Science.gov

Sample records for acquire consistent lighting

  1. How Did Light Acquire a Velocity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauginie, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how light acquired a velocity through history, from the ancient Greeks to the early modern era. Combining abstract debates, models of light, practical needs, planned research and chance, this history illustrates several key points that should be brought out in science education.

  2. Consistency.

    PubMed

    Levin, Roger

    2005-09-01

    Consistency is a reflection of having the right model, the right systems and the right implementation. As Vince Lombardi, the legendary coach of the Green Bay Packers, once said, "You don't do things right once in a while. You do them right all the time." To provide the ultimate level of patient care, reduce stress for the dentist and staff members and ensure high practice profitability, consistency is key.

  3. Polarization-independent light-dispersing optical device consisting of two diffraction gratings and a waveplate.

    PubMed

    Amako, J; Fujii, E

    2014-06-10

    We report on a light-dispersing device consisting of two transmission gratings and a waveplate. The gratings separate two orthogonal polarization components of light incident at the Bragg angle. The waveplate, which is sandwiched between the gratings, functions as a polarization converter for oblique light incidence. With these optical parts suitably integrated, the resulting device efficiently diffracts unpolarized light with high spectral resolution. Using coupled-wave theories and Mueller matrix analysis, we constructed a device for a wavelength range of 680±50  nm with a 400 nm grating period. From the characterization of this optical device, we validated the proposed polarization-independent, light-dispersing concept.

  4. Performance characteristics of white light sources consisting of multiple light-emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yun-Li; Shah, Jay M.; Leung, P.-H.; Gessmann, Thomas; Schubert, E. F.

    2004-01-01

    The performance characteristics of white light sources based on a multiple-LED approach, in particular dichromatic and trichromatic sources are analyzed in detail. Figures of merit such as the luminous efficacy, color temperature, and color rendering capabilities are provided for a wide range of primary emission wavelengths. Spectral power density functions of LEDs are assumed to be thermally and inhomogeneously broadened to a full width at half maximum of several kT, in agreement with experimental results. A gaussian line shape is assumed for each of the emission bands. It is shown that multi-LED white light sources have the potential for luminous efficacies greater than 400 lm/W (dichromatic source) and color rendering indices of greater than 90 (trichromatic source). Contour maps for the color rendering indices and luminous efficacies versus three wavelengths are given.

  5. A Nexus Consisting of Beta-Catenin and Stat3 Attenuates BRAF Inhibitor Efficacy and Mediates Acquired Resistance to Vemurafenib.

    PubMed

    Sinnberg, Tobias; Makino, Elena; Krueger, Marcel A; Velic, Ana; Macek, Boris; Rothbauer, Ulrich; Groll, Nicola; Pötz, Oliver; Czemmel, Stefan; Niessner, Heike; Meier, Friedegund; Ikenberg, Kristian; Garbe, Claus; Schittek, Birgit

    2016-06-01

    Acquired resistance to second generation BRAF inhibitors (BRAFis), like vemurafenib is limiting the benefits of long term targeted therapy for patients with malignant melanomas that harbor BRAF V600 mutations. Since many resistance mechanisms have been described, most of them causing a hyperactivation of the MAPK- or PI3K/AKT signaling pathways, one potential strategy to overcome BRAFi resistance in melanoma cells would be to target important common signaling nodes. Known factors that cause secondary resistance include the overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), alternative splicing of BRAF or the occurrence of novel mutations in MEK1 or NRAS. In this study we show that β-catenin is stabilized and translocated to the nucleus in approximately half of the melanomas that were analyzed and which developed secondary resistance towards BRAFi. We further demonstrate that β-catenin is involved in the mediation of resistance towards vemurafenib in vitro and in vivo. Unexpectedly, β-catenin acts mainly independent of the TCF/LEF dependent canonical Wnt-signaling pathway in resistance development, which partly explains previous contradictory results about the role of β-catenin in melanoma progression and therapy resistance. We further demonstrate that β-catenin interacts with Stat3 after chronic vemurafenib treatment and both together cooperate in the acquisition and maintenance of resistance towards BRAFi. PMID:27428425

  6. Are the variability properties of the Kepler AGN light curves consistent with a damped random walk?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasliwal, Vishal P.; Vogeley, Michael S.; Richards, Gordon T.

    2015-08-01

    We test the consistency of active galactic nuclei (AGN) optical flux variability with the damped random walk (DRW) model. Our sample consists of 20 multiquarter Kepler AGN light curves including both Type 1 and 2 Seyferts, radio-loud and -quiet AGN, quasars, and blazars. Kepler observations of AGN light curves offer a unique insight into the variability properties of AGN light curves because of the very rapid (11.6-28.6 min) and highly uniform rest-frame sampling combined with a photometric precision of 1 part in 105 over a period of 3.5 yr. We categorize the light curves of all 20 objects based on visual similarities and find that the light curves fall into five broad categories. We measure the first-order structure function of these light curves and model the observed light curve with a general broken power-law power spectral density (PSD) characterized by a short-time-scale power-law index γ and turnover time-scale τ. We find that less than half the objects are consistent with a DRW and observe variability on short time-scales (˜2 h). The turnover time-scale τ ranges from ˜10-135 d. Interesting structure function features include pronounced dips on rest-frame time-scales ranging from 10-100 d and varying slopes on different time-scales. The range of observed short-time-scale PSD slopes and the presence of dip and varying slope features suggests that the DRW model may not be appropriate for all AGN. We conclude that AGN variability is a complex phenomenon that requires a more sophisticated statistical treatment.

  7. Light-duty vehicle CO2 targets consistent with 450 ppm CO2 stabilization.

    PubMed

    Winkler, Sandra L; Wallington, Timothy J; Maas, Heiko; Hass, Heinz

    2014-06-01

    We present a global analysis of CO2 emission reductions from the light-duty vehicle (LDV) fleet consistent with stabilization of atmospheric CO2 concentration at 450 ppm. The CO2 emission reductions are described by g CO2/km emission targets for average new light-duty vehicles on a tank-to-wheel basis between 2010 and 2050 that we call CO2 glide paths. The analysis accounts for growth of the vehicle fleet, changing patterns in driving distance, regional availability of biofuels, and the changing composition of fossil fuels. New light-duty vehicle fuel economy and CO2 regulations in the U.S. through 2025 and in the EU through 2020 are broadly consistent with the CO2 glide paths. The glide path is at the upper end of the discussed 2025 EU range of 68-78 g CO2/km. The proposed China regulation for 2020 is more stringent than the glide path, while the 2017 Brazil regulation is less stringent. Existing regulations through 2025 are broadly consistent with the light-duty vehicle sector contributing to stabilizing CO2 at approximately 450 ppm. The glide paths provide long-term guidance for LDV powertrain/fuel development. PMID:24798684

  8. A new device for acquiring ground truth on the absorption of light by turbid waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klemas, V. (Principal Investigator); Srna, R.; Treasure, W.

