecting the overall resistance of the circuit. The position sensor uses the overall resistance to provide an electronic position signal to an ECU, wherein the signal is indicative of the absolute position of the power operated accessory. Accordingly, the electronic position sensor is capable of providing an electronic signal that enables the ECU to track the absolute position of the power operated accessory.

  2. Positional reference system for ultraprecision machining

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, J.B.; Burleson, R.R.; Pardue, R.M.

    1980-09-12

    A stable positional reference system for use in improving the cutting tool-to-part contour position in numerical controlled-multiaxis metal turning machines is provided. The reference system employs a plurality of interferometers referenced to orthogonally disposed metering bars which are substantially isolated from machine strain induced position errors for monitoring the part and tool positions relative to the metering bars. A microprocessor-based control system is employed in conjunction with the plurality of positions interferometers and part contour description data input to calculate error components for each axis of movement and output them to corresponding axis driven with appropriate scaling and error compensation. Real-time position control, operating in combination with the reference system, makes possible the positioning of the cutting points of a tool along a part locus with a substantially greater degree of accuracy than has been attained previously in the art by referencing and then monitoring only the tool motion relative to a reference position located on the machine base.

  3. Positional reference system for ultraprecision machining

    DOEpatents

    Arnold, Jones B.; Burleson, Robert R.; Pardue, Robert M.

    1982-01-01

    A stable positional reference system for use in improving the cutting tool-to-part contour position in numerical controlled-multiaxis metal turning machines is provided. The reference system employs a plurality of interferometers referenced to orthogonally disposed metering bars which are substantially isolated from machine strain induced position errors for monitoring the part and tool positions relative to the metering bars. A microprocessor-based control system is employed in conjunction with the plurality of position interferometers and part contour description data inputs to calculate error components for each axis of movement and output them to corresponding axis drives with appropriate scaling and error compensation. Real-time position control, operating in combination with the reference system, makes possible the positioning of the cutting points of a tool along a part locus with a substantially greater degree of accuracy than has been attained previously in the art by referencing and then monitoring only the tool motion relative to a reference position located on the machine base.

  4. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  5. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  6. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  7. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  8. 30 CFR 57.7052 - Drilling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drilling positions. 57.7052 Section 57.7052... SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Drilling and Rotary Jet Piercing Drilling-Surface and Underground § 57.7052 Drilling positions. Persons shall not...

  9. Motor Development of Infants with Positional Plagiocephaly

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kennedy, Eileen; Majnemer, Annette; Farmer, Jean-Pierre; Barr, Ronald G.; Platt, Robert W.

    2009-01-01

    Concurrent with recommendations to place infants to sleep in supine, there has been a dramatic increase in the number of infants with positional plagiocephaly (PP). Recent evidence suggests that infants who have decreased exposure to prone position may have a higher incidence of PP and may be at risk for a delay in the acquisition of certain motor…

  10. Positive Psychology Progress: Empirical Validation of Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Steen, Tracy A.; Park, Nansook; Peterson, Christopher

    2005-01-01

    Positive psychology has flourished in the last 5 years. The authors review recent developments in the field, including books, meetings, courses, and conferences. They also discuss the newly created classification of character strengths and virtues, a positive complement to the various editions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental…

  11. Positive Peer Culture with German Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinebach, Christoph; Steinebach, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Children and youth develop the ability to surmount difficult life challenges through a combination of external supports and internal strengths. Positive peers can contribute substantially to growth in resilient coping and problem-solving skills. Positive Peer Culture (PPC) programs are designed to strengthen supportive social bonds, competence,…

  12. Positive Action. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Positive Action," a K-12 program, aims to promote a positive self-concept, character development, healthy behavior, and social-emotional skills and to reduce disruptive and problem behavior. The curricula for elementary and middle school students each have seven units per kit, with nine kits per grade level. The high school curriculum has six…

  13. Mental Health of Students. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of School Nurses (NJ1), 2008

    2008-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that mental health is as critical to academic success as physical well-being. School nurses play a vital role in the school community by promoting positive mental health development in students through school/community-based programs and curricula. As members of…

  14. Positive Culture Rate in Revision Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hobgood, E. Rhett

    2009-01-01

    We recognized a trend of positive cultures taken from presumably uninfected shoulders during revision arthroplasty. Owing to the indolent nature of common shoulder pathogens such as Propionibacterium acnes, these cultures often become positive several days, even weeks, after surgery. Having concern regarding the potential importance of these positive cultures, we reviewed our revision arthroplasty population to determine the rate of positive intraoperative cultures in patients presumed to be aseptic, to characterize the isolated organisms, and to determine the subsequent development of infection. We retrospectively reviewed 27 patients (28 revisions) presumed to be uninfected between April 2005 and October 2007. Intraoperative cultures were positive in eight (29%) of the 28 revisions. Propionibacterium acnes was isolated in six. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in one patient and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in one patient. One-year followup was available on 24 of the 28 revisions. Two of the eight culture-positive revisions had a subsequent infection develop. Cultures taken at revision surgery for failed shoulder arthroplasty are often positive, and our findings document the importance of these positive cultures. Our data confirm previous reports isolating Propionibacterium acnes as a primary pathogen in revision shoulder arthroplasty. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19434469

  15. Student Activities Can Generate Positive PR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armistead, Lew

    1985-01-01

    To counter negative news about education it is important to make sure that positive school activities receive their fair share of exposure in the news media. Presents tips on how to generate positive public relations. Includes a list of newsworthy activities ideas. (MD)

  16. College Students' Positivity toward Teen Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eshbaugh, Elaine M.

    2011-01-01

    Although teen pregnancy and parenthood are more visible in society than in the past, teen mothers are often stereotyped and stigmatized. The study examined positivity toward teen mothers among college students (N = 316) at a midwestern university. Although students responded positively to some items regarding teen mothers, other statements showed…

  17. The Mathematics of the Global Positioning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nord, Gail D.; Jabon, David; Nord, John

    1997-01-01

    Presents an activity that illustrates the application of mathematics to modern navigation and utilizes the Global Positioning System (GPS). GPS is a constellation of 24 satellites that enables receivers to compute their position anywhere on the earth with great accuracy. (DDR)

  18. The Evidence Base for Positive Peer Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the evidence base for Positive Peer Culture (PPC) which is a total system for developing positive youth cultures in youth serving organizations. It challenges a popular belief among some researchers that group programs which bring together troubled youth are inherently negative.

  19. Building Cohesion in Positively Connected Exchange Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, David R.; Kornienko, Olga

    2009-01-01

    This research investigates the process through which individuals build cohesive relationships in positively connected exchange relations. Positive connections exist any time exchange in one relation must precede exchange in another. Such situations arise through gatekeeping, in generalized exchange contexts, and when resources diffuse across a…

  20. Constrained tri-sphere kinematic positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Viola, Robert J

    2010-12-14

    A scalable and adaptable, six-degree-of-freedom, kinematic positioning system is described. The system can position objects supported on top of, or suspended from, jacks comprising constrained joints. The system is compatible with extreme low temperature or high vacuum environments. When constant adjustment is not required a removable motor unit is available.

  1. Pole position studied with artificial earth satellites.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaposchkin, E. M.

    1972-01-01

    Long-arc orbit computation of highest accuracy can provide pole positions. Optical Baker-Nunn and laser range observations of several satellites are combined. The accuracy of the pole position is comparable to that of the mean satellite-tracking station coordinates (plus or minus 5 m) when sufficient tracking data are available. Exploitation of the technique requires more accurate tracking data.

  2. Ethnographic Positioning in a Boarding House Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeo, Wee Loon

    2010-01-01

    The research sought to find out how international students came to terms with cultural differences and positioned themselves in a complex environment such as a boarding school. This article considers how a researcher's insider position can enrich the understanding in a multicultural school setting while identifying the hidden dilemmas. The…

  3. How to fill key leadership positions strategically.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Kathleen D

    2011-06-01

    To fill strategic positions in their organizations with top talent, nursing and finance leaders can: Start by determining which jobs are truly "mission critical". Align the individuals in these positions on strategic teams Strengthen partnerships between key clinical leaders, such as the CMO and CNO PMID:21692375

  4. Characteristics of Positive Autobiographical Memories in Adulthood

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bluck, Susan; Alea, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of positive autobiographical memory narratives were examined in younger and older adults. Narratives were content-coded for the extent to which they contained indicators of affect, sensory imagery, and cognition. Affect was additionally assessed through self-report. Young adults expressed more positive affect and less sensory…

  5. Positive Behavior Support Training Curriculum. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Dennis H.; Parsons, Marsha B.

    2007-01-01

    The American Association on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities' (AAIDD's) Positive Behavior Support Training Curriculum," Second Edition" ("PBSTC"), is a curriculum for training direct support personnel and their supervisors in the values and practices of Positive Behavior Support. The curriculum is designed for direct support persons and…

  6. Positive interventions: An emotion regulation perspective.

    PubMed

    Quoidbach, Jordi; Mikolajczak, Moïra; Gross, James J

    2015-05-01

    The rapid growth of the literature on positive interventions to increase "happiness" has suggested the need for an overarching conceptual framework to integrate the many and apparently disparate findings. In this review, we used the process model of emotion regulation (Gross, 1998) to organize the existing literature on positive interventions and to advance theory by clarifying the mechanisms underlying their effectiveness. We have proposed that positive emotions can be increased both in the short- and longer-term through 5 families of emotion regulation strategies (i.e., situation selection, situation modification, attentional deployment, cognitive change, and response modulation), showing how these emotion regulation strategies can be applied before, during, and after positive emotional events. Regarding short-term increases in positive emotions, our review found that attentional deployment, cognitive change, and response modulation strategies have received the most empirical support, whereas more work is needed to establish the effectiveness of situation selection and situation modification strategies. Regarding longer-term increases in positive emotions, strategies such as situation selection during an event and attentional deployment before, during, and after an event have received strong empirical support and are at the center of many positive interventions. However, more work is needed to establish the specific benefits of the other strategies, especially situation modification. We argue that our emotion regulation framework clarifies existing interventions and points the way for new interventions that might be used to increase positive emotions in both nonclinical and clinical populations.

  7. 47 CFR 76.57 - Channel positioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel positioning. 76.57 Section 76.57 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.57 Channel positioning. (a)...

  8. 47 CFR 76.57 - Channel positioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channel positioning. 76.57 Section 76.57 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.57 Channel positioning. (a)...

  9. 47 CFR 76.57 - Channel positioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channel positioning. 76.57 Section 76.57 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.57 Channel positioning. (a)...

  10. 47 CFR 76.57 - Channel positioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channel positioning. 76.57 Section 76.57 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.57 Channel positioning. (a)...

  11. 47 CFR 76.57 - Channel positioning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channel positioning. 76.57 Section 76.57 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Carriage of Television Broadcast Signals § 76.57 Channel positioning. (a)...

  12. Positive Intergenerational Picture Books for Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Jean Yahres; Kormanski, James; Kormanski, Luethel M.

    1999-01-01

    Addresses concerns about nurturing positive attitudes in young children toward an ever-increasingly aging population. Discusses five elements of general picture books for young children, and explains characteristics of positive intergenerational relationships as portrayed in popular children's books. Provides an annotated bibliography of 16…

  13. Teaching Positive Reinforcement on the Internet

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grant, Lyle K.

    2004-01-01

    This study is an examination of an Internet-based tutorial that teaches the concept of positive reinforcement. An experimental group of 50 students studied an online tutorial about positive reinforcement, and a control group of 50 students studied an online tutorial in biological psychology. Students in both groups took an 8-item pretest and…

  14. Positioning a University for Enhanced Student Placement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Apostolidis, Panos; Gougeon, Deborah

    1986-01-01

    This article discusses some of the recruitment issues and practices among universities and corporations, focusing mainly on positions. The term positioning refers to the articulation of marketing communications to create a reputation for the university graduates in the job market, specifically toward groups of corporations. (CT)

  15. Positive Behavior Support: Sustainability and Continuous Regeneration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntosh, Kent; Turri, Mary G.

    2014-01-01

    Because of its widespread adoption and implementation (in over 13,000 schools in the US; Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports, 2010), there has been increasing attention to how School-wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) systems can be sustained. Sustained implementation can be defined as "continued use of an…

  16. A Positive Stigma for Child Labor?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patrinos, Harry Anthony; Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2008-01-01

    We introduce a simple empirical model that assumes a positive stigma (or norm) towards child labor that is common in some developing countries. We then illustrate our positive stigma model using data from Guatemala. Controlling for several child- and household-level characteristics, we use two instruments for measuring stigma: a child's indigenous…

  17. The Position of Dance in Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattsson, Torun; Lundvall, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Dance has been a part of the physical education (PE) curriculum in several countries for a long time. In spite of this, studies demonstrate that the position of dance in the subject of PE is contested and that little time is devoted to dance. The overall aim of this article is to examine the position of dance as a pedagogical discourse in Swedish…

  18. Empty Consonants in Root-Medial Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marlett, Stephen A.

    This analysis of verb morphology in Seri finds evidence that empty consonants occur in root-medial position. Analysis focuses on the parallel conjugation patterns of the verbs for "know" and "give," finding an empty consonant slot in the middle of each. This position is never preceded by a consonant, so it never appears as a geminated consonant,…

  19. The Academy for Positive Peer Culture

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laursen, Erik K.

