Science.gov

Sample records for acquire commercial aviation

  1. 41 CFR 102-33.95 - What is the process for budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)? 102-33.95 Section 102-33.95 Public Contracts and... budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)? Except for leases and lease-purchases, for which... fund your commercial aviation services (CAS) hires out of your agency's operating budget....

  2. 41 CFR 102-33.95 - What is the process for budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)? 102-33.95 Section 102-33.95 Public Contracts and... budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)? Except for leases and lease-purchases, for which... fund your commercial aviation services (CAS) hires out of your agency's operating budget....

  3. 41 CFR 102-33.95 - What is the process for budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)? 102-33.95 Section 102-33.95 Public Contracts and... budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)? Except for leases and lease-purchases, for which... fund your commercial aviation services (CAS) hires out of your agency's operating budget....

  4. 41 CFR 102-33.95 - What is the process for budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)? 102-33.95 Section 102-33.95 Public Contracts and... budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)? Except for leases and lease-purchases, for which... fund your commercial aviation services (CAS) hires out of your agency's operating budget....

  5. 41 CFR 102-33.95 - What is the process for budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)? 102-33.95 Section 102-33.95 Public Contracts and... budgeting to acquire commercial aviation services (CAS)? Except for leases and lease-purchases, for which... fund your commercial aviation services (CAS) hires out of your agency's operating budget....

  6. Commercial aviation icing research requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koegeboehn, L. P.

    1981-01-01

    A short range and long range icing research program was proposed. A survey was made to various industry and goverment agencies to obtain their views of needs for commercial aviation ice protection. Through these responsed, other additional data, and Douglas Aircraft icing expertise; an assessment of the state-of-the-art of aircraft icing data and ice protection systems was made. The information was then used to formulate the icing research programs.

  7. Cosmic radiation in commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    Bagshaw, Michael

    2008-05-01

    This paper reviews the current knowledge of cosmic radiation and its applicability to commercial aviation. Galactic cosmic radiation emanates from outside the solar system, while occasionally a disturbance in the suns' atmosphere leads to a surge in radiation particles. Protection is provided by the suns' magnetic field, the earths' magnetic field, and the earths' atmosphere. Dose rates are dependent on the altitude, the geomagnetic latitude and the solar cycle. For occupational exposure to ionising radiation, which includes aircrew, the International Commission on Radiological Protection recommends maximum mean body effective dose limits of 20mSv/yr (averaged over 5 years, with a maximum in any 1 year of 50mSv). Radiation doses can be measured during flight or may be calculated using a computer-modelling program such as CARI, EPCARD, SIEVERT or PCAIRE. Mean ambient equivalent dose rates are consistently reported in the region of 4-5microSv/h for long-haul pilots and 1-3microSv/h for short-haul, giving an annual mean effective exposure of the order 2-3mSv for long-haul and 1-2mSv for short-haul pilots. Epidemiological studies of flight crew have not shown conclusive evidence for any increase in cancer mortality or cancer incidence directly attributable to ionising radiation exposure. Whilst there is no level of radiation exposure below which effects do not occur, current evidence indicates that the probability of airline crew or passengers suffering adverse health effects as a result of exposure to cosmic radiation is very low. PMID:18486066

  8. Global Commercial Aviation Emissions Inventory for 2004

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, J.; Balasubramanian, S.; Malwitz, A.; Wayson, R.; Fleming, G.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Naiman, A.; Lele, S.

    2008-12-01

    In 2004, the global commercial aircraft fleet included more than 13,000 aircraft flying over 30 billion km, burning more than 100 million tons of fuel. All this activity incurs substantial amounts of fossil-fuel combustion products at the cruise altitude within the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that could potentially affect the atmospheric composition and climate. These emissions; such as CO, CO2, PM, NOx, SOx, are not distributed uniformly over the earth, so understanding the temporal and spatial distributions is an important component for modeling aviation climate impacts. Previous studies for specific years have shown that nearly all activity occurs in the northern hemisphere, and most is within mid-latitudes. Simply scaling older data by the annual global industry growth of 3-5 percent may provide emission trends which are not representative of geographically varying growth in aviation sector that has been noted over the past years. India, for example, increased its domestic aviation activity recently by 46 percent in one year. Therefore, it is important that aircraft emissions are best characterized and represented in the atmospheric models for impacts analysis. Data containing all global commercial flights for 2004 was computed using the Federal Aviation Administration's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT) and provided by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center. The following is a summary of this data which illustrates the global aviation footprint for 2004, and provides temporal and three-dimensional spatial distribution statistics of several emissions constituents.

  9. Applying lessons from commercial aviation safety and operations to resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Ornato, Joseph P; Peberdy, Mary Ann

    2014-02-01

    Both commercial aviation and resuscitation are complex activities in which team members must respond to unexpected emergencies in a consistent, high quality manner. Lives are at stake in both activities and the two disciplines have similar leadership structures, standard setting processes, training methods, and operational tools. Commercial aviation crews operate with remarkable consistency and safety, while resuscitation team performance and outcomes are highly variable. This commentary provides the perspective of two physician-pilots showing how commercial aviation training, operations, and safety principles can be adapted to resuscitation team training and performance. PMID:24215731

  10. 47 CFR 22.873 - Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... aviation air-ground systems. 22.873 Section 22.873 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.873 Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems. Licensees authorized to use more than one megahertz (1 MHz) of the 800 MHz commercial aviation...

  11. 47 CFR 22.873 - Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... aviation air-ground systems. 22.873 Section 22.873 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.873 Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems. Licensees authorized to use more than one megahertz (1 MHz) of the 800 MHz commercial aviation...

  12. 47 CFR 22.873 - Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... aviation air-ground systems. 22.873 Section 22.873 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.873 Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems. Licensees authorized to use more than one megahertz (1 MHz) of the 800 MHz commercial aviation...

  13. 47 CFR 22.873 - Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... aviation air-ground systems. 22.873 Section 22.873 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.873 Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems. Licensees authorized to use more than one megahertz (1 MHz) of the 800 MHz commercial aviation...

  14. 47 CFR 22.873 - Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... aviation air-ground systems. 22.873 Section 22.873 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.873 Construction requirements for commercial aviation air-ground systems. Licensees authorized to use more than one megahertz (1 MHz) of the 800 MHz commercial aviation...

  15. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  16. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  17. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  18. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  19. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  20. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  1. 47 CFR 22.859 - Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.859 Incumbent commercial aviation air-ground systems. This section contains rules...

  2. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  3. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground... CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. The 849-851 MHz and 894-896...

  4. Potential Carbon Negative Commercial Aviation through Land Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.

    2008-01-01

    Brazilian terra preta soil and char-enhanced soil agricultural systems have demonstrated both enhanced plant biomass and crop yield and functions as a carbon sink. Similar carbon sinking has been demonstrated for both glycophyte and halophyte plants and plant roots. Within the assumption of 3.7 t-C/ha/yr soils and plant root carbon sinking, it is possible to provide carbon neutral U.S. commercial aviation using about 8.5% of U.S. arable lands. The total airline CO2 release would be offset by carbon credits for properly managed soils and plant rooting, becoming carbon neutral for carbon sequestered synjet processing. If these lands were also used to produce biomass fuel crops such as soybeans at an increased yield of 60 bu/acre (225gal/ha), they would provide over 3.15 10(exp 9) gallons biodiesel fuel. If all this fuel were refined into biojet it would provide a 16% biojet-84% synjet blend. This allows the U.S. aviation industry to become carbon negative (carbon negative commercial aviation through carbon credits). Arid land recovery could yield even greater benefits.

  5. The evolution of Crew Resource Management training in commercial aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, R. L.; Merritt, A. C.; Wilhelm, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    In this study, we describe changes in the nature of Crew Resource Management (CRM) training in commercial aviation, including its shift from cockpit to crew resource management. Validation of the impact of CRM is discussed. Limitations of CRM, including lack of cross-cultural generality are considered. An overarching framework that stresses error management to increase acceptance of CRM concepts is presented. The error management approach defines behavioral strategies taught in CRM as error countermeasures that are employed to avoid error, to trap errors committed, and to mitigate the consequences of error.

  6. Psychophysiological Assessment of Fatigue in Commercial Aviation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hernandez, Norma; Cowings, Patricia; Toscano, William

    2012-01-01

    The overall goal of this study is to improve our understanding of crew work hours, workload, sleep, fatigue, and performance, and the relationships between these variables on actual flight deck performance. Specifically, this study will provide objective measures of physiology and performance, which may benefit investigators in identifying fatigue levels of operators in commercial aviation and provide a way to better design strategies to limit crew fatigue. This research was supported by an agreement between NASA Ames Research Center and easyJet Airline Company, Ltd., Luton, UK. Twenty commercial pilots volunteered to participant in the study that included 15 flight duty days. Participants wore a Zephyr Bioharness ambulatory physiological monitor each flight day, which measured their heart rate, respiration rate, skin temperature, activity and posture. In addition, pilots completed sleep log diaries, self-report scales of mood, sleepiness and workload, and a Performance Vigilance Task (PVT). All data were sent to NASA researchers for processing and analyses. Heart rate variability data of several subjects were subjected to a spectral analysis to examine power in specific frequency bands. Increased power in low frequency band was associated with reports of higher subjective sleepinesss in some subjects. Analyses of other participants data are currently underway.

  7. 47 CFR 22.857 - Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Channel plan for commercial aviation air-ground systems. 22.857 Section 22.857 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES PUBLIC MOBILE SERVICES Air-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.857 Channel plan...

  8. 76 FR 61245 - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-03

    ... the Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, September 28, 2011 [FR Doc... Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations #0; #0; #0... Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International...

  9. 47 CFR 22.877 - Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air-ground systems. 22.877 Section 22.877...-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.877 Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air-ground systems. The...

  10. 47 CFR 22.877 - Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air-ground systems. 22.877 Section 22.877...-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.877 Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air-ground systems. The...

  11. 47 CFR 22.877 - Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air-ground systems. 22.877 Section 22.877...-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.877 Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air-ground systems. The...

  12. 47 CFR 22.877 - Unacceptable interference to part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air-ground systems. 22.877 Section 22.877...-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.877 Unacceptable interference to part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air-ground systems. The...

  13. 47 CFR 22.877 - Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air-ground systems. 22.877 Section 22.877...-Ground Radiotelephone Service Commercial Aviation Air-Ground Systems § 22.877 Unacceptable interference to Part 90 non-cellular 800 MHz licensees from commercial aviation air-ground systems. The...

  14. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of September 27, 2012 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  15. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of September 28, 2011 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  16. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of September 29, 2010 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  17. 3 CFR - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 3 The President 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and International Operations Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Memorandum of December 27, 2013 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  18. 75 FR 61031 - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-01

    ... Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, September 29, 2010 [FR Doc. 2010-24900 Filed 9-30-10; 11:15 am... Memorandum of September 29, 2010--Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service...;The President ] Memorandum of September 29, 2010 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage...

  19. An assessment of national risk: General concepts and overall approach. [carbon fiber utilization in commercial aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalelkar, A. S.

    1979-01-01

    The analysis of risk presented by carbon fiber utilization in commercial aviation is reported. The discussion is presented in three parts: (1) general concepts; (2) overall approach; and (3) risk evaluation and perspective.

  20. Assessment of risk due to the use of carbon fiber composites in commercial and general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiksel, J.; Rosenfield, D.; Kalelkar, A.

    1980-01-01

    The development of a national risk profile for the total annual aircraft losses due to carbon fiber composite (CFC) usage through 1993 is discussed. The profile was developed using separate simulation methods for commercial and general aviation aircraft. A Monte Carlo method which was used to assess the risk in commercial aircraft is described. The method projects the potential usage of CFC through 1993, investigates the incidence of commercial aircraft fires, models the potential release and dispersion of carbon fibers from a fire, and estimates potential economic losses due to CFC damaging electronic equipment. The simulation model for the general aviation aircraft is described. The model emphasizes variations in facility locations and release conditions, estimates distribution of CFC released in general aviation aircraft accidents, and tabulates the failure probabilities and aggregate economic losses in the accidents.

  1. Results from FAA program to validate bonded composite doublers for commercial aviation use

    SciTech Connect

    Roach, D.P.

    1997-09-01

    The number of commercial airframes exceeding twenty years of service continues to grow. In addition, Service Life Extension Programs are attempting to extend the {open_quotes}economic{close_quotes} service life of commercial airframes to thirty years. The use of bonded composites may offer the airframe manufacturers and aircraft maintenance facilities a cost effective method to extend the lives of their aircraft. The Federal Aviation Administration Assurance NDI Validation Center (AANC) to validate the use of bonded composite doublers on commercial aircraft.

  2. Information management for commercial aviation - A research perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ricks, Wendell R.; Abbott, Kathy H.; Jonsson, Jon E.; Boucek, George; Rogers, William H.

    1991-01-01

    The problem of flight deck information management (IM), defined as processing, controlling, and directing information, for commercial flight decks, and a research effort underway to address this problem, are discussed. The premises provided are utilized to lay the groundwork required for such research by providing a framework to describe IM problems and an avenue to follow when investigating solution concepts. The research issues presented serve to identify specific questions necessary to achieve a better understanding of the IM problem, and to provide assessments of the relative merit of various solution concepts.

  3. Performance effects of plan-based displays in commercial aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shalin, Valerie L.; Mikesell, Brian G.; Ramamurthy, Maya; Geddes, Norman D.

    1993-01-01

    The experiment reported here examines the performance consequences of alignment between display formats and the methods used during descent. Twelve commercial pilots flew one of nine Standard Terminal Arrival Routes on a stand-alone flight simulator run on a Sparc II workstation. Three different methods for descent (Manual Control, Autopilot and Spoilers) were crossed with three methods according to scope, resolution, and bandwidth properties in the display of critical information. Performance variability in speed control supports our claim that the effectiveness of a display is not an independent property of the display itself, but rather, a function of the interaction of the display and the particular methods used for achieving task goals.

  4. First, do no harm: the role of defibrillators and advanced medical care in commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    McKenas, D K

    1997-05-01

    Primum non nocere-First, do no harm. How often have we as physicians and health care providers heard those words? We at American Airlines did not wish to put even one person in harm's way by not having care available to save a life in a remote commercial aviation environment. The decision was purely a business decision of the AMR corporation, who always keeps the welfare of the customer at the fore. It may not be the right choice for the entire commercial aviation industry under an FAA mandate. We know that we will save lives of persons traveling on American Airlines with this program. If the 'ripple' that we have started expands to affect the practices of other commercial air carriers in the domestic United States, American's reward will be a great one-to know that the lives of many people will be saved because one air carrier has taken the first step. PMID:9143743

  5. Challenge to aviation: Hatching a leaner pterosauer. [improving commercial aircraft design for greater fuel efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moss, F. E.

    1975-01-01

    Modifications in commercial aircraft design, particularly the development of lighter aircraft, are discussed as effective means of reducing aviation fuel consumption. The modifications outlined include: (1) use of the supercritical wing; (2) generation of the winglet; (3) production and flight testing of composite materials; and, (4) implementation of fly-by-wire control systems. Attention is also given to engineering laminar air flow control, improving cargo payloads, and adapting hydrogen fuels for aircraft use.

  6. Psychophysiological Sensing and State Classification for Attention Management in Commercial Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrivel, Angela R.; Liles, Charles; Stephens, Chad L.; Ellis, Kyle K.; Prinzel, Lawrence J.; Pope, Alan T.

    2016-01-01

    Attention-related human performance limiting states (AHPLS) can cause pilots to lose airplane state awareness (ASA), and their detection is important to improving commercial aviation safety. The Commercial Aviation Safety Team found that the majority of recent international commercial aviation accidents attributable to loss of control inflight involved flight crew loss of airplane state awareness, and that distraction of various forms was involved in all of them. Research on AHPLS, including channelized attention, diverted attention, startle / surprise, and confirmation bias, has been recommended in a Safety Enhancement (SE) entitled "Training for Attention Management." To accomplish the detection of such cognitive and psychophysiological states, a broad suite of sensors has been implemented to simultaneously measure their physiological markers during high fidelity flight simulation human subject studies. Pilot participants were asked to perform benchmark tasks and experimental flight scenarios designed to induce AHPLS. Pattern classification was employed to distinguish the AHPLS induced by the benchmark tasks. Unimodal classification using pre-processed electroencephalography (EEG) signals as input features to extreme gradient boosting, random forest and deep neural network multiclass classifiers was implemented. Multi-modal classification using galvanic skin response (GSR) in addition to the same EEG signals and using the same types of classifiers produced increased accuracy with respect to the unimodal case (90 percent vs. 86 percent), although only via the deep neural network classifier. These initial results are a first step toward the goal of demonstrating simultaneous real time classification of multiple states using multiple sensing modalities in high-fidelity flight simulators. This detection is intended to support and inform training methods under development to mitigate the loss of ASA and thus reduce accidents and incidents.

  7. An Examination of Commercial Aviation Accidents and Incidents Related to Integrated Vehicle Health Management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reveley, Mary S.; Briggs, Jeffrey L.; Thomas, Megan A.; Evans, Joni K.; Jones, Sharon M.

    2011-01-01

    The Integrated Vehicle Health Management (IVHM) Project is one of the four projects within the National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Aviation Safety Program (AvSafe). The IVHM Project conducts research to develop validated tools and technologies for automated detection, diagnosis, and prognosis that enable mitigation of adverse events during flight. Adverse events include those that arise from system, subsystem, or component failure, faults, and malfunctions due to damage, degradation, or environmental hazards that occur during flight. Determining the causal factors and adverse events related to IVHM technologies will help in the formulation of research requirements and establish a list of example adverse conditions against which IVHM technologies can be evaluated. This paper documents the results of an examination of the most recent statistical/prognostic accident and incident data that is available from the Aviation Safety Information Analysis and Sharing (ASIAS) System to determine the causal factors of system/component failures and/or malfunctions in U.S. commercial aviation accidents and incidents.

  8. [The problems of hearing impairment in the flying staff of commercial aviation in Russia].

    PubMed

    Pankova, V B; Bushmanov, A Y U

    2014-01-01

    The authors discuss the problems pertaining to the growing incidence of hearing impairment in the members of the flying staff employed in commercial aviation of Russia and the main criteria used to elucidate the causes behind occupational diseases of the organs of hearing. Special attention is given to the principal normative documents regulating the methodological basis on which the acoustic factor in the aircraft cockpit is evaluated, peculiarities of occupational sensorineural hearing impairment and the methods for its detection. The main errors in the determination of the relationship between the working conditions and the diseases of the organs of hearing are discussed. PMID:25734302

  9. As assessment of power system vulnerability to release of carbon fibers during commercial aviation accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larocque, G. R.

    1980-01-01

    The vulnerability of a power distribution system in Bedford and Lexington, Massachusetts to power outages as a result of exposure to carbon fibers released in a commercial aviation accident in 1993 was examined. Possible crash scenarios at Logan Airport based on current operational data and estimated carbon fiber usage levels were used to predict exposure levels and occurrence probabilities. The analysis predicts a mean time between carbon fiber induced power outages of 2300 years with an expected annual consequence of 0.7 persons losing power. In comparison to historical outage data for the system, this represents a 0.007% increase in outage rate and 0.07% increase in consequence.

  10. Safety And Promotion in the Federal Aviation Administration- Enabling Safe and Successful Commercial Space Transportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Repcheck, Randall J.

    2010-09-01

    The United States Federal Aviation Administration’s Office of Commercial Space Transportation(AST) authorizes the launch and reentry of expendable and reusable launch vehicles and the operation of launch and reentry sites by United States citizens or within the United States. It authorizes these activities consistent with public health and safety, the safety of property, and the national security and foreign policy interests of the United States. In addition to its safety role, AST has the role to encourage, facilitate, and promote commercial space launches and reentries by the private sector. AST’s promotional role includes, among other things, the development of information of interest to industry, the sharing of information of interest through a variety of methods, and serving as an advocate for Commercial Space Transportation within the United States government. This dual safety and promotion role is viewed by some as conflicting. AST views these two roles as complementary, and important for the current state of commercial space transportation. This paper discusses how maintaining a sound safety decision-making process, maintaining a strong safety culture, and taking steps to avoid complacency can together enable safe and successful commercial space transportation.

  11. Analysis of emission data from global commercial aviation: 2004 and 2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkerson, J. T.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Malwitz, A.; Balasubramanian, S.; Wayson, R.; Fleming, G.; Naiman, A. D.; Lele, S. K.

    2010-07-01

    The global commercial aircraft fleet in 2006 flew 31.26 million flights, burned 188.20 million metric tons of fuel, and covered 38.68 billion kilometers. This activity emitted substantial amounts of fossil-fuel combustion products within the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere that affect atmospheric composition and climate. The emissions products, such as carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, oxides of nitrogen, sulfur compounds, and particulate matter, are not emitted uniformly over the Earth, so understanding the temporal and spatial distributions is important for modeling aviation's climate impacts. Global commercial aircraft emission data for 2004 and 2006, provided by the Volpe National Transportation Systems Center, were computed using the Federal Aviation Administration's Aviation Environmental Design Tool (AEDT). Continuous improvement in methodologies, including changes in AEDT's horizontal track methodologies, and an increase in availability of data make some differences between the 2004 and 2006 inventories incomparable. Furthermore, the 2004 inventory contained a significant over-count due to an imperfect data merge and daylight savings error. As a result, the 2006 emissions inventory is considered more representative of actual flight activity. Here, we analyze both 2004 and 2006 emissions, focusing on the latter, and provide corrected totals for 2004. Analysis of 2006 flight data shows that 92.5% of fuel was burned in the Northern Hemisphere, 69.0% between 30N and 60N latitudes, and 74.6% was burned above 7 km. This activity led to 162.25 Tg of carbon from CO2 emitted globally in 2006, more than half over three regions: the United States (25.5%), Europe (14.6), and East Asia (11.1). Despite receiving less than one percent of global emissions, the Arctic receives a uniformly dispersed concentration of emissions with 95.2% released at altitude where they have longer residence time than surface emissions. Finally, 85.2% of all flights by number in 2006

  12. The U.S. commercial air tour industry: a review of aviation safety concerns.

    PubMed

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations defines commercial air tours as "flight[s] conducted for compensation or hire in an airplane or helicopter where a purpose of the flight is sightseeing." The incidence of air tour crashes in the United States is disproportionately high relative to similar commercial aviation operations, and air tours operating under Part 91 governance crash significantly more than those governed by Part 135. This paper reviews the government and industry response to four specific areas of air tour safety concern: surveillance of flight operations, pilot factors, regulatory standardization, and maintenance quality assurance. It concludes that the government and industry have successfully addressed many of these tenet issues, most notably by: advancing the operations surveillance infrastructure through implementation of en route, ground-based, and technological surveillance methods; developing Aeronautical Decision Making and cue-based training programs for air tour pilots; consolidating federal air tour regulations under Part 136; and developing public-private partnerships for raising maintenance operating standards and improving quality assurance programs. However, opportunities remain to improve air tour safety by: increasing the number and efficiency of flight surveillance programs; addressing pilot fatigue with more restrictive flight hour limitations for air tour pilots; ensuring widespread uptake of maintenance quality assurance programs, especially among high-risk operators not currently affiliated with private air tour safety programs; and eliminating the 25-mile exception allowing Part 91 operators to conduct commercial air tours without the safety oversight required of Part 135 operators. PMID:24597160

  13. The FC-1D: The profitable alternative Flying Circus Commercial Aviation Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meza, Victor J.; Alvarez, Jaime; Harrington, Brook; Lujan, Michael A.; Mitlyng, David; Saroughian, Andy; Silva, Alex; Teale, Tim

    1994-01-01

    The FC-1D was designed as an advanced solution for a low cost commercial transport meeting or exceeding all of the 1993/1994 AIAA/Lockheed request for proposal requirements. The driving philosophy behind the design of the FC-1D was the reduction of airline direct operating costs. Every effort was made during the design process to have the customer in mind. The Flying Circus Commercial Aviation Group targeted reductions in drag, fuel consumption, manufacturing costs, and maintenance costs. Flying Circus emphasized cost reduction throughout the entire design program. Drag reduction was achieved by implementation of the aft nacelle wing configuration to reduce cruise drag and increase cruise speeds. To reduce induced drag, rather than increasing the wing span of the FC-1D, spiroids were included in the efficient wing design. Profile and friction drag are reduced by using riblets in place of paint around the fuselage and empennage of the FC-1D. Choosing a single aisle configuration enabled the Flying Circus to optimize the fuselage diameter. Thus, reducing fuselage drag while gaining high structural efficiency. To further reduce fuel consumption a weight reduction program was conducted through the use of composite materials. An additional quality of the FC-1D is its design for low cost manufacturing and assembly. As a result of this design attribute, the FC-1D will have fewer parts which reduces weight as well as maintenance and assembly costs. The FC-1D is affordable and effective, the apex of commercial transport design.

  14. Hanford Tank Initiative (HTI) & Acquire Commercial Technology for Retrieval Report & Database

    SciTech Connect

    SEDERBURG, J. P

    2000-08-31

    The data base is an annotated bibliography of technology evaluations and demonstrations conducted in previous years by the Hanford Tank Initiative (HTI) and the Acquire Commercial Technology for Retrieval (ACTR) programs.

  15. The U.S. Commercial Air Tour Industry: A Review of Aviation Safety Concerns

    PubMed Central

    Ballard, Sarah-Blythe

    2016-01-01

    The U.S. Title 14 Code of Federal Regulations defines commercial air tours as “flight[s] conducted for compensation or hire in an airplane or helicopter where a purpose of the flight is sightseeing.” The incidence of air tour crashes in the United States is disproportionately high relative to similar commercial aviation operations, and air tours operating under Part 91 governance crash significantly more than those governed by Part 135. This paper reviews the government and industry response to four specific areas of air tour safety concern: surveillance of flight operations, pilot factors, regulatory standardization, and maintenance quality assurance. It concludes that the government and industry have successfully addressed many of these tenet issues, most notably by: advancing the operations surveillance infrastructure through implementation of en route, ground-based, and technological surveillance methods; developing Aeronautical Decision Making and cue-based training programs for air tour pilots; consolidating federal air tour regulations under Part 136; and developing public-private partnerships for raising maintenance operating standards and improving quality assurance programs. However, opportunities remain to improve air tour safety by: increasing the number and efficiency of flight surveillance programs; addressing pilot fatigue with more restrictive flight hour limitations for air tour pilots; ensuring widespread uptake of maintenance quality assurance programs, especially among high-risk operators not currently affiliated with private air tour safety programs; and eliminating the 25-mile exception allowing Part 91 operators to conduct commercial air tours without the safety oversight required of Part 135 operators. PMID:24597160

  16. Rotor fragment protection program: Statistics on aircraft gas turbine engine rotor failures that occurred in US commercial aviation during 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delucia, R. A.; Salvino, J. T.

    1982-01-01

    Statistical information relating to the number of gas turbine engine rotor failures which occurred during 1979 in commercial aviation service use is provided. The predominant failure mode involved blade fragments, 84 percent of which were contained. No uncontained disk failures occurred and although fewer rotor rim and seal failures occurred, 100 percent and 50 percent, respectively, were uncontained. Sixty-eight percent of the 157 rotor failures occurred during the take-off and climb stages of flight.

  17. Principles and Guidelines for Duty and Rest Scheduling in Commercial Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dinges, David F.; Graeber, R. Curtis; Rosekind, Mark R.; Samel, Alexander

    1996-01-01

    The aviation industry requires 24-hour activities to meet operational demands. Growth in global long-haul, regional, overnight cargo, and short-haul domestic operations will continue to increase these round-the-clock requirements. Flight crews must be available to support 24-hour-a-day operations to meet these industry demands. Both domestic and international aviation can also require crossing multiple time zones. Therefore, shift work, night work, irregular work schedules, unpredictable work schedules, and dm zone changes will continue to be commonplace components of the aviation industry. These factors pose known challenges to human physiology, and because they result in performance-impairing fatigue, they pose a risk to safety. It is critical to acknowledge and, whenever possible, incorporate scientific information on fatigue, human sleep, and circadian physiology into 24-hour aviation operations. Utilization of such scientific information can help promote crew performance and alertness during flight operations and thereby maintain and improve the safety margin.

  18. 77 FR 60035 - Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for Commercial Air Carrier Service in Domestic and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-02

    ... the Federal Register. (Presidential Sig.) THE WHITE HOUSE, Washington, September 27, 2012 [FR Doc... Documents#0;#0; ] Memorandum of September 27, 2012 Provision of Aviation Insurance Coverage for...

  19. The impact of new and emerging technologies in the commercial aviation maintenance, repair, and overhaul industry a Delphi study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, Janet

    Purpose. The purpose of this study was to identify new or emerging technological trends and events that are likely to occur between now and 2017 that will have an impact on the commercial aviation maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) industry. Further, it was the purpose of this study to examine those technological trends and events believed to provide the greatest impact and, given the experts' analysis, identify the feasibility of implementation. Methodology. This descriptive study utilized the Delphi method with a panel of twenty-four experts comprised of practitioners, theorists, and futurists. A priority matrix was utilized to determine the impact and feasibility of trend and events. Findings. The experts identified fifty-three trends and events that will impact the commercial aviation maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) industry. Analysis of the priority matrix revealed eighteen trends and events were of high priority and high feasibility. Conclusions. The responses from the expert panel were examined and the findings analyzed. The following are the conclusions constructed from the data provided by the Delphi panel of experts: (1) the need to respond to the demands of the maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) industry such as down time, efficiency, cost, and environmental concerns by implementing new technology, (2) the demand to integrate and implement new technology as indicative of the priority matrix scoring high importance/high feasibility, (3) to proactively address the inadequate professional development in new technologies, and (4) the consensus reached by the panel of experts of importance and feasibility of implementation of new technologies encompass eighteen trends and events. Implications and recommendations for action. The implementation of new and emerging technological advances in the commercial aviation maintenance, repair, and overhaul (MRO) industry between now and 2017 will be dependent on the technologies' capacity to reduce

  20. Disaggregating global commercial aviation emissions by background static-stability in the upper-troposphere and lower-stratosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whitt, D. B.; Wilkerson, J. T.; Jacobson, M. Z.; Naiman, A. D.; Lele, S. K.

    2010-12-01

    In 2006 commercial aircraft burned 188 Tg of jet fuel which resulted in the emission of 162 Tg of carbon dioxide among other combustion products. Many of the constituents of burned jet fuel are thought to have significant effects on climate, particularly because they are released in the upper-troposphere and lower-stratosphere (UTLS) where the vertical mixing is slow. The exact radiative effect, however, is difficult to quantify because the UTLS is a complicated dynamical zone where chemical transport time-scales can range from years (e.g. global scale stratosphere-troposphere exchange) to hours (e.g. tropopause folding processes) and horizontal scales can range from thousands of kilometers (e.g. eddy mixing along isentropic surfaces) to a single kilometer (e.g. the width of a tropopause fold). Furthermore, there are steep vertical gradients in the dynamical and chemical properties of the atmosphere near the tropopause which are only visible in tropopause relative coordinates because the tropopause height varies significantly from month to month and day to day. Therefore, since a third of global commercial aviation emissions occur near the tropopause, within a chemically defined transition layer, disaggregating aviation emissions by background atmospheric properties represents a step toward a more complete understanding of the potential impact aviation emissions have on climate and surface air quality. This study disaggregates global commercial aviation emissions in tropopause relative coordinates with respect to background static-stability and chemical composition. Furthermore, the data are regionally and temporally disaggregated and statistics are derived. The static-stability is derived from high resolution temperature profiles obtained from the Challenging Minisatellite Payload (CHAMP) and the Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (COSMIC) satellites. The daily thermal tropopause height is also obtained from the Atmospheric

  1. Rotor burst protection program: Statistics on aircraft gas turbine engine rotor failures that occurred in US commercial aviation during 1975

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delucia, R. A.; Mangano, G. J.

    1977-01-01

    Statistics on gas turbine rotor failures that have occurred in U.S. commercial aviation during 1975 are presented. The compiled data were analyzed to establish: (1) The incidence of rotor failures and the number of contained and uncontained rotor bursts; (2) The distribution of rotor bursts with respect to engine rotor component; i.e., fan, compressor or turbine; (3) The type of rotor fragment (disk, rim or blade) typically generated at burst; (4) The cause of failure; (5) The type of engines involved; and (6) The flight condition at the time of failure.

  2. Rotor burst protection program: Statistics on aircraft gas turbine engine failures that occurred in commercial aviation during 1971

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delucia, R. A.; Mangano, G. J.

    1973-01-01

    A program to develop criteria for the design of devices that will be used on aircraft to protect passengers and the aircraft structure from the lethal and devastating fragments generated by the disintegration of a gas turbine engine rotor is discussed. Statistics on gas rotor turbine failures that have occurred in commercial aviation in 1971 are presented. It is shown that 124 rotor failures occurred and 35 of these were uncontained. This figure is considered significantly high to justify continuation of the development program.