    1974-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A new device, called a Spectral Attenuation Board, has been designed and tested, which enables ERTS-1 sea truth collection teams to monitor the attenuation depths of three colors continuously, as the board is being towed behind a boat. The device consists of a 1.2 x 1.2 meter flat board held below the surface of the water at a fixed angle to the surface of the water. A camera mounted above the water takes photographs of the board. The resulting film image is analyzed by a micro-densitometer trace along the descending portion of the board. This yields information on the rate of attenuation of light penetrating the water column and the Secchi depth. Red and green stripes were painted on the white board to approximate band 4 and band 5 of the ERTS MSS so that information on the rate of light absorption by the water column of light in these regions of the visible spectrum could be concurrently measured. It was found that information from a red, green, and white stripe may serve to fingerprint the composition of the water mass. A number of these devices, when automated, could also be distributed over a large region to provide a cheap method of obtaining valuable satellite ground truth data at present time intervals.

  9. Uncoupling High Light Responses from Singlet Oxygen Retrograde Signaling and Spatial-Temporal Systemic Acquired Acclimation.

    PubMed

    Carmody, Melanie; Crisp, Peter A; d'Alessandro, Stefano; Ganguly, Diep; Gordon, Matthew; Havaux, Michel; Albrecht-Borth, Verónica; Pogson, Barry J

    2016-07-01

    Distinct ROS signaling pathways initiated by singlet oxygen ((1)O2) or superoxide and hydrogen peroxide have been attributed to either cell death or acclimation, respectively. Recent studies have revealed that more complex antagonistic and synergistic relationships exist within and between these pathways. As specific chloroplastic ROS signals are difficult to study, rapid systemic signaling experiments using localized high light (HL) stress or ROS treatments were used in this study to uncouple signals required for direct HL and ROS perception and distal systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). A qPCR approach was chosen to determine local perception and distal signal reception. Analysis of a thylakoidal ascorbate peroxidase mutant (tapx), the (1)O2-retrograde signaling double mutant (ex1/ex2), and an apoplastic signaling double mutant (rbohD/F) revealed that tAPX and EXECUTER 1 are required for both HL and systemic acclimation stress perception. Apoplastic membrane-localized RBOHs were required for systemic spread of the signal but not for local signal induction in directly stressed tissues. Endogenous ROS treatments revealed a very strong systemic response induced by a localized 1 h induction of (1)O2 using the conditional flu mutant. A qPCR time course of (1)O2 induced systemic marker genes in directly and indirectly connected leaves revealed a direct vascular connection component of both immediate and longer term SAA signaling responses. These results reveal the importance of an EXECUTER-dependent (1)O2 retrograde signal for both local and long distance RBOH-dependent acclimation signaling that is distinct from other HL signaling pathways, and that direct vascular connections have a role in spatial-temporal SAA induction. PMID:27288360

  10. High-color-rendering light sources consisting of a 350-nm ultraviolet light-emitting diode and three-basal-color phosphors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishida, Toshio; Ban, Tomoyuki; Kobayashi, Naoki

    2003-06-01

    The high-color-rendering (HCR) potential of the light sources consisting of 350-nm ultraviolet light-emitting diodes (UV-LED) and three-basal-color phosphors was simulated and experimentally confirmed. By using an AlGaN-based UV-LED as an excitation source at the 350-nm wavelength, we measured fluorescence spectra of three-basal-color phosphors, and simulated the optimum phosphor mixture based on the Commission Internationale de l'Eclairage standard light sources D75, D65, D55, D50, C, and A, with HCR indexes (Ra) over 92. We confirmed the potential of HCR of this light source consisting of 350-nm UV-LED and three-basal-color phosphors, by obtaining Ra=86˜89 of the incandescent type of standard light source A experimentally. Such high Ra are due to the highly monochromatic UV-LED emission and the wide spectral separation between the UV excitation (350 nm) and visible fluorescences. This combination also provides a diffusive, nonglare light source with highly steady color independent of the emission orientation. We also examined the importance of the separation between the excitation wavelength and the fluorescence emission wavelength for practical lighting applications.

  11. Linear response of light deformed nuclei investigated by self-consistent quasiparticle random-phase approximation

    SciTech Connect

    Losa, C.; Doessing, T.; Pastore, A.; Vigezzi, E.; Broglia, R. A.

    2010-06-15

    We present a calculation of the properties of vibrational states in deformed, axially-symmetric even-even nuclei, within the framework of a fully self-consistent quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA). The same Skyrme energy density and density-dependent pairing functionals are used to calculate the mean field and the residual interaction in the particle-hole and particle-particle channels. We have tested our software in the case of spherical nuclei against fully self-consistent calculations published in the literature, finding excellent agreement. We investigate the consequences of neglecting the spin-orbit and Coulomb residual interactions in QRPA. Furthermore we discuss the improvement obtained in the QRPA result associated with the removal of spurious modes. Isoscalar and isovector responses in the deformed {sup 24-26}Mg, {sup 34}Mg isotopes are presented and compared to experimental findings.

  12. COMPARISON OF SELF-CONSISTENT SKYRME AND GOGNY CALCULATIONS FOR LIGHT Hg ISOTOPES

    SciTech Connect

    Warda, Michal J; Prochniak, L.; Staszczak, Andrzej

    2010-01-01

    The ground-state properties of neutron-deficient Hg isotopes have been investigated by the constrained self-consistent Hartree-Fock-Bogoliubov approach with the Skyrme and Gogny effective forces. In the case of the Skyrme interaction we have also applied the Hartree-Fock+BCS model with the state-dependent {delta}-pairing interaction. Potential energy surfaces and pairing properties have been compared for the both types of forces.

  13. Uncoupling High Light Responses from Singlet Oxygen Retrograde Signaling and Spatial-Temporal Systemic Acquired Acclimation1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Matthew; Havaux, Michel; Albrecht-Borth, Verónica

    2016-01-01

    Distinct ROS signaling pathways initiated by singlet oxygen (1O2) or superoxide and hydrogen peroxide have been attributed to either cell death or acclimation, respectively. Recent studies have revealed that more complex antagonistic and synergistic relationships exist within and between these pathways. As specific chloroplastic ROS signals are difficult to study, rapid systemic signaling experiments using localized high light (HL) stress or ROS treatments were used in this study to uncouple signals required for direct HL and ROS perception and distal systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). A qPCR approach was chosen to determine local perception and distal signal reception. Analysis of a thylakoidal ascorbate peroxidase mutant (tapx), the 1O2-retrograde signaling double mutant (ex1/ex2), and an apoplastic signaling double mutant (rbohD/F) revealed that tAPX and EXECUTER 1 are required for both HL and systemic acclimation stress perception. Apoplastic membrane-localized RBOHs were required for systemic spread of the signal but not for local signal induction in directly stressed tissues. Endogenous ROS treatments revealed a very strong systemic response induced by a localized 1 h induction of 1O2 using the conditional flu mutant. A qPCR time course of 1O2 induced systemic marker genes in directly and indirectly connected leaves revealed a direct vascular connection component of both immediate and longer term SAA signaling responses. These results reveal the importance of an EXECUTER-dependent 1O2 retrograde signal for both local and long distance RBOH-dependent acclimation signaling that is distinct from other HL signaling pathways, and that direct vascular connections have a role in spatial-temporal SAA induction. PMID:27288360

  14. Internal consistency of fault-tolerant quantum error correction in light of rigorous derivations of the quantum Markovian limit

    SciTech Connect

    Alicki, Robert; Lidar, Daniel A.; Zanardi, Paolo

    2006-05-15

    We critically examine the internal consistency of a set of minimal assumptions entering the theory of fault-tolerant quantum error correction for Markovian noise. These assumptions are fast gates, a constant supply of fresh and cold ancillas, and a Markovian bath. We point out that these assumptions may not be mutually consistent in light of rigorous formulations of the Markovian approximation. Namely, Markovian dynamics requires either the singular coupling limit (high temperature), or the weak coupling limit (weak system-bath interaction). The former is incompatible with the assumption of a constant and fresh supply of cold ancillas, while the latter is inconsistent with fast gates. We discuss ways to resolve these inconsistencies. As part of our discussion we derive, in the weak coupling limit, a new master equation for a system subject to periodic driving.

