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Sample records for acqua alta oceanographic

  1. An observatory system for physical and biogeochemical parameters in the northern Adriatic Sea: the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetazzo, Alvise; Barbariol, Francesco; Bastianini, Mauro; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bergamasco, Filippo; Bernardi Aubry, Fabrizio; Bertotti, Luciana; Bonaldo, Davide; Cavaleri, Luigi; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Finotto, Stefania; Lester, Graham; Licer, Matjaz; Malacic, Vlado; Minuzzo, Tiziano; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The history of the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform (http://www.ismar.cnr.it/infrastructures/piattaforma-acqua-alta) started more than forty years ago, shortly after the dramatic surge that affected the city of Venice in late 1966. Since then, benefiting also from recent funding acquired within the National Flagship Project RITMARE, great efforts have been devoted to monitor the oceanographic and atmospheric conditions in the Northern Adriatic Sea (NA), in the proximity of the Venice lagoon. Nowadays the "Acqua Alta", located on a 16 m depth area, represents a success story of the Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), that manages the structure and used collected data to improve the knowledge of the fragile sea environment that surrounds the Venetian littoral. The directional wave observations started in 1979, representing one of the world longest continuous series. On the sea surface, waves are now routinely observed by means of a submerged acoustic-Doppler system that provides burst of directional wave data, including significant wave height, mean wave period and direction of propagation. Currently these wave parameters are integrated with the data collected by a stereo-video system (namely Wave Acquisition Stereo System, WASS) that provides the 3-D profile of the wavy sea surface. WASS data are unleashing a "new view" for ocean waves providing the complete space-time dynamics of wave groups. Moreover, a series of multiparameters probes permits to measure the vertical distribution of sea temperature (at nine depths from the surface to the bottom), salinity (three positions), dissolved oxygen (two positions), and turbidity close to the sea bottom. The collected data are continuously used to track the water masses that enter, leave, and are produced within the NA. A striking example is provided by the temperature and salinity data used to follow the exceptional dense water formation that occurred in this basin

  2. An observatory system for physical and biogeochemical parameters in the northern Adriatic Sea: the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetazzo, Alvise; Barbariol, Francesco; Bastianini, Mauro; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bergamasco, Filippo; Bernardi Aubry, Fabrizio; Bertotti, Luciana; Bonaldo, Davide; Cavaleri, Luigi; Carniel, Sandro; Falcieri, Francesco M.; Finotto, Stefania; Lester, Graham; Licer, Matjaz; Malacic, Vlado; Minuzzo, Tiziano; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    The history of the "Acqua Alta" oceanographic platform (http://www.ismar.cnr.it/infrastructures/piattaforma-acqua-alta) started more than forty years ago, shortly after the dramatic surge that affected the city of Venice in late 1966. Since then, benefiting also from recent funding acquired within the National Flagship Project RITMARE, great efforts have been devoted to monitor the oceanographic and atmospheric conditions in the Northern Adriatic Sea (NA), in the proximity of the Venice lagoon. Nowadays the "Acqua Alta", located on a 16 m depth area, represents a success story of the Institute of Marine Sciences (ISMAR) of the Italian National Research Council (CNR), that manages the structure and used collected data to improve the knowledge of the fragile sea environment that surrounds the Venetian littoral. The directional wave observations started in 1979, representing one of the world longest continuous series. On the sea surface, waves are now routinely observed by means of a submerged acoustic-Doppler system that provides burst of directional wave data, including significant wave height, mean wave period and direction of propagation. Currently these wave parameters are integrated with the data collected by a stereo-video system (namely Wave Acquisition Stereo System, WASS) that provides the 3-D profile of the wavy sea surface. WASS data are unleashing a "new view" for ocean waves providing the complete space-time dynamics of wave groups. Moreover, a series of multiparameters probes permits to measure the vertical distribution of sea temperature (at nine depths from the surface to the bottom), salinity (three positions), dissolved oxygen (two positions), and turbidity close to the sea bottom. The collected data are continuously used to track the water masses that enter, leave, and are produced within the NA. A striking example is provided by the temperature and salinity data used to follow the exceptional dense water formation that occurred in this basin

  3. The Sinkholes at "Piano dell'Acqua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovine, G. G. R.; Parise, M.; Caloiero, T.; Lanza, G.; Suriano, S.

    2012-04-01

    Five sinkholes have recently been identified in the territory of San Basile (Northern Calabria, Southern Italy), in locality "Piano dell'Acqua". The sinkholes are located in a hilly setting, where the main landform is represented by a slight valley draining toward the east. The sinkholes are limited in size, with maximum diameter of 10 m, and maximum depth of 2.5 m. Two of them are elongated, whilst the remaining three are circular. The area where the sinkholes develop is characterized by Pliocene conglomerate and sand, likely dislocated by tectonic lines. The sinkholes were initially examined by means of multi-temporal aerial photos, and the outcomes from this analysis were checked in the field through geological, structural and geomorphological surveys. At the same time, an historical analysis was started in order to collect and critically evaluate the existing information and testimonies about age of occurrence of the phenomena. At this aim, several interviews with local inhabitants were performed, and a number of archives scrutinized. As a result, the study allowed to hypothesize that two sinkholes developed during the winter 2000-2001, with likely rapid formation. Two other cases probably originated during the 70's, as also suggested by the age of the vegetation hosted within the sinkholes. The last sinkhole, eventually, opened sometime between February 2001 and November 2007. According to the collected testimonies, a further phase of sinkhole development might have occurred in the first half of the past Century, but no field evidence of this older phase has been found so far. Analysis of the seismic catalogues showed that no earthquake can be identified as possible trigger of any of the sinkholes at Piano dell'Acqua. Therefore, the origin of the studied phenomena should be related to sub-cutaneous erosion, within an area that is rich in groundwater (as also shown by the site name, meaning "Water Plain"). Local changes in the water table, both related to

  4. 75 FR 23263 - Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-03

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind I, LLC; Alta Wind II, LLC; Alta Wind III, LLC; Alta Wind IV, LLC; Alta Wind V, LLC; Alta Wind VI, LLC; Alta Wind VII, LLC; Alta Wind VIII, LLC; Alta Windpower... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 285.207 (2009), Alta Wind I, LLC, Alta Wind...

  5. 77 FR 29633 - Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... and Alta IX to interconnect the full planned capacity of Petitioners' wind and solar generation... Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind VII, LLC, Alta Wind IX, LLC, Alta Wind X, LLC, Alta Wind XI, LLC, Alta Wind XII, LLC, Alta Wind XIII, LLC, Alta Wind XIV, LLC, Alta Wind XV, LLC, Alta...

  6. Dataset exploited for the development and validation of automated cyanobacteria quantification algorithm, ACQUA.

    PubMed

    Gandola, Emanuele; Antonioli, Manuela; Traficante, Alessio; Franceschini, Simone; Scardi, Michele; Congestri, Roberta

    2016-09-01

    The estimation and quantification of potentially toxic cyanobacteria in lakes and reservoirs are often used as a proxy of risk for water intended for human consumption and recreational activities. Here, we present data sets collected from three volcanic Italian lakes (Albano, Vico, Nemi) that present filamentous cyanobacteria strains at different environments. Presented data sets were used to estimate abundance and morphometric characteristics of potentially toxic cyanobacteria comparing manual Vs. automated estimation performed by ACQUA ("ACQUA: Automated Cyanobacterial Quantification Algorithm for toxic filamentous genera using spline curves, pattern recognition and machine learning" (Gandola et al., 2016) [1]). This strategy was used to assess the algorithm performance and to set up the denoising algorithm. Abundance and total length estimations were used for software development, to this aim we evaluated the efficiency of statistical tools and mathematical algorithms, here described. The image convolution with the Sobel filter has been chosen to denoise input images from background signals, then spline curves and least square method were used to parameterize detected filaments and to recombine crossing and interrupted sections aimed at performing precise abundances estimations and morphometric measurements. PMID:27500194

  7. Solar Innovator | Alta Devices

    ScienceCinema

    Mattos, Laila; Le, Minh

    2016-07-12

    Selected to participate in the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative, Alta Devices produces solar cells that convert sunlight into electricity at world record-breaking levels of efficiency. Through its innovative solar technology Alta is helping bring down the cost of solar. Learn more about the Energy Department's efforts to advance solar technology at energy.gov/solar .

  8. Solar Innovator | Alta Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Mattos, Laila; Le, Minh

    2012-01-01

    Selected to participate in the Energy Department's SunShot Initiative, Alta Devices produces solar cells that convert sunlight into electricity at world record-breaking levels of efficiency. Through its innovative solar technology Alta is helping bring down the cost of solar. Learn more about the Energy Department's efforts to advance solar technology at energy.gov/solar .

  9. Expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus

    DOEpatents

    McCoy, Kim O.; Downing, Jr., John P.; DeRoos, Bradley G.; Riches, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    An expendable oceanographic sensor apparatus is deployed from an airplane or a ship to make oceanographic observations in a profile of the surface-to-ocean floor, while deployed on the floor, and then a second profile when returning to the ocean surface. The device then records surface conditions until on-board batteries fail. All data collected is stored and then transmitted from the surface to either a satellite or other receiving station. The apparatus is provided with an anchor that causes descent to the ocean floor and then permits ascent when the anchor is released. Anchor release is predetermined by the occurrence of a pre-programmed event.

  10. Airborne oceanographic lidar system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Specifications and preliminary design of an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) system, which is to be constructed for installation and used on a NASA Wallops Flight Center (WFC) C-54 research aircraft, are reported. The AOL system is to provide an airborne facility for use by various government agencies to demonstrate the utility and practicality of hardware of this type in the wide area collection of oceanographic data on an operational basis. System measurement and performance requirements are presented, followed by a description of the conceptual system approach and the considerations attendant to its development. System performance calculations are addressed, and the system specifications and preliminary design are presented and discussed.

  11. The Artistic Oceanographer Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haley, Sheean T.; Dyhrman, Sonya T.

    2009-01-01

    The Artistic Oceanographer Program (AOP) was designed to engage elementary school students in ocean sciences and to illustrate basic fifth-grade science and art standards with ocean-based examples. The program combines short science lessons, hands-on observational science, and art, and focuses on phytoplankton, the tiny marine organisms that form…

  12. Supplementation of Acqua Lete® (Bicarbonate Calcic Mineral Water) improves hydration status in athletes after short term anaerobic exercise

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Experimental studies suggest that mineral waters with high concentrations of calcium and bicarbonate can impact acid–base balance. The purpose of this study was to test the effect on acid–base balance and specific urine gravity, of a bicarbonate calcic mineral water (Acqua Lete®) compared to a minimally mineralized water. Methods 88 amateur male athletes underwent two experimental trials with a modified Wingate test: the first was carried out without hydration (Control Test, Test C, n = 88); the second was carried out after one week of controlled hydration (Test with hydration, Test H, n = 88), with 1.5 L/day of a very low mineral content water (Group A, n = 44) or 1.5 L/day of Acqua Lete® (Group B, n = 44). Measure of body temperature, bioimpedance analysis, muscular ultrasound, and urinalysis were taken before (t0), immediately after (t1), 5’ (t2), and 30’ (t3) after exercise. Results Hydration results in a decreased core temperature; muscular ultrasound showed increased muscle thickness after exercise related to content of body water. Regarding urinalysis, in test H, we found in both groups after exercise a significant decrease of specific urine gravity with significantly lower levels in Group B. We also found a significant increase of pH in the same Group B. Conclusions In conclusion all the athletes hydrated with Acqua Lete® showed a positive impact on hydration status after anaerobic exercise with significant decrease of specific urine gravity and a positive effect on pH. PMID:22835267

  13. ACQUA: Automated Cyanobacterial Quantification Algorithm for toxic filamentous genera using spline curves, pattern recognition and machine learning.

    PubMed

    Gandola, Emanuele; Antonioli, Manuela; Traficante, Alessio; Franceschini, Simone; Scardi, Michele; Congestri, Roberta

    2016-05-01

    Toxigenic cyanobacteria are one of the main health risks associated with water resources worldwide, as their toxins can affect humans and fauna exposed via drinking water, aquaculture and recreation. Microscopy monitoring of cyanobacteria in water bodies and massive growth systems is a routine operation for cell abundance and growth estimation. Here we present ACQUA (Automated Cyanobacterial Quantification Algorithm), a new fully automated image analysis method designed for filamentous genera in Bright field microscopy. A pre-processing algorithm has been developed to highlight filaments of interest from background signals due to other phytoplankton and dust. A spline-fitting algorithm has been designed to recombine interrupted and crossing filaments in order to perform accurate morphometric analysis and to extract the surface pattern information of highlighted objects. In addition, 17 specific pattern indicators have been developed and used as input data for a machine-learning algorithm dedicated to the recognition between five widespread toxic or potentially toxic filamentous genera in freshwater: Aphanizomenon, Cylindrospermopsis, Dolichospermum, Limnothrix and Planktothrix. The method was validated using freshwater samples from three Italian volcanic lakes comparing automated vs. manual results. ACQUA proved to be a fast and accurate tool to rapidly assess freshwater quality and to characterize cyanobacterial assemblages in aquatic environments. PMID:27012737

  14. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bressel, C.; Itzkan, I.; Nunes, J. E.; Hoge, F.

    1977-01-01

    The Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL), a spatially scanning range-gated device installed on board a NASA C-54 aircraft, is described. The AOL system is capable of measuring topographical relief or water depth (bathymetry) with a range resolution of plus or minus 0.3 m in the vertical dimension. The system may also be used to measure fluorescent spectral signatures from 3500 to 8000 A with a resolution of 100 A. Potential applications of the AOL, including sea state measurements, water transparency assessments, oil spill identification, effluent identification and crop cover assessment are also mentioned.

  15. Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, David H.

    1986-01-01

    The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water.

  16. Salinity driven oceanographic upwelling

    DOEpatents

    Johnson, D.H.

    1984-08-30

    The salinity driven oceanographic upwelling is maintained in a mariculture device that includes a long main duct in the general shape of a cylinder having perforated cover plates at each end. The mariculture device is suspended vertically in the ocean such that one end of the main duct is in surface water and the other end in relatively deep water that is cold, nutrient rich and relatively fresh in comparison to the surface water which is relatively warm, relatively nutrient deficient and relatively saline. A plurality of elongated flow segregating tubes are disposed in the main duct and extend from the upper cover plate beyond the lower cover plate into a lower manifold plate. The lower manifold plate is spaced from the lower cover plate to define a deep water fluid flow path to the interior space of the main duct. Spacer tubes extend from the upper cover plate and communicate with the interior space of the main duct. The spacer tubes are received in an upper manifold plate spaced from the upper cover plate to define a surface water fluid flow path into the flow segregating tubes. A surface water-deep water counterflow is thus established with deep water flowing upwardly through the main duct interior for discharge beyond the upper manifold plate while surface water flows downwardly through the flow segregating tubes for discharge below the lower manifold plate. During such counterflow heat is transferred from the downflowing warm water to the upflowing cold water. The flow is maintained by the difference in density between the deep water and the surface water due to their differences in salinity. The upwelling of nutrient rich deep water is used for marifarming by fertilizing the nutrient deficient surface water. 1 fig.

  17. Development of moored oceanographic spectroradiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Booth, Charles R.; Mitchell, B. Greg; Holm-Hansen, O.

    1987-01-01

    Biospherical Instruments has successfully completed a NASA sponsored SBIR (Small Business Innovational Research Program) project to develop spectroradiometers capable of being deployed in the ocean for long periods of time. The completion of this project adds a valuable tool for the calibration of future spaceborne ocean color sensors and enables oceanographers to extend remote sensing optical techniques beyond the intermittent coverage of spaceborne sensors. Highlights of the project include two moorings totalling 8 months generating extensive sets of optical, biological, and physical data sets in the ocean off La Jolla, California, and a 70 day operational deployment of the resulting commercial product by the ONR and NASA sponsored BIOWATT program. Based on experience gained in these moorings, Biospherical Instruments has developed a new line of spectroradiometers designed to support the oceanographic remote sensing missions of NASA, the Navy, and various oceanographers.

  18. Geochemical Monitoring System II prototype (GMS II) installation at the ``Acqua Difesa'' well, within the Etna region: first data during the 1999 volcanic crisis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quattrocchi, F.; Di Stefano, G.; Pizzino, L.; Pongetti, F.; Romeo, G.; Scarlato, P.; Sciacca, U.; Urbini, G.

    2000-09-01

    The Geochemical Monitoring System II (GMS II) prototype was designed, assembled, tested and installed at the Acqua Difesa test site, near Belpasso (CT), within the Etna region, in the frame of an EC funded program named Automatic Geochemical Monitoring of Volcanoes. The easily changeable and versatile configuration of the remote station provides actual data every 10 min, recording: groundwater temperature, electrical conductivity, pH, redox potential, dissolved CO 2, He, atmospheric pressure and air temperature. The radon sensor was assembled despite no jet added to the remote station. An automatic sampler collects every 72 h (3 days) two bottles of water, acidified and not, for further laboratory analyses. The choice of the Acqua Difesa test site arises from preliminary volcanological studies, deserving special interest, i.e. for the high CO 2 degassing, for the high He isotopic values, exhibiting a direct mantle signature of the volcanic gases and for the peculiar sensitivity to volcanic activity as tested by discrete monitoring in the past and confirmed by the present study. During the discussed monitoring period (October 1998-June 1999) an enhanced volcanic activity of Etna was observed; it started on July 1998 with enhanced plume degassing and, since September 1998, with periodical lava fountains as well as with episodic low-energy earthquakes and seismic swarms ( Mmax=3.1 till June 1999). The activity culminated with a summit crater fracture involving a sub-terminal eruption on 04/02/1999. The summit crater fracture was not accompanied by enhanced seismicity, despite moderate seismic energy release occurring in the succeeding months. In that monitoring period, the Acqua Difesa GMS II station recorded a few geochemical anomalies, mostly in temperature, pH, CO 2, electrical conductivity and Eh as well as in the concentration of some major elements trend, mostly in Mg and HCO 3. The geochemical continuous and discrete data-set is discussed in comparison with the

  19. 46 CFR 3.05-3 - Oceanographic research vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oceanographic research vessel. 3.05-3 Section 3.05-3... OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 3.05-3 Oceanographic research vessel. “An oceanographic research vessel is a vessel which the U.S. Coast Guard finds is employed exclusively in one...

  20. 46 CFR 3.05-3 - Oceanographic research vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oceanographic research vessel. 3.05-3 Section 3.05-3... OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 3.05-3 Oceanographic research vessel. “An oceanographic research vessel is a vessel which the U.S. Coast Guard finds is employed exclusively in one...

  1. 46 CFR 3.05-3 - Oceanographic research vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oceanographic research vessel. 3.05-3 Section 3.05-3... OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 3.05-3 Oceanographic research vessel. “An oceanographic research vessel is a vessel which the U.S. Coast Guard finds is employed exclusively in one...

  2. 46 CFR 3.05-3 - Oceanographic research vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oceanographic research vessel. 3.05-3 Section 3.05-3... OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 3.05-3 Oceanographic research vessel. “An oceanographic research vessel is a vessel which the U.S. Coast Guard finds is employed exclusively in one...

  3. 46 CFR 3.05-3 - Oceanographic research vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oceanographic research vessel. 3.05-3 Section 3.05-3... OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS Definition of Terms Used in This Part § 3.05-3 Oceanographic research vessel. “An oceanographic research vessel is a vessel which the U.S. Coast Guard finds is employed exclusively in one...

  4. The XIOM. Oceanographic measurement network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerez, F.; Gómez Aguar, J.; Espino, M.; Puigdefàbregas, J.; . Cateura, J.; López, J.

    2009-04-01

    DESCRIPTION The XIOM network for oceanographic and coastal meteorological measurements (Xarxa d'Instrumentació Oceanogràfica I Meteorològica) is owned by the Catalan regional government. His deployment is to better understanding of processes that take place in the Spanish Catalan coast, in the NW Mediterranean. The XIOM sea measurement network is formed by the following equipment: 3 directional buoys. 1 scalar buoy. 4 meteo-oceanographical buoys (providing the currents measurements). 2 tide gauge stations. INSTRUMENTATION Wave buoys sends a HF radio signal to a receiver station at the coast and are equipped with ARGOS allocators to allow recovery in case on drift. The receiver stations area composed by antenna, A/D signal converter and the computer. The signal is processed ant the spectral and statistical parameters are sent through internet connection to the main computer. Meteo-oceanographical buoys sends data by satellite (ORBCOMM system) and it's received by e-mail directly in the main computer. Tidal gauges are locally connected to internet connection and sends the data to a main computer. A vast amount of data is collected. In case of waves the main parameters are Hs (significant wave height) spectral and statistical, Tp (peak period), and mean direction of waves in the peak of spectrum. Another parameters are: Tz (mean period), main directional spread, spectral width, and up to 25 different parameters obtained from spectral moments and statistical calculations. In case of meteo-oceanographical buoys, the parameters are velocity of the current, direction of the current and temperature, all of them at -1 m and -15 m. The buoys are equipped also with a standard meteorological station in its upper part that measures parameters like wind velocity and its direction. Tidal gauges measure sea level and water temperature. DATA FLOW In Xiom network, one ftp server centralizes all the directional and scalar buoy's data. It's located at the UPC (Universitat Polit

  5. Origin and evolution of sinkholes in an alluvial setting: the case study of Piano dell'Acqua (San Basile, Northern Calabria, Italia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iovine, Giulio G. R.; Parise, Mario; Caloiero, Tommaso; Ferraro, Giuseppe; Lanza, Giuseppe; Nicolino, Nicola; Suriano, Stefania

    2010-05-01

    Five sinkholes have recently been identified at "Piano dell'Acqua", in the territory of San Basile (Northern Calabria, Southern Italy). They are located in a hilly setting, where the main landform is represented by a slight valley draining toward the east. The sinkholes are limited in size, with maximum diameter of 10 m, and maximum depth of 2.5 m. Two of them present elongated shapes, whilst the remaining three are circular. The area where the sinkholes developed is characterized by Pliocene conglomerate and sand, dislocated by tectonic lines. Sinkhole phenomena were initially investigated in the whole territory by means of multi-temporal aerial photos; the outcomes from this analysis were checked in the field through geological, structural and geomorphological surveys. Historical analysis was started in order to collect and critically evaluate the existing information and testimonies about the age of occurrence of the surveyed phenomena; several interviews with local inhabitants were performed, and a number of archives scrutinized. As a result, it may be assumed that two out of the five identified sinkholes developed during the winter 2000-2001 (period "a"), with likely rapid formation; two of the other cases probably originated during the 70's (period "b"), as also suggested by the age of the vegetation hosted within the sinkholes; c) the last sinkhole opened sometime between February 2001 and November 2007 (period "c"). According to the collected testimonies, a further phase of sinkhole development might have occurred in the first half of the past Centruty, but no field evidence of this older phase has been found. Analysis of the seismic catalogues showed that no earthquake can be identified as possible trigger of any of the sinkholes at Piano dell'Acqua. Therefore, the origin of the studied phenomena may be related to sub-cutaneous erosion, within an area that is rich in groundwater. Local changes in the water table, both related to climate and man

  6. 46 CFR 188.10-53 - Oceanographic research vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Oceanographic research vessel. 188.10-53 Section 188.10-53 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-53 Oceanographic research...

  7. 46 CFR 188.10-53 - Oceanographic research vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Oceanographic research vessel. 188.10-53 Section 188.10-53 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-53 Oceanographic research...

  8. 27 CFR 9.195 - Alta Mesa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... County, California, and is entirely within the Lodi viticultural area (27 CFR 9.107). The Alta Mesa... its intersection with Dillard Road, section 6, T6N, R7E (Elk Grove Quadrangle); then (5) Proceed northeast 2.6 miles on Dillard Road to its intersection with Lee Shorthorn Road, T7N, R7E...

  9. 27 CFR 9.195 - Alta Mesa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... County, California, and is entirely within the Lodi viticultural area (27 CFR 9.107). The Alta Mesa... its intersection with Dillard Road, section 6, T6N, R7E (Elk Grove Quadrangle); then (5) Proceed northeast 2.6 miles on Dillard Road to its intersection with Lee Shorthorn Road, T7N, R7E...

  10. 27 CFR 9.195 - Alta Mesa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... County, California, and is entirely within the Lodi viticultural area (27 CFR 9.107). The Alta Mesa... its intersection with Dillard Road, section 6, T6N, R7E (Elk Grove Quadrangle); then (5) Proceed northeast 2.6 miles on Dillard Road to its intersection with Lee Shorthorn Road, T7N, R7E...

  11. 27 CFR 9.195 - Alta Mesa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... County, California, and is entirely within the Lodi viticultural area (27 CFR 9.107). The Alta Mesa... its intersection with Dillard Road, section 6, T6N, R7E (Elk Grove Quadrangle); then (5) Proceed northeast 2.6 miles on Dillard Road to its intersection with Lee Shorthorn Road, T7N, R7E...

  12. 27 CFR 9.195 - Alta Mesa.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... County, California, and is entirely within the Lodi viticultural area (27 CFR 9.107). The Alta Mesa... its intersection with Dillard Road, section 6, T6N, R7E (Elk Grove Quadrangle); then (5) Proceed northeast 2.6 miles on Dillard Road to its intersection with Lee Shorthorn Road, T7N, R7E...

  13. An Oceanographic Curriculum for High Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taber, Robert W.; And Others

    Contained are outlines for 18 one-hour lectures on oceanology. Each outline lists topics to be covered, suggestions on which topics should be covered most thoroughly, and books for further reading and related films. Lecture topics include: oceanographic surveying and research; geology of the oceans; physical properties of sea water; waves, tides…

  14. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) (Global Carbon Cycle)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    This bimonthly contractor progress report covers the operation, maintenance and data management of the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar and the Airborne Topographic Mapper. Monthly activities included: mission planning, sensor operation and calibration, data processing, data analysis, network development and maintenance and instrument maintenance engineering and fabrication.

  15. Strange Bedfellows; Physical and Biological Oceanographers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooster, W. S.

    2002-12-01

    When I started graduate study at Scripps in 1947, both the text, "The Oceans", and the curriculum - all students took the introductory courses in physics, chemistry, biology, and geology - conspired to create awareness of the interactions among these fields. In their preface, the authors spoke of the book as "an aid to the beginner and specialist alike in the coordination of the various fields of oceanography." Harald Sverdrup, perhaps the best known physical oceanographer of his day, introduced us to the interdisciplinary organization, ICES, wrote an important paper (1953) on "the vernal blooming of phytoplankton", and together with fishery biologist O.E.Sette, launched the world renowned CalCOFI program. Another noted physical oceanographer, Henry Stommel, 1949, teamed up with biologist Gordon Riley in a major study of the quantitative ecology of plankton. At the time, physical and biological oceanographers often seemed to be engaged in the same mission. The curriculum format, with its four basic courses, spread to most other graduate programs in oceanography, but the forces of specialization also spread. While the biological oceanographers have always seen the need to understand the milieu within which their creatures function, the physicists often seemed to chafe against wasting their time on squishy subjects like biology when there were so many more important and fascinating things to study. Interactions were further complicated by the confusion between "biological oceanography" and "marine biology", and by the status of "fishery biology" which was often disdained by oceanographers of all stripes. I propose to discuss the evolution of the relationship among these fields during the 60 years since "The Oceans" was first published, concluding with the present marriage of convenience, or at least amicable co-habitation, forced by the widespread concern over the threat of global warming and the need to understand its consequences. It has become clear that

  16. Data Citation: An International Oceanographic Collaboration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, L. M.; Chandler, C. L.; Lowry, R. K.; Urban, E. R.; Moncoiffe, G.; Leadbeter, A.; Pissierssens, P.; Norton, C.; Pikula, L.

    2012-12-01

    The Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (MBLWHOI) Library, the Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) and the International Oceanographic Data and Information Exchange (IODE) of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission have assembled a team of librarians, data managers and scientists who are collaborating to identify best practices for tracking data provenance and clearly attributing credit to data collectors/providers. One successful outcome of this collaborative effort includes tools and procedures developed by the Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (MBLWHOI) Library and the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) that automate the ingestion of metadata from BCO-DMO for deposit with a copy of each data set into the Institutional Repository (IR) Woods Hole Open Access Server (WHOAS). The system also incorporates functionality for BCO-DMO to request a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) from the Library. This partnership allows the Library to work with a trusted data repository to ensure high quality data while the data repository utilizes library services and is assured that a permanent archived copy of the data is associated with the persistent DOI. The assignment of persistent identifiers enables accurate data citation. The Library can assign a DOI to appropriate datasets deposited in WHOAS. We are particularly interested in working with authors to deposit datasets associated with published articles. The DOI would ideally be assigned before submission and be included in the published paper so readers can link directly to the dataset, but DOIs are also being assigned to datasets that support papers that have already been published. WHOAS metadata records link the article to the datasets and the datasets to the article. Because of the assignment of DOIs, Elsevier Publishing sought a collaboration with the Library. Article records in Science Direct now contain

  17. 15 CFR 950.4 - National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) Oceanographic station data for surface and serial depths, giving values of temperature, salinity, oxygen...) Continuously recorded salinity-temperature-depth data in digital form. (4) Surface current information...

  18. 15 CFR 950.4 - National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) Oceanographic station data for surface and serial depths, giving values of temperature, salinity, oxygen...) Continuously recorded salinity-temperature-depth data in digital form. (4) Surface current information...

  19. 15 CFR 950.4 - National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) Oceanographic station data for surface and serial depths, giving values of temperature, salinity, oxygen...) Continuously recorded salinity-temperature-depth data in digital form. (4) Surface current information...

  20. Oceanographic Interpretation of Apollo Photographs. Coastal Oceanographic and Sedimentologic Interpretation of Apollo 9 Space Photographs; Carolina's Continental Shelf, USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mairs, R. L.

    1971-01-01

    Apollo 9 photographs, color band separations, and oceanographic and meteorological data are used in the study of the origin, movement, and dissipation of masses of discolored water near the shores of North and South Carolina. A model has been developed incorporating jet theory, climatology, currents, surface temperatures, color separations, and other oceanographic data to explain the processes involved in the life cycle of the discolored water masses. Special treatment is afforded the Gulf Stream boundary definition and the Cape Hatteras oceanographic barrier.

  1. Ontology Based Vocabulary Matching for Oceanographic Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yu; Shepherd, Adam; Chandler, Cyndy; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    Data integration act as the preliminary entry point as we enter the era of big data in many scientific domains. However the reusefulness of various dataset has met the hurdle due to different initial of interests of different parties, therefore different vocabularies in describing similar or semantically related concepts. In this scenario it is vital to devise an automatic or semi-supervised algorithm to facilitate the convergence of different vocabularies. The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. In an attempt to harmonize these regional data systems, especially vocabularies, R2R recognizes the value of the SeaDataNet vocabularies served by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS) hosted at the British Oceanographic Data Centre as a trusted, authoritative source for describing many oceanographic research concepts such as instrumentation. In this work, we make use of the semantic relations in the vocabularies served by NVS to build a Bayesian network and take advantage of the idea of entropy in evaluating the correlation between different concepts and keywords. The performance of the model is evaluated against matching instruments from R2R against the SeaDataNet instrument vocabularies based on calculated confidence scores in the instrument pairings. These pairings with their scores can then be analyzed for assertion growing the interoperability of the R2R vocabulary through its links to the SeaDataNet entities.

  2. A Framework for Integrating Oceanographic Data Repositories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rozell, E.; Maffei, A. R.; Beaulieu, S. E.; Fox, P. A.

    2010-12-01

    Oceanographic research covers a broad range of science domains and requires a tremendous amount of cross-disciplinary collaboration. Advances in cyberinfrastructure are making it easier to share data across disciplines through the use of web services and community vocabularies. Best practices in the design of web services and vocabularies to support interoperability amongst science data repositories are only starting to emerge. Strategic design decisions in these areas are crucial to the creation of end-user data and application integration tools. We present S2S, a novel framework for deploying customizable user interfaces to support the search and analysis of data from multiple repositories. Our research methods follow the Semantic Web methodology and technology development process developed by Fox et al. This methodology stresses the importance of close scientist-technologist interactions when developing scientific use cases, keeping the project well scoped and ensuring the result meets a real scientific need. The S2S framework motivates the development of standardized web services with well-described parameters, as well as the integration of existing web services and applications in the search and analysis of data. S2S also encourages the use and development of community vocabularies and ontologies to support federated search and reduce the amount of domain expertise required in the data discovery process. S2S utilizes the Web Ontology Language (OWL) to describe the components of the framework, including web service parameters, and OpenSearch as a standard description for web services, particularly search services for oceanographic data repositories. We have created search services for an oceanographic metadata database, a large set of quality-controlled ocean profile measurements, and a biogeographic search service. S2S provides an application programming interface (API) that can be used to generate custom user interfaces, supporting data and application

  3. The Joy of Playing with Oceanographic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, A. T.; Xing, Z.; Armstrong, E. M.; Thompson, C. K.; Huang, T.

    2013-12-01

    The web is no longer just an after thought. It is no longer just a presentation layer filled with HTML, CSS, JavaScript, Frameworks, 3D, and more. It has become the medium of our communication. It is the database of all databases. It is the computing platform of all platforms. It has transformed the way we do science. Web service is the de facto method for communication between machines over the web. Representational State Transfer (REST) has standardized the way we architect services and their interfaces. In the Earth Science domain, we are familiar with tools and services such as Open-Source Project for Network Data Access Protocol (OPeNDAP), Thematic Realtime Environmental Distributed Data Services (THREDDS), and Live Access Server (LAS). We are also familiar with various data formats such as NetCDF3/4, HDF4/5, GRIB, TIFF, etc. One of the challenges for the Earth Science community is accessing information within these data. There are community-accepted readers that our users can download and install. However, the Application Programming Interface (API) between these readers is not standardized, which leads to non-portable applications. Webification (w10n) is an emerging technology, developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, which exploits the hierarchical nature of a science data artifact to assign a URL to each element within the artifact. (e.g. a granule file). By embracing standards such as JSON, XML, and HTML5 and predictable URL, w10n provides a simple interface that enables tool-builders and researchers to develop portable tools/applications to interact with artifacts of various formats. The NASA Physical Oceanographic Distributed Active Archive Center (PO.DAAC) is the designated data center for observational products relevant to the physical state of the ocean. Over the past year PO.DAAC has been evaluating w10n technology by webifying its archive holdings to provide simplified access to oceanographic science artifacts and as a service to enable future

  4. EGLACOM project: seismic and oceanographic data integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronio, L.; Lipizer, M.; Rebesco, M.; Deponte, D.; Ursella, L.; Fragiacomo, C.

    2009-04-01

    In the summer of 2008, a multidisciplinary combined offshore reflection seismic and oceanographic cruise was carried out along the southern Svalbard continental margin during the EGLACOM (Evolution of a GLacial Arctic COntinental Margin) project. This cruise was funded by the Italian Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS) in the framework of the International Polar Year (IPY). The main objective of EGLACOM was the geophysical study of an ice-stream dominated marine depositional system of the Arctic margin. However, the high relevance of the area under the climatic and oceanographic point of view challenged the simultaneous acquisition of oceanographic data in order to study the overall thermohaline structures and ocean current circulation with a synergic seismic oceanographic approach. As documented by several recent papers (i.e., Holbrook et al., 2003, Nandi et al., 2004, Nakamura et al, 2006, Jones et al., 2008) and dedicated project ('Geophysical Oceanography (GO)' project, 2007-2009, http://www.dur.ac.uk/eu.go), this approach allows to image oceanic fine-structures with greater horizontal resolution than traditional oceanographic methods. The working area lies south of Fram Strait which is the only deep connection with the Arctic Ocean and the main entrance for the heat and salt flux associated to the northernmost part of the Atlantic Current. Ocean circulation has a fundamental role on the control of heat transport and on climate changes, which are particularly rapid and severe in the Arctic. In recent times, the Arctic ocean has undergone profound changes with dramatic reduction of ice cover and warming of its upper layers. The hydrographic properties (i.e. temperature and salinity) and the circulation pattern (in terms of mesoscale features, vertical mixing and transport intensity) of the Atlantic Water (AW) inflow strongly influence the overall ocean circulation in the Arctic, which ultimately influences the climate. Recent

  5. 33 CFR 1.25-48 - Oceanographic research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...), 80 Stat. 937; 31 U.S.C. 483a; 49 U.S.C. 1655(b)(1); 49 CFR 1.46(b)) ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oceanographic research. 1.25-48... GENERAL PROVISIONS Fees and Charges for Certain Records and Services § 1.25-48 Oceanographic research....

  6. 33 CFR 1.25-48 - Oceanographic research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...), 80 Stat. 937; 31 U.S.C. 483a; 49 U.S.C. 1655(b)(1); 49 CFR 1.46(b)) ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Oceanographic research. 1.25-48... GENERAL PROVISIONS Fees and Charges for Certain Records and Services § 1.25-48 Oceanographic research....

  7. 33 CFR 1.25-48 - Oceanographic research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...), 80 Stat. 937; 31 U.S.C. 483a; 49 U.S.C. 1655(b)(1); 49 CFR 1.46(b)) ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Oceanographic research. 1.25-48... GENERAL PROVISIONS Fees and Charges for Certain Records and Services § 1.25-48 Oceanographic research....

  8. 33 CFR 1.25-48 - Oceanographic research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...), 80 Stat. 937; 31 U.S.C. 483a; 49 U.S.C. 1655(b)(1); 49 CFR 1.46(b)) ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Oceanographic research. 1.25-48... GENERAL PROVISIONS Fees and Charges for Certain Records and Services § 1.25-48 Oceanographic research....

  9. 33 CFR 1.25-48 - Oceanographic research.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...), 80 Stat. 937; 31 U.S.C. 483a; 49 U.S.C. 1655(b)(1); 49 CFR 1.46(b)) ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Oceanographic research. 1.25-48... GENERAL PROVISIONS Fees and Charges for Certain Records and Services § 1.25-48 Oceanographic research....

  10. 15 CFR 950.4 - National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., and disseminates oceanographic data; develops analytical and descriptive products to meet user requirements; and provides facilities for the World Data Center-A (Oceanography). It was the first NODC established and houses the world's largest usuable collection of marine data. (a) Oceanographic data...

  11. 15 CFR 950.4 - National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., and disseminates oceanographic data; develops analytical and descriptive products to meet user requirements; and provides facilities for the World Data Center-A (Oceanography). It was the first NODC established and houses the world's largest usuable collection of marine data. (a) Oceanographic data...

  12. 46 CFR 188.10-53 - Oceanographic research vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... and other marine geophysical or geological surveys, atmospheric research, and biological research. ... 46 Shipping 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Oceanographic research vessel. 188.10-53 Section 188.10-53 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH...

  13. 46 CFR 188.10-53 - Oceanographic research vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... and other marine geophysical or geological surveys, atmospheric research, and biological research. ... 46 Shipping 7 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Oceanographic research vessel. 188.10-53 Section 188.10-53 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH...

  14. 46 CFR 188.10-53 - Oceanographic research vessel.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... and other marine geophysical or geological surveys, atmospheric research, and biological research. ... 46 Shipping 7 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Oceanographic research vessel. 188.10-53 Section 188.10-53 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH...

  15. Oceanographic visualization interactive research tool (OVIRT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorhead, Robert J., II; Hamann, Bernd; Everitt, Cass; Jones, Stephen C.; McAllister, Joel; Barlow, Jonathan

    1994-04-01

    The Oceanographic Visualization Interactive Research Tool (OVIRT) was developed to explore the utility of scalar field volume rendering in visualizing environmental ocean data and to extend some of the classical 2D oceanographic displays into a 3D visualization environment. It has five major visualization tools: cutting planes, minicubes, isosurfaces, sonic-surfaces, and direct volume rendering. The cutting planes tool provides three orthogonal cutting planes which can be interactively moved through the volume. The minicubes routine renders small cubes whose faces are shaded according to function value. The isosurface tool is conceptually similar to the well-known marching cubes technique. The sonic surfaces are an extension of the 2D surfaces which have been classically used to display acoustic propagation paths and inflection lines within the ocean. The surfaces delineate the extent and axis of the shallow and deep sound channels. The direct volume rendering (DVR) techniques give a global view of the data. Other features include the ability to overlay the shoreline and inlay the bathymetry. There are multiple colormaps, an automatic histogramming feature, a macro and scripting capability, a picking function, and the ability to display animations of DVR imagery. There is a network feature to allow computationally expensive functions to be executed on remote machines.

  16. Seismic reflection imaging of shallow oceanographic structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    PiéTé, Helen; Marié, Louis; Marsset, Bruno; Thomas, Yannick; Gutscher, Marc-André

    2013-05-01

    Multichannel seismic (MCS) reflection profiling can provide high lateral resolution images of deep ocean thermohaline fine structure. However, the shallowest layers of the water column (z < 150 m) have remained unexplored by this technique until recently. In order to explore the feasibility of shallow seismic oceanography (SO), we reprocessed and analyzed four multichannel seismic reflection sections featuring reflectors at depths between 10 and 150 m. The influence of the acquisition parameters was quantified. Seismic data processing dedicated to SO was also investigated. Conventional seismic acquisition systems were found to be ill-suited to the imaging of shallow oceanographic structures, because of a high antenna filter effect induced by large offsets and seismic trace lengths, and sources that typically cannot provide both a high level of emission and fine vertical resolution. We considered a test case, the imagery of the seasonal thermocline on the western Brittany continental shelf. New oceanographic data acquired in this area allowed simulation of the seismic acquisition. Sea trials of a specifically designed system were performed during the ASPEX survey, conducted in early summer 2012. The seismic device featured: (i) four seismic streamers, each consisting of six traces of 1.80 m; (ii) a 1000 J SIG sparker source, providing a 400 Hz signal with a level of emission of 205 dB re 1 μPa @ 1 m. This survey captured the 15 m thick, 30 m deep seasonal thermocline in unprecedented detail, showing images of vertical displacements most probably induced by internal waves.

  17. World Wide Web Search Engines: AltaVista and Yahoo.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machovec, George S., Ed.

    1996-01-01

    Examines the history, structure, and search capabilities of Internet search tools AltaVista and Yahoo. AltaVista provides relevance-ranked feedback on full-text searches. Yahoo indexes Web "citations" only but does organize information hierarchically into predefined categories. Yahoo has recently become a publicly held company and currently…

  18. Archiving oceanographic data at NOAA's National Oceanographic Data Center: A use-case approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biddle, M.; Arzayus, K. M.; Collins, D.; Paver, C. R.; Rutz, S. B.

    2012-12-01

    Current data holdings at the National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) include physical, biological and chemical measurements of in situ oceanographic variables, satellite data products, and ocean model simulations. NODC acquires data from a wide variety of partners that span academia, government (including state and federal sources), private industry, and non-profit organizations. NODC provides access to these diverse data collections for both current and future use, to ensure that data consumers have the ability to monitor present and past environmental conditions. Using a flexible archival infrastructure enables NODC to archive almost any type of file format. NODC is deploying web services built upon OPeNDAP, THREDDS, Geoportal, and other standard technologies to enable data integration and application-ready data for a broad spectrum of data consumers. To maximize use of these web services, NODC is working with the oceanographic community to utilize standard formats, such as netCDF, for representing data. This poster outlines use cases which describe how a data provider can 1) establish a relationship with NODC, 2) communicate and document requirements for archiving data, 3) fulfill funding agency data management requirements, and 4) implement an automated process for archiving standard recurring data sets, where applicable. As a result of this interaction, NODC can provide valuable feedback to data providers to improve the quality of their metadata and/or data, provide access to archived data via multiple services, and facilitate data use in various data products to inform scientists and the public about the state of the ocean.

  19. Atmospheric and oceanographic research review, 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Papers generated by atmospheric, oceanographic, and climatological research performed during 1979 at the Goddard Laboratory for Atmospheric Sciences are presented. The GARP/global weather research is aimed at developing techniques for the utilization and analysis of the FGGE data sets. Observing system studies were aimed at developing a GLAS TIROS N sounding retrieval system and preparing for the joint NOAA/NASA AMTS simulation study. The climate research objective is to support the development and effective utilization of space acquired data systems by developing the GLAS GCM for short range climate predictions, studies of the sensitivity of climate to boundary conditions, and predictability studies. Ocean/air interaction studies concentrated on the development of models for the prediction of upper ocean currents, temperatures, sea state, mixed layer depths, and upwelling zones, and on studies of the interactions of the atmospheric and oceanic circulation systems on time scales of a month or more.

  20. Oceanographic and Biogeochemical Insights from Diatom Genomes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Chris; Vardi, Assaf; Allen, Andrew E.

    2010-01-01

    Diatoms are the most successful group of eukaryotic phytoplankton in the modern ocean and have risen to dominance relatively quickly over the last 100 million years. Recently completed whole genome sequences from two species of diatom, Thalassiosira pseudonana and Phaeodactylum tricornutum, have revealed a wealth of information about the evolutionary origins and metabolic adaptations that have led to their ecological success. A major finding is that they have incorporated genes both from their endosymbiotic ancestors and by horizontal gene transfer from marine bacteria. This unique melting pot of genes encodes novel capacities for metabolic management, for example, allowing the integration of a urea cycle into a photosynthetic cell. In this review we show how genome-enabled approaches are being leveraged to explore major phenomena of oceanographic and biogeochemical relevance, such as nutrient assimilation and life histories in diatoms. We also discuss how diatoms may be affected by climate change-induced alterations in ocean processes.

  1. Sustainable Oceanographic Vessels - Setting an Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Leer, J. C.

    2009-12-01

    In response to climate change, global warming and post “peak oil” fuel scarcity, the oceanographic community should consider reducing its carbon foot print. Why should scientists operate inefficient vessels while lecturing the general public on the need to reduce CO2 emissions? We have already seen curtailment of ship schedules and ship lay-ups, due in part to rising fuel costs, following $140/barrel crude oil. When the global recession ends, upward pressure on oil prices will again commence. Who can forecast how high fuel prices may ultimately rise during the typical 25-30 year lifetime of a research vessel? Are we to curtail future work at sea when oceanic climate research is becoming ever more important? A catamaran research vessel has been designed which can be electrically propelled from by a combination of high efficiency generators, photovoltaic panels and/or sails. Sail produced power is transformed with propellers and motor/generators into electric power which is stored in battery banks. This vessel could operate as the first true hybrid oceanographic research vessel. It could even continue operations without fuel in cases of a severe fuel shortage or fueling denial. Since the power produced by any water turbine increases with the cube of the velocity flowing over its propeller, the low fluid friction and high stability of a catamaran, with reasonably slender hulls, provide an important boost to efficient hybrid operation. The author has chartered a 42’ hybrid catamaran sailboat and found it efficient and extremely easy to operate and control. A 79’ motor sailing catamaran research vessel by Lock Crowther Designs will be presented as one example of a sustainable research vessel with excellent speed and sea-keeping. A center well makes operation as a small drilling/coring ship for coastal climate investigation possible. The center well also supports a host of remote sensing and robotic gear handling capabilities.

  2. The non-Federal oceanographic community: An overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swetnick, M. A.

    1981-01-01

    A portion of the broad domestic non-Federal oceanographic community that represents a potential market for satellite remote sensor derived oceanographic data and/or marine environmental information is presented. The overview consists of listings of individuals and/or organizations who have used, or are likely to use such data or information for scientific research, offshore engineering purposes, marine resources exploration and utilization, marine related operational applications, or coastal zone management.

  3. The Alta schist, North Norway: unique rock with unique history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heldal, Tom; Aasly, Kari; Meyer, Gurli

    2015-04-01

    Near the small town of Alta, northernmost Norway, are more than thousand small and large schist quarries, some of them dating back to the 1850's. It was the need for roofing material on a local church and a hospital that triggered the production. Since then, the Alta schist has been widely applied in Norway and abroad, known for its quality for roofing material and hard floor covering. The quality lies in the processes behind the formation of the schist. Emplacement of thrust nappes during the Caledonian mountain chain formation in the Silurian caused deformation and metamorphism of the rocks. The Alta schist is situated in one such nappe sheet, where arkosic sandstone where flattened and transformed into mylonite. This made fine mica layers along which the rock can be split, rythmically spaced and separated by quartz-dominated bands. The production of the Alta schist is still characterized by old craft traditions, reflecting a rich history and culture around the schist production.

  4. GRID integration of oceanographic remote instrumentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salon, S.; Bolzon, G.; Mauri, E.; Poulain, P.-M.

    2009-04-01

    The observations provided by oceanographic remote instruments are essential for the purposes of the operational oceanography, nowadays a constantly growing and powerful tool to monitor, analyze and predict the state of the marine resources as well as the sustainable development of coastal areas [1]. Near real time (NRT) observations at the sea surface and in the water column, e.g., temperature and salinity (T/S) profiles, are of central importance for the operational forecasting system in the Mediterranean Sea. The management of the network of floats deployed in the Mediterranean Sea and handled by the MedArgo Regional Argo Centre at OGS [2][3] is a complex task that may be greatly supported by the fast developing ICT infrastructures. Such workflow includes the communication system, the data downloading and treatment, the post-processing and the visualization of the information gathered by the observations. GRID technology may greatly help in providing a remote control of the entire flow of information associated with the observational instruments, from the raw data measured by the sensor at sea (i.e. temperature, salinity, current velocity) to the data-processing software running on the researcher's laptop. In particular, interactive applications of the GRID technology could support the management of the complex workflow related to the instrument interconnections (i.e. buoys, floats, autonomous vehicles), to the eventual technical problems bound to appear intermittently and the subsequent NRT corrections and/or adjustments of the sensors. Moreover, the communication to operative structures such as the Civil Protection, Coast Guards or local/regional administrations represents a composite multi-task process that involves different actors and that could be successfully integrated in a GRID environment. We will present the activity done so far and planned in the framework of the DORII EU-FP7 project [4] concerning the GRID integration of the MedArgo floats managed by

  5. RIMPAC 08: Naval Oceanographic Office glider operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahoney, Kevin L.; Grembowicz, Ken; Bricker, Bruce; Crossland, Steve; Bryant, Danielle; Torres, Marc; Giddings, Tom

    2009-05-01

    The Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) Glider Operations Center (GOC) supported its first joint-mission exercise during Rim of the Pacific (RIMPAC) 08, a multi-national naval exercise conducted during July 2008 near the Hawaiian Islands. NAVOCEANO personnel deployed four Seagliders from USNS SUMNER for Anti-submarine Warfare (ASW) operations and four Slocum gliders for Mine Warfare (MIW) operations. Each Seaglider was equipped with a Sea-Bird Electronics (SBE) 41cp CTD and Wet Labs, Inc. bb2fl ECO-puck optical sensor. The instrumentation suite on the Slocum gliders varied, but each Slocum glider had an SBE 41cp CTD combined with one of the following optical sensors: a Wet Labs, Inc. AUVb scattering sensor, a Wet Labs, Inc. bb3slo ECO-puck backscattering sensor, or a Satlantic, Inc. OCR radiometer. Using Iridium communications, the GOC had command and control of all eight gliders, with Department of Defense (DoD) personnel and DoD contractors serving as glider pilots. Raw glider data were transmitted each time a glider surfaced, and the subsequent data flow included processing, quality-control procedures, and the generation of operational and tactical products. The raw glider data were also sent to the Naval Research Laboratory at Stennis Space Center (NRLSSC) for fusion with satellite data and modeled data (currents, tides, etc.) to create optical forecasting, optical volume, and electro-optical identification (EOID) performance surface products. The glider-based products were delivered to the ASW and MIW Reach Back Cells for incorporation into METOC products and for dissemination to the Fleet. Based on the metrics presented in this paper, the inaugural joint-mission operation was a success.

  6. Expanded record of Quaternary oceanographic change: Amerasian Arctic Ocean

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ishman, S.E.; Polyak, L.V.; Poore, R.Z.

    1996-01-01

    Four sediment cores collected from the Northwind and Mendeleyev ridges, Arctic Ocean, from 1089 m to 1909 m water depth, provide an oceanographic record extending back into the Matuyama reversed polarity chron. Benthic foraminiferal analyses show four prominent assemblage zones: Bolivina arctica, Cassidulina teretis, Bulimina aculeata, and Oridorsalis tener from the upper Matuyama reversed polarity chronozone through the Brunhes normal polarity chronozone. These assemblage zones represent depth-dependent benthic foraminiferal biofacies changes associated with oceanographic events that occurred in the Amerasian basin at ??? 780 and 300 ka, and indicate oceanographic influence from the North Atlantic. Recognition of these benthic assemblage zones in Arctic cores from the Alpha Ridge indicates that the benthic foraminiferal zonations in intermediate to deep water (>1000 m) Arctic cores may be more useful than preexisting lithostratigraphic zonations and should provide important information pertaining to the Quaternary paleoceanographic evolution of the Arctic Ocean.

  7. SOCIB applications for oceanographic data management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troupin, Charles; Pau Beltran, Joan; Frontera, Biel; Gómara, Sonia; Lora, Sebastian; March, David; Sebastian, Kristian; Tintoré, Joaquin

    2015-04-01

    The Balearic Islands Coastal Ocean Observing and Forecasting System (SOCIB, http://www.socib.es), is a multi-platform Marine Research Infrastructure that provides free, open and quality-controlled data from near-shore to the open sea. To collect the necessary data, the SOCIB system is made up of: a research vessel, a high-frequency (HF) radar system, weather stations, tide gauges, moorings, drifting buoys, ARGO profilers, and gliders (autonomous underwater vehicles). In addition, the system has recently begun incorporating oceanographic sensors attached to sea turtles. High-resolution numerical models provide forecast for hydrodynamics (ROMS) and waves (SAPO). According to SOCIB principles, data have to be: discoverable and accessible; freely available; interoperable, quality-controlled and standardized. The Data Centre (DC) manages the different steps of data processing, including: acquisition using SOCIB platforms (gliders, drifters, HF radar, ...), numerical models (hydrodynamics, waves, ...) or information generated by other data sources, distribution through dedicated web and mobile applications dynamic visualisation. The SOCIB DC constitutes an example of marine information systems within the framework of new coastal ocean observatories. In this work we present some of the applications developed for specific type of users, as well as the technologies used for their implementation: DAPP (Deployments application, http://apps.socib.es/dapp/), a web application to display information related to mobile platform trajectories. LW4NC2 (http://thredds.socib.es/lw4nc2), a web application for multidimensional (grid) data from NetCDF files (numerical models, HF radar). SACOSTA (http://gis.socib.es/sacosta), a viewer for cartographic data such as environmental sensitivity of the coastline. SEABOARD (http://seaboard.socib.es), a tool to disseminate SOCIB real time data to different types of users. Smart-phone apps to access data, platform trajectories and forecasts in real

  8. Oceanographic satellite remote sensing: Registration, rectification, and data integration requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nichols, D. A.

    1982-01-01

    The problem of data integration in oceanography is discussed. Recommendations are made for technique development and evaluation, understanding requirements, and packaging techniques for speed, efficiency and ease of use. The primary satellite sensors of interest to oceanography are summarized. It is concluded that imaging type sensors make image processing an important tool for oceanographic studies.

  9. Atmospheric and Oceanographic Information Processing System (AOIPS) system description

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bracken, P. A.; Dalton, J. T.; Billingsley, J. B.; Quann, J. J.

    1977-01-01

    The development of hardware and software for an interactive, minicomputer based processing and display system for atmospheric and oceanographic information extraction and image data analysis is described. The major applications of the system are discussed as well as enhancements planned for the future.

  10. An Oceanographic Field Course for the Eighth Grade.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Lynn; And Others

    This manual contains a suggested Oceanographic Field Course designed as a supplement to an eighth grade science program. The three principle objectives of the course are: (1) to stimulate the interest of young students in the marine sciences; (2) to instruct students in the scientific method of field observation and laboratory investigation; and…

  11. Publication Of Oceanographic Data on CD-ROM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hilland, Jeffrey E.; Smith, Elizabeth A.; Martin, Michael D.

    1992-01-01

    Large collections of oceanographic data and other large collections of data published on CD-ROM's in formats facilitating access and analysis. Involves four major steps: preprocessing, premastering, mastering, and verification. Large capacity, small size, commercial availability, long-life, and standard format of CD-ROM's offer advantages over computer-compatible magnetic tape.

  12. Manufacturing performance of the ALTA 3000 mask laser writer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grenon, Brian J.; Defibaugh, D. C.; Sprout, Donna M.; Taft, C. J.

    1995-12-01

    This paper describes the manufacturing performance of the ALTA 3000 laser writer at the IBM mask fabrication facility in Essex Junction, Vermont. Current mask parametric performance for feature size control (x-bar and 3-sigma), registration and defect density of 4x and 5x reticles is presented. In addition, reliability data and write-time data for typical 64 Mb and 256 Mb reticles are provided.

  13. Exploiting the Capabilities of NASA's Giovanni System for Oceanographic Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; Petrucio, Emil; Leptoukh, Gregory; Shen, Suhung

    2007-01-01

    The NASA Goddard Earth Science Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) Giovanni system [GES DISC Interactive Online Visualization ANd aNalysis Infrastructure] has significant capabilities for oceanographic education and independent research utilizing ocean color radiometry data products. Giovanni allows Web-based data discovery and basic analyses, and can be used both for guided illustration of a variety of marine processes and phenomena, and for independent research investigations. Giovanni's capabilities are particularly suited for advanced secondary school science and undergraduate (college) education. This presentation will describe a variety of ways that Giovanni can be used for oceanographic education. Auxiliary information resources that can be utilized will also be described. Several testimonies of Giovanni usage for instruction will be provided, and a recent case history of Giovanni utilization for instruction and research at the undergraduate level is highlighted.

  14. Identification of genetically and oceanographically distinct blooms of jellyfish

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Patricia L. M.; Dawson, Michael N; Neill, Simon P.; Robins, Peter E.; Houghton, Jonathan D. R.; Doyle, Thomas K.; Hays, Graeme C.

    2013-01-01

    Reports of nuisance jellyfish blooms have increased worldwide during the last half-century, but the possible causes remain unclear. A persistent difficulty lies in identifying whether blooms occur owing to local or regional processes. This issue can be resolved, in part, by establishing the geographical scales of connectivity among locations, which may be addressed using genetic analyses and oceanographic modelling. We used landscape genetics and Lagrangian modelling of oceanographic dispersal to explore patterns of connectivity in the scyphozoan jellyfish Rhizostoma octopus, which occurs en masse at locations in the Irish Sea and northeastern Atlantic. We found significant genetic structure distinguishing three populations, with both consistencies and inconsistencies with prevailing physical oceanographic patterns. Our analyses identify locations where blooms occur in apparently geographically isolated populations, locations where blooms may be the source or result of migrants, and a location where blooms do not occur consistently and jellyfish are mostly immigrant. Our interdisciplinary approach thus provides a means to ascertain the geographical origins of jellyfish in outbreaks, which may have wide utility as increased international efforts investigate jellyfish blooms. PMID:23287405

  15. Autoregressive modeling for the spectral analysis of oceanographic data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gangopadhyay, Avijit; Cornillon, Peter; Jackson, Leland B.

    1989-01-01

    Over the last decade there has been a dramatic increase in the number and volume of data sets useful for oceanographic studies. Many of these data sets consist of long temporal or spatial series derived from satellites and large-scale oceanographic experiments. These data sets are, however, often 'gappy' in space, irregular in time, and always of finite length. The conventional Fourier transform (FT) approach to the spectral analysis is thus often inapplicable, or where applicable, it provides questionable results. Here, through comparative analysis with the FT for different oceanographic data sets, the possibilities offered by autoregressive (AR) modeling to perform spectral analysis of gappy, finite-length series, are discussed. The applications demonstrate that as the length of the time series becomes shorter, the resolving power of the AR approach as compared with that of the FT improves. For the longest data sets examined here, 98 points, the AR method performed only slightly better than the FT, but for the very short ones, 17 points, the AR method showed a dramatic improvement over the FT. The application of the AR method to a gappy time series, although a secondary concern of this manuscript, further underlines the value of this approach.

  16. An orbiting multispectral scanner for overland and oceanographic applications.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peacock, K.; Withrington, R. J.

    1971-01-01

    Description of the major features of a multispectral scanner designed to perform overland and oceanographic surveys from space. The instrument uses an image plane conical scanner and contains independent spectrometers for land and ocean applications. The overland spectrometer has a spatial resolution of 200 ft and has six spectral bands in the atmospheric windows between 0.5 and 2.4 microns. The oceanographic spectrometer has a spatial resolution of 1200 ft and possesses 24 spectral bands equally spaced and in registration over the wavelength range from 0.4 to 0.8 micron. A thermal band of 600-ft resolution is used with a spectral range from 10.5 to 12.6 microns. The swath width of the scan is 100 nautical miles from an altitude of 500 nautical miles. The system has two modes of operation which are selectable by ground command. The six bands of overland data plus the thermal band data can be transmitted, or the 24 bands of oceanographic data plus data from two of the overland bands and the thermal band can be transmitted. The performance is described by the minimum detectable reflectance difference and the effects of sun angle and target reflectivity variations are discussed. The sensitivity is related to the variation of the ocean reflectivity in the presence of chlorophyll and to typical agricultural targets.

  17. Warm oceanographic anomalies and fishing pressure drive seabird nesting north.

    PubMed

    Velarde, Enriqueta; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Horn, Michael H; Patton, Robert T

    2015-06-01

    Parallel studies of nesting colonies in Mexico and the United States show that Elegant Terns (Thalasseus elegans) have expanded from the Gulf of California Midriff Island Region into Southern California, but the expansion fluctuates from year to year. A strong inverse relationship between nesting pairs in three Southern California nesting areas [San Diego saltworks, Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve, and Los Angeles Harbor (1991 to 2014)] and Isla Rasa in the Midriff (1980 to 2014) shows that terns migrate northward when confronting warm oceanographic anomalies (>1.0°C), which may decrease fish availability and hamper nesting success. Migration pulses are triggered by sea surface temperature anomalies localized in the Midriff and, secondarily, by reductions in the sardine population as a result of intensive fishing. This behavior is new; before year 2000, the terns stayed in the Midriff even when oceanographic conditions were adverse. Our results show that terns are responding dynamically to rapidly changing oceanographic conditions and fish availability by migrating 600 km northwest in search of more productive waters. PMID:26601193

  18. Monitoring of oceanographic properties of Glacier Bay, Alaska 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    2005-01-01

    Glacier Bay is a recently (300 years ago) deglaciated fjord estuarine system that has multiple sills, very deep basins, tidewater glaciers, and many streams. Glacier Bay experiences a large amount of runoff, high sedimentation, and large tidal variations. High freshwater discharge due to snow and ice melt and the presence of the tidewater glaciers makes the bay extremely cold. There are many small- and large-scale mixing and upwelling zones at sills, glacial faces, and streams. The complex topography and strong currents lead to highly variable salinity, temperature, sediment, primary productivity, light penetration, stratification levels, and current patterns within a small area. The oceanographic patterns within Glacier Bay drive a large portion of the spatial and temporal variability of the ecosystem. It has been widely recognized by scientists and resource managers in Glacier Bay that a program to monitor oceanographic patterns is essential for understanding the marine ecosystem and to differentiate between anthropogenic disturbance and natural variation. This year’s sampling marks the 12th continuous year of monitoring the oceanographic conditions at 23 stations along the primary axes within Glacier Bay, AK, making this a very unique and valuable data set in terms of its spatial and temporal coverage.

  19. Warm oceanographic anomalies and fishing pressure drive seabird nesting north

    PubMed Central

    Velarde, Enriqueta; Ezcurra, Exequiel; Horn, Michael H.; Patton, Robert T.

    2015-01-01

    Parallel studies of nesting colonies in Mexico and the United States show that Elegant Terns (Thalasseus elegans) have expanded from the Gulf of California Midriff Island Region into Southern California, but the expansion fluctuates from year to year. A strong inverse relationship between nesting pairs in three Southern California nesting areas [San Diego saltworks, Bolsa Chica Ecological Reserve, and Los Angeles Harbor (1991 to 2014)] and Isla Rasa in the Midriff (1980 to 2014) shows that terns migrate northward when confronting warm oceanographic anomalies (>1.0°C), which may decrease fish availability and hamper nesting success. Migration pulses are triggered by sea surface temperature anomalies localized in the Midriff and, secondarily, by reductions in the sardine population as a result of intensive fishing. This behavior is new; before year 2000, the terns stayed in the Midriff even when oceanographic conditions were adverse. Our results show that terns are responding dynamically to rapidly changing oceanographic conditions and fish availability by migrating 600 km northwest in search of more productive waters. PMID:26601193

  20. A Center for Mideast Oceanographic Data in Muscat, Oman

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingle, S.; Belabbassi, L.; Du Vall, K.; Wang, Z.

    2012-12-01

    Lighthouse designed and installed a real-time cabled ocean observing system off the northern coast of the Sultanate of Oman in 2005 and a second system, farther to the south, existed as autonomous moorings from 2005-2009 and was upgraded to a real-time cabled system in early 2010. Since 2005 Lighthouse has operated and maintained those systems to produce a wealth of data on a poorly understood region of the global oceans. The systems record data hourly on current velocities over a range of depths, and temperature, pressure, conductivity, dissolved oxygen and turbidity at the depth of the sensor; the northern system also collects seismic and bottom pressure (tsunami detection) information continuously. Processing codes for all data have been developed and honed over the years in cooperation with oceanographers from Texas A&M University. As a joint and complementary effort, ocean circulation and tsunami impact models have been developed for the regional waters near Oman. In Oman, our work is coordinated through the Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries Wealth. From the beginning, Lighthouse has intended to transition data processing and analysis over to the Sultanate. To facilitate this transition, we propose to establish a Center for Mideast Oceanographic Data located in Muscat, Oman that may also serve as a regional oceanographic data depository and research center. Main activities to be carried out include: marine data processing and management, training of Omani professionals in data processing and analysis, facilitating regional and international collaboration by hosting workshops or short courses, and employing the models for research purposes. The center would work with the newly-established Hazard Monitoring Center to develop modeled now- and forecast products for marine operations and safety. The goal is to house, in a single location, datasets and models that will help Oman manage and maintain its marine environment and resources for generations to come.

  1. Seals as collectors of oceanographic data in the coastal zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    del Villar-Guerra, Diego; Cronin, Michelle; Dabrowski, Tomasz; Bartlett, Darius

    2012-12-01

    Understanding spatial and temporal variation in water temperatures in the coastal zone is generally limited, as conventional monitoring platforms often prove problematic in these areas, e.g. shallow depths limit access by research vessels, and issues of accuracy and resolution can affect the use of remotely sensed sea-surface temperature data. As a result most currently available data on sea temperature are from offshore waters while coastal areas have remained relatively unexplored. Water temperature is an important parameter to study in these coastal waters, considering its impact and influence on the timing and frequency of harmful algal blooms and their associated impacts on aquaculture. It is a significant factor in the timing of the spring bloom and primary productivity, with consequent influences on the entire marine food web. Advances in bio-logging technologies in recent years have provided opportunities for sensor deployment on a variety of marine animals, including marine mammals, sea birds, fish and turtles, to gather data from inaccessible areas. In this study, we explored the use of telemetry-derived data from instrumented seals in Kenmare Bay in southwest Irish waters to ascertain if seals can be used as sampling platforms in oceanographic studies in the coastal zone and to examine fine scale changes in water temperatures. High spatial and temporal measurements allowed the characterisation of the water dynamics in the estuarine area by the identification of processes such as thermal stratification, up/downwellings and the onset of the thermocline, and provide unique insights into the marine environment in and around the bay, where no previous oceanographic studies have been conducted. Strong correlation between the seal-derived temperature data and in situ temperature recorders and modelled data validates the use of seals as oceanographic platforms on different spatial scales.

  2. Beyond Currents: The Next Phase in GOCE Oceanographic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingham, Rory J.; Haines, Keith; Hughes, Chris W.

    2015-03-01

    GOCE has mapped the surface currents of the world’s oceans in unprecedented detail. What is now required is a concerted effort by the oceanographic community to go beyond currents and exploit these measurements for societal benefit. The aim of this review paper is to explore the ways in which this may be achieved, particularly in relation to ocean modelling. With the final gravity models now released, we begin by reviewing the progress GOCE has in made in measuring the ocean’s mean dynamic topography and associated ocean currents. In the light of this progress, we then examine the important oceanographic questions and technical challenges of societal relevance that can potentially be addressed with the help of the observations GOCE has delivered and outline the benefits their solution could deliver. Benefits may either be direct, through, for example, improved ocean modelling and operational forecasting, or indirect through improved understanding of particular oceanographic processes, such as heat transport by the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation or sea level change. Next we consider the technical challenges that must be overcome in bringing GOCE to bear on these problems. In particular we examine how best to use GOCE error information, this being an especially uncertain, underdeveloped and challenging area of investigation, due largely to the fact that such information has not been previously available to the user community. Finally, we consider measures of success; that is, metrics that can be used to quantify any GOCE-enabled progress that the community makes towards answering these questions. Such metrics are essential for demonstrating progress. Ultimately, with this review paper, we aim to paint a road map that will act as an impetus to the oceanography community to exploit the yet untapped potential of GOCE for scientific understanding and societal benefit.

  3. Oceanographic observation of New York Bight from ERTS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, G. A. (Principal Investigator); Charnell, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant events. The Earth Resources Technology Satellite made a transit over New York Bight on 16 August, 1972. Imagery from this transit shows several oceanographic features that demonstrate the usefulness of remote sensing for large area, synoptic observation of changes in water quality in the coastal zone. Both the extent and turbulent character of the Hudson River plume are discernible in the image. Residue from a dump of waste acid is visible over a five mile area in the apex of the Bight. Little dispersion of this residue has occurred which suggests that this feature will be a persistent signature in images from future satellite transits.

  4. Overview of physical oceanographic measurements taken during the Mt. Mitchell Cruise to the ROPME Sea Area

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, R.M.

    1993-03-31

    The ROPME Sea Area (RSA) is one of the most important commercial waterways in the world. However, the number of direct oceanographic observations is small. An international program to study the effect of the Iraqi oil spill on the environment was sponsored by the ROPME, the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA).

  5. Collaborative Oceanographic Research Opportunities with Schmidt Ocean Institute

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zykov, V.

    2014-12-01

    Schmidt Ocean Institute (http://www.schmidtocean.org/) was founded by Dr. Eric Schmidt and Wendy Schmidt in 2009 to support frontier oceanographic research and exploration to expand the understanding of the world's oceans through technological advancement, intelligent, data-rich observation and analysis, and open sharing of information. Schmidt Ocean Institute operates a state-of-the-art globally capable research vessel Falkor (http://www.schmidtocean.org/story/show/47). After two years of scientific operations in the Atlantic Ocean, Gulf of Mexico, Caribbean, Eastern and Central Pacific, R/V Falkor is now preparing to support research in the Western Pacific and Eastern Indian Oceans in 2015 and 2016. As part of the long term research program development for Schmidt Ocean Institute, we aim to identify initiatives and projects that demonstrate strong alignment with our strategic interests. We focus on scientific opportunities that highlight effective use of innovative technologies to better understand the oceans, such as, for example, research enabled with remotely operated and autonomous vehicles, acoustics, in-situ sensing, telepresence, etc. Our technology-first approach to ocean science gave rise to infrastructure development initiatives, such as the development of a new full ocean depth Hybrid Remotely Operated Vehicle, new 6000m scientific Autonomous Underwater Vehicle, live HD video streaming from the ship to YouTube, shipboard high performance supercomputing, etc. We also support projects focusing on oceanographic technology research and development onboard R/V Falkor. We provide our collaborators with access to all of R/V Falkor's facilities and instrumentation in exchange for a commitment to make the resulting scientific data openly available to the international oceanographic community. This presentation aims to expand awareness about the interests and capabilities of Schmidt Ocean Institute and R/V Falkor among our scientific audiences and further

  6. 75 FR 76455 - Alta Wind I, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-08

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind I, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order December 1, 2010. Take notice that on November 19, 2010, Alta Wind I, LLC filed a Petition for Declaratory...

  7. 75 FR 55323 - Alta Wind Holdings, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind Holdings, LLC; Notice of Petition for Declaratory Order September 2, 2010. Take notice that on August 31, 2010, Alta Wind Holdings, LLC filed a Petition...

  8. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar results. Spring removal experiments, April 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Hoge, F.

    1985-06-21

    This document contains the preliminary results from the analysis of data acquired with the NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) during the recent Spring Removal Experiment (SPREX). A total of four flights were made with the NASA P-3A aircraft in direct support of the SPREX studies. In addition, a single pass extending from the Sargasso Sea, across the Gulf Stream, and into Savannah was flown as the final leg of the ONR sponsored BIOWATT experiment. The relative distribution of surface temperature and the concentration of chlorophyll and phycoerythrin photopigments across the study area are provided. Also included are along track profiles of sea surface temperature and chlorophyll and phycoerythrin fluorescence emission for each of the individual flight lines. Both the chlorophyll and phycoerythrin laser induced fluorescence signals have been normalized by the water Raman backscatter signal and are each expressed as relative ratio's.

  9. Relationships between tuna catch and variable frequency oceanographic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormaza-González, Franklin Isaac; Mora-Cervetto, Alejandra; María Bermúdez-Martínez, Raquel

    2016-08-01

    Skipjack (Katsuwunus pelamis), yellow fin (Thunnus albacares) and albacore (Thunnus alulunga) tunas landed in the Eastern Pacific Ocean (EPO) countries and Ecuador were correlated to the Indexes Oceanic El Niño (ONI) and Multivariate Enso Index (MEI). The temporal series 1983-2012, and 1977-1999 (warm Pacific Decadal Oscillation, PDO), and 2000-2012 (cold PDO) were analyzed. Linear correlation showed that at least 11 % of the total landings were associated with the MEI, with a slightly negative gradient from cold to warm conditions. When non-linear regression (n = 6), the R2 was higher up to 0.304 (MEI, r = 0.551). The correlation shows high spread from -0.5 to +0.5 for both MEI/ONI; the highest landings occurred at 0.34-0.45; both indexes suggested that at extreme values < -1.0 and > 1.1 total landings tend to decrease. Landings were associated up to 21.9 % (MEI) in 2000-2012, 1983-1999 rendered lower R2 (< 0.09); i.e., during cold PDO periods there was a higher association between landings and oceanographic conditions. For the non-linear regression (n = 6) a R2 of 0.374 (MEI) and 0.408 (ONI) were registered, for the 2000-2012, a higher R2 was observed in 1983-1999, 0.443 and 0.711 for MEI and ONI respectively, suggesting that is better to analyze split series (1983-1999, 2000-2012) than as a whole (1983-2012), due to noise produced by the transition from hot to cold PDOs. The highest landings were in the range -0.2 to 0.5 for MEI/ONI. The linear regression of skipjack landings in Ecuador gave an R2 of 0.140 (MEI) and 0.066 (ONI) and the non-linear were 0.440 and 0.183 respectively. Total landings in the EPO associated to oceanographic events of high and low frequencies could be used somehow as predictors of the high El Niño o La Niña. There is a clear evidence that tuna fish biomass are at higher levels when the PDO is on cold phase (2000-2030) and vice versa on warm phase (1980-1999). The analysis of the skipjack catch per unit effort (CPUE) on floating

  10. Federated provenance of oceanographic research cruises: from metadata to data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, Rob; Leadbetter, Adam; Shepherd, Adam

    2016-04-01

    The World Wide Web Consortium's Provenance Data Model and associated Semantic Web ontology (PROV-O) have created much interest in the Earth and Space Science Informatics community (Ma et al., 2014). Indeed, PROV-O has recently been posited as an upper ontology for the alignment of various data models (Cox, 2015). Similarly, PROV-O has been used as the building blocks of a data release lifecycle ontology (Leadbetter & Buck, 2015). In this presentation we show that the alignment between different local data descriptions of an oceanographic research cruise can be achieved through alignment with PROV-O and that descriptions of the funding bodies, organisations and researchers involved in a cruise and its associated data release lifecycle can be modelled within a PROV-O based environment. We show that, at a first-order, this approach is scalable by presenting results from three endpoints (the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA; the British Oceanographic Data Centre at the National Oceanography Centre, UK; and the Marine Institute, Ireland). Current advances in ontology engineering, provide pathways to resolving reasoning issues from varying perspectives on implementing PROV-O. This includes the use of the Information Object design pattern where such edge cases as research cruise scheduling efforts are considered. PROV-O describes only things which have happened, but the Information Object design pattern allows for the description of planned research cruises through its statement that the local data description is not the the entity itself (in this case the planned research cruise) and therefore the local data description itself can be described using the PROV-O model. In particular, we present the use of the data lifecycle ontology to show the connection between research cruise activities and their associated datasets, and the publication of those data sets online with Digital Object Identifiers and

  11. Wireless Sensor Networks for Oceanographic Monitoring: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Albaladejo, Cristina; Sánchez, Pedro; Iborra, Andrés; Soto, Fulgencio; López, Juan A.; Torres, Roque

    2010-01-01

    Monitoring of the marine environment has come to be a field of scientific interest in the last ten years. The instruments used in this work have ranged from small-scale sensor networks to complex observation systems. Among small-scale networks, Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are a highly attractive solution in that they are easy to deploy, operate and dismantle and are relatively inexpensive. The aim of this paper is to identify, appraise, select and synthesize all high quality research evidence relevant to the use of WSNs in oceanographic monitoring. The literature is systematically reviewed to offer an overview of the present state of this field of study and identify the principal resources that have been used to implement networks of this kind. Finally, this article details the challenges and difficulties that have to be overcome if these networks are to be successfully deployed. PMID:22163583

  12. Oceanographic coral records from South Western Caribbean: Isla Fuerte, Colombia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, G.; Qiceno, M.; Hughen, K.; Urrego, L.

