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Sample records for acquire consistent lighting

  1. How Did Light Acquire a Velocity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauginie, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how light acquired a velocity through history, from the ancient Greeks to the early modern era. Combining abstract debates, models of light, practical needs, planned research and chance, this history illustrates several key points that should be brought out in science education.

  2. Performance characteristics of white light sources consisting of multiple light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun-Li; Shah, Jay M.; Leung, P.-H.; Gessmann, Thomas; Schubert, E. F.

    2004-01-01

    The performance characteristics of white light sources based on a multiple-LED approach, in particular dichromatic and trichromatic sources are analyzed in detail. Figures of merit such as the luminous efficacy, color temperature, and color rendering capabilities are provided for a wide range of primary emission wavelengths. Spectral power density functions of LEDs are assumed to be thermally and inhomogeneously broadened to a full width at half maximum of several kT, in agreement with experimental results. A gaussian line shape is assumed for each of the emission bands. It is shown that multi-LED white light sources have the potential for luminous efficacies greater than 400 lm/W (dichromatic source) and color rendering indices of greater than 90 (trichromatic source). Contour maps for the color rendering indices and luminous efficacies versus three wavelengths are given.

  3. A Nexus Consisting of Beta-Catenin and Stat3 Attenuates BRAF Inhibitor Efficacy and Mediates Acquired Resistance to Vemurafenib.

    PubMed

    Sinnberg, Tobias; Makino, Elena; Krueger, Marcel A; Velic, Ana; Macek, Boris; Rothbauer, Ulrich; Groll, Nicola; Pötz, Oliver; Czemmel, Stefan; Niessner, Heike; Meier, Friedegund; Ikenberg, Kristian; Garbe, Claus; Schittek, Birgit

    2016-06-01

    Acquired resistance to second generation BRAF inhibitors (BRAFis), like vemurafenib is limiting the benefits of long term targeted therapy for patients with malignant melanomas that harbor BRAF V600 mutations. Since many resistance mechanisms have been described, most of them causing a hyperactivation of the MAPK- or PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, one potential strategy to overcome BRAFi resistance in melanoma cells would be to target important common signaling nodes. Known factors that cause secondary resistance include the overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), alternative splicing of BRAF or the occurrence of novel mutations in MEK1 or NRAS. In this study we show that β-catenin is stabilized and translocated to the nucleus in approximately half of the melanomas that were analyzed and which developed secondary resistance towards BRAFi. We further demonstrate that β-catenin is involved in the mediation of resistance towards vemurafenib in vitro and in vivo. Unexpectedly, β-catenin acts mainly independent of the TCF/LEF dependent canonical Wnt-signaling pathway in resistance development, which partly explains previous contradictory results about the role of β-catenin in melanoma progression and therapy resistance. We further demonstrate that β-catenin interacts with Stat3 after chronic vemurafenib treatment and both together cooperate in the acquisition and maintenance of resistance towards BRAFi. PMID:27428425

  4. Polarization-independent light-dispersing optical device consisting of two diffraction gratings and a waveplate.

    PubMed

    Amako, J; Fujii, E

    2014-06-10

    We report on a light-dispersing device consisting of two transmission gratings and a waveplate. The gratings separate two orthogonal polarization components of light incident at the Bragg angle. The waveplate, which is sandwiched between the gratings, functions as a polarization converter for oblique light incidence. With these optical parts suitably integrated, the resulting device efficiently diffracts unpolarized light with high spectral resolution. Using coupled-wave theories and Mueller matrix analysis, we constructed a device for a wavelength range of 680±50  nm with a 400 nm grating period. From the characterization of this optical device, we validated the proposed polarization-independent, light-dispersing concept. PMID:24921129

  5. Are the variability properties of the Kepler AGN light curves consistent with a damped random walk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, Vishal P.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2015-08-01

    We test the consistency of active galactic nuclei (AGN) optical flux variability with the damped random walk (DRW) model. Our sample consists of 20 multiquarter Kepler AGN light curves including both Type 1 and 2 Seyferts, radio-loud and -quiet AGN, quasars, and blazars. Kepler observations of AGN light curves offer a unique insight into the variability properties of AGN light curves because of the very rapid (11.6-28.6 min) and highly uniform rest-frame sampling combined with a photometric precision of 1 part in 105 over a period of 3.5 yr. We categorize the light curves of all 20 objects based on visual similarities and find that the light curves fall into five broad categories. We measure the first-order structure function of these light curves and model the observed light curve with a general broken power-law power spectral density (PSD) characterized by a short-time-scale power-law index γ and turnover time-scale τ. We find that less than half the objects are consistent with a DRW and observe variability on short time-scales (˜2 h). The turnover time-scale τ ranges from ˜10-135 d. Interesting structure function features include pronounced dips on rest-frame time-scales ranging from 10-100 d and varying slopes on different time-scales. The range of observed short-time-scale PSD slopes and the presence of dip and varying slope features suggests that the DRW model may not be appropriate for all AGN. We conclude that AGN variability is a complex phenomenon that requires a more sophisticated statistical treatment.

  6. Light-duty vehicle CO2 targets consistent with 450 ppm CO2 stabilization.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Sandra L; Wallington, Timothy J; Maas, Heiko; Hass, Heinz

    2014-06-01

    We present a global analysis of CO2 emission reductions from the light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet consistent with stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentration at 450 ppm. The CO2 emission reductions are described by g CO2/km emission targets for average new light-duty vehicles on a tank-to-wheel basis between 2010 and 2050 that we call CO2 glide paths. The analysis accounts for growth of the vehicle fleet, changing patterns in driving distance, regional availability of biofuels, and the changing composition of fossil fuels. New light-duty vehicle fuel economy and CO2 regulations in the U.S. through 2025 and in the EU through 2020 are broadly consistent with the CO2 glide paths. The glide path is at the upper end of the discussed 2025 EU range of 68-78 g CO2/km. The proposed China regulation for 2020 is more stringent than the glide path, while the 2017 Brazil regulation is less stringent. Existing regulations through 2025 are broadly consistent with the light-duty vehicle sector contributing to stabilizing CO2 at approximately 450 ppm. The glide paths provide long-term guidance for LDV powertrain/fuel development. PMID:24798684

  7. Uncoupling High Light Responses from Singlet Oxygen Retrograde Signaling and Spatial-Temporal Systemic Acquired Acclimation.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Melanie; Crisp, Peter A; d'Alessandro, Stefano; Ganguly, Diep; Gordon, Matthew; Havaux, Michel; Albrecht-Borth, Verónica; Pogson, Barry J

    2016-07-01

    Distinct ROS signaling pathways initiated by singlet oxygen ((1)O2) or superoxide and hydrogen peroxide have been attributed to either cell death or acclimation, respectively. Recent studies have revealed that more complex antagonistic and synergistic relationships exist within and between these pathways. As specific chloroplastic ROS signals are difficult to study, rapid systemic signaling experiments using localized high light (HL) stress or ROS treatments were used in this study to uncouple signals required for direct HL and ROS perception and distal systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). A qPCR approach was chosen to determine local perception and distal signal reception. Analysis of a thylakoidal ascorbate peroxidase mutant (tapx), the (1)O2-retrograde signaling double mutant (ex1/ex2), and an apoplastic signaling double mutant (rbohD/F) revealed that tAPX and EXECUTER 1 are required for both HL and systemic acclimation stress perception. Apoplastic membrane-localized RBOHs were required for systemic spread of the signal but not for local signal induction in directly stressed tissues. Endogenous ROS treatments revealed a very strong systemic response induced by a localized 1 h induction of (1)O2 using the conditional flu mutant. A qPCR time course of (1)O2 induced systemic marker genes in directly and indirectly connected leaves revealed a direct vascular connection component of both immediate and longer term SAA signaling responses. These results reveal the importance of an EXECUTER-dependent (1)O2 retrograde signal for both local and long distance RBOH-dependent acclimation signaling that is distinct from other HL signaling pathways, and that direct vascular connections have a role in spatial-temporal SAA induction. PMID:27288360

  8. Lighting the Way for Learning: A Teacher's Handbook of Practical Approaches and Techniques for Oral-Graphic Symbolic Language Acquirement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGahan, F. E.; McGahan, Carolyn

    Language consists of symbols written, spoken, or thought about things, places, or feelings seen or unseen. Any block, interference, or impasse to the acquirement of symbolic language can result in a learning disability. Oral language must precede the graphic. The purpose of this handbook is to suggest practical approaches and techniques which will…

  9. Consistent and efficient delineation of reference spaces for light microscopical stereology using a laser microbeam system.

    PubMed

    Hunziker, E B; Cruz-Orive, L M

    1986-04-01

    A serious problem in stereology is to ensure a consistent definition of reference spaces at different levels of magnification whenever the boundaries of such reference spaces are either fuzzy or non-existent, and hence they have to be defined artificially. (It is well known that inconsistent definitions of the reference space leads to unknown amounts of bias in stereological results.) In this paper a new application is found for the laser microbeam system used in microdissection, whereby the required boundaries can be easily and neatly traced (in fact, cut) directly onto uncovered sections for light microscopy. The dangers of bias inherent from inconsistencies of definition are thereby eliminated completely, and alternative, very expensive procedures requiring direct marking of paper prints with a pen are no longer necessary. PMID:3712424

  10. Depth Estimation and Specular Removal for Glossy Surfaces Using Point and Line Consistency with Light-Field Cameras.

    PubMed

    Tao, Michael W; Su, Jong-Chyi; Wang, Ting-Chun; Malik, Jitendra; Ramamoorthi, Ravi

    2016-06-01

    Light-field cameras have now become available in both consumer and industrial applications, and recent papers have demonstrated practical algorithms for depth recovery from a passive single-shot capture. However, current light-field depth estimation methods are designed for Lambertian objects and fail or degrade for glossy or specular surfaces. The standard Lambertian photoconsistency measure considers the variance of different views, effectively enforcing point-consistency, i.e., that all views map to the same point in RGB space. This variance or point-consistency condition is a poor metric for glossy surfaces. In this paper, we present a novel theory of the relationship between light-field data and reflectance from the dichromatic model. We present a physically-based and practical method to estimate the light source color and separate specularity. We present a new photo consistency metric, line-consistency, which represents how viewpoint changes affect specular points. We then show how the new metric can be used in combination with the standard Lambertian variance or point-consistency measure to give us results that are robust against scenes with glossy surfaces. With our analysis, we can also robustly estimate multiple light source colors and remove the specular component from glossy objects. We show that our method outperforms current state-of-the-art specular removal and depth estimation algorithms in multiple real world scenarios using the consumer Lytro and Lytro Illum light field cameras. PMID:26372203

  11. Paleo-Immunology: Evidence Consistent with Insertion of a Primordial Herpes Virus-Like Element in the Origins of Acquired Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Dreyfus, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Background The RAG encoded proteins, RAG-1 and RAG-2 regulate site-specific recombination events in somatic immune B- and T-lymphocytes to generate the acquired immune repertoire. Catalytic activities of the RAG proteins are related to the recombinase functions of a pre-existing mobile DNA element in the DDE recombinase/RNAse H family, sometimes termed the “RAG transposon”. Methodology/Principal Findings Novel to this work is the suggestion that the DDE recombinase responsible for the origins of acquired immunity was encoded by a primordial herpes virus, rather than a “RAG transposon.” A subsequent “arms race” between immunity to herpes infection and the immune system obscured primary amino acid similarities between herpes and immune system proteins but preserved regulatory, structural and functional similarities between the respective recombinase proteins. In support of this hypothesis, evidence is reviewed from previous published data that a modern herpes virus protein family with properties of a viral recombinase is co-regulated with both RAG-1 and RAG-2 by closely linked cis-acting co-regulatory sequences. Structural and functional similarity is also reviewed between the putative herpes recombinase and both DDE site of the RAG-1 protein and another DDE/RNAse H family nuclease, the Argonaute protein component of RISC (RNA induced silencing complex). Conclusions/Significance A “co-regulatory” model of the origins of V(D)J recombination and the acquired immune system can account for the observed linked genomic structure of RAG-1 and RAG-2 in non-vertebrate organisms such as the sea urchin that lack an acquired immune system and V(D)J recombination. Initially the regulated expression of a viral recombinase in immune cells may have been positively selected by its ability to stimulate innate immunity to herpes virus infection rather than V(D)J recombination Unlike the “RAG-transposon” hypothesis, the proposed model can be readily tested by

  12. Linear response of light deformed nuclei investigated by self-consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Losa, C.; Doessing, T.; Pastore, A.; Vigezzi, E.; Broglia, R. A.

    2010-06-15

    We present a calculation of the properties of vibrational states in deformed, axially-symmetric even-even nuclei, within the framework of a fully self-consistent quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA). The same Skyrme energy density and density-dependent pairing functionals are used to calculate the mean field and the residual interaction in the particle-hole and particle-particle channels. We have tested our software in the case of spherical nuclei against fully self-consistent calculations published in the literature, finding excellent agreement. We investigate the consequences of neglecting the spin-orbit and Coulomb residual interactions in QRPA. Furthermore we discuss the improvement obtained in the QRPA result associated with the removal of spurious modes. Isoscalar and isovector responses in the deformed {sup 24-26}Mg, {sup 34}Mg isotopes are presented and compared to experimental findings.

  13. Organic optocoupler consisting of an optimized blue organic light emitting diode and an organic photoconductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Amrani, A.; Lucas, B.; Antony, R.

    2015-09-01

    We present an optocoupler device based on a blue organic light-emitting diode (OLED) as input unit, and a pentacene photoconductor as output unit. The optocoupler was realized on a transparent glass substrate. The luminance was found larger than 103 cd/m2 with a blue peak emission at 450 nm for the optimized ZnO (120 nm)/ITO (150 nm)/α-NPB (40 nm)/BCP (15 nm)/Alq3 (20 nm)/Al structure. The Ids-Illum/Ids-Dark current ratio, the sensitivity and the current density transfer ratio of the optocoupler are of about 7, 10-1 A/W, and 10-1, respectively. The rise as well as full times were found faster for high bias voltages. The equilibrium regime with less persistent current was reached more quickly, as evidenced by the fast current response for higher bias voltage, indicating a more favorable recombination processes of the charge carriers. The organic optocoupler with a blue OLED reveals promising results; thus, it can be investigated as a good candidates for practical uses in organic optoelectronic circuits with high bias voltages.

  14. Consistent Methodologies for Determining, Relating and Disseminating Light Stable Isotopic Measurement Results: The Carbon Dioxide Example

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinedinst, D. B.; Verkouteren, R. M.

    2001-05-01

    In conjunction with the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the Atmospheric Chemistry Group (ACG) of National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has coordinated an international CO2 isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) intercomparison exercise. The results of this exercise, specifically designed to overcome inherent deficiencies revealed by previous intercomparisons, achieved a 2 to 3 fold reduction (improvement) in the reproducibility of reported results across laboratories. Concurrently, the ACG developed and deployed an interactive Web-based data processing interface [http://www.nist.gov/widps-co2]. The interface has open architecture and a transparent, downloadable source code. This data processing system leverages the results of the intercomparison exercise and provides a consistent means by which raw CO2 measurement results are related to the internationally accepted Vienna Pee Dee Belemnite (VPDB) scale. Prominent features of the CO2 intercomparison exercise included: mandatory chemical and operational procedures, reporting of discretionary factors, direct determination of the cross contamination effect within the ion source, the reporting of raw measurement results and centralized data processing. The data reduction interface uses IAEA defined standard procedures for stable isotope measurements and data processing. It incorporates currently defined reference values for selected IAEA and NIST CO2 Reference Materials (RMs). On a routine basis, users can also determine and use assigned values for secondary laboratory standards as input. One or two point (i.e., normalized) realization of the VPDB scale is provided as are optional inputs for the oxygen isotope fractionation factor(α ). We attribute the success of the CO2 intercomparison exercise primarily to the centralized data processing using raw measurements rather than customary result-based data. The centralized processing, in essence, eliminates inconsistencies between integrated

  15. Coherent spin-light-induced mechanisms in the semirelativistic limit of the self-consistent Dirac-Maxwell equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinschberger, Y.; Manfredi, G.; Hervieux, P.-A.

    2016-04-01

    We present a self-consistent mean-field model based on a two-component Pauli-like equation that incorporates quantum and relativistic effects (up to second order in 1 /c ) for both external and internal electromagnetic fields. By taking the semirelativistic limit of the Dirac-Maxwell equations in the presence of an external electromagnetic field we obtain an analytical expression of a coherent light-induced mean-field Hamiltonian. The latter exhibits several mechanisms that involve the internal mean fields created by all the electrons and the external electromagnetic field (laser). The role played by the light-induced current density and the light-induced second-order charge density acting as sources in Maxwell's equations are clarified. In particular, we identify clearly four different mechanisms involving the spins that may play an important role in coherent ultrafast spin dynamics.

  16. Uncoupling High Light Responses from Singlet Oxygen Retrograde Signaling and Spatial-Temporal Systemic Acquired Acclimation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Matthew; Havaux, Michel; Albrecht-Borth, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Distinct ROS signaling pathways initiated by singlet oxygen (1O2) or superoxide and hydrogen peroxide have been attributed to either cell death or acclimation, respectively. Recent studies have revealed that more complex antagonistic and synergistic relationships exist within and between these pathways. As specific chloroplastic ROS signals are difficult to study, rapid systemic signaling experiments using localized high light (HL) stress or ROS treatments were used in this study to uncouple signals required for direct HL and ROS perception and distal systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). A qPCR approach was chosen to determine local perception and distal signal reception. Analysis of a thylakoidal ascorbate peroxidase mutant (tapx), the 1O2-retrograde signaling double mutant (ex1/ex2), and an apoplastic signaling double mutant (rbohD/F) revealed that tAPX and EXECUTER 1 are required for both HL and systemic acclimation stress perception. Apoplastic membrane-localized RBOHs were required for systemic spread of the signal but not for local signal induction in directly stressed tissues. Endogenous ROS treatments revealed a very strong systemic response induced by a localized 1 h induction of 1O2 using the conditional flu mutant. A qPCR time course of 1O2 induced systemic marker genes in directly and indirectly connected leaves revealed a direct vascular connection component of both immediate and longer term SAA signaling responses. These results reveal the importance of an EXECUTER-dependent 1O2 retrograde signal for both local and long distance RBOH-dependent acclimation signaling that is distinct from other HL signaling pathways, and that direct vascular connections have a role in spatial-temporal SAA induction. PMID:27288360

  17. PsbS is required for systemic acquired acclimation and post-excess-light-stress optimization of chlorophyll fluorescence decay times in Arabidopsis

    PubMed Central

    Ciszak, Kamil; Kulasek, Milena; Barczak, Anna; Grzelak, Justyna; Maćkowski, Sebastian; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    Systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) is an important light acclimatory mechanism that depends on the global adjustments of non-photochemical quenching and chloroplast retrograde signaling. As the exact regulation of these processes is not known, we measured time-resolved fluorescence of chlorophyll a in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves exposed to excess light, in leaves undergoing SAA, and in leaves after excess light episode. We compare the behavior induced in wild-type plants with null mutant of non-photochemical quenching (npq4–1). The wild type rosettes exhibit a small reduction of fluorescence decay times in leaves directly exposed to excess light and in leaves undergoing SAA in ambient low light. However in npq4–1 exposition to excess light results in much faster fluorescence decay, which is insensitive to excitation power. At the same time npq4–1 leaves undergoing SAA displayed intermediate fluorescence decay. The npq4–1 plants also lost the ability to optimize florescence decay, and thus chlorophyll a dynamics up to 2 h after excess light episode. The fluorescence decay dynamics in both WT and npq4–1 can be described by a set of 3 maximum decay times. Based on the results, we concluded that functional PsbS is required for optimization of absorbed photon fate and optimal light acclimatory responses such as SAA or after excess light stress. PMID:25654166

  18. Microwave field controlled slow and fast light with a coupled system consisting of a nanomechanical resonator and a Cooper-pair box.

    PubMed

    Ma, Peng-Cheng; Xiao, Yin; Yu, Ya-Fei; Zhang, Zhi-Ming

    2014-02-10

    We theoretically demonstrate an efficient method to control slow and fast light in microwave regime with a coupled system consisting of a nanomechanical resonator (NR) and a superconducting Cooper-pair box (CPB). Using the pump-probe technique, we find that both slow and fast light effects of the probe field can appear in this coupled system. Furthermore, we show that a tunable switch from slow light to fast light can be achieved by only adjusting the pump-CPB detuning from the NR frequency to zero. Our coupled system may have potential applications, for example, in optical communication, microwave photonics, and nonlinear optics. PMID:24663653

  19. Efficient white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes consisting of orange ultrathin and blue mixed host emission layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Ren; Zuo, Liangmei; Xue, Kaiwen; Duan, Yu; Chen, Ping; Cheng, Gang; Zhao, Yi

    2016-08-01

    We have successfully demonstrated highly efficient white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by inserting an ultrathin non-doped orange layer within blue mixed host emission layer. The key feature of the novel device is the employment of blue mixed host and orange ultrathin layers, resulting in an extended recombination region and more balanced charge carrier. The maximum efficiencies of 33.8 lm W‑1 and 32.2 cd A‑1 are obtained. Moreover, the resulting white device achieves a slight efficiency roll-off and a high luminance at low operating voltage. Our versatile concept suggests a promising simple method to achieve high performance white OLEDs.

  20. Light scattering by a cluster consisting of homogeneous axisymmetric particles illuminated with an arbitrarily focused electromagnetic Gaussian beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Hany L. S.; Wriedt, Thomas; Khaled, Elsayed Esam M.

    2016-04-01

    Scattering of an arbitrarily focused electromagnetic Gaussian beam by a chain cluster consisting of axisymmetric particles is presented. The illustrated technique in this paper combines the plane-waves spectrum method and the cluster T-matrix calculation technique. This combination provides a powerful mathematical and numerical tool to solve such types of scattering problems. Computed results are shown for different particles shapes in the cluster and for different beam focusing.

  1. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  2. A Consistent Experimental and Modeling Approach to Light-Scattering Studies of Protein-Protein Interactions in Solution

    PubMed Central

    Asthagiri, D.; Paliwal, A.; Abras, D.; Lenhoff, A. M.; Paulaitis, M. E.

    2005-01-01

    The osmotic second virial coefficient, B2, obtained by light scattering from protein solutions has two principal components: the Donnan contribution and a contribution due to protein-protein interactions in the limit of infinite dilution. The Donnan contribution accounts for electroneutrality in a multicomponent solution of (poly)electrolytes. The importance of distinguishing this ideal contribution to B2 is emphasized, thereby allowing us to model the interaction part of B2 by molecular computations. The model for protein-protein interactions that we use here extends earlier work (Neal et al., 1998) by accounting for long-range electrostatic interactions and the specific hydration of the protein by strongly associated water molecules. Our model predictions are compared with measurements of B2 for lysozyme at 25°C over pH from 5.0 to 9.0, and 7–60 mM ionic strength. We find that B2 is positive at all solution conditions and decreases with increasing ionic strength, as expected, whereas the interaction part of B2 is negative at all conditions and becomes progressively less negative with increasing ionic strength. Although long-range electrostatic interactions dominate this contribution, particularly at low ionic strength, short-range electrostatic/dispersion interactions with specific hydration are essential for an accurate description of B2 derived from experiment. PMID:15792969

  3. [Study on visible-light curing soft resins consisting of fluoropolymers. 2. Effect of fluoroalkyl alpha-fluoroacrylate monomers].

    PubMed

    Ohe, Y; Kadoma, Y; Imai, Y

    1990-07-01

    New experimental visible-light cured soft resins were prepared by combining a vinylidene fluoride/hexafluoropropylene copolymer (2-6 F), or a vinylidene fluoride/tetrafluoroethylene/hexafluoropropylene copolymer (2-4-6 F) with 2,2,3,3-tetrafluoropropyl alpha-fluoroacrylate (4 FFA), 2,2,3,3,3-pentafluoropropyl alpha-fluoroacrylate (5 FFA), 2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluoropentyl alpha-fluoroacrylate (8 FFA), or 2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5,6,6,7,7-dodecafluoroheptyl alpha-fluoracrylate (12 FFA). Some properties of the resins prepared were measured to determine whether they would be candidate materials for the soft denture liner. Water contact angles increased with the increase in the number of fluorine atoms contained in the monomers: 85-90 degrees in 4 FFA, 90-93 degrees in 8 FFA, and 92-93 degrees in 12 FFA. Softer resins were obtained with 2-4-6 F, especially by the combination with 8 FFA giving the softest resin with a hardness of 43-46 (JIS A). Water sorption after 10 weeks was considerably low: 0.4-2%: 0.4-0.9% in 4 FFA/2-6 F and about 2% in 8 FFA/2-4-6 F. Solubility was 0.2-0.4% in the resins with 4 FFA and 1.0-1.4% with 8 FFA or 12 FFA. Amount of residual monomer was low, and the maximum was 0.4% in the resin with 12 FFA. Thus hardness and water sorption of the resins prepared were superior to those of the commercial soft materials. PMID:2134830

  4. Structural dynamics of phenylisothiocyanate in the light-absorbing excited states: Resonance Raman and complete active space self-consistent field calculation study

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang, Bing Xue, Jia-Dan Zheng, Xuming E-mail: zxm@zstu.edu.cn; Fang, Wei-Hai E-mail: fangwh@dnu.edu.cn

    2014-05-21

    The excited state structural dynamics of phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) after excitation to the light absorbing S{sub 2}(A′), S{sub 6}(A′), and S{sub 7}(A′) excited states were studied by using the resonance Raman spectroscopy and complete active space self-consistent field method calculations. The UV absorption bands of PITC were assigned. The vibrational assignments were done on the basis of the Fourier transform (FT)-Raman and FT-infrared measurements, the density-functional theory computations, and the normal mode analysis. The A-, B-, and C-bands resonance Raman spectra in cyclohexane, acetonitrile, and methanol solvents were, respectively, obtained at 299.1, 282.4, 266.0, 252.7, 228.7, 217.8, and 208.8 nm excitation wavelengths to probe the corresponding structural dynamics of PITC. The results indicated that the structural dynamics in the S{sub 2}(A′), S{sub 6}(A′), and S{sub 7}(A′) excited states were very different. The conical intersection point CI(S{sub 2}/S{sub 1}) were predicted to play important role in the low-lying excited state decay dynamics. Two major decay channels were predicted for PITC upon excitation to the S{sub 2}(A′) state: the radiative S{sub 2,min} → S{sub 0} transition and the nonradiative S{sub 2} → S{sub 1} internal conversion via CI(S{sub 2}/S{sub 1}). The differences in the decay dynamics between methyl isothiocyanate and PITC in the first light absorbing excited state were discussed. The role of the intersystem crossing point ISC(S{sub 1}/T{sub 1}) in the excited state decay dynamics of PITC is evaluated.

  5. Dynamic structure factor for large aggregate clusters with internal motions: a self-consistent light-scattering study on conjugated polymer solutions.

    PubMed

    Wen, Yu H; Lin, Po C; Hua, Chi C; Chen, Show A

    2011-12-15

    The aggregation properties of a standard conjugated polymer, poly(2-methoxy-5-(2'-ethylhexyloxy)-1,4-phenylenevinylene) (MEH-PPV), in two distinct solvents (chloroform and toluene) and a range of polymer concentrations (c = 0.1-3 mg/mL) have been unequivocally resolved using combined dynamic and static light scatterings (DLS/SLS). The prime challenges for analyzing this peculiar, practically important, solution system arise from the wide size distribution and unknown aggregate morphology, as well as pronounced interferences between translational and internal motions of aggregate clusters of considerably varying size. To cope with these central difficulties, we propose a self-consistent formulation for analyzing the dynamic structure factor in DLS experiment by extending an existing theory on free-draining bead-spring chains that explicitly accounts for internal fluctuations, along with two candidate form factors on Gaussian coil and rigid sphere, respectively, serving as two limiting cases to be discriminated in combined DLS and SLS measurements. Given that no accessibility to ultrasmall angular resolutions is a prerequisite, the suggested protocol can readily be carried out in conventional light-scattering apparatus. The present analyses unanimously support the rigid-sphere form factor in describing the entire set of light-scattering data on MEH-PPV solutions, differing from early small-angle neutron/X-ray scattering interpretations suggesting certain 2D fractal structures for the aggregation network. Scrutiny into the interior dynamics of aggregate clusters further disclosed that the segmental motions are noticeably more suppressed than for usual, nonaggregated polymer solutions, and no existing theories based on the bead-spring picture can yet capture the observed scaling behavior as manifested by the present data. Accordingly, we report several first-revealed properties of MEH-PPV solutions on the aggregate morphology, the size distribution (and mean size

  6. Lighting.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  7. Spectral optimization of the color temperature tunable white light-emitting diode (LED) cluster consisting of direct-emission blue and red LEDs and a diphosphor conversion LED.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Ping; He, Guoxing; Zhang, Minhao

    2012-09-10

    The correlated color temperature (CCT) tunable white-light LED cluster, which consists of direct-emission blue and red LEDs as well as phosphor-conversion (PC) LEDs packaged by combining green and orange phosphors with a blue LED die, has been obtained by nonlinear program for maximizing luminous efficacy (LE) of radiation (LER) under conditions of both color rendering index (CRI) and special CRI of R9 for strong red above 90 at CCTs of 2700 K to 6500 K. The optimal peak wavelengths of blue LED, red LED, blue LED die, green and orange phosphors are 465 nm, 628 nm, 452 nm, 530 nm and 586 nm, respectively. The real CCT tunable PC/red/blue LED cluster with CRIs of 90~96, R9s of 90~96, CQSs of 89~94, LERs of 303~358 lm/W, and LEs of 105~119 lm/W has been realized at CCTs of 2722 K to 6464 K. The deviation of the peak wavelength should be less than ± 5 nm for blue LED die, ± 1 nm for red LED, and ± 2 nm for blue LED to achieve the PC/R/B LED cluster with high optical performance. PMID:23037535

  8. Acquired von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shaji; Pruthi, Rajiv K; Nichols, William L

    2002-02-01

    Acquired von Willebrand disease (AvWD) is a relatively rare acquired bleeding disorder that usually occurs in elderly patients, in whom its recognition may be delayed. Patients usually present predominantly with mucocutaneous bleeding, with no previous history of bleeding abnormalities and no clinically meaningful family history. Various underlying diseases have been associated with AvWD, most commonly hematoproliferative disorders, including monoclonal gammopathies, lymphoproliferative disorders, and myeloproliferative disorders. The pathogenesis of AvWD remains incompletely understood but includes autoantibodies directed against the von Willebrand factor (vWF), leading to a more rapid clearance from the circulation or interference with its function, adsorption of vWF by tumor cells, and nonimmunologic mechanisms of destruction. Laboratory evaluation usually reveals a pattern of prolonged bleeding time and decreased levels of vWF antigen, ristocetin cofactor activity, and factor VIII coagulant activity consistent with a diagnosis of vWD. Acquired vWD is distinguished from the congenital form by age at presentation, absence of a personal and family history of bleeding disorders, and, often, presence of a hematoproliferative or autoimmune disorder. The severity of the bleeding varies considerably among patients. Therapeutic options include desmopressin and certain factor VIII concentrates that also contain vWF. Successful treatment of the associated illness can reverse the clinical and laboratory manifestations. Intravenous immunoglobulins have also shown some efficacy in the management of AvWD, especially cases associated with monoclonal gammopathies. Awareness of AvWD is essential for diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:11838652

  9. Highly Emissive Whole Rainbow Fluorophores Consisting of 1,4-Bis(2-phenylethynyl)benzene Core Skeleton: Design, Synthesis, and Light-Emitting Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Yoshihiro; Ochi, Takanori; Matsubara, Yoshio; Yoshida, Zen-ichi

    2015-08-13

    To create the whole-rainbow-fluorophores (WRF) having the small Δλem (the difference of λem between a given fluorophore and nearest neighboring fluorophore having the same core skeleton) values (<20 nm) in full visible region (λem: 400-650 nm), the high log ε (>4.5), and the high Φf (>0.6), we investigated molecular design, synthesis, and light-emitting characteristics of the π-conjugated molecules (D/A-BPBs) consisting of 1,4-bis(phenylethynyl)benzene (BPB) modified by donor groups (OMe, SMe, NMe2, and NPh2) and an acceptor group (CN). As a result, synthesized 20 D/A-BPBs (1a-5d) were found to be the desired WRF. To get the intense red fluorophore (Φf > 0.7, λem > 610 nm), we synthesized new compounds (5e-5i) and elucidated their photophysical properties in CHCl3 solution. As a result, 5h, in which a 4-cyanophenyl group is introduced to the para-position of two benzene rings in the terminal NPh2 group of 5d, was found to be the desired intense red fluorophore (log ε = 4.56, Φf = 0.76, λem = 611 nm). The intramolecular charge-transfer nature of the S1 state of WRF (1a-5d) was elucidated by the positive linear relationship between optical transition energy (νem) from the S1 state to the S0 state and HOMO(D)-LUMO(A) difference, and the molecular orbitals calculated with the DFT method. It is demonstrated that our concept (Φf = 1/(exp(-Aπ) + 1)) connected with the relationship between Φf and magnitude (Aπ) of π conjugation length in the S1 state can be applied to WRF (1a-5d). It is suggested that the prediction of Φf from a structural model can be achieved by the equation Φf = 1/(exp(-((ν̃a - ν̃f)(1/2) × a(3/2)) + 1), where ν̃a and ν̃f are the wavenumber (cm(-1)) of absorption and fluorescence peaks, respectively, and a is the calculated molecular radius. From the viewpoint of application of WRF to various functional materials, the light-emitting characteristics of 1a-5i in doped polymer films were examined. It was demonstrated that 1a-5

  10. Highly Efficient F, Cu doped TiO2 anti-bacterial visible light active photocatalytic coatings to combat hospital-acquired infections

    PubMed Central

    Leyland, Nigel S.; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Browne, John; Hinder, Steven J.; Quilty, Brid; Pillai, Suresh C.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections are a major threat to the health of patients in healthcare facilities including hospitals. One of the major causes of patient morbidity is infection with Staphylococcus aureus. One of the the most dominant nosocomial bacteria, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported to survive on hospital surfaces (e.g. privacy window glasses) for up to 5 months. None of the current anti-bacterial technology is efficient in eliminating Staphylococcus aureus. A novel transparent, immobilised and superhydrophilic coating of titanium dioxide, co-doped with fluorine and copper has been prepared on float glass substrates. Antibacterial activity has demonstrated (by using Staphylococcus aureus), resulting from a combination of visible light activated (VLA) photocatalysis and copper ion toxicity. Co-doping with copper and fluorine has been shown to improve the performance of the coating, relative to a purely fluorine-doped VLA photocatalyst. Reductions in bacterial population of log10 = 4.2 under visible light irradiation and log10 = 1.8 in darkness have been achieved, compared with log10 = 1.8 under visible light irradiation and no activity, for a purely fluorine-doped titania. Generation of reactive oxygen species from the photocatalytic coatings is the major factor that significantly reduces the bacterial growth on the glass surfaces. PMID:27098010

  11. Highly Efficient F, Cu doped TiO2 anti-bacterial visible light active photocatalytic coatings to combat hospital-acquired infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyland, Nigel S.; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Browne, John; Hinder, Steven J.; Quilty, Brid; Pillai, Suresh C.

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial infections are a major threat to the health of patients in healthcare facilities including hospitals. One of the major causes of patient morbidity is infection with Staphylococcus aureus. One of the the most dominant nosocomial bacteria, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported to survive on hospital surfaces (e.g. privacy window glasses) for up to 5 months. None of the current anti-bacterial technology is efficient in eliminating Staphylococcus aureus. A novel transparent, immobilised and superhydrophilic coating of titanium dioxide, co-doped with fluorine and copper has been prepared on float glass substrates. Antibacterial activity has demonstrated (by using Staphylococcus aureus), resulting from a combination of visible light activated (VLA) photocatalysis and copper ion toxicity. Co-doping with copper and fluorine has been shown to improve the performance of the coating, relative to a purely fluorine-doped VLA photocatalyst. Reductions in bacterial population of log10 = 4.2 under visible light irradiation and log10 = 1.8 in darkness have been achieved, compared with log10 = 1.8 under visible light irradiation and no activity, for a purely fluorine-doped titania. Generation of reactive oxygen species from the photocatalytic coatings is the major factor that significantly reduces the bacterial growth on the glass surfaces.

  12. Highly Efficient F, Cu doped TiO2 anti-bacterial visible light active photocatalytic coatings to combat hospital-acquired infections.

    PubMed

    Leyland, Nigel S; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Browne, John; Hinder, Steven J; Quilty, Brid; Pillai, Suresh C

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections are a major threat to the health of patients in healthcare facilities including hospitals. One of the major causes of patient morbidity is infection with Staphylococcus aureus. One of the the most dominant nosocomial bacteria, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported to survive on hospital surfaces (e.g. privacy window glasses) for up to 5 months. None of the current anti-bacterial technology is efficient in eliminating Staphylococcus aureus. A novel transparent, immobilised and superhydrophilic coating of titanium dioxide, co-doped with fluorine and copper has been prepared on float glass substrates. Antibacterial activity has demonstrated (by using Staphylococcus aureus), resulting from a combination of visible light activated (VLA) photocatalysis and copper ion toxicity. Co-doping with copper and fluorine has been shown to improve the performance of the coating, relative to a purely fluorine-doped VLA photocatalyst. Reductions in bacterial population of log10 = 4.2 under visible light irradiation and log10 = 1.8 in darkness have been achieved, compared with log10 = 1.8 under visible light irradiation and no activity, for a purely fluorine-doped titania. Generation of reactive oxygen species from the photocatalytic coatings is the major factor that significantly reduces the bacterial growth on the glass surfaces. PMID:27098010

  13. Light-dependent and -independent behavioral effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields in a land snail are consistent with a parametric resonance mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Prato, F.S.; Thomas, A.W. |; Kavaliers, M.; Cullen, A.P.

    1997-05-01

    Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields has been shown to attenuate endogenous opioid peptide mediated antinociception or analgesia in the terrestrial pulmonate snail, Cepaea nemoralis. Here the authors examine the roles of light in determining this effect and address the mechanisms associated with mediating the effects of the ELF magnetic fields in both the presence and absence of light. Specifically, they consider whether the magnetic field effects involve an indirect induced electric current mechanism or a direct effect such as a parametric resonance mechanism (PRM). They exposed snails in both the presence and absence of light at three different frequencies (30, 60, and 120 Hz) with static field values (B{sub DC}) and ELF magnetic field amplitude (peak) and direction (B{sub AC}) set according to the predictions of the PRM for Ca{sup 2+}. Analgesia was induced in snails by injecting them with an enkephalinase inhibitor, which augments endogenous opioid (enkephalin) activity. They found that the magnetic field exposure reduced this opioid-induced analgesia significantly more if the exposure occurred in the presence rather than the absence of light. However, the percentage reduction in analgesia in both the presence and absence of light was not dependent on the ELF frequency. This finding suggests that in both the presence and the absence of light the effect of the ELF magnetic field was mediated by a direct magnetic field detection mechanism such as the PRM rather than an induced current mechanism.

  14. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  15. Molecular Mechanism of Photozipper, a Light-Regulated Dimerizing Module Consisting of the bZIP and LOV Domains of Aureochrome-1.

    PubMed

    Nakatani, Yoichi; Hisatomi, Osamu

    2015-06-01

    Aureochrome-1 (AUREO1) is a blue light (BL) receptor responsible for the BL-induced blanching of a stramenopile alga, Vaucheria frigida. The AUREO1 protein contains a central basic region/leucine zipper (bZIP) domain, and a C-terminal light-oxygen-voltage-sensing (LOV) domain. BL induces the dimerization of monomeric AUREO1, which subsequently increases the affinity of this transcription factor for its target DNA [Hisatomi, O., et al. (2014) J. Biol. Chem. 289, 17379-17391]. We constructed a synthetic gene encoding N-terminally truncated monomeric AUREO1 (designated Photozipper) to elucidate the molecular mechanism of this BL-regulated transcription factor and to develop it as an optogenetic tool. In this study, four different Photozipper (PZ) protein constructs were prepared comprising different N-terminal truncations. The monomer-dimer equilibria of the PZ constructs were investigated in the dark and light states. Dynamic light scattering and size-exclusion chromatography analyses revealed that the apparent dissociation constants of PZ dimers with and without the ZIP region were ~100 and 30 μM, respectively, indicating that the ZIP region stabilized the monomeric form in the dark state. In the light state, fluorescence resonance energy transfer analyses demonstrated that deletion of the ZIP region increased the dissociation constant from ~0.15 to 0.6 μM, suggesting that intermolecular LOV-LOV and ZIP-ZIP interactions stabilized the dimeric forms. Our results suggest that synergistic interactions between the LOV and bZIP domains stabilize the monomeric form in the dark state and the dimeric form in the light state, which possibly contributes to the function of PZ as a BL-regulated molecular switch. PMID:25932652

  16. Murine Bone Marrow-Derived Dendritic Cells Transduced by Light-Helper-Dependent Herpes Simplex Virus-1 Amplicon Vector Acquire a Mature Dendritic Cell Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Oz-Arslan, Devrim; Tsitoura, Eliza; Kazazi, Dorothea; Kouvatsis, Vlasis; Epstein, Alberto L; Mavromara, Penelope

    2015-06-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) turn into the most potent antigen-presenting cells following a complex transforming process, which leads to their maturation. Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) amplicon vectors represent highly versatile viral vector platforms with the ability to transduce immature DCs at exceedingly high efficiencies, while the efficiency of infection of mature DCs is significantly low. However, the bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC)-dependent (BD) amplicon vectors tested so far do not result in the maturation of mouse bone marrow-derived DCs (BMDCs) in vitro. In this study we investigated the effects of light-helper-dependent (LHD) amplicon vectors produced with the replication-defective HSV-1 LaLΔJ helper virus system. First, we observed that transgene expression in BMDC cultures was equally potent between the LHD and the BD amplicon vectors. We determined that the percentage of transduced cells and the duration of transgene expression were negatively influenced by the presence of increasing levels of helper virus. Second, infection by the LHD amplicon vector as well as the helper HSV-1 LaLΔJ virus alone resulted in the phenotypic maturation of BMDCs and the expression of both interferon-stimulated genes and proinflammatory cytokines. Further comparisons of the gene expression of infected DCs showed that while interferon-stimulated genes such as Ifit1, Ifit3, Mx2, Isg15, and Cxcl10 were induced by both BD and LHD amplicon vectors, early proinflammatory cytokine gene expression (Tnfa, Il1a, Il1b, Il6, Il10, Il12b, Cxcl1, and Cxcl16) and DC maturation were mediated only by the LHD amplicons. PMID:26046494

  17. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000146.htm Hospital-acquired pneumonia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is an infection of the lungs ...

  18. Visible-light-induced water oxidation by a hybrid photocatalyst consisting of bismuth vanadate and copper(II) meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Shu; Negishi, Ryo; Tada, Hiroaki

    2016-03-01

    Copper(II) meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)porphyrin surface-modified monoclinic scheelite bismuth vanadate (CuTCPP/BiVO4) has been synthesized via a two-step route involving chemisorption of TCPP on BiVO4 and successive Cu(II) ion incorporation into the TCPP, and the surface modification drastically enhances the water oxidation to oxygen (O2) under visible-light irradiation (λ > 430 nm). PMID:26853997

  19. Enhanced light-extraction from hierarchical surfaces consisting of p-GaN microdomes and SiO2 nanorods for GaN-based light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Cheng-Han; Hsiao, Yu-Hsuan; Lien, Der-Hsien; Tsai, M. S.; Chang, Don; Lai, Kun-Yu; Sun, Ching-Cherng; He-Hau, Jr.

    2013-10-01

    We report an efficient light-extraction scheme employing the hierarchical structure, p-GaN microdomes/SiO2 nanorods (NRs), on GaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Compared with the flat LED, the LEDs with hierarchical surfaces exhibits a light-output improvement of 36.8%. The considerable enhancement in light-extraction efficiency is attributed to the multiple tilted surfaces of microdomes and the graded refractive indexes provided by the SiO2 NRs, reducing total internal reflection and Fresnel reflection. The enhanced optical performances are supported by the finite-difference time-domain analysis. Advances in light extraction scheme employing hierarchical structures demonstrated here pave the way to solid-state lighting technology.

  20. Self-consistent covariant description of vector meson decay constants and chirality-even quark-antiquark distribution amplitudes up to twist 3 in the light-front quark model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ho-Meoyng; Ji, Chueng-Ryong

    2014-02-01

    Although the meson decay amplitude described by a two-point function may be regarded as one of the simplest possible physical observables, it is interesting that this apparently simple amplitude bears abundant fundamental information on QCD vacuum dynamics and chiral symmetry. The light-front zero-mode issue of the vector meson decay constant fV is in this respect highly nontrivial and deserves careful analysis. We discuss the zero-mode issue in the light-front quark model (LFQM) prediction of fV from the perspective of the vacuum fluctuation consistent with the chiral symmetry of QCD. We extend the exactly solvable, manifestly covariant Bethe-Salpeter model calculation to the more phenomenologically accessible, realistic light-front quark model and present a self-consistent covariant description of fV, analyzing the twist-2 and twist-3 quark-antiquark distribution amplitudes with even chirality.

  1. Nature-Inspired, Highly Durable CO2 Reduction System Consisting of a Binuclear Ruthenium(II) Complex and an Organic Semiconductor Using Visible Light.

    PubMed

    Kuriki, Ryo; Matsunaga, Hironori; Nakashima, Takuya; Wada, Keisuke; Yamakata, Akira; Ishitani, Osamu; Maeda, Kazuhiko

    2016-04-20

    A metal-free organic semiconductor of mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride (C3N4) coupled with a Ru(II) binuclear complex (RuRu') containing photosensitizer and catalytic units selectively reduced CO2 into HCOOH under visible light (λ > 400 nm) in the presence of a suitable electron donor with high durability, even in aqueous solution. Modification of C3N4 with Ag nanoparticles resulted in a RuRu'/Ag/C3N4 photocatalyst that exhibited a very high turnover number (>33000 with respect to the amount of RuRu'), while maintaining high selectivity for HCOOH production (87-99%). This turnover number was 30 times greater than that reported previously using C3N4 modified with a mononuclear Ru(II) complex, and by far the highest among the metal-complex/semiconductor hybrid systems reported to date. The results of photocatalytic reactions, emission decay measurements, and time-resolved infrared spectroscopy indicated that Ag nanoparticles on C3N4 collected electrons having lifetimes of several milliseconds from the conduction band of C3N4, which were transferred to the excited state of RuRu', thereby promoting photocatalytic CO2 reduction driven by two-step photoexcitation of C3N4 and RuRu'. This study also revealed that the RuRu'/Ag/C3N4 hybrid photocatalyst worked efficiently in water containing a proper electron donor, despite the intrinsic hydrophobic nature of C3N4 and low solubility of CO2 in an aqueous environment. PMID:27027822

  2. Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis.