  15. PsbS is required for systemic acquired acclimation and post-excess-light-stress optimization of chlorophyll fluorescence decay times in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Ciszak, Kamil; Kulasek, Milena; Barczak, Anna; Grzelak, Justyna; Maćkowski, Sebastian; Karpiński, Stanisław

    2015-01-01

    Systemic acquired acclimation (SAA) is an important light acclimatory mechanism that depends on the global adjustments of non-photochemical quenching and chloroplast retrograde signaling. As the exact regulation of these processes is not known, we measured time-resolved fluorescence of chlorophyll a in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves exposed to excess light, in leaves undergoing SAA, and in leaves after excess light episode. We compare the behavior induced in wild-type plants with null mutant of non-photochemical quenching (npq4-1). The wild type rosettes exhibit a small reduction of fluorescence decay times in leaves directly exposed to excess light and in leaves undergoing SAA in ambient low light. However in npq4-1 exposition to excess light results in much faster fluorescence decay, which is insensitive to excitation power. At the same time npq4-1 leaves undergoing SAA displayed intermediate fluorescence decay. The npq4-1 plants also lost the ability to optimize florescence decay, and thus chlorophyll a dynamics up to 2 h after excess light episode. The fluorescence decay dynamics in both WT and npq4-1 can be described by a set of 3 maximum decay times. Based on the results, we concluded that functional PsbS is required for optimization of absorbed photon fate and optimal light acclimatory responses such as SAA or after excess light stress.

  16. Efficient white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes consisting of orange ultrathin and blue mixed host emission layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Ren; Zuo, Liangmei; Xue, Kaiwen; Duan, Yu; Chen, Ping; Cheng, Gang; Zhao, Yi

    2016-08-01

    We have successfully demonstrated highly efficient white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by inserting an ultrathin non-doped orange layer within blue mixed host emission layer. The key feature of the novel device is the employment of blue mixed host and orange ultrathin layers, resulting in an extended recombination region and more balanced charge carrier. The maximum efficiencies of 33.8 lm W‑1 and 32.2 cd A‑1 are obtained. Moreover, the resulting white device achieves a slight efficiency roll-off and a high luminance at low operating voltage. Our versatile concept suggests a promising simple method to achieve high performance white OLEDs.

  17. Efficient white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes consisting of orange ultrathin and blue mixed host emission layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheng, Ren; Zuo, Liangmei; Xue, Kaiwen; Duan, Yu; Chen, Ping; Cheng, Gang; Zhao, Yi

    2016-08-01

    We have successfully demonstrated highly efficient white phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) by inserting an ultrathin non-doped orange layer within blue mixed host emission layer. The key feature of the novel device is the employment of blue mixed host and orange ultrathin layers, resulting in an extended recombination region and more balanced charge carrier. The maximum efficiencies of 33.8 lm W-1 and 32.2 cd A-1 are obtained. Moreover, the resulting white device achieves a slight efficiency roll-off and a high luminance at low operating voltage. Our versatile concept suggests a promising simple method to achieve high performance white OLEDs.

  18. The extent to which methyl salicylate is required for signaling systemic acquired resistance is dependent on exposure to light after infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, Po-Pu; von Dahl, Caroline C; Klessig, Daniel F

    2011-12-01

    Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a state of heightened defense to a broad spectrum of pathogens that is activated throughout a plant following local infection. Development of SAR requires the translocation of one or more mobile signals from the site of infection through the vascular system to distal (systemic) tissues. The first such signal identified was methyl salicylate (MeSA) in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum). Subsequent studies demonstrated that MeSA also serves as a SAR signal in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) and potato (Solanum tuberosum). By contrast, another study suggested that MeSA is not required for SAR in Arabidopsis and raised questions regarding its signaling role in tobacco. Differences in experimental design, including the developmental age of the plants, the light intensity, and/or the strain of bacterial pathogen, were proposed to explain these conflicting results. Here, we demonstrate that the length of light exposure that plants receive after the primary infection determines the extent to which MeSA is required for SAR signaling. When the primary infection occurred late in the day and as a result infected plants received very little light exposure before entering the night/dark period, MeSA and its metabolizing enzymes were essential for SAR development. In contrast, when infection was done in the morning followed by 3.5 h or more of exposure to light, SAR developed in the absence of MeSA. However, MeSA was generally required for optimal SAR development. In addition to resolving the conflicting results concerning MeSA and SAR, this study underscores the importance of environmental factors on the plant's response to infection.

  19. Light scattering by a cluster consisting of homogeneous axisymmetric particles illuminated with an arbitrarily focused electromagnetic Gaussian beam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Hany L. S.; Wriedt, Thomas; Khaled, Elsayed Esam M.

    2016-04-01

    Scattering of an arbitrarily focused electromagnetic Gaussian beam by a chain cluster consisting of axisymmetric particles is presented. The illustrated technique in this paper combines the plane-waves spectrum method and the cluster T-matrix calculation technique. This combination provides a powerful mathematical and numerical tool to solve such types of scattering problems. Computed results are shown for different particles shapes in the cluster and for different beam focusing.