    2010-01-01

    Positive Peer Culture [PPC] creates a pro-social climate in schools and youth programs by enlisting youth in helping their peers. Research and training in PPC is coordinated by the Academy for Positive Peer Culture. Established in 2006, the Academy provides networking and is a clearinghouse for resources, training, and consultation for PPC. It…

  20. Head Position and Internally Headed Relative Clauses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basilico, David

    1996-01-01

    Examines "Head Movement" in internally headed relative clauses (IHRCs). The article shows that in some cases, head movement to an external position need not take place and demonstrates that this movement of the head to a sentence-internal position results from the quantificational nature of IHRCs and Diesing's mapping hypothesis (1990, 1992). (56…

  1. Effective Classroom-Management & Positive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sieberer-Nagler, Katharina

    2016-01-01

    This article offers practical information for primary teachers to become more knowledgable, skilled and effective in their work. Aspects of positive teaching and learning are explored. Innovative methods for transforming common classroom management struggles into opportunities for positive change and for changing negative behaviors into positive…

  2. Create a Positive Environment | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    Family, friends, coworkers, and others who you interact with can affect how you feel about yourself. This includes how you feel about your body. One of the keys to creating a more positive body image is to create a more positive environment for yourself by focusing on:

  3. Serial Position Functions in General Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Matthew R.; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M.

    2015-01-01

    Serial position functions with marked primacy and recency effects are ubiquitous in episodic memory tasks. The demonstrations reported here explored whether bow-shaped serial position functions would be observed when people ordered exemplars from various categories along a specified dimension. The categories and dimensions were: actors and age;…

  4. Centrosome Positioning in 1D Cell Migration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adlerz, Katrina; Aranda-Espinoza, Helim

    During cell migration, the positioning of the centrosome and nucleus define a cell's polarity. For a cell migrating on a two-dimensional substrate the centrosome is positioned in front of the nucleus. Under one-dimensional confinement, however, the centrosome is positioned behind the nucleus in 60% of cells. It is known that the centrosome is positioned by CDC42 and dynein for cells moving on a 2D substrate in a wound-healing assay. It is currently unknown, however, if this is also true for cells moving under 1D confinement, where the centrosome position is often reversed. Therefore, centrosome positioning was studied in cells migrating under 1D confinement, which mimics cells migrating through 3D matrices. 3 to 5 μm fibronectin lines were stamped onto a glass substrate and cells with fluorescently labeled nuclei and centrosomes migrated on the lines. Our results show that when a cell changes directions the centrosome position is maintained. That is, when the centrosome is between the nucleus and the cell's trailing edge and the cell changes direction, the centrosome will be translocated across the nucleus to the back of the cell again. A dynein inhibitor did have an influence on centrosome positioning in 1D migration and change of directions.

  5. Optically actuated two position mechanical mover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C.; Murphy, A. J. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    An optically actuated mechanical mover adapted to be moved from an ambient position to an active position, is disclosed. The mechanical mover essentially comprises a piston/cylinder arrangement including a piston that is contained within an internal cylindrical chamber of a housing. The cylindrical chamber is configured to permit the piston to be moved for the length of the chamber as a work stroke. A lock pin extending through the piston, and diametrically opposed walls of the chamber housing, retain the piston in the ambient position at one end of the chamber. An actuator for producing a pressure or shock wave that drives the piston is positioned at the end of the chamber corresponding to the piston ambient position.

  6. Conditions for positioning of nucleosomes on DNA.

    PubMed

    Sheinman, Michael; Chung, Ho-Ryun

    2015-08-01

    Positioning of nucleosomes along a eukaryotic genome plays an important role in its organization and regulation. There are many different factors affecting the location of nucleosomes. Some can be viewed as preferential binding of a single nucleosome to different locations along the DNA and some as interactions between neighboring nucleosomes. In this study, we analyze positioning of nucleosomes and derive conditions for their good positioning. Using analytic and numerical approaches we find that, if the binding preferences are very weak, an interplay between the interactions and the binding preferences is essential for a good positioning of nucleosomes, especially on correlated energy landscapes. Analyzing the empirical energy landscape, we conclude that good positioning of nucleosomes in vivo is possible only if they strongly interact. In this case, our model, predicting long-length-scale fluctuations of nucleosomes' occupancy along the DNA, accounts well for the empirical observations.

  7. Load positioning system with gravity compensation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollow, R. H.

    1984-01-01

    A load positioning system with gravity compensation has a servomotor, position sensing feedback potentiometer and velocity sensing tachometer in a conventional closed loop servo arrangement to cause a lead screw and a ball nut to vertically position a load. Gravity compensating components comprise the DC motor, gears, which couple torque from the motor to the lead screw, and constant current power supply. The constant weight of the load applied to the lead screw via the ball nut tend to cause the lead screw to rotate, the constant torque of which is opposed by the constant torque produced by the motor when fed from the constant current source. The constant current is preset as required by the potentiometer to effect equilibration of the load which thereby enables the positioning servomotor to see the load as weightless under both static and dynamic conditions. Positioning acceleration and velocity performance are therefore symmetrical.

  8. Class position, work experience, and health.

    PubMed

    Schwalbe, M L; Staples, C L

    1986-01-01

    This paper develops a Marxist analysis of the relationships between class position, work experience, the psychological effects of this experience, and subsequent health outcomes. Specifically, it is argued that the structural imperatives of capitalist production make work for those in working-class positions subject to greater routinization and less control than work for those in other class positions. Routinization and control are argued, in turn, to predictably affect two key psychological variables, self-esteem and stress, which are further argued to affect health in predictable ways. Position in the capitalist labor process is thus linked to health via the psychological consequences of the immediate work experience it engenders. Survey data from workers, managers, supervisors, and semi-autonomous employees in five capitalist firms are used to test the descriptive adequacy of this model linking capitalism to ill health for those in working-class positions.

  9. Tracking Positions and Attitudes of Mars Rovers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Khaled; vanelli, Charles; Biesiadecki, Jeffrey; Martin, Alejandro San; Maimone, Mark; Cheng, Yang; Alexander, James

    2006-01-01

    The Surface Attitude Position and Pointing (SAPP) software, which runs on computers aboard the Mars Exploration Rovers, tracks the positions and attitudes of the rovers on the surface of Mars. Each rover acquires data on attitude from a combination of accelerometer readings and images of the Sun acquired autonomously, using a pointable camera to search the sky for the Sun. Depending on the nature of movement commanded remotely by operators on Earth, the software propagates attitude and position by use of either (1) accelerometer and gyroscope readings or (2) gyroscope readings and wheel odometry. Where necessary, visual odometry is performed on images to fine-tune the position updates, particularly on high-wheel-slip terrain. The attitude data are used by other software and ground-based personnel for pointing a high-gain antenna, planning and execution of driving, and positioning and aiming scientific instruments.

  10. Position Estimation of Tranceivers in Communication Networks

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, C A; Dowla, F U

    2003-10-13

    With the rapid development in wireless sensor networks, there is an important need for transceiver position estimation independent of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) [1,3]. While GPS might be useful for outdoor sensor nodes, it is not for indoor node localization. In this case, position estimation is possible through network range estimates from time-of-flight (TOF) measurements, a technique well suited to large bandwidth physical links, such as in ultra-wideband (UWB) communications. For example, in our UWB systems, with pulse duration less than 200 pico-seconds, range can easily be resolved to less than a foot. Assuming an encoded UWB or spread spectrum physical layer, we developed algorithms and simulation tools to test transceiver position localization. Simulations were designed to lend insight into system characteristics such as position error sensitivities to network geometry, to range estimation errors, and to number of sensor nodes.

  11. Human embryos in the original position?

    PubMed

    DiSilvestro, Russell

    2005-06-01

    Two different discussions in John Rawls' A Theory of Justice lead naturally to a rather conservative position on the moral status of the human embryo. When discussing paternalism, he claims that the parties in the original position would seek to protect themselves in case they end up as incapacitated or undeveloped human beings when the veil of ignorance is lifted. Since human embryos are examples of such beings, the parties in the original position would seek to protect themselves from their embryonic stages onward. When discussing the basis of equality, Rawls claims that the parties in the original position would guarantee basic rights for all those with the capacity to take part in this original position. To guarantee the basic rights of infants and young children, he goes on to interpret this capacity as a "potentiality that is ordinarily realized in due course." Since human embryos have this potentiality, they too should have basic rights.

  12. Digital position determination system for electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hohmann-Marriott, Martin F; Sharp, William P; Roberson, Robert W; Blankenship, Robert E

    2005-06-01

    The precise determination of object positions within a specimen grid is important for many applications in electron microscopy. For example, real-time position determination is necessary for current statistical approaches and the efficient mapping and relocation of objects. Unfortunately, precise real-time position determination is not available on many older electron microscopes with manual stage controls. This report demonstrates the cost-effective and flexible implementation of a digital position determination system that can be adapted to many hand-operated electron microscopes. A customized solution that includes the hardware and software to accomplish position determination is presented. Lists of required parts, instructions for building the hardware, and descriptions of the developed programs are included. Two LED-photodiode assemblies detect x and y movements via an optical wheel that is in physical contact with the mechanical x and y stage control elements. These detector assemblies are interfaced with an integrated circuit that converts movement information into serial port-compatible signals, which are interpreted by a computer with specialized software. Two electron microscopes, a Philips CM12 (S)TEM and a Philips 201 TEM, were equipped with the described digital position determination system. The position fidelity and position fidelity after reloading of grids were determined for both microscopes. The determined position deviation was 1.06 microm in the x axis and 0.565 microm in the y axis for the Philips CM12 (S)TEM, and 0.303 microm in the x axis and 0.545 microm in the y axis for the Philips 201 TEM. After reloading and computational realigning, the determined average position variation was 2.66 microm in the x axis and 2.61 microm in the y axis for the Philips CM12 (S)TEM, and 1.13 microm in the x axis and 1.27 microm in the y axis for the Philips 201 TEM.

  13. High-precision positioning of radar scatterers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dheenathayalan, Prabu; Small, David; Schubert, Adrian; Hanssen, Ramon F.

    2016-05-01

    Remote sensing radar satellites cover wide areas and provide spatially dense measurements, with millions of scatterers. Knowledge of the precise position of each radar scatterer is essential to identify the corresponding object and interpret the estimated deformation. The absolute position accuracy of synthetic aperture radar (SAR) scatterers in a 2D radar coordinate system, after compensating for atmosphere and tidal effects, is in the order of centimeters for TerraSAR-X (TSX) spotlight images. However, the absolute positioning in 3D and its quality description are not well known. Here, we exploit time-series interferometric SAR to enhance the positioning capability in three dimensions. The 3D positioning precision is parameterized by a variance-covariance matrix and visualized as an error ellipsoid centered at the estimated position. The intersection of the error ellipsoid with objects in the field is exploited to link radar scatterers to real-world objects. We demonstrate the estimation of scatterer position and its quality using 20 months of TSX stripmap acquisitions over Delft, the Netherlands. Using trihedral corner reflectors (CR) for validation, the accuracy of absolute positioning in 2D is about 7 cm. In 3D, an absolute accuracy of up to ˜ 66 cm is realized, with a cigar-shaped error ellipsoid having centimeter precision in azimuth and range dimensions, and elongated in cross-range dimension with a precision in the order of meters (the ratio of the ellipsoid axis lengths is 1/3/213, respectively). The CR absolute 3D position, along with the associated error ellipsoid, is found to be accurate and agree with the ground truth position at a 99 % confidence level. For other non-CR coherent scatterers, the error ellipsoid concept is validated using 3D building models. In both cases, the error ellipsoid not only serves as a quality descriptor, but can also help to associate radar scatterers to real-world objects.

  14. Uav Onboard GPS in Positioning Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahar, K. N.; Kamarudin, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of ground control points is a critical issue in mapping field, especially for large scale mapping. The fast and rapid technique for ground control point's establishment is very important for small budget projects. UAV onboard GPS has the ability to determine the point positioning. The objective of this research is to assess the accuracy of unmanned aerial vehicle onboard global positioning system in positioning determination. Therefore, this research used UAV onboard GPS as an alternative to determine the point positioning at the selected area. UAV is one of the powerful tools for data acquisition and it is used in many applications all over the world. This research concentrates on the error contributed from the UAV onboard GPS during observation. There are several points that have been used to study the pattern of positioning error. All errors were analyzed in world geodetic system 84- coordinate system, which is the basic coordinate system used by the global positioning system. Based on this research, the result of UAV onboard GPS positioning could be used in ground control point establishment with the specific error. In conclusion, accurate GCP establishment could be achieved using UAV onboard GPS by applying a specific correction based on this research.

  15. Positivity of linear maps under tensor powers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller-Hermes, Alexander; Reeb, David; Wolf, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate linear maps between matrix algebras that remain positive under tensor powers, i.e., under tensoring with n copies of themselves. Completely positive and completely co-positive maps are trivial examples of this kind. We show that for every n ∈ ℕ, there exist non-trivial maps with this property and that for two-dimensional Hilbert spaces there is no non-trivial map for which this holds for all n. For higher dimensions, we reduce the existence question of such non-trivial "tensor-stable positive maps" to a one-parameter family of maps and show that an affirmative answer would imply the existence of non-positive partial transpose bound entanglement. As an application, we show that any tensor-stable positive map that is not completely positive yields an upper bound on the quantum channel capacity, which for the transposition map gives the well-known cb-norm bound. We, furthermore, show that the latter is an upper bound even for the local operations and classical communications-assisted quantum capacity, and that moreover it is a strong converse rate for this task.

  16. Positive mass theorem in extended supergravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozawa, Masato; Shiromizu, Tetsuya

    2014-10-01

    Following the Witten-Nester formalism, we present a useful prescription using Weyl spinors towards the positivity of mass. As a generalization of arXiv:1310.1663, we show that some “positivity conditions” must be imposed upon the gauge connections appearing in the supercovariant derivative acting on spinors. A complete classification of the connection fulfilling the positivity conditions is given. It turns out that these positivity conditions are indeed satisfied for a number of extended supergravity theories. It is shown that the positivity property holds for the Einstein-complex scalar system, provided that the target space is Hodge-Kähler and the potential is expressed in terms of the superpotential. In the Einstein-Maxwell-dilaton theory with a dilaton potential, the dilaton coupling function and the superpotential are fixed by the positive mass property. We also explore the N=8 gauged supergravity and demonstrate that the positivity of the mass holds independently of the gaugings and the deformation parameters.