    PubMed

    Basak, P Y; Turkmen, C

    2001-01-01

    Acquired perforating disorder has been recognized as an uncommon distinct dermatosis in which altered collagen is eliminated through the epidermis. Several disorders accompanied by itching and scratching were reported to be associated with reactive perforating collagenosis. A 67-year-old white woman diagnosed as acquired reactive perforating collagenosis with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and congestive cardiac failure is presented. PMID:11525959

  3. Acute Acquired Concomitant Esotropia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingchang; Deng, Daming; Sun, Yuan; Shen, Tao; Cao, Guobin; Yan, Jianhua; Chen, Qiwen; Ye, Xuelian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute acquired concomitant esotropia (AACE) is a rare, distinct subtype of esotropia. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the clinical characteristics and discuss the classification and etiology of AACE. Charts from 47 patients with AACE referred to our institute between October 2010 and November 2014 were reviewed. All participants underwent a complete medical history, ophthalmologic and orthoptic examinations, and brain and orbital imaging. Mean age at onset was 26.6 ± 12.2 years. Of the 18 cases with deviations ≤ 20 PD, 16 presented with diplopia at distance and fusion at near vision at the onset of deviation; differences between distance and near deviations were < 8 PD; all cases except one were treated with prism and diplopia resolved. Of the 29 cases with deviations > 20 PD, 5 were mild hypermetropic with age at onset between 5 and 19 years, 16 were myopic, and 8 were emmetropic with age at onset > 12 years; 24 were surgically treated and 5 cases remained under observation; all 24 cases achieved normal retinal correspondence or fusion or stereopsis on postoperative day 1 in synoptophore; in 23 cases diplopia or visual confusion resolved postoperatively. Of the 47 cases, brain and orbital imaging in 2 cases revealed a tumor in the cerebellopontine angle and 1 case involved spinocerebellar ataxia as revealed by genetic testing. AACE in this study was characterized by a sudden onset of concomitant nonaccommodative esotropia with diplopia or visual confusion at 5 years of age or older and the potential for normal binocular vision. We suggest that AACE can be divided into 2 subgroups consisting of patients with relatively small versus large angle deviations. Coexisting or underlying neurological diseases were infrequent in AACE. PMID:26705210

  4. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a kidney transplant or blood-filtering treatments called dialysis. The cysts are more likely to develop in people who are on kidney dialysis. The chance of developing acquired cystic kidney disease ...

  5. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... tends to be more serious than other lung infections because: People in the hospital are often very sick and cannot fight off ... prevent pneumonia. Most hospitals have programs to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  6. Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Audin, L.

    1994-12-31

    EPAct covers a vast territory beyond lighting and, like all legislation, also contains numerous {open_quotes}favors,{close_quotes} compromises, and even some sleight-of-hand. Tucked away under Title XIX, for example, is an increase from 20% to 28% tax on gambling winnings, effective January 1, 1993 - apparently as a way to help pay for new spending listed elsewhere in the bill. Overall, it is a landmark piece of legislation, about a decade overdue. It remains to be seen how the Federal Government will enforce upgrading of state (or even their own) energy codes. There is no mention of funding for {open_quotes}energy police{close_quotes} in EPAct. Merely creating such a national standard, however, provides a target for those who sincerely wish to create an energy-efficient future.

  7. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach. PMID:26186969

  8. Acquired Brain Injury Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

    This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

  9. Acquired von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Petrini, P

    1999-05-01

    Acquired von Willebrand disease (AvWD) is a syndrome that has clinical and laboratory features similar to hereditary vWD. In contrast to the latter it occurs in patients without a family history of previous bleeding tendency. PMID:23401904

  10. Self-Consistent Approach to the Solution of the Light Transfer Problem for Irradiances in Marine Waters with Arbitrary Turbidity, Depth, and Surface Illumination. I. Case of Absorption and Elastic Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haltrin, Vladimir I.

    1998-06-01

    A self-consistent variant of the two-flow approximation that takes into account strong anisotropy of light scattering in seawater of finite depth and arbitrary turbidity is presented. To achieve an appropriate accuracy, this approach uses experimental dependencies between downward and total mean cosines. It calculates irradiances, diffuse attenuation coefficients, and diffuse reflectances in waters with arbitrary values of scattering, backscattering, and attenuation coefficients. It also takes into account arbitrary conditions of illumination and reflection from the bottom with the Lambertian albedo. This theory can be used for the calculation of apparent optical properties in both open and coastal oceanic waters, lakes, and rivers. It can also be applied to other types of absorbing and scattering medium such as paints, photographic emulsions, and biological tissues.

  11. [Acquired von Willebrand syndrome].

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (aVWS) is a rare, but probably underestimated, bleeding disorder that mimics the congenital form of von Willebrand disease (VWD) in terms of laboratory findings and clinical presentation. However, unlike congenital VWD, it arises in individuals with no personal or family history of bleeding. AVWS occurs in association with a variety of underlying disorders, including lymphoproliferative disorders, myeloproliferative disorders and cardiovascular diseases. The main pathogenic, clinical, laboratory and therapeutic aspects of this syndrome are concisely reported in this review. PMID:16913181

  12. Summary of residential environmental issues and program consistency

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M C

    1989-05-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Act authorizes the Bonneville Power Administration to acquire all necessary energy resources to serve Northwest utilities choosing to acquire power from the agency and to give conservation the highest priority in responding to the demand for electricity. To meet this mandate, the agency has established residential conservation programs for weatherizing existing homes, building new energy-efficient homes, and promoting energy-efficient appliances. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared this report to compare and contrast the environmental requirements and issues involving Bonneville's residential conservation programs. The key environmental concern confronting each of the programs with measures aimed at reducing air leakage rates in houses (both new and existing) is indoor air quality (IAQ). This report reviews the similarity and consistency of the programs' approach to IAQ, their impacts, program features, mitigation techniques, and new information about IAQ and other potential environmental issues confronting the programs. The information is intended for use in comparing and contrasting how environmental features mesh with other program features, checking consistency across programs and determining whether it makes sense for programs to be consistent, determining consistency between programs, and providing information to aid program planning in light of potential environmental issues and new information. 31 refs.

  13. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Polverino, E; Torres Marti, A

    2011-02-01

    Despite the remarkable advances in antibiotic therapies, diagnostic tools, prevention campaigns and intensive care, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still among the primary causes of death worldwide, and there have been no significant changes in mortality in the last decades. The clinical and economic burden of CAP makes it a major public health problem, particularly for children and the elderly. This issue provides a clinical overview of CAP, focusing on epidemiology, economic burden, diagnosis, risk stratification, treatment, clinical management, and prevention. Particular attention is given to some aspects related to the clinical management of CAP, such as the microbial etiology and the available tools to achieve it, the usefulness of new and old biomarkers, and antimicrobial and other non-antibiotic adjunctive therapies. Possible scenarios in which pneumonia does not respond to treatment are also analyzed to improve clinical outcomes of CAP. PMID:21242952

  14. Acquired Porphyria Cutanea Tarda

    PubMed Central

    Koval, Andrew; Danby, C. W. E.; Petermann, H.

    1965-01-01

    Currently, the porphyrias are classified in four main groups: congenital porphyria, acute intermittent porphyria, porphyria cutanea tarda hereditaria, and porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica. The acquired form of porphyria (porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica) occurs in older males and is nearly always associated with chronic alcoholism and hepatic cirrhosis. The main clinical changes are dermatological, with excessive skin fragility and photosensitivity resulting in erosions and bullae. Biochemically, high levels of uroporphyrin are found in the urine and stools. Treatment to date has been symptomatic and usually unsuccessful. A case of porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica is presented showing dramatic improvement of both the skin lesions and porphyrin levels in urine and blood following repeated phlebotomy. Possible mechanisms of action of phlebotomy on porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:14341652

  15. [ICU acquired neuromyopathy].

    PubMed

    Gueret, G; Guillouet, M; Vermeersch, V; Guillard, E; Talarmin, H; Nguyen, B-V; Rannou, F; Giroux-Metges, M-A; Pennec, J-P; Ozier, Y

    2013-09-01

    ICU acquired neuromyopathy (IANM) is the most frequent neurological pathology observed in ICU. Nerve and muscle defects are merged with neuromuscular junction abnormalities. Its physiopathology is complex. The aim is probably the redistribution of nutriments and metabolism towards defense against sepsis. The main risk factors are sepsis, its severity and its duration of evolution. IANM is usually diagnosed in view of difficulties in weaning from mechanical ventilation, but electrophysiology may allow an earlier diagnosis. There is no curative therapy, but early treatment of sepsis, glycemic control as well as early physiotherapy may decrease its incidence. The outcomes of IANM are an increase in morbi-mortality and possibly long-lasting neuromuscular abnormalities as far as tetraplegia. PMID:23958176

  16. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... confer control of X and therefore will file as an acquiring person. Because A held the plant prior to the... within two persons, “A” and “B.” Under this section, if V is to acquire corporation X, both “A” and “B... person. Examples: 1. Assume that person “Q” will acquire voting securities of corporation X held by...

  17. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... confer control of X and therefore will file as an acquiring person. Because A held the plant prior to the... within two persons, “A” and “B.” Under this section, if V is to acquire corporation X, both “A” and “B... person. Examples: 1. Assume that person “Q” will acquire voting securities of corporation X held by...

  18. Neighborhood inverse consistency preprocessing

    SciTech Connect

    Freuder, E.C.; Elfe, C.D.

    1996-12-31

    Constraint satisfaction consistency preprocessing methods are used to reduce search effort. Time and especially space costs limit the amount of preprocessing that will be cost effective. A new form of consistency preprocessing, neighborhood inverse consistency, can achieve more problem pruning than the usual arc consistency preprocessing in a cost effective manner. There are two basic ideas: (1) Common forms of consistency enforcement basically operate by identifying and remembering solutions to subproblems for which a consistent value cannot be found for some additional problem variable. The space required for this memory can quickly become prohibitive. Inverse consistency basically operates by removing values for variables that are not consistent with any solution to some subproblem involving additional variables. The space requirement is at worst linear. (2) Typically consistency preprocessing achieves some level of consistency uniformly throughout the problem. A subproblem solution will be tested against each additional variable that constrains any subproblem variable. Neighborhood consistency focuses attention on the subproblem formed by the variables that are all constrained by the value in question. By targeting highly relevant subproblems we hope to {open_quotes}skim the cream{close_quotes}, obtaining a high payoff for a limited cost.

  19. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... acquired person is the pre-acquisition ultimate parent entity of the entity. (ii) The value of an... directors of B. A is deemed to be acquiring all of the assets of B as a result. (g) Transfers of patent... transfer of patent rights covered by this paragraph constitutes an asset acquisition; and (3) Patent...

  20. Consistent model driven architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  1. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  2. Children Acquire Emotion Categories Gradually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Some accounts imply that basic-level emotion categories are acquired early and quickly, whereas others imply that they are acquired later and more gradually. Our study examined this question for fear, happiness, sadness, and anger in the context of children's categorization of emotional facial expressions. Children (N=168, 2-5 years) first labeled…

  3. Lazy arc consistency

    SciTech Connect

    Schiex, T.; Gaspin, C.; Regin, J.C.; Verfaillie, G.

    1996-12-31

    Arc consistency filtering is widely used in the framework of binary constraint satisfaction problems: with a low complexity, inconsistency may be detected and domains are filtered. In this paper, we show that when detecting inconsistency is the objective, a systematic domain filtering is useless and a lazy approach is more adequate. Whereas usual arc consistency algorithms produce the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, when it exists, we propose a method, called LAC{tau}, which only looks for any arc consistent sub-domain. The algorithm is then extended to provide the additional service of locating one variable with a minimum domain cardinality in the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, without necessarily computing all domain sizes. Finally, we compare traditional AC enforcing and lazy AC enforcing using several benchmark problems, both randomly generated CSP and real life problems.

  4. Water Splitting and CO2 Reduction under Visible Light Irradiation Using Z-Scheme Systems Consisting of Metal Sulfides, CoOx-Loaded BiVO4, and a Reduced Graphene Oxide Electron Mediator.

    PubMed

    Iwase, Akihide; Yoshino, Shunya; Takayama, Tomoaki; Ng, Yun Hau; Amal, Rose; Kudo, Akihiko

    2016-08-17

    Metal sulfides are highly active photocatalysts for water reduction to form H2 under visible light irradiation, whereas they are unfavorable for water oxidation to form O2 because of severe self-photooxidation (i.e., photocorrosion). Construction of a Z-scheme system is a useful strategy to split water into H2 and O2 using such photocorrosive metal sulfides because the photogenerated holes in metal sulfides are efficiently transported away. Here, we demonstrate powdered Z-schematic water splitting under visible light and simulated sunlight irradiation by combining metal sulfides as an H2-evolving photocatalyst, reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as an electron mediator, and a visible-light-driven BiVO4 as an O2-evolving photocatalyst. This Z-schematic photocatalyst composite is also active in CO2 reduction using water as the sole electron donor under visible light. PMID:27459021

  5. Consistent interactions and involution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaparulin, D. S.; Lyakhovich, S. L.; Sharapov, A. A.

    2013-01-01

    Starting from the concept of involution of field equations, a universal method is proposed for constructing consistent interactions between the fields. The method equally well applies to the Lagrangian and non-Lagrangian equations and it is explicitly covariant. No auxiliary fields are introduced. The equations may have (or have no) gauge symmetry and/or second class constraints in Hamiltonian formalism, providing the theory admits a Hamiltonian description. In every case the method identifies all the consistent interactions.

  6. Network Consistent Data Association.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Anirban; Das, Abir; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit K

    2016-09-01

    Existing data association techniques mostly focus on matching pairs of data-point sets and then repeating this process along space-time to achieve long term correspondences. However, in many problems such as person re-identification, a set of data-points may be observed at multiple spatio-temporal locations and/or by multiple agents in a network and simply combining the local pairwise association results between sets of data-points often leads to inconsistencies over the global space-time horizons. In this paper, we propose a Novel Network Consistent Data Association (NCDA) framework formulated as an optimization problem that not only maintains consistency in association results across the network, but also improves the pairwise data association accuracies. The proposed NCDA can be solved as a binary integer program leading to a globally optimal solution and is capable of handling the challenging data-association scenario where the number of data-points varies across different sets of instances in the network. We also present an online implementation of NCDA method that can dynamically associate new observations to already observed data-points in an iterative fashion, while maintaining network consistency. We have tested both the batch and the online NCDA in two application areas-person re-identification and spatio-temporal cell tracking and observed consistent and highly accurate data association results in all the cases. PMID:26485472

  7. When is holography consistent?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McInnes, Brett; Ong, Yen Chin

    2015-09-01

    Holographic duality relates two radically different kinds of theory: one with gravity, one without. The very existence of such an equivalence imposes strong consistency conditions which are, in the nature of the case, hard to satisfy. Recently a particularly deep condition of this kind, relating the minimum of a probe brane action to a gravitational bulk action (in a Euclidean formulation), has been recognized; and the question arises as to the circumstances under which it, and its Lorentzian counterpart, is satisfied. We discuss the fact that there are physically interesting situations in which one or both versions might, in principle, not be satisfied. These arise in two distinct circumstances: first, when the bulk is not an Einstein manifold and, second, in the presence of angular momentum. Focusing on the application of holography to the quark-gluon plasma (of the various forms arising in the early Universe and in heavy-ion collisions), we find that these potential violations never actually occur. This suggests that the consistency condition is a "law of physics" expressing a particular aspect of holography.

  8. Consistent Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2001-11-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the most fundamental yet difficult subjects in physics. Nonrelativistic quantum theory is presented here in a clear and systematic fashion, integrating Born's probabilistic interpretation with Schrödinger dynamics. Basic quantum principles are illustrated with simple examples requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra and elementary probability theory. The quantum measurement process is consistently analyzed using fundamental quantum principles without referring to measurement. These same principles are used to resolve several of the paradoxes that have long perplexed physicists, including the double slit and Schrödinger's cat. The consistent histories formalism used here was first introduced by the author, and extended by M. Gell-Mann, J. Hartle and R. Omnès. Essential for researchers yet accessible to advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science, this book is supplementary to standard textbooks. It will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers working on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Comprehensive account Written by one of the main figures in the field Paperback edition of successful work on philosophy of quantum mechanics

  9. Light Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Research on food growth for long duration spacecraft has resulted in a light source for growing plants indoors known as Qbeam, a solid state light source consisting of a control unit and lamp. The light source, manufactured by Quantum Devices, Inc., is not very hot, although it generates high intensity radiation. When Ron Ignatius, an industrial partner of WCSAR, realized that terrestrial plant research lighting was not energy efficient enough for space use, he and WCSAR began to experiment with light emitting diodes. A line of LED products was developed, and QDI was formed to market the technology. An LED-based cancer treatment device is currently under development.

  10. Consistent quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2015-11-01

    In response to recent criticisms by Okon and Sudarsky, various aspects of the consistent histories (CH) resolution of the quantum measurement problem(s) are discussed using a simple Stern-Gerlach device, and compared with the alternative approaches to the measurement problem provided by spontaneous localization (GRW), Bohmian mechanics, many worlds, and standard (textbook) quantum mechanics. Among these CH is unique in solving the second measurement problem: inferring from the measurement outcome a property of the measured system at a time before the measurement took place, as is done routinely by experimental physicists. The main respect in which CH differs from other quantum interpretations is in allowing multiple stochastic descriptions of a given measurement situation, from which one (or more) can be selected on the basis of its utility. This requires abandoning a principle (termed unicity), central to classical physics, that at any instant of time there is only a single correct description of the world.

  11. Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

  12. Treatment of the acquired von Willebrand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Budde, Ulrich; Scheppenheim, Sonja; Dittmer, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (aVWS) accounts for 22% of patients with abnormal von Willebrand factor. Most patients with known pathophysiological mechanisms suffer from cardiovascular, myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders. Less frequent associations are of autoimmune origin, due to hyperfibrinolysis, adsorption to tumor cells, reduced synthesis and prolonged circulation. The mechanisms leading to aVWS is hitherto not known in patients with liver and kidney diseases, drug use, glycogen storage disease, virus infections and at least 18 other disease entities. Diagnosis is complicated by the battery of tests needed, and their inherent rather low sensitivity and specificity for aVWS. Thus, even in acute bleeding situations it may take days until a firm diagnosis is settled and specific therapies can be initiated. The main aim is to shed more light onto this, compared with inherited von Willebrand disease, rare disease which affects at least 2-3% of the older population. PMID:26577336

  13. Human temporal bone findings in acquired hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Hald, J; Milroy, C M; Jensen, K D; Parving, A

    1991-11-01

    Histological studies of the auditory organ in patients with acquired hypothyroidism are scarce. Thus the aim of the present study was to examine the temporal bones and the brain in subjects with hypothyroidism. Four temporal bones and two brains from clinically and biochemically hypothyroid subjects were removed and evaluated by light microscopy determine to the morphological changes and deposition of neutral and acid glycosaminoglycans. An audiogram from one of the patients showed a sensorineural hearing loss, which could be ascribed to occupational noise exposure. The study revealed histological changes compatible with age and infectious disease. No accumulation of neutral or acid glycosaminoglycans could be demonstrated in the temporal bones, or in the brains. PMID:1761939

  14. 26 CFR 1.263A-3 - Rules relating to property acquired for resale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... property. Transportation costs may consist of depreciation on trucks and equipment and the costs of fuel... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Rules relating to property acquired for resale... property acquired for resale. (a) Capitalization rules for property acquired for resale—(1) In...

  15. 26 CFR 1.263A-3 - Rules relating to property acquired for resale.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... property. Transportation costs may consist of depreciation on trucks and equipment and the costs of fuel... 26 Internal Revenue 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Rules relating to property acquired for resale... property acquired for resale. (a) Capitalization rules for property acquired for resale—(1) In...

  16. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, F

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane transport systems, and the epithelial absorptive enzymes. Acquired causes of malabsorption are classified by focussing on the three phases of digestion and absorption: 1) luminal/digestive phase, 2) mucosal/absorptive phase, and 3) transport phase. Most acquired diseases affect the luminal/digestive phase. These include short bowel syndrome, extensive small bowel inflammation, motility disorders, and deficiencies of digestive enzymes or bile salts. Diagnosis depends on symptoms, physical examination, and blood and stool tests. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of malabsorption. Further testing should be based on the specific clinical context and the suspected underlying disease. Therapy is directed at nutritional support by enteral or parenteral feeding and screening for and supplementation of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. Early enteral feeding is important for intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. Medicinal treatment options for diarrhoea in malabsorption include loperamide, codeine, cholestyramine, or antibiotics. PMID:27086886

  17. Taking Another Look: Sensuous, Consistent Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townley, Mary Ross

    1983-01-01

    There is a natural progression from making single objects to creating sculpture. By modeling the forms of objects like funnels and light bulbs, students become aware of the quality of curves and the edges of angles. Sculptural form in architecture can be understood as consistency in the forms. (CS)

  18. Acquiring synaesthesia: insights from training studies

    PubMed Central

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Synaesthesia denotes a condition of remarkable individual differences in experience characterized by specific additional experiences in response to normal sensory input. Synaesthesia seems to (i) run in families which suggests a genetic component, (ii) is associated with marked structural and functional neural differences, and (iii) is usually reported to exist from early childhood. Hence, synaesthesia is generally regarded as a congenital phenomenon. However, most synaesthetic experiences are triggered by cultural artifacts (e.g., letters, musical sounds). Evidence exists to suggest that synaesthetic experiences are triggered by the conceptual representation of their inducer stimuli. Cases were identified for which the specific synaesthetic associations are related to prior experiences and large scale studies show that grapheme-color associations in synaesthesia are not completely random. Hence, a learning component is inherently involved in the development of specific synaesthetic associations. Researchers have hypothesized that associative learning is the critical mechanism. Recently, it has become of scientific and public interest if synaesthetic experiences may be acquired by means of associative training procedures and whether the gains of these trainings are associated with similar cognitive benefits as genuine synaesthetic experiences. In order to shed light on these issues and inform synaesthesia researchers and the general interested public alike, we provide a comprehensive literature review on developmental aspects of synaesthesia and specific training procedures in non-synaesthetes. Under the light of a clear working definition of synaesthesia, we come to the conclusion that synaesthesia can potentially be learned by the appropriate training. PMID:24624072

  19. Perioperatively acquired disorders of coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Grottke, Oliver; Fries, Dietmar; Nascimento, Bartolomeu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an overview of acquired coagulopathies that can occur in various perioperative clinical settings. Also described are coagulation disturbances linked to antithrombotic medications and currently available strategies to reverse their antithrombotic effects in situations of severe hemorrhage. Recent findings Recent studies highlight the link between low fibrinogen and decreased fibrin polymerization in the development of acquired coagulopathy. Particularly, fibrin(ogen) deficits are observable after cardiopulmonary bypass in cardiac surgery, on arrival at the emergency room in trauma patients, and with ongoing bleeding after child birth. Regarding antithrombotic therapy, although new oral anticoagulants offer the possibility of efficacy and relative safety compared with vitamin K antagonists, reversal of their anticoagulant effect with nonspecific agents, including prothrombin complex concentrate, has provided conflicting results. Specific antidotes, currently being developed, are not yet licensed for clinical use, but initial results are promising. Summary Targeted hemostatic therapy aims to correct coagulopathies in specific clinical settings, and reduce the need for allogeneic transfusions, thus preventing massive transfusion and its deleterious outcomes. Although there are specific guidelines for reversing anticoagulation in patients treated with antiplatelet agents or warfarin, there is currently little evidence to advocate comprehensive recommendations to treat drug-induced coagulopathy associated with new oral anticoagulants. PMID:25734869

  20. Foodborne listeriosis acquired in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Silk, Benjamin J; McCoy, Morgan H; Iwamoto, Martha; Griffin, Patricia M

    2014-08-15

    Listeriosis is characterized by bacteremia or meningitis. We searched for listeriosis case series and outbreak investigations published in English by 2013, and assessed the strength of evidence for foodborne acquisition among patients who ate hospital food. We identified 30 reports from 13 countries. Among the case series, the median proportion of cases considered to be hospital-acquired was 25% (range, 9%-67%). The median number of outbreak-related illnesses considered to be hospital-acquired was 4.0 (range, 2-16). All patients were immunosuppressed in 18 of 24 (75%) reports with available data. Eight outbreak reports with strong evidence for foodborne acquisition in a hospital implicated sandwiches (3 reports), butter, precut celery, Camembert cheese, sausage, and tuna salad (1 report each). Foodborne acquisition of listeriosis among hospitalized patients is well documented internationally. The number of listeriosis cases could be reduced substantially by establishing hospital policies for safe food preparation for immunocompromised patients and by not serving them higher-risk foods. PMID:24846635

  1. Acquiring ownership and the attribution of responsibility.

    PubMed

    Palamar, Max; Le, Doan T; Friedman, Ori

    2012-08-01

    How is ownership established over non-owned things? We suggest that people may view ownership as a kind of credit given to agents responsible for making possession of a non-owned object possible. On this view, judgments about the establishment of ownership depend on attributions of responsibility. We report three experiments showing that people's judgments about the establishment of ownership are influenced by an agent's intent and control in bringing about an outcome, factors that also affect attributions of responsibility. These findings demonstrate that people do not just consider who was first to possess an object in judging who owns it, and are broadly consistent with the view that ownership is acquired through labor. The findings also suggest that rather than exclusively being the product of social conventions, judgments about the establishment of ownership over non-owned things also depend on the psychological processes underlying the attribution of responsibility. PMID:22591710

  2. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: neuroradiologic findings.

    PubMed

    Kelly, W M; Brant-Zawadzki, M

    1983-11-01

    Central nervous system complications depicted by CT in ten patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are described. Three patients had multifocal intra-axial enhancing lesions representing atypical brain abscesses (two with toxoplasmosis, one with candidiasis). A fourth patient with multifocal "ring" lesions whose biopsy was interpreted as suggestive of toxoplasmosis responded poorly to treatment. Following his death three months later of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, autopsy revealed primary intracerebral immunoblastic lymphoma. One patient had Kaposi sarcoma involving the right frontal lobe (seen as an enhancing mass on the CT scan). CT findings in the remaining five patients revealed mild to moderate enlargement of cerebrospinal fluid spaces (including ventricles and basal cisternae) as a result of cryptococcal meningitis in three patients and "aseptic" meningitis in two. The two patients in whom early biopsy confirmed toxoplasmosis responded well to anti-infective therapy, resulting in dramatic clinical recoveries. PMID:6622693

  3. Bejel: acquirable only in childhood?

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Bruce M; Rothschild, Christine; Naples, Virginia; Billard, Michel; Panero, Barbara

    2006-10-01

    Bejel clearly has a long history in the Middle East and the Sudan, but was it transmitted to Europe? As the major manifestation of bejel is presence of periosteal reaction in 20-40% of afflicted populations, absence of significant population frequency of periosteal reaction in Europe would exclude that diagnosis. Examination of skeletal populations from continental Europe revealed no significant periosteal reaction at the time of and immediately subsequent to the Crusades. Thus, there is no evidence for bejel in Europe, in spite of clear contact (the mechanism of bejel transmission in children) between warring groups, at least during the Crusades. This supports the hypothesis that bejel is a childhood-acquired disease and apparently cannot be contracted in adulthood. PMID:17049474

  4. Lymphoma in acquired generalized lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca J; Chan, Jean L; Jaffe, Elaine S; Cochran, Elaine; DePaoli, Alex M; Gautier, Jean-Francois; Goujard, Cecile; Vigouroux, Corinne; Gorden, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Acquired generalized lipodystrophy (AGL) is a rare disease thought to result from autoimmune destruction of adipose tissue. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) has been reported in two AGL patients. We report five additional cases of lymphoma in AGL, and analyze the role of underlying autoimmunity and recombinant human leptin (metreleptin) replacement in lymphoma development. Three patients developed lymphoma during metreleptin treatment (two PTCL and one ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma), and two developed lymphomas (mycosis fungoides and Burkitt lymphoma) without metreleptin. AGL is associated with high risk for lymphoma, especially PTCL. Autoimmunity likely contributes to this risk. Lymphoma developed with or without metreleptin, suggesting metreleptin does not directly cause lymphoma development; a theoretical role of metreleptin in lymphoma progression remains possible. For most patients with AGL and severe metabolic complications, the proven benefits of metreleptin on metabolic disease will likely outweigh theoretical risks of metreleptin in lymphoma development or progression. PMID:25864863

  5. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  6. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  7. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  8. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  9. Emergency Lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A lighting system originally developed for NASA's Apollo and Skylab manned spacecraft resulted in a industrial spinoff and creation of a whole new company to produce and market the product line. The company is UDEC Corp., Waltham, Mass. UDEC's "Multi-Mode" electronic lighting systems are designed for plant emergency and supplemental use, such as night lighting, "always-on" stairwell lights and illuminated exit signs. Their advantages stem from the qualities demanded for spacecraft installation: extremely high fight output with very low energy drain, compactness, light weight, and high reliability. The Multi-Mode system includes long-life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed battery that needs no maintenance for 10 years, and a solid-state battery charger. A typical emergency installation consists of a master module with battery and an eight watt lamp, together with four remote "Satellight" modules powered by the master's battery. As a night lighting system for maintenance or I security, UDEC fixtures can bypass the battery and 1 operate on normal current at a fraction of the energy 1 demand of conventional night lighting. Industrial customers have realized savings of better than ninety percent with UDEC night lights. UDEC started as a basement industry in 1972 but the company has already sold more than 1,000 lighting systems to building operators.

  10. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Medical Advisory Panel has developed recommendations to assist family planning associations in playing a more active role in the prevention and control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Of primary importance is an effective program of information and education aimed at communicating the following facts: AIDS is a fatal disease for which there is no cure; AIDS is spread by sexual intercourse, contaminated blood, and contaminated needles; an infected woman can transmit AIDS to her fetus during pregnancy; a monogamous sexual relationship is the surest way to avoid AIDS infection; condom use is good protection; an infected person can look and feel well, yet still be able to transmit the AIDS virus; and AIDS is not spread by ordinary contact with an infected person. Family planning associations should include information on AIDS in all existing IEC projects, as well as develop new materials. Among the target audiences for IEC activities are family planning workers, family planning clients, and the general public including youth, teachers, parents, employers, and national leaders. Special attention should be given to high-risk groups such as homosexual and bisexual men, hemophiliacs, male and female prostitutes, clients of sexually transmitted disease clinics, people with many sexual partners, illegal users of intravenous drugs, and the sexual partners of those in any of these groups. Wide promotion of condom use is a priority activity for family planning organizations. PMID:12340977

  11. Infections Acquired in the Garden.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Cheston B; Cunha, Burke A

    2015-10-01

    Gardening is a wonderful pastime, and the garden is a very peaceful place to enjoy one's vacation. However, the garden may be a treacherous place for very young or compromised hosts when one takes into account the infectious potential residing in the soil, as well as the insect vectors on plants and animals. Even normal hosts may acquire a variety of infections from the soil, animals, or animal-related insect bites. The location of the garden, its natural animal and insect inhabitants, and the characteristics of the soil play a part in determining its infectious potential. The most important factor making the garden an infectious and dangerous place is the number and interaction of animals, whether they are pets or wild, that temporarily use the garden for part of their daily activities. The clinician should always ask about garden exposure, which will help in eliminating the diagnostic possibilities for the patient. The diagnostic approach is to use epidemiological principles in concert with clinical clues, which together should suggest a reasonable list of diagnostic possibilities. Organ involvement and specific laboratory tests help further narrow the differential diagnosis and determine the specific tests necessary to make a definitive diagnosis. PMID:26542044

  12. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction. PMID:26793078

  13. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction. PMID:26793078

  14. Clinicopathological associations of acquired erythroblastopenia

    PubMed Central

    Gunes, Gursel; Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Yasar, Hatime Arzu; Eliacik, Eylem; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Demiroglu, Haluk; Sayinalp, Nilgun; Aksu, Salih; Etgul, Sezgin; Aslan, Tuncay; Goker, Hakan; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Buyukasik, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acquired erythroblastopenia (AE) is a rare clinical situation. It is characterized by the reduction of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow together with the low reticulocyte counts in the peripheral blood. Background: Main secondary causes of AE are drugs, Parvovirus B19 and other infectious reasons, lymphoid and myeloid neoplasia, autoimmune diseases, thymoma and pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the frequencies and clinical associations of AE via analyzing 12340 bone marrow samples in a retrospective manner. Material and method: Bone marrow aspirations which were obtained from patients who applied to Hacettepe University Hematology Clinic between 2002 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Thirty four erythroblastopenia cases were found. Patients ranged in age from 16 to 80 years with a median of 38 years. Fifteen patients were men (44%) and nineteen were women (56%). In these patients, detected causes of erythroblastopenia were MDS, idiopathic pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), parvovirus infection, post chemotherapy aplasia, plasma proliferative diseases, copper deficiency due to secondary amyloidosis, fever of unknown origin, hemophagocytic syndrome, enteric fever and legionella pneumonia. We found that between those reasons the most common causes of erythroblastopenia are MDS (17.7%) and idiopathic PRCA (17.7%). Discussion: As a result, erythroblastopenia in the bone marrow may be an early sign of MDS. In those AE cases possibility of being MDS must be kept in mind as it can be mistaken for PRCA. Conclusion: To conclude, in adults MDS without excess blast is one of the most common causes of erythroblastopenia in clinical practice and in case of erythroblastopenia the presence of MDS should be investigated. PMID:26885236

  15. Surface Sampler Arm Acquiring Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Operation of the surface sampler in obtaining Martian soil for Viking 2's molecular analysis experiment last Saturday (September 25) was closely monitored by one of the Lander cameras because of the precision required in trenching the small area--8 by 9 inches-surrounded by rocks. Dubbed 'Bonneville Salt Flats,' the exposure of thin crust appeared unique in contrast with surrounding materials and became a prime target for organic analysis in spite of potential hazards. Large rock in foreground is 8 inches high. At left, the sampler scoop has touched the surface, missing the rock at upper left by a comfortable 6 inches, and the backhoe has penetrated the surface about one-half inch. The scoop was then pulled back to sample the desired point and (second photo) the backhoe furrowed the surface pulling a piece of thin crust toward the spacecraft. The initial touchdown and retraction sequence was used to avoid a collision between a rock in the shadow of the arm and a plate joining the arm and scoop. The rock was cleared by 2 to 3 inches. The third picture was taken 8 minutes after the scoop touched the surface and shows that the collector head has acquired a quantity of soil. With surface sampler withdrawn (right), the foot-long trench is seen between the rocks. The trench is three inches wide and about 1 1/2 to 2 inches deep. The scoop reached to within 3 inches of the rock at far end of trench. Penetration appears to have left a cavernous opening roofed by the crust and only about one inch of undisturbed crust separates the deformed surface and the rock.

  16. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Statements of Smaller Reporting Companies § 210.8-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired....

  17. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. If, during the period for which...

  18. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. If, during the period for which...

  19. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. If, during the period for which...

  20. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Statements of Smaller Reporting Companies § 210.8-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired....

  1. [Merits of acquiring ISO15189 accreditation].

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Masami

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, an ISO15189 accreditation system was started in 2005. To date, 47 hospitals have been accredited. In this session, I will present the merits of acquiring accreditation regarding ISO15189 based on our experience. Our hospital has 263 beds. The Clinical Examination Section consists of 12 staff (including 5 part-time workers): 7 in change of sample examination and 5 in charge of physiological examination. The annual number of samples is approximately 150,000. Samples collected on health checkups account for 90%. To improve the quality and service, assessment by third persons has been positively utilized in our hospital. Accreditation regarding ISO9001, ISO14001, ISO27001, privacy mark, hospital function assessment, the functional assessment of "ningen-dock"/health checkup hospitals, labor/hygiene service function assessment, and ISO15189 has been acquired. Patients may not recognize ISO. So, it must be utilized, considering that the acquisition of accreditation is not a goal but a starting point. Furthermore, cost-performance should be improved to achieve utilization-related merits. It is important to not only acquire accreditation but also help clinical staff and patients become aware of some changes/merits. Patients may consult a hospital for the following reasons: confidence in the hospital, and the staffs kind/polite attitudes. Long-term management strategies should be established without pursuing only short-term profits. I will introduce several merits of acquiring accreditation regarding ISO15189. Initially, incidental conditions for bids and appeal points include accreditation regarding ISO15189. Our corporation has participated in some competitive bids regarding health checkup business. In some companies, the bid conditions included ISO acquisition. In our hospital, clinical trials have been positively carried out. For participation in trials, hospitals must pass an institutional examination. However, ISO acquisition facilitates the preparation of

  2. Acquired tracheoesophageal fistula in infancy and childhood.

    PubMed

    Szold, A; Udassin, R; Seror, D; Mogle, P; Godfrey, S

    1991-06-01

    Acquired tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is a rare entity in the pediatric age group. We report two pediatric patients with acquired TEF caused by shells of pistachio nuts. In both patients the primary operation did not resolve the problem and a second intervention for recurrent fistula was needed. The special nature of acquired TEF, particularly the one described herein, requires delayed surgical intervention and meticulous separation of the respiratory and alimentary tracts by an intercostal muscle flap. PMID:1941455

  3. Acquired stuttering due to recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Katherine B; Turner, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Acquired (neurogenic) stuttering is a rare phenomenon seen after cerebral infarction or brain injury. Aetiology of this symptom is unclear, but recent evidence supports that it is a disturbance in the left hemispheric neural network involving the interplay between the cortex and basal ganglia. We present the case of a patient who develops acquired stuttering after a recurrence of a right temporoparietal anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III). We also review other cases of acquired stuttering and known anatomical correlates. PMID:24252834

  4. Acquired Surface Dyslexia: The Evidence from Hebrew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnboim, Smadar

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the symptoms of acquired surface dyslexia in Hebrew. Four acquired surface dyslexic adults were compared with eight normal second graders in terms of reading strategy. Homophones and homographs were a major source of difficulty for native Hebrew surface dyslexic readers; the normal second graders used a non-lexical strategy. (45…

  5. Acquiring and Managing Electronic Journals. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Donnelyn; Yue, Paoshan

    Electronic journals are both a blessing and a curse for libraries. To be meaningful in the current information environment--to meet users' ever-increasing demands--libraries must acquire as many appropriate full text resources as possible, as quickly as possible, and make them easy to use. This Digest provides tips for acquiring and providing…

  6. Acquired Zinc Deficiency in an Adult Female

    PubMed Central

    Saritha, Mohanan; Gupta, Divya; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Thappa, Devinder M; Rajesh, Nachiappa G

    2012-01-01

    Acrodermatitis enteropathica is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of zinc absorption. Acquired cases are reported occasionally in patients with eating disorders or Crohn's disease. We report a 24-year-old housewife with acquired isolated severe zinc deficiency with no other comorbidities to highlight the rare occurrence of isolated nutritional zinc deficiency in an otherwise normal patient. PMID:23248371

  7. Hyperspectral light field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Raimund; Kenda, Andreas; Tortschanoff, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    A light field camera acquires the intensity and direction of rays from a scene providing a 4D representation L(x,y,u,v) called the light field. The acquired light field allows to virtually change view point and selectively re-focus regions algorithmically, an important feature for many applications in imaging and microscopy. The combination with hyperspectral imaging provides the additional advantage that small objects (beads, cells, nuclei) can be categorised using their spectroscopic signatures. Using an inverse fluorescence microscope, a LCTF tuneable filter and a light field setup as a test-bed, fluorescence-marked beads have been imaged and reconstructed into a 4D hyper-spectral image cube LHSI(x,y,z,λ). The results demonstrate the advantages of the approach for fluorescence microscopy providing extended depth of focus (DoF) and the fidelity of hyper-spectral imaging.

  8. Acquired hemophilia masked by warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Kantor, R; Mayan, H; Puritz, L; Varon, D; Farfel, Z

    2000-03-01

    People without hemophilia but with autoantibodies specifically directed against the procoagulant activity of factor VIII are known to have acquired hemophilia. The bleeding diathesis in these patients is often severe and life-threatening. The definite laboratory diagnosis of this disorder includes demonstration of low factor VIII levels in plasma with a high titer of factor VIII inhibitors, but the initial suspicion for its presence should rise in view of a prolonged partial thromboblastin time (PTT) and a normal prothrombin time associated with an acquired bleeding disorder. Oral anticoagulant treatment is known to prolong PTT as well, and the merger of these 2 situations may cause delayed diagnosis of acquired hemophilia with devastating consequences. We describe here the first reported case of acquired hemophilia diagnosed in a patient treated with warfarin. In such patients prolonged PTT may be ascribed to warfarin therapy rather than to acquired hemophilia, thus causing a dangerous delay in diagnosis. PMID:10746834

  9. Consistency, Markedness and Language Change: On the Notion 'Consistent Language.'

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, N. V.

    1981-01-01

    Explores markedness of languages and language change in relation to their roles in the consistency of language. Concludes typology provides no explanations in itself, but rather through data which need explanations and form a testing ground for linguistic theories. (Author/BK)

  10. Potential disadvantages of using socially acquired information.

    PubMed Central

    Giraldeau, Luc-Alain; Valone, Thomas J; Templeton, Jennifer J

    2002-01-01

    The acquisition and use of socially acquired information is commonly assumed to be profitable. We challenge this assumption by exploring hypothetical scenarios where the use of such information either provides no benefit or can actually be costly. First, we show that the level of incompatibility between the acquisition of personal and socially acquired information will directly affect the extent to which the use of socially acquired information can be profitable. When these two sources of information cannot be acquired simultaneously, there may be no benefit to socially acquired information. Second, we assume that a solitary individual's behavioural decisions will be based on cues revealed by its own interactions with the environment. However, in many cases, for social animals the only socially acquired information available to individuals is the behavioural actions of others that expose their decisions, rather than the cues on which these decisions were based. We argue that in such a situation the use of socially acquired information can lead to informational cascades that sometimes result in sub-optimal behaviour. From this theory of informational cascades, we predict that when erroneous cascades are costly, individuals should pay attention only to socially generated cues and not behavioural decisions. We suggest three scenarios that might be examples of informational cascades in nature. PMID:12495513

  11. Bili lights

    MedlinePlus

    Phototherapy for jaundice; Bilirubin - bili lights; Neonatal care - bili lights; Newborn care - bili lights ... Phototherapy involves shining fluorescent light from the bili lights on bare skin. A specific wavelength of light can break down bilirubin into a form that ...

  12. Epipolar Consistency in Transmission Imaging.

    PubMed

    Aichert, André; Berger, Martin; Wang, Jian; Maass, Nicole; Doerfler, Arnd; Hornegger, Joachim; Maier, Andreas K

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the derivation of the Epipolar Consistency Conditions (ECC) between two X-ray images from the Beer-Lambert law of X-ray attenuation and the Epipolar Geometry of two pinhole cameras, using Grangeat's theorem. We motivate the use of Oriented Projective Geometry to express redundant line integrals in projection images and define a consistency metric, which can be used, for instance, to estimate patient motion directly from a set of X-ray images. We describe in detail the mathematical tools to implement an algorithm to compute the Epipolar Consistency Metric and investigate its properties with detailed random studies on both artificial and real FD-CT data. A set of six reference projections of the CT scan of a fish were used to evaluate accuracy and precision of compensating for random disturbances of the ground truth projection matrix using an optimization of the consistency metric. In addition, we use three X-ray images of a pumpkin to prove applicability to real data. We conclude, that the metric might have potential in applications related to the estimation of projection geometry. By expression of redundancy between two arbitrary projection views, we in fact support any device or acquisition trajectory which uses a cone-beam geometry. We discuss certain geometric situations, where the ECC provide the ability to correct 3D motion, without the need for 3D reconstruction. PMID:25915956

  13. Averaging Internal Consistency Reliability Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Leonard S.; Charter, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    Seven approaches to averaging reliability coefficients are presented. Each approach starts with a unique definition of the concept of "average," and no approach is more correct than the others. Six of the approaches are applicable to internal consistency coefficients. The seventh approach is specific to alternate-forms coefficients. Although the…

  14. Attitude Consistency Among American Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mott, Frank L.; Mott, Susan H.

    Attitudes of youth (ages 14-21) toward fertility expectations and women's roles are examined for consistency (e.g., whether high career expectations are correlated with a desire for fewer children). Approximately 12,000 White, Black, and Hispanic youth rated their attitudes toward statements that a woman's place is in the home, employment of wives…

  15. Field size consistency of nominally matched linacs.

    PubMed

    Kairn, T; Asena, A; Charles, P H; Hill, B; Langton, C M; Middlebrook, N D; Moylan, R; Trapp, J V

    2015-06-01

    Given that there is increasing recognition of the effect that sub-millimetre changes in collimator position can have on radiotherapy beam dosimetry, this study aimed to evaluate the potential variability in small field collimation that may exist between otherwise matched linacs. Field sizes and field output factors were measured using radiochromic film and an electron diode, for jaw- and MLC-collimated fields produced by eight dosimetrically matched Varian iX linacs (Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, USA). This study used nominal sizes from 0.6 × 0.6 to 10 × 10 cm(2), for jaw-collimated fields, and from 1 × 1 to 10 × 10 cm(2) for MLC-collimated fields, delivered from a zero (head up, beam directed vertically downward) gantry angle. Differences between the field sizes measured for the eight linacs exceeded the uncertainty of the film measurements and the repositioning uncertainty of the jaws and MLCs on one linac. The dimensions of fields defined by MLC leaves were more consistent between linacs, while also differing more from their nominal values than fields defined by orthogonal jaws. The field output factors measured for the different linacs generally increased with increasing measured field size for the nominal 0.6 × 0.6 to 1 × 1 cm(2) fields, and became consistent between linacs for nominal field sizes of 2 × 2 cm(2) and larger. The inclusion in radiotherapy treatment planning system beam data of small field output factors acquired in fields collimated by jaws (rather than the more-reproducible MLCs), associated with either the nominal or the measured field sizes, should be viewed with caution. The size and reproducibility of the fields (especially the small fields) used to acquire treatment planning data should be investigated thoroughly as part of the linac or planning system commissioning process. Further investigation of these issues, using different linac models, collimation systems and beam orientations, is recommended. PMID

  16. Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omnès, Roland

    1992-04-01

    Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology.