  3. [Error prevention through management of complications in urology: standard operating procedures from commercial aviation as a model].

    PubMed

    Kranz, J; Sommer, K-J; Steffens, J

    2014-05-01

    Patient safety and risk/complication management rank among the current megatrends in modern medicine, which has undoubtedly become more complex. In time-critical, error-prone and difficult situations, which often occur repeatedly in everyday clinical practice, guidelines are inappropriate for acting rapidly and intelligently. With the establishment and consistent use of standard operating procedures like in commercial aviation, a possible strategic approach is available. These medical aids to decision-making - quick reference cards - are short, optimized instructions that enable a standardized procedure in case of medical claims. PMID:24744109

  4. Aviation Safety Issues Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A.; Ricks, Wendell R.

    2009-01-01

    The aviation safety issues database was instrumental in the refinement and substantiation of the National Aviation Safety Strategic Plan (NASSP). The issues database is a comprehensive set of issues from an extremely broad base of aviation functions, personnel, and vehicle categories, both nationally and internationally. Several aviation safety stakeholders such as the Commercial Aviation Safety Team (CAST) have already used the database. This broader interest was the genesis to making the database publically accessible and writing this report.

  5. A principled approach to the measurement of situation awareness in commercial aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tenney, Yvette J.; Adams, Marilyn Jager; Pew, Richard W.; Huggins, A. W. F.; Rogers, William H.

    1992-01-01

    The issue of how to support situation awareness among crews of modern commercial aircraft is becoming especially important with the introduction of automation in the form of sophisticated flight management computers and expert systems designed to assist the crew. In this paper, cognitive theories are discussed that have relevance for the definition and measurement of situation awareness. These theories suggest that comprehension of the flow of events is an active process that is limited by the modularity of attention and memory constraints, but can be enhanced by expert knowledge and strategies. Three implications of this perspective for assessing and improving situation awareness are considered: (1) Scenario variations are proposed that tax awareness by placing demands on attention; (2) Experimental tasks and probes are described for assessing the cognitive processes that underlie situation awareness; and (3) The use of computer-based human performance models to augment the measures of situation awareness derived from performance data is explored. Finally, two potential example applications of the proposed assessment techniques are described, one concerning spatial awareness using wide field of view displays and the other emphasizing fault management in aircraft systems.

  6. Hybrid Environmental Control System Integrated Modeling Trade Study Analysis for Commercial Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parrilla, Javier

    Current industry trends demonstrate aircraft electrification will be part of future platforms in order to achieve higher levels of efficiency in various vehicle level sub-systems. However electrification requires a substantial change in aircraft design that is not suitable for re-winged or re-engined applications as some aircraft manufacturers are opting for today. Thermal limits arise as engine cores progressively get smaller and hotter to improve overall engine efficiency, while legacy systems still demand a substantial amount of pneumatic, hydraulic and electric power extraction. The environmental control system (ECS) provides pressurization, ventilation and air conditioning in commercial aircraft, making it the main heat sink for all aircraft loads with exception of the engine. To mitigate the architecture thermal limits in an efficient manner, the form in which the ECS interacts with the engine will have to be enhanced as to reduce the overall energy consumed and achieve an energy optimized solution. This study examines a tradeoff analysis of an electric ECS by use of a fully integrated Numerical Propulsion Simulation System (NPSS) model that is capable of studying the interaction between the ECS and the engine cycle deck. It was found that a peak solution lays in a hybrid ECS where it utilizes the correct balance between a traditional pneumatic and a fully electric system. This intermediate architecture offers a substantial improvement in aircraft fuel consumptions due to a reduced amount of waste heat and customer bleed in exchange for partial electrification of the air-conditions pack which is a viable option for re-winged applications.

  7. Characterizing the Severe Turbulence Environments Associated With Commercial Aviation Accidents: A Real-Time Turbulence Model (RTTM) Designed for the Operational Prediction of Hazardous Aviation Turbulence Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, Michael L.; Lux, Kevin M.; Cetola, Jeffrey D.; Huffman, Allan W.; Riordan, Allen J.; Slusser, Sarah W.; Lin, Yuh-Lang; Charney, Joseph J.; Waight, Kenneth T.

    2004-01-01

    Real-time prediction of environments predisposed to producing moderate-severe aviation turbulence is studied. We describe the numerical model and its postprocessing system designed for said prediction of environments predisposed to severe aviation turbulence as well as presenting numerous examples of its utility. The numerical model is MASS version 5.13, which is integrated over three different grid matrices in real time on a university work station in support of NASA Langley Research Center s B-757 turbulence research flight missions. The postprocessing system includes several turbulence-related products, including four turbulence forecasting indices, winds, streamlines, turbulence kinetic energy, and Richardson numbers. Additionally, there are convective products including precipitation, cloud height, cloud mass fluxes, lifted index, and K-index. Furthermore, soundings, sounding parameters, and Froude number plots are also provided. The horizontal cross-section plot products are provided from 16 000 to 46 000 ft in 2000-ft intervals. Products are available every 3 hours at the 60- and 30-km grid interval and every 1.5 hours at the 15-km grid interval. The model is initialized from the NWS ETA analyses and integrated two times a day.

  8. Rotor fragment protection program: Statistics on aircraft gas turbine ngine rotor failures that occurred in U.S. commercial aviation during 1978

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delucia, R. A.; Salvino, J. T.

    1981-01-01

    This report presents statistical information relating to the number of gas turbine engine rotor failures which occurred in commercial aviation service use. The predominant failure involved blade fragments, 82.4 percent of which were contained. Although fewer rotor rim, disk, and seal failures occurred, 33.3%, 100% and 50% respectively were uncontained. Sixty-five percent of the 166 rotor failures occurred during the takeoff and climb stages of flight.

  9. Causes and risk factors for fatal accidents in non-commercial twin engine piston general aviation aircraft.

    PubMed

    Boyd, Douglas D

    2015-04-01

    Accidents in twin-engine aircraft carry a higher risk of fatality compared with single engine aircraft and constitute 9% of all general aviation accidents. The different flight profile (higher airspeed, service ceiling, increased fuel load, and aircraft yaw in engine failure) may make comparable studies on single-engine aircraft accident causes less relevant. The objective of this study was to identify the accident causes for non-commercial operations in twin engine aircraft. A NTSB accident database query for accidents in twin piston engine airplanes of 4-8 seat capacity with a maximum certified weight of 3000-8000lbs. operating under 14CFR Part 91 for the period spanning 2002 and 2012 returned 376 accidents. Accident causes and contributing factors were as per the NTSB final report categories. Total annual flight hour data for the twin engine piston aircraft fleet were obtained from the FAA. Statistical analyses employed Chi Square, Fisher's Exact and logistic regression analysis. Neither the combined fatal/non-fatal accident nor the fatal accident rate declined over the period spanning 2002-2012. Under visual weather conditions, the largest number, n=27, (27%) of fatal accidents was attributed to malfunction with a failure to follow single engine procedures representing the most common contributing factor. In degraded visibility, poor instrument approach procedures resulted in the greatest proportion of fatal crashes. Encountering thunderstorms was the most lethal of all accident causes with all occupants sustaining fatal injuries. At night, a failure to maintain obstacle/terrain clearance was the most common accident cause leading to 36% of fatal crashes. The results of logistic regression showed that operations at night (OR 3.7), off airport landings (OR 14.8) and post-impact fire (OR 7.2) all carried an excess risk of a fatal flight. This study indicates training areas that should receive increased emphasis for twin-engine training/recency. First, increased

  10. A synergistic glance at the prospects of distributed propulsion technology and the electric aircraft concept for future unmanned air vehicles and commercial/military aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohardani, Amir S.

    2013-02-01

    Distributed propulsion is one of the revolutionary candidates for future aircraft propulsion. In this journal article, the potential role of distributed propulsion technology in future aviation is investigated. Following a historical journey that revisits distributed propulsion technology in unmanned air vehicles and military aircraft, features of this specific technology are highlighted in synergy with an electric aircraft concept and a first-of-a-kind comparison to commercial aircraft employing distributed propulsion arrangements. In light of propulsion-airframe integration and complementary technologies such as boundary layer ingestion, thrust vectoring and circulation control, transpired opportunities and challenges are addressed in addition to a number of identified research directions proposed for future aircraft. The motivation behind enhanced means of communication between engineers, researchers and scientists has stimulated a novel proposed definition for the distributed propulsion technology in aviation and is presented herein.

  11. Thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienberg in commercially acquired 10% salted liquid whole egg

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liquid egg pasteurization requirements are based on time/temperature combinations in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9, Ch. III, Sec. 590.570 from data acquired prior to 1970. These guidelines are being reevaluated in light of recent risk assessments. Heat-resistant Salmonella Enteritidi...

  12. Approaches for Acquiring Energy Savings in Commercial Sector Buildings : Environmental Assessment.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1991-09-01

    Bonneville has carefully considered the potential environmental impacts associated with installation of currently known Energy- efficient Conservation Measures (ECMs) in new and existing commercial buildings, and has implemented specific requirements to minimize those impacts. These Commercial Environmental Requirements would apply to the three proposed conservation approaches outlined in this environmental assessment. The cumulative energy savings from these proposed commercial programs will have a positive impact on the region. These savings will help reduce the region's dependence on other resource types needed to meet Bonneville's load requirements. However, the savings are not large enough to negate or replace other needed resources or other conservation programs. To summarize, the following environmental requirements have been incorporated in all BPA commercial conservation programs, including this proposal. Building owners are required to comply with all Federal, state, and local building and safety codes and environmental regulations. ASHRAE Standard 62-89 has been adopted by Bonneville as the required ventilation standard to improve indoor air quality in commercial buildings. Specific guidelines for installing HPS lighting indoors is provided to program participants. Guidance regarding disposal of fluorescent light ballasts which may contain PCBs is routinely provided to building owners. Bonneville will not fund removal and disposal of asbestos material. The use of urea formaldehyde foam insulation is not permitted in either new construction or in existing building retrofits. The use of toxic transfer fluids is not permitted in any ECM. All commercial buildings over 45 years old will be reviewed in accordance with Bonneville's PMOA with the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation and the State Historic Preservation Offices.

  13. Analysis of eighty-four commercial aviation incidents - Implications for a resource management approach to crew training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, M. R.

    1980-01-01

    A resource management approach to aircrew performance is defined and utilized in structuring an analysis of 84 exemplary incidents from the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System. The distribution of enabling and associated (evolutionary) and recovery factors between and within five analytic categories suggests that resource management training be concentrated on: (1) interpersonal communications, with air traffic control information of major concern; (2) task management, mainly setting priorities and appropriately allocating tasks under varying workload levels; and (3) planning, coordination, and decisionmaking concerned with preventing and recovering from potentially unsafe situations in certain aircraft maneuvers.

  14. Aviation turbine fuels, 1980

    SciTech Connect

    Shelton, E M

    1981-03-01

    Properties of some aviation turbine fuels marketed in the United States during 1980 are presented in this report. The samples represented are typical 1980 production and were analyzed in the laboratories of 17 manufacturers of aviation turbine (jet) fuels. The data were submitted for study, calculation, and compilation under a cooperative agreement between the Department of Energy (DOE), Bartlesville Energy Technology Center (BETC), Bartlesville, Oklahoma, and the American Petroleum Institute (API). Results for the properties of 98 samples of aviation turbine fuels are included in the report for military grades JP-4 and JP-5 and commercial type Jet A.

  15. Future Nanotube Commercialization Opportunities at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center and the US Army Aviation and Missile Command

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watson, Michael; Shah, Sandeep; Kaul, Raj; Zhu, Shen; Vandiver, Terry; Zimmerman, Joe E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Nanotube technology has broad applicability to programs at both the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) and the US Army Aviation and Missile Command (AMCOM). MSFC has interest in applications of nanotubes as sensors and high strength lightweight materials for propulsion system components, avionic systems, and scientific instruments. MSFC is currently pursuing internal programs to develop nanotube temperature sensors, heat pipes, and metal matrix composites. In support of these application areas MSFC is interested in growth of long nanotubes, growth of nanotubes in the microgravity environment, and nanotubes fabricated from high temperature materials such as Boron Nitride or Silicon Carbide. AMCOM is similarly interested in nanotube applications which take advantage of the nanotube thermal conductance properties, high strength, and lightweight. Applications of interest to AMCOM include rocket motor casing structures, rocket nozzles, and lightweight structure and aeronautic skins.

  16. Well Clear: General Aviation and Commercial Pilots' Perceptioin of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in the National Airspace System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ott, Joseph

    2015-01-01

    This research explored how different pilots perceived the concept of the Well Clear Boundary (WCB) and observed if that boundary changed when dealing with manned versus unmanned aircraft systems (UAS), and the effects of other variables. Pilots' WCB perceptions were collected objectively through simulator recordings and subjectively through questionnaires. Objectively, significant differences were found in WCB perception between two pilot types (general aviation [GA], and Airline Transport Pilots [ATPs]), and significant WCB differences were evident when comparing two intruder types (manned versus unmanned aircraft). Differences were dependent on other manipulated variables (intruder approach angle, ownship speed, and background traffic levels). Subjectively, there were differences in WCB perception across pilot types; GA pilots trusted UAS aircraft higher than the more experienced ATPs. Conclusions indicate pilots' WCB mental models are more easily perceived as time-based boundaries in front of ownship, and more easily perceived as distance-based boundaries to the rear of ownship.

  17. 41 CFR 102-33.50 - Under what circumstances may we acquire Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... and operate those aircraft (see 31 U.S.C. 1343). (b) For commercial aviation services (CAS)— (1) Aircraft are the optimum means of supporting your agency's official business; and (2) Using commercial... may we acquire Government aircraft? 102-33.50 Section 102-33.50 Public Contracts and...

  18. 41 CFR 102-33.50 - Under what circumstances may we acquire Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... and operate those aircraft (see 31 U.S.C. 1343). (b) For commercial aviation services (CAS)— (1) Aircraft are the optimum means of supporting your agency's official business; and (2) Using commercial... may we acquire Government aircraft? 102-33.50 Section 102-33.50 Public Contracts and...

  19. 41 CFR 102-33.50 - Under what circumstances may we acquire Government aircraft?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... and operate those aircraft (see 31 U.S.C. 1343). (b) For commercial aviation services (CAS)— (1) Aircraft are the optimum means of supporting your agency's official business; and (2) Using commercial... may we acquire Government aircraft? 102-33.50 Section 102-33.50 Public Contracts and...

  20. General aviation in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiaosi

    In the last four decades, China has accomplished economic reform successfully and grown to be a leading country in the world. As the "world factory", the country is able to manufacture a variety of industrial products from clothes and shoes to rockets and satellites. But the aviation industry has always been a weak spot and even the military relies on imported turbofan engines and jet fighters, not to mention the airlines. Recently China has launched programs such as ARJ21 and C919, and started reform to change the undeveloped situation of its aviation industry. As the foundation of the aviation industry, the development of general aviation is essential for the rise of commercial aviation. The primary goal of this study is to examine the general aviation industry and finds the issues that constrain the development of the industry in the system. The research method used in this thesis is the narrative research of qualitative approach since the policy instead of statistical data is analyzed. It appears that the main constraint for the general aviation industry is the government interference.

  1. Well clear: General aviation and commercial pilots' perception of unmanned aerial vehicles in the national airspace system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ott, Joseph T.

    The purpose of this research was to determine how different pilot types perceived the subjective concept of the Well Clear Boundary (WCB) and to observe if that boundary changed when dealing with manned versus unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) as well as the effects of other variables. Pilots' perceptions of the WCB were collected objectively through simulator recordings and subjectively through questionnaires. Together, these metrics provided quantitative and qualitative data about pilot WCB perception. The objective results of this study showed significant differences in WCB perception between two different pilot types, as well as WCB significant differences when comparing two different intruder types (manned versus unmanned aircraft). These differences were dependent on other manipulated variables, including intruder approach angle, ownship speed, and background traffic levels. Subjectively, there were evident differences in WCB perception across pilot types; general aviation (GA) pilots appeared to trust UAS aircraft slightly more than did the more experienced Airline Transport Pilots (ATPs). Overall, it is concluded that pilots' mental models of the WCB are more easily perceived as time-based boundaries in front of ownship, while being more easily perceived as distance-based boundaries to the rear of ownship.

  2. The Future of Green Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Dr. Edwards'presentation provides an overview of aviation's economic impact in the U.S. including aviation's impact on environment and energy. The presentation discusses NASA's contributions to the advancement of commercial aircraft design highlighting the technology drivers and recent technology advancements for addressing community noise, energy efficiency and emissions. The presentation concludes with a preview of some of NASA's integrated systems solutions, such as novel aircraft concepts and advancements in propulsion that will enable the future of more environmentally compatible aviation.

  3. Disrupting Aviation: An Exploratory Study of the Opportunities and Risks of Tablet Computers in Commercial Flight Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyne, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Commercial flight operational safety has dramatically improved in the last 30 years because of enhanced crew coordination, communication, leadership and team development. Technology insertion into cockpit operations, however, has been shown to create crew distractions, resulting in flight safety risks, limited use given policy limitations and…

  4. Maritime Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravennes, Jean

    1922-01-01

    This report presents some studies of maritime aviation which cover the following principal points: employment of landplanes on maritime aerial warfare; their adaption to peculiar requirements of the Navy; and the establishment of a method of aerial pursuit and bombardment, likewise adapted to military aviation over land.

  5. PNNL Aviation Biofuels

    SciTech Connect

    Plaza, John; Holladay, John; Hallen, Rich

    2014-10-23

    Commercial airplanes really don’t have the option to move away from liquid fuels. Because of this, biofuels present an opportunity to create new clean energy jobs by developing technologies that deliver stable, long term fuel options. The Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory is working with industrial partners on processes to convert biomass to aviation fuels.

  6. Aviation Medicine: global historical perspectives and the development of Aviation Medicine alongside the growth of Singapore's aviation landscape.

    PubMed

    Gan, W H; Low, R; Singh, J

    2011-05-01

    Aviation Medicine traces its roots to high altitude physiology more than 400 years ago. Since then, great strides have been made in this medical specialty, initially catalysed by the need to reduce pilot medical attrition during the World Wars, and more recently, fuelled by the explosive growth in globalised commercial air travel. This paper traces the historical milestones in Aviation Medicine, and maps its development in Singapore since the 1960s. Advancements in military aviation platforms and technology as well as the establishment of Singapore as an international aviation hub have propelled Aviation Medicine in Singapore to the forefront of many domains. These span Aviation Physiology training, selection medical standards, performance maximisation, as well as crew and passenger protection against communicable diseases arising from air travel. The year 2011 marks the centennial milestone of the first manned flight in Singapore, paving the way for further growth of Aviation Medicine as a mature specialty in Singapore. PMID:21633764

  7. Disturbance to the population due to flight operations at landing fields. Questionnaire on community reaction to non-commercial and sporting aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rohrmann, B.

    1981-01-01

    A field study was undertaken to determine the Sociopsychological effects of air traffic noise experienced by residents of areas near small sporting aviation fields. A questionaire was prepared which includes questions on flight restriction measures, on attitudes which moderate annoyance and on comparisons with other noise sources, etc.

  8. Aviation dentistry.

    PubMed

    Lakshmi; Sakthi, D Sri

    2014-03-01

    With the rapid expansion of the airline industry in all sectors, dentists should pay special attention to crews and frequent flyers, due to change of pressure in-flight, that cause different types of oro-facial pain. Aviation dentistry deals with evaluation, principles of prevention, treatment of diseases, disorders or conditions which are related to oral cavity and maxillofacial area or adjacent and associated structures and their impact on people who travel or on aircrew members and flight restrictions. Dentists should prevent the creation of in-flight hazards when they treat aircrew members and frequent flyers. PMID:24783162

  9. Aviation Dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Lakshmi; Sakthi, D Sri

    2014-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of the airline industry in all sectors, dentists should pay special attention to crews and frequent flyers, due to change of pressure in-flight, that cause different types of oro-facial pain. Aviation dentistry deals with evaluation, principles of prevention, treatment of diseases, disorders or conditions which are related to oral cavity and maxillofacial area or adjacent and associated structures and their impact on people who travel or on aircrew members and flight restrictions. Dentists should prevent the creation of in-flight hazards when they treat aircrew members and frequent flyers. PMID:24783162

  10. The NASA Aviation Safety Program: Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shin, Jaiwon

    2000-01-01

    In 1997, the United States set a national goal to reduce the fatal accident rate for aviation by 80% within ten years based on the recommendations by the Presidential Commission on Aviation Safety and Security. Achieving this goal will require the combined efforts of government, industry, and academia in the areas of technology research and development, implementation, and operations. To respond to the national goal, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has developed a program that will focus resources over a five year period on performing research and developing technologies that will enable improvements in many areas of aviation safety. The NASA Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) is organized into six research areas: Aviation System Modeling and Monitoring, System Wide Accident Prevention, Single Aircraft Accident Prevention, Weather Accident Prevention, Accident Mitigation, and Synthetic Vision. Specific project areas include Turbulence Detection and Mitigation, Aviation Weather Information, Weather Information Communications, Propulsion Systems Health Management, Control Upset Management, Human Error Modeling, Maintenance Human Factors, Fire Prevention, and Synthetic Vision Systems for Commercial, Business, and General Aviation aircraft. Research will be performed at all four NASA aeronautics centers and will be closely coordinated with Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and other government agencies, industry, academia, as well as the aviation user community. This paper provides an overview of the NASA Aviation Safety Program goals, structure, and integration with the rest of the aviation community.

  11. Aviation Lubricants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lansdown, A. R.; Lee, S.

    Aviation lubricants must be extremely reliable, withstand high specific loadings and extreme environmental conditions within short times. Requirements are critical. Piston engines increasingly use multi-grade oils, single grades are still used extensively, with anti-wear and anti-corrosion additives for some classes of engines. The main gas turbine lubricant problem is transient heat exposure, the main base oils used are synthetic polyol esters which minimise thermal degradation. Aminic anti-oxidants are used together with anti-wear/load-carrying, corrosion inhibitor and anti-foam additives. The majority of formulation viscosities are 5 cSt at 100°C. Other considerations are seal compatibility and coking tendency.

  12. Feasibility Study for Aviation Programs at Hudson Valley Community College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buckley, Edward P.

    This is a report on a survey to determine the feasibility of establishing aviation training programs at a New York community college. It examines existing sources, and present and future needs for commercial pilots, aviation mechanics, and airline stewardesses. Among the conclusions are the discovery that the aviation industry is on the threshold…

  13. General Aviation Propulsion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Programs exploring and demonstrating new technologies in general aviation propulsion are considered. These programs are the quiet, clean, general aviation turbofan (QCGAT) program; the general aviation turbine engine (GATE) study program; the general aviation propeller technology program; and the advanced rotary, diesel, and reciprocating engine programs.

  14. Collegiate Aviation Review, 2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This issue contains seven papers. "University Aviation Education: An Integrated Model" (Merrill R. Karp) addresses potential educational enhancements through the implementation of an integrated aviation learning model, the Aviation Education Reinforcement Option. "The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA): A Tombstone Agency? Putting the Nickname…

  15. General aviation and community development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sincoff, M. Z. (Editor); Dajani, J. S. (Editor)

    1975-01-01

    The summer program is summarized. The reports presented concern (1) general aviation components, (2) general aviation environment, (3) community perspective, and (4) transportation and general aviation in Virginia.

  16. 76 FR 82031 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... teleconference of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC) Risk Management Working...

  17. 78 FR 14401 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Working Group of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). DATES:...

  18. 76 FR 15039 - Commercial Space Transportation Grants Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Grants Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request for grant proposals for the Commercial Space Transportation... development of a Commercial Space Transportation infrastructure system, which supports the National...

  19. 76 FR 78329 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-16

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The teleconference will take place on...

  20. 78 FR 53497 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Closed Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Closed Session AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory... closed session of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The special...

  1. 75 FR 23841 - Commercial Space Transportation Grant Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Grant Program AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of request for grant proposals for the Commercial Space Transportation Grant Program. SUMMARY: The FAA's Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST) requests...

  2. 77 FR 35102 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Working Group (OWG) of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC)....

  3. Comorbidities as a driver of the excess costs of community-acquired pneumonia in U.S. commercially-insured working age adults

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Adults with certain comorbid conditions have a higher risk of pneumonia than the overall population. If treatment of pneumonia is more costly in certain predictable situations, this would affect the value proposition of populations for pneumonia prevention. We estimate the economic impact of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) for adults with asthma, diabetes, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and congestive heart failure (CHF) in a large U.S. commercially-insured working age population. Methods Data sources consisted of 2003 through 2007 Thomson Reuters MarketScan Commercial Claims and Encounters and Thomson Reuters Health Productivity and Management (HPM) databases. Pneumonia episodes and selected comorbidities were identified by ICD-9-CM diagnosis codes. By propensity score matching, controls were identified for pneumonia patients. Excess direct medical costs and excess productivity cost were estimated by generalized linear models (GLM). Results We identified 402,831 patients with CAP between 2003 through 2007, with 25,560, 32,677, 16,343, and 5,062 episodes occurring in patients with asthma, diabetes, COPD and CHF, respectively. Mean excess costs (and standard error, SE) of CAP were $14,429 (SE=44) overall. Mean excess costs by comorbidity subgroup were lowest for asthma ($13,307 (SE=123)), followed by diabetes ($21,395 (SE=171)) and COPD ($23,493 (SE=197)); mean excess costs were highest for patients with CHF ($34,436 (SE=549)). On average, indirect costs comprised 21% of total excess costs, ranging from 8% for CHF patients to 27% for COPD patients. Conclusions Compared to patients without asthma, diabetes, COPD, or CHF, the excess cost of CAP is nearly twice as high for patients with diabetes and COPD and nearly three times as high for patients with CHF. Indirect costs made up a significant but varying portion of excess CAP costs. Returns on prevention of pneumonia would therefore be higher in adults with these comorbidities. PMID

  4. An Assessment of the Risks Presented by the Use of Carbon Fiber Composites in Commercial Aviation. Volume 1: Final Report. Volume 2: Supporting Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalelkar, A. S.; Fiksel, J.; Raj, P. P. K.; Rosenfield, D. B.

    1979-01-01

    Carbon fiber (CF) composites are being used to an increasing extent in commercial aircraft, due to their excellent structural properties. Since carbon fibers are highly conductive, a potential risk was identified in the event that an aircraft with CF composite structures is involved in an accidental fire. If carbon fibers are released from the fire, they could disperse in the atmosphere and eventually cause damaging short circuits in electronic equipment at remote locations. This phenomenon could conceivably result in economic losses. The purpose of this study was to assess the risks presented to the nation as a whole by the use of CF composites in commercial aircraft, in terms of the potential economic losses from air carrier accidents.

  5. A Workshop for the Aviation Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murtagh, William; Combs, Larry; Kunches, Joseph

    2004-06-01

    On 23-24 February 2004 at NOAA's Space Environment Center in Boulder, Colo., the SEC, Virgin Atlantic Airways, and SolarMetrics hosted an aviation workshop on integrating space weather information into the operating procedures for commercial airlines. The meeting, with representatives from the industry and academic communities, led to the formation of the International Committee for Space Weather Impacts on Aviation Safety working group.

  6. Distributed Aviation Concepts and Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2008-01-01

    Aviation has experienced one hundred years of evolution, resulting in the current air transportation system dominated by commercial airliners in a hub and spoke infrastructure. While the first fifty years involved disruptive technologies that required frequent vehicle adaptation, the second fifty years produced a stable evolutionary optimization of decreasing costs with increasing safety. This optimization has resulted in traits favoring a centralized service model with high vehicle productivity and cost efficiency. However, it may also have resulted in a system that is not sufficiently robust to withstand significant system disturbances. Aviation is currently facing rapid change from issues such as environmental damage, terrorism threat, congestion and capacity limitations, and cost of energy. Currently, these issues are leading to a loss of service for weaker spoke markets. These catalysts and a lack of robustness could result in a loss of service for much larger portions of the aviation market. The impact of other competing transportation services may be equally important as casual factors of change. Highway system forecasts indicate a dramatic slow down as congestion reaches a point of non-linearly increasing delay. In the next twenty-five years, there is the potential for aviation to transform itself into a more robust, scalable, adaptive, secure, safe, affordable, convenient, efficient and environmentally friendly system. To achieve these characteristics, the new system will likely be based on a distributed model that enables more direct services. Short range travel is already demonstrating itself to be inefficient with a centralized model, providing opportunities for emergent distributed services through air-taxi models. Technologies from the on-demand revolution in computers and communications are now available as major drivers for aviation on-demand adaptation. Other technologies such as electric propulsion are currently transforming the automobile

  7. Environmentally safe aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liberio, Patricia D.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the Air Force directive to remove Ozone Depleting Chemicals (ODC's) from military specifications and Defense Logistics Agency's Hazardous Waste Minimization Program, we are faced with how to ensure a quality aviation fuel without using such chemicals. Many of these chemicals are found throughout the fuel and fuel related military specifications and are part of test methods that help qualify the properties and quality of the fuels before they are procured. Many years ago there was a directive for military specifications to use commercially standard test methods in order to provide standard testing in private industry and government. As a result the test methods used in military specifications are governed by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM). The Air Force has been very proactive in the removal or replacement of the ODC's and hazardous materials in these test methods. For example, ASTM D3703 (Standard Test Method for Peroxide Number of Aviation Turbine Fuels), requires the use of Freon 113, a known ODC. A new rapid, portable hydroperoxide test for jet fuels similar to ASTM D3703 that does not require the use of ODC's has been developed. This test has proved, in limited testing, to be a viable substitute method for ASTM D3703. The Air Force is currently conducting a round robin to allow the method to be accepted by ASTM and therefore replace the current method. This paper will describe the Air Force's initiatives to remove ODC's and hazardous materials from the fuel and fuel related military specifications that the Air Force Wright Laboratory.

  8. Safer Aviation Materials Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palaszewski, Bryan A.

    2001-01-01

    A series of thermally stable polymer samples were tested. These materials are called low heat release materials and are designed for aircraft interior decorative materials. The materials are designed to give off a minimum amount of noxious gases when heated, which increases the possibility that people can escape from a burning aircraft. New cabin materials have suitably low heat release so that fire does not spread, toxic chemicals are not given off, and the fire-emergency escape time for crew and passengers is lengthened. These low heat-release materials have a variety of advantages and applications: interiors for ground-based facilities, interiors of space vehicles, and many commercial fire-protection environments. A microscale combustion calorimeter at the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Technical Center tested NASA Langley Research Center materials samples. The calorimeter is shown. A sharp, quantitative, and reproducible heat-release-rate peak is obtained in the microscale heat-release-rate test. The newly tested NASA materials significantly reduced the heat release capacity and total heat release. The thermal stability and flammability behavior of the samples was very good. The new materials demonstrated a factor of 4 reduction in total heat release over ULTEM (a currently used material). This information is provided in the following barchart. In other tests, the materials showed greater than a factor 9 reduction in heat-release capacity over ULTEM. The newly tested materials were developed for low dielectric constant, low color, and good solubility. A scale up of the material samples is needed to determine the repeatability of the performance in larger samples. Larger panels composed of the best candidate materials will be tested in a larger scale FAA Technical Center fire facility. The NASA Glenn Research Center, Langley (Jeff Hinkley), and the FAA Technical Center (Richard Lyon) cooperatively tested these materials for the Accident Mitigation

  9. Considering Object Oriented Technology in Aviation Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayhurst, Kelly J.; Holloway, C. Michael

    2003-01-01

    Few developers of commercial aviation software products are using object-oriented technology (OOT), despite its popularity in some other industries. Safety concerns about using OOT in critical applications, uncertainty about how to comply with regulatory requirements, and basic conservatism within the aviation community have been factors behind this caution. The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) have sponsored research to investigate and workshops to discuss safety and certification concerns about OOT and to develop recommendations for safe use. Two Object Oriented Technology in Aviation (OOTiA) workshops have been held and numerous issues and comments about the effect of OOT features and languages have been collected. This paper gives a high level overview of the OOTiA project, and discusses selected specific results from the March 2003 workshop. In particular, results in the form of questions to consider before making the decision to use OOT are presented.

  10. Human factors in aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiener, Earl L. (Editor); Nagel, David C. (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    The fundamental principles of human-factors (HF) analysis for aviation applications are examined in a collection of reviews by leading experts, with an emphasis on recent developments. The aim is to provide information and guidance to the aviation community outside the HF field itself. Topics addressed include the systems approach to HF, system safety considerations, the human senses in flight, information processing, aviation workloads, group interaction and crew performance, flight training and simulation, human error in aviation operations, and aircrew fatigue and circadian rhythms. Also discussed are pilot control; aviation displays; cockpit automation; HF aspects of software interfaces; the design and integration of cockpit-crew systems; and HF issues for airline pilots, general aviation, helicopters, and ATC.