    2009-04-01

    The southwestern corner of the Caribbean Sea is considered a coastal warm pool oceanographically linked to the Panama Colombia Gyre. The atmosphere - ocean variability there is influenced by the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITZC), the Andean river runoff, the northeasterly trade winds, and a tropical low level jet (San Andrés jet), all of them connected to global variability. This warm pool has a significant (>95%) warming trend (0.6°C between 1981 and 2000), with the warmest record just in front of the Sinu River, where Isla Fuerte is located, 11 km from the coast, to the western of Sinu Delta. Sea surface temperature (SST) and the Multivariate ENSO index have a significant (>95%) correlation of 0.4 with a 7 months lag. The Sinu River flow does not show a long trend between 1985 and 2000, but has a significant correlation with ENSO (0.5) with no lag. Two corals from Isla Fuerte, a Siderastrea siderea colony with a maximum length of 72.5 cm and a Montastrea annularis colony of 30.5 cm, were studied in order to test the climatic potential of these records and to understand the oceanographic variability at the SW Caribbean. Fluorescence has better resolution than density bands in both corals. Chronology based on them indicates an age of 127 and 32 years respectively. We present and discuss growth and Sr/Ca series. The signal is produced by the interaction between the river flow and local winds. The river reaches the island when northeastern winds deflect their plume to the east. However, there are not in situ instrumental records for calibration and interpretation of the signals and we used world data bases with low spatial resolution.

  13. Physical Oceanographic Real-Time System (PORTS) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D.

    2013-12-01

    The 1999 Assessment of U.S. Marine Transportation System report to Congress noted that the greatest safety concern voiced by the maritime community was the availability of timely, accurate, and reliable navigation information, including real time environment data. Real time oceanographic and meteorological data, along with other navigation tools, gives the mariner a good situational understanding of their often challenging operational environment, to make the best safety of life and property decisions. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Physical Oceanographic Real Time System (PORTS) was developed in response to accidents like the Sunshine Skyway Bridge collision in Tampa, FL in 1980, where the lack of accurate, reliable and timely environmental conditions directly contributed to an accident that resulted in a high loss of life and property. Since that time, PORTS has expanded to over 20 locations around the country, and its capabilities have been continually expanded and improved as well. PORTS primary mission is to prevent maritime accidents. Preventing an accident from occurring is the most cost effective approach and the best way to avoid damage to the environment. When accidents do occur, PORTS data is used to improve the effectiveness of response efforts by providing input for trajectory models and real time conditions for response efforts. However, benefits derived from PORTS go well beyond navigation safety. Another large benefit to the local maritime community is potential efficiencies in optimizing use of the existing water column. PORTS provides information that can be used to make economic decisions to add or offload cargo to a vessel and/or to maintain or adjust transit schedules based upon availability of water depth, strength/timing of tidal currents, and other conditions. PORTS data also helps improve and validate local National Weather Service marine weather forecasts. There are many benefits beyond the local maritime

  14. New Navigation Post-Processing Tools for Oceanographic Submersibles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinsey, J. C.; Whitcomb, L. L.; Yoerger, D. R.; Howland, J. C.; Ferrini, V. L.; Hegrenas, O.

    2006-12-01

    We report the development of Navproc, a new set of software tools for post-processing oceanographic submersible navigation data that exploits previously reported improvements in navigation sensing and estimation (e.g. Eos Trans. AGU, 84(46), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract OS32A- 0225, 2003). The development of these tools is motivated by the need to have post-processing software that allows users to compensate for errors in vehicle navigation, recompute the vehicle position, and then save the results for use with quantitative science data (e.g. bathymetric sonar data) obtained during the mission. Navproc does not provide real-time navigation or display of data nor is it capable of high-resolution, three dimensional (3D) data display. Navproc supports the ASCII data formats employed by the vehicles of the National Deep Submergence Facility (NDSF) operated by the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI). Post-processing of navigation data with Navproc is comprised of three tasks. First, data is converted from the logged ASCII file to a binary Matlab file. When loaded into Matlab, each sensor has a data structure containing the time stamped data sampled at the native update rate of the sensor. An additional structure contains the real-time vehicle navigation data. Second, the data can be displayed using a Graphical User Interface (GUI), allowing users to visually inspect the quality of the data and graphically extract portions of the data. Third, users can compensate for errors in the real-time vehicle navigation. Corrections include: (i) manual filtering and median filtering of long baseline (LBL) ranges; (ii) estimation of the Doppler/gyro alignment using previously reported methodologies; and (iii) sound velocity, tide, and LBL transponder corrections. Using these corrections, the Doppler and LBL positions can be recomputed to provide improved estimates of the vehicle position compared to those computed in real-time. The data can be saved in either binary or ASCII

  15. Using STOQS to Understand Molecular Biology and Oceanographic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, M. P.; Ryan, J. P.; Messié, M.; Harvey, J.; Cline, D.; Michisaki, R.

    2014-12-01

    Advances in technology enable us to collect massive amounts of diverse data. With the ability to collect more data, the problem of comparative analysis becomes increasing difficult. The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) designed the Spatial Temporal Oceanographic Query System (STOQS) to create new capabilities for scientists to gain insight from data collected by oceanographic platforms. STOQS uses a geospatial database and a web-based user interface (UI) to allow scientists to explore large collections of data. The UI is optimized to provide a quick overview of data in spatial and temporal dimensions, as well as in parameter and platform space. A user may zoom into a feature of interest and select it, initiating a filter operation updating the UI with an overview of all the data in the new filtered selection. When details are desired, radio buttons and check boxes can be selected to generate a number of different types of visualizations. These include color-filled temporal section plots, parameter-parameter plots, and both 2D and 3D spatial visualizations. The ISO/IEC 19775-1, Extensible 3D (X3D) standard provides the technology for presenting 3D data in a web browser. STOQS has been in use at MBARI for four years and is helping us manage and visualize data from month-long multi-platform observational campaigns. These campaigns produce tens of millions of diverse measurements. These volumes are too great to really understand - even with an effective data exploration UI. Effective management of these diverse data in STOQS is achieved through a two-step harmonization process: 1) conversion of all data to OGC CF-NetCDF Discrete Sampling Geometry feature types and 2) loading all data into the STOQS data model. Having all of the data easily accessible via this data model made development of the UI possible. This same method of access is also being used for development of visualization and analysis programs for tasks that cannot be executed within the UI

  16. Next-Generation NASA Airborne Oceanographic Lidar System.

    PubMed

    Wright, C W; Hoge, F E; Swift, R N; Yungel, J K; Schirtzinger, C R

    2001-01-20

    The complete design and flight test of the next-generation Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL-3) is detailed. The application of new technology has allowed major reductions in weight, volume, and power requirements compared with the earlier AOL sensor. Subsystem designs for the new AOL sensor include new technology in fiber optics, spectrometer detector optical train, miniature photomultiplier modules, dual-laser wavelength excitation from a single small laser source, and new receiver optical configuration. The new design reduced telescope size and maintained the same principal fluorescence and water Raman bands but essentially retained a comparable measurement accuracy. A major advancement is the implementation of single-laser simultaneous excitation of two physically separate oceanic target areas: one stimulated by 532 nm and the other by 355 nm. Backscattered fluorescence and Raman signals from both targets are acquired simultaneously by use of the same telescope and spectrometer-detector system. Two digital oscilloscopes provide temporal- and depth-resolved data from each of seven spectral emission bands.

  17. Rapid Deployment of a RESTful Service for Oceanographic Research Cruises

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Linyun; Arko, Robert; Leadbetter, Adam

    2014-05-01

    The Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP) seeks to increase data sharing across scientific domains and international boundaries, by providing a forum to harmonize diverse regional data systems. ODIP participants from the US include the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program, whose mission is to capture, catalog, and describe the underway/environmental sensor data from US oceanographic research vessels and submit the data to public long-term archives. R2R publishes information online as Linked Open Data, making it widely available using Semantic Web standards. Each vessel, sensor, cruise, dataset, person, organization, funding award, log, report, etc, has a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI). Complex queries that federate results from other data providers are supported, using the SPARQL query language. To facilitate interoperability, R2R uses controlled vocabularies developed collaboratively by the science community (eg. SeaDataNet device categories) and published online by the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS). In response to user feedback, we are developing a standard programming interface (API) and Web portal for R2R's Linked Open Data. The API provides a set of simple REST-type URLs that are translated on-the-fly into SPARQL queries, and supports common output formats (eg. JSON). We will demonstrate an implementation based on the Epimorphics Linked Data API (ELDA) open-source Java package. Our experience shows that constructing a simple portal with limited schema elements in this way can significantly reduce development time and maintenance complexity.

  18. Application of Open Source Technologies for Oceanographic Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, T.; Gangl, M.; Quach, N. T.; Wilson, B. D.; Chang, G.; Armstrong, E. M.; Chin, T. M.; Greguska, F.

    2015-12-01

    NEXUS is a data-intensive analysis solution developed with a new approach for handling science data that enables large-scale data analysis by leveraging open source technologies such as Apache Cassandra, Apache Spark, Apache Solr, and Webification. NEXUS has been selected to provide on-the-fly time-series and histogram generation for the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission for Level 2 and Level 3 Active, Passive, and Active Passive products. It also provides an on-the-fly data subsetting capability. NEXUS is designed to scale horizontally, enabling it to handle massive amounts of data in parallel. It takes a new approach on managing time and geo-referenced array data by dividing data artifacts into chunks and stores them in an industry-standard, horizontally scaled NoSQL database. This approach enables the development of scalable data analysis services that can infuse and leverage the elastic computing infrastructure of the Cloud. It is equipped with a high-performance geospatial and indexed data search solution, coupled with a high-performance data Webification solution free from file I/O bottlenecks, as well as a high-performance, in-memory data analysis engine. In this talk, we will focus on the recently funded AIST 2014 project by using NEXUS as the core for oceanographic anomaly detection service and web portal. We call it, OceanXtremes

  19. Oceanographic influences on Deep Scattering Layers across the North Atlantic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fennell, Sheena; Rose, George

    2015-11-01

    The distribution and density of Deep Scattering Layers (DSLs) were quantified along North Atlantic transits from Ireland to the Grand Banks of Newfoundland in the springs of 2012, 2013 and 2014 employing a calibrated Simrad EK60 echo sounder at 38 kHz. Concurrently, Sippican T5 XBTs (eXpendable Bathy Thermographs) were used to profile temperatures to 1800 m. In each year the scattering layers spanned the deep basin at depths ranging from near surface to approximately 900 m, but annual mean densities differed significantly. Higher DSL densities were recorded during years that exhibited higher sea temperatures at the depths of major DSL concentration (400-600 m), higher sea level anomalies and stronger eastward geostrophic currents. The highest concentration of the DSLs in each year was found in the area east of the Grand Banks that corresponded with areas of anticyclonic eddies. In this region DSL densities in 2014 were among the highest recorded worldwide (>7000 m2 nautical mile-2). Midwater fishing indicated DSLs were dominated by Myctophids and Sternoptychids. Anticyclonic eddy formation is discussed as a possible means of transport and aggregation of the DSLs in that region, where oceanographic influences may play a dominant role in the distribution and density of the DSLs and upper trophic level fishes.

  20. Technologies for Online Data Management of Oceanographic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zodiatis, G.; Hayes, D.; Karaolia, A.; Stylianou, S.; Nikolaidis, A.; Constantinou, I.; Michael, S.; Galanis, G.; Georgiou, G.

    2012-04-01

    The need for efficient and effective on line data management is greatly recognized today by the marine research community. The Cyprus Oceanography Center at the University of Cyprus, realizing this need, is continuously working in this area and has developed a variety of data management and visualization tools which are currently utilized for both the Mediterranean and the Black Sea. Bythos, CYCOFOS and LAS server are three different systems employed by the Oceanography Center, each one dealing with different data sets and processes. Bythos is a rich internet application that combines the latest technologies and enables scientists to search, visualize and download climatological oceanographic data with capabilities of being applied worldwide. CYCOFOS is an operational coastal ocean forecasting and observing system which provides in near real time predictions for sea currents, hydrological characteristics, waves, swells and tides, remote sensing and in-situ data from various remote observing platforms in the Mediterranean Sea, the EEZ and the coastal areas of Cyprus. LAS (Live Access Server) is deployed to present distributed various types of data sets as a unified virtual data base through the use of OpenDap networking. It is first applied for providing an integrated, high resolution system for monitoring the energy potential from sea waves in the Exclusive Economic Zone of Cyprus and the Eastern Mediterranean Levantine Basin. This paper presents the aforementioned technologies as currently adopted by the Cyprus Oceanography Center and describes their utilization that supports both the research and operational activities in the Mediterranean.

  1. Cost-Effective Hyperspectral Transmissometers for Oceanographic Applications: Performance Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ramírez-Pérez, Marta; Röttgers, Rüdiger; Torrecilla, Elena; Piera, Jaume

    2015-01-01

    The recent development of inexpensive, compact hyperspectral transmissometers broadens the research capabilities of oceanographic applications. These developments have been achieved by incorporating technologies such as micro-spectrometers as detectors as well as light emitting diodes (LEDs) as light sources. In this study, we evaluate the performance of the new commercial LED-based hyperspectral transmissometer VIPER (TriOS GmbH, Rastede, Germany), which combines different LEDs to emulate the visible light spectrum, aiming at the determination of attenuation coefficients in coastal environments. For this purpose, experimental uncertainties related to the instrument stability, the effect of ambient light and derived temperature, and salinity correction factors are analyzed. Our results identify some issues related to the thermal management of the LEDs and the contamination of ambient light. Furthermore, the performance of VIPER is validated against other transmissometers through simultaneous field measurements. It is demonstrated that VIPER provides a compact and cost-effective alternative for beam attenuation measurements in coastal waters, but it requires the consideration of several optimizations. PMID:26343652

  2. Development of the Operational Oceanographic System of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Kwang-Soon; Heo, Ki-Young; Jun, Kicheon; Kwon, Jae-Il; Kim, Jinah; Choi, Jin-Yong; Cho, Kyoung-Ho; Choi, Byoung-Ju; Seo, Seung-Nam; Kim, Young Ho; Kim, Sung-Dae; Yang, Chan-Su; Lee, Jong-Chan; Kim, Sang-Ik; Kim, Seonjeong; Choi, Jung-Woon; Jeong, Sang-Hun

    2015-06-01

    The Korea Operational Oceanographic System (KOOS) was developed at the Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) to produce real-time forecasting and simulation of interdisciplinary multi-scale oceanic fields. This offers valuable information to better mitigate coastal disasters, such as oil spills and other marine accidents, and provides the necessary ocean predictions to support the marine activities of government agencies, marine industries, and public users. The KOOS became operational in March 2012, and consists of several operational modules and realtime observations, including satellite remote sensing, coastal remote monitoring stations using high-frequency radar, and ocean observatories. The basic forecasting system includes weather, regional and high-resolution coastal circulation and wave prediction models; the practical application system includes storm surges, oil spills, and search and rescue prediction models. An integrated maritime port prediction system and data information and skill assessment systems are also part of the KOOS. In this work, the performance of the numerical models was evaluated by the skill assessment systems. From the monthly and yearly skill assessments, the models showed reasonable skill in predicting atmospheric and oceanic states except for the regional ocean circulation models. The ongoing development and improvement of the KOOS includes improvement of the model skills through the upgrade of the satellite-based sea surface temperature algorithm, the enhancement of the ocean monitoring ability, the upgrade of the forecasting models for higher spatial resolutions and the application of data assimilation techniques improved with the feedback from the skill assessment report.

  3. Oceanographic Changes through the Early Triassic Crisis Interval

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Algeo, T. J.

    2013-12-01

    Recent studies of diverse paleoceanographic proxies have provided the basis for reconstructing in some detail oceanographic changes during the end-Permian mass extinction and through the ~5-million-year-long Early Triassic crisis interval. Conodont δ18O records have demonstrated strong warming, to tropical sea-surface temperatures as high as 40oC, during the Griesbachian to Dienerian substages1-2. The crisis interval also was associated with major perturbations in the marine carbon and sulfur cycles. Three episodes of strong warming coincided with decreases in marine carbonate δ13C and marine sulfate δ34S 3, as well as increases in Δδ13Cvert4 and enhanced subaerial weathering fluxes5-6. Lower δ13Ccarb and δ34Ssulf values are indicative of more limited burial of reduced C and S in organic carbon and pyrite, consistent with declines in marine productivity and bacterial sulfate reduction3. Increased Δδ13Cvert is indicative of intensified stratification of the oceanic water column4, and increased subaerial weathering fluxes probably reflect higher soil reaction rates and possibly an intensified hydrologic cycle5-6. Collectively, these patterns are indicative of the globally integrated response of marine and terrestrial regimes to episodic perturbations in the form of extreme warming events1-2,7. These warming events may have been triggered by major volcanic eruptions8, as suggested by recent studies of volcanic ash layers9-10 and rare earth elements11 in South China P-Tr boundary sections. The ~2-million-year-long Early Triassic interval of extreme sea-surface temperatures came to an abrupt end around the Smithian-Spathian boundary1-2. Cooling coincided with a sharp decline in Δδ13Cvert due to stronger vertical overturning circulation4 and a major positive excursion in δ13Ccarb due to increased marine productivity related to greater mixing of nutrients into the ocean-surface layer12. The late Spathian was characterized by a final, weaker episode of sea

  4. Improved Oceanographic Measurements with CryoSat SAR Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, David; Benveniste, Jérôme; Cipollini, Paolo; Andersen, Ole; Cancet, Mathilde; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco; Nilo Garcia, Pablo; Martin, Francisco

    2016-07-01

    The ESA CryoSat mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar "SAR" (or delay-Doppler) and interferometric SAR (SARin) modes. Studies on CryoSat data have analysed and confirmed the improved ocean measuring capability offered by SAR mode altimetry, through increased resolution and precision in sea surface height and wave height measurements, and have also added significantly to our understanding of the issues around the processing and interpretation of SAR altimeter echoes. We present work in four themes, building on work initiated in the CryoSat Plus for Oceans project (CP4O), each investigating different aspects of the opportunities offered by this new technology. The first two studies address the coastal zone, a critical region for providing a link between open-ocean and shelf sea measurements with those from coastal in-situ measurements, in particular tide gauges. Although much has been achieved in recent years through the Coastal Altimetry community, (http://www.coastalt.eu/community) there is a limit to the capabilities of pulse-limited altimetry, which often leaves an un-measured "white strip" right at the coastline. Firstly, a thorough analysis was made of the performance of "SAR" altimeter data (delay-Doppler processed) in the coastal zone. This quantified the performance, confirming the significant improvement over "conventional" pulse-limited altimetry. In the second study a processing scheme was developed with CryoSat SARin mode data to enable the retrieval of valid oceanographic measurements in coastal areas with complex topography. Thanks to further development of the algorithms, a new approach was achieved that can also be applied to SAR and conventional altimetry data (e.g., Sentinel-3, Jason series, Envisat). The third part of the project developed and evaluated improvements to the SAMOSA altimeter re-tracker that is implemented in the Sentinel-3 processing chain. The modifications to the

  5. An Oceanographic Decision Support System for Scientific Field Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maughan, T.; Das, J.; McCann, M. P.; Rajan, K.

    2011-12-01

    Thom Maughan, Jnaneshwar Das, Mike McCann, Danelle Cline, Mike Godin, Fred Bahr, Kevin Gomes, Tom O'Reilly, Frederic Py, Monique Messie, John Ryan, Francisco Chavez, Jim Bellingham, Maria Fox, Kanna Rajan Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute Moss Lading, California, United States Many of the coastal ocean processes we wish to observe in order to characterize marine ecosystems have large spatial extant (tens of square km) and are dynamic moving kilometers in a day with biological processes spanning anywhere from minutes to days. Some like harmful algal blooms generate toxins which can significantly impact human health and coastal economies. In order to obtain a viable understanding of the biogeochemical processes which define their dynamics and ecology, it is necessary to persistently observe, track and sample within and near the dynamic fields using augmented methods of observation such as autonomous platforms like AUVs, gliders and surface craft. Field experiments to plan, execute and manage such multitude of assets are challenging. To alleviate this problem the autonomous systems group with its collaborators at MBARI and USC designed, built and fielded a prototype Oceanographic Decision Support System (ODSS) that provides situational awareness and a single portal to visualize and plan deployments for the large scale October 2010 CANON field program as well as a series of 2 week field programs in 2011. The field programs were conducted in Monterey Bay, a known 'red tide' incubator, and varied from as many as twenty autonomous platforms, four ships and 2 manned airplanes to coordinated AUV operations, drifters and a single ship. The ODSS web-based portal was used to assimilate information from a collection of sources at sea, including AUVs, moorings, radar data as well as remote sensing products generated by partner organizations to provide a synthesis of views useful to predict the movement of a chlorophyll patch in the confines of the northern Monterey Bay

  6. Seasonality in marine ecosystems: Peruvian seabirds, anchovy, and oceanographic conditions.

    PubMed

    Passuni, Giannina; Barbraud, Christophe; Chaigneau, Alexis; Demarcq, Hervé; Ledesma, Jesus; Bertrand, Arnaud; Castillo, Ramiro; Perea, Angel; Mori, Julio; Viblanc, Vincent A; Torres-MaitaA, Jose; Bertrand, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In fluctuating environments, matching breeding timing to periods of high resource availability is crucial for the fitness of many vertebrate species, and may have major consequences on population health. Yet, our understanding of the proximate environmental cues driving seasonal breeding is limited. This is particularly the case in marine ecosystems, where key environmental factors and prey abundance and availability are seldom quantified. The Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) is a highly productive, low-latitude ecosystem of moderate seasonality. In this ecosystem, three tropical seabird species (the Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, the Peruvian Booby Sula variegata, and the Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus thagus) live in sympatry and prey almost exclusively on anchovy, Engraulis ringens. From January 2003 to December 2012, we monitored 31 breeding sites along the Peruvian coast to investigate the breeding cycle of these species. We tested for relationships between breeding timing, oceanographic conditions, and prey availability using occupancy models. We found that all three seabird species exhibited seasonal breeding patterns, with marked interspecific differences. Whereas breeding mainly started during the austral winter/early spring and ended in summer/early fall, this pattern was stronger in boobies and pelicans than in cormorants. Breeding onset mainly occurred when upwelling was intense but ecosystem productivity was below its annual maxima, and when anchovy were less available and in poor physiological condition. Conversely, the abundance and availability of anchovy improved during chick rearing and peaked around the time of fledging. These results suggest that breeding timing is adjusted so that fledging may occur under optimal environmental conditions, rather than being constrained by nutritional requirements during egg laying. Adjusting breeding time so that fledglings meet optimal conditions at independence is unique compared with other

  7. Water column methanotrophy controlled by a rapid oceanographic switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinle, Lea; Graves, Carolyn; Treude, Tina; Biastoch, Arne; Ferré, Bénédicte; Bussmann, Ingeborg; Berndt, Christian; Krastel, Sebastian; James, Rachael H.; Behrens, Erik; Böning, Claus W.; Greinert, Jens; Sapart, Célia-Julia; Sommer, Stefan; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Niemann, Helge

    2015-04-01

    Large amounts of the greenhouse gas methane are released from the seabed to the water column where it may be consumed by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria. This microbial filter is consequently the last marine sink for methane before its liberation into the atmosphere. The size and activity of methanotrophic communities, which determine the capacity of the water column methane filter, are thought to be mainly controlled by nutrient and redox dynamics, but little is known about the effects of ocean currents. Here we show that cold bottom water at methane seeps west of Svalbard, containing a large number of aerobic methanotrophs, was rapidly displaced by warmer water with a considerably smaller methanotrophic community. This community replacement led to a reduction of methane oxidation rates of 60 % and was independent of methane input. Measurements of temperature and salinity, combined with the output of a high-resolution ocean/sea-ice simulation model (VIKING20) showed that this water mass exchange was caused by short-term variations of the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC), which is characterized by two principal modes: The warm core of the WSC either flows along the continental shelf break and thus above the methane seeps (nearshore mode), or it meanders offshore thereby entraining colder shelf water, which then flows over the seeps (offshore mode). We could link the larger community to the colder shelf water during the offshore mode, and the smaller community and lower methane oxidation rates to the presence of the warmer WSC water above the seeps. As a result, the meandering of the WSC can be considered as an oceanographic switch severely reducing methanotrophic activity in the water column. Output from the ORCA12 model showed that strong and fluctuating bottom currents are common features at methane seep systems. We thus argue that the variability of physical water mass transport is a globally important control on the distribution and abundance of methanotrophs and

  8. Oceanographic gradients and seabird prey community dynamics in glacial fjords

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Arimitsu, Mayumi L.; Piatt, John F.; Madison, Erica N.; Conaway, Jeff; Hillgruber, N.

    2012-01-01

    Glacial fjord habitats are undergoing rapid change as a result of contemporary global warming, yet little is known about how glaciers influence marine ecosystems. These ecosystems provide important feeding, breeding and rearing grounds for a wide variety of marine organisms, including seabirds of management concern. To characterize ocean conditions and marine food webs near tidewater glaciers, we conducted monthly surveys of oceanographic variables, plankton, fish and seabirds in Kenai Fjords, Alaska, from June to August of 2007 and 2008. We also measured tidal current velocities near glacial features. We found high sediment load from glacial river runoff played a major role in structuring the fjord marine ecosystem. Submerged moraines (sills) isolated cool, fresh, stratified and silt-laden inner fjord habitats from oceanic influence. Near tidewater glaciers, surface layers of turbid glacial runoff limited availability of light to phytoplankton, but macrozooplankton were abundant in surface waters, perhaps due to the absence of a photic cue for diel migration. Fish and zooplankton community structure varied along an increasing temperature gradient throughout the summer. Acoustic measurements indicated that low density patches of fish and zooplankton were available in the surface waters near glacial river outflows. This is the foraging habitat occupied most by Kittlitz's murrelet (Brachyramphus brevirostris), a rare seabird that appears to be specialized for life in glacially influenced environments. Kittlitz's murrelets were associated with floating glacial ice, and they were more likely to occur near glaciers, in deeper water, and in areas with high acoustic backscatter. Kittlitz's murrelet at-sea distribution was limited to areas influenced by turbid glacial outflows, and where prey was concentrated near the surface in waters with low light penetration. Tidewater glaciers impart unique hydrographic characteristics that influence marine plankton and fish

  9. Laser safety program at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

    PubMed

    Reif, Ronald H; Fraser, Leanora A; Liffers, Mark L

    2013-02-01

    Implementing a laser safety program at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) presents many challenges and opportunities for improving safety performance. Getting all laser users to take ownership of safety and comply with all laser safety requirements are key ingredients of a successful laser safety program. WHOI's laser safety program includes the following elements: registration of high power lasers, hazard analysis of laser facilities, proper design of laser facilities, selection of hazard controls, laser safe operating procedures, laser safety training for all laser users, and routine inspections of laser facilities. Laser owners are required to sign the high power laser registration form and agree to comply with all applicable requirements. All laser users are required to sign the laser safe operating procedure that applies to their facility and follow the requirements. Laser users are included in the development of laser safe operating procedures, design of their facilities, review of hazard analysis calculations for their lasers, and in the selection of hazard controls. Laser safety training for new laser users includes a tour of established laser facilities, review of laser safe operating procedure, and a review of basic laser safety information. By engaging the laser users in all elements of the laser safety program, ownership of laser safety at the user level is more easily established and compliance with safety requirements is significantly improved. New laser owners and users are mentored by experienced laser users and are given an opportunity to observe the implementation of laser safety procedures at established laser facilities before operating their own high power lasers. Increased compliance with safety requirements has been demonstrated with fewer non-compliance items noted during annual laser safety inspections, more participation in initial and annual refresher training, and more requests from higher power laser users for assistance

  10. Seasonality in marine ecosystems: Peruvian seabirds, anchovy, and oceanographic conditions.

    PubMed

    Passuni, Giannina; Barbraud, Christophe; Chaigneau, Alexis; Demarcq, Hervé; Ledesma, Jesus; Bertrand, Arnaud; Castillo, Ramiro; Perea, Angel; Mori, Julio; Viblanc, Vincent A; Torres-MaitaA, Jose; Bertrand, Sophie

    2016-01-01

    In fluctuating environments, matching breeding timing to periods of high resource availability is crucial for the fitness of many vertebrate species, and may have major consequences on population health. Yet, our understanding of the proximate environmental cues driving seasonal breeding is limited. This is particularly the case in marine ecosystems, where key environmental factors and prey abundance and availability are seldom quantified. The Northern Humboldt Current System (NHCS) is a highly productive, low-latitude ecosystem of moderate seasonality. In this ecosystem, three tropical seabird species (the Guanay Cormorant Phalacrocorax bougainvillii, the Peruvian Booby Sula variegata, and the Peruvian Pelican Pelecanus thagus) live in sympatry and prey almost exclusively on anchovy, Engraulis ringens. From January 2003 to December 2012, we monitored 31 breeding sites along the Peruvian coast to investigate the breeding cycle of these species. We tested for relationships between breeding timing, oceanographic conditions, and prey availability using occupancy models. We found that all three seabird species exhibited seasonal breeding patterns, with marked interspecific differences. Whereas breeding mainly started during the austral winter/early spring and ended in summer/early fall, this pattern was stronger in boobies and pelicans than in cormorants. Breeding onset mainly occurred when upwelling was intense but ecosystem productivity was below its annual maxima, and when anchovy were less available and in poor physiological condition. Conversely, the abundance and availability of anchovy improved during chick rearing and peaked around the time of fledging. These results suggest that breeding timing is adjusted so that fledging may occur under optimal environmental conditions, rather than being constrained by nutritional requirements during egg laying. Adjusting breeding time so that fledglings meet optimal conditions at independence is unique compared with other

  11. Physical oceanographic processes influence bio-optical properties in the Tasman Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherukuru, Nagur; Davies, Peter L.; Brando, Vittorio E.; Anstee, Janet M.; Baird, Mark E.; Clementson, Lesley A.; Doblin, Martina A.

    2016-04-01

    Remote sensing observations show optical signatures to conform to the physical oceanographic patterns in the Tasman Sea. To test the link between physical oceanographic processes and bio-optical properties we investigated an in situ bio-optical dataset collected in the Tasman Sea. Analysis of in situ observations showed the presence of four different water masses in the Tasman Sea, formed by the relatively warm and saline East Australia Current (EAC) water, a mesoscale cold core eddy on the continental slope, cooler Tasman Sea water on the shelf and river plume water. The distribution of suspended substances and their inherent optical properties in these water masses were distinctly different. Light absorption and attenuation budgets indicate varying optical complexity between the water masses. Specific inherent optical properties of suspended particulate and dissolved substances in each group were different as they were influenced by physical and biogeochemical processes specific to that water mass. Remote sensing reflectance signature varied in response to changing bio-optical properties between the water masses; thus providing the link between physical oceanographic processes, bio-optical properties and the optical signature. Findings presented here extend our knowledge of the Tasman Sea, its optical environment and the role of physical oceanographic processes in influencing the inherent optical properties and remote sensing signature in this complex oceanographic region.

  12. Multichannel seismic/oceanographic/biological monitoring of the oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hello, Y.; Leymarie, E.; Ogé, A.; Poteau, A.; Argentino, J.; Sukhovich, A.; Claustre, H.; Nolet, G.

    2011-12-01

    Delays in seismic P wave are used to make scans or 3D images of the variations in seismic wave speed in the Earth's interior using the techniques of seismic tomography. Observations of such delays are ubiquitous on the continents but rare in oceanic regions. Free-drifting profiling floats that measure the temperature, salinity and current of the upper 2000 m of the ocean are used by physical oceanographers for continuous monitoring in the Argo program. Recently, seismologists developed the idea to use such floats in order to compensate for the lack of seismic delay observations, especially in the southern hemisphere. In project Globalseis, financed by a grant from the European Research Council (ERC), we have developed and tested a prototype of such a seismological sensor using an Apex float from Teledyne Webb Research, a Rafos hydrophone, and electronics developed in collaboration with Osean, a small engineering firm in France. `MERMAID', for `Mobile Earthquake Recorder in Marine Areas by Independent Divers' is approaching its final design and should become available off the shelf in 2012. In the meantime we initiated a collaboration between Globalseis and another ERC project, remOcean, for the acquisition of radiometric, bio-geochemical data and meteorological observations in addition to salinity and temperature (Bio-Argo program). In this collaboration of Geoazur and LOV (Laboratoire d'Océanologie de Villefranche sur mer), two laboratories located at the Observatory of Villefranche, we developed a multichannel acquisition hardware electronics called 'PAYLOAD' that allows commercial floats such as Apex (TWR) and Provor (NKE) to serve multiple observing missions simultaneously. Based on an algorithm using wavelet transforms PAYLOAD continuously analyzes acoustic signals to detect major seismic events and weather phenomena such rain, drizzle, open sea and ice during drift diving phase. The bio-geochemical and other parameters are recorded and analyzed during ascent

  13. Oceanographic data at your fingertips: the SOCIB App for smartphones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lora, Sebastian; Sebastian, Kristian; Troupin, Charles; Pau Beltran, Joan; Frontera, Biel; Gómara, Sonia; Tintoré, Joaquín

    2015-04-01

    The Balearic Islands Coastal Ocean Observing and Forecasting System (SOCIB, http://www.socib.es), is a multi-platform Marine Research Infrastructure that generates data from nearshore to the open sea in the Western Mediterranean Sea. In line with SOCIB principles of discoverable, freely available and standardized data, an application (App) for smartphones has been designed, with the objective of providing an easy access to all the data managed by SOCIB in real-time: underwater gliders, drifters, profiling buoys, research vessel, HF Radar and numerical model outputs (hydrodynamics and waves). The Data Centre, responsible for the aquisition, processing and visualisation of all SOCIB data, developed a REpresentational State Transfer (REST) application programming interface (API) called "DataDiscovery" (http://apps.socib.es/DataDiscovery/). This API is made up of RESTful web services that provide information on : platforms, instruments, deployments of instruments. It also provides the data themselves. In this way, it is possible to integrate SOCIB data in third-party applications, developed either by the Data Center or externally. The existence of a single point for the data distribution not only allows for an efficient management but also makes easier the concepts and data access for external developers, who are not necessarily familiar with the concepts and tools related to oceanographic or atmospheric data. The SOCIB App for Android (https://play.google.com/store/apps/details?id=com.socib) uses that API as a "data backend", in such a way that it is straightforward to manage which information is shown by the application, without having to modify and upload it again. The only pieces of information that do not depend on the services are the App "Sections" and "Screens", but the content displayed in each of them is obtained through requests to the web services. The API is not used only for the smartphone app: presently, most of SOCIB applications for data visualisation

  14. An Oceanographer's Journey into the World of Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, R. H.

    2001-12-01

    For most of my career, I was a research oceanographer. For the past eleven years, I have been a professor, and for the past four years I have been working to improve teaching of the geosciences, especially oceanography at all levels from elementary school through graduate school. My work has centered primarily on improving middle- and high- school curriculum, and on improving teaching at the upper undergraduate and beginning graduate levels. I wish to share the lessons I have learned about improving K-12 education: 1) Teach interesting subjects which build on student interest--this may seem obvious, but few textbooks are built around themes such as global warming, hurricanes, tornados, whales, or earthquakes. 2) Don't limit your work to your particular specialty--think of the geosciences first in their broadest context--after all, global warming involves far more than meteorology or oceanography. 3) Work on a team with educators and students--we may be experts in science, but how much do we know about teaching K-12 students, their vocabulary, and their ability to understand each topic? 4) Work on projects that reach the most teachers and students--this is perhaps best done through NSF-funded, statewide systemic initiatives. 5) Be aware of national and state standards, including but not limited to math and science--the AAAS Project 2061 has published much useful material. 6) Teach special sections of science courses for preservice teachers--teach the way they will teach after they graduate. 7) Build assessment into your work--we think we have good ideas, but we need to prove we are really improving education. 8) Get to know your state education agency--they often seek expert help, and they have great influence on education. Have I made a difference? I think so--10,000 students and teachers visit our web site each month; I have been asked to help review questions on the certification test given all middle-school teachers in the state; and a graduate student who

  15. 46 CFR 188.05-2 - Exemptions from inspection laws for oceanographic research vessels and terms and conditions which...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... research vessels and terms and conditions which apply in lieu thereof. 188.05-2 Section 188.05-2 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Application § 188.05-2 Exemptions from inspection laws for oceanographic research vessels...

  16. User requirements for NASA data base management systems. Part 1: Oceanographic discipline

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fujimoto, B.

    1981-01-01

    Generic oceanographic user requirements were collected and analyzed for use in developing a general multipurpose data base management system for future missions of the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications (OSTA) of NASA. The collection of user requirements involved; studying the state-of-the-art technology in data base management systems; analyzing the results of related studies; formulating a viable and diverse list of scientists to be interviewed; developing a presentation format and materials; and interviewing oceanographic data users. More effective data management systems are needed to handle the increasing influx of data.

  17. Distal hemorrhoidectomy with ALTA injection: a new method for hemorrhoid surgery.

    PubMed

    Abe, Tatsuya; Hachiro, Yoshikazu; Ebisawa, Yoshiaki; Hishiyama, Houhei; Kunimoto, Masao

    2014-01-01

    Aluminum potassium sulfate and tannic acid injection (ALTA) is a useful and less-invasive treatment for internal hemorrhoids. However, it is not a treatment option for external hemorrhoidal diseases, including mixed hemorrhoids. Distal hemorrhoidectomy with ALTA injection involves surgical resection of external piles, followed by injection therapy on internal piles. We report technical details and the short-term results of this procedure in patients with mixed hemorrhoids. Seventy-two patients with mixed hemorrhoids treated between 2010 and 2011 were included. The main outcome measures were the short-term response and complication rates. At 28 days after surgery, the disappearance rate of prolapse was 100%. Three patients (4%) had postoperative complications, all minor in nature. No prolapse recurrence was observed within a median follow-up period of 6 months. Distal hemorrhoidectomy with ALTA injection appears to be a promising treatment option for patients with mixed hemorrhoids.

  18. Pilot-Scale Demonstration of ALTA for NOx Control in Pulverized Coal-Fired Boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Andrew Fry; Devin Davis; Marc Cremer; Bradley Adams

    2008-04-30

    This report describes computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and pilot-scale testing conducted to demonstrate the ability of the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) to reduce NO{sub x} emissions in a pulverized coal (PC) boiler. Testing specifically focused on characterizing NO{sub x} behavior with deep burner staging combined with Rich Reagent Injection (RRI). Tests were performed in a 4 MBtu/hr pilot-scale furnace at the University of Utah. Reaction Engineering International (REI) led the project team which included the University of Utah and Combustion Components Associates (CCA). Deep burner staging and RRI, combined with selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR), make up the Advanced Layered Technology Approach (ALTA) for NO{sub x} reduction. The application of ALTA in a PC environment requires homogenization and rapid reaction of post-burner combustion gases and has not been successfully demonstrated in the past. Operation of the existing low-NO{sub x} burner and design and operation of an application specific ALTA burner was guided by CFD modeling conducted by REI. Parametric pilot-scale testing proved the chemistry of RRI in a PC environment with a NOx reduction of 79% at long residence times and high baseline NOx rate. At representative particle residence times, typical operation of the dual-register low-NO{sub x} burner provided an environment that was unsuitable for NO{sub x} reduction by RRI, showing no NOx reduction. With RRI, the ALTA burner was able to produce NO{sub x} emissions 20% lower than the low-NO{sub x} burner, 76 ppmv vs. 94 ppmv, at a burner stoichiometric ratio (BSR) of 0.7 and a normalized stoichiometric ratio (NSR) of 2.0. CFD modeling was used to investigate the application of RRI for NO{sub x} control on a 180 MW{sub e} wall-fired, PC boiler. A NO{sub x} reduction of 37% from baseline (normal operation) was predicted using ALTA burners with RRI to produce a NO{sub x} emission rate of 0.185 lb/MBtu at the horizontal nose of

  19. Oceanographic Aspects of Recent Changes in the Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morison, J. H.

    2002-12-01

    In the Arctic recent decadal-scale changes have marked the atmosphere, ocean, and land. Connections between the oceanographic changes and large-scale atmospheric circulation changes are emerging. Surface atmospheric pressure has shown a declining trend over the Arctic. In the 1990s, the Arctic Ocean circulation took on a more cyclonic character, and the front separating Atlantic-derived waters of the Eurasian Basin and the Pacific-derived waters of the Canadian Basin shifted counterclockwise. The temperature of Atlantic water in the Arctic Ocean reached record levels. The cold halocline, which isolates the surface from the warm Atlantic water, grew thinner disappearing entirely from the Amundsen Basin at one point [Steele and Boyd, 1998]. Arctic sea ice extent has decreased 3% per decade since the 1970s [Parkinson et al., 1999]. Sea ice thickness over much of the Arctic decreased 43% between 1958-1976 and 1993-1997 [Rothrock et al., 1999]. Arctic ecosystems have responded to these changes. Sea ice studies in the late 1990s indicate that the sea ice algal species composition changed from decades before, with the species recently being characterized by more brackish and freshwater forms. Barents Sea fisheries have shifted north following reductions in ice extent. Pacific salmon species have been found entering rivers in the Arctic. There is evidence that this complex of pan-Arctic changes is connected with the rising trend in the Arctic Oscillation (AO) or Northern Hemisphere atmospheric polar vortex in the 1990s. Theoretical evidence that a positive trend in the AO index might be indicative of greenhouse warming raises the possibility that the recent complex of changes is an Arctic characteristic of global climate change. Also, the changes in ice cover manifest a connection between the complex of change and global climate through ice-albedo feedback, by which reductions in ice cover reduce the amount of sunlight reflected from the earth's surface. Another important

  20. Synthetic Seismograms Derived from Oceanographic Data in the Campeche Canyon, Deepwater Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Orduno, A.; Fucugauchi, J. U.; Monreal, M.; Perez-Cruz, G.; Salas de León, D. A.

    2013-05-01

    The seismic reflection method has been successfully applied worldwide to investigate subsurface conditions to support important business decisions in the oil industry. When applied in the marine environment, useful reflection information is limited to events on and below the sea floor; Information from the water column, if any, is disregarded. Seismic oceanography is emerging as a new technique that utilize the reflection information within the water column to infer thermal-density contrasts associated with oceanographic processes, such as cyclonic-anticyclonic eddies, ascending-descending water flows, and water flows related to rapid topographic changes on the sea floor. A seismic investigation to infer such oceanographic changes in one sector of the Campeche Canyon is in progress as a research matter at the Instituto de Ciencias del Mar y Limnologia from the University of Mexico (UNAM). First steps of the investigation consisted of creating synthetic seismograms based on oceanographic information (temperature and density) derived from direct observation on a series of close spaced depth points along vertical profiles. Details of the selected algorithms used for the transformation of the oceanographic data to acoustic impedances data sets and further construction of synthetic seismograms on each site and their representation as synthetic seismic sections, are presented in this work, as well as the road ahead in the investigation.

  1. 76 FR 71940 - Takes of Marine Mammals Incidental to Specified Activities; Physical Oceanographic Studies in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-21

    ...NMFS has received an application from the United States Navy (Navy) for an Incidental Harassment Authorization (IHA) to take marine mammals, by harassment, incidental to conducting physical oceanographic studies in the southwest Indian Ocean, January through February, 2012. Pursuant to the Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA), NMFS is requesting comments on its proposal to issue an IHA to the......

  2. Pliocene paleo-oceanographic perturbations and ecosystem response: implications for planktonic foraminiferal datums

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, R.E.; Spotz, B.

    1989-03-01

    ODP hole 625B (Legg 100, northeastern Gulf of Mexico) represents a nearly continuous record of Pliocene paleo-oceanographic development. Planktonic foraminiferal species abundances document the effect of physical and biotic processes on the operational utility of industrial biostratigraphic datums.

  3. 36 Years of Remote Oceanographic Laser Fluorosensing: Findings, Challenges and Pathways to Explore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chekalyuk, A. M.

    2009-12-01

    Since its initial bright start in early 70s, the oceanographic applications of laser remote fluorosensing have been mostly driven by the enthusiastic laser geeks, who tried to transfer the recent technological advances from their laboratory breadboards to the real world. This communication provides an overview of the key milestones and advances in the oceanographic applications of remote laser fluorosensing that is used for qualitative and quantitative characterization of the key aquatic constituents, including chromophoric dissolved organic matter, phytoplankton pigments, their biomass, community structure, and photo-physiological status. The basic principles and analytical techniques, including fluorescence excitation and emission measurements, as well as active control over the media to retrieve additional information (“super-active remote sensing”), are briefly discussed and illustrated with examples of practical applications. The laser excitation sources (including solid state, tunable lasers and optical parametric oscillators) and signal detectors and analyzers (including multi-spectral and hyperspectral systems) are discussed. The advantages and limitations of various platforms (stationary settings, ships, airplanes, helicopters, unmanned autonomous vehicles (UAV), and satellites) are analyzed. The recent findings, methodological and technological developments in oceanographic applications of laser fluorescence indicate that there is a significant, still underexplored potential of remote fluorosensing that may provide new observational capabilities and serve as a useful tool for oceanographic research, bio-environmental monitoring, and validation of passive satellite retrievals.

  4. Advanced study of global oceanographic requirements for EOS A/B: Appendix volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Tables and graphs are presented for a review of oceanographic studies using satellite-borne instruments. The topics considered include sensor requirements, error analysis for wind determination from glitter pattern measurements, coverage frequency plots, ground station rise and set times, a technique for reduction and analysis of ocean spectral data, rationale for the selection of a 2 PM descending orbit, and a priority analysis.

  5. Optically based technique for producing merged spectra of water-leaving radiances from ocean color remote sensing.

    PubMed

    Mélin, Frédéric; Zibordi, Giuseppe

    2007-06-20

    An optically based technique is presented that produces merged spectra of normalized water-leaving radiances L(WN) by combining spectral data provided by independent satellite ocean color missions. The assessment of the merging technique is based on a four-year field data series collected by an autonomous above-water radiometer located on the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower in the Adriatic Sea. The uncertainties associated with the merged L(WN) obtained from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer are consistent with the validation statistics of the individual sensor products. The merging including the third mission Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer is also addressed for a reduced ensemble of matchups.

  6. Carne cocinada a altas temperaturas y el riesgo de cáncer

    Cancer.gov

    Hoja informativa que explica cómo algunos compuestos químicos se forman en la carne cocinada a alta temperatura y describe los resultados de estudios sobre el consumo de estos compuestos químicos y el riesgo de cáncer.

  7. 77 FR 35669 - AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of AltaGas Renewable Energy Colorado LLC application for...

  8. 76 FR 3881 - Application To Export Electric Energy; TransAlta Energy Marketing (U.S.) Inc.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Application To Export Electric Energy; TransAlta Energy Marketing (U.S.) Inc. AGENCY: Office of Electricity Delivery and Energy Reliability, DOE. ACTION: Notice of application. SUMMARY: TransAlta Energy Marketing (U... be surplus energy purchased from electric utilities, Federal power marketing agencies, and...

  9. Patellar maltracking is prevalent among patellofemoral pain subjects with patella alta: an upright, weightbearing MRI study

    PubMed Central

    Pal, Saikat; Besier, Thor F.; Beaupre, Gary S.; Fredericson, Michael; Delp, Scott L.; Gold, Garry E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if patellar maltracking is more prevalent among patellofemoral (PF) pain subjects with patella alta compared to subjects with normal patella height. We imaged 37 PF pain and 15 pain free subjects in an open-configuration magnetic resonance imaging scanner while they stood in a weightbearing posture. We measured patella height using the Caton-Deschamps, Blackburne-Peel, Insall-Salvati, Modified Insall-Salvati, and Patellotrochlear indices, and classified the subjects into patella alta and normal patella height groups. We measured patella tilt and bisect offset from oblique-axial plane images, and classified the subjects into maltracking and normal tracking groups. Patellar maltracking was more prevalent among PF pain subjects with patella alta compared to PF pain subjects with normal patella height (two-tailed Fisher’s exact test, p < 0.050). Using the Caton-Deschamps index, 67% (8/12) of PF pain subjects with patella alta were maltrackers, whereas only 16% (4/25) of PF pain subjects with normal patella height were maltrackers. Patellofemoral pain subjects classified as maltrackers displayed a greater patella height compared to the pain free and PF pain subjects classified as normal trackers (two-tailed unpaired t-tests with Bonferroni correction, p < 0.017). This study adds to our understanding of PF pain in two ways - 1) we demonstrate that patellar maltracking is more prevalent in PF pain subjects with patella alta compared to subjects with normal patella height; and 2) we show greater patella height in PF pain subjects compared to pain free subjects using four indices commonly used in clinics. PMID:23165335

  10. Study of the Brazil and Falkland currents using their images of Nimbus 5 and oceanographic data in 1972 - 1973

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tseng, Y. C.; Inostroza, H. M. V.; Kumar, R.

    1977-01-01

    The Western Edge of the Sub-tropical Convergence of the South-western Atlantic Ocean, called the Front, which is a thermal discontinuity between the Brazil and Falkland Currents, was studied utilizing the Temperature Humidity Infrared Radiometer (THIR) of Nimbus V in the 10.5 to 12.5 micrometers channel and historical oceanographic data. Some important results obtained are: the oceanographic Front could be detected from Nimbus THIR data; oceanographic charts showed that the transition zone where the Brazil and the Falkland Currents meet was the Front detected from satellite data; ocean current speeds calculated with THIR data were of the same order of magnitude as those calculated oceanographically; fisheries statistics for Pargo Roseo showed that the maximum catches were in September of 1973, in the period when the Front was observed most distinctly and clearly. The results showed the great potentiality of satellite data to study surface thermal structures, surface currents and oceanic fisheries.

  11. A review of oceanographic applications of water column data from multibeam echosounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colbo, Keir; Ross, Tetjana; Brown, Craig; Weber, Tom

    2014-05-01

    Multibeam echosounder systems (MBES) have long provided bathymetric data with high temporal and spatial resolution. In the last couple of decades, MBES observations of scattering in the water column have been finding increasing use in oceanographic studies. Here we review the wealth of studies using water column multibeam data to address questions in fisheries, marine mammal and zooplankton research as well as seeps and hydrothermal vents. We also summarize some of the tantalizing new oceanographic applications of water column MBES, such as kelp ecosystems, near surface bubbles, suspended sediment, mixing and internal waves, as well as the proper determination of the extent of shipwreck above the sea floor. We highlight the many advantages of using water column MBES and discuss the challenges.

  12. Atmospheric and oceanographic research review, 1978. [global weather, ocean/air interactions, and climate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    Research activities related to global weather, ocean/air interactions, and climate are reported. The global weather research is aimed at improving the assimilation of satellite-derived data in weather forecast models, developing analysis/forecast models that can more fully utilize satellite data, and developing new measures of forecast skill to properly assess the impact of satellite data on weather forecasting. The oceanographic research goal is to understand and model the processes that determine the general circulation of the oceans, focusing on those processes that affect sea surface temperature and oceanic heat storage, which are the oceanographic variables with the greatest influence on climate. The climate research objective is to support the development and effective utilization of space-acquired data systems in climate forecast models and to conduct sensitivity studies to determine the affect of lower boundary conditions on climate and predictability studies to determine which global climate features can be modeled either deterministically or statistically.

  13. Monthly atmospheric and oceanographic surface fields for the western North Atlantic: December 1986 - April 1989

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caruso, Michael J.; Singh, Sandipa; Kelly, Kathryn A.; Qiu, BO

    1995-01-01

    Monthly atmospheric and oceanographic variables for the western North Atlantic Ocean from various sources are presented as contour or vector maps. These fields were assembled for a study of the upper ocean heat budget. Atmospheric fields include the net surface heat fluxes and wind stress derived from the 1000 mb winds from the European Center for Medium-range Weather Forecasting (ECMWF). Oceanographic fields include the sea surface height from the Geosat radar altimeter and sea surface temperature from the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR). An additional estimate of net surface heat flux is shown; this estimate was derived by assimilating winds, currents and ocean temperatures into a mixed layer model. The maps show a complex interplay of fluctuations in the winds and heat fluxes, and in the structure and temperature gradients of the Gulf Stream system. Some comments are offered on a comparison of the two heat flux estimates.

  14. Advanced study of global oceanographic requirements for EOS A/B: Technical volume

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    Characteristics of the ocean are considered in terms of U.S. social, scientific and ecomomic priorities and in terms of the measurements that can best be made from a spacecraft. The kinds of information needed to advance the basic ocean sciences, to improve marine transportation and fisheries operations, and to provide information for pollution control are discussed. These information needs were related to sensor concepts and an optimum sensor complement is presented, together with orbital considerations. The data-gathering capabilities of an oceanographic spacecraft were considered in relation to those of terrestrial oceanographic programs, using airborne, surface, and submarine platforms. Data management problems are discussed and are considered to be solvable with current technology.

  15. Controlled Vocabularies and Ontologies for Oceanographic Data: The R2R Eventlogger Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coburn, E.; Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Raymond, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    Research vessels coordinated by the United States University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (US-UNOLS) collect data which is considered an important oceanographic resource. The NSF-funded Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project aims to improve access to this data and diminish the barriers to use. One aspect of the R2R project has been to develop a shipboard scientific event logging system, Eventlogger, that incorporates best practice guidelines, controlled vocabularies, a cruise metadata schema, and a scientific event log. This will facilitate the eventual ingestion of datasets into oceanographic data repositories for subsequent integration and synthesis by investigators. One important aspect of this system is the careful use of controlled vocabularies and ontologies. Existing ontologies, where available, will be used and others will be developed. The use of internationally-informed, consensus-driven controlled vocabularies will make datasets more interoperable, and discoverable. The R2R Eventlogger project is led by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI), and the management of the controlled vocabularies and mapping of these vocabularies to authoritative community vocabularies are led by the Data Librarian in the Marine Biological Laboratory/Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (MBLWHOI) Library. The first target vocabulary is oceanographic instruments. Management of this vocabulary has thus far consisted of reconciling local community terms with the more widely used SeaDataNet Device Vocabulary terms. Rather than adopt existing terms, often the local terms are mapped by data managers in the NSF-funded Biological and Chemical Oceanographic Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) to the existing terms as they are given by investigators and often provide important information and meaning. New terms (often custom, or modified instruments) are submitted for review to the SeaDataNet community listserv for discussion and eventual incorporation into the Device

  16. Ocean color spectrum calculations. [theoretical models relating oceanographic parameters to upwelling radiances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mccluney, W. R.

    1974-01-01

    The development is considered of procedures for measuring a number of subsurface oceanographic parameters using remotely sensed ocean color data. It is proposed that the first step in this effort should be the development of adequate theoretical models relating the desired oceanographic parameters to the upwelling radiances to be observed. A portion of a contributory theoretical model is shown to be described by a modified single scattering approach based upon a simple treatment of multiple scattering. The resulting quasi-single scattering model can be used to predict the upwelling distribution of spectral radiance emerging from the sea. The shape of the radiance spectrum predicted by this model for clear ocean water shows encouraging agreement with measurments made at the edge of the Sargasso Sea off Cape Hatteras.

  17. [A case of laparoscopic surgery for a rectal carcinoid after ALTA therapy for an internal hemorrhoid].

    PubMed

    Aomatsu, Naoki; Nakamura, Masanori; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Nakao, Shigetomi; Uchima, Yasutake; Aomatsu, Keiho

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of laparoscopic surgery for a rectal carcinoid after aluminum potassium and tannic acid (ALTA) therapy for an internal hemorrhoid. A 66-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of bleeding during defecation. He was diagnosed via anoscopy with Goligher grade II internal hemorrhoids. Examination via colonoscopy revealed 2 yellowish submucosal tumors in the lower rectum that were 5mm and 10mm in diameter. A rectal carcinoid tumor was diagnosed based on histopathology. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated no metastases to the liver or lymph nodes. First, we performed ALTA therapy for the internal hemorrhoids. Two weeks later, we performed laparoscopic-assisted low anterior resection (D2) for the rectal carcinoid. The patient was discharged without complications and has not experienced recurrence during the 2 years of follow-up care.

  18. [A case of laparoscopic surgery for a rectal carcinoid after ALTA therapy for an internal hemorrhoid].

    PubMed

    Aomatsu, Naoki; Nakamura, Masanori; Hasegawa, Tsuyoshi; Nakao, Shigetomi; Uchima, Yasutake; Aomatsu, Keiho

    2014-11-01

    We report a case of laparoscopic surgery for a rectal carcinoid after aluminum potassium and tannic acid (ALTA) therapy for an internal hemorrhoid. A 66-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of bleeding during defecation. He was diagnosed via anoscopy with Goligher grade II internal hemorrhoids. Examination via colonoscopy revealed 2 yellowish submucosal tumors in the lower rectum that were 5mm and 10mm in diameter. A rectal carcinoid tumor was diagnosed based on histopathology. Abdominal computed tomography demonstrated no metastases to the liver or lymph nodes. First, we performed ALTA therapy for the internal hemorrhoids. Two weeks later, we performed laparoscopic-assisted low anterior resection (D2) for the rectal carcinoid. The patient was discharged without complications and has not experienced recurrence during the 2 years of follow-up care. PMID:25731340

  19. Research Vessel Meteorological and Oceanographic Systems Support Satellite and Model Validation Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. R.; Lopez, N.; Bourassa, M. A.; Rolph, J.; Briggs, K.

    2012-12-01

    The research vessel data center at the Florida State University routinely acquires, quality controls, and distributes underway surface meteorological and oceanographic observations from vessels. The activities of the center are coordinated by the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS) initiative in partnership with the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) project. The data center evaluates the quality of the observations, collects essential metadata, provides data quality feedback to vessel operators, and ensures the long-term data preservation at the National Oceanographic Data Center. A description of the SAMOS data stewardship protocols will be provided, including dynamic web tools that ensure users can select the highest quality observations from over 30 vessels presently recruited to the SAMOS initiative. Research vessels provide underway observations at high-temporal frequency (1 min. sampling interval) that include navigational (position, course, heading, and speed), meteorological (air temperature, humidity, wind, surface pressure, radiation, rainfall), and oceanographic (surface sea temperature and salinity) samples. Recruited vessels collect a high concentration of data within the U.S. continental shelf and also frequently operate well outside routine shipping lanes, capturing observations in extreme ocean environments (Southern Ocean, Arctic, South Atlantic and Pacific). The unique quality and sampling locations of research vessel observations and there independence from many models and products (RV data are rarely distributed via normal marine weather reports) makes them ideal for validation studies. We will present comparisons between research vessel observations and model estimates of the sea surface temperature and salinity in the Gulf of Mexico. The analysis reveals an underestimation of the freshwater input to the Gulf from rivers, resulting in an overestimation of near coastal salinity in the model. Additional comparisons

  20. Estimating Regions of Oceanographic Importance for Seabirds Using A-Spatial Data.

    PubMed

    Humphries, Grant Richard Woodrow

    2015-01-01

    Advances in GPS tracking technologies have allowed for rapid assessment of important oceanographic regions for seabirds. This allows us to understand seabird distributions, and the characteristics which determine the success of populations. In many cases, quality GPS tracking data may not be available; however, long term population monitoring data may exist. In this study, a method to infer important oceanographic regions for seabirds will be presented using breeding sooty shearwaters as a case study. This method combines a popular machine learning algorithm (generalized boosted regression modeling), geographic information systems, long-term ecological data and open access oceanographic datasets. Time series of chick size and harvest index data derived from a long term dataset of Maori 'muttonbirder' diaries were obtained and used as response variables in a gridded spatial model. It was found that areas of the sub-Antarctic water region best capture the variation in the chick size data. Oceanographic features including wind speed and charnock (a derived variable representing ocean surface roughness) came out as top predictor variables in these models. Previously collected GPS data demonstrates that these regions are used as "flyways" by sooty shearwaters during the breeding season. It is therefore likely that wind speeds in these flyways affect the ability of sooty shearwaters to provision for their chicks due to changes in flight dynamics. This approach was designed to utilize machine learning methodology but can also be implemented with other statistical algorithms. Furthermore, these methods can be applied to any long term time series of population data to identify important regions for a species of interest.

  1. Estimating Regions of Oceanographic Importance for Seabirds Using A-Spatial Data

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, Grant Richard Woodrow

    2015-01-01

    Advances in GPS tracking technologies have allowed for rapid assessment of important oceanographic regions for seabirds. This allows us to understand seabird distributions, and the characteristics which determine the success of populations. In many cases, quality GPS tracking data may not be available; however, long term population monitoring data may exist. In this study, a method to infer important oceanographic regions for seabirds will be presented using breeding sooty shearwaters as a case study. This method combines a popular machine learning algorithm (generalized boosted regression modeling), geographic information systems, long-term ecological data and open access oceanographic datasets. Time series of chick size and harvest index data derived from a long term dataset of Maori ‘muttonbirder’ diaries were obtained and used as response variables in a gridded spatial model. It was found that areas of the sub-Antarctic water region best capture the variation in the chick size data. Oceanographic features including wind speed and charnock (a derived variable representing ocean surface roughness) came out as top predictor variables in these models. Previously collected GPS data demonstrates that these regions are used as “flyways” by sooty shearwaters during the breeding season. It is therefore likely that wind speeds in these flyways affect the ability of sooty shearwaters to provision for their chicks due to changes in flight dynamics. This approach was designed to utilize machine learning methodology but can also be implemented with other statistical algorithms. Furthermore, these methods can be applied to any long term time series of population data to identify important regions for a species of interest. PMID:26331957

  2. Relationships between remotely sensed fisheries distribution information and selected oceanographic parameters in the Mississippi Sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemmerer, A. J.; Benigno, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A feasibility study to demonstrate the potential of satellites for providing fisheries significant information was conducted in the Mississippi Sound and adjacent offshore waters. Attempts were made to relate satellite acquired imagery to selected oceanographic parameters and then to relate these parameters to aircraft remotely sensed distribution patterns of resident surface schooling fishes. Initial results suggest that this approach is valid and that the satellite acquired imagery may have important fisheries resource assessment implications.

  3. Relationships between remotely sensed fisheries distribution information and selected oceanographic parameters in the Mississippi Sound

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kemmerer, A. J.; Benigno, J. A.

    1973-01-01

    A feasibility study to demonstrate the potential of satellites for providing fisheries significant information was conducted in the Mississippi Sound and adjacent offshore waters. Attempts were made to relate satellite acquired imagery to selected oceanographic parameters and then to relate these parameters to aircraft remotely sensed distribution patterns of resident surface schooling fishes. Initial results suggest that this approach is valid and that the satellite acquired imagery may have important fisheries resource assessment implications.

  4. A 200 years record of multidecadal oceanographic changes from offshore North Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perner, Kerstin; Moros, Matthias; Jansen, Eystein

    2016-04-01

    A 200 years record of multidecadal oceanographic changes from offshore North Iceland During the cruise GS15-198 of the RV G.O. Sars in summer 2015, new sediments cores have been collected from the North Iceland shelf at 66°N, an area known for its high sedimentation rates. Here, offshore North Iceland an offshoot of the East Greenland Current, the surface flowing East Icelandic Current (EIC) transports a mixture of cooled Atlantic Water and cold/fresh Polar Water eastwards and at intermediate depths (100-350 m water depth), flows the relatively warm (4-7°C) North Irminger Icelandic Current (NIIC). Beneath this Atlantic Water layer, less saline and cooled (<3°C) Arctic Intermediate Water is found. Our study area offshore North Iceland is suitably located to investigate multidecadal changes in the southward fluxes of freshwater from the EGC, via the EIC and in the relative contribution/water mass characteristics (i.e. temperature and salinity) of the NIIC and shifts in the location of the Polar Front. Oceanographic variability recorded offshore North Iceland is closely linked to broader scale climatic and oceanographic shifts/variations in the North Atlantic region. Samples for foraminiferal analyses were wet sieved at 63 μm and counted at 1-2 cm intervals, which equals a resolution of ~ 2 years. The foraminiferal assemblage is characterized by a divers fauna and a total of 76 foraminiferal species were identified, 6 planktic, 19 agglutinated and 51 calcareous species. The absolute abundance of foraminifera averages 400 specimens per 1g of wet sediment. Our high-resolution palaeoceanographic reconstructions reveal distinct multidecadal oceanographic variability that relate to climatic changes during the last 200 years, i.e. transition from the Little Ice Age into the modern warm phase.

  5. Linking Data from a National Oceanographic Research Program to Global Data Frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bruin, T.

    2015-12-01

    In the period 2008-2015 Dutch marine and oceanographic research was organized in a single, large national program, under the name 'Sea and Coastal Research' (Dutch acronym: ZKO). This ZKO program consisted of some 57 different projects, covering all major oceanographic disciplines. The research areas ranged from the Dutch coast and the Wadden Sea to the Indian and Atlantic Oceans.From the outset the ZKO program comprehensively addressed data management. As such a data policy was written requiring open access to all data resulting from the program. All project PIs signed to agree with this data policy. In addition, a separate project was funded to establish the ZKO data facility and to preserve ZKO data for future re-use. The ZKO data facility is part of the data center of the Royal Netherlands Institute for Sea Research (NIOZ). The NIOZ data center in turn is actively involved in the cyberinfrastructures of the Netherlands National Oceanographic Data Committee (NL-NODC) and the pan-European SeaDataNet project. As a result, an unprecedented level of standardization was achieved, ensuring that the ZKO data are preserved and made available through global systems. This presentation will provide a concise overview of the ZKO program in The Netherlands. The emphasis will be on how the data management of the program was organized and what lessons can be learned from the chosen approach. Finally, the links with national and international oceanographic cyberinfrastructures will be highlighted and it will be shown how data from ZKO funded projects is made available to a global audience.

  6. Technology transfer in the oceanographic sciences. (Latest citations from Oceanic Abstracts). Published Search

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-11-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning technology transfer in the oceanographic sciences. Topics include technology transfer in aquaculture, energy production, sea bed mining, pollution control, shoreline protection, and coastal engineering. Use of satellite technology in resource location, communication, and navigation is described. The citations also describe technology transfer to assist developing countries. (Contains a minimum of 106 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  7. Semitendinosus Tendon Transfer Associated With Distal Alignment for Patella Alta in a Patient With Recurrent Dislocations

    PubMed Central

    Calderazzi, Filippo; Pellegrini, Andrea; Coviello, Gianluca; Groppi, Giulia; Ceccarelli, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Patellofemoral instability is characterized by pain during normal daily activities and frequent dislocation events. In the reported case, an adolescent girl, aged 15 years, affected by left patellofemoral instability, underwent surgery with a double technique comprising tibial tubercle distalization and medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction. In case of patella alta associated with patellofemoral instability, surgical treatment should focus on medial patellofemoral ligament repair and on recurrent instability prevention. PMID:26900548

  8. Persistent Identifiers for Field Expeditions: A Next Step for the US Oceanographic Research Fleet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, Robert; Carbotte, Suzanne; Chandler, Cynthia; Smith, Shawn; Stocks, Karen

    2016-04-01

    Oceanographic research cruises are complex affairs, typically requiring an extensive effort to secure the funding, plan the experiment, and mobilize the field party. Yet cruises are not typically published online as first-class digital objects with persistent, citable identifiers linked to the scientific literature. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R; info@rvdata.us) program maintains a master catalog of oceanographic cruises for the United States research fleet, currently documenting over 6,000 expeditions on 37 active and retired vessels. In 2015, R2R started routinely publishing a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) for each completed cruise. Cruise DOIs, in turn, are linked to related persistent identifiers where available including the Open Researcher and Contributor ID (ORCID) for members of the science party, the International Geo Sample Number (IGSN) for physical specimens collected during the cruise, the Open Funder Registry (FundRef) codes that supported the experiment, and additional DOIs for datasets, journal articles, and other products resulting from the cruise. Publishing a persistent identifier for each field expedition will facilitate interoperability between the many different repositories that hold research products from cruises; will provide credit to the investigators who secured the funding and carried out the experiment; and will facilitate the gathering of fleet-wide altmetrics that demonstrate the broad impact of oceanographic research.

  9. Relationship between Prevailing Oceanographic conditions on the fishing operations in the Northern Indian Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moazzam Khan, Muhammad

    2014-05-01

    Marked seasonality in fishing operation and catch composition was observed in the Northern Indian Ocean. These variations are more pronounced and noticeable in case of trawling for fish and shrimp as well as in the surface gillnetting for tuna and large pelagics. Although oceanographic conditions of the Northern Indian Ocean has been studied comprehensively, some facets of these are not well understood especially their relation with the fish distribution and abundance. Important oceanographic factors especially migration of oxygen minimum layer towards coastal areas after the cessation of South-West Monsoon seems to the most important factor responsible for the seasonal variation in the fishing intensity and species composition. Distribution and abundance of some of the commercially important marine animals especially billfishes was observed to be associated with the physical features of the area especially their abundance was noticed along continental margin and on the ridges in the Arabian Sea. The paper describes seasonal variation in abundance and catch composition of various fishing operations in the Indian Ocean and relates its to prevailing oceanographic conditions. Fishermen traditional knowledge about the seasonality of these conditions is also documented in the paper.

  10. A Modeling Approach to Enhance Animal-Obtained Oceanographic Data Geo- Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tremblay, Y.; Robinson, P.; Weise, M. J.; Costa, D. P.

    2006-12-01

    Diving animals are increasingly being used as platforms to collect oceanographic data such as CTD profiles. Animal borne sensors provide an amazing amount of data that have to be spatially referenced. Because of technical limitations geo-position of these data mostly comes from the interpolation of locations obtained through the ARGOS positioning system. This system lacks spatio-temporal resolution compared to the Global Positioning System (GPS) and therefore, the positions of these oceanographic data are not well defined. A consequence of this is that many data collected in coastal regions are discarded, because many casts' records fell on land. Using modeling techniques, we propose a method to deal with this problem. The method is rather intuitive, and instead of deleting unreasonable or low-quality locations, it uses them by taking into account their lack of precision as a source of information. In a similar way, coastlines are used as sources of information, because marine animals do not travel over land. The method was evaluated using simultaneously obtained tracks with the Argos and GPS system. The tracks obtained from this method are considerably enhanced and allow a more accurate geo-reference of oceanographic data. In addition, the method provides a way to evaluate spatial errors for each cast that is not otherwise possible with classical filtering methods.

  11. Successful foraging zones of southern elephant seals from the Kerguelen Islands in relation to oceanographic conditions.

    PubMed

    Bailleul, Frédéric; Charrassin, Jean-Benoît; Monestiez, Pascal; Roquet, Fabien; Biuw, Martin; Guinet, Christophe

    2007-11-29

    Southern elephant seals, Mirounga leonina, undertake large-scale oceanic movements to access favourable foraging areas. Successful foraging areas of elephant seals from the Kerguelen Islands are investigated here in relation to oceanographic parameters. Movements and diving activity of the seals as well as oceanographic data were collected through a new generation of satellite relayed devices measuring and transmitting locations, pressure, temperature and salinity. For the first time, we have associated foraging behaviour, determined by high increased sinuosity in tracks, and dive density (i.e. number of dives performed per kilometre covered), and changes in body condition, determined by variations in drift rate obtained from drift dives, to identify the oceanographic conditions of successful foraging zones for this species. Two main sectors, one close to the Antarctic continent and the other along the Polar Front (PF), where both foraging activity and body condition increase, seem to be of particular interest for the seals. Within these regions, some seals tended to focus their foraging activity on zones with particular temperature signatures. Along the Antarctic continent, some seals targeted colder waters on the sea bottom during benthic dives, while at the PF the favourable zones tended to be warmer. The possible negative effect of colder waters in Antarctic on the swimming performances of potential fish or squid prey could explain the behaviour of elephant seals in these zones, while warmer waters within the PF could correspond to the optimal conditions for potential myctophid prey of elephant seals. PMID:17472917

  12. Networking Multiple Autonomous Air and Ocean Vehicles for Oceanographic Research and Monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Rajan, K.

    2013-12-01

    Autonomous underwater and surface vessels (AUVs and ASVs) are coming into wider use as components of oceanographic research, including ocean observing systems. Unmanned airborne vehicles (UAVs) are now available at modest cost, allowing multiple UAVs to be deployed with multiple AUVs and ASVs. For optimal use good communication and coordination among vehicles is essential. We report on the use of multiple AUVs networked in communication with multiple UAVs. The UAVs are augmented by inferential reasoning software developed at MBARI that allows UAVs to recognize oceanographic fronts and change their navigation and control. This in turn allows UAVs to automatically to map frontal features, as well as to direct AUVs and ASVs to proceed to such features and conduct sampling via onboard sensors to provide validation for airborne mapping. ASVs can also act as data nodes for communication between UAVs and AUVs, as well as collecting data from onboard sensors, while AUVs can sample the water column vertically. This allows more accurate estimation of phytoplankton biomass and productivity, and can be used in conjunction with UAV sampling to determine air-sea flux of gases (e.g. CO2, CH4, DMS) affecting carbon budgets and atmospheric composition. In particular we describe tests in July 2013 conducted off Sesimbra, Portugal in conjunction with the Portuguese Navy by the University of Porto and MBARI with the goal of tracking large fish in the upper water column with coordinated air/surface/underwater measurements. A thermal gradient was observed in the infrared by a low flying UAV, which was used to dispatch an AUV to obtain ground truth to demonstrate the event-response capabilities using such autonomous platforms. Additional field studies in the future will facilitate integration of multiple unmanned systems into research vessel operations. The strength of hardware and software tools described in this study is to permit fundamental oceanographic measurements of both ocean

  13. Resultados del relevamiento de HI en el Cielo Austral: 3. Relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morras, R.; Bajaja, E.; Arnal, E. M.; Pöppel, W. G. L.

    Los resultados del relevamiento de HI del Hemisferio Austral fueron reprocesados con el fin de incrementar su sensibilidad. Así, se utilizó esta nueva base de datos con el fin de obtener un nuevo relevamiento de Nubes de Alta Velocidad en el cielo austral. El ruido r.m.s. alcanzado es de 0.015-0.020 K, con una resolución espectral de 8 km/seg. El cubrimiento espacial del relevamiento mejora en un factor 16 al realizado por Bajaja et al (1985).

  14. Analysis of southeast Australian zooplankton observations of 1938-42 using synoptic oceanographic conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baird, Mark E.; Everett, Jason D.; Suthers, Iain M.