  17. Altered Infant Feeding Patterns in Boys with Acquired Nonsyndromic Cryptorchidism

    PubMed Central

    Barthold, Julia Spencer; Hossain, Jobayer; Olivant-Fisher, Alicia; Reilly, Anita; Figueroa, T. Ernesto; BaniHani, Ahmad; Hagerty, Jennifer; González, Ricardo; Noh, Paul H.; Manson, Jeanne M.

    2012-01-01

    Background Genetic and environmental factors likely influence susceptibility to nonsyndromic cryptorchidism, a common disease presenting at birth or in later childhood. We compared cases and controls to define differential risk factors for congenital vs. acquired cryptorchidism. Methods We compared questionnaire and clinical data from cases of congenital cryptorchidism (n=230), acquired cryptorchidism (n=182) and hernia/hydrocele (n=104) with a group of healthy male controls (n=358). Potential predictor variables (p<0.2 in univariable analysis) were included in stepwise multivariable logistic regression models. Results Temporary (odds ratio (OR) 0.5; 95% CI 0.4, 0.8) or exclusive (OR 0.6; 95% CI 0.4, 0.9) breastfeeding was reduced and soy formula feeding increased (OR 1.8; 95% CI 1.2, 2.9) in acquired but not congenital or hernia/hydrocele groups. Highest risk estimates were observed for primary soy formula feeding with limited or no breastfeeding (OR 2.5; 95% CI 1.4, 4.3; adjusted OR 2.7; 95% CI 1.4, 5.4) in the acquired group. Primary feeding risk estimates were equivalent or strengthened when multivariable models were limited to age >2 years, full term/non-SGA or Caucasian subjects. Pregnancy complications and increased maternal exposure to cosmetic or household chemicals were not consistently associated with either form of cryptorchidism in these models. Conclusions Our data support reduced breastfeeding and soy formula feeding as potential risk factors for acquired cryptorchidism. Although additional studies are needed, hormonally-active components of breast milk and soy formula could influence the establishment of normal testis position in the first months of life, leading to apparent ascent of testes in childhood. PMID:23081935

  18. Epicutaneous model of community-acquired Staphylococcus aureus skin infections.

    PubMed

    Prabhakara, Ranjani; Foreman, Oded; De Pascalis, Roberto; Lee, Gloria M; Plaut, Roger D; Kim, Stanley Y; Stibitz, Scott; Elkins, Karen L; Merkel, Tod J

    2013-04-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common etiological agents of community-acquired skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Although the majority of S. aureus community-acquired SSTIs are uncomplicated and self-clearing in nature, some percentage of these cases progress into life-threatening invasive infections. Current animal models of S. aureus SSTI suffer from two drawbacks: these models are a better representation of hospital-acquired SSTI than community-acquired SSTI, and they involve methods that are difficult to replicate. For these reasons, we sought to develop a murine model of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus SSTI (CA-MRSA SSTI) that can be consistently reproduced with a high degree of precision. We utilized this model to begin to characterize the host immune response to this type of infection. We infected mice via epicutaneous challenge of the skin on the outer ear pinna using Morrow-Brown allergy test needles coated in S. aureus USA300. When mice were challenged in this model, they developed small, purulent, self-clearing lesions with predictable areas of inflammation that mimicked a human infection. CFU in the ear pinna peaked at day 7 before dropping by day 14. The T(h)1 and T(h)17 cytokines gamma interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-12 (IL-12) p70, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-17A, IL-6, and IL-21 were all significantly increased in the draining lymph node of infected mice, and there was neutrophil recruitment to the infection site. In vivo neutrophil depletion demonstrated that neutrophils play a protective role in preventing bacterial dissemination and fatal invasive infection. PMID:23381997

  19. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated with blood-product transfusions

    SciTech Connect

    Jett, J.R.; Kuritsky, J.N.; Katzmann, J.A.; Homburger, H.A.

    1983-11-01

    A 53-year-old white man had fever, malaise, and dyspnea on exertion. His chest roentgenogram was normal, but pulmonary function tests showed impaired diffusion capacity and a gallium scan showed marked uptake in the lungs. Results of an open-lung biopsy documented Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Immunologic test results were consistent with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The patient denied having homosexual contact or using intravenous drugs. Twenty-nine months before the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia was made, the patient had had 16 transfusions of whole blood, platelets, and fresh-frozen plasma during coronary artery bypass surgery at another medical center. This patient is not a member of any currently recognized high-risk group and is believed to have contracted the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from blood and blood-product transfusions.

  20. A method to acquire CT organ dose map using OSL dosimeters and ATOM anthropomorphic phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Da; Li, Xinhua; Gao, Yiming; Xu, X. George; Liu, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To present the design and procedure of an experimental method for acquiring densely sampled organ dose map for CT applications, based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters “nanoDots” and standard ATOM anthropomorphic phantoms; and to provide the results of applying the method—a dose data set with good statistics for the comparison with Monte Carlo simulation result in the future. Methods: A standard ATOM phantom has densely located holes (in 3 × 3 cm or 1.5 × 1.5 cm grids), which are too small (5 mm in diameter) to host many types of dosimeters, including the nanoDots. The authors modified the conventional way in which nanoDots are used, by removing the OSL disks from the holders before inserting them inside a standard ATOM phantom for dose measurements. The authors solved three technical difficulties introduced by this modification: (1) energy dependent dose calibration for raw OSL readings; (2) influence of the brief background exposure of OSL disks to dimmed room light; (3) correct pairing between the dose readings and measurement locations. The authors acquired 100 dose measurements at various positions in the phantom, which was scanned using a clinical chest protocol with both angular and z-axis tube current modulations. Results: Dose calibration was performed according to the beam qualities inside the phantom as determined from an established Monte Carlo model of the scanner. The influence of the brief exposure to dimmed room light was evaluated and deemed negligible. Pairing between the OSL readings and measurement locations was ensured by the experimental design. The organ doses measured for a routine adult chest scan protocol ranged from 9.4 to 18.8 mGy, depending on the composition, location, and surrounding anatomy of the organs. The dose distribution across different slices of the phantom strongly depended on the z-axis mA modulation. In the same slice, doses to the soft tissues other than the spinal cord

  1. A method to acquire CT organ dose map using OSL dosimeters and ATOM anthropomorphic phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Da; Li, Xinhua; Liu, Bob; Gao, Yiming; Xu, X. George

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To present the design and procedure of an experimental method for acquiring densely sampled organ dose map for CT applications, based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters “nanoDots” and standard ATOM anthropomorphic phantoms; and to provide the results of applying the method—a dose data set with good statistics for the comparison with Monte Carlo simulation result in the future.Methods: A standard ATOM phantom has densely located holes (in 3 × 3 cm or 1.5 × 1.5 cm grids), which are too small (5 mm in diameter) to host many types of dosimeters, including the nanoDots. The authors modified the conventional way in which nanoDots are used, by removing the OSL disks from the holders before inserting them inside a standard ATOM phantom for dose measurements. The authors solved three technical difficulties introduced by this modification: (1) energy dependent dose calibration for raw OSL readings; (2) influence of the brief background exposure of OSL disks to dimmed room light; (3) correct pairing between the dose readings and measurement locations. The authors acquired 100 dose measurements at various positions in the phantom, which was scanned using a clinical chest protocol with both angular and z-axis tube current modulations.Results: Dose calibration was performed according to the beam qualities inside the phantom as determined from an established Monte Carlo model of the scanner. The influence of the brief exposure to dimmed room light was evaluated and deemed negligible. Pairing between the OSL readings and measurement locations was ensured by the experimental design. The organ doses measured for a routine adult chest scan protocol ranged from 9.4 to 18.8 mGy, depending on the composition, location, and surrounding anatomy of the organs. The dose distribution across different slices of the phantom strongly depended on the z-axis mA modulation. In the same slice, doses to the soft tissues other than the spinal cord demonstrated

  2. Ultra-high resolution color images of the surface of comet 67P acquired by ROLIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Stefan; Mottola, Stefano; Arnold, Gabriele; Grothues, Hans-Georg; Hamm, Maximilian; Jaumann, Ralf; Michaelis, Harald; Pelivan, Ivanka; Proffe, Gerrit; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    On Nov 12, 2014, the Rosetta Philae lander descended towards comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The onboard ROLIS camera successfully acquired high resolution images of the surface looking down from its vantage point on the instrument platform. ROLIS is a compact CCD imager with a 1024×1024 pixel sensor and a 57° field of view (Mottola et al., 2007, SSR 128, 241). It is equipped with an infinity lens (IFL), without which the camera focus is 30 cm. At Philae's final landing site, ROLIS removed the IFL and initiated an imaging sequence that shows the surface at the highest resolution ever obtained for a cometary surface (~0.5 mm per pixel). Illumination of the scene was provided by an onboard array of LEDs in four different colors: red, green, blue, and near-IR. ROLIS acquired one image for each color and a single dark exposure. The images show a unique, almost fractal morphology for the surface below the landing site that defies easy interpretation. However, there are similarities with some structures seen by the CIVA camera. Color and albedo variations over the surface are minor, and individual grains cannot be distinguished. The images are out-of-focus, indicating the surface was further away than the nominal 30 cm. The location of the illumination spot and the change of focus over the image are consistent with an inclined surface, indicating that Philae's final resting position is strongly tilted. In fact, it was inclined so much that we see the local horizon, even though ROLIS is downward-looking. Remarkably, the scene beyond the horizon is illuminated by the Sun, and out-of-focus particles can be seen to travel in the sky. The images suggest the environment of the lander is laden with fine dust, but a final assessment requires careful consideration of possible sources of stray light. Just before Philae went to sleep, ROLIS acquired an additional exposure with the IFL and the red LED. The resulting image is fully in focus. Because Philae had rotated and lifted

  3. On the consistency of MPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Souto-Iglesias, Antonio; Macià, Fabricio; González, Leo M.; Cercos-Pita, Jose L.

    2013-03-01

    The consistency of the Moving Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) method in reproducing the gradient, divergence and Laplacian differential operators is discussed in the present paper. Its relation to the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) method is rigorously established. The application of the MPS method to solve the Navier-Stokes equations using a fractional step approach is treated, unveiling inconsistency problems when solving the Poisson equation for the pressure. A new corrected MPS method incorporating boundary terms is proposed. Applications to one dimensional boundary value Dirichlet and mixed Neumann-Dirichlet problems and to two-dimensional free-surface flows are presented.

  4. News Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-05-01

    Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

  5. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  6. Self-consistent klystron simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Carlsten, B.E.; Tallerico, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    A numerical analysis of large-signal klystron behavior based on general wave-particle interaction theory is presented. The computer code presented is tailored for the minimum amount of complexity needed in klystron simulation. The code includes self-consistent electron motion, space-charge fields, and intermediate and output fields. It also includes use of time periodicity to simplify the problem, accurate representation of the space-charge fields, accurate representation of the cavity standing-wave fields, and a sophisticated particle-pushing routine. In the paper, examples are given that show the effects of cavity detunings, of varying the magnetic field profile, of electron beam asymmetries from the gun, and of variations in external load impedance. 4 refs., 7 figs.

  7. Thermodynamically consistent continuum dislocation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hochrainer, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Dislocation based modeling of plasticity is one of the central challenges at the crossover of materials science and continuum mechanics. Developing a continuum theory of dislocations requires the solution of two long standing problems: (i) to represent dislocation kinematics in terms of a reasonable number of variables and (ii) to derive averaged descriptions of the dislocation dynamics (i.e. material laws) in terms of these variables. The kinematic problem (i) was recently solved through the introduction of continuum dislocation dynamics (CDD), which provides kinematically consistent evolution equations of dislocation alignment tensors, presuming a given average dislocation velocity (Hochrainer, T., 2015, Multipole expansion of continuum dislocations dynamics in terms of alignment tensors. Philos. Mag. 95 (12), 1321-1367). In the current paper we demonstrate how a free energy formulation may be used to solve the dynamic closure problem (ii) in CDD. We do so exemplarily for the lowest order CDD variant for curved dislocations in a single slip situation. In this case, a thermodynamically consistent average dislocation velocity is found to comprise five mesoscopic shear stress contributions. For a postulated free energy expression we identify among these stress contributions a back-stress term and a line-tension term, both of which have already been postulated for CDD. A new stress contribution occurs which is missing in earlier CDD models including the statistical continuum theory of straight parallel edge dislocations (Groma, I., Csikor, F.F., Zaiser, M., 2003. Spatial correlations and higher-order gradient terms in a continuum description of dislocation dynamics. Acta Mater. 51, 1271-1281). Furthermore, two entirely new stress contributions arise from the curvature of dislocations.

  8. Acquired cutis laxa associated with cutaneous mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Minh Van; Dang, Phuoc Van; Bui, Duc Van; Mejbel, Haider; Mani, Divya Thomas; Smoller, Bruce Robert; Phung, Thuy Linh

    2015-07-01

    Cutis laxa is characterized by dramatic wrinkling of skin that is lacking in elasticity due to inherent defects in dermal elastic fibers. Cutis laxa can be caused by genetic and metabolic disorders. It can also be acquired, possibly resulting from inflammatory processes with destruction of elastic fibers. This report describes a 26-year old woman who developed acquired cutis laxa and cutaneous mastocytosis leading to premature aging. She represents a unique co-occurrence of these two separate disease entities. To our knowledge, there has been only one published case report of acquired cutis laxa occurring in association with urticaria pigmentosa in a 4-year old girl. Our case would be a second case that exhibits the coexistence of these two disorders in an adult female. PMID:26436968

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of acquired cardiac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Carrol, C L; Higgins, C B; Caputo, G R

    1996-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, advances in magnetic resonance imaging techniques have increased the accuracy and applicability of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. These advances have improved the utility of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating cardiac morphology, blood flow, and myocardial contractility, all significant diagnostic features in the evaluation of the patient with acquired heart disease. Utilization of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging has been limited, primarily due to clinical reliance upon nuclear scintigraphy and echocardiography. Recent developments in fast and ultrafast imaging should continue to enhance the significance of magnetic resonance imaging in this field. Widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the cardiovascular system will ultimately depend upon its maturation into a comprehensive, noninvasive imaging technique for the varying manifestations of acquired heart disease, including cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, and acquired valvular disease. Images PMID:8792545

  10. Lighting: Green Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  11. The Properties of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haglund, Richard F.

    The mystery of light has formed the core of creation stories in every culture, and attracted the earnest attentions of philosophers since at least the fifth century BCE. Their questions have ranged from how and what we see, to the interaction of light with material bodies, and finally to the nature of light itself. This chapter begins with a brief intellectual history of light from ancient Greece to the end of the 19th century. After introducing the physical parameterization of light in terms of standard units, three concepts of light are introduced: light as a wave, light as a quantum particle, and light as a quantum field. After highlighting the distinctive characteristics of light beams from various sources - thermal radiation, luminescence from atoms and molecules, and synchrotron light sources - the distinctive physical characteristics of light beams are examined in some detail. The chapter concludes with a survey of the statistical and quantum-mechanical properties of light beams. In the appropriate limits, this treatment not only recovers the classical description of light waves and the semiclassical view of light as a stream of quanta, but also forms a consistent description of quantum phenomena - such as interference phenomena generated by single photons - that have no classical analogs.

  12. The Consistent Vehicle Routing Problem

    SciTech Connect

    Groer, Christopher S; Golden, Bruce; Edward, Wasil

    2009-01-01

    In the small package shipping industry (as in other industries), companies try to differentiate themselves by providing high levels of customer service. This can be accomplished in several ways, including online tracking of packages, ensuring on-time delivery, and offering residential pickups. Some companies want their drivers to develop relationships with customers on a route and have the same drivers visit the same customers at roughly the same time on each day that the customers need service. These service requirements, together with traditional constraints on vehicle capacity and route length, define a variant of the classical capacitated vehicle routing problem, which we call the consistent VRP (ConVRP). In this paper, we formulate the problem as a mixed-integer program and develop an algorithm to solve the ConVRP that is based on the record-to-record travel algorithm. We compare the performance of our algorithm to the optimal mixed-integer program solutions for a set of small problems and then apply our algorithm to five simulated data sets with 1,000 customers and a real-world data set with more than 3,700 customers. We provide a technique for generating ConVRP benchmark problems from vehicle routing problem instances given in the literature and provide our solutions to these instances. The solutions produced by our algorithm on all problems do a very good job of meeting customer service objectives with routes that have a low total travel time.

  13. Ultrasound of Inherited vs. Acquired Demyelinating Polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Zaidman, Craig M.; Harms, Matthew B.; Pestronk, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We compared features of nerve enlargement in inherited and acquired demyelinating neuropathies using ultrasound. Methods We measured median and ulnar nerve cross-sectional areas in proximal and distal regions in 128 children and adults with inherited (Charcot-Marie Tooth-1 (CMT-1) (n=35)) and acquired (Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) (n=55), Guillaine-Barre Syndrome (GBS) (n=21) and Multifocal Motor Neuropathy (MMN) (n=17)) demyelinating neuropathies. We classified nerve enlargement by degree and number of regions affected. We defined patterns of nerve enlargement as: none- no enlargement; mild-nerves enlarged but never more than twice normal; regional- nerves normal at at least one region and enlarged more than twice normal at atleast one region; diffuse- nerves enlarged at all four regions with atleast one region more than twice normal size. Results Nerve enlargement was commonly diffuse (89%) and generally more than twice normal size in CMT-1, but not (p<0.001) in acquired disorders which mostly had either no, mild or regional nerve enlargement (CIDP (64%), GBS (95%), and MMN (100%)). In CIDP, subjects treated within three months of disease onset had less nerve enlargement than those treated later. Discussion Ultrasound identified patterns of diffuse nerve enlargement can be used to screen patients suspected of having CMT-1. Normal, mildly, or regionally enlarged nerves in demyelinating polyneuropathy suggests an acquired etiology. Early treatment in CIDP may impede nerve enlargement. PMID:24101129

  14. Acquiring a Second Language for School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Virginia P.

    1995-01-01

    This report offers a conceptual model for use with language minority children who are entering a new school when they must acquire the language of the majority student population. The model has four development components or processes: sociocultural, linguistic, academic, and cognitive. These four components are described in detail. Research is…

  15. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acquire. 989.17 Section 989.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  16. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acquire. 989.17 Section 989.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  17. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquire. 989.17 Section 989.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  18. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acquire. 989.17 Section 989.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  19. Eye Movement Correlates of Acquired Central Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schattka, Kerstin I.; Radach, Ralph; Huber, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent progress in theory and measurement techniques, the analysis of eye movements has become one of the major methodological tools in experimental reading research. Our work uses this approach to advance the understanding of impaired information processing in acquired central dyslexia of stroke patients with aphasia. Up to now there has…

  20. Group Treatment in Acquired Brain Injury Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertisch, Hilary; Rath, Joseph F.; Langenbahn, Donna M.; Sherr, Rose Lynn; Diller, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    The current article describes critical issues in adapting traditional group-treatment methods for working with individuals with reduced cognitive capacity secondary to acquired brain injury. Using the classification system based on functional ability developed at the NYU Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (RIRM), we delineate the cognitive…

  1. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN... possession of raisins by a handler at his packing or processing plant or at any other established receiving station operated by him: Provided, That a handler shall not be deemed to acquire any raisins...

  2. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquire. 926.10 Section 926.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DATA COLLECTION, REPORTING AND...

  3. Acquiring Financial Management Software: A Prototyping Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John H.

    1990-01-01

    When the Smithsonian Institution recently acquired a new financial management system, the concept of prototyping was used throughout the process, but in a broader sense than in software development. It was used to refine requirements, establish software management techniques, test a logistical system, and implement and apply the package. (MSE)

  4. A Case Of Bilateral Acquired Localized Lipoatrophy

    PubMed Central

    Tanrıkulu, Osman; Yesilova, Yavuz; Aksoy, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Lipoatrophy is characterized by inflammation and tissue loss in fatty tissue. This disease may be congenital or acquired, primary or secondary. Secondary lipoatrophy develops with infections, collagen tissue diseases, tumors and drug injections. In this report, we present the case of a 14-year-old female patient who developed lipoatrophy following intramuscular steroid injection to both buttocks. PMID:27504088

  5. Neural Correlates of Acquired Color Category Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna; Holmes, Amanda; Drivonikou, Vicky G.; Ozgen, Emre; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Category training can induce category effects, whereby color discrimination of stimuli spanning a newly learned category boundary is enhanced relative to equivalently spaced stimuli from within the newly learned category (e.g., categorical perception). However, the underlying mechanisms of these acquired category effects are not fully understood.…

  6. Acquired structural defects of the hair.

    PubMed

    Chetty, G N; Kamalam, A; Thambiah, A S

    1981-03-01

    Acquired hair shaft abnormalities resembling genetic trichorrhexis nodosa were seen in two patients. Selenium shampoo and bacterial infection with trichomycosis axillaris may have been the contributing factors. There is a possibility that strongyloides larvae caused trichonodosis in one patient. PMID:7216593

  7. Community-acquired Acinetobacter meningitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, W N; Lu, C H; Huang, C R; Chuang, Y C

    2000-01-01

    Community-acquired Acinetobacter meningitis in adults is an extremely rare infection of the central nervous system (CNS). Here we report one adult case of this rare CNS infection and review the clinical data of another seven cases reported in the English language literature. In total, eight patients (six men and two women) aged between 19 and 63 years were studied. The causative pathogen in our patient was Acinetobacter baumannii; in the other reported cases they were most likely Acinetobacter Iwoffii, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter junii, a genomic species 3 or 6. No underlying disease was found in seven of the eight cases and six of the eight patients acquired the infections before the age of 30 years. Fever and consciousness disturbance were the most common clinical manifestations. Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (WFS) was found in two cases. Unlike the Acinetobacter strains found in nosocomial infections, the strain of Acinetobacter meningitis in the community-acquired case did not show multiple antibiotic resistance. Most adult patients with community-acquired Acinetobacter meningitis can be saved by timely therapy with appropriate antibiotics before deterioration of the systemic condition and impairment of consciousness. PMID:11139162

  8. Interviewing Children with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Anne-Marie; Linden, Mark; Alderdice, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Research into the lives of children with acquired brain injury (ABI) often neglects to incorporate children as participants, preferring to obtain the opinions of the adult carer (e.g. McKinlay et al., 2002). There has been a concerted attempt to move away from this position by those working in children's research with current etiquette…

  9. Support Network Responses to Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chleboun, Steffany; Hux, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) affects social relationships; however, the ways social and support networks change and evolve as a result of brain injury is not well understood. This study explored ways in which survivors of ABI and members of their support networks perceive relationship changes as recovery extends into the long-term stage. Two…

  10. Self-consistent flattened isochrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binney, James

    2014-05-01

    We present a family of self-consistent axisymmetric stellar systems that have analytic distribution functions (DFs) of the form f(J), so they depend on three integrals of motion and have triaxial velocity ellipsoids. The models, which are generalizations of Hénon's isochrone sphere, have four dimensionless parameters, two determining the part of the DF that is even in Lz and two determining the odd part of the DF (which determines the azimuthal velocity distribution). Outside their cores, the velocity ellipsoids of all models tend to point to the model's centre, and we argue that this behaviour is generic, so near the symmetry axis of a flattened model, the long axis of the velocity ellipsoid is naturally aligned with the symmetry axis and not perpendicular to it as in many published dynamical models of well-studied galaxies. By varying one of the DF parameters, the intensity of rotation can be increased from zero up to a maximum value set by the requirement that the DF be non-negative. Since angle-action coordinates are easily computed for these models, they are ideally suited for perturbative treatments and stability analysis. They can also be used to choose initial conditions for an N-body model that starts in perfect equilibrium, and to model observations of early-type galaxies. The modelling technique introduced here is readily extended to different radial density profiles, more complex kinematics and multicomponent systems. A number of important technical issues surrounding the determination of the models' observable properties are explained in two appendices.

  11. Acquired phototrophy stabilises coexistence and shapes intrinsic dynamics of an intraguild predator and its prey.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Holly V; Peltomaa, Elina; Johnson, Matthew D; Neubert, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    In marine ecosystems, acquired phototrophs - organisms that obtain their photosynthetic ability by hosting endosymbionts or stealing plastids from their prey - are omnipresent. Such taxa function as intraguild predators yet depend on their prey to periodically obtain chloroplasts. We present a new theory for the effects of acquired phototrophy on community dynamics by analysing a mathematical model of this predator-prey interaction and experimentally verifying its predictions with a laboratory model system. We show that acquired phototrophy stabilises coexistence, but that the nature of this coexistence exhibits a 'paradox of enrichment': as light increases, the coexistence between the acquired phototroph and its prey transitions from a stable equilibrium to boom-bust cycles whose amplitude increases with light availability. In contrast, heterotrophs and mixotrophic acquired phototrophs (that obtain  < 30% of their carbon from photosynthesis) do not exhibit such cycles. This prediction matches field observations, in which only strict ( > 95% of carbon from photosynthesis) acquired phototrophs form blooms. PMID:26833622

  12. Thermal inactivation kinetics of Salmonella Enteritidis and Oranienberg in commercially acquired 10% salted liquid whole egg

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Liquid egg pasteurization requirements are based on time/temperature combinations in the Code of Federal Regulations, Title 9, Ch. III, Sec. 590.570 from data acquired prior to 1970. These guidelines are being reevaluated in light of recent risk assessments. Heat-resistant Salmonella Enteritidi...

  13. Polarised light sheet tomography.

    PubMed

    Reidt, Sascha L; O'Brien, Daniel J; Wood, Kenneth; MacDonald, Michael P

    2016-05-16

    The various benefits of light sheet microscopy have made it a widely used modality for capturing three-dimensional images. It is mostly used for fluorescence imaging, but recently another technique called light sheet tomography solely relying on scattering was presented. The method was successfully applied to imaging of plant roots in transparent soil, but is limited when it comes to more turbid samples. This study presents a polarised light sheet tomography system and its advantages when imaging in highly scattering turbid media. The experimental configuration is guided by Monte Carlo radiation transfer methods, which model the propagation of a polarised light sheet in the sample. Images of both reflecting and absorbing phantoms in a complex collagenous matrix were acquired, and the results for different polarisation configurations are compared. Focus scanning methods were then used to reduce noise and produce three-dimensional reconstructions of absorbing targets. PMID:27409945

  14. Current treatment options of acquired flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Lesić, Aleksandar R; Atkinson, Henry Dushan E; Zagorac, Slavisa G; Bumbasirević, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic acquired flatfoot is an important orthopaedic problem, due to progressive loss of whole foot function and the increasing problem of patient disability. It is a complex entity, involving the tibialis posterior tendon, ankle joint, hindfoot and midfoot. In most cases the posterior tibial tendon (PTT) is the root cause of acquired flat foot, but there are other contributors and many different factors have an influence. The clinical picture varies depending on the stage of the deformity, as well as the treatment approach. Initially soft tissue procedures, synoviectomy and augmentation of the PTT are advised. In stage 2, lateral column lengthening and calcaneal osteotomy, with soft tissue - tendon transfers (TA, FHL, FDL) are recommended. In stage 3 subtalar, double or triplearthodesis is preferable, while in stage 4 pantalar fusion is indicated. This article elaborates on the etiology, the clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment modalities. PMID:24669559

  15. Acquired Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cho, Do-Yeon; Woodworth, Bradford A

    2016-01-01

    In the genetic airway disease cystic fibrosis (CF), deficiency or dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis membrane conductance regulator (CFTR) alters anion transport in respiratory epithelium and consequently disrupts mucociliary clearance. An enriched understanding of the role of CFTR in the maintenance of normal epithelial function has revealed that mild and variable CFTR mutations play a causative role in a number of diseases not classically associated with CF. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that acquired defects in wild-type CFTR protein processing, endocytic recycling and function can contribute to the pathogenesis of airway diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this chapter, we discuss emerging findings implicating acquired CFTR dysfunction in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis and propose a new and leading edge approach to future CRS therapy using CFTR potentiators. PMID:27466849

  16. Association of acquired von Willebrand syndrome with AL amyloidosis.

    PubMed

    Kos, Cynthia A; Ward, Jennifer E; Malek, Karim; Sanchorawala, Vaishali; Wright, Daniel G; O'Hara, Carl; Connors, Lawreen; Skinner, Martha; Seldin, David C

    2007-05-01

    Acquired loss of functional von Willebrand factor (VWF) has been termed the acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS). AVWS is a rare adult-onset bleeding diathesis that is clinically similar to congenital von Willebrand disease (VWD), and occurs with a variety of autoimmune, lymphoproliferative, or myeloproliferative disorders. We have identified four patients with AVWS in association with immunoglobulin light chain (AL) amyloidosis. These patients, lacking any pre-existing or family history of abnormal bleeding, developed cutaneous, mucosal, or gastrointestinal bleeding in the course of their disease without deficiency of clotting factor X or other factors; the activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) was prolonged in three out of the four cases. Despite normal VWF antigen levels, VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:RCo) was low. Electrophoresis patterns of high molecular weight (HMW) VWF multimers were abnormal in two of the four cases. Two of the patients were treated with high-dose intravenous melphalan followed by autologous stem cell transplantation (HDM/SCT) and achieved hematologic remission. In these two patients, the bleeding diathesis improved and the coagulation parameters normalized, confirming a causal relationship between the plasma cell dyscrasia and the AVWS. AVWS should be considered in AL amyloidosis patients with hemorrhagic diatheses and normal clotting factor levels. PMID:17205535

  17. [Short course antibiotherapies in community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Bulbul, Yilmaz; Ozlu, Tevfik

    2008-01-01

    The use of antibiotics for longer duration contributes to some disadvantageous conditions such as the development of resistant bacteria, increased bacterial colonization and an increase in the costs. In addition, in terms of suggested therapy durations, there are some differences between guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of pneumonia. In some studies, especially in the studies performed using new flouroquinolon and macrolide antibiotics in recent years, it has been shown that short course antimicrobial therapies for pneumonia are as effective as the traditional long therapies and are advantageous for lowering bacterial colonization and costs. In this article, short course therapy in community-acquired pneumonia is reviewed under the light of current literature. PMID:18932039

  18. Travel-acquired Japanese encephalitis and vaccination considerations.

    PubMed

    Pavli, Androula; Maltezou, Helena C

    2015-09-01

    Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a serious arboviral disease caused by a virus of the genus Flavivirus. Japanese encephalitis is the most common vaccine-preventable virus causing encephalitis in Asia, affecting more than 50,000 persons and leading to 15,000 fatalities per year in endemic countries. For most travelers to Asia, the risk of Japanese encephalitis infection is extremely low and depends on destination, duration of travel, season, and activities. This article reviews travel-acquired Japanese encephalitis with a focus on epidemiology and prevention in the light of the newly available options for active immunization against Japanese encephalitis which have become available, and of the increasing popularity of travels to Japanese encephalitis endemic countries. PMID:26409731

  19. Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ride, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), an education activity, allows middle school students to program a digital camera on board the International Space Station to photograph a variety of geographical targets for study in the classroom. Photos are made available on the web for viewing and study by participating schools around the world. Educators use the images for projects involving Earth Science, geography, physics, and social science.

  20. Intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms in enterococcus

    PubMed Central

    Hollenbeck, Brian L.; Rice, Louis B.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococci have the potential for resistance to virtually all clinically useful antibiotics. Their emergence as important nosocomial pathogens has coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial resistance by members of the genus. The mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance in enterococci may be intrinsic to the species or acquired through mutation of intrinsic genes or horizontal exchange of genetic material encoding resistance determinants. This paper reviews the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and discusses treatment options. PMID:23076243

  1. [Pharmacogenetics of community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Suleĭmanov, S Sh; Molchanova, O V; Kirpichnikova, N V; Sukhotina, N V; Gorbach, A A

    2010-01-01

    The rate of acetylation of xenobiotics affects the course and prognosis of infectious diseases. The efficacy of antibiotic therapy of community-acquired pneumonia in RA-patients is lower than that in LA-ones. In order to ensure the best antimicrobial effect on the onset of the disease it is required to use regimens with the maximum permissible dose of antibacterial drugs in the regions where the rapid type prevails. PMID:21400754

  2. Domestically acquired fascioliasis in northern California.

    PubMed

    Weisenberg, Scott A; Perlada, David E

    2013-09-01

    Two cases of domestically acquired fascioliasis are reported. Patient One was a 63-year-old male who developed a febrile illness 2 months after eating watercress in Marin County. Patient Two was a 38-year-old male who had eaten watercress with Patient One, and also developed a febrile illness. Both patients had eosinophilia and liver lesions on imaging. Diagnosis was made by serology and treatment was with triclabendazole. PMID:23836562

  3. Domestically Acquired Fascioliasis in Northern California

    PubMed Central

    Weisenberg, Scott A.; Perlada, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Two cases of domestically acquired fascioliasis are reported. Patient One was a 63-year-old male who developed a febrile illness 2 months after eating watercress in Marin County. Patient Two was a 38-year-old male who had eaten watercress with Patient One, and also developed a febrile illness. Both patients had eosinophilia and liver lesions on imaging. Diagnosis was made by serology and treatment was with triclabendazole. PMID:23836562

  4. Acquired protein energy malnutrition in glutaric acidemia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liqiao; Savory, Stephanie; Agim, Nnenna G

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of acquired protein energy malnutrition with associated zinc deficiency in an 18-month-old boy with type 1 glutaric acidemia. Physical examination findings included generalized nonpitting edema, widespread desquamative plaques, and sparse hair with a reddish tinge. Laboratory abnormalities included low levels of zinc, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, and iron. A review of skin manifestations of nutritional deficiencies, specifically kwashiorkor, is presented, as well as the relatively new entity called acrodermatitis dysmetabolica. PMID:23330977

  5. Acquired Antibiotic Resistance Genes: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    van Hoek, Angela H. A. M.; Mevius, Dik; Guerra, Beatriz; Mullany, Peter; Roberts, Adam Paul; Aarts, Henk J. M.

    2011-01-01

    In this review an overview is given on antibiotic resistance (AR) mechanisms with special attentions to the AR genes described so far preceded by a short introduction on the discovery and mode of action of the different classes of antibiotics. As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance, attention is also paid to mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons, which are associated with AR genes, and involved in the dispersal of antimicrobial determinants between different bacteria. PMID:22046172

  6. System Acquires Data On Reactivities Of Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Joe T.

    1994-01-01

    Data-acquisition and -plotting system, called DAPS(TM), developed enabling accurate and objective determination of physical properties related to reactivities of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foams. Automated, computer-controlled test apparatus that acquires data on rates of rise, rise profiles, exothermic temperatures, and internal pressures of foams prepared from both manual and machine-mixed batches. Data used to determine minute differences between reaction kinetics and exothermic profiles of foam formulations, properties of end products which are statistically undifferentiated.

  7. Acquired resistance to immunotherapy and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Restifo, Nicholas P; Smyth, Mark J; Snyder, Alexandra

    2016-02-01

    Advances in immunotherapy have resulted in remarkable clinical responses in some patients. However, one of the biggest challenges in cancer therapeutics is the development of resistant disease and disease progression on or after therapy. Given that many patients have now received various types of immunotherapy, we asked three scientists to give their views on the current evidence for whether acquired resistance to immunotherapy exists in patients and the future challenges posed by immunotherapy. PMID:26822578

  8. Extensive Drug Resistance Acquired During Treatment of Multidrug-Resistant Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Cegielski, J. Peter; Dalton, Tracy; Yagui, Martin; Wattanaamornkiet, Wanpen; Volchenkov, Grigory V.; Via, Laura E.; Van Der Walt, Martie; Tupasi, Thelma; Smith, Sarah E.; Odendaal, Ronel; Leimane, Vaira; Kvasnovsky, Charlotte; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Kurbatova, Ekaterina; Kummik, Tiina; Kuksa, Liga; Kliiman, Kai; Kiryanova, Elena V.; Kim, HeeJin; Kim, Chang-ki; Kazennyy, Boris Y.; Jou, Ruwen; Huang, Wei-Lun; Ershova, Julia; Erokhin, Vladislav V.; Diem, Lois; Contreras, Carmen; Cho, Sang Nae; Chernousova, Larisa N.; Chen, Michael P.; Caoili, Janice Campos; Bayona, Jaime; Akksilp, Somsak; Calahuanca, Gloria Yale; Wolfgang, Melanie; Viiklepp, Piret; Vasilieva, Irina A.; Taylor, Allison; Tan, Kathrine; Suarez, Carmen; Sture, Ingrida; Somova, Tatiana; Smirnova, Tatyana G.; Sigman, Erika; Skenders, Girts; Sitti, Wanlaya; Shamputa, Isdore C.; Riekstina, Vija; Pua, Kristine Rose; Therese, M.; Perez, C.; Park, Seungkyu; Norvaisha, Inga; Nemtsova, Evgenia S.; Min, Seonyeong; Metchock, Beverly; Levina, Klavdia; Lei, Yung-Chao; Lee, Jongseok; Larionova, Elena E.; Lancaster, Joey; Jeon, Doosoo; Jave, Oswaldo; Khorosheva, Tatiana; Hwang, Soo Hee; Huang, Angela Song-En; Gler, M. Tarcela; Dravniece, Gunta; Eum, Seokyong; Demikhova, Olga V.; Degtyareva, Irina; Danilovits, Manfred; Cirula, Anda; Cho, Eunjin; Cai, Ying; Brand, Jeanette; Bonilla, Cesar; Barry, Clifton E.; Asencios, Luis; Andreevskaya, Sofia N.; Akksilp, Rattanawadee

    2014-01-01

    Background. Increasing access to drugs for the treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) tuberculosis is crucial but could lead to increasing resistance to these same drugs. In 2000, the international Green Light Committee (GLC) initiative began to increase access while attempting to prevent acquired resistance. Methods. To assess the GLC's impact, we followed adults with pulmonary MDR tuberculosis from the start to the end of treatment with monthly sputum cultures, drug susceptibility testing, and genotyping. We compared the frequency and predictors of acquired resistance to second-line drugs (SLDs) in 9 countries that volunteered to participate, 5 countries that met GLC criteria, and 4 countries that did not apply to the GLC. Results. In total, 832 subjects were enrolled. Of those without baseline resistance to specific SLDs, 68 (8.9%) acquired extensively drug-resistant (XDR) tuberculosis, 79 (11.2%) acquired fluoroquinolone (FQ) resistance, and 56 (7.8%) acquired resistance to second-line injectable drugs (SLIs). The relative risk (95% confidence interval [CI]) of acquired resistance was lower at GLC-approved sites: 0.27 (.16–.47) for XDR tuberculosis, 0.28 (.17–.45) for FQ, and 0.15 (.06–.39) to 0.60 (.34–1.05) for 3 different SLIs. The risk increased as the number of potentially effective drugs decreased. Controlling for baseline drug resistance and differences between sites, the odds ratios (95% CIs) were 0.21 (.07–.62) for acquired XDR tuberculosis and 0.23 (.09–.59) for acquired FQ resistance. Conclusions. Treatment of MDR tuberculosis involves substantial risk of acquired resistance to SLDs, increasing as baseline drug resistance increases. The risk was significantly lower in programs documented by the GLC to meet specific standards. PMID:25057101

  9. A Consistent Phylogenetic Backbone for the Fungi

    PubMed Central

    Ebersberger, Ingo; de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Kupczok, Anne; Gube, Matthias; Kothe, Erika; Voigt, Kerstin; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2012-01-01

    The kingdom of fungi provides model organisms for biotechnology, cell biology, genetics, and life sciences in general. Only when their phylogenetic relationships are stably resolved, can individual results from fungal research be integrated into a holistic picture of biology. However, and despite recent progress, many deep relationships within the fungi remain unclear. Here, we present the first phylogenomic study of an entire eukaryotic kingdom that uses a consistency criterion to strengthen phylogenetic conclusions. We reason that branches (splits) recovered with independent data and different tree reconstruction methods are likely to reflect true evolutionary relationships. Two complementary phylogenomic data sets based on 99 fungal genomes and 109 fungal expressed sequence tag (EST) sets analyzed with four different tree reconstruction methods shed light from different angles on the fungal tree of life. Eleven additional data sets address specifically the phylogenetic position of Blastocladiomycota, Ustilaginomycotina, and Dothideomycetes, respectively. The combined evidence from the resulting trees supports the deep-level stability of the fungal groups toward a comprehensive natural system of the fungi. In addition, our analysis reveals methodologically interesting aspects. Enrichment for EST encoded data—a common practice in phylogenomic analyses—introduces a strong bias toward slowly evolving and functionally correlated genes. Consequently, the generalization of phylogenomic data sets as collections of randomly selected genes cannot be taken for granted. A thorough characterization of the data to assess possible influences on the tree reconstruction should therefore become a standard in phylogenomic analyses. PMID:22114356

  10. A consistent phylogenetic backbone for the fungi.

    PubMed

    Ebersberger, Ingo; de Matos Simoes, Ricardo; Kupczok, Anne; Gube, Matthias; Kothe, Erika; Voigt, Kerstin; von Haeseler, Arndt

    2012-05-01

    The kingdom of fungi provides model organisms for biotechnology, cell biology, genetics, and life sciences in general. Only when their phylogenetic relationships are stably resolved, can individual results from fungal research be integrated into a holistic picture of biology. However, and despite recent progress, many deep relationships within the fungi remain unclear. Here, we present the first phylogenomic study of an entire eukaryotic kingdom that uses a consistency criterion to strengthen phylogenetic conclusions. We reason that branches (splits) recovered with independent data and different tree reconstruction methods are likely to reflect true evolutionary relationships. Two complementary phylogenomic data sets based on 99 fungal genomes and 109 fungal expressed sequence tag (EST) sets analyzed with four different tree reconstruction methods shed light from different angles on the fungal tree of life. Eleven additional data sets address specifically the phylogenetic position of Blastocladiomycota, Ustilaginomycotina, and Dothideomycetes, respectively. The combined evidence from the resulting trees supports the deep-level stability of the fungal groups toward a comprehensive natural system of the fungi. In addition, our analysis reveals methodologically interesting aspects. Enrichment for EST encoded data-a common practice in phylogenomic analyses-introduces a strong bias toward slowly evolving and functionally correlated genes. Consequently, the generalization of phylogenomic data sets as collections of randomly selected genes cannot be taken for granted. A thorough characterization of the data to assess possible influences on the tree reconstruction should therefore become a standard in phylogenomic analyses. PMID:22114356

  11. A novel method to acquire 3D data from serial 2D images of a dental cast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Chen, Qi; Shao, Jun; Li, Xinshe; Liu, Zhiqin

    2007-05-01

    This paper introduced a newly developed method to acquire three-dimensional data from serial two-dimensional images of a dental cast. The system consists of a computer and a set of data acquiring device. The data acquiring device is used to take serial pictures of the a dental cast; an artificial neural network works to translate two-dimensional pictures to three-dimensional data; then three-dimensional image can reconstruct by the computer. The three-dimensional data acquiring of dental casts is the foundation of computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics.

  12. Acquired prosopagnosia without word recognition deficits.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Tirta; Wright, Victoria; Tree, Jeremy J; Duchaine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suggested that face recognition relies on specialized mechanisms that are not involved in visual recognition of other object categories, including those that require expert, fine-grained discrimination at the exemplar level such as written words. But according to the recently proposed many-to-many theory of object recognition (MTMT), visual recognition of faces and words are carried out by common mechanisms [Behrmann, M., & Plaut, D. C. ( 2013 ). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219]. MTMT acknowledges that face and word recognition are lateralized, but posits that the mechanisms that predominantly carry out face recognition still contribute to word recognition and vice versa. MTMT makes a key prediction, namely that acquired prosopagnosics should exhibit some measure of word recognition deficits. We tested this prediction by assessing written word recognition in five acquired prosopagnosic patients. Four patients had lesions limited to the right hemisphere while one had bilateral lesions with more pronounced lesions in the right hemisphere. The patients completed a total of seven word recognition tasks: two lexical decision tasks and five reading aloud tasks totalling more than 1200 trials. The performances of the four older patients (3 female, age range 50-64 years) were compared to those of 12 older controls (8 female, age range 56-66 years), while the performances of the younger prosopagnosic (male, 31 years) were compared to those of 14 younger controls (9 female, age range 20-33 years). We analysed all results at the single-patient level using Crawford's t-test. Across seven tasks, four prosopagnosics performed as quickly and accurately as controls. Our results demonstrate that acquired prosopagnosia can exist without word recognition deficits. These findings are inconsistent with a key prediction of MTMT. They instead support the hypothesis that face

  13. Clinicopathological correlation of acquired hypopigmentary disorders.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anisha B; Kubba, Raj; Kubba, Asha

    2013-01-01

    Acquired hypopigmentary disorders comprise a significant group of disorders that affect Indians and Asians. The pigment disturbance in darker skin individuals can be very distressing to the patient and the family. These disorders cover a wide array of pathologies including infections, autoimmune processes, lymphoproliferative disorders, and sclerosing diseases. Histological diagnosis is particularly important because treatments for these diseases are varied and specific. This review will focus on histopathological diagnosis based on clinicopathological correlation for commonly encountered disorders such as leprosy, vitiligo, lichen sclerosus, pityriasis alba (PA), and pityriasis versicolor (PV). Atypical or uncommon clinical presentation of classic diseases such as hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (HMF) and hypopigmented sarcoidosis are also included. PMID:23619442

  14. [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in pediatric patients].