  11. Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment (AAFEX)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Hudgins, C. H.; Plant, J. V.; Thornhill, K. L.; Winstead, E. L.; Ziemba, L. D.; Howard, R.; Corporan, E.; Miake-Lye, R. C.; Herndon, S. C.; Timko, M.; Woods, E.; Dodds, W.; Lee, B.; Santoni, G.; Whitefield, P.; Hagen, D.; Lobo, P.; Knighton, W. B.; Bulzan, D.; Tacina, K.; Wey, C.; VanderWal, R.; Bhargava, A.

    2011-01-01

    The rising cost of oil coupled with the need to reduce pollution and dependence on foreign suppliers has spurred great interest and activity in developing alternative aviation fuels. Although a variety of fuels have been produced that have similar properties to standard Jet A, detailed studies are required to ascertain the exact impacts of the fuels on engine operation and exhaust composition. In response to this need, NASA acquired and burned a variety of alternative aviation fuel mixtures in the Dryden Flight Research Center DC-8 to assess changes in the aircraft s CFM-56 engine performance and emission parameters relative to operation with standard JP-8. This Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiment, or AAFEX, was conducted at NASA Dryden s Aircraft Operations Facility (DAOF) in Palmdale, California, from January 19 to February 3, 2009 and specifically sought to establish fuel matrix effects on: 1) engine and exhaust gas temperatures and compressor speeds; 2) engine and auxiliary power unit (APU) gas phase and particle emissions and characteristics; and 3) volatile aerosol formation in aging exhaust plumes

  12. Aviation Design Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    DARcorporation developed a General Aviation CAD package through a Small Business Innovation Research contract from Langley Research Center. This affordable, user-friendly preliminary design system for General Aviation aircraft runs on the popular 486 IBM-compatible personal computers. Individuals taking the home-built approach, small manufacturers of General Aviation airplanes, as well as students and others interested in the analysis and design of aircraft are possible users of the package. The software can cut design and development time in half.

  13. 77 FR 10797 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-23

    ... FR 34390) to provide advice and recommendations on a maintenance quality assurance system, a... December 27, 2011 (76 FR 81009), and included a request for volunteers for the Commercial Air Tour... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal...

  14. Aviation Centers Take Off as Airlines Face Pilot Shortfall.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mangan, Katherine S.

    2000-01-01

    Addresses aviation training requirements for pilots planning to fly for commercial airlines within or outside the United States. Describes two aviation training programs at Western Michigan University, a fast-track 13-month program and the traditional four-year program required for U.S. pilots. Notes that decreasing numbers of pilots trained in…

  15. Human error in aviation operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagel, David C.

    1988-01-01

    The role of human error in commercial and general aviation accidents and the techniques used to evaluate it are reviewed from a human-factors perspective. Topics addressed include the general decline in accidents per million departures since the 1960s, the increase in the proportion of accidents due to human error, methods for studying error, theoretical error models, and the design of error-resistant systems. Consideration is given to information acquisition and processing errors, visually guided flight, disorientation, instrument-assisted guidance, communication errors, decision errors, debiasing, and action errors.

  16. Aviation. Teacher Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    2001

    This teacher's guide contains information, lesson plans, and diverse student learning activities focusing on aviation. The guide is divided into seven sections: (1) "Drawing Activities" (Airmail Art; Eyewitness; Kite Power); (2) "Geography" (U.S. Airports); (3) "Information" (Aviation Alphabet; Glossary; Four Forces of Flight; What about Wind?;…

  17. Collegiate Aviation Review 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.; Luedtke, Jacqueline R., Ed.; Johnson, Jeffrey A., Ed.

    1998-01-01

    This document contains four peer-reviewed papers about university-level aviation education that were presented at the 1998 Fall Education Conference of the University Aviation Association. "Setting the Foundation for Effective Learning: Utilizing the Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor Domains to Establish Rigorous Performance Learning…

  18. NASA and general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethell, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    General aviation remains the single most misunderstood sector of aeronautics in the United States. A detailed look at how general aviation functions and how NASA helps keep it on the cutting edge of technology in airfoils, airframes, commuter travel, environmental concerns, engines, propellers, air traffic control, agricultural development, electronics, and safety is given.

  19. 78 FR 53496 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). DATES: The teleconference will take place on...

  20. [Progress in synthesis technologies and application of aviation biofuels].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoying; Liu, Xiang; Zhao, Xuebing; Yang, Ming; Liu, Dehua

    2013-03-01

    Development of aviation biofuels has attracted great attention worldwide because that the shortage of fossil resources has become more and more serious. In the present paper, the development background, synthesis technologies, current application status and existing problems of aviation biofuels were reviewed. Several preparation routes of aviation biofuels were described, including Fischer-Tropsch process, catalytic hydrogenation and catalytic cracking of bio-oil. The status of flight tests and commercial operation were also introduced. Finally the problems for development and application of aviation biofuels were stated, and some accommodation were proposed. PMID:23789270

  1. Agricultural aviation research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chevalier, H. L. (Compiler); Bouse, L. F. (Compiler)

    1977-01-01

    A compilation of papers, comments, and results is provided during a workshop session. The purpose of the workshop was to review and evaluate the current state of the art of agricultural aviation, to identify and rank potentially productive short and long range research and development areas, and to strengthen communications between research scientists and engineers involved in agricultural research. Approximately 71 individuals actively engaged in agricultural aviation research were invited to participate in the workshop. These were persons familiar with problems related to agricultural aviation and processing expertise which are of value for identifying and proposing beneficial research.

  2. 77 FR 44707 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Working Group of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The...

  3. 78 FR 70093 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Closed Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Closed Session AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory... closed session of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The special...

  4. 76 FR 12211 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-04

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The teleconference will take place on...

  5. 77 FR 65443 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Working Group of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The...

  6. 77 FR 48585 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Working Group (OWG) of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC)....

  7. Thermal inactivation kinetics of a three-strain composite of Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienberg in commercially-acquired liquid whole egg and 10% salted liquid egg yolk

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Introduction: Liquid egg pasteurization requirements are based on time/temperature combinations in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9, Ch. III, Sec. 590.570 from data acquired prior to 1970. These guidelines are being reevaluated in light of recent risk assessments, which take into account ch...

  8. Aviation Data Integration System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Deepak; Wang, Yao; Windrem, May; Patel, Hemil; Keller, Richard

    2003-01-01

    During the analysis of flight data and safety reports done in ASAP and FOQA programs, airline personnel are not able to access relevant aviation data for a variety of reasons. We have developed the Aviation Data Integration System (ADIS), a software system that provides integrated heterogeneous data to support safety analysis. Types of data available in ADIS include weather, D-ATIS, RVR, radar data, and Jeppesen charts, and flight data. We developed three versions of ADIS to support airlines. The first version has been developed to support ASAP teams. A second version supports FOQA teams, and it integrates aviation data with flight data while keeping identification information inaccessible. Finally, we developed a prototype that demonstrates the integration of aviation data into flight data analysis programs. The initial feedback from airlines is that ADIS is very useful in FOQA and ASAP analysis.

  9. Aviation in the Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayten, Gerald G.

    1974-01-01

    Makes predications concerning future aerospace technology in the areas of supersonic transportation, aircraft design, airfreight, military aviation, hypersonic aircraft and in the much distant future sub-orbital, rocket propelled transports. (BR)

  10. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1995.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ballard M., Ed.

    This document contains three papers on aviation education. "Aviation/Aerospace Teacher Education Workshops: Program Development and Implementation" (Mavis F. Green) discusses practical issues in the development of an aviation/aerospace teacher education workshop designed to help elementary school teachers promote aviation to their students.…

  11. Improved weather information and aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hallahan, K.; Zdanys, V.

    1973-01-01

    The major impacts of weather forecasts on aviation are reviewed. Topics discussed include: (1) present and projected structure of American aviation, (2) weather problems considered particularly important for aviation, (3) projected needs for improved weather information by aviators, (4) safety and economics, and (5) future studies utilizing satellite meteorology.

  12. Current research on aviation weather (bibliography), 1979

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turkel, B. S.; Frost, W.

    1980-01-01

    The titles, managers, supporting organizations, performing organizations, investigators and objectives of 127 current research projects in advanced meteorological instruments, forecasting, icing, lightning, visibility, low level wind shear, storm hazards/severe storms, and turbulence are tabulated and cross-referenced. A list of pertinent reference material produced through the above tabulated research activities is given. The acquired information is assembled in bibliography form to provide a readily available source of information in the area of aviation meteorology.

  13. Unmanned Aerial Vehicle - A Tool for Acquiring Spatial Data for Research and Commercial Purposes. New Course in the Geography and Cartography Curriculum in Higher Education

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeziorska, J.

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes the syllabus for the innovative course "Unmanned aerial observations of Terrain" introduced to the curriculum by the Department of Geoinformatics and Cartography of the University of Wroclaw (Poland). It indicates the objectives of the new subject, its didactic purpose, methods used in the teaching process, specifications of teaching materials, and the knowledge and skills that students are expected to acquire. Finally, it presents the content of the course and description of lesson units. The subject will be obligatory for graduate students majoring in Geography, who are participants in the Geoinformatics and Cartography Master's program. Thirty-eight hours in a summer semester has been earmarked for the course. That includes 30 hours of instructor-guided laboratory and fieldtrip work, and 8 hours of individual work. The course aims to prepare future geographers to conduct a multi-step process that includes defining the purpose of using UAV in light of the chosen research problem, preparation of the mission, flight execution; geoprocessing of acquired aerial imagery; generation of cartomertic final products, and analysis of outcomes in order to answer the initially asked research question. This comprehensive approach will allow students, future experts in the field of geoinformatics and cartography, to gain the skills needed to acquire spatial data using an UAV, process them, and apply the results of their analysis in practice.

  14. Aviation Weather Program (AWP)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foote, Brant

    1993-01-01

    The Aviation Weather Program (AWP) combines additional weather observations, improved forecast technology, and more efficient distribution of information to pilots, controllers, and automated systems to improve the weather information provided to the air traffic control system, pilots, and other users of aviation weather information. Specific objectives include the needs to: improve airport and en-route capacity by accurate, high resolution, timely forecasts of changing weather conditions affecting airport and en-route operations; improve analyses and forecasts of upper-level winds for efficient flight planning and traffic management; and increase flight safety through improved aviation weather hazard forecasting (e.g. icing, turbulence, severe storms, microbursts, or strong winds). The AWP would benefit from participation in a cooperative multiscale experiment by obtaining data for: evaluation of aviation weather forecast products, analysis of four dimensional data assimilation schemes, and experimental techniques for retrieving aerosol and other visibility parameters. A multiscale experiment would also be helpful to AWP by making it possible to evaluate the added benefit of enhanced data sets collected during the experiment on those forecast and analysis products. The goals of the Coperative Multiscale Experiment (CME) are an essential step in attaining the long-term AWP objective of providing two-to-four hour location-specific forecasts of significant weather. Although the possibility of a funding role for the AWP in the CME is presently unclear, modest involvement of Federal Aviation Administration (FAA)/AWP personnel could be expected.

  15. Aviation noise effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, J. S.; Beattie, K. R.

    1985-03-01

    This report summarizes the effects of aviation noise in many areas, ranging from human annoyance to impact on real estate values. It also synthesizes the findings of literature on several topics. Included in the literature were many original studies carried out under FAA and other Federal funding over the past two decades. Efforts have been made to present the critical findings and conclusions of pertinent research, providing, when possible, a bottom line conclusion, criterion or perspective. Issues related to aviation noise are highlighted, and current policy is presented. Specific topic addressed include: annoyance; Hearing and hearing loss; noise metrics; human response to noise; speech interference; sleep interference; non-auditory health effects of noise; effects of noise on wild and domesticated animals; low frequency acoustical energy; impulsive noise; time of day weightings; noise contours; land use compatibility; and real estate values. This document is designed for a variety of users, from the individual completely unfamiliar with aviation noise to experts in the field.

  16. Federal Aviation Administration Curriculum Guide for Aviation Magnet Schools Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickler, Mervin K., Jr.

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and its predecessor organizations, Civil Aeronautics Agency (CAA) and the Civil Aeronautics Administration (CAA) have pioneered the use of aviation education in working with schools and colleges of the nation to attain their objectives. This publication includes: a brief history of the role of aviation in…

  17. Collegiate Aviation Review, 2001.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.

    2001-01-01

    This issue contains these 12 papers: "Exploring the Viability of an Organizational Readiness Assessment for Participatory Management Programs in a Passenger Airline Carrier" (Al Bellamy); "Teaching the Pilots of the New Millennium: Adult Cooperative Education in Aviation Education" (Joseph F. Clark, III); "The Transfer of Flight Training…

  18. Collegiate Aviation Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehrer, Henry R., Ed.

    This document contains five research papers devoted to aviation education and training. The first paper, "An Examination of the U.S. Airline Policy Regarding Child Restraint Systems" (Larry Carstenson, Donald Sluti, and Jacqueline Luedtke), examines communication of airline policy from airline management to airline personnel to the traveling…

  19. General Aviation Manpower Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Richard

    1982-01-01

    Highlights a study examining manpower supply/demand in general aviation. Eight job categories were examined: pilots, flight instructors, engineers, machinists/toolers, and A&P, airframe, and avionics technicians. Findings among others indicate that shortages in indicated job categories exist because personnel are recruited by other industries. (JN)

  20. Collegiate Aviation Review, 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Thomas Q., Ed.; Luedtke, Jacqueline R., Ed.; Johnson, Jeffrey A., Ed.

    1999-01-01

    This document, published annually, contains six papers devoted to aviation education. "Enhancing Global Competitiveness: Benchmarking Airline Operational Performance in Highly Regulated Environments" (Brent D. Bowen, Dean Headley, Karisa D. Kane, Rebecca K. Lutte) outlines a model to help policymakers and others evaluate the effects of airline…

  1. Aviation Forecasting in ICAO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcmahon, J.

    1972-01-01

    Opinions or plans of qualified experts in the field are used for forecasting future requirements for air navigational facilities and services of international civil aviation. ICAO periodically collects information from Stators and operates on anticipated future operations, consolidates this information, and forecasts the future level of activity at different airports.

  2. General aviation's meteorological requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newton, D.

    1985-01-01

    Communication of weather theory and information about weather service products to pilots in an accurate and comprehensible manner is essential to flying safety in general. Probably no one needs weather knowledge more than the people who fly through it. The specific subject of this overview is General Aviation's Meteorological Requirements.

  3. Aerospace - Aviation Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Arthur I.; Jones, K. K.

    This document outlines the aerospace-aviation education program of the State of Texas. In this publication the course structures have been revised to fit the quarter system format of secondary schools in Texas. The four courses outlined here have been designed for students who will be consumers of aerospace products, spinoffs, and services or who…

  4. Politics of aviation fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vivent, Jacques

    1922-01-01

    In short, the "politics of aviation" lies in a few propositions: the need of having as large a number of fields as possible and of sufficient area; the utilization of the larger part of the existing military fields; the selection of uncultivated or unproductive fields, whenever technical conditions permit; ability to disregard (save in exceptional cases) objections of an agricultural nature.

  5. Human factors in general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The relation of the pilot to the aircraft in general aviation is considered. The human component is analyzed, along with general aviation facilities. The man-machine interface, and the man-environment interface are discussed.

  6. 75 FR 34520 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-17

    ... The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting... Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC): Aviation Safety Subcommittee; notice of meeting. SUMMARY: The... FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be held July 6, 2010, in Chicago, Illinois. This...

  7. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  8. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ballard M., Ed.

    This document contains four papers on aviation education. The first paper, "Why Aren't We Teaching Aeronautical Decision Making?" (Richard J. Adams), reviews 15 years of aviation research into the causes of human performance errors in aviation and provides guidelines for designing the next generation of aeronautical decision-making materials.…

  9. General Aviation Pilot Education Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Warren L.

    General Aviation Pilot Education (GAPE) was a safety program designed to improve the aeronautical education of the general aviation pilot in anticipation that the national aircraft accident rate might be improved. GAPE PROGRAM attempted to reach the average general aviation pilot with specific and factual information regarding the pitfalls of his…

  10. Aviation Education Services and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC. Office of General Aviation.

    A list of sources of information and material relating to aviation education is presented in this pamphlet issued in May, 1972. Following a brief description of the mission of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), reference materials mostly appropriate for school use are incorporated under the headings: Aviation Education Workshops, Careers…

  11. Aviation--An Individualized Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seeds, Fred F.

    1974-01-01

    Describes an individualized aviation course for high school seniors. The course, broken down into Learner Education Guides with students progressing at their own learning rates, consists of the history of aviation, career opportunities, the space program, basic aeronautics, navigation, meteorology, Federal Aviation Administration regulations and…

  12. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ballard M., Ed.

    This document contains three papers on aviation education. "Academic Integrity in Higher Education: Is Collegiate Aviation Education at Risk?" (Jeffrey A. Johnson) discusses academic integrity and legal issues in higher education and argues that academic integrity needs to be an integral part of collegiate aviation education if students expect to…

  13. SU-E-J-204: Can a Commercial System for MR-IGRT Be Used to Treat Patients Without Acquiring a CT Scan?

    SciTech Connect

    Wooten, H; Yaddanapudi, S; Santanam, L; Li, H; Mutic, S

    2015-06-15

    Patients treated using a magnetic-resonance image guided radiation therapy (MR-IGRT) system received both CT and MR simulations. During planning, the CT is used to determine relative electron density (RED) using a calibration table. This study aims to investigate the feasibility of MR-only treatments by comparing CT-computed dose distributions to those computed with combinations of water (1.0), lung (0.26), tissue (1.02), and bone (1.12) bulk RED overrides, and to identify the effects of the magnetic field on the RED-overridden doses. Methods: Four patients who received treatment using a commercial MR-IGRT system were analyzed (1 lung, 2 abdomen, and 1 pelvis). The clinical plans were computed using the first fraction MRI as primary, and the simulation CT as secondary for REDs. Plans were reoptimized using default bulk RED overrides (water/lung and tissue/lung for the lung patient, water/bone, tissue/bone, water only, and tissue only for the abdomen and pelvis patients). Additionally, each plan was re-optimized to include the static magnetic field. All plans were normalized to the same PTV coverage as the clinical plan. Dose-difference volumes and DVHs were computed for bulk density override plans, and 3D gamma analyses between each plan and its accompanying magnetic field plan were performed using 3%/3 mm dose difference and distance-to-agreement criteria using the PTV and Skin as masking structures. Results: The average differences in PTV and organs-at-risk mean dose for all RED combinations tested were −0.19 Gy (−0.62 – 0.06 Gy) and −0.34 Gy (−1.76 – 0.33 Gy), respectively. The average PTV and Skin gamma pass rates for all RED combinations tested were 99.88% (99.5% – 100%) and 98. 35% (96.3% – 99.6%). No systematic differences in DVHs or isodoses were observed. Conclusions: It is likely that that a commercial MR-IGRT system may produce high quality treatment plans without the need for CT scans. Authors of this abstract are members of the

  14. 76 FR 621 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-05

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The teleconference will take place on...

  15. 76 FR 4988 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The teleconference will take place on...

  16. 76 FR 41323 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-13

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). The teleconference will take place on...

  17. 76 FR 42160 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Space Transportation Operations Working Group of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee Teleconference. SUMMARY:...

  18. 78 FR 1917 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-09

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space... Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). DATES: The teleconference will take place on...

  19. Guidelines for Federal Aviation Administration Regional Aviation Education Coordinators and Aviation Education Facilitators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strickler, Mervin K., Jr.

    This publication is designed to provide both policy guidance and examples of how to work with various constituencies in planning and carrying out appropriate Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) aviation education activities. Information is provided on the history of aerospace/aviation education, FAA educational materials, aerospace/aviation…

  20. Aviation Communications Emulation Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehe, Charles; Mulkerin, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Aviation related applications that rely upon datalink for information exchange are increasingly being developed and deployed. The increase in the quantity of applications and associated data communications will expose problems and issues to resolve. NASA Glenn Research Center has prepared to study the communications issues that will arise as datalink applications are employed within the National Airspace System (NAS) by developing a aviation communications emulation testbed. The Testbed is evolving and currently provides the hardware and software needed to study the communications impact of Air Traffic Control (ATC) and surveillance applications in a densely populated environment. The communications load associated with up to 160 aircraft transmitting and receiving ATC and surveillance data can be generated in real time in a sequence similar to what would occur in the NAS.

  1. Aviation Particle Emissions Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wey, Chowen C. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The Aviation Particle Emissions Workshop was held on November 18 19, 2003, in Cleveland, Ohio. It was sponsored by the National Aeronautic and Space Administration (NASA) under the Vehicle Systems Program (VSP) and the Ultra- Efficient Engine Technology (UEET) Project. The objectives were to build a sound foundation for a comprehensive particulate research roadmap and to provide a forum for discussion among U.S. stakeholders and researchers. Presentations included perspectives from the Federal Aviation Administration, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, NASA, and United States airports. There were five interactive technical sessions: sampling methodology, measurement methodology, particle modeling, database, inventory and test venue, and air quality. Each group presented technical issues which generated excellent discussion. The five session leads collaborated with their members to present summaries and conclusions to each content area.

  2. Corporate Social Responsibility in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Phillips, Edwin D.

    2006-01-01

    The dialog within aviation management education regarding ethics is incomplete without a discussion of corporate social responsibility (CSR). CSR research requires discussion involving: (a) the current emphasis on CSR in business in general and aviation specifically; (b) business and educational theory that provide a basis for aviation companies to engage in socially responsible actions; (c) techniques used by aviation and aerospace companies to fulfill this responsibility; and (d) a glimpse of teaching approaches used in university aviation management classes. The summary of this research suggests educators explain CSR theory and practice to students in industry and collegiate aviation management programs. Doing so extends the discussion of ethical behavior and matches the current high level of interest and activity within the aviation industry toward CSR.

  3. General Aviation Pilot Advisory and Training System (GAPATS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Painter, John; Ward, Donald T.; Kelly, Wallace; Crump, John W.; Phillips, Ron; Trang, Jeff; Lee, Kris; Branham, Paul A.; Krishnamurthy, Karthik; Alcorn, William P., Jr.; Robbins, Andrew P.; Yu, Ren-Jye

    1997-01-01

    The goal of this project is to achieve a validated General Aviation Pilot Advisor and Training System (GAPATS) engineering prototype, implemented according to commercial software standards and Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) issues of certification. Phase 2 builds on progress during Phase 1, which exceeded proposed objectives. The basic technology has been transferred from previous NASA research (1989 to 1994). We anticipate a commercially licensable prototype, validated by pilots in a flight simulator and in a light twin-engine research aircraft for FAA certification, by January 1998.

  4. Entrepreneurship within General Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ullmann, Brian M.

    1995-01-01

    Many modern economic theories place great importance upon entrepreneurship in the economy. Some see the entrepreneur as the individual who bears risk of operating a business in the face of uncertainty about future conditions and who is rewarded through profits and losses. The 20th century economist Joseph Schumpter saw the entrepreneur as the medium by which advancing technology is incorporated into society as businesses seek competitive advantages through more efficient product development processes. Due to the importance that capitalistic systems place upon entrepreneurship, it has become a well studied subject with many texts to discuss how entrepreneurs can succeed in modern society. Many entrepreneuring and business management courses go so far as to discuss the characteristic phases and prominent challenges that fledgling companies face in their efforts to bring a new product into a competitive market. However, even with all of these aids, start-up companies fail at an enormous rate. Indeed, the odds of shepherding a new company through the travails of becoming a well established company (as measured by the ability to reach Initial Public Offering (IPO)) have been estimated to be six in 1,000,000. Each niche industry has characteristic challenges which act as barriers to entry for new products into that industry. Thus, the applicability of broad generalizations is subject to limitations within niche markets. This paper will discuss entrepreneurship as it relates to general aviation. The goals of this paper will be to: introduce general aviation; discuss the details of marrying entrepreneurship with general aviation; and present a sample business plan which would characterize a possible entrepreneurial venture.

  5. General aviation technology assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jacobson, I. D.

    1975-01-01

    The existing problem areas in general aviation were investigated in order to identify those which can benefit from technological payoffs. The emphasis was placed on acceptance by the pilot/passenger in areas such as performance, safety, handling qualities, ride quality, etc. Inputs were obtained from three sectors: industry; government; and user, although slanted toward the user group. The results should only be considered preliminary due to the small sample sizes of the data. Trends are evident however and a general methodology for allocating effort in future programs is proposed.

  6. Aviation Safety Simulation Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houser, Scott; Yackovetsky, Robert (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Simulation Model is a software tool that enables users to configure a terrain, a flight path, and an aircraft and simulate the aircraft's flight along the path. The simulation monitors the aircraft's proximity to terrain obstructions, and reports when the aircraft violates accepted minimum distances from an obstruction. This model design facilitates future enhancements to address other flight safety issues, particularly air and runway traffic scenarios. This report shows the user how to build a simulation scenario and run it. It also explains the model's output.

  7. Alternative aviation turbine fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grobman, J.

    1977-01-01

    The efficient utilization of fossil fuels by future jet aircraft may necessitate the broadening of current aviation turbine fuel specifications. The most significant changes in specifications would be an increased aromatics content and a higher final boiling point in order to minimize refinery energy consumption and costs. These changes would increase the freezing point and might lower the thermal stability of the fuel and could cause increased pollutant emissions, increased smoke and carbon formation, increased combustor liner temperatures, and poorer ignition characteristics. This paper discusses the effects that broadened specification fuels may have on present-day jet aircraft and engine components and the technology required to use fuels with broadened specifications.

  8. Technology outlook for aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, L.

    1976-01-01

    Growth projections for aviation technology are put forth for a quarter-century ahead. Three main trends envisaged are towards: great efficiency and economy and longer range and endurance for subsonic aircraft; new generations of short-range fixed-wing craft and rotorcraft with versatile applicability; supersonic and hypersonic speeds. Improvements in lift/drag ratio, specific fuel consumption, structural weight factor, aerodynamic improvements (laminar flow control, increased wing aspect ratio, drag reduction for specified lift, propulsion efficiency, higher bypass ratios, composite structures) are discussed along with V/STOL, controllable twist rotors, circulation control rotors, variable-cycle engines, and higher structural efficiencies.

  9. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    During the second quarter of the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) operation, 1,497 reports were received from pilots, controllers, and others in the national aviation system. Details of the administration and results of the program to date are presented. Examples of alert bulletins disseminated to the aviation community are presented together with responses to those bulletins. Several reports received by ASRS are also presented to illustrate the diversity of topics covered by reports to the system.

  10. Suggestions for Popularizing Civil Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1926-01-01

    The public generally is taking very little interest in the progress of Civil Aviation, and the time has come to educate the public in aeronautics and to make them realize the far-reaching importance of air transport. Briefly, the whole problem resolves itself into discovering and applying means for bringing some of the many aspects and effects of civil aviation into the everyday lives of the public. The report suggests three principal groups of methods: (1) Bring aviation into daily contact with the public. (2) Bring the public into daily contact with aviation. (3) General publicity.

  11. General Aviation Task Force report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    General aviation is officially defined as all aviation except scheduled airlines and the military. It is the only air transportation to many communities throughout the world. In order to reverse the recent decline in general aviation aircraft produced in the United States, the Task Force recommends that NASA provide the expertise and facilities such as wind tunnels and computer codes for aircraft design. General aviation manufacturers are receptive to NASA's innovations and technological leadership and are expected to be effective users of NASA-generated technologies.

  12. General aviation avionics equipment maintenance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, C. D.; Tommerdahl, J. B.

    1978-01-01

    Maintenance of general aviation avionics equipment was investigated with emphasis on single engine and light twin engine general aviation aircraft. Factors considered include the regulatory agencies, avionics manufacturers, avionics repair stations, the statistical character of the general aviation community, and owners and operators. The maintenance, environment, and performance, repair costs, and reliability of avionics were defined. It is concluded that a significant economic stratification is reflected in the maintenance problems encountered, that careful attention to installations and use practices can have a very positive impact on maintenance problems, and that new technologies and a general growth in general aviation will impact maintenance.

  13. 75 FR 70347 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Renewal AGENCY... given that the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC) has been renewed for a 2.... commercial space transportation industry. The ] primary goals of the Committee are to evaluate...

  14. Comparison of global 3-D aviation emissions datasets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olsen, S. C.; Wuebbles, D. J.; Owen, B.

    2013-01-01

    Aviation emissions are unique from other transportation emissions, e.g., from road transportation and shipping, in that they occur at higher altitudes as well as at the surface. Aviation emissions of carbon dioxide, soot, and water vapor have direct radiative impacts on the Earth's climate system while emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides, carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrocarbons (HC) impact air quality and climate through their effects on ozone, methane, and clouds. The most accurate estimates of the impact of aviation on air quality and climate utilize three-dimensional chemistry-climate models and gridded four dimensional (space and time) aviation emissions datasets. We compare five available aviation emissions datasets currently and historically used to evaluate the impact of aviation on climate and air quality: NASA-Boeing 1992, NASA-Boeing 1999, QUANTIFY 2000, Aero2k 2002, and AEDT 2006 and aviation fuel usage estimates from the International Energy Agency. Roughly 90% of all aviation emissions are in the Northern Hemisphere and nearly 60% of all fuelburn and NOx emissions occur at cruise altitudes in the Northern Hemisphere. While these datasets were created by independent methods and are thus not strictly suitable for analyzing trends they suggest that commercial aviation fuelburn and NOx emissions increased over the last two decades while HC emissions likely decreased and CO emissions did not change significantly. The bottom-up estimates compared here are consistently lower than International Energy Agency fuelburn statistics although the gap is significantly smaller in the more recent datasets. Overall the emissions distributions are quite similar for fuelburn and NOx with regional peaks over the populated land masses of North America, Europe, and East Asia. For CO and HC there are relatively larger differences. There are however some distinct differences in the altitude distribution of emissions in certain regions for the Aero2k dataset.

  15. Aviation Communications Emulation Testbed

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sheehe, Charles; Mulkerin, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Aviation related applications that rely upon datalink for information exchange are increasingly being developed and deployed. The increase in the quantity of applications and associated data communications will expose problems and issues to resolve. NASA s Glenn Research Center has prepared to study the communications issues that will arise as datalink applications are employed within the National Airspace System (NAS) by developing an aviation communications emulation testbed. The Testbed is evolving and currently provides the hardware and software needed to study the communications impact of Air Traffic Control (ATC) and surveillance applications in a densely populated environment. The communications load associated with up to 160 aircraft transmitting and receiving ATC and surveillance data can be generated in realtime in a sequence similar to what would occur in the NAS. The ATC applications that can be studied are the Aeronautical Telecommunications Network s (ATN) Context Management (CM) and Controller Pilot Data Link Communications (CPDLC). The Surveillance applications are Automatic Dependent Surveillance - Broadcast (ADS-B) and Traffic Information Services - Broadcast (TIS-B).

  16. General Aviation Data Framework

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blount, Elaine M.; Chung, Victoria I.

    2006-01-01

    The Flight Research Services Directorate at the NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) provides development and operations services associated with three general aviation (GA) aircraft used for research experiments. The GA aircraft includes a Cessna 206X Stationair, a Lancair Colombia 300X, and a Cirrus SR22X. Since 2004, the GA Data Framework software was designed and implemented to gather data from a varying set of hardware and software sources as well as enable transfer of the data to other computers or devices. The key requirements for the GA Data Framework software include platform independence, the ability to reuse the framework for different projects without changing the framework code, graphics display capabilities, and the ability to vary the interfaces and their performance. Data received from the various devices is stored in shared memory. This paper concentrates on the object oriented software design patterns within the General Aviation Data Framework, and how they enable the construction of project specific software without changing the base classes. The issues of platform independence and multi-threading which enable interfaces to run at different frame rates are also discussed in this paper.

  17. Some Aviation Growth Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spearman, M. Leroy

    2002-01-01

    The growth of aviation since the first flight of a heavier-than-air powered manned vehicle in 1903 has been somewhat remarkable. Some of the events that have influenced this growth are reviewed in this paper. This review will include some events prior to World War I; the influence of the war itself; the events during the post-war years including the establishment of aeronautical research laboratories; and the influence of World War II which, among other things, introduced new technologies that included rocket and jet propulsion and supersonic aerodynamics. The subsequent era of aeronautical research and the attendant growth in aviation over the past half century will be reviewed from the view point of the author who, since 1944, has been involved in the NACA/NASA aeronautical research effort at what is now the Langley Research Center in Hampton, Virginia. The review will discuss some of the research programs related to the development of some experimental aircraft, the Century series of fighter aircraft, multi-mission aircraft, advanced military aircraft and missiles, advanced civil aircraft, supersonic transports, spacecraft and others.