    2011-03-01

    The research vessel Warreen obtained 1742 planktonic samples along the continental shelf and slope of southeast Australia from 1938-42, representing the earliest spatially and temporally resolved zooplankton data from Australian marine waters. In this paper, Warreen observations along the southeast Australian seaboard from 28°S to 38°S are interpreted based on synoptic meteorological and oceanographic conditions and ocean climatologies. Meteorological conditions are based on the NOAA-CIRES 20th Century Reanalysis Project; oceanographic conditions use Warreen hydrological observations, and the ocean climatology is the CSIRO Atlas of Regional Seas. The Warreen observations were undertaken in waters on average 0.45 °C cooler than the climatological average, and included the longest duration El Niño of the 20th century. In northern New South Wales (NSW), week time-scale events dominate zooplankton response. In August 1940 an unusual winter upwelling event occurred in northern NSW driven by a stronger than average East Australian Current (EAC) and anomalous northerly winds that resulted in high salp and larvacean abundance. In January 1941 a strong upwelling event between 28° and 33°S resulted in a filament of upwelled water being advected south and alongshore, which was low in zooplankton biovolume. In southern NSW a seasonal cycle in physical and planktonic characteristics is observed. In January 1941 the poleward extension of the EAC was strong, advecting more tropical tunicate species southward. Zooplankton abundance and distribution on the continental shelf and slope are more dependent on weekly to monthly timescales on local oceanographic and meteorological conditions than continental-scale interannual trends. The interpretation of historical zooplankton observations of the waters off southeast Australia for the purpose of quantifying anthropogenic impacts will be improved with the use of regional hindcasts of synoptic ocean and atmospheric weather that can

  15. Divergent ecological effects of oceanographic anomalies on terrestrial ecosystems of the Mexican Pacific coast.

    PubMed

    Caso, Margarita; González-Abraham, Charlotte; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2007-06-19

    Precipitation pulses are essential for the regeneration of drylands and have been shown to be related to oceanographic anomalies. However, whereas some studies report increased precipitation in drylands in northern Mexico during El Niño years, others report increased drought in the southern drylands. To elucidate the effect of oceanographic/atmospheric anomalies on moisture pulses along the whole Pacific coast of Mexico, we correlated the average Southern Oscillation Index values with total annual precipitation for 117 weather stations. We also analyzed this relationship for three separate rainfall signals: winter-spring, summer monsoon, and fall precipitation. The results showed a distinct but divergent seasonal pattern: El Niño events tend to bring increased rainfall in the Mexican northwest but tend to increase aridity in the ecosystems of the southern tropical Pacific slope. The analysis for the separated rainfall seasons showed that El Niño conditions produce a marked increase in winter rainfall above 22 degrees latitude, whereas La Niña conditions tend to produce an increase in the summer monsoon-type rainfall that predominates in the tropical south. Because these dryland ecosystems are dependent on rainfall pulses for their renewal, understanding the complex effect of ocean conditions may be critical for their management in the future. Restoration ecology, grazing regimes, carrying capacities, fire risks, and continental runoff into the oceans could be predicted from oceanographic conditions. Monitoring the coupled atmosphere-ocean system may prove to be important in managing and mitigating the effects of large-scale climatic change on coastal drylands in the future.

  16. Divergent ecological effects of oceanographic anomalies on terrestrial ecosystems of the Mexican Pacific coast

    PubMed Central

    Caso, Margarita; González-Abraham, Charlotte; Ezcurra, Exequiel

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation pulses are essential for the regeneration of drylands and have been shown to be related to oceanographic anomalies. However, whereas some studies report increased precipitation in drylands in northern Mexico during El Niño years, others report increased drought in the southern drylands. To elucidate the effect of oceanographic/atmospheric anomalies on moisture pulses along the whole Pacific coast of Mexico, we correlated the average Southern Oscillation Index values with total annual precipitation for 117 weather stations. We also analyzed this relationship for three separate rainfall signals: winter-spring, summer monsoon, and fall precipitation. The results showed a distinct but divergent seasonal pattern: El Niño events tend to bring increased rainfall in the Mexican northwest but tend to increase aridity in the ecosystems of the southern tropical Pacific slope. The analysis for the separated rainfall seasons showed that El Niño conditions produce a marked increase in winter rainfall above 22° latitude, whereas La Niña conditions tend to produce an increase in the summer monsoon-type rainfall that predominates in the tropical south. Because these dryland ecosystems are dependent on rainfall pulses for their renewal, understanding the complex effect of ocean conditions may be critical for their management in the future. Restoration ecology, grazing regimes, carrying capacities, fire risks, and continental runoff into the oceans could be predicted from oceanographic conditions. Monitoring the coupled atmosphere–ocean system may prove to be important in managing and mitigating the effects of large-scale climatic change on coastal drylands in the future. PMID:17563355

  17. A New Meteo-oceanographic and Environmental Monitoring Laboratory in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontes, Roberto F. C.; Dottori, Marcelo; Silveira, Ilson C. A.; Castro, Belmiro M.

    2013-04-01

    The newer oil provinces in the pre-salt regions off the Brazilian Coast have raised the necessity of the creation of monitoring and observational centers, regarding the best comprehension on the ocean and atmosphere dynamics. The relation between industry and university is a concept based on collaboration, and it is an innovative social experiment in Brazil. The sustainability of that collaboration depends on the balance of mutual interests on private business and public academic institutions. The entrepreneur needs continuous accesses to the new academic researches, and the greatest benefit, for the academy, are funding complementation and personnel qualification. We need to establish a thread of new challenges, some of them based on disruption of paradigms in the Brazilian academic culture, and removal of obstructive clauses from the entrepreneur. Questioning and methods revalidation, in the oceanic environment areas, also requires a collaborative and interdisciplinary effort, congregating the physical aspects along with others compartments of the environmental monitoring. We proposed the creation of a Meteo-oceanographic and Environmental Monitoring Laboratory - LAMMOA (Portuguese acronym), which will be installed in a new facility funded by PETROBRAS (the Brazilian leading oil company) and ruled by USP, UNESP and UNICAMP, the state public universities in Santos (São Paulo State, Brazil). The new facility will be a research center in oil and gas activities, named CENPEG-BS (Portuguese acronym for Research Center of Oil and Gas in the Bay of Santos). Several laboratories and groups will work together, in a highly collaborative environment and so, capable of quickly respond to sudden demands on offshore activities and logistic operations, as well as in contingency situations. LAMMOA will continuous monitor oceanic regions where the pre-salt activities of oil exploitation occur. It will monitor meteo-oceanographic parameters like winds, waves and currents

  18. Reproductive parameters of tropical lesser noddies respond to local variations in oceanographic conditions and weather

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monticelli, David; Ramos, Jaime A.; Catry, Teresa; Pedro, Patricia; Paiva, Vitor H.

    2014-02-01

    Most attempts to link seabirds and climate/oceanographic effects have concerned the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans with comparatively few studies in the tropical Indian Ocean. This paper examines the reproductive response of the lesser noddy Anous tenuirostris to temporal fluctuations in oceanographic and climatic conditions using 8 years of monitoring data from Aride Island (Seychelles), tropical Western Indian Ocean. We tested the hypothesis that breeding parameters (mean hatching date, mean egg size, hatching and fledging successes) and chick growth are influenced by local, seasonal oceanographic conditions as expressed by ocean primary productivity (surface chlorophyll-a concentrations; CC), sea surface temperature (SST) and wind speed. We also examined the relationship between lesser noddy breeding parameters and climate conditions recorded at the basin-wide scale of the Indian Ocean (Indian Ocean Dipole Mode Index, DMI). Our findings suggest that birds had a tendency to lay slightly larger eggs during breeding seasons (years) with higher CC during April-June (pre-laying, laying and incubation periods). Hatching date was positively related to SST in April-June, with the regression parameters suggesting that each 0.5 °C increase in SST meant a delay of approx.10 days in hatching date. A negative linear relationship was also apparent between hatching success and SST in June-August (hatching and chick-rearing periods), while the quadratic regression models detected a significant effect of wind speed in June-August on fledging success. Body mass increments of growing chicks averaged over 7-day periods were positively related with (2-week) lagged CC values and negatively related with (2-week) lagged SST values. No significant relationship between DMI and lesser noddy breeding parameters was found, but DMI indices were strongly correlated with local SST. Altogether, our results indicate that the reproduction of this top marine predator is dictated by fluctuations in

  19. Thermohaline fine structure in an oceanographic front from seismic reflection profiling.

    PubMed

    Holbrook, W Steven; Páramo, Pedro; Pearse, Scott; Schmitt, Raymond W

    2003-08-01

    We present acoustic images of oceanic thermohaline structure created from marine seismic reflection profiles across the major oceanographic front between the Labrador Current and the North Atlantic Current. The images show that distinct water masses can be mapped, and their internal structure imaged, using low-frequency acoustic reflections from sound speed contrasts at interfaces across which temperature changes. The warm/cold front is characterized by east-dipping reflections generated by thermohaline intrusions in the uppermost 1000 meters of the ocean. Our results imply that marine seismic reflection techniques can provide excellent spatial resolution of important oceanic phenomena, including thermohaline intrusions, internal waves, and eddies.

  20. Oceanographic measurement capabilities of the NASA P-3 aircraft. [ERS-1 mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mollo-Christensen, Erik; Jackson, F. C.; Walsh, E. J.; Hoge, F.

    1986-01-01

    Instrumentation on NASA P3 aircraft available to provide ground truth for ERS-1 is described. The wave sensors include the 36 GHz Surface Contour Radar (SCR), the Ku-band Radar Ocean Wave Spectrometer (ROWS), and the Airborne Oceanographic Lidar. The other sensors include a C-band scatterometer, video camera, radiation thermometer, and AXRTs. The SCR and ROWS directional spectrum measurements are discussed. When planning for an underflight mission, the limited endurance of the aircraft (6 hr) and flight cost (2.7 K$/hr) must be considered. The advantage of the redundancy afforded by the several wave instruments is another important consideration.

  1. Deep water challenges: Oil industry moves off continental shelf; meets new oceanographic data-gathering challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Mardell, G.; Flynn, J.

    1995-08-01

    While offshore oil industry activities move from the continental shelves to the continental slope and even onto the abyssal plains of the deep oceans, new oceanographic problems arise - from riser-deforming internal waves to ocean-floor avalanches. As well as soliton-induced currents, other subsurface flows need to be monitored to provide data in support of wide ranging underwater activities, including exploration drilling, deployment of subsea systems, diver and ROV operations, and pipe design, lay and inspection. This article examines some of the work carried out over the past year or so with data-gathering deep water moorings.

  2. AMS-graphite target production methods at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution during 1986-1991

    SciTech Connect

    Gagnon, A.R.; Jones, G.A. . Geology and Geophysics Dept.)

    1993-01-01

    In July 1986, an AMS radiocarbon target preparation laboratory was established at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Inst. to produce graphite to be analyzed at the NSF-Accelerator Facility for Radioisotope Analysis at the Univ. of Arizona (Tucson). By June 1991, 923 graphite targets had been prepared and 847 analyzed. The lab procedures during this time included the careful documentation of weights of all starting samples, catalysts and final graphite yields, as well as the volume of CO[sub 2] gas evolved during CaCO[sub 3] hydrolysis or closed-tube organic carbon combustions. From these data, the authors evaluate the methods used in general and in this lab.

  3. Summary of oceanographic and water-quality measurements in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, 2014–15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suttles, Steven E.; Ganju, Neil K.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Borden, Jonathan; Brosnahan, Sandra M.; Martini, Marinna A.

    2016-09-26

    Scientists and technical support staff from the U.S. Geological Survey measured suspended-sediment concentrations, currents, pressure, and water temperature in two tidal creeks, Reedy Creek and Dinner Creek, in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, from August 11, 2014, to July 10, 2015 as part of the Estuarine Physical Response to Storms project (GS2–2D). The oceanographic and water-quality data quantify suspended-sediment transport in Reedy Creek and Dinner Creek, which are part of a tidal marsh wetland complex in the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge. All deployed instruments were removed between January 7, 2015, and April 14, 2015, to avoid damage by ice.

  4. Toward an extended-geostrophic Euler-Poincare model for mesoscale oceanographic flow

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, J.S.; Newberger, P.A.; Holm, D.D.

    1998-07-01

    The authors consider the motion of a rotating, continuously stratified fluid governed by the hydrostatic primitive equations (PE). An approximate Hamiltonian (L1) model for small Rossby number {var_epsilon} is derived for application to mesoscale oceanographic flow problems. Numerical experiments involving a baroclinically unstable oceanic jet are utilized to assess the accuracy of the L1 model compared to the PE and to other approximate models, such as the quasigeostrophic (QG) and the geostrophic momentum (GM) equations. The results of the numerical experiments for moderate Rossby number flow show that the L1 model gives accurate solutions with errors substantially smaller than QG or GM.

  5. Mid-frequency sound propagation through internal waves at short range with synoptic oceanographic observations.

    PubMed

    Rouseff, Daniel; Tang, Dajun; Williams, Kevin L; Wang, Zhongkang; Moum, James N

    2008-09-01

    Preliminary results are presented from an analysis of mid-frequency acoustic transmission data collected at range 550 m during the Shallow Water 2006 Experiment. The acoustic data were collected on a vertical array immediately before, during, and after the passage of a nonlinear internal wave on 18 August, 2006. Using oceanographic data collected at a nearby location, a plane-wave model for the nonlinear internal wave's position as a function of time is developed. Experimental results show a new acoustic path is generated as the internal wave passes above the acoustic source.

  6. Summary of Oceanographic and Water-Quality Measurements in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, 2014–15

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Suttles, Steven E.; Ganju, Neil K.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Borden, Jonathan; Brosnahan, Sandra M.; Martini, Marinna A.

    2016-09-26

    Scientists and technical support staff from the U.S. Geological Survey measured suspended-sediment concentrations, currents, pressure, and water temperature in two tidal creeks, Reedy Creek and Dinner Creek, in Barnegat Bay, New Jersey, from August 11, 2014, to July 10, 2015 as part of the Estuarine Physical Response to Storms project (GS2–2D). The oceanographic and water-quality data quantify suspended-sediment transport in Reedy Creek and Dinner Creek, which are part of a tidal marsh wetland complex in the Edwin B. Forsythe National Wildlife Refuge. All deployed instruments were removed between January 7, 2015, and April 14, 2015, to avoid damage by ice.

  7. Delimiting oceanographic provinces to determine drivers of mesoscale patterns in benthic megafauna: A case study in the Barents Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacharité, Myriam; Jørgensen, Lis Lindal; Metaxas, Anna; Lien, Vidar S.; Skjoldal, Hein Rune

    2016-08-01

    Communities of benthic megafauna in the deep waters of continental shelves (> 100 m) are important components of marine ecosystems. In high-latitude ecosystems, this fauna is increasingly impacted by human activities and climate variability. In this study, we provide baseline knowledge on the oceanographic conditions affecting its distribution in the Barents Sea in the vicinity of the Polar Front - an oceanic front occurring at the transition zone between the Atlantic and Arctic water masses. We used fields of temperature and currents from an ocean circulation model (Regional Ocean Modelling System - ROMS) to derive variables divided into 3 groups relevant to bottom fauna (temperature, water column structure and bottom currents) expressing either mean conditions or temporal variability over 10 years (2001-2010). Benthic megafauna was surveyed in summer 2011 at 139 sites. To analyze the relationship between spatial variability in the composition of benthic megafauna (i.e., β-diversity) and oceanographic conditions, we: (1) used generalized dissimilarity modelling (GDM) and (2) delimited oceanographic provinces (i.e., regions of similar conditions) for each group of variables using principal component analysis (PCA) followed by cluster analysis. Turnover in benthic megafauna was explained by 7 oceanographic variables (temperature: 4, water column structure: 2, bottom currents: 1), depth and geographic distance (56.7% of total deviance explained). Concurrently, patterns in oceanographic provinces among the 3 groups of variables coincided with results from the GDM, where provinces derived from temperature were sharply delimited relative to the other groups. We concluded that the spatial structure of the environment is important in the relationship between spatial variability of benthic megafauna and oceanographic conditions in shelf deep waters. Ocean models are powerful tools to study this relationship, but the way in which their inherent uncertainty affects the

  8. Big Data for a Big Ocean at the NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casey, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Covering most of planet Earth, the vast, physically challenging ocean environment was once the sole domain of hardy, sea-going oceanographers. More recently, however, ocean observing systems have become more operational as well as more diverse. With observations coming from satellites, automated ship-based systems, autonomous underwater and airborne vehicles, in situ observing systems, and numerical models the field of oceanography is now clearly in the domain of Big Data. The NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center (NODC) and its partners around the world are addressing the entire range of Big Data issues for the ocean environment. A growing variety, volume, and velocity of incoming "Big Ocean" data streams are being managed through numerous approaches including the automated ingest and archive of incoming data; deployment of standardized, machine-consumable data discovery services; and interoperable data access, visualization, and subset mechanisms. In addition, support to the community of data producers to help them create more machine-ready ocean observation data streams is being provided and pilot projects to effectively incorporate commercial and hybrid cloud storage, access, and processing services into existing workflows and systems are being conducted. NODC is also engaging more actively than ever in the broader community of environmental data facilities to address these challenges. Details on these efforts at NODC and its partners will be provided and input sought on new and evolving user requirements.

  9. Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory Open Days at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyatt, Jason; Cenedese, Claudia; Jensen, Anders

    2015-11-01

    This event was hosted for one week for two consecutive years in 2013 and 2014. It targeted postdocs, graduate students, K-12 students and local community participation. The Geophysical Fluid Dynamics Laboratory at the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution hosted 10 hands-on demonstrations and displays, with something for all ages, to share the excitement of fluid mechanics and oceanography. The demonstrations/experiments spanned as many fluid mechanics problems as possible in all fields of oceanography and gave insight into using fluids laboratory experiments as a research tool. The chosen experiments were `simple' yet exciting for a 6 year old child, a high school student, a graduate student, and a postdoctoral fellow from different disciplines within oceanography. The laboratory is a perfect environment in which to create excitement and stimulate curiosity. Even what we consider `simple' experiments can fascinate and generate interesting questions from both a 6 year old child and a physics professor. How does an avalanche happen? How does a bath tub vortex form? What happens to waves when they break? How does a hurricane move? Hands-on activities in the fluid dynamics laboratory helped students of all ages in answering these and other intriguing questions. The laboratory experiments/demonstrations were accompanied by `live' videos to assist in the interpretation of the demonstrations. Posters illustrated the oceanographic/scientific applicability and the location on Earth where the dynamics in the experiments occur. Support was given by the WHOI Doherty Chair in Education.

  10. Physical oceanographic data from the OTEC Punta Tuna, Puerto Rico Site, September 1979-June 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Frye, D.; Davison, A.; Leavitt, K.

    1981-01-01

    The first results of an oceanographic measurement program being conducted off the southeast corner of Puerto Rico are presented. The study site is a proposed OTEC site and is located about 20 km off Punta Tuna. The objectives of the measurement program are to document the physical oceanography of the site as related to the engineering and environmental factors involved in OTEC design and operation. Oceanographic measurements include: (1) a subsurface mooring instrumented with five current, temperature, and pressure recorders; and (2) quarterly hydrographic cruises to measure salinity, temperature, and depth profiles on a grid of 33 stations in the vicinity of the mooring site. The first cruise, conducted between 16 and 21 June 1980, included the initial mooring deployment and a CTD (conductivity, temperature, and depth) and XBT (expendable bathythermograph) survey. The CTD/XBT measurements are presented. Also included are results of in situ current, temperature, and pressure measurements made during two previous programs. In September 1979, Coastal Marine Research (CMR) deployed a mooring at approximately the same site as the present mooring. Results from three of these instruments are included. The Naval Underwater Systems Center deployed a mooring at this site in February 1979 and partial results from one instrument on this mooring are also presented. (WHK)

  11. Oceanographic connectivity and environmental correlates of genetic structuring in Atlantic herring in the Baltic Sea.

    PubMed

    Teacher, Amber Gf; André, Carl; Jonsson, Per R; Merilä, Juha

    2013-04-01

    Marine fish often show little genetic structuring in neutral marker genes, and Atlantic herring (Clupea harengus) in the Baltic Sea are no exception; historically, very low levels of population differentiation (F ST ≍ 0.002) have been found, despite a high degree of interpopulation environmental heterogeneity in salinity and temperature. Recent exome sequencing and SNP studies have however shown that many loci are under selection in this system. Here, we combined population genetic analyses of a large number of transcriptome-derived microsatellite markers with oceanographic modelling to investigate genetic differentiation and connectivity in Atlantic herring at a relatively fine scale within the Baltic Sea. We found evidence for weak but robust and significant genetic structuring (F ST = 0.008) explainable by oceanographic connectivity. Genetic differentiation was also associated with site differences in temperature and salinity, with the result driven by the locus Her14 which appears to be under directional selection (F ST = 0.08). The results show that Baltic herring are genetically structured within the Baltic Sea, and highlight the role of oceanography and environmental factors in explaining this structuring. The results also have implications for the management of herring fisheries, the most economically important fishery in the Baltic Sea, suggesting that the current fisheries management units may be in need of revision.

  12. Oceanographic Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    Developed under NASA contract, the Fast Repetition Rate (FRR) fluorometer is a computer-controlled instrument for measuring the fluorescence of phytoplankton, microscopic plant forms that provide sustenance for animal life in the oceans. The fluorometer sensor is towed by ship through the water and the resulting printouts are compared with satellite data. The instrument is non-destructive and can be used in situ, providing scientific information on ocean activity and productivity.

  13. Integrating Multiple Autonomous Underwater Vessels, Surface Vessels and Aircraft into Oceanographic Research Vessel Operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGillivary, P. A.; Borges de Sousa, J.; Martins, R.; Rajan, K.

    2012-12-01

    Autonomous platforms are increasingly used as components of Integrated Ocean Observing Systems and oceanographic research cruises. Systems deployed can include gliders or propeller-driven autonomous underwater vessels (AUVs), autonomous surface vessels (ASVs), and unmanned aircraft systems (UAS). Prior field campaigns have demonstrated successful communication, sensor data fusion and visualization for studies using gliders and AUVs. However, additional requirements exist for incorporating ASVs and UASs into ship operations. For these systems to be optimally integrated into research vessel data management and operational planning systems involves addressing three key issues: real-time field data availability, platform coordination, and data archiving for later analysis. A fleet of AUVs, ASVs and UAS deployed from a research vessel is best operated as a system integrated with the ship, provided communications among them can be sustained. For this purpose, Disruptive Tolerant Networking (DTN) software protocols for operation in communication-challenged environments help ensure reliable high-bandwidth communications. Additionally, system components need to have considerable onboard autonomy, namely adaptive sampling capabilities using their own onboard sensor data stream analysis. We discuss Oceanographic Decision Support System (ODSS) software currently used for situational awareness and planning onshore, and in the near future event detection and response will be coordinated among multiple vehicles. Results from recent field studies from oceanographic research vessels using AUVs, ASVs and UAS, including the Rapid Environmental Picture (REP-12) cruise, are presented describing methods and results for use of multi-vehicle communication and deliberative control networks, adaptive sampling with single and multiple platforms, issues relating to data management and archiving, and finally challenges that remain in addressing these technological issues. Significantly, the

  14. First record of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter (Hemiptera: Miridae) on Opuntia ficus-indica in Milpa Alta, Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Palomares-Pérez, Martín; Rodríguez-Leyva, Esteban; Brailovsky, Harry; Ramírez-Alarcón, Samuel

    2010-01-01

    In recent years a species of Hesperolabops has become a problem as a pest of nopalitos, Opuntia ficus-indica, in Milpa Alta, in the south of Mexico City, which is the most important production region of this vegetable in the country. A survey of Hesperolabops in Milpa Alta has resulted in the first report of Hesperolabops nigriceps Reuter. This occurrence should be monitored and considered in future studies in order to avoid misidentification of Hesperolabops spp. Kirkaldy native populations there, and to avoid the confusion of the damage that may be caused on O. ficus-indica.

  15. Photoelectrochemical evidence of nitrogen incorporation during anodizing sputtering--deposited Al-Ta alloys.

    PubMed

    Zaffora, A; Santamaria, M; Di Franco, F; Habazaki, H; Di Quarto, F

    2016-01-01

    Anodic films were grown to 20 V on sputtering-deposited Al-Ta alloys in ammonium biborate and borate buffer solutions. According to glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy, anodizing in ammonium containing solution leads to the formation of N containing anodic layers. Impedance measurements did not evidence significant differences between the dielectric properties of the anodic films as a function of the anodizing electrolyte. Photoelectrochemical investigation allowed evidencing that N incorporation induces a red-shift in the light absorption threshold of the films due to the formation of allowed localized states inside their mobility gap. The estimated Fowler threshold for the internal photoemission processes of electrons resulted to be independent of the anodizing electrolyte confirming that N incorporation does not appreciably affect the density of states distribution close to the conduction band mobility edge. The transport of photogenerated carriers has been rationalized according to the Pai-Enck model of geminate recombination.

  16. Geologic and hydrologic data collected at test hole NC-8, Vega Alta, Puerto Rico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rodríguez-Martínez, Jesús; Scharlach, Richard A.

    1994-01-01

    Test hole NC-8 was drilled in the municipality of Vega Alta as part of a study of the aquifers in the Northern Coastal Province of Puerto Rico. Test hole NC-8 was drilled to a depth of 1,736 feet below land surface. Geologic and hydrologic data collected during drilling included continuous core, water- quality samples, water-level measurements, and estimates of aquifer yields from the water-bearing zones. Test hole NC-8 penetrated five geologic formations of middle Tertiary age: the Aymamon Limestone, the Los Puertos Formation, the Cibao Formation, the Lares Limestone, and the San Sebastian Formation. Test hole NC-8 penetrated a water-table aquifer and seven artesian aquifers.

  17. Performance of the ALTA 4700 with variable print strategy and optimized resist process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Paul C.; Hamaker, H. Christopher; Morgante, Cris; Berwick, Andrew; White, Michael

    2005-11-01

    The ALTA 4700 incorporates new optical subsystems to improve pattern quality performance and has added the capability to do variable multipass printing. The optical system changes are the addition of a 0.9-NA reduction lens and a new AOD subsystem to reduce beam placement and intensity errors. Variable multipass printing allows two-, four- or eight-pass printing, thereby enabling the user to optimize the pattern quality/throughput tradeoff. Local CDU 3σ performance for one pattern is reduced from 8.2 to 5.1 to 3.4 nm as the number of passes is increased from two to four to eight. Reduction of CDU performance is more pattern dependent going from four to eight passes than going from two to four passes. Pattern write times scale roughly linearly with the number of passes. Local pattern loading effects can limit global CDU performance. These effects can be reduced by optimizing resist selection and develop processes.

  18. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Summary Report. Twelfth Session of the Assembly (Paris, France, November 3-19, 1982).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.

    Summarized in this report are the discussions which took place during the twelfth session of the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) Assembly. Summaries are provided in 15 sections: opening comments; administrative arrangements; adoption of triennial commission report; ocean sciences; ocean services; training, education, and mutual…

  19. Addressing the Challenges of Satellite and in-Situ Oceanographic Dataset Interoperability at the PO.Daac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsontos, V. M.; Huang, T.

    2014-12-01

    The earth science enterprise increasingly relies on the integration and synthesis of multivariate datasets from diverse observational platforms. NASA's ocean salinity missions, that include Aquarius/SAC-D and the SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study) field campaign, illustrate the value of integrated observations in support of studies of the water cycle, environmental variability and climate. However, the inherent heterogeneity of resulting data and the disparate, distributed systems that serve them complicates their effective utilization for both earth science research and applications. Despite increased availability of oceanographic data online and improved protocols and tools for access, the fundamental problem of unified data access remains an impediment in part because of structural reasons (domain specific data providers) and in part because of specific technical issues. Key technical interoperability challenges include adherence to metadata and data format standards that are particularly acute for in-situ data and the lack of a unified metadata model facilitating archival and integration of both satellite and oceanographic field datasets. Here we report on new efforts at the PO.DAAC, NASA's physical oceanographic data center responsible for the archival and distribution of the satellite mission data that includes Aquarius, to extend our data management infrastructure to additionally support field campaign datasets such as those from SPURS. Integral to this are plans to develop a generalized data matchup service facilitating the reconciliation of multi-scale data exhibiting heterogeneous sampling geometries in support of mission Cal/Val and oceanographic research.

  20. Legacy2Drupal: Conversion of an existing relational oceanographic database to a Drupal 7 CMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Work, T. T.; Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Groman, R. C.

    2011-12-01

    Content Management Systems (CMSs) such as Drupal provide powerful features that can be of use to oceanographic (and other geo-science) data managers. However, in many instances, geo-science data management offices have already designed and implemented customized schemas for their metadata. The NSF funded Biological Chemical and Biological Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) has ported an existing relational database containing oceanographic metadata, along with an existing interface coded in Cold Fusion middleware, to a Drupal 7 Content Management System. This is an update on an effort described as a proof-of-concept in poster IN21B-1051, presented at AGU2009. The BCO-DMO project has translated all the existing database tables, input forms, website reports, and other features present in the existing system into Drupal CMS features. The replacement features are made possible by the use of Drupal content types, CCK node-reference fields, a custom theme, and a number of other supporting modules. This presentation describes the process used to migrate content in the original BCO-DMO metadata database to Drupal 7, some problems encountered during migration, and the modules used to migrate the content successfully. Strategic use of Drupal 7 CMS features that enable three separate but complementary interfaces to provide access to oceanographic research metadata will also be covered: 1) a Drupal 7-powered user front-end; 2) REST-ful JSON web services (providing a Mapserver interface to the metadata and data; and 3) a SPARQL interface to a semantic representation of the repository metadata (this feeding a new faceted search capability currently under development). The existing BCO-DMO ontology, developed in collaboration with Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute's Tetherless World Constellation, makes strategic use of pre-existing ontologies and will be used to drive semantically-enabled faceted search capabilities planned for the site. At this point, the use of semantic

  1. Communications and Control for Enhanced Autonomy in Underwater Vehicles for Deep Oceanographic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakuba, M.; Kinsey, J. C.; Yoerger, D. R.; Whitcomb, L. L.; Camilli, R.; Murphy, C.; Bowen, A.; German, C. R.

    2010-12-01

    NASA’s Astrobiology Science and Technology for Exploring Planets (ASTEP) program is a science-driven program to produce advances in scientific and technological capabilities for planetary exploration. Oceanographic robotic vehicles and planetary exploration robots have proven to be highly effective scientific tools for performing scientific research in remote, extreme, and hostile environments that preclude direct human presence. In both domains, the planets and the world’s oceans, human oversight of remote robotic exploration can dramatically enhance scientific return in comparison to purely pre-planned missions by combining the perception, intelligence, and domain knowledge of the human operators with the super-human physical and sensory capabilities of robots. The degree of human oversight, however, is restricted in sea and space by physical limits on the bandwidth and time delay of communications between human operators and remote robotic platforms. Enhanced robotic autonomy can alleviate this obstacle. We present a communications and control architecture for underwater oceanographic robot vehicles that has permitted us to introduce elements of enhanced autonomy into operations with the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution's Autonomous Underwater Vehicles (AUVs) Nereus and Sentry. Our architecture is designed to facilitate: (1) autonomous distillation of scientific data and transmission of salient synopses from the remote vehicle to its human operators; (2) high-level near real-time human supervision and control of mission programming; (3) semi-supervised learning of environmental models for enhanced survey and search mission effectiveness. Specific capabilities our group has demonstrated include selective data delivery via acoustic link; near real-time reprogramming of vehicle mission programs during otherwise preplanned dives; and validation of autonomous decision-making processes with human-supervision. These elements have been recently demonstrated

  2. Development of an Oceanographic Data Archiving and Service System for the Korean Researchers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Sung Dae; Park, Hyuk Min; Baek, Sang Ho

    2014-05-01

    Oceanographic Data and Information Center of Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST) started to develop an oceanographic data archiving and service system in 2010 to support the Korean ocean researchers by providing quality controlled data continuously. Many physical oceanographic data available in the public domain and Korean domestic data were collected periodically, quality controlled, manipulated and provided to ocean modelers who need ocean data continuously and marine biologists who don't know well physical data but need it. The northern limit and the southern limit of the spatial coverage are 20°N and 55°N, and the western limit and the eastern limit are 110°E and 150°E, respectively. To archive TS (Temperature and Salinity) profile data, ARGO data were gathered from ARGO GDACs (France and USA) and many historical TS profile data observed by CTD, OSD and BT were retrieved from World Ocean Database 2009. The quality control software for TS profile data, which meets QC criteria suggested by the ARGO program and the GTSPP (Global Temperature-Salinity Profile Program), was programmed and applied to the collected data. By the end of 2013, the total number of vertical profile data from the ARGO GDACs was 59,642 and total number of station data from WOD 2009 was 1,604,422. We also collected the global satellite SST data produced by NCDC and global SSH data from AVISO every day. An automatic program was coded to collect satellite data, extract sub data sets of the North West Pacific area and produce distribution maps. The total number of collected satellite data sets was 3,613 by the end of 2013. We use 3 different data services to provide archived data to the Korean experts. A FTP service was prepared to allow data users to download data in the original format. We developed TS database system using Oracle RDBMS to contain all collected temperature salinity data and support SQL data retrieval with various conditions. The KIOST ocean data portal

  3. Using the STOQS Web Application for Access to in situ Oceanographic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, M. P.

    2012-12-01

    Using the STOQS Web Application for Access to in situ Oceanographic Data Mike McCann 7 August 2012 With increasing measurement and sampling capabilities of autonomous oceanographic platforms (e.g. Gliders, Autonomous Underwater Vehicles, Wavegliders), the need to efficiently access and visualize the data they collect is growing. The Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute has designed and built the Spatial Temporal Oceanographic Query System (STOQS) specifically to address this issue. The need for STOQS arises from inefficiencies discovered from using CF-NetCDF point observation conventions for these data. The problem is that access efficiency decreases with decreasing dimension of CF-NetCDF data. For example, the Trajectory Common Data Model feature type has only one coordinate dimension, usually Time - positions of the trajectory (Depth, Latitude, Longitude) are stored as non-indexed record variables within the NetCDF file. If client software needs to access data between two depth values or from a bounded geographic area, then the whole data set must be read and the selection made within the client software. This is very inefficient. What is needed is a way to easily select data of interest from an archive given any number of spatial, temporal, or other constraints. Geospatial relational database technology provides this capability. The full STOQS application consists of a Postgres/PostGIS database, Mapserver, and Python-Django running on a server and Web 2.0 technology (jQuery, OpenLayers, Twitter Bootstrap) running in a modern web browser. The web application provides faceted search capabilities allowing a user to quickly drill into the data of interest. Data selection can be constrained by spatial, temporal, and depth selections as well as by parameter value and platform name. The web application layer also provides a REST (Representational State Transfer) Application Programming Interface allowing tools such as the Matlab stoqstoolbox to retrieve data

  4. Miocene oceanographic changes of the western equatorial Atlantic (Ceara Rise) based on calcareous dinoflagellate cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Sonja; Zonneveld, Karin A. F.; Willems, Helmut

    2010-05-01

    The middle- and upper Miocene represent a time-interval of major changes in palaeoclimate leading to global cooling forming the precursor of the onset of Northern Hemisphere Glaciations (NHG). These climate changes are thought to be strongly controlled by oceanographic modifications although the nature of the relationship between ocean and climate change is far from clear. It has for instance been observed that in this time interval the modern deepwater circulation system; the thermohaline circulation was established. It is thought that tectonic events, such as the narrowing of the Panama gateway, played a key role in the progressing of these Miocene oceanographic changes (e.g. Duque-Caro 1990; Lear et al. 2003). However, the complex interaction between the closing of the Panama Gateway, the development of NADW, and thus the oceanographic progression towards our present day circulation is far from being fully understood. A key region to study these interactions is the Caribbean region, notably the Ceara Rise since it is an area of highest sensitivity to global deep water circulation changes. Here we intent to improve the understanding of these processes by establishing a detailed palaeoceanographic reconstruction of the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean on the basis of calcareous dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) associations. For this, we investigated sediment samples from ODP Site 926A by defining the calcareous dinocyst assemblage. Site 926A is located at the southwestern flank of the Ceara Rise, an area of highest sensitivity to global deep water circulation changes. At about 11 Ma, we see a distinct increase in the absolute abundances of the calcareous dinocysts suggesting enhanced productivity and better carbonate preservation that can be related to the intensification of NADW formation (Woodruff & Savin 1989). At 11.3 Ma, Leonella granifera, a species known to be strongly related to terrestrial input increases. This could be a signal for the initiation of the

  5. Oceanographic processes and the preservation of sedimentary structure in Eckernförde Bay, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittrouer, Charles A.; Lopez, Glenn R.; Donelson Wright, L.; Bentley, Samuel J.; D'Andrea, Anthony F.; Friedrichs, Carl T.; Craig, Nancy I.; Sommerfield, Christopher K.

    1998-12-01

    The sedimentary structure preserved within the seabed of Eckernförde Bay was investigated together with the oceanographic processes influencing that structure. A series of four cruises were undertaken during winter to summer conditions. An instrumented tetrapod was deployed to monitor boundary-layer processes controlling sediment transport. Coring devices recovered sediment to examine the benthic biological community, to measure rates of sedimentological processes, and to document sedimentary structure. During fair-weather conditions, the dominant mechanism for supplying sediment to Eckern-förde Bay is import from the Baltic Sea associated with internal waves. Earlier work has documented the erosion of shallow deposits during storms and the transport of this material to deeper sites in the Bay. Bottom shear stresses exerted in the Central Basin during all conditions are below critical stresses, which makes the Bay an excellent sediment trap. Sediment from both distant and local origins is reworked in the Central Basin of Eckernförde Bay by a pioneering community of benthic organisms, which is maintained by seasonal hypoxia/anoxia. The population is characterized by few species, small body sizes, young ages, and limited depth of mixing (˜1 cm). However, the community effectively pelletizes most of the sediment reaching the seabed. The very restricted thickness for the surface mixed layer (˜1 cm) and the substantial sediment accumulation rates (mean of 0.39 cm yr -1 for the Central Basin) give sediment a short exposure to modern oceanographic processes before being buried. These conditions allow for partial preservation of sediment deposited as storm layers, thus forming laminations of unpelletized sediment. These laminations separate thick beds of pelletized sediment deposited during fair weather or as thin storm layers (i.e., <1 cm thick). In general, the oceanographic processes in Eckernförde Bay allow for preservation of a high-resolution record of

  6. Oceanographic conditions and diversity of sea stars (Echinodermata: Asteroidea) in the Gulf of California, México.

    PubMed

    Cintra-Buenrostro, Carlos E; Reyes-Bonilla, Héctor; Herrero-Pérezrul, María Dinorah

    2005-12-01

    Species richness is one of the best indicators of biodiversity. However, there are few investigations on concordance of diversity patterns and environmental settings for marine regions. The objectives of this study were to correlate species richness of shallow water (< 200 m deep) sea stars with key oceanographic factors in the Gulf of California, México, and to predict species richness of Asteroidea using multiple regressions. In these analyses the Gulf was divided into nine sections of one degree in latitude (from 23-31 degrees N), at each section we recorded: continental shelf area (at 100 and 200 m depth), temperature mean and range at three depth levels (0, 60 and 120 m), thermocline depth, surface nutrient concentrations (nitrates, phosphates and silicates), surface photosynthetic pigment concentration, and integrated productivity. Sea star species richness at each latitudinal section was estimated from literature data, new collections and museum records. Species were assigned to one of the following feeding guilds: predators of small mobile invertebrates (I), detritivores (D), predators of colonial organisms (C), generalist carnivores (G), and planktivores (P). There are 47 shallow water asteroid species in the Gulf of California (16 I, 15 D, eight C, six G, one P and one not assigned). Total species richness and guild species richness showed strong latitudinal attenuation patterns and were higher in the southernmost Gulf, an area characterized by a narrow shelf, high temperature, and low nutrient concentrations. Species diversity for each guild was correlated to a set of oceanographic parameters: temperature, nitrate concentration, and integrated productivity were linked to richness in must cases. We detected that nutrients and surface pigments always presented negative relationships with species richness, indicating that productive environments limit asteroid diversity in the study area. Finally, the postulated regression models to estimate species

  7. Application of the NASA airborne oceanographic lidar to the mapping of chlorophyll and other organic pigments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    Laser fluorosensing techniques used for the airborne measurement of chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring waterborne pigments are reviewed. Previous experiments demonstrating the utility of the airborne oceanographic lidar (AOL) for assessment of various marine parameters are briefly discussed. The configuration of the AOL during the NOAA/NASA Superflux experiments is described. The participation of the AOL in these experiments is presented and the preliminary results are discussed. The importance of multispectral receiving capability in a laser fluorosensing system for providing reproducible measurements over wide areas having spatial variations in water column transmittance properties is addressed. This capability minimizes the number of truthing points required and is usable even in shallow estuarine areas where resuspension of bottom sediment is common. Finally, problems encountered on the Superflux missions and the resulting limitations on the AOL data sets are addressed and feasible solutions to these problems are provided.

  8. Summary of oceanographic and water-quality measurements near the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Maryland, 2011

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganju, Neil K.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Brennand, Patrick; Derby, R. Kyle; Brooks, Thomas W.; Guntenspergen, Glenn R.; Martini, Marinna A.; Borden, Jonathan; Baldwin, Sandra M.

    2012-01-01

    Suspended-sediment transport is a critical element governing the geomorphology of tidal marshes. Marshes rely on both organic material and inorganic sediment deposition to maintain their elevation relative to sea level. In wetlands near the Blackwater National Wildlife Refuge, Maryland, portions of the salt marsh have been subsiding relative to sea level since the early 20th century. Other portions of the marsh have been successful at maintaining elevation. The U.S. Geological Survey performed observational deployments to measure suspended-sediment concentration in the tidal channels in order to understand the magnitude of suspended-sediment concentrations, the sediment-transport mechanisms, and differences between two marsh areas, one that subsided and one that maintained elevation. We deployed optical turbidity sensors and acoustic velocity meters at multiple sites over two periods in 2011. This report presents the time-series of oceanographic data collected during those field studies, including velocity, depth, turbidity, salinity, water temperature, and pH.

  9. SCUBA divers as oceanographic samplers: The potential of dive computers to augment aquatic temperature monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wright, Serena; Hull, Tom; Sivyer, David B; Pearce, David; Pinnegar, John K; Sayer, Martin D J; Mogg, Andrew O M; Azzopardi, Elaine; Gontarek, Steve; Hyder, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring temperature of aquatic waters is of great importance, with modelled, satellite and in-situ data providing invaluable insights into long-term environmental change. However, there is often a lack of depth-resolved temperature measurements. Recreational dive computers routinely record temperature and depth, so could provide an alternate and highly novel source of oceanographic information to fill this data gap. In this study, a citizen science approach was used to obtain over 7,000 scuba diver temperature profiles. The accuracy, offset and lag of temperature records was assessed by comparing dive computers with scientific conductivity-temperature-depth instruments and existing surface temperature data. Our results show that, with processing, dive computers can provide a useful and novel tool with which to augment existing monitoring systems all over the globe, but especially in under-sampled or highly changeable coastal environments. PMID:27445104

  10. Prey localization by surface wave ray-tracing: fish track bugs like oceanographers track storms.

    PubMed

    Käse, R H; Bleckmann, H

    1987-03-15

    Surface-feeding fish accurately determine direction and distance to the center of a concentric wave stimulus, even if only a single, short lasting wave train is presented. It has been suggested that one cue used by these fish to localize the wave center is the distance dependent frequency modulation of the initial part of a wave stimulus. Here we show how the distance information contained in the fractional frequency change of a capillary wave group can be decoded. We suggest that wave source localization in surface-feeding fish in part is based on a principal similar to that used by oceanographers to track storms by the frequency change of forerunners of swell.

  11. SCUBA divers as oceanographic samplers: The potential of dive computers to augment aquatic temperature monitoring.

    PubMed

    Wright, Serena; Hull, Tom; Sivyer, David B; Pearce, David; Pinnegar, John K; Sayer, Martin D J; Mogg, Andrew O M; Azzopardi, Elaine; Gontarek, Steve; Hyder, Kieran

    2016-07-22

    Monitoring temperature of aquatic waters is of great importance, with modelled, satellite and in-situ data providing invaluable insights into long-term environmental change. However, there is often a lack of depth-resolved temperature measurements. Recreational dive computers routinely record temperature and depth, so could provide an alternate and highly novel source of oceanographic information to fill this data gap. In this study, a citizen science approach was used to obtain over 7,000 scuba diver temperature profiles. The accuracy, offset and lag of temperature records was assessed by comparing dive computers with scientific conductivity-temperature-depth instruments and existing surface temperature data. Our results show that, with processing, dive computers can provide a useful and novel tool with which to augment existing monitoring systems all over the globe, but especially in under-sampled or highly changeable coastal environments.

  12. Relationship between container ship underwater noise levels and ship design, operational and oceanographic conditions

    PubMed Central

    McKenna, Megan F.; Wiggins, Sean M.; Hildebrand, John A.

    2013-01-01

    Low-frequency ocean ambient noise is dominated by noise from commercial ships, yet understanding how individual ships contribute deserves further investigation. This study develops and evaluates statistical models of container ship noise in relation to design characteristics, operational conditions, and oceanographic settings. Five-hundred ship passages and nineteen covariates were used to build generalized additive models. Opportunistic acoustic measurements of ships transiting offshore California were collected using seafloor acoustic recorders. A 5–10 dB range in broadband source level was found for ships depending on the transit conditions. For a ship recorded multiple times traveling at different speeds, cumulative noise was lowest at 8 knots, 65% reduction in operational speed. Models with highest predictive power, in order of selection, included ship speed, size, and time of year. Uncertainty in source depth and propagation affected model fit. These results provide insight on the conditions that produce higher levels of underwater noise from container ships.

  13. SCUBA divers as oceanographic samplers: The potential of dive computers to augment aquatic temperature monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Serena; Hull, Tom; Sivyer, David B.; Pearce, David; Pinnegar, John K.; Sayer, Martin D. J.; Mogg, Andrew O. M.; Azzopardi, Elaine; Gontarek, Steve; Hyder, Kieran

    2016-01-01

    Monitoring temperature of aquatic waters is of great importance, with modelled, satellite and in-situ data providing invaluable insights into long-term environmental change. However, there is often a lack of depth-resolved temperature measurements. Recreational dive computers routinely record temperature and depth, so could provide an alternate and highly novel source of oceanographic information to fill this data gap. In this study, a citizen science approach was used to obtain over 7,000 scuba diver temperature profiles. The accuracy, offset and lag of temperature records was assessed by comparing dive computers with scientific conductivity-temperature-depth instruments and existing surface temperature data. Our results show that, with processing, dive computers can provide a useful and novel tool with which to augment existing monitoring systems all over the globe, but especially in under-sampled or highly changeable coastal environments. PMID:27445104

  14. SOAR Data: Data from Shipboard Oceanographic and Atmospheric Radiation (SOAR)1999 through 2001

    DOE Data Explorer

    Click on the DATA menu button and then click on a specific ship to find instructions on accessing data from that particular cruise. Instructions will lead you to an FTP site from which data can be downloaded. SOAR data for 1999 through 2001 is reported. SOAR is a global network of research and volunteer ships that carry global change instrumentation. The primary emphasis for SOAR is solar and IR radiation but some ships cary ceilometers, meteorological instruments, and related equipment. All data are collected in a central data collection computer and the flexible data collection software can be adapted to any other user instrumentation. Currently SOAR is installed pas permanent instrumentation on four ships operating in the western Pacific, eastern tropical Pacific, West Indies, and an oceanographic ship that operates around the world. In addition, six other system are used on cruises of opportunity. [Taken from SOAR homepage at http://www.gim.bnl.gov/soar/index.html

  15. Changes in local oceanographic and atmospheric conditions shortly after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Zhongzhen; Sui, Yi; Sheng, Jinyu; Tang, Danling; Lin, I.-I.

    2015-06-01

    This study examines changes in the local oceanographic and atmospheric conditions over the southern Bay of Bengal and adjacent Indian Ocean waters after the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami based on satellite remote sensing data and atmospheric reanalysis fields. After the tsunami that occurred on 26 December 2004, the accumulated rainfall had a notably increase (600 mm per month) in January of 2005 over deep waters to the southeast of Sri Lanka. This rainfall increase after the tsunami was accompanied with cooling in the sea surface temperature (SST) (up to -2 °C). Four-day averaged SST anomalies had a noticeable increase (1-4 °C) after the tsunami over the deep waters to the southwest of the epicenter. Series of ocean atmospheric and biological variables changed successively after the change of SST. The chain of causality between the tsunami and the changes in the local atmospheric conditions is suggested.

  16. Field investigation of techniques for remote laser sensing of oceanographic parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houghton, W. M.; Exton, R. J.; Gregory, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    A laser fluorosensor, previously studied in the laboratory, was deployed at a pier in lower Chesapeake Bay for field testing. A Q-switched Nd:YAG laser doubled to 532 nm in conjunction with a gated optical multichannel analyzer (OMA) allow spectra with high signal-to-noise ratios to be recorded in full daylight at a distance of 20 m. As a test of the system a study was conducted of the spatial and temporal variations of the phytopigments phycoerythrin and chlorophyll. The phycoerythrin feature was resolved into two components, one attributable to cyanophytes and the other to cryptophytes. A comparison was also made with spectra obtained by the NASA airborne oceanographic lidar (AOL).

  17. Predicting and explaining the movement of mesoscale oceanographic features using CLIPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, Susan; Chen, Liang-Chun; Lybanon, Matthew

    1994-01-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory has developed an oceanographic expert system that describes the evolution of mesoscale features in the Gulf Stream region of the northwest Atlantic Ocean. These features include the Gulf Stream current and the warm and cold core eddies associated with the Gulf Stream. An explanation capability was added to the eddy prediction component of the expert system in order to allow the system to justify the reasoning process it uses to make predictions. The eddy prediction and explanation components of the system have recently been redesigned and translated from OPS83 to C and CLIPS and the new system is called WATE (Where Are Those Eddies). The new design has improved the system's readability, understandability and maintainability and will also allow the system to be incorporated into the Semi-Automated Mesoscale Analysis System which will eventually be embedded into the Navy's Tactical Environmental Support System, Third Generation, TESS(3).

  18. The ties that bind: Soil surveyor William Edgar Tharp and oceanographic cartographer Marie Tharp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landa, Edward R.

    The link between soil science and geology is personified in the American father and daughter: soil surveyor William Edgar Tharp (1870-1959) and oceanographic cartographer Marie Tharp (1920-2006). From 1904 to 1935, W.E. Tharp mapped soils in 14 states for the US Department of Agriculture, and campaigned during the late 1920s-early 1930s to raise awareness of the high rates of soil erosion from croplands. The lifestyle of the federal soil surveyor in the United States during the early 20th century involved frequent household moves, and it played a formative role in Marie Tharp’s childhood. Her path to a career in geology was molded by this family experience, by mentors encountered in the classroom, and by social barriers that faced women scientists of that era.

  19. Protecting persistent dynamic oceanographic features: transboundary conservation efforts are needed for the critically endangered Balearic shearwater.

    PubMed

    Louzao, Maite; Delord, Karine; García, David; Boué, Amélie; Weimerskirch, Henri

    2012-01-01

    The protection of key areas for biodiversity at sea is not as widespread as on land and research investment is necessary to identify biodiversity hotspots in the open ocean. Spatially explicit conservation measures such as the creation of representative networks of marine protected areas (MPAs) is a critical step towards the conservation and management of marine ecosystems, as well as to improve public awareness. Conservation efforts in ecologically rich and threatened ecosystems are specially needed. This is particularly urgent for the Mediterranean marine biodiversity, which includes highly mobile marine vertebrates. Here, we studied the at sea distribution of one of the most endangered Mediterranean seabird, the critically endangered Balearic shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus. Present knowledge, from vessel-based surveys, suggests that this species has a coastal distribution over the productive Iberian shelf in relation to the distribution of their main prey, small pelagic fish. We used miniaturised satellite transmitters to determine the key marine areas of the southern population of Balearic shearwaters breeding on Eivissa and spot the spatial connections between breeding and key marine areas. Our tracking study indicates that Balearic shearwaters do not only forage along the Iberian continental shelf but also in more distant marine areas along the North African coast, in particular W of Algeria, but also NE coast of Morocco. Birds recurrently visit these shelf areas at the end of the breeding season. Species distribution modelling identified chlorophyll a as the most important environmental variable in defining those oceanographic features characterizing their key habitats in the western Mediterranean. We identified persistent oceanographic features across time series available in the study area and discuss our results within the current conservation scenario in relation to the ecology of the species. PMID:22590510

  20. Defining Mediterranean and Black Sea Biogeochemical Subprovinces and Synthetic Ocean Indicators Using Mesoscale Oceanographic Features

    PubMed Central

    Nieblas, Anne-Elise; Drushka, Kyla; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Rossi, Vincent; Demarcq, Hervé; Dubroca, Laurent; Bonhommeau, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Black Seas are semi-enclosed basins characterized by high environmental variability and growing anthropogenic pressure. This has led to an increasing need for a bioregionalization of the oceanic environment at local and regional scales that can be used for managerial applications as a geographical reference. We aim to identify biogeochemical subprovinces within this domain, and develop synthetic indices of the key oceanographic dynamics of each subprovince to quantify baselines from which to assess variability and change. To do this, we compile a data set of 101 months (2002–2010) of a variety of both “classical” (i.e., sea surface temperature, surface chlorophyll-a, and bathymetry) and “mesoscale” (i.e., eddy kinetic energy, finite-size Lyapunov exponents, and surface frontal gradients) ocean features that we use to characterize the surface ocean variability. We employ a k-means clustering algorithm to objectively define biogeochemical subprovinces based on classical features, and, for the first time, on mesoscale features, and on a combination of both classical and mesoscale features. Principal components analysis is then performed on the oceanographic variables to define integrative indices to monitor the environmental changes within each resultant subprovince at monthly resolutions. Using both the classical and mesoscale features, we find five biogeochemical subprovinces for the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Interestingly, the use of mesoscale variables contributes highly in the delineation of the open ocean. The first axis of the principal component analysis is explained primarily by classical ocean features and the second axis is explained by mesoscale features. Biogeochemical subprovinces identified by the present study can be useful within the European management framework as an objective geographical framework of the Mediterranean and Black Seas, and the synthetic ocean indicators developed here can be used to monitor

  1. Development of Nereid-UI: A Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicle for Oceanographic Access Under Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcomb, L. L.; Bowen, A.; Yoerger, D. R.; German, C. R.; Kinsey, J. C.; Mayer, L. A.; Jakuba, M.; Gomez-Ibanez, D.; Taylor, C. L.; Machado, C.; Howland, J. C.; Kaiser, C. L.; Heintz, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and collaborators from the Johns Hopkins University and the University of New Hampshire are developing a remotely-controlled underwater robotic vehicle to provide the Polar Research Community with a capability to be tele-operated under ice under direct real-time human supervision. The Nereid Under-Ice (Nereid-UI) vehicle, Figure 1, will enable exploration and detailed examination of biological and physical environments at glacial ice-tongues and ice-shelf margins through the use of HD video in addition to acoustic, chemical, and biological sensors, Table 1. We anticipate propulsion system optimization that will enable us to attain distances up to 20 km from an ice-edge boundary, as dictated by the current maximum tether length. The goal of the Nereid-UI system is to provide scientific access to under-ice and ice-margin environments that is presently impractical or infeasible. The project design phase is underway, with incremental field testing planned in 2014. We welcome input from the Polar Science Community on how best to serve your scientific objectives. The Nereid-UI vehicle will employ technology developed during the Nereus HROV project including lightweight expendable tethers and tolerance of communications failures. Performance goals include: 1. Extreme horizontal and vertical mobility - access to under-ice crevasses and glacier grounding- lines, close inspection and mapping. 2. Real-time exploration under direct human control. 3. Response to features of interest by altering sensing modality and trajectory as desired 4. Access to the calving front 5. Access to the under-ice boundary layer 6. Future manipulation, sample retrieval, and instrument emplacement capability Supported by NSF OPP under ANT-1126311, James Family Foundation, George Frederick Jewett Foundation East, and the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution Fig. 1: Nereid-UI Concept of Operations. Table 1: Nereid-UI Specifications;

  2. Reconstructing Oceanographic Conditions From the Holocene to the Last Glacial Maximum in the Bay of Bengal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, J.; Dekens, P. S.; Weber, M. E.; Spiess, V.; France-Lanord, C.

    2015-12-01

    The International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Expedition 354 drilled 7 sites in the Bay of Bengal, providing a unique opportunity to improve our understanding of the link between glacial cycles, tropical oceanographic changes, and monsoon strength. Deep-sea sediment cores of the Bengal Fan fluctuate between sand, hemipelagic and terrestrial sediment layers. All but one of the sites (U1454) contain a layer of calcareous clay in the uppermost part of the core that is late Pleistocene in age. During Expedition 354 site U1452C was sampled at high resolution (every 2cm) by a broad group of collaborators with the goal of reconstructing monsoon strength and oceanographic conditions using a variety of proxies. The top 480 cm of site U1452C (8ºN, 87ºE, 3671m water depth) contains primarily nannofossil rich calcareous clay. The relatively high abundance of foraminifera will allow us to generate a high resolution record of sea surface temperature (SST) and sea surface salinity (SSS) using standard foraminifera proxies. We will present oxygen isotopes (δ18O) and Mg/Ca data of mixed layer planktonic foraminifera from the top 70cm of the core, representing the Holocene to the last glacial maximum. δ18O of planktonic foraminifera records global ice volume and local SST and SSS, while Mg/Ca of foraminifera is a proxy for SST. The paired Mg/Ca and δ18O measurements on the same samples of foraminifera, together with published estimates with global ocean δ18O, can be used to reconstruct both SST and local δ18O of seawater, which is a function of the evaporation/precipitation balance. In future work, the local SSS and SST during the LGM will be paired with terrestrial and other oceanic proxies to increase our understanding of how global climate is connected to monsoon strength.

  3. Defining Mediterranean and Black Sea biogeochemical subprovinces and synthetic ocean indicators using mesoscale oceanographic features.

    PubMed

    Nieblas, Anne-Elise; Drushka, Kyla; Reygondeau, Gabriel; Rossi, Vincent; Demarcq, Hervé; Dubroca, Laurent; Bonhommeau, Sylvain

    2014-01-01

    The Mediterranean and Black Seas are semi-enclosed basins characterized by high environmental variability and growing anthropogenic pressure. This has led to an increasing need for a bioregionalization of the oceanic environment at local and regional scales that can be used for managerial applications as a geographical reference. We aim to identify biogeochemical subprovinces within this domain, and develop synthetic indices of the key oceanographic dynamics of each subprovince to quantify baselines from which to assess variability and change. To do this, we compile a data set of 101 months (2002-2010) of a variety of both "classical" (i.e., sea surface temperature, surface chlorophyll-a, and bathymetry) and "mesoscale" (i.e., eddy kinetic energy, finite-size Lyapunov exponents, and surface frontal gradients) ocean features that we use to characterize the surface ocean variability. We employ a k-means clustering algorithm to objectively define biogeochemical subprovinces based on classical features, and, for the first time, on mesoscale features, and on a combination of both classical and mesoscale features. Principal components analysis is then performed on the oceanographic variables to define integrative indices to monitor the environmental changes within each resultant subprovince at monthly resolutions. Using both the classical and mesoscale features, we find five biogeochemical subprovinces for the Mediterranean and Black Seas. Interestingly, the use of mesoscale variables contributes highly in the delineation of the open ocean. The first axis of the principal component analysis is explained primarily by classical ocean features and the second axis is explained by mesoscale features. Biogeochemical subprovinces identified by the present study can be useful within the European management framework as an objective geographical framework of the Mediterranean and Black Seas, and the synthetic ocean indicators developed here can be used to monitor variability and

  4. Alta Scuola Politecnica: An Ongoing Experiment in the Multidisciplinary Education of Top Students towards Innovation in Engineering, Architecture and Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benedetto, S.; Bernelli Zazzera, F.; Bertola, P.; Cantamessa, M.; Ceri, S.; Ranci, C.; Spaziante, A.; Zanino, R.

    2010-01-01

    Politecnico di Milano and Politecnico di Torino, the top technical universities in Italy, united their efforts in 2004 by launching a unique excellence programme called Alta Scuola Politecnica (ASP). The ASP programme is devoted to 150 students, selected each year from among the top 5-10% of those enrolled in the Engineering, Architecture and…

  5. 78 FR 18973 - Alta Wind XI, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ...-referenced proceeding, of Alta Wind XI, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting that such application includes a request for blanket authorization, under 18 CFR part 34, of future issuances of securities and assumptions of liability. Any person desiring...

  6. 78 FR 18972 - Alta Wind X, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-28

    ...-referenced proceeding, of Alta Wind X, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting that such application includes a request for blanket authorization, under 18 CFR part 34, of future issuances of securities and assumptions of liability. Any person desiring...

  7. Modern Technologies aspects for Oceanographic Data Management and Dissemination : The HNODC Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lykiardopoulos, A.; Iona, A.; Lakes, V.; Batis, A.; Balopoulos, E.

    2009-04-01

    The development of new technologies for the aim of enhancing Web Applications with Dynamically data access was the starting point for Geospatial Web Applications to developed at the same time as well. By the means of these technologies the Web Applications embed the capability of presenting Geographical representations of the Geo Information. The induction in nowadays, of the state of the art technologies known as Web Services, enforce the Web Applications to have interoperability among them i.e. to be able to process requests from each other via a network. In particular throughout the Oceanographic Community, modern Geographical Information systems based on Geospatial Web Services are now developed or will be developed shortly in the near future, with capabilities of managing the information itself fully through Web Based Geographical Interfaces. The exploitation of HNODC Data Base, through a Web Based Application enhanced with Web Services by the use of open source tolls may be consider as an ideal case of such implementation. Hellenic National Oceanographic Data Center (HNODC) as a National Public Oceanographic Data provider and at the same time a member of the International Net of Oceanographic Data Centers( IOC/IODE), owns a very big volume of Data and Relevant information about the Marine Ecosystem. For the efficient management and exploitation of these Data, a relational Data Base has been constructed with a storage of over 300.000 station data concerning, physical, chemical and biological Oceanographic information. The development of a modern Web Application for the End User worldwide to be able to explore and navigate throughout HNODC data via the use of an interface with the capability of presenting Geographical representations of the Geo Information, is today a fact. The application is constituted with State of the art software components and tools such as: • Geospatial and no Spatial Web Services mechanisms • Geospatial open source tools for the

  8. Mining and Utilizing Dataset Relevancy from Oceanographic Dataset (MUDROD) Metadata, Usage Metrics, and User Feedback to Improve Data Discovery and Access

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Y.

    2015-12-01

    Oceanographic resource discovery is a critical step for developing ocean science applications. With the increasing number of resources available online, many Spatial Data Infrastructure (SDI) components (e.g. catalogues and portals) have been developed to help manage and discover oceanographic resources. However, efficient and accurate resource discovery is still a big challenge because of the lack of data relevancy information. In this article, we propose a search engine framework for mining and utilizing dataset relevancy from oceanographic dataset metadata, usage metrics, and user feedback. The objective is to improve discovery accuracy of oceanographic data and reduce time for scientist to discover, download and reformat data for their projects. Experiments and a search example show that the propose engine helps both scientists and general users search for more accurate results with enhanced performance and user experience through a user-friendly interface.

  9. Small mammals from the Chelemhá Cloud Forest Reserve, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Matson, Jason O.; Ordóñez-Garza, Nicté; Woodman, Neal; Bulmer, Walter; Eckerlin, Ralph P.; Hanson, J. Delton

    2014-01-01

    We surveyed the small mammals of remnant mixed hardwood-coniferous cloud forest at elevations ranging from 2,100–2,300 m in the Chelemhá Cloud Forest Reserve, Alta Verapaz, Guatemala. Removal-trapping using a combination of live traps, snap traps, and pitfall traps for 6 days in January 2007 resulted in 175 captures of 15 species of marsupials, shrews, and rodents. This diversity of small mammals is the highest that we have recorded from a single locality of the 10 visited during eight field seasons in the highlands of Guatemala. Based on captures, the most abundant species in the community of small mammals is Peromyscus grandis (n = 50), followed by Handleyomys rhabdops (n = 27), Heteromys desmarestianus(n = 18), Reithrodontomys mexicanus (n = 17), Handleyomys saturatior (n = 16), Sorex veraepacis (n = 15), and Scotinomys teguina (n = 13). The remaining eight species were represented by one to five individuals.

  10. Purification and neuroprotective effects of polysaccharides from Opuntia Milpa Alta in cultured cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yang; Zhao, Bo; Huang, Xiaolan; Zhan, Jinjin; Zhao, Yan; Zhou, Mei; Guo, Lianjun

    2011-11-01

    Opuntia is a traditional plant from China with medicinal applications. In this experiment, polysaccharides from Opuntia Milpa Alta (MAPs) were analyzed using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer (GC-MS) method and result showed that MAPs contained mannose (6.37%), rhamnose (14.94%), xylose (1.99%), arabinose (24.07%), galactose (38.25%), ribose (2.63%) and glucose (11.48%). The neuroprotective effects of MAPs were evaluated at the mechanistic level in vitro models of cerebral ischemic injury. In vitro oxygen/glucose deprivation (OGD) model, MAPs (0.5 μg/ml, 5 μg/ml, 50 μg/ml) effectively increased cell viability by methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) assay, inhibited cell cytotoxicity by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) assay, reduced neuronal cell death, suppressed the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS), decreased of intracellular free Ca(2+) concentrations ([Ca(2+)](i)), and reduced extracellular glutamate level. Therefore, MAPs might prevent intracellular calcium overload and decreased glutamate excitotoxicity, both of which can cause neuronal injury and death in vitro models of cerebral ischemic injury.

  11. R2R Eventlogger: Community-wide Recording of Oceanographic Cruise Science Events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maffei, A. R.; Chandler, C. L.; Stolp, L.; Lerner, S.; Avery, J.; Thiel, T.

    2012-12-01

    Methods used by researchers to track science events during a science research cruise - and to note when and where these occur - varies widely. Handwritten notebooks, printed forms, watch-keeper logbooks, data-logging software, and customized software have all been employed. The quality of scientific results is affected by the consistency and care with which such events are recorded and integration of multi-cruise results is hampered because recording methods vary widely from cruise to cruise. The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program has developed an Eventlogger system that will eventually be deployed on most vessels in the academic research fleet. It is based on the open software package called ELOG (http://midas.psi.ch/elog/) originally authored by Stefan Ritt and enhanced by our team. Lessons have been learned in its development and use on several research cruises. We have worked hard to find approaches that encourage cruise participants to use tools like the eventlogger. We examine these lessons and several eventlogger datasets from past cruises. We further describe how the R2R Science Eventlogger works in concert with the other R2R program elements to help coordinate research vessels into a coordinated mobile observing fleet. Making use of data collected on different research cruises is enabled by adopting common ways of describing science events, the science instruments employed, the data collected, etc. The use of controlled vocabularies and the practice of mapping these local vocabularies to accepted oceanographic community vocabularies helps to bind shipboard research events from different cruises into a more cohesive set of fleet-wide events that can be queried and examined in a cross-cruise manner. Examples of the use of the eventlogger during multi-cruise oceanographic research programs along with examples of resultant eventlogger data will be presented. Additionally we will highlight the importance of vocabulary use strategies to the success of the

  12. A fishery observing system for the collection of fishery and oceanographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, P.; Belardinelli, A.; Santojanni, A.; Cingolani, N.; Russo, A.; Arneri, E.

    2006-07-01

    Fishery Observing System (FOS) was developed as a first and basic step towards fish stock abundance nowcasting/forecasting within the framework of the EU research program Mediterranean Forecasting System: Toward an Environmental Prediction (MFSTEP). The study of the relationship between abundance and environmental parameters also represents a crucial point towards forecasting. Eight fishing vessels were progressively equipped with FOS instrumentation to collect fishery and oceanographic data. The vessels belonged to different harbours of the Central and Northern Adriatic Sea. For this pilot application, anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, L.) was chosen as the target species. Geo-referenced catch data, associated with in-situ temperature and depth, were the FOS products but other parameters were associated with catch data as well. MFSTEP products numerical circulation models provide many of these data. In particular, salinity was extracted from re-analysis data of numerical circulation models. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll were also used as independent variables. Catch and effort data were used to estimate an abundance index (CPUE - Catch per Unit of Effort). Considering that catch records were gathered by different fishing vessels with different technical characteristics and operating on different fish densities, a standardized value of CPUE was calculated. A spatial and temporal average CPUE map was obtained together with a monthly mean time series in order to characterise the variability of anchovy abundance during the period of observation (October 2003-August 2005). In order to study the relationship between abundance and oceanographic parameters, Generalized Additive Models (GAM) were used. Preliminary results revealed a complex scenario: the southern sector of the domain is characterised by a stronger relationship than the central and northern sector where the interactions between the environment and the anchovy distribution

  13. An observing system for the collection of fishery and oceanographic data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falco, P.; Belardinelli, A.; Santojanni, A.; Cingolani, N.; Russo, A.; Arneri, E.

    2007-05-01

    Fishery Observing System (FOS) was developed as a first and basic step towards fish stock abundance nowcasting/forecasting within the framework of the EU research program Mediterranean Forecasting System: Toward an Environmental Prediction (MFSTEP). The study of the relationship between abundance and environmental parameters also represents a crucial point towards forecasting. Eight fishing vessels were progressively equipped with FOS instrumentation to collect fishery and oceanographic data. The vessels belonged to different harbours of the Central and Northern Adriatic Sea. For this pilot application, anchovy (Engraulis encrasicolus, L.) was chosen as the target species. Geo-referenced catch data, associated with in-situ temperature and depth, were the FOS products but other parameters were associated with catch data as well. MFSTEP numerical circulation models provide many of these data. In particular, salinity was extracted from re-analysis data of numerical circulation models. Satellite-derived sea surface temperature (SST) and chlorophyll were also used as independent variables. Catch and effort data were used to estimate an abundance index (CPUE - Catch per Unit of Effort). Considering that catch records were gathered by different fishing vessels with different technical characteristics and operating on different fish densities, a standardized value of CPUE was calculated. A spatial and temporal average CPUE map was obtained together with a monthly mean time series in order to characterise the variability of anchovy abundance during the period of observation (October 2003-August 2005). In order to study the relationship between abundance and oceanographic parameters, Generalized Additive Models (GAM) were used. Preliminary results revealed a complex scenario: the southern sector of the domain is characterised by a stronger relationship than the central and northern sector where the interactions between the environment and the anchovy distribution are hidden

  14. Oceanographic influences on seabirds and cetaceans of the eastern tropical Pacific: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ballance, Lisa T.; Pitman, Robert L.; Fiedler, Paul C.

    2006-05-01

    This paper is part of a comprehensive review of the oceanography of the eastern tropical Pacific, the oceanic region centered on the eastern Pacific warm pool, but also including the equatorial cold tongue and equatorial current system, and summarizes what is known about oceanographic influences on seabirds and cetaceans there. The eastern tropical Pacific supports on the order of 50 species of seabirds and 30 species of cetaceans as regular residents; these include four endemic species, the world’s largest populations for several others, three endemic sub-species, and a multi-species community that is relatively unique to this ecosystem. Three of the meso-scale physical features of the region are particularly significant to seabirds and cetaceans: the Costa Rica Dome for blue whales and short-beaked common dolphins, the Equatorial Front for planktivorous seabirds, and the countercurrent thermocline ridge for flocking seabirds that associate with mixed-species schools of spotted and spinner dolphins and yellowfin tuna. A few qualitative studies of meso- to macro-scale distribution patterns have indicated that some seabirds and cetaceans have species-specific preferences for surface currents. More common are associations with distinct water masses; these relationships have been quantified for a number of species using several different analytical methods. The mechanisms underlying tropical species-habitat relationships are not well understood, in contrast to a number of higher-latitude systems. This may be due to the fact that physical variables have been used as proxies for prey abundance and distribution in species-habitat research in the eastern tropical Pacific. Though seasonal and interannual patterns tend to be complex, species-habitat relationships appear to remain relatively stable over time, and distribution patterns co-vary with patterns of preferred habitat for a number of species. The interactions between seasonal and interannual variation in

  15. The Ligurian Cluster for Marine Technologies (DLTM): matching local research and industrial needs on oceanographic data.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroobant, M.; Locritani, M.; Marini, D.; Sabbadini, L.; Carmisciano, C.; Manzella, G.; Magaldi, M.; Aliani, S.

    2012-04-01

    DLTM is the Ligurian Region (north Italy) cluster of Centre of Excellence (CoE) in waterborne technologies, that involves about 120 enterprises - of which, more than 100 SMEs -, the University of Genoa, all the main National Research Centres dealing with maritime and marine technologies established in Liguria (CNR, INGV, ENEA-UTMAR), the NATO Undersea Research Centre (NURC) and the Experimental Centre of the Italian Navy (CSSN), the Bank, the Port Authority and the Chamber of Commerce of the city of La Spezia. Following its mission, DLTM has recently established three Collaborative Research Laboratories focused on: 1. Computational Fluid dynamics (CFD_Lab) 2. High Performance Computing (HPC_Lab) 3. Monitoring and Analysis of Marine Ecosystems (MARE_Lab). The main role of them is to improve the relationships among the research centres and the enterprises, encouraging a systematic networking approach and sharing of knowledge, data, services, tools and human resources. Two of the key objectives of Lab_MARE are the establishment of: - an integrated system of observation and sea forecasting; - a Regional Marine Instrument Centre (RMIC) for oceanographic and metereological instruments (assembled using 'shared' tools and facilities). Besides, an important and innovative research project has been recently submitted to the Italian Ministry for Education, University and Research (MIUR). This project, in agreement with the European Directives (COM2009 (544)), is aimed to develop a Management Information System (MIS) for oceanographic and meteorological data in the Mediterranean Sea. The availability of adequate HPC inside DLTM is, of course, an important asset for achieving useful results; for example, the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) model is currently running on a high-resolution mesh on the cluster to simulate and reproduce the circulation within the Ligurian Sea. ROMS outputs will have broad and multidisciplinary impacts because ocean circulation affects the

  16. Towards The Operational Oceanographic Model System In Estonian Coastal Sea, Baltic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kõuts, T.; Elken, J.; Raudsepp, U.