  17. Clinical implications of positive blood cultures.

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, C S

    1989-01-01

    Positive blood cultures can be classified according to their veracity (true-positive or false-positive culture), clinical severity (inconsequential or life threatening), place of origin (community acquired or nosocomial), source (primary or secondary), duration (transient, intermittent, or continuous), pattern of occurrence (single episode, persistent, or recurrent), or intensity (high or low grade). In general, however, positive blood cultures identify a patient population at high risk of death. In my studies, patients with positive blood cultures were 12 times more likely to die during hospitalization than patients without positive blood cultures. Many bacteremias and fungemias occur in complicated clinical settings, and it appears that only about one-half of the deaths among affected patients are due directly to infection. Hence, it is appropriate to speak of "crude mortality" and "attributable mortality." Among hospitalized patients, recent trends include rising incidences of Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative staphylococcal and enterococcal bacteremias and a dramatic increase in the incidence of fungemias. The diagnostic and therapeutic implications of blood cultures positive for specific microorganisms continue to evolve and are the subject of a large and growing medical literature. PMID:2680055

  18. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Mark S.; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Costas Bradstreet, Christa; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-01-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3–12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N = 9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N = 17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N = 1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: “Access to active play in nature and outdoors—with its risks— is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children’s opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings—at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature.” The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  19. Predicting Nucleosome Positioning Using Multiple Evidence Tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Sheila M.; Weng, Zhiping; Bilmes, Jeff A.; Noble, William Stafford

    We describe a probabilistic model, implemented as a dynamic Bayesian network, that can be used to predict nucleosome positioning along a chromosome based on one or more genomic input tracks containing position-specific information (evidence). Previous models have either made predictions based on primary DNA sequence alone, or have been used to infer nucleosome positions from experimental data. Our framework permits the combination of these two distinct types of information. We show how this flexible framework can be used to make predictions based on either sequence-model scores or experimental data alone, or by using the two in combination to interpret the experimental data and fill in gaps. The model output represents the posterior probability, at each position along the chromosome, that a nucleosome core overlaps that position, given the evidence. This posterior probability is computed by integrating the information contained in the input evidence tracks along the entire input sequence, and fitting the evidence to a simple grammar of alternating nucleosome cores and linkers. In addition to providing a novel mechanism for the prediction of nucleosome positioning from arbitrary heterogeneous data sources, this framework is also applicable to other genomic segmentation tasks in which local scores are available from models or from data that can be interpreted as defining a probability assignment over labels at that position. The ability to combine sequence-based predictions and data from experimental assays is a significant and novel contribution to the ongoing research regarding the primary structure of chromatin and its effects upon gene regulation.

  20. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-08

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development.

  1. Wrist Proprioception: Amplitude or Position Coding?

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Francesca; Squeri, Valentina; Morasso, Pietro; Masia, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    This work examines physiological mechanisms underlying the position sense of the wrist, namely, the codification of proprioceptive information related to pointing movements of the wrist toward kinesthetic targets. Twenty-four healthy subjects participated to a robot-aided assessment of their wrist proprioceptive acuity to investigate if the sensorimotor transformation involved in matching targets located by proprioceptive receptors relies on amplitude or positional cues. A joint position matching test was performed in order to explore such dichotomy. In this test, the wrist of a blindfolded participant is passively moved by a robotic device to a preset target position and, after a removal movement from this position, the participant has to actively replicate and match it as accurately as possible. The test involved two separate conditions: in the first, the matching movements started from the same initial location; in the second one, the initial location was randomly assigned. Target matching accuracy, precision, and bias in the two conditions were then compared. Overall results showed a consistent higher performance in the former condition than in the latter, thus supporting the hypothesis that the joint position sense is based on vectorial or amplitude coding rather than positional. PMID:27807417

  2. Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Mark S; Gray, Casey; Babcock, Shawna; Barnes, Joel; Bradstreet, Christa Costas; Carr, Dawn; Chabot, Guylaine; Choquette, Louise; Chorney, David; Collyer, Cam; Herrington, Susan; Janson, Katherine; Janssen, Ian; Larouche, Richard; Pickett, William; Power, Marlene; Sandseter, Ellen Beate Hansen; Simon, Brenda; Brussoni, Mariana

    2015-06-01

    A diverse, cross-sectorial group of partners, stakeholders and researchers, collaborated to develop an evidence-informed Position Statement on active outdoor play for children aged 3-12 years. The Position Statement was created in response to practitioner, academic, legal, insurance and public debate, dialogue and disagreement on the relative benefits and harms of active (including risky) outdoor play. The Position Statement development process was informed by two systematic reviews, a critical appraisal of the current literature and existing position statements, engagement of research experts (N=9) and cross-sectorial individuals/organizations (N=17), and an extensive stakeholder consultation process (N=1908). More than 95% of the stakeholders consulted strongly agreed or somewhat agreed with the Position Statement; 14/17 participating individuals/organizations endorsed it; and over 1000 additional individuals and organizations requested their name be listed as a supporter. The final Position Statement on Active Outdoor Play states: "Access to active play in nature and outdoors--with its risks--is essential for healthy child development. We recommend increasing children's opportunities for self-directed play outdoors in all settings--at home, at school, in child care, the community and nature." The full Position Statement provides context for the statement, evidence supporting it, and a series of recommendations to increase active outdoor play opportunities to promote healthy child development. PMID:26062040

  3. Piezoresistive position microsensors with ppm-accuracy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrov, Vladimir; Shulev, Assen; Stavreva, Galina; Todorov, Vencislav

    2015-05-01

    In this article, the relation between position accuracy and the number of simultaneously measured values, such as coordinates, has been analyzed. Based on this, a conceptual layout of MEMS devices (microsensors) for multidimensional position monitoring comprising a single anchored and a single actuated part has been developed. Both parts are connected with a plurality of micromechanical flexures, and each flexure includes position detecting cantilevers. Microsensors having detecting cantilevers oriented in X and Y direction have been designed and prototyped. Experimentally measured results at characterization of 1D, 2D and 3D position microsensors are reported as well. Exploiting different flexure layouts, a travel range between 50μm and 1.8mm and sensors' sensitivity in the range between 30μV/μm and 5mV/μm@ 1V DC supply voltage have been demonstrated. A method for accurate calculation of all three Cartesian coordinates, based on measurement of at least three microsensors' signals has also been described. The analyses of experimental results prove the capability of position monitoring with ppm-(part per million) accuracy. The technology for fabrication of MEMS devices with sidewall embedded piezoresistors removes restrictions in strong improvement of their usability for position sensing with a high accuracy. The present study is, also a part of a common strategy for developing a novel MEMS-based platform for simultaneous accurate measurement of various physical values when they are transduced to a change of position.

  4. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and its variants.

    PubMed

    Nuti, D; Masini, M; Mandalà, M

    2016-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is a common labyrinthine disorder caused by a mechanic stimulation of the vestibular receptors within the semicircular canals. It is characterized by positional vertigo and positional nystagmus, both provoked by changes in the position of the head with respect to gravity. The social impact of the disease and its direct and indirect costs to healthcare systems are significant owing to impairment of daily activities and increased risk of falls. The first description of a patient with benign paroxysmal positional vertigo is from Robert Bárány in 1921, but the features of the syndrome and the diagnostic maneuver were well described by Dix and Hallpike in 1952. Since then, the gradually increasing interest of otolaryngologists and neurologists has led to a progressive advance in the knowledge of this labyrinthine disorder with regard to its epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects. Despite the often effective diagnosis and treatment of most cases of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, the physiopathologic explanations of the disease are mainly speculative. In this chapter, we describe the epidemiologic, pathophysiologic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. PMID:27638076

  5. Positive Stereotypes Are Pervasive and Powerful.

    PubMed

    Czopp, Alexander M; Kay, Aaron C; Cheryan, Sapna

    2015-07-01

    Stereotypes and their associated category-based processes have traditionally been considered largely within the context of the negativity of their content and consequences, both among the general public and the scientific community. This review summarizes and integrates extant research on positive stereotypes, which are subjectively favorable beliefs about social groups, and examines their implications for individuals and groups directly targeted by such stereotypes. Furthermore, we examine the beneficial and adverse implications of positive stereotypes for interpersonal and intergroup relations, as well as the ways in which positive stereotypes, more so than negative stereotypes, may contribute to and perpetuate systemic differences in power and privilege.

  6. Determining Equilibrium Position For Acoustical Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Aveni, G.; Putterman, S.; Rudnick, J.

    1989-01-01

    Equilibrium position and orientation of acoustically-levitated weightless object determined by calibration technique on Earth. From calibration data, possible to calculate equilibrium position and orientation in presence of Earth gravitation. Sample not levitated acoustically during calibration. Technique relies on Boltzmann-Ehrenfest adiabatic-invariance principle. One converts resonant-frequency-shift data into data on normalized acoustical potential energy. Minimum of energy occurs at equilibrium point. From gradients of acoustical potential energy, one calculates acoustical restoring force or torque on objects as function of deviation from equilibrium position or orientation.

  7. High-accuracy discrete positioning device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brooks, John J. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    An article (30) is controllably and precisely positioned at one of three discrete locations defined by a linkage. The positioning apparatus includes two independently driven cranks (34, 42), with a link (50) pivotably connected between the two cranks (34, 42). Another connector (44) is pivotably connected between one of the cranks (34 or 42) and the article (30) to be positioned. The cranks (34, 42) are rotationally adjusted so that the pivot points (52, 54) of the link (50) are collinear with the axes of rotation of the cranks (40, 48), thereby defining one of the three discrete locations. Additional cranks and links can be provided to define additional discrete locations.

  8. Clinical skills: bed making and patient positioning.

    PubMed

    Pellatt, Glynis Collis

    Providing a clean, comfortable bed and positioning a patient in the optimum posture for prevention of complications and to enable maximum independence are fundamental nursing skills. Bed-making is a daily routine that requires practical and technical skills. Selecting the correct posture for a patient in bed or in a chair is essential for physiological functioning and recovery. In this article bed-making is described, as are positioning and re-positioning in relation to patients in bed, armchairs and wheelchairs. Infection control and moving and handling issues are also considered. PMID:17505378

  9. Aztec arithmetic: positional notation and area calculation.

    PubMed

    Harvey, H R; Williams, B J

    1980-10-31

    Texcocan-Aztec peoples in the Valley of Mexico used both picture symbols and lines and dots for numerical notation. Decipherment and analysis of mid-16th-century native pictorial land documents from the Texcocan region indicate that the line-and-dot system incorporated a symbol for zero and used position to ascribe values. Positional line-and-dot notation was used to record areas of agricultural fields, and analysis of the documentary data suggests that areas were calculated arithmetically. These findings demonstrate that neither positional notation nor the zero were unique to the Maya area, and they imply an equally sophisticated mathematical development among the Aztecs. PMID:17841389

  10. Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator

    SciTech Connect

    Brandenburg, L.R.; Miller, J.M.

    2000-06-13

    A crankshaft position sensing apparatus is described for use with an engine having a combined starter/alternator assembly. The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring with a sensor and bandpass filter, having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor, and a gain limiter. The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor of the combined starter/alternator assembly. The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller and an inner loop controller. The starter/alternator assembly in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

  11. Optimization of turn position of tokamak inductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristov, Yu. A.; Vorobev, G. M.; Kuznetsov, A. V.

    Statement and methods of solution of the problem of optimizing turn position of tokamak induction are considered. Optimization is aimed at determination of inductor turn position, providing the minimal scattering of magnetic field in the region of chamber at any assigned value of volt-seconds. Algorithms of problem solution are described, and results of calculations for STX tokamak are presented. It is shown that development methods can be used for determining optimal position of turns of any coils of poloidal magnetic field, providing the assigned configuration and level of magnetic field.

  12. Global positioning system missile test range applications

    SciTech Connect

    Partridge, M.E.

    1986-06-01

    Using the Global Positioning System (GPS), a missile under test could transmit its own position, reducing radar tracking requirements while still providing three-dimensional position and velocity data with the required accuracy. This study investigated minimum package size requirements for GPS implementation on the SRAM II missile as part of the joint test assembly telemetry system. Reported GPS missile test range applications are reviewed. The two missile tracking system implementations considered are a complete GPS package onboard the missile and onboard frequency translator that retransmits the GPS satellite signals. Accuracy and operation of the two methods are compared. A functional description of the GPS is provided.

  13. Position estimation of transceivers in communication networks

    DOEpatents

    Kent, Claudia A.; Dowla, Farid

    2008-06-03

    This invention provides a system and method using wireless communication interfaces coupled with statistical processing of time-of-flight data to locate by position estimation unknown wireless receivers. Such an invention can be applied in sensor network applications, such as environmental monitoring of water in the soil or chemicals in the air where the position of the network nodes is deemed critical. Moreover, the present invention can be arranged to operate in areas where a Global Positioning System (GPS) is not available, such as inside buildings, caves, and tunnels.

  14. Crankshaft position sensing with combined starter alternator

    DOEpatents

    Brandenburg, Larry Raymond; Miller, John Michael

    2000-06-13

    A crankshaft position sensing apparatus for use with an engine (16) having a combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The crankshaft position sensing apparatus includes a tone ring (38) with a sensor (36) and bandpass filter (46), having a cylinder identification input from a camshaft sensor (48), and a gain limiter (54). The sensing apparatus mounts near the rotor (30) of the combined starter/alternator assembly (18). The filtered crankshaft position signal can then be input into a vehicle system controller (58) and an inner loop controller (60). The starter/alternator assembly (18) in combination with an internal combustion engine is particularly useful for a hybrid electric vehicle system.