    PubMed

    Molina Moguel, J L; Ruiz Illezcas, R; Forsbach Sánchez, S; Carreño Alvarez, S; Picco Díaz, I

    1990-12-01

    The object of this study was to determine how many of the patients treated at the Pediatric Odontology Clinic, a branch of the Maxillo-Facial Surgery Service at the Veinte de Noviembre Regional Hospital, ISSSTE, are VIH-positive of show serious manifestations of Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). For such purpose, 100 pediatric patients suffering from different systemic or local diseases were evaluated, the most common being hematological alterations. Results evidenced the presence of VIH in the blood of five of the pediatric subjects, all suffering from Hemophilia. PMID:2132469

  15. Acquired scalp alopecia. Part II: A review.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J R; Kossard, S

    1999-05-01

    The neutrophil-associated and infiltrative scarring alopecias are reviewed including folliculitis decalvans, tufted folliculitis, dissecting cellulitis of the scalp, acne keloidalis and follicular degeneration syndrome. The management of acquired scalp alopecia is also reviewed including newer, promising therapies. More specific agents targeting components of the androgen system will make the treatment of androgenetic alopecia more rewarding. Similarly new immunomodulatory therapies show great promise for the lymphocyte-associated alopecias and include a new generation of macrolide immunosuppressives (tacrolimus, SDZ ASM 981, and SDZ 281-240), some of which appear to have good transcutaneous absorption. PMID:10333615

  16. Origins of species: acquired genomes and individuality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.

    1993-01-01

    Entire genomes with their accompanying protein synthetic systems are transferred throughout the biosphere primarily as bacteria and protists which become symbionts as they irreversibly integrate into pre-existing organisms to form more complex individuals. Individualization is stabilized by simultaneous transmission of once-separate heterologous genetic systems. The origin of new species is hypothesized to correlate with the acquisition, integration and subsequent inheritance of such acquired microbial genomes. These processes were recognized by Mereschkovsky ("Symbiogenesis" in Russian, 1909) and by Wallin ("Symbionticism", see p. 181, this issue).

  17. Acquired haemophilia masked by warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Vadikolia, C M; Riddell, A; Brooks, S; Yee, T T; Brown, S; Lee, C

    2007-02-01

    Acquired haemophilia is a rare phenomenon and prompt diagnosis is essential for successful treatment. Early laboratory detection could minimize its potentially devastating consequences and reduce mortality but when a masking element such as anticoagulant therapy is present, delay in diagnosis is not uncommon. A prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) may be falsely attributed to warfarin alone, particularly when it is associated with oral anticoagulant overdose. We describe two patients on treatment with warfarin who presented with a bleeding diathesis and disproportionately prolonged APTT, which led to the diagnosis of antibodies directed against factor VIII. PMID:17224010

  18. Acquired Congenital Malalignment of the Great Toenails

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Ashley; Scher, Richard K.; Avarbock, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Congenital malalignment is the lateral deviation of the nail plate along the longitudinal axis due to the lateral rotation of the nail matrix. The nail plate grows out in ridges caused by repeated microtrauma to the nail. Common complications include onychomycosis, Pseudomonas infection and acute or chronic paronychia. Treatment options range from conservative management to surgical options including realignment and nail matrixectomy. Congenital malalignment usually presents in infancy or childhood, but we present two cases of acquired malalignment occurring in the teenage years. PMID:27171597

  19. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome: an update.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2007-05-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (aVWS) is a rare bleeding disorder with laboratory findings similar to those for congenital von Willebrand disease (VWD). However, unlike congenital VWD, it arises in individuals with no personal or family history of bleeding. aVWS occurs in association with a variety of underlying disorders, most frequently in lymphoproliferative disorders, myeloproliferative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Through an analysis of the more recent literature data, the pathophysiology and the clinical, laboratory, and therapeutic aspects of this syndrome are concisely reported in this review. PMID:17133419

  20. Acquired Congenital Malalignment of the Great Toenails.

    PubMed

    Decker, Ashley; Scher, Richard K; Avarbock, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Congenital malalignment is the lateral deviation of the nail plate along the longitudinal axis due to the lateral rotation of the nail matrix. The nail plate grows out in ridges caused by repeated microtrauma to the nail. Common complications include onychomycosis, Pseudomonas infection and acute or chronic paronychia. Treatment options range from conservative management to surgical options including realignment and nail matrixectomy. Congenital malalignment usually presents in infancy or childhood, but we present two cases of acquired malalignment occurring in the teenage years. PMID:27171597

  1. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  2. Light Duty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Discusses multipurpose athletic-field lighting specifications to enhance lighting quality and reduce costs. Topics discussed include lamp choice, lighting spillover and glare prevention, luminary assemblies and poles, and the electrical dimming and switching systems. (GR)

  3. Blissfully unaware: Anosognosia and anosodiaphoria after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Historically, anosognosia referred to under-report of striking symptoms of acquired brain injury (e.g., hemiplegia) with debilitating functional consequences and was linked with anosodiaphoria, an emotional reaction of indifference. It was later extended to include under-report of all manner of symptoms of acquired brain injury by the patient compared to clinicians, family members, or functional performance. Anosognosia is related to time since onset of brain injury but not consistently to demographic variables, lesion location (except that it is more common after unilateral right than left hemispheric injury), or specific neuropsychological test scores. This review considers all manifestations of anosognosia as a unitary phenomenon with differing clinical characteristics dictated by variability in linked cognitive impairments. It is concluded that anosognosia has three chief contributing factors: (1) procedural: measurement differences across studies in terms of symptom selection and the designation of a "gold standard" of patient symptomatology; (2) psychological: a tendency towards positive self-evaluation and the avoidance of adverse information, that also occurs in neurologically intact individuals; and (3) neuropathological: an increased likelihood of error recognition failure from disconnections that disrupt feedback between injured brain regions governing specific behaviours (symptoms) and anterior cingulate/insular cortex. Anosodiaphoria is considered as an associated symptom, resulting from the same psychological and neuropathological factors. PMID:25686381

  4. Asian elephants acquire inaccessible food by blowing.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kaori; Irie, Naoko; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mariko; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Many animals acquire otherwise inaccessible food with the aid of sticks and occasionally water. As an exception, some reports suggest that elephants manipulate breathing through their trunks to acquire inaccessible food. Here, we report on two female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Kamine Zoo, Japan, who regularly blew to drive food within their reach. We experimentally investigated this behaviour by placing foods in inaccessible places. The elephants blew the food until it came within accessible range. Once the food was within range, the elephants were increasingly less likely to blow as the distance to the food became shorter. One subject manipulated her blowing duration based on food distance: longer when the food was distant. These results suggest that the elephants used their breath to achieve goals: that is, they used it not only to retrieve the food but also to fine-tune the food position for easy grasping. We also observed individual differences in the elephants' aptitude for this technique, which altered the efficiency of food acquisition. Thus, we added a new example of spontaneous behaviour for achieving a goal in animals. The use of breath to drive food is probably unique to elephants, with their dexterous trunks and familiarity with manipulating the act of blowing, which is commonly employed for self-comfort and acoustic communication. PMID:26541597

  5. Tetracycline resistance genes acquired at birth.

    PubMed

    Alicea-Serrano, Angela M; Contreras, Mónica; Magris, Magda; Hidalgo, Glida; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G

    2013-06-01

    Newborns acquire their first microbiota at birth. Maternal vaginal or skin bacteria colonize newborns delivered vaginally or by C-section, respectively (Dominguez-Bello et al. 2010 #884). We aimed to determine differences in the presence of four tetracycline (tet) resistance genes, in the microbes of ten newborns and in the mouth and vagina of their mothers, at the time of birth. DNA was amplified by PCR with primers specific for [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), and tet(W)]. Maternal vaginas harbored all four tet resistance genes, but most commonly tet(M) and tet(O) (63 and 38 %, respectively). Genes coding for tet resistance differed by birth mode, with 50 % of vaginally delivered babies had tet(M) and tet(O) and 16 and 13 % of infants born by C-section had tet(O) and tet(W), respectively. Newborns acquire antibiotic resistance genes at birth, and the resistance gene profile varies by mode of delivery. PMID:23483141

  6. Surgery-associated acquired hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Theodossiades, G; Tsevrenis, V; Nomikou, E; Dadiotis, L; Kontopoulou-Griva, I

    2001-11-01

    We present two patients who acquired factor VIII antibodies in the immediate postoperative period. One patient was receiving warfarin that was temporarily discontinued but reintroduced after the procedure. Preoperatively, none gave a history of bleeding, even with past surgeries, and both had normal coagulation tests. Within days of surgery, hemorrhage with prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, low factor VIII levels, and demonstrable factor VIII antibodies were observed. For the patient who was receiving warfarin the severe bleeding was attributed, at the beginning, only to the high international normalized ratio (INR), which resulted in a fatal delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment. We would like to raise awareness of surgery as a precipitating cause of acquired hemophilia, which is something to be considered with unusual postoperative bleeding. This syndrome is remarkable for its abrupt onset within days of surgery, severe bleeding but potential successful outcome with combined hemostatic control with recombinant activated FVII (rFVIIa) and elimination of the antibody by immunosuppression. PMID:11757731

  7. Therapeutic approaches to acquired von Willebrand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Federici, A B

    2000-02-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is a rare acquired bleeding disorder similar to the congenital von Willebrand disease (VWD) in terms of laboratory findings. Diagnosis of AVWS can be very difficult, with treatment normally taking an empirical form. Although more than 200 cases have been reported since 1968, no retrospective or prospective studies are available on AVWS. Recently, an International Registry on AVWS, gathering data directly from worldwide Departments of Haematology-Oncology and Haemophilia Centres, has been organised by a group working on behalf of the Subcommittee on VWF in the Scientific Standardisation Committee (SSC) of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH). Information about an additional 211 AVWS patients is now available, with more detailed data on demography, type of haemorrhage, diagnostic tests for AVWS and management of bleeding episodes. The additional 211 AVWS cases are associated with lymphoproliferative (47%) or myeloproliferative (19%) disorders, cardiovascular diseases, neoplasia (7%) and other miscellaneous diseases (14%). Bleeding episodes of AVWS patients were managed by different compounds including desmopressin (22%), FVIII/VWF concentrates (26%) and high-dose immunoglobulin (10%), plasmapheresis (2%), steroids (5%) and immunosuppressive drugs (20%). Based on complied data, we can conclude that none of the therapeutic approaches proposed are 100% effective in all AVWS cases. Therefore, treatment must be customized for each patient according to the underlying disorder, as well as to the type and the severity of bleeding episode and must be targeted to each specific case. PMID:11060681

  8. Head and neck presentations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, R A; Schneider, K L; Cohen, N L

    1984-05-01

    Since December 1980, over 2,000 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been reported. The charts of 72 patients admitted to the New York University Medical Center with a diagnosis of AIDS were reviewed with particular emphasis on presenting signs, symptoms and laboratory values. Symptoms tended to be non-specific and most often resembled an upper respiratory infection. Over 95% of the patients presented with either diffuse adenopathy, oral or facial lesions consistent with Kaposi's sarcoma, white oral lesions, or anergy. Laboratory findings included leukopenia, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, thrombocytopenia and anemia. The in-hospital mortality rate was 26%. The current status of our knowledge concerning AIDS is reviewed and discussed. The frequency and types of presenting signs and symptoms in the head and neck are reported in order to alert the otolaryngologic community to this entity. PMID:6717222

  9. Head and neck presentations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, R A; Schneider, K L; Cohen, N L

    1985-12-01

    Since December 1980, over 3000 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been reported. The charts of 102 patients admitted to the New York University Medical Center with a diagnosis of AIDS were reviewed with particular emphasis on presenting signs, symptoms, and laboratory values. Symptoms tended to be nonspecific and most often resembled those of an upper respiratory infection. Over 71% of the patients presented with at least two of the following four signs: diffuse adenopathy, oral and facial lesions consistent with Kaposi's sarcoma, white oral lesions, and anergy. Laboratory findings included leukopenia, increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate, thrombocytopenia, and anemia. The in-hospital mortality rate was 26%. The current status of our knowledge concerning AIDS is reviewed and discussed. The frequency and types of presenting signs and symptoms in the head and neck are reported to alert the otolaryngologic community to this entity. PMID:3937090

  10. Light Emitting Diode (LED)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique called photodynamic therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source releasing long wavelengths of light) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can also be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED probe consists of 144 tiny pinhead-size diodes, is 9-inches long, and about one-half-inch in diameter. The small balloon aids in even distribution of the light source. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser. The probe was developed for photodynamic cancer therapy by the Marshall Space Flight Center under a NASA Small Business Innovative Research program grant.

  11. Properties of a consistent Lorentz-violating Abelian gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandre, J.; Vergou, A.

    2011-06-15

    A Lorentz-violating modification of massless QED is proposed, with higher-order space derivatives for the photon field. The fermion dynamical mass generation is studied with the Schwinger-Dyson approach. Perturbative properties of the model are calculated at one-loop and discussed at higher-order loops, showing the consistency of the model. We explain that there is no contradiction with the definition of the speed of light c, although fermions see an effective light cone, with a maximum speed smaller than c.

  12. Frequency and consistency effects in a pure surface dyslexic patient.

    PubMed

    Patterson, K; Behrmann, M

    1997-08-01

    Data are presented from a neurological patient (M.P.) with an acquired deficit for naming words with atypical spelling-sound correspondences. In Experiment 1, the degree of consistency within neighborhoods of orthographically similar words had a parallel impact on M.P.'s pronunciations of regular and irregular words and nonwords. This result is more compatible with models in which the same basic procedure, sensitive in a graded fashion to both frequency and consistency, computes pronunciations for all types of letter strings than it is with models postulating separate lexical and nonlexical mechanisms. In Experiment 2, both correct and regularized pronunciations of exception words yielded response times significantly modulated by word frequency, a finding not predicted by an current model. Neuropsychological observations provide an important additional source of evidence regarding models of cognitive function. PMID:9269734

  13. Processed pseudogenes acquired somatically during cancer development.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Susanna L; Shlien, Adam; Marshall, John; Pipinikas, Christodoulos P; Martincorena, Inigo; Tubio, Jose M C; Li, Yilong; Menzies, Andrew; Mudie, Laura; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Yates, Lucy; Davies, Helen; Bolli, Niccolo; Bignell, Graham R; Tarpey, Patrick S; Behjati, Sam; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Teixeira, Vitor H; Raine, Keiran; O'Meara, Sarah; Dodoran, Maryam S; Teague, Jon W; Butler, Adam P; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Santarius, Thomas; Grundy, Richard G; Malkin, David; Greaves, Mel; Munshi, Nikhil; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Bowtell, David; Martin, Sancha; Larsimont, Denis; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Boussioutas, Alex; Taylor, Jack A; Hayes, Neil D; Janes, Sam M; Futreal, P Andrew; Stratton, Michael R; McDermott, Ultan; Campbell, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Cancer evolves by mutation, with somatic reactivation of retrotransposons being one such mutational process. Germline retrotransposition can cause processed pseudogenes, but whether this occurs somatically has not been evaluated. Here we screen sequencing data from 660 cancer samples for somatically acquired pseudogenes. We find 42 events in 17 samples, especially non-small cell lung cancer (5/27) and colorectal cancer (2/11). Genomic features mirror those of germline LINE element retrotranspositions, with frequent target-site duplications (67%), consensus TTTTAA sites at insertion points, inverted rearrangements (21%), 5' truncation (74%) and polyA tails (88%). Transcriptional consequences include expression of pseudogenes from UTRs or introns of target genes. In addition, a somatic pseudogene that integrated into the promoter and first exon of the tumour suppressor gene, MGA, abrogated expression from that allele. Thus, formation of processed pseudogenes represents a new class of mutation occurring during cancer development, with potentially diverse functional consequences depending on genomic context. PMID:24714652

  14. ACECARD. Acquire CoOmmodities Easily Card

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, E.E.

    1996-09-01

    Acquire Commodities Easily Card (AceCard) provides an automated end-user method to distribute company credit card charges to internal charge numbers. AceCard will allow cardholders to record card purchases in an on-line order log, enter multiple account distributions per order that can be posted to the General Ledger, track orders, and receipt information, and provide a variety of cardholder and administrative reports. Please note: Customers must contact Ed Soler (423)-576-6151, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, for help with the installation of the package. The fee for this installation help will be coordinated by the customer and Lockheed Martin and is in addition to cost of the package from ESTSC. Customers should contact Sandy Presley (423)-576-4708 for user help.

  15. Acquire CoOmmodities Easily Card

    1998-05-29

    Acquire Commodities Easily Card (AceCard) provides an automated end-user method to distribute company credit card charges to internal charge numbers. AceCard will allow cardholders to record card purchases in an on-line order log, enter multiple account distributions per order that can be posted to the General Ledger, track orders, and receipt information, and provide a variety of cardholder and administrative reports. Please note: Customers must contact Ed Soler (423)-576-6151, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, for helpmore » with the installation of the package. The fee for this installation help will be coordinated by the customer and Lockheed Martin and is in addition to cost of the package from ESTSC. Customers should contact Sandy Presley (423)-576-4708 for user help.« less

  16. Acquired Localized Hypertrichosis Induced by Rivastigmine

    PubMed Central

    Imbernón-Moya, Adrian; Podlipnik, Sebastian; Burgos, Fernando; Vargas-Laguna, Elena; Aguilar-Martínez, Antonio; Fernández-Cogolludo, Eva; Gallego-Valdes, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrichosis is the excessive hair growth in any area of the skin surface. Acquired localized hypertrichosis may be secondary to multiple causes and there is a secondary form due to several drugs, which is usually reversible with discontinuation of the causative agent. Rivastigmine is a reversible and competitive inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase used for symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer dementia and Parkinson's disease. It has an adequate safety profile and cutaneous side effects are unusual. Irritant contact dermatitis, allergic dermatitis, baboon syndrome, and cutaneous rash due to rivastigmine have been reported. We report on a Caucasian 80-year-old male with personal history of Alzheimer's disease. The patient started therapy with oral rivastigmine one month prior to clinical presentation of localized hypertrichosis on both forearms. Norgalanthamine has been shown to promote hair growth activity via the proliferation of dermal papilla. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can induce hair growth. PMID:27073702

  17. How to divest acquired physician practices.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, P K

    1999-02-01

    When an integrated delivery system (IDS) determines it must divest itself of a previously acquired physician practice, it must manage the transaction with care. The IDS most likely will want to maintain a positive ongoing relationship with the physician practice, while avoiding concessions to the practice that could be construed as violations of state and Federal laws. Before proceeding, the IDS should evaluate the reasons for divesting the practice, assess legal issues involved in terminating contracts with the practice, decide how to deal with the practice's assets and office facilities, consider whether covenants not to compete should be enforced, ensure continued access to essential medical records, consider whether to incorporate a "non-disparagement" clause in the termination agreement, and determine what mutual general releases may be necessary. PMID:10345614

  18. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in gay men.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, H W; Hardy, A M; Morgan, W M; Darrow, W W

    1985-11-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major health problem for gay men in the United States. About three fourths of all reported cases have occurred in this population, and the number is projected to double in the next year. In Manhattan and San Francisco, AIDS is now the leading cause of premature mortality in men aged 25 to 44 years who have never married. In a sample of a cohort of gay men enrolled in a San Francisco clinic, 2.7% of the men had the syndrome and 26% had related conditions in 1984. Antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus, type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus was found in sera from 67% of the men, including 58% of asymptomatic men. Behavioral factors associated with an increased risk of AIDS include large numbers of sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse, and "fisting." The adoption of safer lifestyles is currently the basis of attempts to control the syndrome in gay men. PMID:2996396

  19. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Simmons, J.T.; Masur, H.; Smith, P.D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Ognibene, F.P.

    1987-02-01

    All gallium-67 citrate scans obtained in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the results of bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and endoscopy. There were 164 scans of 95 patients. Twenty scans were from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 19 were abnormal, for a sensitivity of 95%. Ga-67 uptake tended to be less in patients receiving therapy for P. carinii pneumonia. Chest radiographs were normal at least initially in three patients with abnormal scans and P. carinii pneumonia. Unusually prominent colonic activity was associated with infection in some patients. No lesions of Kaposi sarcoma showed tracer uptake. Gallium scanning is useful for detecting P. carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS, but it is not useful for localizing Kaposi sarcoma.

  20. Covalent targeting of acquired cysteines in cancer.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marieke; Arkin, Michelle R; Dansen, Tobias B

    2016-02-01

    The thiolate side chain of cysteine has a unique functionality that drug hunters and chemical biologists have begun to exploit. For example, targeting cysteine residues in the ATP-binding pockets of kinases with thiol-reactive molecules has afforded increased selectivity and potency to drugs like imbrutinib, which inhibits the oncogene BTK, and CO-1686 and AZD9291 that target oncogenic mutant EGFR. Recently, disulfide libraries and targeted GDP-mimetics have been used to selectively label the G12C oncogenic mutation in KRAS. We reasoned that other oncogenes contain mutations to cysteine, and thus screened the Catalog of Somatic Mutations in Cancer for frequently acquired cysteines. Here, we describe the most common mutations and discuss how these mutations could be potential targets for cysteine-directed personalized therapeutics. PMID:26629855

  1. Processed pseudogenes acquired somatically during cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Susanna L.; Shlien, Adam; Marshall, John; Pipinikas, Christodoulos P.; Martincorena, Inigo; Tubio, Jose M.C.; Li, Yilong; Menzies, Andrew; Mudie, Laura; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Yates, Lucy; Davies, Helen; Bolli, Niccolo; Bignell, Graham R.; Tarpey, Patrick S.; Behjati, Sam; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Teixeira, Vitor H.; Raine, Keiran; O’Meara, Sarah; Dodoran, Maryam S.; Teague, Jon W.; Butler, Adam P.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Santarius, Thomas; Grundy, Richard G.; Malkin, David; Greaves, Mel; Munshi, Nikhil; Flanagan, Adrienne M.; Bowtell, David; Martin, Sancha; Larsimont, Denis; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.; Boussioutas, Alex; Taylor, Jack A.; Hayes, Neil D.; Janes, Sam M.; Futreal, P. Andrew; Stratton, Michael R.; McDermott, Ultan; Campbell, Peter J.; Provenzano, Elena; van de Vijver, Marc; Richardson, Andrea L.; Purdie, Colin; Pinder, Sarah; Mac Grogan, Gaetan; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Larsimont, Denis; Grabau, Dorthe; Sauer, Torill; Garred, Øystein; Ehinger, Anna; Van den Eynden, Gert G.; van Deurzen, C.H.M; Salgado, Roberto; Brock, Jane E.; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Giri, Dilip D.; Arnould, Laurent; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Treilleux, Isabelle; Caldas, Carlos; Chin, Suet-Feung; Fatima, Aquila; Thompson, Alastair M.; Stenhouse, Alasdair; Foekens, John; Martens, John; Sieuwerts, Anieta; Brinkman, Arjen; Stunnenberg, Henk; Span, Paul N.; Sweep, Fred; Desmedt, Christine; Sotiriou, Christos; Thomas, Gilles; Broeks, Annegein; Langerod, Anita; Aparicio, Samuel; Simpson, Peter T.; van ’t Veer, Laura; Erla Eyfjörd, Jórunn; Hilmarsdottir, Holmfridur; Jonasson, Jon G.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Wong, Bernice Huimin; Tan, Benita Kiat Tee; Hooijer, Gerrit K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer evolves by mutation, with somatic reactivation of retrotransposons being one such mutational process. Germline retrotransposition can cause processed pseudogenes, but whether this occurs somatically has not been evaluated. Here we screen sequencing data from 660 cancer samples for somatically acquired pseudogenes. We find 42 events in 17 samples, especially non-small cell lung cancer (5/27) and colorectal cancer (2/11). Genomic features mirror those of germline LINE element retrotranspositions, with frequent target-site duplications (67%), consensus TTTTAA sites at insertion points, inverted rearrangements (21%), 5′ truncation (74%) and polyA tails (88%). Transcriptional consequences include expression of pseudogenes from UTRs or introns of target genes. In addition, a somatic pseudogene that integrated into the promoter and first exon of the tumour suppressor gene, MGA, abrogated expression from that allele. Thus, formation of processed pseudogenes represents a new class of mutation occurring during cancer development, with potentially diverse functional consequences depending on genomic context. PMID:24714652

  2. Acquire CoOmmodities Easily Card

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, E. E.

    1998-05-29

    Acquire Commodities Easily Card (AceCard) provides an automated end-user method to distribute company credit card charges to internal charge numbers. AceCard will allow cardholders to record card purchases in an on-line order log, enter multiple account distributions per order that can be posted to the General Ledger, track orders, and receipt information, and provide a variety of cardholder and administrative reports. Please note: Customers must contact Ed Soler (423)-576-6151, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, for help with the installation of the package. The fee for this installation help will be coordinated by the customer and Lockheed Martin and is in addition to cost of the package from ESTSC. Customers should contact Sandy Presley (423)-576-4708 for user help.

  3. Acquired methaemoglobinaemia related to phenazopyridine ingestion.

    PubMed

    Shahani, Lokesh; Sattovia, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    Methaemoglobin is an altered state of haemoglobin in which the ferrous ions of haeme are oxidised to the ferric state. This results in increased affinity to the bound oxygen and decreasing its availability to tissues. Most cases of methaemoglobinaemia are acquired, resulting from an increased methaemoglobin formation by various exogenous agents. The authors report an elderly patient presenting to the emergency department with a 1-month history of shortness of breath. Around the same time she had started using over-the-counter (OTC) phenazopyridine tablets for urinary symptoms. The patient was hypoxic and cyanotic; however, lacked evidence of hypoxaemia on the arterial blood gas. The presence of abnormal haemoglobin was suspected and confirmed by elevated levels of methaemoglobin. Phenazopyridine was proposed to be the likely aetiology of the methaemoglobinaemia, which the patient was not aware of. This case highlights the importance of always inquiring the OTC drug use especially in geriatric population. PMID:22987905

  4. Acquired methaemoglobinaemia related to phenazopyridine ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Shahani, Lokesh; Sattovia, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    Methaemoglobin is an altered state of haemoglobin in which the ferrous ions of haeme are oxidised to the ferric state. This results in increased affinity to the bound oxygen and decreasing its availability to tissues. Most cases of methaemoglobinaemia are acquired, resulting from an increased methaemoglobin formation by various exogenous agents. The authors report an elderly patient presenting to the emergency department with a 1-month history of shortness of breath. Around the same time she had started using over-the-counter (OTC) phenazopyridine tablets for urinary symptoms. The patient was hypoxic and cyanotic; however, lacked evidence of hypoxaemia on the arterial blood gas. The presence of abnormal haemoglobin was suspected and confirmed by elevated levels of methaemoglobin. Phenazopyridine was proposed to be the likely aetiology of the methaemoglobinaemia, which the patient was not aware of. This case highlights the importance of always inquiring the OTC drug use especially in geriatric population. PMID:22987905

  5. Signal regulators of systemic acquired resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qing-Ming; Zhu, Shifeng; Kachroo, Pradeep; Kachroo, Aardra

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important phytohormone that plays a vital role in a number of physiological responses, including plant defense. The last two decades have witnessed a number of breakthroughs related to biosynthesis, transport, perception and signaling mediated by SA. These findings demonstrate that SA plays a crictical role in both local and systemic defense responses. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is one such SA-dependent response. SAR is a long distance signaling mechanism that provides broad spectrum and long-lasting resistance to secondary infections throughout the plant. This unique feature makes SAR a highly desirable trait in crop production. This review summarizes the recent advances in the role of SA in SAR and discusses its relationship to other SAR inducers. PMID:25918514

  6. Acquiring case adaptation knowledge: A hybrid approach

    SciTech Connect

    Leake, D.B.; Kinley, A.; Wilson, D.

    1996-12-31

    The ability of case-based reasoning (CBR) systems to apply cases to novel situations depends on their case adaptation knowledge. However, endowing CBR systems with adequate adaptation knowledge has proven to be a very difficult task. This paper describes a hybrid method for performing case adaptation, using a combination of rule-based and case-based reasoning. It shows how this approach provides a framework for acquiring flexible adaptation knowledge from experiences with autonomous adaptation and suggests its potential as a basis for acquisition of adaptation knowledge from interactive user guidance. It also presents initial experimental results examining the benefits of the approach and comparing the relative contributions of case learning and adaptation learning to reasoning performance.

  7. Identification of acquired antimicrobial resistance genes

    PubMed Central

    Zankari, Ea; Hasman, Henrik; Cosentino, Salvatore; Vestergaard, Martin; Rasmussen, Simon; Lund, Ole; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Larsen, Mette Voldby

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Identification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic laboratories and is anticipated to substitute traditional methods for resistance gene identification. Thus, the current challenge is to extract the relevant information from the large amount of generated data. Methods We developed a web-based method, ResFinder that uses BLAST for identification of acquired antimicrobial resistance genes in whole-genome data. As input, the method can use both pre-assembled, complete or partial genomes, and short sequence reads from four different sequencing platforms. The method was evaluated on 1862 GenBank files containing 1411 different resistance genes, as well as on 23 de-novo-sequenced isolates. Results When testing the 1862 GenBank files, the method identified the resistance genes with an ID = 100% (100% identity) to the genes in ResFinder. Agreement between in silico predictions and phenotypic testing was found when the method was further tested on 23 isolates of five different bacterial species, with available phenotypes. Furthermore, ResFinder was evaluated on WGS chromosomes and plasmids of 30 isolates. Seven of these isolates were annotated to have antimicrobial resistance, and in all cases, annotations were compatible with the ResFinder results. Conclusions A web server providing a convenient way of identifying acquired antimicrobial resistance genes in completely sequenced isolates was created. ResFinder can be accessed at www.genomicepidemiology.org. ResFinder will continuously be updated as new resistance genes are identified. PMID:22782487

  8. Guidelines for prevention of hospital acquired infections

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Yatin; Gupta, Abhinav; Todi, Subhash; Myatra, SN; Samaddar, D. P.; Patil, Vijaya; Bhattacharya, Pradip Kumar; Ramasubban, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    These guidelines, written for clinicians, contains evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of hospital acquired infections Hospital acquired infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity and provide challenge to clinicians. Measures of infection control include identifying patients at risk of nosocomial infections, observing hand hygiene, following standard precautions to reduce transmission and strategies to reduce VAP, CR-BSI, CAUTI. Environmental factors and architectural lay out also need to be emphasized upon. Infection prevention in special subsets of patients - burns patients, include identifying sources of organism, identification of organisms, isolation if required, antibiotic prophylaxis to be used selectively, early removal of necrotic tissue, prevention of tetanus, early nutrition and surveillance. Immunodeficient and Transplant recipients are at a higher risk of opportunistic infections. The post tranplant timetable is divided into three time periods for determining risk of infections. Room ventilation, cleaning and decontamination, protective clothing with care regarding food requires special consideration. Monitoring and Surveillance are prioritized depending upon the needs. Designated infection control teams should supervise the process and help in collection and compilation of data. Antibiotic Stewardship Recommendations include constituting a team, close coordination between teams, audit, formulary restriction, de-escalation, optimizing dosing, active use of information technology among other measure. The recommendations in these guidelines are intended to support, and not replace, good clinical judgment. The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of evidence supporting the recommendation, so that readers can ascertain how best to apply the recommendations in their practice environments. PMID:24701065

  9. Infantile and acquired nystagmus in childhood.

    PubMed

    Ehrt, Oliver

    2012-11-01

    Nystagmus is an involuntary, periodic eye movement caused by a slow drift of fixation which is followed by a fast refixation saccade (jerk nystagmus) or a slow movement back to fixation (pendular nystagmus). In childhood most cases are benign forms of nystagmus: idiopathic infantile, ocular or latent nystagmus. They arise at the age of 3 months, without oscillopsia and show the absence of the physiologic opto-kinetic nystagmus. A full ophthalmologic evaluation is all that is needed in most cases: albinism, macular or optic nerve hypoplasia and congenital retinal dystrophies are the most common forms of ocular nystagmus. Idiopathic infantile nystagmus can be hereditary, the most common and best analyzed form being a mutation of the FRMD7 gene on chromosome Xq26.2. The mutation shows a mild genotype-phenotype correlation. In all female carriers the opto-kinetic nystagmus is absent and half had mild nystagmus. Latent nystagmus is part of the infantile esotropia syndrome and shows the unique feature of change of direction when the fixing eye changes: it is always beating to the side of the fixing eye. There is no cure for infantile nystagmus but therapeutic options include magnifying visual aids or eye muscle surgery at the age of 6-8 y in patients with head turn. Less than 20% of childhood nystagmus are acquired and need further neurological and imaging work-up. Alarming signs and symptoms are: onset after the age of 4 months, oscillopsia, dissociated (asymmetric) nystagmus, preserved opto-kinetic nystagmus, afferent pupillary defect, papilloedema and neurological symptoms like vertigo and nausea. The most common cause is due to pathology of the anterior optic pathway (e.g. optic nerve gliomas). It shows the same clinical feature of dissociated nystagmus as spasmus nutans but has a higher frequency as in INO. Other forms of acquired nystagmus are due to brainstem, cerebellar or metabolic diseases. PMID:22459007

  10. Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2016-03-01

    Flashing light can enhance photosynthesis and improve the quality and quantity of microalgal biomass, as it can increase the products of interest by magnitudes. Therefore, the integration of flashing light effect into microalgal cultivation systems should be considered. However, microalgae require a balanced mix of the light/dark cycle for higher growth rates, and respond to light intensity differently according to the pigments acquired or lost during the growth. This review highlights recently published results on flashing light effect on microalgae and its applications in biotechnology, as well as the recently developed bioreactors designed to fulfill this effect. It also discusses how this knowledge can be applied in selecting the optimal light frequencies and intensities with specific technical properties for increasing biomass production and/or the yield of the chemicals of interest by microalgae belonging to different genera. PMID:26747205

  11. [Psychometric properties of a scale: internal consistency].

    PubMed

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Oviedo, Heidi C

    2008-01-01

    Internal consistency reliability is the degree of correlation between a scale's items. Internal consistency is calculated by Kuder-Richardson's formula 20 for dichotomous choices and Cronbach's alpha for polytomous items. 0.70 to 0.90 internal consistency is acceptable. 5-25 participants are needed for each item when computing the internal consistency of a twenty-item scale. Internal consistency varies according to population and then it is necessary to report it always that scale is used. PMID:19360231

  12. Effectiveness of Web Quest Strategy in Acquiring Geographic Concepts among Eighth Grade Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL-Edwan, Zaid Suleiman

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the Effectiveness of using Web Quest Strategy in acquiring the geographic concepts among eighth grade students in Jordan. The study individuals consisted of (119) students in the scholastic year 2013-2014. Four sections were randomly selected from two schools divided into experimental and control groups. They were…

  13. Acquired and Required Competencies in Interactive Computer in Labour Market Sector from the Employers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adodo, S. O.; Adewole, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated acquired and required competencies in interactive computer technology (ICT) in labour data were collected from employers' and employees'. The study is a descriptive research of the survey type. The population of the study consisted of unemployed graduates, employed graduates and various parastatal where graduates seek for…

  14. Semantic Differential Responses to Educational Posters on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Christopher; Stewin, Leonard L.

    1992-01-01

    Undergraduate students (n=131) responded to eight educational posters dealing with the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) using a nine-item semantic differential scale. Two posters were consistently rated as more informative, reassuring, effective, decent, and better than the others. The first utilized an objective and informative…

  15. Investigating the construct of trauma-related acquired callousness among delinquent youth: differences in emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Diana C; Kerig, Patricia K

    2014-08-01

    This study tested theories regarding differences in emotion processing among youth characterized by primary versus acquired callous-unemotional (CU) traits in a sample of 417 detained adolescents (306 boys, 111 girls). Mixture modeling identified 2 groups of youth high in CU, but with different levels of posttraumatic stress symptoms consistent with theoretical conceptualizations of acquired CU as being linked to trauma. Differences between the 2 groups of youth were investigated regarding 3 dimensions of emotion processing: emotion regulation, numbing, and recognition. Compared to youth classified in the primary group, youth classified as acquired CU demonstrated greater difficulty with lack of clarity (OR = 0.53), and nonacceptance of emotions, (OR = 0.57), general numbing of emotions (OR = 0.87), and recognition of disgust (OR = 0.18). Differences in emotion processing reported by youth in the 2 groups are consistent with theories regarding acquired callousness as related to emotional detachment in the aftermath of posttraumatic distress. The results of the current study have implications for the classification of primary and acquired CU, as well as the clinical treatment of youth with these characteristics. PMID:25079943

  16. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposition of acquired property. 1779.90 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.90 Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the...

  17. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposition of acquired property. 1779.90 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.90 Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the...

  18. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Disposition of acquired property. 1779.90 Section 1779..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.90 Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the...

  19. Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

  20. 19 CFR 148.38 - Sale of articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sale of articles acquired abroad. 148.38 Section... § 148.38 Sale of articles acquired abroad. An article brought in under the $800 or $1,600 exemption for articles acquired abroad for personal or household use and subsequently sold is not dutiable or subject...

  1. 19 CFR 148.38 - Sale of articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sale of articles acquired abroad. 148.38 Section... § 148.38 Sale of articles acquired abroad. An article brought in under the $800 or $1,600 exemption for articles acquired abroad for personal or household use and subsequently sold is not dutiable or subject...

  2. 7 CFR 770.8 - Use of acquired land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of acquired land. 770.8 Section 770.8 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDIAN TRIBAL LAND ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.8 Use of acquired land. (a) General. Subject to § 770.5(d) land acquired with loan funds, or other property serving as the security for a...

  3. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposition of acquired property. 1779.90 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.90 Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the...

  4. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of acquired property. 1779.90 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.90 Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the...

  5. 43 CFR 4110.1-1 - Acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acquired lands. 4110.1-1 Section 4110.1-1... and Preference § 4110.1-1 Acquired lands. Where lands have been acquired by the Bureau of Land... of acquisition by the Bureau of Land Management, and are not subject to the requirements of § 4110.1....

  6. 19 CFR 148.38 - Sale of articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sale of articles acquired abroad. 148.38 Section... § 148.38 Sale of articles acquired abroad. An article brought in under the $800 or $1,600 exemption for articles acquired abroad for personal or household use and subsequently sold is not dutiable or subject...

  7. 19 CFR 148.38 - Sale of articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale of articles acquired abroad. 148.38 Section... § 148.38 Sale of articles acquired abroad. An article brought in under the $800 or $1,600 exemption for articles acquired abroad for personal or household use and subsequently sold is not dutiable or subject...

  8. Dark light Higgs bosons.

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, P.; Liu, T.; Wagner, C. E. M.; Wang, L.-T.; Zhang, H.

    2011-03-24

    We study a limit of the nearly Peccei-Quinn-symmetric next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model possessing novel Higgs and dark matter (DM) properties. In this scenario, there naturally coexist three light singletlike particles: a scalar, a pseudoscalar, and a singlinolike DM candidate, all with masses of order 0.1-10 GeV. The decay of a standard model-like Higgs boson to pairs of the light scalars or pseudoscalars is generically suppressed, avoiding constraints from collider searches for these channels. For a certain parameter window annihilation into the light pseudoscalar and exchange of the light scalar with nucleons allow the singlino to achieve the correct relic density and a large direct-detection cross section consistent with the DM direct-detection experiments, CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA, preferred region simultaneously. This parameter space is consistent with experimental constraints from LEP, the Tevatron, ?, and flavor physics.

  9. Novel ray tracing method for stray light suppression from ocean remote sensing measurements.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eunsong; Hong, Jinsuk; Kim, Sug-Whan; Park, Young-Je; Cho, Seong-Ick

    2016-05-16

    We developed a new integrated ray tracing (IRT) technique to analyze the stray light effect in remotely sensed images. Images acquired with the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager show a radiance level discrepancy at the slot boundary, which is suspected to be a stray light effect. To determine its cause, we developed and adjusted a novel in-orbit stray light analysis method, which consists of three simulated phases (source, target, and instrument). Each phase simulation was performed in a way that used ray information generated from the Sun and reaching the instrument detector plane efficiently. This simulation scheme enabled the construction of the real environment from the remote sensing data, with a focus on realistic phenomena. In the results, even in a cloud-free environment, a background stray light pattern was identified at the bottom of each slot. Variations in the stray light effect and its pattern according to bright target movement were simulated, with a maximum stray light ratio of 8.5841% in band 2 images. To verify the proposed method and simulation results, we compared the results with the real acquired remotely sensed image. In addition, after correcting for abnormal phenomena in specific cases, we confirmed that the stray light ratio decreased from 2.38% to 1.02% in a band 6 case, and from 1.09% to 0.35% in a band 8 case. IRT-based stray light analysis enabled clear determination of the stray light path and candidates in in-orbit circumstances, and the correction process aided recovery of the radiometric discrepancy. PMID:27409848

  10. Spatial and temporal variability of lightings over Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nastos, P. T.; Matsangouras, J. T.

    2010-09-01

    Lightings are the most powerful and spectacular natural phenomena in the lower atmosphere, being a major cause of storm related deaths. Cloud-to-ground lightning can kill and injure people by direct or indirect means. Lightning affects the many electrochemical systems in the body causing nerve damage, memory loss, personality change, and emotional problems. Besides, among the various nitrogen oxides sources, the contribution from lightning likely represents the largest uncertainty. In this study, the spatial and temporal variability of recorded lightings over Greece during the period from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2009, were analyzed. The data for retrieving the location and time-of-occurrence of lightning were acquired from Hellenic National Meteorological Service (HNMS) archive dataset. An operational lighting detector network was established in 2007 by HNMS consisted of eight time-of-arrival sensors (TOA), spatially distributed across Greek territory. The spatial variability of lightings revealed their incidence within specific geographical sub-regions while the temporal variability concerning the seasonal, monthly and daily distributions resulted in better understanding of the time of lightings’ occurrence. All the analyses were carried out with respect to cloud to cloud, cloud to ground and ground to cloud lightings, within the examined time period.

  11. Development of a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Seiichi Hamamura, Fuka; Kato, Katsuhiko; Ogata, Yoshimune; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Hatazawa, Jun; Watabe, Hiroshi

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Cerenkov-light imaging is a new molecular imaging technology that detects visible photons from high-speed electrons using a high sensitivity optical camera. However, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging remains unclear. If a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system were developed, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging would be clarified by directly comparing these two imaging modalities. Methods: The authors developed and tested a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system that consists of a dual-head PET system, a reflection mirror located above the subject, and a high sensitivity charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The authors installed these systems inside a black box for imaging the Cerenkov-light. The dual-head PET system employed a 1.2 × 1.2 × 10 mm{sup 3} GSO arranged in a 33 × 33 matrix that was optically coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube to form a GSO block detector. The authors arranged two GSO block detectors 10 cm apart and positioned the subject between them. The Cerenkov-light above the subject is reflected by the mirror and changes its direction to the side of the PET system and is imaged by the high sensitivity CCD camera. Results: The dual-head PET system had a spatial resolution of ∼1.2 mm FWHM and sensitivity of ∼0.31% at the center of the FOV. The Cerenkov-light imaging system's spatial resolution was ∼275μm for a {sup 22}Na point source. Using the combined PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, the authors successfully obtained fused images from simultaneously acquired images. The image distributions are sometimes different due to the light transmission and absorption in the body of the subject in the Cerenkov-light images. In simultaneous imaging of rat, the authors found that {sup 18}F-FDG accumulation was observed mainly in the Harderian gland on the PET image, while the distribution of Cerenkov-light was observed in the eyes. Conclusions: The authors conclude that their developed PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid

  12. Light Visor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Seasonal Affective Disorder is a form of depression brought on by reduced light. For some people, this can lead to clinical depression. NASA has conducted research in light therapy and employs it to help astronauts adjust internal rhythms during orbital flight. Dr. George Brainard, a medical researcher and NASA consultant, has developed a portable light therapy device, which is commercially available. The Light Visor allows continuous light therapy and can be powered by either batteries or electricity. Dr. Brainard continues to research various aspects of light therapy.