  18. Demonstration Aids for Aviation Education [National Aviation Education Workshop].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This manual, compiled by a Committee of the Curriculum Laboratory of the Civil Air Patrol, contains 105 demonstrations and activities which can be used to introduce the elementary student to the properties of air as related to aviation, what makes airplanes fly, and the role of weather in aviation. (CP)

  19. Global Simulation of Aviation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridhar, Banavar; Sheth, Kapil; Ng, Hok Kwan; Morando, Alex; Li, Jinhua

    2016-01-01

    The simulation and analysis of global air traffic is limited due to a lack of simulation tools and the difficulty in accessing data sources. This paper provides a global simulation of aviation operations combining flight plans and real air traffic data with historical commercial city-pair aircraft type and schedule data and global atmospheric data. The resulting capability extends the simulation and optimization functions of NASA's Future Air Traffic Management Concept Evaluation Tool (FACET) to global scale. This new capability is used to present results on the evolution of global air traffic patterns from a concentration of traffic inside US, Europe and across the Atlantic Ocean to a more diverse traffic pattern across the globe with accelerated growth in Asia, Australia, Africa and South America. The simulation analyzes seasonal variation in the long-haul wind-optimal traffic patterns in six major regions of the world and provides potential time-savings of wind-optimal routes compared with either great circle routes or current flight-plans if available.

  20. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the Territory and Airspace of Iraq

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Except for U.S. air carriers or commercial operators that are subject to the requirements of 14 CFR parts... the Territory and Airspace of Iraq Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIR TRAFFIC AND...

  1. 78 FR 18416 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory.... 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial Space...

  2. 77 FR 52108 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-28

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial...

  3. 78 FR 53496 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee; Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory.... 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial Space...

  4. Regulation, Competition and Network Evolution in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillen, David; Morrison, William

    2003-01-01

    Our focus is the evolution of business strategies and network structure decisions in the commercial passenger aviation industry. The paper reviews the growth of hub-and-spoke networks as the dominant business model following deregulation in the latter part of the 20 century, followed by the emergence of value-based airlines as a global phenomenon at the end of the century. The paper highlights the link between airline business strategies and network structures, and examines the resulting competition between divergent network structure business models. In this context we discuss issues of market structure stability and the role played by competition policy.

  5. A method for monitoring nuclear absorption coefficients of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Shen, Chih-Ping

    1989-01-01

    A technique for monitoring variability in the nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels has been developed. It is based on a highly collimated low energy gamma radiation source and a sodium iodide counter. The source and the counter assembly are separated by a geometrically well-defined test fuel cell. A computer program for determining the mass attenuation coefficient of the test fuel sample, based on the data acquired for a preset counting period, has been developed and tested on several types of aviation fuel.

  6. General-Aviation Control Loader

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baltrus, Daniel W.; Albang, Leroy F.; Hallinger, John A.; Burge, W. Wayne

    1988-01-01

    Artificial-feel system designed for general-aviation flight simulators. New system developed to replace directly lateral and longitudinal controls in general-aviation cockpit for use in flight-simulation research. Using peaucellier's cell to convert linear motion to rotary motion, control-loading system provides realistic control-force feedback to cockpit wheel and column controls.

  7. Aerospace/Aviation Science Occupations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh. Div. of Occupational Education.

    The guide was developed to provide secondary students the opportunity to study aviation and aerospace education from the conceptual and career approach coupled with general education specifically related to science. Unit plans were prepared to motivate, develop skills, and offer counseling to the students of aviation science and occupational…

  8. Aviation Weather Flys on PBS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Robert P.

    1974-01-01

    Describes a television program aimed at pilots, flight students, and general aviation interests which presents a two part format. The first part focuses on the latest available weather information both nationally and locally, while the second part is designed to educate and stimulate interest in general aviation. (BR)

  9. Aviation Weather Information Requirements Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keel, Byron M.; Stancil, Charles E.; Eckert, Clifford A.; Brown, Susan M.; Gimmestad, Gary G.; Richards, Mark A.; Schaffner, Philip R. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Program (AvSP) has as its goal an improvement in aviation safety by a factor of 5 over the next 10 years and a factor of 10 over the next 20 years. Since weather has a big impact on aviation safety and is associated with 30% of all aviation accidents, Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) is a major element under this program. The Aviation Weather Information (AWIN) Distribution and Presentation project is one of three projects under this element. This report contains the findings of a study conducted by the Georgia Tech Research Institute (GTRI) under the Enhanced Weather Products effort, which is a task under AWIN. The study examines current aviation weather products and there application. The study goes on to identify deficiencies in the current system and to define requirements for aviation weather products that would lead to an increase in safety. The study also provides an overview the current set of sensors applied to the collection of aviation weather information. New, modified, or fused sensor systems are identified which could be applied in improving the current set of weather products and in addressing the deficiencies defined in the report. In addition, the study addresses and recommends possible sensors for inclusion in an electronic pilot reporting (EPIREP) system.

  10. Workshop Addresses Aviation Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meehan, Jennifer; Kunches, Joseph

    2012-08-01

    Delta Airlines had an unprecedented experience in 2011: For the first time, a flight was rerouted because of space weather activity. Flight 189 from Detroit, Mich., to Beijing, China, had to reroute due to solar activity that occurred 24-28 September 2011. Over the last decade most airlines that fly routes across the North Pole region have had diversions as a result of solar activity. As cross-polar air traffic increases, standing at 10,993 one-way crossings in 2011, the aviation industry is becoming more aware of the impacts that space weather can have on operations, communications, and navigation, as well as the issue of increased radiation exposure for passengers and flight crew on board.

  11. 75 FR 22352 - Aviation Service Rules

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 Aviation Service Rules AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed... the Federal Communications Commission we address pending issues regarding certain Aviation Service... Telecommunications and Information Administration (NTIA), and supported by the Federal Aviation Administration...

  12. 78 FR 41183 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-09

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Meeting: RTCA Program Management Committee AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION: Notice of RTCA Program Management.... Paige Williams, Management Analyst, NextGen, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation...

  13. 77 FR 64837 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-23

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Fourth Meeting: RTCA Special Committee 227, Standards of Navigation Performance AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT). ACTION... 15, 2012. Kathy Hitt, Management Analyst, Business Operations Group, Federal Aviation...

  14. 75 FR 12809 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-17

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Intent To Rule on Request To Release Airport Property at the Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport, DFW Airport, Texas AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA... Aviation Administration, Southwest Region, Airports Division, Texas Airports Development Office,...

  15. 76 FR 78966 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Approval of Noise Compatibility Program for Kona International Airport at Keahole, Keahole, North Kona, HI AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration, DOT. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) announces its findings on the noise compatibility...

  16. Ash cloud aviation advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T.J.; Ellis, J.S.; Schalk, W.W.; Nasstrom, J.S.

    1992-06-25

    During the recent (12--22 June 1991) Mount Pinatubo volcano eruptions, the US Air Force Global Weather Central (AFGWC) requested assistance of the US Department of Energy`s Atmospheric Release Advisory Capability (ARAC) in creating volcanic ash cloud aviation advisories for the region of the Philippine Islands. Through application of its three-dimensional material transport and diffusion models using AFGWC meteorological analysis and forecast wind fields ARAC developed extensive analysis and 12-hourly forecast ash cloud position advisories extending to 48 hours for a period of five days. The advisories consisted of ``relative`` ash cloud concentrations in ten layers (surface-5,000 feet, 5,000--10,000 feet and every 10,000 feet to 90,000 feet). The ash was represented as a log-normal size distribution of 10--200 {mu}m diameter solid particles. Size-dependent ``ashfall`` was simulated over time as the eruption clouds dispersed. Except for an internal experimental attempt to model one of the Mount Redoubt, Alaska, eruptions (12/89), ARAC had no prior experience in modeling volcanic eruption ash hazards. For the cataclysmic eruption of 15--16 June, the complex three-dimensional atmospheric structure of the region produced dramatically divergent ash cloud patterns. The large eruptions (> 7--10 km) produced ash plume clouds with strong westward transport over the South China Sea, Southeast Asia, India and beyond. The low-level eruptions (< 7 km) and quasi-steady-state venting produced a plume which generally dispersed to the north and east throughout the support period. Modeling the sequence of eruptions presented a unique challenge. Although the initial approach proved viable, further refinement is necessary and possible. A distinct need exists to quantify eruptions consistently such that ``relative`` ash concentrations relate to specific aviation hazard categories.

  17. Effective Approaches to Disorientation Familiarization for Aviation Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, William E.

    Techniques are discussed for providing familiarization of aviation personnel with disorientation problems (dizziness). Procedures are spelled out in detail. Methods of modifying existing equipment as well as an evaluation of available commercial equipment, are presented. The techniques have been used with notable success both at the Civil…

  18. 77 FR 27835 - Membership Availability in the National Parks Overflights Advisory Group Aviation Rulemaking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-11

    ... operators (two vacancies), environmental concerns (two vacancies), and Native American tribal concerns (one..., telephone: (310) 725-3800, email: Barry.Brayer@faa.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The National... aviation, commercial air tour operations, environmental concerns, and Native American tribes....

  19. A brief review of aircraft controls research opportunities in the general aviation field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, E. R.

    1984-01-01

    A review of aircraft controls research in the general aviation field is given. Among the topics included are: controls technology benefits, military and commercial test programs, flight tests, ride quality control, and wind loading.

  20. The significance of wing end configuration in airfoil design for civil aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zimmer, H.

    1979-01-01

    Lift-dependent induced drag in commercial aviation aircraft is discussed, with emphasis on the necessary compromises between wing and configuration modifications which better lift performance and the weight gains accompanying such modifications. Triangular, rectangular and elliptical configurations for wing ends are considered; attention is also given to airfoil designs incorporating winglets. Water tunnel tests of several configurations are reported. In addition, applications of wing and modifications to advanced technology commercial aviation aircraft and the Airbus A-300 are mentioned.

  1. Alternative fuels for general aviation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-01-01

    The price and availability of fuel continues to be a major barrier to the free expansion of general aviation. Although this increase in fuel prices had a more severe impact on airlines, it has also slowed the demand for general aviation aircraft. With the sales of general aviation aircraft in a depressed state, the development of alternative fuels such as liquid methane, ethanol, methanol, and automobile gasoline can help spur the industry back to health. Recent flight tests of these alternative fuels are examined.

  2. Agricultural aviation user requirement priorities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaplan, R. L.; Meeland, T.; Peterson, J. E.

    1977-01-01

    The results are given of a research project pertaining to the development of agricultural aviation user requirement priorities. The raw data utilized in the project was obtained from the National Agricultural Aviation Association. A specially configured poll, developed by the Actuarial Research Corporation was used to solicit responses from NAAA members and others. The primary product of the poll is the specification of seriousness as determined by the respondents for some selected agricultural aviation problem areas identified and defined during the course of an intensive analysis by the Actuarial Research Corporation.

  3. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    During the third quarter of operation of the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS), 1429 reports concerning aviation safety were received from pilots, air traffic controllers, and others in the national aviation system. Details of the administration and results of the program are discussed. The design and construction of the ASRS data base are briefly presented. Altitude deviations and potential aircraft conflicts associated with misunderstood clearances were studied and the results are discussed. Summary data regarding alert bulletins, examples of alert bulletins and responses to them, and a sample of deidentified ASRS reports are provided.

  4. AWE: Aviation Weather Data Visualization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.

    2001-01-01

    The two official sources for aviation weather reports both require the pilot to mentally visualize the provided information. In contrast, our system, Aviation Weather Environment (AWE) presents aviation specific weather available to pilots in an easy to visualize form. We start with a computer-generated textual briefing for a specific area. We map this briefing onto a grid specific to the pilot's route that includes only information relevant to his flight route that includes only information relevant to his flight as defined by route, altitude, true airspeed, and proposed departure time. By modifying various parameters, the pilot can use AWE as a planning tool as well as a weather briefing tool.

  5. Prospective Safety Analysis and the Complex Aviation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Brian E.

    2013-01-01

    Fatal accident rates in commercial passenger aviation are at historic lows yet have plateaued and are not showing evidence of further safety advances. Modern aircraft accidents reflect both historic causal factors and new unexpected "Black Swan" events. The ever-increasing complexity of the aviation system, along with its associated technology and organizational relationships, provides fertile ground for fresh problems. It is important to take a proactive approach to aviation safety by working to identify novel causation mechanisms for future aviation accidents before they happen. Progress has been made in using of historic data to identify the telltale signals preceding aviation accidents and incidents, using the large repositories of discrete and continuous data on aircraft and air traffic control performance and information reported by front-line personnel. Nevertheless, the aviation community is increasingly embracing predictive approaches to aviation safety. The "prospective workshop" early assessment tool described in this paper represents an approach toward this prospective mindset-one that attempts to identify the future vectors of aviation and asks the question: "What haven't we considered in our current safety assessments?" New causation mechanisms threatening aviation safety will arise in the future because new (or revised) systems and procedures will have to be used under future contextual conditions that have not been properly anticipated. Many simulation models exist for demonstrating the safety cases of new operational concepts and technologies. However the results from such models can only be as valid as the accuracy and completeness of assumptions made about the future context in which the new operational concepts and/or technologies will be immersed. Of course that future has not happened yet. What is needed is a reasonably high-confidence description of the future operational context, capturing critical contextual characteristics that modulate

  6. PRCC Aviation Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne's Jeff Hansell, right, explains functions of a space shuttle main engine to Pearl River Community College Aviation Maintenance Technology Program students. Christopher Bryon, left, of Bay St. Louis, Ret Tolar of Kiln, Dan Holston of Baxterville and Billy Zugg of Long Beach took a recent tour of the SSME Processing Facility and the E-1 Test Complex at Stennis Space Center in South Mississippi. The students attend class adjacent to the Stennis International Airport tarmac in Kiln, where they get hands-on experience. PRCC's program prepares students to be responsible for the inspection, repair and maintenance of technologically advanced aircraft. A contractor to NASA, Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne in Canoga Park, Calif., manufactures the space shuttle main engine and its high-pressure turbo pumps. SSC was established in the 1960s to test the huge engines for the Saturn V moon rockets. Now 40 years later, the center tests every main engine for the space shuttle, and is America's largest rocket engine test complex. SSC will soon begin testing the rocket engines that will power spacecraft carrying Americans back to the moon and on to Mars.

  7. High freezing point fuels used for aviation turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.

    1979-01-01

    Broadened-specification aviation fuels could be produced from a greater fraction of crude source material with improvements in fuel supply and price. These fuels, particularly those with increased final boiling temperatures, would have higher freezing temperatures than current aviation turbine fuels. For the small but significant fraction of commercial flights where low fuel temperatures make higher freezing-point fuel use unacceptable, adaptations to the fuel or fuel system may be made to accommodate this fuel. Several techniques are discussed. Fuel heating is the most promising concept. One simple design uses existing heat rejection from the fuel-lubricating oil cooler, another uses an engine-driven generator for electrical heating.

  8. 76 FR 17353 - Aviation Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 87 Aviation Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule; suspension of effectiveness. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communications...

  9. 76 FR 17347 - Aviation Communications

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1, 2 and 87 Aviation Communications AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this document, the Federal Communications Commission (Commission or...

  10. Accelerating to New Aviation Horizons

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA has a 10-year plan to accelerate aviation research that includes the design, build and flight of a series of piloted X-planes -- experimental aircraft -- which will test advanced technologies ...

  11. 78 FR 72141 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... December 12, 2013. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal Aviation Administration,...

  12. 78 FR 34139 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... 13, 2013. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal Aviation Administration,...

  13. 78 FR 50138 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... September 12, 2013. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal Aviation Administration,...

  14. 75 FR 60493 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Renewal AGENCY: Federal Aviation... Regulations, the FAA gives notice it has renewed the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) for a 2..., Executive Director, Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee. BILLING CODE 4910-13-P...

  15. Volcanic hazards and aviation safety

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casadevall, Thomas J.; Thompson, Theodore B.; Ewert, John W.

    1996-01-01

    An aeronautical chart was developed to determine the relative proximity of volcanoes or ash clouds to the airports and flight corridors that may be affected by volcanic debris. The map aims to inform and increase awareness about the close spatial relationship between volcanoes and aviation operations. It shows the locations of the active volcanoes together with selected aeronautical navigation aids and great-circle routes. The map mitigates the threat that volcanic hazards pose to aircraft and improves aviation safety.

  16. General Aviation Aircraft Reliability Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pettit, Duane; Turnbull, Andrew; Roelant, Henk A. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This reliability study was performed in order to provide the aviation community with an estimate of Complex General Aviation (GA) Aircraft System reliability. To successfully improve the safety and reliability for the next generation of GA aircraft, a study of current GA aircraft attributes was prudent. This was accomplished by benchmarking the reliability of operational Complex GA Aircraft Systems. Specifically, Complex GA Aircraft System reliability was estimated using data obtained from the logbooks of a random sample of the Complex GA Aircraft population.

  17. Aviation fuels outlook

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Momenthy, A. M.

    1980-01-01

    Options for satisfying the future demand for commercial jet fuels are analyzed. It is concluded that the most effective means to this end are to attract more refiners to the jet fuel market and encourage development of processes to convert oil shale and coal to transportation fuels. Furthermore, changing the U.S. refineries fuel specification would not significantly alter jet fuel availability.

  18. Aviation. Career Focus, Volume 3, No. 4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reese, Susan

    2001-01-01

    This special section on aviation careers describes the programs of Embry-Riddle Aeronautical University, the Metro Tech Aviation Career Campus in Oklahoma City, the Aviation Technology Center at Vincennes University in Indianapolis, and the Miami-Dade Community College's Eig-Watson School of Aviation. (JOW)

  19. A Hypermedia Information System for Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartzell, Karin M.

    The Hypermedia Information System (HIS) is being developed under the auspices of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Office of Aviation Medicine's (AAM) Human Factors in Aviation Maintenance (HFAM) research program. The goal of the hypermedia project is to create new tools and methods for aviation-related information storage and retrieval.…

  20. A Guide To Aviation Education Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for Aviation Education, Washington, DC.

    This guide to aviation education resources was compiled by the National Coalition for Aviation Education (NCAE) which represents government, industry, and labor. NCAE's mission is to: (1) promote aviation education activities and resources; (2) increase public understanding of the importance of aviation; and (3) support educational initiatives at…

  1. 75 FR 60163 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-29

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation... of Transportation. ACTION: The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC): Aviation Safety... Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be held October 19,...

  2. 75 FR 44998 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation... of Transportation. ACTION: The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC): Aviation Safety... Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be held August 24,...

  3. 75 FR 57103 - The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation Safety Subcommittee; Notice of Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... Office of the Secretary of Transportation The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) Aviation... of Transportation. ACTION: The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC): Aviation Safety... Transportation, announces a meeting of the FAAC Aviation Safety Subcommittee, which will be held September...

  4. Feasibility Study of Radiometry for Airborne Detection of Aviation Hazards

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gimmestad, Gary G.; Papanicolopoulos, Chris D.; Richards, Mark A.; Sherman, Donald L.; West, Leanne L.; Johnson, James W. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Radiometric sensors for aviation hazards have the potential for widespread and inexpensive deployment on aircraft. This report contains discussions of three aviation hazards - icing, turbulence, and volcanic ash - as well as candidate radiometric detection techniques for each hazard. Dual-polarization microwave radiometry is the only viable radiometric technique for detection of icing conditions, but more research will be required to assess its usefulness to the aviation community. Passive infrared techniques are being developed for detection of turbulence and volcanic ash by researchers in this country and also in Australia. Further investigation of the infrared airborne radiometric hazard detection approaches will also be required in order to develop reliable detection/discrimination techniques. This report includes a description of a commercial hyperspectral imager for investigating the infrared detection techniques for turbulence and volcanic ash.

  5. An International Civil Aviation and Space Organization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jakhu, R.; Sgobba, T.; Trujillo, M.

    2010-09-01

    The human adventure in space is now more than a half century old. A total of about 6000 lift-offs have taken place and some 500 people have flown into space, but in the process a number of fatalities have occurred--both in space and on the ground. Furthermore, space traffic is becoming chaotic and the orbital environment is increasingly polluted by debris. There is a need for an international body to address current and future space operations, its sustainability, safety and the adequate consideration of the potential risk for the environment and the people that populates our planet. This idea of an international regulatory body for space was first proposed some years ago by FAA-AST with the name of International Space Flight Organization(ISFO). At the time, the envisaged scope of the organization was focused on futuristic international traffic of commercial hypersonic space planes, and on the launch of space vehicles from one country which, during its return to Earth, would land in a foreign country. Clearly, potential interest in such operations, and therefore for the ISFO concept, was limited to very few countries. In 2001, Dr. Assad Kotaite, President of the International Civil Aviation Organization(ICAO) Council, launched the idea of extending the ICAO mandate to space. With the increase of space operations and the rapid emergence of ventures interested in commercial exploitation of space assets, the need of an international organization that will fill this gap is to be seriously considered. Within this framework, this paper will present the rationale behind the “ICAO for Space” vision within the current structure of the ICAO, it will provide an overview of emerging areas(e.g.: integration of aviation / space infrastructure, traffic management, space debris, etc) and it will propose the benefits of extending its mandate to the region of space up to and including the geostationary orbits, an area of realistic commercial interest and developments for the

  6. Cyber threats within civil aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heitner, Kerri A.

    Existing security policies in civil aviation do not adequately protect against evolving cyber threats. Cybersecurity has been recognized as a top priority among some aviation industry leaders. Heightened concerns regarding cyber threats and vulnerabilities surround components utilized in compliance with the Federal Aviation Administration's (FAA) Next Generation Air Transportation (NextGen) implementation. Automated Dependent Surveillance-B (ADS-B) and Electronic Flight Bags (EFB) have both been exploited through the research of experienced computer security professionals. Civil aviation is essential to international infrastructure and if its critical assets were compromised, it could pose a great risk to public safety and financial infrastructure. The purpose of this research was to raise awareness of aircraft system vulnerabilities in order to provoke change among current national and international cybersecurity policies, procedures and standards. Although the education of cyber threats is increasing in the aviation industry, there is not enough urgency when creating cybersecurity policies. This project intended to answer the following questions: What are the cyber threats to ADS-B of an aircraft in-flight? What are the cyber threats to EFB? What is the aviation industry's response to the issue of cybersecurity and in-flight safety? ADS-B remains unencrypted while the FAA's mandate to implement this system is rapidly approaching. The cyber threat of both portable and non-portable EFB's have received increased publicity, however, airlines are not responding quick enough (if at all) to create policies for the use of these devices. Collectively, the aviation industry is not being proactive enough to protect its aircraft or airport network systems. That is not to say there are not leaders in cybersecurity advancement. These proactive organizations must set the standard for the future to better protect society and it's most reliable form of transportation.

  7. General Aviation: A Stepping Stone to a World Career in Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hulley, Bruce J.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 27 countries identified private pilot flight-hour requirements, pilot training costs, youth aviation programs, and career information about aviation occupations. The information can be used to motivate young people to enter aviation careers. (JOW)

  8. Noise levels and data correction analysis for seven general aviation propeller aircraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ford, D. W.; Rickley, E. J.

    1980-09-01

    This document reports noise levels of a general aviation propeller aircraft noise test at the FAA National Aviation Facility Experimental Center located in Atlantic City, New Jersey. The test was performed to acquire noise data on general aviation type aircraft and examine how these noise levels are influenced by variables such as distance, aircraft speed, power settings, and propeller speeds. Aircraft were tested during takeoff, approach, and flyover modes and data are given in EPNL and in "A"-weighted decibels. All measurements were performed in accordance with FAR 36 Appendix C and Appendix F procedures.

  9. The Typical General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turnbull, Andrew

    1999-01-01

    The reliability of General Aviation aircraft is unknown. In order to "assist the development of future GA reliability and safety requirements", a reliability study needs to be performed. Before any studies on General Aviation aircraft reliability begins, a definition of a typical aircraft that encompasses most of the general aviation characteristics needs to be defined. In this report, not only is the typical general aviation aircraft defined for the purpose of the follow-on reliability study, but it is also separated, or "sifted" into several different categories where individual analysis can be performed on the reasonably independent systems. In this study, the typical General Aviation aircraft is a four-place, single engine piston, all aluminum fixed-wing certified aircraft with a fixed tricycle landing gear and a cable operated flight control system. The system breakdown of a GA aircraft "sifts" the aircraft systems and components into five categories: Powerplant, Airframe, Aircraft Control Systems, Cockpit Instrumentation Systems, and the Electrical Systems. This breakdown was performed along the lines of a failure of the system. Any component that caused a system to fail was considered a part of that system.

  10. Will climate change increase transatlantic aviation turbulence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Paul; Joshi, Manoj

    2013-04-01

    Atmospheric turbulence causes most weather-related aircraft incidents. Commercial aircraft encounter moderate-or-greater turbulence tens of thousands of times each year world-wide, injuring probably hundreds of passengers (occasionally fatally), costing airlines tens of millions of dollars, and causing structural damage to planes. Clear-air turbulence is especially difficult to avoid, because it cannot be seen by pilots or detected by satellites or on-board radar. Clear-air turbulence is linked to atmospheric jet streams, which are projected to be strengthened by anthropogenic climate change. However, the response of clear-air turbulence to climate change has not previously been studied. Here we show using computer simulations that clear-air turbulence changes significantly within the transatlantic flight corridor when the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is doubled. At cruise altitudes within 50-75°N and 10-60°W in winter, most clear-air turbulence measures show a 10-40% increase in the median strength of turbulence and a 40-170% increase in the frequency of occurrence of moderate-or-greater turbulence. Our results suggest that climate change will lead to bumpier transatlantic flights by the middle of this century. Journey times may lengthen and fuel consumption and emissions may increase. Aviation is partly responsible for changing the climate, but our findings show for the first time how climate change could affect aviation.

  11. Will Climate Change Increase Transatlantic Aviation Turbulence?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, P. D.; Joshi, M. M.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric turbulence causes most weather-related aircraft incidents. Commercial aircraft encounter moderate-or-greater turbulence tens of thousands of times each year world-wide, injuring probably hundreds of passengers (occasionally fatally), costing airlines tens of millions of dollars, and causing structural damage to planes. Clear-air turbulence is especially difficult to avoid, because it cannot be seen by pilots or detected by satellites or on-board radar. Clear-air turbulence is linked to atmospheric storm tracks and jet streams, which are projected to be strengthened by anthropogenic climate change. However, the response of clear-air turbulence to climate change has not previously been studied. Here we show using computer simulations that clear-air turbulence changes significantly within the transatlantic flight corridor when the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is doubled. At cruise altitudes within 50-75°N and 10-60°W in winter, most clear-air turbulence measures show a 10-40% increase in the median strength of turbulence and a 40-170% increase in the frequency of occurrence of moderate-or-greater turbulence. Our results suggest that climate change will lead to bumpier transatlantic flights by the middle of this century. Journey times may lengthen and fuel consumption and emissions may increase. Aviation is partly responsible for changing the climate, but our findings show for the first time how climate change could affect aviation.

  12. Space Commercialization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martin, Gary L.

    2011-01-01

    A robust and competitive commercial space sector is vital to continued progress in space. The United States is committed to encouraging and facilitating the growth of a U.S. commercial space sector that supports U.S. needs, is globally competitive, and advances U.S. leadership in the generation of new markets and innovation-driven entrepreneurship. Energize competitive domestic industries to participate in global markets and advance the development of: satellite manufacturing; satellite-based services; space launch; terrestrial applications; and increased entrepreneurship. Purchase and use commercial space capabilities and services to the maximum practical extent Actively explore the use of inventive, nontraditional arrangements for acquiring commercial space goods and services to meet United States Government requirements, including measures such as public-private partnerships, . Refrain from conducting United States Government space activities that preclude, discourage, or compete with U.S. commercial space activities. Pursue potential opportunities for transferring routine, operational space functions to the commercial space sector where beneficial and cost-effective.

  13. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lauber, J. K.; Funkhouser, H.; Lyman, E. G.; Huff, E. M.

    1976-01-01

    The origins and development of the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) are briefly reviewed. The results of the first quarter's activity are summarized and discussed. Examples are given of bulletins describing potential air safety hazards, and the disposition of these bulletins. During the first quarter of operation, the ASRS received 1464 reports; 1407 provided data relevant to air safety. All reports are being processed for entry into the ASRS data base. During the reporting period, 130 alert bulletins describing possible problems in the aviation system were generated and disseminated. Responses were received from FAA and others regarding 108 of the alert bulletins. Action was being taken with respect to 70 of the 108 responses received. Further studies are planned of a number of areas, including human factors problems related to automation of the ground and airborne portions of the national aviation system.

  14. General aviation IFR operational problems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bolz, E. H.; Eisele, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Operational problems of general aviation IFR operators (particularly single pilot operators) were studied. Several statistical bases were assembled and utilized to identify the more serious problems and to demonstrate their magnitude. These bases include official activity projections, historical accident data and delay data, among others. The GA operating environment and cockpit environment were analyzed in detail. Solutions proposed for each of the problem areas identified are based on direct consideration of currently planned enhancements to the ATC system, and on a realistic assessment of the present and future limitations of general aviation avionics. A coordinated set of research program is suggested which would provide the developments necessary to implement the proposed solutions.

  15. NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cofer, W. Randy, III; Anderson, Bruce E.; Connors, V. S.; Wey, C. C.; Sanders, T.; Winstead, E. L.; Pui, C.; Chen, Da-ren; Hagen, D. E.; Whitefield, P.

    2001-01-01

    During August 1-14, 1999, NASA's Atmospheric Effects of Aviation Project (AEAP) convened a workshop at the NASA Langley Research Center to try to determine why such a wide variation in aerosol emissions indices and chemical and physical properties has been reported by various independent AEAP-supported research teams trying to characterize the exhaust emissions of subsonic commercial aircraft. This workshop was divided into two phases, a laboratory phase and a field phase. The laboratory phase consisted of supplying known particle number densities (concentrations) and particle size distributions to a common manifold for the participating research teams to sample and analyze. The field phase was conducted on an aircraft run-up pad. Participating teams actually sampled aircraft exhaust generated by a Langley T-38 Talon aircraft at 1 and 9 m behind the engine at engine powers ranging from 48 to 100 percent. Results from the laboratory phase of this intercomparison workshop are reported in this paper.

  16. General aviation components. [performance and capabilities of general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    An overview is presented of selected aviation vehicles. The capabilities and performance of these vehicles are first presented, followed by a discussion of the aerodynamics, structures and materials, propulsion systems, noise, and configurations of fixed-wing aircraft. Finally the discussion focuses on the history, status, and future of attempts to provide vehicles capable of short-field operations.

  17. Federal Aviation Administration weather program to improve aviation safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wedan, R. W.

    1983-01-01

    The implementation of the National Airspace System (NAS) will improve safety services to aviation. These services include collision avoidance, improved landing systems and better weather data acquisition and dissemination. The program to improve the quality of weather information includes the following: Radar Remote Weather Display System; Flight Service Automation System; Automatic Weather Observation System; Center Weather Processor, and Next Generation Weather Radar Development.

  18. The identification of factors contributing to self-reported anomalies in civil aviation.

    PubMed

    Andrzejczak, Chris; Karwowski, Waldemar; Thompson, William

    2014-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyze anomalies voluntarily reported by pilots in civil aviation sector and identify factors leading to such anomalies. Experimental data were obtained from the NASA aviation safety reporting system (ASRS) database. These data contained a range of text records spanning 30 years of civilian aviation, both commercial (airline operations) and general aviation (private aircraft). Narrative data as well as categorical data were used. The associations between incident contributing factors and self-reported anomalies were investigated using data mining and correspondence analysis. The results revealed that a broadly defined human factors category and weather conditions were the main contributors to self-reported civil aviation anomalies. New associations between identified factors and reported anomaly conditions were also reported. PMID:24629866

  19. 14 CFR 91.1603 - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 112-Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    .... Except for U.S. air carriers and commercial operators that are subject to the requirements of 14 CFR... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 112... 91.1603 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  20. 14 CFR 91.1603 - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 112-Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    .... Except for U.S. air carriers and commercial operators that are subject to the requirements of 14 CFR... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 112... 91.1603 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  1. 14 CFR 91.1603 - Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 112-Prohibition Against Certain Flights Within the...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    .... Except for U.S. air carriers and commercial operators that are subject to the requirements of 14 CFR... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 112... 91.1603 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF...

  2. High-freezing-point fuels used for aviation turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedman, R.

    1979-01-01

    Broadened-specification aviation fuels could be produced from a greater fraction of crude source material with improvements in fuel supply and price. These fuels, particularly those with increased final boiling temperatures, would have higher freezing temperatures than current aviation turbine fuels. The higher-freezing-point fuels can be substituted in the majority of present commercial flights, since temperature data indicate that in-flight fuel temperatures are relatively mild. For the small but significant fraction of commercial flights where low fuel temperatures make higher freezing-point fuel use unacceptable, adaptations to the fuel or fuel system may be made to accommodate this fuel. Several techniques are discussed. Fuel heating is the most promising concept. One simple system design uses existing heat rejection from the fuel-lubricating oil cooler, another uses an engine-driven generator for electrical heating. Both systems offer advantages that outweigh the obvious penalties.

  3. 14 CFR 119.36 - Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... requirements for commercial operators. 119.36 Section 119.36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Certification, Operations... Chapter § 119.36 Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators. (a)...