  15. Position Sensitive Detection System for Charged Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Coello, E. A.; Favela, F.; Curiel, Q.; Chavez, E; Huerta, A.; Varela, A.; Shapira, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The position sensitive detection system presented in this work employs the Anger logic algorithm to determine the position of the light spark produced by the passage of charged particles on a 170 x 170 x 10 mm3 scintillator material (PILOT-U). The detection system consists of a matrix of nine photomultipliers, covering a fraction of the back area of the scintillators. Tests made with a non-collimated alpha particle source together with a Monte Carlo simulation that reproduces the data, suggest an intrinsic position resolution of up to 6 mm is achieved.

  16. The Role of Citrullinated Protein Antibodies in Predicting Erosive Disease in Rheumatoid Arthritis: A Systematic Literature Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Jilani, A. A.; Mackworth-Young, C. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background. Autoantibodies to citrullinated peptides have been shown to be valuable in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The expanding repertoire of antibodies to citrullinated peptide antigens (ACPA) has been a topic of great interest in recent reviews and research studies, as has the ability of these autoantibodies to predict disease outcome. Objectives. The aim of this review was to provide an update on the relevance of ACPA as prognostic markers in RA. The ability to identify patients predisposed to an aggressive outcome at the time of initial diagnosis greatly facilitates the selection of appropriate and cost-effective treatment. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was carried out. Studies from 1967 up to June 2014 with data on prognostic value of ACPA were included. Quality assessment was done by using the modified Hayden list for prognostic studies. Meta-analysis was performed using BioStat software. Results. The results of 25 studies were selected for the final review. A total of 6421 patients with RA were included, mainly in inception cohorts, with follow-up duration ranging from one year to ten years. All studies carried prognostic data on all available isotypes of anticyclic citrullinated protein (CCP), while four had data on antimutated citrullinated vimentin (MCV). There was a single relevant study each on anticitrullinated enolase peptide 1 (CEP1) and antichimaeric fibrin/filaggrin citrullinated peptide 1 (CFFCP1). All studies showed ACPA to be strong predictors of joint erosions in RA. Other factors, particularly baseline erosions, showed an additive effect. Anti-MCV appeared to be a marker of a more aggressive form of disease. Ten studies had data on which a meta-analysis could be performed. This gave an overall odds ratio of 4.85 for ACPA (anti-CCP/MCV) positivity being predictive for the development of joint erosions. Two studies with data on anti-CEP1 and anti-CFFCP1 also showed this positive predictive role of ACPA for joint

  17. Appendix A: Policy Statements and Position Papers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Dental Education, 1980

    1980-01-01

    Policy statements and position papers adopted by the American Association of Dental Schools are presented. They cover peer review, freedoms and responsibilities of individuals and institutions, national health programs, interdisciplinary education, and use of ionizing radiation. (MLW)

  18. The relevance of positivity in spin physics

    SciTech Connect

    Soffer, J.; Artru, X.; Richard, J. M.

    2009-12-17

    Positivity reduces substantially the allowed domain for spin observables. We briefly recall some methods used to determine these domains and give some typical examples for exclusive and inclusive spin-dependent reactions.

  19. Do Positive Reinforcement Programs Reduce Employee Absenteeism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmitz, Loretta M.; Heneman, Herbert G., III

    1980-01-01

    Although they express some reservations, the authors report that a consistent pattern of evidence from 10 studies suggests that implementation of a positive reinforcement program is accompanied by some reduction in employee absenteeism. (Author/IRT)

  20. Classical and Quantum Spreading of Position Probability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farina, J. E. G.

    1977-01-01

    Demonstrates that the standard deviation of the position probability of a particle moving freely in one dimension is a function of the standard deviation of its velocity distribution and time in classical or quantum mechanics. (SL)

  1. Large area position sensitive β-detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaintraub, S.; Hass, M.; Edri, H.; Morali, N.; Segal, T.

    2015-03-01

    A new conceptual design of a large area electron detector, which is position and energy sensitive, was developed. This detector is designed for beta decay energies up to 4 MeV, but in principle can be re-designed for higher energies. The detector incorporates one large plastic scintillator and, in general, a limited number of photomultipliers (7 presently). The current setup was designed and constructed after an extensive Geant4 simulation study. By comparison of a single hit light distribution between the various photomultipliers to a pre-measured accurate position-response map, the anticipated position resolution is around 5 mm. The first benchmark experiments have been conducted in order to calibrate and confirm the position resolution of the detector. The new method, results of the first test experiments and comparison to simulations are presented.

  2. Evidence for subwavelength imaging with positive refraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gui Ma, Yun; Sahebdivan, Sahar; Ong, C. K.; Tyc, Tomáš; Leonhardt, Ulf

    2011-03-01

    The resolution of lenses is normally limited by the wave nature of light. Imaging with perfect resolution was believed to rely on negative refraction, but here we present experimental evidence for subwavelength imaging with positive refraction.

  3. Reward positivity elicited by predictive cues.

    PubMed

    Holroyd, Clay B; Krigolson, Olav E; Lee, Seung

    2011-03-30

    A recent theory holds that a component of the human event-related brain potential called the reward positivity reflects a reward prediction error signal. We investigated this idea in gambling-like task in which, on each trial, a visual stimulus predicted a subsequent rewarding or nonrewarding outcome with 80% probability. Consistent with earlier results, we found that the reward positivity was larger to unexpected than to expected outcomes. In addition, we found that the predictive cues also elicited a reward positivity, as proposed by the theory. These results indicate that the reward positivity reflects the initial assessment of whether a trial will end in success or failure and the reappraisal of that information once the outcome actually occurs.

  4. Precise CCD positions of Apophis in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, N.; Peng, Q. Y.; Zhang, X. L.; Zhang, Q. F.; Li, Z.; Meng, X. H.

    2015-12-01

    298 CCD observations during the year 2013 have been reduced to derive the precise positions of near-Earth asteroid (99942) Apophis. The observations were made by the 2.4-m telescope at Yunnan Observatory over 10 nights. The position and proper motion errors of the reference stars in the USNO CCD Astrograph Catalogue 4 (UCAC4) star catalogue are corrected by using the newest correction table provided by Farnocchia et al. The geometric distortion of the field of view is also derived from the unbiased star positions in UCAC4 and removed. The theoretical position of Apophis was retrieved from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory Horizons system. Our results show that the mean O-Cs (observed minus computed) are 0.016 and 0.034 arcsec in right ascension and declination, respectively. The dispersions of our observations are estimated at 0.041 and 0.045 arcsec in right ascension and declination, respectively.

  5. Couples with dementia: Positioning the 'we'.

    PubMed

    Hydén, Lars-Christer; Nilsson, Elin

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate how spouses in couples with dementia position themselves in relation to each other by analysing their use of pronouns, especially the we. The study uses joint interviews with 11 couples. Based on a quantitative analysis of pronoun use, it is argued that the pronoun we is used by all the spouses; however, it is used less frequently by the spouses with dementia in comparison with healthy spouses. A qualitative analysis of the use of the pronoun we shows that the spouses position, experience and consider themselves as a couple and that they position and experience themselves as individuals in relation to the couple. One of the challenges for couples with dementia is to be able to retain a we in face of the progression of the dementia disease. By positioning themselves in various ways, the spouses establish and negotiate quite a complex and emotionally charged web of relationships.

  6. JAWS coordinates chondrogenesis and synovial joint positioning.

    PubMed

    Sohaskey, Michael L; Yu, Jane; Diaz, Michael A; Plaas, Anna H; Harland, Richard M

    2008-07-01

    Properly positioned synovial joints are crucial to coordinated skeletal movement. Despite their importance for skeletal development and function, the molecular mechanisms that underlie joint positioning are not well understood. We show that mice carrying an insertional mutation in a previously uncharacterized gene, which we have named Jaws (joints abnormal with splitting), die perinatally with striking skeletal defects, including ectopic interphalangeal joints. These ectopic joints develop along the longitudinal axis and persist at birth, suggesting that JAWS is uniquely required for the orientation and consequent positioning of interphalangeal joints within the endochondral skeleton. Jaws mutant mice also exhibit severe chondrodysplasia characterized by delayed and disorganized maturation of growth plate chondrocytes, together with impaired chondroitin sulfation and abnormal metabolism of the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan aggrecan. Our findings identify JAWS as a key regulator of chondrogenesis and synovial joint positioning required for the restriction of joint formation to discrete stereotyped locations in the embryonic skeleton.

  7. Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... Email Facebook Twitter Family Checkup: Positive Parenting Prevents Drug Abuse Could your kids be at risk for substance ... drugs. Research supported by the National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) has shown the important role that parents ...

  8. Position, Navigation, and Timing: GPS Scientific Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neilan, Ruth E.

    2008-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the development and deployment of the Global Positioning System (GPS). This presentation also includes measuring space and time, GPS as a tool for science, development of high precision JPL GPS receivers, and technology and applications developments.

  9. Developmental Aspects of Reaction to Positive Inducements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindskold, Svenn; And Others

    1970-01-01

    Probes children's behavioral sensitivity to variation in reward probability and magnitude (bribes) and suggests that preadolescent children do respond to promises of positive inducements for cooperation in a mixed-motive situation. (WY)

  10. Focused-laser interferometric position sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Stephen J.; Barwick, Brett; Batelaan, Herman

    2005-12-15

    We describe a simple method to measure the position shifts of an object with a range of tens of micrometers using a focused-laser (FL) interferometric position sensor. In this article we examine the effects of mechanical vibration on FL and Michelson interferometers. We tested both interferometers using vibration amplitudes ranging from 0 to 20 {mu}m. Our FL interferometer has a resolution much better than the diffraction grating periodicities of 10 and 14 {mu}m used in our experiments. A FL interferometer provides improved mechanical stability at the expense of spatial resolution. Our experimental results show that Michelson interferometers cannot be used when the vibration amplitude is more than an optical wavelength. The main purpose of this article is to demonstrate that a focused-laser interferometric position sensor can be used to measure the position shifts of an object on a less sensitive, micrometer scale when the vibration amplitude is too large to use a Michelson interferometer.

  11. Telling Others You Are HIV Positive

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language: Fact Sheet 204 Telling Others You are HIV Positive WHAT ARE THE ISSUES? GENERAL GUIDELINES SPECIAL ... SPECIAL SITUATIONS People You May Have Exposed to HIV: It can be very difficult to disclose your ...

  12. Position estimator for underground mine equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, G.K.; Stentz, A.; Whittaker, W.L.; Fitzpatrick, K.W. )

    1992-10-01

    This paper describes a 2-D perception system that exploits the accuracy and resolution of a laser range sensor to determine the position and orientation of a mobile robot in a mine environment. The perception system detects features from range sensor data and matches the features to a map of the mine to compute the sensor position. The features used are line segments and corners, which represent the typical geometry of the mine walls and intersections found in room-0and-pillar type mining. The position estimate is refined by minimizing the error between the map and sensed features. This position information can be used for autonomous navigation when a map of the mine is available or to survey the mine to build such a map. The technique is applied to robot navigation in a mine mockup. A refinement of this system could guide machines to yield productive, safe mining operations.

  13. Friendship group position and substance use.

    PubMed

    Osgood, D Wayne; Feinberg, Mark E; Wallace, Lacey N; Moody, James

    2014-05-01

    This paper examines how an adolescent's position relative to cohesive friendship groups in the school-wide social network is associated with alcohol, tobacco, and marijuana use. We extend prior research in this area by refining the categories of group positions, using more extensive friendship information, applying newer analytic methods to identify friendship groups, and making strategic use of control variables to clarify the meaning of differences among group positions. We report secondary analyses of 6th through 9th grade data from the PROSPER study, which include approximately 9500 adolescents each year from 27 school districts and 368 school grade cohort friendship networks. We find that core members of friendship groups were more likely to drink than isolates and liaisons, especially in light of their positive social integration in school, family, and religious contexts. Isolates were more likely to use cigarettes than core members, even controlling for all other factors. Finally, liaisons were more likely to use marijuana than core members.

  14. Vertical positioning surveillance by magnetostrictive transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, A. S.; Lopes, C.; Pinto, O. O.; Nunes, C. D.; Borges, M. F.; Strohaecker, T. R.

    2015-10-01

    This work purpose is to create a positioning automated system of a tailstock to perform impact resistance tests on silicone mammary implants. This system is capable to measure and oversight the positioning through interrelation between three main components: programmable logic controller, human-machine interface and magnetostrictive transducer. Together, these components form an operational closed loop that ensures an appropriate positioning for the impact device. The paper describes how the closed loop works and also the algorithm implemented in the programmable logic controller which surveys the positioning. As a last topic, the paper presents the operator work on the machine's operation in conjunction with human-machine interface. The results were satisfactory and in accordance with the limits determined on ABNT NBR ISO 14607 for this method of tests.

  15. 17 CFR 151.6 - Position visibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... and analytically supported deltas) on a futures-equivalent basis; and (ii) If applicable, by commodity... deltas). (c) 404 filing. A person that holds a position in a Referenced Contract that equals or exceeds...

  16. 5 CFR 362.303 - Filling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PATHWAYS... to the Recent Graduates Program, pursuant to a Pathways MOU executed with the OPM, under Schedule D... fill. (v) Positions must have progressively more responsible duties that provide career...

  17. 5 CFR 362.303 - Filling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....303 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PATHWAYS... to the Recent Graduates Program, pursuant to a Pathways MOU executed with the OPM, under Schedule D... fill. (v) Positions must have progressively more responsible duties that provide career...

  18. 5 CFR 362.105 - Filling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ....105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PATHWAYS... an adequate number of permanent positions will be available to convert Pathways Participants who... outside its own workforce, it must provide OPM information concerning Pathways Programs job...

  19. 5 CFR 362.105 - Filling positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ....105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS PATHWAYS... an adequate number of permanent positions will be available to convert Pathways Participants who... outside its own workforce, it must provide OPM information concerning Pathways Programs job...