  20. Acquired lymphangiectasis.

    PubMed

    Celis, A V; Gaughf, C N; Sangueza, O P; Gourdin, F W

    1999-01-01

    Acquired lymphangiectasis is a dilatation of lymphatic vessels that can result as a complication of surgical intervention and radiation therapy for malignancy. Acquired lymphangiectasis shares clinical and histologic features with the congenital lesion, lymphangioma circumscriptum. Diagnosis and treatment of these vesiculo-bullous lesions is important because they may be associated with pain, chronic drainage, and cellulitis. We describe two patients who had these lesions after treatment for cancer and review the pertinent literature. Although a number of treatment options are available, we have found CO2 laser ablation particularly effective. PMID:9932832

  1. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  2. Structural dynamics of phenylisothiocyanate in the light-absorbing excited states: Resonance Raman and complete active space self-consistent field calculation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Bing; Xue, Jia-Dan; Zheng, Xuming; Fang, Wei-Hai

    2014-05-01

    The excited state structural dynamics of phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) after excitation to the light absorbing S2(A'), S6(A'), and S7(A') excited states were studied by using the resonance Raman spectroscopy and complete active space self-consistent field method calculations. The UV absorption bands of PITC were assigned. The vibrational assignments were done on the basis of the Fourier transform (FT)-Raman and FT-infrared measurements, the density-functional theory computations, and the normal mode analysis. The A-, B-, and C-bands resonance Raman spectra in cyclohexane, acetonitrile, and methanol solvents were, respectively, obtained at 299.1, 282.4, 266.0, 252.7, 228.7, 217.8, and 208.8 nm excitation wavelengths to probe the corresponding structural dynamics of PITC. The results indicated that the structural dynamics in the S2(A'), S6(A'), and S7(A') excited states were very different. The conical intersection point CI(S2/S1) were predicted to play important role in the low-lying excited state decay dynamics. Two major decay channels were predicted for PITC upon excitation to the S2(A') state: the radiative S2,min → S0 transition and the nonradiative S2 → S1 internal conversion via CI(S2/S1). The differences in the decay dynamics between methyl isothiocyanate and PITC in the first light absorbing excited state were discussed. The role of the intersystem crossing point ISC(S1/T1) in the excited state decay dynamics of PITC is evaluated.

  3. Structural dynamics of phenylisothiocyanate in the light-absorbing excited states: Resonance Raman and complete active space self-consistent field calculation study

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang, Bing Xue, Jia-Dan Zheng, Xuming E-mail: zxm@zstu.edu.cn; Fang, Wei-Hai E-mail: fangwh@dnu.edu.cn

    2014-05-21

    The excited state structural dynamics of phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) after excitation to the light absorbing S{sub 2}(A′), S{sub 6}(A′), and S{sub 7}(A′) excited states were studied by using the resonance Raman spectroscopy and complete active space self-consistent field method calculations. The UV absorption bands of PITC were assigned. The vibrational assignments were done on the basis of the Fourier transform (FT)-Raman and FT-infrared measurements, the density-functional theory computations, and the normal mode analysis. The A-, B-, and C-bands resonance Raman spectra in cyclohexane, acetonitrile, and methanol solvents were, respectively, obtained at 299.1, 282.4, 266.0, 252.7, 228.7, 217.8, and 208.8 nm excitation wavelengths to probe the corresponding structural dynamics of PITC. The results indicated that the structural dynamics in the S{sub 2}(A′), S{sub 6}(A′), and S{sub 7}(A′) excited states were very different. The conical intersection point CI(S{sub 2}/S{sub 1}) were predicted to play important role in the low-lying excited state decay dynamics. Two major decay channels were predicted for PITC upon excitation to the S{sub 2}(A′) state: the radiative S{sub 2,min} → S{sub 0} transition and the nonradiative S{sub 2} → S{sub 1} internal conversion via CI(S{sub 2}/S{sub 1}). The differences in the decay dynamics between methyl isothiocyanate and PITC in the first light absorbing excited state were discussed. The role of the intersystem crossing point ISC(S{sub 1}/T{sub 1}) in the excited state decay dynamics of PITC is evaluated.

  4. Lighting.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    1992-09-01

    Since lighting accounts for about one-third of the energy used in commercial buildings, there is opportunity to conserve. There are two ways to reduce lighting energy use: modify lighting systems so that they used less electricity and/or reduce the number of hours the lights are used. This booklet presents a number of ways to do both. Topics covered include: reassessing lighting levels, reducing lighting levels, increasing bulb & fixture efficiency, using controls to regulate lighting, and taking advantage of daylight.

  5. Light-dependent and -independent behavioral effects of extremely low frequency magnetic fields in a land snail are consistent with a parametric resonance mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Prato, F.S.; Thomas, A.W. |; Kavaliers, M.; Cullen, A.P.

    1997-05-01

    Exposure to extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields has been shown to attenuate endogenous opioid peptide mediated antinociception or analgesia in the terrestrial pulmonate snail, Cepaea nemoralis. Here the authors examine the roles of light in determining this effect and address the mechanisms associated with mediating the effects of the ELF magnetic fields in both the presence and absence of light. Specifically, they consider whether the magnetic field effects involve an indirect induced electric current mechanism or a direct effect such as a parametric resonance mechanism (PRM). They exposed snails in both the presence and absence of light at three different frequencies (30, 60, and 120 Hz) with static field values (B{sub DC}) and ELF magnetic field amplitude (peak) and direction (B{sub AC}) set according to the predictions of the PRM for Ca{sup 2+}. Analgesia was induced in snails by injecting them with an enkephalinase inhibitor, which augments endogenous opioid (enkephalin) activity. They found that the magnetic field exposure reduced this opioid-induced analgesia significantly more if the exposure occurred in the presence rather than the absence of light. However, the percentage reduction in analgesia in both the presence and absence of light was not dependent on the ELF frequency. This finding suggests that in both the presence and the absence of light the effect of the ELF magnetic field was mediated by a direct magnetic field detection mechanism such as the PRM rather than an induced current mechanism.

  6. Highly Efficient F, Cu doped TiO2 anti-bacterial visible light active photocatalytic coatings to combat hospital-acquired infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leyland, Nigel S.; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Browne, John; Hinder, Steven J.; Quilty, Brid; Pillai, Suresh C.

    2016-04-01

    Bacterial infections are a major threat to the health of patients in healthcare facilities including hospitals. One of the major causes of patient morbidity is infection with Staphylococcus aureus. One of the the most dominant nosocomial bacteria, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported to survive on hospital surfaces (e.g. privacy window glasses) for up to 5 months. None of the current anti-bacterial technology is efficient in eliminating Staphylococcus aureus. A novel transparent, immobilised and superhydrophilic coating of titanium dioxide, co-doped with fluorine and copper has been prepared on float glass substrates. Antibacterial activity has demonstrated (by using Staphylococcus aureus), resulting from a combination of visible light activated (VLA) photocatalysis and copper ion toxicity. Co-doping with copper and fluorine has been shown to improve the performance of the coating, relative to a purely fluorine-doped VLA photocatalyst. Reductions in bacterial population of log10 = 4.2 under visible light irradiation and log10 = 1.8 in darkness have been achieved, compared with log10 = 1.8 under visible light irradiation and no activity, for a purely fluorine-doped titania. Generation of reactive oxygen species from the photocatalytic coatings is the major factor that significantly reduces the bacterial growth on the glass surfaces.

  7. Highly Efficient F, Cu doped TiO2 anti-bacterial visible light active photocatalytic coatings to combat hospital-acquired infections

    PubMed Central

    Leyland, Nigel S.; Podporska-Carroll, Joanna; Browne, John; Hinder, Steven J.; Quilty, Brid; Pillai, Suresh C.