  13. Breast Cancer as an Acquired Thrombophilic State

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is an acquired thrombophilic condition manifested by increased incidence of venous and arterial thromboembolic complications. Despite progress that has been achieved in treatments over the recent years, thromboembolism remains a major complication in patients with breast cancer; it is accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Approximately, 1% of breast cancer patients develop venous thromboembolism within 2 years with the highest incidence occurring in the 6 months post diagnosis. Metastatic disease and their comorbidities are the strongest predictors of the development of thrombotic event. The diagnosis of venous thromboembolism is associated with a higher risk of death within 2 years of diagnosis. Thromboembolic events in cancer patients range from abnormal laboratory coagulation tests without specific symptoms to massive thomboembolism and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The underlying pathophysiology is complex and includes the prothrombotic properties of cancer cells, which can be enhanced by anticancer treatment modalities, such as surgery, hormonal agents, and chemotherapy. Primary thromboprophylaxis in cancer patients should be individualized according to risk. For secondary prevention, several clinical studies have shown that low molecular weight heparin has improved patients' compliance, cancer outcomes and overall survival. This review summarizes the available data on the pathogenesis and clinical approach of hemostatic changes in breast cancer. PMID:22807931

  14. Community-acquired Pneumonia and its Complications.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qiang; Shen, Kun-ling

    2015-08-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in developing and developed countries, and its incidence is highest among children less than 5-y-old. Over the last five years, several international and local guidelines have been updated with new evidence concerning the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of pediatric CAP, but there are still several major problems that need to be standardised. The aim of this review is to consider the available data concerning the termination, epidemiology, microbiology and pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment, and complications of pediatric CAP. There still are many unanswered questions concerning the management of CAP, including its definition, the difficulty to identify its etiological agents, the emergence of drug, and the lack of introduction of vaccines against respiratory pathogens in developing countries. More research is required in various areas (including therapy of atypical agents), and further efforts are needed to increase vaccination in order to reduce the incidence of the disease. PMID:25976616

  15. Natural and acquired macrolide resistance in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Doucet-Populaire, F; Buriánková, K; Weiser, J; Pernodet, J-L

    2002-12-01

    The genus Mycobacterium contains two of the most important human pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, the etiologic agents of tuberculosis and leprosy, respectively. Other mycobacteria are mostly saprophytic organisms, living in soil and water, but some of them can cause opportunistic infections. The increasing incidence of tuberculosis as well as infections with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in AIDS patients has renewed interest in molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in these pathogens. Mycobacteria show a high degree of intrinsic resistance to most common antibiotics. For instance, species from the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) are intrinsically resistant to macrolides. Nevertheless, some semi-synthetic macrolides as the erythromycin derivatives clarithromycin, azithromycin and most recently the ketolides, are active against NTM, particularly Mycobacterium avium, and some of them are widely used for infection treatment. However, shortly after the introduction of these new drugs, resistant strains appeared due to mutations in the macrolide target, the ribosome. The mycobacterial cell wall with its specific composition and structure is considered to be a major factor in promoting the natural resistance of mycobacteria to various antibiotics. However, to explain the difference in macrolide sensitivity between the MTC and NTM, the synergistic contribution of a specific resistance mechanism might be required, in addition to possible differences in cell wall permeability. This mini-review summarizes the current knowledge on the natural and acquired macrolide resistance in mycobacteria, gives an overview of potential mechanisms implicated in the intrinsic resistance and brings recent data concerning a macrolide resistance determinant in the MTC. PMID:12570741

  16. Acquired prosopagnosia: structural basis and processing impairments.

    PubMed

    Davies-Thompson, Jodie; Pancaroglu, Raika; Barton, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models propose a hierarchy of parallel processing stages in face perception, and functional neuroimaging shows a network of regions involved in face processing. Reflecting this, acquired prosopagnosia is not a single entity but a family of disorders with different anatomic lesions and different functional deficits. One classic distinction is between an apperceptive variant, in which there is impaired perception of facial structure, and an associative/amnestic variant, in which perception is relatively intact, with subsequent problems matching perception to facial memories, because of either disconnection or loss of those memories. These disorders also have to be distinguished from people-specific amnesia, a multimodal impairment, and prosop-anomia, in which familiarity with faces is preserved but access to names is disrupted. These different disorders can be conceived as specific deficits at different processing stages in cognitive models, and suggests that these functional stages may have distinct neuroanatomic substrates. It remains to be seen whether a similar anatomic and functional variability is present in developmental prosopagnosia. PMID:24389150

  17. Acquired Hemophilia A Successfully Treated with Rituximab

    PubMed Central

    D’Arena, Giovanni; Grandone, Elvira; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Musto, Pellegrino; Di Minno, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare bleeding disorder due to the development of specific autoantibodies against factor VIII. The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody Rituximab has been proven to be effective in obtaining a long-term suppression of inhibitors of AHA, besides other immunosuppressive standard treatments. Here we describe a case of idiopathic AHA in a 60-year old man successfully treated with rituximab. He showed a complete clinical response with a normalization of clotting parameters after 5 weekly courses of rituximab given at a dose of 375 mg/sqm., but after stopping rituximab, an initial worsening of coagulation parameters induced the addition of 3 further courses. At present, the patient is in complete clinical and hematological remission after 200 days. This case confirms that Rituximab may be a safe and useful tool to treat AHA and, a prolonged administration can overcome the initial resistance. However, the precise position of this drug in the therapeutic strategy (first or second-line, alone or in combination with other drugs) remains to be established and warrants further investigation. PMID:25745551

  18. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    PubMed

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities. PMID:24387877

  19. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, G S; Stahl, R E; el-Sadr, W; Cassai, N D; Forrester, E M; Zolla-Pazner, S

    1985-04-01

    Blood and a variety of tissues from 97 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and 25 with the AIDS prodrome were studied ultrastructurally. Tubuloreticular structures (TRS) were found in 85 per cent of the patients with AIDS and in 92 per cent of those with the prodrome. Test tube and ring-shaped forms (TRF), found in 41 per cent of the patients with AIDS and in 8 per cent of those with the prodrome, increased with disease progression. Among the patients with AIDS, as the number of sites examined per case increased, the incidence of TRS and TRF tended to approach 100 per cent, suggesting that they are present in all patients with AIDS. Other changes seen frequently were immunologic capping of blood lymphocytes, intramitochondrial iron in blood reticulocytes and marrow normoblasts, megakaryocytic immaturity and platelet phagocytosis, collections of membranous rings in hepatocytic cytoplasm, suggestive of non-A, non-B hepatitis, and proliferations and engorgement of hepatic Ito cells with lipid. The data suggest that TRS and TRF can be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers. PMID:3872253

  20. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Vance D.; Kagnoff, Martin F.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to abnormalities in systemic immune function, patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the pre-AIDS syndromes have significant abnormalities in the distribution of T-cell subsets in the intestinal tract. Such immune deficits predispose such patients to opportunistic infections and tumors, many of which involve the gastrointestinal tract. For example, Candida albicans often causes stomatitis and esophagitis. Intestinal infections with parasites (Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Microsporidia) or bacteria (Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare) are associated with severe diarrhea and malabsorption, whereas viruses like cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus cause mucosal ulcerations. Clinically debilitating chronic diarrhea develops in many AIDS patients for which no clear cause can be identified. Enteric pathogens like Salmonella and Campylobacter can be associated with bacteremias. Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma involving the intestinal tract are now well-recognized complications of AIDS. Although AIDS is not associated with a pathognomonic liver lesion, opportunistic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma or lymphoma may involve the liver. ImagesFigure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:3825111

  1. Urgent operation for acquired ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C S; Alford, W C; Burrus, G R; Glassford, D M; Stoney, W S

    1982-01-01

    Recent experience suggests that ventricular septal defect (VSD) secondary to myocardial infarction constitutes an indication for urgent operation. Acquired VSD at St. Thomas Hospital, Nashville, was reviewed to substantiate the obsolescence of protracted medical therapy designed to allow a late, technically less demanding, repair. Twenty-two acute VSDs (less than four weeks following onset of murmur) have been treated since 1970. Five patients died during medical therapy. Two patients survived for more than four weeks without operation. One never manifested significant cardiac decompensation. The other was operated on at 33 days, after progressive deterioration. No technical advantage from the delay was apparent, although survival was achieved. Ten of 15 patients (67%) operated on during the first four weeks survived. Fourteen had reached a level of marked instability prior to operation. Of the five deaths, four were technical and were the product of an initial lack of recognition of the necessity for patch replacement of the interventricular septum. The prosthetic patch is now considered essential to minimize suture-line stress in necrotic muscle. Potentially, only one of 15 patients operated on early using current methods would have expired. This experience supports an aggressive surgical approach to any unstable patient with postinfarction VSD. Early repair requires specific techniques. Results of early operation using these techniques are dramatically superior to past efforts designed to delay definitive repair. PMID:7082062

  2. A Procedure for Estimating Intrasubject Behavior Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hernandez, Jose M.; Rubio, Victor J.; Revuelta, Javier; Santacreu, Jose

    2006-01-01

    Trait psychology implicitly assumes consistency of the personal traits. Mischel, however, argued against the idea of a general consistency of human beings. The present article aims to design a statistical procedure based on an adaptation of the pi* statistic to measure the degree of intraindividual consistency independently of the measure used.…

  3. 15 CFR 930.57 - Consistency certifications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED COASTAL MANAGEMENT PROGRAMS Consistency for Activities Requiring... consistent with the management program. At the same time, the applicant shall furnish to the State agency...

  4. Cortical correlates of acquired deafness to dissonance.

    PubMed

    Brattico, Elvira; Tervaniemi, Mari; Valimaki, Vesa; Van Zuijen, Titia; Peretz, Isabelle

    2003-11-01

    Patient I.R., who had bilateral lesions in the auditory cortex but intact hearing, did not distinguish dissonant from consonant musical excerpts in behavioral testing. We additionally found that the electrical brain responses did not differentiate musical intervals in terms of their dissonance/consonance, consistent with the idea that this phenomenon depends on the integrity of cortical functions. PMID:14681131

  5. Acquired port wine stain of the upper eyelid after cluster headache.

    PubMed

    Vagefi, M Reza; Florell, Scott R; Lin, Chun Cheng; McCann, John D; Anderson, Richard L

    2008-01-01

    A 69-year-old white man with a medical history of left-sided cluster headaches presented for evaluation of dermatochalasis. The left upper eyelid demonstrated red-pink, blanchable macules that coalesced in a patch. The lesion appeared after an episode of a cluster headache. Upper eyelid blepharoplasty permitted en bloc removal of most of the lesion. Histopathologic evaluation demonstrated aggregates of telangiectatic blood vessels in the papillary dermis consistent with the diagnosis of an acquired port wine stain. The authors report, to their knowledge, the first description of an acquired port wine stain associated with cluster headaches. PMID:19033853

  6. Acquiring neural signals for developing a perception and cognition model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Li, Yunyi; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Lynch, Robert

    2012-06-01

    The understanding of how humans process information, determine salience, and combine seemingly unrelated information is essential to automated processing of large amounts of information that is partially relevant, or of unknown relevance. Recent neurological science research in human perception, and in information science regarding contextbased modeling, provides us with a theoretical basis for using a bottom-up approach for automating the management of large amounts of information in ways directly useful for human operators. However, integration of human intelligence into a game theoretic framework for dynamic and adaptive decision support needs a perception and cognition model. For the purpose of cognitive modeling, we present a brain-computer-interface (BCI) based humanoid robot system to acquire brainwaves during human mental activities of imagining a humanoid robot-walking behavior. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model. The BCI system consists of a data acquisition unit with an electroencephalograph (EEG), a humanoid robot, and a charge couple CCD camera. An EEG electrode cup acquires brainwaves from the skin surface on scalp. The humanoid robot has 20 degrees of freedom (DOFs); 12 DOFs located on hips, knees, and ankles for humanoid robot walking, 6 DOFs on shoulders and arms for arms motion, and 2 DOFs for head yaw and pitch motion. The CCD camera takes video clips of the human subject's hand postures to identify mental activities that are correlated to the robot-walking behaviors. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model.

  7. Light Motives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filler, Martin

    1979-01-01

    The new energy consciousness has led to a thorough reevaluation of how artificial lighting can be used wisely, while other researchers have explored the potential of daylighting as an alternative interior light source. (Author/MLF)

  8. Stray Light Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Based on a Small Business Innovation Research contract from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, TracePro is state-of-the-art interactive software created by Lambda Research Corporation to detect stray light in optical systems. An image can be ruined by incidental light in an optical system. To maintain image excellence from an optical system, stray light must be detected and eliminated. TracePro accounts for absorption, specular reflection and refraction, scattering and aperture diffraction of light. Output from the software consists of spatial irradiance plots and angular radiance plots. Results can be viewed as contour maps or as ray histories in tabular form. TracePro is adept at modeling solids such as lenses, baffles, light pipes, integrating spheres, non-imaging concentrators, and complete illumination systems. The firm's customer base includes Lockheed Martin, Samsung Electronics and other manufacturing, optical, aerospace, and educational companies worldwide.

  9. The light ion trough.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A distinct feature of the ion composition results from the OGO-2, 4 and 6 satellites is the light ion trough, wherein the mid-latitude concentrations of H+ and He+ decrease sharply with latitude. In contrast to the 'main trough' in electron density observed primarily as a nightside phenomenon, the light ion trough persists during both day and night. For daytime winter hemisphere conditions and for all seasons during night, the mid-latitude light ion concentration decrease is a pronounced feature. In the dayside summer and equinox hemispheres, the rate of light ion decrease with latitude is comparatively gradual, and the trough boundary is less well defined, particularly for quiet magnetic conditions. In response to magnetic storms, the light ion trough minimum moves equatorward, and deepens, consistent with earlier evidence of the contraction of the plasmasphere in response to storm time enhancements in magnetospheric plasma convection.

  10. Light Reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Ultra Sales, Inc.'s fluorescent lighting fixture gets a boost in reflectivity through installation of Lightdriver, a thin tough thermoplastic film plated with aluminum, capable of reflecting 95 percent of visible light striking it. Lightdriver increases brightness without adding bulbs, and allows energy savings by removing some bulbs because the mirrorlike surface cuts light loss generally occasioned by conventional low reflectivity white painted surface above the bulbs in many fluorescent fixtures. Forty-five percent reduction in lighting electricity is attainable.

  11. Impact of lactobacilli on orally acquired listeriosis

    PubMed Central

    Archambaud, Cristel; Nahori, Marie-Anne; Soubigou, Guillaume; Bécavin, Christophe; Laval, Laure; Lechat, Pierre; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Cossart, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that crosses the intestinal barrier and disseminates within the host. Here, we report a unique comprehensive analysis of the impact of two Lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-3689 and Lactobacillus casei BL23, on L. monocytogenes and orally acquired listeriosis in a gnotobiotic humanized mouse model. We first assessed the effect of treatment with each Lactobacillus on L. monocytogenes counts in host tissues and showed that each decreases L. monocytogenes systemic dissemination in orally inoculated mice. A whole genome intestinal transcriptomic analysis revealed that each Lactobacillus changes expression of a specific subset of genes during infection, with IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) being the most affected by both lactobacilli. We also examined microRNA (miR) expression and showed that three miRs (miR-192, miR-200b, and miR-215) are repressed during L. monocytogenes infection. Treatment with each Lactobacillus increased miR-192 expression, whereas only L. casei association increased miR-200b and miR-215 expression. Finally, we showed that treatment with each Lactobacillus significantly reshaped the L. monocytogenes transcriptome and up-regulated transcription of L. monocytogenes genes encoding enzymes allowing utilization of intestinal carbon and nitrogen sources in particular genes involved in propanediol and ethanolamine catabolism and cobalamin biosynthesis. Altogether, these data reveal that the modulation of L. monocytogenes infection by treatment with lactobacilli correlates with a decrease in host gene expression, in particular ISGs, miR regulation, and a dramatic reshaping of L. monocytogenes transcriptome. PMID:23012479

  12. Seeing the eyes in acquired prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Pancaroglu, Raika; Hills, Charlotte S; Sekunova, Alla; Viswanathan, Jayalakshmi; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-08-01

    Case reports have suggested that perception of the eye region may be impaired more than that of other facial regions in acquired prosopagnosia. However, it is unclear how frequently this occurs, whether such impairments are specific to a certain anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, and whether these impairments are related to changes in the scanning of faces. We studied a large cohort of 11 subjects with this rare disorder, who had a variety of occipitotemporal or anterior temporal lesions, both unilateral and bilateral. Lesions were characterized by functional and structural imaging. Subjects performed a perceptual discrimination test in which they had to discriminate changes in feature position, shape, or external contour. Test conditions were manipulated to stress focused or divided attention across the whole face. In a second experiment we recorded eye movements while subjects performed a face memory task. We found that greater impairment for eye processing was more typical of subjects with occipitotemporal lesions than those with anterior temporal lesions. This eye selectivity was evident for both eye position and shape, with no evidence of an upper/lower difference for external contour. A greater impairment for eye processing was more apparent under attentionally more demanding conditions. Despite these perceptual deficits, most subjects showed a normal tendency to scan the eyes more than the mouth. We conclude that occipitotemporal lesions are associated with a partially selective processing loss for eye information and that this deficit may be linked to loss of the right fusiform face area, which has been shown to have activity patterns that emphasize the eye region. PMID:27288649

  13. How to acquire customers on the Web.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, D L; Novak, T P

    2000-01-01

    Most retailers on the Web spend more to acquire customers than they will ever get back in revenue from them. Many think that sky-high spending on marketing is necessary to stake out their share of Internet space. But is it really? How do retailers know how much to pay? Consider CDnow, which has developed a multifaceted customer-acquisition strategy that reflects a clear understanding of the economics of an on-line business. At the heart of its strategy is affiliate marketing, a concept the company pioneered. Under its BuyWeb program, anyone can put a link to CDnow on his or her Web site, and if a customer uses that link to arrive at CDnow and make a purchase, the referring site owner gets a percentage of the sale. CDnow pays no money if no sale is made, which makes the marketing program completely efficient. But CDnow didn't stop there. Being a Web store, it had complete data on the number of visitors to its site and what they bought, which it used to work out the lifetime value of an average customer. CDnow used that figure to determine how much to wager on the expensive and risky world of traditional advertising to reach a wider audience that wasn't already on-line. CDnow's experience, still a work in progress, contradicts John Wanamaker's oft-quoted lament: "I know half the money I spend on advertising is wasted, but I can never find out which half." As the CDnow example demonstrates, there is a way to find out which half really works. PMID:11183979

  14. Impact of lactobacilli on orally acquired listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Archambaud, Cristel; Nahori, Marie-Anne; Soubigou, Guillaume; Bécavin, Christophe; Laval, Laure; Lechat, Pierre; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Cossart, Pascale

    2012-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that crosses the intestinal barrier and disseminates within the host. Here, we report a unique comprehensive analysis of the impact of two Lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-3689 and Lactobacillus casei BL23, on L. monocytogenes and orally acquired listeriosis in a gnotobiotic humanized mouse model. We first assessed the effect of treatment with each Lactobacillus on L. monocytogenes counts in host tissues and showed that each decreases L. monocytogenes systemic dissemination in orally inoculated mice. A whole genome intestinal transcriptomic analysis revealed that each Lactobacillus changes expression of a specific subset of genes during infection, with IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) being the most affected by both lactobacilli. We also examined microRNA (miR) expression and showed that three miRs (miR-192, miR-200b, and miR-215) are repressed during L. monocytogenes infection. Treatment with each Lactobacillus increased miR-192 expression, whereas only L. casei association increased miR-200b and miR-215 expression. Finally, we showed that treatment with each Lactobacillus significantly reshaped the L. monocytogenes transcriptome and up-regulated transcription of L. monocytogenes genes encoding enzymes allowing utilization of intestinal carbon and nitrogen sources in particular genes involved in propanediol and ethanolamine catabolism and cobalamin biosynthesis. Altogether, these data reveal that the modulation of L. monocytogenes infection by treatment with lactobacilli correlates with a decrease in host gene expression, in particular ISGs, miR regulation, and a dramatic reshaping of L. monocytogenes transcriptome. PMID:23012479

  15. Lighting Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with lighting utilization. Its objective is for the student to be able to outline the development of lighting use and conservation and identify major types and operating characteristics of lamps used in electric lighting. Some topics…

  16. Development of ultraviolet- and visible-light one-shot spectral domain optical coherence tomography and in situ measurements of human skin.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Heijiro; Nakamura, Sohichiro

    2015-07-01

    We have developed ultraviolet (UV)- and visible-light one-shot spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) that enables in situ imaging of human skin with an arbitrary wavelength in the UV-visible-light region (370-800 nm). We alleviated the computational burden for each color OCT image by physically dispersing the irradiating light with a color filter. The system consists of SD-OCT with multicylindrical lenses; thus, mechanical scanning of the mirror or stage is unnecessary to obtain an OCT image. Therefore, only a few dozens of milliseconds are necessary to obtain single-image data. We acquired OCT images of one subject's skin in vivo and of a skin excision ex vivo for red (R, 650 ± 20 nm), green (G, 550 ± 20 nm), blue (B, 450 ± 20 nm), and UV (397 ± 5 nm) light. In the visible-light spectrum, R light penetrated the skin and was reflected at a lower depth than G or B light. On the skin excision, we demonstrated that UV light reached the dermal layer. We anticipated that basic knowledge about the spectral properties of human skin in the depth direction could be acquired with this system. PMID:26222961

  17. Development of ultraviolet- and visible-light one-shot spectral domain optical coherence tomography and in situ measurements of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Heijiro; Nakamura, Sohichiro

    2015-07-01

    We have developed ultraviolet (UV)- and visible-light one-shot spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) that enables in situ imaging of human skin with an arbitrary wavelength in the UV-visible-light region (370-800 nm). We alleviated the computational burden for each color OCT image by physically dispersing the irradiating light with a color filter. The system consists of SD-OCT with multicylindrical lenses; thus, mechanical scanning of the mirror or stage is unnecessary to obtain an OCT image. Therefore, only a few dozens of milliseconds are necessary to obtain single-image data. We acquired OCT images of one subject's skin in vivo and of a skin excision ex vivo for red (R, 650±20 nm), green (G, 550±20 nm), blue (B, 450±20 nm), and UV (397±5 nm) light. In the visible-light spectrum, R light penetrated the skin and was reflected at a lower depth than G or B light. On the skin excision, we demonstrated that UV light reached the dermal layer. We anticipated that basic knowledge about the spectral properties of human skin in the depth direction could be acquired with this system.

  18. Male acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Salenave, Sylvie; Trabado, Sévérine; Maione, Luigi; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Young, Jacques

    2012-04-01

    Acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (AHH), contrary to congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is characterized by postnatal onset of disorders that damage or alter the function of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and/or pituitary gonadotroph cells. AHH thus prevents the establishment of gonadotropin secretion at puberty, or its post-pubertal maintenance. Thus, postnatal AHH may prevent the onset of puberty or appear during pubertal development, but it usually emerges after the normal age of puberty. Although pituitary tumors, particularly prolactinoma, are the most common cause, sellar tumors or cyst of the hypothalamus or infundibulum, infiltrative, vascular, iron overload and other disorders may also cause AHH. Pituitary surgery and head trauma or cranial/pituitary radiation therapy are also usual causes of AHH. The clinical manifestations of AHH depend on age of onset, the degree of gonadotropin deficiency, the rapidity of its onset and the association to other pituitary function deficiencies or excess. Men with AHH have less stamina, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction and strength, and a worsened sense of well being leading to degraded quality of life. The physical examination is usually normal if hypogonadism is of recent onset. Diminished facial, body hair and muscle mass, fine facial wrinkles, gynecomastia, and hypotrophic testes are observed in long-standing and complete AHH. Spermatogenesis is impaired and the volume of ejaculate is decreased only when gonadotropins and testosterone levels are very low. Men with AHH may have normal or low serum LH and FSH concentrations, but normal gonadotropin values are inappropriate when associated with low serum testosterone. In the majority of AHH patients, serum inhibin B is "normal". The decrease of this sertolian hormone indicates a long-standing and severe gonadotropin deficiency. Symptoms, usually associated with significant testosterone deficiency in men with AHH, improve with

  19. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  20. 40 CFR 55.12 - Consistency updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consistency updates. 55.12 Section 55.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.12 Consistency updates. (a) The Administrator will...

  1. 40 CFR 55.12 - Consistency updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Consistency updates. 55.12 Section 55.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.12 Consistency updates. (a) The Administrator will update this part as necessary to maintain...

  2. 15 CFR 930.96 - Consistency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Consistency review. 930.96 Section 930... and Local Governments § 930.96 Consistency review. (a)(1) If the State agency does not object to the proposed activity, the Federal agency may grant the federal assistance to the applicant...

  3. 15 CFR 930.96 - Consistency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Consistency review. 930.96 Section 930... and Local Governments § 930.96 Consistency review. (a)(1) If the State agency does not object to the proposed activity, the Federal agency may grant the federal assistance to the applicant...

  4. 15 CFR 930.96 - Consistency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Consistency review. 930.96 Section 930... and Local Governments § 930.96 Consistency review. (a)(1) If the State agency does not object to the proposed activity, the Federal agency may grant the federal assistance to the applicant...

  5. 15 CFR 930.96 - Consistency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Consistency review. 930.96 Section 930... and Local Governments § 930.96 Consistency review. (a)(1) If the State agency does not object to the proposed activity, the Federal agency may grant the federal assistance to the applicant...

  6. 15 CFR 930.96 - Consistency review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Consistency review. 930.96 Section 930.96 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OCEAN AND COASTAL RESOURCE MANAGEMENT FEDERAL CONSISTENCY WITH APPROVED...

  7. Consistency and Enhancement Processes in Understanding Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stets, Jan E.; Asencio, Emily K.

    2008-01-01

    Many theories in the sociology of emotions assume that emotions emerge from the cognitive consistency principle. Congruence among cognitions produces good feelings whereas incongruence produces bad feelings. A work situation is simulated in which managers give feedback to workers that is consistent or inconsistent with what the workers expect to…

  8. Stochastic inverse consistency in medical image registration.

    PubMed

    Yeung, Sai Kit; Shi, Pengcheng

    2005-01-01

    An essential goal in medical image registration is, the forward and reverse mapping matrices should be inverse to each other, i.e., inverse consistency. Conventional approaches enforce consistency in deterministic fashions, through incorporation of sub-objective cost function to impose source-destination symmetric property during the registration process. Assuming that the initial forward and reverse matching matrices have been computed and used as the inputs to our system, this paper presents a stochastic framework which yields perfect inverse consistency with the simultaneous considerations of the errors underneath the registration matrices and the imperfectness of the consistent constraint. An iterative generalized total least square (GTLS) strategy has been developed such that the inverse consistency is optimally imposed. PMID:16685959

  9. Managing consistency in collaborative design environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Chunyan; Yang, Zhonghua; Goh, Angela; Sun, Chengzheng; Sattar, Abdul

    1999-08-01

    In today's global economy, there is a significant paradigm shift to collaborative engineering design environments. One of key issues in the collaborative setting is the consistency model, which governs how to coordinate the activities of collaborators to ensure that they do not make inconsistent changes or updates to the shared objects. In this paper, we present a new consistency model which requires that all update operations will be executed in the casual order (causality) and all participants have the same view on the operations on the shared objects (view synchrony). A simple multicast-based protocol to implement the consistency model is presented. By employing vector time and token mechanisms, the protocol brings the shared objects from one consistent state to another, thus providing collaborators with a consistent view of the shared objects. A CORBA-based on-going prototyping implementation is outlined. Some of the related work are also discussed.

  10. Acquired pulmonary arteriovenous malformation secondary to hydatid cyst operation.

    PubMed

    Gezer, S; Turut, H; Oz, G; Demirag, F; Tastepe, I

    2007-10-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are abnormal communications between pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins. The majority of the cases are congenital in origin, and acquired pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are very rare. We present a case here, which - to the best of our knowledge - is the first acquired pulmonary arteriovenous malformation secondary to a hydatid cyst operation in the literature, and we discuss the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic modalities and treatment of acquired pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. PMID:17902072

  11. The small light multi-function integrated remote sensing system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Weiwei; Lin, Zhaorong; Yao, Yigang

    2015-08-01

    With the development of network information, the era of big data is coming, and this has high demand to the information quantity and the diversity of the remote sensing images. Currently the available remote sensing system focuses on the convenience and the celerity of the acquiring images, and lacking the remote sensing system which can acquire the image with the diversity and large amount of information. In this paper, a new small light multifunction integrated remote sensing and the remote sensing information network system of multi-sensor are proposed to meet the new developing requirements of the current network information. The small light multi-function integrated remote sensing system consists of a load platform, the integrated sensor system, the airborne control system, the stabilized platform, the transmission system and the ground processing system. The components, function and the principle of the system are introduced, and the key technologies of the integrated remote sensing system are analyzed, in the last the applications of the system are described in order to make a contribution to the industrialization of the big data remote sensing.

  12. Acquired scaling relations in dark matter turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamichi, Akika; Morikawa, Masahiro

    2010-01-01

    Variety of scaling relations are observed in astronomical objects. We study a consistent understanding of them from a simple proposal that the collision-less dark matter fluid terns into a turbulent state, i.e. cosmic dark turbulence. This happens most likely when the density fluctuations cross the caustic surface toward the non-linear regime. Collision-less dark turbulence may not be eddy-dominant. We first derive Kolmogorov scaling laws from the gravitational Navier-Stokes equation by the method similar to the case in Smoluchowski coagulation equation. Then we apply this to several observations such as the scale-dependent velocity dispersion, mass-luminosity ratio, magnetic fields, and mass-angular momentum relation, power spectrum of density fluctuations. They all conclude a single value for a constant energy flow per mass: 0.3cm2/sec3. This value may deeply related with the speed of the hierarchical coalescence process in the cosmic structure formation.

  13. Consistencies and Inconsistencies in Nurses' Ethical Reasoning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawrence, Jeanette A.; Helm, Ann

    1987-01-01

    Examines inconsistencies in individual nurses' decisions about ethical situations and their justifications in the light of changes due to contemporary feminism and professionalization of the nursing role. Suggests empirical identification of ambiguities identified by practitioners be added as a component of professional education. (Author/DH)

  14. [Surgical Therapy of Acquired Unilateral Diaphragmatic Paralysis: Indication and Results].

    PubMed

    Wiesemann, S; Haager, B; Passlick, B

    2016-09-01

    Unilateral elevation of the diaphragm may be due to various causes and requires further elucidation when the aetiology is unknown. Elevation of the diaphragm is often caused by diaphragmatic paralysis, either due to damage to the phrenic nerve or to the phrenic muscle. Patients typically complain of increased respiratory distress when lying down, bending or swimming. Basic diagnostic testing consists of a chest X-ray, as well as spirometry and computer tomography of the neck and chest. In many cases, no cause can be identified for the diaphragmatic paralysis. In symptomatic patients, diaphragm plication leads to fixation and thus to a reduction in the paradoxal respiratory movement of the paralysed diaphragm. In a large majority of studies, this results in significant and lasting improvement in vital capacity and respiratory distress. Spontaneous recovery of diaphragm paralysis is possible, even after several months, so a waiting period of at least 6 months should elapse before diaphragmatic plication is performed, if the clinical situation allows. The procedure can be performed minimally invasively, with low morbidity and mortality. When cutting the phrenic nerve, a nerve suture is recommended, if possible, or otherwise diaphragm plication during the procedure, especially in the case of pneumonectomy. This review provides an overview of the causes, pathophysiology, symptoms, diagnosis, therapy and results of diaphragmatic plication in acquired, unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis in adults, and suggests an algorithm for diagnostic testing and therapy. PMID:27607888

  15. [Diagnosis and treatment of hemophilia A acquired during postpartum ].

    PubMed

    Castillo-Cañadas, Ana María; Serrano-Diana, Carolina; López-Del Cerro, Esther; Gómez-García, María Teresa; González De Merlo, Gaspar

    2014-10-01

    Acquired hemophilia A is a truly exceptional hemorrhagic diathesis, that consists of the emergence of polyclonal autoantibodies (inhibitor) IgG-type (subclasses 1 and 4, in most cases) against the coagulant function of the circulating factor VIII, which acts in the domains C2, A2 and A3 of the molecule, thus interfering their interaction with the factor IXa, the phospholipids and the Von Willebrand factor. Its morbidity and mortality are high, but nevertheless its low incidence (1-1.5 cases per million population per year) is the most frequent autoimmune disorder. This paper reports the clinical case of two patients; the first one, 36 years old, who the tenth day of postpartum required re-entry due to a diagnosis of hematoma of the abdominal wall that was surgically drained twice. The patient of case 2 was 39 years old and at six days of postpartum went to the emergency room due to bleeding, she was underwent to curettage and therapeutic transfusion of 3 UCH. Because of the persistence of bleeding, which was not possible to control with medical treatment and conservative measures, therapeutic hysterectomy was performed, with blood transfusion later. Due to the hemorrhagic complications of this condition and the serious clinical consequences derived from them, it is important to establish an early diagnosis; it is therefore critical to know the existence of this very rare disease to be able to avoid its consequences. PMID:25510060

  16. Atypical pathogens and challenges in community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Thibodeau, Kristopher P; Viera, Anthony J

    2004-04-01

    Atypical organisms such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella pneumophila are implicated in up to 40 percent of cases of community-acquired pneumonia. Antibiotic treatment is empiric and includes coverage for both typical and atypical organisms. Doxycycline, a fluoroquinolone with enhanced activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae, or a macrolide is appropriate for outpatient treatment of immunocompetent adult patients. Hospitalized adults should be treated with cefotaxime or ceftriaxone plus a macrolide, or with a fluoroquinolone alone. The same agents can be used in adult patients in intensive care units, although fluoroquinolone monotherapy is not recommended; ampicillin-sulbactam or piperacillin-tazobactam can be used instead of cefotaxime or ceftriaxone. Outpatient treatment of children two months to five years of age consists of high-dose amoxicillin given for seven to 10 days. A single dose of ceftriaxone can be used in infants when the first dose of antibiotic is likely to be delayed or not absorbed. Older children can be treated with a macrolide. Hospitalized children should be treated with a macrolide plus a beta-lactam inhibitor. In a bioterrorist attack, pulmonary illness may result from the organisms that cause anthrax, plague, or tularemia. Sudden acute respiratory syndrome begins with a flu-like illness, followed two to seven days later by cough, dyspnea and, in some instances, acute respiratory distress. PMID:15086042

  17. Diagnosis and management of common acquired bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    De Simone, Nicole; Sarode, Ravi

    2013-03-01

    Acquired bleeding disorders (ABD) are commonly encountered in both inpatient and outpatient settings. ABD can occur due to consumption, decreased synthesis, or inhibition of coagulation factors and platelets. Clinical presentation may vary, ranging from mild bruising to life-threatening hemorrhage. The location, frequency, severity, and provocation of bleeding provide insight into the cause of ABD. Obtaining a good medical, surgical, family, social, and medication history is a crucial step in determining the underlying etiology. Basic laboratory parameters, such as prothrombin time, partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen, platelet count, and D-dimer levels, aid in further elucidating the reason for bleeding. Optimal management depends on accurate interpretation of the history and laboratory values. Treatment options include administration of vitamin K; blood component transfusion, consisting of plasma, cryoprecipitate, and/or platelets; and blood derivatives, including single and multiple factor concentrates. These products should be used judiciously, due to potential infectious and noninfectious complications, including transfusion-related acute lung injury and transfusion-associated circulatory overload. This article discusses the management of the more common causes of ABD. PMID:23390026

  18. Light water reactor program

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  19. Acquired Cell-Mediated Immunodepression in Acute Chagas' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Teixeira, Glória; Macêdo, Vanize; Prata, Aluizio

    1978-01-01

    In this study two groups of patients with acute Chagas' disease were identified. Group one consisted of five patients with apparent acute Chagas' disease. These patients showed symptoms and signals of an acute illness, such as high fever and enlarged spleen. One of these patients developed severe myocarditis and heart failure. Group two consisted of seven patients with inapparent acute Chagas' disease. This was a nonclinical entity, not perceived by the patient who did not seek medical care. The diagnosis was made by the shift of a serologic test which indicates the presence of immunoglobulin M antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi. The patients with apparent acute Chagas' disease showed positive delayed-type skin response to T. cruzi antigen. Also, their leukocytes showed significant inhibition of migration in the presence of this antigen. By contrast, the patients with the inapparent acute Chagas' disease did not show positive delayed-type skin response to T. cruzi antigen and no significant inhibition was observed when their cells migrated in the presence of this antigen. Of interest, none of these patients was capable of developing contact sensitivity to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. However, three out of five patients with the apparent acute disease and all the normal control subjects showed positive contact reaction after sensitization to this drug. The results of these experiments would suggest that the thymus-derived (T)-lymphocyte function is depressed in patients with the clinically inapparent acute Chagas' disease. This immunodepression seems to be acquired in the course of the T. cruzi infection because all patients showed positive delayed-type skin response to at least one ubiquitous microbial extract, thus indicating previously normal T-cell function. We hypothesize that T. cruzi antigens may directly stimulate T cells with the concomitant release of factors that might become supressive for T-cell responses. Furthermore, the suppressive effect might interfere

  20. Light Controller

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    Artificial lighting is designed to provide the light intensity necessary if there were no other source of illumination. But many rooms, particularly those in large-windowed office buildings, get a substantial amount of sunlight during the day. An automatic system which considers available sunlight and adjusts the artificial lighting level accordingly can trim energy costs appreciably. Such a system was developed by NASA's Kennedy Space Center. International Technology Corporation, Satellite Beach, Florida, obtained a NASA patent license for the technology, refined the design, and is now producing commercially an improved version known as the Automatic Lighting Controller.

  1. Dynamic Linear Model Analysis of Optical Imaging Data Acquired from the Human Neocortex

    PubMed Central

    Lavine, Michael; Haglund, Michael M.; Hochman, Daryl W.

    2011-01-01

    The amount of light absorbed and scattered by neocortical tissue is altered by neuronal activity. Imaging of intrinsic optical signals (ImIOS), a technique for mapping these activity-evoked optical changes with an imaging detector, has the potential to be useful for both clinical and experimental investigations of the human neocortex. However, its usefulness for human studies is currently limited because intraoperatively acquired ImIOS data is noisy. To improve the reliability and usefulness of ImIOS for human studies, it is desirable to find appropriate methods for the removal of noise artifacts and its statistical analysis. Here we develop a Bayesian, dynamic linear modeling approach that appears to address these problems. A dynamic linear model (DLM) was constructed that included cyclic components to model the heartbeat and respiration artifacts, and a local linear component to model the activity-evoked response. The robustness of the model was tested on a set of ImIOS data acquired from the exposed cortices of six human subjects illuminated with either 535 nm or 660 nm light. The DLM adequately reduced noise artifacts in these data while reliably preserving their activity-evoked optical responses. To demonstrate how these methods might be used for intraoperative neurosurgical mapping, optical data acquired from a single human subject during direct electrical stimulation of the cortex were quantitatively analyzed. This example showed that the DLM can be used to provide quantitative information about human ImIOS data that is not available through qualitative analysis alone. PMID:21640137

  2. On the initial state and consistency relations

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu

    2014-09-01

    We study the effect of the initial state on the consistency conditions for adiabatic perturbations. In order to be consistent with the constraints of General Relativity, the initial state must be diffeomorphism invariant. As a result, we show that initial wavefunctional/density matrix has to satisfy a Slavnov-Taylor identity similar to that of the action. We then investigate the precise ways in which modified initial states can lead to violations of the consistency relations. We find two independent sources of violations: i) the state can include initial non-Gaussianities; ii) even if the initial state is Gaussian, such as a Bogoliubov state, the modified 2-point function can modify the q-vector → 0 analyticity properties of the vertex functional and result in violations of the consistency relations.

  3. Ensuring the Consistency of Silicide Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramani, V.; Lampson, F. K.

    1982-01-01

    Diagram specifies optimum fusing time for given thicknesses of refractory metal-silicide coatings on columbium C-103 substrates. Adherence to indicated fusion times ensures consistent coatings and avoids underdiffusion and overdiffusion. Accuracy of diagram has been confirmed by tests.

  4. Consistent stabilizability of switched Boolean networks.

    PubMed

    Li, Haitao; Wang, Yuzhen

    2013-10-01

    This paper investigates the consistent stabilizability of switched Boolean networks (SBNs) by using the semi-tensor product method, and presents a number of new results. First, an algebraic expression of SBNs is obtained by the semi-tensor product, based on which the consistent stabilizability is then studied for SBNs and some necessary and sufficient conditions are presented for the design of free-form and state-feedback switching signals, respectively. Finally, the consistent stabilizability of SBNs with state constraints is considered and some necessary and sufficient conditions are proposed. The study of illustrative examples shows that the new results obtained in this paper are very effective in designing switching signals for the consistent stabilizability of SBNs. PMID:23787170

  5. Spectrum zooming in network topology based on a white light fiber optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Song; Ferhati, Mokhtar; Yuan, Li-Bo

    2015-07-01

    A bus line network based on white light fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer is introduced by consideration of multiplexing capacity and coupler tailoring. The network topology which consists of N rungs sensing elements linked by N-1 couplers has been contrasted with three cases. The optimization formula has been used to couple more sensors, and Zoom-FFT has been used to analyze spectrum. After using these two methods, the multiplexing capability of the structure is enhanced evidently and a unambiguous spectrum is acquired.

  6. Consistency relations for non-Gaussianity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miao; Wang, Yi

    2008-09-01

    We investigate consistency relations for non-Gaussianity. We provide a model-independent dynamical proof for the consistency relation for three-point correlation functions from the Hamiltonian and field redefinition. This relation can be applied to single-field inflation, multi-field inflation and the curvaton scenario. This relation can also be generalized to n-point correlation functions up to arbitrary order in perturbation theory and with arbitrary number of loops.

  7. An image-guided tool to prevent hospital acquired infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Melinda; Szilágyi, László; Lehotsky, Ákos; Haidegger, Tamás; Benyó, Balázs

    2011-03-01

    Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI) represent the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, and claims hundreds of thousands of lives annually in the rest of the world. This paper presents a novel low-cost mobile device|called Stery-Hand|that helps to avoid HAI by improving hand hygiene control through providing an objective evaluation of the quality of hand washing. The use of the system is intuitive: having performed hand washing with a soap mixed with UV re ective powder, the skin appears brighter in UV illumination on the disinfected surfaces. Washed hands are inserted into the Stery-Hand box, where a digital image is taken under UV lighting. Automated image processing algorithms are employed in three steps to evaluate the quality of hand washing. First, the contour of the hand is extracted in order to distinguish the hand from the background. Next, a semi-supervised clustering algorithm classies the pixels of the hand into three groups, corresponding to clean, partially clean and dirty areas. The clustering algorithm is derived from the histogram-based quick fuzzy c-means approach, using a priori information extracted from reference images, evaluated by experts. Finally, the identied areas are adjusted to suppress shading eects, and quantied in order to give a verdict on hand disinfection quality. The proposed methodology was validated through tests using hundreds of images recorded in our laboratory. The proposed system was found robust and accurate, producing correct estimation for over 98% of the test cases. Stery-Hand may be employed in general practice, and it may also serve educational purposes.

  8. Remotely-Operated Traffic Control Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reedy, J. S.

    1984-01-01

    Traffic warning light for school crossing, construction zones, and other hazardous areas activated by remote control. Apparatus consists of small radio transmitter, pole-mounted strobe light with attached power supply and radio receiver.

  9. [Xenon light therapy].

    PubMed

    Kanai, Akifumi

    2012-07-01

    The xenon light, generated by high-intensity electrical stimulation of xenon gas, is used to sterilize wounds, aid tissue repair, and relieve pain as a low-level light therapy. The light produced consists of non-coherent beams of multiple wavelengths in the ultraviolet to infrared spectrum. This broad-band light can be emitted in a continuous wave or pulsed mode, with the wave band chosen and the energy distribution controlled for the purpose. Specifically, wavelengths in the 500-700 nm range are suitable for treating superficial tissue, and wavelengths between 800 and 1,000 nm are suitable for deeper-seated tissues, due to longer optical penetration distances through tissue. One of the most common benefits in the xenon light therapy is considered to be the wide and deep irradiation of optimal rays to living tissue. Research into the use of xenon light for tissue repair and pain reduction is restricted within open-label studies and case reports. The present review expounded the effects of xenon light therapy on the basis of the available evidence in vitro and in vivo studies using a laser beam of single wavelength. PMID:22860297

  10. Library Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metcalf, Keyes D.

    Chapter I provides a background and explains pertinent library lighting problems such as quality, function, aesthetics, intensity, and costs. Emphasis is on the quality and function of lighting for library users. Chapter II deals with the comments and answers to questions by persons who have a special interest and competence in the field of…

  11. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority to acquire real estate..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate; General § 211.2 Authority to acquire real estate. (a) Congressional...

  12. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authority to acquire real estate..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate; General § 211.2 Authority to acquire real estate. (a) Congressional...

  13. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority to acquire real estate..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate; General § 211.2 Authority to acquire real estate. (a) Congressional...

  14. 10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acquiring oil by direct purchase. 626.6 Section 626.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.6 Acquiring oil by direct purchase. (a) General. For the direct purchase of crude oil, DOE shall, through...

  15. 27 CFR 6.45 - Assistance in acquiring license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assistance in acquiring license. 6.45 Section 6.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Furnishing Things of Value § 6.45 Assistance in acquiring license....

  16. 27 CFR 6.45 - Assistance in acquiring license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assistance in acquiring license. 6.45 Section 6.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Furnishing Things of Value § 6.45 Assistance in acquiring license....

  17. 27 CFR 6.45 - Assistance in acquiring license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assistance in acquiring license. 6.45 Section 6.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Furnishing Things of Value § 6.45 Assistance in acquiring license....

  18. Free Reading: A Powerful Tool for Acquiring a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priya, J.; Ponniah, R. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The paper claims that free reading is a crucial ingredient in acquiring a second or foreign language. It contributes to the development of all measures of language competence which include grammar, vocabulary, spelling, syntax, fluency and style. The review supports the claim that readers acquire language subconsciously when they receive…

  19. 34 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.4 Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should be assigned to...

  20. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Articles acquired abroad. 148.33 Section 148.33... Articles acquired abroad. (a) Exemption. Each returning resident is entitled to bring in free of duty and..., Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202), articles for his personal or household...

  1. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Articles acquired abroad. 148.33 Section 148.33... Articles acquired abroad. (a) Exemption. Each returning resident is entitled to bring in free of duty and..., Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202), articles for his personal or household...

  2. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Articles acquired abroad. 148.33 Section 148.33... Articles acquired abroad. (a) Exemption. Each returning resident is entitled to bring in free of duty and..., Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202), articles for his personal or household...

  3. 26 CFR 1.9002-6 - Acquiring corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acquiring corporation. 1.9002-6 Section 1.9002-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-6 Acquiring corporation. Section 5(d) of...

  4. 26 CFR 1.9002-6 - Acquiring corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acquiring corporation. 1.9002-6 Section 1.9002-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-6 Acquiring corporation. Section...

  5. 26 CFR 1.9002-6 - Acquiring corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acquiring corporation. 1.9002-6 Section 1.9002-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-6 Acquiring corporation. Section...

  6. 26 CFR 1.9002-6 - Acquiring corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acquiring corporation. 1.9002-6 Section 1.9002-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-6 Acquiring corporation. Section...

  7. 26 CFR 1.9002-6 - Acquiring corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acquiring corporation. 1.9002-6 Section 1.9002-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-6 Acquiring corporation. Section...

  8. 45 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.4 Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should...

  9. 34 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.4 Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should be assigned to...

  10. Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

  11. 43 CFR 3471.4 - Future interest, acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Future interest, acquired lands. 3471.4... Coal Management Provisions and Limitations § 3471.4 Future interest, acquired lands. An application to lease lands in which the United States has a future interest filed more than 2 years prior to the...

  12. 43 CFR 3471.4 - Future interest, acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Future interest, acquired lands. 3471.4... Coal Management Provisions and Limitations § 3471.4 Future interest, acquired lands. An application to lease lands in which the United States has a future interest filed more than 2 years prior to the...

  13. 43 CFR 3471.4 - Future interest, acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Future interest, acquired lands. 3471.4... Coal Management Provisions and Limitations § 3471.4 Future interest, acquired lands. An application to lease lands in which the United States has a future interest filed more than 2 years prior to the...

  14. 43 CFR 3471.4 - Future interest, acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Future interest, acquired lands. 3471.4... Coal Management Provisions and Limitations § 3471.4 Future interest, acquired lands. An application to lease lands in which the United States has a future interest filed more than 2 years prior to the...

  15. 45 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.4 Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should be assigned to the Government, it...

  16. 45 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.4 Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should be assigned to the Government, it...

  17. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... States the cigarette limit is 1,000, not more than 200 of which shall have been acquired elsewhere than... beneficiary countries. (e) Exemption not applicable. The exemption does not apply to articles intended for sale or acquired on commission, i.e., for the account of another person, with or without...

  18. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... States the cigarette limit is 1,000, not more than 200 of which shall have been acquired elsewhere than... beneficiary countries. (e) Exemption not applicable. The exemption does not apply to articles intended for sale or acquired on commission, i.e., for the account of another person, with or without...