  20. Sprites, elf transients, and positive ground strokes

    SciTech Connect

    Boccippio, D.J.; Boldi, R.; Williams, E.R.

    1995-08-25

    In two summertime mesoscale convective systems (MCSs), mesospheric optical sprite phenomena were often coincident with both large-amplitude positive cloud-to-ground lightning and transient Schumann resonance excitations of the entire Earth-ionosphere cavity. These observations, together with earlier studies of MCS electrification, suggest that sprites are triggered when the rapid removal of large quantities of positive charge from an areally extensive charge layer stresses the mesosphere to dielectric breakdown. 46 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Tests Of A Differential Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, F. G.; Hegary, D. M.; Turner, R. N.; Van Graas, F.; Sharma, S.

    1990-01-01

    Paper describes validation tests of global positioning system (GPS) for low-flying helicopters. Configured as differential GPS, in which components in both aircraft and ground station compute position errors relative to known location using satellite navigational data. Corrections computed from differences between computed and measured ranges to four satellites being tracked by receiver in both aircraft and ground systems. Tests conducted to determine whether equipment and computer programs of system operated correctly and consistently.

  2. Positive Stop For Circulation-Control Slot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunter, David; Cullen, Laurence

    1992-01-01

    Rounded shoulder on bushing ensures repeatable stop position. Improved stop mechanism allows airflow slot on circulation-control airfoil to be limited to precise width. Shoulder bushing installed in duct so shoulder rests on inside surface of duct. Bolt slides in bushing in duct wall between more open and less open positions. No relative motion or wear between bolt and slot panel. Prevents bushing from being dislodged by stop forces and provides stiffer stopping surface than sleeve bushing bonded in duct wall.

  3. Alternative aperture stop position designs for SIRTF

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Paul K.; Dinger, Ann S.

    1990-01-01

    Three designs of the Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) for a 100,000 high earth orbit are considered with particular attention given to the evaluation of the aperture stop position. The choice of aperture stop position will be based on stray light considerations which are being studied concurrently. It is noted that there are advantages in cost, mass, and astronomical aperture to placing the aperture stop at or near the primary mirror, if the stray light circumstances allow.

  4. Nondynamic Tracking Using The Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunck, T. P.; Wu, Sien-Chong

    1988-01-01

    Report describes technique for using Global Positioning System (GPS) to determine position of low Earth orbiter without need for dynamic models. Differential observing strategy requires GPS receiver on user vehicle and network of six ground receivers. Computationally efficient technique delivers decimeter accuracy on orbits down to lowest altitudes. New technique nondynamic long-arc strategy having potential for accuracy of best dynamic techniques while retaining much of computational simplicity of geometric techniques.

  5. Tipping the spindle into the right position.

    PubMed

    Akhmanova, Anna; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2016-05-01

    The position of the mitotic spindle determines the cleavage plane in animal cells, but what controls spindle positioning? Kern et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201510117) demonstrate that the microtubule plus end-associated SKAP/Astrin complex participates in this process, possibly by affecting dynein-dependent pulling forces exerted on the tips of astral microtubules. PMID:27138251

  6. Memory of fate and position, colorized.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Stephen L

    2009-07-01

    Many of our ideas about cellular memory of fate and position come from regeneration studies in salamanders. A popular notion is that cells of the blastema transdifferentiate to different fates during limb regeneration. In a recent issue of Nature, Tanaka and colleagues challenge this notion. Using transplant experiments with GFP-expressing axolotl, they show vividly which cells of the blastema remember their fate and position of origin. PMID:19619486

  7. Class of positive partial transposition states

    SciTech Connect

    Chruscinski, Dariusz; Kossakowski, Andrzej

    2006-08-15

    We construct a class of quantum bipartite d(multiply-in-circle sign)d states which are positive under partial transposition (PPT states). This class is invariant under the maximal commutative subgroup of U(d) and contains as special cases many well-known examples of PPT states. States from our class provide criteria for testing the indecomposability of positive maps. Such maps are crucial for constructing entanglement witnesses.

  8. Pharmacy Residents’ Pursuit of Academic Positions

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Tiffany R.; Mehta, Bella H.; Rodis, Jennifer L.; Pruchnicki, Maria C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To describe pharmacy residents’ interest in and pursuit of academic positions. Methods. An electronic presurvey and postsurvey were sent to pharmacy residents during the 2011-2012 residency year. The initial survey evaluated residents’ job preferences and interest in academia at the beginning of residency, and the follow-up survey focused on job selection and reasons for pursuing or not pursuing positions in academia. Results. Nine hundred thirty-six residents responded to the initial survey and 630 participated in both the initial and follow-up survey. Forty-eight percent of those responding to both surveys strongly considered a career in academia in the initial survey, 28% applied for an academic position, and 7% accepted a position. Second-year postgraduate residents were more likely than first-year postgraduate residents to apply for and be offered a faculty position. Conclusion. Pharmacy residents are interested in academia. While increasing interest among residents is encouraging for faculty recruitment, the academy should also encourage and develop adequate training experiences to prepare residents to succeed in these positions. PMID:25995513

  9. Side-emitting fiber optic position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2008-02-12

    A side-emitting fiber optic position sensor and method of determining an unknown position of an object by using the sensor. In one embodiment, a concentrated beam of light source illuminates the side of a side-emitting fiber optic at an unknown axial position along the fiber's length. Some of this side-illuminated light is in-scattered into the fiber and captured. As the captured light is guided down the fiber, its intensity decreases due to loss from side-emission away from the fiber and from bulk absorption within the fiber. By measuring the intensity of light emitted from one (or both) ends of the fiber with a photodetector(s), the axial position of the light source is determined by comparing the photodetector's signal to a calibrated response curve, look-up table, or by using a mathematical model. Alternatively, the side-emitting fiber is illuminated at one end, while a photodetector measures the intensity of light emitted from the side of the fiber, at an unknown position. As the photodetector moves further away from the illuminated end, the detector's signal strength decreases due to loss from side-emission and/or bulk absorption. As before, the detector's signal is correlated to a unique position along the fiber.

  10. The costs and benefits of positive illusions

    PubMed Central

    Makridakis, Spyros; Moleskis, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Positive illusions are associated with unrealistic optimism about the future and an inflated assessment of one’s abilities. They are prevalent in normal life and are considered essential for maintaining a healthy mental state, although, there are disagreements to the extent to which people demonstrate these positive illusions and whether they are beneficial or not. But whatever the situation, it is hard to dismiss their existence and their positive and/or negative influence on human behavior and decision making in general. Prominent among illusions is that of control, that is “the tendency for people to overestimate their ability to control events.” This paper describes positive illusions, their potential benefits but also quantifies their costs in five specific fields (gambling, stock and other markets, new firms and startups, preventive medicine and wars). It is organized into three parts. First the psychological reasons giving rise to positive illusions are described and their likely harm and benefits stated. Second, their negative consequences are presented and their costs are quantified in five areas seriously affected with emphasis to those related to the illusion of control that seems to dominate those of unrealistic optimism. The costs involved are huge and serious efforts must be undertaken to understand their enormity and steps taken to avoid them in the future. Finally, there is a concluding section where the challenges related to positive illusions are noted and directions for future research are presented. PMID:26175698

  11. Serial position functions in general knowledge.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Matthew R; Neath, Ian; Surprenant, Aimée M

    2015-11-01

    Serial position functions with marked primacy and recency effects are ubiquitous in episodic memory tasks. The demonstrations reported here explored whether bow-shaped serial position functions would be observed when people ordered exemplars from various categories along a specified dimension. The categories and dimensions were: actors and age; animals and weight; basketball players and height; countries and area; and planets and diameter. In all cases, a serial position function was observed: People were more accurate to order the youngest and oldest actors, the lightest and heaviest animals, the shortest and tallest basketball players, the smallest and largest countries, and the smallest and largest planets, relative to intermediate items. The results support an explanation of serial position functions based on relative distinctiveness, which predicts that serial position functions will be observed whenever a set of items can be sensibly ordered along a particular dimension. The serial position function arises because the first and last items enjoy a benefit of having no competitors on 1 side and therefore have enhanced distinctiveness relative to mid-dimension items, which suffer by having many competitors on both sides.

  12. From Positive Reinforcement to Positive Behaviors: An Everyday Guide for the Practitioner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigler, Ellen A.; Aamidor, Shirley

    2005-01-01

    There are various opinions concerning the value of positive reinforcement when discussing modifying behaviors of young children. In some cases, individuals considered positive reinforcement difficult to implement and, in extreme cases, even felt it to be detrimental. Educators often use praise interchangeably with positive reinforcement when…

  13. 32 CFR Appendix J to Part 154 - ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Designating Positions J Appendix J to Part 154 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Pt. 154, App. J Appendix J to Part 154—ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions OMB Circular...

  14. 32 CFR Appendix J to Part 154 - ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Designating Positions J Appendix J to Part 154 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Pt. 154, App. J Appendix J to Part 154—ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions OMB Circular...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix J to Part 154 - ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Designating Positions J Appendix J to Part 154 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE SECURITY DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL SECURITY PROGRAM REGULATION Pt. 154, App. J Appendix J to Part 154—ADP Position Categories and Criteria for Designating Positions OMB Circular...

  16. Young Adolescents' Responses to Positive Events: Associations with Positive Affect and Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentzler, Amy L.; Morey, Jennifer N.; Palmer, Cara A.; Yi, Chit Yuen

    2013-01-01

    This study examined how maximizing and minimizing responses to positive events were associated with sustained positive feelings about the events and adjustment in a community sample of 56 young adolescents (31 boys and 25 girls, 10-14 years of age). On daily reports, adolescents reported their positive emotional reactions to their best event each…

  17. Effect of gravity on vertical eye position.

    PubMed

    Pierrot-Deseilligny, C

    2009-05-01

    There is growing evidence that gravity markedly influences vertical eye position and movements. A new model for the organization of brainstem upgaze pathways is presented in this review. The crossing ventral tegmental tract (CVTT) could be the efferent tract of an "antigravitational" pathway terminating at the elevator muscle motoneurons in the third nerve nuclei and comprising, upstream, the superior vestibular nucleus and y-group, the flocculus, and the otoliths. This pathway functions in parallel to the medial longitudinal fasciculus pathways, which control vertical eye movements made to compensate for all vertical head movements and may also comprise the "gravitational" vestibular pathways, involved in the central reflection of the gravity effect. The CVTT could provide the upgaze system with the supplement of tonic activity required to counteract the gravity effect expressed in the gravitational pathway, being permanently modulated according to the static positions of the head (i.e., the instantaneous gravity vector) between a maximal activity in the upright position and a minimal activity in horizontal positions. Different types of arguments support this new model. The permanent influence of gravity on vertical eye position is strongly suggested by the vertical slow phases and nystagmus observed after rapid changes in hypo- or hypergravity. The chin-beating nystagmus, existing in normal subjects with their head in the upside-down position, suggests that gravity is not compensated for in the downgaze system. Upbeat nystagmus due to brainstem lesions, most likely affecting the CVTT circuitry, is improved when the head is in the horizontal position, suggesting that this circuitry is involved in the counteraction of gravity between the upright and horizontal positions of the head. In downbeat nystagmus due to floccular damage, in which a permanent hyperexcitation of the CVTT could exist, a marked influence of static positions of the head is also observed. Finally

  18. Neuroinflammation in treated HIV-positive individuals

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Qi; Cole, James H.; Boasso, Adriano; Greathead, Louise; Kelleher, Peter; Rabiner, Eugenii A; Kalk, Nicola; Bishop, Courtney; Gunn, Roger N.; Matthews, Paul M.; Winston, Alan

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To explore the effects of microglial activation on brain function and structure, and its relationship with peripheral inflammatory markers, in treated, HIV-positive individuals, using in vivo [11C]PBR28 PET (to measure the 18 kDa translocator protein [TSPO]). Methods: Cognitively healthy HIV-positive individuals on suppressive antiretroviral therapy and HIV-negative individuals (controls) underwent brain [11C]PBR28 PET and MRI. HIV-positive patients completed neuropsychological testing and CSF testing for chemokines. The concentration of bacterial ribosomal 16sDNA in plasma was measured as a marker of microbial translocation. Results: HIV-positive individuals showed global increases in TSPO expression compared to controls (corrected p < 0.01), with significant regional increases in the parietal (p = 0.001) and occipital (p = 0.046) lobes and in the globus pallidus (p = 0.035). TSPO binding in the hippocampus, amygdala, and thalamus were associated with poorer global cognitive performance in tasks assessing verbal and visual memory (p < 0.05). Increased TSPO binding was associated with increased brain white matter diffusion MRI mean diffusivity in HIV-positive individuals, a lower CD4/CD8 ratio, and both high pretreatment HIV RNA and plasma concentration ribosomal 16s DNA (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Cognitively healthy HIV-positive individuals show evidence for a chronically activated brain innate immune response and elevated blood markers of microbial translocation despite effective control of plasma viremia. Increased brain inflammation is associated with poorer cognitive performance and white matter microstructural pathology, suggesting a possible role in cognitive impairments found in some HIV-positive patients despite effective treatment. PMID:26911637

  19. Inductive Non-Contact Position Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert; Garcia, Alyssa; Simmons, Stephen