    An integrated system of nested 2D and 3D hydrodynamic models together with real time forcing data asquisition is designed and set up in pre-operational mode in the Gulf of Finland and Gulf of Riga, the Baltic Sea. Along the Estonian coast, implicit time-stepping 3D models are used in the deep bays and 2D models in the shallow bays with ca 200 m horizontal grid step. Specific model setups have been verified by in situ current measurements. Optimum configuration of initial parameters has been found for certain critical locations, usually ports, oil terminals, etc. Operational system in- tegrates also section of historical database of most important hydrologic parameters in the region, allowing use of certain statistical analysis and proper setup of initial conditions for oceanographic models. There is large variety of applications for such model system, ranging from environmental impact assessment at local coastal sea pol- lution problems to forecast of offshore blue algal blooms. Most probable risk factor in the coastal sea engineering is oil pollution, therefore current operational model sys- tem has direct custom oriented output the oil spill forecast for critical locations. Oil spill module of the operational system consist the automatic weather and hydromet- ric station (distributed in real time to internet) and prognostic model of sea surface currents. System is run using last 48 hour wind data and wind forecast and estimates probable oil deposition areas on the shoreline under certain weather conditions. Cal- culated evolution of oil pollution has been compared with some real accidents in the past and there was found good agreement between model and measurements. Graphi- cal user interface of oil spill model is currently installed at location of port authorities (eg. Muuga port), so in case of accidents it could be used in real time supporting the rescue operations. In 2000 current pre-operational oceanographic model system has been sucessfully used to

  17. Oceanographic Processes in Chilean Fjords of Patagonia: From small to large-scale studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iriarte, José L.; Pantoja, Silvio; Daneri, Giovanni

    2014-12-01

    Subantarctic ecosystems, such as the inner shelf of southern Chile (41-55°S), are characterized by a complex system of fjords, channels, gulf, estuaries, bays, and are affected by physical regimes that may strongly modulate biological productivity. Rhythms and rates of primary production in these highly fluctuating fjord environments depend to a large extent on the timing and magnitude of nutrient supply and light availability for primary producers. In such complex fjord systems, the interaction between oceanic waters and freshwater from multiple sources (e.g., rivers, surface and groundwater runoff, snow/glacier melting, and precipitation) produces strong vertical and horizontal gradients in salinity, density, organic and inorganic nutrient ratios and light availability (Pickard, 1971; Dávila et al., 2002; Silva and Palma 2006; Jacob et al., 2014). The vertical structure of the water column (stratified/mixed), modulated by the seasonal and inter-annual changes of the pycnocline may affect biomass and composition of pelagic and benthic assemblages, and ultimately spatial and temporal patterns of carbon fluxes (the 'Biological Pump'), and biogeochemical balances in this large region. In addition, the region is particularly vulnerable to climate change and anthropogenic influences (Iriarte et al., 2010). Remote and large-scale climatic-oceanographic phenomena (e.g., ENSO and Southern Annular Mode) and global climate trends may alter freshwater discharge of large rivers such as the Puelo and Palena, as has also been suggested for the Baker River located between Patagonian Ice fields and other northern fjords shown by paleo-oceanographic (Sepúlveda et al., 2009; Rebolledo et al., 2011) and dendrochronological studies (Lara et al., 2008). Although changes in climate are expected to alter the regional atmospheric forcing such as the West Wind Drift (Quintana and Aceituno, 2012; Garreaud et al., 2013) and the local ocean circulation in this region, including the

  18. Dive and Discover: Bringing Oceanographic Research into the Classroom and to the General Public

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fornari, D. J.; Fino, D.; Humphris, S. E.; Fruth, L. L.; Dean, S.

    2001-12-01

    We have developed the "Dive and Discover" web site for use in classrooms and for the general public to provide near real-time, daily access to oceanographic research expeditions, particularly those using deep submergence vehicles operated by Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution. The site was one of five science sites nominated for a 2001 Webby Award, was selected by Scientific American as one of the top five sites in the category of earth and environmental science, and was one of Eisenhower National Clearinghouse's "digital dozen" for science resources. The web site consists of two major components. A series of educational modules provide both general educational information about the oceans and the people that study them, as well as cruise-specific information about the natural systems being studied, the participating scientists, and the data and sample-collecting methodologies and technologies being used. The second component consists of modules that allow access to near real-time updates of the progress of the cruise, images of seafloor features and animals, samples of data being collected and used on board, and general information about life on board. In addition, a Mail Buoy provides e-mail access for students to ask questions of the scientists on board the ship during the course of the expedition. COSI Toledo have a linked Educator's Companion that gives access to COSI project management tips, background information, activities, correlations to national science education standards, assessment tools, and a vast array of resources to assist educators in using the web site. We have worked with teachers and students from all over the United States to test, evaluate, and refine the web site during five cruises in the Pacific and Indian Oceans over the last two years. These cruises focused on various problems associated with mid-ocean ridge volcanism, and the chemical, physical and biological processes associated with seafloor hydrothermal activity. Our intention

  19. Coastal Change Processes Project data report for oceanographic observations near Fire Island, New York, February through May 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Brandy N.; Warner, John C.; List, Jeffrey H.; Martini, Marinna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Traykovski, Peter A.; Voulgaris, George

    2015-01-01

    An oceanographic field study during February through May 2014 investigated processes that control the sediment-transport dynamics along the western part of Fire Island, New York. This report describes the project background, field program, instrumentation configuration, and locations of the sensors deployed. The data collected, including meteorological observations, are presented as time-series plots for data visualization. Additionally, individual links to the database containing digital data files are available as part of this report.

  20. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct studies of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites. Details of the methods and complete listing or graphical representation of the results are contained in this second volume of the two-volume report. Appendix A describes the methods and results of a pre-disposal bathymetric survey of Site B1B, and provides an analysis of the accuracy and precision of the survey. Appendix B describes the moorings and instruments used to obtain physical oceanographic data at the candidate sites, and also discussed other sources of data used in the analyses. Techniques used to analyze the formation, processed data, and complete results of various analyses are provided in tabular and graphical form. Appendix C provides details of the sediment transport calculations. Appendix D describes the format of the archived current meter data, which is available through the National Oceanographic Data Center. 43 refs., 54 figs., 58 tabs.

  1. Mesoscale fronts as foraging habitats: composite front mapping reveals oceanographic drivers of habitat use for a pelagic seabird.

    PubMed

    Scales, Kylie L; Miller, Peter I; Embling, Clare B; Ingram, Simon N; Pirotta, Enrico; Votier, Stephen C

    2014-11-01

    The oceanographic drivers of marine vertebrate habitat use are poorly understood yet fundamental to our knowledge of marine ecosystem functioning. Here, we use composite front mapping and high-resolution GPS tracking to determine the significance of mesoscale oceanographic fronts as physical drivers of foraging habitat selection in northern gannets Morus bassanus. We tracked 66 breeding gannets from a Celtic Sea colony over 2 years and used residence time to identify area-restricted search (ARS) behaviour. Composite front maps identified thermal and chlorophyll-a mesoscale fronts at two different temporal scales-(i) contemporaneous fronts and (ii) seasonally persistent frontal zones. Using generalized additive models (GAMs), with generalized estimating equations (GEE-GAMs) to account for serial autocorrelation in tracking data, we found that gannets do not adjust their behaviour in response to contemporaneous fronts. However, ARS was more likely to occur within spatially predictable, seasonally persistent frontal zones (GAMs). Our results provide proof of concept that composite front mapping is a useful tool for studying the influence of oceanographic features on animal movements. Moreover, we highlight that frontal persistence is a crucial element of the formation of pelagic foraging hotspots for mobile marine vertebrates.

  2. Mesoscale fronts as foraging habitats: composite front mapping reveals oceanographic drivers of habitat use for a pelagic seabird

    PubMed Central

    Scales, Kylie L.; Miller, Peter I.; Embling, Clare B.; Ingram, Simon N.; Pirotta, Enrico; Votier, Stephen C.

    2014-01-01

    The oceanographic drivers of marine vertebrate habitat use are poorly understood yet fundamental to our knowledge of marine ecosystem functioning. Here, we use composite front mapping and high-resolution GPS tracking to determine the significance of mesoscale oceanographic fronts as physical drivers of foraging habitat selection in northern gannets Morus bassanus. We tracked 66 breeding gannets from a Celtic Sea colony over 2 years and used residence time to identify area-restricted search (ARS) behaviour. Composite front maps identified thermal and chlorophyll-a mesoscale fronts at two different temporal scales—(i) contemporaneous fronts and (ii) seasonally persistent frontal zones. Using generalized additive models (GAMs), with generalized estimating equations (GEE-GAMs) to account for serial autocorrelation in tracking data, we found that gannets do not adjust their behaviour in response to contemporaneous fronts. However, ARS was more likely to occur within spatially predictable, seasonally persistent frontal zones (GAMs). Our results provide proof of concept that composite front mapping is a useful tool for studying the influence of oceanographic features on animal movements. Moreover, we highlight that frontal persistence is a crucial element of the formation of pelagic foraging hotspots for mobile marine vertebrates. PMID:25165595

  3. Community response of zooplankton to oceanographic changes (2002-2012) in the central/southern upwelling system of Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medellín-Mora, Johanna; Escribano, Ruben; Schneider, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    A 10-year time series (2002-2012) at Station 18 off central/southern Chile allowed us to study variations in zooplankton along with interannual variability and trends in oceanographic conditions. We used an automated analysis program (ZooImage) to assess changes in the mesozooplankton size structure and the composition of the taxa throughout the entire community. Oceanographic conditions changed over the decade: the water column became less stratified, more saline, and colder; the mixed layer deepened; and the oxygen minimum zone became shallower during the second half of the time series (2008-2012) in comparison with the first period (2002-2007). Both the size structure and composition of the zooplankton were significantly associated with oceanographic changes. Taxonomic and size diversity of the zooplankton community increased to the more recent period. For the second period, small sized copepods (<1 mm) decreased in abundance, being replaced by larger sized (>1.5 mm) and medium size copepods (1-1.5 mm), whereas euphausiids, decapod larvae, appendicularian and ostracods increased their abundance during the second period. These findings indicated that the zooplankton community structure in this eastern boundary ecosystem was strongly influenced by variability of the upwelling process. Thus, climate-induced forcing of upwelling trends can alter the zooplankton community in this highly productive region with potential consequences for the ecosystem food web.

  4. Towards Improved Satellite-In Situ Oceanographic Data Interoperability and Associated Value Added Services at the Podaac

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsontos, V. M.; Huang, T.; Holt, B.

    2015-12-01

    The earth science enterprise increasingly relies on the integration and synthesis of multivariate datasets from diverse observational platforms. NASA's ocean salinity missions, that include Aquarius/SAC-D and the SPURS (Salinity Processes in the Upper Ocean Regional Study) field campaign, illustrate the value of integrated observations in support of studies on ocean circulation, the water cycle, and climate. However, the inherent heterogeneity of resulting data and the disparate, distributed systems that serve them complicates their effective utilization for both earth science research and applications. Key technical interoperability challenges include adherence to metadata and data format standards that are particularly acute for in-situ data and the lack of a unified metadata model facilitating archival and integration of both satellite and oceanographic field datasets. Here we report on efforts at the PO.DAAC, NASA's physical oceanographic data center, to extend our data management and distribution support capabilities for field campaign datasets such as those from SPURS. We also discuss value-added services, based on the integration of satellite and in-situ datasets, which are under development with a particular focus on DOMS. The distributed oceanographic matchup service (DOMS) implements a portable technical infrastructure and associated web services that will be broadly accessible via the PO.DAAC for the dynamic collocation of satellite and in-situ data, hosted by distributed data providers, in support of mission cal/val, science and operational applications.

  5. A cold oceanographic regime with high exploitation rates in the Northeast Pacific forecasts a collapse of the sardine stock.

    PubMed

    Zwolinski, Juan P; Demer, David A

    2012-03-13

    The oceanographic conditions in the north Pacific have shifted to a colder period, Pacific sardine (Sardinops sagax) biomass has declined precipitously in the California Current, the international sardine fishery is collapsing, and mackerel (Trachurus symmetricus and Scomber japonicus) are thriving. This situation occurred in the mid-1900s, but indices of current oceanographic conditions and the results of our acoustic-trawl surveys indicate it likely is recurring now, perhaps with similar socioeconomic and ecological consequences. Also alarming is the repetition of the fishery's response to a declining sardine stock-progressively higher exploitation rates targeting the oldest, largest, and most fecund fish. Furthermore, our data indicate the recent reproductive condition of sardine is poor, and their productivity is below modeled estimates used to derive the current fishery-exploitation rates. Consequently, the sardine population has been reduced to two cohorts that are unlikely to produce an appreciable new cohort. Thus, a near-term recovery of this important stock is unlikely, depending on the return of warmer oceanographic conditions, reduced pressure from mackerel species, and perhaps the adoption of a more precautionary strategy for managing the residual sardine population. PMID:22371604

  6. Lost at sea: genetic, oceanographic and meteorological evidence for storm-forced dispersal

    PubMed Central

    Monzón-Argüello, C.; Dell'Amico, F.; Morinière, P.; Marco, A.; López-Jurado, L. F.; Hays, Graeme C.; Scott, Rebecca; Marsh, Robert; Lee, Patricia L. M.

    2012-01-01

    For many species, there is broad-scale dispersal of juvenile stages and/or long-distance migration of individuals and hence the processes that drive these various wide-ranging movements have important life-history consequences. Sea turtles are one of these paradigmatic long-distance travellers, with hatchlings thought to be dispersed by ocean currents and adults often shuttling between distant breeding and foraging grounds. Here, we use multi-disciplinary oceanographic, atmospheric and genetic mixed stock analyses to show that juvenile turtles are encountered ‘downstream’ at sites predicted by currents. However, in some cases, unusual occurrences of juveniles are more readily explained by storm events and we show that juvenile turtles may be displaced thousands of kilometres from their expected dispersal based on prevailing ocean currents. As such, storms may be a route by which unexpected areas are encountered by juveniles which may in turn shape adult migrations. Increased stormy weather predicted under climate change scenarios suggests an increasing role of storms in dispersal of sea turtles and other marine groups with life-stages near the ocean surface. PMID:22319111

  7. VIIRS-derived SST at the Naval Oceanographic Office: from evaluation to operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cayula, Jean-François P.; May, Douglas A.; McKenzie, Bruce D.; Willis, Keith D.

    2013-06-01

    The Naval Oceanographic Office (NAVOCEANO) produces Sea Surface Temperature (SST) retrievals from satellite data. NAVOCEANO also obtains satellite-derived SST data sets from other groups. To provide consistency for assimilation into analyses and models, all the SST data sets are evaluated for their accuracy with the same methodology. In this paper, the focus is SST derived from the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) sensor on board the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite. Of particular interest is the evaluation of NAVOCEANO produced SST with its NAVOCEANO Cloud mask, the VIIRS cloud mask, and VIIRS Environmental Data Record SST. The evaluation results show that these products are in some ways comparable, with similar strengths and weaknesses, although they target different customers. For comparison, the reliability results for the Meteorological Operational (METOP-A) satellite-derived SST, which is a NAVOCEANO operational product, are presented. As a by-product of the NAVOCEANO VIIRS SST evaluation, the non-linear SST (NLSST) equations used to derive the SST values were found to be less than optimal, depending on the unit of the field temperature term. NAVOCEANO VIIRS SST employs an expanded NLSST equation, which in effect refines the approximation of the gamma term by adding an offset. In view of the evaluation results, NAVOCEANO VIIRS SST became operational at the end of January 2013.

  8. Oceanographic dynamics and the end of the last interglacial in the subpolar North Atlantic

    PubMed Central

    Mokeddem, Zohra; McManus, Jerry F.; Oppo, Delia W.

    2014-01-01

    The last interglacial interval was terminated by the inception of a long, progressive glaciation that is attributed to astronomically influenced changes in the seasonal distribution of sunlight over the earth. However, the feedbacks, internal dynamics, and global teleconnections associated with declining northern summer insolation remain incompletely understood. Here we show that a crucial early step in glacial inception involves the weakening of the subpolar gyre (SPG) circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean. Detailed new records of microfossil foraminifera abundance and stable isotope ratios in deep sea sediments from Ocean Drilling Program site 984 south of Iceland reveal repeated, progressive cold water-mass expansions into subpolar latitudes during the last peak interglacial interval, marine isotope substage 5e. These movements are expressed as a sequence of progressively extensive southward advances and subsequent retreats of a hydrographic boundary that may have been analogous to the modern Arctic front, and associated with rapid changes in the strength of the SPG. This persistent millennial-scale oceanographic oscillation accompanied a long-term cooling trend at a time of slowly declining northern summer insolation, providing an early link in the propagation of those insolation changes globally, and resulting in a rapid transition from extensive regional warmth to the dramatic instability of the subsequent ∼100 ka. PMID:25049405

  9. Human, oceanographic and habitat drivers of central and western Pacific coral reef fish assemblages.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ivor D; Baum, Julia K; Heenan, Adel; Hanson, Katharine M; Nadon, Marc O; Brainard, Russell E

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs around US- and US-affiliated Pacific islands and atolls span wide oceanographic gradients and levels of human impact. Here we examine the relative influence of these factors on coral reef fish biomass, using data from a consistent large-scale ecosystem monitoring program conducted by scientific divers over the course of >2,000 hours of underwater observation at 1,934 sites, across ~40 islands and atolls. Consistent with previous smaller-scale studies, our results show sharp declines in reef fish biomass at relatively low human population density, followed by more gradual declines as human population density increased further. Adjusting for other factors, the highest levels of oceanic productivity among our study locations were associated with more than double the biomass of reef fishes (including ~4 times the biomass of planktivores and piscivores) compared to islands with lowest oceanic productivity. Our results emphasize that coral reef areas do not all have equal ability to sustain large reef fish stocks, and that what is natural varies significantly amongst locations. Comparisons of biomass estimates derived from visual surveys with predicted biomass in the absence of humans indicated that total reef fish biomass was depleted by 61% to 69% at populated islands in the Mariana Archipelago; by 20% to 78% in the Main Hawaiian islands; and by 21% to 56% in American Samoa. PMID:25831196

  10. Measuring the value of research data: a citation analysis of oceanographic data sets.

    PubMed

    Belter, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of scientific research is becoming increasingly reliant on publication-based bibliometric indicators, which may result in the devaluation of other scientific activities--such as data curation--that do not necessarily result in the production of scientific publications. This issue may undermine the movement to openly share and cite data sets in scientific publications because researchers are unlikely to devote the effort necessary to curate their research data if they are unlikely to receive credit for doing so. This analysis attempts to demonstrate the bibliometric impact of properly curated and openly accessible data sets by attempting to generate citation counts for three data sets archived at the National Oceanographic Data Center. My findings suggest that all three data sets are highly cited, with estimated citation counts in most cases higher than 99% of all the journal articles published in Oceanography during the same years. I also find that methods of citing and referring to these data sets in scientific publications are highly inconsistent, despite the fact that a formal citation format is suggested for each data set. These findings have important implications for developing a data citation format, encouraging researchers to properly curate their research data, and evaluating the bibliometric impact of individuals and institutions.

  11. Human, oceanographic and habitat drivers of central and western Pacific coral reef fish assemblages.

    PubMed

    Williams, Ivor D; Baum, Julia K; Heenan, Adel; Hanson, Katharine M; Nadon, Marc O; Brainard, Russell E

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs around US- and US-affiliated Pacific islands and atolls span wide oceanographic gradients and levels of human impact. Here we examine the relative influence of these factors on coral reef fish biomass, using data from a consistent large-scale ecosystem monitoring program conducted by scientific divers over the course of >2,000 hours of underwater observation at 1,934 sites, across ~40 islands and atolls. Consistent with previous smaller-scale studies, our results show sharp declines in reef fish biomass at relatively low human population density, followed by more gradual declines as human population density increased further. Adjusting for other factors, the highest levels of oceanic productivity among our study locations were associated with more than double the biomass of reef fishes (including ~4 times the biomass of planktivores and piscivores) compared to islands with lowest oceanic productivity. Our results emphasize that coral reef areas do not all have equal ability to sustain large reef fish stocks, and that what is natural varies significantly amongst locations. Comparisons of biomass estimates derived from visual surveys with predicted biomass in the absence of humans indicated that total reef fish biomass was depleted by 61% to 69% at populated islands in the Mariana Archipelago; by 20% to 78% in the Main Hawaiian islands; and by 21% to 56% in American Samoa.

  12. Flow injection analysis as a tool for enhancing oceanographic nutrient measurements--a review.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, Paul J; Clough, Robert; Lohan, Maeve C; Monbet, Philippe; Ellis, Peter S; Quétel, Christophe R; Floor, Geerke H; McKelvie, Ian D

    2013-11-25

    Macronutrient elements (C, N and P) and micronutrient elements (Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Mn) are widely measured in their various physico-chemical forms in open ocean, shelf sea, coastal and estuarine waters. These measurements help to elucidate the biogeochemical cycling of these elements in marine waters and highlight the ecological and socio-economic importance of the oceans. Due to the dynamic nature of marine waters in terms of chemical, biological and physical processes, it is advantageous to make these measurements in situ and in this regard flow injection analysis (FIA) provides a suitable shipboard platform. This review, therefore, discusses the role of FIA in the determination of macro- and micro-nutrient elements, with an emphasis on manifold design and detection strategies for the reliable shipboard determination of specific nutrient species. The application of various FIA manifolds to oceanographic nutrient determinations is discussed, with an emphasis on sensitivity, selectivity, high throughput analysis and suitability for underway analysis and depth profiles. Strategies for enhancing sensitivity and minimizing matrix effects, e.g. refractive index (schlieren) effects and the important role of uncertainty budgets in underpinning method validation and data quality are discussed in some detail.

  13. Accommodating Dynamic Oceanographic Processes and Pelagic Biodiversity in Marine Conservation Planning

    PubMed Central

    Grantham, Hedley S.; Game, Edward T.; Lombard, Amanda T.; Hobday, Alistair J.; Richardson, Anthony J.; Beckley, Lynnath E.; Pressey, Robert L.; Huggett, Jenny A.; Coetzee, Janet C.; van der Lingen, Carl D.; Petersen, Samantha L.; Merkle, Dagmar; Possingham, Hugh P.

    2011-01-01

    Pelagic ecosystems support a significant and vital component of the ocean's productivity and biodiversity. They are also heavily exploited and, as a result, are the focus of numerous spatial planning initiatives. Over the past decade, there has been increasing enthusiasm for protected areas as a tool for pelagic conservation, however, few have been implemented. Here we demonstrate an approach to plan protected areas that address the physical and biological dynamics typical of the pelagic realm. Specifically, we provide an example of an approach to planning protected areas that integrates pelagic and benthic conservation in the southern Benguela and Agulhas Bank ecosystems off South Africa. Our aim was to represent species of importance to fisheries and species of conservation concern within protected areas. In addition to representation, we ensured that protected areas were designed to consider pelagic dynamics, characterized from time-series data on key oceanographic processes, together with data on the abundance of small pelagic fishes. We found that, to have the highest likelihood of reaching conservation targets, protected area selection should be based on time-specific data rather than data averaged across time. More generally, we argue that innovative methods are needed to conserve ephemeral and dynamic pelagic biodiversity. PMID:21311757

  14. Offshore wind profile measurements using a Doppler LIDAR at the Hazaki Oceanographical Research Station

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Susumu; Ohsawa, Teruo; Ohgishi, Tatsuya; Kikushima, Yoshihiro; Kogaki, Testuya; Kawaguchi, Koji; Nakamura, Satoshi

    2014-08-01

    Vertical wind speed profiles near the coast were observed using a Doppler Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) system at the Hazaki Oceanographical Research Station (HORS) from September 17 to 26, 2013. The accuracies of the theoretical wind profile models of the log profile model and the Monin-Obukov similarity (MOS) theory were examined by comparing them to those of the observed wind profiles. As a result, MOS, which takes into account the stability effects during wind profile calculations, successfully estimated the wind profile more accurately than the log profile model when the wind was from a sea sector (from sea to land). Conversely, both models did not estimate the profile adequately when the wind was from a land sector (from land to sea). Moreover, the wind profile for the land sector was found to include an obvious diurnal cycle, which is relevant to the stability change over land. Consequently, it is found that the atmospheric stability plays an important roll to determine the offshore wind speed profiles near the coast for not only the sea sector but also the land sector.

  15. Building oceanographic moorings in a non-lab introductory ocean science course

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, I. M.

    2014-12-01

    A methodology for building low-cost ocean moorings in an introductory ocean sciences course, using HOBO temperature and light pendants, is presented. The moorings, which collect water temperature and light intensity data at high temporal frequency and at multiple depths, are relatively inexpensive, with a total cost of approximately 15 to 30 per student, depending on the configuration. Deployments of multiple months, or even longer, are possible, but in this presentation two ~3-week long deployments are described. Students in an Introduction to Oceanography course at Peninsula College in Port Angeles, Washington (USA) designed and constructed moorings for deployment in an enclosed harbor at depths of ~8 meters. The HOBO pendants integrated into the moorings were set to log observations at one hour intervals. After mooring recovery students downloaded data, which were both incorporated into class lessons where feasible, but were also utilized in a fully inquiry-based research paper. The exercise was often cited in students' evaluations as a highlight, and served to both teach and reinforce oceanographic concepts, introduce students to professional options within ocean science and engineering fields, and provide skills training (by requiring students to work in Excel for data manipulation, for example).

  16. Measuring the Value of Research Data: A Citation Analysis of Oceanographic Data Sets

    PubMed Central

    Belter, Christopher W.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of scientific research is becoming increasingly reliant on publication-based bibliometric indicators, which may result in the devaluation of other scientific activities - such as data curation – that do not necessarily result in the production of scientific publications. This issue may undermine the movement to openly share and cite data sets in scientific publications because researchers are unlikely to devote the effort necessary to curate their research data if they are unlikely to receive credit for doing so. This analysis attempts to demonstrate the bibliometric impact of properly curated and openly accessible data sets by attempting to generate citation counts for three data sets archived at the National Oceanographic Data Center. My findings suggest that all three data sets are highly cited, with estimated citation counts in most cases higher than 99% of all the journal articles published in Oceanography during the same years. I also find that methods of citing and referring to these data sets in scientific publications are highly inconsistent, despite the fact that a formal citation format is suggested for each data set. These findings have important implications for developing a data citation format, encouraging researchers to properly curate their research data, and evaluating the bibliometric impact of individuals and institutions. PMID:24671177

  17. Human, Oceanographic and Habitat Drivers of Central and Western Pacific Coral Reef Fish Assemblages

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Ivor D.; Baum, Julia K.; Heenan, Adel; Hanson, Katharine M.; Nadon, Marc O.; Brainard, Russell E.

    2015-01-01

    Coral reefs around US- and US-affiliated Pacific islands and atolls span wide oceanographic gradients and levels of human impact. Here we examine the relative influence of these factors on coral reef fish biomass, using data from a consistent large-scale ecosystem monitoring program conducted by scientific divers over the course of >2,000 hours of underwater observation at 1,934 sites, across ~40 islands and atolls. Consistent with previous smaller-scale studies, our results show sharp declines in reef fish biomass at relatively low human population density, followed by more gradual declines as human population density increased further. Adjusting for other factors, the highest levels of oceanic productivity among our study locations were associated with more than double the biomass of reef fishes (including ~4 times the biomass of planktivores and piscivores) compared to islands with lowest oceanic productivity. Our results emphasize that coral reef areas do not all have equal ability to sustain large reef fish stocks, and that what is natural varies significantly amongst locations. Comparisons of biomass estimates derived from visual surveys with predicted biomass in the absence of humans indicated that total reef fish biomass was depleted by 61% to 69% at populated islands in the Mariana Archipelago; by 20% to 78% in the Main Hawaiian islands; and by 21% to 56% in American Samoa. PMID:25831196

  18. A Comparison between Oceanographic Parameters and Seafloor Pressures; Measured, Theoretical and Modelled, and Terrestrial Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donne, Sarah; Bean, Christopher; Craig, David; Dias, Frederic; Christodoulides, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Microseisms are continuous seismic vibrations which propagate mainly as surface Rayleigh and Love waves. They are generated by the Earth's oceans and there are two main types; primary and secondary microseisms. Primary microseisms are generated through the interaction of travelling surface gravity ocean waves with the seafloor in shallow waters relative to the wavelength of the ocean wave. Secondary microseisms, on the other hand are generated when two opposing wave trains interact and a non-linear second order effect produces a pressure fluctuation which is depth independent. The conditions necessary to produce secondary microseisms are presented in Longuet-Higgins (1950) through the interaction of two travelling waves with the same wave period and which interact at an angle of 180 degrees. Equivalent surface pressure density (p2l) is modelled using the numerical ocean wave model Wavewatch III and this term is considered as the microseism source term. This work presents an investigation of the theoretical second order pressures generated through the interaction of travelling waves with varying wave amplitude, period and angle of incidence. Predicted seafloor pressures calculated off the Southwest coast of Ireland are compared with terrestrially recorded microseism records, measured seafloor pressures and oceanographic parameters. The work presented in this study suggests that a broad set of sea states can generate second order seafloor pressures that are consistent with seafloor pressure measurements. Local seismic arrays throughout Ireland allow us to investigate the temporal covariance of these seafloor pressures with microseism source locations.

  19. Oceanographic drivers and mistiming processes shape breeding success in a seabird.

    PubMed

    Ramírez, Francisco; Afán, Isabel; Tavecchia, Giacomo; Catalán, Ignacio A; Oro, Daniel; Sanz-Aguilar, Ana

    2016-03-16

    Understanding the processes driving seabirds' reproductive performance through trophic interactions requires the identification of seasonal pulses in marine productivity. We investigated the sequence of environmental and biological processes driving the reproductive phenology and performance of the storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus) in the Western Mediterranean. The enhanced light and nutrient availability at the onset of water stratification (late winter/early spring) resulted in annual consecutive peaks in relative abundance of phytoplankton, zooplankton and ichthyoplankton. The high energy-demanding period of egg production and chick rearing coincided with these successive pulses in food availability, pointing to a phenological adjustment to such seasonal patterns with important fitness consequences. Indeed, delayed reproduction with respect to the onset of water stratification resulted in both hatching and breeding failure. This pattern was observed at the population level, but also when confounding factors such as individuals' age or experience were also accounted for. We provide the first evidence of oceanographic drivers leading to the optimal time-window for reproduction in an inshore seabird at southern European latitudes, along with a suitable framework for assessing the impact of environmentally driven changes in marine productivity patterns in seabird performance. PMID:26962134

  20. Air Deployable Underwater Glider and Buoy Development for Arctic and Oceanographic Sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legnos, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    LBI developed under a NOAA SBIR the AXIB (Airborne eXpendable Ice Buoy). The initial buoy was developed to collect barometric pressure, air temperature two meters above the surface and sea surface or ice temperature. A number of these AXIBs have been successfully deployed in the Arctic and Antarctic. Currently we are in the process of integrating additional sensors to include an anemometer, thermistor chain and hydrophones. Further development is in process for the integration of solar and wind recharging systems and lower power sensors and processing LBI developed under an ONR SBIR Grant two Air Deployable Underwater Gliders. They are primarily designed for air deployment from Navy P-3 or P-8 Aircraft though easily deployed from other aircraft or helicopters. The A-size (4 7/8'dia. X 36' long) and the 12 ¾ (12 ¾' dia. X 9' 9' long). On the development side we are in the process of integrating sensors and enhancing the battery storage capacity. We anticipate a broad range of Oceanographic sensing missions for these Gliders.

  1. Physical oceanographic conditions to the northwest of the sub-Antarctic Island of South Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brandon, Mark A.; Murphy, E. J.; Trathan, P. N.; Bone, D. G.

    2000-10-01

    Ocean physics is a key aspect of the operation of island ecosystems, yet the hydrodynamics is sometimes poorly understood. A high-resolution oceanographic survey to the north of South Georgia identified two water masses. These are South Georgia Shelf Water (SGSW) and Antarctic Zone Water (AZW). At the surface, SGSW is both colder and fresher than AZW; at the near-surface temperature minimum these differences are reversed. There are two causes: SGSW is close to the island and has an additional contribution to the heat and salt balance from increased precipitation and island runoff, and second, AZW has advected from higher latitudes. Both of these mechanisms imply SGSW is retained around the island. Between these water masses is a variable width frontal region that has a mixture of both water masses. In general terms, the mean current of the AZW is to the west. In the SGSW the general flow also appears to be to the west, but at reduced magnitude; there is evidence of a stronger westerly current close to the shore. In both water masses there are easterly surface currents most likely driven by the prevailing wind. An approximation for the limit of SGSW is that it is constrained to water depths <500 m. A significant deviation is caused by an anticyclonic flow around a prominent bank that can be associated with significant upwelling. Finally, we comment on the ecological significance of the system observed.

  2. Interannual variability of physical oceanographic characteristics of Gilbert Bay: A marine protected area in Labrador, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Best, Sara; Lundrigan, Sarah; Demirov, Entcho; Wroblewski, Joe

    2011-10-01

    Gilbert Bay on the southeast coast of Labrador is the site of the first Marine Protected Area (MPA) established in the subarctic coastal zone of eastern Canada. The MPA was created to conserve a genetically distinctive population of Atlantic cod, Gadus morhua. This article presents results from a study of the interannual variability in atmospheric and physical oceanographic characteristics of Gilbert Bay over the period 1949-2006. We describe seasonal and interannual variability of the atmospheric parameters at the sea surface in the bay. The interannual variability of the atmosphere in the Gilbert Bay region is related to the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and a recent warming trend in the local climate of coastal Labrador. The related changes in seawater temperature, salinity and sea-ice thickness in winter are simulated with a one-dimensional water column model, the General Ocean Turbulence Model (GOTM). A warming Gilbert Bay ecosystem would be favorable for cod growth, but reduced sea-ice formation during the winter months increases the danger of traveling across the bay by snowmobile.

  3. Second International Workshop on Software Engineering and Code Design in Parallel Meteorological and Oceanographic Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    OKeefe, Matthew (Editor); Kerr, Christopher L. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    This report contains the abstracts and technical papers from the Second International Workshop on Software Engineering and Code Design in Parallel Meteorological and Oceanographic Applications, held June 15-18, 1998, in Scottsdale, Arizona. The purpose of the workshop is to bring together software developers in meteorology and oceanography to discuss software engineering and code design issues for parallel architectures, including Massively Parallel Processors (MPP's), Parallel Vector Processors (PVP's), Symmetric Multi-Processors (SMP's), Distributed Shared Memory (DSM) multi-processors, and clusters. Issues to be discussed include: (1) code architectures for current parallel models, including basic data structures, storage allocation, variable naming conventions, coding rules and styles, i/o and pre/post-processing of data; (2) designing modular code; (3) load balancing and domain decomposition; (4) techniques that exploit parallelism efficiently yet hide the machine-related details from the programmer; (5) tools for making the programmer more productive; and (6) the proliferation of programming models (F--, OpenMP, MPI, and HPF).

  4. Long-Term Oceanographic Observations in Massachusetts Bay, 1989-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford; Alexander, P. Soupy; Bothner, Michael H.; Borden, Jonathan; Casso, Michael A.; Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Hastings, Mary E.; Lightsom, Frances L.; Martini, Marianna A.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Rendigs, Richard R.; Strahle, William S.

    2009-01-01

    This data report presents long-term oceanographic observations made in western Massachusetts Bay at long-term site A (LT-A) (42 deg 22.6' N., 70 deg 47.0' W.; nominal water depth 32 meters) from December 1989 through February 2006 and long-term site B (LT-B) (42 deg 9.8' N., 70 deg 38.4' W.; nominal water depth 22 meters) from October 1997 through February 2004 (fig. 1). The observations were collected as part of a U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) study designed to understand the transport and long-term fate of sediments and associated contaminants in Massachusetts Bay. The observations include time-series measurements of current, temperature, salinity, light transmission, pressure, oxygen, fluorescence, and sediment-trapping rate. About 160 separate mooring or tripod deployments were made on about 90 research cruises to collect these long-term observations. This report presents a description of the 16-year field program and the instrumentation used to make the measurements, an overview of the data set, more than 2,500 pages of statistics and plots that summarize the data, and the digital data in Network Common Data Form (NetCDF) format. This research was conducted by the USGS in cooperation with the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority and the U.S. Coast Guard.

  5. Oceanographic lidar profiles compared with estimates from in situ optical measurements.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jennifer H; Churnside, James H; Marchbanks, Richard D; Donaghay, Percy L; Sullivan, James M

    2013-02-01

    Oceanographic lidar profiles measured in an aerial survey were compared with in situ measurements of water optical properties made from a surface vessel. Experimental data were collected over a two-week period in May 2010 in East Sound, Washington. Measured absorption and backscatter coefficients were used with the volume-scattering function in a quasi-single-scattering model to simulate an idealized lidar return, and this was convolved with the measured instrument response to accurately reproduce the measured temporal behavior. Linear depth-dependent depolarization from the water column and localized depolarization from scattering layers are varied to fine tune the simulated lidar return. Sixty in situ measurements of optical properties were correlated with nearly collocated and coincident lidar profiles; our model yielded good matches (±3 dB to a depth of 12 m) between simulated and measured lidar profiles for both uniform and stratified waters. Measured attenuation was slightly higher (5%) than diffuse attenuation for the copolarized channel and slightly lower (8%) for the cross-polarized channel.

  6. Different Oceanographic Regimes in the Vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula Reflected in Benthic Nematode Communities.

    PubMed

    Hauquier, Freija; Durán Suja, Laura; Gutt, Julian; Veit-Köhler, Gritta; Vanreusel, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Marine free-living nematode communities were studied at similar depths (~500 m) at two sides of the Antarctic Peninsula, characterised by different environmental and oceanographic conditions. At the Weddell Sea side, benthic communities are influenced by cold deep-water formation and seasonal sea-ice conditions, whereas the Drake Passage side experiences milder oceanic conditions and strong dynamics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. This resulted in different surface primary productivity, which contrasted with observed benthic pigment patterns and varied according to the area studied: chlorophyll a concentrations (as a proxy for primary production) were high in the Weddell Sea sediments, but low in the surface waters above; this pattern was reversed in the Drake Passage. Differences between areas were largely mirrored by the nematode communities: nematode densities peaked in Weddell stations and showed deeper vertical occurrence in the sediment, associated with deeper penetration of chlorophyll a and indicative of a strong bentho-pelagic coupling. Generic composition showed some similarities across both areas, though differences in the relative contribution of certain genera were noted, together with distinct community shifts with depth in the sediment at all locations.

  7. Upwelling on the continental slope of the Alaskan Beaufort Sea: Storms, ice, and oceanographic response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pickart, Robert S.; Moore, G. W. K.; Torres, Daniel J.; Fratantoni, Paula S.; Goldsmith, Roger A.; Yang, Jiayan

    2009-01-01

    The characteristics of Pacific-born storms that cause upwelling along the Beaufort Sea continental slope, the oceanographic response, and the modulation of the response due to sea ice are investigated. In fall 2002 a mooring array located near 152°W measured 11 significant upwelling events that brought warm and salty Atlantic water to shallow depths. When comparing the storms that caused these events to other Aleutian lows that did not induce upwelling, interesting trends emerged. Upwelling occurred most frequently when storms were located in a region near the eastern end of the Aleutian Island Arc and Alaskan Peninsula. Not only were these storms deep but they generally had northward-tending trajectories. While the steering flow aloft aided this northward progression, the occurrence of lee cyclogenesis due to the orography of Alaska seems to play a role as well in expanding the meridional influence of the storms. In late fall and early winter both the intensity and frequency of the upwelling diminished significantly at the array site. It is argued that the reduction in amplitude was due to the onset of heavy pack ice, while the decreased frequency was due to two different upper-level atmospheric blocking patterns inhibiting the far field influence of the storms.

  8. Radiolarian indices of physical and chemical oceanographic phenomena in recent sediments of southern California continental borderland

    SciTech Connect

    Cleveland, M.N.; Casey, R.E.

    1986-04-01

    The California Current, the eastern limb of the North Pacific gyre, exhibits the following characteristics common to eastern boundary currents: wide, shallow, slow, diffuse boundaries; common upwelling; great seasonal variation; invasions of water masses from outside the system; and cold, low-salinity waters. Studies on plankton tows and Holocene sediments have correlated components of the siliceous microplankton (radiolarians and some diatoms) with several characteristics, such as the main directions of movement of the invading waters, the provenance of these waters, the presence and degree of upwelling, and seasonality and its impact on the underlying sediments. Certain types of radiolarians are potentially useful in determining fossil anoxic and oxic conditions as well as paleodepth. In this study, the authors analyzed box-core sediment and plankton tow samples from the southern California continental borderland, as well as radiolarian density, diversity, taxonomic makeup, and other features related to oceanographic and environmental conditions. Depositional environments were defined for the sediment samples, and radiolarian indicators for paleoenvironmental interpretation were determined. Several borderland environments were identified, and the anoxic nearshore basin was found to have the best preservational qualities for radiolarians and thus the most representative radiolarian biocoenosis.

  9. Coccolithophore species as indicators of surface oceanographic conditions in the vicinity of Azores islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silva, A.; Brotas, V.; Valente, A.; Sá, C.; Diniz, T.; Patarra, R. F.; Álvaro, N. V.; Neto, A. I.

    2013-02-01

    During summer 2008 and spring 2009, surface oceanographic surveys were carried out around three islands of the Azores archipelago (Terceira, São Miguel and Santa Maria) to assess the phytoplankton distribution and associated physico-chemical processes. The Azores archipelago is a major feature in the biogeochemical North Atlantic Subtropical Gyre (NAST) province although its influence on the productivity of the surrounding ocean is poorly known. Surface phytoplankton was studied by microscopy and HPLC (High Precision Liquid Chromatography). The mean values for biomass proxy Chlorophyll a (Chla) ranged from 0.04 to 0.55 μg L-1 (Chla maximum = 0.86 μg L-1) and coccolithophores were the most abundant group, followed by small flagellates, Cyanobacteria, diatoms and dinoflagellates being the least abundant group. The distribution of phytoplankton and coccolithophore species in particular presented seasonal differences and was consistent with the nearshore influence of warm subtropical waters from the south Azores current and colder subpolar waters from the north. The satellite-derived circulation patterns showed southward cold water intrusions off Terceira and northward warm water intrusions off Santa Maria. The warmer waters signal was confirmed by the subtropical coccolithophore assemblage, being Discosphaera tubifera a constant presence under these conditions. The regions of enhanced biomass, either resulting from northern cooler waters or from island induced processes, were characterized by the presence of Emiliania huxleyi. Diatoms and dinoflagellates indicated coastal and regional processes of nutrient enrichment and areas of physical stability, respectively.

  10. Beyond hydrography: daily ichthyoplankton variability and short term oceanographic events on the Sydney continental shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dempster, Tim; Gibbs, Mark T.; Rissik, David; Suthers, Iain M.

    1997-10-01

    Surface ichthyoplankton concentrations along a shore-normal transect across the Sydney continental shelf and upper slope changed between three replicate nights in January and April of 1994. Over 70 families of fish were recorded, which, during January, included: Myctophidae (49% of individuals), Carangidae (14%), Gonostomatidae (11%) and Pomacentridae (8%); and during April included: Gonorhynchidae (43%), Myctophidae (10%), Berycidae (11%) and Serranidae (6%). Multidimensional scaling analysis identified inshore and offshore communities, which nightly moved between the nearshore and mid-shelf stations. During January no distinct near-surface water masses could be identified from the temperature-salinity data, although the shelf waters were under the influence of forcing by the local wind stress and the East Australian Current. Good agreement between the cross-shore transport in the near-surface layer and the temporal variability of the icthyoplankton was nevertheless found. The sampling during April was performed during a period of relatively steady oceanographic conditions, and two water masses were identified from the hydrographic data. Temporal ichthyoplankton variability at any station was correspondingly less during the April period and stable inshore and offshore communities were identified, that shifted with characteristic water masses. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that the large variance often associated with ichthyoplankton distribution within a similar water mass may be interpreted by the dynamics in cross-shelf flows, which has implications for the selection of control sites used when studying environmental impacts of coastal outfalls.

  11. The Lasting Impacts of an Oceanographic Teacher Research Experiences in a Land-locked Classroom (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manning, C.; Pockalny, R. A.; D'Hondt, S. L.

    2009-12-01

    Authentic science research opportunities for classroom teachers, like the NSF-funded ARMADA Project, improves teacher motivation, enables rigor and relevance in the classroom, and provides mentoring to new teachers. This project also facilitates communication between scientists, educators, and the public by connecting scientists to a broader audience through the teacher. In January and February 2009, we participated in a six-week cruise aboard the R/V Knorr studying the oceanographic controls and distribution of subseafloor microbial life in the equatorial Pacific. The international team of scientists employed geophysics, geochemistry, microbiology, and geology to characterize microbial activity. The integrated techniques demonstrate how modern science is not separated by discipline, but relies on the strengths of many to understand the complexities of the natural world. This experience has affected dramatic change in teaching about natural resources, plate tectonics, and climate in Honors Earth Science and ecology, sustainability, and global change in AP Environmental Science. Integrating many different approaches to studying natural phenomenon creates a more challenging and interesting learning environment that both students and parents respect, making them less likely to question more rigorous assignments. The ARMADA Project encourages teachers to journal daily about their experiences, which resulted in real-time web-log of cruise activities that documented how teachers, scientists and crew work together to achieve scientific goals. Finally, the authentic research experience demonstrates that when teachers and scientists work together to communicate research goals and results, both communities benefit, mutual respect is enhanced, and potential long-term collaborations are fostered.

  12. Oceanographic dynamics and the end of the last interglacial in the subpolar North Atlantic.

    PubMed

    Mokeddem, Zohra; McManus, Jerry F; Oppo, Delia W

    2014-08-01

    The last interglacial interval was terminated by the inception of a long, progressive glaciation that is attributed to astronomically influenced changes in the seasonal distribution of sunlight over the earth. However, the feedbacks, internal dynamics, and global teleconnections associated with declining northern summer insolation remain incompletely understood. Here we show that a crucial early step in glacial inception involves the weakening of the subpolar gyre (SPG) circulation of the North Atlantic Ocean. Detailed new records of microfossil foraminifera abundance and stable isotope ratios in deep sea sediments from Ocean Drilling Program site 984 south of Iceland reveal repeated, progressive cold water-mass expansions into subpolar latitudes during the last peak interglacial interval, marine isotope substage 5e. These movements are expressed as a sequence of progressively extensive southward advances and subsequent retreats of a hydrographic boundary that may have been analogous to the modern Arctic front, and associated with rapid changes in the strength of the SPG. This persistent millennial-scale oceanographic oscillation accompanied a long-term cooling trend at a time of slowly declining northern summer insolation, providing an early link in the propagation of those insolation changes globally, and resulting in a rapid transition from extensive regional warmth to the dramatic instability of the subsequent ∼ 100 ka. PMID:25049405

  13. Lost at sea: genetic, oceanographic and meteorological evidence for storm-forced dispersal.

    PubMed

    Monzón-Argüello, C; Dell'Amico, F; Morinière, P; Marco, A; López-Jurado, L F; Hays, Graeme C; Scott, Rebecca; Marsh, Robert; Lee, Patricia L M

    2012-08-01

    For many species, there is broad-scale dispersal of juvenile stages and/or long-distance migration of individuals and hence the processes that drive these various wide-ranging movements have important life-history consequences. Sea turtles are one of these paradigmatic long-distance travellers, with hatchlings thought to be dispersed by ocean currents and adults often shuttling between distant breeding and foraging grounds. Here, we use multi-disciplinary oceanographic, atmospheric and genetic mixed stock analyses to show that juvenile turtles are encountered 'downstream' at sites predicted by currents. However, in some cases, unusual occurrences of juveniles are more readily explained by storm events and we show that juvenile turtles may be displaced thousands of kilometres from their expected dispersal based on prevailing ocean currents. As such, storms may be a route by which unexpected areas are encountered by juveniles which may in turn shape adult migrations. Increased stormy weather predicted under climate change scenarios suggests an increasing role of storms in dispersal of sea turtles and other marine groups with life-stages near the ocean surface.

  14. Role of submarine canyons in shaping the rise between Lydonia and Oceanographer canyons, Georges Bank

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGregor, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    Three large submarine canyons, Oceanographer, Gilbert, and Lydonia, indent the U.S. Atlantic continental shelf and, with four additional canyons, dissect the continental slope in the vicinity of Georges Bank. On the upper rise, these canyons merge at a water depth of approximately 3100 m to form only two valleys. Differences in channel morphology of the canyons on the upper rise imply differences in relative activity, which is inconsistent with observations in the canyon heads. At present, Lydonia Canyon incises the upper rise more deeply than do the other canyons: however, seismic-reflection profiles show buried channels beneath the rise, which suggests that these other six canyons were periodically active during the Neogene. The rise morphology and the thickness of inferred Neogene- and Quaternary-age sediments on the rise are attributed to the presence and activity of the canyons. The erosional and depositional processes and the morphology of these canyons are remarkably similar to those of fluvial systems. Bear Seamount, which has approximately 2000 m of relief on the rise, has acted as a barrier to downslope sediment transport since the Late Cretaceous. Sediment has piled up on the upslope side, whereas much less sediment has accumulated in the "lee shadow" on the downslope side. Seismic-reflection profile data show that Lydonia Canyon has not eroded down to the volcanic rock of Bear Seamount. ?? 1985.

  15. University of the seas, 15 years of oceanographic schools on board of the Marion Dufresne

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malaize, Bruno; Deverchere, Jacques; Leau, Hélène; Graindorge, David

    2015-04-01

    Since the first University at Sea, proposed by two French Universities (Brest and Bordeaux) in 1999, the R/V Marion Dufresne, in collaboration with the French Polar institute (IPEV), has welcome 12 oceanographic schools. The main objective of this educational and scientific program is to stimulate the potential interest of highly graduated students in scientific fields dealing with oceanography, and to broaden exchanges with foreign universities, strengthening a pool of excellence at a high international scientific level. It is a unique opportunity for the students to discover and to be involved in the work in progress of collecting scientific data on board of a ship, and to attend international research courses given by scientists involved in the cruise program. They also experience the final task of the scientific work by presenting their own training results, making posters on board, and writing a cruise report. For some University at Sea, students had also updated a daily journal, available on internet, hosted by the main institutions involved (as IPEV or EPOC, Bordeaux University). All this work is done in English, a common language to all the participants. An overview of these 15 years background experience will be presented, underlying the financial supports used, the logistic on board, as well as all the benefits acquiered by all former students, now in permanent positions in different international institutions.

  16. Different Oceanographic Regimes in the Vicinity of the Antarctic Peninsula Reflected in Benthic Nematode Communities

    PubMed Central

    Gutt, Julian; Veit-Köhler, Gritta; Vanreusel, Ann

    2015-01-01

    Marine free-living nematode communities were studied at similar depths (~500 m) at two sides of the Antarctic Peninsula, characterised by different environmental and oceanographic conditions. At the Weddell Sea side, benthic communities are influenced by cold deep-water formation and seasonal sea-ice conditions, whereas the Drake Passage side experiences milder oceanic conditions and strong dynamics of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current. This resulted in different surface primary productivity, which contrasted with observed benthic pigment patterns and varied according to the area studied: chlorophyll a concentrations (as a proxy for primary production) were high in the Weddell Sea sediments, but low in the surface waters above; this pattern was reversed in the Drake Passage. Differences between areas were largely mirrored by the nematode communities: nematode densities peaked in Weddell stations and showed deeper vertical occurrence in the sediment, associated with deeper penetration of chlorophyll a and indicative of a strong bentho-pelagic coupling. Generic composition showed some similarities across both areas, though differences in the relative contribution of certain genera were noted, together with distinct community shifts with depth in the sediment at all locations. PMID:26355457

  17. Global dominance of coralline red-algal facies: A response to Miocene oceanographic events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halfar, Jochen; Mutti, Maria

    2005-06-01

    Rhodoliths (free-living coralline red algae) can thrive under a wide range of temperatures, reduced light, and increased nutrient levels, and often form a distinct so-called rhodalgal lithofacies that is an important component of Cenozoic shallow-water carbonates. Global distributions illustrate that from the late-early to early-late Miocene (Burdigalian early Tortonian), rhodalgal facies reached peak abundances and commonly replaced coral-reef environments, accompanied by a decline in other carbonate-producing phototrophs. We argue that the dominance of red algae over coral reefs was triggered in the Burdigalian by enhanced trophic resources associated with a global increase in productivity, as evidenced by a long-term shift toward higher carbon isotope values. Rhodalgal lithofacies expanded further in the middle Miocene when strengthened thermal gradients associated with the establishment of the East Antarctic Ice Sheet led to enhanced upwelling while climate change generated increased weathering rates, introducing land-derived nutrients into the oceans. Globally cooler temperatures following a climatic optimum in the early-middle Miocene contributed to sustain the dominance of red algae and prevented the recovery of coral reefs. The global shift in nearshore shallow-water carbonate producers to groups tolerant of higher levels of trophic resources provides further evidence for increased nutrient levels during that time interval and shows the sensitivity of shallow-water carbonate facies as indicators of past oceanographic conditions.

  18. Flow injection analysis as a tool for enhancing oceanographic nutrient measurements--a review.

    PubMed

    Worsfold, Paul J; Clough, Robert; Lohan, Maeve C; Monbet, Philippe; Ellis, Peter S; Quétel, Christophe R; Floor, Geerke H; McKelvie, Ian D

    2013-11-25

    Macronutrient elements (C, N and P) and micronutrient elements (Fe, Co, Cu, Zn and Mn) are widely measured in their various physico-chemical forms in open ocean, shelf sea, coastal and estuarine waters. These measurements help to elucidate the biogeochemical cycling of these elements in marine waters and highlight the ecological and socio-economic importance of the oceans. Due to the dynamic nature of marine waters in terms of chemical, biological and physical processes, it is advantageous to make these measurements in situ and in this regard flow injection analysis (FIA) provides a suitable shipboard platform. This review, therefore, discusses the role of FIA in the determination of macro- and micro-nutrient elements, with an emphasis on manifold design and detection strategies for the reliable shipboard determination of specific nutrient species. The application of various FIA manifolds to oceanographic nutrient determinations is discussed, with an emphasis on sensitivity, selectivity, high throughput analysis and suitability for underway analysis and depth profiles. Strategies for enhancing sensitivity and minimizing matrix effects, e.g. refractive index (schlieren) effects and the important role of uncertainty budgets in underpinning method validation and data quality are discussed in some detail. PMID:24216194

  19. [Evaluation of heart rate and blood pressure in residents of Milpa Alta, D.F].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Girón, C; Brust-Mascher, E; De Icaza-Herrera, M; Vidrio-Amor, H; Brust-Carmona, H

    1992-01-01

    Both the altitude of Mexico City (D.F.) and the increase in atmospheric pollutants make it important to establish parameters of comparison for cardiovascular variables, such as heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP). The epidemiological transition occurring in Mexico is increasing the need for human and physical resources at the first level of health care in order to perform early diagnoses of cardiovascular disorders among the population. Heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures (SBP, DBP) were recorded under diverse conditions (seated, standing, performing 30 sit-ups, and then standing and seated after the sit-ups) in 235 inhabitants of Milpa Alta (a suburb of Mexico City). The procedures and equipment used were designed and produced at the Center for Development and Technological Applications, Ministry of Health. The following results were found: HR decreases with age and body surface. Likewise, the HR increase due to exercise is lower with increasing age and larger body surface and its return to resting levels is slower. SBP and DBP magnitude is directly related to body surface. In women an increase of body weight was found to be significantly related to a higher SBP. The orthostatic reflex (OR) decreases with age and body surface. The descending slope is higher in women than in men. We propose that the study of OR could provide better information for predicting cardiovascular changes. The described procedures can be performed with the physical and human resources available at the Health Centers. The extension of this type of applied research to first level health care centers would allow the country to respond efficiently to the epidemiological transition.

  20. Adaptation of rainfed agriculture to climatic variability in the Mixteca Alta Region of Oaxaca, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogé, P.; Friedman, A. R.; Astier, M.; Altieri, M.

    2015-12-01

    The traditional management systems of the Mixteca Alta Region of Oaxaca, Mexico offer historical lessons about resilience to climatic variability. We interviewed small farmers to inquire about the dynamics of abandonment and persistence of a traditional management systems. We interpret farmers' narratives from a perspective of general agroecological resilience. In addition, we facilitated workshops in small farmers described their adaptation to past climate challenges and identified 14 indicators that they subsequently used to evaluate the condition of their agroecosystems. The most recent years presented increasingly extreme climatic and socioeconomic hardships: increased temperatures, delayed rainy seasons, reduced capacity of soils to retain soil moisture, changing cultural norms, and reduced rural labor. Farmers reported that their cropping systems were changing for multiple reasons: more drought, later rainfall onset, decreased rural labor, and introduced labor-saving technologies. Examination of climate data found that farmers' climate narratives were largely consistent with the observational record. There have been increases in temperature and rainfall intensity, and an increase in rainfall seasonality that may be perceived as later rainfall onset. Farmers ranked landscape-scale indicators as more marginal than farmer management or soil quality indicators. From this analysis, farmers proposed strategies to improve the ability of their agroecosystems to cope with climatic variability. Notably, they recognized that social organizing and education are required for landscape-level indicators to be improved. Transformative change is required to develop novel cropping systems and complementary activities to agriculture that will allow for farming to be sustained in the face of these challenges. Climate change adaptation by small farmers involves much more than just a set of farming practices, but also community action to tackle collective problems.

  1. The influence of spatially and temporally varying oceanographic conditions on meroplanktonic metapopulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botsford, L. W.; Moloney, C. L.; Hastings, A.; Largier, J. L.; Powell, T. M.; Higgins, K.; Quinn, J. F.

    We synthesize the results of several modelling studies that address the influence of variability in larval transport and survival on the dynamics of marine metapopulations distributed along a coast. Two important benthic invertebrates in the California Current System (CCS), the Dungeness crab and the red sea urchin, are used as examples of the way in which physical oceanographic conditions can influence stability, synchrony and persistence of meroplanktonic metapopulations. We first explore population dynamics of subpopulations and metapopulations. Even without environmental forcing, isolated local subpopulations with density-dependence can vary on time scales roughly twice the generation time at high adult survival, shifting to annual time scales at low survivals. The high frequency behavior is not seen in models of the Dungeness crab, because of their high adult survival rates. Metapopulations with density-dependent recruitment and deterministic larval dispersal fluctuate in an asynchronous fashion. Along the coast, abundance varies on spatial scales which increase with dispersal distance. Coastwide, synchronous, random environmental variability tends to synchronize these metapopulations. Climate change could cause a long-term increase or decrease in mean larval survival, which in this model leads to greater synchrony or extinction respectively. Spatially managed metapopulations of red sea urchins go extinct when distances between harvest refugia become greater than the scale of larval dispersal. All assessments of population dynamics indicate that metapopulation behavior in general dependes critically on the temporal and spatial nature of larval dispersal, which is largely determined by physical oceanographic conditions. We therfore explore physical influences on larval dispersal patterns. Observed trends in temperature and salinity applied to laboratory-determined responses indicate that natural variability in temperature and salinity can lead to variability in

  2. Improved Oceanographic Measurements with CryoSat SAR Altimetry: Application to the Coastal Zone and Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotton, David; Nilo Garcia, Pablo; Cancet, Mathilde; Andersen, Ole; Stenseng, Lars; Martin, Francisco; Cipollini, Paolo; Benveniste, Jérôme; Restano, Marco; Ambrósio, Américo

    2016-04-01

    The ESA CryoSat mission is the first space mission to carry a radar altimeter that can operate in Synthetic Aperture Radar "SAR" (or delay-Doppler) and interferometric SAR (SARin) modes. Studies on CryoSat data have analysed and confirmed the improved ocean measuring capability offered by SAR mode altimetry, through increased resolution and precision in sea surface height and wave height measurements, and have also added significantly to our understanding of the issues around the processing and interpretation of SAR altimeter echoes. We present work in four themes, building on work initiated in the CryoSat Plus for Oceans project (CP4O), each investigating different aspects of the opportunities offered by this new technology. The first two studies address the coastal zone, a critical region for providing a link between open-ocean and shelf sea measurements with those from coastal in-situ measurements, in particular tide gauges. Although much has been achieved in recent years through the Coastal Altimetry community, (http://www.coastalt.eu/community) there is a limit to the capabilities of pulse-limited altimetry which often leaves an un-measured "white strip" right at the coastline. Firstly, a thorough analysis was made of the performance of "SAR" altimeter data (delay-Doppler processed) in the coastal zone. This quantified the performance, confirming the significant improvement over "conventional" pulse-limited altimetry. In the second study a processing scheme was developed with CryoSat SARin mode data to enable the retrieval of valid oceanographic measurements in coastal areas with complex topography. Thanks to further development of the algorithms, a new approach was achieved that can also be applied to SAR and conventional altimetry data (e.g., Sentinel-3, Jason series, EnviSat). The third part of the project developed and evaluated improvements to the SAMOSA altimeter re-tracker that is implemented in the Sentinel-3 processing chain. The modifications to the

  3. Centennial scale benthic foraminiferal record of late Holocene oceanographic variability in Disko Bugt, West Greenland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perner, K.; Moros, M.; Lloyd, J. M.; Kuijpers, A.; Telford, R. J.; Harff, J.

    2011-09-01

    A new centennial scale benthic foraminiferal record of late Holocene climate variability and oceanographic changes off West Greenland (Disko Bugt) highlights substantial subsurface water mass changes (e.g. temperature and salinity) of the West Greenland Current (WGC) over the past 3.6 ka BP. Benthic foraminifera reveal a long-term late Holocene cooling trend, which may be attributed to increased advection of cold, low-salinity water masses derived from the East Greenland Current (EGC). Cooling becomes most pronounced from c. 1.7 ka BP onwards. At this point the calcareous Atlantic benthic foraminiferal fauna decrease significantly and is replaced by an agglutinated Arctic fauna. Superimposed on this cooling trend, centennial scale variability in the WGC reveals a marked cold phase at c. 2.5 ka BP, which may correspond to the 2.7 ka BP cooling-event recorded in marine and terrestrial archives elsewhere in the North Atlantic region. A warm phase recognized at c. 1.8 ka BP is likely to correspond to the 'Roman Warm Period' and represents the warmest bottom water conditions. During the time period of the 'Medieval Climate Anomaly' we observe only a slight warming of the WGC. A progressively more dominant cold water contribution from the EGC on the WGC is documented by the prominent rise in abundance of agglutinated Arctic water species from 0.9 ka BP onwards. This cooling event culminates at c. 0.3 ka BP and represents the coldest episode of the 'Little Ice Age'. Gradually increased influence of cold, low-salinity water masses derived from the EGC may be linked to enhanced advection of Polar and Arctic water by the EGC. These changes are possibly associated with a reported shift in the large-scale North Atlantic Oscillation atmospheric circulation pattern towards a more frequent negative North Atlantic Oscillation mode during the late Holocene.

  4. Fluvial and oceanographic controls on clinoform architecture in the Gulf of Papua

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, E. A. Y.; Driscoll, N. W.; Milliman, J. D.

    2015-12-01

    Receiving sediment input from the large-floodplain Fly River and small mountainous rivers, the Gulf of Papua (GOP) is an ideal environment to study how clinoforms record the response of dispersal systems to sea level rise. Contributions from the Fly River and small mountainous rivers to the clinoform have varied due to differing responses to rising sea levels since the last glacial maximum. Near-bed currents that advect sediment to the northeast further complicate this signal. Pairing geophysical and geochemical data from the 2004 NSF MARGINS Source-to-Sink program, we imaged clinoform architecture with CHIRP seismic profiles, identified clinoform sediment provenance, and constrained depositional timing with radiocarbon dates. Sediment provenance can be identified from higher illite:smectite and quartz:feldspar ratios in Fly River sediment than that from small mountainous rivers draining volcanoclastics. Increasing illite:smectite ratios in surficial sediment imply that the Fly River is presently building out clinoforms; however, for most of the late Holocene, the northeastern rivers contributed the bulk of the sediment. The time-lag for Fly River sediment flux to the clinoform suggests sediment storage within its wide floodplain during the rapid transgressions, compared to shorter time-lags in the small mountainous rivers during transgressions. CHIRP profiles reveal consistent patterns of oblique stacking on top of preexisting topography, creating topographic highs and intervening lows. Aggradation on topographic highs occurs during the lower-energy Monsoon season; however, this sediment is winnowed away by energetic currents during the Trade Wind season and advected to the northeast. Northeast progradation is supported by greater sediment thicknesses and accumulation rates along the northeast sides of GOP promontories. Teasing out influences of oceanographic currents can illuminate contributions of large and small-floodplain rivers in the same basin.

  5. Modelling the influence of small-scale effects upon the larger scale: an oceanographic challenge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Alan M.; Jones, John Eric; Xing, Jiuxing

    2010-08-01

    The problem of resolving or parameterising small-scale processes in oceanographic models and the extent to which small-scale effects influence the large scale are briefly discussed and illustrated for a number of cases. For tides and surges in near-shore regions, the advantages of using a graded mesh to resolve coastal and estuarine small-scale features are demonstrated in terms of a west coast of Britain unstructured mesh model. The effect of mesh resolution upon the accuracy of the overall solution is illustrated in terms of a finite element model of the Irish Sea and Mersey estuary. For baroclinic motion at high Froude number, the effect of resolving small-scale topography within a non-hydrostatic model is illustrated in terms of tidally induced mixing at a single sill, or two closely spaced sills. The question of how to parameterise small-scale non-linear interaction processes that lead to significant mixing, in a form suitable for coarser grid hydrostatic models, is briefly considered. In addition, the importance of topographically induced mixing that occurs in the oceanic lateral boundary layer, namely, the shelf edge upon the large-scale ocean circulation is discussed together with the implications for coarse grid oceanic climate models. The use of unstructured grids in these models to enhance resolution in shelf-edge regions in a similar manner to that used in storm surge models to enhance near coastal resolution is suggested as a suitable “way forward” in large-scale ocean circulation modelling.

  6. The oceanographic toolbox for the collection of sinking and suspended marine particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDonnell, Andrew M. P.; Lam, Phoebe J.; Lamborg, Carl H.; Buesseler, Ken O.; Sanders, Richard; Riley, Jennifer S.; Marsay, Chris; Smith, Helen E. K.; Sargent, Elizabeth C.; Lampitt, Richard S.; Bishop, James K. B.

    2015-04-01

    Marine particles play a central role in controlling the transport, cycling, and inventories of many major elements and trace elements and isotopes throughout the oceans. Studies seeking to elucidate the biogeochemical roles of marine particles often require reliable ways to collect them from the ocean. Here, we review the oceanographic toolbox of techniques and instrumentation that are employed to collect both suspended and sinking particles. With these tools, it is possible to determine both the concentrations and vertical fluxes of important elements and individual particle types. We describe the various methods for quantifying the concentrations of particulate matter with in situ pumps, towed sampling devices, bottle collectors, and large volume capture devices. The uses of various types of flux collection platforms are discussed including surface tethered, neutrally buoyant, and bottom moored devices. We address the issues of sediment trap collection biases and the apparent inconsistencies that can arise due to differences in the temporal and spatial scales sampled by the various methodologies. Special attention is given to collection considerations made for the analysis of trace metals and isotopes, as these methodologies are of high importance to the ongoing GEOTRACES program which seeks to identify the processes and quantify fluxes that control the distributions of key trace elements and isotopes in the ocean. With the emergence of new particle collection methodologies and the continued reliance on traditional collection methods, it is imperative that we combine these multiple approaches in ways that will help improve their accuracy and precision while enhancing their utility in advancing understanding of the biogeochemical and ecological roles of marine particles.

  7. Oceanographic and behavioural assumptions in models of the fate of coral and coral reef fish larvae.

    PubMed

    Wolanski, Eric; Kingsford, Michael J

    2014-09-01

    A predictive model of the fate of coral reef fish larvae in a reef system is proposed that combines the oceanographic processes of advection and turbulent diffusion with the biological process of horizontal swimming controlled by olfactory and auditory cues within the timescales of larval development. In the model, auditory cues resulted in swimming towards the reefs when within hearing distance of the reef, whereas olfactory cues resulted in the larvae swimming towards the natal reef in open waters by swimming against the concentration gradients in the smell plume emanating from the natal reef. The model suggested that the self-seeding rate may be quite large, at least 20% for the larvae of rapidly developing reef fish species, which contrasted with a self-seeding rate less than 2% for non-swimming coral larvae. The predicted self-recruitment rate of reefs was sensitive to a number of parameters, such as the time at which the fish larvae reach post-flexion, the pelagic larval duration of the larvae, the horizontal turbulent diffusion coefficient in reefal waters and the horizontal swimming behaviour of the fish larvae in response to auditory and olfactory cues, for which better field data are needed. Thus, the model suggested that high self-seeding rates for reef fish are possible, even in areas where the 'sticky water' effect is minimal and in the absence of long-term trapping in oceanic fronts and/or large-scale oceanic eddies or filaments that are often argued to facilitate the return of the larvae after long periods of drifting at sea. PMID:24966233

  8. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Collaborative Development of Linked Data for Oceanographic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, Robert; Chandler, Cynthia; Stocks, Karen; Smith, Shawn; Clark, Paul; Shepherd, Adam; Moore, Carla; Beaulieu, Stace

    2013-04-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from U.S. academic oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. The entire R2R Catalog is published online as a Linked Data collection, making it easily accessible to encourage discovery and integration with data at other repositories. We are developing the R2R Linked Data collection with specific goals in mind: 1.) We facilitate data access and reuse by publishing the richest possible collection of resources to describe vessels, cruises, instruments, and datasets from the U.S. academic fleet, including data quality assessment results and clean trackline navigation; 2.) We facilitate data citation through the entire lifecycle from field acquisition to shoreside archiving to journal articles and global syntheses, by publishing Digital Object Identifiers (DOIs) for datasets and encoding them directly into our Linked Data resources; and 3.) We facilitate federation with other repositories such as the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO), InterRidge Vents Database, and Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS), by reciprocal linking between RDF resources and supporting the RDF Query Language. R2R participates in the Ocean Data Interoperability Platform (ODIP), a joint European-U.S.-Australian partnership to facilitate the sharing of data and documentation across international borders. We publish our controlled vocabularies as a Simple Knowledge Organization System (SKOS) concept collection, and are working toward alignment with SeaDataNet and other community-standard terms using the NERC Vocabulary Server (NVS). http://rvdata.us/

  9. OASES: Lessons learned from Oceanographic Exploration relevant to future Astrobiology expeditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, A.; German, C. R.; Whitcomb, L. L.; Yoerger, D. R.; Jakuba, M.; Kinsey, J. C.; Oases Science Team

    2010-12-01

    A series of developments in ocean science and technology resulting from a unique confluence of opportunity have resulted in important advances leading to improved operational capabilities, impacting exploration and discovery of new environments within the Earth’s Oceans. The ASTEP funded Oases project to the Mid Cayman Rise, when teamed with other complimentary developments and field programs, represents an important example of how oceanographic robotic systems and the scientific techniques they utilize can make important impacts not only improving state of the art for ocean exploration and discovery but also revealing how such advanced systems and techniques may impact exploration of other planets. The recent NSF-funded Nereus vehicle development, resulting in a novel system able to explore the deepest reaches of the ocean to 11,000 meters depth, has been utilized within the OASES project to help advance exploration capabilities through the use of new concepts in how robots interact with their human operators when confronted with the reality of a restricted communications environment -typical in the deep oceans of this planet. Likewise, other field programs funded outside NASA utilizing the autonomous vehicle Sentry complement these experiences. Indeed, the extreme nature of Nereus’ mission of exploring the deepest regions of the ocean leads to new opportunities to perform new scientific missions within oceans subject to ice cover. During the OASES cruise, Nereus demonstrated several of the technological aspects required to work in an ice-covered ocean while also illuminating many of the challenges associated with real-time control and decision making needed to achieve a fully capable system able to explore and sample new environments undersea.

  10. Winter Observations of Platelet Ice Growth and Oceanographic Conditions in McMurdo Sound, Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, G.; Purdie, C.; Langhorne, P.; Haskell, T.; Williams, M.; Vennell, R.

    2004-05-01

    Almost all that is known about sea ice growing attached to the Antarctic landmass has been measured in the spring and summer when the sea ice has grown to over 1~m thick. Platelet ice is the name given to ice crystals that nucleate in the ocean and grow either at depth in the sea water or loosely attached to the ice water interface. It appears to form in sea water cooled below its freezing point, and was first observed in McMurdo Sound by scientists of Scott's Discovery Expedition of 1901{\\textendash}1904. It is known that the formation of platelet ice is linked to the proximity of ice shelves, however the exact freezing mechanism is a matter of some conjecture. In this study we have spent the winter months (February{\\textendash}September) 2003 on the sea ice in McMurdo Sound simultaneously measuring ice and oceanographic conditions in order to increase our understanding of platelet ice formation. Early results indicate the presence of a relatively warm water layer in April which has been replaced by a stable mixed layer by June, with periodic episodes of cold water intrusions into the mixed layer. The water near the ice - water interface was found to be consistently supercooled from July onwards. Platelet growth was observed to be episodic and correlated with times of low tidal flow. Ice coring data reveals that the first layer of platelet ice incorporated into the sea ice sheet did not appear until the ice was around 0.7~m thick, even though platelet ice was observed on foreign bodies in the water column when the ice was significantly thinner.

  11. Field experiments of multi-channel oceanographic fluorescence lidar for oil spill and chlorophyll- a detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xiaolong; Zhao, Chaofang; Ma, Youjun; Liu, Zhishen

    2014-08-01

    A Multi-channel Oceanographic Fluorescence Lidar (MOFL), with a UV excitation at 355 nm and multiple receiving channels at typical wavelengths of fluorescence from oil spills and chlorophyll- a (Chl- a), has been developed using the Laser-induced Fluorescence (LIF) technique. The sketch of the MOFL system equipped with a compact multi-channel photomultiplier tube (MPMT) is introduced in the paper. The methods of differentiating the oil fluorescence from the background water fluorescence and evaluating the Chl- a concentration are described. Two field experiments were carried out to investigate the field performance of the system, i.e., an experiment in coastal areas for oil pollution detection and an experiment over the Yellow Sea for Chl- a monitoring. In the coastal experiment, several oil samples and other fluorescence substances were used to analyze the fluorescence spectral characteristics for oil identification, and to estimate the thickness of oil films at the water surface. The experiment shows that both the spectral shape of fluorescence induced from surface water and the intensity ratio of two channels ( I 495/ I 405) are essential to determine oil-spill occurrence. In the airborne experiment, MOFL was applied to measure relative Chl- a concentrations in the upper layer of the ocean. A comparison of relative Chl- a concentration measurements by MOFL and the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) indicates that the two datasets are in good agreement. The results show that the MOFL system is capable of monitoring oil spills and Chl- a in the upper layer of ocean water.

  12. Verification of Meteorological and Oceanographic Ensemble Forecasts in the U.S. Navy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotz, S.; Hansen, J.; Pauley, P.; Sestak, M.; Wittmann, P.; Skupniewicz, C.; Nelson, G.

    2013-12-01

    -model ensemble forecasting, to U.S. Department of Defense use, and creating a superior U.S. global meteorological and oceanographic prediction capability. Forecast verification is an important component of NAEFS and NUOPC. Distribution Statement A: Approved for Public Release; distribution is unlimited

  13. Verification of Meteorological and Oceanographic Ensemble Forecasts in the U.S. Navy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klotz, S. P.; Hansen, J.; Pauley, P.; Sestak, M.; Wittmann, P.; Skupniewicz, C.; Nelson, G.

    2012-12-01

    multi-model ensemble forecasting, to U.S. Department of Defense use, and creating a superior U.S. global meteorological and oceanographic prediction capability. Forecast verification is an important component of NAEFS and NUOPC.

  14. Palos Verdes Shelf oceanographic study; data report for observations December 2007–April 2008

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rosenberger, Kurt J.; Noble, Marlene A.; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Martini, Marinna M.; Ferreira, Joanne T.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.

    2011-01-01

    Beginning in 1997, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defined a contaminated section of the Palos Verdes Shelf region in southern California as a Superfund Site, initiating a continuing investigation of this area. The investigation involved the EPA, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), Los Angeles County Sanitation Districts (LACSD) data, and other allied agencies. In mid-2007, the Palos Verdes Shelf project team identified the need for additional data on the sediment properties and oceanographic conditions at the Palos Verdes Superfund Site and deployed seven bottom platforms, three subsurface moorings, and three surface moorings on the shelf. This additional data was needed to support ongoing modeling and feasibility studies and to improve our ability to model the fate of the effluent-affected deposit over time. It provided more detail on the spatial variability and magnitude of resuspension of the deposit during multiple storms that are expected to transit the region during a winter season. The operation began in early December 2007 and ended in early April 2008. The goal was to measure the sediment response (threshold of resuspension, suspended-sediment concentrations, and suspended-sediment transport rates) to bed stresses associated with waves and currents. Other objectives included determining the structure of the bottom boundary layer (BBL) relating nearbed currents with those measured at 10 m above bottom (mab) and comparing those with the long-term data from the LACSD Acoustic Doppler Current Profiler (ADCP) deployments for nearbed current speed and direction. Low-profile tripods with high-frequency ADCPs co-located with two of the large tripods were selected for this goal. This report describes the data obtained during the field program, the instruments and data-processing procedures used, and the archive that contains the data sets that have passed our quality-assurance procedures.