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial infections are a major threat to the health of patients in healthcare facilities including hospitals. One of the major causes of patient morbidity is infection with Staphylococcus aureus. One of the the most dominant nosocomial bacteria, Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) have been reported to survive on hospital surfaces (e.g. privacy window glasses) for up to 5 months. None of the current anti-bacterial technology is efficient in eliminating Staphylococcus aureus. A novel transparent, immobilised and superhydrophilic coating of titanium dioxide, co-doped with fluorine and copper has been prepared on float glass substrates. Antibacterial activity has demonstrated (by using Staphylococcus aureus), resulting from a combination of visible light activated (VLA) photocatalysis and copper ion toxicity. Co-doping with copper and fluorine has been shown to improve the performance of the coating, relative to a purely fluorine-doped VLA photocatalyst. Reductions in bacterial population of log10 = 4.2 under visible light irradiation and log10 = 1.8 in darkness have been achieved, compared with log10 = 1.8 under visible light irradiation and no activity, for a purely fluorine-doped titania. Generation of reactive oxygen species from the photocatalytic coatings is the major factor that significantly reduces the bacterial growth on the glass surfaces. PMID:27098010

  8. Multi-electron oxygen reduction by a hybrid visible-light-photocatalyst consisting of metal-oxide semiconductor and self-assembled biomimetic complex.

    PubMed

    Naya, Shin-ichi; Niwa, Tadahiro; Negishi, Ryo; Kobayashi, Hisayoshi; Tada, Hiroaki

    2014-12-01

    Adsorption experiments and density functional theory (DFT) simulations indicated that Cu(acac)2 is chemisorbed on the monoclinic sheelite (ms)-BiVO4 surface to form an O2-bridged binuclear complex (OBBC/BiVO4) like hemocyanin. Multi-electron reduction of O2 is induced by the visible-light irradiation of the OBBC/BiVO4 in the same manner as a blue Cu enzyme. The drastic enhancement of the O2 reduction renders ms-BiVO4 to work as a good visible-light photocatalyst without any sacrificial reagents. As a model reaction, we show that this biomimetic hybrid photocatalyst exhibits a high level of activity for the aerobic oxidation of amines to aldehydes in aqueous solution and imines in THF solution at 25 °C giving selectivities above 99% under visible-light irradiation.

  9. Nature-Inspired, Highly Durable CO2 Reduction System Consisting of a Binuclear Ruthenium(II) Complex and an Organic Semiconductor Using Visible Light.

    PubMed

    Kuriki, Ryo; Matsunaga, Hironori; Nakashima, Takuya; Wada, Keisuke; Yamakata, Akira; Ishitani, Osamu; Maeda, Kazuhiko

    2016-04-20

    A metal-free organic semiconductor of mesoporous graphitic carbon nitride (C3N4) coupled with a Ru(II) binuclear complex (RuRu') containing photosensitizer and catalytic units selectively reduced CO2 into HCOOH under visible light (λ > 400 nm) in the presence of a suitable electron donor with high durability, even in aqueous solution. Modification of C3N4 with Ag nanoparticles resulted in a RuRu'/Ag/C3N4 photocatalyst that exhibited a very high turnover number (>33000 with respect to the amount of RuRu'), while maintaining high selectivity for HCOOH production (87-99%). This turnover number was 30 times greater than that reported previously using C3N4 modified with a mononuclear Ru(II) complex, and by far the highest among the metal-complex/semiconductor hybrid systems reported to date. The results of photocatalytic reactions, emission decay measurements, and time-resolved infrared spectroscopy indicated that Ag nanoparticles on C3N4 collected electrons having lifetimes of several milliseconds from the conduction band of C3N4, which were transferred to the excited state of RuRu', thereby promoting photocatalytic CO2 reduction driven by two-step photoexcitation of C3N4 and RuRu'. This study also revealed that the RuRu'/Ag/C3N4 hybrid photocatalyst worked efficiently in water containing a proper electron donor, despite the intrinsic hydrophobic nature of C3N4 and low solubility of CO2 in an aqueous environment.

  10. Acquired aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Elaine M

    2004-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a disorder characterized by a profound deficit of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, bone marrow hypocellularity, and peripheral blood pancytopenia. It primarily affects children, young adults, and those over 60 years of age. The majority of cases are idiopathic; however, idiosyncratic reactions to some drugs, chemicals, and viruses have been implicated in its etiology. An autoimmune T-cell reaction likely causes the stem cell depletion, but the precise mechanism, as well as the eliciting and target antigens, is unknown. Symptoms vary from severe life-threatening cytopenias to moderate or non-severe disease that does not require transfusion support. The peripheral blood typically exhibits pancytopenia, reticulocytopenia, and normocytic or macrocytic erythrocytes. The bone marrow is hypocellular and may exhibit dysplasia of the erythrocyte precursors. First line treatment for severe AA consists of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in young patients with HLA identical siblings, while immunosuppression therapy is used for older patients and for those of any age who lack a HLA matched donor. Patients with AA have an increased risk of developing paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), or acute leukemia. Further elucidation of the pathophysiology of this disease will result in a better understanding of the interrelationship among AA, PNH, and MDS, and may lead to novel targeted therapies.

  11. Lighting

    SciTech Connect

    Audin, L.

    1994-12-31

    EPAct covers a vast territory beyond lighting and, like all legislation, also contains numerous {open_quotes}favors,{close_quotes} compromises, and even some sleight-of-hand. Tucked away under Title XIX, for example, is an increase from 20% to 28% tax on gambling winnings, effective January 1, 1993 - apparently as a way to help pay for new spending listed elsewhere in the bill. Overall, it is a landmark piece of legislation, about a decade overdue. It remains to be seen how the Federal Government will enforce upgrading of state (or even their own) energy codes. There is no mention of funding for {open_quotes}energy police{close_quotes} in EPAct. Merely creating such a national standard, however, provides a target for those who sincerely wish to create an energy-efficient future.

  12. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  13. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... tends to be more serious than other lung infections because: People in the hospital are often very sick and cannot fight off ... prevent pneumonia. Most hospitals have programs to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  14. Acquired Cerebral Trauma: Epilogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    The article summarizes a series of articles concerning acquired cerebral trauma. Reviewed are technological advances, treatment, assessment, potential innovative therapies, long-term outcome, family impact of chronic brain injury, and prevention. (DB)

  15. [Acquired haemophilia (acquired factor VIII inhibitor)].

    PubMed

    Ceresetto, José M; Duboscq, Cristina; Fondevila, Carlos; Tezanos Pinto, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Acquired haemophilia is a rare disorder. The clinical picture ranges from mild ecchymosis and anaemia to life threatening bleeding in up to 20% of patients. The disease is produced by an antibody against Factor VIII and it usually occurs in the elderly, with no previous history of a bleeding disorder. It can be associated to an underlying condition such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, drugs or pregnancy. It has a typical laboratory pattern with isolated prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) that fails to correct upon mixing tests with normal plasma and low levels of factor VIII. Treatment recommendations are based on controlling the acute bleeding episodes with either bypassing agent, recombinant activated factor VII or activated prothrombin complex concentrate, and eradication of the antibody with immunosuppressive therapy.