    2010-01-01

    Optical hardware has been developed to measure the depth of defects in the Space Shuttle Orbiter's windows. In this hardware, a mirror is translated such that its position corresponds to the defect's depth, so the depth measurement problem is transferred to a mirror-position measurement problem. This is preferable because the mirror is internal to the optical system and thus accessible. Based on requirements supplied by the window inspectors, the depth of the defects needs to be measured over a range of 200 microns with a resolution of about 100 nm and an accuracy of about 400 nm. These same requirements then apply to measuring the position of the mirror, and in addition, since this is a scanning system, a response time of about 10 ms is needed. A market search was conducted and no sensor that met these requirements that also fit into the available housing volume (less than one cubic inch) was found, so a novel sensor configuration was constructed to meet the requirements. This new sensor generates a nearly linearly varying magnetic field over a small region of space, which can easily be sampled, resulting in a voltage proportional to position. Experiments were done with a range of inductor values, drive voltages, drive frequencies, and inductor shapes. A rough mathematical model was developed for the device that, in most aspects, describes how it operates and what electrical parameters should be chosen for best performance. The final configuration met all the requirements, yielding a small rugged sensor that was easy to use and had nanometer resolution over more than the 200-micron range required. The inductive position sensor is a compact device (potentially as small as 2 cubic centimeters), which offers nanometer-position resolution over a demonstrated range of nearly 1 mm. One of its advantages is the simplicity of its electrical design. Also, the sensor resolution is nearly uniform across its operational range, which is in contrast to eddy current and

  20. A general framework for complete positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominy, Jason M.; Shabani, Alireza; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2016-01-01

    Complete positivity of quantum dynamics is often viewed as a litmus test for physicality; yet, it is well known that correlated initial states need not give rise to completely positive evolutions. This observation spurred numerous investigations over the past two decades attempting to identify necessary and sufficient conditions for complete positivity. Here, we describe a complete and consistent mathematical framework for the discussion and analysis of complete positivity for correlated initial states of open quantum systems. This formalism is built upon a few simple axioms and is sufficiently general to contain all prior methodologies going back to Pechakas (Phys Rev Lett 73:1060-1062, 1994). The key observation is that initial system-bath states with the same reduced state on the system must evolve under all admissible unitary operators to system-bath states with the same reduced state on the system, in order to ensure that the induced dynamical maps on the system are well defined. Once this consistency condition is imposed, related concepts such as the assignment map and the dynamical maps are uniquely defined. In general, the dynamical maps may not be applied to arbitrary system states, but only to those in an appropriately defined physical domain. We show that the constrained nature of the problem gives rise to not one but three inequivalent types of complete positivity. Using this framework, we elucidate the limitations of recent attempts to provide conditions for complete positivity using quantum discord and the quantum data processing inequality. In particular, we correct the claim made by two of us (Shabani and Lidar in Phys Rev Lett 102:100402-100404, 2009) that vanishing discord is necessary for complete positivity, and explain that it is valid only for a particular class of initial states. The problem remains open, and may require fresh perspectives and new mathematical tools. The formalism presented herein may be one step in that direction.

  1. An iterative subaperture position correction algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lo, Weng-Hou; Lin, Po-Chih; Chen, Yi-Chun

    2015-08-01

    The subaperture stitching interferometry is a technique suitable for testing high numerical-aperture optics, large-diameter spherical lenses and aspheric optics. In the stitching process, each subaperture has to be placed at its correct position in a global coordinate, and the positioning precision would affect the accuracy of stitching result. However, the mechanical limitations in the alignment process as well as vibrations during the measurement would induce inevitable subaperture position uncertainties. In our previous study, a rotational scanning subaperture stitching interferometer has been constructed. This paper provides an iterative algorithm to correct the subaperture position without altering the interferometer configuration. Each subaperture is first placed at its geometric position estimated according to the F number of reference lens, the measurement zenithal angle and the number of pixels along the width of subaperture. By using the concept of differentiation, a shift compensator along the radial direction of the global coordinate is added into the stitching algorithm. The algorithm includes two kinds of compensators: one for the geometric null with four compensators of piston, two directional tilts and defocus, and the other for the position correction with the shift compensator. These compensators are computed iteratively to minimize the phase differences in the overlapped regions of subapertures in a least-squares sense. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed method works to the position accuracy of 0.001 pixels for both the single-ring and multiple-ring configurations. Experimental verifications with the single-ring and multiple-ring data also show the effectiveness of the algorithm.

  2. Positive affective states and alcohol consumption: The moderating role of trait positive urgency.

    PubMed

    Dinc, Linda; Cooper, Andrew J

    2015-08-01

    Trait positive urgency is characterised by risky and maladaptive actions in response to extreme positive affective states. Positive urgency has previously been shown to be a risk factor for alcohol consumption and alcohol-related problems; however, there has been limited experimental research examining how positive urgency may moderate relations between affective states and alcohol consumption. In the current study, a sample of 106 participants completed a trait measure of positive urgency and were then randomly assigned to one of three mood induction conditions: a high-activation positive, a low-activation positive or a neutral mood condition. Subsequently, participants took part in a bogus beer taste test, where their alcohol consumption was subsequently measured. The results revealed that positive urgency significantly predicted increased beer consumption, but only for those participants in the high-activation positive mood induction group. The findings from this study provide support for positive urgency as a risk factor for alcohol use and suggest that it may be of particular relevance in social situations where individuals experience highly activated positive affective states. PMID:25863003

  3. Positive expectations encourage generalization from a positive intergroup interaction to outgroup attitudes.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Matthew P; Hehman, Eric; Gaertner, Samuel L; Dovidio, John F

    2015-01-01

    The current research reveals that while positive expectations about an anticipated intergroup interaction encourage generalization of positive contact to outgroup attitudes, negative expectations restrict the effects of contact on outgroup attitudes. In Study 1, when Blacks and Whites interacted with positive expectations, interaction quality predicted outgroup attitudes to a greater degree than when groups interacted with negative expectations. When expectations (Studies 2 and 3) and the actual interaction quality (Study 4) were manipulated orthogonally, negative expectations about the interaction predicted negative outgroup attitudes, regardless of actual interaction quality. By contrast, participants holding positive expectations who experienced a positive interaction expressed positive outgroup attitudes, whereas when they experienced a negative interaction, they expressed outgroup attitudes as negative as those with negative expectations. Across all four studies, positive expectations encouraged developing outgroup attitudes consistent with interaction quality.

  4. Positive expectations encourage generalization from a positive intergroup interaction to outgroup attitudes.

    PubMed

    Deegan, Matthew P; Hehman, Eric; Gaertner, Samuel L; Dovidio, John F

    2015-01-01

    The current research reveals that while positive expectations about an anticipated intergroup interaction encourage generalization of positive contact to outgroup attitudes, negative expectations restrict the effects of contact on outgroup attitudes. In Study 1, when Blacks and Whites interacted with positive expectations, interaction quality predicted outgroup attitudes to a greater degree than when groups interacted with negative expectations. When expectations (Studies 2 and 3) and the actual interaction quality (Study 4) were manipulated orthogonally, negative expectations about the interaction predicted negative outgroup attitudes, regardless of actual interaction quality. By contrast, participants holding positive expectations who experienced a positive interaction expressed positive outgroup attitudes, whereas when they experienced a negative interaction, they expressed outgroup attitudes as negative as those with negative expectations. Across all four studies, positive expectations encouraged developing outgroup attitudes consistent with interaction quality. PMID:25326475

  5. The positive ion temperature effect in magnetized electronegative plasma sheath with two species of positive ions

    SciTech Connect

    Shaw, A. K.; Kar, S.; Goswami, K. S.

    2012-10-15

    The properties of a magnetized multi-component (two species of positive ions, negative ions and electrons) plasma sheath with finite positive ion temperature are studied. By using three fluid hydrodynamic model and some dimensionless variables, the ion (both lighter and heavier positive ions, and negative ions) densities, the ion (only for positive ions) velocities, and electric potential inside the sheath are investigated. In addition, the absence and presence of magnetic field and the orientation of magnetic field are considered. It is noticed that, with increase of positive ion temperature, the lighter positive ion density peaks increase only at the sheath edge and shift towards the sheath edge for both absence and presence of magnetic field. For heavier positive ions, in the absence of magnetic field, the density peaks increase at the sheath edge. But in the presence of magnetic field, the density fluctuations increase at the sheath edge. For both the cases, the density peaks shift towards the sheath edge.

  6. Evolutionary Conserved Positions Define Protein Conformational Diversity.

    PubMed

    Saldaño, Tadeo E; Monzon, Alexander M; Parisi, Gustavo; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian

    2016-03-01

    Conformational diversity of the native state plays a central role in modulating protein function. The selection paradigm sustains that different ligands shift the conformational equilibrium through their binding to highest-affinity conformers. Intramolecular vibrational dynamics associated to each conformation should guarantee conformational transitions, which due to its importance, could possibly be associated with evolutionary conserved traits. Normal mode analysis, based on a coarse-grained model of the protein, can provide the required information to explore these features. Herein, we present a novel procedure to identify key positions sustaining the conformational diversity associated to ligand binding. The method is applied to an adequate refined dataset of 188 paired protein structures in their bound and unbound forms. Firstly, normal modes most involved in the conformational change are selected according to their corresponding overlap with structural distortions introduced by ligand binding. The subspace defined by these modes is used to analyze the effect of simulated point mutations on preserving the conformational diversity of the protein. We find a negative correlation between the effects of mutations on these normal mode subspaces associated to ligand-binding and position-specific evolutionary conservations obtained from multiple sequence-structure alignments. Positions whose mutations are found to alter the most these subspaces are defined as key positions, that is, dynamically important residues that mediate the ligand-binding conformational change. These positions are shown to be evolutionary conserved, mostly buried aliphatic residues localized in regular structural regions of the protein like β-sheets and α-helix. PMID:27008419

  7. Implant positioning system using mutual inductance.

    PubMed

    Zou, You; O'Driscoll, Stephen

    2012-01-01

    Surgical placement of implantable medical devices (IMDs) has limited precision and post-implantation the device can move over time. Accurate knowledge of the position of IMDs allows better interpretation of data gathered by the devices and may allow wireless power to be focused on the IMD thereby increasing power transfer efficiency. Existing positioning methods require device sizes and/or power consumptions which exceed the limits of in-vivo mm-sized IMDs applications. This paper describes a novel implant positioning system which replaces the external transmitting (TX) coil of a wireless power transfer link by an array of smaller coils, measures the mutual inductance between each coil in the TX array and the implanted receiving (RX) coil, and uses the spatial variation in those mutual inductances to estimate the location of the implanted device. This method does not increase the hardware or power consumption in the IMD. Mathematical analysis and electromagnetic simulations are presented which explain the theory underlying this scheme and show its feasibility. A particle swarm based algorithm is used to estimate the position of the RX coil from the measured mutual inductance values. MATLAB simulations show the positioning estimation accuracy on the order of 1 mm.

  8. Centenarians' "holy" memory: is being positive enough?

    PubMed

    Fairfield, Beth; Mammarella, Nicola; Di Domenico, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    The authors compared 18 centenarians' (M age = 100.1 years, SD = 1.8 years) recognition memory for emotional (positive, negative, and religious) pictures with 18 older adults (M age = 75.2 years, SD = 6.8 years). Participants observed a series of images that varied in emotional valence and meaning and were later asked to discriminate between old and new images in a series of pictures that included studied images as well as new images. Centenarians showed decreased recognition memory for positive and negative images items compared with older adults, F(1, 34) = 9.82, p < .01. In addition, a significant age by valence interaction was observed highlighting how centenarians remembered religious pictures better while older adults favoured positive information when only positive pictures were taken into consideration. Results are interpreted in terms of possible age-linked changes in meaningful goals that lead centenarians to focus on meaningful religious self-relevant information rather than simply on positive information.

  9. Positive rights, negative rights and health care.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Andrew

    2010-12-01

    In the current debate about healthcare reform in the USA, advocates for government-ensured universal coverage assume that health care is a right. Although this position is politically popular, it is sometimes challenged by a restricted view of rights popular with libertarians and individualists. The restricted view of rights only accepts 'negative' rights as legitimate rights. Negative rights, the argument goes, place no obligations on you to provide goods to other people and thus respect your right to keep the fruits of your labour. A classic enumeration of negative rights includes life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Positive rights, by contrast, obligate you either to provide goods to others, or pay taxes that are used for redistributive purposes. Health care falls into the category of positive rights since its provision by the government requires taxation and therefore redistribution. Therefore, the libertarian or individualist might argue that health care cannot be a true right. This paper rejects the distinction between positive and negative rights. In fact, the protection of both positive and negative rights can place obligations on others. Furthermore, because of its role in helping protect equality of opportunity, health care can be tied to the rights to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. There is, therefore, good reason to believe that health care is a human right and that universal access should be guaranteed. The practical application, by governments and non-governmental organisations, of several of the arguments presented in this paper is also discussed.

  10. Optogenetic control of organelle transport and positioning

    PubMed Central

    Hoogenraad, Casper C.; Kapitein, Lukas C.