  4. 14 CFR 119.36 - Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... requirements for commercial operators. 119.36 Section 119.36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Certification, Operations... Chapter § 119.36 Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators. (a)...

  5. 14 CFR 119.36 - Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... requirements for commercial operators. 119.36 Section 119.36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Certification, Operations... Chapter § 119.36 Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators. (a)...

  6. 14 CFR 119.36 - Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... requirements for commercial operators. 119.36 Section 119.36 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION...: CERTIFICATION AND OPERATIONS CERTIFICATION: AIR CARRIERS AND COMMERCIAL OPERATORS Certification, Operations... Chapter § 119.36 Additional certificate application requirements for commercial operators. (a)...

  7. 77 FR 71474 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Charter Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Charter Renewal AGENCY... Renewal of the Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee (COMSTAC). SUMMARY: FAA announces the... (FAA) on the critical matters facing the U.S. commercial space transportation industry. This...

  8. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The human factors frequency considered a cause of or contributor to hazardous events onboard air carriers are examined with emphasis on distractions. Safety reports that have been analyzed, processed, and entered into the aviation safety reporting system data base are discussed. A sampling of alert bulletins and responses to them is also presented.

  9. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barker, Ballard M., Ed.

    This document contains two papers on aviation education. "Chief Pilots of Regional Airlines Perceive Basic Instrument Skills as Most Important with Respect to Need for Additional Training of Entry-Level Pilots" (William C. Herrick) reports the results of a study in which 126 (of a population of 197) randomly selected regional airlines' chief…

  10. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aviation safety reports that relate to loss of control in flight, problems that occur as a result of similar sounding alphanumerics, and pilot incapacitation are presented. Problems related to the go around maneuver in air carrier operations, and bulletins (and FAA responses to them) that pertain to air traffic control systems and procedures are included.

  11. Aviation Insights: Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deal, Walter F., III

    2005-01-01

    Aviation as people know it today is a mature but very young technology as time goes. Considering that the 100th anniversary of flight was celebrated just a few years ago in 2003, millions of people fly from city to city or from nation to nation and across the oceans and around the world effortlessly and economically. Additionally, they have space…

  12. Aviation combustion toxicology: an overview.

    PubMed

    Chaturvedi, Arvind K

    2010-01-01

    Aviation combustion toxicology is a subspecialty of the field of aerospace toxicology, which is composed of aerospace and toxicology. The term aerospace, that is, the environment extending above and beyond the surface of the Earth, is also used to represent the combined fields of aeronautics and astronautics. Aviation is another term interchangeably used with aerospace and aeronautics and is explained as the science and art of operating powered aircraft. Toxicology deals with the adverse effects of substances on living organisms. Although toxicology borrows knowledge from biology, chemistry, immunology, pathology, physiology, and public health, the most closely related field to toxicology is pharmacology. Economic toxicology, environmental toxicology, and forensic toxicology, including combustion toxicology, are the three main branches of toxicology. In this overview, a literature search for the period of 1960-2007 was performed and information related to aviation combustion toxicology collected. The overview included introduction; combustion, fire, and smoke; smoke gas toxicity; aircraft material testing; fire gases and their interactive effects; result interpretation; carboxyhemoglobin and blood cyanide ion levels; pyrolytic products of aircraft engine oils, fluids, and lubricants; and references. This review is anticipated to be an informative resource for aviation combustion toxicology and fire-related casualties. PMID:20109297

  13. Collegiate Aviation Review. September 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, C. Elaine, Ed.

    This document contains five papers on aviation education. "Training Considerations for Expert Pilot Decision Making" (Richard J. Adams, Ronald John Lofaro) is a report on research identifying the differences between expert and novice decision makers from a cognitive information processing perspective and correlating the development of expert pilot…

  14. College Level Aviation Curriculum Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mattson, Betty J.

    This document describes a college-level curriculum for airplane pilots that is expected to be available at Muskegon (Michigan) College of Business and Technology in fall 1990. The curriculum offers associate or bachelor degree, college credit for earned flight ratings, private license, transfer credit for other aviation college programs, the…

  15. European commercial aeronautics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Zandt, J Parker

    1925-01-01

    During the months of June to September, 1924, I personally visited the principal airports of Europe and traveled as a passenger some 6500 air miles on English, French, Romanian, Polish, German and Dutch air lines in order to investigate the development of commercial aviation abroad. The results of the investigation are embodied in a series of reports, of which a summary of the general findings is given below.

  16. 78 FR 13395 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-27

    ... of October 23, 2012 (77 FR 64836) would require placement of fill on submerged lands jointly managed... Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Availability of Draft Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA) Section 810 Subsistence Evaluation. AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration...

  17. 76 FR 39884 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-07

    ... SECURITY Aviation Security Advisory Committee AGENCY: Transportation Security Administration, DHS. ACTION... Security Administration (TSA) announces the re-establishment of the Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC). The Secretary of Homeland Security has determined that the re- establishment of ASAC...

  18. Aviation Safety Analyst Flies with Blue Angels

    NASA Video Gallery

    Abegael "Abby" Jakey has aviation in her blood, taking her first flight at six months old in a Globe Swift. Now a contractor with Booz Allen Hamilton, Inc. working for NASA's Aviation Safety Report...

  19. Overview of Aviation Fuel Markets for Biofuels Stakeholders

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, C.; Newes, E.; Schwab, A.; Vimmerstedt, L.

    2014-07-01

    This report is for biofuels stakeholders interested the U.S. aviation fuel market. Jet fuel production represents about 10% of U.S. petroleum refinery production. Exxon Mobil, Chevron, and BP top producers, and Texas, Louisiana, and California are top producing states. Distribution of fuel primarily involves transport from the Gulf Coast to other regions. Fuel is transported via pipeline (60%), barges on inland waterways (30%), tanker truck (5%), and rail (5%). Airport fuel supply chain organization and fuel sourcing may involve oil companies, airlines, airline consortia, airport owners and operators, and airport service companies. Most fuel is used for domestic, commercial, civilian flights. Energy efficiency has substantially improved due to aircraft fleet upgrades and advanced flight logistic improvements. Jet fuel prices generally track prices of crude oil and other refined petroleum products, whose prices are more volatile than crude oil price. The single largest expense for airlines is jet fuel, so its prices and persistent price volatility impact industry finances. Airlines use various strategies to manage aviation fuel price uncertainty. The aviation industry has established goals to mitigate its greenhouse gas emissions, and initial estimates of biojet life cycle greenhouse gas emissions exist. Biojet fuels from Fischer-Tropsch and hydroprocessed esters and fatty acids processes have ASTM standards. The commercial aviation industry and the U.S. Department of Defense have used aviation biofuels. Additional research is needed to assess the environmental, economic, and financial potential of biojet to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and mitigate long-term upward price trends, fuel price volatility, or both.

  20. Low-Cost Quality Control and Nondestructive Evaluation Technologies for General Aviation Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cramer, K. Elliott; Gavinsky, Bob; Semanskee, Grant

    1998-01-01

    NASA's Advanced General Aviation Transport Experiments (AGATE) Program has as a goal to reduce the overall cost of producing private aviation aircraft while maintaining the safety of these aircraft. In order to successfully meet this goal, it is necessary to develop nondestructive inspection techniques which will facilitate the production of the materials used in these aircraft and assure the quality necessary to maintain airworthiness. This paper will discuss a particular class of general aviation materials and several nondestructive inspection techniques that have proven effective for making these inspections. Additionally, this paper will discuss the investigation and application of other commercially available quality control techniques applicable to these structures.

  1. Internet over the VDL-2 Subnetwork: the VDL-2/IP Aviation Datalink System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grappel, R. D.

    2000-01-01

    This report describes the design to operate the standard Internet communications protocols (IP) over the VHF aviation Data Link Mode 2 (VDL-2) subnetwork. The VDL-2/IP system specified in this report can operate transparently with the current aviation users of VDL-2 (Airline Communications and Reporting System, ACARS and Aeronautical Telecommunications Network, ATN) and proposed users (Flight Information Service via Broadcast, FIS-B). The VDL-2/IP system provides a straightforward mechanisms to utilize inexpensive, commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) communications packages developed for the Internet as part of the aviation datalink system.

  2. Aviation Pilot Training I and Aviation Technician I: Task Analyses. Semester I. Field Review Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upchurch, Richard

    This guide for aviation pilot and aviation technician training begins with a course description, resource information, and a course outline. Tasks/competencies are categorized into 10 concept/duty areas: understanding aviation career opportunities; comprehending the history of aviation; understanding classes, categories, and types of aircraft;…

  3. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 100-2, see part 61 of...

  4. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No....

  5. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 100-2, see part 61 of...

  6. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...

  7. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No....

  8. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No....

  9. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...

  10. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...

  11. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...

  12. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 1 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Special Federal Aviation Regulation...

  13. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No....

  14. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 1

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false 1 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Special Federal Aviation Regulation...

  15. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Special Federal Aviation Regulation...

  16. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Special Federal Aviation Regulation...

  17. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... REQUIREMENTS: DOMESTIC, FLAG, AND SUPPLEMENTAL OPERATIONS Special Federal Aviation Regulation No....

  18. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Special Federal Aviation Regulation...

  19. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION... Federal Aviation Regulation No. 50-2 Editorial Note: For the text of SFAR No. 50-2, see part 91 of...

  20. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - 2

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false 2 Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 100 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS OTHER THAN PILOTS Special Federal Aviation Regulation...

  1. 78 FR 25524 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Notice of Request To Release Airport Property AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Intent to Rule on Request to Release Airport Property..., Airports Compliance Specialist, Federal Aviation Administration, Airports Division, ACE- 610C, 901...

  2. Civil Aviation and Facilities. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callaway, R. O.; Elmer, James D.

    This is a revised textbook for use in the Air Force ROTC training program. The main theme of the book is concerned with the kinds of civil aviation facilities and many intricacies involved in their use. The first chapter traces the development of civil aviation and the formation of organizations to control aviation systems. The second chapter…

  3. Civil Aviation and Facilities. Aerospace Education II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orser, N. A.; Glascoff, W. G., III

    This book, which is to be used only in the Air Force ROTC training program, deals with the kinds of civil aviation facilities and the intricacies and procedures of the use of flying. The first chapter traces the development of civil aviation and the formation of organizations to control aviation systems. The second chapter describes varieties of…

  4. 77 FR 56909 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC); Renewal

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC); Renewal AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Renewal. SUMMARY: The FAA announces the charter renewal of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC), a Federal Advisory Committee that works...

  5. 76 FR 4412 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Closed Session

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-25

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Closed Session AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... 102-3.160, notice is hereby given of a special closed session of the Commercial Space...

  6. 78 FR 69742 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory.... 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial Space...

  7. 77 FR 16891 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory.... 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial Space...

  8. 76 FR 17474 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-29

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory.... 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial Space...

  9. 76 FR 51461 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial...

  10. 75 FR 16901 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory.... 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of the meetings of the Commercial...

  11. 75 FR 54002 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Open Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-02

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Open Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation Advisory.... 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a meeting of the Commercial Space...

  12. Foreign civil aviation competition: 1976 summary and implications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alford, W. J., Jr.; Maddalon, D. V.

    1976-01-01

    A summary assessment is made of foreign civil aviation as it relates to the posture of the United States civil aviation industry. Major findings include: (1) Main competitors - European Economic Community (EEC) and Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR). (2) Largest commercial market - Transport aircraft. (3) Current market status and projections - U.S. currently dominates the civil aviation market but foreign markets show greater growth trends. (4) Competitive comparisons - Status comparisons are made in technology (aerodynamics, structures and materials, propulsion, avionics, systems, design coordination, and manufacturing); production runs; marketing; and postsales support. The U.S. generally leads except in aerodynamics and propulsion. (5) Multinational ventures - Joint U.S. industry/foreign government development of advanced technology engines is well developed; airframe industry discussions are now underway. (6) Implications - Although the U.S., is currently preeminent in most areas, this may be only a temporary condition. Past U.S. success in aviation has provided many benefits to the nation. These benefits may be lost.

  13. NASA's Aviation Safety and Modeling Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chidester, Thomas R.; Statler, Irving C.

    2006-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Monitoring and Modeling (ASMM) Project of NASA's Aviation Safety program is cultivating sources of data and developing automated computer hardware and software to facilitate efficient, comprehensive, and accurate analyses of the data collected from large, heterogeneous databases throughout the national aviation system. The ASMM addresses the need to provide means for increasing safety by enabling the identification and correcting of predisposing conditions that could lead to accidents or to incidents that pose aviation risks. A major component of the ASMM Project is the Aviation Performance Measuring System (APMS), which is developing the next generation of software tools for analyzing and interpreting flight data.

  14. 14 CFR 375.30 - Operations other than commercial air operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorized Operations § 375.30 Operations other than commercial air operations. Foreign civil aircraft...

  15. 14 CFR 375.30 - Operations other than commercial air operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorized Operations § 375.30 Operations other than commercial air operations. Foreign civil aircraft...

  16. 14 CFR 375.30 - Operations other than commercial air operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorized Operations § 375.30 Operations other than commercial air operations. Foreign civil aircraft...

  17. 14 CFR 375.30 - Operations other than commercial air operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorized Operations § 375.30 Operations other than commercial air operations. Foreign civil aircraft...

  18. 14 CFR 375.30 - Operations other than commercial air operations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (AVIATION PROCEEDINGS) SPECIAL REGULATIONS NAVIGATION OF FOREIGN CIVIL AIRCRAFT WITHIN THE UNITED STATES Authorized Operations § 375.30 Operations other than commercial air operations. Foreign civil aircraft...

  19. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000146.htm Hospital-acquired pneumonia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is an infection of the lungs ...

  20. Aviation security: A system's perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, J.P.

    1988-01-01

    For many years the aviation industry and airports operated with security methods and equipment common to most other large industrial complexes. At that time, the security systems primarily provided asset and property protection. However, soon after the first aircraft hijacking the focus of security shifted to emphasize the security requirements necessary for protecting the traveling public and the one feature of the aviation industry that makes it unique---the airplane. The airplane and its operation offered attractive opportunities for the homesick refugee, the mentally unstable person and the terrorist wanting to make a political statement. The airport and its aircraft were the prime targets requiring enhanced security against this escalated threat. In response, the FAA, airport operators and air carriers began to develop plans for increasing security and assigning responsibilities for implementation.

  1. Human error in aviation operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Billings, C. E.; Lanber, J. K.; Cooper, G. E.

    1974-01-01

    This report is a brief description of research being undertaken by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The project is designed to seek out factors in the aviation system which contribute to human error, and to search for ways of minimizing the potential threat posed by these factors. The philosophy and assumptions underlying the study are discussed, together with an outline of the research plan.

  2. General aviation fuel quality control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poitz, H.

    1983-01-01

    Quality control measures for aviation gasoline, and some of the differences between quality control on avgas and mogas are discussed. One thing to keep in mind is that with motor gasoline you can always pull off to the side of the road. It's not so easy to do in an airplane. Consequently, there are reasons for having the tight specifications and the tight quality control measures on avgas as compared to motor gasoline.

  3. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    Problems in briefing of relief by air traffic controllers are discussed, including problems that arise when duty positions are changed by controllers. Altimeter reading and setting errors as factors in aviation safety are discussed, including problems associated with altitude-including instruments. A sample of reports from pilots and controllers is included, covering the topics of ATIS broadcasts an clearance readback problems. A selection of Alert Bulletins, with their responses, is included.

  4. U. S. Energy: aviation perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Blake, C.L.

    1983-11-01

    This report is a sequel/update of The Impact of Petroleum, Synthetic and Cryogenic Fuels on Civil Aviation, DOT/FAA/EM-82/29, June, 1982. Where the earlier report is more concerned with energy resources and availability, this report is more concerned with energy supply/demand balance and with prices. The report reviews world and U.S. energy, U.S. transportation energy, aviation fuel, natural gas, alternative fuels and energy sources, synthetic fuels, aviation fuel conservation, and petroleum price vulnerability. It draws heavily on The National Energy Policy Plan of 1983 and its supporting documents. World oil production and prices should remain generally steady for thirty to fifty years, growing slightly faster than the world economy. Near-term prices should be softer. OPEC can raise prices whenever demand for its production exceeds 80% of OPEC production capacity. The U.S. could delay or reverse future price rises by encouraging, or at least reducing restrictions against, domestic production. All future energy forecasts are risky. A disruption in crude production at any time until at least year 2000, can easily increase fuel prices by 100%.

  5. The evolving role of corporate medical departments in commercial aviation.

    PubMed

    McKenas, David K

    2002-01-01

    Dr. McKenas, who is Corporate Medical Director at American Airlines, describes some of AA s innovations in addressing on-board medical emergencies. These programs include Physician-on-Call and installation of automatic external defibrillators. The value of internal OM departments in matching medical services to changing traveler demographics, and in accident response such as was required on September 11, 2001, are also briefly discussed. PMID:11872432

  6. U.S. Aerospace and Aviation Industry: A State-By-State Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    President George W. Bush and the Congress created the Commission on the Future of the United States Aerospace Industry to evaluate the current and future health of the industry as well as the challenges that lie ahead for the U.S. workforce and the economy. To accomplish our mission, we commissioned a study on the economic impact of the aerospace industry nationally and on a state-by-state basis, using the best available U.S. government data. This study sought to define the core of the aerospace industry. The resulting data represents that very core those jobs specifically tied to commercial and civilian aerospace. U.S. Aerospace and Aviation: A State-by-State Analysis examines the civilian and commercial aerospace and aviation industry by employment, wages, payroll, and establishments. The report found that the U.S. civilian and commercial aerospace and aviation industry employed over 2 million workers in 2001.

  7. Certification of alternative aviation fuels and blend components

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson III, George R. ); Edwards, Tim; Corporan, Edwin ); Freerks, Robert L. )

    2013-01-15

    Aviation turbine engine fuel specifications are governed by ASTM International, formerly known as the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) International, and the British Ministry of Defence (MOD). ASTM D1655 Standard Specification for Aviation Turbine Fuels and MOD Defence Standard 91-91 are the guiding specifications for this fuel throughout most of the world. Both of these documents rely heavily on the vast amount of experience in production and use of turbine engine fuels from conventional sources, such as crude oil, natural gas condensates, heavy oil, shale oil, and oil sands. Turbine engine fuel derived from these resources and meeting the above specifications has properties that are generally considered acceptable for fuels to be used in turbine engines. Alternative and synthetic fuel components are approved for use to blend with conventional turbine engine fuels after considerable testing. ASTM has established a specification for fuels containing synthesized hydrocarbons under D7566, and the MOD has included additional requirements for fuels containing synthetic components under Annex D of DS91-91. New turbine engine fuel additives and blend components need to be evaluated using ASTM D4054, Standard Practice for Qualification and Approval of New Aviation Turbine Fuels and Fuel Additives. This paper discusses these specifications and testing requirements in light of recent literature claiming that some biomass-derived blend components, which have been used to blend in conventional aviation fuel, meet the requirements for aviation turbine fuels as specified by ASTM and the MOD. The 'Table 1' requirements listed in both D1655 and DS91-91 are predicated on the assumption that the feedstocks used to make fuels meeting these requirements are from approved sources. Recent papers have implied that commercial jet fuel can be blended with renewable components that are not hydrocarbons (such as fatty acid methyl esters). These are not allowed blend

  8. Satellite Delivery of Aviation Weather Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerczewski, Robert J.; Haendel, Richard

    2001-01-01

    With aviation traffic continuing to increase worldwide, reducing the aviation accident rate and aviation schedule delays is of critical importance. In the United States, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has established the Aviation Safety Program and the Aviation System Capacity Program to develop and test new technologies to increase aviation safety and system capacity. Weather is a significant contributor to aviation accidents and schedule delays. The timely dissemination of weather information to decision makers in the aviation system, particularly to pilots, is essential in reducing system delays and weather related aviation accidents. The NASA Glenn Research Center is investigating improved methods of weather information dissemination through satellite broadcasting directly to aircraft. This paper describes an on-going cooperative research program with NASA, Rockwell Collins, WorldSpace, Jeppesen and American Airlines to evaluate the use of satellite digital audio radio service (SDARS) for low cost broadcast of aviation weather information, called Satellite Weather Information Service (SWIS). The description and results of the completed SWIS Phase 1 are presented, and the description of the on-going SWIS Phase 2 is given.

  9. Data and Models Needed to Support Civil Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onsager, Terrance; Biesecker, D. A.; Berger, Thomas; Rutledge, Robert

    2016-07-01

    The effective utilization of existing data and models is an important element in advancing the goals of the COSPAR/ILWS space weather roadmap. This is recommended to be done through innovative approaches to data utilization, including data driving, data assimilation, and ensemble modeling. This presentation will focus on observations and models needed to support space weather services for civil aviation and commercial space transportation. The service needs for aviation will be discussed, and an overview will be given of some of the existing data and models that can provide these services. Efforts underway to define the requirements for real-time data and to assess current modeling capabilities will be described. Recommendations will be offered for internationally coordinated activities that could identify priorities and further the roadmap goals.

  10. High Speed Mobility Through On-Demand Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mark D.; Goodrich, Ken; Viken, Jeff; Smith, Jeremy; Fredericks, Bill; Trani, Toni; Barraclough, Jonathan; German, Brian; Patterson, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Game changing advances come about by the introduction of new technologies at a time when societal needs create the opportunity for new market solutions. A unique opportunity exists for NASA to bring about such a mobility revolution in General Aviation, extendable to other aviation markets, to maintain leadership in aviation by the United States. This report outlines the research carried out so far under NASA's leadership towards developing a new mobility choice, called Zip Aviation1,2,3. The feasibility, technology and system gaps that need to be addressed, and pathways for successful implementation have been investigated to guide future investment. The past decade indicates exciting trends in transportation technologies, which are quickly evolving. Automobiles are embracing automation to ease driver tasks as well as to completely control the vehicle with added safety (Figure 1). Electric propulsion is providing zero tail-pipe emission vehicles with dramatically lower energy and maintenance costs. These technologies have not yet been applied to aviation, yet offer compelling potential benefits across all aviation markets, and in particular to General Aviation (GA) as an early adopter market. The benefits of such an adoption are applicable in the following areas: ?? Safety: The GA market experiences accident rates that are substantially higher than automobiles or commercial airlines, with 7.5 fatal accidents per 100 million vehicle miles compared to 1.3 for automobiles and.068 for airlines. Approximately 80% of these accidents are caused by some form of pilot error, with another 13% caused by single point propulsion system failure. ?? Emissions: Environmental constraints are pushing for the elimination of 100Low Lead (LL) fuel used in most GA aircraft, with aviation fuel the #1 source of lead emissions into the environment. Aircraft also have no emission control systems (i.e. no catalytic converters etc.), so they are gross hydrocarbon polluters compared to

  11. NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention/Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feinberg, Arthur; Tauss, James

    2002-10-01

    Weather is a contributing factor in approximately 25-30 percent of general aviation accidents. The lack of timely, accurate and usable weather information to the general aviation pilot in the cockpit to enhance pilot situational awareness and improve pilot judgment remains a major impediment to improving aviation safety. NASA Glenn Research Center commissioned this 120 day weather datalink market survey to assess the technologies, infrastructure, products, and services of commercial avionics systems being marketed to the general aviation community to address these longstanding safety concerns. A market survey of companies providing or proposing to provide graphical weather information to the general aviation cockpit was conducted. Fifteen commercial companies were surveyed. These systems are characterized and evaluated in this report by availability, end-user pricing/cost, system constraints/limits and technical specifications. An analysis of market survey results and an evaluation of product offerings were made. In addition, recommendations to NASA for additional research and technology development investment have been made as a result of this survey to accelerate deployment of cockpit weather information systems for enhancing aviation safety.

  12. NASA Aviation Safety Program Weather Accident Prevention/weather Information Communications (WINCOMM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feinberg, Arthur; Tauss, James; Chomos, Gerald (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Weather is a contributing factor in approximately 25-30 percent of general aviation accidents. The lack of timely, accurate and usable weather information to the general aviation pilot in the cockpit to enhance pilot situational awareness and improve pilot judgment remains a major impediment to improving aviation safety. NASA Glenn Research Center commissioned this 120 day weather datalink market survey to assess the technologies, infrastructure, products, and services of commercial avionics systems being marketed to the general aviation community to address these longstanding safety concerns. A market survey of companies providing or proposing to provide graphical weather information to the general aviation cockpit was conducted. Fifteen commercial companies were surveyed. These systems are characterized and evaluated in this report by availability, end-user pricing/cost, system constraints/limits and technical specifications. An analysis of market survey results and an evaluation of product offerings were made. In addition, recommendations to NASA for additional research and technology development investment have been made as a result of this survey to accelerate deployment of cockpit weather information systems for enhancing aviation safety.

  13. Automated turbulence forecasts for aviation hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharman, R.; Frehlich, R.; Vandenberghe, F.

    2010-09-01

    An operational turbulence forecast system for commercial and aviation use is described that is based on an ensemble of turbulence diagnostics derived from standard NWP model outputs. In the U. S. this forecast product is named GTG (Graphical Turbulence Guidance) and has been described in detail in Sharman et al., WAF 2006. Since turbulence has many sources in the atmosphere, the ensemble approach of combining diagnostics has been shown to provide greater statistical accuracy than the use of a single diagnostic, or of a subgrid tke parameterization. GTG is sponsored by the FAA, and has undergone rigorous accuracy, safety, and usability evaluations. The GTG product is now hosted on NOAA's Aviation Data Service (ADDS), web site (http://aviationweather.gov/), for access by pilots, air traffic controllers, and dispatchers. During this talk the various turbulence diagnostics, their statistical properties, and their relative performance (based on comparisons to observations) will be presented. Importantly, the model output is ɛ1/3 (where ɛ is the eddy dissipation rate), so is aircraft independent. The diagnostics are individually and collectively calibrated so that their PDFs satisfy the expected log normal distribution of ɛ^1/3. Some of the diagnostics try to take into account the role of gravity waves and inertia-gravity waves in the turbulence generation process. Although the current GTG product is based on the RUC forecast model running over the CONUS, it is transitioning to a WRF based product, and in fact WRF-based versions are currently running operationally over Taiwan and has also been implemented for use by the French Navy in climatological studies. Yet another version has been developed which uses GFS model output to provide global turbulence forecasts. Thus the forecast product is available as a postprocessing program for WRF or other model output and provides 3D maps of turbulence likelihood of any region where NWP model data is available. Although the

  14. Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks (OOBN) for Aviation Accident Modeling and Technology Portfolio Impact Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Ann T.; Ancel, Ersin; Jones, Sharon M.

    2012-01-01

    The concern for reducing aviation safety risk is rising as the National Airspace System in the United States transforms to the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen). The NASA Aviation Safety Program is committed to developing an effective aviation safety technology portfolio to meet the challenges of this transformation and to mitigate relevant safety risks. The paper focuses on the reasoning of selecting Object-Oriented Bayesian Networks (OOBN) as the technique and commercial software for the accident modeling and portfolio assessment. To illustrate the benefits of OOBN in a large and complex aviation accident model, the in-flight Loss-of-Control Accident Framework (LOCAF) constructed as an influence diagram is presented. An OOBN approach not only simplifies construction and maintenance of complex causal networks for the modelers, but also offers a well-organized hierarchical network that is easier for decision makers to exploit the model examining the effectiveness of risk mitigation strategies through technology insertions.

  15. Structured methods for identifying and correcting potential human errors in aviation operations

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, W.R.

    1997-10-01

    Human errors have been identified as the source of approximately 60% of the incidents and accidents that occur in commercial aviation. It can be assumed that a very large number of human errors occur in aviation operations, even though in most cases the redundancies and diversities built into the design of aircraft systems prevent the errors from leading to serious consequences. In addition, when it is acknowledged that many system failures have their roots in human errors that occur in the design phase, it becomes apparent that the identification and elimination of potential human errors could significantly decrease the risks of aviation operations. This will become even more critical during the design of advanced automation-based aircraft systems as well as next-generation systems for air traffic management. Structured methods to identify and correct potential human errors in aviation operations have been developed and are currently undergoing testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL).

  16. An Application of CICCT Accident Categories to Aviation Accidents in 1988-2004

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2007-01-01

    Interventions or technologies developed to improve aviation safety often focus on specific causes or accident categories. Evaluation of the potential effectiveness of those interventions is dependent upon mapping the historical aviation accidents into those same accident categories. To that end, the United States civil aviation accidents occurring between 1988 and 2004 (n=26,117) were assigned accident categories based upon the taxonomy developed by the CAST/ICAO Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). Results are presented separately for four main categories of flight rules: Part 121 (large commercial air carriers), Scheduled Part 135 (commuter airlines), Non-Scheduled Part 135 (on-demand air taxi) and Part 91 (general aviation). Injuries and aircraft damage are summarized by year and by accident category.

  17. Taxation of United States general aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobieralski, Joseph Bernard

    General aviation in the United States has been an important part of the economy and American life. General aviation is defined as all flying excluding military and scheduled airline operations, and is utilized in many areas of our society. The majority of aircraft operations and airports in the United States are categorized as general aviation, and general aviation contributes more than one percent to the United States gross domestic product each year. Despite the many benefits of general aviation, the lead emissions from aviation gasoline consumption are of great concern. General aviation emits over half the lead emissions in the United States or over 630 tons in 2005. The other significant negative externality attributed to general aviation usage is aircraft accidents. General aviation accidents have caused over 8000 fatalities over the period 1994-2006. A recent Federal Aviation Administration proposed increase in the aviation gasoline tax from 19.4 to 70.1 cents per gallon has renewed interest in better understanding the implications of such a tax increase as well as the possible optimal rate of taxation. Few studies have examined aviation fuel elasticities and all have failed to study general aviation fuel elasticities. Chapter one fills that gap and examines the elasticity of aviation gasoline consumption in United States general aviation. Utilizing aggregate time series and dynamic panel data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated. The price elasticity of demand for aviation gasoline is estimated to range from -0.093 to -0.185 in the short-run and from -0.132 to -0.303 in the long-run. These results prove to be similar in magnitude to automobile gasoline elasticities and therefore tax policies could more closely mirror those of automobile tax policies. The second chapter examines the costs associated with general aviation accidents. Given the large number of general aviation operations as well as the large number of fatalities and

  18. The role of aviation in climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fahey, D. W.

    2015-12-01

    Aviation emissions contribute to the radiative forcing (RF) of climate. Of importance are emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrogen oxides (NOx), aerosols and their precursors (soot and sulphate), and increased cloudiness in the form of persistent linear contrails and induced-cirrus cloudiness. Aviation operations have grown strongly over the past years and further growth is expected. This presentation will provide an updated perspective on new research and understanding of the role of aviation in climate and where uncertainties and gaps remain.

  19. Post stapedotomy aviation: A changing scenario

    PubMed Central

    Rajguru, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Aeromedical implications of stapedotomy like rapid barometric changes and G forces are generally thought to put an end to the aviation career of an aviator. Aviation industry has grown tremendously in the last few decades, and aviation now is not only occupational but also recreational. The Indian Military Aviation rules state that, “Stapedectomy cases will be assessed permanently unfit for flying duties. These cases will be cautioned against flying in an unpressurised aircraft.” The basis of this is the aeromedical concerns associated with stapedotomy as clinical conditions which are of minor significance on the ground may become aggravated in the air. With an ever expanding civil and military aviation industry, the number of aviators who have undergone stapedotomy has also increased. Though grounding the aircrew is the safest option, but if medical certification is denied to all, then the majority who can fly safely will also be excluded, thus denying the organization of its trained resources. This paper discusses post otosclerosis and post stapedotomy aeromedical concerns, reviews existing literature concerning post stapedotomy aviation and various post stapedotomy aviation policies. PMID:25598613

  20. Crashworthy design considerations for general aviation seats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alfaro-Bou, E.; Fasanella, E. L.; Williams, M. S.

    1985-01-01

    This report summarizes the experimental research conducted at the NASA Langley Research Center on general aviation seat and occupant crash response and discusses seat design considerations. Included are typical floor acceleration pulses from general aviation airplane crash tests, the performance of typical general aviation seats in a simulated crash environment, and the performance of prototype energy absorbing (EA) seat designs. Static and dynamic seat testing procedures and test facilities are discussed. Also presented are results from a series of dynamic tests of typical general aviation seats and prototype EA seats.

  1. Aviation turbine fuels: An assessment of alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The general outlook for aviation turbine fuels, the effect that broadening permissible aviation turbine fuel properties could have on the overall availability of such fuels, the fuel properties most likely to be affected by use of lower grade petroleum crudes, and the research and technology required to ensure that aviation turbine fuels and engines can function satisfactorily with fuels having a range of fuel properties differing from those of current specification fuel are assessed. Views of industry representatives on alternative aviation turbine fuels are presented.