  19. 33 CFR 211.27 - Method of acquiring Federal jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Method of acquiring Federal jurisdiction. 211.27 Section 211.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... PROJECTS Federal Jurisdiction over Real Estate § 211.27 Method of acquiring Federal...

  20. 26 CFR 1.471-9 - Inventories of acquiring corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of acquiring corporations. 1.471-9 Section 1.471-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-9 Inventories of acquiring corporations....

  1. 26 CFR 1.472-7 - Inventories of acquiring corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of acquiring corporations. 1.472-7 Section 1.472-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.472-7 Inventories of acquiring corporations....

  2. Consistency-based rectification of nonrigid registrations

    PubMed Central

    Gass, Tobias; Székely, Gábor; Goksel, Orcun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We present a technique to rectify nonrigid registrations by improving their group-wise consistency, which is a widely used unsupervised measure to assess pair-wise registration quality. While pair-wise registration methods cannot guarantee any group-wise consistency, group-wise approaches typically enforce perfect consistency by registering all images to a common reference. However, errors in individual registrations to the reference then propagate, distorting the mean and accumulating in the pair-wise registrations inferred via the reference. Furthermore, the assumption that perfect correspondences exist is not always true, e.g., for interpatient registration. The proposed consistency-based registration rectification (CBRR) method addresses these issues by minimizing the group-wise inconsistency of all pair-wise registrations using a regularized least-squares algorithm. The regularization controls the adherence to the original registration, which is additionally weighted by the local postregistration similarity. This allows CBRR to adaptively improve consistency while locally preserving accurate pair-wise registrations. We show that the resulting registrations are not only more consistent, but also have lower average transformation error when compared to known transformations in simulated data. On clinical data, we show improvements of up to 50% target registration error in breathing motion estimation from four-dimensional MRI and improvements in atlas-based segmentation quality of up to 65% in terms of mean surface distance in three-dimensional (3-D) CT. Such improvement was observed consistently using different registration algorithms, dimensionality (two-dimensional/3-D), and modalities (MRI/CT). PMID:26158083

  3. Temporal consistent depth map upscaling for 3DTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Sebastian; Sjöström, Mârten; Olsson, Roger

    2014-03-01

    The ongoing success of three-dimensional (3D) cinema fuels increasing efforts to spread the commercial success of 3D to new markets. The possibilities of a convincing 3D experience at home, such as three-dimensional television (3DTV), has generated a great deal of interest within the research and standardization community. A central issue for 3DTV is the creation and representation of 3D content. Acquiring scene depth information is a fundamental task in computer vision, yet complex and error-prone. Dedicated range sensors, such as the Time­ of-Flight camera (ToF), can simplify the scene depth capture process and overcome shortcomings of traditional solutions, such as active or passive stereo analysis. Admittedly, currently available ToF sensors deliver only a limited spatial resolution. However, sophisticated depth upscaling approaches use texture information to match depth and video resolution. At Electronic Imaging 2012 we proposed an upscaling routine based on error energy minimization, weighted with edge information from an accompanying video source. In this article we develop our algorithm further. By adding temporal consistency constraints to the upscaling process, we reduce disturbing depth jumps and flickering artifacts in the final 3DTV content. Temporal consistency in depth maps enhances the 3D experience, leading to a wider acceptance of 3D media content. More content in better quality can boost the commercial success of 3DTV.

  4. Atmospheric movies acquired at the Mars Science Laboratory landing site: Cloud morphology, frequency and significance to the Gale Crater water cycle and Phoenix mission results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, John E.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Francis, Raymond; Pla-Garcia, Jorge; de la Torre Juárez, Manuel; Bean, Keri; Kass, David; Haberle, Robert; Newman, Claire; Mischna, Michael; Vasavada, Ashwin; Rennó, Nilton; Bell, Jim; Calef, Fred; Cantor, Bruce; Mcconnochie, Timothy H.; Harri, Ari-Matti; Genzer, Maria; Wong, Michael; Smith, Michael D.; Javier Martín-Torres, F.; Zorzano, María-Paz; Kemppinen, Osku; McCullough, Emily

    2015-05-01

    We report on the first 360 sols (LS 150° to 5°), representing just over half a Martian year, of atmospheric monitoring movies acquired using the NavCam imager from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover Curiosity. Such movies reveal faint clouds that are difficult to discern in single images. The data set acquired was divided into two different classifications depending upon the orientation and intent of the observation. Up to sol 360, 73 Zenith movies and 79 Supra-Horizon movies have been acquired and time-variable features could be discerned in 25 of each. The data set from MSL is compared to similar observations made by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) onboard the Phoenix Lander and suggests a much drier environment at Gale Crater (4.6°S) during this season than was observed in Green Valley (68.2°N) as would be expected based on latitude and the global water cycle. The optical depth of the variable component of clouds seen in images with features are up to 0.047 ± 0.009 with a granularity to the features observed which averages 3.8°. MCS also observes clouds during the same period of comparable optical depth at 30 and 50 km that would suggest a cloud spacing of 2.0 to 3.3 km. Multiple motions visible in atmospheric movies support the presence of two distinct layers of clouds. At Gale Crater, these clouds are likely caused by atmospheric waves given the regular spacing of features observed in many Zenith movies and decreased spacing towards the horizon in sunset movies consistent with clouds forming at a constant elevation. Reanalysis of Phoenix data in the light of the NavCam equatorial dataset suggests that clouds may have been more frequent in the earlier portion of the Phoenix mission than was previously thought.

  5. Integrating perspectives on vocal performance and consistency

    PubMed Central

    Sakata, Jon T.; Vehrencamp, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Recent experiments in divergent fields of birdsong have revealed that vocal performance is important for reproductive success and under active control by distinct neural circuits. Vocal consistency, the degree to which the spectral properties (e.g. dominant or fundamental frequency) of song elements are produced consistently from rendition to rendition, has been highlighted as a biologically important aspect of vocal performance. Here, we synthesize functional, developmental and mechanistic (neurophysiological) perspectives to generate an integrated understanding of this facet of vocal performance. Behavioral studies in the field and laboratory have found that vocal consistency is affected by social context, season and development, and, moreover, positively correlated with reproductive success. Mechanistic investigations have revealed a contribution of forebrain and basal ganglia circuits and sex steroid hormones to the control of vocal consistency. Across behavioral, developmental and mechanistic studies, a convergent theme regarding the importance of vocal practice in juvenile and adult songbirds emerges, providing a basis for linking these levels of analysis. By understanding vocal consistency at these levels, we gain an appreciation for the various dimensions of song control and plasticity and argue that genes regulating the function of basal ganglia circuits and sex steroid hormones could be sculpted by sexual selection. PMID:22189763

  6. Study of Ice Sheet Basal Processes With Visible Light Images Acquired from a Borehole Probe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carsey, F. D.; Behar, A.; Engelhardt, H.; Craven, M.; Vogel, S.; Christoffersen, P.

    2004-12-01

    We have developed and deployed the JPL Ice Borehole Camera system into boreholes in two sites in Antarctica (and are deploying it in a third at the time of this meeting), and we have analyzed the image data to improve our understanding of processes at the bed of ice streams and the at basal surface of ice shelves. Though quite simple, the image data sets permitted interpretation of basal freeze-on associated with "binge and purge" processes of the Kamb Ice Stream as well as ice accretion processes, marine ice character and the marine ice-meteoric ice interface of the Amery Ice Shelf. In many ways the hot-water drilled hole is an excellent photographic environment for study of ice sheet phenomena; we are now examining means of augmenting simple digital imagery with additional optical, noninvasive interrogation strategies in order to obtain data on included particle properties, clathrate content, biological materials and phenomena, and on-going dynamic processes.

  7. Personalized recommendation based on unbiased consistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Zheng; Zhou, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Recently, in physical dynamics, mass-diffusion-based recommendation algorithms on bipartite network provide an efficient solution by automatically pushing possible relevant items to users according to their past preferences. However, traditional mass-diffusion-based algorithms just focus on unidirectional mass diffusion from objects having been collected to those which should be recommended, resulting in a biased causal similarity estimation and not-so-good performance. In this letter, we argue that in many cases, a user's interests are stable, and thus bidirectional mass diffusion abilities, no matter originated from objects having been collected or from those which should be recommended, should be consistently powerful, showing unbiased consistence. We further propose a consistence-based mass diffusion algorithm via bidirectional diffusion against biased causality, outperforming the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in disparate real data sets, including Netflix, MovieLens, Amazon and Rate Your Music.

  8. Consistency and derangements in brane tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanany, Amihay; Jejjala, Vishnu; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2016-09-01

    Brane tilings describe Lagrangians (vector multiplets, chiral multiplets, and the superpotential) of four-dimensional { N }=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. These theories, written in terms of a bipartite graph on a torus, correspond to worldvolume theories on N D3-branes probing a toric Calabi–Yau threefold singularity. A pair of permutations compactly encapsulates the data necessary to specify a brane tiling. We show that geometric consistency for brane tilings, which ensures that the corresponding quantum field theories are well behaved, imposes constraints on the pair of permutations, restricting certain products constructed from the pair to have no one-cycles. Permutations without one-cycles are known as derangements. We illustrate this formulation of consistency with known brane tilings. Counting formulas for consistent brane tilings with an arbitrary number of chiral bifundamental fields are written down in terms of delta functions over symmetric groups.

  9. Quantifying the Consistency of Scientific Databases

    PubMed Central

    Šubelj, Lovro; Bajec, Marko; Mileva Boshkoska, Biljana; Kastrin, Andrej; Levnajić, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Science is a social process with far-reaching impact on our modern society. In recent years, for the first time we are able to scientifically study the science itself. This is enabled by massive amounts of data on scientific publications that is increasingly becoming available. The data is contained in several databases such as Web of Science or PubMed, maintained by various public and private entities. Unfortunately, these databases are not always consistent, which considerably hinders this study. Relying on the powerful framework of complex networks, we conduct a systematic analysis of the consistency among six major scientific databases. We found that identifying a single "best" database is far from easy. Nevertheless, our results indicate appreciable differences in mutual consistency of different databases, which we interpret as recipes for future bibliometric studies. PMID:25984946

  10. Consistent integration of geo-information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, T. M.; Cordua, K. S.

    2014-12-01

    Probabilistically formulated inverse problems can be seen as an application of data integration. Two types of information are (almost) always available: 1) geophysical data, and 2) information about geology and geologically plausible structures. The inverse problem consists of integrating the information available from geophysical data and geological information. In recent years inversion algorithms have emerged that allow integration of such different information. However such methods only provides useful results if the geological and geophysical information provided are consistent. Using weakly informed prior models and/or sparse uncertain geophysical data typically no problems with consistency arise. However, as data coverage and quality increase and still more complex and detailed prior information can be quantified (using e.g multiple point based statistics) then the risk of problems with consistency increases. Inconsistency between two independent sources of information about the same subsurface model, means that either one or both sources of information must be wrong.We will demonstrate that using cross hole GPR tomographic data, that such consistency problems exist, and that they can dramatically affect inversion results. The problem is two folded: 1) One will typically underestimate the error associated with geophysical data, and 2) Multiple-point based prior models often provide such detailed a priori information that it will not be possible to find a priori acceptable models that lead to a data fit within measurement uncertainties. We demonstrate that if inversion is forced on inconsistent information, then the solution to the inverse problem may be earth models that neither fit the data within their uncertainty, nor represent realistic geologically features. In the worst case such models will show artefacts that appear well resolved, and that can have severe effect on subsequent flow modeling. We will demonstrate how such inconsistencies can be

  11. EDITORIAL: Slow light Slow light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Robert; Hess, Ortwin; Denz, Cornelia; Paspalakis, Emmanuel

    2010-10-01

    Research into slow light began theoretically in 1880 with the paper [1] of H A Lorentz, who is best known for his work on relativity and the speed of light. Experimental work started some 60 years later with the work of S L McCall and E L Hahn [2] who explored non-linear self-induced transparency in ruby. This field of research has burgeoned in the last 10 years, starting with the work of L Vestergaard Hau and coworkers on slow light via electromagnetically induced transparency in a Bose-Einstein condensate [3]. Many groups are now able to slow light down to a few metres per second or even stop the motion of light entirely [4]. Today, slow light - or more often `slow and fast light' - has become its own vibrant field with a strongly increasing number of publications. In broad scope, slow light research can be categorized in terms of the sort of physical mechanism used to slow down the light. One sort of slow light makes use of material dispersion. This dispersion can be the natural dispersion of the ordinary refractive index or can be the frequency dependence of some nonlinear optical process, such as electromagnetically induced transparency, coherent population oscillations, stimulated light scattering, or four-wave mixing processes. The second sort of slow light makes use of the wavelength dependence of artificially structured materials, such as photonic crystals, optical waveguides, and collections of microresonators. Material systems in which slow light has been observed include metal vapours, rare-earth-doped materials, Raman and Brillioun gain media, photonic crystals, microresonators and, more recently, metamaterials. A common feature of all of these schemes is the presence of a sharp single resonance or multiple resonances produced by an atomic transition, a resonance in a photonic structure, or in a nonlinear optical process. Current applications of slow light include a series of attractive topics in optical information processing, such as optical data

  12. Anticholinergic substances: A single consistent conformation

    PubMed Central

    Pauling, Peter; Datta, Narayandas

    1980-01-01

    An interactive computer-graphics analysis of 24 antagonists of acetylcholine at peripheral autonomic post-ganglionic (muscarinic) nervous junctions and at similar junctions in the central nervous system, the crystal structures of which are known, has led to the determination of a single, consistent, energetically favorable conformation for all 24 substances, although their observed crystal structure conformations vary widely. The absolute configuration and the single, consistent (ideal) conformation of the chemical groups required for maximum anticholinergic activity are described quantitatively. Images PMID:16592775

  13. Consistent Data Distribution Over Optical Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Fiber optics combined with IDE's provide consistent data communication between fault-tolerant computers. Data-transmission-checking system designed to provide consistent and reliable data communications for fault-tolerant and highly reliable computers. New technique performs variant of algorithm for fault-tolerant computers and uses fiber optics and independent decision elements (IDE's) to require fewer processors and fewer transmissions of messages. Enables fault-tolerant computers operating at different levels of redundancy to communicate with each other over triply redundant bus. Level of redundancy limited only by maximum number of wavelengths active on bus.

  14. Accuracy and consistency of modern elastomeric pumps.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Robyn S; Missair, Andres; Pham, Phung; Gutierrez, Juan F; Gebhard, Ralf E

    2014-01-01

    Continuous peripheral nerve blockade has become a popular method of achieving postoperative analgesia for many surgical procedures. The safety and reliability of infusion pumps are dependent on their flow rate accuracy and consistency. Knowledge of pump rate profiles can help physicians determine which infusion pump is best suited for their clinical applications and specific patient population. Several studies have investigated the accuracy of portable infusion pumps. Using methodology similar to that used by Ilfeld et al, we investigated the accuracy and consistency of several current elastomeric pumps. PMID:25140510

  15. Dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, Joanna; Tchoń, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    By analogy to the definition of the dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for robotic manipulators, we have designed a dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators built of a non-holonomic mobile platform and a holonomic on-board manipulator. The endogenous configuration space approach has been exploited as a source of conceptual guidelines. The new inverse guarantees a decoupling of the motion in the operational space from the forces exerted in the endogenous configuration space and annihilated by the dual Jacobian inverse. A performance study of the new Jacobian inverse as a tool for motion planning is presented.

  16. Dualising consistent IIA/IIB truncations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, Emanuel; Samtleben, Henning

    2015-12-01

    We use exceptional field theory to establish a duality between certain consistent 7-dimensional truncations with maximal SUSY from IIA to IIB. We use this technique to obtain new consistent truncations of IIB on S 3 and H p,q and work out the explicit reduction formulas in the internal sector. We also present uplifts for other gaugings of 7-d maximal SUGRA, including theories with a trombone gauging. Some of the latter can only be obtained by a non-geometric compactification.

  17. Color influence on accuracy of 3D scanners based on structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisin, Sophie; Page, David L.; Foufou, Sebti; Truchetet, Frédéric; Abidi, Mongi A.

    2006-02-01

    The characterization of commercial 3D scanners allows acquiring precise and useful data. The accuracy of range and, more recently, color for 3D scanners is usually studied separately, but when the 3D scanner is based on structured light with a color coding pattern, color influence on range accuracy should be investigated. The commercial product that we have tested has the particularity that it can acquire data under ambient light instead of a controlled environment as it is with most available scanners. Therefore, based on related work in the literature and on experiments we have done on a variety of standard illuminants, we have designed an interesting setup to control illuminant interference. Basically, the setup consists of acquiring the well-known Macbeth ColorChecker under a controlled environment and also ambient daylight. The results have shown variations with respect to the color. We have performed several statistical studies to show how the range results evolve with respect to the RGB and the HSV channels. In addition, a systematic noise error has also been identified. This noise depends on the object color. A subset of colors shows strong noise errors while other colors have minimal or even no systematic error under the same illuminant.

  18. Consistency relation for the Lorentz invariant single-field inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Qing-Guo

    2010-05-01

    In this paper we compute the sizes of equilateral and orthogonal shape bispectrum for the general Lorentz invariant single-field inflation. The stability of field theory implies a non-negative square of sound speed which leads to a consistency relation between the sizes of orthogonal and equilateral shape bispectrum, namely f{sub NL}{sup orth.} ≤ −0.054f{sub NL}{sup equil.}. In particular, for the single-field Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) inflation, the consistency relation becomes f{sub NL}{sup orth.} = 0.070f{sub NL}{sup equil.} ≤ 0. These consistency relations are also valid in the mixed scenario where the quantum fluctuations of some other light scalar fields contribute to a part of total curvature perturbation on the super-horizon scale and may generate a local form bispectrum. A distinguishing prediction of the mixed scenario is τ{sub NL}{sup loc.} > ((6/5)f{sub NL}{sup loc.}){sup 2}. Comparing these consistency relations to WMAP 7yr data, there is still a big room for the Lorentz invariant inflation, but DBI inflation has been disfavored at more than 68% CL.

  19. Consistent anomalies of the induced W gravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abud, Mario; Ader, Jean-Pierre; Cappiello, Luigi

    1996-02-01

    The BRST anomaly which may be present in the induced Wn gravity quantized on the light-cone is evaluated in the geometrical framework of Zucchini. The cocycles linked by the cohomology of the BRST operator to the anomaly are straightforwardly calculated thanks to the analogy between this formulation and the Yang-Mills theory. We give also a conformally covariant formulation of these quantities including the anomaly, which is valid on arbitrary Riemann surfaces. The example of the W3 theory is discussed and a comparison with other candidates for the anomaly available in the literature is presented.

  20. Self-Consistent Magnetosphere-Ionosphere Coupling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Six, N. Frank (Technical Monitor); Khazanov, G. V.; Newman, T. S.; Liemohn, M. W.; Fok, M. C.; Spiro, R. W.

    2002-01-01

    A self-consistent ring current (RC) model has been developed that couples electron and ion magnetospheric dynamics with the calculation of the electric field. Two new features were taken into account in order to close the self-consistent magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling loop. First, in addition to the RC ions, we have solved an electron kinetic equation in our model. Second, using the relation of Galand and Richmond, we have calculated the height integrated ionospheric conductances as a function of the precipitated high energy magnetospheric electrons and ions that are produced by our model. To validate the results of our model we simulate the magnetic storm of May 2, 1986, a storm that has been comprehensively studied by Fok et al., and have compared our results with different theoretical approaches. The self-consistent inclusion of the hot electrons and their effect on the conductance results in deeper penetration of the magnetospheric electric field. In addition, a slight westward rotation of the potential pattern (compared to previous self-consistent results) is evident in the inner magnetosphere. These effects change the hot plasma distribution, especially by allowing increased access of plasma sheet ions and electrons to low L shells.

  1. Developing consistent time series landsat data products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Landsat series satellite has provided earth observation data record continuously since early 1970s. There are increasing demands on having a consistent time series of Landsat data products. In this presentation, I will summarize the work supported by the USGS Landsat Science Team project from 20...

  2. 36 CFR 241.22 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest, Alaska... conservation of fish, wildlife, and their habitat. A use or activity may be determined to be consistent if it will not materially interfere with or detract from the conservation of fish, wildlife and their...

  3. 36 CFR 241.22 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest, Alaska... conservation of fish, wildlife, and their habitat. A use or activity may be determined to be consistent if it will not materially interfere with or detract from the conservation of fish, wildlife and their...

  4. 36 CFR 241.22 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest, Alaska... conservation of fish, wildlife, and their habitat. A use or activity may be determined to be consistent if it will not materially interfere with or detract from the conservation of fish, wildlife and their...

  5. Effecting Consistency across Curriculum: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devasagayam, P. Raj; Mahaffey, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous quality improvement is the clarion call across all business schools which is driving the emphasis on assessing the attainment of learning outcomes. An issue that deems special attention in assurance of learning outcomes is related to consistency across courses and, more specifically, across multiple sections of the same course taught by…

  6. Grading for Speed, Consistency, and Accuracy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kryder, LeeAnne G.

    2003-01-01

    Explains the rubrics the author has developed to assure some degree of consistency in grading among instructors and teaching assistants in various sections of the same writing course. Finds these rubrics particularly useful for evaluating individual student performance in group projects. (SG)

  7. 24 CFR 91.510 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consistency determinations. 91.510 Section 91.510 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... HOPWA grant is a city that is the most populous unit of general local government in an EMSA, it...

  8. Energy confinement and profile consistency in TFTR

    SciTech Connect

    Goldston, R.J.; Arunasalan, V.; Bell, M.G.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.R.; Bretz, N.L.; Budny, R.; bush, C.E.; Callen, J.D.; Cohen, S.A.

    1987-04-01

    A new regime of enhanced energy confinement has been observed on TFTR with neutral beam injection at low plasma current. It is characterized by extremely peaked electron density profiles and broad electron temperature profiles. The electron temperature profile shapes violate the concept of profile consistency in which T/sub e/(O)//sub v/ is assumed to be a tightly constrained function of q/sub a/, but they are in good agreement with a form of profile consistency based on examining the temperature profile shape outside the plasma core. The enhanced confinement regime is only obtained with a highly degassed limiter; in discharges with gas-filled limiters convective losses are calculated to dominate the edge electron power balance. Consistent with the constraint of profile consistency, global confinement is degraded in these cases. The best heating results in the enhanced confinement regime are obtained with nearly balanced co- and counter-injection. Much of the difference between balanced and co-only injection can be explained on the basis of classically predicted effects associated with plasma rotation.

  9. Consistency criteria for generalized Cuddeford systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotti, Luca; Morganti, Lucia

    2010-01-01

    General criteria to check the positivity of the distribution function (phase-space consistency) of stellar systems of assigned density and anisotropy profile are useful starting points in Jeans-based modelling. Here, we substantially extend previous results, and present the inversion formula and the analytical necessary and sufficient conditions for phase-space consistency of the family of multicomponent Cuddeford spherical systems: the distribution function of each density component of these systems is defined as the sum of an arbitrary number of Cuddeford distribution functions with arbitrary values of the anisotropy radius, but identical angular momentum exponent. The radial trend of anisotropy that can be realized by these models is therefore very general. As a surprising byproduct of our study, we found that the `central cusp-anisotropy theorem' (a necessary condition for consistency relating the values of the central density slope and of the anisotropy parameter) holds not only at the centre but also at all radii in consistent multicomponent generalized Cuddeford systems. This last result suggests that the so-called mass-anisotropy degeneracy could be less severe than what is sometimes feared.

  10. Consistency of Toddler Engagement across Two Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiar, Cecilia; McWilliam, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study documented the consistency of child engagement across two settings, toddler child care classrooms and mother-child dyadic play. One hundred twelve children, aged 14-36 months (M = 25.17, SD = 6.06), randomly selected from 30 toddler child care classrooms from the district of Porto, Portugal, participated. Levels of engagement were…

  11. Consistency of Students' Pace in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkovitz, Arnon; Nachmias, Rafi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the consistency of students' behavior regarding their pace of actions over sessions within an online course. Pace in a session is defined as the number of logged actions divided by session length (in minutes). Log files of 6,112 students were collected, and datasets were constructed for examining pace…

  12. Environmental Decision Support with Consistent Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most effective ways to pursue environmental progress is through the use of consistent metrics within a decision making framework. The US Environmental Protection Agency’s Sustainable Technology Division has developed TRACI, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of...

  13. Consistent Visual Analyses of Intrasubject Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahng, SungWoo; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Gutshall, Katharine; Pitts, Steven C.; Kao, Joyce; Girolami, Kelli

    2010-01-01

    Visual inspection of single-case data is the primary method of interpretation of the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable in applied behavior analysis. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend the results of DeProspero and Cohen (1979) by reexamining the consistency of visual analysis across raters. We…

  14. Nanoparticles heat through light localization.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Nathaniel J; Urban, Alexander S; Ayala-Orozco, Ciceron; Pimpinelli, Alberto; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2014-08-13

    Aqueous solutions containing light-absorbing nanoparticles have recently been shown to produce steam at high efficiencies upon solar illumination, even when the temperature of the bulk fluid volume remains far below its boiling point. Here we show that this phenomenon is due to a collective effect mediated by multiple light scattering from the dispersed nanoparticles. Randomly positioned nanoparticles that both scatter and absorb light are able to concentrate light energy into mesoscale volumes near the illuminated surface of the liquid. The resulting light absorption creates intense localized heating and efficient vaporization of the surrounding liquid. Light trapping-induced localized heating provides the mechanism for low-temperature light-induced steam generation and is consistent with classical heat transfer. PMID:24960442

  15. Rethinking responsibility in offenders with acquired paedophilia: punishment or treatment?

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Frédéric; Focquaert, Farah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the current neurobiological literature on the aetiology of developmental and acquired paedophilia and examines what the consequences could be in terms of responsibility and treatment for the latter. Addressing the question of responsibility and punishment of offenders with acquired paedophilia from a neurobiological perspective is controversial. Consequently it is essential to avoid hasty conclusions based strictly on neurobiological abnormality justifications. This study establishes a distinction between developmental and acquired paedophilia. The article investigates whether offenders who fulfil the diagnosis of acquired paedophilia should be held fully responsible, particularly in cases where the offender's conduct appears to result from volitionally controlled behaviour that is seemingly incompatible with a neurological cause. Moreover, the article explores how responsibility can be compromised when offenders with acquired paedophilia have (partially) preserved moral knowledge despite their sexual disorder. The article then examines the option of offering mandatory treatment as an alternative to imprisonment for offenders with acquired paedophilia. Furthermore, the article addresses the ethical issues related to offering any form of quasi-coercive treatment as a condition of release. This study concludes that decisions to fully or partially excuse an individual who fulfil the diagnosis of acquired paedophilia should take all relevant information into account, both neurobiological and other environmental evidence, and should proceed on a careful case by case analysis before sentencing or offering treatment. PMID:25725545

  16. Incidence, Outcomes, and Risk Factors of Community-Acquired and Hospital-Acquired Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chien-Ning; Lee, Chien-Te; Su, Chien-Hao; Wang, Yu-Ching Lily; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Chuang, Jiin-Haur; Tain, You-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The disease burden and outcomes of community-acquired (CA-) and hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (HA-AKI) are not well understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence, outcomes, and risk factors of AKI in a large Taiwanese adult cohort. This retrospective cohort study examined 734,340 hospital admissions from a group of hospitals within an organization in Taiwan between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014. Patients with AKI at discharge were classified as either CA- or HA-AKI based on the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss of function, end stage of kidney disease) classification criteria. Outcomes were in-hospital mortality, dialysis, recovery of renal function, and length of stay. Risks of developing AKI were determined using multivariate logistic regression based on demographic and baseline clinical characteristics and nephrotoxin use before admission. AKI occurred in 1.68% to 2% hospital discharges among adults without and with preexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD), respectively. The incidence of CA-AKI was 17.25 and HA-AKI was 8.14 per 1000 admissions. The annual rate of CA-AKI increased from 12.43 to 19.96 per 1000 people, but the change in HA-AKI was insignificant. Comparing to CA-AKI, those with HA-AKI had higher levels of in-hospital mortality (26.07% vs 51.58%), mean length of stay (21.25 ± 22.35 vs 35.84 ± 34.62 days), and dialysis during hospitalization (1.45% vs 2.06%). Preexisting systemic diseases, including CKD were associated with increased risks of CA-AKI, and nephrotoxic polypharmacy increased risk of both CA- and HA-AKI. Patients with HA-AKI had more severe outcomes than patients with CA-AKI, and demonstrated different spectrum of risk factors. Although patients with CA-AKI with better outcomes, the incidence increased over time. It is also clear that optimal preventive and management strategies of HA- and CA-AKI are urgently needed to limit the risks in susceptible individuals. PMID:27175701

  17. Light Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutshall, Sandy

    2002-01-01

    Describes a career and technical education program on photonics, the study, research, and development of equipment and concepts used in the transmission of information through light, including fiber optics and experimental laser technologies. (JOW)

  18. Combination Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Rayovac TANDEM is an advanced technology combination work light and general purpose flashlight that incorporates several NASA technologies. The TANDEM functions as two lights in one. It features a long range spotlight and wide angle floodlight; simple one-hand electrical switching changes the beam from spot to flood. TANDEM developers made particular use of NASA's extensive research in ergonomics in the TANDEM's angled handle, convenient shape and different orientations. The shatterproof, water resistant plastic casing also draws on NASA technology, as does the shape and beam distance of the square diffused flood. TANDEM's heavy duty magnet that permits the light to be affixed to any metal object borrows from NASA research on rare earth magnets that combine strong magnetic capability with low cost. Developers used a NASA-developed ultrasonic welding technique in the light's interior.

  19. Investigations of the pathogenesis of acquired pendular nystagmus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averbuch-Heller, L.; Zivotofsky, A. Z.; Das, V. E.; DiScenna, A. O.; Leigh, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the pathogenesis of acquired pendular nystagmus (APN) in six patients, three of whom had multiple sclerosis. First, we tested the hypothesis that the oscillations of APN are due to a delay in visual feedback secondary, for example, to demyelination of the optic nerves. We manipulated the latency to onset of visually guided eye movements using an electronic technique that induces sinusoidal oscillations in normal subjects. This manipulation did not change the characteristics of the APN, but did superimpose lower-frequency oscillations similar to those induced in normal subjects. These results are consistent with current models for smooth (non-saccadic) eye movements, which predict that prolongation of visual feedback could not account for the high-frequency oscillations that often characterize APN. Secondly, we attempted to determine whether an increase in the gain of the visually-enhanced vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), produced by viewing a near target, was accompanied by a commensurate increase in the amplitude of APN. Increases in horizontal or vertical VOR gain during near viewing occurred in four patients, but only two of them showed a parallel increase in APN amplitude. On the other hand, APN amplitude decreased during viewing of the near target in the two patients who showed no change in VOR gain. Taken together, these data suggest that neither delayed visual feedback nor a disorder of central vestibular mechanisms is primarily responsible for APN. More likely, these ocular oscillations are produced by abnormalities of internal feedback circuits, such as the reciprocal connections between brainstem nuclei and cerebellum.

  20. Immunoadsorption for pregnancy-associated severe acquired hemophilia.

    PubMed

    Zeitler, Heike; Ulrich-Merzenich, Gudrun; Marquardt, Natascha; Oldenburg, Johannes; Goldmann, Georg

    2014-02-01

    Postpartum hemorrhage is a common cause of maternal mortality. Acquired hemophilia (AH) is a rare, life-threatening bleeding disorder induced by autoantibodies against coagulation factors (inhibitors). We report about eight patients with postpartum AH (out of 82). Seven AH patients with severe bleeding complications were treated by the "Modified Bonn-Malmö Protocol (MBMP)" which consists of inhibitor elimination via immunoadsorption (IA) in combination with immunosuppression and high-dose Factor VIII substitution. One patient was treated only by immunosuppression. Seven out of eight patients with severe AH and mean inhibitor titers (IT) of 118 BU/mL were referred to our center. They were severe cases with a median delay of diagnosis of 30.5 days (range 7-278 days). After a median of 3 IA sessions (range 3-5 days), no inhibitor was detectable. The factor substitution was discontinued after a median of 13 IA sessions (range 8-24 days) and IA was terminated after a median of 15 sessions (range 9-27 days). One less severe affected patient (IT: 2.1 BU/mL) received prednisolone (1.5 mg/kg BW) for 120 days. Complete remission was achieved in all patients with a median follow-up of 100 months (range 56-126 m). The delayed diagnosis of pregnancy-associated AH leads to a high bleeding risk with bleeding associated complications. Immunoadsorption offers an important treatment option in severe AH, enabling a fast reconstitution of the blood coagulation with a reduced time for the Factor VIII substitution and for immunosuppressive treatment. In cases of postpartum bleeding the diagnosis of AH should be routinely considered. PMID:24499091

  1. Clinical predictors of functioning in persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilson, I B; Cleary, P D

    1996-06-01

    To help clinicians better assess and treat functional disabilities in persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the authors estimate empirical relations among biologic and physiologic variables, symptoms, and physical functioning in persons with AIDS. The sample of 305 persons with AIDS for this cross-sectional analysis came from three sites in Boston, Massachusetts: a hospital-based group practice, a human immunodeficiency virus clinic at a city hospital, and a staff-model health maintenance organization. Physical functioning, 10 AIDS-specific symptoms, and mental health were assessed by interview. Clinical diagnoses, comorbidities, health habits such as smoking, laboratory results, and selected medication use were assessed by chart review. Significant predictors of physical functioning P < 0.01, R2 = .58) in a multivariable regression model included energy/fatigue, neurologic symptoms, fever symptoms, a lower hemoglobin level, and current non-pneumonia bacterial infection. Ninety-six percent of the explained variance in physical functioning was accounted for by three symptom complexes: energy/fatigue, neurologic symptoms, and fever symptoms. Significant predictors of energy/fatigue in multivariable models included poorer mental health, lower white blood cell count, longer time since diagnosis, and weight loss (P < 0.01, R2 =.36). Significant predictors of neurologic symptoms included poorer mental health, weight loss, and no zidovudine use (P < 0.001, R2 = .30). Predictors of fever symptoms included poorer mental health, no zidovudine use, weight loss, and history of asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (P < 0.05, R2 = .25). In conclusion, symptom reports were strong predictors of physical functioning. Poorer mental health and weight loss were correlated consistently with worse symptoms, and not using zidovudine was correlated with worse neurologic and fever symptoms. These variables, and the others the authors identified, may represent

  2. Acute Acquired Concomitant Esotropia: Clinical features, Classification, and Etiology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingchang; Deng, Daming; Sun, Yuan; Shen, Tao; Cao, Guobin; Yan, Jianhua; Chen, Qiwen; Ye, Xuelian

    2015-12-01

    Acute acquired concomitant esotropia (AACE) is a rare, distinct subtype of esotropia. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the clinical characteristics and discuss the classification and etiology of AACE.Charts from 47 patients with AACE referred to our institute between October 2010 and November 2014 were reviewed. All participants underwent a complete medical history, ophthalmologic and orthoptic examinations, and brain and orbital imaging.Mean age at onset was 26.6 ± 12.2 years. Of the 18 cases with deviations ≤ 20 PD, 16 presented with diplopia at distance and fusion at near vision at the onset of deviation; differences between distance and near deviations were < 8 PD; all cases except one were treated with prism and diplopia resolved. Of the 29 cases with deviations > 20 PD, 5 were mild hypermetropic with age at onset between 5 and 19 years, 16 were myopic, and 8 were emmetropic with age at onset > 12 years; 24 were surgically treated and 5 cases remained under observation; all 24 cases achieved normal retinal correspondence or fusion or stereopsis on postoperative day 1 in synoptophore; in 23 cases diplopia or visual confusion resolved postoperatively. Of the 47 cases, brain and orbital imaging in 2 cases revealed a tumor in the cerebellopontine angle and 1 case involved spinocerebellar ataxia as revealed by genetic testing.AACE in this study was characterized by a sudden onset of concomitant nonaccommodative esotropia with diplopia or visual confusion at 5 years of age or older and the potential for normal binocular vision. We suggest that AACE can be divided into 2 subgroups consisting of patients with relatively small versus large angle deviations. Coexisting or underlying neurological diseases were infrequent in AACE. PMID:26705210

  3. Life-threatening hemorrhage from acquired hemophilia A as a presenting manifestation of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Chirag; Gill, Amandeep; Sekhon, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    Acquired factor VIII deficiency (acquired hemophilia A) is a rare condition characterized by the acquisition of autoantibodies that affect the clotting activity of factor VIII (fVIII). The most common manifestation in affected patients is a hemorrhagic diathesis. This disorder is associated with autoimmune diseases, pregnancy, postpartum period, drugs, and malignancy. Management of this condition begins with attempts to arrest an acute bleed based on the site and severity of bleeding and inhibitor titer. The next priority is eradication of the fVIII antibodies using immunosuppressive therapies. We report the case of a 66-year-old male who presented with spontaneous right thigh hematoma with prolonged activated partial prothrombin time and normal prothrombin time. Mixing studies confirmed the presence of an inhibitor. Further investigation for the underlying etiology of acquired hemophilia A leads to diagnosis of prostate cancer. Treatment consisted of bypassing agents including activated factor VII and activated prothrombin plasma concentrate to arrest the bleeding. Steroids and cyclophosphamide were added to suppress the fVIII inhibitors. Concomitant treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer with chemotherapy confirmed the eradication of the inhibitors. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of prostate cancer diagnosed and treated simultaneously with acquired hemophilia A resulting in favorable patient outcome. PMID:27609734

  4. Light's twist

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Miles

    2014-01-01

    That light travels in straight lines is a statement of the obvious. However, the energy and momentum flow within light beams can twist to form vortices such as eddies in a stream. These twists carry angular momentum, which can make microscopic objects spin, be used to encode extra information in communication systems, enable the design of novel imaging systems and allow new tests of quantum mechanics. PMID:25484612

  5. Allopurinol in the treatment of acquired reactive perforating collagenosis*

    PubMed Central

    Tilz, Hemma; Becker, Jürgen Christian; Legat, Franz; Schettini, Antonio Pedro Mendes; Inzinger, Martin; Massone, Cesare

    2013-01-01

    Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis is a perforating dermatosis usually associated with different systemic diseases, mainly diabetes mellitus and/or chronic renal insufficiency. Different therapies have been tried but treatment is not standardized yet and remains a challenge. In the last few years, allopurinol has been reported as a good therapeutic option for acquired reactive perforating collagenosis. We describe the case of a 73-year-old man affected by acquired reactive perforating collagenosis associated with diabetes type 1 and chronic renal failure with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The patient was successfully treated with allopurinol 100mg once/day p.o.. PMID:23539010

  6. Controlling Light Harvesting with Light.

    PubMed

    Gwizdala, Michal; Berera, Rudi; Kirilovsky, Diana; van Grondelle, Rienk; Krüger, Tjaart P J

    2016-09-14

    When exposed to intense sunlight, all organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis implement various photoprotective strategies to prevent potentially lethal photodamage. The rapidly responding photoprotective mechanisms, occurring in the light-harvesting pigment-protein antennae, take effect within tens of seconds, while the dramatic and potentially harmful light intensity fluctuations manifest also on shorter time scales. Here we show that, upon illumination, individual phycobilisomes from Synechocystis PCC 6803, which, in vivo under low-light conditions, harvest solar energy, and have the built-in capacity to switch rapidly and reversibly into light-activated energy-dissipating states. Simultaneously measured fluorescence intensity, lifetime, and spectra, compared with a multicompartmental kinetic model, revealed that essentially any subunit of a phycobilisome can be quenched, and that the core complexes were targeted most frequently. Our results provide the first evidence for fluorescence blinking from a biologically active system at physiological light intensities and suggest that the light-controlled switches to intrinsically available energy-dissipating states are responsible for a novel type of photoprotection in cyanobacteria. We anticipate other photosynthetic organisms to employ similar strategies to respond instantly to rapid solar light intensity fluctuations. A detailed understanding of the photophysics of photosynthetic antenna complexes is of great interest for bioinspired solar energy technologies. PMID:27546794

  7. Specific translocations characterize Burkitt's-like lymphoma of homosexual men with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chaganti, R S; Jhanwar, S C; Koziner, B; Arlin, Z; Mertelsmann, R; Clarkson, B D

    1983-06-01

    A Burkitt's-like B-cell lymphoma (BLL) has recently been shown to be associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), which affects homosexual men. We report cytogenetic studies of two BLL tumors in homosexual men. Both tumors had chromosome translocations characteristic of Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), one the t(8;14) and the other the t(8;22). The pathway of lymphomagenesis in this disorder is discussed in the light of recent data on chromosome change and localization of immunoglobulin genes and oncogenes. PMID:6839024

  8. Individual and sex-specific differences in intrinsic growth rate covary with consistent individual differences in behaviour.

    PubMed

    Biro, Peter A; Adriaenssens, Bart; Sampson, Portia

    2014-09-01

    The evolutionary causes of consistent individual differences in behaviour are currently a source of debate. A recent hypothesis suggests that consistent individual differences in life-history productivity (growth and/or fecundity) may covary with behavioural traits that contribute to growth-mortality trade-offs, such as risk-proneness (boldness) and foraging activity (voraciousness). It remains unclear, however, to what extent individual behavioural and life-history profiles are set early in life, or are a more flexible result of specific environmental or developmental contexts that allow bold and active individuals to acquire more resources. Longitudinal studies of individually housed animals under controlled conditions can shed light on this question. Since growth and behaviour can both vary within individuals (they are labile), studying between-individual correlations in behaviour and growth rate requires repeated scoring for both variables over an extended period of time. However, such a study has not yet been done. Here, we repeatedly measured individual mass seven times each, boldness 40 times each and voracity eight times each during the first 4 months of life on 90 individually housed crayfish (Cherax destructor). Animals were fed ad libitum, generating a context where individuals can express their intrinsic growth rate (i.e. growth capacity), but in which bold and voracious behaviour is not necessary for high resource acquisition (crayfish can and do hoard food back to their burrow). We show that individuals that were consistently bold over time during the day were also bolder at night, were more voracious and maintained higher growth rates over time than shy individuals. Independent of individual differences, we also observed that males were faster-growing, bolder and more voracious than females. Our findings imply that associations between bold behaviour and fast growth can occur in unlimited food contexts where there is no necessary link between bold

  9. The ideas behind self-consistent expansion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwartz, Moshe; Katzav, Eytan

    2008-04-01

    In recent years we have witnessed a growing interest in various non-equilibrium systems described in terms of stochastic nonlinear field theories. In some of those systems, like KPZ and related models, the interesting behavior is in the strong coupling regime, which is inaccessible by traditional perturbative treatments such as dynamical renormalization group (DRG). A useful tool in the study of such systems is the self-consistent expansion (SCE), which might be said to generate its own 'small parameter'. The self-consistent expansion (SCE) has the advantage that its structure is just that of a regular expansion, the only difference is that the simple system around which the expansion is performed is adjustable. The purpose of this paper is to present the method in a simple and understandable way that hopefully will make it accessible to a wider public working on non-equilibrium statistical physics.

  10. Human Pose Estimation Using Consistent Max Covering.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hao

    2011-09-01

    A novel consistent max-covering method is proposed for human pose estimation. We focus on problems in which a rough foreground estimation is available. Pose estimation is formulated as a jigsaw puzzle problem in which the body part tiles maximally cover the foreground region, match local image features, and satisfy body plan and color constraints. This method explicitly imposes a global shape constraint on the body part assembly. It anchors multiple body parts simultaneously and introduces hyperedges in the part relation graph, which is essential for detecting complex poses. Using multiple cues in pose estimation, our method is resistant to cluttered foregrounds. We propose an efficient linear method to solve the consistent max-covering problem. A two-stage relaxation finds the solution in polynomial time. Our experiments on a variety of images and videos show that the proposed method is more robust than previous locally constrained methods. PMID:21576747

  11. Consistent Numerical Expressions for Precession Formulae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soma, M.

    The precession formulae by Lieske et al. (1977) have been used since 1984 for calculating apparent positions and reducing astrometric observations of celestial objects. These formulae are based on the IAU (1976) Astronomical Constants, some of which deviate from their recently determined values. They are also derived using the secular variations of the ecliptic pole from Newcomb's theory, which is not consistent with the recent planetary theories. Accordingly Simon et al. (1994) developed new precession formulae using the recently determined astronomical constants and also being based on the new planetary theory VSOP87. There are two differing definitions of the ecliptic: ecliptic in the inertial sense and ecliptic in the rotating sense (Standish 1981). The ecliptic given by the VSOP87 theory is that in the inertial sense, but the value for obliquity Simon et al. used is the obliquity in the rotating sense. Therefore their precession formulae has inconsistency. This paper gives corrections for consistent precession formulae.

  12. Consistent Pauli reduction on group manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baguet, A.; Pope, C. N.; Samtleben, H.

    2016-01-01

    We prove an old conjecture by Duff, Nilsson, Pope and Warner asserting that the NSsbnd NS sector of supergravity (and more general the bosonic string) allows for a consistent Pauli reduction on any d-dimensional group manifold G, keeping the full set of gauge bosons of the G × G isometry group of the bi-invariant metric on G. The main tool of the construction is a particular generalised Scherk-Schwarz reduction ansatz in double field theory which we explicitly construct in terms of the group's Killing vectors. Examples include the consistent reduction from ten dimensions on S3 ×S3 and on similar product spaces. The construction is another example of globally geometric non-toroidal compactifications inducing non-geometric fluxes.

  13. Consistency relation for cosmic magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Sloth, Martin S.

    2012-12-01

    If cosmic magnetic fields are indeed produced during inflation, they are likely to be correlated with the scalar metric perturbations that are responsible for the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and large scale structure. Within an archetypical model of inflationary magnetogenesis, we show that there exists a new simple consistency relation for the non-Gaussian cross correlation function of the scalar metric perturbation with two powers of the magnetic field in the squeezed limit where the momentum of the metric perturbation vanishes. We emphasize that such a consistency relation turns out to be extremely useful to test some recent calculations in the literature. Apart from primordial non-Gaussianity induced by the curvature perturbations, such a cross correlation might provide a new observational probe of inflation and can in principle reveal the primordial nature of cosmic magnetic fields.

  14. Self-Consistent Scattering and Transport Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, S. B.; Grabowski, P. E.