    2016-01-01

    Proper positioning of organelles by cytoskeleton-based motor proteins underlies cellular events such as signaling, polarization, and growth1–8. For many organelles, however, the precise connection between position and function has remained unclear, because strategies to control intracellular organelle positioning with spatiotemporal precision are lacking. Here, we establish optical control of intracellular transport by using light-sensitive heterodimerization to recruit specific cytoskeletal motor proteins (kinesin, dynein or myosin) to selected cargoes. We demonstrate that the motility of peroxisomes, recycling endosomes and mitochondria can be locally and repeatedly induced or stopped, allowing rapid organelle repositioning. We applied this approach in primary neurons to test how local positioning of recycling endosomes contributes to axon outgrowth and found that dynein-driven removal of endosomes from axonal growth cones reversibly suppressed axon growth, whereas kinesin-driven endosome enrichment enhances growth. Our strategy for optogenetic control of organelle positioning will be widely applicable to directly explore site-specific organelle functions in different model systems. PMID:25561173

  11. Audiological manifestations in HIV-positive adults

    PubMed Central

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Angrisani, Rosanna Giaffredo; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Segurado, Aluisio Augusto Cotrim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the findings of behavioral hearing assessment in HIV-positive individuals who received and did not receive antiretroviral treatment. METHODS: This research was a cross-sectional study. The participants were 45 HIV-positive individuals (18 not exposed and 27 exposed to antiretroviral treatment) and 30 control-group individuals. All subjects completed an audiological evaluation through pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, and high-frequency audiometry. RESULTS: The hearing thresholds obtained by pure-tone audiometry were different between groups. The group that had received antiretroviral treatment had higher thresholds for the frequencies ranging from 250 to 3000 Hz compared with the control group and the group not exposed to treatment. In the range of frequencies from 4000 through 8000 Hz, the HIV-positive groups presented with higher thresholds than did the control group. The hearing thresholds determined by high-frequency audiometry were different between groups, with higher thresholds in the HIV-positive groups. CONCLUSION: HIV-positive individuals presented poorer results in pure-tone and high-frequency audiometry, suggesting impairment of the peripheral auditory pathway. Individuals who received antiretroviral treatment presented poorer results on both tests compared with individuals not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. PMID:25029578

  12. Optogenetic control of organelle transport and positioning.

    PubMed

    van Bergeijk, Petra; Adrian, Max; Hoogenraad, Casper C; Kapitein, Lukas C

    2015-02-01

    Proper positioning of organelles by cytoskeleton-based motor proteins underlies cellular events such as signalling, polarization and growth. For many organelles, however, the precise connection between position and function has remained unclear, because strategies to control intracellular organelle positioning with spatiotemporal precision are lacking. Here we establish optical control of intracellular transport by using light-sensitive heterodimerization to recruit specific cytoskeletal motor proteins (kinesin, dynein or myosin) to selected cargoes. We demonstrate that the motility of peroxisomes, recycling endosomes and mitochondria can be locally and repeatedly induced or stopped, allowing rapid organelle repositioning. We applied this approach in primary rat hippocampal neurons to test how local positioning of recycling endosomes contributes to axon outgrowth and found that dynein-driven removal of endosomes from axonal growth cones reversibly suppressed axon growth, whereas kinesin-driven endosome enrichment enhanced growth. Our strategy for optogenetic control of organelle positioning will be widely applicable to explore site-specific organelle functions in different model systems.

  13. Cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R; Ribeiro, F; Oliveira, J

    2010-03-01

    The effects of cryotherapy on joint position sense are not clearly established; however it is paramount to understand its impact on peripheral feedback to ascertain the safety of using ice therapy before resuming exercise on sports or rehabilitation settings. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cryotherapy, when applied over the quadriceps and over the knee joint, on knee position sense. This within-subjects repeated-measures study encompassed fifteen subjects. Knee position sense was measured by open kinetic chain technique and active positioning at baseline and after cryotherapy application. Knee angles were determined by computer analysis of the videotape images. Twenty-minute ice bag application was applied randomly, in two sessions 48 h apart, over the quadriceps and the knee joint. The main effect for cryotherapy application was significant (F (1.14)=7.7, p=0.015) indicating an increase in both absolute and relative angular errors after the application. There was no significant main effect for the location of cryotherapy application, indicating no differences between the application over the quadriceps and the knee joint. In conclusion, cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense in normal knees. This deleterious effect is similar when cryotherapy is applied over the quadriceps or the knee joint.

  14. Evolutionary Conserved Positions Define Protein Conformational Diversity

    PubMed Central

    Saldaño, Tadeo E.; Monzon, Alexander M.; Parisi, Gustavo; Fernandez-Alberti, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Conformational diversity of the native state plays a central role in modulating protein function. The selection paradigm sustains that different ligands shift the conformational equilibrium through their binding to highest-affinity conformers. Intramolecular vibrational dynamics associated to each conformation should guarantee conformational transitions, which due to its importance, could possibly be associated with evolutionary conserved traits. Normal mode analysis, based on a coarse-grained model of the protein, can provide the required information to explore these features. Herein, we present a novel procedure to identify key positions sustaining the conformational diversity associated to ligand binding. The method is applied to an adequate refined dataset of 188 paired protein structures in their bound and unbound forms. Firstly, normal modes most involved in the conformational change are selected according to their corresponding overlap with structural distortions introduced by ligand binding. The subspace defined by these modes is used to analyze the effect of simulated point mutations on preserving the conformational diversity of the protein. We find a negative correlation between the effects of mutations on these normal mode subspaces associated to ligand-binding and position-specific evolutionary conservations obtained from multiple sequence-structure alignments. Positions whose mutations are found to alter the most these subspaces are defined as key positions, that is, dynamically important residues that mediate the ligand-binding conformational change. These positions are shown to be evolutionary conserved, mostly buried aliphatic residues localized in regular structural regions of the protein like β-sheets and α-helix. PMID:27008419

  15. Positive psychology and war: an oxymoron.

    PubMed

    Phipps, Sean

    2011-10-01

    The author was deeply disturbed by the January 2011 issue of the American Psychologist, which engendered a series of emotions in the author: first dismay, then anger, and finally a sense of shame about the current state of the profession. This was ostensibly an exposition of "positive psychology" principles and how they are to be applied in a colossal experiment designed to support our military in their fight against the ideology of jihadist Islam. The author found it hard to see what was positive in the presentation. Not one of the authors in this special issue discussed applying positive psychology principles to the reduction of conflict between nations, to the prevention of war, or to the promotion of peace. How about a positive psychology that questions the wisdom of leaders who tell us that the use of force is unavoidable, and seeks instead to help them find alternative, peaceful solutions? A true positive psychology should be primarily addressed to eradicating the disease of war, not to supporting those who fight it.

  16. Interoception and Positive Symptoms in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ardizzi, Martina; Ambrosecchia, Marianna; Buratta, Livia; Ferri, Francesca; Peciccia, Maurizio; Donnari, Simone; Mazzeschi, Claudia; Gallese, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    The present study focuses on the multifaceted concept of self-disturbance in schizophrenia, adding knowledge about a not yet investigated aspect, which is the interoceptive accuracy. Starting from the assumption that interoceptive accuracy requires an intact sense of self, which otherwise was proved to be altered in schizophrenia, the aim of the present study was to explore interoceptive accuracy in a group of schizophrenia patients, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, the possible association between interoceptive accuracy and patients' positive and negative symptomatology was assessed. To pursue these goals, a group of 23 schizophrenia patients and a group of 23 healthy controls performed a heartbeat perception task. Patients' symptomatology was assessed by means of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results demonstrated significantly lower interoceptive accuracy in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. This difference was not accounted for participants' age, BMI, anxiety levels, and heart rate. Furthermore, patients' illness severity, attention and pharmacological treatment did not influence their interoceptive accuracy levels. Interestingly, a strong positive relation between interoceptive accuracy and positive symptoms severity, especially Grandiosity, was found. The present results demonstrate for the first time that interoceptive accuracy is altered in schizophrenia. Furthermore, they prove a specific association between interoceptive accuracy and positive symptomatology, suggesting that the symptom Grandiosity might be protective against an altered basic sense of self in patients characterized by higher sensibility to their inner bodily sensations. PMID:27512369

  17. Micro-position sensor using faraday effect

    SciTech Connect

    McElfresh, Michael; Lucas, Matthew; Silveira, Joseph P.; Groves, Scott E.

    2007-02-27

    A micro-position sensor and sensing system using the Faraday Effect. The sensor uses a permanent magnet to provide a magnetic field, and a magneto-optic material positioned in the magnetic field for rotating the plane of polarization of polarized light transmitted through the magneto-optic material. The magnet is independently movable relative to the magneto-optic material so as to rotate the plane of polarization of the polarized light as a function of the relative position of the magnet. In this manner, the position of the magnet relative to the magneto-optic material may be determined from the rotated polarized light. The sensing system also includes a light source, such as a laser or LED, for producing polarized light, and an optical fiber which is connected to the light source and to the magneto-optic material at a sensing end of the optical fiber. Processing electronics, such as a polarimeter, are also provided for determining the Faraday rotation of the plane of polarization of the back-reflected polarized light to determine the position of the magnet relative to the sensing end of the optical fiber.

  18. When Daily Sunspot Births Become Positively Correlated

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapoval, Alexander; Le Mouël, Jean-Louis; Shnirman, Mikhail; Courtillot, Vincent

    2015-10-01

    We study the first differences w(t) of the International Sunspot Number (ISSN) daily series for the time span 1850 - 2013. The one-day correlations ρ1 between w(t) and w(t+1) are computed within four-year sliding windows and are found to shift from negative to positive values near the end of Cycle 17 ({˜} 1945). They remain positive during the last Grand Maximum and until {˜} 2009, when they fall to zero. We also identify a prominent regime change in {˜} 1915, strengthening previous evidence of major anomalies in solar activity at this date. We test an autoregressive process of order 1 (AR(1)) as a model that can reproduce the high-frequency component of ISSN: we compute ρ1 for this AR(1) process and find that it is negative. Positive values of ρ1 are found only if the process involves positive correlation: this leads us to suggest that the births of successive spots are positively correlated during the last Grand Maximum.

  19. A Prototype Wire Position Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Wei

    2010-12-07

    The Wire Position Monitoring System (WPM) will track changes in the transverse position of LCLS Beam Position Monitors (BPMs) to 1{micro}m over several weeks. This position information will be used between applications of beam based alignment to correct for changes in component alignment. The WPM system has several requirements. The sensor range must be large enough so that precision sensor positioning is not required. The resolution needs to be small enough so that the signal can be used to monitor motion to 1{micro}m. The system must be stable enough so that system drift does not mimic motion of the component being monitored. The WPM sensor assembly consists of two parts, the magnetic sensor and an integrated lock-in amplifier. The magnetic sensor picks up a signal from the alternating current in a stretched wire. The voltage v induced in the sensor is proportional to the wire displacement from the center of the sensor. The integrated lock-in amplifier provides a DC output whose magnitude is proportional to the AC signal from the magnetic sensor. The DC output is either read on a digital voltmeter or digitized locally and communicated over a computer interface.

  20. Cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R; Ribeiro, F; Oliveira, J

    2010-03-01

    The effects of cryotherapy on joint position sense are not clearly established; however it is paramount to understand its impact on peripheral feedback to ascertain the safety of using ice therapy before resuming exercise on sports or rehabilitation settings. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cryotherapy, when applied over the quadriceps and over the knee joint, on knee position sense. This within-subjects repeated-measures study encompassed fifteen subjects. Knee position sense was measured by open kinetic chain technique and active positioning at baseline and after cryotherapy application. Knee angles were determined by computer analysis of the videotape images. Twenty-minute ice bag application was applied randomly, in two sessions 48 h apart, over the quadriceps and the knee joint. The main effect for cryotherapy application was significant (F (1.14)=7.7, p=0.015) indicating an increase in both absolute and relative angular errors after the application. There was no significant main effect for the location of cryotherapy application, indicating no differences between the application over the quadriceps and the knee joint. In conclusion, cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense in normal knees. This deleterious effect is similar when cryotherapy is applied over the quadriceps or the knee joint. PMID:20221997

  1. Interoception and Positive Symptoms in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Ardizzi, Martina; Ambrosecchia, Marianna; Buratta, Livia; Ferri, Francesca; Peciccia, Maurizio; Donnari, Simone; Mazzeschi, Claudia; Gallese, Vittorio

    2016-01-01

    The present study focuses on the multifaceted concept of self-disturbance in schizophrenia, adding knowledge about a not yet investigated aspect, which is the interoceptive accuracy. Starting from the assumption that interoceptive accuracy requires an intact sense of self, which otherwise was proved to be altered in schizophrenia, the aim of the present study was to explore interoceptive accuracy in a group of schizophrenia patients, compared to healthy controls. Furthermore, the possible association between interoceptive accuracy and patients’ positive and negative symptomatology was assessed. To pursue these goals, a group of 23 schizophrenia patients and a group of 23 healthy controls performed a heartbeat perception task. Patients’ symptomatology was assessed by means of the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). Results demonstrated significantly lower interoceptive accuracy in schizophrenia patients compared to healthy controls. This difference was not accounted for participants’ age, BMI, anxiety levels, and heart rate. Furthermore, patients’ illness severity, attention and pharmacological treatment did not influence their interoceptive accuracy levels. Interestingly, a strong positive relation between interoceptive accuracy and positive symptoms severity, especially Grandiosity, was found. The present results demonstrate for the first time that interoceptive accuracy is altered in schizophrenia. Furthermore, they prove a specific association between interoceptive accuracy and positive symptomatology, suggesting that the symptom Grandiosity might be protective against an altered basic sense of self in patients characterized by higher sensibility to their inner bodily sensations. PMID:27512369

  2. GPS Software Packages Deliver Positioning Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    "To determine a spacecraft s position, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed an innovative software program called the GPS (global positioning system)-Inferred Positioning System and Orbit Analysis Simulation Software, abbreviated as GIPSY-OASIS, and also developed Real-Time GIPSY (RTG) for certain time-critical applications. First featured in Spinoff 1999, JPL has released hundreds of licenses for GIPSY and RTG, including to Longmont, Colorado-based DigitalGlobe. Using the technology, DigitalGlobe produces satellite imagery with highly precise latitude and longitude coordinates and then supplies it for uses within defense and intelligence, civil agencies, mapping and analysis, environmental monitoring, oil and gas exploration, infrastructure management, Internet portals, and navigation technology."

  3. Gene Positioning Effects on Expression in Eukaryotes.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Huy Q; Bosco, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    The packaging and organization of the genome within the eukaryotic interphase nucleus directly influence how the genes are expressed. An underappreciated aspect of genome structure is that it is highly dynamic and that the physical positioning of a gene can impart control over its transcriptional status. In this review, we assess the current knowledge of how gene positioning at different levels of genome organization can directly influence gene expression during interphase. The levels of organization discussed include chromatin looping, topologically associated domains, chromosome territories, and nuclear compartments. We discuss specific studies demonstrating that gene positioning is a dynamic and highly regulated feature of the eukaryotic genome that allows for the essential spatiotemporal regulation of genes.