  16. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach. PMID:26186969

  17. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Martin W; MacDonald, Stephen G

    2016-01-01

    Acquired hypofibrinogenemia is most frequently caused by hemodilution and consumption of clotting factors. The aggressive replacement of fibrinogen has become one of the core principles of modern management of massive hemorrhage. The best method for determining the patient’s fibrinogen level remains controversial, and particularly in acquired dysfibrinogenemia, could have major therapeutic implications depending on which quantification method is chosen. This review introduces the available laboratory and point-of-care methods and discusses the relative advantages and limitations. It also discusses current strategies for the correction of hypofibrinogenemia. PMID:27713652

  18. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach.

  19. Acquired Brain Injury Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

    This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

  20. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Prina, Elena; Ranzani, Otavio T; Torres, Antoni

    2015-09-12

    Community-acquired pneumonia causes great mortality and morbidity and high costs worldwide. Empirical selection of antibiotic treatment is the cornerstone of management of patients with pneumonia. To reduce the misuse of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance, and side-effects, an empirical, effective, and individualised antibiotic treatment is needed. Follow-up after the start of antibiotic treatment is also important, and management should include early shifts to oral antibiotics, stewardship according to the microbiological results, and short-duration antibiotic treatment that accounts for the clinical stability criteria. New approaches for fast clinical (lung ultrasound) and microbiological (molecular biology) diagnoses are promising. Community-acquired pneumonia is associated with early and late mortality and increased rates of cardiovascular events. Studies are needed that focus on the long-term management of pneumonia.

  1. Systemic Acquired Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Upon infection with necrotizing pathogens many plants develop an enhanced resistance to further pathogen attack also in the uninoculated organs. This type of enhanced resistance is referred to as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In the SAR state, plants are primed (sensitized) to more quickly and more effectively activate defense responses the second time they encounter pathogen attack. Since SAR depends on the ability to access past experience, acquired disease resistance is a paradigm for the existence of a form of “plant memory”. Although the phenomenon has been known since the beginning of the 20th century, major progress in the understanding of SAR was made over the past sixteen years. This review covers the current knowledge of molecular, biochemical and physiological mechanisms that are associated with SAR. PMID:19521483

  2. Summary of residential environmental issues and program consistency

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M C

    1989-05-01

    The Northwest Power Planning Act authorizes the Bonneville Power Administration to acquire all necessary energy resources to serve Northwest utilities choosing to acquire power from the agency and to give conservation the highest priority in responding to the demand for electricity. To meet this mandate, the agency has established residential conservation programs for weatherizing existing homes, building new energy-efficient homes, and promoting energy-efficient appliances. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared this report to compare and contrast the environmental requirements and issues involving Bonneville's residential conservation programs. The key environmental concern confronting each of the programs with measures aimed at reducing air leakage rates in houses (both new and existing) is indoor air quality (IAQ). This report reviews the similarity and consistency of the programs' approach to IAQ, their impacts, program features, mitigation techniques, and new information about IAQ and other potential environmental issues confronting the programs. The information is intended for use in comparing and contrasting how environmental features mesh with other program features, checking consistency across programs and determining whether it makes sense for programs to be consistent, determining consistency between programs, and providing information to aid program planning in light of potential environmental issues and new information. 31 refs.

  3. Acquired methemoglobinemia revisited.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Larry; Will, John

    2010-10-01

    Dentistry has two medications in its pain management armamentarium that may cause the potentially life-threatening disorder methemoglobinemia. The first medications are the topical local anesthetics benzocaine and prilocaine. The second medication is the injectable local anesthetic prilocaine. Acquired methemoglobinemia remains a source of morbidity and mortality in dental and medical patients despite the fact that it is better understood now than it was even a decade ago. It is in the interest of all dental patients that their treating dentists review this disorder. The safety of dental patients mandates professional awareness.

  4. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Polverino, E; Torres Marti, A

    2011-02-01

    Despite the remarkable advances in antibiotic therapies, diagnostic tools, prevention campaigns and intensive care, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still among the primary causes of death worldwide, and there have been no significant changes in mortality in the last decades. The clinical and economic burden of CAP makes it a major public health problem, particularly for children and the elderly. This issue provides a clinical overview of CAP, focusing on epidemiology, economic burden, diagnosis, risk stratification, treatment, clinical management, and prevention. Particular attention is given to some aspects related to the clinical management of CAP, such as the microbial etiology and the available tools to achieve it, the usefulness of new and old biomarkers, and antimicrobial and other non-antibiotic adjunctive therapies. Possible scenarios in which pneumonia does not respond to treatment are also analyzed to improve clinical outcomes of CAP. PMID:21242952

  5. Consistent model driven architecture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niepostyn, Stanisław J.

    2015-09-01

    The goal of the MDA is to produce software systems from abstract models in a way where human interaction is restricted to a minimum. These abstract models are based on the UML language. However, the semantics of UML models is defined in a natural language. Subsequently the verification of consistency of these diagrams is needed in order to identify errors in requirements at the early stage of the development process. The verification of consistency is difficult due to a semi-formal nature of UML diagrams. We propose automatic verification of consistency of the series of UML diagrams originating from abstract models implemented with our consistency rules. This Consistent Model Driven Architecture approach enables us to generate automatically complete workflow applications from consistent and complete models developed from abstract models (e.g. Business Context Diagram). Therefore, our method can be used to check practicability (feasibility) of software architecture models.

  6. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    Proposed is a measure of indexing consistency based on the concept of "fuzzy sets." By this procedure a higher consistency value is assigned if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on…

  7. Indexing Consistency and Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunde, Pranas; Dexter, Margaret E.

    A measure of indexing consistency is developed based on the concept of 'fuzzy sets'. It assigns a higher consistency value if indexers agree on the more important terms than if they agree on less important terms. Measures of the quality of an indexer's work and exhaustivity of indexing are also proposed. Experimental data on indexing consistency…

  8. Consistency relation in cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Chiba, Takeshi; Takahashi, Ryuichi

    2007-05-15

    We provide a consistency relation between cosmological observables in general relativity without relying on the equation of state of dark energy. The consistency relation should be satisfied if general relativity is the correct theory of gravity and dark energy clustering is negligible. As an extension, we also provide the DGP counterpart of the relation.

  9. Lazy arc consistency

    SciTech Connect

    Schiex, T.; Gaspin, C.; Regin, J.C.; Verfaillie, G.

    1996-12-31

    Arc consistency filtering is widely used in the framework of binary constraint satisfaction problems: with a low complexity, inconsistency may be detected and domains are filtered. In this paper, we show that when detecting inconsistency is the objective, a systematic domain filtering is useless and a lazy approach is more adequate. Whereas usual arc consistency algorithms produce the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, when it exists, we propose a method, called LAC{tau}, which only looks for any arc consistent sub-domain. The algorithm is then extended to provide the additional service of locating one variable with a minimum domain cardinality in the maximum arc consistent sub-domain, without necessarily computing all domain sizes. Finally, we compare traditional AC enforcing and lazy AC enforcing using several benchmark problems, both randomly generated CSP and real life problems.

  10. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.2 Acquiring... each holds half of V's shares. Therefore, A and B each control V (see § 801.1(b)), and V is included...” are acquiring persons. (b) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 801.12, the...