    2015-11-01

    An average-atom model with ion correlations provides a compact and complete description of atomic-scale physics in dense, finite-temperature plasmas. The self-consistent ionic and electronic distributions from the model enable calculation of x-ray scattering signals and conductivities for material across a wide range of temperatures and densities. We propose a definition for the bound electronic states that ensures smooth behavior of these measurable properties under pressure ionization and compare the predictions of this model with those of less consistent models for Be, C, Al, and Fe. SNL is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp, for the U.S. DoE NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This work was supported by DoE OFES Early Career grant FWP-14-017426.

  15. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O; Huisken, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos. PMID:26329685

  16. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-09-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos.

  17. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos. PMID:26329685

  18. Acquired Phototrophy through Retention of Functional Chloroplasts Increases Growth Efficiency of the Sea Slug Elysia viridis

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Finn A.; Pavia, Henrik; Toth, Gunilla B.

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a fundamental process sustaining heterotrophic organisms at all trophic levels. Some mixotrophs can retain functional chloroplasts from food (kleptoplasty), and it is hypothesized that carbon acquired through kleptoplasty may enhance trophic energy transfer through increased host growth efficiency. Sacoglossan sea slugs are the only known metazoans capable of kleptoplasty, but the relative fitness contributions of heterotrophy through grazing, and phototrophy via kleptoplasts, are not well understood. Fitness benefits (i.e. increased survival or growth) of kleptoplasty in sacoglossans are commonly studied in ecologically unrealistic conditions under extended periods of complete darkness and/or starvation. We compared the growth efficiency of the sacoglossan Elysia viridis with access to algal diets providing kleptoplasts of differing functionality under ecologically relevant light conditions. Individuals fed Codium fragile, which provide highly functional kleptoplasts, nearly doubled their growth efficiency under high compared to low light. In contrast, individuals fed Cladophora rupestris, which provided kleptoplasts of limited functionality, showed no difference in growth efficiency between light treatments. Slugs feeding on Codium, but not on Cladophora, showed higher relative electron transport rates (rETR) in high compared to low light. Furthermore, there were no differences in the consumption rates of the slugs between different light treatments, and only small differences in nutritional traits of algal diets, indicating that the increased growth efficiency of E. viridis feeding on Codium was due to retention of functional kleptoplasts. Our results show that functional kleptoplasts from Codium can provide sacoglossan sea slugs with fitness advantages through photosynthesis. PMID:25830355

  19. Self-Consistent Random Phase Approximation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohr, Daniel; Hellgren, Maria; Gross, E. K. U.

    2012-02-01

    We report self-consistent Random Phase Approximation (RPA) calculations within the Density Functional Theory. The calculations are performed by the direct minimization scheme for the optimized effective potential method developed by Yang et al. [1]. We show results for the dissociation curve of H2^+, H2 and LiH with the RPA, where the exchange correlation kernel has been set to zero. For H2^+ and H2 we also show results for RPAX, where the exact exchange kernel has been included. The RPA, in general, over-correlates. At intermediate distances a maximum is obtained that lies above the exact energy. This is known from non-self-consistent calculations and is still present in the self-consistent results. The RPAX energies are higher than the RPA energies. At equilibrium distance they accurately reproduce the exact total energy. In the dissociation limit they improve upon RPA, but are still too low. For H2^+ the RPAX correlation energy is zero. Consequently, RPAX gives the exact dissociation curve. We also present the local potentials. They indicate that a peak at the bond midpoint builds up with increasing bond distance. This is expected for the exact KS potential.[4pt] [1] W. Yang, and Q. Wu, Phys. Rev. Lett., 89, 143002 (2002)

  20. Towards a consistent modeling framework across scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jagers, B.

    2013-12-01

    The morphodynamic evolution of river-delta-coastal systems may be studied in detail to predict local, short-term changes or at a more aggregated level to indicate the net large scale, long-term effect. The whole spectrum of spatial and temporal scales needs to be considered for environmental impact studies. Usually this implies setting up a number of different models for different scales. Since the various models often use codes that have been independently developed by different researchers and include different formulations, it may be difficult to arrive at a consistent set of modeling results. This is one of the reasons why Deltares has taken on an effort to develop a consistent suite of model components that can be applied over a wide range of scales. The heart of this suite is formed by a flexible mesh flow component that supports mixed 1D-2D-3D domains, a equally flexible transport component with an expandable library of water quality and ecological processes, and a library of sediment transport and morphology routines that can be linked directly to the flow component or used as part of the process library. We will present the latest developments with a focus on the status of the sediment transport and morphology component for running consistent 1D, 2D and 3D models.

  1. Consistency of color representation in smart phones.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J; Kwan, Benjamin; Wong, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    One of the barriers to the construction of consistent computer-based color vision tests has been the variety of monitors and computers. Consistency of color on a variety of screens has necessitated calibration of each setup individually. Color vision examination with a carefully controlled display has, as a consequence, been a laboratory rather than a clinical activity. Inevitably, smart phones have become a vehicle for color vision tests. They have the advantage that the processor and screen are associated and there are fewer models of smart phones than permutations of computers and monitors. Colorimetric consistency of display within a model may be a given. It may extend across models from the same manufacturer but is unlikely to extend between manufacturers especially where technologies vary. In this study, we measured the same set of colors in a JPEG file displayed on 11 samples of each of four models of smart phone (iPhone 4s, iPhone5, Samsung Galaxy S3, and Samsung Galaxy S4) using a Photo Research PR-730. The iPhones are white LED backlit LCD and the Samsung are OLEDs. The color gamut varies between models and comparison with sRGB space shows 61%, 85%, 117%, and 110%, respectively. The iPhones differ markedly from the Samsungs and from one another. This indicates that model-specific color lookup tables will be needed. Within each model, the primaries were quite consistent (despite the age of phone varying within each sample). The worst case in each model was the blue primary; the 95th percentile limits in the v' coordinate were ±0.008 for the iPhone 4 and ±0.004 for the other three models. The u'v' variation in white points was ±0.004 for the iPhone4 and ±0.002 for the others, although the spread of white points between models was u'v'±0.007. The differences are essentially the same for primaries at low luminance. The variation of colors intermediate between the primaries (e.g., red-purple, orange) mirror the variation in the primaries. The variation in

  2. [Antibiotic therapy of severe community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Molchanova, O V; Suleĭmanov, S Sh; Ostrovskiĭ, A B

    2009-01-01

    Combined antibiotic therapy, including the use of intravenous cefotaxime (a beta-lactam) and azithromycin (a macrolide) was shown advantageous from both clinical and economic viewpoints in the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia. PMID:19711847

  3. Acquired localised hypertrichosis in a Chinese child after cast immobilisation.

    PubMed

    Yuen, M W; Lai, Loretta K P; Chan, P F; Chao, David V K

    2015-08-01

    Hypertrichosis refers to excessive hair growth that is independent of any androgen effect. Hypertrichosis could be congenital or acquired, localised or generalised. The phenomenon of acquired localised hypertrichosis following cast application for a fracture is well known to orthopaedic surgeons, but is rarely encountered by primary care physicians. We describe a 28-month-old Chinese boy who had fracture of right leg as a result of an injury. He had a cast applied by an orthopaedic surgeon as treatment. On removal of the cast 6 weeks later, he was noticed to have significant hair growth on his right leg compared with the left leg. The patient was reassessed 3 months after removal of the cast. The hypertrichosis resolved completely with time. This patient was one of the youngest among the reported cases of acquired localised hypertrichosis after cast application. We illustrate the significance of management of post-cast-acquired localised hypertrichosis in the primary care setting. PMID:26238136

  4. Cauldron of Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

    In this animation, a seething cauldron of light appears to bubble and ooze around the remains of a giant star that astronomers have been watching tear itself apart for the last 300 years. This movie flips quickly between different observations taken over three years by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    Beginning in the center, the well-studied Cassiopeia A supernova remnant is shown. Cassiopeia A is the remnant of a once massive star that died in a violent supernova explosion. It consists of a dead star, called a neutron star, and a surrounding shell of material that was blasted off as the star died.

    Panning outward, 'light echoes' create the illusion of motion in the clouds, as different areas of the material are lit up in succession by the light flash of the supernova. A light echo occurs when a star explodes, acting like a cosmic flashbulb. The light from this explosion zips through nearby dust clumps, illuminating and heating them up slightly. This brief period of warming causes them to glow in infrared, like a chain of Christmas bulbs lighting up one by one. The result is an optical illusion, in which the dust appears to be flying outward at the speed of light.

    In reality, the clouds are stationary, at least in the brief time over which these observations were taken. The inclination of the clouds cause some light echoes to appear to expand away from the supernova remnant, while others move towards it or boil in many directions with seeming turbulence.

  5. [Differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Deĭkina, O N; Mishin, V Iu; Demikhova, O V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to enhance the efficiency of differential diagnosis of pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis. A hundred and fifty-nine adult patients were examined. These included 78 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 81 with community-acquired p neumonia. The clinical features of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 48) and mild community-acquired pneumonia (n = 51) were compared. The course of caseous pneumonia (n = 30) was compared with that of moderate and severe community-acquired pneumonia (n = 30). Significant differences in the manifestations of the intoxication and bronchopulmonary syndrome were not found in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Physical studies showed that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, moist rale (54.9%) and crepitation (11.8%) were prevalent, but in those with infiltrative tuberculosis rale was absent in 60.4% of cases and the pattern of respiration was unchanged in 79.2%. Chest X-ray studies indicated that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, lower lobar inflammatory changes were predominant in 62.8% of cases whereas in those with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis the process was mainly bilateral (43.8%) with the presence of destructive changes (83.3%) and bronchogenic dissemination (66.7%). In patients with caseous pneumonia, the intoxication syndrome was more significant than in those with severe community-acquired pneumonia. Chest X-ray studies demonstrated that in patients with caseous pneumonia, specific changes were bilateral with the involvement of 2 lobes or more, with destruction and bronchogenic dissemination while in those with community-acquired pneumonia, the pulmonary processes were predominantly bilateral (76.6%) at the lower lobar site (36.7%). PMID:17338353

  6. Light emitting ceramic device

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Paul; Edwards, Doreen D.; Walker, Jr., William John; Slack, Lyle H.; Brown, Wayne Douglas; Osborne, Cathy; Norton, Michael; Begley, Richard

    2010-05-18

    A light-emitting ceramic based panel, hereafter termed "electroceramescent" panel, is herein claimed. The electroceramescent panel is formed on a substrate providing mechanical support as well as serving as the base electrode for the device. One or more semiconductive ceramic layers directly overlay the substrate, and electrical conductivity and ionic diffusion are controlled. Light emitting regions overlay the semiconductive ceramic layers, and said regions consist sequentially of a layer of a ceramic insulation layer and an electroluminescent layer, comprised of doped phosphors or the equivalent. One or more conductive top electrode layers having optically transmissive areas overlay the light emitting regions, and a multi-layered top barrier cover comprising one or more optically transmissive non-combustible insulation layers overlay said top electrode regions.

  7. MEMS Incandescent Light Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret; King, Kevin; Kim, Lynn; Hansler, Richard; Jones, Eric; George, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A MEMS-based, low-power, incandescent light source is being developed. This light source is fabricated using three bonded chips. The bottom chip consists of a reflector on Silicon, the middle chip contains a Tungsten filament bonded to silicon and the top layer is a transparent window. A 25-micrometer-thick spiral filament is fabricated in Tungsten using lithography and wet-etching. A proof-of-concept device has been fabricated and tested in a vacuum chamber. Results indicate that the filament is electrically heated to approximately 2650 K. The power required to drive the proof-of-concept spiral filament to incandescence is 1.25 W. The emitted optical power is expected to be approximately 1.0 W with the spectral peak at 1.1 microns. The micromachining techniques used to fabricate this light source can be applied to other MEMS devices.

  8. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness in the burn population.

    PubMed

    Cubitt, Jonathan J; Davies, Menna; Lye, George; Evans, Janine; Combellack, Tom; Dickson, William; Nguyen, Dai Q

    2016-05-01

    Intensive care unit-acquired weakness is an evolving problem in the burn population. As patients are surviving injuries that previously would have been fatal, the focus of treatment is shifting from survival to long-term outcome. The rehabilitation of burn patients can be challenging; however, a certain subgroup of patients have worse outcomes than others. These patients may suffer from intensive care unit-acquired weakness, and their treatment, physiotherapy and expectations need to be adjusted accordingly. This study investigates the condition of intensive care unit-acquired weakness in our burn centre. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all the admissions to our burn centre between 2008 and 2012 and identified 22 patients who suffered from intensive care unit-acquired weakness. These patients were significantly younger with significantly larger burns than those without intensive care unit-acquired weakness. The known risk factors for intensive care unit-acquired weakness are commonplace in the burn population. The recovery of these patients is significantly affected by their weakness. PMID:26975787

  9. Probing entrainment of Ostreococcus tauri circadian clock by green and blue light through a mathematical modeling approach

    PubMed Central

    Thommen, Quentin; Pfeuty, Benjamin; Schatt, Philippe; Bijoux, Amandine; Bouget, François-Yves; Lefranc, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Most organisms anticipate daily environmental variations and orchestrate cellular functions thanks to a circadian clock which entrains robustly to the day/night cycle, despite fluctuations in light intensity due to weather or seasonal variations. Marine organisms are also subjected to fluctuations in light spectral composition as their depth varies, due to differential absorption of different wavelengths by sea water. Studying how light input pathways contribute to circadian clock robustness is therefore important. Ostreococcus tauri, a unicellular picoplanktonic marine green alga with low genomic complexity and simple cellular organization, has become a promising model organism for systems biology. Functional and modeling approaches have shown that a core circadian oscillator based on orthologs of Arabidopsis TOC1 and CCA1 clock genes accounts for most experimental data acquired under a wide range of conditions. Some evidence points at putative light input pathway(s) consisting of a two-component signaling system (TCS) controlled by the only two histidine kinases (HK) of O. tauri. LOV-HK is a blue light photoreceptor under circadian control, that is required for circadian clock function. An involvement of Rhodopsin-HK (Rhod-HK) is also conceivable since rhodopsin photoreceptors mediate blue to green light input in animal circadian clocks. Here, we probe the role of LOV-HK and Rhod-HK in mediating light input to the TOC1-CCA1 oscillator using a mathematical model incorporating the TCS hypothesis. This model agrees with clock gene expression time series representative of multiple environmental conditions in blue or green light, characterizing entrainment by light/dark cycles, free-running in constant light, and resetting. Experimental and theoretical results indicate that both blue and green light can reset O. tauri circadian clock. Moreover, our mathematical analysis suggests that Rhod-HK is a blue-green light receptor and drives the clock together with LOV

  10. Light Microscopy Module (LMM)-Emulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Smith, Trent M.; Richards, Stephanie E.

    2016-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) is a microscope facility developed at Glenn Research Center (GRC) that provides researchers with powerful imaging capability onboard the International Space Station (ISS). LMM has the ability to have its hardware recongured on-orbit to accommodate a wide variety of investigations, with the capability of remotely acquiring and downloading digital images across multiple levels of magnication.

  11. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Barner, Allison K.; Benkwitt, Cassandra E.; Boersma, Kate S.; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B.; Ingeman, Kurt E.; Kindinger, Tye L.; Lindsley, Amy J.; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N.; Rowe, Jennifer C.; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A.; Heppell, Selina S.

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon’s diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  12. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    PubMed

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  13. Density neutron self-consistent caliper

    SciTech Connect

    Paske, W.C.; Rodney, P.F.; Roeder, R.A.

    1988-12-20

    This patent describes a system for determining the caliber of a borehole during drilling operations in an earth formation, comprising: first means adapted to make a first measurement of a first physical characteristic of an interior property of the formation; second means adapted to make a second measurement of a second physical characteristic of an interior property of the formation. The second physical characteristic being different from the first physical characteristic; means for determining the lithology of the formation; and means to compare the first and second measurements and to initiate an interation process based at least in part upon the determined lithology, to determine a self-consistent borehole caliber.

  14. Surface Consistent Finite Frequency Phase Corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimman, W. P.

    2016-04-01

    Static time-delay corrections are frequency independent and ignore velocity variations away from the assumed vertical ray-path through the subsurface. There is therefore a clear potential for improvement if the finite frequency nature of wave propagation can be properly accounted for. Such a method is presented here based on the Born approximation, the assumption of surface consistency, and the misfit of instantaneous phase. The concept of instantaneous phase lends itself very well for sweep-like signals, hence these are the focus of this study. Analytical sensitivity kernels are derived that accurately predict frequency dependent phase shifts due to P-wave anomalies in the near surface. They are quick to compute and robust near the source and receivers. An additional correction is presented that re-introduces the non-linear relation between model perturbation and phase delay, which becomes relevant for stronger velocity anomalies. The phase shift as function of frequency is a slowly varying signal, its computation therefore doesn't require fine sampling even for broadband sweeps. The kernels reveal interesting features of the sensitivity of seismic arrivals to the near surface: small anomalies can have a relative large impact resulting from the medium field term that is dominant near the source and receivers. Furthermore, even simple velocity anomalies can produce a distinct frequency dependent phase behaviour. Unlike statics, the predicted phase corrections are smooth in space. Verification with spectral element simulations shows an excellent match for the predicted phase shifts over the entire seismic frequency band. Applying the phase shift to the reference sweep corrects for wavelet distortion, making the technique akin to surface consistent deconvolution, even though no division in the spectral domain is involved. As long as multiple scattering is mild, surface consistent finite frequency phase corrections outperform traditional statics for moderately large

  15. Consistent Realization of ITRS and ICRS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seitz, M.; Steigenberger, P.; Artz, T.

    2012-12-01

    This paper deals with the consistent realization of the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRS) and the International Celestial Reference System (ICRS). DGFI computes such a common realization for the first time by combining normal equations of the space geodetic techniques of Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS). The results for the Celestial Reference Frame (CRF) are compared to a classical VLBI-only CRF solution. It turns out that the combination of EOP from the different space geodetic techniques impacts the CRF, in particular the VCS (VLBA Calibrator Survey) sources.

  16. Consistent Predictions of Future Forest Mortality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, N. G.

    2014-12-01

    We examined empirical and model based estimates of current and future forest mortality of conifers in the northern hemisphere. Consistent water potential thresholds were found that resulted in mortality of our case study species, pinon pine and one-seed juniper. Extending these results with IPCC climate scenarios suggests that most existing trees in this region (SW USA) will be dead by 2050. Further, independent estimates of future mortality for the entire coniferous biome suggest widespread mortality by 2100. The validity and assumptions and implications of these results are discussed.

  17. Using consistent subcuts for detecting stable properties

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marzullo, Keith; Sabel, Laura

    1992-01-01

    We present a general protocol for detecting whether a property holds in a distributed system, where the property is a member of a subclass of stable properties we call the locally stable properties. Our protocol is based on a decentralized method for constructing a maximal subset of the local states that are mutually consistent, which in turn is based on a weakened version of vectored time stamps. The structure of our protocol lends itself to refinement, and we demonstrate its utility by deriving some specialized property-detection protocols, including two previously known protocols that are known to be effective.

  18. Consistency relations for the conformal mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Creminelli, Paolo; Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin; Simonović, Marko E-mail: joyceau@sas.upenn.edu E-mail: marko.simonovic@sissa.it

    2013-04-01

    We systematically derive the consistency relations associated to the non-linearly realized symmetries of theories with spontaneously broken conformal symmetry but with a linearly-realized de Sitter subalgebra. These identities relate (N+1)-point correlation functions with a soft external Goldstone to N-point functions. These relations have direct implications for the recently proposed conformal mechanism for generating density perturbations in the early universe. We study the observational consequences, in particular a novel one-loop contribution to the four-point function, relevant for the stochastic scale-dependent bias and CMB μ-distortion.

  19. Surface consistent finite frequency phase corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimman, W. P.

    2016-07-01

    Static time-delay corrections are frequency independent and ignore velocity variations away from the assumed vertical ray path through the subsurface. There is therefore a clear potential for improvement if the finite frequency nature of wave propagation can be properly accounted for. Such a method is presented here based on the Born approximation, the assumption of surface consistency and the misfit of instantaneous phase. The concept of instantaneous phase lends itself very well for sweep-like signals, hence these are the focus of this study. Analytical sensitivity kernels are derived that accurately predict frequency-dependent phase shifts due to P-wave anomalies in the near surface. They are quick to compute and robust near the source and receivers. An additional correction is presented that re-introduces the nonlinear relation between model perturbation and phase delay, which becomes relevant for stronger velocity anomalies. The phase shift as function of frequency is a slowly varying signal, its computation therefore does not require fine sampling even for broad-band sweeps. The kernels reveal interesting features of the sensitivity of seismic arrivals to the near surface: small anomalies can have a relative large impact resulting from the medium field term that is dominant near the source and receivers. Furthermore, even simple velocity anomalies can produce a distinct frequency-dependent phase behaviour. Unlike statics, the predicted phase corrections are smooth in space. Verification with spectral element simulations shows an excellent match for the predicted phase shifts over the entire seismic frequency band. Applying the phase shift to the reference sweep corrects for wavelet distortion, making the technique akin to surface consistent deconvolution, even though no division in the spectral domain is involved. As long as multiple scattering is mild, surface consistent finite frequency phase corrections outperform traditional statics for moderately large

  20. Consistency of scalar potentials from quantum de Sitter space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, José R.; Fortin, Jean-François; Trépanier, Maxime

    2016-06-01

    Consistency of the unconventional view of de Sitter space as a quantum theory of gravity with a finite number of degrees of freedom requires that Coleman-De Luccia tunneling rates to vacua with negative cosmological constant should be interpreted as recurrences to low-entropy states. This demand translates into two constraints, or consistency conditions, on the scalar potential that are generically as follows: (1) the distance in field space between the de Sitter vacuum and any other vacuum with negative cosmological constant must be of the order of the reduced Planck mass or larger and (2) the fourth root of the vacuum energy density of the de Sitter vacuum must be smaller than the fourth root of the typical scale of the scalar potential. These consistency conditions shed a different light on both outstanding hierarchy problems of the standard model of particle physics: the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking and the scale of the cosmological constant. Beyond the unconventional interpretation of quantum de Sitter space, we complete the analytic understanding of the thin-wall approximation of Coleman-De Luccia tunneling, extend its numerical analysis to generic potentials and discuss the role of gravity in stabilizing the standard model potential.

  1. Assessing De Novo transcriptome assembly metrics for consistency and utility

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Transcriptome sequencing and assembly represent a great resource for the study of non-model species, and many metrics have been used to evaluate and compare these assemblies. Unfortunately, it is still unclear which of these metrics accurately reflect assembly quality. Results We simulated sequencing transcripts of Drosophila melanogaster. By assembling these simulated reads using both a “perfect” and a modern transcriptome assembler while varying read length and sequencing depth, we evaluated quality metrics to determine whether they 1) revealed perfect assemblies to be of higher quality, and 2) revealed perfect assemblies to be more complete as data quantity increased. Several commonly used metrics were not consistent with these expectations, including average contig coverage and length, though they became consistent when singletons were included in the analysis. We found several annotation-based metrics to be consistent and informative, including contig reciprocal best hit count and contig unique annotation count. Finally, we evaluated a number of novel metrics such as reverse annotation count, contig collapse factor, and the ortholog hit ratio, discovering that each assess assembly quality in unique ways. Conclusions Although much attention has been given to transcriptome assembly, little research has focused on determining how best to evaluate assemblies, particularly in light of the variety of options available for read length and sequencing depth. Our results provide an important review of these metrics and give researchers tools to produce the highest quality transcriptome assemblies. PMID:23837739

  2. Light's Darkness

    ScienceCinema

    Padgett, Miles [University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland

    2010-01-08

    Optical vortices and orbital angular momentum are currently topical subjects in the optics literature. Although seemingly esoteric, they are, in fact, the generic state of light and arise whenever three or more plane waves interfere. To be observed by eye the light must be monochromatic. Laser speckle is one such example, where the optical energy circulates around each black spot, giving a local orbital angular momentum. This talk with report three on-going studies. First, when considering a volume of interfering waves, the laser specs map out threads of complete darkness embedded in the light. Do these threads form loops? Links? Or even knots? Second, when looking through a rapidly spinning window, the image of the world on the other side is rotated: true or false? Finally, the entanglement of orbital angular momentum states means measuring how the angular position of one photons sets the angular momentum of another: is this an angular version of the EPR (Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen) paradox?

  3. Lighting installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    Model computations that give the lay-out of a lighting installation have to be implemented in the real world. There, deviations from the ideal performance of just about every element of the installation will be felt. A list of possible sources of non-ideal behavior, based on practical experience, are: lamps, ballasts, reflectors, mounting position, sagging of lamps, and soiling. It is clear that with all possible deviations from the ideal the homogeneity of a real lighting installation can never be as good as the one computed. The only way to make sure it is nearly as good is by measurement of the actual light distribution. Then, an occasional adjustment or replacement may often yield a satisfactory result. This measurement should really be part of the installation contract.

  4. AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; Information and Procedural Guidelines for Providing Services to Persons with AIDS/HIV. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Helena. Health Education Bureau.

    This volume consists of updated information to be inserted into a Montana AIDS Project manual on providing services to persons with acquired immune deficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV), originally published in December 1985. The updates are mainly statistics and terminology, along with the addition of several new sections.…

  5. Thermodynamically Consistent Coarse-Graining of Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guenza, Marina

    2015-03-01

    Structural and dynamical properties of macromolecular liquids, melts and mixtures, bridge an extensive range of length- and time-scales. For these systems, the computational limitations of the atomistic description prevent the study of the properties of interest and coarse-grained models remain the only viable approach. In coarse-grained models, structural and thermodynamic consistency across multiple length scales is essential for the predictive role of multi-scale modeling and molecular dynamic simulations that use mesoscale descriptions. This talk presents a coarse-graining approach that conserves structural and thermodynamic quantities independent of the extent of coarse-graining, and describes a model for the reconstruction of the dynamics measured in mesoscale simulations of the coarse-grained system. Some of the general challenges of preserving structural and thermodynamic consistency in coarse-grained models are discussed together with the conditions by which the problem is lessened. This material is based upon work partially supported by the National Science Foundation under Grant No. CHE-1362500.

  6. Toward an internally consistent pressure scale

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Yingwei; Ricolleau, Angele; Frank, Mark; Mibe, Kenji; Shen, Guoyin; Prakapenka, Vitali

    2007-01-01

    Our ability to interpret seismic observations including the seismic discontinuities and the density and velocity profiles in the earth's interior is critically dependent on the accuracy of pressure measurements up to 364 GPa at high temperature. Pressure scales based on the reduced shock-wave equations of state alone may predict pressure variations up to 7% in the megabar pressure range at room temperature and even higher percentage at high temperature, leading to large uncertainties in understanding the nature of the seismic discontinuities and chemical composition of the earth's interior. Here, we report compression data of gold (Au), platinum (Pt), the NaCl-B2 phase, and solid neon (Ne) at 300 K and high temperatures up to megabar pressures. Combined with existing experimental data, the compression data were used to establish internally consistent thermal equations of state of Au, Pt, NaCl-B2, and solid Ne. The internally consistent pressure scales provide a tractable, accurate baseline for comparing high pressure–temperature experimental data with theoretical calculations and the seismic observations, thereby advancing our understanding fundamental high-pressure phenomena and the chemistry and physics of the earth's interior. PMID:17483460

  7. Kinematically consistent models of viscoelastic stress evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVries, Phoebe M. R.; Meade, Brendan J.

    2016-05-01

    Following large earthquakes, coseismic stresses at the base of the seismogenic zone may induce rapid viscoelastic deformation in the lower crust and upper mantle. As stresses diffuse away from the primary slip surface in these lower layers, the magnitudes of stress at distant locations (>1 fault length away) may slowly increase. This stress relaxation process has been used to explain delayed earthquake triggering sequences like the 1992 Mw = 7.3 Landers and 1999 Mw = 7.1 Hector Mine earthquakes in California. However, a conceptual difficulty associated with these models is that the magnitudes of stresses asymptote to constant values over long time scales. This effect introduces persistent perturbations to the total stress field over many earthquake cycles. Here we present a kinematically consistent viscoelastic stress transfer model where the total perturbation to the stress field at the end of the earthquake cycle is zero everywhere. With kinematically consistent models, hypotheses about the potential likelihood of viscoelastically triggered earthquakes may be based on the timing of stress maxima, rather than on any arbitrary or empirically constrained stress thresholds. Based on these models, we infer that earthquakes triggered by viscoelastic earthquake cycle effects may be most likely to occur during the first 50% of the earthquake cycle regardless of the assumed long-term and transient viscosities.

  8. Consistent resolution of some relativistic quantum paradoxes

    SciTech Connect

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2002-12-01

    A relativistic version of the (consistent or decoherent) histories approach to quantum theory is developed on the basis of earlier work by Hartle, and used to discuss relativistic forms of the paradoxes of spherical wave packet collapse, Bohm's formulation of the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen paradox, and Hardy's paradox. It is argued that wave function collapse is not needed for introducing probabilities into relativistic quantum mechanics, and in any case should never be thought of as a physical process. Alternative approaches to stochastic time dependence can be used to construct a physical picture of the measurement process that is less misleading than collapse models. In particular, one can employ a coarse-grained but fully quantum-mechanical description in which particles move along trajectories, with behavior under Lorentz transformations the same as in classical relativistic physics, and detectors are triggered by particles reaching them along such trajectories. States entangled between spacelike separate regions are also legitimate quantum descriptions, and can be consistently handled by the formalism presented here. The paradoxes in question arise because of using modes of reasoning which, while correct for classical physics, are inconsistent with the mathematical structure of quantum theory, and are resolved (or tamed) by using a proper quantum analysis. In particular, there is no need to invoke, nor any evidence for, mysterious long-range superluminal influences, and thus no incompatibility, at least from this source, between relativity theory and quantum mechanics.

  9. Self-reported consistency of normal habitual sleep durations of college students.

    PubMed

    Hicks, R A; Pellegrini, R J; Hawkins, J; Moore, J D

    1978-10-01

    A relationship between hours of sleep/night and the consistency of this normal daily sleep duration was observed for 763 college students who had rated themselves as good sleepers with stable and fairly well established patterns of sleep. Congruent with a limited literature, these data suggest that shorter sleep durations are likely, for college students, to be relatively recently acquired patterns of sleep. PMID:724383

  10. Research on integrating sphere low-light level stress system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Donglin; Feng, Dawei

    2010-10-01

    Low-light level night vision device must be assessed by light stress reliability test in the design approval testing and production approval testing. The low-light level stress environment is the key to light stress reliability test on Low-light level night vision device. This paper studies the actual working environment of Low-light level night vision device from the aspects of night sky spectrum of nature light and illumination, and designs a low-light level stress system. The system consists of double-integrating-sphere light source, light stress automatic switching device, collimator, monitoring and control system for light stress. The system uses a total light source with radiation structure to improve the light efficiency, solve the question of light stress consistency, achieve a typical night-day simulation of the environment and the monitoring and control of the whole process.

  11. 14 CFR 27.1401 - Anticollision light system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anticollision light system. 27.1401 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1401 Anticollision light system. (a... light system that— (1) Consists of one or more approved anticollision lights located so that...

  12. 14 CFR 27.1401 - Anticollision light system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Anticollision light system. 27.1401 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1401 Anticollision light system. (a... light system that— (1) Consists of one or more approved anticollision lights located so that...

  13. 14 CFR 27.1401 - Anticollision light system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anticollision light system. 27.1401 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1401 Anticollision light system. (a... light system that— (1) Consists of one or more approved anticollision lights located so that...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1401 - Anticollision light system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anticollision light system. 29.1401 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1401 Anticollision light system. (a... light system that— (1) Consists of one or more approved anticollision lights located so that...

  15. Acquired Brachial Cutaneous Dyschromatosis in a 60-Year-Old Male: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Foering, Kristen

    2014-01-01

    Acquired brachial cutaneous dyschromatosis is an acquired pigmentary disorder that has been described in only 20 patients but likely affects many more. This case of a man with acquired brachial cutaneous dyschromatosis is unique as most reports are in women. We report the case of a 60-year-old male who presents with an asymptomatic eruption characterized by hyperpigmented and telangiectatic macules coalescing into patches on the bilateral extensor aspects of the forearms which is consistent clinically and histopathologically with acquired brachial cutaneous dyschromatosis. Given its presence in patients with clinical evidence of chronic sun exposure and its histopathological finding of solar elastosis, acquired brachial cutaneous dyschromatosis is likely a disorder caused by cumulative UV damage. However, a possible association between angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and acquired brachial cutaneous dyschromatosis exists. Further investigation is needed to elucidate both the pathogenesis of the disorder and forms of effective management. Treatment of the disorder should begin with current established treatments for disorders of dyspigmentation. PMID:25610668

  16. {alpha}-cluster structure and exotic states in a self-consistent model for light nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Maruhn, J. A.; Kimura, Masaaki; Schramm, S.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Horiuchi, H.; Tohsaki, A.

    2006-10-15

    In this article we examine to what extent traces of {alpha} clustering can be found in mean-field ground states of n{alpha} nuclei from {sup 8}Be through {sup 36}Ar as well as in some superdeformed states in {sup 32}S, {sup 36}Ar, and {sup 40}Ca. For this purpose we calculate the overlap of the mean-field Slater determinant with one containing pure Gaussians and perfect spin and isospin symmetry, optimizing the overlap by varying the {alpha}-particle positions and radii. In some cases a coherent sum over different configurations is also employed. We find quite large overlaps for some of the lighter systems that diminish for nuclei above {sup 20}Ne but again strong clustering in {sup 36}Ar.

  17. Reliability and Consistency of Surface Contamination Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rouppert, F.; Rivoallan, A.; Largeron, C.

    2002-02-26

    Surface contamination evaluation is a tough problem since it is difficult to isolate the radiations emitted by the surface, especially in a highly irradiating atmosphere. In that case the only possibility is to evaluate smearable (removeable) contamination since ex-situ countings are possible. Unfortunately, according to our experience at CEA, these values are not consistent and thus non relevant. In this study, we show, using in-situ Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometry on contaminated metal samples, that fixed contamination seems to be chemisorbed and removeable contamination seems to be physisorbed. The distribution between fixed and removeable contamination appears to be variable. Chemical equilibria and reversible ion exchange mechanisms are involved and are closely linked to environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature. Measurements of smearable contamination only give an indication of the state of these equilibria between fixed and removeable contamination at the time and in the environmental conditions the measurements were made.

  18. Plasma Diffusion in Self-Consistent Fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smets, R.; Belmont, G.; Aunai, N.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of particle diffusion in position space, as a consequence ofeleclromagnetic fluctuations is addressed. Numerical results obtained with a self-consistent hybrid code are presented, and a method to calculate diffusion coefficient in the direction perpendicular to the mean magnetic field is proposed. The diffusion is estimated for two different types of fluctuations. The first type (resuiting from an agyrotropic in itiai setting)is stationary, wide band white noise, and associated to Gaussian probability distribution function for the magnetic fluctuations. The second type (result ing from a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) is non-stationary, with a power-law spectrum, and a non-Gaussian probabi lity distribution function. The results of the study allow revisiting the question of loading particles of solar wind origin in the Earth magnetosphere.

  19. Consistent evolution in a pedestrian flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Junbiao; Wang, Kaihua

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, pedestrian evacuation considering different human behaviors is studied by using a cellular automaton (CA) model combined with the snowdrift game theory. The evacuees are divided into two types, i.e. cooperators and defectors, and two different human behaviors, herding behavior and independent behavior, are investigated. It is found from a large amount of numerical simulations that the ratios of the corresponding evacuee clusters are evolved to consistent states despite 11 typically different initial conditions, which may largely owe to self-organization effect. Moreover, an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of herding behavior, coupled with an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of rationally independent thinking, are two necessary factors for short evacuation time.

  20. Plasma diffusion in self-consistent fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Smets, R.; Belmont, G.; Aunai, N.; Rezeau, L.

    2011-10-15

    The problem of particle diffusion in position space, as a consequence of electromagnetic fluctuations is addressed. Numerical results obtained with a self-consistent hybrid code are presented, and a method to calculate diffusion coefficient in the direction perpendicular to the mean magnetic field is proposed. The diffusion is estimated for two different types of fluctuations. The first type (resulting from an agyrotropic initial setting) is stationary, wide band white noise, and associated to Gaussian probability distribution function for the magnetic fluctuations. The second type (resulting from a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) is non-stationary, with a power-law spectrum, and a non-Gaussian probability distribution function. The results of the study allow revisiting the question of loading particles of solar wind origin in the Earth magnetosphere.

  1. Consistency of PT-symmetric quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brody, Dorje C.

    2016-03-01

    In recent reports, suggestions have been put forward to the effect that parity and time-reversal (PT) symmetry in quantum mechanics is incompatible with causality. It is shown here, in contrast, that PT-symmetric quantum mechanics is fully consistent with standard quantum mechanics. This follows from the surprising fact that the much-discussed metric operator on Hilbert space is not physically observable. In particular, for closed quantum systems in finite dimensions there is no statistical test that one can perform on the outcomes of measurements to determine whether the Hamiltonian is Hermitian in the conventional sense, or PT-symmetric—the two theories are indistinguishable. Nontrivial physical effects arising as a consequence of PT symmetry are expected to be observed, nevertheless, for open quantum systems with balanced gain and loss.

  2. Quantum cosmological consistency condition for inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Kiefer, Claus; Steinwachs, Christian F. E-mail: kiefer@thp.uni-koeln.de

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the quantum cosmological tunneling scenario for inflationary models. Within a path-integral approach, we derive the corresponding tunneling probability distribution. A sharp peak in this distribution can be interpreted as the initial condition for inflation and therefore as a quantum cosmological prediction for its energy scale. This energy scale is also a genuine prediction of any inflationary model by itself, as the primordial gravitons generated during inflation leave their imprint in the B-polarization of the cosmic microwave background. In this way, one can derive a consistency condition for inflationary models that guarantees compatibility with a tunneling origin and can lead to a testable quantum cosmological prediction. The general method is demonstrated explicitly for the model of natural inflation.

  3. Toward a Fully Consistent Radiation Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Castor, J I

    2009-07-07

    Dimitri Mihalas set the standard for all work in radiation hydrodynamics since 1984. The present contribution builds on 'Foundations of Radiation Hydrodynamics' to explore the relativistic effects that have prevented having a consistent non-relativistic theory. Much of what I have to say is in FRH, but the 3-D development is new. Results are presented for the relativistic radiation transport equation in the frame obtained by a Lorentz boost with the fluid velocity, and the exact momentum-integrated moment equations. The special-relativistic hydrodynamic equations are summarized, including the radiation contributions, and it is shown that exact conservation is obtained, and certain puzzles in the non-relativistic radhydro equations are explained.

  4. School Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennhackkamp, W. M. H.

    Research gathered by the Functional Efficiency Division of the National Building Research Institute, South Africa, is aimed at providing lighting conditions under which the school child can produce his maximum effort with the least strain and fatigue. These favorable conditions are outlined along with specific examples of their realization in…

  5. Dissecting Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Proto, Christopher; Marek, Edmund A.

    2000-01-01

    Describes how to teach the light spectrum to students using hands-on activities in a physical science class at the middle school level. Explains how to build a spectroscope and lists required materials. Provides an internet address for sciLinks. (YDS)

  6. Quantifying consistent individual differences in habitat selection.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Martin; Vander Wal, Eric; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E; Kindberg, Jonas; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-03-01

    Habitat selection is a fundamental behaviour that links individuals to the resources required for survival and reproduction. Although natural selection acts on an individual's phenotype, research on habitat selection often pools inter-individual patterns to provide inferences on the population scale. Here, we expanded a traditional approach of quantifying habitat selection at the individual level to explore the potential for consistent individual differences of habitat selection. We used random coefficients in resource selection functions (RSFs) and repeatability estimates to test for variability in habitat selection. We applied our method to a detailed dataset of GPS relocations of brown bears (Ursus arctos) taken over a period of 6 years, and assessed whether they displayed repeatable individual differences in habitat selection toward two habitat types: bogs and recent timber-harvest cut blocks. In our analyses, we controlled for the availability of habitat, i.e. the functional response in habitat selection. Repeatability estimates of habitat selection toward bogs and cut blocks were 0.304 and 0.420, respectively. Therefore, 30.4 and 42.0 % of the population-scale habitat selection variability for bogs and cut blocks, respectively, was due to differences among individuals, suggesting that consistent individual variation in habitat selection exists in brown bears. Using simulations, we posit that repeatability values of habitat selection are not related to the value and significance of β estimates in RSFs. Although individual differences in habitat selection could be the results of non-exclusive factors, our results illustrate the evolutionary potential of habitat selection. PMID:26597548

  7. Radiometric consistency assessment of hyperspectral infrared sounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Han, Y.; Jin, X.; Chen, Y.; Tremblay, D. A.

    2015-07-01

    The radiometric and spectral consistency among the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is fundamental for the creation of long-term infrared (IR) hyperspectral radiance benchmark datasets for both inter-calibration and climate-related studies. In this study, the CrIS radiance measurements on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite are directly compared with IASI on MetOp-A and -B at the finest spectral scale and with AIRS on Aqua in 25 selected spectral regions through one year of simultaneous nadir overpass (SNO) observations to evaluate radiometric consistency of these four hyperspectral IR sounders. The spectra from different sounders are paired together through strict spatial and temporal collocation. The uniform scenes are selected by examining the collocated Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) pixels. Their brightness temperature (BT) differences are then calculated by converting the spectra onto common spectral grids. The results indicate that CrIS agrees well with IASI on MetOp-A and IASI on MetOp-B at the longwave IR (LWIR) and middle-wave IR (MWIR) bands with 0.1-0.2 K differences. There are no apparent scene-dependent patterns for BT differences between CrIS and IASI for individual spectral channels. CrIS and AIRS are compared at the 25 spectral regions for both Polar and Tropical SNOs. The combined global SNO datasets indicate that, the CrIS-AIRS BT differences are less than or around 0.1 K among 21 of 25 comparison spectral regions and they range from 0.15 to 0.21 K in the remaining 4 spectral regions. CrIS-AIRS BT differences in some comparison spectral regions show weak scene-dependent features.

  8. Radiometric consistency assessment of hyperspectral infrared sounders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Han, Y.; Jin, X.; Chen, Y.; Tremblay, D. A.

    2015-11-01

    The radiometric and spectral consistency among the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS), the Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer (IASI), and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS) is fundamental for the creation of long-term infrared (IR) hyperspectral radiance benchmark data sets for both intercalibration and climate-related studies. In this study, the CrIS radiance measurements on Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (SNPP) satellite are directly compared with IASI on MetOp-A and MetOp-B at the finest spectral scale and with AIRS on Aqua in 25 selected spectral regions through simultaneous nadir overpass (SNO) observations in 2013, to evaluate radiometric consistency of these four hyperspectral IR sounders. The spectra from different sounders are paired together through strict spatial and temporal collocation. The uniform scenes are selected by examining the collocated Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) pixels. Their brightness temperature (BT) differences are then calculated by converting the spectra onto common spectral grids. The results indicate that CrIS agrees well with IASI on MetOp-A and IASI on MetOp-B at the long-wave IR (LWIR) and middle-wave IR (MWIR) bands with 0.1-0.2 K differences. There are no apparent scene-dependent patterns for BT differences between CrIS and IASI for individual spectral channels. CrIS and AIRS are compared at the 25 spectral regions for both polar and tropical SNOs. The combined global SNO data sets indicate that the CrIS-AIRS BT differences are less than or around 0.1 K among 21 of 25 spectral regions and they range from 0.15 to 0.21 K in the remaining four spectral regions. CrIS-AIRS BT differences in some comparison spectral regions show weak scene-dependent features.