  2. Post stapedotomy aviation: A changing scenario.

    PubMed

    Rajguru, Renu

    2014-01-01

    Aeromedical implications of stapedotomy like rapid barometric changes and G forces are generally thought to put an end to the aviation career of an aviator. Aviation industry has grown tremendously in the last few decades, and aviation now is not only occupational but also recreational. The Indian Military Aviation rules state that, "Stapedectomy cases will be assessed permanently unfit for flying duties. These cases will be cautioned against flying in an unpressurised aircraft." The basis of this is the aeromedical concerns associated with stapedotomy as clinical conditions which are of minor significance on the ground may become aggravated in the air. With an ever expanding civil and military aviation industry, the number of aviators who have undergone stapedotomy has also increased. Though grounding the aircrew is the safest option, but if medical certification is denied to all, then the majority who can fly safely will also be excluded, thus denying the organization of its trained resources. This paper discusses post otosclerosis and post stapedotomy aeromedical concerns, reviews existing literature concerning post stapedotomy aviation and various post stapedotomy aviation policies. PMID:25598613

  3. Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis.

    PubMed

    Basak, P Y; Turkmen, C

    2001-01-01

    Acquired perforating disorder has been recognized as an uncommon distinct dermatosis in which altered collagen is eliminated through the epidermis. Several disorders accompanied by itching and scratching were reported to be associated with reactive perforating collagenosis. A 67-year-old white woman diagnosed as acquired reactive perforating collagenosis with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and congestive cardiac failure is presented. PMID:11525959

  4. Competency-based on-the-job training for aviation maintenance and inspection--a human factors approach.

    PubMed

    Walter, D

    2000-08-01

    More than 90% of the critical skills that an aviation maintenance technician uses are acquired through on-the-job training (OJT). Yet many aviation maintenance technicians rely on a 'degenerating buddy system', 'follow Joe around', or unstructured approach to OJT. Many aspects of the aviation maintenance environment point to the need for a structured OJT program, but perhaps the most significant is the practice of job bidding which can create rapid turnover of technicians. The task analytic training system (TATS), a model for developing team-driven structured OJT was developed by the author, and first introduced in Boeing Commercial Airplane Group to provide competency-based OJT for aviation maintenance and inspection personnel. The goal of the model was not only to provide a comprehensive, highly structured training system that could be applied to any maintenance and inspection task, but also to improve team coordination, attitude and morale. The first goal was accomplished by following the systems eight-step process, the latter through incorporating human factors principles such as decision making, communication, team building and conflict resolution into the process itself. In general, the process helps to instill mutual respect and trust, enhance goal-directed behavior, strengthen technicians' self-esteem and responsiveness to new ideas and encourage technicians to make worthwhile contributions. The theoretical background of the model is addressed by illustrating how the proven training methodologies of job task analysis and job instruction training are blended with human factors principles resulting in a unique team-driven approach to training. The paper discusses major elements of the model including needs identification, outlining targeted jobs, writing and verifying training procedures, an approval system, sequencing of training, certifying trainers, implementing, employing tracking mechanisms, evaluating, and establishing a maintenance/audit plan

  5. Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues. UNO Aviation Monograph Series. UNOAI Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, Brent, Ed.

    This document contains four papers concerning collegiate aviation research and education solutions to critical safety issues. "Panel Proposal Titled Collegiate Aviation Research and Education Solutions to Critical Safety Issues for the Tim Forte Collegiate Aviation Safety Symposium" (Brent Bowen) presents proposals for panels on the following…

  6. Aviation Maintenance (Aircraft Mechanics & Aircraft & Instrument Repair Personnel). Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines career opportunities in aviation maintenance. The booklet provides the following information about aviation maintenance jobs: nature of the work, working conditions, where the jobs are, wages and benefits, opportunities for advancement, requirements to enter the job, opportunities for…

  7. Aviation and the Environment. A Selected, Annotated Bibliography Related to Aviation's Responses Toward Improving the Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Jane

    This informal, brief bibliography attempts to stress the positive side of aviation, annotating documents that explain how the airlines, aircraft engine manufacturers, government agencies, military aviation, and general aviation are meeting their responsibilities in solving environmental problems. Topics arousing public concern are identified:…

  8. 76 FR 21936 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of new task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC). SUMMARY: The FAA assigned the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) a new task...

  9. 76 FR 81009 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee-New Task

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-27

    ... recommendations related to aviation issues. On July 15, 2009, the FAA tasked ARAC (74 FR 34390) to provide advice... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee--New Task AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of new task assignment for the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory...

  10. Survey: Federal Aviation Administration National Communication Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The National Communication (NATCOM) Center (commonly known as the FAA Weather Message Switching Center), is a Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) facility with responsibility for providing communication switching services to the National Weather Service (NWS), the FAA, commercial and private flight organizations under the auspices of the FAA, and DoD. Data handled by NATCOM include weather data, flight plans, and Notices to Airmen (NOTAMS) on both national and international networks. The communications and data management functions are handled through four computer-controlled communication networks designated as WMSC, AFTN, A-BDIS, and NASNET. The functions of these networks are discussed with emphasis on those networks that support the different elements of the NWS. The primary network of concern to NASA, the WMSC (Weather Message Switching Center) network, performs approximately 60 percent of its work for the NWS, 20 percent for the State Department, and 20 percent for the FAA. This document discusses the current and future systems capabilities and workload of NATCOM in terms of new roles.

  11. Environmentally Responsible Aviation - Real Solutions for Environmental Challenges Facing Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collier, Fayette; Thomas, Russell; Burley, Casey; Nickol, Craig; Lee, Chi-Ming; Tong, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The combined reality of persistently strong growth in air traffic and the vital economic role of the air transport system result in continued demand for the progress of technology for the reduction of aircraft noise, emissions of oxides of nitrogen, and fuel burn. NASA s Environmentally Responsible Aviation (ERA) project has set aggressive goals in these three areas including a noise goal of 42 dB cumulative below the Stage 4 certification level. The goal for the reduction of oxides of nitrogen is 75% below the current standard. The fuel burn reduction goal is 50% below that of a current state-of-the-art aircraft. Furthermore, the overall goal of ERA is to mature technologies that will meet these goals simultaneously and with a timeframe of 2020 for technical readiness. This paper outlines the key technologies and the progress achieved to date toward the goals.

  12. Characteristics of successful aviation leaders of Oklahoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutz, Mary N. Hill

    Scope and method of study. The purpose of the study was to examine the personal traits, skills, practices, behaviors, background, academic, and career success patterns of selected aviation leaders in Oklahoma. A purposive sample of 18 leaders who had achieved a top-ranked position of aviation leadership in an organization or a position of influence in the community was selected for interview. The leaders chosen for interview came from a variety of aviation organizations including government, academia, military, corporate aviation, and air carrier leadership as well as community leadership (specifically those aviation personnel who were engaged in a political or civic leadership role). Findings and conclusions. This study identified no common career choices, educational, family, or other background factors exclusively responsible for leadership success of all of the participants. Some of the more significant findings were that a high percentage of the leaders held undergraduate and advanced degrees; however, success had been achieved by some who had little or no college education. Aviation technical experience was not a prerequisite for aviation leadership success in that a significant number of the participants held no airman rating and some had entered positions of aviation leadership from non-aviation related careers. All had received some positive learning experience from their family background even those backgrounds which were less than desirable. All of the participants had been involved in volunteer civic or humanitarian leadership roles, and all had received numerous honors. The most frequently identified value expressed by the leaders was honesty; the predominant management style was participative with a strong backup style for directing, the most important skills were communication and listening skills, and the most frequently mentioned characteristics of success were honesty, credibility, vision, high standards, love for aviation and fiscal

  13. The Aviation System Analysis Capability Air Carrier Cost-Benefit Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaier, Eric M.; Edlich, Alexander; Santmire, Tara S.; Wingrove, Earl R.., III

    1999-01-01

    To meet its objective of assisting the U.S. aviation industry with the technological challenges of the future, NASA must identify research areas that have the greatest potential for improving the operation of the air transportation system. Therefore, NASA is developing the ability to evaluate the potential impact of various advanced technologies. By thoroughly understanding the economic impact of advanced aviation technologies and by evaluating how the new technologies will be used in the integrated aviation system, NASA aims to balance its aeronautical research program and help speed the introduction of high-leverage technologies. To meet these objectives, NASA is building the Aviation System Analysis Capability (ASAC). NASA envisions ASAC primarily as a process for understanding and evaluating the impact of advanced aviation technologies on the U.S. economy. ASAC consists of a diverse collection of models and databases used by analysts and other individuals from the public and private sectors brought together to work on issues of common interest to organizations in the aviation community. ASAC also will be a resource available to the aviation community to analyze; inform; and assist scientists, engineers, analysts, and program managers in their daily work. The ASAC differs from previous NASA modeling efforts in that the economic behavior of buyers and sellers in the air transportation and aviation industries is central to its conception. Commercial air carriers, in particular, are an important stakeholder in this community. Therefore, to fully evaluate the implications of advanced aviation technologies, ASAC requires a flexible financial analysis tool that credibly links the technology of flight with the financial performance of commercial air carriers. By linking technical and financial information, NASA ensures that its technology programs will continue to benefit the user community. In addition, the analysis tool must be capable of being incorporated into the

  14. 76 FR 4743 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-26

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a teleconference of the...

  15. 75 FR 71791 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a teleconference of the...

  16. 75 FR 51332 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a teleconference of the...

  17. 76 FR 15041 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-18

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a teleconference of the...

  18. 75 FR 52058 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-24

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a teleconference of the...

  19. 76 FR 67018 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a teleconference of the...

  20. 75 FR 38866 - Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee-Public Teleconference

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Commercial Space Transportation Advisory Committee--Public Teleconference AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Commercial Space Transportation... Act (Pub. L. 92-463, 5 U.S.C. App. 2), notice is hereby given of a teleconference of the...

  1. 78 FR 28275 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation; Safety Approval Performance... hypobaric chamber training for crew and space flight participants to experience and demonstrate knowledge of...), FAA Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), 800 Independence Avenue SW., Room 331,...

  2. 77 FR 58607 - Office of Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance Criteria

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Office of Commercial Space Transportation Safety Approval Performance..., Licensing and Evaluation Division (AST-200), FAA Office of Commercial Space Transportation (AST), 800... Space Transportation. BILLING CODE 4910-13-P...

  3. 77 FR 20531 - Correction of Authority Citations for Commercial Space Transportation

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-05

    ...] Correction of Authority Citations for Commercial Space Transportation AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration... the FAA's commercial space transportation regulations. This action is necessary to correct affected... Space Transportation, Office of the Chief Counsel, Regulations Division, AGC-200, Federal...

  4. Comments on the problem of turbulence in aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclean, James C., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The problem of turbulence since the beginning of aviation is traced. The problem was not cured by high altitude flight and was acerbated by the downbursts associated with thunderstorms. The accidents that occurred during the period 1982 to 1984 are listed. From this is extracted the weather related accidents. Turbulence accounts for 24% of the accidents involving large commercial carriers and 54% of the weather related accidents. In spite of all the efforts to improve the forecasting and detection of turbulence, the problem is still a large one.

  5. A method for monitoring the variability in nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sprinkle, Danny R.; Shen, Chih-Ping

    1988-01-01

    A technique for monitoring variability in the nuclear absorption characteristics of aviation fuels has been developed. It is based on a highly collimated low energy gamma radiation source and a sodium iodide counter. The source and the counter assembly are separated by a geometrically well-defined test fuel cell. A computer program for determining the mass attenuation coefficient of the test fuel sample, based on the data acquired for a preset counting period, has been developed and tested on several types of aviation fuel.

  6. Systems Engineering of Coast Guard Aviator Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Eugene R.; Caro, Paul W.

    This paper describes a total-program application of the systems engineering concept of the U.S. Coast Guard aviation training programs. The systems approach used treats all aspects of the training to produce the most cost-effective integration of academic, synthetic, and flight training for the production of graduate Coast Guard aviators. The…

  7. Aviation system modeling study and alternatives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The Aviation System Modeling Study was directed toward two primary goals: an improved understanding of the U.S. aviation system, and technology. There are three major categories into which the individual study efforts may be subdivided. These three categories are: special issue studies, task studies, and data base development.

  8. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any...

  9. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any...

  10. Agricultural aviation application in the USA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The United States has the most advanced equipment and applications in agricultural aviation. It also has a complete service system in agricultural aviation. This article introduces the current status of aerial application including service, equipment, and aerial application techniques. It has a c...

  11. The Politics of Aviation English Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alderson, J. Charles

    2011-01-01

    The International Civil Aviation Association has developed a set of Language Proficiency Requirements (LPRs) and a Language Proficiency Rating Scale, which seeks to define proficiency in the language needed for aviation purposes at six different levels. Pilots, air traffic controllers and aeronautical station operators are required to achieve at…

  12. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any...

  13. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any...

  14. 19 CFR 122.167 - Aviation smuggling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aviation smuggling. 122.167 Section 122.167 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Penalties § 122.167 Aviation smuggling. (a) Civil penalties. Any...

  15. Aviation System Analysis Capability Executive Assistant Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, Eileen; Kostiuk, Peter

    1999-01-01

    This document describes the analyses that may be incorporated into the Aviation System Analysis Capability Executive Assistant. The document will be used as a discussion tool to enable NASA and other integrated aviation system entities to evaluate, discuss, and prioritize analyses.

  16. Air Age Education. Aviation Career Awareness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Edwin T.

    Described is a program designed to help introduce the broad scope of occupational careers available with general aviation. The program is designed to aid the teacher in presenting the basic principles of flight, essential facts about general aviation as well as its occupational opportunities. It replaces previous elementary student materials, and…

  17. Aviation Career Awareness Program [and Related Materials].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petrie, Edwin T.

    The learning packet focuses on general aviation and is to be used in career awareness programs at the elementary level. It includes a document which presents a group of units on general aviation and its related careers. The units include the following: (1) aircraft manufacturing, (2) instruments and controls, (3) how airplanes fly, (4) flight…

  18. Machinist's Mate J 1 and C: Aviation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Training Publications Center, Memphis, TN.

    The rate training manual is one of a series of training manuals prepared for enlisted personnel of the Navy and Naval Reserve studying for advancement from the Aviation Machinist's Mate ADJ2 rating to ADJ1 to ADJC. Aviation Machinist's Mates J maintain aircraft jet engines and their related systems. Chpater 1 discusses the enlisted rating…

  19. A Survey of the Aviation Mechanics Occupation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, David; Bowers, William K.

    The report documents the results of a national survey of the aviation mechanics' occupation. The study surveyed 151 companies in the four industrial categories of the aviation industry and was concerned only with the certificated airframe and powerplant mechanic. Results of the study provide the following: (1) identification of the technical…

  20. Meteorological Input to General Aviation Pilot Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colomy, J. R.

    1979-01-01

    The meteorological education of general aviation pilots is discussed in terms of the definitions and concepts of learning and good educational procedures. The effectiveness of the metoeorological program in the training of general aviations pilots is questioned. It is suggested that flight instructors provide real experience during low ceilings and visibilities, and that every pilot receiving an instrument rating should experience real instrument flight.

  1. Aviation & Space Curriculum Guide K-3. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama State Dept. of Education, Montgomery.

    This guide is designed for teachers of grades K-3 who have little or no experience in the area of aviation or space. The purpose of this guide is to provide an array of aviation and space activities which may be used by teachers to enrich locally-designed programs. Units in this book include: (1) History of Aerospace; (2) Kinds and Uses of…

  2. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The study deals with 165 inadvertent operations on or into inappropriate portions of the aircraft areas at controlled airports. Pilot-initiated and controller-initiated incursions are described and discussed. It was found that a majority of the pilot-initiated occurrences involved operation without a clearance; controller-initiated occurrences usually involved failure to maintain assured separation. The factors associated with these occurrences are analyzed. It appears that a major problem in these occurrences is inadequate coordination among the various system participants. Reasons for this, and some possible solutions to various aspects of the problem, are discussed. A sample of reports from pilots and controllers is presented. These relate to undesired occurrences in air transport, general aviation, and air traffic control operations; to ATC coordination problems; and to a recurrent problem in ASRS reports, parachuting operations. A sample of alert bulletins and responses to them is presented.

  3. Studies in general aviation aerodynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winkelmann, Allen E.

    1990-01-01

    The Department of Aerospace Engineering at the University of Maryland has completed a research study for NASA Langley on the application of drooped leading edges to high aspect wings. The experimental study conducted for this grant was a natural extension of work previously conducted at NASA Ames, the University of Michigan, NASA Langley and the University of Maryland. Previous research had shown that wing planform modifications (commonly referred to as drooped leading edge mods) could have a significant effect on reducing or eliminating the stall/spin characteristics of General Aviation (GA) aircraft. All aircraft studied in the earlier work had relatively low aspect ratio wings (AR = 6). Since future GA aircraft will feature higher aspect ratio wings, the obvious question was: how well will the dropped leading edge work on higher aspect ratio wings? The focus of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of the drooped leading edge modifications to higher aspect ratio wings with AR = 9 to 12.

  4. NASA general aviation technology programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winblade, R. L.

    1975-01-01

    This paper describes the status of the current NASA programs that are aimed at providing new technology for aircraft designs that will improve both safety and utility while reducing the environmental impact of general aviation to acceptable levels. Safety related areas that are discussed include the full scale crash test program and the stall/spin research effort. Among the programs addressing increased utility and performance, advanced airfoil developments and engine cooling drag reduction are discussed. Noise and emission reduction is a subject that is receiving significant emphasis within the NASA programs. Also included is a description of the current status of the hydrogen injection concept as a means of both lowering emissions and increasing fuel economy.

  5. Aviation/Aerospace Teacher Education Workshops: Program Development and Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Mavis F.

    1998-01-01

    Describes an aviation/aerospace teacher-education workshop that allows elementary school teachers to become familiar with aviation fundamentals and issues and with ways to incorporate aviation topics into their curricula. (JOW)

  6. 78 FR 14912 - International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program Change

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-08

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 129 International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) Program... statement describes a policy change to the FAA's International Aviation Safety Assessment (IASA) program... INFORMATION CONTACT: Manager of the International Programs and Policy Division (AFS-50), Flight...

  7. 78 FR 20685 - Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... SECURITY Transportation Security Administration Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) Meeting AGENCY... Committee Meeting. SUMMARY: The Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) will meet in Arlington, VA. This.... L. 92-463). The Aviation Security Advisory Committee (ASAC) provides advice and...

  8. Aviation Research and the Internet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scott, Antoinette M.

    1995-01-01

    The Internet is a network of networks. It was originally funded by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency or DOD/DARPA and evolved in part from the connection of supercomputer sites across the United States. The National Science Foundation (NSF) made the most of their supercomputers by connecting the sites to each other. This made the supercomputers more efficient and now allows scientists, engineers and researchers to access the supercomputers from their own labs and offices. The high speed networks that connect the NSF supercomputers form the backbone of the Internet. The World Wide Web (WWW) is a menu system. It gathers Internet resources from all over the world into a series of screens that appear on your computer. The WWW is also a distributed. The distributed system stores data information on many computers (servers). These servers can go out and get data when you ask for it. Hypermedia is the base of the WWW. One can 'click' on a section and visit other hypermedia (pages). Our approach to demonstrating the importance of aviation research through the Internet began with learning how to put pages on the Internet (on-line) ourselves. We were assigned two aviation companies; Vision Micro Systems Inc. and Innovative Aerodynamic Technologies (IAT). We developed home pages for these SBIR companies. The equipment used to create the pages were the UNIX and Macintosh machines. HTML Supertext software was used to write the pages and the Sharp JX600S scanner to scan the images. As a result, with the use of the UNIX, Macintosh, Sun, PC, and AXIL machines, we were able to present our home pages to over 800,000 visitors.

  9. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a kidney transplant or blood-filtering treatments called dialysis. The cysts are more likely to develop in people who are on kidney dialysis. The chance of developing acquired cystic kidney disease ...

  10. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... tends to be more serious than other lung infections because: People in the hospital are often very sick and cannot fight off ... prevent pneumonia. Most hospitals have programs to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  11. Scientific Contributions to Aviation Safety: A User's Perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stills, M.; Guffanti, M.; Salinas, L.

    2009-12-01

    Volcanic ash poses a significant threat to aviation, and steps are taken by commercial operators to avoid encounters in order to protect the safety of passengers and crews. To minimize the risk of damage to aircraft, pilots, dispatchers, and meteorologists plan routes that avoid ash and sometimes execute fuel stops and/or diversions when necessary. Preventing damaging encounters to ensure safety is paramount, but route changes and diversions need to be as efficient as possible in terms of time and fuel expended. Many airlines have experience dealing with possible ash hazards, and dispatchers, pilots, and weather units rely heavily on information from volcano and meteorological scientists. Formal warning messages from civil aviation authorities and aviation weather offices also are an integral part of all operational decisions. Airline operation centers need a range of products and services from scientific groups, including: global synoptic views of activity that may impact flight routes; specific forecasts (predictions) of impending volcanic activity; clear descriptions of ash-dispersion model capabilities and remote-sensing detection techniques. More in-depth issues may also need to be addressed such as dispersion model differences; satellite sensor inadequacy, as it relates to the detection of specific physical phenomena; clarity of labeling of time-series data, such as sequential remote-sensing imagery; and direct access to subject matter experts during events. Information flow needs to be consistent and issued at specific intervals and in specific formats to facilitate procedural development in the aviation community. These issues provide a strong argument in the United States for continued collaboration among air carriers, Volcano Observatories, and Volcanic Ash Advisory Centers.

  12. 75 FR 1834 - Membership Availability in the National Parks Overflights Advisory Group Aviation; Rulemaking...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ...The National Park Service (NPS) and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), as required by the National Parks Air Tour Management Act of 2000, established the National Parks Overflights Advisory Group (NPOAG) in March 2001. The NPOAG was formed to provide continuing advice and counsel with respect to commercial air tour operations over and near national parks. This notice informs the public......

  13. 78 FR 25338 - Membership in the National Parks Overflights Advisory Group Aviation Rulemaking Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... FR 5242-5243, January 24, 2013) the National Park Service (NPS) and the Federal Aviation... concerns due to the incumbent member's completion of a three-year term appointment on October 9, 2012. By... persons to apply to fill one opening on the NPOAG ARC to fill a vacancy representing commercial air...

  14. 78 FR 52818 - Notice of Meeting of the National Parks Overflights Advisory Group Aviation Rulemaking Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-26

    ... NPOAG be a balanced group of representatives of general aviation, commercial air tour operations... how the public may access this conference call in a ``listen mode'' will be posted on the FAA's ATMP.../headquarters_offices/arc/programs/air_tour_management_plan/ or through the Special Programs Staff,...

  15. Flight duration, airspeed practices and altitude management of airplanes involved in the NASA VGH General Aviation Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jewel, Joseph W., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Flight duration, airspeed, and altitude information obtained from NASA velocity gravity height (VGH) recorders is presented for each of 95 general aviation airplanes flown in twin- and single-engine executive, personal, instructional, commercial survey, aerial application, aerobatic, commuter, and float operations. These data complement normal acceleration data obtained from the same airplanes and reported in NASA-TM-84660, and together they provide a data base for the design and analysis of general aviation airplane operations.

  16. The Rotary Combustion Engine: a Candidate for General Aviation. [conferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The state of development of the rotary combustion engine is discussed. The nonturbine engine research programs for general aviation and future requirements for general aviation powerplants are emphasized.

  17. The role of the helicopter in transportation. [technology assessment for use in civil aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dajani, J. S.; Warner, D.; Epstein, D.; Obrien, J.

    1976-01-01

    A general overview is presented of the role that the helicopter plays in the current aviation scene with special emphasis on its use in the airport access function. Technological problems of present-day aircraft are discussed along with some plausible solutions. The economic and regulatory aspects of commercial helicopter operations are presented. Finally six commercial operations utilizing helicopters are reviewed and conditions that enhance the success of the helicopter in the airport access function are proposed.

  18. Synthetic vision in the cockpit: 3D systems for general aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Andrew J.; Rybacki, Richard M.; Smith, W. Garth

    2001-08-01

    Synthetic vision has the potential to improve safety in aviation through better pilot situational awareness and enhanced navigational guidance. The technological advances enabling synthetic vision are GPS based navigation (position and attitude) systems and efficient graphical systems for rendering 3D displays in the cockpit. A benefit for military, commercial, and general aviation platforms alike is the relentless drive to miniaturize computer subsystems. Processors, data storage, graphical and digital signal processing chips, RF circuitry, and bus architectures are at or out-pacing Moore's Law with the transition to mobile computing and embedded systems. The tandem of fundamental GPS navigation services such as the US FAA's Wide Area and Local Area Augmentation Systems (WAAS) and commercially viable mobile rendering systems puts synthetic vision well with the the technological reach of general aviation. Given the appropriate navigational inputs, low cost and power efficient graphics solutions are capable of rendering a pilot's out-the-window view into visual databases with photo-specific imagery and geo-specific elevation and feature content. Looking beyond the single airframe, proposed aviation technologies such as ADS-B would provide a communication channel for bringing traffic information on-board and into the cockpit visually via the 3D display for additional pilot awareness. This paper gives a view of current 3D graphics system capability suitable for general aviation and presents a potential road map following the current trends.

  19. Demonstration of alcohol as an aviation fuel

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    A recently funded Southeastern Regional Biomass Energy Program (SERBEP) project with Baylor University will demonstrate the effectiveness of ethanols as an aviation fuel while providing several environmental and economic benefits. Part of this concern is caused by the petroleum industry. The basis for the petroleum industry to find an alternative aviation fuel will be dictated mainly by economic considerations. Three other facts compound the problem. First is the disposal of oil used in engines burning leaded fuel. This oil will contain too much lead to be burned in incinerators and will have to be treated as a toxic waste with relatively high disposal fees. Second, as a result of a greater demand for alkalites to be used in the automotive reformulated fuel, the costs of these components are likely to increase. Third, the Montreal Protocol will ban in 1998 the use of Ethyl-Di-Bromide, a lead scavenger used in leaded aviation fuel. Without a lead scavenger, leaded fuels cannot be used. The search for alternatives to leaded aviation fuels has been underway by different organizations for some time. As part of the search for alternatives, the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) at Baylor University in Waco, Texas, has received a grant from the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to improve the efficiencies of ethanol powered aircraft engines and to test other non-petroleum alternatives to aviation fuel.

  20. A gap analysis of meteorological requirements for commercial space operators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stapleton, Nicholas James

    Commercial space companies will soon be the primary method of launching people and supplies into orbit. Among the critical aspects of space launches are the meteorological concerns. Laws and regulations pertaining to meteorological considerations have been created to ensure the safety of the space industry and those living around spaceports; but, are they adequate? Perhaps the commercial space industry can turn to the commercial aviation industry to help answer that question. Throughout its history, the aviation industry has dealt with lessons learned from mishaps due to failures in understanding the significance of weather impacts on operations. Using lessons from the aviation industry, the commercial space industry can preempt such accidents and maintain viability as an industry. Using Lanicci's Strategic Planning Model, this study identified the weather needs of the commercial space industry by conducting three gap analyses. First, a comparative analysis was done between laws and regulations in commercial aviation and those in the commercial space industry pertaining to meteorological support, finding a "legislative gap" between the two industries, as no legal guarantee is in place to ensure weather products remain available to the commercial space industry. A second analysis was conducted between the meteorological services provided for the commercial aviation industry and commercial space industry, finding a gap at facilities not located at an established launch facility or airport. At such facilities, many weather observational technologies would not be present, and would need to be purchased by the company operating the spaceport facility. A third analysis was conducted between the meteorological products and regulations that are currently in existence, and those needed for safe operations within the commercial space industry, finding gaps in predicting lightning, electric field charge, and space weather. Recommendations to address these deficiencies have

  1. [Safety in intensive care medicine. Can we learn from aviation?].

    PubMed

    Graf, J; Pump, S; Maas, W; Stüben, U

    2012-05-01

    Safety is of extraordinary value in commercial aviation. Therefore, sophisticated and complex systems have been developed to ensure safe operation. Within this system, the pilots are of specific concern: they form the human-machine interface and have a special responsibility in controlling and monitoring all aircraft systems. In order to prepare pilots for their challenging task, specific selection of suitable candidates is crucial. In addition, for every commercial pilot regulatory requirements demand a certain number of simulator training sessions and check flights to be completed at prespecified intervals. In contrast, career choice for intensive care medicine most likely depends on personal reasons rather than eligibility or aptitude. In intensive care medicine, auditing, licensing, or mandatory training are largely nonexistent. Although knowledge of risk management and safety culture in aviation can be transferred to the intensive care unit, the diversity of corporate culture and tradition of leadership and training will represent a barrier for the direct transfer of standards or procedures. To accomplish this challenging task, the analysis of appropriate fields of action with regard to structural requirements and the process of change are essential. PMID:22526119

  2. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach. PMID:26186969

  3. Commercial jet transport crashworthiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Widmayer, E.; Brende, O. B.

    1982-01-01

    The results of a study to identify areas of research and approaches that may result in improved occupant survivability and crashworthiness of transport aircraft are given. The study defines areas of structural crashworthiness for transport aircraft which might form the basis for a research program. A 10-year research and development program to improve the structural impact resistance of general aviation and commercial jet transport aircraft is planned. As part of this program parallel studies were conducted to review the accident experience of commercial transport aircraft, assess the accident performance of structural components and the status of impact resistance technology, and recommend areas of research and development for that 10-year plan. The results of that study are also given.

  4. NASA aviation safety reporting system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    A sample of reports relating to operations during winter weather is presented. Several reports involving problems of judgment and decisionmaking have been selected from the numerous reports representative of this area. Problems related to aeronautical charts are discussed in a number of reports. An analytic study of reports involving potential conflicts in the immediate vicinity of uncontrolled airports was performed; the results are discussed in this report. It was found that in three-fourths of 127 such conflicts, neither pilot, or only one of the pilots, was communicating position and intentions on the appropriate frequency. The importance of providing aural transfer of information, as a backup to the visual see and avoid mode of information transfer is discussed. It was also found that a large fraction of pilots involved in potential conflicts on final approach had executed straight-in approaches, rather than the recommended traffic pattern entries, prior to the conflicts. A selection of alert bulletins and responses to them by various segments of the aviation community is presented.

  5. Collaboration with aviation — The key to commercialisation of space activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, Patrick; Funatsu, Yoshiyuki

    2000-07-01

    The US government's Commercial Space Act of 1998 and commitment to commercialise the International Space Station's operations have changed the direction of space development in the post-cold-war world definitively. During 1998 also the feasibility and great economic potential of space travel by the general public was acknowledged in publications by NASA, AIAA and the Japanese Keidanren. However, crewed space activities are all taxpayer-funded, primarily for scientific research; they have involved only a few hundred people traveling to space to date; and those involved have no experience of commercial passenger service operations. By contrast, aviation is a global industry, largely commercial, involving the range of activities from engineering design to marketing, and serving more than 1 billion passengers/year. Aviation has very high safety levels developed over decades of experience of carrying billions of passengers. Furthermore, the aviation industry also has extensive experience of operating rocket-powered piloted vehicles: during the 1950s several countries operated such vehicles sufficiently frequently to develop routine operations, maintenance and repair procedures. Consequently, in order to develop safe and profitable passenger travel services to, from and in space, people, companies and organisations with experience of space activities have a great deal to gain from collaboration with all parts of the aviation industry. Due to the potential economic value of this development, and the high cost to taxpayers of space activities today, governments should take steps to start this collaboration as soon as possible.

  6. FAA Aviation Research Grant Program and Aviation Research Centers of Excellence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Fred W.

    1993-04-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) has been granted the authority to issue research grants and to establish aviation research centers of excellence. This flexible instrument is of benefit to the FAA and to colleges, universities and other appropriate research institutions. Its purpose is to encourage and support innovative, advanced research in areas of potential benefit to the long-term growth of civil aviation. The following discussion outlines some of the principal features and indicates areas of interest to the FAA.

  7. The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    This is the fourteenth in a series of reports based on safety-related incidents submitted to the NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System by pilots, controllers, and, occasionally, other participants in the National Aviation System (refs. 1-13). ASRS operates under a memorandum of agreement between the National Aviation and Space Administration and the Federal Aviation Administration. The report contains, first, a special study prepared by the ASRS Office Staff, of pilot- and controller-submitted reports related to the perceived operation of the ATC system since the 1981 walkout of the controllers' labor organization. Next is a research paper analyzing incidents occurring while single-pilot crews were conducting IFR flights. A third section presents a selection of Alert Bulletins issued by ASRS, with the responses they have elicited from FAA and others concerned. Finally, the report contains a list of publications produced by ASRS with instructions for obtaining them.

  8. Civil Aviation and the Occupational Outlook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Aerospace Education, 1975

    1975-01-01

    Describes the nature of the aerospace industry and the types of occupations available in the industry as well as information on training, advancement opportunities and the employment outlook in the future of civil aviation. (BR)

  9. 78 FR 25337 - Federal Aviation Administration

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Agency Information Collection Activities: Requests for Comments; Clearance... Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: In accordance with the...