  15. Green Sturgeon Distribution in the Pacific Ocean Estimated from Modeled Oceanographic Features and Migration Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Huff, David D.; Lindley, Steven T.; Wells, Brian K.; Chai, Fei

    2012-01-01

    The green sturgeon (Acipenser medirostris), which is found in the eastern Pacific Ocean from Baja California to the Bering Sea, tends to be highly migratory, moving long distances among estuaries, spawning rivers, and distant coastal regions. Factors that determine the oceanic distribution of green sturgeon are unclear, but broad-scale physical conditions interacting with migration behavior may play an important role. We estimated the distribution of green sturgeon by modeling species-environment relationships using oceanographic and migration behavior covariates with maximum entropy modeling (MaxEnt) of species geographic distributions. The primary concentration of green sturgeon was estimated from approximately 41–51.5° N latitude in the coastal waters of Washington, Oregon, and Vancouver Island and in the vicinity of San Francisco and Monterey Bays from 36–37° N latitude. Unsuitably cold water temperatures in the far north and energetic efficiencies associated with prevailing water currents may provide the best explanation for the range-wide marine distribution of green sturgeon. Independent trawl records, fisheries observer records, and tagging studies corroborated our findings. However, our model also delineated patchily distributed habitat south of Monterey Bay, though there are few records of green sturgeon from this region. Green sturgeon are likely influenced by countervailing pressures governing their dispersal. They are behaviorally directed to revisit natal freshwater spawning rivers and persistent overwintering grounds in coastal marine habitats, yet they are likely physiologically bounded by abiotic and biotic environmental features. Impacts of human activities on green sturgeon or their habitat in coastal waters, such as bottom-disturbing trawl fisheries, may be minimized through marine spatial planning that makes use of high-quality species distribution information. PMID:23029274

  16. Multi-sensor Oceanographic Correlations for Pacific Hake Acoustic Survey Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brozen, M.; Hillyer, N.; Holt, B.; Armstrong, E. M.

    2010-12-01

    North Pacific hake (Merluccius productus), the most abundant groundfish along the Pacific coast of northwestern America, are an essential source of income for the coastal region from southern California to British Columbia, Canada. However, hake abundance and distribution are highly variable among years, exhibiting variance in both the north-south and east-west distribution as seen in the results from biannual acoustic surveys. This project is part of a larger undertaking, ultimately focused on the prediction of hake distribution to improve the distribution of survey effort and precision of stock assessments in the future. Four remotely sensed oceanographic variables are examined as a first step in improving our understanding the relationship between the intensity of coastal upwelling and other ocean dynamics, and the north-south summer hake distribution. Sea surface height, wind vectors, chlorophyll - a concentrations, and sea surface temperature were acquired from several satellites, including AVHRR, SeaWifs, TOPEX/Poseidon, Jason-1, Jason-2, SSM/I, ASMR-E, and QuikScat. Data were aligned to the same spatial and temporal resolution, and these re-gridded data were then analyzed using empirical orthogonal functions (EOFs). EOFs were used as a spatio-temporally compact representation of the data and to reduce the co-variability of the multiple time series in the dataset. The EOF results were plotted and acoustic survey results were overlaid to understand differences between regions. Although this pilot project used data from only a single year (2007), it demonstrated a methodology for reducing dimensionality of linearly related satellite variables that can used in future applications, and provided insight into multi-dimensional ocean characteristics important for hake distribution.

  17. Alta FT-150: The Thruster for LISA Pathfinder and LISA/NGO Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paita, L.; Cesari, U.; Nania, F.; Priami, L.; Rossodivita, A.; Giusti, N.; Andrenucci, M.; Estublier, D.

    2013-01-01

    FT-150© FEEP thruster has successfully completed an endurance test at Alta's Micropropulsion laboratory. The updated thruster design dramatically enhances performance with respect to previous FEEP devices and marks a major step forward in the LISA Pathfinder and NGO programmes as well as space propulsion capability in general. The test campaign took place in two parts. Firstly, the new design was tested to validate that the new configuration was compliant with the requirements of the Lisa Pathfinder mission with particular emphasis on the achievement of required total impulse and minimum and maximum thrust levels.The second part of the campaign was aimed at testing a worst-case DFACS profile of the LISA Pathfinder mission using the Elegant Breadboard Power Control Unit (EBB PCU) commanding at 10 Hz and acquiring at 50 Hz. Both purposes of the campaign were successfully met. A total impulse of more than 1080 Ns and a firing time of more than 3500 hours were achieved. No degradation of efficiency and performance was recorded over the entire test. During the first part, more then 600 Ns of total impulse and about 2000 hours of firing time were achieved. Different thrust profiles were commanded with an average thrust of about 87 μN. The minimum and maximum thrust were 1 μN and 150 μN respectively. Short periods at zero N (i.e. thruster switched-off) were also commanded. The measured mass efficiency and specific impulse, 60% and 8000 s respectively, demonstrated that the current design of the thruster is fully compatible with the much larger impulse requirement of LISA mission. The simulation of the worst-case DFACS cycles at 10 Hz was also successfully performed. Three different DFACS cycles representative of the worst cases were performed. These cycles highlighted one of the main advantages of this technology: the controllability and response time that can be verified immediately with electrical feedback parameters like total voltage and beam current (data

  18. Biotechnical performance of vegetal species in slope conservation in Cruz Alta, RS, Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prates Bisso, Fernando; Durlo, Miguel

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this work was the evaluation of biotechnical performance of different vegetal species growth in the slope soil conservation and reforest (revegetate). The study was performed with oxic soil talus, in Cruz Alta - RS, Brazil (28°23'28.14" S and 53°22'25.61" W) and began in January 2010. The sow treatments employed were: 1) cuttings of Ateleia glazioveana; 2) cuttings of Pyrostegia venusta; 3) seedlings of Baccharis trimera; 4) Seedlings of Cynodom plectostachyus; 5) blank, no sow. The evaluated parameters were: plant survival ratio (%); vegetal covered percentage; natural revegetation (plants/m2); the slope soil level reduction (cm); and water and soil runoff. C. plectostachyus and B. trimera afforded considerable higher survival (92% and 78.5%, respectively) and vegetation cover of the slope (99.6% and 82.9%) than other species. The natural revegetation showed an increase according to the ground above the slope (146.9 plants/m2) compared with the slope ramp (22.1 plants/m2). Moreover, C. plectostachyus, A. glazioveana, P. venusta, B. trimera and C. plectostachyus treatments showed 34.9, 28.6, 23.0 and 21.0 plants/m2, respectively, when compared with the blank (2.5 plants/m2) in the slope ramp region. Furthermore, the sow line regions gave 91.2 plants/m2) whereas the regions among lines afforded 8.6 plants/m2. Additionally, C. plectostachyus showed soil average drawdown profile decrease of 12.8 mm after 360 days after planting, and A. glazioveana reached 16.9 mm after 540 days according to the blank (34.0 mm). Considering the period of 60 to 360 days, it was observed significant differences in the soil loss estimative and reduction percentage compared to blank were: Blank 127.9 ton/ha/year; A. glazioveana, 117.9 ton/ha/year (-8%); P. venusta, 116.3 ton/ha/year (-9%); B. trimera, 106.7 ton/ha/year (-17%); and C. plectostachyus, 73.2 ton/ha/year (-43%). Thus, C. plectostachyus showed the best survival and vegetal coverage producing significant reduction of

  19. Sedimentation survey of Lago La Plata, Toa Alta, Puerto Rico, March–April 2015

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gómez-Fragoso, Julieta

    2016-10-31

    IntroductionLago La Plata is operated by the Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) and is part of the San Juan Metropolitan Water District. The reservoir serves a population of about 425,000 people. During 2013 the reservoir provided 0.307 million cubic meters (Mm3 ) of water per day (about 81 million gallons per day), which is equivalent to 31 percent of the total water demand for the metropolitan area (Wanda L. Molina, U.S. Geological Survey, written commun., 2015). The dam was constructed in 1974 and is located about 5 kilometers (km) south of the town of Toa Alta and 5 km north of the town of Naranjito (fig. 1). The drainage area upstream from the Lago La Plata dam is about 469 square kilometers (km2 ). The storage capacity at construction in 1974 was 26.84 Mm3 with a spillway elevation of 47.12 meters (m) above mean sea level (msl). Storage capacity was increased to 40.21 Mm3 in 1989 after the installation of bascule gates to provide a normal dam pool elevation at 52 m above msl (Puerto Rico Electric and Power Authority, 1979). The maximum height of the dam is about 40 m above the river bottom near the dam, and the intake structure consists of six 1.82-m-diameter ports facing upstream, with 6-m vertical spacing that begins at an elevation of 19 m above msl. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the PRASA, conducted a bathymetric survey of the Lago La Plata reservoir during March and April 2015. The hydrographic survey was designed to provide an update of the reservoir storage capacity and sedimentation rate. Areas with substantial sediment accumulation are also discussed in this report. The results of the survey were used to prepare a bathymetric map showing the reservoir bottom (fig. 2) referenced with respect to the spillway elevation. This report also includes a summary of a previous bathymetric survey conducted in 2006 (Soler-López, 2008).

  20. Subtle population genetic structure in yelloweye rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus) is consistent with a major oceanographic division in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Siegle, Matthew R; Taylor, Eric B; Miller, Kristi M; Withler, Ruth E; Yamanaka, K Lynne

    2013-01-01

    The boundaries between oceanographic domains often function as dispersal barriers for many temperate marine species with a dispersive pelagic larval phase. Yelloweye rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus, YR) are widely distributed across the northeastern Pacific Ocean, inhabiting coastal rocky reefs from the Aleutian Islands in Alaska through southern California. This species exhibits an extended pelagic larval duration and has the capacity for long distance larval transport. We assayed 2,862 YR individuals from 13 general areas in the northeast Pacific Ocean for allelic variation at nine microsatellite loci. Bayesian model-based clustering analyses grouped individuals from the Strait of Georgia (SG) into a distinct genetic cluster, while individuals from outer coastal water locations (OCLs) were partitioned equally across two genetic clusters, including the cluster associated with the SG fish. Pairwise FST values were consistently an order of magnitude higher for comparisons between the SG and OCLs than they were for all OCL-OCL comparisons (∼0.016 vs. ∼0.001). This same pattern was observed across two time points when individuals were binned into an "old" and "young" group according to birth year (old: ∼0.020 vs. 0.0003; young: ∼0.020 vs. ∼0.004). Additionally, mean allelic richness was markedly lower within the SG compared to the OCLs (8.00 vs. 10.54-11.77). These results indicate that the Strait of Georgia "deep-basin" estuary oceanographic domain acts as a dispersal barrier from the outer coastal waters via the Juan de Fuca Strait. Alternatively, selection against maladapted dispersers across this oceanographic transition may underlie the observed genetic differentiation between the Georgia basin and the outer coastal waters, and further work is needed to confirm the SG-OCL divide acts as a barrier to larval dispersal.

  1. Subtle population genetic structure in yelloweye rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus) is consistent with a major oceanographic division in British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Siegle, Matthew R; Taylor, Eric B; Miller, Kristi M; Withler, Ruth E; Yamanaka, K Lynne

    2013-01-01

    The boundaries between oceanographic domains often function as dispersal barriers for many temperate marine species with a dispersive pelagic larval phase. Yelloweye rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus, YR) are widely distributed across the northeastern Pacific Ocean, inhabiting coastal rocky reefs from the Aleutian Islands in Alaska through southern California. This species exhibits an extended pelagic larval duration and has the capacity for long distance larval transport. We assayed 2,862 YR individuals from 13 general areas in the northeast Pacific Ocean for allelic variation at nine microsatellite loci. Bayesian model-based clustering analyses grouped individuals from the Strait of Georgia (SG) into a distinct genetic cluster, while individuals from outer coastal water locations (OCLs) were partitioned equally across two genetic clusters, including the cluster associated with the SG fish. Pairwise FST values were consistently an order of magnitude higher for comparisons between the SG and OCLs than they were for all OCL-OCL comparisons (∼0.016 vs. ∼0.001). This same pattern was observed across two time points when individuals were binned into an "old" and "young" group according to birth year (old: ∼0.020 vs. 0.0003; young: ∼0.020 vs. ∼0.004). Additionally, mean allelic richness was markedly lower within the SG compared to the OCLs (8.00 vs. 10.54-11.77). These results indicate that the Strait of Georgia "deep-basin" estuary oceanographic domain acts as a dispersal barrier from the outer coastal waters via the Juan de Fuca Strait. Alternatively, selection against maladapted dispersers across this oceanographic transition may underlie the observed genetic differentiation between the Georgia basin and the outer coastal waters, and further work is needed to confirm the SG-OCL divide acts as a barrier to larval dispersal. PMID:23990926

  2. Subtle Population Genetic Structure in Yelloweye Rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus) Is Consistent with a Major Oceanographic Division in British Columbia, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Siegle, Matthew R.; Taylor, Eric B.; Miller, Kristi M.; Withler, Ruth E.; Yamanaka, K. Lynne

    2013-01-01

    The boundaries between oceanographic domains often function as dispersal barriers for many temperate marine species with a dispersive pelagic larval phase. Yelloweye rockfish (Sebastes ruberrimus, YR) are widely distributed across the northeastern Pacific Ocean, inhabiting coastal rocky reefs from the Aleutian Islands in Alaska through southern California. This species exhibits an extended pelagic larval duration and has the capacity for long distance larval transport. We assayed 2,862 YR individuals from 13 general areas in the northeast Pacific Ocean for allelic variation at nine microsatellite loci. Bayesian model-based clustering analyses grouped individuals from the Strait of Georgia (SG) into a distinct genetic cluster, while individuals from outer coastal water locations (OCLs) were partitioned equally across two genetic clusters, including the cluster associated with the SG fish. Pairwise FST values were consistently an order of magnitude higher for comparisons between the SG and OCLs than they were for all OCL-OCL comparisons (∼0.016 vs. ∼0.001). This same pattern was observed across two time points when individuals were binned into an “old” and “young” group according to birth year (old: ∼0.020 vs. 0.0003; young: ∼0.020 vs. ∼0.004). Additionally, mean allelic richness was markedly lower within the SG compared to the OCLs (8.00 vs. 10.54–11.77). These results indicate that the Strait of Georgia “deep-basin” estuary oceanographic domain acts as a dispersal barrier from the outer coastal waters via the Juan de Fuca Strait. Alternatively, selection against maladapted dispersers across this oceanographic transition may underlie the observed genetic differentiation between the Georgia basin and the outer coastal waters, and further work is needed to confirm the SG-OCL divide acts as a barrier to larval dispersal. PMID:23990926

  3. A review of interaction between neon flying squid ( Ommastrephes bartramii) and oceanographic variability in the North Pacific Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Wei; Chen, Xinjun; Yi, Qian; Tian, Siquan

    2015-08-01

    The neon flying squid ( Ommastrephes bartramii) is a short-lived opportunistic species widely distributed in subtropical and temperate waters in the North Pacific Ocean. The life cycle of O. bartramii from planktonic eggs to nektonic adults is closely linked to oceanographic conditions. The fluctuations in O. bartramii abundance and distribution tend to increase and widen continuously due to the heavy influences of ocean-climate events on various spatio-temporal scales. In this study, we reviewed the interaction between O. bartramii and oceanography variability in the North Pacific with respect to large-scale climatic-oceanic phenomena including El Niño, La Niña, Kuroshio, Oyashio and Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), as well as regional environmental variables such as sea surface temperature (SST), sea surface height (SSH), sea surface salinity (SSS), chlorophyll-a (Chl- a) concentration, and plankton density. The population dynamics of O. bartramii is mediated mainly by meso- and large-scale climatic-oceanic events ( e.g., Kuroshio and Oyashio Currents) rather than other local environmental conditions ( e.g., SST and Chl- a concentration), because all of the oceanographic influences are imposed on the context of large-scale climate changes ( e.g., PDO). An unstructured-grid finite-volume coastal ocean model coupled with an individual-based model is proposed to simulate relevant physical-biological oceanographic processes for identifying ocean-climate influence and predicting O. bartramii distribution and abundance in the North Pacific. Future research needs to be focused on improving the knowledge about early life history of O. bartramii and evaluating the relationship between marine physical environment and two separate passive drifting life stages of O. bartramii including free-floating eggs and planktonic paralarvae.

  4. Pollination biology of Eulophia alta (Orchidaceae) in Amazonia: effects of pollinator composition on reproductive success in different populations

    PubMed Central

    Jürgens, Andreas; Bosch, Simone R.; Webber, Antonio C.; Witt, Taina; Frame, Dawn; Gottsberger, Gerhard

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Spatial variation in pollinator composition and abundance is a well-recognized phenomenon. However, a weakness of many studies claiming specificity of plant–pollinator interactions is that they are often restricted to a single locality. The aim of the present study was to investigate pollinator effectiveness of the different flower visitors to the terrestrial orchid Eulophia alta at three different localities and to analyse whether differences in pollinator abundance and composition effect this plant's reproductive success. Methods Natural pollination was observed in vivo, and manipulative experiments were used to study the pollination biology and breeding system of E. alta at three sites near Manaus, Brazil. To gain a better understanding of the underlying mechanisms of pollinator attraction, nectar composition and secretion patterns were also studied, floral scent composition was analysed and a bioassay was conducted. Key Results Flower visitors, pollinator composition, pollinia transfer efficiency of particular pollinator species and natural fruit set differed among the investigated populations of E. alta. Flowers were self-compatible, partially autogamous and effectively pollinated by five bee species (four Centris species and Xylocopa muscaria). Visiting insects appeared to imbibe small amounts of hexose-rich nectar. Nectar sugar content was highest on the third day after flower opening. Floral fragrance analyses revealed 42 compounds, of which monoterpenes and benzenoids predominated. A bioassay using floral parts revealed that only floral tissue from the labellum chamber and labellum tip was attractive to flower visitors. Conclusions The data suggest that observed differences in reproductive success in the three populations cannot be explained by absolute abundance of pollinators alone. Due to behavioural patterns such as disturbance of effective pollinators on flowers by male Centris varia bees defending territory, pollinia transfer

  5. The new pelagic Operational Observatory of the Catalan Sea (OOCS) for the multisensor coordinated measurement of atmospheric and oceanographic conditions.

    PubMed

    Bahamon, Nixon; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Bernardello, Raffaele; Ahumada-Sempoal, Miguel-Angel; Puigdefabregas, Joan; Cateura, Jordi; Muñoz, Eduardo; Velásquez, Zoila; Cruzado, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The new pelagic Operational Observatory of the Catalan Sea (OOCS) for the coordinated multisensor measurement of atmospheric and oceanographic conditions has been recently installed (2009) in the Catalan Sea (41°39'N, 2°54'E; Western Mediterranean) and continuously operated (with minor maintenance gaps) until today. This multiparametric platform is moored at 192 m depth, 9.3 km off Blanes harbour (Girona, Spain). It is composed of a buoy holding atmospheric sensors and a set of oceanographic sensors measuring the water conditions over the upper 100 m depth. The station is located close to the head of the Blanes submarine canyon where an important multispecies pelagic and demersal fishery gives the station ecological and economic relevance. The OOCS provides important records on atmospheric and oceanographic conditions, the latter through the measurement of hydrological and biogeochemical parameters, at depths with a time resolution never attained before for this area of the Mediterranean. Twenty four moored sensors and probes operating in a coordinated fashion provide important data on Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs; UNESCO) such as temperature, salinity, pressure, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll fluorescence, and turbidity. In comparison with other pelagic observatories presently operating in other world areas, OOCS also measures photosynthetic available radiation (PAR) from above the sea surface and at different depths in the upper 50 m. Data are recorded each 30 min and transmitted in real-time to a ground station via GPRS. This time series is published and automatically updated at the frequency of data collection on the official OOCS website (http://www.ceab.csic.es/~oceans). Under development are embedded automated routines for the in situ data treatment and assimilation into numerical models, in order to provide a reliable local marine processing forecast. In this work, our goal is to detail the OOCS multisensor architecture in relation to the coordinated

  6. Physical oceanographic processes at candidate dredged-material disposal sites B1B and 1M offshore San Francisco

    SciTech Connect

    Sherwood, C.R.; Denbo, D.W.; Downing, J.P. ); Coats, D.A. )

    1990-10-01

    The US Army Corps of Engineers (USACE), San Francisco District, has identified two candidate sites for ocean disposal of material from several dredging projects in San Francisco Bay. The disposal site is to be designated under Section 103 of the Ocean Dumping Act. One of the specific criteria in the Ocean Dumping Act is that the physical environments of the candidate sites be considered. Toward this goal, the USACE requested that the Pacific Northwest Laboratory conduct a study of physical oceanographic and sediment transport processes at the candidate sites, B1B and 1M. The results of that study are presented in this report. 40 refs., 27 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Oceanographic Conditions Off Northern Chile During the 1996 La Nina and 1997-1998 El Nino: Part1 - Hydrographic Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanco, J.; Thomas, A.; Strub, T.; Carr, M.

    2000-01-01

    The evolution of oceanographic conditions in the upwelling region off northern Chile (18(sup o) - 24(sup o)S) betweeen 1996 and 1998 (including 1997-1998 El Nino) is presented using hydrographic measurements acquired on quarterly cruises of the Chilean Fisheries Institute, sea-surface temperature (SST), sea level, and wind speeds from Arica (18.5(sup o)S), Iquique (20.5(sup o)S), and Antofagasta (23.5(sup o)S), and a time series of vertical temperature profiles off Iquique.

  8. The New Pelagic Operational Observatory of the Catalan Sea (OOCS) for the Multisensor Coordinated Measurement of Atmospheric and Oceanographic Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Bahamon, Nixon; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Bernardello, Raffaele; Ahumada-Sempoal, Miguel-Angel; Puigdefabregas, Joan; Cateura, Jordi; Muñoz, Eduardo; Velásquez, Zoila; Cruzado, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The new pelagic Operational Observatory of the Catalan Sea (OOCS) for the coordinated multisensor measurement of atmospheric and oceanographic conditions has been recently installed (2009) in the Catalan Sea (41°39′N, 2°54′E; Western Mediterranean) and continuously operated (with minor maintenance gaps) until today. This multiparametric platform is moored at 192 m depth, 9.3 km off Blanes harbour (Girona, Spain). It is composed of a buoy holding atmospheric sensors and a set of oceanographic sensors measuring the water conditions over the upper 100 m depth. The station is located close to the head of the Blanes submarine canyon where an important multispecies pelagic and demersal fishery gives the station ecological and economic relevance. The OOCS provides important records on atmospheric and oceanographic conditions, the latter through the measurement of hydrological and biogeochemical parameters, at depths with a time resolution never attained before for this area of the Mediterranean. Twenty four moored sensors and probes operating in a coordinated fashion provide important data on Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs; UNESCO) such as temperature, salinity, pressure, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll fluorescence, and turbidity. In comparison with other pelagic observatories presently operating in other world areas, OOCS also measures photosynthetic available radiation (PAR) from above the sea surface and at different depths in the upper 50 m. Data are recorded each 30 min and transmitted in real-time to a ground station via GPRS. This time series is published and automatically updated at the frequency of data collection on the official OOCS website (http://www.ceab.csic.es/~oceans). Under development are embedded automated routines for the in situ data treatment and assimilation into numerical models, in order to provide a reliable local marine processing forecast. In this work, our goal is to detail the OOCS multisensor architecture in relation to the

  9. The new pelagic Operational Observatory of the Catalan Sea (OOCS) for the multisensor coordinated measurement of atmospheric and oceanographic conditions.

    PubMed

    Bahamon, Nixon; Aguzzi, Jacopo; Bernardello, Raffaele; Ahumada-Sempoal, Miguel-Angel; Puigdefabregas, Joan; Cateura, Jordi; Muñoz, Eduardo; Velásquez, Zoila; Cruzado, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    The new pelagic Operational Observatory of the Catalan Sea (OOCS) for the coordinated multisensor measurement of atmospheric and oceanographic conditions has been recently installed (2009) in the Catalan Sea (41°39'N, 2°54'E; Western Mediterranean) and continuously operated (with minor maintenance gaps) until today. This multiparametric platform is moored at 192 m depth, 9.3 km off Blanes harbour (Girona, Spain). It is composed of a buoy holding atmospheric sensors and a set of oceanographic sensors measuring the water conditions over the upper 100 m depth. The station is located close to the head of the Blanes submarine canyon where an important multispecies pelagic and demersal fishery gives the station ecological and economic relevance. The OOCS provides important records on atmospheric and oceanographic conditions, the latter through the measurement of hydrological and biogeochemical parameters, at depths with a time resolution never attained before for this area of the Mediterranean. Twenty four moored sensors and probes operating in a coordinated fashion provide important data on Essential Ocean Variables (EOVs; UNESCO) such as temperature, salinity, pressure, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll fluorescence, and turbidity. In comparison with other pelagic observatories presently operating in other world areas, OOCS also measures photosynthetic available radiation (PAR) from above the sea surface and at different depths in the upper 50 m. Data are recorded each 30 min and transmitted in real-time to a ground station via GPRS. This time series is published and automatically updated at the frequency of data collection on the official OOCS website (http://www.ceab.csic.es/~oceans). Under development are embedded automated routines for the in situ data treatment and assimilation into numerical models, in order to provide a reliable local marine processing forecast. In this work, our goal is to detail the OOCS multisensor architecture in relation to the coordinated

  10. Application of LANDSAT satellite imagery and oceanographic data for verification of an upwelling mathematical model. [Atlantic Coast of Brazil

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dejesusparada, N. (Principal Investigator); Tanaka, K.; Almeida, E. G.

    1978-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Data obtained during the cruise of the Cabo Frio and from LANDSAT imagery are used to discuss the characteristics of a linear model which simulates wind induced currents calculated from meteorological conditions at the time of the mission. There is a significant correspondance between the model of simulated horizontal water circulation, sea surface temperature, and surface currents observed on LANDSAT imagery. Close approximations were also observed between the simulation of vertical water movement (upwelling) and the oceanographic measurements taken along a series of points of the prevailing currents.

  11. Human influence on late Holocene fluvial landscape and stratigraphy in the Mixteca Alta of Oaxaca, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leigh, D. S.; Holdridge, G. H.; Kowalewski, S. A.

    2011-12-01

    The Mixteca Alta of south-central Mexico (state of Oaxaca) is a high-elevation plateau where population and agricultural steadily grew over the past 3000 years, but with a few significant episodes of population decline. Currently, the landscape is highly eroded and gullied in response to widespread land abandonment and diminished population attributed to the Spanish conquest during the 1500s and 1600s. Abandonment apparently resulted in neglect of prehistoric cross-drainage retaining walls, known as lama-bordos, which had been constructed throughout agricultural watersheds for millennia to retain runoff and sediment. Our research seeks to establish the earliest ages for construction of lama-bordos, which are buried by more than 10 m of alluvium in some localities; and we hope to determine if the chronology of alluvial sedimentation is related to fluctuations in population density versus climate changes or other drivers. Sampling is focused on relatively small tributary watersheds (<10 km^2) in the valley of Rio Culebra near the town of Coixlahuaca. Our general hypothesis is counter to Malthusian theory in that we posit land degradation and erosion was punctuated by episodes of population decline when there were insufficient people to maintain the lama-bordo infrastructure. Methods involve: (1) detailed stratigraphic and pedogenic description and sampling of several outcrops; (2) radiocarbon and luminescence dating of stratigraphic sections; (3) geochemical and lithological tracing of sedimentary beds to discriminate time periods of gully erosion; (4) relating the alluvial chronology to archaeological surveys that have established the occupation history of the region. Results indicate that upland gully erosion had occurred prior to widespread human occupation of the area, because >4000 cal yr BP cut-and-fill stratigraphic units commonly contain detritus from upland subsoil and underlying bedrock. We provide numerous radiocarbon dates for the oldest lama-bordos, and

  12. Are There Oceanographic Explanations for the Israelites'Crossing of the Red Sea?.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nof, Doron; Paldor, Nathan

    1992-03-01

    Two relatively simple physical oceanographic processes are suggested as plausible explanations for the biblical description of the Israelites' Crossing of the Red Sea during their exodus from Egypt. The first involves strong wind that blows along the Gulf of Suez and pushes the water a considerable distance away from the regular shoreline. This process is examined with the aid of a simple conceptual model consisting of a shallow, narrow, and long channel (corresponding to the Gulf of Suez) connected to a large body of water (corresponding to the main body of the Red Sea). Uniform wind is allowed to blow over the entire gulf for a period of about a day and the resulting phenomena are examined by solving the appropriate governing equations.It is shown that, in a similar fashion to the familiar wind setup in a long and narrow lake, the water at the edge of the gulf slowly recedes away from its original prewind position. The receding distance of the shoreline and the associated sea level drop are computed by solving the nonlinear equation that governs the motion resulting from the wind. It is found that, even for moderate storms with wind speed of about 20 s1 receding distance of more than 1 km and a sea level drop of more than 2.5 m are obtained. These relatively high values are a result of the unique geometry of the gulf (i.e., its rather small width-to-length and depth-to-length ratios) and the nonlinearity of the governing equation. Upon an abrupt relaxation of the wind, the water returns to its prewind position as a fast (nonlinear) gravity wave that floods the entire receding zone within minutes. It is suggested that the crossing occurred while the water receded and that the drowning of the Egyptians was a result of the rapidly returning wave.The second possible mechanism that is considered is a tsunami (i.e., a flood resulting from an earthquake under the sea)m that arrived at the Gulf of Suez from the main body of the Red Sea. In a similar fashion to the wind

  13. The Opening of the Arctic-Atlantic Gateway: Tectonic, Oceanographic and Climatic Dynamics - an IODP Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geissler, Wolfram; Knies, Jochen

    2016-04-01

    The modern polar cryosphere reflects an extreme climate state with profound temperature gradients towards high-latitudes. It developed in association with stepwise Cenozoic cooling, beginning with ephemeral glaciations and the appearance of sea ice in the late middle Eocene. The polar ocean gateways played a pivotal role in changing the polar and global climate, along with declining greenhouse gas levels. The opening of the Drake Passage finalized the oceanographic isolation of Antarctica, some 40 Ma ago. The Arctic Ocean was an isolated basin until the early Miocene when rifting and subsequent sea-floor spreading started between Greenland and Svalbard, initiating the opening of the Fram Strait / Arctic-Atlantic Gateway (AAG). Although this gateway is known to be important in Earth's past and modern climate, little is known about its Cenozoic development. However, the opening history and AAG's consecutive widening and deepening must have had a strong impact on circulation and water mass exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic. To study the AAG's complete history, ocean drilling at two primary sites and one alternate site located between 73°N and 78°N in the Boreas Basin and along the East Greenland continental margin are proposed. These sites will provide unprecedented sedimentary records that will unveil (1) the history of shallow-water exchange between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic, and (2) the development of the AAG to a deep-water connection and its influence on the global climate system. The specific overarching goals of our proposal are to study: (1) the influence of distinct tectonic events in the development of the AAG and the formation of deep water passage on the North Atlantic and Arctic paleoceanography, and (2) the role of the AAG in the climate transition from the Paleogene greenhouse to the Neogene icehouse for the long-term (~50 Ma) climate history of the northern North Atlantic. Getting a continuous record of the

  14. Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R): Linking and Integrating Data for Oceanographic Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Chandler, C. L.; Clark, P. D.; Shepherd, A.; Moore, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) program is developing infrastructure to ensure the underway sensor data from NSF-supported oceanographic research vessels are routinely and consistently documented, preserved in long-term archives, and disseminated to the science community. We have published the entire R2R Catalog as a Linked Data collection, making it easily accessible to encourage linking and integration with data at other repositories. We are developing the R2R Linked Data collection with specific goals in mind: 1.) We facilitate data access and reuse by providing the richest possible collection of resources to describe vessels, cruises, instruments, and datasets from the U.S. academic fleet, including data quality assessment results and clean trackline navigation. We are leveraging or adopting existing community-standard concepts and vocabularies, particularly concepts from the Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) ontology and terms from the pan-European SeaDataNet vocabularies, and continually re-publish resources as new concepts and terms are mapped. 2.) We facilitate data citation through the entire data lifecycle from field acquisition to shoreside archiving to (ultimately) global syntheses and journal articles. We are implementing globally unique and persistent identifiers at the collection, dataset, and granule levels, and encoding these citable identifiers directly into the Linked Data resources. 3.) We facilitate linking and integration with other repositories that publish Linked Data collections for the U.S. academic fleet, such as BCO-DMO and the Index to Marine and Lacustrine Geological Samples (IMLGS). We are initially mapping datasets at the resource level, and plan to eventually implement rule-based mapping at the concept level. We work collaboratively with partner repositories to develop best practices for URI patterns and consensus on shared vocabularies. The R2R Linked Data collection is implemented as a

  15. The Data Management System for the Shipboard Automated Meteorological and Oceanographic System (SAMOS) Initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, S. R.; Arko, R. A.; Bourassa, M. A.; Hu, J.; McDonald, M.; Rettig, J.; Rolph, J.

    2009-12-01

    The data assembly center (DAC) for the SAMOS initiative has developed and implemented an automated data management system that collects, formats, quality controls, distributes, and archives near real-time surface marine data from research vessels. A SAMOS is a computerized data logging system that continuously records navigational (ship’s position, course, speed, and heading), meteorological (winds, air temperature, pressure, moisture, rainfall, and radiation), and near-surface oceanographic (sea temperature, salinity, conductivity, florescence) parameters while the vessel is at sea. The SAMOS initiative relies on the high-quality instrumentation purchased and deployed by the research vessel operators and does not provide instrumentation to the vessels. Currently, the SAMOS initiative receives measurements recorded at 1-min intervals and derived from higher frequency samples (on the order of 1 Hz). As of 2009, 21 research vessels provide routine SAMOS observations to the DAC. The data management system automatically tracks progress of the daily data acquisition and quality processing, stores metadata on instrumentation and ships, and provides data monitoring capability via a user-friendly web interface. An SQL database stores essential parameters to support tracking, data quality control, and version control for each file throughout the process. Presently, SAMOS data are acquired directly from research vessels at sea via a daily email transfer protocol. The steps of this NOAA funded protocol will be described along with lessons learned through the development process. A new DAC initiative, funded by NSF, to develop a 2nd SAMOS data acquisition protocol, via collaboration with the Rolling deck to Repository (R2R) project, will be outlined. The new protocol is envisioned to include transmission of the higher frequency meteorological and surface oceanic samples from participating vessels to real-time servers at R2R. The SAMOS DAC will access these samples for data

  16. Shared Semantics for Oceanographic Research: Development of Standard ``Cruise-Level'' Metadata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Milan, A.; Chandler, C. L.; Miller, S. P.; Ferrini, V.; Mesick, S.; Mize, J.; Paver, C.; Sullivan, B.; Sweeney, A.

    2010-12-01

    There is a general need in the ocean science community for a widely accepted standards-based “cruise-level” metadata profile that describes the basic elements of a seagoing expedition (e.g. cruise identifier, vessel name, operating institution, dates/ports, navigation track, survey targets, science party, funding sources, scientific instruments, daughter platforms, and data sets). The need for such a profile is increasingly urgent as seagoing programs become more complex and interdisciplinary; funding agencies mandate public dissemination of the resulting data; and data centers link post-field/derived products to original field data sets. We are developing a standard implementation for cruise-level metadata that serves the needs of multiple U.S. programs, in an effort to promote interoperability and facilitate collaboration. Testbed development has focused on the Rolling Deck to Repository (R2R) and Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) programs - both tasked with routinely documenting and archiving large volumes of data from a wide array of U.S. research vessels - and draws from the cruise-level metadata profile published by the University-National Oceanographic Laboratory System (UNOLS) Data Management Best Practices Committee in 2008. Our XML implementation is based on the ISO 19115-2:2009 standard for geospatial metadata, with controlled vocabulary terms directly embedded as Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) references that can be validated in e.g. ISO Schematron. Our choice of the ISO standard reflects ANSI's adoption of the ISO 19115 North American Profile in 2009, and the adoption of ISO 19115 by related programs including the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) and the SeaDataNet program in Europe. We envision a hierarchical framework where a single “cruise-level” record is linked to multiple “dataset-level” records that may be published independently. Our results published online will include a best practices guide for authoring records

  17. A 2006-2007 Update on Oceanographic Conditions in the Central Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morison, J. H.; Steele, M.; Wahr, J.; Alkire, M.; Peralta-Ferriz, C.; Kwok, R.; Kikuchi, T.

    2007-12-01

    Trends in central Arctic Ocean conditions are updated with recently gathered data. In the late 1980s and through the 1990s we saw major shifts in the Arctic Ocean. The influence of Atlantic Water in the Arctic Ocean became more widespread and intense and the pattern of water circulation and ice drift shifted, resulting in a more cyclonic circulation. These changes became manifest in the central Arctic near the North Pole as increases in upper ocean salinity and Atlantic Water temperature. They occurred in concert with a decrease in surface atmospheric pressure. With the aim of helping to track such changes, the North Pole Environmental Observatory (NPEO) has been maintained since 2000. Along with an automated drifting station and a deep ocean mooring near the Pole; NPEO conducts airborne hydrographic surveys that track changes along key sections radiating from the Pole. In a related project, several of us have undertaken in situ ocean bottom pressure measurements and the analysis of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) data to track changes in the distribution of ocean mass. Hydrographic measurements made by the NPEO show that between 2000 and 2005, oceanographic condition relaxed toward the pre-1990 state. Morison et al [2006] describe these changes and relate them to a decline in the Arctic Oscillation (AO) index. On the basis of in situ and GRACE bottom pressure trends, Morison et al. [2007] argue that shift back to pre-1990s circulation extended over the whole Arctic Ocean. The Spring 2007 NPEO hydrographic surveys and the 2006-2007 bottom pressure data suggest the trend towards pre-1990s conditions has now, once again, reversed. The new observations show greater salinities and bottom pressure near the Pole, indicative of increased Atlantic water presence. Temperatures have increased in the Atlantic Water core along the Eurasian flank of the Lomonosov Ridge. We will explore these most recent changes and their relation to changes in the ice cover and

  18. Miocene oceanographic changes of the western equatorial Atlantic (Ceara Rise) based on calcareous dinoflagellate cysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, S.; Zonneveld, K. A. F.; Willems, H.

    2010-09-01

    The middle- and upper Miocene represent a time-interval of major changes in palaeoceanography that favoured the cooling of the climate and culminated in the Northern Hemisphere Glaciation (NHG). The basis for the development of the modern deepwater circulation pattern, e.g. thermohaline circulation, was hereby established. Tectonic events played a key role in the progressing Miocene oceanography, such as the narrowing of the Panama gateway (e.g. Duque-Caro 1990) and the possible linked changes in North Atlantic Deep Water formation (Lear et al. 2003). However, the complex interaction between the closing of the Panama Gateway, the development of NADW, and thus the oceanographic progression towards our present day circulation is far from being fully understood. We want to improve the understanding of these processes by establishing a detailed palaeoceanographic reconstruction of the western equatorial Atlantic Ocean on the basis of calcareous dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) associations. Within this study, we investigated sediment samples from ODP Site 926A by defining the calcareous dinocyst assemblage. Site 926A is located at the southwestern flank of the Ceara Rise, an area of highest sensitivity to global deep water circulation changes. At about 12 Ma, when NADW production increased (e.g. Wright et al. 1992), we see a distinct increase in the absolute abundances of the calcareous dinocysts. This might be related to enhanced productivity or to better carbonate preservation. At 11.3 Ma, Leonella granifera, a species known to be strongly related to terrestrial input occurs. This could be a signal for the initiation of the Amazon River as a transcontinental river with the development of the Amazon fan (11.8 - 11.3 Ma; Figueiredo et al. 2009) in relation to Andean tectonism. References: Duque-Caro, H. (1990): Neogene stratigraphy, paleoceanography and palebiology in Northwest South America and the evolution of the Panama Seaway. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology

  19. Relation between Oceanographic parameters and Optical properties in 5 coastal areas of Southern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campanelli, Alessandra; Braga, Federica; Betti, Mattia; Cavalli, Rosa Maria; Grilli, Federica; Pascucci, Simone; Marini, Mauro

    2014-05-01

    In the framework of the CLAM-PHYM (Coasts-and-Lake-Assessment-and-Monitoring-by-Prisma-Hyperspectral-Mission) project it was carried out an oceanographic cruise (27/08-13/09/2010) along the coasts of southern Italy in order to analyze the physical, biochemical and optical properties of some coastal areas. The sampling areas are: the Gulf of Taranto, the Policoro area, the Cetraro Bay, the Gulf of Augusta and the Gulf of Gela. CTD profiles and reflectance measurements of the sea surface and along the water column with portable field spectroradiometers were collected. Water samples were also collected for the analysis of nutrients, chlorophyll-a and CDOM. These optically active substances interact with solar radiation along the water column through absorption and scattering phenomena. The collected data were analyzed to identify the relationship between the bio-optical concentrations of optically-active-substances and the surface reflectance spectra measured in situ; this relation, if reversed, can be used to map the concentrations of optically-active-substances from hyperspectral-satellite-data. Results stress high biological activity in the Gulf of Taranto and in the Gulf of Gela showing the highest values of chlorophyll-a and aCDOM440. These areas are characterized by the presence of important industrial and port sites. The Gela's gulf, where we found the highest concentrations of chlorophyll a and CDOM, is also characterized by the runoff of the Salso river increasing the biological activity. The correlations found in the Gulf of Taranto between Kd, chlorophyll a and aCDOM440 indicate that the high concentrations of CDOM are primarily due to phytoplankton rather than from terrestrial source. The Gulf of Taranto shows the best site among those investigated where to identify bio-optical relationships between the concentrations of optically active substances and the surface reflectance spectra measured in situ. The preliminary results encourage the combined use of

  20. Integration and optimization of the DUV ALTA pattern generation system using a CAR process with the Tetra photomask etch system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buxbaum, Alex H.; Fuller, Scott E.; Montgomery, Warren; Ungureit, Michael E.

    2003-12-01

    Etec Systems, the Mask Business Group of Applied Materials, is in a unique position within the mask making industry - Etec has the opportunity to integrate individual parts of the overall mask manufacturing process to provide a more complete solution. Here we present the integration of the DUV ALTA laser pattern generator and the TetraTM photomask etch system with advanced CAR resist processes. Dry etch process effects of flow, overetch, and oxygen content (in a Cl2/O2/He plasma) are discussed for the baseline POR resist in terms of etch rate, selectivity, etch bias, CD uniformity and micro-loading; the optimized etch process space was then implemented for advanced CAR resists. Iso-dense bias, football pattern loading and other pattern transfer results influencing mask manufactureability are also presented. Within the synthesis and optimization of the pattern generation system, process, and dry etch sub 13 nm range process uniformity has been achieved. The integrated ALTA / Tetra / Advanced-CAR solution set is characterized on both Etec test patterns and customer demonstrations.

  1. Sword, Shield and Buoys: A History of the NATO Sub-Committee on Oceanographic Research, 1959–19731

    PubMed Central

    Turchetti, Simone

    2012-01-01

    In the late 1950s the North-Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) made a major effort to fund collaborative research between its member states. One of the first initiatives following the establishment of the alliance's Science Committee was the creation of a sub-group devoted to marine science: the Sub-committee on Oceanographic Research.This paper explores the history of this organization, charts its trajectory over the 13 years of its existence, and considers its activities in light of NATO's naval defence strategies. In particular it shows how the alliance's naval commands played a key role in the sub-committee's creation due to the importance of oceanographic research in the tracking of enemy submarines. The essay also scrutinizes the reasons behind the committee's dissolution, with a special focus on the changing landscape of scientific collaboration at NATO. The committee's fall maps onto a more profound shift in the alliance's research agenda, including the re-organization of defence research and the rise of environmentalism. PMID:23935209

  2. SCSPOD14, a South China Sea physical oceanographic dataset derived from in situ measurements during 1919–2014

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Lili; Wang, Dongxiao; Chen, Ju; Wang, Weiqiang; Chen, Rongyu

    2016-01-01

    In addition to the oceanographic data available for the South China Sea (SCS) from the World Ocean Database (WOD) and Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (Argo) floats, a suite of observations has been made by the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology (SCSIO) starting from the 1970s. Here, we assemble a SCS Physical Oceanographic Dataset (SCSPOD14) based on 51,392 validated temperature and salinity profiles collected from these three datasets for the period 1919–2014. A gridded dataset of climatological monthly mean temperature, salinity, and mixed and isothermal layer depth derived from an objective analysis of profiles is also presented. Comparisons with the World Ocean Atlas (WOA) and IFREMER/LOS Mixed Layer Depth Climatology confirm the reliability of the new dataset. This unique dataset offers an invaluable baseline perspective on the thermodynamic processes, spatial and temporal variability of water masses, and basin-scale and mesoscale oceanic structures in the SCS. We anticipate improvements and regular updates to this product as more observations become available from existing and future in situ networks. PMID:27116565

  3. Spatial and temporal variability in oceanographic and meteorologic forcing along Central California and its implications on nearshore processes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wingfield, D.K.; Storlazzi, C.D.

    2007-01-01

    In the past two decades, the understanding of the important large-scale phenomena (El Niño, upwelling, California current, etc) that drive physical, chemical, and biological processes along the US West Coast has greatly improved. However, the ability to predict the influence of annual and inter-annual events on a regional scale still remains limited. High-resolution hourly data from 6 National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) buoys deployed since the early 1980's off Central California were analyzed to improve our understanding of spatial and temporal variability of oceanographic and meteorologic forcing along the coastline. Seasonal to inter-annual trends in wave height, wave period, sea level barometric pressure, sea-surface temperature, and wind direction were identified, as were significant departures in these trends during El Niño and La Niña periods. The results suggest there are increasing wave heights and wave periods, decreasing sea level barometric pressures and variability in sea-surface temperatures, and increasingly variable winds off Central California between 1980 and 2002. The impact of these climatic trends on coastal physical, geological and biologic processes will also be addressed.

  4. MyOSD 2014: Evaluating Oceanographic Measurements Contributed by Citizen Scientists in Support of Ocean Sampling Day †

    PubMed Central

    Schnetzer, Julia; Kopf, Anna; Bietz, Matthew J.; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Ristov, Aleksandar Pop; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Kottmann, Renzo

    2016-01-01

    The first Ocean Sampling Day (OSD) took place on June 21, 2014. In a coordinated effort, an internationally distributed group of scientists collected samples from marine surface waters in order to study microbial diversity on a single day with global granularity. Concurrently, citizen scientists enriched the OSD initiative through the MyOSD project, providing additional oceanographic measurements crucial to the contextualization of microbial diversity. Clear protocols, a user-friendly smartphone application, and an online web-form guided citizens in accurate data acquisition, promoting quality submissions to the project’s information system. To evaluate the coverage and quality of MyOSD data submissions, we compared the sea surface temperature measurements acquired through OSD, MyOSD, and automatic in situ systems and satellite measurements. Our results show that the quality of citizen-science measurements was comparable to that of scientific measurements. As 79% of MyOSD measurements were conducted in geographic areas not covered by automatic in situ or satellite measurement, citizen scientists contributed significantly to worldwide oceanographic data gathering. Furthermore, survey results indicate that participation in MyOSD made citizens feel more engaged in ocean issues and may have increased their environmental awareness and ocean literacy. PMID:27047614

  5. SCSPOD14, a South China Sea physical oceanographic dataset derived from in situ measurements during 1919-2014.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Lili; Wang, Dongxiao; Chen, Ju; Wang, Weiqiang; Chen, Rongyu

    2016-04-26

    In addition to the oceanographic data available for the South China Sea (SCS) from the World Ocean Database (WOD) and Array for Real-time Geostrophic Oceanography (Argo) floats, a suite of observations has been made by the South China Sea Institute of Oceanology (SCSIO) starting from the 1970s. Here, we assemble a SCS Physical Oceanographic Dataset (SCSPOD14) based on 51,392 validated temperature and salinity profiles collected from these three datasets for the period 1919-2014. A gridded dataset of climatological monthly mean temperature, salinity, and mixed and isothermal layer depth derived from an objective analysis of profiles is also presented. Comparisons with the World Ocean Atlas (WOA) and IFREMER/LOS Mixed Layer Depth Climatology confirm the reliability of the new dataset. This unique dataset offers an invaluable baseline perspective on the thermodynamic processes, spatial and temporal variability of water masses, and basin-scale and mesoscale oceanic structures in the SCS. We anticipate improvements and regular updates to this product as more observations become available from existing and future in situ networks.

  6. Summary of oceanographic and water-quality measurements in Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge, Wells, Maine, in 2013

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Ganju, Neil K.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Borden, Jonathan; Martini, Marinna A.; Brosnahan, Sandra M.

    2015-01-01

    Suspended-sediment transport is a critical element controlling the geomorphology of tidal wetland complexes. Wetlands rely on organic material and inorganic sediment deposition to maintain their elevation relative to sea level. The U.S. Geological Survey performed observational deployments to measure suspended-sediment concentration and water flow rates in the tidal channels of the wetlands in the Rachel Carson National Wildlife Refuge in Wells, Maine. The objective was to characterize the sediment-transport mechanisms that contribute to the net sediment budget of the wetland complex. We deployed a meteorological tower, optical turbidity sensors, and acoustic velocity meters at sites on Stephens Brook and the Ogunquit River between March 27 and December 9, 2013. This report presents the time-series oceanographic and atmospheric data collected during those field studies. The oceanographic parameters include water velocity, depth, turbidity, salinity, temperature, and pH. The atmospheric parameters include wind direction, speed, and gust; air temperature; air pressure; relative humidity; short wave radiation; and photosynthetically active radiation.

  7. Rise of oceanographic barriers in continuous populations of a cetacean: the genetic structure of harbour porpoises in Old World waters

    PubMed Central

    Fontaine, Michaël C; Baird, Stuart JE; Piry, Sylvain; Ray, Nicolas; Tolley, Krystal A; Duke, Sarah; Birkun, Alexei; Ferreira, Marisa; Jauniaux, Thierry; Llavona, Ángela; Öztürk, Bayram; A Öztürk, Ayaka; Ridoux, Vincent; Rogan, Emer; Sequeira, Marina; Siebert, Ursula; Vikingsson, Gísli A; Bouquegneau, Jean-Marie; Michaux, Johan R

    2007-01-01

    Background Understanding the role of seascape in shaping genetic and demographic population structure is highly challenging for marine pelagic species such as cetaceans for which there is generally little evidence of what could effectively restrict their dispersal. In the present work, we applied a combination of recent individual-based landscape genetic approaches to investigate the population genetic structure of a highly mobile extensive range cetacean, the harbour porpoise in the eastern North Atlantic, with regards to oceanographic characteristics that could constrain its dispersal. Results Analyses of 10 microsatellite loci for 752 individuals revealed that most of the sampled range in the eastern North Atlantic behaves as a 'continuous' population that widely extends over thousands of kilometres with significant isolation by distance (IBD). However, strong barriers to gene flow were detected in the south-eastern part of the range. These barriers coincided with profound changes in environmental characteristics and isolated, on a relatively small scale, porpoises from Iberian waters and on a larger scale porpoises from the Black Sea. Conclusion The presence of these barriers to gene flow that coincide with profound changes in oceanographic features, together with the spatial variation in IBD strength, provide for the first time strong evidence that physical processes have a major impact on the demographic and genetic structure of a cetacean. This genetic pattern further suggests habitat-related fragmentation of the porpoise range that is likely to intensify with predicted surface ocean warming. PMID:17651495

  8. Sword, Shield and Buoys: A History of the NATO Sub-Committee on Oceanographic Research, 1959-1973.

    PubMed

    Turchetti, Simone

    2012-08-01

    In the late 1950s the North-Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) made a major effort to fund collaborative research between its member states. One of the first initiatives following the establishment of the alliance's Science Committee was the creation of a sub-group devoted to marine science: the Sub-committee on Oceanographic Research.This paper explores the history of this organization, charts its trajectory over the 13 years of its existence, and considers its activities in light of NATO's naval defence strategies. In particular it shows how the alliance's naval commands played a key role in the sub-committee's creation due to the importance of oceanographic research in the tracking of enemy submarines. The essay also scrutinizes the reasons behind the committee's dissolution, with a special focus on the changing landscape of scientific collaboration at NATO. The committee's fall maps onto a more profound shift in the alliance's research agenda, including the re-organization of defence research and the rise of environmentalism. PMID:23935209

  9. Physical and biological oceanographic interaction in the spring bloom at the Bering Sea marginal ice edge zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niebauer, H. J.; Alexander, Vera; Henrichs, Susan

    1990-12-01

    At the edge of the melting sea ice pack in the Bering Sea in spring, physical, biological, and chemical oceanographic processes combine to generate a short-lived, intense phytoplankton bloom that is associated with the retreating ice edge. The bloom begins a week or so before the first of May triggered by insolation and by the low-salinity meltwater stratification in the presence of high nitrate concentrations (˜ > 25 μM). Meltwater (salinity) stratification delineates ice edge blooms from open water blooms where temperature gradients generate the stratification. Five cross-ice sections of temperature, salinity, σt, chlorophyll, and nitrate are presented as a time series from April 27 to May 5 illustrating the bloom. Evidence of two separate but concurrent blooms in the ice edge zone are presented. In addition, meteorological and oceanographic conditions were observed that should have been conducive to ice edge up welling. While significant ice and water movement occurred, upwelling was not observed. Finally, the Bering Sea ice edge spring bloom is compared with other ice edge systems in both hemispheres, showing that initial Bering Sea nitrate concentrations are among the highest observed but quickly become limiting owing to the rapid build up of phytoplankton populations. This primary production is not coupled to the pelagic Zooplankton because Zooplankton are largely absent on account of the cold temperatures. Observed maximum chlorophyll concentrations in the bloom are several times greater than those observed in other systems.

  10. MyOSD 2014: Evaluating Oceanographic Measurements Contributed by Citizen Scientists in Support of Ocean Sampling Day.

    PubMed

    Schnetzer, Julia; Kopf, Anna; Bietz, Matthew J; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Ristov, Aleksandar Pop; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Kottmann, Renzo

    2016-03-01

    The first Ocean Sampling Day (OSD) took place on June 21, 2014. In a coordinated effort, an internationally distributed group of scientists collected samples from marine surface waters in order to study microbial diversity on a single day with global granularity. Concurrently, citizen scientists enriched the OSD initiative through the MyOSD project, providing additional oceanographic measurements crucial to the contextualization of microbial diversity. Clear protocols, a user-friendly smartphone application, and an online web-form guided citizens in accurate data acquisition, promoting quality submissions to the project's information system. To evaluate the coverage and quality of MyOSD data submissions, we compared the sea surface temperature measurements acquired through OSD, MyOSD, and automatic in situ systems and satellite measurements. Our results show that the quality of citizen-science measurements was comparable to that of scientific measurements. As 79% of MyOSD measurements were conducted in geographic areas not covered by automatic in situ or satellite measurement, citizen scientists contributed significantly to worldwide oceanographic data gathering. Furthermore, survey results indicate that participation in MyOSD made citizens feel more engaged in ocean issues and may have increased their environmental awareness and ocean literacy. PMID:27047614

  11. Sword, Shield and Buoys: A History of the NATO Sub-Committee on Oceanographic Research, 1959-1973.

    PubMed

    Turchetti, Simone

    2012-08-01

    In the late 1950s the North-Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) made a major effort to fund collaborative research between its member states. One of the first initiatives following the establishment of the alliance's Science Committee was the creation of a sub-group devoted to marine science: the Sub-committee on Oceanographic Research.This paper explores the history of this organization, charts its trajectory over the 13 years of its existence, and considers its activities in light of NATO's naval defence strategies. In particular it shows how the alliance's naval commands played a key role in the sub-committee's creation due to the importance of oceanographic research in the tracking of enemy submarines. The essay also scrutinizes the reasons behind the committee's dissolution, with a special focus on the changing landscape of scientific collaboration at NATO. The committee's fall maps onto a more profound shift in the alliance's research agenda, including the re-organization of defence research and the rise of environmentalism.

  12. MyOSD 2014: Evaluating Oceanographic Measurements Contributed by Citizen Scientists in Support of Ocean Sampling Day.

    PubMed

    Schnetzer, Julia; Kopf, Anna; Bietz, Matthew J; Buttigieg, Pier Luigi; Fernandez-Guerra, Antonio; Ristov, Aleksandar Pop; Glöckner, Frank Oliver; Kottmann, Renzo

    2016-03-01

    The first Ocean Sampling Day (OSD) took place on June 21, 2014. In a coordinated effort, an internationally distributed group of scientists collected samples from marine surface waters in order to study microbial diversity on a single day with global granularity. Concurrently, citizen scientists enriched the OSD initiative through the MyOSD project, providing additional oceanographic measurements crucial to the contextualization of microbial diversity. Clear protocols, a user-friendly smartphone application, and an online web-form guided citizens in accurate data acquisition, promoting quality submissions to the project's information system. To evaluate the coverage and quality of MyOSD data submissions, we compared the sea surface temperature measurements acquired through OSD, MyOSD, and automatic in situ systems and satellite measurements. Our results show that the quality of citizen-science measurements was comparable to that of scientific measurements. As 79% of MyOSD measurements were conducted in geographic areas not covered by automatic in situ or satellite measurement, citizen scientists contributed significantly to worldwide oceanographic data gathering. Furthermore, survey results indicate that participation in MyOSD made citizens feel more engaged in ocean issues and may have increased their environmental awareness and ocean literacy.

  13. A Network for Standardized Ocean Color Validation Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zibordi, Giuseppe; Holben, Brent; Hooker, Stanford; Melin, Frederic; Berthon, Jean-Francois; Slutsker, Ilya; Giles, David; Vandemark, Doug; Feng, Hui; Rutledge, Ken; Schuster, Gregory; Al Mandoos, Abdulla

    2006-01-01

    The Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) was developed to support atmospheric studies at various scales with measurements from worldwide distributed autonomous sunphotometers [Holben et al. 1998]. AERONET has now extended its support to marine applications through the additional capability of measuring the radiance emerging from the sea with modified sun-photometers installed on offshore platforms like lighthouses, navigation aids, oceanographic and oil towers. The functionality of this added network component called AERONET - Ocean Color (AERONET-OC), has been verified at different sites and deployment structures over a four year testing phase. Continuous or occasional deployment platforms (see Fig. 1) included: the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) of the Italian National Research Council in the northern Adriatic Sea since spring 2002; the Martha s Vineyard Coastal Observatory (MVCO) tower of the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution in the Atlantic off the Massachusetts coast for different periods since spring 2004; the TOTAL Abu-Al-Bukhoosh oil Platform (AABP, shown through an artistic rendition in Fig. 1) in the Persian (Arabian) Gulf in fall 2004; the Gustaf Dal n Lighthouse Tower (GDLT) of the Swedish Maritime Administration in the Baltic Sea in summer 2005; and the platform at the Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System (CERES) Ocean Validation Experiment (COVE) site located in the Atlantic Ocean off the Virginia coast since fall 2005. Data collected during the network testing phase, confirm the capability of AERONET-OC to support the validation of marine optical remote sensing products through standardized measurements of normalized water-leaving radiance, LWN, and aerosol optical thickness, a, at multiple coastal sites.

  14. Contact metamorphism surrounding the Alta stock: Finite element model simulation of heat- and {sup 18}O/{sup 16}O mass-transport during prograde metamorphism

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, S.J.; Bowman, J.R.; Forster, C.B.

    1997-01-01

    Results of calcite-dolomite geothermometry and oxygen isotope studies of marbles in the southern portion of the contact aureole surrounding the Alta stock (Utah) provide evidence for extensive hydrothermal metamorphism in this part of the aureole. Simulation of these two independent data sets with two-dimensional, finite element fluid flow and heat transport models constrains the pattern of fluid flow, minimum permeability, and the permeability structure in this part of the aureole. Model results demonstrate that intrusion of the stock into a homogeneous, isotropic permeability medium yields peak metamorphic temperatures significantly lower than those measured in the marbles and significant {sup 18}O depletions both above and below the Alta-Grizzly thrust system. The latter contradicts the observations in the south aureole that {sup 18}O depletions in the marbles are restricted to marbles below the Alta-Grizzly thrust; dolomitic marbles above the thrust retain original sedimentary values up to the intrusive contact. Models with horizontal permeability barriers above the Alta-Grizzly thrust and extending over the top of the Alta stock are capable of reproducing the observed thermal and {delta}{sup 18}O profiles in the southern aureole. The presence of such horizontal barriers reduces the predominantly vertical fluid flow and heat transfer that would occur in a homogeneous and isotropic permeability medium, forcing fluid flow and heat transfer laterally away from the upper flanks of the stock. Such horizontal flow patterns are necessary to produce significant {sup 18}O depletion above the thrust, and to provide the necessary lateral heat transfer to duplicate the observed temperature profile. Best fit model results to the observed thermal and {delta}{sup 18}O profiles provide several new insights into the dynamics of fluid circulation and hydrogeologic characteristics of the southern Alta aureole during prograde metamorphism.

  15. The importance of oceanographic fronts to marine birds and mammals of the southern oceans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bost, C. A.; Cotté, C.; Bailleul, F.; Cherel, Y.; Charrassin, J. B.; Guinet, C.; Ainley, D. G.; Weimerskirch, H.

    2009-10-01

    long distances from colonies, showing variable foraging strategies as a function of the distances involved. Diving birds such as King penguins, that travel at a higher cost and lower speed, rely on the predictable spatial distribution of mesopelagic fish found close to the Polar Front. They may use the currents associated with eddies as oceanographic cues in the active search for frontal zones. Once in these areas they dive preferentially in and below the depth of the thermocline where catches per unit effort are high. Elephant seals concentrate foraging activity principally inside or at the boundary of cyclonic eddies. These mesoscale features appear to offer exceptional productivity favourable for foraging by various diving top predators. The connection between biophysical parameters at fronts and predators is likely to be made through biological enhancement. Top predators appear to forage at locations where prey are advected by physical processes and others where prey are produced locally. Long-term research on at-sea distributions and demographic parameters of top predators are essential to assess the consequences of potential shift in front distributions in relation to global warming. Such environmental changes would add to the impact of fish extraction by the industrial fisheries on the southern food webs.

  16. Recent terebratulide brachiopods: Do they faithfully record oceanographic conditions throughout ontogeny?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kercher, P.; Carlson, S. J.

    2012-12-01

    Brachiopods have commonly been used to infer secular changes in ocean chemistry over the Phanerozoic Eon since Lowenstam (1961) concluded that Recent brachiopod calcite was precipitated in equilibrium with seawater. In order to infer paleoenvironmental conditions with confidence, however, the impact of potential kinetic and metabolic fractionation effects on the final isotopic signature, as it varies among individuals, must be determined. In this study, we analyzed the oxygen and carbon isotopic composition of closely spaced (~2/mm) samples of calcite along growth transects from individuals of the rhynchonelliform brachiopod, Laqueus californianus. By combining local oceanographic information with knowledge of brachiopod shell structure and growth patterns through ontogeny, in individuals of different ages from the same locality that died simultaneously, we can address the fidelity of brachiopod shell calcite as both an environmental proxy and a recorder of biological activity among conspecific individuals, in real time. This is an essential, but largely ignored, component in the paleoenvironmental interpretation of brachiopod shell calcite. In May 2011, more than 75 live L. californianus specimens were collected by Dr. J. Barry at Monterey Bay Aquarium Research Institute (MBARI) from Monterey Bay at 160 m water depth (36.7322N, 121.9739W) and generously given to us for use in this study. The specimens range in length from 5.75 to 46.16 mm, representing a range of ontogenetic ages. Water temperatures at 160 m range annually from 8C in the spring/summer upwelling season to 10C during the winter, while salinity fluctuates from 33.76 ppt in the winter to 34.11 ppt in the summer. Daily temperature and salinity data collected by MBARI over three decades allow us to calculate approximate equilibrium calcite values. We use these values to evaluate the claim that brachiopods mineralize in isotopic equilibrium with seawater throughout their lifespan with minimal

  17. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. Reports of Governing and Major Subsidiary Bodies. Fourteenth Session of the Assembly (Paris, 17 March-1 April 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.

    The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission was organized by Unesco to promote scientific investigation with a view to learning about the nature and resources of the oceans through the concerted action of its members. This report contains a summary of the discussions that took place at the 14th session of the Commission. This includes the…

  18. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission. Reports of Governing and Major Subsidiary Bodies. Session of the Assembly (15th, Paris, France, July 4-19, 1989).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.

    The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission was organized by UNESCO to promote scientific investigation with a view to learning about the nature and resources of the oceans and disseminating this knowledge through the concerted action of its members. The report contains a summary of the discussions that took place at the 15th Session of the…

  19. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Eleventh Session of the Assembly, Including Resolutions from the Tenth and Eleventh Sessions of the Executive Council, Paris, 15 October - 3 November 1979. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission.

    The Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission (IOC) functions within the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (Unesco) to promote scientific investigation into the nature and resources of the world's oceans. Summarized in this report are discussions that took place in both preparatory meetings and plenary sessions of…

  20. Long-Term Oceanographic Observations in Western Massachusetts Bay Offshore of Boston, Massachusetts: Data Report for 1989-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butman, Bradford; Bothner, Michael H.; Alexander, P. Soupy; Lightsom, Frances L.; Martini, Marianna A.; Gutierrez, Benjamin T.; Strahle, William S.

    2004-01-01

    This data report presents long-term oceanographic observations made in western Massachusetts Bay at two locations: (1) 42 deg 22.6' N., 70 deg 47.0' W. (Site A, 33 m water depth) from December 1989 through December 2002 (figure 1), and (2) 42 deg 9.8' N., 70 deg 38.4' W. (Site B, 21 m water depth) from October 1997 through December 2002. Site A is approximately 1 km south of the new ocean outfall that began discharging treated sewage effluent from the Boston metropolitan area into Massachusetts Bay on September 6, 2000. These long-term oceanographic observations have been collected by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in partnership with the Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) and with logistical support from the U.S. Coast Guard (USCG - http://www.uscg.mil). This report presents time series data through December 2002, updating a similar report that presented data through December 2000 (Butman and others, 2002). In addition, the Statistics and Mean Flow sections include some new plots and tables and the format of the report has been streamlined by combining yearly figures into single .pdfs. Figure 1 (PDF format) The long-term measurements are planned to continue at least through 2005. The long-term oceanographic observations at Sites A and B are part of a USGS study designed to understand the transport and long-term fate of sediments and associated contaminants in the Massachusetts bays. (See http://woodshole.er.usgs.gov/project-pages/bostonharbor/ and Butman and Bothner, 1997.) The long-term observations document seasonal and inter-annual changes in currents, hydrography, and suspended-matter concentration in western Massachusetts Bay, and the importance of infrequent catastrophic events, such as major storms or hurricanes, in sediment resuspension and transport. They also provide observations for testing numerical models of circulation. This data report presents a description of the field program and instrumentation, an overview of the data through

  1. An Oceanographic Buoy for Multidisciplinary Education and Research in a Coastal Embayment Prone to Harmful Algal Blooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, E. P.; Roesler, C.; Teegarden, G.

    2005-12-01

    In the spring of 2006 a consortium of Bowdoin College, Bigelow Laboratory for Ocean Sciences, and Saint Joseph's College of Maine will begin the operation of an oceanographic buoy in Harpswell Sound, part of the Casco Bay region of coastal Maine. Funding for acquisition of the buoy has been provided by NSF's MRI program. The sensing buoy will measure physical climatic and oceanographic variables, as well as a suite of biogeochemical indicators (nutrients, chlorophyll, light absorption, etc.). The data collected will be publicly available in real time and will contribute to the overall Gulf of Maine Ocean Observing System (GoMOOS) monitoring program, a premier and ground-breaking effort in assessing the physical and biogeochemical characteristics of the Gulf of Maine. Harpswell Sound is known as an indicator region for harmful algal blooms (HABs) of toxic Alexandrium spp. microalgae, and is an ideal location to employ long-term, comprehensive, remote and real-time monitoring to characterize model systems that promote HABs, as well as system response to changing watershed use patterns and evolving cultural eutrophication. Data acquired with the buoy's sensors, both streaming in real-time and archived in larger sets, will be used in course work at Bowdoin College and Saint Joseph's College, and will be available for use by other post-secondary institutions. Immediate applications include use of data in course work to understand the influence of physical oceanographic processes on biological processes in three dimensions and through time from an Eulerian perspective. The influence of climatic events and the geological characteristics of the surrounding watershed will also be recorded and analyzed through earth science course work. Bowdoin College has a marine research station immediately adjacent on the shore of Harpswell Sound, facilitating complementary traditional monitoring opportunities, e.g. targeted and detailed sampling of interesting features indicated by the

  2. Linking foraging behaviour to physical oceanographic structures: Southern elephant seals and mesoscale eddies east of Kerguelen Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragon, Anne-Cecile; Monestiez, P.; Bar-Hen, A.; Guinet, C.

    2010-10-01

    In the Southern Ocean, mesoscale features, such as fronts and eddies, have been shown to have a significant impact in structuring and enhancing primary productivity. They are therefore likely to influence the spatial structure of prey fields and play a key role in the creation of preferred foraging regions for oceanic top-predators. Optimal foraging theory predicts that predators should adjust their movement behaviour in relation to prey density. While crossing areas with sufficient prey density, we expect predators would change their behaviour by, for instance, decreasing their speed and increasing their turning frequency. Diving predators would as well increase the useful part of their dive i.e. increase bottom-time thereby increasing the fraction of time spent capturing prey. Southern elephant seals from the Kerguelen population have several foraging areas: in Antarctic waters, on the Kerguelen Plateau and in the interfrontal zone between the Subtropical and Polar Fronts. This study investigated how the movement and diving behaviour of 22 seals equipped with satellite-relayed data loggers changed in relation to mesoscale structures typical of the interfrontal zone. We studied the links between oceanographic variables including temperature and sea level anomalies, and diving and movement behaviour such as displacement speed, diving duration and bottom-time. Correlation coefficients between each of the time series were calculated and their significance tested with a parametric bootstrap. We focused on oceanographic changes, both temporal and spatial, occurring during behavioural transitions in order to clarify the connections between the behaviour and the marine environment of the animals. We showed that a majority of seals displayed a specific foraging behaviour related to the presence of both cyclonic and anticyclonic eddies. We characterized mesoscale oceanographic zones as either favourable or unfavourable based on the intensity of foraging activity as

  3. Variations in behavior and condition of a Southern Ocean top predator in relation to in situ oceanographic conditions

    PubMed Central

    Biuw, M.; Boehme, L.; Guinet, C.; Hindell, M.; Costa, D.; Charrassin, J.-B.; Roquet, F.; Bailleul, F.; Meredith, M.; Thorpe, S.; Tremblay, Y.; McDonald, B.; Park, Y.-H.; Rintoul, S. R.; Bindoff, N.; Goebel, M.; Crocker, D.; Lovell, P.; Nicholson, J.; Monks, F.; Fedak, M. A.

    2007-01-01

    Responses by marine top predators to environmental variability have previously been almost impossible to observe directly. By using animal-mounted instruments simultaneously recording movements, diving behavior, and in situ oceanographic properties, we studied the behavioral and physiological responses of southern elephant seals to spatial environmental variability throughout their circumpolar range. Improved body condition of seals in the Atlantic sector was associated with Circumpolar Deep Water upwelling regions within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, whereas High-Salinity Shelf Waters or temperature/salinity gradients under winter pack ice were important in the Indian and Pacific sectors. Energetic consequences of these variations could help explain recently observed population trends, showing the usefulness of this approach in examining the sensitivity of top predators to global and regional-scale climate variability. PMID:17693555

  4. Iridium Short Burst Data: Two-Way, Robust, Reliable, Low Power Communications for Oceanographic Data Transmission Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roggenstein, E. B.; Hensley, W.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past two hundred years, water level observations in coastal areas have been used to help mariners navigate oceans and estuaries, cartographers develop nautical charts, government agencies regulate boundaries, and scientists gain a better understanding of various physical processes in the ocean. As technology has progressed the latency in providing these data to the user has been reduced. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's (NOAA) Center for Operational Oceanographic Products and Services (CO-OPS) provides near real-time oceanographic and meteorological data to support navigation, coastal managers, and storm surge and tsunami warning programs. CO-OPS maintains the National Water Level Observation Network (NWLON), a system of over 200 stations for the coastal United States, Great Lakes, Caribbean islands, and Pacific island territories. CO-OPS also supports the NOAA Physical Oceanographic Real Time Systems° (PORTS), which are currently operating in 21 US ports. With an expanding role in Arctic and Alaska support, CO-OPS has identified a need for a robust and reliable data communications pathway to supplement the existing Geostationary Operational Environmental Systems (GOES) network, which has limitations at high latitudes. Iridium satellite Short Burst Data (SBD) services offer a global coverage, including remote Arctic regions outside of GOES coverage. Previous testing conducted by CO-OPS has shown a great potential for the SBD service including continuous near-real-time 6 minute data transmissions from two CO-OPS test water level stations located in Guam, with >99.9% data return. Also, successful transmissions of hourly wave statistics were demonstrated with a with a test system that employed a Nortek Acoustic Wave and Current (AWAC) instrument in Chesapeake Bay were accomplished. Data transmissions involved a buoy-mounted SIM-less SBD modem. Independent of location, data can be transmitted from a remote instrument platform to Iridium

  5. Variations in behavior and condition of a Southern Ocean top predator in relation to in situ oceanographic conditions.

    PubMed

    Biuw, M; Boehme, L; Guinet, C; Hindell, M; Costa, D; Charrassin, J-B; Roquet, F; Bailleul, F; Meredith, M; Thorpe, S; Tremblay, Y; McDonald, B; Park, Y-H; Rintoul, S R; Bindoff, N; Goebel, M; Crocker, D; Lovell, P; Nicholson, J; Monks, F; Fedak, M A

    2007-08-21

    Responses by marine top predators to environmental variability have previously been almost impossible to observe directly. By using animal-mounted instruments simultaneously recording movements, diving behavior, and in situ oceanographic properties, we studied the behavioral and physiological responses of southern elephant seals to spatial environmental variability throughout their circumpolar range. Improved body condition of seals in the Atlantic sector was associated with Circumpolar Deep Water upwelling regions within the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, whereas High-Salinity Shelf Waters or temperature/salinity gradients under winter pack ice were important in the Indian and Pacific sectors. Energetic consequences of these variations could help explain recently observed population trends, showing the usefulness of this approach in examining the sensitivity of top predators to global and regional-scale climate variability. PMID:17693555

  6. Mesoscale structure and oceanographic determinants of krill hotspots in the California Current: Implications for trophic transfer and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santora, Jarrod A.; Sydeman, William J.; Schroeder, Isaac D.; Wells, Brian K.; Field, John C.

    2011-12-01

    Krill (crustaceans of the family Euphausiacea) comprise an important prey field for vast array of fish, birds, and marine mammals in the California Current and other large marine ecosystems globally. In this study, we test the hypothesis that mesoscale spatial organization of krill is related to oceanographic conditions associated with coastal upwelling. To test this, we compiled a climatology of krill distributions based on hydroacoustic surveys off California in May-June each year between 2000 and 2009 (missing 2007). Approximately 53,000 km of ocean habitat was sampled, resulting in a comprehensive geo-spatial data set from the Southern California Bight to Cape Mendocino. We determined the location and characteristics of eight definite and two probable krill “hotspots” of abundance. Directional-dependence analysis revealed that krill hotspots were oriented in a northwest-southeast (135°) direction, corresponding to the anisotropy of the 200-2000 m isobath. Krill hotspots were disassociated (inversely correlated) with three upwelling centers, Point Arena, Point Sur, and Point Conception, suggesting that krill may avoid locations of strong offshore transport or aggregate downstream from these locations. While current fisheries management considers the entire coast out to the 2000 m isobath critical habitat for krill in this ecosystem, we establish here smaller scale structuring of this critical mid-trophic level prey resource. Identifying mesoscale krill hotspots and their oceanographic determinants is significant as these smaller ecosystem divisions may warrant protection to ensure key ecosystem functions (i.e., trophic transfer) and resilience. Furthermore, delineating and quantifying krill hotspots may be important for conservation of krill-predators in this system.

  7. Oceanographic connectivity between right whale critical habitats in Canada and its influence on whale abundance indices during 1987-2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Kimberley T. A.; Vanderlaan, Angelia S. M.; Smedbol, R. Kent; Taggart, Christopher T.