  9. Mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Somenath; Mondal, Modhuchanda; Das, Kapildev; Shrimal, Arpit

    2012-09-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder of calcium and phosphorus metabolism due to decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism can be hereditary and acquired. Acquired hypoparathyroidism usually occurs following neck surgery (thyroid surgery or parathyroid surgery). Along with systemic manifestations, hypoparathyroidism produces some skin manifestations. Lack of study regarding mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism prompted us to undertake this study. To evaluate the mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism. An observational study done in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata by comprehensive history taking, through clinical examination and relevant laboratory investigations. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. The commonest form of acquired hypoparathyroidism was neck surgery (thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy operation). Mucocutaneous manifestations were present in 76.19% of patients. The most frequent mucocutaneous manifestation was found in the hairs like the loss of axillary hair (61.9%), loss of pubic hair (52.38%), coarsening of body hair (47.62%), and alopecia areata (9.52%). The nail changes noted were brittle and ridged nail, followed by onycholysis, onychosezia, and onychomedesis. The most common skin features were xerotic skin in 11 patients (52.38%), followed by pellagra-like skin pigmentation, pustular psoriasis and acne form eruption, bullous impetigo, etc. Mucosa was normal in all the cases excepting the one which showed oral candidiasis. PMID:23087872

  10. Diminished acquired equivalence yet good discrimination performance in older participants

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jasper; Owens, Emma

    2013-01-01

    We asked younger and older human participants to perform computer-based configural discriminations that were designed to detect acquired equivalence. Both groups solved the discriminations but only the younger participants demonstrated acquired equivalence. The discriminations involved learning the preferences [“like” (+) or “dislike” (−)] for sports [e.g., tennis (t) and hockey (h)] of four fictitious people [e.g., Alice (A), Beth (B), Charlotte (C), and Dorothy (D)]. In one experiment, the discrimination had the form: At+, Bt−, Ct+, Dt−, Ah−, Bh+, Ch−, Dh+. Notice that, e.g., Alice and Charlotte are “equivalent” in liking tennis but disliking hockey. Acquired equivalence was assessed in ancillary components of the discrimination (e.g., by looking at the subsequent rate of “whole” versus “partial” reversal learning). Acquired equivalence is anticipated by a network whose hidden units are shared when inputs (e.g., A and C) signal the same outcome (e.g., +) when accompanied by the same input (t). One interpretation of these results is that there are age-related differences in the mechanisms of configural acquired equivalence. PMID:24130542

  11. Myosin light-chain phosphatase.

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, M; Perry, S V; Ottaway, J

    1976-01-01

    1. A method for the isolation of a new enzyme, myosin light-chain phosphatase, from rabbit white skeletal muscle by using a Sepharose-phosphorylated myosin light-chain affinity column is described. 2. The enzyme migrated as a single component on electrophoresis in sodium dodecyl sulphate/polyacrylamide gel at pH7.0, with apparent mol.wt. 70000. 3. The enzyme was highly specific for the phosphorylated P-light chain of myosin, had pH optima at 6.5 and 8.0 and was not inhibited by NaF. 4. A Ca2+-sensitive 'ATPase' (adenosine triphosphatase) system consisting of myosin light-chain kinase, myosin light-chain phosphatase and the P-light chain is described. 5. Evidence is presented for a phosphoryl exchange between Pi, phosphorylated P-light chain and myosin light-chain phosphatase. 6. Heavy meromyosin prepared by chymotryptic digestion can be phosphorylated by myosin light-chain kinase. 7. The ATPase activities of myosin and heavy meromyosin, in the presence and absence of F-actin, were not significantly changed (+/- 10%) by phosphorylation of the P-light chain. Images PLATE 1 PMID:186030

  12. Consistent lattice Boltzmann equations for phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Siebert, D N; Philippi, P C; Mattila, K K

    2014-11-01

    Unlike conventional computational fluid dynamics methods, the lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) describes the dynamic behavior of fluids in a mesoscopic scale based on discrete forms of kinetic equations. In this scale, complex macroscopic phenomena like the formation and collapse of interfaces can be naturally described as related to source terms incorporated into the kinetic equations. In this context, a novel athermal lattice Boltzmann scheme for the simulation of phase transition is proposed. The continuous kinetic model obtained from the Liouville equation using the mean-field interaction force approach is shown to be consistent with diffuse interface model using the Helmholtz free energy. Density profiles, interface thickness, and surface tension are analytically derived for a plane liquid-vapor interface. A discrete form of the kinetic equation is then obtained by applying the quadrature method based on prescribed abscissas together with a third-order scheme for the discretization of the streaming or advection term in the Boltzmann equation. Spatial derivatives in the source terms are approximated with high-order schemes. The numerical validation of the method is performed by measuring the speed of sound as well as by retrieving the coexistence curve and the interface density profiles. The appearance of spurious currents near the interface is investigated. The simulations are performed with the equations of state of Van der Waals, Redlich-Kwong, Redlich-Kwong-Soave, Peng-Robinson, and Carnahan-Starling. PMID:25493907

  13. Self consistency grouping: a stringent clustering method

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous types of clustering like single linkage and K-means have been widely studied and applied to a variety of scientific problems. However, the existing methods are not readily applicable for the problems that demand high stringency. Methods Our method, self consistency grouping, i.e. SCG, yields clusters whose members are closer in rank to each other than to any member outside the cluster. We do not define a distance metric; we use the best known distance metric and presume that it measures the correct distance. SCG does not impose any restriction on the size or the number of the clusters that it finds. The boundaries of clusters are determined by the inconsistencies in the ranks. In addition to the direct implementation that finds the complete structure of the (sub)clusters we implemented two faster versions. The fastest version is guaranteed to find only the clusters that are not subclusters of any other clusters and the other version yields the same output as the direct implementation but does so more efficiently. Results Our tests have demonstrated that SCG yields very few false positives. This was accomplished by introducing errors in the distance measurement. Clustering of protein domain representatives by structural similarity showed that SCG could recover homologous groups with high precision. Conclusions SCG has potential for finding biological relationships under stringent conditions. PMID:23320864

  14. Trisomy 21 consistently activates the interferon response

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Kelly D; Lewis, Hannah C; Hill, Amanda A; Pandey, Ahwan; Jackson, Leisa P; Cabral, Joseph M; Smith, Keith P; Liggett, L Alexander; Gomez, Eliana B; Galbraith, Matthew D; DeGregori, James; Espinosa, Joaquín M

    2016-01-01

    Although it is clear that trisomy 21 causes Down syndrome, the molecular events acting downstream of the trisomy remain ill defined. Using complementary genomics analyses, we identified the interferon pathway as the major signaling cascade consistently activated by trisomy 21 in human cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that trisomy 21 activates the interferon transcriptional response in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cell lines, as well as circulating monocytes and T cells. Trisomy 21 cells show increased induction of interferon-stimulated genes and decreased expression of ribosomal proteins and translation factors. An shRNA screen determined that the interferon-activated kinases JAK1 and TYK2 suppress proliferation of trisomy 21 fibroblasts, and this defect is rescued by pharmacological JAK inhibition. Therefore, we propose that interferon activation, likely via increased gene dosage of the four interferon receptors encoded on chromosome 21, contributes to many of the clinical impacts of trisomy 21, and that interferon antagonists could have therapeutic benefits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16220.001 PMID:27472900

  15. Ciliate communities consistently associated with coral diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, M. J.; Séré, M. G.

    2016-07-01

    Incidences of coral disease are increasing. Most studies which focus on diseases in these organisms routinely assess variations in bacterial associates. However, other microorganism groups such as viruses, fungi and protozoa are only recently starting to receive attention. This study aimed at assessing the diversity of ciliates associated with coral diseases over a wide geographical range. Here we show that a wide variety of ciliates are associated with all nine coral diseases assessed. Many of these ciliates such as Trochilia petrani and Glauconema trihymene feed on the bacteria which are likely colonizing the bare skeleton exposed by the advancing disease lesion or the necrotic tissue itself. Others such as Pseudokeronopsis and Licnophora macfarlandi are common predators of other protozoans and will be attracted by the increase in other ciliate species to the lesion interface. However, a few ciliate species (namely Varistrombidium kielum, Philaster lucinda, Philaster guamense, a Euplotes sp., a Trachelotractus sp. and a Condylostoma sp.) appear to harbor symbiotic algae, potentially from the coral themselves, a result which may indicate that they play some role in the disease pathology at the very least. Although, from this study alone we are not able to discern what roles any of these ciliates play in disease causation, the consistent presence of such communities with disease lesion interfaces warrants further investigation.

  16. Generalized arc consistency for global cardinality constraint

    SciTech Connect

    Regin, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    A global cardinality constraint (gcc) is specified in terms of a set of variables X = (x{sub 1},..., x{sub p}) which take their values in a subset of V = (v{sub 1},...,v{sub d}). It constrains the number of times a value v{sub i} {epsilon} V is assigned to a variable in X to be in an interval [l{sub i}, c{sub i}]. Cardinality constraints have proved very useful in many real-life problems, such as scheduling, timetabling, or resource allocation. A gcc is more general than a constraint of difference, which requires each interval to be. In this paper, we present an efficient way of implementing generalized arc consistency for a gcc. The algorithm we propose is based on a new theorem of flow theory. Its space complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}) and its time complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar}{sup 2} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}). We also show how this algorithm can efficiently be combined with other filtering techniques.

  17. Evolution of acquired resistance to anti-cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Jasmine; Michor, Franziska

    2014-01-01

    Acquired drug resistance is a major limitation for the successful treatment of cancer. Resistance can emerge due to a variety of reasons including host environmental factors as well as genetic or epigenetic alterations in the cancer cells. Evolutionary theory has contributed to the understanding of the dynamics of resistance mutations in a cancer cell population, the risk of resistance pre-existing before the initiation of therapy, the composition of drug cocktails necessary to prevent the emergence of resistance, and optimum drug administration schedules for patient populations at risk of evolving acquired resistance. Here we review recent advances towards elucidating the evolutionary dynamics of acquired drug resistance and outline how evolutionary thinking can contribute to outstanding questions in the field. PMID:24681298

  18. Free Auricular Composite Graft for Acquired Nasal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Charles A.; Lawlor, Claire M.; Gray, Mingyang Liu; Graham, H. Devon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acquired nasal stenosis poses a reconstructive challenge for the facial plastic surgeon. Many surgical options are available, ranging from primary closure to skin grafts to free flap reconstruction for complex defects. The free auricular composite graft is a single-stage procedure that can be used to repair nasal vestibular stenosis causing nasal obstruction. Case Report: We present the case of a patient with acquired nasal stenosis as a result of prolonged nasal tampon placement secondary to severe epistaxis and subsequent nasal vestibular infection. Repair via auricular composite graft was successful, and we provide a thorough explanation of graft design and operative technique. Conclusion: Free auricular composite grafts can produce desirable functional and aesthetic outcomes and should be considered in patients presenting with acquired nasal stenosis. PMID:27303225

  19. ACQUIRE: A data acquisition system for CAMAC on SUN workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, R.T. ); Lowry, M.M. )

    1994-02-01

    The data acquisition software package ACQUIRE has been used for many years by the Princeton University Cyclotron Laboratory for nuclear physics research applications. This code has been ported to the SUN Sparc workstation and is fully functional, including block data transfers using an in crate Event Handler. A SCSI interface to CAMAC is utilized, and the device handling software has been developed in such a way that little modification was needed in the ACQUIRE code for the SUN implementation. The Higz X windows graphics package from CERN is used for data display. ACQUIRE will be used for test and development of CAMAC based systems within the Molecular Science Research Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

  20. Staphylococci in community-acquired infections: Increased resistance to penicillin.

    PubMed

    Hughes, G B; Chidi, C C; Macon, W L

    1976-04-01

    One hundred patients with community-acquired staphylococcal infections of the skin and soft tissues were treated in the Emergency Ward of Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital from June to October of 1974. Each staphylococcal infection was considered community-acquired if, within two weeks prior to being treated for the first time, the patient had not received antibiotics, had not been hospitalized, and had not been in contact with other recently hospitalized persons. Of 100 community-acquired staphylococcal infections, 85 were resistant to penicillin. Almost no resistance to other tested antibiotics was observed. Unless indicated otherwise by bacteriologic testing, penicillin is a poor drug of choice in those skin and soft tissue infections suspected of harboring staphylococci. PMID:1267491

  1. Acquired night blindness due to bad eating patterns.

    PubMed

    Parafita-Fernández, A; Escalona-Fermín, M M; Sampil, M; Moraña, N; Viso, E; Fernández-Vila, P C

    2015-06-01

    We report a case of acquired night blindness in a developed country (Spain) without risk factors for nutritional deficiency disease or family history of hereditary retinal disease. A 76-year-old woman presented with acquired night blindness of 6-month progression. After a thorough inquiry about eating patterns she becomes suspicious of vitamin A low dietary intake, which is analytically confirmed and successfully treated. Despite being very uncommon in our environment and even more in patients without digestive problems, in a patient reporting acquired night blindness vitamin A deficiency should not be discarded until eating patterns have been investigated. It might be especially relevant in certain socioeconomic situations and eating disorders such as bulimia or anorexia nervosa. PMID:25804276

  2. No-Light Light Bulbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A thumbnail sketch of some of the light bulbs manufactured for a purpose other than seeing. These "dark" lamps perform varied tasks including keeping food fresh, detecting and preventing disease, spurring plant growth, heating, and copying printed material. (Author/MLF)

  3. Light Sources and Lighting Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Hisashi; Suwa, Takumi; Yasuda, Takeo; Ohtani, Yoshihiko; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Komatsu, Naoki; Mannami, Tomoaki

    According to the Machinery Statistics of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, the production of incandescent lamps in Japan in 2007 was 990 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total), in which the production of incandescent lamps for general lighting was 110 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total) and of tungsten-halogen lamps was 44 million units (96.6% of the previous year's total). The production of fluorescent lamps was 927 million units (93.9% of the previous year's total), in which general fluorescent lamps, excluding those for LCD back lighting, was 320 million units (87.2% of the previous year's total). Also, the production of HID lamps was 10 million units (101.5% of the previous year's total). On the other hand, when the numbers of sales are compared with the sales of the previous year, incandescent lamps for general use was 99.8%, tungsten-halogen lamps was 96.9%, fluorescent lamps was 95.9%, and HID lamps was 98.9%. Self-ballasted fluorescent lamps alone showed an increase in sales as strong as 29 million units, or 121.7% of the previous year's sales. It is considered that the switchover of incandescent lamps to HID lamps was promoted for energy conservation and carbon dioxide reduction with the problem of global warming in the background. In regard to exhibitions, Lighting Fair 2007 was held in Tokyo in March, and LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL 2007 was held in New York in May. Regarding academic conferences, LS:11 (the 11th International Symposium on the Science & Technology of Light Sources) was held in Shanghai in May, and the First International Conference on White LEDs and Solid State Lighting was held in Tokyo in November. Both conferences suggested that there are strong needs and concerns now about energy conservation, saving natural resources, and restrictions of hazardous materials. In regard to incandescent lamps, the development of products aiming at higher efficacy, electric power savings, and longer life was advanced by

  4. The mechanism of acquired resistance to irreversible EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-afatinib in lung adenocarcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shang-Gin; Liu, Yi-Nan; Tsai, Meng-Feng; Chang, Yih-Leong; Yu, Chong-Jen; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yang, James Chih-Hsin; Wen, Yueh-Feng; Shih, Jin-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are associated with favorable response in EGFR mutant lung cancer. Acquired resistance to reversible EGFR TKIs remains a significant barrier, and acquired EGFR T790M-mutation is the major mechanism. Second-generation irreversible EGFR TKI, afatinib, had also been approved for treating EGFR mutant lung cancer patients, but the mechanism of acquired resistance to afatinib has not been well studied. Results Forty-two patients had tissue specimens taken after acquiring resistance to afatinib. The sensitizing EGFR mutation were all consistent between pre- and post-afatinib tissues. Twenty patients (47.6%) had acquired T790M mutation. T790M rate was not different between first-generation EGFR TKI-naïve patients (50%) and first-generation EGFR TKI-treated patients (46.4%) (p = 0.827). No clinical characteristics or EGFR mutation types were associated with the development of acquired T790M. No other second-site EGFR mutations were detected. There were no small cell or squamous cell lung cancer transformation. Other genetic mutations were not identified in PIK3CA, BRAF, HER2, KRAS, NRAS, MEK1, AKT2, LKB1 and JAK2. Methods Afatinib-prescription record of our department of pharmacy from January 2007 and December 2014 was retrieved. We investigated patients with tissue specimens available after acquiring resistance to afatinib. Enrolled patients should have partial response or durable stable disease of treatment response to afatinib. Various mechanisms of acquired resistance to first-generation EGFR TKIs were evaluated. Histology and cytology were reviewed. EGFR, PIK3CA, BRAF, HER2, KRAS, NRAS, MEK1, AKT2, LKB1 and JAK2 genetic alterations were evaluated by sequencing. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier method. Conclusions T790M was detected in half of the lung adenocarcinoma after acquiring resistance to afatinib. T790M is still the major acquired

  5. EDITORIAL: Controlling light with light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesselink, Lambertus; Feinberg, Jack; Roosen, Gerald

    2008-11-01

    The field of photorefractive physics and optics is mature and, although there is no significant commercial activity using photorefractive media, researchers in the field have had an extraordinary impact on many related areas of research and development. For example, in the late 1990s many of the telecom innovations and products were based on the interaction between light and matter. Examples include optical switches, filters, gratings, routers and light sources. The theory of multiple interacting beams of light inside a photosensitive medium, many of which were developed or further explored in photorefractive media, has found application in medicine, engineering, communication systems, displays and other photonics devices. On the occasions of the 30th anniversary of the theory of coupled wave analysis and the 10th anniversary of the meetings on Photorefractive Effects and Devices, it seemed appropriate to the meeting organizers of PR'07 to broaden the scope to include other related fields. The name of the meeting was changed to Controlling Light with Light: Photorefractive Effects, Photosensitivity, Fiber Gratings, Photonic Materials and More to attract a larger audience than traditionally would attend the more narrowly focused photorefractive meeting. To further disseminate the results of the 2007 meeting, Gerald Roosen proposed a special publication of original full research articles arising from key presentations at the meeting. The selection of papers in this Cluster Issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics is the result of that initiative. We would like to thank all the authors for their contributions, the committee members for their valuable insight and efforts in helping to organize the meeting, and the Optical Society of America for their professional assistance throughout the preparation period of the meeting as well as during the three beautiful days in Lake Tahoe, CA.

  6. Pediatric sensorineural hearing loss, part 2: syndromic and acquired causes.

    PubMed

    Huang, B Y; Zdanski, C; Castillo, M

    2012-03-01

    This article is the second in a 2-part series reviewing neuroimaging in childhood SNHL. Previously, we discussed the clinical work-up of children with hearing impairment, the classification of inner ear malformations, and congenital nonsyndromic causes of hearing loss. Here, we review and illustrate the most common syndromic hereditary and acquired causes of childhood SNHL, with an emphasis on entities that demonstrate inner ear abnormalities on cross-sectional imaging. Syndromes discussed include BOR syndrome, CHARGE syndrome, Pendred syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, and X-linked hearing loss with stapes gusher. We conclude the article with a review of acquired causes of childhood SNHL, including infections, trauma, and neoplasms. PMID:21596810

  7. Imaging of acquired coronary diseases: From children to adults.

    PubMed

    Dehaene, A; Jacquier, A; Falque, C; Gorincour, G; Gaubert, J Y

    2016-05-01

    Acquired coronary diseases include aneurysms, fistulae, dissections, and stenosis. Aneurysms may occur secondarily to Kawasaki disease, a childhood vasculitis, the prognosis of which depends on the coronary involvement, or they may be degenerative, infectious, inflammatory, or traumatic in origin. Fistulae develop between the coronary arterial system and a pulmonary or bronchial artery, or cardiac cavity. Dissections may occur spontaneously or may be post-traumatic. These coronary abnormalities may be found incidentally or may present as complications, infarction or rupture. The goals of this article are to understand acquired childhood and adult coronary diseases and their usual means of presentation, the ways of investigating them, and the principles of their treatment. PMID:27130480

  8. [Features of morbidity community-acquired pneumonia among young recruits].

    PubMed

    Serdukov, D U; Gordienko, A V; Kozlov, M S; Mikhailov, A A; Davydov, P A

    2015-10-01

    Were examined 3338 military personnel of the combined training center. 183 of them diagnosed community-acquired pneumonia, in 3155 focal and infiltrative changes in lung tissue were not identified. The analisys of prevalence been made among young recruits of the acute respiratory illness before arriving in part and at the assembly point, foci of chronic infection, smoking, low body weight. 511 military personnel arrived at the training center in the disease state with symptoms of acute respiratory illness. Examined the relationship these risk factor to the development of community-acquired pneumonia in this category of servicemen. PMID:26827502

  9. Acquired coagulation factor XIII deficiency: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yongqing; Hu, Huixian; Wei, Bin

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of the study is to summarize the clinical characteristics of acquired factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency caused by a spontaneous FXIII inhibitor. Here we report a new case of acquired FXIII deficiency caused by FXIII inhibitor and review the medical literature regarding the characteristics and treatment of this disorder. FXIII deficiency caused by FXIII inhibitors is rare and of uncertain pathogenesis. Experience with therapeutic measures is limited to data from case reports. Immunosuppressive drugs may reduce autoantibodies or inhibit the cell clone generating the antibodies and may have been of benefit in our patient. The impact of such therapy on patient prognosis is incompletely known. PMID:26588447

  10. Acquired hemophilia A in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, T; Tsukamoto, N; Suto, M; Uchiumi, H; Mitsuhashi, H; Yokohama, A; Maesawa, A; Nojima, Y; Naruse, T

    2001-06-01

    A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed acquired hemophilia A. The patient, a 24-year-old Japanese woman, was referred to our hospital because of uncontrollable bleeding following a tooth extraction. Laboratory examination revealed prolonged APTT (116 seconds), reduced factor VIII activity (2.8 %) and the presence of factor VIII inhibitor at a titer of 46.5 Bethesda units/ml. Transfusion of prothrombin complex concentrate and activated prothrombin complex concentrate followed by administration of prednisolone and cyclophosphamide successfully arrested bleeding and reduced the factor VIII inhibitor level. Acquired hemophilia A is a rare but lethal condition. Rapid diagnosis and introduction of adequate therapies are critical. PMID:11446683

  11. Geometrically consistent approach to stochastic DBI inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Lorenz, Larissa; Martin, Jerome; Yokoyama, Jun'ichi

    2010-07-15

    Stochastic effects during inflation can be addressed by averaging the quantum inflaton field over Hubble-patch-sized domains. The averaged field then obeys a Langevin-type equation into which short-scale fluctuations enter as a noise term. We solve the Langevin equation for an inflaton field with a Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) kinetic term perturbatively in the noise and use the result to determine the field value's probability density function (PDF). In this calculation, both the shape of the potential and the warp factor are arbitrary functions, and the PDF is obtained with and without volume effects due to the finite size of the averaging domain. DBI kinetic terms typically arise in string-inspired inflationary scenarios in which the scalar field is associated with some distance within the (compact) extra dimensions. The inflaton's accessible range of field values therefore is limited because of the extra dimensions' finite size. We argue that in a consistent stochastic approach the inflaton's PDF must vanish for geometrically forbidden field values. We propose to implement these extra-dimensional spatial restrictions into the PDF by installing absorbing (or reflecting) walls at the respective boundaries in field space. As a toy model, we consider a DBI inflaton between two absorbing walls and use the method of images to determine its most general PDF. The resulting PDF is studied in detail for the example of a quartic warp factor and a chaotic inflaton potential. The presence of the walls is shown to affect the inflaton trajectory for a given set of parameters.

  12. Dark Light-Higgs Bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, Patrick; Liu Tao; Wagner, Carlos E. M.; Wang, Lian-Tao; Zhang Hao

    2011-03-25

    We study a limit of the nearly Peccei-Quinn-symmetric next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model possessing novel Higgs and dark matter (DM) properties. In this scenario, there naturally coexist three light singletlike particles: a scalar, a pseudoscalar, and a singlinolike DM candidate, all with masses of order 0.1-10 GeV. The decay of a standard model-like Higgs boson to pairs of the light scalars or pseudoscalars is generically suppressed, avoiding constraints from collider searches for these channels. For a certain parameter window annihilation into the light pseudoscalar and exchange of the light scalar with nucleons allow the singlino to achieve the correct relic density and a large direct-detection cross section consistent with the DM direct-detection experiments, CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA, preferred region simultaneously. This parameter space is consistent with experimental constraints from LEP, the Tevatron, {Upsilon}, and flavor physics.

  13. Measuring consistent masses for 25 Milky Way globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmig, Brian; Seth, Anil; Ivans, Inese I.; Anderton, Tim; Gregersen, Dylan; Strader, Jay; Caldwell, Nelson

    2015-02-01

    We present central velocity dispersions, masses, mass-to-light ratios (M/Ls ), and rotation strengths for 25 Galactic globular clusters (GCs). We derive radial velocities of 1951 stars in 12 GCs from single order spectra taken with Hectochelle on the MMT telescope. To this sample we add an analysis of available archival data of individual stars. For the full set of data we fit King models to derive consistent dynamical parameters for the clusters. We find good agreement between single-mass King models and the observed radial dispersion profiles. The large, uniform sample of dynamical masses we derive enables us to examine trends of M/L with cluster mass and metallicity. The overall values of M/L and the trends with mass and metallicity are consistent with existing measurements from a large sample of M31 clusters. This includes a clear trend of increasing M/L with cluster mass and lower than expected M/Ls for the metal-rich clusters. We find no clear trend of increasing rotation with increasing cluster metallicity suggested in previous work.

  14. The Detection of a Light Echo from Type Ia SN 2007af in NGC 5584

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, Dina; Leising, M. D.; Milne, P.; Riess, A. G.

    2013-06-01

    We report the discovery of a light echo (LE) at t ~1000 days past maximum from the normal Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia) SN 2007af in the spiral galaxy NGC 5584. The presence of a LE is supported by photometric data and analysis of the images acquired during the Cepheid campaign using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (Riess et al. 2011). The F350 and F555 images show a distinct ring-like structure with an additional central source. The images, taken months apart, show an evolution of the ring structure, which is consistent with a growing light echo in time. We find an angular radius of the outer echo to be ~0.29'' - 0.36''. Using the Cepheid distance to NGC 5584 of 24 Mpc, we find the dust illuminated by the light echo to be at a distance ~800 pc from the supernova. This rare discovery adds to the select few light echoes found in Type Ia SNe: SN 1572, SN 1991T, SN 1995E, SN 1998bu, and SN 2006X. Light echoes are powerful tools that probe the environment around supernovae, determine dust properties and characteristics, and could provide constraints on the progenitors, which are not fully understood for SN Ia.

  15. Combining land use data acquired from Landsat with soil map data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.; Brandner, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    A method currently used to derive agrophysical units (APUs), i.e., geographical areas having definable/comparable agronomic and physical parameters which reflect a range in agricultural use and management, is discussed with reference to results obtained for South Dakota and an area in China. The method consists of combining agricultural land use data acquired from Landsat with soil map data. The resulting map units are soil associations characterized by cropland use intensity, and they can be used to identify major cropland areas and to develop a rating reflecting the relative potential of the soils in the delineated area for crop production, as well as to update small-scale soil maps.

  16. Irreversible inhibitors of the EGF receptor may circumvent acquired resistance to gefitinib

    PubMed Central

    Kwak, Eunice L.; Sordella, Raffaella; Bell, Daphne W.; Godin-Heymann, Nadia; Okimoto, Ross A.; Brannigan, Brian W.; Harris, Patricia L.; Driscoll, David R.; Fidias, Panos; Lynch, Thomas J.; Rabindran, Sridhar K.; McGinnis, John P.; Wissner, Allan; Sharma, Sreenath V.; Isselbacher, Kurt J.; Settleman, Jeffrey; Haber, Daniel A.

    2005-01-01

    Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs) with activating mutations in the kinase domain of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) demonstrate dramatic, but transient, responses to the reversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors gefitinib (Iressa) and erlotinib (Tarceva). Some recurrent tumors have a common secondary mutation in the EGFR kinase domain, T790M, conferring drug resistance, but in other cases the mechanism underlying acquired resistance is unknown. In studying multiple sites of recurrent NSCLCs, we detected T790M in only a small percentage of tumor cells. To identify additional mechanisms of acquired resistance to gefitinib, we used NSCLC cells harboring an activating EGFR mutation to generate multiple resistant clones in vitro. These drug-resistant cells demonstrate continued dependence on EGFR and ERBB2 signaling for their viability and have not acquired secondary EGFR mutations. However, they display increased internalization of ligand-activated EGFR, consistent with altered receptor trafficking. Although gefitinib-resistant clones are cross-resistant to related anilinoquinazolines, they demonstrate sensitivity to a class of irreversible inhibitors of EGFR. These inhibitors also show effective inhibition of signaling by T790M-mutant EGFR and killing of NSCLC cells with the T790M mutation. Both mechanisms of gefitinib resistance are therefore circumvented by irreversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors. Our findings suggest that one of these, HKI-272, may prove highly effective in the treatment of EGFR-mutant NSCLCs, including tumors that have become resistant to gefitinib or erlotinib. PMID:15897464

  17. Gender Differences in Community-acquired Meningitis in Adults: Clinical Presentations and Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Dharmarajan, Lavanya; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Community-acquired meningitis is a serious disease that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the gender differences involved with the clinical presentations of and prognostic factors for this disease. We conducted a retrospective study of 619 adults diagnosed with community-acquired meningitis in Houston, Texas, who were hospitalized between 2005 and 2010. Patients were categorized as male or female. Those who were evaluated to have a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of four or less were classified to have an adverse clinical outcome. Males consisted of 47.2% (292/619) of the total cohort, and more often presented with coexisting medical conditions, fever, abnormal microbiology results, and abnormalities on head computed tomography. Females more often presented with nuchal rigidity. On logistic regression, fever, CSF glucose <45 mg/dL, and an abnormal neurological examination were predictors of an adverse outcome in male patients, while age greater than 60 years and an abnormal neurological examination were associated with a poor prognosis in female patients. Thus, community-acquired meningitis in males differs significantly from females in regards to comorbidities, presenting symptoms and signs, abnormal laboratory and imaging analysis, and predictors of adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:27500284

  18. Low-dose exposure to inorganic mercury accelerates disease and mortality in acquired murine lupus.

    PubMed Central

    Via, Charles S; Nguyen, Phuong; Niculescu, Florin; Papadimitriou, John; Hoover, Dennis; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2003-01-01

    Inorganic mercury (iHg) is known to induce autoimmune disease in susceptible rodent strains. Additionally, in inbred strains of mice prone to autoimmune disease, iHg can accelerate and exacerbate disease manifestations. Despite these well-known links between iHg and autoimmunity in animal models, no association between iHg alone and autoimmune disease in humans has been documented. However, it is possible that low-level iHg exposure can interact with disease triggers to enhance disease expression or susceptibility. To address whether exposure to iHg can alter the course of subsequent acquired autoimmune disease, we used a murine model of acquired autoimmunity, lupus-like chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), in which autoimmunity is induced using normal, nonautoimmune prone donor and F1 recipient mice resistant to Hg-induced autoimmunity. Our results indicate that a 2-week exposure to low-dose iHg (20 or 200 micro g/kg every other day) to donor and host mice ending 1 week before GVHD induction can significantly worsen parameters of disease severity, resulting in premature mortality. iHg pretreatment clearly worsened chronic lupus-like disease, rather than GVHD worsening iHg immunotoxicity. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that low-level, nontoxic iHg preexposure may interact with other risk factors, genetic or acquired, to promote subsequent autoimmune disease development. PMID:12896845

  19. Exciting Polaritons with Quantum Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López Carreño, J. C.; Sánchez Muñoz, C.; Sanvitto, D.; del Valle, E.; Laussy, F. P.

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the excitation of polaritons—strongly coupled states of light and matter—by quantum light, instead of the usual laser or thermal excitation. As one illustration of the new horizons thus opened, we introduce "Mollow spectroscopy"—a theoretical concept for a spectroscopic technique that consists of scanning the output of resonance fluorescence onto an optical target—from which weak nonlinearities can be read with high precision even in strongly dissipative environments.

  20. Virtual reflected-light microscopy.

    PubMed

    Harrison, A P; Wong, C M; Joseph, D

    2011-12-01

    Research on better methods to digitally represent microscopic specimens has increased over recent decades. Opaque specimens, such as microfossils and metallurgic specimens, are often viewed using reflected light microscopy. Existing 3D surface estimation techniques for reflected light microscopy do not model reflectance, restricting the representation to only one illumination condition and making them an imperfect recreation of the experience of using an actual microscope. This paper introduces a virtual reflected-light microscopy (VRLM) system that estimates both shape and reflectance from a set of specimen images. When coupled with anaglyph creation, the system can depict both depth information and illumination cues under any desired lighting configuration. Digital representations are compact and easily viewed in an online setting. A prototype used to construct VRLM representations is comprised only of a microscope, a digital camera, a motorized stage and software. Such a system automatically acquires VRLM representations of large batches of specimens. VRLM representations are then disseminated in an interactive online environment, which allows users to change the virtual light source direction and type. Experiments demonstrate high quality VRLM representations of 500 microfossils. PMID:21919903

  1. Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Jennifer L; Phillips, Samuel C; Evans, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed 'personality'). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success. PMID:24036665

  2. Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Samuel C.; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed ‘personality’). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.

  3. [The dangers of blue light: True story!].

    PubMed

    Renard, G; Leid, J

    2016-05-01

    The dangers of the blue light are the object of numerous publications, for both the scientific community and the general public. The new prolific development of light sources emitting potentially toxic blue light (415-455nm) ranges from LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lamps for interior lighting to television screens, computers, digital tablets and smartphones using OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) or AMOLED (Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. First we will review some technical terms and the main characteristics of light perceived by the human eye. Then we will discuss scientific proof of the toxicity of blue light to the eye, which may cause cataract or macular degeneration. Analysis of the light spectra of several light sources, from natural light to LED lamps, will allow us to specify even better the dangers related to each light source. LED lamps, whether used as components for interior lighting or screens, are of concern if they are used for extended viewing times and at short distance. While we can protect ourselves from natural blue light by wearing colored glasses which filter out, on both front and back surfaces, the toxic wavelengths, it is more difficult to protect oneself from LED lamps in internal lighting, the use of which should be restricted to "white warmth" lamps (2700K). As far as OLED or AMOLED screens are concerned, the only effective protection consists of using them occasionally and only for a short period of time. PMID:27039979

  4. Improving measurement of forest light environments with hemispherical photography: the use of non-RGB color spaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prohaska, N.; Wu, J.; Stark, S. C.; Albert, L.; Smith, M.; Taylor, T.; Wiedemann, K.; da Silva, R.; Saleska, S. R.

    2013-12-01

    Light environments are fundamental determinants of leaf growth and function within forest canopies, and improved methods to quickly and easily measure light micro-environments can contribute to our ability to understand how light drives ecosystem processes. Upward facing hemispherical photographs are a common tool for quantifying the light environment of forest canopies, by classifying the photo (image segmentation) into ';sky' and ';not-sky' regions. However, accurate image segmentation of hemispherical photos into ';sky' and ';not sky' is difficult except under uniform diffuse light, which occurs only rarely (e.g. at dawn, dusk, or with uniform cloud conditions). This constraint on image acquisition greatly reduces the ability to obtain data in the field. Here, we develop and assess a new approach to using hemispherical image data acquired under non-ideal conditions in a broadleaf evergreen tropical forest in the Amazon of Brazil. Unlike one common approach that uses blue channel data only, we use information from all three channels by mathematically transforming images into other 3-channel color spaces. We compared results of image segmentation into sky and not-sky canopy regions across 14 non-RGB color spaces as well as the original RGB color space, as derived from 15 digital photos acquired at various positions within the forest canopy. Images were selected for variation in presence and absence of bright sun, overexposed leaves, specular highlights, blue-sky, and not-blue sky. We applied two widely used techniques (interactive thresholding and 2-dimensional maximum entropy) to classify the single-channel image from each color space into sky and not-sky regions for all photos. We assessed classification accuracy with confusion matrices that compared the automatic classifications to a user-defined ';true' classification. We found that the 14 non-RGB color spaces included four independent channels that were consistently superior to RGB channels in their

  5. Spoken Persuasive Discourse Abilities of Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Catherine; Kirk, Cecilia; Powell, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the performance of adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) during a spoken persuasive discourse task. Persuasive discourse is frequently used in social and academic settings and is of importance in the study of adolescent language. Method: Participants included 8 adolescents with ABI and 8 peers…

  6. Young Children's Recognition of How and when Knowledge Was Acquired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Connie M.; Bartsch, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated young children's understanding of how and when knowledge was acquired. In Experiment 1, thirty 4- and 5-year-olds were shown or told about various toys hidden in distinctive containers in two sessions a week apart. In the second session, children were asked how and when they learned the containers' contents. They more…

  7. Unexpected postpartum hemorrhage due to an acquired factor VIII inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Paidas, Michael J; Hossain, Nazli

    2014-09-01

    Unexplained postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) refractory to standard hemostatic measures should trigger a heightened clinical suspicion of an acquired bleeding disorder. When hemostatic medical interventions and surgical procedures fail to control the bleeding, then significant postoperative blood loss, debilitating morbidity, loss of fertility, and death may occur. In the setting of an autoantibody inhibitor to factor VIII (FVIII), control of life-threatening PPH and avoidance of subsequent bleeding episodes depends on a timely and accurate diagnosis, prompt hemostatic treatment and eradication of FVIII inhibitors, and appropriate long-term patient care and management. Acquired postpartum hemophilia due to a FVIII inhibitor is a rare cause of PPH; however, delayed treatment can lead to increased maternal morbidity and mortality. Acquired FVIII inhibitors also pose an emerging bleeding threat to the neonate as a result of possible transplacental transfer of FVIII autoantibodies to the fetus during the last trimester of pregnancy. The purpose of this review is to increase awareness among hematologists and obstetricians/gynecologists regarding the occurrence of FVIII neutralizing autoantibodies as a cause of PPH, and emphasize the importance of collaboration between obstetrician/gynecologists and hematology specialists to optimize the diagnostic evaluation, treatment, and long-term management of women who experience PPH due to an acquired FVIII inhibitor. PMID:24338123

  8. [Acquired agammaglobulinaemia with predominantly intestinal symptoms (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Goldach, R; Wittwer, J

    1977-11-01

    In a 45-year-old female patient primary acquired agammaglobulinaemia was diagnosed. Intestinal symptoms predominated. The disease was characterized by a B-cell defect. Substitution with gamma-globulin (Beriglobin) practically cured the symptoms. The pathogenesis of the disease remains unexplained. PMID:72639

  9. Acquired inducible antimicrobial resistance in Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chancey, Scott T; Zähner, Dorothea; Stephens, David S

    2012-01-01

    A major contributor to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive bacterial pathogens is the expansion of acquired, inducible genetic elements. Although acquired, inducible antibiotic resistance is not new, the interest in its molecular basis has been accelerated by the widening distribution and often ‘silent’ spread of the elements responsible, the diagnostic challenges of such resistance and the mounting limitations of available agents to treat Gram-positive infections. Acquired, inducible antibiotic resistance elements belong to the accessory genome of a species and are horizontally acquired by transformation/recombination or through the transfer of mobile DNA elements. The two key, but mechanistically very different, induction mechanisms are: ribosome-sensed induction, characteristic of the macrolide–lincosamide–streptogramin B antibiotics and tetracycline resistance, leading to ribosomal modifications or efflux pump activation; and resistance by cell surface-associated sensing of β-lactams (e.g., oxacillin), glycopeptides (e.g., vancomycin) and the polypeptide bacitracin, leading to drug inactivation or resistance due to cell wall alterations. PMID:22913355

  10. Bleomycin Containing Chemotherapeutic Regimen Induced Acquired Partial Lipodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Vishal R; Gupte, Novy; Mahajan, Vivek; Sharma, Rahul; Langer, Cheena; Khajuria, Vijay; Mahajan, Annil

    2016-01-01

    Bleomycin toxicity predominantly affects the skin and lungs. Cutaneous toxicity classically known to present with bleomycin are flagellate erythema and drug rash. We hereby report an isolated case of (bleomyicn)-induced acquired partial (lipodytrophy) having potential cosmetic implications in a young women prescribed postoperatively following a case of germ cell carcinoma of ovary (endodermal sinus tumor). PMID:26955139

  11. A Research-Inspired Laboratory Sequence Investigating Acquired Drug Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Elizabeth Vogel; Fortune, Jennifer A.; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we present a six-session laboratory exercise designed to introduce students to standard biochemical techniques in the context of investigating a high impact research topic, acquired resistance to the cancer drug Gleevec. Students express a Gleevec-resistant mutant of the Abelson tyrosine kinase domain, the active domain of an oncogenic…

  12. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  13. Frames of Reference in Spatial Memories Acquired From Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mou, Weimin; Zhang, Kan; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2004-01-01

    Four experiments examined reference systems in spatial memories acquired from language. Participants read narratives that located 4 objects in canonical (front, back, left, right) or noncanonical (left front, right front, left back, right back) positions around them. Participants' focus of attention was first set on each of the 4 objects, and then…

  14. Developmental and Acquired Dyslexia: Some Observations on Jorm (1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Andrew W.

    1979-01-01

    Jorm's proposal (EJ 205 636) that developmental dyslexics resemble brain-damaged deep dyslexics is not grounded on firm evidence. Holmes' likening of developmental dyslexia to acquired surface dyslexia at least demonstrates clear similarity between the errors made by the two groups. (Author/CP)

  15. Grief and Needs of Adults with Acquired Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Shirley A.; McKay, Robert C.; Nieuwoudt, Johan M.

    2010-01-01

    This report aims to illuminate the complex phenomenon of grief and the needs experienced throughout the time course of their impairments by adults with acquired visual impairments. The study applied a phenomenological research strategy using 10 case studies of South African adults, visually impaired within and beyond six years. Qualitative…

  16. Learning through Business Games: Acquiring Competences within Virtual Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortmuller, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The didactic function of business games is often seen only in the development of sociocommunicative competences and general problem-solving strategies. An equally important aspect of business games lies in the acquirement of technical and problem-oriented knowledge, which is the focus of this article. Moreover, this knowledge dimension is further…

  17. Management of Travel-Related Illness Acquired in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Walters, Michele

    2015-12-01

    Management of travel-related diseases acquired in Haiti begins with the identification of tropical diseases that are prevalent in the region. Knowledge of various tropical disease incubation periods and presenting symptoms is crucial to ensure rapid triage and management of care. PMID:26596662

  18. A case of acquired Gitelman syndrome presenting as hypokalemic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, M.; Kadri, P.; Pinto, R.

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a young female patient who presented with weakness of upper and lower limbs. On evaluation, she had hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, metabolic alkalosis and hypocalciuria. Anti-Ro (SSA) antibody was positive. She had an acquired Gitelman syndrome due to primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). SS presenting with features of Gitelman syndrome is very rare. PMID:26199478

  19. A case of acquired Gitelman syndrome presenting as hypokalemic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, M; Kadri, P; Pinto, R

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a young female patient who presented with weakness of upper and lower limbs. On evaluation, she had hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, metabolic alkalosis and hypocalciuria. Anti-Ro (SSA) antibody was positive. She had an acquired Gitelman syndrome due to primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). SS presenting with features of Gitelman syndrome is very rare. PMID:26199478

  20. 30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section 879.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER §...

  1. 30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section 879.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER §...

  2. Amazing Stories: Acquiring and Avoiding Inaccurate Information from Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, David N.; Hinze, Scott R.; Slaten, Daniel G.; Horton, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Authors of fiction need not provide accurate accounts of the world, which might generate concern about the kinds of information people can acquire from narratives. Research has demonstrated that readers liberally encode and rely upon the information provided in fictional stories. To date, materials used to demonstrate these effects have largely…

  3. Students with Acquired Brain Injury. The School's Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glang, Ann, Ed.; Singer, George H. S., Ed.; Todis, Bonnie, Ed.

    Designed for educators, this book focuses on educational issues relating to students with acquired brain injury (ABI), and describes approaches that have been effective in improving the school experiences of students with brain injury. Section 1 provides an introduction to issues related to ABI in children and youth and includes: "An Overview of…

  4. 41 CFR 128-1.5002-1 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acquire. 128-1.5002-1 Section 128-1.5002-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.50-Authorities and Responsibilities...

  5. 41 CFR 128-1.5002-1 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acquire. 128-1.5002-1 Section 128-1.5002-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.50-Authorities and Responsibilities...

  6. Acquiring Software Design Schemas: A Machine Learning Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harandi, Mehdi T.; Lee, Hing-Yan

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an approach based on machine learning that acquires software design schemas from design cases of existing applications. An overview of the technique, design representation, and acquisition system are presented. the paper also addresses issues associated with generalizing common features such as biases. The generalization process is illustrated using an example.

  7. A Corpus-Based Comparative Study of "Learn" and "Acquire"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    As an important yet intricate linguistic feature in English language, synonymy poses a great challenge for second language learners. Using the 100 million-word British National Corpus (BNC) as data and the software Sketch Engine (SkE) as an analyzing tool, this article compares the usage of "learn" and "acquire" used in natural…

  8. 43 CFR 3110.5-3 - Acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acquired lands. 3110.5-3 Section 3110.5-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...) If the lands applied for do not conform to the rectangular system of public land surveys, but...

  9. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the Army to acquire real estate for river and harbor improvements, flood control projects and... appropriating funds therefor. These enactments are generally termed Flood Control Acts and are passed following... consideration and approval. (c) Local cooperation. As a general rule in river and harbor and flood...

  10. Acquired Dysarthria in Conversation: Identifying Sources of Understandability Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Steven; Wilkinson, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Background: Acquired progressive dysarthria is traditionally assessed, rated, and researched using measures of speech perception and intelligibility. The focus is commonly on the individual with dysarthria and how speech deviates from a normative range. A complementary approach is to consider the features and consequences of dysarthric speech as…

  11. 10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of crude oil, DOE shall, through certified contracting officers, conduct crude oil acquisitions in... grades and quantities of crude oil. (d) Market analysis. (1) DOE shall establish a market value for each... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquiring oil by direct purchase. 626.6 Section...

  12. 10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of crude oil, DOE shall, through certified contracting officers, conduct crude oil acquisitions in... grades and quantities of crude oil. (d) Market analysis. (1) DOE shall establish a market value for each... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acquiring oil by direct purchase. 626.6 Section...

  13. The Method To Acquire the Strategic Knowledge on Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takaoka, Ryo; Okamoto, Toshio

    As a person learns, his problem solving ability improves and one reason for this is the increased acquisition of "macro-rules" which make problem solving more efficient. An intelligent computer assisted learning (ICAI) system is being developed which automatically acquires the useful knowledge from the domain experts; as experts give the learning…

  14. Heat Stress Screening of Peanut Seedlings for Acquired Thermotolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop a user-friendly and medium throughput laboratory protocol using acquired thermotolerance (ATT) in peanut seedlings as a measure of one mechanism of heat stress tolerance. Sixteen genotypes, including selected accessions of the U.S. peanut min...

  15. Migrants' Children's Orientations toward Acquiring a Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tiuriukanova, E. V.; Ledeneva, L.I.

    2006-01-01

    The article, based on a study carried out in 2003, discusses Russia's migrant children's orientations toward acquiring higher education in the Russia Federation. The focus of this study was to determine the educational factors that motivate migrants to relocate to the Russian Federation. Immigrants in Russia make up more than 5 percent of the…

  16. Acquired Dyslexia in a Turkish-English Speaker

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raman, Ilhan; Weekes, Brendan S.

    2005-01-01

    The Turkish script is characterised by completely transparent bidirectional mappings between orthography and phonology. To date, there has been no reported evidence of acquired dyslexia in Turkish speakers leading to the naive view that reading and writing problems in Turkish are probably rare. We examined the extent to which phonological…

  17. A Model for Evaluating and Acquiring Educational Software in Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen W.; And Others

    This paper describes a model for evaluating and acquiring instructionally effective and cost effective educational computer software in university psychology departments. Four stages in evaluating the software are developed: (1) establishing departmental goals and objectives for educational use of computers; (2) inventorying and evaluating…

  18. Characteristics of Individuals with Congenital and Acquired Deaf-Blindness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dalby, Dawn M.; Hirdes, John P.; Stolee, Paul; Strong, J. Graham; Poss, Jeff; Tjam, Erin Y.; Bowman, Lindsay; Ashworth, Melody

    2009-01-01

    Using a standardized assessment instrument, the authors compared 182 adults with congenital deaf-blindness and those with acquired deaf-blindness. They found that those with congenital deaf-blindness were more likely to have impairments in cognition, activities of daily living, and social interactions and were less likely to use speech for…

  19. 48 CFR 208.7002-1 - Acquiring department responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Acquiring department responsibilities. 208.7002-1 Section 208.7002-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND...

  20. 48 CFR 208.7002-1 - Acquiring department responsibilities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Acquiring department responsibilities. 208.7002-1 Section 208.7002-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE ACQUISITION PLANNING REQUIRED SOURCES OF SUPPLIES AND...