  4. Fiber-connected position localization sensor networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Shilong; Zhu, Dan; Fu, Jianbin; Yao, Tingfeng

    2014-11-01

    Position localization has drawn great attention due to its wide applications in radars, sonars, electronic warfare, wireless communications and so on. Photonic approaches to realize position localization can achieve high-resolution, which also provides the possibility to move the signal processing from each sensor node to the central station, thanks to the low loss, immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI) and broad bandwidth brought by the photonic technologies. In this paper, we present a review on the recent works of position localization based on photonic technologies. A fiber-connected ultra-wideband (UWB) sensor network using optical time-division multiplexing (OTDM) is proposed to realize high-resolution localization and moving the signal processing to the central station. A 3.9-cm high spatial resolution is achieved. A wavelength-division multiplexed (WDM) fiber-connected sensor network is also demonstrated to realize location which is independent of the received signal format.

  5. Two-dimensional Inductive Position Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional inductive position sensing system uses four drive inductors arranged at the vertices of a parallelogram and a sensing inductor positioned within the parallelogram. The sensing inductor is movable within the parallelogram and relative to the drive inductors. A first oscillating current at a first frequency is supplied to a first pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a first diagonal of the parallelogram. A second oscillating current at a second frequency is supplied to a second pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a second diagonal of the parallelogram. As a result, the sensing inductor generates a first output voltage at the first frequency and a second output voltage at the second frequency. A processor determines a position of the sensing inductor relative to the drive inductors using the first output voltage and the second output voltage.

  6. Notification following new positive HIV test results.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ya-Lin A; Hutchinson, Angela B; Hollis, NaTasha D; Sansom, Stephanie L

    2016-09-01

    Client notification of a new HIV diagnosis is critical for timely access to treatment and reduction in behaviours associated with HIV infection. It is also an important input in HIV transmission and disease progression models. We used national, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-funded HIV testing events data collected through the National HIV Prevention Program Monitoring and Evaluation system to update estimates of the proportion of newly identified HIV-positives notified of their status. We compared estimates from 2008 to 2010 across test technologies, settings, and HIV risk groups. In 2010, notification following a positive rapid test was 99.6% compared with 99.3% in 2008. Notification following a positive conventional test was 81.5% in 2010 compared with 80.8% in 2008. To realise the full promise of early HIV diagnosis and treatment for the prevention of additional HIV cases, efforts to ensure prompt notification following a new HIV diagnosis will be crucial. PMID:26378191

  7. Novel position sensor technologies for microaccelerometers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanzandt, T. R.; Kenny, T. W.; Kaiser, W. J.

    1992-01-01

    An important new approach for vehicle guidance and control is based on the use of compact, low-mass, low-cost sensors integrated with the vehicle structure. Many advantages of this approach lead to new capabilities. However, the development of compact guidance and control sensors leads to a variety of fundamental physical problems associated with sensor sensitivity and noise. For example, as sensor size is reduced, it becomes necessary to improve the sensitivity of the sensor signal detection mechanism. These challenges to sensor development will be described. Recent developments at JPL, based on new position sensor principles such as electron tunneling, have produced a series of novel, ultra-high sensitivity micro-sensors and micro-instruments. Included among the applications demonstrated, are a high sensitivity micro-accelerometer and micro-seismometer. In this paper, the fundamental limits of conventional position sensors will be discussed and a new position sensor for advanced accelerometers will be described.

  8. A high-bandwidth spintronic position sensor.

    PubMed

    Tuma, Tomas; Pantazi, Angeliki; Sahoo, Deepak R; Eib, Philipp; Salis, Gian; Pozidis, Haris; Sebastian, Abu

    2014-09-19

    Position sensing with resolution down to the scale of a single atom is of key importance in nanoscale science and engineering. However, only optical-sensing methods are currently capable of non-contact sensing at such resolution over a high bandwidth. Here, we report a new non-contact, non-optical position-sensing concept based on detecting changes in a high-gradient magnetic field of a microscale magnetic dipole by means of spintronic sensors. Experimental measurements show a sensitivity of up to 40 Ω/μm, a linear range greater than 10 μm and a noise floor of 0.5 pm/√[Hz]. Also shown is the use of the sensor for position measurements for closed-loop control of a high-speed atomic force microscope with a frame rate of more than 1 frame/s.

  9. A positive finite-difference advection scheme

    SciTech Connect

    Hundsdorfer, W.; Koren, B.; Loon, M. van

    1995-03-01

    This paper examines a class of explicit finite-difference advection schemes derived along the method of lines. An important application field is large-scale atmospheric transport. The paper therefore focuses on the demand of positivity. For the spatial discretization, attention is confined to conservative schemes using five points per direction. The fourth-order central scheme and the family of {kappa}-schemes, comprising the second-order central, the second-order upwind, and the third-order upwind biased, are studied. Positivity is enforced through flux limiting. It is concluded that the limited third-order upwind discretization is the best candidate from the four examined. For the time integration attention is confined to a number of explicit Runge-Kutta methods of orders two to four. With regard to the demand of positivity, these integration methods turn out to behave almost equally and no best method could be identified. 16 refs., 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Psychiatry, religion, positive emotions and spirituality.

    PubMed

    Vaillant, George E

    2013-12-01

    This paper proposes that eight positive emotions: awe, love/attachment, trust/faith, compassion, gratitude, forgiveness, joy and hope constitute what we mean by spirituality. These emotions have been grossly ignored by psychiatry. The two sciences that I shall employ to demonstrate this definition of spirituality will be ethology and neuroscience. They are both very new. I will argue that spirituality is not about ideas, sacred texts and theology. Rather, spirituality is all about emotion and social connection that are more dependent on the limbic system than the cortex. Specific religions, for all their limitations, are often the portal through which positive emotions are brought into conscious attention. Neither Freud nor psychiatric textbooks ever mention emotions like joy and gratitude. Hymns and psalms give these emotions pride of place. Our whole concept of psychotherapy might change, if clinicians set about enhancing positive emotions, rather than focusing only on the negative ones.

  11. Evolving resistance among Gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Munita, Jose M; Bayer, Arnold S; Arias, Cesar A

    2015-09-15

    Antimicrobial therapy is a key component of modern medical practice and a cornerstone for the development of complex clinical interventions in critically ill patients. Unfortunately, the increasing problem of antimicrobial resistance is now recognized as a major public health threat jeopardizing the care of thousands of patients worldwide. Gram-positive pathogens exhibit an immense genetic repertoire to adapt and develop resistance to virtually all antimicrobials clinically available. As more molecules become available to treat resistant gram-positive infections, resistance emerges as an evolutionary response. Thus, antimicrobial resistance has to be envisaged as an evolving phenomenon that demands constant surveillance and continuous efforts to identify emerging mechanisms of resistance to optimize the use of antibiotics and create strategies to circumvent this problem. Here, we will provide a broad perspective on the clinical aspects of antibiotic resistance in relevant gram-positive pathogens with emphasis on the mechanistic strategies used by these organisms to avoid being killed by commonly used antimicrobial agents.

  12. Abnormal Head Position in Infantile Nystagmus Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Noval, Susana; González-Manrique, Mar; Rodríguez-Del Valle, José María; Rodríguez-Sánchez, José María

    2011-01-01

    Infantile nystagmus is an involuntary, bilateral, conjugate, and rhythmic oscillation of the eyes which is present at birth or develops within the first 6 months of life. It may be pendular or jerk-like and, its intensity usually increases in lateral gaze, decreasing with convergence. Up to 64% of all patients with nystagmus also present strabismus, and even more patients have an abnormal head position. The abnormal head positions are more often horizontal, but they may also be vertical or take the form of a tilt, even though the nystagmus itself is horizontal. The aim of this article is to review available information about the origin and treatment of the abnormal head position associated to nystagmus, and to describe our treatment strategies. PMID:24533187

  13. Positioning accuracy of the neurotron 1000

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, R.S.; Murphy, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    The Neuotron 1000 is a novel treatment machine under development for frameless stereotaxic radiosurgery that consists of a compact X-band accelerator mounted on a robotic arm. The therapy beam is guided to the lesion by an imaging system, which included two diagnostic x-ray cameras that view the patient during treatment. Patient position and motion are measured by the imaging system and appropriate corrections are communicated in real time to the robotic arm for beam targeting and motion tracking. The three tests reported here measured the pointing accuracy of the therapy beam and the present capability of the imaging guidance system. The positioning and pointing test measured the ability of the robotic arm to direct the beam through a test isocenter from arbitrary arm positions. The test isocenter was marked by a small light-sensitive crystal and the beam axis was simulated by a laser.

  14. False positive reduction for lung nodule CAD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Luyin; Boroczky, Lilla; Drysdale, Jeremy; Agnihotri, Lalitha; Lee, Michael C.

    2007-03-01

    Computer-aided detection (CAD) algorithms 'automatically' identify lung nodules on thoracic multi-slice CT scans (MSCT) thereby providing physicians with a computer-generated 'second opinion'. While CAD systems can achieve high sensitivity, their limited specificity has hindered clinical acceptance. To overcome this problem, we propose a false positive reduction (FPR) system based on image processing and machine learning to reduce the number of false positive lung nodules identified by CAD algorithms and thereby improve system specificity. To discriminate between true and false nodules, twenty-three 3D features were calculated from each candidate nodule's volume of interest (VOI). A genetic algorithm (GA) and support vector machine (SVM) were then used to select an optimal subset of features from this pool of candidate features. Using this feature subset, we trained an SVM classifier to eliminate as many false positives as possible while retaining all the true nodules. To overcome the imbalanced nature of typical datasets (significantly more false positives than true positives), an intelligent data selection algorithm was designed and integrated into the machine learning framework, thus further improving the FPR rate. Three independent datasets were used to train and validate the system. Using two datasets for training and the third for validation, we achieved a 59.4% FPR rate while removing one true nodule on the validation datasets. In a second experiment, 75% of the cases were randomly selected from each of the three datasets and the remaining cases were used for validation. A similar FPR rate and true positive retention rate was achieved. Additional experiments showed that the GA feature selection process integrated with the proposed data selection algorithm outperforms the one without it by 5%-10% FPR rate. The methods proposed can be also applied to other application areas, such as computer-aided diagnosis of lung nodules.

  15. Are humanistic and positive psychology really incommensurate?

    PubMed

    Friedman, Harris

    2014-01-01

    Comments on the article "The humanistic psychology-positive psychology divide: Contrasts in philosophical foundations" by Waterman (see record 2013-12501-001). Waterman has provided some broad-brush generalizations about differences between humanistic psychology and positive psychology, many of which do not hold in all cases, and he has pointed out some difficulties that would be involved in reconciling them. However, he has not presented any convincing argument that the two are irreconcilable. Essentially, Waterman has confounded difficulties with impossibilities by concluding these are incommensurate.

  16. Chronic Wasting Disease Positive Tissue Bank

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wright, Scott D.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005, the USGS National Wildlife Health Center entered into an agreement with the Wyoming Game and Fish Department and the Department of Veterinary Sciences at the University of Wyoming to produce a collection of positive tissues from cervids intentionally infected with chronic wasting disease. This agreement was facilitated through the University of Wyoming Cooperative Fish and Wildlife Unit. Also, the investigators on this project sampled the animals incrementally over 2 years to show changes over time, and examined tissues from the animals by immunohistochemistry. CWD positive tissues are catalogued by species, sample site and time of infection. These data and more will soon be published.

  17. Serial position effects in mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Howieson, Diane B; Mattek, Nora; Seeyle, Adriana M; Dodge, Hiroko H; Wasserman, Dara; Zitzelberger, Tracy; Jeffrey, Kaye

    2011-03-01

    Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is often associated with the preclinical phase of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Special scoring of word-list recall data for serial position has been suggested to improve discrimination of normal aging from dementia. We examined serial position effects in word-list recall for MCI participants compared to Alzheimer patients and controls. Individuals with MCI, like Alzheimer patients, had a diminished primacy effect in recalling words from a list. No alternative scoring system was better than standard scoring of word-list recall in distinguishing MCI patients from controls. Retention weighted scoring improved the discrimination of MCI and AD groups.

  18. Negative and positive cesium ion studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuehn, D. G.; Sutliff, D. E.; Chanin, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    Mass spectrometric analyses have been performed on the positive and negative species from discharges in Cs, He-Cs, and He-H2-Cs mixtures. Sampling was conducted through the electrodes of normal glow discharges and from close-spaced heated-cathode conditions, which approximate a cesium thermionic converter. No negative Cs ions were observed for Cs pressures less than .01 torr. Identified species included Cs(+), Cs2(+), Cs(-), and what appeared to be multiply charged ions. Low-mass negative and positive ions attributed to H2 were observed when an He-H2 mixture was also present in the discharge region.

  19. Method of manufacturing positive nickel hydroxide electrodes

    DOEpatents

    Gutjahr, M.A.; Schmid, R.; Beccu, K.D.

    1975-12-16

    A method of manufacturing a positive nickel hydroxide electrode is discussed. A highly porous core structure of organic material having a fibrous or reticular texture is uniformly coated with nickel powder and then subjected to a thermal treatment which provides sintering of the powder coating and removal of the organic core material. A consolidated, porous nickel support structure is thus produced which has substantially the same texture and porosity as the initial core structure. To provide the positive electrode including the active mass, nickel hydroxide is deposited in the pores of the nickel support structure.

  20. Clash of positivities in topological density correlators

    SciTech Connect

    Aguado, Miguel; Seiler, Erhard

    2005-11-01

    We discuss the apparent conflict between reflection positivity and positivity of the topological susceptibility in two-dimensional nonlinear sigma models and in four-dimensional gauge theories. We pay special attention to the fact that this apparent conflict is already present on the lattice; its resolution puts some nontrivial restrictions on the short-distance behavior of the lattice correlator. It is found that these restrictions can be satisfied both in the case of asymptotic freedom and the dissident scenario of a critical point at finite coupling.