  10. Changing the Landscape of Civil Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russo, Carol J.

    1997-01-01

    NASA is undertaking several bold new initiatives to develop revolutionary technologies for civil aviation. These technologies span the civil aviation fleet from general aviation to large subsonic and supersonic aircraft and promise to bring a new era of new aircraft, lower operation costs, faster more direct flight capabilities, more environmentally friendly aircraft, and safer airline operations. These initiatives have specific quantified goals that require technologies well beyond those currently being developed creating a bold new vision for aeronautics. Revolutionary propulsion systems are enabling for these advancements. This paper gives an overview of the new national aeronautics goals and explores for a selected subset of goals some of the revolutionary technologies will be required to meet some of these goals. The focus of the paper is on the pivotal role propulsion and icing technologies will play in changing the landscape of civil aviation.

  11. Career Education: Educating Future Aviation Executives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carkeet, John

    1980-01-01

    Provides a broad view of college preparation necessary for students entering an aviation executive education program. Also lists important qualifications to be noted when interviewing prospective faculty members for teaching positions in this area of college education. (CS)

  12. The climate impact of aviation aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gettelman, A.; Chen, C.

    2013-06-01

    A comprehensive general circulation model (GCM) is used to estimate the climate impact of aviation emissions of black carbon (BC) and sulfate (SO4) aerosols. Aviation BC is found not to exert significant radiative forcing impacts, when BC nucleating efficiencies in line with observations are used. Sulfate emissions from aircraft are found to alter liquid clouds at altitudes below emission (˜200 hPa); contributing to shortwave cloud brightening through enhanced liquid water path and drop number concentration in major flight corridors, particularly in the N. Atlantic. Global averaged sulfate direct and indirect effects on liquid clouds of 46 mWm-2are larger than the warming effect of aviation induced cloudiness of 16 mWm-2. The net result of including contrail cirrus and aerosol effects is a global averaged cooling of -21±11 mWm-2. These aerosol forcings should be considered with contrails in evaluating the total global impact of aviation on climate.

  13. Enabling America's Next Generation of Aviation Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Viewgraphs o America's Next Generation of Aviation Vehicles are presented. The topics include: 1) UAV's- Unlimited Applications; 2) Global Challenges; 3) UAV/CNS Overview; 4) Communications; 5) Navigation; and 6) Surveillance.

  14. Acquired Brain Injury Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

    This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

  15. Acquired von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Petrini, P

    1999-05-01

    Acquired von Willebrand disease (AvWD) is a syndrome that has clinical and laboratory features similar to hereditary vWD. In contrast to the latter it occurs in patients without a family history of previous bleeding tendency. PMID:23401904

  16. General Aviation Turbine Engine (GATE) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baerst, C. F.; Furst, D. G.

    1979-01-01

    The feasibility of turbine engines for the smaller general aviation aircraft was investigated and a technology program for developing the necessary technology was identified. Major results included the definition of the 1988 general aviation market, the identification of turboprop and turboshaft engines that meet the requirements of the aircraft studies, a benefit analysis showing the superiority of gas turbine engines for portions of the market studied, and detailed plans for the development of the necessary technology.

  17. Directions in civil aviation 1980-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, L.

    1977-01-01

    The following future directions in civil aviation are considered: (1) greater economy and efficiency in passenger and cargo air service at subsonic speeds, and improved utility and safety for general aviation, (2) greatly improved short haul air transportation using turbofan or turboprop aircraft, and subsequently, rotorcraft and V/STOL aircraft, and (3) supersonic, and ultimately hypersonic, air transportation for transoceanic long range flight. Attention is also given to new directions in research and technology.

  18. Monodisperse atomizers for agricultural aviation applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen, L. S.; Steely, S. L.

    1980-01-01

    Conceptual designs of two monodisperse spray nozzles are described and the rationale used in each design is discussed. The nozzles were designed to eliminate present problems in agricultural aviation applications, such as ineffective plant coverage, drift due to small droplets present in the spray being dispersed, and nonuniform swath coverages. Monodisperse atomization techniques are reviewed and a synopsis of the information obtained concerning agricultural aviation spray applications is presented.

  19. 77 FR 69916 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation... public of a meeting of the Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee. DATES: The meeting will be held on December 6, 2012, at 1:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal...

  20. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  1. 14 CFR 183.21 - Aviation Medical Examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aviation Medical Examiners. 183.21 Section 183.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Aviation Medical Examiners. An Aviation Medical Examiner may— (a) Accept applications for...

  2. 14 CFR 183.21 - Aviation Medical Examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Aviation Medical Examiners. 183.21 Section 183.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Aviation Medical Examiners. An Aviation Medical Examiner may— (a) Accept applications for...

  3. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  4. 78 FR 11728 - Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-19

    ... Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee; Meeting AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice of Aviation Rulemaking Advisory Committee (ARAC) meeting. SUMMARY: The... held on March 5, 2013, at 1:00 p.m. ADDRESSES: The meeting will take place at the Federal...

  5. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  6. 14 CFR 183.21 - Aviation Medical Examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Aviation Medical Examiners. 183.21 Section 183.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Aviation Medical Examiners. An Aviation Medical Examiner may— (a) Accept applications for...

  7. 14 CFR 183.21 - Aviation Medical Examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aviation Medical Examiners. 183.21 Section 183.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Aviation Medical Examiners. An Aviation Medical Examiner may— (a) Accept applications for...

  8. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Alternative Communications and Dispatching Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Procedures Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation 80 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... No. 80 Special Federal Aviation Regulation 80—Alternative Communications and Dispatching Procedures 1. Applicability. This Special Federal Aviation Regulation applies to each holder of an air carrier or...

  9. 14 CFR 183.21 - Aviation Medical Examiners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Aviation Medical Examiners. 183.21 Section 183.21 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED... Aviation Medical Examiners. An Aviation Medical Examiner may— (a) Accept applications for...

  10. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  11. 14 CFR 153.5 - Aviation safety inspector airport access.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Aviation safety inspector airport access. 153.5 Section 153.5 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRPORTS AIRPORT OPERATIONS Aviation Safety Inspector Access § 153.5 Aviation...

  12. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Alternative Communications and Dispatching Procedures

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Procedures Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation 80 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... No. 80 Special Federal Aviation Regulation 80—Alternative Communications and Dispatching Procedures 1. Applicability. This Special Federal Aviation Regulation applies to each holder of an air carrier or...

  13. 75 FR 61812 - Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... Office of the Secretary Future of Aviation Advisory Committee (FAAC) AGENCY: U.S. Department of Transportation, Office of the Secretary of Transportation. ACTION: The Future of Aviation Advisory Committee... Federal Aviation Administration's Western-Pacific Region Headquarters Building, 15000 Aviation...

  14. 76 FR 11308 - Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap Annual Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... TRANSPORTATION Federal Aviation Administration Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap Annual Meeting AGENCY: Federal... interested persons that the First Annual Meeting of the Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap will be held on April... solutions. DATES: The First Annual Meeting of the Aviation Noise Impacts Roadmap will be held on April...

  15. Cooperative Demonstration Program To Train Aviation Maintenance Technicians. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alabama Aviation and Technical Coll., Ozark.

    The Alabama Aviation and Technical College, working with representatives of the aviation industry, the military, the Alabama Department of Aeronautics, and the Federal Aviation Administration, developed a training program for aviation maintenance technicians. The program also aimed to emphasize and expand opportunities for minorities, females, and…

  16. A case for biofuels in aviation

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    In the last 15 years, the technical and the economic feasibility of biomass based fuels for general aviation piston engines has been proven. Exhaustive ground and flight tests performed at the Renewable Aviation Fuels Development Center (RAFDC) using ethanol, ethanol/methanol blends, and ETBE have proven these fuels to be superior to aviation gasoline (avgas) in all aspects of performance except range. Two series of Lycoming engines have been certified. Record flights, including a transatlantic flight on pure ethanol, were made to demonstrate the reliability of the fuel. Aerobatic demonstrations with aircraft powered by ethanol, ethanol/methanol, and ETBE were flown at major airshows around the world. the use of bio-based fuels for aviation will benefit energy security, improve the balance of trade, domestic economy, and environmental quality. The United States has the resources to supply the aviation community`s needs with a domestically produced fuel using current available technology. The adoption of a renewable fuel in place of conventional petroleum-based fuels for aviation piston and turbine engines is long overdue.

  17. Initial Cognitive Performance Predicts Longitudinal Aviator Performance

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Booil; Adamson, Maheen M.; Kennedy, Quinn; Noda, Art; Hernandez, Beatriz; Zeitzer, Jamie M.; Friedman, Leah F.; Fairchild, Kaci; Scanlon, Blake K.; Murphy, Greer M.; Taylor, Joy L.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. The goal of the study was to improve prediction of longitudinal flight simulator performance by studying cognitive factors that may moderate the influence of chronological age. Method. We examined age-related change in aviation performance in aircraft pilots in relation to baseline cognitive ability measures and aviation expertise. Participants were aircraft pilots (N = 276) aged 40–77.9. Flight simulator performance and cognition were tested yearly; there were an average of 4.3 (± 2.7; range 1–13) data points per participant. Each participant was classified into one of the three levels of aviation expertise based on Federal Aviation Administration pilot proficiency ratings: least, moderate, or high expertise. Results. Addition of measures of cognitive processing speed and executive function to a model of age-related change in aviation performance significantly improved the model. Processing speed and executive function performance interacted such that the slowest rate of decline in flight simulator performance was found in aviators with the highest scores on tests of these abilities. Expertise was beneficial to pilots across the age range studied; however, expertise did not show evidence of reducing the effect of age. Discussion. These data suggest that longitudinal performance on an important real-world activity can be predicted by initial assessment of relevant cognitive abilities. PMID:21586627

  18. AWE: Aviation Weather Data Visualization Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Weather is one of the major causes of aviation accidents. General aviation (GA) flights account for 92% of all the aviation accidents, In spite of all the official and unofficial sources of weather visualization tools available to pilots, there is an urgent need for visualizing several weather related data tailored for general aviation pilots. Our system, Aviation Weather Data Visualization Environment AWE), presents graphical displays of meteorological observations, terminal area forecasts, and winds aloft forecasts onto a cartographic grid specific to the pilot's area of interest. Decisions regarding the graphical display and design are made based on careful consideration of user needs. Integral visual display of these elements of weather reports is designed for the use of GA pilots as a weather briefing and route selection tool. AWE provides linking of the weather information to the flight's path and schedule. The pilot can interact with the system to obtain aviation-specific weather for the entire area or for his specific route to explore what-if scenarios and make "go/no-go" decisions. The system, as evaluated by some pilots at NASA Ames Research Center, was found to be useful.

  19. Aviation Frontiers: On-Demand Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Mark D.

    2010-01-01

    Throughout the 20th Century, NASA has defined the forefront of aeronautical technology, and the aviation industry owes much of its prosperity to this knowledge and technology. In recent decades, centralized aeronautics has become a mature discipline, which raises questions concerning the future aviation innovation frontiers. Three transformational aviation capabilities, bounded together by the development of a Free Flight airspace management system, have the potential to transform 21st Century society as profoundly as civil aviation transformed the 20th Century. These mobility breakthroughs will re-establish environmental sustainable centralized aviation, while opening up latent markets for civil distributed sensing and on-demand rural and regional transportation. Of these three transformations, on-demand aviation has the potential to have the largest market and productivity improvement to society. The information system revolution over the past 20 years shows that vehicles lead, and the interconnecting infrastructure to make them more effective follows; that is, unless on-demand aircraft are pioneered, a distributed Air Traffic Control system will likely never be established. There is no single technology long-pole that will enable on-demand vehicle solutions. However, fully digital aircraft that include electric propulsion has the potential to be a multi-disciplinary initiator of solid state technologies that can provide order of magnitude improvements in the ease of use, safety/reliability, community and environmental friendliness, and affordability.

  20. GASP- GENERAL AVIATION SYNTHESIS PROGRAM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Galloway, T. L.

    1994-01-01

    The General Aviation Synthesis Program, GASP, was developed to perform tasks generally associated with the preliminary phase of aircraft design. GASP gives the analyst the capability of performing parametric studies in a rapid manner during preliminary design efforts. During the development of GASP, emphasis was placed on small fixed-wing aircraft employing propulsion systems varying from a single piston engine with a fixed pitch propeller through twin turboprop/turbofan systems as employed in business or transport type aircraft. The program is comprised of modules representing the various technical disciplines of design, integrated into a computational flow which ensures that the interacting effects of design variables are continuously accounted for in the aircraft sizing procedures. GASP provides a useful tool for comparing configurations, assessing aircraft performance and economics, and performing tradeoff and sensitivity studies. By utilizing GASP, the impact of various aircraft requirements and design factors may be studied in a systematic manner, with benefits being measured in terms of overall aircraft performance and economics. The GASP program consists of a control module and six "technology" submodules which perform the various independent studies required in the design of general aviation or small transport type aircraft. The six technology modules include geometry, aerodynamics, propulsion, weight and balance, mission analysis, and economics. The geometry module calculates the dimensions of the synthesized aircraft components based on such input parameters as number of passengers, aspect ratio, taper ratio, sweep angles, and thickness of wing and tail surfaces. The aerodynamics module calculates the various lift and drag coefficients of the synthesized aircraft based on inputs concerning configuration geometry, flight conditions, and type of high lift device. The propulsion module determines the engine size and performance for the synthesized aircraft

  1. NASA Alternative Aviation Fuel Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, B. E.; Beyersdorf, A. J.; Thornhill, K. L., II; Moore, R.; Shook, M.; Winstead, E.; Ziemba, L. D.; Crumeyrolle, S.

    2015-12-01

    We present an overview of research conducted by NASA Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate to evaluate the performance and emissions of "drop-in" alternative jet fuels, highlighting experiment design and results from the Alternative Aviation Fuel Experiments (AAFEX-I & -II) and Alternative Fuel-Effects on Contrails and Cruise Emissions flight series (ACCESS-I & II). These projects included almost 100 hours of sampling exhaust emissions from the NASA DC-8 aircraft in both ground and airborne operation and at idle to takeoff thrust settings. Tested fuels included Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthetic kerosenes manufactured from coal and natural-gas feedstocks; Hydro-treated Esters and Fatty-Acids (HEFA) fuels made from beef-tallow and camelina-plant oil; and 50:50 blends of these alternative fuels with Jet A. Experiments were also conducted with FT and Jet A fuels doped with tetrahydrothiophene to examine the effects of fuel sulfur on volatile aerosol and contrail formation and microphysical properties. Results indicate that although the absence of aromatic compounds in the alternative fuels caused DC-8 fuel-system leaks, the fuels did not compromise engine performance or combustion efficiency. And whereas the alternative fuels produced only slightly different gas-phase emissions, dramatic reductions in non-volatile particulate matter (nvPM) emissions were observed when burning the pure alternative fuels, particularly at low thrust settings where particle number and mass emissions were an order of magnitude lower than measured from standard jet fuel combustion; 50:50 blends of Jet A and alternative fuels typically reduced nvPM emissions by ~50% across all thrust settings. Alternative fuels with the highest hydrogen content produced the greatest nvPM reductions. For Jet A and fuel blends, nvPM emissions were positively correlated with fuel aromatic and naphthalene content. Fuel sulfur content regulated nucleation mode aerosol number and mass concentrations within aging

  2. Frequency of Specific Categories of Aviation Accidents and Incidents During 2001-2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Joni K.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the types of accidents or incidents that are most important to the aviation safety risk. All accidents and incidents from 2001-2010 were assigned occurrence categories based on the taxonomy developed by the Commercial Aviation Safety Team/International Civil Aviation Organization (CAST/ICAO) Common Taxonomy Team (CICTT). The most frequently recorded categories were selected within each of five metrics: total accidents, fatal accidents, total injuries, fatal injuries and total incidents. This analysis was done separately for events within Part 121, Scheduled Part 135, Non-Scheduled Part 135 and Part 91. Combining those five sets of categories resulted in groups of between seven and eleven occurrence categories, depending on the flight operation. These groups represent 65-85% of all accidents and 68-81% of incidents.

  3. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Process for Requesting Waiver of Mandatory Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., SFAR No. 103 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103—Process for Requesting Waiver of...

  4. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Process for Requesting Waiver of Mandatory Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., SFAR 103 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103—Process for Requesting Waiver of...

  5. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Process for Requesting Waiver of Mandatory Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., SFAR No. 103 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103—Process for Requesting Waiver of...

  6. 14 CFR Special Federal Aviation... - Process for Requesting Waiver of Mandatory Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Separation Age for a Federal Aviation Administration Air Traffic Control Specialist In Flight Service... Federal Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION..., SFAR 103 Special Federal Aviation Regulation No. 103—Process for Requesting Waiver of...

  7. Overhaul, Inspection and Repair of Reciprocating Engines 2 (Course Outline), Aviation Mechanics (Power Plant): 9055.02.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dade County Public Schools, Miami, FL.

    The course outlined is the second of two designed to help a trainee acquire the knowledge and become proficient in the skills associated with the overhaul, inspection, and repair of reciprocating engines. The knowledge and skills are necessary to pass the Powerplant Theory and Maintenence section of the Federal Aviation Administration examination…

  8. Aviation-Related Injury Morbidity and Mortality: Data from U.S. Health Information Systems

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Susan P.; Brady, Joanne E.; Shanahan, Dennis F.; Li, Guohua

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Information about injuries sustained by survivors of airplane crashes is scant, although some information is available on fatal aviation-related injuries. Objectives of this study were to explore the patterns of aviation-related injuries admitted to U.S. hospitals and relate them to aviation deaths in the same period. Methods The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) contains information for approximately 20% of all hospital admissions in the United States each year. We identified patients in the HCUP NIS who were hospitalized during 2000–2005 for aviation-related injuries based on the International Classification of Diseases, 9th Revision, codes E840–E844. Injury patterns were also examined in relation to information from multiple-cause-of-death public-use data files 2000–2005. Results Nationally, an estimated 6080 patients in 6 yr, or 1013 admissions annually (95% confidence interval 894–1133), were hospitalized for aviation-related injuries, based on 1246 patients in the sample. The average hospital stay was 6.3 d and 2% died in hospital. Occupants of noncommercial aircraft accounted for 32% of patients, parachutists for 29%; occupants of commercial aircraft and of unpowered aircraft each constituted 11%. Lower-limb fracture was the most common injury in each category, constituting 27% of the total, followed by head injury (11%), open wound (10%), upper extremity fracture, and internal injury (9%). Among fatalities, head injury (38%) was most prominent. An average of 753 deaths occurred annually; for each death there were 1.3 hospitalizations. Conclusions Aviation-related injuries result in approximately 1000 hospitalizations each year in the United States, with an in-hospital mortality rate of 2%. The most common injury sustained by aviation crash survivors is lower-limb fracture. PMID:20027845

  9. Acquired von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shaji; Pruthi, Rajiv K; Nichols, William L

    2002-02-01

    Acquired von Willebrand disease (AvWD) is a relatively rare acquired bleeding disorder that usually occurs in elderly patients, in whom its recognition may be delayed. Patients usually present predominantly with mucocutaneous bleeding, with no previous history of bleeding abnormalities and no clinically meaningful family history. Various underlying diseases have been associated with AvWD, most commonly hematoproliferative disorders, including monoclonal gammopathies, lymphoproliferative disorders, and myeloproliferative disorders. The pathogenesis of AvWD remains incompletely understood but includes autoantibodies directed against the von Willebrand factor (vWF), leading to a more rapid clearance from the circulation or interference with its function, adsorption of vWF by tumor cells, and nonimmunologic mechanisms of destruction. Laboratory evaluation usually reveals a pattern of prolonged bleeding time and decreased levels of vWF antigen, ristocetin cofactor activity, and factor VIII coagulant activity consistent with a diagnosis of vWD. Acquired vWD is distinguished from the congenital form by age at presentation, absence of a personal and family history of bleeding disorders, and, often, presence of a hematoproliferative or autoimmune disorder. The severity of the bleeding varies considerably among patients. Therapeutic options include desmopressin and certain factor VIII concentrates that also contain vWF. Successful treatment of the associated illness can reverse the clinical and laboratory manifestations. Intravenous immunoglobulins have also shown some efficacy in the management of AvWD, especially cases associated with monoclonal gammopathies. Awareness of AvWD is essential for diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:11838652

  10. The carbon dioxide challenge facing aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hileman, James I.; De la Rosa Blanco, Elena; Bonnefoy, Philippe A.; Carter, Nicholas A.

    2013-11-01

    This paper investigates the challenge that U.S. aviation would face in meeting future Greenhouse Gas (GHG) reduction goals to mitigate global climate change via technological options. This investigation is done within a framework that considers aviation GHG emissions as a function of aviation growth, aircraft efficiency, operational efficiency, and life cycle GHG emissions of aviation fuels. The concept of life cycle GHG intensity (LGI) with units of grams carbon dioxide equivalent per payload distance traveled is used for this purpose as it can be decomposed into components that quantify improvements in aircraft design, operations, and alternative fuels. For example, the life cycle GHG intensity of U.S. aviation in 2005 was 1.37 g CO2e/kg km. If U.S. aviation is to meet the IATA 2050 goal of a 50% reduction in CO2 relative to a 2005 baseline while allowing for a 3.2% annual growth rate in payload-distance traveled, it will need to decrease to 0.22 g CO2e/kg km in 2050, an 84% reduction. The analysis framework that is developed in this manuscript was used to compare the improvements in life cycle GHG intensity that could accompany the use of advanced aircraft designs, operational improvements, and alternative fuels to those required on a fleet-wide basis to meet the future GHG reduction goals under varied aviation growth scenarios. The results indicate that the narrow body segment of the fleet could indeed meet ambitious goals of reducing GHG emissions by 50%, relative to 2005 levels, with a 3.2% annual growth rate; however, it would require relatively rapid adoption of innovative aircraft designs and the widespread use of alternative fuels with relatively low life cycle GHG emissions.

  11. Emerging trends in alternative aviation fuels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, Cody

    The days of petroleum-based aviation fuels are numbered. New regulations to be set in place in the coming years will force current fuels to be phased out in favor of cleaner fuels with less toxic emissions. The alternative fuel industry has already taken its foothold in other modes of transportation, and aviation will soon follow suit. Many companies have cropped up over the last decade, and a few have been around longer, that work hard to develop the alternative aviation fuels of the future. It is important, however, for the aviation community to know what to expect and when to expect it concerning alternative fuels. This study investigates where various companies in the alternative aviation fuel industry currently stand in their development and production processes, and how their products will affect aircraft owners and operators. By interviewing representatives from these companies and analyzing their responses to identify trends, an educated prediction can be made about where the industry is headed and when the aviation community can expect these fuel to be available. The findings of this study indicate that many companies are still in their developmental stages, with a few notable outliers, and that most of these companies expect to see production of their product by 2017. Also, the fuel manufacturers are dealing with all the legal hurdles regarding alternative fuels, so little to no effort will be required on the part of the consumer. These findings, along with their analysis, will enable the aviation community to make educated decisions concerning fuel and their aircraft, as well and do their part to help these beneficial fuels get to market.

  12. Gravity waves and gravity wave "breaking" as contributors to aviation turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharman, R.; Lane, T. P.; Trier, S. B.; Fovell, R. G.

    2012-12-01

    Turbulence is a well-known hazard to aviation that is responsible for numerous injuries each year, with occasional fatalities, and results in millions of dollars of operational costs to airlines each year. It has been widely accepted that aviation-scale turbulence that occurs in clear air (CAT) at upper levels (upper troposphere and lower stratosphere) has its origins in Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities induced by enhanced shears and reduced Richardson numbers associated with the jet stream and upper level fronts. However, it is becoming increasingly apparent that gravity waves and gravity wave "breaking" also play a major role in instigating turbulence that affects aviation. Gravity waves and inertia-gravity waves may be produced by a variety of sources, but one major source that impacts aviation seems to be those produced by convection. Several examples of high-resolution numerical simulations that are based on actual encounters with turbulence by commercial aircraft will be presented to demonstrate these situations. Implications for aviation-scale turbulence forecasting will also be discussed.

  13. Understanding Aviation English as a Lingua Franca: Perceptions of Korean Aviation Personnel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Hyejeong; Elder, Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Researchers exploring the use of language use in radiotelephony communication have tended to focus on the limitations of the non-native English user and the threats which their limited control of English may pose for aviation safety (e.g. Atsushi, 2003, 2004). Hence the recent International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) policy places the onus…

  14. Aviation Program Administrators' Perceptions of Specialized Aviation Accreditation under Public Law 111-216

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Cody

    2013-01-01

    Sherman (2006) and Prather (2007) studied why so few of the schools offering aviation-related curriculum leading to an associate's or bachelor's degree do not seek specialized accreditation. The goal of this study was to update the field of specialized aviation accreditation in the new environment of the Airline Safety and Federal Aviation…

  15. Transport impacts on atmosphere and climate: Aviation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, D. S.; Pitari, G.; Grewe, V.; Gierens, K.; Penner, J. E.; Petzold, A.; Prather, M. J.; Schumann, U.; Bais, A.; Berntsen, T.; Iachetti, D.; Lim, L. L.; Sausen, R.

    2010-12-01

    Aviation alters the composition of the atmosphere globally and can thus drive climate change and ozone depletion. The last major international assessment of these impacts was made by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) in 1999. Here, a comprehensive updated assessment of aviation is provided. Scientific advances since the 1999 assessment have reduced key uncertainties, sharpening the quantitative evaluation, yet the basic conclusions remain the same. The climate impact of aviation is driven by long-term impacts from CO 2 emissions and shorter-term impacts from non-CO 2 emissions and effects, which include the emissions of water vapour, particles and nitrogen oxides (NO x). The present-day radiative forcing from aviation (2005) is estimated to be 55 mW m -2 (excluding cirrus cloud enhancement), which represents some 3.5% (range 1.3-10%, 90% likelihood range) of current anthropogenic forcing, or 78 mW m -2 including cirrus cloud enhancement, representing 4.9% of current forcing (range 2-14%, 90% likelihood range). According to two SRES-compatible scenarios, future forcings may increase by factors of 3-4 over 2000 levels, in 2050. The effects of aviation emissions of CO 2 on global mean surface temperature last for many hundreds of years (in common with other sources), whilst its non-CO 2 effects on temperature last for decades. Much progress has been made in the last ten years on characterizing emissions, although major uncertainties remain over the nature of particles. Emissions of NO x result in production of ozone, a climate warming gas, and the reduction of ambient methane (a cooling effect) although the overall balance is warming, based upon current understanding. These NO x emissions from current subsonic aviation do not appear to deplete stratospheric ozone. Despite the progress made on modelling aviation's impacts on tropospheric chemistry, there remains a significant spread in model results. The knowledge of aviation's impacts on cloudiness

  16. NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) collects, analyzes, and distributes de-identified safety information provided through confidentially submitted reports from frontline aviation personnel. Since its inception in 1976, the ASRS has collected over 900,000 reports and has never breached the identity of the people sharing their information about events or safety issues. From this volume of data, the ASRS has released over 5,500 aviation safety alerts concerning potential hazards and safety concerns. The ASRS processes these reports, evaluates the information, and provides de-identified report information through the online ASRS Database at http://asrs.arc.nasa.gov. The NASA ASRS is also a founding member of the International Confidential Aviation Safety Systems (ICASS) group which is a collection of other national aviation reporting systems throughout the world. The ASRS model has also been replicated for application to improving safety in railroad, medical, fire fighting, and other domains. This presentation \\vill discuss confidential, voluntary, and non-punitive reporting systems and their advantages in providing information for safety improvements.

  17. The controller, aviation medicine and air safety.

    PubMed

    Watkin, B L

    1983-03-01

    Aviation medicine has researched many important facts on pilots, but little on direct relationships between controllers, aviation medicine and air safety. The unsuspecting flying public accepts a 'blind faith' in aircraft and pilots, unaware that aircraft are controlled within 'suspect' ATC systems. The deceptive simplicity of controlling air traffic in apparently limitless skies belies the complexity of man-machine ATC systems operated in ever-crowded airspace, sometimes with antiquated equipment and indifferent communications. The indivisible operational controller/pilot team strives to meet similar ICAO medical standards and operate within the limitations of non-standardised recorded air traffic. Despite controllers' intensive stress at air disasters and 'almost' air disasters, air traffic must continually be controlled for air safety; but, countless human lives (and insurance dollars) saved are possibly camouflaged within the smoke screen of ATC. In New Zealand aviation, the Accident Compensation Corporation is statutorily responsible for air-safety, but accident investigators need controllers' expertise. Has a climate of complacency evolved towards air safety such that New Zealand's Erebus and other air disasters could have been avoided? Controllers are that crucial link in aviation with personal medical fitness vital to the air safety of the unsuspecting flying public. Controllers' dedicated aim for complete air safety in ATC shall benefit from greater understanding within aviation medicine and in-depth medical research. PMID:6847565

  18. Aviation Safety Reporting System: Process and Procedures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, Linda J.

    1997-01-01

    The Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRS) was established in 1976 under an agreement between the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). This cooperative safety program invites pilots, air traffic controllers, flight attendants, maintenance personnel, and others to voluntarily report to NASA any aviation incident or safety hazard. The FAA provides most of the program funding. NASA administers the program, sets its policies in consultation with the FAA and aviation community, and receives the reports submitted to the program. The FAA offers those who use the ASRS program two important reporting guarantees: confidentiality and limited immunity. Reports sent to ASRS are held in strict confidence. More than 350,000 reports have been submitted since the program's beginning without a single reporter's identity being revealed. ASRS removes all personal names and other potentially identifying information before entering reports into its database. This system is a very successful, proof-of-concept for gathering safety data in order to provide timely information about safety issues. The ASRS information is crucial to aviation safety efforts both nationally and internationally. It can be utilized as the first step in safety by providing the direction and content to informed policies, procedures, and research, especially human factors. The ASRS process and procedures will be presented as one model of safety reporting feedback systems.

  19. AWE: Aviation Weather Data Visualization Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.

    2000-01-01

    The two official sources for aviation weather reports both provide weather information to a pilot in a textual format. A number of systems have recently become available to help pilots with the visualization task by providing much of the data graphically. However, two types of aviation weather data are still not being presented graphically. These are airport-specific current weather reports (known as meteorological observations, or METARs) and forecast weather reports (known as terminal area forecasts, or TAFs). Our system, Aviation Weather Environment (AWE), presents intuitive graphical displays for both METARs and TAFs, as well as winds aloft forecasts. We start with a computer-generated textual aviation weather briefing. We map this briefing onto a cartographic grid specific to the pilot's area of interest. The pilot is able to obtain aviation-specific weather for the entire area or for his specific route. The route, altitude, true airspeed, and proposed departure time can each be modified in AWE. Integral visual display of these three elements of weather reports makes AWE a useful planning tool, as well as a weather briefing tool.

  20. National General Aviation Design Competition Project Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    This report summarizes the management of the National General Aviation Design Competition on behalf of NASA, the FAA and the Air Force by the Virginia Space Grant Consortium (VSGC) for the time period October 1, 1999 through September 30, 2000. This was the VSGC's sixth year of managing the Competition, which the Consortium originally designed, developed and implemented for NASA and the FAA. The seventh year of the Competition was announced in July 2000. Awards to winning university teams were presented at a ceremony held at AirVenture 2000, the Experimental Aircraft Association's Annual Convention and Fly-In at Oshkosh, WIS. NASA, FAA and AOPA administrators presented the awards. The competition calls for individuals or teams of undergraduate and graduate students from U.S. engineering schools to participate in a major national effort to rebuild the U.S. general aviation sector. For the purpose of the contest, General aviation aircraft are defined as fixed wing, single or dual engine (turbine or piston), single-pilot aircraft for 2-6 passengers. In addressing design challenges for a small aircraft transportation system, the competition seeks to raise student awareness of the importance of general aviation and to stimulate breakthroughs in technology and their application in the general aviation market. The Competition has two categories: Innovative Design, and Design It, Build It, Fly It. Awards were given in both categories for this reporting year.

  1. Aviation Weather Observations for Supplementary Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (SAWRS) and Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (LAWRS). Federal Meteorological Handbook No. 9.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.

    This handbook provides instructions for observing, identifying, and recording aviation weather at Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (LAWRS) and Supplementary Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (SAWRS). Official technical definitions, meteorological and administrative procedures are outlined. Although this publication is intended for use…

  2. Multiple Kernel Learning for Heterogeneous Anomaly Detection: Algorithm and Aviation Safety Case Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, Santanu; Srivastava, Ashok N.; Matthews, Bryan L.; Oza, Nikunj C.