  11. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.2 Acquiring... each holds half of V's shares. Therefore, A and B each control V (see § 801.1(b)), and V is included...” are acquiring persons. (b) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 801.12, the...

  12. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...” are acquiring persons. (b) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 801.12, the person(s.... Examples: 1. Corporation A (the ultimate parent entity included within person “A”) proposes to acquire Y, a... to be carried out by merging Y into X, a wholly-owned subsidiary of A, with X surviving, and...

  13. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...” are acquiring persons. (b) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 801.12, the person(s.... Examples: 1. Corporation A (the ultimate parent entity included within person “A”) proposes to acquire Y, a... to be carried out by merging Y into X, a wholly-owned subsidiary of A, with X surviving, and...

  14. Acquiring and Organizing Curriculum Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lare, Gary A.

    This book addresses two areas of need in a curriculum materials center--where to find curriculum materials for acquisition and how to organize these materials for efficient and effective access once they are acquired. The book is arranged in two parts: "Acquiring and Organizing the Collection" and "Resources." The book brings together many…

  15. Characterization of four nuclear-encoded plastid RNA polymerase sigma factor genes in the liverwort Marchantia polymorpha: blue-light- and multiple stress-responsive SIG5 was acquired early in the emergence of terrestrial plants.

    PubMed

    Kanazawa, Takehiko; Ishizaki, Kimitsune; Kohchi, Takayuki; Hanaoka, Mitsumasa; Tanaka, Kan

    2013-10-01

    The plastids of plant cells each contain their own genome, and a bacterial-type RNA polymerase called plastid-encoded plastid RNA polymerase (PEP) is involved in transcription of this genome. While the catalytic core subunits are encoded by the plastid genome, the specificity subunit of PEP, sigma, is generally encoded by the nuclear genome and imported into plastids from the cytoplasm after translation. In this study, we identified and analyzed four sigma factor genes from the nuclear genome of a liverwort, Marchantia polymorpha. Phylogenetic analysis suggested that three of the four genes were orthologous to vascular plant genes and thus they were named MpSIG1, MpSIG2 and MpSIG5. The remaining gene was named MpSIGX. The gene products were predicted to localize to the plastid, and this prediction was experimentally demonstrated by expressing yellow fluorescent protein fusion genes in vivo. As with SIG5 genes of other plant species, expression of MpSIG5 was induced by blue-light irradiation and also under various stress conditions, indicating that the regulatory mechanism responsible is conserved among divergent plant species. However, while the major role of SIG5 in vascular plants is to repair the damaged PSII reaction center through psbD gene transcription, the relevant blue-light-responsive promoter (psbD-BLRP) was not found in M. polymorpha and psbD transcript accumulation did not occur in conjunction with MpSIG5 induction. Thus, the physiological role of SIG5 is probably divergent among plant phyla.

  16. Infanticide and moral consistency.

    PubMed

    McMahan, Jeff

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this essay is to show that there are no easy options for those who are disturbed by the suggestion that infanticide may on occasion be morally permissible. The belief that infanticide is always wrong is doubtfully compatible with a range of widely shared moral beliefs that underlie various commonly accepted practices. Any set of beliefs about the morality of abortion, infanticide and the killing of animals that is internally consistent and even minimally credible will therefore unavoidably contain some beliefs that are counterintuitive.

  17. Consistent Quantum Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2001-11-01

    Quantum mechanics is one of the most fundamental yet difficult subjects in physics. Nonrelativistic quantum theory is presented here in a clear and systematic fashion, integrating Born's probabilistic interpretation with Schrödinger dynamics. Basic quantum principles are illustrated with simple examples requiring no mathematics beyond linear algebra and elementary probability theory. The quantum measurement process is consistently analyzed using fundamental quantum principles without referring to measurement. These same principles are used to resolve several of the paradoxes that have long perplexed physicists, including the double slit and Schrödinger's cat. The consistent histories formalism used here was first introduced by the author, and extended by M. Gell-Mann, J. Hartle and R. Omnès. Essential for researchers yet accessible to advanced undergraduate students in physics, chemistry, mathematics, and computer science, this book is supplementary to standard textbooks. It will also be of interest to physicists and philosophers working on the foundations of quantum mechanics. Comprehensive account Written by one of the main figures in the field Paperback edition of successful work on philosophy of quantum mechanics

  18. Consistent quantum measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Robert B.

    2015-11-01

    In response to recent criticisms by Okon and Sudarsky, various aspects of the consistent histories (CH) resolution of the quantum measurement problem(s) are discussed using a simple Stern-Gerlach device, and compared with the alternative approaches to the measurement problem provided by spontaneous localization (GRW), Bohmian mechanics, many worlds, and standard (textbook) quantum mechanics. Among these CH is unique in solving the second measurement problem: inferring from the measurement outcome a property of the measured system at a time before the measurement took place, as is done routinely by experimental physicists. The main respect in which CH differs from other quantum interpretations is in allowing multiple stochastic descriptions of a given measurement situation, from which one (or more) can be selected on the basis of its utility. This requires abandoning a principle (termed unicity), central to classical physics, that at any instant of time there is only a single correct description of the world.

  19. A Feed-Forward Loop Consisting of the Response Regulator RpaB and the Small RNA PsrR1 Controls Light Acclimation of Photosystem I Gene Expression in the Cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.

    PubMed

    Kadowaki, Taro; Nagayama, Ryuta; Georg, Jens; Nishiyama, Yoshitaka; Wilde, Annegret; Hess, Wolfgang R; Hihara, Yukako

    2016-04-01

    Since cyanobacteria need to decrease PSI content to avoid absorption of excess light energy, down-regulation of PSI gene expression is one of the key characteristics of the high-light (HL) acclimation response. The transcriptional regulator RpaB and the small RNA PsrR1 (photosynthesis regulatory RNA1) have been suggested to be the two most critical factors for this response in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. In this study, we found that the HLR1 DNA-binding motif, the recognition sequence for RpaB, is highly conserved in the core promoter region of the psrR1 gene among cyanobacterial species. Gel mobility shift assay revealed that RpaB binds to the HLR1 sequence of psrR1 in vitro. RNA gel blot analysis together with chromatin affinity purification (ChAP) analysis suggested that PSI genes are activated and the psrR1 gene is repressed by the binding of RpaB under low-light (LL) conditions. A decrease in DNA binding affinity of RpaB occurs within 5 min after the shift from LL to HL conditions, leading to the prompt decrease in PSI promoter activity together with derepression of psrR1 gene expression. Accumulating PsrR1 molecules then prevent translation from pre-existing PSI transcripts. By this dual repression at transcriptional and post-transcriptional levels, rapid and strict down-regulation of PSI expression under HL is secured. Our findings suggest that RpaB and PsrR1 constitute a feed-forward loop for the regulation of PSI gene expression to achieve a rapid acclimation response to the damaging HL conditions.

  20. Light Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Research on food growth for long duration spacecraft has resulted in a light source for growing plants indoors known as Qbeam, a solid state light source consisting of a control unit and lamp. The light source, manufactured by Quantum Devices, Inc., is not very hot, although it generates high intensity radiation. When Ron Ignatius, an industrial partner of WCSAR, realized that terrestrial plant research lighting was not energy efficient enough for space use, he and WCSAR began to experiment with light emitting diodes. A line of LED products was developed, and QDI was formed to market the technology. An LED-based cancer treatment device is currently under development.