    2015-10-01

    The Roseway and Grand Manan basins on the Canadian Atlantic coast are neighboring late-summer critical feeding habitats for endangered North Atlantic right whales. Although in late summer these habitats regularly contain thick aggregations of right whale food - the copepod Calanus spp. - right whales periodically abandon one or both habitats in the same year. The causes of abandonments, their relationship to food supply, and the locations of whales during abandonment periods are unclear. The goals of this study were to explain variation in right whale abundance indices from a habitat perspective, and to determine whether or not oceanographic variation in the habitats influences occupancy. Four indices of whale abundance and habitat occupancy, including sightings per unit effort (SPUE), photographic sightings of known individuals, population size and habitat transition probabilities, were analyzed in relation to unique datasets of Calanus concentration and water mass characteristics in each basin over the period 1987 through 2009. Calanus concentration, water mass sources and various hydrographic properties each varied coherently between basins. Calanus concentration showed an increasing trend over time in each habitat, although a short-lived reduction in Calanus may have caused right whales to abandon Roseway Basin during the mid-1990s. Food supply explained variation in right whale sightings and population size in Roseway Basin, but not in Grand Manan Basin, suggesting that the Grand Manan Basin has important habitat characteristics in addition to food supply. Changes in the distribution of whale abundance indices during years when oceanographic conditions were associated with reduced food supply in the Scotia-Fundy region suggest that other suitable feeding habitats may not have existed during such years and resulted in negative effects on whale health and reproduction.

  8. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 2): Vega Alta Public Supply Wells, Puerto Rico (first remedial action), September 1987. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-09-29

    The Vega Alta Public Supply Wells site is a public water supply well field located in the municipality of Vega Alta, Puerto Rico, approximately 32 km west of San Juan where ground water is the primary source of water. The well field consists of eight active wells. It currently supplies about 3.8 million gallons per day of water to Vega Alta and surrounding residential areas. The Puerto Rico Aqueduct and Sewer Authority (PRASA) is responsible for operation and maintenance of the public water-supply system. The first indication of contamination was discovered in June 1983, when a survey of public water wells made by the U.S. Geological Survey detected 574 ug/1 of trichloroethylene (TCE) in the Ponderosa public supply well. Other VOCs were detected at lower concentrations in non-public wells in the well field system and ground water contamination was suspected. In June and August of 1983 Ponderosa and well GE 1 were shut down by PRASA because of contamination, respectively. This shutdown caused a potential water supply shortage in Vega Alta. PRASA constructed well Bajura 3 to eliminate the shortage. In 1984 an air stripper was constructed at the Ponderosa well and operated until May 1985 when technical problems arose with the air stripper. Currently, ground water is contaminated with 1,1,1-trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, 1,2-dichloroethene, 1,1-dichloroethene and other VOCs.

  9. Tower-Perturbation Measurements in Above-Water Radiometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francois; DAlimonte, Davide; vanderLinde, Dirk; Brown, James W.

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities which took place during June 2001 and June 2002 on the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) in the northern Adriatic Sea. The primary objective of these field campaigns was to quantify the effect of platform perturbations (principally reflections of sunlight onto the sea surface) on above-water measurements of water-leaving radiances. The deployment goals documented in this report were to: a) collect an extensive and simultaneous set of above- and in-water optical measurements under predominantly clear-sky conditions; b) establish the vertical properties of the water column using a variety of ancillary measurements, many of which were taken coincidently with the optical measurements; and c) determine the bulk properties of the environment using a diversity of atmospheric, biogeochemical, and meteorological techniques. A preliminary assessment of the data collected during the two field campaigns shows the perturbation in above-water radiometry caused by a large offshore structure is very similar to that caused by a large research vessel.

  10. Tower-Perturbation Measurements in Above-Water Radiometry. Volume 23

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francois; D'Alimonte, Davide; vanderLinde, Dirk; Brown, James W.

    2003-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities which took place during June 2001 and June 2002 on the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) in the northern Adriatic Sea. The primary objective of these field campaigns was to quantify the effect of platform perturbations (principally reflections of sunlight onto the sea surface) on above-water measurements of water-leaving radiances. The deployment goals documented in this report were to: a) collect an extensive and simultaneous set of above- and in-water optical measurements under predominantly clear-sky conditions; b) establish the vertical properties of the water column using a variety of ancillary measurements, many of which were taken coincidently with the optical measurements; and c) determine the bulk properties of the environment using a diversity of atmospheric, biogeochemical, and meteorological techniques. A preliminary assessment of the data collected during the two field campaigns shows the perturbation in above-water radiometry caused by a large offshore structure is very similar to that caused by a large research vessel.

  11. SeaWIFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 13; The SeaWiFS Photometer Revision for Incident Surface Measurement (SeaPRISM) Field Commissioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Zibordi, Giuseppe; Berthon, Jean-Francois; Bailey, Sean W.; Pietras, Christophe M.; Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor)

    2000-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities that took place at the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) in the northern Adriatic Sea off the coast of Italy from 2-6 August 1999. The ultimate objective of the field campaign was to evaluate the capabilities of a new instrument called the SeaWiFS Photometer Revision for Incident Surface Measurements (SeaPRISM). SeaPRISM is based on a CE-318 sun photometer made by CIMEL Electronique (Paris, France). The CE-318 is an automated, robotic system which measures the direct sun irradiance plus the sky radiance in the sun plane and in the almucantar plane. The data are transmitted over a satellite link, and this remote operation capability has made the device very useful for atmospheric measurements. The revision to the CE-318 that makes the instrument potentially useful for SeaWiFS calibration and validation activities is to include a capability for measuring the radiance leaving the sea surface in wavelengths suitable for the determination of chlorophyll a concentration. The initial evaluation of this new capability involved above- and in-water measurement protocols. An intercomparison of the water-leaving radiances derived from SeaPRISM and an in-water system showed the overall spectral agreement was approximately 8.6%, but the blue-green channels intercompared at the 5% level. A blue-green band ratio comparison was at the 4% level.

  12. Oceanographic and climatic record of the last 47 ka B.P in marine sediments from the Gulf of Tehuantepec

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pavon-Moreno, J. A.; Perez-Cruz, L. L.; Fucugauchi, J. U.

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study is reconstruct the paleoceanographic and paleoclimatic conditions in the northern Gulf of Tehuantepec, through the use of geochemical and magnetic proxies. The sediment core MD02-2523 was collected using a giant piston corer during the oceanographic campaign MD126 (IMAGES VIII - MONA) in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, on June 2002 aboard the R/V "Marion Dufresne". The core was collected at 202 m depth and it has an 18.19 m length; for this study we only use the first 700 cm. Age control is established with AMS radiocarbon dating on six samples, providing an age control for the core from 900 to 47,000 cal yr BP. Sediments in the core are composed mostly of silty clays, with some horizons containing fossil fragments presented as disarticulated bivalve shells with average sizes of 1 cm, as well as foraminifera and nannofossils. We observe a cream to white ash layer, with a thick of 2 cm. Mineral magnetic and XRF analyses were carried out along the core. For mineral magnetic analyses, standard 2.2 × 2.2 × 2.2 cm samples were taken throughout the core split. The low-field magnetic susceptibility was measured in all samples at low and high frequencies (0.465 kHz and 4.65 kHz) with the MS2 Bartington susceptibility instrument equipped with the MS2B dual-frequency sensor. For the geochemical study, samples were taken every 2 cm and elemental chemical concentration was measured using an X-ray fluorescence analyzer (Niton XL3t GOLDD). Few laminated intervals show a strong correlation between Mo and V, indicating less oxygenated conditions in the water column. Ti and Fe are used as proxies of terrigenous input. Changes in sedimentation rates are observed and could be associated to sea level fluctuations in the Gulf of Tehuantepec. Magnetic susceptibility shows a cyclic pattern with peaks along the core showing apparent increases in the amount of magnetic minerals. The peaks could be associated to (about 20 ka) precession cycles. According to the geochemical

  13. Oceanographic conditions structure forage fishes into lipid-rich and lipid-poor communities in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abookire, A.A.; Piatt, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Forage fishes were sampled with a mid-water trawl in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA, from late July to early August 1996 to 1999. We sampled 3 oceanographically distinct areas of lower Cook Inlet: waters adjacent to Chisik Island, in Kachemak Bay, and near the Barren Islands. In 163 tows using a mid-water trawl, 229437 fishes with fork length <200 mm were captured. More than 39 species were captured in lower Cook Inlet, but Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, and juvenile walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma comprised 97.5% of the total individuals. Both species richness and species diversity were highest in warm, low-salinity, weakly stratified waters near Chisik Island. Kachemak Bay, which had thermohaline values between those found near Chisik Island and the Barren Islands, had an intermediate value of species richness. Species richness was lowest at the Barren Islands, an exposed region that regularly receives oceanic, upwelled water from the Gulf of Alaska. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to compute axes of species composition based on an ordination of pairwise site dissimilarities. Each axis was strongly rank-correlated with unique groups of species and examined separately as a function of environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, depth), area, and year. Oceanographic parameters accounted for 41 and 12% of the variability among forage fishes indicated by Axis 1 and Axis 2, respectively. Axis 1 also captured the spatial variability in the upwelled area of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted the distribution of species among shallow, nearshore (sand lance, herring) and deep, offshore (walleye pollock) habitats. Axis 2 captured the spatial variability in forage fish communities from the north (Chisik Island) to the south (Barren Islands) of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted a highly diverse community dominated by salmonids and osmerids (warmer, less saline) with a fish

  14. Estudio fotométrico de estrellas tardías de alta luminosidad en 23 cúmulos abiertos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clariá, J. J.; Piatti, A. E.; Osborn, W.

    Se presentan resultados obtenidos en los Observatorios de Cerro Tololo, Kitt Peak, Lowell y Las Campanas, a partir de fotometría UBV y DDO de 54 estrellas tardías de alta luminosidad en 23 cúmulos abiertos. La aplicación de dos criterios fotométricos independientes permite asignar a cada estrella probabilidades de pertenencia a cada agregado. Se encuentra que 32 estrellas son muy probablemente miembros de los cúmulos, mientras que las restantes son objetos del campo. En todos los casos se determinan excesos de color E(B-V) a través de procedimientos fotométricos y espectroscópicos tradicionales. Recientes calibraciones del sistema DDO permiten, además, derivar tipos espectrales MK, temperaturas efectivas, y abundancias superficiales de la muestra examinada. Las metalicidades DDO derivadas se distribuyen entre valores típicos de cúmulos moderadamente pobres en metales ([Fe/H]~=-0.3) y moderadamente ricos ([Fe/H]~=0.2), en tanto que las masas calculadas para las gigantes rojas oscilan entre 1 y 4 masas solares, con una dispersión dentro de cada cúmulo menor que 1 Msolar.

  15. Biodiversity of Saccharomyces cerevisiae populations in Malbec vineyards from the "Zona Alta del Río Mendoza" region in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Mercado, Laura; Sturm, María Elena; Rojo, María Cecilia; Ciklic, Iván; Martínez, Claudio; Combina, Mariana

    2011-12-15

    The "Zona Alta del Río Mendoza" (ZARM) is the major Malbec grape viticulture region of Argentina. The aim of the present study was to explore Saccharomyces cerevisiae biodiversity in ZARM vineyards. Interdelta PCR and RFLP mtDNA molecular markers were applied to differentiate S. cerevisiae strains. The presence of commercial strains on ZARM vineyards was also assessed. Our results reveal a highly diverse, but genetically closely related, S. cerevisiae population (containing more than 190 molecular patterns among 590 S. cerevisiae isolates). According to the S. cerevisiae strain diversity found in vineyards, they were classified as vineyards with high and low polymorphic S. cerevisiae populations. Six vineyards showed a high polymorphic population, with more than 20 different S. cerevisiae molecular patterns. S. cerevisiae populations in these vineyards were diverse and irregularly distributed, with different strains in each vineyard site. Low polymorphic S. cerevisiae population vineyards displayed very low yeast diversity, with only 9 to 10 different S. cerevisiae strains and presence of two commercial strains widely distributed. Population diversity estimators were calculated to determine the population structure of S. cerevisiae in the ZARM vineyards. The obtained values support the hypothesis that the eight sampled subpopulations come indeed from a larger population.

  16. Local adaptation and oceanographic connectivity patterns explain genetic differentiation of a marine diatom across the North Sea–Baltic Sea salinity gradient

    PubMed Central

    Sjöqvist, C; Godhe, A; Jonsson, P R; Sundqvist, L; Kremp, A

    2015-01-01

    Drivers of population genetic structure are still poorly understood in marine micro-organisms. We exploited the North Sea–Baltic Sea transition for investigating the seascape genetics of a marine diatom, Skeletonema marinoi. Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were analysed in 354 individuals from ten locations to analyse population structure of the species along a 1500-km-long salinity gradient ranging from 3 to 30 psu. To test for salinity adaptation, salinity reaction norms were determined for sets of strains originating from three different salinity regimes of the gradient. Modelled oceanographic connectivity was compared to directional relative migration by correlation analyses to examine oceanographic drivers. Population genetic analyses showed distinct genetic divergence of a low-salinity Baltic Sea population and a high-salinity North Sea population, coinciding with the most evident physical dispersal barrier in the area, the Danish Straits. Baltic Sea populations displayed reduced genetic diversity compared to North Sea populations. Growth optima of low salinity isolates were significantly lower than those of strains from higher native salinities, indicating local salinity adaptation. Although the North Sea–Baltic Sea transition was identified as a barrier to gene flow, migration between Baltic Sea and North Sea populations occurred. However, the presence of differentiated neutral markers on each side of the transition zone suggests that migrants are maladapted. It is concluded that local salinity adaptation, supported by oceanographic connectivity patterns creating an asymmetric migration pattern between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, determines genetic differentiation patterns in the transition zone. PMID:25892181

  17. Oceanographic signatures and pressure monitoring of seafloor vertical deformation in near-coastal, shallow-water areas: a case study from Santorini Caldera.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilaseca, Géraud; Deplus, Christine; Escartin, Javier; Ballu, Valérie; Nomikou, Paraskevi; Mével, Catherine; Andreani, Muriel

    2016-04-01

    Bottom pressure, tilt and seawater physical-properties were monitored for a year using two instruments within the immerged Santorini caldera (Greece). Piggy-backed on the CALDERA2012 cruise, this geodetic experiment was designed to monitor evolution of the 2011-2012 Santorini unrest. Conducted during a quiescent period, it allowed us to study oceanographic and atmospheric signal in our data series. We observe periodic oceanographic signals associated with tides, and seiches that are likely linked to both the caldera and Cretan basin geometries. In winter, the caldera witnesses sudden cooling events that tilt an instrument towards the Southeast, indicating cold-water influx likely originating from the north-western passage between Thirasia and Oia. We do not obtain evidence of long-term vertical seafloor deformation from the pressure signal, although it may be masked by instrumental drift. However, tilt data suggests a local seafloor tilt event ~1 year after the end of the unrest period which could be consistent with inflation under or near Nea Kameni. In addition, we illustrate that tilt sensor can roughly record seismic induced ground motion which in our case led to a shift in sensors attitude for one seismic event. Seafloor geodetic data recorded at the bottom of the Santorini caldera illustrates that the oceanographic signature is an important part of the signal, which needs to be considered for monitoring volcanic or geological seafloor deformation in shallow-water and/or nearshore areas.

  18. Local adaptation and oceanographic connectivity patterns explain genetic differentiation of a marine diatom across the North Sea-Baltic Sea salinity gradient.

    PubMed

    Sjöqvist, C; Godhe, A; Jonsson, P R; Sundqvist, L; Kremp, A

    2015-06-01

    Drivers of population genetic structure are still poorly understood in marine micro-organisms. We exploited the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition for investigating the seascape genetics of a marine diatom, Skeletonema marinoi. Eight polymorphic microsatellite loci were analysed in 354 individuals from ten locations to analyse population structure of the species along a 1500-km-long salinity gradient ranging from 3 to 30 psu. To test for salinity adaptation, salinity reaction norms were determined for sets of strains originating from three different salinity regimes of the gradient. Modelled oceanographic connectivity was compared to directional relative migration by correlation analyses to examine oceanographic drivers. Population genetic analyses showed distinct genetic divergence of a low-salinity Baltic Sea population and a high-salinity North Sea population, coinciding with the most evident physical dispersal barrier in the area, the Danish Straits. Baltic Sea populations displayed reduced genetic diversity compared to North Sea populations. Growth optima of low salinity isolates were significantly lower than those of strains from higher native salinities, indicating local salinity adaptation. Although the North Sea-Baltic Sea transition was identified as a barrier to gene flow, migration between Baltic Sea and North Sea populations occurred. However, the presence of differentiated neutral markers on each side of the transition zone suggests that migrants are maladapted. It is concluded that local salinity adaptation, supported by oceanographic connectivity patterns creating an asymmetric migration pattern between the Baltic Sea and the North Sea, determines genetic differentiation patterns in the transition zone.

  19. Descripción de la zona de alta difusión en un modelo bidimensional para hojas de corriente

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montero, M. F.; Paola, C. A.; Platzeck, A. M.

    Los modelos bidimensionales para describir hojas de corriente de alta simetría no suministran una descripción detallada de las regiones donde la difusión es considerablemente importante. Tal es el caso de los modelos desarrollados en la década del '60 por Sweet, Parker, Petschek y Sonnerup. En esta comunicación presentamos una solución de las ecuaciones MHD en el entorno del origen, construyendo series bidimensionales para todas las magnitudes físicas involucradas. Valiéndonos de la alta simetría y de las características del problema, logramos reducir el número de coeficientes a calcular. Utilizamos un programa autoconsistente para extender el cálculo a regiones vecinas con difusión moderada o despreciable.

  20. High-resolution topographic, bathymetric, and oceanographic data for the Pleasure Point Area, Santa Cruz County, California: 2005-2007

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Barnard, Patrick L.; Collins, Brian D.; Finlayson, David P.; Golden, Nadine E.; Hatcher, Gerry A.; Kayen, Robert E.; Ruggiero, Peter

    2007-01-01

    The County of Santa Cruz Department of Public Works and the County of Santa Cruz Redevelopment Agency requested the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Western Coastal and Marine Geology Team (WCMG) to provide baseline geologic and oceanographic information on the coast and inner shelf at Pleasure Point, Santa Cruz County, California. The rationale for this proposed work is a need to better understand the environmental consequences of a proposed bluff stabilization project on the beach, the nearshore and the surf at Pleasure Point, Santa Cruz County, California. To meet these information needs, the USGS-WCMG Team collected baseline scientific information on the morphology and waves at Pleasure Point. This study provided high-resolution topography of the coastal bluffs and bathymetry of the inner shelf off East Cliff Drive between 32nd Avenue and 41st Avenue. The spatial and temporal variation in waves and their breaking patterns at the study site were documented. Although this project did not actively investigate the impacts of the proposed bluff stabilization project, these data provide the baseline information required for future studies directed toward predicting the impacts of stabilization on the sea cliffs, beach and nearshore sediment profiles, natural rock reef structures, and offshore habitats and resources. They also provide a basis for calculating potential changes to wave transformations into the shore at Pleasure Point.

  1. Persistent climatic and oceanographic oscillations in the subpolar North Atlantic during the MIS 6 glaciation and MIS 5 interglacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mokeddem, Zohra; McManus, Jerry F.

    2016-06-01

    Rapidly accumulating sediments from the Björn drift deposit south of Iceland are studied for comparison of glacial/interglacial climate changes related to millennial variability of the subpolar surface and deep ocean circulation in the North Atlantic. High-resolution faunal, isotopic, and sedimentary analyses reveal a strong multimillennial climatic variability interpreted as oscillations in heat transport westward south of Iceland during marine isotope stage 6 (MIS 6), possibly related to the strength of the subpolar gyre (SPG). The oscillations persisted from MIS 6 through the following interglacial (MIS 5), although with diminished magnitude, and were respectively characterized by repeated advances of the polar front south of Iceland during MIS 6 and southward migrations of the Arctic front due to cold surface outflow through the East Greenland and East Iceland Currents during MIS 5. Incursions of cold, fresh surface waters, and drifting ice affected the dynamics of the SPG, episodically causing it to weaken and contract to the northwest. During these intervals of diminished SPG, the northward transport of subtropical heat and salt was strengthened and preferentially conveyed to the northeast past Iceland, enhancing deep-water formation in the Nordic Seas. By contrast, when the SPG was strong, more subtropical water and its associated heat were entrained within the relatively warm Irminger Current flowing westward south of Iceland. These oceanographic oscillations were associated with repeated multimillennial cooling and warming episodes during the glacial stage MIS 6, equivalent to the Dansgaard-Oeschger cycles of the last glaciation.

  2. Seasonal occurrence of sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) around Kelvin Seamount in the Sargasso Sea in relation to oceanographic processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Sarah N. P.; Whitehead, Hal

    2014-09-01

    Sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) are widely distributed in all oceans, but they are clumped geographically, generally in areas associated with high primary and secondary productivity. The warm, clear waters of the Sargasso Sea are traditionally thought to be low in productivity, however recent surveys have found large numbers of sperm whales there. The New England Seamount Chain bisects the north-western portion of the Sargasso Sea, and might influence the mesoscale eddies associated with the Gulf Stream; creating areas of higher productivity within the Sargasso Sea. We investigated the seasonal occurrence of sperm whales over Kelvin Seamount (part of the New England Seamount Chain) and how it is influenced by oceanographic variables. An autonomous recording device was deployed over Kelvin Seamount from May to June 2006 and November 2006 to June 2007. A total of 6505 hourly two-minute recordings were examined for the presence of sperm whale echolocation clicks. Sperm whales were more prevalent around Kelvin in the spring (April to June: mean=51% of recordings contained clicks) compared to the winter (November to March: mean=16% of recordings contained clicks). Sperm whale prevalence at Kelvin was related to chlorophyll-a concentration four weeks previous, eddy kinetic energy and month. The mesoscale activity associated with the Gulf Stream and the Gulf Stream's interaction with the New England Seamount Chain likely play an important role in sperm whale occurrence in this area, by increasing productivity and perhaps concentration of cephalopod species.

  3. Spatial and temporal variations in oceanographic and meteorologic forcing along the central California coast, 1980-2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Storlazzi, Curt D.; Wingfield, Dana K.

    2005-01-01

    Since the 1980s, our understanding of such important large-scale phenomena as El Ni?o events and the California Current System that drive physical, chemical, and biologic processes along the U.S. west coast has greatly improved. However, our ability to predict the influence of annual and interannual events on a regional scale still remains limited. We have analyzed high-resolution hourly data from eight National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration buoys deployed since the early 1980s off central California to study spatial and temporal variations in oceanographic and meteorologic forcing along the coast. We identified seasonal to interannual trends in significant wave height, dominant wave period, sea-level barometric pressure, sea-surface water temperature, windspeed, and wind direction were identified, as well as significant departures in these trends during El Ni?o and La Ni?a periods. The results suggest increasing wave heights and wave periods, decreasing sea-level barometric pressures and variations in sea-surface water temperatures, and increasing variations in windspeed and wind direction off central California between 1980 and 2002.

  4. Summary of oceanographic and water–quality measurements in West Falmouth Harbor and Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, 2009–2010

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ganju, Neil K.; Dickhudt, Patrick J.; Thomas, Jennifer A.; Borden, Jonathan; Sherwood, Christopher R.; Montgomery, Ellyn T.; Twomey, Erin R.; Martini, Marinna A.

    2011-01-01

    This data report presents oceanographic and water-quality observations made at six locations in West Falmouth Harbor and Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts, from August 2009 to September 2010. Both Buzzards Bay and West Falmouth Harbor are estuarine embayments; the input of freshwater on the eastern margin of Buzzards Bay adjacent to Cape Cod and West Falmouth Harbor is largely due to groundwater. In West Falmouth Harbor, the groundwater that seeps into the harbor is characterized by relatively high levels of nitrate. This high nitrate load has modified the ecology of the harbor (Howes and others, 2006) and may be a significant source of nitrate to Buzzards Bay during seasons with low biological nitrate uptake. The U.S. Geological Survey undertook these measurements to improve understanding of circulation, residence time, and water quality in the harbor and bay. We set up and monitored multiple sites in both Buzzards Bay and West Falmouth Harbor, measuring depth, water velocity,salinity, pH, dissolved oxygen, chlorophyll-a, and nitrate concentration. In this report we present the processed time-series data at these locations and provide access to the data and metadata. The results will be used to understand circulation mechanisms and verify numerical models of hydrodynamics and biogeochemistry.

  5. Estimates of the prevalence of anomalous signal losses in the Yellow Sea derived from acoustic and oceanographic computer model simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin-Bing, Stanley A.; King, David B.; Warn-Varnas, Alex C.; Lamb, Kevin G.; Hawkins, James A.; Teixeira, Marvi

    2002-05-01

    The results from collocated oceanographic and acoustic simulations in a region of the Yellow Sea near the Shandong peninsula have been presented [Chin-Bing et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 108, 2577 (2000)]. In that work, the tidal flow near the peninsula was used to initialize a 2.5-dimensional ocean model [K. G. Lamb, J. Geophys. Res. 99, 843-864 (1994)] that subsequently generated internal solitary waves (solitons). The validity of these soliton simulations was established by matching satellite imagery taken over the region. Acoustic propagation simulations through this soliton field produced results similar to the anomalous signal loss measured by Zhou, Zhang, and Rogers [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 90, 2042-2054 (1991)]. Analysis of the acoustic interactions with the solitons also confirmed the hypothesis that the loss mechanism involved acoustic mode coupling. Recently we have attempted to estimate the prevalence of these anomalous signal losses in this region. These estimates were made from simulating acoustic effects over an 80 hour space-time evolution of soliton packets. Examples will be presented that suggest the conditions necessary for anomalous signal loss may be more prevalent than previously thought. [Work supported by ONR/NRL and by a High Performance Computing DoD grant.

  6. RADIATION MEASUREMENTS BY BROOKHAVEN NATIONAL LABORATORY DURING THE WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION INTERCOMPARISON STUDY, MAY-JUNE 2000.

    SciTech Connect

    REYNOLDS, R.M.; BARTHOLOMEW, M.J.; MILLER, M.A.; SMITH, S.; EDWARDS, R.

    2000-12-01

    The WHOI buoy radiometer intercomparison took place during May and June, 2000 at the WHOI facility. The WHOI IMET, JAMSTEC Triton, and NOAA TAO buoy systems were operated from a beach site and the Brookhaven National Laboratory set up two Portable Radiation Package systems (P01 and P02) alongside the WHOI instrumentation on the roof of the Clark Building, about 300 m away. The BNL instruments were named ''P01'' and ''P02'' and were identical. Buoy instruments were all leveled to {+-}1{degree} to horizontal. The purpose of the project was to compare the buoy systems with precision measurements so that any differences in data collection or processing would be evaluated. BNL was pleased to participate so the PRP system could be evaluated as a calibration tool. The Portable Radiation Package is an integral component of the BNL Shipboard Oceanographic and Atmospheric Radiation (SOAR) system. It is designed to make accurate downwelling radiation measurements, including the three solar irradiance components (direct normal, diffuse and global) at six narrowband channels, aerosol optical depth measurements, and broadband longwave and shortwave irradiance measurements.

  7. RETRACTED: Extreme oceanographic events recorded in the southwest coast of India during the 1998-1999 summer season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishna, K. Muni

    2010-01-01

    This article has been removed at the request of the Editor-in-chief and Author. Please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal ( http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). Reason: This article has been retracted at the request of the Editor-in-Chief and Author as the author has plagiarized part of a paper that had already appeared in another journal, as written by the following authors: Roy, Weeks, Rouault, Nelson, Barlow, Van der Lingen. "Extreme oceanographic events recorded in the Southern Benguela during the 1999-2000 summer season", South African J. Sci., 2001, volume 97 (11-12), pp. 465-471. While the underlying scientific data of Dr Krishna's work may be original, the wording, sentence, and paragraph structure of the entire manuscript shows such strong similarity (in many cases wholesale replication of sentences and phrases) that we must conclude that there has been excessive use of previously published material without appropriate attribution and is consequently not an original contribution. One of the conditions of submission of a paper for publication is that authors declare explicitly that their work is original and has not appeared in a publication elsewhere. Re-use of any data should be appropriately cited. As such this article represents a severe abuse of the scientific publishing system. The scientific community takes a very strong view on this matter and we apologize to readers of the journal that this was not detected during the submission process.

  8. Importance of landscape features and Earth observation derived habitat maps for modelling amphibian distribution in the Alta Murgia National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficetola, Gentile Francesco; Adamo, Maria; Bonardi, Anna; De Pasquale, Vito; Liuzzi, Cristiano; Lovergine, Francesco; Marcone, Francesco; Mastropasqua, Fabio; Tarantino, Cristina; Blonda, Palma; Padoa-Schioppa, Emilio

    2015-05-01

    Traditionally, analyses of relationships between amphibians and habitat focused on breeding environments (i.e., pond features) more than on the features of the surrounding environment. Nevertheless, for most amphibians the terrestrial phase is longer than the aquatic phase, and consequently landscape features (i.e., habitat mosaics) may have an important role for modelling amphibian distribution. There were different aims in this analysis. Firstly, we compared the effectiveness of the information provided by land cover/use (LC/LU) classes and habitat classes defined according to a new habitat taxonomy named General Habitat Category (GHC), which is based on the concept of biological forms of dominant vegetation and class naturalness. The GHC map used was obtained from a pre-existing validated LC/LU map, by integrating spectral and spatial measurements from very high resolution Earth observation data according to ecological expert rules involving concepts related to spatial and temporal relationships among LC/LU and habitat classes. Then, we investigated the importance for amphibians of the landscape surrounding ponds within the Italian Alta Murgia National Park. The work assessed whether LC/LU classes in pond surrounds are important for the presence/absence of amphibians in this area, and identified which classes are more important for amphibians. The results obtained can provide useful indications to management strategies aiming at the conservation of amphibians within the study area. An information-theoretic approach was adopted to assess whether GHC maps allow to improve the performance of species distribution models. We used the Akaike's Information Criterion (AICc) to compare the effectiveness of GHC categories versus LC/LU categories in explaining the presence/absence of pool frogs. AICc weights suggest that GHC categories can better explain the distribution of frogs, compared to LC/LU classes.

  9. 15,000-yr pollen record of vegetation change in the high altitude tropical Andes at Laguna Verde Alta, Venezuela

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rull, Valentí; Abbott, Mark B.; Polissar, Pratigya J.; Wolfe, Alexander P.; Bezada, Maximiliano; Bradley, Raymond S.

    2005-11-01

    Pollen analysis of sediments from a high-altitude (4215 m), Neotropical (9°N) Andean lake was conducted in order to reconstruct local and regional vegetation dynamics since deglaciation. Although deglaciation commenced ˜15,500 cal yr B.P., the area around the Laguna Verde Alta (LVA) remained a periglacial desert, practically unvegetated, until about 11,000 cal yr B.P. At this time, a lycopod assemblage bearing no modern analog colonized the superpáramo. Although this community persisted until ˜6000 cal yr B.P., it began to decline somewhat earlier, in synchrony with cooling following the Holocene thermal maximum of the Northern Hemisphere. At this time, the pioneer assemblage was replaced by a low-diversity superpáramo community that became established ˜9000 cal yr B.P. This replacement coincides with regional declines in temperature and/or available moisture. Modern, more diverse superpáramo assemblages were not established until ˜4600 cal yr B.P., and were accompanied by a dramatic decline in Alnus, probably the result of factors associated with climate, humans, or both. Pollen influx from upper Andean forests is remarkably higher than expected during the Late Glacial and early to middle Holocene, especially between 14,000 and 12,600 cal yr B.P., when unparalleled high values are recorded. We propose that intensification of upslope orographic winds transported lower elevation forest pollen to the superpáramo, causing the apparent increase in tree pollen at high altitude. The association between increased forest pollen and summer insolation at this time suggests a causal link; however, further work is needed to clarify this relationship.

  10. Predicting future thermal habitat suitability of competing native and invasive fish species: from metabolic scope to oceanographic modelling.

    PubMed

    Marras, Stefano; Cucco, Andrea; Antognarelli, Fabio; Azzurro, Ernesto; Milazzo, Marco; Bariche, Michel; Butenschön, Momme; Kay, Susan; Di Bitetto, Massimiliano; Quattrocchi, Giovanni; Sinerchia, Matteo; Domenici, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Global increase in sea temperatures has been suggested to facilitate the incoming and spread of tropical invaders. The increasing success of these species may be related to their higher physiological performance compared with indigenous ones. Here, we determined the effect of temperature on the aerobic metabolic scope (MS) of two herbivorous fish species that occupy a similar ecological niche in the Mediterranean Sea: the native salema (Sarpa salpa) and the invasive marbled spinefoot (Siganus rivulatus). Our results demonstrate a large difference in the optimal temperature for aerobic scope between the salema (21.8°C) and the marbled spinefoot (29.1°C), highlighting the importance of temperature in determining the energy availability and, potentially, the distribution patterns of the two species. A modelling approach based on a present-day projection and a future scenario for oceanographic conditions was used to make predictions about the thermal habitat suitability (THS, an index based on the relationship between MS and temperature) of the two species, both at the basin level (the whole Mediterranean Sea) and at the regional level (the Sicilian Channel, a key area for the inflow of invasive species from the Eastern to the Western Mediterranean Sea). For the present-day projection, our basin-scale model shows higher THS of the marbled spinefoot than the salema in the Eastern compared with the Western Mediterranean Sea. However, by 2050, the THS of the marbled spinefoot is predicted to increase throughout the whole Mediterranean Sea, causing its westward expansion. Nevertheless, the regional-scale model suggests that the future thermal conditions of Western Sicily will remain relatively unsuitable for the invasive species and could act as a barrier for its spread westward. We suggest that metabolic scope can be used as a tool to evaluate the potential invasiveness of alien species and the resilience to global warming of native species.

  11. New constraints on oceanographic vs. seismic control on submarine landslide initiation: a geotechnical approach off Uruguay and northern Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ai, Fei; Strasser, Michael; Preu, Benedict; Hanebuth, Till J. J.; Krastel, Sebastian; Kopf, Achim

    2014-10-01

    Submarine landslides are common along the Uruguayan and Argentinean continental margin, but size, type and frequency of events differ significantly between distinct settings. Previous studies have proposed sedimentary and oceanographic processes as factors controlling slope instability, but also episodic earthquakes have been postulated as possible triggers. However, quantitative geotechnical slope stability evaluations for this region and, for that matter, elsewhere in the South Atlantic realm are lacking. This study quantitatively assesses continental slope stability for various scenarios including overpressure and earthquake activity, based on sedimentological and geotechnical analyses on three up to 36 m long cores collected on the Uruguayan slope, characterized by muddy contourite deposits and a locus of landslides (up to 2 km3), and in a canyon-dominated area on the northern Argentinean slope characterized by sandy contourite deposits. The results of shear and consolidation tests reveal that these distinct lithologies govern different stability conditions and failure modes. The slope sectors are stable under present-day conditions (factor of safety >5), implying that additional triggers would be required to initiate failure. In the canyon area, current-induced oversteepening of weaker sandy contourite deposits would account for frequent, small-scale slope instabilities. By contrast, static vs. seismic slope stability calculations reveal that a peak ground acceleration of at least 2 m/s2 would be required to cause failure of mechanically stronger muddy contourite deposits. This implies that, also along the western South Atlantic passive margin, submarine landslides on open gentle slopes require episodic large earthquakes as ultimate trigger, as previously postulated for other, northern hemisphere passive margins.

  12. Predicting future thermal habitat suitability of competing native and invasive fish species: from metabolic scope to oceanographic modelling

    PubMed Central

    Marras, Stefano; Cucco, Andrea; Antognarelli, Fabio; Azzurro, Ernesto; Milazzo, Marco; Bariche, Michel; Butenschön, Momme; Kay, Susan; Di Bitetto, Massimiliano; Quattrocchi, Giovanni; Sinerchia, Matteo; Domenici, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Global increase in sea temperatures has been suggested to facilitate the incoming and spread of tropical invaders. The increasing success of these species may be related to their higher physiological performance compared with indigenous ones. Here, we determined the effect of temperature on the aerobic metabolic scope (MS) of two herbivorous fish species that occupy a similar ecological niche in the Mediterranean Sea: the native salema (Sarpa salpa) and the invasive marbled spinefoot (Siganus rivulatus). Our results demonstrate a large difference in the optimal temperature for aerobic scope between the salema (21.8°C) and the marbled spinefoot (29.1°C), highlighting the importance of temperature in determining the energy availability and, potentially, the distribution patterns of the two species. A modelling approach based on a present-day projection and a future scenario for oceanographic conditions was used to make predictions about the thermal habitat suitability (THS, an index based on the relationship between MS and temperature) of the two species, both at the basin level (the whole Mediterranean Sea) and at the regional level (the Sicilian Channel, a key area for the inflow of invasive species from the Eastern to the Western Mediterranean Sea). For the present-day projection, our basin-scale model shows higher THS of the marbled spinefoot than the salema in the Eastern compared with the Western Mediterranean Sea. However, by 2050, the THS of the marbled spinefoot is predicted to increase throughout the whole Mediterranean Sea, causing its westward expansion. Nevertheless, the regional-scale model suggests that the future thermal conditions of Western Sicily will remain relatively unsuitable for the invasive species and could act as a barrier for its spread westward. We suggest that metabolic scope can be used as a tool to evaluate the potential invasiveness of alien species and the resilience to global warming of native species. PMID:27293680

  13. Mesoscale structure of microplankton and mesoplankton assemblages under contrasting oceanographic conditions in the Catalan Sea (NW Mediterranean)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villate, Fernando; Uriarte, Ibon; Olivar, M. Pilar; Maynou, Francesc; Emelianov, Mikhail; Ameztoy, Iban

    2014-11-01

    The abundance, composition and mesoscale variability of the microplankton (53-200 μm) and the mesoplankton (0.2-2 mm) fractions in relation to oceanographic factors and phytoplankton biomass were compared off the Catalan coast (NW Mediterranean) during the summer stratification (June) and autumn mixing (November) periods in 2005. This work aims to determine whether the two plankton fractions that more contribute to fish larval diet respond to a common variable environment, and this study constitutes the first attempt to analyse, in parallel, the spatial structure of both fractions in this area. From June to November microplankton abundance increased mainly by the increase of dinoflagellates, tintinnids and radiolarians, and mesoplankton decreased due mainly to the decrease of long-horned dinoflagellates, cladocerans, doliolids and appendicularians. Plankton mesoscale variability in relation to environmental variables showed higher complexity in June, where environmental horizontal and vertical gradients were more marked than in November. In June, the major mode of variability of the microplankton was mainly accounted by the patchy distribution of several tintinnid species dominated by Rhabdonella spiralis associated to the subsurface phytoplankton biomass. The main mode of variability of the mesoplankton was related to the intrusion of the Ebro river plume and the related aggregation of doliolids and cladocerans, dominated by Evadne spinifera. In November, the major variability pattern in both fractions was a combination of inshore-offshore and eastern-western gradients in taxa distributions shaped mainly by the course of the Catalan Current along the shelf-break. Spatial differences in planktonic food pathways in each period are discussed on the basis of literature on plankton feeding habits and types, and on the diet of fish larvae of the main species from the same surveys.

  14. Response of Coccolithophores to atmospheric and oceanographic changes during the Holocene African Humid Period off Mauritania-Senegal, Northwest Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mejia-Molina, A.; Flores, J.; Sierro, F. J.; Barcena, M. A.; Grousset, F.

    2005-12-01

    Core MD03 2705 -DUST- was recovered at 18°N-21°W at a water depth of 3100 m off Mauritania-Senegal (NW Africa) during Marion Dufresne II Cruise (PICABIA). The sediment sequence mainly consists of continuous foraminifer and nannofossil oozes. This 36 m long piston core covers the last 1.1 million year and its average sedimentation rate is 3.2 cm/ky. Qualitative analyses carried out in coccolithophores together with wind-transported microfossils (phytholiths and fresh-water diatoms) from continental NW African areas, allow us to interpret variations in the direction and intensity of winds and their relationship with superficial oceanographic dynamics during the African Humid Period (9-5.5 ka). The terrigenous record exhibits a well-defined period of low influx associated with the African Humid Period, when the Sahara was nearly completely vegetated supporting perennial lakes. This period has been attributed to a strengthening of the African monsoon due to gradual orbital increases in summer season insolation. Variations in the water surface productivity of coccolithophores (variations in the nutricline/thermocline position) were monitored using the ratio (N) between Noelaerhabdaceae (inhabitants of the upper photic zone) versus Florisphaera profunda (a lower photic zone inhabitant). High values in the N ratio imply a relatively nutricline/thermocline position. During the African Humid Period the high productivity conditions are related with high values in the N ratio with abundant specimens of Emiliania huxleyi and Gephyrocapsa <3 microns. The rapid shift to arid conditions at the end of this period is coincident with high abundance in fresh-diatoms and phytholith and a positive pulse in the Ti/Al ratio, suggesting intensification in the wind regime. At the same time it is observed an increase of Calcidiscus leptoporus and a dramatic decreasing of Gephyrocapsa muellerae, interpreted as return to warm conditions.

  15. Building oceanographic and atmospheric observation networks by composition: unmanned vehicles, communication networks, and planning and execution control frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, J. T.; Pinto, J.; Martins, R.; Costa, M.; Ferreira, F.; Gomes, R.

    2014-12-01

    The problem of developing mobile oceanographic and atmospheric observation networks (MOAO) with coordinated air and ocean vehicles is discussed in the framework of the communications and control software tool chain developed at Underwater Systems and Technologies Laboratory (LSTS) from Porto University. This is done with reference to field experiments to illustrate key capabilities and to assess future MOAO operations. First, the motivation for building MOAO by "composition" of air and ocean vehicles, communication networks, and planning and execution control frameworks is discussed - in networked vehicle systems information and commands are exchanged among multiple vehicles and operators, and the roles, relative positions, and dependencies of these vehicles and operators change during operations. Second, the planning and execution control framework developed at LSTS for multi-vehicle systems is discussed with reference to key concepts such as autonomy, mixed-initiative interactions, and layered organization. Third, the LSTS tool software tool chain is presented to show how to develop MOAO by composition. The tool chain comprises the Neptus command and control framework for mixed initiative interactions, the underlying IMC messaging protocol, and the DUNE on-board software. Fourth, selected LSTS operational deployments illustrate MOAO capability building. In 2012 we demonstrated the use of UAS to "ferry" data from UUVs located beyond line of sight (BLOS). In 2013 we demonstrated coordinated observations of coastal fronts with small UAS and UUVs, "bent" BLOS through the use of UAS as communication relays, and UAS tracking of juvenile hammer-head sharks. In 2014 we demonstrated UUV adaptive sampling with the closed loop controller of the UUV residing on a UAS; this was done with the help of a Wave Glider ASV with a communications gateway. The results from these experiments provide a background for assessing potential future UAS operations in a compositional MOAO.

  16. Energy-related perturbations of the northeast coastal zone: five years (1974-1979) of oceanographic research at Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Walsh, J.J.

    1980-03-01

    Since inception of oceanographic research at Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1974, over 75 cruises and 150 papers and reports have been completed. In comparison of shelf ecosystems at high, mid, and low latitudes, an understanding of the natural variability of US coastal waters has been derived. Annual carbon and nitrogen budgets suggest that the energy flow is diverted to a pelagic food web in summer-fall and a demersal food web in winter-spring within the Mid-Atlantic Bight. The impact of energy-related perturbations can now be assessed within the context of natural oscillation of the coastal food web.

  17. Estuary and Plume Forecasts in Support of Oceanographic Cruises: Generation, In-Vessel Delivery and Quality Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baptista, A. M.; Zhang, Y.; Turner, P. J.; Seaton, C.; van Matre, E.; Hickey, B. M.; Peterson, W. T.; Casillas, E.

    2005-12-01

    Retrospective and predictive simulations of 3D estuarine and plume circulation are conducted as an integral part of CORIE, a multi-purpose cross-scale coastal-margin observatory for the Columbia River. In 2004 and 2005, daily forecasts provided near real-time support for oceanographic and fisheries cruises, involving a range of scientific goals, vessels, and regions within the estuary and the plume. The focus of this presentation is on the description of the modeling, observation and information infrastructure that was developed to support the cruises. At the core of the infrastructure were two 3D baroclinic circulation models (ELCIRC [1] and SELFE [2]), both of which solve for the shallow equations using semi-implicit, Eulerian-Lagrangian, unstructured-grid, hybrid methods (finite volumes/finite differences and finite elements/finite volumes, respectively). Short-term quality control was enabled through a near real-time observation network, combining fixed stations and vessel instrumentation. Prior to deployment, models were also extensively tested in the context of multi-year simulations and observations (e.g., [3]). Radio-based near real-time telemetry was used to transfer customized forecast products to the vessels, a process that was conducted in background every time the vessels were within radio range of a land-based station. A local web server was set-up in each vessel, allowing scientists on-board to have fast access to information. The freshness of the information available on board varied with the cruise plan (specifically, the distance to the land-based station). Typical information latency ranged from a few minutes to a few days. Forecasts were typically able to predict major features of plume and estuarine dynamics, even if the details of quantitative agreement with observations varied with ocean, wind and river conditions. [1] Y. L. Zhang, A. M. Baptista, and E. P. Myers, "A cross-scale model for 3D baroclinic circulation in estuary

  18. Connecting Hundreds of Oceanographic Data Sources from 35 Countries in and around Europe into a Big Data Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Bruin, T.

    2014-12-01

    Until some years ago, oceanographic data in Europe were scattered across dozens of data centres and hundreds of government agencies, research institutes and university groups. As a consequence, it was impossible to get an overview of available data and very difficult to get access to the data. And even if one managed to get access, data were difficult to use because the data came in different formats and were of varying quality.All these issues were successfully addressed in a series of projects culminating in the current SeaDataNet-project. The resulting and operational SeaDataNet infrastructure now connects hundreds of data sources from 35 countries in and around Europe. It was designed to provide a central overview of available data as well as direct access to a distributed system of online data sources. When data are being transferred to the user, the data are converted into a standard format, chosen by the user. Through a joint activity with the MyOcean project, all data within the SeaDataNet infrastructure have been quality controlled.The SeaDataNet infrastructure now offers many possibilities in support of Europe's 'blue economy'. It forms the backbone for the projects under the umbrella of the European Marine Observation and Data Network or EMODNet. The EMODNet projects produce a series of dataproducts on all aspects of the European marine environment. The data for these dataproducts are provided using the SeaDataNet infrastructure.This presentation describes the principles of the SeaDataNet infrastructure and how it connects those hundreds of data sources in Europe. It will explain the strong link, but also the differences, with the MyOcean project and will go on to introduce the EMODNet-programme and -projects as an example of what can be done if one has achieved uniform access to a distributed system of hundreds of data sources. Finally, the presentation will also address the long-term sustainability of the chosen approach.

  19. Epipelagic and mesopelagic fishes in the southern California Current System: Ecological interactions and oceanographic influences on their abundance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koslow, J. Anthony; Davison, Peter; Lara-Lopez, Ana; Ohman, Mark D.

    2014-10-01

    We use zooplankton and ichthyoplankton data from the ~ 60-year CalCOFI time series to examine relationships of mesopelagic (i.e. midwater) fishes in the California Current System with midwater predators, potential competitors (epipelagic planktivorous fishes) and zooplankton prey, within the context of local and basin-scale oceanography. Equilibrium-based near-steady state models and the “wasp-waist” paradigm for eastern boundary currents predict tightly-coupled trophic interactions, with negative correlations between the abundance of planktivorous competitors and between dominant planktivores and their prey. Testing these hypotheses with the CalCOFI time series, we found them to be generally invalid. Potential competitors within the mesopelagic community (planktivorous vertical migrators (VMs) and non-migrators (NMs)) were highly positively correlated, as were these groups with the mesopelagic piscivores (e.g. dragonfishes) that prey on them. In addition, the abundance of VMs was mostly positively correlated with that of epipelagic planktivores, such as anchovy, mackerels and hake. The VMs and epipelagic planktivores were negatively correlated with key potential planktonic prey groups, indicating a lack of bottom-up forcing. However, neither do these negative correlations appear to signify top-down forcing, since they seem to be mediated through correlations with key environmental drivers, such as the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO), sea surface temperature, and the relative strength of the California Current. We suggest that the web of correlations linking key meso- and epipelagic planktivores, their predators and prey is mediated through common links with basin-scale oceanographic drivers, such as the PDO and ENSO cycles. Thus, the abundance of mesopelagic fishes in the California Current is closely tied to variation in the oxygen minimum zone, whose dynamics have been linked to the PDO. The PDO and other drivers are also linked to the transport of the

  20. Seawater-derived neodymium isotope records in the Chukchi Sea, western Arctic Ocean during Holocene: implications for oceanographic circulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Borom; Nam, Seung-Il; Huh, Youngsook; Lee, Mi Jung

    2015-04-01

    Changes in oceanographic circulation in the Artic have a large influence on the global oceanic and climate system of the Earth through the geological times. In particular, freshwater input from the North Pacific to the western Arctic Ocean affects the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC) after the opening of the Bering Strait. Seawater-derived neodymium isotope in marine sediments has been used as a proxy to trace the origin of water masses and oceanic circulation system. The global average residence time of Nd is shorter than the global ocean mixing time and dissolved Nd in seawater behaves quasi-conservatively. In the modern Arctic Ocean, the Nd isotope distribution is dominated by Atlantic source water, although the circum-Arctic riverine discharge and Pacific-derived waters also have noticeable impacts. In this study, we investigated seawater-derived neodymium isotope records from a sediment core recovered from the Chukchi Sea to understand the changes in hydrograhic circulation of the western Arctic during the Holocene. A gravity core, ARA02B 01A, was collected on the northern shelf of the Chukchi Sea (73°37.8939'N, 166°30.9838'W, ca. 111 m in water depth) during the RV Araon expedition in 2011. To obtain seawater-derived Nd records, we extracted Fe-Mn oxide coatings as an authigenic fraction from bulk sediments by leaching with acid-reducing solution after removing carbonate by leaching with acetic acid. Our preliminary results might show a general pattern of increasing radiogenic ɛNd values through Holocene intervals. Therefore, it implies that ɛNd results may be related with variations in the intensity of Bering Strait inflow during the last ~9.31 ka BP. The radiogenic trend was strongly pronounced from the late Holocene (ɛNd -7.23; ca. 8.84 ka BP) to the middle Holocene (ɛNd -4.78; ca. 6.18 ka BP) and vaguely during the middle Holocene. After 4.13 ka BP, ɛNd values were increased again from -4.86 to -4.03 at 0.57 ka BP. But 87Sr/86Sr

  1. Oceanographic and climatic record for the last 18 ka cal BP in marine sediments from Pescadero Basin, Gulf of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Escorza-Reyes, M.; Pérez-Cruz, L.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.; Salas-de-León, D.

    2012-04-01

    In this study a marine sequence is analyzed in order to reconstruct the oceanographic and climatic conditions based on geochemical and magnetic data, in centennial to multi-decadal time scales during the past 18 ka in the southern Gulf of California. The gravity core DIPAL III-T2 was recovered in the eastern part of Pescadero Basin, at 577 m depth, in the Pacific Intermediate Water (PIW) and Oxygen Minimum Zone (OMZ), aboard the R/V "El Puma" of the National University of Mexico (UNAM). The core is 262 cm long. This core is characterized by clay sediments. It shows massive and homogeneous sediments from bottom to 200 cm, and from there to the top a well defined laminated structure. Light laminae exhibit high content of biogenic components (mainly diatoms, radiolarian and silicoflagellates remains), whereas dark laminae are formed mostly by terrigenous material. Age model is based on five AMS radiocarbon dating, calibrated applying the CALIB 6.1.0 radiocarbon program. The sedimentation rates estimated range from ~0.1 mm/yr to ~0.3 mm/yr (in the upper part); sedimentary sequence comprises approximately the past 18 ka cal BP. Samples were taken every cm and they were dried and grounded, and elemental chemical concentrations measured using an X-ray fluorescence analyzer (Niton XL3t GOLDD). For magnetic susceptibility, measurements were taken every 0.5 cm with a Bartington Susceptibilimeter with MS2B sensor. A sharp difference in concentrations of Fe, Ti, K, Si, Ca y V, also observed in magnetic susceptibility measurements, marks the transition between Holocene and Pleistocene epochs, suggesting deposition under different conditions of atmospheric and oceanic circulation. In particular, low Ti, Fe and K concentrations at ~ 8 ka cal BP, indicate a decrease in terrigenous input, indicating a decrease in rainfall and river discharges from mainland to the basin, suggesting dry and cold conditions. We propose that this signal correlate with the 8.2 ka cooling event, that

  2. Oceanographic conditions structure forage fishes into lipid-rich and lipid-poor communities in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abookire, A.A.; Piatt, J.F.

    2005-01-01

    Forage fishes were sampled with a mid-water trawl in lower Cook Inlet, Alaska, USA, from late July to early August 1996 to 1999. We sampled 3 oceanographically distinct areas of lower Cook Inlet: waters adjacent to Chisik Island, in Kachemak Bay, and near the Barren Islands. In 163 tows using a mid-water trawl, 229 437 fishes with fork length <200 mm were captured. More than 39 species were captured in lower Cook Inlet, but Pacific sand lance Ammodytes hexapterus, juvenile Pacific herring Clupea pallasi, and juvenile walleye pollock Theragra chalcogramma comprised 97.5% of the total individuals. Both species richness and species diversity were highest in warm, low-salinity, weakly stratified waters near Chisik Island. Kachemak Bay, which had thermohaline values between those found near Chisik Island and the Barren Islands, had an intermediate value of species richness. Species richness was lowest at the Barren Islands, an exposed region that regularly receives oceanic, upwelled water from the Gulf of Alaska. Non-metric multidimensional scaling (NMDS) was used to compute axes of species composition based on an ordination of pairwise site dissimilarities. Each axis was strongly rank-correlated with unique groups of species and examined separately as a function of environmental parameters (temperature, salinity, depth), area, and year. Oce??anographie parameters accounted for 41 and 12% of the variability among forage fishes indicated by Axis 1 and Axis 2, respectively. Axis 1 also captured the spatial variability in the upwelled area of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted the distribution of species among shallow, nearshore (sand lance, herring) and deep, offshore (walleye pollock) habitats. Axis 2 captured the spatial variability in forage fish communities from the north (Chisik Island) to the south (Barren Islands) of lower Cook Inlet and essentially contrasted a highly diverse community dominated by salmonids and osmerids (warmer, less saline) with a fish

  3. From global to local genetic structuring in the red gorgonian Paramuricea clavata: the interplay between oceanographic conditions and limited larval dispersal.

    PubMed

    Mokhtar-Jamaï, K; Pascual, M; Ledoux, J-B; Coma, R; Féral, J-P; Garrabou, J; Aurelle, D

    2011-08-01

    Defining the scale of connectivity among marine populations and identifying the barriers to gene flow are tasks of fundamental importance for understanding the genetic structure of populations and for the design of marine reserves. Here, we investigated the population genetic structure at three spatial scales of the red gorgonian Paramuricea clavata (Cnidaria, Octocorallia), a key species dwelling in the coralligenous assemblages of the Mediterranean Sea. Colonies of P. clavata were collected from 39 locations across the Mediterranean Sea from Morocco to Turkey and analysed using microsatellite loci. Within three regions (Medes, Marseille and North Corsica), sampling was obtained from multiple locations and at different depths. Three different approaches (measures of genetic differentiation, Bayesian clustering and spatially explicit maximum-difference algorithm) were used to determine the pattern of genetic structure. We identified genetic breaks in the spatial distribution of genetic diversity, which were concordant with oceanographic conditions in the Mediterranean Sea. We revealed a high level of genetic differentiation among populations and a pattern of isolation by distance across the studied area and within the three regions, underlining short effective larval dispersal in this species. We observed genetic differentiation among populations in the same locality dwelling at different depths, which may be explained by local oceanographic conditions and which may allow a process of local adaptation of the populations to their environment. We discuss the implications of our results for the conservation of the species, which is exposed to various threats.

  4. Application of the Golden Software Surfer mapping software for automation of visualisation of meteorological and oceanographic data in IMGW Maritime Branch.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piliczewski, B.

    2003-04-01

    The Golden Software Surfer has been used in IMGW Maritime Branch for more than ten years. This tool provides ActiveX Automation objects, which allow scripts to control practically every feature of Surfer. These objects can be accessed from any Automation-enabled environment, such as Visual Basic or Excel. Several applications based on Surfer has been developed in IMGW. The first example is an on-line oceanographic service, which presents forecasts of the water temperature, sea level and currents originating from the HIROMB model and is automatically updated every day. Surfer was also utilised in MERMAID, an international project supported by EC under the 5th Framework Programme. The main aim of this project was to create a prototype of the Internet-based data brokerage system, which would enable to search, extract, buy and download datasets containing meteorological or oceanographic data. During the project IMGW developed an online application, called Mermaid Viewer, which enables communication with the data broker and automatic visualisation of the downloaded data using Surfer. Both the above mentioned applications were developed in Visual Basic. Currently it is considered to adopt Surfer for the monitoring service, which provides access to the data collected in the monitoring of the Baltic Sea environment.

  5. The influence of oceanographic features on the foraging behavior of the olive ridley sea turtle Lepidochelys olivacea along the Guiana coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambault, Philippine; de Thoisy, Benoît; Heerah, Karine; Conchon, Anna; Barrioz, Sébastien; Dos Reis, Virginie; Berzins, Rachel; Kelle, Laurent; Picard, Baptiste; Roquet, Fabien; Le Maho, Yvon; Chevallier, Damien

    2016-03-01

    The circulation in the Western Equatorial Atlantic is characterized by a highly dynamic mesoscale activity that shapes the Guiana continental shelf. Olive ridley sea turtles (Lepidochelys olivacea) nesting in French Guiana cross this turbulent environment during their post-nesting migration. We studied how oceanographic and biological conditions drove the foraging behavior of 18 adult females, using satellite telemetry, remote sensing data (sea surface temperature, sea surface height, current velocity and euphotic depth), simulations of micronekton biomass (pelagic organisms) and in situ records (water temperature and salinity). The occurrence of foraging events throughout migration was located using Residence Time analysis, while an innovative proxy of the hunting time within a dive was used to identify and quantify foraging events during dives. Olive ridleys migrated northwestwards using the Guiana current and remained on the continental shelf at the edge of eddies formed by the North Brazil retroflection, an area characterized by low turbulence and high micronekton biomass. They performed mainly pelagic dives, hunting for an average 77% of their time. Hunting time within a dive increased with shallower euphotic depth and with lower water temperatures, and mean hunting depth increased with deeper thermocline. This is the first study to quantify foraging activity within dives in olive ridleys, and reveals the crucial role played by the thermocline on the foraging behavior of this carnivorous species. This study also provides novel and detailed data describing how turtles actively use oceanographic structures during post-nesting migration.

  6. The Chemical Oceanographer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Robert B.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses career opportunities in oceanography for chemists. These include opportunities related to food, physical oceanography, mining, drugs, and other areas. Educational background needed and degree program are considered. (JN)

  7. Microwave radar oceanographic investigations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, F. C.

    1988-01-01

    The Radar Ocean Wave Spectrometer (ROWS) technique was developed and demonstrated for measuring ocean wave directional spectra from air and space platforms. The measurement technique was well demonstrated with data collected in a number of flight experiments involving wave spectral comparisons with wave buoys and the Surface Contour Radar (SCR). Recent missions include the SIR-B underflight experiment (1984), FASINEX (1986), and LEWEX (1987). ROWS related activity is presently concentrating on using the aircraft instrument for wave-processes investigations and obtaining the necessary support (consensus) for a satellite instrument development program. Prospective platforms include EOS and the Canadian RADARSAT.

  8. Oceanographic Mower Cruise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, J.; Ercilla, G.; Hernández-Molina, F. J.; Casas, D.

    2015-04-01

    The MOWER Cruise has executed a geophysics and geologic expedition in the Gulf of Cádiz (sector adjacent to the Strait of Gibraltar) and west off Portugal, in the framework of the coordinate research project MOWER "Erosive features and associated sandy deposits generated by the Mediterranean Outflow Water (MOW) around Iberia: paleoceanographic, sedimentary & economic implications" (CTM 2012-39599-C03). The main aim of this project is to identify and study the erosional features (terraces and channels) and associated sedimentary deposits (sandy contourites) generated by the Mediterranean Water Masses around the middle continental slope of Iberia (The Mediterranean Outflow Water - MOW - in the Atlantic margins), their Pliocene and Quaternary evolution and their paleoceanographic, sedimentary and economic implications. This objective directly involves the study of alongslope (contourite) processes associated with the MOW and across-slope (turbiditic flows, debris flows, etc.) processes in the sedimentary stacking pattern and evolution of the Iberian margins. The MOWER project and cruise are related to the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 339 (Mediterranean Outflow). It is also linked and coordinated with CONDRIBER Project "Contourite drifts and associated mass-transport deposits along the SW Iberia margin - implications to slope stability and tsunami hazard assessment" (2013-2015) funded by the Fundação para a Ciência e Tecnologia, Portugal (PTDC/GEO-GEO/4430/2012).

  9. Temporal Characterization of Hydrates System Dynamics beneath Seafloor Mounds. Integrating Time-Lapse Electrical Resistivity Methods and In Situ Observations of Multiple Oceanographic Parameters

    SciTech Connect

    Lutken, Carol; Macelloni, Leonardo; D'Emidio, Marco; Dunbar, John; Higley, Paul

    2015-01-31

    This study was designed to investigate temporal variations in hydrate system dynamics by measuring changes in volumes of hydrate beneath hydrate-bearing mounds on the continental slope of the northern Gulf of Mexico, the landward extreme of hydrate occurrence in this region. Direct Current Resistivity (DCR) measurements were made contemporaneously with measurements of oceanographic parameters at Woolsey Mound, a carbonate-hydrate complex on the mid-continental slope, where formation and dissociation of hydrates are most vulnerable to variations in oceanographic parameters affected by climate change, and where changes in hydrate stability can readily translate to loss of seafloor stability, impacts to benthic ecosystems, and venting of greenhouse gases to the water-column, and eventually, the atmosphere. We focused our study on hydrate within seafloor mounds because the structurally-focused methane flux at these sites likely causes hydrate formation and dissociation processes to occur at higher rates than at sites where the methane flux is less concentrated and we wanted to maximize our chances of witnessing association/dissociation of hydrates. We selected a particularly well-studied hydrate-bearing seafloor mound near the landward extent of the hydrate stability zone, Woolsey Mound (MC118). This mid-slope site has been studied extensively and the project was able to leverage considerable resources from the team’s research experience at MC118. The site exhibits seafloor features associated with gas expulsion, hydrates have been documented at the seafloor, and changes in the outcropping hydrates have been documented, photographically, to have occurred over a period of months. We conducted observatory-based, in situ measurements to 1) characterize, geophysically, the sub-bottom distribution of hydrate and its temporal variability, and 2) contemporaneously record relevant environmental parameters (temperature, pressure, salinity, turbidity, bottom currents) to

  10. Impact of land-cover change in the southern Amazonia climate: a case study for the region of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, Vincent; Debortoli, Nathan; Funatsu, Beatriz; Nédélec, Vincent; Durieux, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of forest into pastures in the Brazilian Amazon leads to significant consequences to climate at local scale. In the region of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil), deforestation has been intense with over half the forests being cut since 1970. This article first examines the evolution of precipitation observed in this region and shows a significant trend in the decrease in total precipitation especially at the end of the dry season and at the beginning of the rainy season. The study then compares the temperatures measured in cleared and forested sectors within a reserve in the area of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil) between 2006 and 2007. The cleared sector was always hotter and drier (from 5% to 10%) than the forested area. This difference was not only especially marked during the day when it reached on average 2°C but also seemed to increase during the night with the onset of the dry season (+0.5°C). The Urban Heat Island effect is also evident especially during the night and in the dry season.

  11. Genetic diversity of endophytic diazotrophs of the wild rice, Oryza alta and identification of the new diazotroph, Acinetobacter oryzae sp. nov.

    PubMed

    Chaudhary, Hassan Javed; Peng, Guixiang; Hu, Mei; He, Yumei; Yang, Lijuan; Luo, Yan; Tan, Zhiyuan

    2012-05-01

    Thirty-three endophytic diazotrophs were isolated from surface-sterilized leaves, stem, and roots of wild rice Oryza alta. The SDS-PAGE profile of total protein and insertion sequence-based polymerase chain reaction (IS-PCR) fingerprinting grouped the isolates into four clusters (I-IV). The 16S rRNA gene sequence homology of the representative strains B21, B31, B1, and B23 of clusters I, II, III, and IV were assigned to Pseudomonas oleovorans (99.2% similarity), Burkholderia fungorum (99.4% similarity), Enterobacter cloacae (98.9% similarity), and Acinetobacter johnsonii (98.4% similarity), respectively. The results showed wide genetic diversity of the putative diazotrophic strains of the wild rice, O. alta, and the strains of cluster IV are the first report of nitrogen-fixing Acinetobacter species. The cell size, phenotypic characters, total protein profile, genomic DNA fingerprinting, DNA-DNA hybridization, and antibiotic resistance differentiated strain B23(T) from its closest relatives A. johnsonii LMG999(T) and Acinetobacter haemolyticus LMG996(T). The DNA-DNA hybridization also distinguished the strain B23(T) from the closely related Acinetobacter species. Based on these data, a novel species, Acinetobacter oryzae sp. nov., and strain B23(T) (=LMG25575(T) = CGMCC1.10689(T)) as the type strain were proposed. PMID:22105517

  12. Impact of land-cover change in the southern Amazonia climate: a case study for the region of Alta Floresta, Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Dubreuil, Vincent; Debortoli, Nathan; Funatsu, Beatriz; Nédélec, Vincent; Durieux, Laurent

    2012-01-01

    The transformation of forest into pastures in the Brazilian Amazon leads to significant consequences to climate at local scale. In the region of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil), deforestation has been intense with over half the forests being cut since 1970. This article first examines the evolution of precipitation observed in this region and shows a significant trend in the decrease in total precipitation especially at the end of the dry season and at the beginning of the rainy season. The study then compares the temperatures measured in cleared and forested sectors within a reserve in the area of Alta Floresta (Mato Grosso, Brazil) between 2006 and 2007. The cleared sector was always hotter and drier (from 5% to 10%) than the forested area. This difference was not only especially marked during the day when it reached on average 2°C but also seemed to increase during the night with the onset of the dry season (+0.5°C). The Urban Heat Island effect is also evident especially during the night and in the dry season. PMID:21479561

  13. Anisometry of Medial Patellofemoral Ligament Reconstruction in the Setting of Patella Alta and Increased Tibial Tubercle-Trochlear Groove (TT-TG) Distance

    PubMed Central

    Redler, Lauren H.; Meyers, Kathleen N.; Munch, Jacqueline; Dennis, Elizabeth R.; Nguyen, Joseph; Stein, Beth E. Shubin

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Medial patellofemoral ligament (MPFL) reconstruction is a common procedure to treat recurrent patellofemoral instability. However, the effects of an elevated tibial tubercle-trochlear groove (TT-TG) distance and patella alta, as measured by the Caton-Deschamps (C/D) ratio, on MPFL isometry remain unclear. We hypothesized that increased lateralization and proximalization of the tibial tubercle (TT) will have increasingly adverse effects on the isometry of the MPFL. Methods: Ten fresh-frozen cadaveric knees were placed on a custom testing fixture, with a fixed femur and tibia mobile through 120 degrees of flexion. The quadriceps tendon was loaded with 10.8 N in an anatomic direction using a weighted pulley system. A 0.2 N patellar lateral displacement load was used to simulate an intact lateral retinaculum to avoid over-medializing the patella. A tunnel was drilled under fluoroscopic guidance from Schottle’s point on the medial distal femur through the lateral cortex. A suture anchor was placed at the upper 66% of the medial border of the patella and the sutures were shuttled through to the lateral side and attached to a pulley with a 1 N weight. Retroreflective markers were attached to the femur, tibia, patella, and suture. MPFL length change, as measured by suture marker motion, was assessed using a 3D motion capture system through a range of motion between 0 deg and 110 deg with the native TT anatomy. Recordings were repeated after a flat TT osteotomy and transfer to a TT-TG of 20 mm and 25 mm and a C/D ratio of 1.2 and 1.4, including all combinations. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) modeling technique was used to analyze and control for the clustered nature of the data. SAS version 9.3 (SAS Inc., Cary, NC) was used for all data analyses. Results: Analysis was performed on 9 specimens secondary to significant deviations in the baseline normative data. Intact knees showed MPFL isometry through 20-70 degrees range of motion. Tibial tubercle

  14. Design and Fabrication of Nereid-UI: A Remotely Operated Underwater Vehicle for Oceanographic Access Under Ice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitcomb, L. L.; Bowen, A. D.; Yoerger, D.; German, C. R.; Kinsey, J. C.; Mayer, L. A.; Jakuba, M. V.; Gomez-Ibanez, D.; Taylor, C. L.; Machado, C.; Howland, J. C.; Kaiser, C. L.; Heintz, M.; Pontbriand, C.; Suman, S.; O'hara, L.

    2013-12-01

    The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and collaborators from the Johns Hopkins University and the University of New Hampshire are developing for the Polar Science Community a remotely-controlled underwater robotic vehicle capable of being tele-operated under ice under remote real-time human supervision. The Nereid Under-Ice (Nereid-UI) vehicle will enable exploration and detailed examination of biological and physical environments at glacial ice-tongues and ice-shelf margins, delivering high-definition video in addition to survey data from on board acoustic, chemical, and biological sensors. Preliminary propulsion system testing indicates the vehicle will be able to attain standoff distances of up to 20 km from an ice-edge boundary, as dictated by the current maximum tether length. The goal of the Nereid-UI system is to provide scientific access to under-ice and ice-margin environments that is presently impractical or infeasible. FIBER-OPTIC TETHER: The heart of the Nereid-UI system is its expendable fiber optic telemetry system. The telemetry system utilizes many of the same components pioneered for the full-ocean depth capable HROV Nereus vehicle, with the addition of continuous fiber status monitoring, and new float-pack and depressor designs that enable single-body deployment. POWER SYSTEM: Nereid-UI is powered by a pressure-tolerant lithium-ion battery system composed of 30 Ah prismatic pouch cells, arranged on a 90 volt bus and capable of delivering 15 kW. The cells are contained in modules of 8 cells, and groups of 9 modules are housed together in oil-filled plastic boxes. The power distribution system uses pressure tolerant components extensively, each of which have been individually qualified to 10 kpsi and operation between -20 C and 40 C. THRUSTERS: Nereid-UI will employ eight identical WHOI-designed thrusters, each with a frameless motor, oil-filled and individually compensated, and designed for low-speed (500 rpm max) direct drive. We expect an end

  15. The oceanographic and climatic evolution of the Paleogene Southern Ocean (Arne Richter Award for Outstanding Young Scientists Lecture)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bijl, Peter; Houben, Alexander J. P.

    2014-05-01

    buildup of continental ice on Antarctica, sea-ice may have first developed along the margin of East Antarctica Margin, but this conclusion lacks support from field evidence. Other numerical models predict that hysteresis effects within the ice sheet render a continental-size Antarctic ice sheet rather insensitive to warming. In contrast, deep-water benthic foraminiferal oxygen isotope records across the Oligocene suggest dramatic waxing and waning of Antarctic ice sheets. In summary, the complex interaction of climate forcings and responses following the opening and subsequent deepening of the Southern Ocean gateways, as well as the precise relationship between Southern Ocean oceanographic change, sea ice formation and continental ice dynamics are as yet poorly understood. In my presentation, I will provide an overview of our recent palynological and organic geochemical studies on Eocene sediments from the Southern Ocean that addresses some of these uncertainties. The presented studies were only possible through access to ocean sediments collected and curated by the several scientific ocean drilling programs (DSDP, ODP, IODP). IODP Expedition 318 drilled the Antarctic Margin in 2010, and recovered sediments from both pre-glacial and early glacial phases of Antarctic climate evolution. Using these drill cores together with sediments retrieved during previous expeditions we can now evaluate the robustness of the results of numerical models with field data. Strata sampled at IODP Site U1356 represent a thick and relatively complete (albeit compromised by core gaps) Eocene- Oligocene succession that is chronostratigraphically well-calibrated in the context of of nannoplankton- dinoflagellate cyst (dinocyst) and paleomagnetism. Notably, this record yields diverse dinocysts assemblages and organic molecular biomarkers, which we can use to investigate changes in surface-water paleoenvironmental changes through the Eocene and Oligocene to provide answers to these outstanding

  16. Progress on Oceanographic Tables and Standards 1983-1986: Work and Recommendations of the Unesco/SCOR/ICES/IAPSO Joint Panel. Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science No. 50.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). Div. of Marine Sciences.

    The present document covers activities carried out by and under the auspices of the Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards (JPOTS) over the period of 1983-1986. The first part is the report of the Chairman of JPOTS on the activities of the Panel during the period 1983-1985. Two major topics were considered by the Panel: (1) the…

  17. Algorithms for Computation of Fundamental Properties of Seawater. Endorsed by Unesco/SCOR/ICES/IAPSO Joint Panel on Oceanographic Tables and Standards and SCOR Working Group 51. Unesco Technical Papers in Marine Science, No. 44.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fofonoff, N. P.; Millard, R. C., Jr.