    2010-01-01

    The world-wide aviation system is one of the most complex dynamical systems ever developed and is generating data at an extremely rapid rate. Most modern commercial aircraft record several hundred flight parameters including information from the guidance, navigation, and control systems, the avionics and propulsion systems, and the pilot inputs into the aircraft. These parameters may be continuous measurements or binary or categorical measurements recorded in one second intervals for the duration of the flight. Currently, most approaches to aviation safety are reactive, meaning that they are designed to react to an aviation safety incident or accident. In this paper, we discuss a novel approach based on the theory of multiple kernel learning to detect potential safety anomalies in very large data bases of discrete and continuous data from world-wide operations of commercial fleets. We pose a general anomaly detection problem which includes both discrete and continuous data streams, where we assume that the discrete streams have a causal influence on the continuous streams. We also assume that atypical sequence of events in the discrete streams can lead to off-nominal system performance. We discuss the application domain, novel algorithms, and also discuss results on real-world data sets. Our algorithm uncovers operationally significant events in high dimensional data streams in the aviation industry which are not detectable using state of the art methods

  3. [Acquired von Willebrand syndrome].

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (aVWS) is a rare, but probably underestimated, bleeding disorder that mimics the congenital form of von Willebrand disease (VWD) in terms of laboratory findings and clinical presentation. However, unlike congenital VWD, it arises in individuals with no personal or family history of bleeding. AVWS occurs in association with a variety of underlying disorders, including lymphoproliferative disorders, myeloproliferative disorders and cardiovascular diseases. The main pathogenic, clinical, laboratory and therapeutic aspects of this syndrome are concisely reported in this review. PMID:16913181

  4. Acquiring Research-grade ALSM Data in the Commercial Marketplace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haugerud, R. A.; Harding, D. J.; Latypov, D.; Martinez, D.; Routh, S.; Ziegler, J.

    2003-12-01

    The Puget Sound Lidar Consortium, working with TerraPoint, LLC, has procured a large volume of ALSM (topographic lidar) data for scientific research. Research-grade ALSM data can be characterized by their completeness, density, and accuracy. Complete data include-at a minimum-X, Y, Z, time, and classification (ground, vegetation, structure, blunder) for each laser reflection. Off-nadir angle and return number for multiple returns are also useful. We began with a pulse density of 1/sq m, and after limited experiments still find this density satisfactory in the dense second-growth forests of western Washington. Lower pulse densities would have produced unacceptably limited sampling in forested areas and aliased some topographic features. Higher pulse densities do not produce markedly better topographic models, in part because of limitations of reproducibility between the overlapping survey swaths used to achieve higher density. Our experience in a variety of forest types demonstrates that the fraction of pulses that produce ground returns varies with vegetation cover, laser beam divergence, laser power, and detector sensitivity, but have not quantified this relationship. The most significant operational limits on vertical accuracy of ALSM appear to be instrument calibration and the accuracy with which returns are classified as ground or vegetation. TerraPoint has recently implemented in-situ calibration using overlapping swaths (Latypov and Zosse, 2002, see http://www.terrapoint.com/News_damirACSM_ASPRS2002.html). On the consumer side, we routinely perform a similar overlap analysis to produce maps of relative Z error between swaths; we find that in bare, low-slope regions the in-situ calibration has reduced this internal Z error to 6-10 cm RMSE. Comparison with independent ground control points commonly illuminates inconsistencies in how GPS heights have been reduced to orthometric heights. Once these inconsistencies are resolved, it appears that the internal errors are the bulk of the error of the survey. The error maps suggest that with in-situ calibration, minor time-varying errors with a period of circa 1 sec are the largest remaining source of survey error. For forested terrain, limited ground penetration and errors in return classification can severely limit the accuracy of resulting topographic models. Initial work by Haugerud and Harding demonstrated the feasibility of fully-automatic return classification; however, TerraPoint has found that better results can be obtained more effectively with 3rd-party classification software that allows a mix of automated routines and human intervention. Our relationship has been evolving since early 2000. Important aspects of this relationship include close communication between data producer and consumer, a willingness to learn from each other, significant technical expertise and resources on the consumer side, and continued refinement of achievable, quantitative performance and accuracy specifications. Most recently we have instituted a slope-dependent Z accuracy specification that TerraPoint first developed as a heuristic for surveying mountainous terrain in Switzerland. We are now working on quantifying the internal consistency of topographic models in forested areas, using a variant of overlap analysis, and standards for the spatial distribution of internal errors.

  5. NASA's aviation safety research and technology program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fichtl, G. H.

    1977-01-01

    Aviation safety is challenged by the practical necessity of compromising inherent factors of design, environment, and operation. If accidents are to be avoided these factors must be controlled to a degree not often required by other transport modes. The operational problems which challenge safety seem to occur most often in the interfaces within and between the design, the environment, and operations where mismatches occur due to ignorance or lack of sufficient understanding of these interactions. Under this report the following topics are summarized: (1) The nature of operating problems, (2) NASA aviation safety research, (3) clear air turbulence characterization and prediction, (4) CAT detection, (5) Measurement of Atmospheric Turbulence (MAT) Program, (6) Lightning, (7) Thunderstorm gust fronts, (8) Aircraft ground operating problems, (9) Aircraft fire technology, (10) Crashworthiness research, (11) Aircraft wake vortex hazard research, and (12) Aviation safety reporting system.

  6. Summary report of the General Aviation Committee

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodrich, W. C.

    1977-01-01

    Fatal weather involved general aviation accidents and the criteria for weather observations at general aviation airports were discussed. It was generally agreed that: (1) meteorologists do not seem to have sufficient understanding of general aviation requirements, (2) pilots are not aware of the meteorological services and publications which are available to them; (3) Uniform capability is not being utilized to the degree possible; and (4) there is a wealth of weather data available within the Department of Defense which is not available in the system for civil use. The committee recommends that student pilot training programs include actual inflight weather experience accomplished through instructor training, and efforts be made to make real time weather data available to the pilot from all sources to include military installations, Unicom operators, tower and approach controllers, and air traffic controllers.

  7. An overview of aviation weather services

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, J. W.

    1977-01-01

    Safety of flight is the first concern of the aviation weather service, the economics of air transportation is a second major interest. Weather is a significant causal factor impacting on the efficiency of air transportation. A discussion is presented on the functions of various weather service agencies as they relate to one another in the dissemination of information to the pilot and to the air traffic controller. Improvements in the aviation weather service and weather knowledge are cited as future goals. The weather service at the present time is an efficient system but future aviation objectives dictate more improvements are needed (especially in automation technology) to enhance flight planning and for safe and efficient flight execution.

  8. Private Astronaut Training Prepares Commercial Crews of Tomorrow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    A new company that includes a handful of former NASA personnel is already taking applications for the first comprehensive commercial astronaut training approved by the Federal Aviation Administration. Waypoint 2 Space, located at Johnson Space Center, hopes to draw space tourists and enthusiasts and future commercial crewmembers with first-hand NASA know-how, as well as agency training technology.

  9. [Advancement and goals of the aviation human engineering].

    PubMed

    Stupakov, G P; Ushakov, I B; Turzin, P S

    1997-01-01

    Analyzed were the efforts of the State Scientific-Research Test Institute of Aviation and Space Medicine to weigh and account the human factor in designing and upgrading avionics and aviation machinery. Described are the policy of human engineering support to the development, evaluation, and operation of aviation machinery, and the benefits from the human factor knowledge to the specifications for aviation machinery and allowance for the psychophysiological aptitudes of human on different phases of development of ergatic aviation systems. Outlined is the mainstream of ergonomic enhancement of the quality and safety, and humanization of the activities of different aviation specialists. PMID:9156675

  10. Rating hydrogen as a potential aviation fuel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Witcofski, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    The viability of liquid hydrogen, liquid methane, and synthetic aviation kerosene as future alternate fuels for transport aircraft is analyzed, and the results of a comparative assessment are given in terms of cost, energy resource utilization, areas of fuel production, transmission airport facilities, and ultimate use in the aircraft. Important safety (fires) and some environmental aspects (CO2 balance) are also described. It is concluded that fuel price estimates indicate the price of synthetic aviation kerosene (synjet) would be approximately half of the price calculated for liquid hydrogen and somewhat less than that of liquid methane, with synjet from oil shale reported to be the least expensive.

  11. Application of propfan propulsion to general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Awker, R. W.

    1986-01-01

    Recent studies of advanced propfan propulsion systems have shown significant reductions in fuel consumption of 15-30 percent for transport class aircraft. This paper presents the results of a study which examined applying propfan propulsion to General Aviation class aircraft to determine if similar improvements could be achieved for business aircraft. In addition to the potential performance gains, this paper also addresses the cost aspects of propfan propulsion on General Aviation aircraft emphasizing the significant impact that the cost of capital and tax aspects have on determining the total cost of operation for business aircraft.

  12. Selected supplies prognosis problems of aviation techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Żurek, J.; Czapla, R.

    2016-06-01

    Aviation technology, i.e. aircraft, control and airfield infrastructure wear out, become defective and need servicing. It seems indispensible to maintain facilities and spare parts at a level necessary to keep the technology in commission. The paper discusses the factors influencing spare parts supply requirements to secure air operations. Aviation technology has been classified with regard to various criteria, which influence the choice of supply management strategies, along with availability and aircraft exploitation cost. The method of optimization of the stock for a complex system characterized by series reliability structure according to the wear-out and cost criteria assuming Poisson's process of demand has been presented.

  13. Runway Incursion Prevention for General Aviation Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III

    2006-01-01

    A Runway Incursion Prevention System (RIPS) and additional incursion detection algorithm were adapted for general aviation operations and evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center (LaRC) in the fall of 2005. RIPS has been designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential runway conflicts in order to prevent runway incidents while also improving operational capability. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the airborne incursion detection algorithms and associated alerting and airport surface display concepts for general aviation operations. This paper gives an overview of the system, simulation study, and test results.

  14. Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morello, Samuel A. (Compiler)

    1990-01-01

    The Aviation Safety/Automation Program Conference - 1989 was sponsored by the NASA Langley Research Center on 11 to 12 October 1989. The conference, held at the Sheraton Beach Inn and Conference Center, Virginia Beach, Virginia, was chaired by Samuel A. Morello. The primary objective of the conference was to ensure effective communication and technology transfer by providing a forum for technical interchange of current operational problems and program results to date. The Aviation Safety/Automation Program has as its primary goal to improve the safety of the national airspace system through the development and integration of human-centered automation technologies for aircraft crews and air traffic controllers.

  15. Meteorological and Environmental Inputs to Aviation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Camp, Dennis W. (Editor); Frost, Walter (Editor)

    1988-01-01

    Reports on aviation meteorology, most of them informal, are presented by representatives of the National Weather Service, the Bracknell (England) Meteorological Office, the NOAA Wave Propagation Lab., the Fleet Numerical Oceanography Center, and the Aircraft Owners and Pilots Association. Additional presentations are included on aircraft/lidar turbulence comparison, lightning detection and locating systems, objective detection and forecasting of clear air turbulence, comparative verification between the Generalized Exponential Markov (GEM) Model and official aviation terminal forecasts, the evaluation of the Prototype Regional Observation and Forecast System (PROFS) mesoscale weather products, and the FAA/MIT Lincoln Lab. Doppler Weather Radar Program.

  16. Computer technology forecast study for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seacord, C. L.; Vaughn, D.

    1976-01-01

    A multi-year, multi-faceted program is underway to investigate and develop potential improvements in airframes, engines, and avionics for general aviation aircraft. The objective of this study was to assemble information that will allow the government to assess the trends in computer and computer/operator interface technology that may have application to general aviation in the 1980's and beyond. The current state of the art of computer hardware is assessed, technical developments in computer hardware are predicted, and nonaviation large volume users of computer hardware are identified.

  17. FAA (federal Aviation Administration) aviation forecasts - fiscal years 1983-1994

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-02-01

    This report contains the Fiscal Years 1983-1994 Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) forecasts of aviation activity at FAA facilities. These include airports with FAA control towers, air route traffic control centers, and flight service stations. Detailed forecasts were made for the four major users of the national aviation system: air carriers, air taxi/commuters, general aviation and the military. The forecasts have been prepared to meet the budget and planning needs of the constituent units of the FAA and to provide information that can be used by state and local authorities, by the aviation industry and the general public. The overall outlook for the forecast period is for moderate economic growth, relatively stable real fuel prices, and decreasing inflation. Based upon these assumptions, aviation activity is forecast to increase by Fiscal Year 1994 by 97 percent at towered airports, 50 percent at air route traffic control centers, and 54 percent in flight services performed. Hours flown by general aviation is forecast to increase 56 percent and helicopter hours flown 80 percent. Scheduled domestic revenue passenger miles (RPM's) are forecast to increase 81 percent, with scheduled international RPM's forecast to increase by 80 percent and commuter RPM's forecast to increase by 220 percent.

  18. The role of aviation technology in the Caribbean Basin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert W.

    1988-01-01

    Aviation technology can play a significant role in the development of the countries of the Caribbean Basin. A variety of applications of rotorcraft in the region, the benefits, both economic and political which can result from utilization of rotorcraft in both a public service and commercial role are presented. A computer simulation of rotorcraft used as emergency medical vehicles is applied to compare and evaluate the advantages of using rotorcraft technology such as civil derivatives of the new tiltrotor. It is concluded that by using a civil derivative of the tiltrotor, significant improvements can be obtained in the level of health service in the region. The potential for cargo and passenger transport applications are currently being investigated and a second computer simulation is being developed to be used to evaluate the potential benefits to be derived from such applications.

  19. Optically coupled digital altitude encoder for general aviation altimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bryant, F. R.

    1975-01-01

    An optically coupled pressure altitude encoder which can be incorporated into commercially available inexpensive general aviation altimeters was successfully developed. The encoding of pressure altitude is accomplished in 100-ft (30.48-m) increments from -1000 to 20,000ft (-304.8 to 6096 m). The prototype encoders were retrofitted into two different internal altimeter configurations. A prototype encoder was checked for accuracy of transition points and environmental effects. Each altimeter configuration, with the encoder incorporated, was laboratory tested for performance and was subsequently flight-tested over the specified altitude range. With few exceptions, the assembled altimeter-encoder met aeronautical standards for altimeters and encoders. Design changes are suggested to improve performance to meet required standards consistently.

  20. Linguistic methodology for the analysis of aviation accidents

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goguen, J. A.; Linde, C.

    1983-01-01

    A linguistic method for the analysis of small group discourse, was developed and the use of this method on transcripts of commercial air transpot accidents is demonstrated. The method identifies the discourse types that occur and determine their linguistic structure; it identifies significant linguistic variables based upon these structures or other linguistic concepts such as speech act and topic; it tests hypotheses that support significance and reliability of these variables; and it indicates the implications of the validated hypotheses. These implications fall into three categories: (1) to train crews to use more nearly optimal communication patterns; (2) to use linguistic variables as indices for aspects of crew performance such as attention; and (3) to provide guidelines for the design of aviation procedures and equipment, especially those that involve speech.

  1. Development of a multipurpose smart recorder for general aviation aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, J. H.; Finger, J. F.

    1988-01-01

    An intelligent flight recorder, called the Smart Recorder, was fabricated and installed on a King Air aircraft used in standard commercial charter service. This recorder was used for collection of data toward two objectives: (1) the characterization of the typical environment encountered by the aircraft; and (2) research in the area of trend monitoring. Data processing routines and data presentation formats were defined that are applicable to commuter size aircraft. The feasibility of a cost-effective, multipurpose recorder for general aviation aircraft was successfully demonstrated. Implementation of on-board environmental data processing increased the number of flight hours that could be stored on a single data cartridge and simplified the data management problem by reducing the volume of data to be processed in the laboratory. Trend monitoring algorithms showed less variability in the trend plots when compared against plots of manual data.

  2. Catalytic conversion wood syngas to synthetic aviation turbine fuels over a multifunctional catalyst.

    PubMed

    Yan, Qiangu; Yu, Fei; Liu, Jian; Street, Jason; Gao, Jinsen; Cai, Zhiyong; Zhang, Jilei

    2013-01-01

    A continuous process involving gasification, syngas cleaning, and Fischer-Tropsch (FT) synthesis was developed to efficiently produce synthetic aviation turbine fuels (SATFs). Oak-tree wood chips were first gasified to syngas over a commercial pilot plant downdraft gasifier. The raw wood syngas contains about 47% N(2), 21% CO, 18% H(2), 12% CO(2,) 2% CH(4) and trace amounts of impurities. A purification reaction system was designed to remove the impurities in the syngas such as moisture, oxygen, sulfur, ammonia, and tar. The purified syngas meets the requirements for catalytic conversion to liquid fuels. A multi-functional catalyst was developed and tested for the catalytic conversion of wood syngas to SATFs. It was demonstrated that liquid fuels similar to commercial aviation turbine fuels (Jet A) was successfully synthesized from bio-syngas. PMID:23131653

  3. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  4. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Polverino, E; Torres Marti, A

    2011-02-01

    Despite the remarkable advances in antibiotic therapies, diagnostic tools, prevention campaigns and intensive care, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still among the primary causes of death worldwide, and there have been no significant changes in mortality in the last decades. The clinical and economic burden of CAP makes it a major public health problem, particularly for children and the elderly. This issue provides a clinical overview of CAP, focusing on epidemiology, economic burden, diagnosis, risk stratification, treatment, clinical management, and prevention. Particular attention is given to some aspects related to the clinical management of CAP, such as the microbial etiology and the available tools to achieve it, the usefulness of new and old biomarkers, and antimicrobial and other non-antibiotic adjunctive therapies. Possible scenarios in which pneumonia does not respond to treatment are also analyzed to improve clinical outcomes of CAP. PMID:21242952

  5. Acquired Porphyria Cutanea Tarda

    PubMed Central

    Koval, Andrew; Danby, C. W. E.; Petermann, H.

    1965-01-01

    Currently, the porphyrias are classified in four main groups: congenital porphyria, acute intermittent porphyria, porphyria cutanea tarda hereditaria, and porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica. The acquired form of porphyria (porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica) occurs in older males and is nearly always associated with chronic alcoholism and hepatic cirrhosis. The main clinical changes are dermatological, with excessive skin fragility and photosensitivity resulting in erosions and bullae. Biochemically, high levels of uroporphyrin are found in the urine and stools. Treatment to date has been symptomatic and usually unsuccessful. A case of porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica is presented showing dramatic improvement of both the skin lesions and porphyrin levels in urine and blood following repeated phlebotomy. Possible mechanisms of action of phlebotomy on porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:14341652

  6. [ICU acquired neuromyopathy].

    PubMed

    Gueret, G; Guillouet, M; Vermeersch, V; Guillard, E; Talarmin, H; Nguyen, B-V; Rannou, F; Giroux-Metges, M-A; Pennec, J-P; Ozier, Y

    2013-09-01

    ICU acquired neuromyopathy (IANM) is the most frequent neurological pathology observed in ICU. Nerve and muscle defects are merged with neuromuscular junction abnormalities. Its physiopathology is complex. The aim is probably the redistribution of nutriments and metabolism towards defense against sepsis. The main risk factors are sepsis, its severity and its duration of evolution. IANM is usually diagnosed in view of difficulties in weaning from mechanical ventilation, but electrophysiology may allow an earlier diagnosis. There is no curative therapy, but early treatment of sepsis, glycemic control as well as early physiotherapy may decrease its incidence. The outcomes of IANM are an increase in morbi-mortality and possibly long-lasting neuromuscular abnormalities as far as tetraplegia. PMID:23958176

  7. National volcanic ash operations plan for aviation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    United States Department of Commerce; National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration

    2007-01-01

    The National Aviation Weather Program Strategic Plan (1997) and the National Aviation Weather Initiatives (1999) both identified volcanic ash as a high-priority informational need to aviation services. The risk to aviation from airborne volcanic ash is known and includes degraded engine performance (including flameout), loss of visibility, failure of critical navigational and operational instruments, and, in the worse case, loss of life. The immediate costs for aircraft encountering a dense plume are potentially major—damages up to $80 million have occurred to a single aircraft. Aircraft encountering less dense volcanic ash clouds can incur longer-term costs due to increased maintenance of engines and external surfaces. The overall goal, as stated in the Initiatives, is to eliminate encounters with ash that could degrade the in-flight safety of aircrews and passengers and cause damage to the aircraft. This goal can be accomplished by improving the ability to detect, track, and forecast hazardous ash clouds and to provide adequate warnings to the aviation community on the present and future location of the cloud. To reach this goal, the National Aviation Weather Program established three objectives: (1) prevention of accidental encounters with hazardous clouds; (2) reduction of air traffic delays, diversions, or evasive actions when hazardous clouds are present; and (3) the development of a single, worldwide standard for exchange of information on airborne hazardous materials. To that end, over the last several years, based on numerous documents (including an OFCMsponsored comprehensive study on aviation training and an update of Aviation Weather Programs/Projects), user forums, and two International Conferences on Volcanic Ash and Aviation Safety (1992 and 2004), the Working Group for Volcanic Ash (WG/VA), under the OFCM-sponsored Committee for Aviation Services and Research, developed the National Volcanic Ash Operations Plan for Aviation and Support of the

  8. Collegiate Aviation and FAA Air Traffic Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Jose R.; Ruiz, Lorelei E.

    2003-01-01

    Based on a literature review this article describes the Air Traffic-Collegiate Training Initiative (AT-CTI) program, including objectives, the process by which postsecondary institutes become affiliated, advantages of affiliation, and the recruitment and employment of air traffic control graduates by the Federal Aviation Administration. (Contains…

  9. Pilots and Flight Engineers. Aviation Careers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available for airplane pilots and flight engineers. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers for pilots and summarizes the information in a table. In the main part of the booklet, the following 11 job categories are outlined: flight…

  10. Aviation Science Activities for Elementary Grades. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Aviation Administration (DOT), Washington, DC.

    This guide contains the procedures and lists of materials needed for 105 aviation activities, demonstrations, and experiments. These activities, demonstrations, and experiments (suitable for students in all elementary grades) are organized into three sections by major topic area: (1) properties of air; (2) factors related to airplane flight; and…

  11. Airport Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airports. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers at airports, while the main part of the booklet outlines the following nine job categories: airport director, assistant airport director, engineers, support personnel,…

  12. Aviation Structural Mechanic E 1 & C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The rate training manual is one of a series of training handbooks prepared for enlisted personnel of the Navy and Naval Reserve who are studying for advancement in the Aviation Structural Mechanic E (AME) rating. The manual is based on the professional qualifications for the rates AME1 and AMEC. Chapters are organized according to specific job…

  13. Flight Attendants. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the career opportunities of airline flight attendants. General information about airline hiring policies for flight attendants are discussed, and the following information about the flight attendant job classification is provided: nature of the work, working conditions, where the jobs…

  14. Aircraft Manufacturing Occupations. Aviation Careers Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in the aircraft manufacturing industry. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the aerospace industry (of which aircraft manufacturing is one part), including the numbers of various types of workers employed in those…

  15. Lightweight diesel aircraft engines for general aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berenyi, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two different engines were studied. The advantages of a diesel to general aviation were reduced to fuel consumption, reduced operating costs, and reduced fire and explosion hazard. There were no ignition mixture control or inlet icing problems. There are fewer controls and no electrical interference problems.

  16. A Guide to Aviation Education Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Coalition for Aviation Education, Washington, DC.

    This resource guide details the services and materials available from the National Coalition for Aviation Education (NCAE) member organizations. An alphabetical listing of 15 NCAE member organizations provides in each case the name of a contact person, address, telephone and fax numbers, and a very brief description of whom or what the…

  17. AN AVIATION COURSE FOR JUNIOR COLLEGES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cessna Aircraft Co., Wichita, KS.

    THE COURSE IS IN TWO PARTS. IN PART 1, A PROGRAM OF 60 HOURS COVERS SUCH TOPICS AS FLIGHT PRINCIPLES, AIRCRAFT OPERATION AND PERFORMANCE, NAVIGATION, THE FLIGHT COMPUTER, RADIO GUIDANCE AND COMMUNICATION, WEATHER, FLIGHT INFORMATION PUBLICATIONS, FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS, THE AIRWAY SYSTEM, FLIGHT INSTRUMENTS, AND FLIGHT PLANNING. THE TOPICS…

  18. Aviation Jobs and Safety Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Costello, Jerry F. [D-IL-12

    2011-07-26

    07/27/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Aviation. (All Actions) Notes: For further action, see H.R.1079, which became Public Law 112-7 on 3/31/2011. Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Aviation Mechanics. Post Secondary Curriculum Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watkins, James F.; And Others

    Intended to provide a model for organizing vocational instructional content, this curriculum guide consists of information pertinent to conducting a postsecondary level course in aviation mechanics. While the guide is primarily oriented towards the classroom, whether as a primary resource or as a supplement to other teaching materials, it may also…

  20. Proposed English Standards Promote Aviation Safety.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chatham, Robert L.; Thomas, Shelley

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO) Air Navigation's Commission approval of a task to develop minimum skill level requirements in English for air traffic control. The ICAO collaborated with the Defense Language Institute English Language Center to propose a minimum standard for English proficiency for international…

  1. Directions in civil aviation 1980-2000

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, L.

    1976-01-01

    This paper attempts to summarize the future directions and opportunities in aeronautics, and to characterize the research and technology that should be conducted in the next decade in order to permit the timely development of civil aviation for the remainder of the Twentieth Century. The paper is based on a recent study undertaken by NASA, entitled The Outlook for Aeronautics.

  2. Aviation technology applicable to developing regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, John; Alton, Larry R.

    1988-01-01

    This paper is an analysis of aviation technologies useful for formulation of development plans to the year 2000 for emerging nations. The Caribbean Basin was used as a specific application. This development promises to be so explosive over the next 15 years as to be virtually unpredictable.

  3. Demand Estimation for Collegiate Aviation Academic Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodell, Phillips W.

    This paper addresses the issue of how one might go about providing a reasonable answer to the question of how many students will enroll in a new academic program at a university and applies the principles to the process of estimating demand for a new collegiate aviation program. A combination of approaches is suggested, including the following:…

  4. Aviation Structural Mechanic H1 & C.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naval Education and Training Command, Pensacola, FL.

    The rate training manual and nonresident career course presents materials for individualized study that will assist Aviation Structural Mechanics in Hydraulics (AMH) in meeting the occupational requirements of their rating. The study materials seek to improve job skills among Navy petty officers in conjunction with their on-the-job training as…

  5. Aviation weather service requirements, 1980 - 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieurance, N. A.

    1977-01-01

    Future aviation weather needs are discussed. Priority weather requirements and deficiencies existing for weather observations and forecast services in terminal areas are presented. Needs in en route operations up to 30 km are addressed with emphasis on turbulence, presence of suspended ice and water particles, SST to supersonic speeds, solar radiation, ozone, and sonic booms. Some conclusions are drawn and recommendations are presented.

  6. Synthetic and Biomass Alternate Fueling in Aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, Robert C.; Bushnell, Dennis M.

    2009-01-01

    Must use earth's most abundant natural resources - Biomass, Solar, Arid land (43%), Seawater (97%) with nutrients (80%) plus brackish waters and nutrients resolve environmental triangle of conflicts energy-food-freshwater and ultrafine particulate hazards. Requires Paradigm Shift - Develop and Use Solar* for energy; Biomass for aviation and hybrid-electric-compressed air mobility fueling with transition to hydrogen long term.

  7. Airline Careers. Aviation Careers Series. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaharevitz, Walter

    This booklet, one in a series on aviation careers, outlines the variety of careers available in airlines. The first part of the booklet provides general information about careers in the airline industry, including salaries, working conditions, job requirements, and projected job opportunities. In the main part of the booklet, the following 22 job…

  8. Meteorological needs of the aviation community

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luers, J. K.

    1977-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the important meteorological needs of the aviation community and to recommend research in those areas judged most beneficial. The study was valuable in that it provided a comprehensive list of suspected meteorological deficiencies and ideas for research programs relative to these deficiencies. The list and ideas were generated from contacts with various pilots, air traffic controllers, and meteorologists.

  9. Civil aviation, air pollution and human health

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Roy M.; Masiol, Mauro; Vardoulakis, Sotiris

    2015-04-01

    Air pollutant emissions from aircraft have been subjected to less rigorous control than road traffic emissions, and the rapid growth of global aviation is a matter of concern in relation to human exposures to pollutants, and consequent effects upon health. Yim et al (2015 Environ. Res. Lett. 3 034001) estimate exposures globally arising from aircraft engine emissions of primary particulate matter, and from secondary sulphates and ozone, and use concentration-response functions to calculate the impact upon mortality, which is monetised using the value of statistical life. This study makes a valuable contribution to estimating the magnitude of public health impact at various scales, ranging from local, near airport, regional and global. The results highlight the need to implement future mitigation actions to limit impacts of aviation upon air quality and public health. The approach adopted in Yim et al only accounts for the air pollutants emitted by aircraft engine exhausts. Whilst aircraft emissions are often considered as dominant near runways, there are a number of other sources and processes related to aviation that still need to be accounted for. This includes impacts of nitrate aerosol formed from NOx emissions, but probably more important, are the other airport-related emissions from ground service equipment and road traffic. By inclusion of these, and consideration of non-fatal impacts, future research will generate comprehensive estimates of impact related to aviation and airports.

  10. Chinese-English Aviation and Space Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Air Force Systems Command, Wright-Patterson AFB, OH. Foreign Technology Div.

    The Aviation and Space Dictionary is the second of a series of Chinese-English technical dictionaries under preparation by the Foreign Technology Division, United States Air Force Systems Command. The purpose of the series is to provide rapid reference tools for translators, abstracters, and research analysts concerned with scientific and…

  11. NASA and General Aviation. NASA SP-485.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ethell, Jeffrey L.

    A detailed examination of the nature and function of general aviation and a discussion of how the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) helps keep it on the cutting edge of technology are offered in this publication. The intricacies of aerodynamics, energy, and safety as well as the achievements in aeronautical experimentation are…

  12. Miramar College Program Evaluation: Aviation Maintenance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moriyama, Bruce; Brumley, Leslie

    Qualitative and quantitative data are presented in this evaluation of the curricular, personnel, and financial status of Miramar College's program in aviation maintenance. The report first provides the results of an interview with the program chairperson, which sought information on program objectives and goals and their determination, the extent…

  13. Demonstration Aids for Aviation Education. [Volume II].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Debbie; Hickson, Carol

    This series consists of four packets containing simple, concrete activities for students in the upper elementary grades. The purpose of the series is to illustrate certain principles related to various concepts of aviation and space. Each packet forms a coherent program of instruction on a single topic: (1) non-powered flight; (2) aerospace and…

  14. 32 CFR 705.32 - Aviation events and parachute demonstrations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... sponsor provide suitable aircraft fuel (JP jet fuel or aviation gas, as appropriate) and pay the cost of... agreement to provide suitable aircraft fuel (defined as JP jet fuel or aviation gas and lubricants) at...

  15. ICAO Assistance to Civil Aviation in the Developing World.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vivian, Jack

    1981-01-01

    Describes the cost advantages of air transportation over road, rail, and river transportation in many circumstances which prevail today in developing countries. Presents accounts of International Civil Aviation Organization's (ICAO's) efforts supporting civil aviation programs in these countries. (DS)

  16. Publishing Aviation Research: An Interdisciplinary Review of Scholarly Journals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Truitt, Lawrence J.; Kaps, Robert W.

    1995-01-01

    An ERIC search and key informant interviews were used to identify 26 journals that regularly publish aviation-related articles. The journals are in four categories: transportation management and economics, travel and tourism, aviation law, and interdisciplinary. (SK)

  17. Avionics performance analysis: A historical review and a current assessment of flight instrumentation and control systems in civil aviation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The role of flight instrumentation and control systems in the advancement of civil aviation to the safest form of commercial transportation is discussed. Safety, cost reduction, and increased capabilities provided by recent developments are emphasized. Cost/performance considerations are considered in terms of determining the relative values of comparable systems or the absolute worth of a system.

  18. The UNO Aviation Monograph Series: Aviation Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carrico, John S.; Schaaf, Michaela M.

    1998-01-01

    This monograph is a companion to UNOAI Monograph 96-2, "The Image of Airport Security: An Annotated Bibliography," compiled in June 1996. The White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security, headed by Vice President Al Gore, was formed as a result of the TWA Flight 800 crash in August 1996. The Commission's final report included 31 recommendations addressed toward aviation security. The recommendations were cause for security issues to be revisited in the media and by the aviation industry. These developments necessitated the need for an updated bibliography to review the resulting literature. Many of the articles were written in response to the recommendations made by the Gore Commission. "Aviation Security: An Annotated Bibliography of Responses to the Gore Commission" is the result of this need.

  19. FBO and Airport Internships for University Aviation Students: Benefits for Students, Universities, and the Aviation Industry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thiesse, James L.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes five types of internships for aviation education: job shadowing, departmental rotation, single department based, academic, and specific task. Gives examples in two settings: airports and fixed-base operators. (SK)

  20. Federal Aviation Administration and National Weather Service Aviation Research and Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connolly, J. W.

    1980-01-01

    An overview is given of the developmental status of aviation weather services. Particular attention is given to justifying the need for better, more reliable service. The accomplishments of several automatic weather stations are discussed.