    Algorithms for computation of fundamental properties of seawater, based on the practicality salinity scale (PSS-78) and the international equation of state for seawater (EOS-80), are compiled in the present report for implementing and standardizing computer programs for oceanographic data processing. Sample FORTRAN subprograms and tables are given…

  18. Oceanographic changes in the Southern Ocean and Antarctic cryosphere dynamics during the Oligocene and Miocene: a view from offshore Wilkes Land

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangiorgi, Francesca; Bijl, Peter K.; Hartman, Julian D.; Schouten, Stefan; Brinkhuis, Henk

    2016-04-01

    With the ongoing increase in atmospheric CO2 and global temperatures, a fundamental scientific and societal question arises concerning the stability of the Antarctic cryosphere. Modern observational data indicate the Southern Ocean has experienced significant warming, with oceanic fronts being pushed several tenth of km closer to the continent. Moreover, basal melt of ice shelves from warming oceans is causing accelerated grounding line retreat of the Antarctic ice sheets and shelves. However, monitoring data are available for the last few decades only, which prevents the evaluation of long-term changes in ice mass balance. Studying intervals in Earth's past history, which represent the best possible analogues of (near) future conditions, becomes thus essential. The Oligocene and Miocene Epochs encompass periods with CO2 concentrations between today's and those expected for the (near) future. It has also become clear that ice-proximal oceanographic regime is a critical factor for the stability and mass balance of ice sheets. Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP) Expedition 318 offshore Wilkes Land (East Antarctica) Site U1356 satisfies both requirements of being ice-proximal and having a relative complete, stratigraphically well-resolved Oligocene-Miocene sequence (albeit with a possible 5-Myrs gap between Late Oligocene and Early Miocene). This allows for the first time studying oceanographic changes and cryosphere dynamics in the interval ~34-13 Myrs. Thus far, ice-proximal reconstructions were hindered by the paucity of suitable sedimentary archives around Antarctica and/or poor stratigraphic constraints. We reconstructed changes in surface oceanography and seawater temperatures by means of dinoflagellate cyst assemblages and TEX86 paleothermometry. The dinocyst data suggest (summer) sea-ice occurrence at Site U1356 only for the first 1.5 Ma following the onset of full Antarctic glaciation and after the Mid-Miocene Climatic Optimum. In between, both dinocysts

  19. Foraging behaviour of King Penguins ( Aptenodytes patagonicus) in relation to predictable mesoscale oceanographic features in the Polar Front Zone to the north of South Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffer, Annette; Trathan, Philip N.; Collins, Martin

    2010-07-01

    Marine predators are thought to utilise oceanic features adjusting their foraging strategy in a scale-dependent manner. Thus, they are thought to dynamically alter their foraging behaviour in response to environmental conditions encountered. In this study, we examined the foraging behaviour of King Penguins ( Aptenodytes patagonicus) breeding at South Georgia in relation to predictable and stable oceanographic features. We studied penguins during their long post-laying foraging trips during December 2005 and January 2006. For this investigation, we undertook a simultaneous analysis of ARGOS satellite-tracking data and Mk 7 WildLife Computers Time Depth Recorder (TDR) dive data. To investigate correlations between foraging behaviour and oceanographic conditions, we used SST data from January 2006 from MODIS satellite AQUA. To determine changes in search effort, first passage time (FPT) was calculated; for analysis of dive behaviour, we used several dive parameters that are thought to be reliable indicators of changes in foraging behaviour. King Penguins appeared to target predictable mesoscale features in the Polar Front Zone (PFZ), either a warm-core eddy in the PFZ or regions of strong temperature gradients at oceanic fronts. Two different trip types could be distinguished: direct trips with a straight path to one foraging area at the edge of an eddy or at a thermal front, and circular trips where birds foraged along strong thermal gradients at the northern limit of the PFZ. It is likely that both trip types were a direct consequence of prey encounter rates and distributions, both of which are likely to be associated with these oceanographic features. Circular trips often included passages across the centre of an eddy where birds made deep foraging dives, but remained only a short time in the eddy, possibly because prey were too deep. All birds showed Area Restricted Search (ARS) at scales of <10 km. The two trip types had different ARS patterns, with clear ARS

  20. Mooring-based long-term observation of oceanographic condition in the Chukchi Ses and Canada Basin of the Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Itoh, Motoyo; Nishino, Shigeto; Watanabe, Eiji

    2015-04-01

    Changes of the Arctic Ocean environment are well known as one of the most remarkable evidences of global warming, attracting social and public attentions as well as scientists'. However, to illustrate on-going changes and predict future condition of the Arctic marine environment, we still do not have enough knowledge of Arctic sea ice and marine environment. In particular, lack of observation data in winter, e.g., under sea ice, still remains a key issue for precise understanding of seasonal cycle on oceanographic condition in the Arctic Ocean. Mooring-based observation is one of the most useful methods to collect year-long data in the Arctic Ocean. We have been conducting long-term monitoring using mooring system in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean. Volume, heat, and freshwater fluxes through Barrow Canyon where is a major conduit of Pacific-origin water-masses into the Canada Basin have been observed since 2000. We show from an analysis of the mooring results that volume flux through Barrow Canyon was about 60 % of Bering Strait volume flux. Averaged heat flux ranges from 0.9 to 3.07 TW, which could melt 88,000 to 300,000 km2 of 1m thick ice in the Canada Basin, which likely contributed to sea ice retreat in the Pacific sector of the Arctic Ocean. In winter, we found inter-annual variability in salinity related to coastal polynya activity in the Chukchi Sea. In collaboration with Distributed Biological Observatory (DBO) project, which is one of the tasks of Sustaining Arctic Observing Network (SAON), we also initiated year-long mooring observation in the Hope Valley of the southern Chukchi Sea since 2012. Interestingly, winter oceanographic conditions in the Hope Valley are greatly different between in 2012-2013 and in 2013-2014. We speculate that differences of sea ice freeze-up and coastal polynya activity in the southern Chukchi Sea cause significant difference of winter oceanographic condition. It suggests that recent sea ice reduction in the Pacific

  1. Assessing the potential impact of water-based drill cuttings on deep-water calcareous red algae using species specific impact categories and measured oceanographic and discharge data.

    PubMed

    Nilssen, Ingunn; dos Santos, Francisco; Coutinho, Ricardo; Gomes, Natalia; Cabral, Marcelo Montenegro; Eide, Ingvar; Figueiredo, Marcia A O; Johnsen, Geir; Johnsen, Ståle

    2015-12-01

    The potential impact of drill cuttings on the two deep water calcareous red algae Mesophyllum engelhartii and Lithothamnion sp. from the Peregrino oil field was assessed. Dispersion modelling of drill cuttings was performed for a two year period using measured oceanographic and discharge data with 24 h resolution. The model was also used to assess the impact on the two algae species using four species specific impact categories: No, minor, medium and severe impact. The corresponding intervals for photosynthetic efficiency (ΦPSIImax) and sediment coverage were obtained from exposure-response relationship for photosynthetic efficiency as function of sediment coverage for the two algae species. The temporal resolution enabled more accurate model predictions as short-term changes in discharges and environmental conditions could be detected. The assessment shows that there is a patchy risk for severe impact on the calcareous algae stretching across the transitional zone and into the calcareous algae bed at Peregrino.

  2. Offshore oceanographic and environmental monitoring services for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve. Annual report for the Bryan Mound site, September 1982-August 1983. Volume III. Executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Hann, R.W. Jr.; Giammona, C.P.; Randall, R.E.

    1984-03-01

    This report describes the findings for the 12 months of postdisposal study conducted from September 1982 through August 1983. The areas of investigation are benthos, brine plume, data management, nekton, physical oceanography, and water and sediment quality. The specific objectives of this report are: (1) to describe the physical oceanographic and meteorological conditions which have been measured at the offshore diffuser site and in the surrounding waters; (2) to describe the effect of brine discharge on the benthic community in the diffuser site area; (3) to discuss the effect of the brine discharge on the quality of the water and sediment in the vicinity of the diffuser site; (4) to describe the measurement and empirical prediction of the areal and vertical extent of the brine plume; and (5) to characterize the effect of brine discharge on the nekton community in the vicinity of the diffuser. 2 figures.

  3. The environmental balance of the Alta Val d'Agri: a contribution to the evaluation of the industrial risk and strategic sustainable development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loperte, S.; Cosmi, C.

    2015-09-01

    This study presents the preliminary environmental balance of the Alta Val d'Agri (Basilicata Region, Southern Italy), an area of great naturalistic interest characterized by the presence of huge oil and gas fields. The Driving Forces-Pressure-State-Impact-Responses (DPSIR) methodology was used to outline the background in terms of environmental impacts mainly caused by oil extraction activities, as well as potential existing responses. The study aims at providing stakeholders with an exhaustive framework to identify the existing data, the main sources of pollution, their potential impacts, the associated industrial risks and the existing policy strategies. Moreover, the DPSIR approach allows the identification of the vulnerable areas and the definition of targeted actions for a sustainable development of the area.

  4. Does location really matter? An inter-colony comparison of seabirds breeding at varying distances from productive oceanographic features in the Bering Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harding, Ann; Paredes, Rosana; Suryan, Robert; Roby, Daniel; Irons, David; Orben, Rachael; Renner, Heather; Young, Rebecca; Barger, Christopher; Dorresteijn, Ine; Kitaysky, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Central place foragers, such as breeding seabirds, need to commute between their nests and foraging grounds, thus close proximity of the breeding colony to productive oceanographic features might be beneficial for seabird reproduction. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the at-sea foraging and breeding behavior of thick-billed murres (Uria lomvia) nesting at three colonies (Bogoslof, St. Paul, and St. George Islands) in the Bering Sea located at different distances from the productive continental shelf-break. We found that distances to feeding areas differed only during night trips among colonies. St. Paul murres foraged entirely on the shelf, whereas St. George murres commuted to the continental shelf-break at night and foraged on the shelf during the day. Bogoslof murres foraged in oceanic waters in close proximity to the colony. Murres breeding at the both Pribilof colonies spent less time attending nests and had higher levels of stress hormone corticosterone compared to murres breeding at Bogoslof, although chick-provisioning rates and fledging success were similar among the three colonies. Lower nest attendance and higher corticosterone suggest lower food availability in the Pribilof domain compared to the Bogoslof region. Murres breeding at the Pribilofs used different foraging strategies to buffer effects of food shortages on their reproduction: flight costs associated with longer distance night trips at St. George were presumably balanced by benefits of higher density and/or more lipid rich prey in the continental shelf-break regions, whereas the additional distance of St. Paul from the continental shelf-break may have outweighed any energetic gain. Murres exhibited a remarkable degree of plasticity of foraging strategies in response to changes in their food availability, but the breeding success of murres did not reflect either food limitations or the colony proximity to productive oceanographic features.

  5. The influence of oceanographic scenarios on the population dynamics of demersal resources in the western Mediterranean: Hypothesis for hake and red shrimp off Balearic Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Massutí, Enric; Monserrat, Sebastià; Oliver, Pere; Moranta, Joan; López-Jurado, José Luis; Marcos, Marta; Hidalgo, Manuel; Guijarro, Beatriz; Carbonell, Aina; Pereda, Pilar

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present paper is to study the relationships between some climatic indices and parental stock, recruitment and accessibility to trawl fishery of hake ( Merluccius merluccius) and red shrimp ( Aristeus antennatus) off Balearic Islands (western Mediterranean). Available annual catch per unit effort, recruitment and spawning stock biomass have been used as biological data. As environmental data, the meso-scale IDEA index and the large-scale North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) and Mediterranean Oscillation (MO) indices have been used. To analyze possible links between these indices with the population dynamics of demersal resources, two non-linear approaches have been applied: (i) stock-recruitment relationships from Ricker and Beverton-Holt models, by sequentially incorporating environment factors; (ii) generalized additive modelling, both classical general and threshold non-additive models were considered. The latter simulate an abrupt change in explicative variables across different phases (time periods or climatic index values). The results have shown that two oceanographic scenarios around the Balearic Islands, associated with macro and meso-scale climate regimes, can influence the population dynamics of hake and red shrimp. This is especially true for recruitment, which seems to be enhanced during low NAO and IDEA indices periods. During these periods, colder-than-normal winters generate high amounts of cold Western Mediterranean Intermediate Waters (WIW) in the Gulf of Lions, which flow southwards and reach the Balearic Islands channels in spring, increasing the productivity in the area. This oceanographic scenario could also be favourable to the distribution of hake on the fishing grounds where the trawl fleet targets this species, increasing its accessibility to the fishery. Both spawning stock and abundance of red shrimp seems to be also enhanced by high MO index periods, which could reflect the increased presence of the saline and warm Levantine

  6. Short-term variability of suspended sediment and phytoplankton in Tampa Bay, Florida: Observations from a coastal oceanographic tower and ocean color satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhiqiang; Hu, Chuanmin; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Luther, Mark E.

    2010-09-01

    We examined short-term phytoplankton and sediment dynamics in Tampa Bay with data collected between 8 December 2004 and 17 January 2005 from optical, oceanographic, and meteorological sensors mounted on a coastal oceanographic tower and from satellite remote sensing. Baseline phytoplankton (chlorophyll- a, Chl) and sediment concentrations (particle backscattering coefficient at 532 nm, bbp(532)) were of the order of 3.7 mg m -3 and 0.07 m -1, respectively, during the study period. Both showed large fluctuations dominated by semidiurnal and diurnal frequencies associated with tidal forcing. Three strong wind events (hourly averaged wind speed >8.0 m s -1) generated critical bottom shear stress of >0.2 Pa and suspended bottom sediments that were clearly observed in concurrent MODIS satellite imagery. In addition, strong tidal current or swells could also suspend sediments in the lower Bay. Sediments remained suspended in the water column for 2-3 days after the wind events. Moderate Chl increases were observed after sediment resuspension with a lag time of ˜1-2 days, probably due to release of bottom nutrients and optimal light conditions associated with sediment resuspension and settling. Two large increases in Chl with one Chl > 12.0 mg m -3 over ˜2 days, were observed at neap tides. For the study site and period, because of the high temporal variability in phytoplankton and sediment concentrations, a monthly snapshot can be different by -50% to 200% from the monthly "mean" chlorophyll and sediment conditions. The combination of high-frequency observations from automated sensors and synoptic satellite imagery, when available, is an excellent complement to limited field surveys to study and monitor water quality parameters in estuarine environments.

  7. Seasonal variability of chlorophyll-a and oceanographic conditions in Sabah waters in relation to Asian monsoon--a remote sensing study.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hadi, Alaa; Mansor, Shattri; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Tan, C K

    2013-05-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the influence of Asian monsoon on chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) content in Sabah waters and to identify the related oceanographic conditions that caused phytoplankton blooms at the eastern and western coasts of Sabah, Malaysia. A series of remote sensing measurements including surface Chl-a, sea surface temperature, sea surface height anomaly, wind speed, wind stress curl, and Ekman pumping were analyzed to study the oceanographic conditions that lead to large-scale nutrients enrichment in the surface layer. The results showed that the Chl-a content increased at the northwest coast from December to April due to strong northeasterly wind and coastal upwelling in Kota Kinabalu water. The southwest coast (Labuan water) maintained high concentrations throughout the year due to the effect of Padas River discharge during the rainy season and the changing direction of Baram River plume during the northeast monsoon (NEM). However, with the continuous supply of nutrients from the upwelling area, the high Chl-a batches were maintained at the offshore water off Labuan for a longer time during NEM. On the other side, the northeast coast illustrated a high Chl-a in Sandakan water during NEM, whereas the northern tip off Kudat did not show a pronounced change throughout the year. The southeast coast (Tawau water) was highly influenced by the direction of the surface water transport between the Sulu and Sulawesi Seas and the prevailing surface currents. The study demonstrates the presence of seasonal phytoplankton blooms in Sabah waters which will aid in forecasting the possible biological response and could further assist in marine resource managements. PMID:22930185

  8. Seasonal variability of chlorophyll-a and oceanographic conditions in Sabah waters in relation to Asian monsoon--a remote sensing study.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Hadi, Alaa; Mansor, Shattri; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Tan, C K

    2013-05-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the influence of Asian monsoon on chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) content in Sabah waters and to identify the related oceanographic conditions that caused phytoplankton blooms at the eastern and western coasts of Sabah, Malaysia. A series of remote sensing measurements including surface Chl-a, sea surface temperature, sea surface height anomaly, wind speed, wind stress curl, and Ekman pumping were analyzed to study the oceanographic conditions that lead to large-scale nutrients enrichment in the surface layer. The results showed that the Chl-a content increased at the northwest coast from December to April due to strong northeasterly wind and coastal upwelling in Kota Kinabalu water. The southwest coast (Labuan water) maintained high concentrations throughout the year due to the effect of Padas River discharge during the rainy season and the changing direction of Baram River plume during the northeast monsoon (NEM). However, with the continuous supply of nutrients from the upwelling area, the high Chl-a batches were maintained at the offshore water off Labuan for a longer time during NEM. On the other side, the northeast coast illustrated a high Chl-a in Sandakan water during NEM, whereas the northern tip off Kudat did not show a pronounced change throughout the year. The southeast coast (Tawau water) was highly influenced by the direction of the surface water transport between the Sulu and Sulawesi Seas and the prevailing surface currents. The study demonstrates the presence of seasonal phytoplankton blooms in Sabah waters which will aid in forecasting the possible biological response and could further assist in marine resource managements.

  9. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 3; The SeaBOARR-98 Field Campaign

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zibordi, Giuseppe; Lazin, Gordana; McLean, Scott; Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor)

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities during the first Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Bio-Optical Algorithm Round-Robin (SeaBOARR-98) experiment, which took place from 5-17 July 1998, at the Acqua Alta Oceanographic Tower (AAOT) in the northern Adriatic Sea off the coast of Italy. The ultimate objective of the SeaBOARR activity is to evaluate the effect of different measurement protocols on bio-optical algorithms using data from a variety of field campaigns. The SeaBOARR-98 field campaign was concerned with collecting a high quality data set of simultaneous in-water and above-water radiometric measurements. The deployment goals documented in this report were to: a) use four different surface glint correction methods to compute water-leaving radiances, L W (lambda), from above-water data; b) use two different in-water profiling systems and three different methods to compute L W (lambda) from in-water data (one making measurements at a fixed distance from the tower, 7.5 m, and the other at variable distances up to 29 m away); c) use instruments with a common calibration history to minimize intercalibration uncertainties; d) monitor the calibration drift of the instruments in the field with a second generation SeaWiFS Quality Monitor (SQM-II), to separate differences in methods from changes in instrument performance; and e) compare the L W (lambda) values estimated from the above-water and in-water measurements. In addition to describing the instruments deployed and the data collected, a preliminary analysis of the data is presented, and the kind of follow-on work that is needed to completely assess the estimation of L W (lambda) from above-water and in-water measurements is discussed.

  10. Wave extreme characterization using self-organizing maps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbariol, Francesco; Marcello Falcieri, Francesco; Scotton, Carlotta; Benetazzo, Alvise; Carniel, Sandro; Sclavo, Mauro

    2016-03-01

    The self-organizing map (SOM) technique is considered and extended to assess the extremes of a multivariate sea wave climate at a site. The main purpose is to obtain a more complete representation of the sea states, including the most severe states that otherwise would be missed by a SOM. Indeed, it is commonly recognized, and herein confirmed, that a SOM is a good regressor of a sample if the frequency of events is high (e.g., for low/moderate sea states), while a SOM fails if the frequency is low (e.g., for the most severe sea states). Therefore, we have considered a trivariate wave climate (composed by significant wave height, mean wave period and mean wave direction) collected continuously at the Acqua Alta oceanographic tower (northern Adriatic Sea, Italy) during the period 1979-2008. Three different strategies derived by SOM have been tested in order to capture the most extreme events. The first contemplates a pre-processing of the input data set aimed at reducing redundancies; the second, based on the post-processing of SOM outputs, consists in a two-step SOM where the first step is applied to the original data set, and the second step is applied on the events exceeding a given threshold. A complete graphical representation of the outcomes of a two-step SOM is proposed. Results suggest that the post-processing strategy is more effective than the pre-processing one in order to represent the wave climate extremes. An application of the proposed two-step approach is also provided, showing that a proper representation of the extreme wave climate leads to enhanced quantification of, for instance, the alongshore component of the wave energy flux in shallow water. Finally, the third strategy focuses on the peaks of the storms.

  11. Fine scale bio-physical oceanographic characteristics predict the foraging occurrence of contrasting seabird species; Gannet (Morus bassanus) and storm petrel (Hydrobates pelagicus)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, B. E.; Webb, A.; Palmer, M. R.; Embling, C. B.; Sharples, J.

    2013-10-01

    As we begin to manage our oceans in much more spatial detail we must understand a great deal more about oceanographic habitat preferences of marine mobile top predators. In this unique field study we test a hypothesis on the mechanisms defining mobile predator foraging habitat characteristics by comparing temporally and spatially detailed bio-physical oceanographic data from contrasting topographical locations. We contrast the foraging locations of two very different seabird species, gannets and storm petrels, by repeatedly sampling a bank and a nearby flat area over daily tidal cycles during spring and neap tides. The results suggest that storm petrels are linked to foraging in specific locations where internal waves are produced, which is mainly on banks. These locations can also include the presence of high biomass of chlorophyll. In contrast, the location where more gannets are foraging is significantly influenced by temporal variables with higher densities of foraging birds much more likely during the neap tide than times of spring tide. The foraging times of both species was influenced by differences between the vertical layers of the water column above and below the thermocline; via either vertical shear of horizontal currents or absolute differences in speed between layers. Higher densities of foraging gannets were significantly more likely to be found at ebb tides in both bank and flat regions however over the bank, the density of foraging gannets was higher when the differences in speed between the layers were at a maximum. Both gannets and storm petrels appear to be more likely to forage when wind direction is opposed to tidal direction. This detailed understanding links foraging behaviour to predictable spatial and temporal bio-physical vertical characteristics and thus can be immediately used to explain variance and increase certainty in past abundance and distributional surveys. These results also illuminate the types of variables that should be

  12. Oceanographic and climatic evolution of the Miocene Mediterranean deduced from Nd, Sr, C, and O isotope compositions of marine fossils and sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kocsis, L.; Vennemann, T. W.; Fontignie, D.; Baumgartner, C.; Montanari, A.; Jelen, B.

    2008-12-01

    Isotopic compositions of marine sediments and fossils have been investigated from northern basins of the Mediterranean to help constrain local oceanographic and climatic changes adjacent to the uplifting Alps. Stable C and O isotope compositions of benthic and planktonic foraminifera from the Umbria-Marche region (UMC) have an offset characteristic for their habitats and the changes in composition mimic global changes, suggesting that the regional conditions of climate and the carbon cycle were controlled by global changes. The radiogenic isotope composition of these fossil assemblages allows recognition of three distinct periods. In the first period, from 25 to 19 Ma, high ɛNd values and low 87Sr/86Sr of sediments and fossils support intense tectonism and volcanism, related to the opening of the western Mediterranean. In the second period, from 19 to 13 Ma the 87Sr/86Sr ratio of Mediterranean (UMC) deviate from the global ocean, which is compatible with rapid uplift of the hinterland and intense influx of Sr from Mesozoic carbonates of the western Apennines. This local control on the seawater was driven by a humid and warm climate and indicates restricted exchange of water with the global ocean. Generally, the ɛNd values of the fossils are very similar to those of Indian Ocean water, with brief periods of a decrease in the ɛNd values coinciding with volcanic events and maybe sea level variation at 15.2 Ma. In the third period, from 13 to 10 Ma the fossils have 87Sr/86Sr similar to those of Miocene seawater while their ɛNd values change considerably with time. This indicates fluctuating influence of the Atlantic versus the Paratethys and/or locally evolved seawater in the Mediterranean driven by global sea level changes. Other investigated localities near the Alps and from the ODP 900 site are compatible with this oceanographic interpretation. However, in the late early Miocene, enhanced local control, reflecting erosion of old crustal silicate rocks near the

  13. SEA ODC - An Implementation of Web Portal and B2B Services for Managing of Oceanographic Data Sets Collected in South-East Adriatic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovicic, A.; Castelli, A.; Kljajic, Z.

    2012-04-01

    As a result of efforts to standardize oceanographic data sets collected since year 2002 in the area of south-east Adriatic, relational data model suitable for storage of meta-data and in situ measurements was designed and implemented. Using combination of customized tools developed for extraction of meta-data and data records from CTD files as well as standard office applications, data were extracted, transformed, processed and unified by attributes and units of measurement. To make those data available for wider scientific community, we have developed web portal able to be used for data retrieval based on various filters (spatial, temporal, by project and/or by sampling instrument). Selected data model proves to be also very efficient for generating of data-exchange formats required by various projects and initiatives (e.g. SeaDataNet) so extended by particular dictionaries it can allow fast implementation of integration services. As a part of Ecoport 8 project, newly available type of data was recently introduced. Real-time data provided by permanent sensors need to be automatically collected and stored into database. Visualization of such data was also required as well as exchange with project data center. To fulfill those requirements, additional data scheme and appropriate B2B services were developed. Additional care was taken about data transfer security as database was not hosted at the same place as workstation used for remote access to sensor equipment. Third section of portal is "Tide Tables", interactive, graphical application that visualize tide predictions for ports of Bar and Kotor, allowing also correction by atmospheric pressure. Developed in Java, based on well known Mike Foreman's Fortran 77 code it can be used as stand-alone product without Internet connection. Last section of portal is Google Earth file containing position of stations as well as some spatial features that can be useful during planning of future oceanographic cruises in this area

  14. Satellite geological and geophysical remote sensing of Iceland: Preliminary results of geologic, hydrologic, oceanographic, and agricultural studies with ERTS-1 imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, R. S., Jr. (Principal Investigator); Boeovarsson, A.; Frioriksson, S.; Palmason, G.; Rist, S.; Sigtryggsson, H.; Saemundsson, K.; Thorarinsson, S.; Thorsteinsson, I.

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The wide variety of geological and geophysical phenomena which can be observed in Iceland, and particularly their very direct relation to the management of the country's natural resources, has provided great impetus to the use of ERTS-1 imagery to measure and map the dynamic natural phenomena in Iceland. MSS imagery is being used to study a large variety of geological and geophysical eruptive products, geologic structure, volcanic geomorphology, hydrologic, oceanographic, and agricultural phenomena of Iceland. Some of the preliminary results from this research projects are: (1) a large number of geological and volcanic features can be studied from ERTS-1 imagery, particularly imagery acquired at low sun angle, which had not previously been recognized; (2) under optimum conditions the ERTS-1 satellite can discern geothermal areas by their snow melt pattern or warm spring discharge into frozen lakes; (3) various maps at scales of 1:1 million and 1:500,000 can be updated and made more accurate with ERTS-1 imagery; (4) the correlation of water reserves with snowcover can improve the basis for planning electrical production in the management of water resources; (5) false-color composites (MSS) permitted the mapping of four types of vegetation: forested; grasslands, reclaimed, and cultivated areas, and the seasonal change of the vegetation, all of high value to rangeland management.

  15. Contribution of active and passive acoustics to study oceanographic processes feeding whales in a critical habitat of the St. Lawrence Estuary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simard, Yvan; Roy, Nathalie; Simard, Yvan; Cotté, Cédric

    2001-05-01

    The head of the main channel of the continent in eastern Canada is the site of particular oceanographic processes that are responsible for the creation of a persistent feeding ground regularly visited by baleen whales from the Atlantic for centuries. Multifrequency acoustics coupled with ADCP and hydrographic measurements has been used to map the krill and capelin aggregations in 3D and visualize their local concentration process under tidal forcing and upwelling at the channel head. The krill scattering layers, pumped into the area by the strong two-layer estuarine circulation, appear to be concentrated during flood by tidal currents forced against the slopes and upwelling, to which depth-keeping krill is reacting by swimming down. Capelin also tends to concentrate on slopes and neighboring shallows. This highly recurrent process generates rich patches that are contributing with the mean circulation to make this area the richest krill aggregation in Northwest Atlantic. This critical habitat is located in a major continental seaway. Passive acoustics techniques are explored to locate whale calls and map the use of this area in continuing months, especially by blue and fin whales, with the aim of understanding their movements to improve their protection.

  16. Enhancing Graduate Education and Research in Ocean Sciences at the Universidad de Concepcion (UDEC) and in Chile: Cooperation Between UDEC and Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrington, J.; Pantoja, S.

    2007-05-01

    The Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution, USA (WHOI) and the University of Concepcion, Chile (UDEC) entered into an MOU to enhance graduate education and research in ocean sciences in Chile and enhance research for understanding the Southeastern Pacific Ocean. The MOU was drafted and signed after exchange visits of faculty. The formulation of a five year program of activities included: exchange of faculty for purposes of enhancing research, teaching and advising; visits of Chilean graduate students to WHOI for several months of supplemental study and research in the area of their thesis research; participation of Chilean faculty and graduate students in WHOI faculty led cruises off Chile and Peru (with Peruvian colleagues); a postdoctoral fellowship program for Chilean ocean scientists at WHOI; and the establishment of an Austral Summer Institute of advanced undergraduate and graduate level intensive two to three week courses on diverse topics at the cutting edge of ocean science research co-sponsored by WHOI and UDEC for Chilean and South American students with faculty drawn from WHOI and other U.S. universities with ocean sciences graduate schools and departments, e.g. Scripps Institution of Oceanography, University of Delaware. The program has been evaluated by external review and received excellent comments. The success of the program has been due mainly to: (1) the cooperative attitude and enthusiasm of the faculty colleagues of both Chilean Universities (especially UDEC) and WHOI, students and postdoctoral fellows, and (2) a generous grant from the Fundacion Andes- Chile enabling these activities.

  17. An integrated system for managing multidisciplinary oceanographic data collected in the Mediterranean Sea during the basin-scale research project EU/MAST-MATER (1996 2000)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maillard, C.; Balopoulos, E.; Giorgetti, A.; Fichaut, M.; Iona, A.; Larour, M.; Latrouite, A.; Manca, B.; Maudire, G.; Nicolas, P.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.-A.

    2002-06-01

    An advanced computer and communication technology was used to develop an integrated system and software tools for managing a great diversity of oceanographic data collected in the Mediterranean Sea during 1996-2000. Data were obtained during 108 sea cruises, carried out within the framework of the large-scale international research project MATER (mass transfer and ecosystem response), which was financially supported by the Marine Science and Technology (MAST) Programme of the European Union (EU). Data collection involved the active participation of various research vessels and personnel coming from 58 different laboratories of 13 countries. Data formatting as well as automatic and visual data quality controls were implemented using internationally accepted standards and procedures. Various data inventories and meta-data information, accessible through the World Wide Web (WWW), are made available to the user community. A database was developed, which, along with meta-data and other data relevant to the project information, is made available to the user community in the form of a CD-ROM. The database consists of 5861 vertical profiles and 842 time series of basic physical and biogeochemical parameters collected in the seawater column as well as biogeochemical parameters from the analysis of 70 sediment cores. Furthermore, it includes 67 cruise data files of nonstandard additional biological and atmospheric parameters.

  18. Oceanographic parameters in continental margin of the State of Ceará (northeastern Brazil) deduced from C and O isotopes in foraminifers.

    PubMed

    Marques, Wanessa S; Menor, Eldemar de A; Sial, Alcides N; Manso, Valdir A V; Freire, Satander S

    2007-03-01

    Specimens of Recent foraminifera of Amphistegina radiata, Peneroplis planatus and Globigerinoides ruber, from fifty samples of surface sediments of the continental margin of the State of Ceará, Brazil, have been analyzed for carbon and oxygen isotopes to investigate oceanographic parameters and determine the values of delta18O of the oceanic water. From a comparison between values of delta18O obtained for ocean water using the linear equations by (Craig and Gordon 1965) and the one by Wolff et al. (1998), it became evident that the former yielded a more reliable value (0.2 per thousand SMOW) than the latter. Lower values of delta18O for the ocean water in this continental margin resulted from continental water influence. Values of 18O (-0.3 per thousand to -1.5 per thousand PDB for benthic foraminifera and -0.6 per thousand to -2.4 per thousand PDB for planktic foraminifera), attest to a variation of temperatures of oceanic water masses, in average, between 20 to 22 degrees C in deep water and 24 to 27 degrees C, in surface water. Values of delta13C from +3.2% to -0.2 per thousand PDB (benthic foraminifera) reflect a variation in the apparent oxygen utilization (AOU) in the continental margin and indicate that the environments of bacteriological decomposition of organic matter are not continuous along the investigated area.

  19. Influence of post-Tehuano oceanographic processes in the dynamics of the CO2 system in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapa-Balcorta, Cecilia; Hernandez-Ayon, J. Martin; Durazo, Reginaldo; Beier, Emilio; Alin, Simone R.; López-Pérez, Andrés.

    2015-12-01

    This investigation reports, for the first time, results of CO2 system variables in the Gulf of Tehuantepec, located in the Mexican tropical Pacific. We quantified the post-Tehuano concentration of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and pH (April 2013). These values were used to calculate pCO2, aragonite saturation (ΩAr), and air-sea CO2 fluxes (FCO2). The intense vertical stratification was found to contribute to the biogeochemical processes in surface waters (<70 m). However, in post-Tehuano conditions, high pCO2 (˜1000 µatm) and DIC concentrations (2200 µmol kg-1), as well as low ΩAr (˜1.1) and pH (˜7.5), remain in surface waters for a few days after Tehuano winds have weakened. We identified four oceanographic areas: (a) a highly mixed region due to previous Tehuano events; (b) coastal upwelling in the western region; (c) mesoscale eddies; (d) a poleward surface coastal current. The first three promoted the influence of Subtropical Subsurface Water in the chemistry of surface waters, whereas the coastal current contributed to the horizontal advection of DIC. The calculated CO2 fluxes ranged from -2.3 mmol m-2 d-1 in areas with stratified waters to over 25 mmol m-2 d-1 for mixed areas. Positive values indicate an ocean-to-atmosphere flux. Our findings suggest that the Gulf of Tehuantepec is a major source of CO2 into the atmosphere.

  20. An Ocean Basin Scale Model of plankton dynamics in the North Atlantic: 1. Solutions For the climatological oceanographic conditions in May

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wroblewski, Joseph S.; Sarmiento, Jorge L.; Flierl, Glenn R.

    1988-09-01

    Mathematical equations describing marine plankton dynamics are solved for the climatological oceanographic conditions during the month of May in the North Atlantic. Geographical distributions of phytoplankton, zooplankton and limiting nutrient (nitrate) concentration in the surface mixed layer of the ocean are predicted from historical mixed layer depth and the total nutrient made locally available to the plankton ecosystem by convective mixing. The effects of major ocean currents are parameterized in the model through the geographic distribution of nitrate and its vertical gradient. Major upwelling and downwelling circulations control the proximity of high nutrient concentrations to the surface. Model solution of the phytoplankton field with 1° longitude and latitude grid resolution is compared to a recently produced composite of Coastal Zone Color Scanner images of surface chlorophyll in the North Atlantic during May 1979 [W.E. Esaias et al., 1986]. Large-scale chlorophyll patterns seen in the CZCS composite can be explained as transition zones in the supply of plant nutrients to the surface layer by vertical mixing or localities of light limitation of phytoplankton growth by a deep mixed layer.

  1. Dynamics of the transition zone in coastal zone color scanner-sensed ocean color in the North Pacific during oceanographic spring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, David M.; Wroblewski, J. S.; Mcclain, Charles R.

    1994-01-01

    A transition zone in phytoplankton concentration running across the North Pacific basin at 30 deg to 40 deg north latitude corresponds to a basin-wide front in surface chlorophyll observed in a composite of coastal zone color scanner (CZCS) images for May, June, and July 1979-1986. This transition zone with low chlorophyll to the south and higher chlorophyll to the north can be simulated by a simple model of the concentration of phytoplankton, zooplankton, and dissolved nutrient (nitrate) in the surface mixed layer of the ocean applied to the North Pacific basin for the climatological conditions during oceanographic springtime (May, June, and July). The model is initialized with a 1 deg x 1 deg gridded estimate of wintertime (February, March, and April) mixed layer nitrate concentrations calculated from an extensive nutrient database and a similarly gridded mixed layer depth data set. Comparison of model predictions with CZCS data provides a means of evaluating the dynamics of the transition zone. We conclude that in the North Pacific, away from major boundary currents and coastal upwelling zones, wintertime vertical mixing determines the total nutrient available to the plankton ecosystem in the spring. The transition zone seen in basin-scale CZCS images is a reflection of the geographic variation in the wintertime mixed layer depth and the nitracline, leading to a latitudinal gradient in phytoplankton chlorophyll.

  2. Demographic response of cutlassfish (Trichiurus japonicus and T. nanhaiensis) to fluctuating palaeo-climate and regional oceanographic conditions in the China seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Lijun; Zhang, Aibing; Weese, David; Li, Shengfa; Li, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jing

    2014-09-01

    Glacial cycles of the Quaternary have heavily influenced the demographic history of various species. To test the evolutionary impact of palaeo-geologic and climatic events on the demographic history of marine taxa from the coastal Western Pacific, we investigated the population structure and demographic history of two economically important fish (Trichiurus japonicus and T. nanhaiensis) that inhabit the continental shelves of the East China and northern South China Seas using the mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses. A molecular rate of 2.03% per million years, calibrated to the earliest flooding of the East China Sea shelf (70-140 kya), revealed a strong correlation between population sizes and primary production. Furthermore, comparison of the demographic history of T. japonicus populations from the East China and South China Seas provided evidence of the postglacial development of the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Delta. In the South China Sea, interspecific comparisons between T. japonicus and T. nanhaiensis indicated possible evolutionary responses to changes in palaeo-productivity that were influenced by East Asian winter monsoons. This study not only provides insight into the demographic history of cutlassfish but also reveals potential clues regarding the historic productivity and regional oceanographic conditions of the Western Pacific marginal seas.

  3. Demographic response of cutlassfish (Trichiurus japonicus and T. nanhaiensis) to fluctuating palaeo-climate and regional oceanographic conditions in the China seas

    PubMed Central

    He, Lijun; Zhang, Aibing; Weese, David; Li, Shengfa; Li, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Glacial cycles of the Quaternary have heavily influenced the demographic history of various species. To test the evolutionary impact of palaeo-geologic and climatic events on the demographic history of marine taxa from the coastal Western Pacific, we investigated the population structure and demographic history of two economically important fish (Trichiurus japonicus and T. nanhaiensis) that inhabit the continental shelves of the East China and northern South China Seas using the mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses. A molecular rate of 2.03% per million years, calibrated to the earliest flooding of the East China Sea shelf (70–140 kya), revealed a strong correlation between population sizes and primary production. Furthermore, comparison of the demographic history of T. japonicus populations from the East China and South China Seas provided evidence of the postglacial development of the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Delta. In the South China Sea, interspecific comparisons between T. japonicus and T. nanhaiensis indicated possible evolutionary responses to changes in palaeo-productivity that were influenced by East Asian winter monsoons. This study not only provides insight into the demographic history of cutlassfish but also reveals potential clues regarding the historic productivity and regional oceanographic conditions of the Western Pacific marginal seas. PMID:25223336

  4. Demographic response of cutlassfish (Trichiurus japonicus and T. nanhaiensis) to fluctuating palaeo-climate and regional oceanographic conditions in the China seas.

    PubMed

    He, Lijun; Zhang, Aibing; Weese, David; Li, Shengfa; Li, Jiansheng; Zhang, Jing

    2014-01-01

    Glacial cycles of the Quaternary have heavily influenced the demographic history of various species. To test the evolutionary impact of palaeo-geologic and climatic events on the demographic history of marine taxa from the coastal Western Pacific, we investigated the population structure and demographic history of two economically important fish (Trichiurus japonicus and T. nanhaiensis) that inhabit the continental shelves of the East China and northern South China Seas using the mitochondrial cytochrome b sequences and Bayesian Skyline Plot analyses. A molecular rate of 2.03% per million years, calibrated to the earliest flooding of the East China Sea shelf (70-140 kya), revealed a strong correlation between population sizes and primary production. Furthermore, comparison of the demographic history of T. japonicus populations from the East China and South China Seas provided evidence of the postglacial development of the Changjiang (Yangtze River) Delta. In the South China Sea, interspecific comparisons between T. japonicus and T. nanhaiensis indicated possible evolutionary responses to changes in palaeo-productivity that were influenced by East Asian winter monsoons. This study not only provides insight into the demographic history of cutlassfish but also reveals potential clues regarding the historic productivity and regional oceanographic conditions of the Western Pacific marginal seas.

  5. Lacustrine Records of Forest Fire Indicators and Trace Elements Deposition in an Land Use Change Region in the Brazilian Amazonia (Alta Floresta, MT)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, R. R.; Conceicão, M. G.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Turcq, B. J.; Seoane, J. S.; Sifeddine, A.

    2009-05-01

    The dynamics of terrestrial ecosystems depend on interactions between the carbon cycle, nutrient cycles, and the hydrological cycle, all of which may be modified by climate and human actions. Terrestrial ecological systems, in which carbon is retained in live biomass, decomposing organic matter, and soil, play an important role in the global carbon cycle. Human activities change carbon stocks in these pools and exchanges between them and the atmosphere through land-use change and other activities. From 1850 to 1998 about 136 (+55) Gt C has been emitted as a result of land-use change, predominantly from forest ecosystems. Amazonia's carbon storage potential gives great importance to land-use changes in this region because disturbances of the natural landscape can increase atmospheric carbon and affect global biogeochemical cycles. Mercury release from gold mining activities and deforestation are the two most important environmental issues in the Amazon Basin. Gold mining activities in Amazonia have been responsible for the release of about 2000-3000 t of Hg over the last 20 y. In Alta Floresta region (southern Amazonia), concurrent with the deforestation, an intense gold rush occurred with the exploration of riverbed sediments. This region was a significant gold mining site from 1980 to 1996. This study aims to understand the atmospheric deposition rates of charcoal particles, mercury and other trace elements and discuss the environmental changes caused by man activities in an area of an intense land use change. Accordingly to the fact that in Brazilian Amazonia the colonization process generally takes place after the building of a road, an 82 cm core (AF SSW 150) was collected in a lake formed by the barrier effect of a road embankment and distant 150 km of the center of Alta Floresta city. The ages of the sedimentary sections in the core were calculated by the activity of 210Pb. The grain size profile showed a huge change from 1985, with the dominance of fine

  6. Geometrical and geochemical properties of isotope exchange and reaction fronts in the Alta aureole, Utah: evidence for scale-dependent heterogeneity and anisotropy in permeability of marbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowman, J. R.

    2012-12-01

    A carbon isotope exchange front, periclase reaction front and an oxygen isotope exchange front are developed with increasing distance from the igneous contact in dolomitic marbles of the south Alta aureole, Utah in response to infiltration-driven metamorphism of the marbles. Their relative distances from the igneous contact, approx. 100, 200 and 350 m, respectively, are consistent with down-temperature infiltration of water-rich fluid that was equilibrated isotopically with the adjacent Alta stock. At the aureole scale both the C and O isotope exchange fronts exhibit significant dispersion: there is significant variation in both δ18O and δ13C values at any given position for >100m to either side of the geometric centers of both fronts. Applications of one-dimensional models of advection-dispersion to these aureole-scale dispersed fronts yield a minimum dispersion coefficient of 2E-8 m2/sec. However at outcrop and bedding scale, steep, coherent gradients in both δ18O and δ13C exist at or near bedding boundaries between marble layers of contrasting lithology and isotopic compositions; modeling of these profiles requires much lower diffusion/dispersion coefficients in the range of 7E-12 to 1E-14 m2/sec. The periclase reaction front (isograd) can be mapped as a fairly regular surface at the aureole scale, located an average 200 m from the igneous contact, and normally of narrow width (<10 m). However at two locations, lenses of dolomite and periclase marble interfinger for distances up to 40-50 m closer to, and farther from, the igneous contact, compared to the average location of the reaction front. This intermixing can be interpreted to result from dispersion of the reaction front owing to heterogeneity in permeability rather than to reaction kinetics, because at outcrop and bedding scales where exposed, the boundary separating dolomite- from periclase-marble is sharp (<1 cm width). Additionally, at the two locations where measurements have been made, steep δ18O

  7. Can small pelagic fish landings be used as predictors of high-frequency oceanographic fluctuations in the 1-2 El Niño region?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ormaza-González, Franklin Isaac; Mora-Cervetto, Alejandra; María Bermúdez-Martínez, Raquel; Hurtado-Domínguez, Mario Armando; Raúl Peralta-Bravo, Manuel; Mariuxi Jurado-Maldonado, Viviana

    2016-08-01

    A group of small pelagic fish captured between 1981 and 2012 within El Niño area 1-2 by the Ecuadorian fleet was correlated with the oceanographic Multivariate ENSO Index (MEI), and the Oceanographic El Niño Index (ONI) referred to El Niño region 3-4. For the period 1981-2012, total landings correlated poorly with the indexes, but during 2000-2012 (cold PDO) they proved to have a 14-29 % association with both indexes; the negative slope of the curves suggested higher landing during cold events (La Niña) and also indicated a tendency to decrease at extreme values ( > 0.5 and < -1.0). Round herring (Etrumeus teres) fourth-quarter (Q4) landings were related to the MEI in a nonlinear analysis by up to 80 %. During moderate or strong La Niña events landings noticeably increased. Bullet tuna (Auxis spp.) catches showed a negative gradient from cold to warm episodes with an R2 of 0.149. For Chilean jack mackerel (Trachurus murphyi) irregular landings between 2003 and 2007 were observed and were poorly correlated (R2 < 0.1) with ONI or MEI. Anchovy (Engraulis ringens) captured in Ecuadorian waters since 2000 had an R2 of 0.302 and 0.156 for MEI and ONI, respectively, but showed a higher correlation with the cold Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO). South American pilchard (Sardinops sagax) was higher than -0.5 for the ONI and MEI, and landings dramatically decreased; however, Q4 landings correlated with ONI and MEI, with R2 of 0.109 and 0.225, respectively (n = 3). Linear correlation of Q4 indexes against the following year's Q1 landings had a linkage of up to 22 %; this species could therefore be considered a predictor of El Niño. Chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus) landings did not have a significant linear correlation with the indexes for 1981-2012 and therefore could not be considered a valid predictor. Chuhueco (Cetengraulis mysticetus) is a local species with high landings during El Niño years and, conversely, remarkably low landings during La Ni

  8. Late glacial to Holocene climatic and oceanographic record of sediment facies from the South Scotia Sea off the northern Antarctic Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, H. I.; Khim, B. K.; Yoo, K.-C.; Bak, Y. S.; Lee, J. I.

    2007-10-01

    Two gravity cores were collected from the South Scotia Sea located off the northern Antarctic Peninsula during the 2002/2003 Korea Antarctic Research Program (KARP) expedition to determine the late Quaternary climatic and oceanographic history. Reassessment of previous sedimentological, geochemical and micropaleontological analyses combined with established age model of AMS 14C dates represent the reliable record of late Pleistocene climatic/oceanographic change for the Scotia Sea region of Antarctica. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), the South Scotia Sea received large amounts of sorted terrigenous sediments and some of the reworked diatom fossils emplaced by bottom currents from an extensively glaciated Weddell Sea continental margin. Drifting icebergs calved from the glacial fronts have dispersed glacial dropstones throughout the study area. The bottom current deposits during the glacial phase comprise two lithologic units: (1) bioturbated gravelly sandy mud (Facies 1), formed by sluggish bottom current caused by reduced dense-water production originated from the ice sheet on the Weddell Shelf, (2) indistinctly layered diatomaceous mud as shown by total organic carbon (TOC) highs in the Facies 1, deposited by sporadic bottom currents caused by intensified sea-ice formation in polynya during the glacial stage. The LGM is characterized by greater and longer sea-ice coverage and a restricted Weddell/Scotia summer communication, as evidenced by a relative decrease in percentage Thalssiosira antarctica and Chaetoceros resting spores, which are more abundant close to the Weddell Ice Shelf. Deglaciation (about 13,000-9000 14C yr BP) in the South Scotia Sea was characterized by increasing TOC, diatom abundance, and decreasing magnetic susceptibility and sand contents up core. At this time, subglacial meltwater streams began to emanate from the Weddell Ice Sheet with peak of ice rafting. Sediment-laden turbid plumes from melting glacier and deglaciated Weddell

  9. Benthic Foraminiferal Stable Isotope and Dinocyst Assemblages in Sediments of the Trondheimfjord Area (Mid-Norway): Proxies for Regional Oceanographic and Climate Changes?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milzer, G.; Giraudeau, J.; Faust, J.; Knies, J.; Schmidt, S.; Rühlemann, C.

    2012-04-01

    The Trondheimfjord is located at the west coast of Mid-Norway and is characterized by local environmental and hydrological changes that are linked to regional oceanographic and atmospheric processes in the Norwegian Sea. The North Atlantic Current (NAC) and the Norwegian Coastal Current (NCC), two major northward flowing sea surface/intermediate currents, strongly contribute to the oceanography of the Norwegian Sea and thus, to the hydrological settings of the fjord. Instrumental records indicate that the renewal of the fjord water by Atlantic-derived water masses occurs twice a year and that bottom water temperature and salinity changes reflect NAC variability. Sedimentation rates in the fjord basin exceed several mm/yr. Hence, the Trondheimfjord is an ideal location for high resolution studies of important climate-sensitive parameters such as characteristics of Atlantic-derived waters, freshwater discharge and sedimentary patterns. We measured stable isotope ratios in tests of the benthic foraminifera Melonis barleanus from surface sediments of the Trondheimfjord; δ18O ratios vary according to circulation and stratification patterns in the fjord which are linked to the topography. Based on these surface sediment measurements, as well as previous sediment core studies (Milzer et al, unpublished), we assume that benthic δ18O ratios in sedimentary archives from the Trondheimfjord reflect ocean circulation changes in the Norwegian Sea. In order to examine to which extent physico-chemical characteristics of the prevailing water masses are affecting the benthic signal in the Trondheimfjord, and how these findings can be related to oceanographic changes in the Norwegian Sea, we analyze benthic δ18O ratios from three multi-cores distributed along the fjord axis. According to 210Pb and 137Cs chronology these multi-cores contain undisturbed sedimentary records for the last 10 to 50 years, with sedimentation rates ranging from 2.5 to 7 mm/yr. We perform this analysis by

  10. Multi-proxy evidence for oceanographic changes in the Southern Ocean during the lead-up to the Oligocene/Miocene Boundary (Mi-1 Event)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fraass, A. J.; Leckie, R. M.; McQuaid, C.; Deconto, R. M.; Zachos, J. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Mi-1 event occurs roughly at the Oligocene/Miocene boundary. The ~1‰ oxygen isotope shift records a transient glaciation event with an unclear driver. A new multi-proxy record from ODP Site 744 on the southern tip of the Kerguelan Plateau is the highest latitude site recording the Mi-1 event and is likely a sensitive recorder of Antarctic Circumpolar Current changes. Core 744A-12 (~28-22.9 Ma) has several short (kyr-scale) hiatuses, but using a combination of paleomagnetic reversals, astrochronology, and stable isotope stratigraphy a robust age model has been constructed. Oxygen and carbon isotopes from both benthic foraminifera and bulk sediment (~18-kyr resolution) depict a series of changes in bottom water. Sediment sand fraction counts show two intervals of possible increased productivity. Large diatom valves (> 63 µm) increase towards the Mi-1 event in pulses paced by obliquity. Benthic foraminifera, another proxy for productivity, increase prior to the Mi-1 event. While an increase in diatoms or benthic forams could suggest higher productivity, they can also be a sign of changes within the lysocline, as benthic forams are more hearty to dissolution and diatoms are immune to carbonate dissolution. Using a foram fragmentation index, we identify substantial changes within the lysocline, however the diatom pulses are not synchronous with these changes, suggesting they are independent of lysocline changes, and are in fact robust recorders of pulsed increases in productivity. There are then two likely explanations: one, an increase in upwelling, bringing up a more CO2, nutrient-rich water mass, or two, an expansion of the Antarctic Polar Front northwards away from Antarctica, bringing its more silicate-dominated sediments. The change in oceanographic situation occurred ~40-kyr prior to the onset of Mi-1 event, suggesting that a combination of current reconfiguring and orbital nodes may explain this transient event.

  11. δ18O and δ13C Values in Living and Holocene Brachiopods and the Relationship with Oceanographic Variability across Australia's Vast Southern Shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhillon, R.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon and oxygen isotopic compositions of brachiopods are commonly used to reconstruct secular changes in ocean chemistry through the Phanerozoic but few studies have focused on the variations that occur laterally and concurrently across a single vast depositional system. Previous studies have identified significant isotopic variability to occur within an individual stratigraphic layer and the scatter in values has been attributed to diagenesis, non-equilibrium fractionation effects, and variability in oceanography. In order to further investigate these hypotheses, this study evaluates the δ18O and δ13C values from 346 living and Holocene brachiopods collected from surficial sediments across the latitude-parallel southern Australian shelf, a lateral distance of ~3000 km. Modern oceanographic measurements were used to calculate the range in δ18O values of calcite precipitated in apparent equilibrium with ambient seawater. A total of 84% of δ18O values from brachiopod samples (n = 684) fall within the range of calculated equilibrium calcite and accurately record a combination of normal shelf water conditions, winter downwelling across the shelf, and local summer upwelling. Most δ18O outliers are attributed to seasonal upwelling (90 of 108 outliers) and imply that either upwelling occurred in an area that has not been well established as an upwelling zone, or it occurred in a known upwelling area but the intensity was greater than previously measured. The δ13C values of brachiopods increase with increasing depth, which is the opposite of what is reported elsewhere. This unusual δ13C trend is caused by deeper slope currents being sourced from surface water southwest of Tasmania, an area with relatively high δ13C of DIC. The δ13C values of living specimens are consistently lower by 0.5-1.0‰ than most dead specimens, which is attributed to the decrease in δ13C values in the carbon cycle due to combustion of isotopically light fossil fuels over the last 200

  12. Dinoflagellate cysts as indicators of millennial scale climatic and oceanographic variability in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California (Mexico) during the Late Quaternary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Andrea M.; Mertens, Kenneth N.; Pospelova, *Vera; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Ganeshram, Raja S.

    2015-04-01

    A high-resolution record of organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst production in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California (Mexico) reveals a complex paleoceanographic history over the last ~40 ka. Guaymas Basin is an excellent location to perform high resolution studies of changes in Late Quaternary climate and paleo-productivity because it is characterized by high primary productivity, high sedimentation rates, and low oxygen bottom waters. These factors contribute to the deposition and preservation of laminated sediments throughout large portions of core MD02-2515. This is one of the first studies in the Northeast Pacific to document dinoflagellate cyst production at a centennial to millennial scale throughout the Late Quaternary. Based on the cyst assemblages three major dinoflagellate cyst zones were established, and roughly correspond to Marine Isotope Stages 1 to 3. The most dominant dinoflagellate cyst taxa found throughout the core were Brigantedinium spp. and Operculodinium centrocarpum. Dansgaard-Oeschger event 8 is observed in the dinoflagellate cyst record, and is characterized by an increase in warm water taxa such as Spiniferites pachydermus. Other intervals of interest are the Younger Dryas where cooler sea-surface conditions are not recorded, and the Holocene which is characterized by the consistent presence of warm water species Stelladinium reidii, Tuberculodinidum vancampoae, Bitectatodinium spongium and an increase in Quinquecuspis concreta. Changes in cyst assemblages, concentrations and species diversity, along with geochemical data reflect major orbital to millennial-scale climatic and oceanographic changes. Keywords: Dansgaard-Oeschger events; dinoflagellate cyst; Gulf of California; late Quaternary climate change; upwelling; Younger Dryas.

  13. Different key roles of mesoscale oceanographic structures and ocean bathymetry in shaping larval fish distribution pattern: A case study in Sicilian waters in summer 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuttitta, Angela; Quinci, Enza Maria; Patti, Bernardo; Bonomo, Sergio; Bonanno, Angelo; Musco, Marianna; Torri, Marco; Placenti, Francesco; Basilone, Gualtiero; Genovese, Simona; Armeri, Grazia Maria; Spanò, Antonina; Arculeo, Marco; Mazzola, Antonio; Mazzola, Salvatore

    2016-09-01

    Fish larvae data collected in year 2009 were used to examine the effects of particular environmental conditions on the structure of larval assemblages in two oligotrophic Mediterranean areas (the Southern Tyrrhenian Sea and the Strait of Sicily). For this purpose, relationships with environmental variables (temperature, salinity and fluorescence), zooplankton biomass, water circulation and bathymetry are discussed. Hydrodynamic conditions resulted very differently between two study areas. The Southern Tyrrhenian Sea was characterized by moderate shallow circulation compared to the Strait of Sicily. In this framework, distribution pattern of larval density in the Tyrrhenian Sea was mainly driven by bathymetry, due to spawning behavior of adult fish. There, results defined four assemblages: two coastal assemblages dominated by pelagic and demersal families and two oceanic assemblages dominated by mesopelagic species more abundant in western offshore and less abundant in eastern offshore. The assemblage variations in the western side was related to the presence of an anti-cyclonic gyre in the northern side of the Gulf of Palermo, while in the eastern side the effect of circulation was not very strong and the environmental conditions rather than the dispersal of species determined the larval fish communities structure. Otherwise in the Strait of Sicily the currents were the main factor governing the concentration and the assemblage structure. In fact, the distribution of larvae was largely consistent with the branch of the Atlantic Ionian Stream (AIS). Moreover, very complex oceanographic structures (two cyclonic circulations in the western part of the study area and one anti-cyclonic circulation in the eastern part) caused the formation of uncommon spatial distribution of larval fish assemblages, only partially linked to bathymetry of the study area. Typically coastal larvae (pelagic families: Engraulidae and Clupeidae) were mostly concentrated in the offshore areas

  14. Late Quaternary climatic and oceanographic changes in the Northeast Pacific as recorded by dinoflagellate cysts from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California (Mexico)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Andrea M.; Mertens, Kenneth N.; Pospelova, Vera; Pedersen, Thomas F.; Ganeshram, Raja S.

    2013-01-01

    A high-resolution record of organic-walled dinoflagellate cyst production in Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California (Mexico) reveals a complex paleoceanographic history over the last ~40 ka. Guaymas Basin is an excellent location to perform high resolution studies of changes in late Quaternary climate and paleo-productivity because it is characterized by high primary productivity, high sedimentation rates, and low oxygen bottom waters. These factors contribute to the deposition and preservation of laminated sediments throughout large portions of the core MD02-2515. In this study, we document dinoflagellate cyst production at a centennial to millennial scale throughout the late Quaternary. Based on the cyst assemblages, three dinoflagellate cyst zones were established and roughly correspond to Marine Isotope Stages (MISs) 1 to 3. MISs 1 and 3 are dominated by cysts of heterotrophic dinoflagellates, whereas MIS 2 is characterized by enhanced variability and a greater proportion of cysts produced by autotrophic taxa. The most dominant dinoflagellate cyst taxa found throughout the core were Brigantedinium spp. and Operculodinium centrocarpum. Dansgaard-Oeschger event 8 is observed in the dinoflagellate cyst record where it is characterized by an increase in warm taxa, such as Spiniferites pachydermus. Other intervals of interest are the Younger Dryas where warmer conditions are recorded and the Holocene which is characterized by the consistent presence of tropical species Stelladinium reidii, Tuberculodinidum vancampoae, Bitectatodinium spongium, and an increase in Quinquecuspis concreta. Changes in cyst assemblages, concentrations, and species diversity, along with geochemical data reflect major orbital to millennial-scale climatic and oceanographic changes.

  15. Phylogeography of the Atlanto-Mediterranean sea cucumber Holothuria (Holothuria) mammata: the combined effects of historical processes and current oceanographical pattern.

    PubMed

    Borrero-Pérez, G H; González-Wangüemert, M; Marcos, C; Pérez-Ruzafa, A

    2011-05-01

    We assessed the genetic structure of populations of the widely distributed sea cucumber Holothuria (Holothuria) mammata Grube, 1840, and investigated the effects of marine barriers to gene flow and historical processes. Several potential genetic breaks were considered, which would separate the Atlantic and Mediterranean basins, the isolated Macaronesian Islands from the other locations analysed, and the Western Mediterranean and Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). We analysed mitochondrial 16S and COI gene sequences from 177 individuals from four Atlantic locations and four Mediterranean locations. Haplotype diversity was high (H=0.9307 for 16S and 0.9203 for COI), and the haplotypes were closely related (π=0.0058 for 16S and 0.0071 for COI). The lowest genetic diversities were found in the Aegean Sea population. Our results showed that the COI gene was more variable and more useful for the detection of population structure than the 16S gene. The distribution of mtDNA haplotypes, the pairwise F(ST) values and the results of exact tests and amova revealed: (i) a significant genetic break between the population in the Aegean Sea and those in the other locations, as supported by both mitochondrial genes, and (ii) weak differentiation of the Canary and Azores Islands from the other populations; however, the populations from the Macaronesian Islands, Algarve and West Mediterranean could be considered to be a panmictic metapopulation. Isolation by distance was not identified in H. (H.) mammata. Historical events behind the observed findings, together with the current oceanographic patterns, were proposed and discussed as the main factors that determine the population structure and genetic signature of H. (H.) mammata.

  16. Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the thermodynamic potentials of water, vapour, ice, seawater and air - Part 2: The library routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. G.; Feistel, R.; Reissmann, J. H.; Miyagawa, K.; Jackett, D. R.; Wagner, W.; Overhoff, U.; Guder, C.; Feistel, A.; Marion, G. M.

    2010-03-01

    /International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans 2 IOC/UNESCO: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

  17. Numerical implementation and oceanographic application of the thermodynamic potentials of liquid water, water vapour, ice, seawater and humid air - Part 2: The library routines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. G.; Feistel, R.; Reissmann, J. H.; Miyagawa, K.; Jackett, D. R.; Wagner, W.; Overhoff, U.; Guder, C.; Feistel, A.; Marion, G. M.

    2010-07-01

    /International Association for the Physical Sciences of the Oceans 2IOC/UNESCO: Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission/United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization

  18. Dynamics of the oceanographic properties during mucilage appearance in the Northern Adriatic Sea: analysis of the 1997 event in comparison to earlier events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cozzi, Stefano; Ivančić, Ingrid; Catalano, Giulio; Djakovac, Tamara; Degobbis, Danilo

    2004-10-01

    The dynamics of the oceanographic properties in Northern Adriatic Sea during the 1997 mucilage event is reported. These observations, compared to a longer time series (1985-1998), indicate that processes on short temporal scales and abrupt changes of the physical and biogeochemical conditions in the basin have a great effect on mucilage events. The seawater warming during the years with the mucilage was delayed in May and June compared to those without aggregate. Since the same typical summer values were afterward reached in both cases, a more abrupt warming is supposed in the period preceding mucilage events. During 1997, the Po River regime had an abrupt change from very low flow rates in April-May (526-985 m 3 s -1) to a strong freshet in July (4870 m 3 s -1). This river pulse, coupled to the scarce intrusion of the high salinity Middle Adriatic Deep Water (MAdDW), determined the large retention of low salinity waters in the Northern Adriatic Sea from July to September. In 1997, as well as during the events in 1989, 1991, the freshwater content in the basin was two times higher (4-5%) with respect to the years without aggregates from 1992 to 1998 (<2%). The biological response to these physical forcings was an intense phytoplankton bloom in the western low salinity waters in July 1997 (O 2sat. up to 206%, Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) up to 7.64 μg dm -3), a common feature in all years with mucilage. It determined a strong increase of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON, +100%) and phosphorus (DOP, +39%) in the most productive western waters of the basin, which constitute available material for mucilage formation. Nutrient content in the upper waters shifted in concomitance to mucilage appearance, from a PO 4-scarce condition in spring (Si/N/P=225:105:1), to a rather severe dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) and SiO 4-depletion in summer (Si/N/P=21:13:1). This drastic change can stimulate exudate hyperproduction and/or modify bacteria degradation capacity of organic matter

  19. Post-bomb coral Δ14C record from Iki Island, Japan: possible evidence of oceanographic conditions on the northern East China Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuguchi, Takehiro; Hirota, Masashi; Paleo Labo AMS Dating Group; Yamazaki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Yamano, Hiroya

    2016-07-01

    Nansei Islands area; (2) the shelf-surface water is conveyed from the northern ECS to Iki Island by the Tsushima Current. Thus, it can be suggested that the post-bomb coral Δ14C record from Iki Island reflects oceanographic conditions of the northern ECS shelf.

  20. Post-bomb coral Δ14C record from Iki Island, Japan: possible evidence of oceanographic conditions on the northern East China Sea shelf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsuguchi, Takehiro; Hirota, Masashi; Group, Paleo Labo AMS Dating; Yamazaki, Atsuko; Watanabe, Tsuyoshi; Yamano, Hiroya

    2016-10-01

    Nansei Islands area; (2) the shelf-surface water is conveyed from the northern ECS to Iki Island by the Tsushima Current. Thus, it can be suggested that the post-bomb coral Δ14C record from Iki Island reflects oceanographic conditions of the northern ECS shelf.

  1. Cetacean distribution and abundance in relation to oceanographic domains on the eastern Bering Sea shelf, June and July of 2002, 2008, and 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friday, Nancy A.; Zerbini, Alexandre N.; Waite, Janice M.; Moore, Sue E.; Clapham, Phillip J.

    2013-10-01

    As part of the Bering Sea Project, cetacean surveys were conducted to describe distribution and estimate abundance on the eastern Bering Sea shelf. Three marine mammal observers conducted visual surveys along transect lines sampled during the Alaska Fisheries Science Center walleye pollock assessment survey in June and July of 2008 and 2010. Distribution and abundance in 2008 and 2010 (cold years) are compared with results from a similar survey conducted in 2002 (a warm year), as the only three years that the entire survey area was sampled; patterns largely match those previously observed. Abundance estimates for comparable areas in 2002, 2008 and 2010 were as follows: humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae): 231 (CV=0.63), 436 (CV=0.45), and 675 (CV=0.80); fin whales (Balaenoptera physalus): 419 (CV=0.33), 1368 (CV=0.34), and 1061 (CV=0.38); minke whales (Balaenoptera acutorostrata): 389 (CV=0.52), 517 (CV=0.69), and 2020 (CV=0.73); Dall's porpoise (Phocoenoides dalli): 35,303 (CV=0.53), 14,543 (CV=0.32), and 11,143 (CV=0.32); and harbor porpoise (Phocoena phocoena): 1971 (CV=0.46), 4056 (CV=0.40), and 833 (CV=0.66). It should be noted that these abundance estimates are not corrected for biases due to perception, availability, or responsive movement. Estimates for humpback, fin and minke whales increased from 2002 to 2010, while those for harbor and Dall's porpoise decreased; trends were significant for fin whales. It is likely that changes in estimated abundance are due at least in part to shifts in distribution and not just changes in overall population size. Annual abundance estimates were examined by oceanographic domain. Humpback whales were consistently concentrated in coastal waters north of Unimak Pass. Fin whales were broadly distributed in the outer domain and slope in 2008 and 2010, but sightings were sparse in 2002. Minke whales were distributed throughout the study area in 2002 and 2008, but in 2010 they were concentrated in the outer domain and

  2. Application of cavity ring-down spectroscopy for in situ, real-time measurements of properties of oceanographic interest in the surface ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Kuan; Ma, Jian; Winkler, Renato; Dennis, Kate

    2015-04-01

    In situ, real-time measurements of chemical properties, e.g., dissolved CO2 and its carbon isotopic compositions, dissolved inorganic carbon, water isotopes, etc., are highly desired for understanding various physical and biogeochemical processes in the surface ocean. Due to its high sensitivity, stability and portability, cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) has been increasingly used as a core technique for shipboard systems that automatically measure properties of oceanographic interest at high spatial-temporal resolution. These systems typically require front-end components that convert the sample into a continuous gas flow that can be continuously sampled by the CRDS. Here, we review the progress in the development of CRDS-based systems for shipboard, high-frequency measurements of various properties in the surface ocean, including pCO2, δ13C-CO2, pCH4, δ13C-CH4, and water isotopes. In most systems, gas extraction devices are keys to the sample preparation units that are coupled with the CRDS analyzers. In our present work, we summarize the major gas extraction techniques used in these methods (e.g. the showerhead-type equilibration, the bubbling equilibration, the high-porosity membrane contactor extraction, the expanded polytetrafluoroethylene-based extraction, etc.), present examples how these techniques are coupled with CRDS analyzers, and evaluate the major factors that determine the overall performance (precision, accuracy, response time, etc.) of the systems. Based on the working principles and field data generated by these systems, we were able to identify the major factors that affect the system performance, including the efficiency (completeness) of gas extraction, magnitude and stability of isotopic fractionation during the gas extraction, internal volume of the system (e.g., the volume of the equilibration chamber and that of the CRDS cavity) and the carrier gas flow rate. Finally, we make recommendations, for each type of system, the optimal

  3. Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA): Universities, Oceanographic Institutions, Science Centers and Aquariums Working Together to Improve Ocean Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, S.; McDonnell, J.; Halversen, C.; Zimmerman, T.; Ingram, L.

    2007-12-01

    and inquiry-based ocean sciences activities for children and families visiting informal institutions. The following COSIA partners have taught the course: Hampton University - Virginia Aquarium; Oregon State University - Hatfield Marine Science Visitor's Center; Rutgers University - Liberty Science Center; University of California, Berkeley - Lawrence Hall of Science; University of Southern California - Aquarium of the Pacific; and Scripps Institution of Oceanography - Birch Aquarium. Communicating Ocean Sciences has also been taught at Stanford, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, University of Oregon (GK-12 program), University of Washington, and others. Data from surveys of students demonstrates improvement in their understanding of how people learn and how to effectively communicate. Providing college students with a background in current learning theory, and applying that theory through practical science communication experiences, will empower future generations of scientists to meet the communication challenges they will encounter in their careers.

  4. Characterizing a Foraging Hotspot for Short-Finned Pilot Whales and Blainville's Beaked Whales Located off the West Side of Hawai'i Island by Using Tagging and Oceanographic Data.

    PubMed

    Abecassis, Melanie; Polovina, Jeffrey; Baird, Robin W; Copeland, Adrienne; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Domokos, Reka; Oleson, Erin; Jia, Yanli; Schorr, Gregory S; Webster, Daniel L; Andrews, Russel D

    2015-01-01

    Satellite tagging data for short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) and Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) were used to identify core insular foraging regions off the Kona (west) Coast of Hawai'i Island. Ship-based active acoustic surveys and oceanographic model output were used in generalized additive models (GAMs) and mixed models to characterize the oceanography of these regions and to examine relationships between whale density and the environment. The regions of highest density for pilot whales and Blainville's beaked whales were located between the 1000 and 2500 m isobaths and the 250 and 2000 m isobaths, respectively. Both species were associated with slope waters, but given the topography of the area, the horizontal distribution of beaked whales was narrower and located in shallower waters than that of pilot whales. The key oceanographic parameters characterizing the foraging regions were bathymetry, temperature at depth, and a high density of midwater micronekton scattering at 70 kHz in 400-650 m depths that likely represent the island-associated deep mesopelagic boundary community and serve as prey for the prey of the whales. Thus, our results suggest that off the Kona Coast, and potentially around other main Hawaiian Islands, the deep mesopelagic boundary community is key to a food web that supports insular cetacean populations.

  5. Characterizing a Foraging Hotspot for Short-Finned Pilot Whales and Blainville’s Beaked Whales Located off the West Side of Hawai‘i Island by Using Tagging and Oceanographic Data

    PubMed Central

    Abecassis, Melanie; Polovina, Jeffrey; Baird, Robin W.; Copeland, Adrienne; Drazen, Jeffrey C.; Domokos, Reka; Oleson, Erin; Jia, Yanli; Schorr, Gregory S.; Webster, Daniel L.; Andrews, Russel D.

    2015-01-01

    Satellite tagging data for short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) and Blainville’s beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) were used to identify core insular foraging regions off the Kona (west) Coast of Hawai‘i Island. Ship-based active acoustic surveys and oceanographic model output were used in generalized additive models (GAMs) and mixed models to characterize the oceanography of these regions and to examine relationships between whale density and the environment. The regions of highest density for pilot whales and Blainville’s beaked whales were located between the 1000 and 2500 m isobaths and the 250 and 2000 m isobaths, respectively. Both species were associated with slope waters, but given the topography of the area, the horizontal distribution of beaked whales was narrower and located in shallower waters than that of pilot whales. The key oceanographic parameters characterizing the foraging regions were bathymetry, temperature at depth, and a high density of midwater micronekton scattering at 70 kHz in 400–650 m depths that likely represent the island-associated deep mesopelagic boundary community and serve as prey for the prey of the whales. Thus, our results suggest that off the Kona Coast, and potentially around other main Hawaiian Islands, the deep mesopelagic boundary community is key to a food web that supports insular cetacean populations. PMID:26605917

  6. Characterizing a Foraging Hotspot for Short-Finned Pilot Whales and Blainville's Beaked Whales Located off the West Side of Hawai'i Island by Using Tagging and Oceanographic Data.

    PubMed

    Abecassis, Melanie; Polovina, Jeffrey; Baird, Robin W; Copeland, Adrienne; Drazen, Jeffrey C; Domokos, Reka; Oleson, Erin; Jia, Yanli; Schorr, Gregory S; Webster, Daniel L; Andrews, Russel D

    2015-01-01

    Satellite tagging data for short-finned pilot whales (Globicephala macrorhynchus) and Blainville's beaked whales (Mesoplodon densirostris) were used to identify core insular foraging regions off the Kona (west) Coast of Hawai'i Island. Ship-based active acoustic surveys and oceanographic model output were used in generalized additive models (GAMs) and mixed models to characterize the oceanography of these regions and to examine relationships between whale density and the environment. The regions of highest density for pilot whales and Blainville's beaked whales were located between the 1000 and 2500 m isobaths and the 250 and 2000 m isobaths, respectively. Both species were associated with slope waters, but given the topography of the area, the horizontal distribution of beaked whales was narrower and located in shallower waters than that of pilot whales. The key oceanographic parameters characterizing the foraging regions were bathymetry, temperature at depth, and a high density of midwater micronekton scattering at 70 kHz in 400-650 m depths that likely represent the island-associated deep mesopelagic boundary community and serve as prey for the prey of the whales. Thus, our results suggest that off the Kona Coast, and potentially around other main Hawaiian Islands, the deep mesopelagic boundary community is key to a food web that supports insular cetacean populations. PMID:26605917

  7. OTEC environmental biological oceanographic program

    SciTech Connect

    Hartwig, E.O.

    1981-07-01

    One of the major goals of the OTEC biological field measurement program is to assess the effect of OTEC operations on the environment. Prior understanding of the natural variability of the tropical oceanic plankton community is the most important method for determining changes due to operation of an OTEC plant. The spatial and temporal patterns of the plankton community in terms of absolute number, biomass and species composition have been investigated at potential OTEC sites. Considerable data exist which document the changes with depth of all three measurements. Diel fluctuations in number and species composition have been studied at one site. While horizontal and seasonal patterns of variability likely exist at all sites, they are subtle and remain somewhat unclear. Attempts are now being made to determine the overall trophic structure of the plankton community at these sites using these data, gut content analysis, and information already in the literature.

  8. Sea Ice and Oceanographic Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oceanus, 1986

    1986-01-01

    The coastal waters of the Beaufort Sea are covered with ice three-fourths of the year. These waters (during winter) are discussed by considering: consolidation of coastal ice; under-ice water; brine circulation; biological energy; life under the ice (including kelp and larger animals); food chains; and ice break-up. (JN)

  9. Communicating Ocean Sciences to Informal Audiences (COSIA): Universities, Oceanographic Institutions, Science Centers and Aquariums Working Together to Improve Ocean Education and Public Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, S.; McDonnell, J.; Halversen, C.; Zimmerman, T.

    2006-12-01

    institutions and promoting the broader impact of research; and provide diverse role models and inquiry-based ocean sciences activities for children and families visiting ISEI. COSIA partners include: Hampton University Virginia Aquarium; Oregon State University Hatfield Marine Science Visitor's Center; Rutgers University Liberty Science Center; University of California, Berkeley Lawrence Hall of Science; and University of Southern California Aquarium of the Pacific. COS has been or will soon be taught at Rutgers University, UC Berkeley, Stanford, Woods Hole Oceanographic Institute, University of Oregon (GK-12 program), Scripps Institution of Oceanography, and others. Data from surveys of students demonstrates improvement in their understanding of how people learn and how to effectively communicate. For example, there was a decrease in agreement with statements describing traditional didactic teaching strategies suggesting that students who took the course developed a more sophisticated, inquiry-based philosophy of learning. Providing college students with a background in current learning theory, and applying that theory through practical science communication experiences, will empower future generations of scientists to meet the communication challenges they will encounter in their careers.

  10. Decadal variability in the oxygen inventory of North Atlantic subtropical underwater captured by sustained, long-term oceanographic time series observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montes, Enrique; Muller-Karger, Frank E.; Cianca, Andrés.; Lomas, Michael W.; Lorenzoni, Laura; Habtes, Sennai

    2016-03-01

    Historical observations of potential temperature (θ), salinity (S), and dissolved oxygen concentrations (O2) in the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic (0-500 m; 0-40°N, 10-90°W) were examined to understand decadal-scale changes in O2 in subtropical underwater (STUW). STUW is observed at four of the longest, sustained ocean biogeochemical and ecological time series stations, namely, the CArbon Retention In A Colored Ocean (CARIACO) Ocean Time Series Program (10.5°N, 64.7°W), the Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Study (BATS; 31.7°N, 64.2°W), Hydrostation "S" (32.1°N, 64.4°W), and the European Station for Time-series in the Ocean, Canary Islands (ESTOC; 29.2°N, 15.5°W). Observations over similar time periods at CARIACO (1996-2013), BATS (1988-2011), and Hydrostation S (1980-2013) show that STUW O2 has decreased approximately 0.71, 0.28, and 0.37 µmol kg-1 yr-1, respectively. No apparent change in STUW O2 was observed at ESTOC over the course of the time series (1994-2013). Ship observation data for the tropical and subtropical North Atlantic archived at NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center show that between 1980 and 2013, STUW O2 (upper ~300 m) declined 0.58 µmol kg-1 yr-1 in the southeastern Caribbean Sea (10-15°N, 60-70°W) and 0.68 µmol kg-1 yr-1 in the western subtropical North Atlantic (30-35°N, 60-65°W). A declining O2 trend was not observed in the eastern subtropical North Atlantic (25-30°N, 15-20°W) over the same period. Most of the observed O2 loss seems to result from shifts in ventilation associated with decreased wind-driven mixing and a slowing down of STUW formation rates, rather than changes in diffusive air-sea O2 gas exchange or changes in the biological oceanography of the North Atlantic. Variability of STUW O2 showed a significant relationship with the wintertime (January-March) Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation index (AMO, R2 = 0.32). During negative wintertime AMO years trade winds are typically stronger between 10°N and 30

  11. Oregovomab: anti-CA-125 monoclonal antibody B43.13--AltaRex, B43.13, MAb B43.13, monoclonal antibody B43.13.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    ViRexx Medical Corp is developing the murine monoclonal antibody oregovomab [OvaRex, MAb B43.13] for the treatment of ovarian cancer. Oregovomab targets the circulating tumour-associated antigen CA 125, which is shed from the surface of human ovarian cancer cells; the antibodies induce broad cellular and humoral immune responses against CA 125 via complex formation. Unlike free CA 125, CA 125-oregovomab complexes can prime dendritic cells, leading to downstream activation of T cells. The antibody is undergoing advanced clinical development. AltaRex, the originator of oregovomab, was acquired by, and merged into, ViRexx Medical Corp in December 2004. AltaRex (now ViRexx Medical Corp) has established several strategic corporate alliances for the development and/or commercialisation of oregovomab. Unither Pharmaceuticals, a subsidiary of United Therapeutics Corporation, entered into a licensing agreement with ViRexx in April 2002. The agreement covers most territories worldwide, except Europe and the Middle East, which are covered by other agreements (see below); ViRexx did retain the rights to most member nations of the EU and certain other countries. In August 2003, the agreement was extended, granting United Therapeutics Corporation development rights for Germany. AltaRex and Dompe entered into a distribution agreement for oregovomab in July 2004. Territories included in the agreement are Italy, Spain, Portugal, Hungary, Poland, Czech Republic, Switzerland, Austria and certain other Eastern European countries. Under the terms of the agreement, ViRexx retains responsibility for product development and registration of the antibody, upon commercialisation in the agreed territory. The two companies will work closely to achieve product registration throughout Europe. In June 2001, Dompe entered into a sublicensing agreement with FAES for the commercialisation of oregovomab in Spain and Portugal. ViRexx is also seeking collaboration partners for Northern European markets

  12. A Mediterranean atmospheric and oceanographic observatory in Corsica within the framework of HyMEx, ChArMEx and MERMEx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, D.

    2009-09-01

    and in the island area; • Thunderstorm and lightning activity studies; • Observation of Transient Luminous Events associated with thunderstorms; • Deployment of a Lightning Mapping Area; • Forest fire studies; • Numerical studies of heavy precipitation events; • Study of the climatology of the low troposphere composition (ozone and precursors); • Characterization of the aerosol microphysical and optical properties & vertical profiles; • Studies of the aerosol mixing; • Determination of the aerosol direct radiative impact and climate over the Mediterranean; • Determination of solar irradiance (UV and Visible spectrum); • Impact of the long-range transport on the air quality (gas and particles); • Deposition fluxes of desert dust and anthropogenic aerosols and their input of soluble elements (Fe, P, N, Hg…) impacting the marine trophic chain. This Corsican observatory would operate for all HyMEx, ChArMEx and MERMEx Long Observation Period, Enhanced Observation Period and Special Observation Periods. In addition, this observatory will be also supported by the MOOSE network (Mediterranean Ocean Observing System on Environment) to maintain a long term atmospheric observation of key parameters in this site. It is foreseen to deploy the KITcube mobile laboratory operated by the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT, Germany) on the northern tip of Corsica for an up to 12 month period within the framework of the wind profiler network at the French and Italian coast. All atmospheric (and oceanographic) measurement initiatives in Corsica are welcome to join the project.

  13. Investigação dos perfís temporais de alta resolução de explosões solares tipo-III decimétricas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cecatto, J. R.; Fernandes, F. C. R.; Sawant, H. S.; Madsen, F. R. H.

    2003-08-01

    Explosões solares tipo-III indicam a presença de feixes de elétrons acelerados durante "flares" solares. Sua investigação fornece informações tanto sobre os processos de aceleração de partículas quanto das características do agente causador e do local de aceleração. Explosões tipo-III decimétricas são geradas por feixes de elétrons viajando através de arcos magnéticos densos da baixa coroa solar. Os perfís temporais destes fenômenos, quando tomados com alta resolução, informam sobre os mecanismos de aceleração de partículas do feixe e o meio de transporte da energia liberada a partir da região de aceleração. Usando o Brazilian Solar Spectroscope (BSS), em operação no INPE, foram registradas dezenas de explosões tipo-III decimétricas, dentro da faixa de 2050-2250 MHz com alta resolução temporal (20 ms), em 13 de setembro de 2001, entre 13:00 e 16:10 UT. Foram selecionadas 10 explosões isoladas para uma investigação estatística detalhada de seus perfís temporais, em todos os cerca de 50 canais de freqüência. Os resultados indicam que cerca de 70% dos perfís temporais são complexos tanto durante a subida quanto descida. Os 30% restantes indicam que os perfís da subida podem ser bem representados, na maioria dos casos, por um processo não-linear e uma parcela significativa por processos lineares. Os perfís temporais da descida são dominados por um decaimento não-linear. Neste trabalho, será efetuada uma análise dos perfís temporais, tanto durante a subida quanto descida do fluxo, para as explosões selecionadas, em termos dos prováveis mecanismos de aceleração e relaxamento. 2

  14. A Self-Organizing Maps approach to assess the wave climate of the Adriatic Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbariol, Francesco; Marcello Falcieri, Francesco; Scotton, Carlotta; Benetazzo, Alvise; Bergamasco, Andrea; Bergamasco, Filippo; Bonaldo, Davide; Carniel, Sandro; Sclavo, Mauro

    2015-04-01

    modeled wave parameters. The "Acqua Alta" oceanographic tower in the northern Adriatic Sea (ISMAR-CNR) and the Italian Data Buoy Network (RON, managed by ISPRA) off the western Adriatic coasts furnished the wave parameters at specific sites of interest. Widespread wave parameters were obtained by means of a numerical SWAN wave model that was implemented on the whole Adriatic Sea with a 6x6 km2 resolution and forced by the high resolution COSMO-I7 atmospheric model for the period 2007-2013.

  15. Wave-current interaction: Effect on the wave field in a semi-enclosed basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benetazzo, A.; Carniel, S.; Sclavo, M.; Bergamasco, A.

    2013-10-01

    The effect on waves of the Wave-Current Interaction (WCI) process in the semi-enclosed Gulf of Venice (northern region of the Adriatic Sea) was investigated using the Coupled Ocean-Atmosphere-Wave-Sediment Transport (COAWST) modeling system. COAWST relies on the ocean model ROMS (Regional Ocean Modeling System), the wave model SWAN (Simulating WAves Nearshore), and the CSTMS (Community Sediment Transport Modeling System) routines. The two-way data transfer between circulation and wave models was synchronous via MCT (Model Coupling Toolkit), with ROMS providing: current field, free surface elevation, and bathymetry to SWAN. For coupling, the 3-D current profiles were averaged using a formulation which integrated the near-surface velocity over a depth controlled by the spectral mean wavenumber. COAWST system was implemented on a parent grid (with horizontal resolution of 2.0 km) covering the whole Adriatic Sea with one-way nesting to a child grid resolving the northern area (Gulf of Venice) at a resolution of 0.5 km. The meteorological forcings provided by the operational meteorological model COSMO-I7 (a mesoscale model developed in the framework of the COSMO Consortium) were used to drive the modeling system in the period bracketing September 2010-August 2011. The adopted winds and the simulated waves were compared with observations at the CNR-ISMAR Acqua Alta oceanographic tower, located off the Venice littoral. Wave heights and sea surface winds were also compared with satellite-derived data. The analysis of WCI was performed on the child grid over the winter season (January-March 2011) with particular focus on the waves generated by prevailing and dominant winds blowing on the Adriatic Sea: Bora and Sirocco. Due to the variable wind direction with respect to the ocean current direction different effects on WCI were depicted, showing that within the northern Adriatic Sea the ocean-wave interactions are strongly dependent on the wind forcing direction. Further

  16. Geostatistics and remote sensing using NOAA-AVHRR satellite imagery as predictive tools in tick distribution and habitat suitability estimations for Boophilus microplus (Acari: Ixodidae) in South America. National Oceanographic and Atmosphere Administration-Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer.

    PubMed

    Estrada-Peña, A

    1999-02-01

    Remote sensing based on NOAA (National Oceanographic and Atmosphere Administration) satellite imagery was used, together with geostatistics (cokriging) to model the correlation between the temperature and vegetation variables and the distribution of the cattle tick, Boophilus microplus (Canestrini), in the Neotropical region. The results were used to map the B. microplus habitat suitability on a continental scale. A database of B. microplus capture localities was used, which was tabulated with the AVHRR (Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer) images from the NOAA satellite series. They were obtained at 10 days intervals between 1983 and 1994, with an 8 km resolution. A cokriging system was generated to extrapolate the results. The data for habitat suitability obtained through two vegetation and four temperature variables were strongly correlated with the known distribution of B. microplus (sensitivity 0.91; specificity 0.88) and provide a good estimation of the tick habitat suitability. This model could be used as a guide to the correct interpretation of the distribution limits of B. microplus. It can be also used to prepare eradication campaigns or to make predictions about the effects of global change on the distribution of the parasite.

  17. Oceanographic Currents and Local Ecological Knowledge Indicate, and Genetics Does Not Refute, a Contemporary Pattern of Larval Dispersal for The Ornate Spiny Lobster, Panulirus ornatus in the South-East Asian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Dao, Hoc Tan; Smith-Keune, Carolyn; Wolanski, Eric; Jones, Clive M; Jerry, Dean R

    2015-01-01

    Here we utilize a combination of genetic data, oceanographic data, and local ecological knowledge to assess connectivity patterns of the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798) in the South-East Asian archipelago from Vietnam to Australia. Partial mitochondrial DNA control region and 10 polymorphic microsatellites did not detect genetic structure of 216 wild P. ornatus samples from Australia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Analyses show no evidence for genetic differentiation among populations (mtDNA control region sequences ΦST = -0.008; microsatellite loci FST = 0.003). A lack of evidence for regional or localized mtDNA haplotype clusters, or geographic clusters of microsatellite genotypes, reveals a pattern of high gene flow in P. ornatus throughout the South-East Asian Archipelago. This lack of genetic structure may be due to the oceanography-driven connectivity of the pelagic lobster larvae between spawning grounds in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and, possibly, Indonesia. The connectivity cycle necessitates three generations. The lack of genetic structure of P. ornatus population in the South-East Asian archipelago has important implications for the sustainable management of this lobster in that the species within the region needs to be managed as one genetic stock.

  18. Oceanographic Currents and Local Ecological Knowledge Indicate, and Genetics Does Not Refute, a Contemporary Pattern of Larval Dispersal for The Ornate Spiny Lobster, Panulirus ornatus in the South-East Asian Archipelago

    PubMed Central

    Dao, Hoc Tan; Smith-Keune, Carolyn; Wolanski, Eric; Jones, Clive M.; Jerry, Dean R.

    2015-01-01

    Here we utilize a combination of genetic data, oceanographic data, and local ecological knowledge to assess connectivity patterns of the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798) in the South-East Asian archipelago from Vietnam to Australia. Partial mitochondrial DNA control region and 10 polymorphic microsatellites did not detect genetic structure of 216 wild P. ornatus samples from Australia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Analyses show no evidence for genetic differentiation among populations (mtDNA control region sequences ΦST = -0.008; microsatellite loci FST = 0.003). A lack of evidence for regional or localized mtDNA haplotype clusters, or geographic clusters of microsatellite genotypes, reveals a pattern of high gene flow in P. ornatus throughout the South-East Asian Archipelago. This lack of genetic structure may be due to the oceanography-driven connectivity of the pelagic lobster larvae between spawning grounds in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and, possibly, Indonesia. The connectivity cycle necessitates three generations. The lack of genetic structure of P. ornatus population in the South-East Asian archipelago has important implications for the sustainable management of this lobster in that the species within the region needs to be managed as one genetic stock. PMID:25951344

  19. Oceanographic Currents and Local Ecological Knowledge Indicate, and Genetics Does Not Refute, a Contemporary Pattern of Larval Dispersal for The Ornate Spiny Lobster, Panulirus ornatus in the South-East Asian Archipelago.

    PubMed

    Dao, Hoc Tan; Smith-Keune, Carolyn; Wolanski, Eric; Jones, Clive M; Jerry, Dean R

    2015-01-01

    Here we utilize a combination of genetic data, oceanographic data, and local ecological knowledge to assess connectivity patterns of the ornate spiny lobster Panulirus ornatus (Fabricius, 1798) in the South-East Asian archipelago from Vietnam to Australia. Partial mitochondrial DNA control region and 10 polymorphic microsatellites did not detect genetic structure of 216 wild P. ornatus samples from Australia, Indonesia and Vietnam. Analyses show no evidence for genetic differentiation among populations (mtDNA control region sequences ΦST = -0.008; microsatellite loci FST = 0.003). A lack of evidence for regional or localized mtDNA haplotype clusters, or geographic clusters of microsatellite genotypes, reveals a pattern of high gene flow in P. ornatus throughout the South-East Asian Archipelago. This lack of genetic structure may be due to the oceanography-driven connectivity of the pelagic lobster larvae between spawning grounds in Papua New Guinea, the Philippines and, possibly, Indonesia. The connectivity cycle necessitates three generations. The lack of genetic structure of P. ornatus population in the South-East Asian archipelago has important implications for the sustainable management of this lobster in that the species within the region needs to be managed as one genetic stock. PMID:25951344

  20. Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Seventh Session. Summary Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    A summary of discussions on agenda items is presented in this report. Besides the financial, administrative, and constitutional aspects, the topics concentrate on long-term and expanded oceanic exploration programs, conduct and follow-up of cooperative investigations, legal problems in the scientific investigations of the oceans, and education and…

  1. What Oceanographers are Learning From Transient Tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenkins, W. J.

    2002-12-01

    A number of substances have been released into the environment on a global scale from humankind's activities. Observation of the passage of these tracers into and through the oceans is providing us with a remarkable opportunity to examine the rates, pathways, and mechanics by which material fluxes occur. Such information is critical to our understanding of how the ocean participates in the grand biogeochemical cycles, the earth system, and long-term climate regulation. This understanding is important for forecasting and possibly ameliorating natural and anthropogenic global change. How we extract this information from the evolving distributions of transient tracers is in itself an unfolding story. In general, there are three basic but related approaches that are used. The first involves "pathway visualization" whereby the observed distributions highlight the routes whereby these tracers propagate into the ocean interior. Observations from the WOCE and other programs provide us with compelling pictures of transient tracer distributions never before seen. This visualization provides geographic information about where the tracers have reached, and within some broad time-scale. A second approach involves the diagnosis of various transport properties directly from the observed fields, whether by regression calculations, inversions, or Green function estimates. Such calculations often lead to some estimate of the flow field, such as advection or turbulent mixing rates; or to a measure of inherent biogeochemical reactivity, such as adsorption, consumption, or particulate transport. A related approach involves the direct calculation of "tracer ages", which provide some measure of the ventilation time-scale of the water masses. Such a calculation, however, has subtle issues associated with it. Finally, comparison of observed tracer fields with prognostic model calculations has been used for evaluation and intercomparison of model performance. So what are we learning from these observations? Firstly, we are learning how to extract the information from the observations, and gaining a sense of the limitations of the tools we use. Secondly, we are able to combine tracer age information with other tracers and geostrophic constraints to estimate absolute velocities, along with mixing and subduction rates in a subtropical gyre. Thirdly, we can accurately calculate oxygen consumption rates, and from this, export production and carbon transport on large space and time scales. Such information is valuable to constraining and modeling large-scale biogeochemical fluxes. In this lecture, I present examples of these approaches, with emphasis on one specific system: tritium and its inert daughter helium-3.

  2. Spaceborne imaging radar - Geologic and oceanographic applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elachi, C.

    1980-01-01

    Synoptic, large-area radar images of the earth's land and ocean surface, obtained from the Seasat orbiting spacecraft, show the potential for geologic mapping and for monitoring of ocean surface patterns. Structural and topographic features such as lineaments, anticlines, folds and domes, drainage patterns, stratification, and roughness units can be mapped. Ocean surface waves, internal waves, current boundaries, and large-scale eddies have been observed in numerous images taken by the Seasat imaging radar. This article gives an illustrated overview of these applications.

  3. Soviet oceanographic synthetic aperture radar (SAR) research

    SciTech Connect

    Held, D.N.; Gasparovic, R.F.; Mansfield, A.W.; Melville, W.K.; Mollo-Christensen, E.L.; Zebker, H.A.

    1991-01-01

    Radar non-acoustic anti-submarine warfare (NAASW) became the subject of considerable scientific investigation and controversy in the West subsequent to the discovery by the Seasat satellite in 1978 that manifestations of underwater topography, thought to be hidden from the radar, were visible in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images of the ocean. In addition, the Seasat radar produced images of ship wakes where the observed angle between the wake arms was much smaller than expected from classical Kelvin wake theory. These observations cast doubt on the radar oceanography community's ability to adequately explain these phenomena, and by extension on the ability of existing hydrodynamic and radar scattering models to accurately predict the observability of submarine-induced signatures. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW is indeed a potentially significant tool in detecting submerged operational submarines, then the Soviet capability, as evidenced throughout this report, will be somewhat daunting. It will be shown that the Soviets have extremely fine capabilities in both theoretical and experimental hydrodynamics, that Soviet researchers have been conducting at-sea radar remote sensing experiments on a scale comparable to those of the United States for several years longer than we have, and that they have both an airborne and spaceborne SAR capability. The only discipline that the Soviet Union appears to be lacking is in the area of digital radar signal processing. If one is of the opinion that radar NAASW can have at most a minimal impact on the detection of submerged submarines, then the Soviet effort is of little consequence and poses not threat. 280 refs., 31 figs., 12 tabs.

  4. Airborne Oceanographic Lidar (AOL) flight mission participation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoge, F. E.

    1988-01-01

    From February 1986 to the present, the AOL participated in six interagency flight missions. (1) Shelf Edge Exchange Processes (SEEP II) (Department of Energy). The SEEP experiments are designed to assess the assimilative capacity of the Continental Shelf to absorb the energy by-products introduced into the near-shore ocean environment from coastal communities and marine activities such as energy production plants and offshore oil operations. (2) BIOWATT II (Office of Naval Research). The major objective of this study was to provide a better understanding of the relationships between ocean physics, biology, bioluminescence, and optics in oligotrophic portions of the Atlantic Ocean. (3) Fall Experiment (FLEX) (Department of Energy). The FLEX studies were designed to determine the fate of low salinity water in the coastal boundary zone that is advected south towards the Florida coast during autumn. (4) Greenland Sea and Icelandic Marine Biological Experiments (NASA). The investigations were designed to evaluate the distribution of surface layer chlorophyll in the Greeland Sea and in the coastal waters in the vicinity of Iceland. (5) Submerged Oceanic Scattering Layer Experiment (Naval Ocean Systems Center). This flight experiment demonstrated for the first time the feasibility of detecting and metrically measuring the depth to submerged layers of particulate matter in the shelf break region and in the inner coastal zone. (6) Microbial Exchanges and Coupling in Coastal Atlantic Systems (National Science Foundation). This investigation was designed to study the transportation and fate of particulates in coastal waters and in particular the Chesapeake Bay/coastal Atlantic Ocean. Shortly after the conduct of the flight experiments, airborne laser-induced chlorophyll a and phycoerythrin fluorescence data, as well as sea surface temperature and airborne expendable bathythermograph water column temperature profiles are supplied to cooperating institutions.

  5. Oceanographic aspects of the Emperor Seamounts region

    SciTech Connect

    Roden, G.I.; Taft, B.A.; Ebbesmeyer, C.C.

    1982-11-20

    Effects of the Emperor Seamount Chain on the thermohaline structure and baroclinic flow are investigated on the basis of historical hydrographic data. The amplitudes of dynamic height perturbations are 3 to 5 times larger west than east of the chain. The intensity of the thermal fronts is stronger west than east of the seamounts; near the crest of the southern seamounts, strong east-west thermohaline fronts and a strong northward baroclinic flow are observed. The Kuroshio Extension west of the seamount chain is a well-defined meandering current, the axis of which generally lies between 33/sup 0/ and 36/sup 0/N. The available data indicate that the Kuroshio Extension turns northward and then flows eastward through the gaps of the seamount chain. East of the seamounts, the Kuroshio Extension widens threefold and appears to be poorly defined.

  6. North Atlantic Climate Variability. An Oceanographers's Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Visbeck, M.

    Much of the interannual to decadal variability in the North Atlantic Ocean is strongly linked to changes in the atmospheric forcing. The dominant mode of Atmospheric Variability is associated with changes in the strength and location of the westerly winds, a mode which is known as the North Atlantic Oscillation. The oceans response can be divided into three related categories. First there are changes in the upper ocean transports (Ekman transport) which directly alter the oceans heat transport (fast re- sponse) and because of changes in the planetary vorticity balance generate Rossby and Kelvin waves which then establish a new balanced state (slow response). Sec- ondly changes in the air-sea fluxes by a combination of variable atmospheric advection (wind vector) and efficiency of exchange (wind speed) perturb the upper ocean heat content. Part of that signal is then advected in regions of large mean ocean currents. Finally changes of the surface ocean density can alter the amount and type of newly formed water masses. Thus the characteristics and types of deep water vary possibly altering the rate of the ocean overturning. Specifically I will review recent findings about the oceans response to NAO forcing and the associated propagation of upper ocean heat content anomalies. I will discuss observations of decadal salinity variations in the Labrador Sea. and finally touch upon how a simple ecosystem is effected by the above.

  7. Spaceborne imaging radar: geologic and oceanographic applications.

    PubMed

    Elachi, C

    1980-09-01

    Synoptic, large-area radar images of the earth's land and ocean surface, obtained from the Seasat orbiting spacecraft, show the potential for geologic mapping and for monitoring of ocean surface patterns. Structural and topographic features such as lineaments, anticlines, folds and domes, drainage patterns, stratification, and roughness units can be mapped. Ocean surface waves, internal waves, current boundaries, and large-scale eddies have been observed in numerous images taken by the Seasat imaging radar. This article gives an illustrated overview of these applications.

  8. Geology and biology of Oceanographer submarine canyon.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valentine, P.C.; Uzmann, J.R.; Cooper, R.A.

    1980-01-01

    Santonian beds more than 100 m thick are the oldest rocks collected from the canyon. Quaternary silty clay veneers the canyon walls in many places and is commonly burrowed by benthic organisms that cause extensive erosion of the canyon walls, especially in the depth zone (100-1300 m) inhabited by the crabs Geryon and Cancer. Bioerosion is minimal on high, near-vertical cliffs of sedimentary rock, in areas of continual sediment movement, and where the sea floor is paved by gravel. A thin layer of rippled, unconsolidated silt and sand is commonly present on the canyon walls and in the axis. Shelf sediments are transported from Georges Bank over the E rim and in the Canyon by the SW drift and storm currents; tidal currents and internal waves move the sediment downcanyon along the walls and axis.- from Authors

  9. Development of an Assimilation Scheme for the Estimation of Drought-Induced Yield Losses Based on Multi-Source Remote Sensing and the AcquaCrop Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestro, Paolo Cosmo; Casa, Raffaele; Pignatti, Stefano; Castaldi, Fabio; Yang, Hao; Yang, Guijun

    2014-11-01

    In the context of the Dragon-3 Farmland Drought project, our research deals with the development of methods for the assimilation of biophysical variables, estimated from multi-source remote sensing, into the AquaCrop model, in order to estimate the yield losses due to drought both at the farm and at the regional scale. The first part of this project was employed to refine a methodology to obtain maps of leaf area index (LAI), canopy cover (CC), fraction of adsorbed photosynthetically active radiation (FAPAR) and chlorophyll (Cab) from satellite optical data, using algorithms based on the training of artificial neural networks (ANN) on PROSAIL model simulations. In the second part, retrieved values of CC were assimilated into the AquaCrop model using the assimilation method of the Ensemble Kalman Filter to estimate grain wheat yield at the field scale.

  10. Can CO2 help save Venice from the Sea?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comerlati, Andrea; Ferronato, Massimiliano; Gambolati, Giuseppe; Putti, Mario; Teatini, Pietro

    On 14 May this year, Italian Prime Minister Silvio Berlusconi cut the ribbon on a multi-billion-dollar project named MOSE that is aimed at solving the problem of “acqua alta,” the increasingly frequent floods that jeopardize the survival of Venice. Cost is estimated (a few say conservatively) at 3 billion euros and construction time (a few say optimistically) at 8 years. MOSE involves building mobile barriers at the Venice Lagoon inlets to prevent severe Adriatic Sea storms from flooding the city. Although the Italian government and the local administrations have given their final approval, MOSE still has several opponents who believe it will cause severe threats to the lagoon ecosystem, and will soon become obsolete because of the expected sea level rise due to global warming.

  11. Estudio de la fotoabsorción y fotoionización de la molécula de alta relevancia atmosférica no a través de los estados Rydberg con la metodología MQDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bustos, E.; Velasco, A. M.; Martín, I.; Lavín, C.

    Los procesos de fotoionización son de una importancia fundamental [1] y encuentran aplicación en un gran número de contextos científicos: Astrofísica [2], química de las radiaciones, biología. Los investigadores de dichos campos, necesitan de valores de fiables de secciones eficaces para la fotoionización parcial, la Fotoabsorción, así como para los procesos de fotofragmentación en amplios intervalos espectrales, particularmente en estudios de modelización [3-5]. En este trabajo se ha centrado la atención sobre el oxido nítrico, que se ha considerado apropiado y relevante por varios motivos: por el trascendental papel que representa en la física y química de la alta atmosfera [6], aparte de por estar íntimamente relacionado con los problemas de contaminación. Los procesos de recombinación disociativa [7] del NO, donde los estados Rydberg se encuentran directamente implicados, son relevantes, por ejemplo, en las regiones E y F de la ionosfera [7]. En este trabajo se estudia la fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental con la versión molecular del método del orbital de defecto cuántico (MQDO). Para ello se calcula el diferencial de las fuerzas de oscilador parciales que constituyen los canales de fotoionización del NO desde el estado fundamental. La continuidad del diferencial de fuerza de oscilador calculada a través del umbral de fotoionización, esto es, en las regiones del espectro discreta y del continua, se adopta como criterio de calidad la escasez de datos comparativos [8].

  12. COLD-SAT orbital experiment configured for Altas launch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schuster, J. R.; Bennett, F. O.; Wachter, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    A study was done of the feasibility of conducting liquid hydrogen orbital storage, acquisition, and transfer experiments aboard a spacecraft launched by a commercial Atlas launch vehicle. Three hydrogen tanks are mated to a spacecraft bus that is similar to that used for three-axis-controlled satellites. The bus provides power, communications, and attitude control along with acceleration levels ranging from 10 exp -6 to 10 exp -4 g. At launch, all the liquid hydrogen is contained in the largest tank, which has an insulation system designed for both space operation and the short-term launch pad and ascent environment. This tank is much lighter and lower in cost than a vacuum-jacketed design, and is made possible by the experiment tanking options available due to the hydrogen-fueled Centaur upper stage of the Atlas I.

  13. Formación de Estrellas de Alta Masa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saldaño, Hugo Pablo

    2011-03-01

    En este Trabajo Especial se presenta un estudio en el infrarrojo cercano de las regiones de formacíon estelar asociadas con las fuentes IRAS 12272-6240 y IRAS 17149-3916. En un an álisis fotométrico sobre las imágenes de las regiones en los filtros J(1.25 μm), H(1.65 μm) y Ks (2.16 μm), obtenidas con el telescopio Baade (Las Campanas, Chile), se identificaron potenciales cúmulos jóvenes asociados con cada una de las fuentes IRAS y se detectaron estrellas jóvenes en formación en un amplio rango de masas (desde 0.5 a 40 M⊙). También se analizan imágenes en Bγ y H2 obtenidas con el mismo telescopio. Este Trabajo Especial contribuye a una mejor comprensión de la formación de las estrellas de gran masa.

  14. 78 FR 67349 - AltaGas Facilities (U.S.), Inc. (AltaGas); Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... extending from the international boundary in Toole County, Montana to Alberta, Canada. This filing is available for review at the Commission in the Public Reference Room or may be viewed on the Commission's Web... feet of six-inch diameter natural gas pipeline extending from the international boundary with Canada...

  15. GLOBE (Global Oceanographic Bathymetry Explorer) : an innovative and generic software combining all necessary functionalities for cruise preparation, for collection, linking, processing and display of scientific data acquired during sea cruises, and for exporting data and information to the main marine data centers and networks.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinquin, J. M.; Sorribas, J.

    2014-12-01

    Within the EUROFLEETS project, and linked to the EMODNet and Geo-Seas European projects, GLOBE (Global Oceanographic Bathymetry Explorer) is an innovative and generic software. I. INTRODUCTION The first version can be used onboard during the survey to get a quick overview of acquired data, or later, to re-process data with accurate environmental data. II. MAIN FUNCTIONALITIES The version shown at AGU-2014 will present several key items : - 3D visualization: DTM multi-layers from EMODNet, - Water Column echogram, Seismic lines, ... - Bathymetry Plug-In: manual and automatic data cleaning, integration of EMODNet methodology to introduce CDI concept, filtering, spline, data gridding, ... - Backscatter with compensation, - Tectonic toolset, - Photo/Video Plug-In - Navigation 3D including tide correction, MRU corrections, GPS offsets correction, - WMS/WFS interfaces. III. FOCUS ON EMODNET One of the main objectives of the EMODNet European project is to elaborate a common processing flow for gridding the bathymetry data and for generating harmonized digital terrain model (DTM) : this flow includes the definition of the DTM characteristics (geodetic parameters, grid spacing, interpolation and smoothing parameters…) and also the specifications of a set of layers which enrich the basic depth layer : statistical layers (sounding density, standard deviation,…) and an innovative data source layer which indicates the source of the soundings and and which is linked and collects to the associated metadata. GLOBE Software provides the required tools for applying this methodology and is offered to the project partners. V. FOCUS ON THE TECTONIC TOOLSET The tectonic toolset allows the user to associate any DTM to 3D rotation movements. These rotations represent the movement of tectonic plates along discrete time lines (from 200 million years ago to now). One rotation is described by its axes, its value angle and its date. GLOBE can display the movement of tectonic plates

  16. Oceanographic effects of the 1992 Point Loma sewage pipe spill

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, R.; Ciccateri, A.; Dougherty, K.; Gacek, L.; Lane, S.; Liponi, K.; Leeds, R.; Walsh, F. )

    1992-01-01

    Early in early 1992, 180 million gallons of advanced primarily treated sewage emptied into 10 meters of water from the broken Point Loma sewage pipe, San Diego. For about two months a sewage boil about the size of a football field existed at the surface and within the Point Loma kelp bed. Sampling and observations taken during the spill indicated the surface waters at the spill site were grayish and smelling of sewage. The sewage water had mixed with the marine waters reducing salinity to about one-half normal (or 15 ppt.). The sediment load of the sewage coated the blades of the giant kelp and the kelp was limp and withdrawn from the surface. At the site of the main boil the kelp appeared to have dropped to the bottom. Sediments on the bottom in the boil area were mainly coarse sands as compared to the surrounding sandy-muds. Preliminary results using laboratory analysis suggest: one month into the spill no infauna were observed in the sediments or planktons in the water of the boil area, but were in the surrounding sediments and water; the observed phytoplankton were dominated by dinoflagellates and suggested red tide conditions surrounding the boil. The site has been monitored monthly since the spill to observe further impact and recovery.

  17. Heat flux and precipitation estimates from oceanographic observations.

    PubMed

    Ostapoff, F; Tarbeyev, Y; Worthem, S

    1973-06-01

    Surface meteorological observations and salinity and temperature profiles were made in the intertropical convergence zone during July 1972. Over an 18-hour period, estimates of the heat budget in the top layer of the ocean and estimates of the total heat flux made by using aerodynamic parameterization equations balance within 10 percent. The salinity budget provides a precipitation estimate. Due to the stable stratification established by the salinity dilution in the wave-mixed layer by rain, the total heat flux to the atmosphere is being extracted from this shallow layer. As a result, large sea surface temperature drops occur regionally and may be capable of inhibiting atmospheric convection. PMID:17735928

  18. The Evolution of Information Management in Oceanographic Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reser, B.; Mesick, S.; Lobecker, E.

    2012-12-01

    Emerging technologies in data collection, processing, and telecommunication have made data management a vital and ever evolving component of scientific research and exploration. Automation and streamlining of these technologies have enabled a paradigm shift in the approach to ocean research aboard the NOAA Ship Okeanos Explorer. Telepresence technologies allow the real time collaboration of at sea technicians and scientists with shore side scientists as well as near real time access to the datasets being collected. This approach has allowed for a large team of shore side experts in various fields to drive at-sea collection and exploration efforts, enabling the analysis and evaluation of as high quality data as possible. Automated and standardized data management efforts that have been integrated into this model allow for the rapid and efficient collection, processing, and archival of the information in national public archives. As new sampling and survey technologies are developed they have been, and will continue to be, adapted into the existing end-to-end information management model. Most recently this was accomplished in a collaborative effort between NOAA, NSF, WHOI, Duke, URI, and the USGS in a cruise along the Blake Ridge and Cape Fear Diapirs. This cruise successfully integrated shipboard data collection with the Sentry AUV in the search for, and exploration of, cold seep communities along the US Atlantic Margin.

  19. Practical use of video imagery in nearshore oceanographic field studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Holland, K.T.; Holman, R.A.; Lippmann, T.C.; Stanley, J.; Plant, N.

    1997-01-01

    An approach was developed for using video imagery to quantify, in terms of both spatial and temporal dimensions, a number of naturally occurring (nearshore) physical processes. The complete method is presented, including the derivation of the geometrical relationships relating image and ground coordinates, principles to be considered when working with video imagery and the two-step strategy for calibration of the camera model. The techniques are founded on the principles of photogrammetry, account for difficulties inherent in the use of video signals, and have been adapted to allow for flexibility of use in field studies. Examples from field experiments indicate that this approach is both accurate and applicable under the conditions typically experienced when sampling in coastal regions. Several applications of the camera model are discussed, including the measurement of nearshore fluid processes, sand bar length scales, foreshore topography, and drifter motions. Although we have applied this method to the measurement of nearshore processes and morphologic features, these same techniques are transferable to studies in other geophysical settings.

  20. Equatorial pacific seismic reflectors as indicators of global oceanographic events.

    PubMed

    Mayer, L A; Shipley, T H; Winterer, E L

    1986-08-15

    The origin of a series of regionally correlatable seismic horizons in the Neogene sediments of the central equatorial Pacific is examined through seismic modeling and the detailed analyses of stratigraphic and physical property relationships in Deep Sea Drilling Project cores. These regionally traceable reflectors are synchronous; the younger reflectors are the direct result of carbonate dissolution events, the older ones of stratigraphically selective diagenetic processes. The changes in ocean chemistry associated with these events appear to be linked to global reorganizations of surface and bottom-water circulation patterns, the most dramatic of which are associated with reorganizations of North Atlantic bottom waters. These deepwater seismic horizons appear to correlate with the major events on the "relative sea-level" curve of Vail et al. for the Neogene.

  1. Oceanographic controls on the diversity and extinction of planktonic foraminifera.

    PubMed

    Peters, Shanan E; Kelly, Daniel C; Fraass, Andrew J

    2013-01-17

    Understanding the links between long-term biological evolution, the ocean-atmosphere system and plate tectonics is a central goal of Earth science. Although environmental perturbations of many different kinds are known to have affected long-term biological evolution, particularly during major mass extinction events, the relative importance of physical environmental factors versus biological interactions in governing rates of extinction and origination through geological time remains unknown. Here we use macrostratigraphic data from the Atlantic Ocean basin to show that changes in global species diversity and rates of extinction among planktonic foraminifera have been linked to tectonically and climatically forced changes in ocean circulation and chemistry from the Jurassic period to the present. Transient environmental perturbations, such as those that occurred after the asteroid impact at the end of the Cretaceous period approximately 66 million years ago, and the Eocene/Oligocene greenhouse-icehouse transition approximately 34 million years ago, are superimposed on this general long-term relationship. Rates of species origination, by contrast, are not correlated with corresponding macrostratigraphic quantities, indicating that physiochemical changes in the ocean-atmosphere system affect evolution principally by driving the synchronous extinction of lineages that originated owing to more protracted and complex interactions between biological and environmental factors. PMID:23302802

  2. Oceanographic controls on the diversity and extinction of planktonic foraminifera.

    PubMed

    Peters, Shanan E; Kelly, Daniel C; Fraass, Andrew J

    2013-01-17

    Understanding the links between long-term biological evolution, the ocean-atmosphere system and plate tectonics is a central goal of Earth science. Although environmental perturbations of many different kinds are known to have affected long-term biological evolution, particularly during major mass extinction events, the relative importance of physical environmental factors versus biological interactions in governing rates of extinction and origination through geological time remains unknown. Here we use macrostratigraphic data from the Atlantic Ocean basin to show that changes in global species diversity and rates of extinction among planktonic foraminifera have been linked to tectonically and climatically forced changes in ocean circulation and chemistry from the Jurassic period to the present. Transient environmental perturbations, such as those that occurred after the asteroid impact at the end of the Cretaceous period approximately 66 million years ago, and the Eocene/Oligocene greenhouse-icehouse transition approximately 34 million years ago, are superimposed on this general long-term relationship. Rates of species origination, by contrast, are not correlated with corresponding macrostratigraphic quantities, indicating that physiochemical changes in the ocean-atmosphere system affect evolution principally by driving the synchronous extinction of lineages that originated owing to more protracted and complex interactions between biological and environmental factors.

  3. An Evaluation of Oceanographic Optical Instruments and Deployment Methodologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B.; Maritorena, Stephane

    1999-01-01

    The primary objective of the Sea-viewing, Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Project is to produce water- leaving radiances with an uncertainty of 5% in clear-water regions and chlorophyll a concentrations within +/- 35% over the range of 0.05-50 mg/cu m. Any global mission, like SeaWiFS, requires validation data be submitted from a wide variety of investigators which places a significant challenge on quantifying the total uncertainty associated with the in situ measurements, because each investigator follows slightly different practices when it comes to implementing all of the steps associated with collecting field data, even those with a prescribed set of protocols. This study uses data from multiple cruises to quantify the uncertainties associated with implementing data collection procedures while utilizing differing in-water optical instruments and deployment methods. A comprehensive approach is undertaken and includes: (1) the use of a portable light source and in-water intercomparisons to monitor the stability of the field radiometers, (2) alternative methods for acquiring reference measurements, and (3) different techniques for making in-water profiles. The only system to meet the 5% radiometric objective of the SeaWiFS Project was a free-fall profiler using (relatively inexpensive) modular components, although a more sophisticated (and comparatively expensive) profiler using integral components was very close and only 1% higher. A relatively inexpensive system deployed with a winch and crane was also close, but the ship shadow contamination problem increased the total uncertainty to approximately 6.5%.

  4. 25 Years of Controlled Vocabularies in Oceanographic Data Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowry, R. K.

    2008-12-01

    In the 1980s data managers in IOC realised that data exchange required a common terminology for concepts such as parameters, instruments and platforms. They rose to the challenge by developing a set of 7 controlled vocabularies that were published in print as part of the GF3 standard in 1987. Unfortunately, because this was based on print, the vocabularies couldn't be maintained and were little used. However, in the 1990s the pan-European SeaSearch project developed them into a usable digital vocabulary library. Whilst this was a significant step forward, vocabulary content governance was delegated to individuals, technical governance procedures were far from watertight and the terms had no definitions. Consequently, usage problems, especially local copy evolution and term misunderstandings persisted. When SeaDataNet started in 2006 there was a determination to use technology to solve these problems. Now, list server content governance harnesses domain expertise, relational database technology provides robust, scalable, versioned storage and the NERC DataGrid SOAP and pseudo-RESTful Web Service APIs serve lists and mappings. The SeaDataNet vocabulary technology currently addresses two use cases: semantic cross-walking and metadata field content verification. Basic metadata cross-walks do not transfer fields populated from different vocabularies, thereby losing information, because machine-accessible translations are unavailable. In SeaDataNet we have assembled mappings between lists of interest, particularly parameter vocabularies, into an RDF triple store. The resulting ontology is served as RDF documents through API method calls and term URLs. Metadata content verification is implemented by embedding URNs into documents defined by Schematron- extended schemas that are automatically built by a service monitoring the vocabulary server for content changes. These schemas allow generic XML editors, such as Oxygen, to validate document semantic content against the latest vocabulary version. The NERC DataGrid/SeaDataNet Vocabulary Server is fully operational delivering over 100 lists containing over 120,000 terms linked by nearly 80,000 mappings. It is receiving approximately 400 catalogue requests and 3000 list accesses per month accompanied by over 200,000 hits from robots mining the semantic content.

  5. Selenium as paleo-oceanographic proxy: A first assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, Kristen; Mason, Paul R. D.; Van Cappellen, Philippe; Johnson, Thomas M.; Gill, Benjamin C.; Owens, Jeremy D.; Diaz, Julia; Ingall, Ellery D.; Reichart, Gert-Jan; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2012-07-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element, which, with multiple oxidation states and six stable isotopes, has been suggested as a potentially powerful paleoenvironmental proxy. In this study, bulk Se concentrations and isotopic compositions were analyzed in a suite of about 120 samples of fine-grained marine sedimentary rocks and sediments spanning the entire Phanerozoic. While the Se concentrations vary greatly (0.22-72 ppm), the δ82/76Se values fall in a fairly narrow range from -1 to +1‰ (relative to NIST SRM3149), with the exception of laminated black shales from the New Albany Shale formation (Late Devonian), which have δ82/76Se values of up to +2.20‰. Black Sea sediments (Holocene) and sedimentary rocks from the Alum Shale formation (Late Cambrian) have Se to total organic carbon ratios (Se/TOC) and δ82/76Se values close to those found in modern marine plankton (1.72 ± 0.15 × 10-6 mol/mol and 0.42 ± 0.22‰). For the other sedimentary sequences and sediments, the Se/TOC ratios show Se enrichment relative to modern marine plankton. Additional input of isotopically light terrigenous Se may explain the Se/TOC and δ82/76Se data measured in recent Arabian Sea sediments (Pleistocene). The very high Se concentrations in sedimentary sequences that include the Cenomanian-Turonian Oceanic Anoxic Event (OAE) 2 may reflect an enhanced input of volcanogenic Se to the oceans. As the latter has an isotopic composition not greatly different from marine plankton, the volcanogenic source does not impart a distinct signature to the sedimentary Se isotope record. The lowest average δ82/76Se values are observed in the OAE2 samples from Demerara Rise and Cape Verde Basin cores (δ82/76Se = -0.14 ± 0.45‰) and could reflect fractionation associated with microbial or chemical reduction of Se oxyanions in the euxinic water column. In contrast, a limiting availability of seawater Se during periods of increased organic matter production and burial may be responsible for the elevated δ82/76Se values and low Se/TOC ratios in the black shales of the New Albany Shale formation. Overall, our results indicate that to unlock the full proxy potential of marine sedimentary Se records, we need to gain a much more detailed understanding of the sources, chemical speciation, isotopic fractionations and cycling of Se in the marine environment.

  6. Water column methanotrophy controlled by a rapid oceanographic switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinle, Lea; Graves, Carolyn A.; Treude, Tina; Ferré, Bénédicte; Biastoch, Arne; Bussmann, Ingeborg; Berndt, Christian; Krastel, Sebastian; James, Rachael H.; Behrens, Erik; Böning, Claus W.; Greinert, Jens; Sapart, Célia-Julia; Scheinert, Markus; Sommer, Stefan; Lehmann, Moritz F.; Niemann, Helge

    2015-05-01

    Large amounts of the greenhouse gas methane are released from the seabed to the water column, where it may be consumed by aerobic methanotrophic bacteria. The size and activity of methanotrophic communities, which determine the amount of methane consumed in the water column, are thought to be mainly controlled by nutrient and redox dynamics. Here, we report repeated measurements of methanotrophic activity and community size at methane seeps west of Svalbard, and relate them to physical water mass properties and modelled ocean currents. We show that cold bottom water, which contained a large number of aerobic methanotrophs, was displaced by warmer water with a considerably smaller methanotrophic community within days. Ocean current simulations using a global ocean/sea-ice model suggest that this water mass exchange is consistent with short-term variations in the meandering West Spitsbergen Current. We conclude that the shift from an offshore to a nearshore position of the current can rapidly and severely reduce methanotrophic activity in the water column. Strong fluctuating currents are common at many methane seep systems globally, and we suggest that they affect methane oxidation in the water column at other sites, too.

  7. Providing oceanographic data and information for Pacific Island communities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potemra, James; Maurer, John; Burns, Echelle

    2016-04-01

    The Pacific Islands Ocean Observing System (PacIOOS; http://pacioos.org) is a data-serving group that relies on and promotes data interoperability. The PacIOOS "enterprise" is part of a large, US National effort aimed at providing information about the ocean environment to a wide range of users. These users range from casual beach-goers interested in the latest weather forecast or wave conditions to federal agencies responsible for public safety. In an effort to bridge the gap between the scientific community, who are responsible for making measurements and running forecast models, and the wide-ranging end-users, the data management group in PacIOOS has developed the infrastructure to host and distribute ocean-related data. The efficiency of this system has also allowed the group to build web-based tools to further help users. In this presentation we describe these efforts in more detail.

  8. Sea turtle nesting distributions and oceanographic constraints on hatchling migration

    PubMed Central

    Putman, Nathan F.; Bane, John M.; Lohmann, Kenneth J.

    2010-01-01

    Patterns of abundance across a species's reproductive range are influenced by ecological and environmental factors that affect the survival of offspring. For marine animals whose offspring must migrate long distances, natural selection may favour reproduction in areas near ocean currents that facilitate migratory movements. Similarly, selection may act against the use of potential reproductive areas from which offspring have difficulty emigrating. As a first step towards investigating this conceptual framework, we analysed loggerhead sea turtle (Caretta caretta) nest abundance along the southeastern US coast as a function of distance to the Gulf Stream System (GSS), the ocean current to which hatchlings in this region migrate. Results indicate that nest density increases as distance to the GSS decreases. Distance to the GSS can account for at least 90 per cent of spatial variation in regional nest density. Even at smaller spatial scales, where local beach conditions presumably exert strong effects, at least 38 per cent of the variance is explained by distance from the GSS. These findings suggest that proximity to favourable ocean currents strongly influences sea turtle nesting distributions. Similar factors may influence patterns of abundance across the reproductive ranges of diverse marine animals, such as penguins, eels, salmon and seals. PMID:20573619

  9. Mapping flow distortion on oceanographic platforms using computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, N.; Landwehr, S.; Ward, B.

    2013-10-01

    Wind speed measurements over the ocean on ships or buoys are affected by flow distortion from the platform and by the anemometer itself. This can lead to errors in direct measurements and the derived parametrisations. Here we computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to simulate the errors in wind speed measurements caused by flow distortion on the RV Celtic Explorer. Numerical measurements were obtained from the finite-volume CFD code OpenFOAM, which was used to simulate the velocity fields. This was done over a range of orientations in the test domain from -60 to +60° in increments of 10°. The simulation was also set up for a range of velocities, ranging from 5 to 25 m s-1 in increments of 0.5 m s-1. The numerical analysis showed close agreement to experimental measurements.

  10. Improving the User Experience of Finding and Visualizing Oceanographic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rauch, S.; Allison, M. D.; Groman, R. C.; Chandler, C. L.; Galvarino, C.; Gegg, S. R.; Kinkade, D.; Shepherd, A.; Wiebe, P. H.; Glover, D. M.

    2013-12-01

    Searching for and locating data of interest can be a challenge to researchers as increasing volumes of data are made available online through various data centers, repositories, and archives. The Biological and Chemical Oceanography Data Management Office (BCO-DMO) is keenly aware of this challenge and, as a result, has implemented features and technologies aimed at improving data discovery and enhancing the user experience. BCO-DMO was created in 2006 to manage and publish data from research projects funded by the Division of Ocean Sciences (OCE) Biological and Chemical Oceanography Sections and the Division of Polar Programs (PLR) Antarctic Sciences Organisms and Ecosystems Program (ANT) of the US National Science Foundation (NSF). The BCO-DMO text-based and geospatial-based data access systems provide users with tools to search, filter, and visualize data in order to efficiently find data of interest. The geospatial interface, developed using a suite of open-source software (including MapServer [1], OpenLayers [2], ExtJS [3], and MySQL [4]), allows users to search and filter/subset metadata based on program, project, or deployment, or by using a simple word search. The map responds based on user selections, presents options that allow the user to choose specific data parameters (e.g., a species or an individual drifter), and presents further options for visualizing those data on the map or in "quick-view" plots. The data managed and made available by BCO-DMO are very heterogeneous in nature, from in-situ biogeochemical, ecological, and physical data, to controlled laboratory experiments. Due to the heterogeneity of the data types, a 'one size fits all' approach to visualization cannot be applied. Datasets are visualized in a way that will best allow users to assess fitness for purpose. An advanced geospatial interface, which contains a semantically-enabled faceted search [5], is also available. These search facets are highly interactive and responsive, allowing users to construct their own custom searches by applying multiple filters. New filtering and visualization tools are continually being added to the BCO-DMO system as new data types are encountered and as we receive feedback from our data contributors and users. As our system becomes more complex, teaching users about the many interactive features becomes increasingly important. Tutorials and videos are made available online. Recent in-person classroom-style tutorials have proven useful for both demonstrating our system to users and for obtaining feedback to further improve the user experience. References: [1] University of Minnesota. MapServer: Open source web mapping. http://www.mapserver.org [2] OpenLayers: Free Maps for the Web. http://www.openlayers.org [3] Sencha. ExtJS. http://www.sencha.com/products/extjs [4] MySQL. http://www.mysql.com/ [5] Maffei, A. R., Rozell, E. A., West, P., Zednik, S., and Fox, P. A. 2011. Open Standards and Technologies in the S2S Framework. Abstract IN31A-1435 presented at American Geophysical Union 2011 Fall Meeting, San Francisco, CA, 7 December 2011.

  11. Long-term changes in the middle Adriatic oceanographic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vilibic, I.; Matijevic, S.; Sepic, J.

    2012-04-01

    We investigated long-term series (1960-2010) of physical and chemical parameters (temperature, salinity, nutrients and dissolved oxygen concentrations) along the Palagruža Sill transect (middle Adriatic Sea), a good dataset which is suitable for assessing fluctuations, shifts and climate conditions, at the open Adriatic Sea area. Data were quality-checked for long-term consistency, by using min-max conditions for each parameter, and by imposing a threshold to the spikes and rapid changes along the vertical for each parameter. A significant seasonality in all parameters has been removed from the series by a year-day least squares fitting of a combination of 12- and 6-month sinusoidal functions applied to each series, and the differences between overall averages of parameters (the data collected between 1960 and 2010) and averages of the data collected between 1991 and 1998 (the Eastern Mediterranean Transient period) have been computed. A substantial increase of deep nutrients concentrations (below the euphotic zone) along the transect has been observed between 1991 and 1998, especially of orthophosphates. This was accompanied with lower-than-usual temperature, salinity and DO concentrations. As no possible source for increased nutrient concentration is available in the eastern Mediterranean, we assumed that the Western Mediterranean intermediate waters, rich in orthophosphates and inorganic nitrogen compared to the Eastern Mediterranean waters, were dragged to the Adriatic through anticyclonic circulation in the northern Ionian Sea, as a part of the Bimodal Adriatic-Ionian Oscillation (BiOS). No similar nutrient levels have been documented during any other period between 1960 and 2010 in the middle Adriatic, supporting the uniqueness of the 1991-1998 time interval in terms of nutrient dynamics. This period coincided with the EMT period, which generated massive sinking of dense waters to the deep Ionian Sea, forcing anticyclonic circulation of the basin. Therefore, a prerequisite for the observed high nutrient transport from the Western Mediterranean to the Adriatic is presumably achieved through simultaneous acting of the EMT, which is unique by itself, and a right phase (anticyclonic circulation in the northern Ionian) of the BiOS. The 1991-1998 period was characterised by nitrogen-limited conditions in terms of nutrient availability for primary production (the N:P ratio decreased to less than 16:1 in the euphotic zone) over the most of the transect area, opposing typical phosphorus-limited conditions found in the rest of the examined period (average N:P ratio for the whole period was larger than 25:1). Observed nutrient changes partially coincided with the previously published primary production maxima in some parts of the investigated area that could potentially be responsible for the observed fluctuations and anomalies in abundances of various species throughout the food chains. These findings indicate high relevance of the observed physical processes and demand an additional effort to be put in the assessment of the hydrography role in the Adriatic biogeochemistry.

  12. Harnessing your GPU for interactive immersive oceanographic modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hermann, A. J.; Moore, C. W.

    2011-12-01

    We report on recent success using GPU for interactive Lagrangian (fish) and Eulerian (tsunami) modeling of marine systems. Lagrangian analyses based on numerical float tracks are a fundamental tool in hydrodynamic and marine biological modeling. In particular, spatially-explicit individual-based models (IBMs) can be used to explore how changes in coastal circulation affect fish recruitment, and 3D viewing of the results leads to new insights regarding the effects of behavior on spatial path. One limit to the usefulness of this modeling approach is the latency between submission of a run and examination of the results, especially when a large (i.e. statistically meaningful) number of individuals are being tracked through finely resolved current and scalar fields. Since float tracking is an inherently parallel problem, the hundreds of cores available in modern graphics cards (GPU) can readily increase the performance of suitably adapted code by two orders of magnitude at low cost. This offers a way forward to achieve interactive submission/examination of IBMs (and float tracks in general), even on a laptop computer. Latency is an even larger issue in tsunami forecasting, where there is a need to run simple deep-ocean shallow water wave models in real time, particularly during an event when tsunamigenic earthquake events occur outside known fault zones. This problem, too, lends itself to dramatic speedup via GPU, given a suitable parallel algorithm for the shallow water solver. Here we demonstrate successful model speedup using GPU-adapted code for: 1) a spatially explicit IBM prototype, based on pre-stored circulation model output for the Bering Sea; 2) real-time runs of tsunami propagation. In both cases, results will be presented using the stereo-immersive capabilities of the graphics card, for 3D animation.

  13. A multi-sensor oceanographic measurement system for coastal environments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Martini, Marinna A.; Strahle, William J.

    1993-01-01

    An instrument system has been developed for long-term sediment transport studies that uses a modular design to combine off the shelf components into a complete and flexible package. A common data storage format is used in each instrument system so that the same hardware can be assembled in different ways to address specific scientific studies with minimal engineering support and modification. Three systems have been constructed and successfully deployed to date in two different coastal environments.

  14. Employment Outlook, Environmental Scientists, Geologists, Geophysicists, Meteorologists, Oceanographers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1970

    Described is employment in four branches of earth science: geology, geophysics, meteorology, and oceanography. Considered for each employment area is the nature of the work, places of employment, type of training and qualifications for advancement, employment outlook, and earnings and working conditions. The demand for specialists in these four…

  15. Seasonality and variability of coccolithophore fluxes in response to diverse oceanographic regimes in the Bay of Bengal: sediment trap results. M.V.S. Gupthaa & b, Lina P. Mergulhaoa,*, Daniela Ungerc and V.S.N. Murtyd a National Institute of Oceanography, Dona Paula, Goa - 403 004, India b 62, Sagar Society, Dona Paula, Goa - 403 004, India c Center for Tropical Marine Ecology, Fahrenheitstrasse 6, D 28359 Bremen, Germany d National Institute of Oceanography, 176, Lawsons Bay Colony, Visakhapatnam - 530 017, India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medimi, M.

    2011-12-01

    A study on coccolithophores both in shallow and deep sediment trap samples, collected over a period of one year (January 1992 - December 1992) from three trap locations in the Bay of Bengal were used to understand their production and export processes in relation to diverse oceanographic regimes associated with reversing monsoons. A total of 25 species of coccolithophores were identified, which includes some of the important species, Gephyrocapsa oceanica, Umbilicosphaera sibogae, Florisphaera profunda, Umbellosphaera irregularis, Emiliania huxleyi, Oolithotus antillarum, Umbellosphaera tenuis, Helicosphaera carteri and Calcidiscus leptoporus. The total coccolithophore fluxes increased from the northern to southern Bay of Bengal where G. oceanica, U. sibogae¬ and E. huxleyi were dominant species displaying seasonality with peak fluxes occurring during southwest (SW) and northeast (NE) monsoons reflecting their affinity for nutrient-rich waters brought in by river plumes, divergences and cyclonic eddies. U. irregularis, an indicator of oligotrophic/warm water, recorded peak abundance fluxes only during the spring intermonsoon period at all trap locations thus inferring its preference for oligotrophic conditions caused by increased Sea Surface Temperature (SST), stratification and lack of nutrient supply due to weak wind velocities. The deep dwelling species, F. profunda recorded high fluxes during the fall intermonsoon (October/November) in the northern and southern traps and during the spring intermonsoon. The peak fluxes during the spring intermonsoon (April/May) in the central and southern traps indicated the prevalence of a deep nutricline when oligotrophic conditions prevailed at the surface. Interestingly, dissolution was encountered throughout the year evidenced by the presence of corroded coccoliths.

  16. Using ecosystem services in decision-making to support sustainable development: Critiques, model development, a case study, and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Zagonari, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, I propose a general, consistent, and operational approach that accounts for ecosystem services in a decision-making context: I link ecosystem services to sustainable development criteria; adopt multi-criteria analysis to measure ecosystem services, with weights provided by stakeholders used to account for equity issues; apply both temporal and spatial discount rates; and adopt a technique to order performance of the possible solutions based on their similarity to an ideal solution (TOPSIS) to account for uncertainty about the parameters and functions. Applying this approach in a case study of an offshore research platform in Italy (CNR Acqua Alta) revealed that decisions depend non-linearly on the degree of loss aversion, to a smaller extent on a global focus (as opposed to a local focus), and to the smallest extent on social concerns (as opposed to economic or environmental concerns). Application of the general model to the case study leads to the conclusion that the ecosystem services framework is likely to be less useful in supporting decisions than in identifying the crucial features on which decisions depend, unless experts from different disciplines are involved, stakeholders are represented, and experts and stakeholders achieve mutual understanding.

  17. [Ectoparasites of the zokor Myospalax myospalax (Rodentia) in northern Altaĭ].

    PubMed

    Litvinov, Iu N; Sapegina, V F

    2003-01-01

    Following ectoparasites have been recorded on the zokor in the Northern Altay: specific fleas--Ctenophthalmus dilatatus, Rhadinopsylla ioffi, Brachyctenonotus myospalacis; a flea distributed on various rodents; ixodid ticks--Ixodes crenulatus, I. persulcatus; gamasid mites--Hirstionyssus myosplalacis. The C. dilatatus carried hypopi of acaroid mites.

  18. Astrofísica de altas energías de objetos compactos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combi, J. A.

    2015-08-01

    This paper summarizes the different aspects related to phenomenology derived from the evolution and activity of compact objects (white dwarfs, neutron stars and black holes) that emit at high energies. The fundamental questions regarding compact objects are how they form, and how material behaves in their extreme gravitational, magnetic and radiation fields. The answers to these questions lie in the study of isolated and/or accreting neutron stars and black holes in binary systems. In the last decade, the new generation of X/Gamma-ray satellites has boosted research in high energy astrophysics of objects of this type, to unprecedented levels. Other issues related to instrumental and future developments of orbital X-ray/gamma missions are also described at the end of the article.

  19. Pediatric liver transplantation: preliminary results at Istituto Mediterraneo Trapianti e Terapie ad Alta Specializzazione.

    PubMed

    Cintorino, D; Spada, M; Clarizia, S; Vasta, F; Mandalà, L; Aricò, M; Traverso, G; Luca, A; Panarello, G; Minervini, M; Gruttadauria, S; Verzaro, R; Volpes, R; Scotti Foglieni, C; Gridelli, B

    2005-01-01

    Between July 2003 and November 2004 14 pediatric liver transplantations (LTx) have been performed in 12 children using cadaveric donors. The primary diseases were as follows biliary atresia in 9 cases, whereas the other 3 children were affected by cystic fibrosis, Langherans cells histiocytosis, and hepatoblastoma, respectively. Median patient waiting time was 103 days (range, 2-158); no patient died while on the waiting list. Patients who underwent transplantation included 7 boys and 5 girls, ranging in age from 6 months to 14 years (median age, 5 years). Recipient median weight was 16 kg (range, 6-38). Donor median age was 19 years (range, 3-47), whereas donor median weight was 74 kg (range, 15-90). All children who underwent primary LTx were United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) status 2B. Of the 12 transplanted patients, 9 received a left lateral segment (LLS) from an in situ split liver, whereas 3 received a whole graft. Two children developed an episode of acute cellular rejection on the seventh postoperative day, which was treated successfully with a course of intravenous steroids for 3 days. After a median follow-up of 245 days, 10 children are alive but 2 children died due to primary nonfunction (PNF) on the second postoperative day and septic shock on the fifth postoperative day after retransplantation for acute hepatic artery thrombosis, respectively. One child who underwent retransplantation for hepatic artery thrombosis on the 31st postoperative day after primary LTx is currently alive. Evaluation of our initial data suggests that the split liver technique has the potential to meet the needs of pediatric LTx allowing grafting early in the course of the original disease and reducing waiting time. PMID:16182756

  20. 77 FR 38823 - Notice of Availability of the Alta East Wind Project Draft Environmental Impact Statement...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... July 15, 2011 (FR 41817-41819). The BLM held one joint public scoping meeting with Kern County in... Eagles and California Condors, special status species, cultural resources, geology and soils, hazards...

  1. Estudio de Maseres Circunestelares de Monoxido de Silicio con muy alta Resolucion Espacial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soria-Ruiz, Rebeca

    2006-03-01

    We present high-spatial and high-spectral resolution studies of SiO masers in the circumstellar envelopes of late-type stars. These masers occur in the inner layers of the CSEs, in a region dominated by the stellar pulsation, thus being good (if not the only) probes available to understand the physics in these regions. Using the NRAO Very Long Baseline Array, we have produced maps of the 28SiO v=1 and v=2 J=1-0 and J=2-1 transitions towards several AGB stars: two Mira-type (TXCam and RLeo), one OH/IR (IRC+10011) and one S-type (xCyg) stars. The 29SiO v=0 J=1-0 and J=2-1 emission has also been studied. The spatial distributions retrieved, some of them for the first time, are in clear contradiction with the predictions of the models developed to date. We suggest that spectral line overlap may explain the results obtained. This work has been conducted by Dr. Javier Alcolea Jimenez and Dr. Francisco Colomer Sanmartin, at Observatorio Astronomico Nacional (Spain). The PhD thesis manuscript, in spanish, is available at ftp://ftp.oan.es/pub/users/r.soria/TESIS-RSoria.pdf .

  2. Proceedings of the Summer Conference on Argumentation (Alta, Utah, July 26-29, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rhodes, Jack, Ed.; Newell, Sara, Ed.

    This collection represents most of the papers and programs presented at the 1979 Summer Conference on Argumentation sponsored by the Speech Communication Association and the American Forensic Association. Two keynote addresses are included along with a distributed paper on argumentation as a communication process. The other 23 papers and programs…

  3. Six Days on Ligeia Mare : An Assessment of Meteorological and Oceanographic Phenomena on Titan's Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lorenz, R. D.; Titan Mare Explorer (TiME) Science Team

    2011-12-01

    Titan's hydrocarbon seas are a scientifically appealing target for Cassini observations and for future exploration. The proposed Titan Mare Explorer ('TiME') Discovery mission will expand the temporal span of in-situ measurements at Titan's surface by 3 orders of magnitude from the (fortuitous) ~1 hr surface operation of the Huygens probe to TiME's nominal mission of 6 Titan days (96 Earth days) on Ligeia Mare, enabled by its radioisotope power source. This talk reviews Cassini observations and considers what time-varying features might be observed over this interval. Global Circulation Models (GCMs) suggest northern polar surface winds during the Cassini prime mission have been weak, consistent with radar backscatter and infrared specular reflection observations that indicate an absence of waves. These models also predict that winds are presently freshening, to a maximum of ~1.5m/s in midsummer (2017, the end of the Cassini Solstice Mission). Windspeeds should then decline, with expected speeds during the TiME mission epoch (2023) of ~1m/s, producing only small waves (~0.2m in height). Diurnal pressure changes of ~0.5 mbar are expected, while air and surface temperatures are expected to vary by ~1K or less. GCMs suggest that the wind vector on Ligeia may rotate substantially over the course of a Titan day, such that the drift of a floating capsule may follow an epicyclic trajectory with a net drift rather slower than its instantaneous drift rate, although nonetheless covering >100km over several Titan days. A bottom profile measured by an acoustic depth sounder (sonar) may therefore have several crossovers. At Ligeia's western and eastern margins, assuming a rigid crust, a tidal range of ~1m is encountered and may be detectable (on the other hand, a high Love number may reduce tidal effects). Evidence suggests Ligeia may have a central depth of ~300m or more, which means tidal currents will be ~1cm or less. The sun seen from Ligeia in 2023 remains up but low in the sky (peak elevation 20 degrees) for most of the day, dipping only briefly below the horizon. The changing illumination conditions over the long observing period will permit study of Titan's haze scattering and may allow imaging of rainbows,halos, mirages or other optical phenomena. A review of telescopic observations of cloud systems, and numerical models of precipitating cloud systems, suggests that during polar summer there is a ~0.1-2.5% chance of being rained on during the TiME mission. Such a precipitation event might last ~2 hours, providing a guiding timescale for meteorological measurements. In addition to meteorological, optical and acoustic signatures of such an event, the TiME capsule may detect a transient perturbation in near-surface liquid composition. Observations of these effects will not only bring a new era in Titan studies, but promise to open a new dimension in oceanography via study of marine processes in an exotic planetary environment.

  4. Bringing OTEC Environmental Assessments of the 1980s Up To 21st Century Oceanographic Standards (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sansone, F. J.; Comfort, C. M.; Weng, K. C.

    2010-12-01

    Although the potential environmental effects of OTEC plant construction and operation were evaluated in the 1980s as part of earlier OTEC development, recent OTEC efforts have led to the re-examination of the issues involved. During the intervening years we have significantly increased our understanding of the oceans, and our ability to observe and model the marine environment has improved markedly. For example, OTEC environmental assessments have traditionally included the effects of discharging deep seawater, with its elevated levels of dissolved inorganic nutrients and dissolved inorganic carbon, and depleted levels of dissolved oxygen, into the upper water column. However, the role of trace elements in controlling marine primary production rates is now widely accepted, and their natural vertical distribution in the ocean needs to be considered. Our expanded understanding of ocean biogeochemistry also makes environmental assessment more complicated. For example, discharges of deep seawater within the photic zone of the ocean, but below the surface mixed layer, should result in photosynthetic production that would remove both dissolved nutrients and dissolved carbon dioxide at approximately the same stoichiometric ratio as they are elevated in deep seawater; thus, the only large-scale related environmental impact would involve the fate of the resulting photosynthetically produced organic matter. Similarly, our improved knowledge of marine physical chemistry allows a better understanding of OTEC’s potential impact on the ocean’s inorganic carbon chemistry. For example, the reduction in pressure of deep seawater as it is brought to the surface, and the increase in temperature due to OTEC heat exchange, will both lead to an increase in the deep water’s pH; opposite effects will occur in the shallow seawater used by OTEC. Determination of the net effect will require modeling using predicted pumping rates for warm and cold seawater, the planned intake and discharge depths and temperatures, the inorganic carbon chemistry at the specific site, and recently refined inorganic carbon equilibria data. Ecological data (e.g., primary productivity, the biomass of various trophic levels, biota attraction to floating objects, etc.) should also be updated with the results from more contemporary studies. Additional factors that should be examined include electromagnetic effects of cabling, alterations in the bio-physical coupling of water column as a result of the discharge plume, potential harmful algal bloom development, and low-frequency noise production. Moreover, new ocean observation techniques such as gliders and AUVs allow large areas of the ocean to be monitored in 3-D for extended periods of time. Similarly, new marine modeling techniques, such as regional ocean modeling systems (ROMS), allow OTEC plumes to be studied in the context of a 3-D dynamic ocean, including such features as internal tides and mesoscales eddies, and allow assimilation of 3-D data to improve model performance. As an early step in these efforts, we have used HOT time-series data to determine patterns of seasonal variability in the upper ocean (warm water intake and discharge zone) and in the deep ocean (cold water uptake) near the site for the proposed Kahe Point, Oahu OTEC demonstration plant.

  5. Interactive Learning Modules: Enabling Near Real-Time Oceanographic Data Use In Undergraduate Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilb, D. L.; Fundis, A. T.; Risien, C. M.

    2012-12-01

    The focus of the Education and Public Engagement (EPE) component of the NSF's Ocean Observatories Initiative (OOI) is to provide a new layer of cyber-interactivity for undergraduate educators to bring near real-time data from the global ocean into learning environments. To accomplish this, we are designing six online services including: 1) visualization tools, 2) a lesson builder, 3) a concept map builder, 4) educational web services (middleware), 5) collaboration tools and 6) an educational resource database. Here, we report on our Fall 2012 release that includes the first four of these services: 1) Interactive visualization tools allow users to interactively select data of interest, display the data in various views (e.g., maps, time-series and scatter plots) and obtain statistical measures such as mean, standard deviation and a regression line fit to select data. Specific visualization tools include a tool to compare different months of data, a time series explorer tool to investigate the temporal evolution of select data parameters (e.g., sea water temperature or salinity), a glider profile tool that displays ocean glider tracks and associated transects, and a data comparison tool that allows users to view the data either in scatter plot view comparing one parameter with another, or in time series view. 2) Our interactive lesson builder tool allows users to develop a library of online lesson units, which are collaboratively editable and sharable and provides starter templates designed from learning theory knowledge. 3) Our interactive concept map tool allows the user to build and use concept maps, a graphical interface to map the connection between concepts and ideas. This tool also provides semantic-based recommendations, and allows for embedding of associated resources such as movies, images and blogs. 4) Education web services (middleware) will provide an educational resource database API.

  6. PROJECT SUCCESS: Marine Science. (Introductory Packet, Basic Marine Science Laboratory Techniques, Oceanographic Instruments, Individual Projects, Bibliography).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demaray, Bryan

    Five packets comprise the marine science component of an enrichment program for gifted elementary students. Considered in the introductory section are identification (pre/post measure) procedures. Remaining packets address the following topics (subtopics in parentheses): basic marine science laboratory techniques (microscope techniques and metric…

  7. The relationship among sea surface roughness variations, oceanographic analyses, and airborne remote sensing analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oertel, G. F.; Wade, T. L.

    1981-01-01

    The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) was studied to determine whether it could image large scale estuaries and oceanic features such as fronts and to explain the electromagnetic interaction between SAR and the individual surface front features. Fronts were observed to occur at the entrance to the Chesapeake Bay. The airborne measurements consisted of data collection by SAR onboard an F-4 aircraft and real aperture side looking radar (SLAR) in Mohawk aircraft. A total of 89 transects were flown. Surface roughness and color as well as temperature and salinity were evaluated. Cross-frontal surveys were made. Frontal shear and convergence flow were obtained. Surface active organic materials, it was indicated, are present at the air-sea interface. In all, 2000 analyses were conducted to characterize the spatial and temporal variabilities associated with water mass boundaries.

  8. Incidence angle Normalization of Wide Swath SAR Data for Oceanographic Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Topouzelis, Konstantinos; Singha, Suman; Kitsiou, Dimitra

    2016-08-01

    A backscattering trend in the range direction of the signal received by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) in Wide Swath (WS) mode results in a progressive reduction of brightness over images from near to far range, which affects the detection and classification of sea surface features on wide swath SAR images. The aim of the present paper is to investigate methods for limiting the issue of Normalized Radar Cross-Section (NRCS or σ°) variation due to the incidence angle. Two sensor independent functions are investigated: a theoretical backscattering shape function derived from a minimum wind speed and an empirical range fit of NRCS against incidence angle θ. The former method exploits only the modeled NRCS values while the latter only the image content. The results were compared with the squared cosine correction, the most widely applied method for normalization, using six newly developed comparison factors. The results showed that the cosine squared normalization has the lowest efficiency while the proposed methods have similar behaviors and comparable results. Nevertheless, after the log-transformation and summation of the comparison factors, it was clearly shown that theoretical normalization performance is superior to the empirical one since it has the highest accuracy and requires less computational time.

  9. Upwelling-driven nearshore hypoxia signals ecosystem and oceanographic changes in the northeast Pacific.

    PubMed

    Grantham, Brian A; Chan, Francis; Nielsen, Karina J; Fox, David S; Barth, John A; Huyer, Adriana; Lubchenco, Jane; Menge, Bruce A

    2004-06-17

    Seasonal development of dissolved-oxygen deficits (hypoxia) represents an acute system-level perturbation to ecological dynamics and fishery sustainability in coastal ecosystems around the globe. Whereas anthropogenic nutrient loading has increased the frequency and severity of hypoxia in estuaries and semi-enclosed seas, the occurrence of hypoxia in open-coast upwelling systems reflects ocean conditions that control the delivery of oxygen-poor and nutrient-rich deep water onto continental shelves. Upwelling systems support a large proportion of the world's fisheries, therefore understanding the links between changes in ocean climate, upwelling-driven hypoxia and ecological perturbations is critical. Here we report on the unprecedented development of severe inner-shelf (<70 m) hypoxia and resultant mass die-offs of fish and invertebrates within the California Current System. In 2002, cross-shelf transects revealed the development of abnormally low dissolved-oxygen levels as a response to anomalously strong flow of subarctic water into the California Current System. Our findings highlight the sensitivity of inner-shelf ecosystems to variation in ocean conditions, and the potential impacts of climate change on marine communities.

  10. Physical oceanographic processes affecting larval transport around and through North Carolina inlets

    SciTech Connect

    Pietrafesa, L.J.; Janowitz, G.S.

    1985-01-01

    Atlantic Spot, Flounder, Croaker and Menhaden all spawn in shelf waters of North Carolina during late fall to early winter. The juveniles use estuaries such as Pamlico Sound and the Cape Fear River as nurseries during their first winter and spring. Previous studies of recruitment into the estuaries through barrier island inlets or estarine mouths assume that the pre and post metamorphosed larvae enter the estuaries at the bottom of the water column and move upstream thereafter. The mechanisms were presumed tidal. The Pamlico Sound has several inlets, Oregon, Hatteras and ocracroke, through which larvae can enter not only during flood stages of the tide but also in the presence of favorable oceanic to estuary sea level pressure gradients. The Cape Fear River has a strong semi-diurnal tidal flow both flood and ebb and also responds vigorously to one-sided divergences and convergences at its mouth. Flow, looking out of the mouth, is in at the left and out on the right. The conclusions are that, in addition to flooding tides, non-local forcing at the estuary mouths can effect transport of larval fish through the estuary mouths, throughout the entire water column.

  11. Selected bibliography of the physical, chemical, and biological oceanographic literature for the waters surrounding Guam

    SciTech Connect

    Eldredge, L.G.; Kropp, R.K.

    1981-09-01

    An ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) plant has been proposed to be built at Guam. A study of the impact of such a plant would be needed, since the movement of deep, cold water into shallow, warm water may have significant effects on the biota and the surrounding physical environment. No comprehensive overview of the ocean at Guam exists. The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory at the University of California, Berkeley, contracted the Guam Natural Energy Institute at the University of Guam Marine Laboratory to carry out a review of the existing oceanoraphic data and scientific literature about the ocean water surrounding the island of Guam. This selected bibliography of 262 titles is the initial product of the contract. This bibliography includes the major literature pertaining to the ocean at Guam. It is selected f