  1. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Serefoglu, Ege C; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2016-08-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The literature contains a diverse range of biological and psychological etiological theories. Acquired PE is commonly due to sexual performance anxiety, psychological or relationship problems, erectile dysfunction (ED), and occasionally prostatitis and hyperthyroidism, consistent with the predominant organic etiology of acquired PE, men with this complaint are usually older, have a higher mean BMI and a greater incidence of comorbid disease including hypertension, sexual desire disorder, diabetes mellitus, chronic prostatitis, and ED compared to lifelong, variable and subjective PE. PMID:27652216

  2. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Jannini, Emmanuele A.; Serefoglu, Ege C.; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The literature contains a diverse range of biological and psychological etiological theories. Acquired PE is commonly due to sexual performance anxiety, psychological or relationship problems, erectile dysfunction (ED), and occasionally prostatitis and hyperthyroidism, consistent with the predominant organic etiology of acquired PE, men with this complaint are usually older, have a higher mean BMI and a greater incidence of comorbid disease including hypertension, sexual desire disorder, diabetes mellitus, chronic prostatitis, and ED compared to lifelong, variable and subjective PE. PMID:27652216

  3. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Jannini, Emmanuele A.; Serefoglu, Ege C.; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The literature contains a diverse range of biological and psychological etiological theories. Acquired PE is commonly due to sexual performance anxiety, psychological or relationship problems, erectile dysfunction (ED), and occasionally prostatitis and hyperthyroidism, consistent with the predominant organic etiology of acquired PE, men with this complaint are usually older, have a higher mean BMI and a greater incidence of comorbid disease including hypertension, sexual desire disorder, diabetes mellitus, chronic prostatitis, and ED compared to lifelong, variable and subjective PE.

  4. Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

  5. 12 CFR 583.1 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.1 Acquire. The term acquire means to acquire, directly or indirectly, ownership or control through an acquisition of shares, an acquisition of assets or assumption of...

  6. 12 CFR 583.1 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.1 Acquire. The term acquire means to acquire, directly or indirectly, ownership or control through an acquisition of shares, an acquisition of assets or assumption of...

  7. 12 CFR 583.1 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.1 Acquire. The term acquire means to acquire, directly or indirectly, ownership or control through an acquisition of shares, an acquisition of assets or assumption of...

  8. 12 CFR 583.1 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.1 Acquire. The term acquire means to acquire, directly or indirectly, ownership or control through an acquisition of shares, an acquisition of assets or assumption of...

  9. Effect of Hypermedia Structure on Acquired Knowledge Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fastrez, Pierre

    2005-01-01

    What kind of influence does the structure of an educational hypermedia system have on the way its users understand its contents and organize the knowledge they acquire through its browsing? In this article, this already much discussed question, situated at the boundary between semiotics and cognitive science, is revisited in the light of results…

  10. Taking Another Look: Sensuous, Consistent Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townley, Mary Ross

    1983-01-01

    There is a natural progression from making single objects to creating sculpture. By modeling the forms of objects like funnels and light bulbs, students become aware of the quality of curves and the edges of angles. Sculptural form in architecture can be understood as consistency in the forms. (CS)

  11. Acquired Aplastic Anemia in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hartung, Helge D.; Olson, Timothy S.; Bessler, Monica

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This article provides a practice-based and concise review of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of acquired aplastic anemia in children. Bone marrow transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, and supportive care are discussed in detail. The aim is to provide the clinician with a better understanding of the disease and to offer guidelines for the management of children with this uncommon yet serious disorder. PMID:24237973

  12. Emotional attention in acquired prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Peelen, Marius V; Lucas, Nadia; Mayer, Eugene; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2009-09-01

    The present study investigated whether emotionally expressive faces guide attention and modulate fMRI activity in fusiform gyrus in acquired prosopagnosia. Patient PS, a pure case of acquired prosopagnosia with intact right middle fusiform gyrus, performed two behavioral experiments and a functional imaging experiment to address these questions. In a visual search task involving face stimuli, PS was faster to select the target face when it was expressing fear or happiness as compared to when it was emotionally neutral. In a change detection task, PS detected significantly more changes when the changed face was fearful as compared to when it was neutral. Finally, an fMRI experiment showed enhanced activation to emotionally expressive faces and bodies in right fusiform gyrus. In addition, PS showed normal body-selective activation in right fusiform gyrus, partially overlapping the fusiform face area. Together these behavioral and neuroimaging results show that attention was preferentially allocated to emotional faces in patient PS, as observed in healthy subjects. We conclude that systems involved in the emotional guidance of attention by facial expression can function normally in acquired prosopagnosia, and can thus be dissociated from systems involved in face identification.

  13. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, F

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane transport systems, and the epithelial absorptive enzymes. Acquired causes of malabsorption are classified by focussing on the three phases of digestion and absorption: 1) luminal/digestive phase, 2) mucosal/absorptive phase, and 3) transport phase. Most acquired diseases affect the luminal/digestive phase. These include short bowel syndrome, extensive small bowel inflammation, motility disorders, and deficiencies of digestive enzymes or bile salts. Diagnosis depends on symptoms, physical examination, and blood and stool tests. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of malabsorption. Further testing should be based on the specific clinical context and the suspected underlying disease. Therapy is directed at nutritional support by enteral or parenteral feeding and screening for and supplementation of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. Early enteral feeding is important for intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. Medicinal treatment options for diarrhoea in malabsorption include loperamide, codeine, cholestyramine, or antibiotics. PMID:27086886

  14. Acquired Hearing Loss in Children.

    PubMed

    Kenna, Margaret A

    2015-12-01

    Hearing loss is the most common congenital sensory impairment. According to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2001 to 2008, 20.3% of subjects aged greater than or equal to 12 had unilateral or bilateral hearing loss. The World Health Organization notes that, worldwide, there are 360 million people with disabling hearing loss, with 50% preventable. Although many hearing losses are acquired, many others are manifestations of preexisting conditions. The purpose of a pediatric hearing evaluation is to identify the degree and type of hearing loss and etiology and to outline a comprehensive strategy that supports language and social development and communication.

  15. The inhibition of acquired fear.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín; Vianna, Mónica M R; Bevilaqua, Lía R M

    2004-01-01

    A conditioned stimulus (CS) associated with a fearsome unconditioned stimulus (US) generates learned fear. Acquired fear is at the root of a variety of mental disorders, among which phobias, generalized anxiety, the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and some forms of depression. The simplest way to inhibit learned fear is to extinguish it, which is usually done by repeatedly presenting the CS alone, so that a new association, CS-"no US", will eventually overcome the previously acquired CS-US association. Extinction was first described by Pavlov as a form of "internal inhibition" and was recommended by Freud and Ferenczi in the 1920s (who called it "habituation") as the treatment of choice for phobic disorders. It is used with success till this day, often in association with anxiolytic drugs. Extinction has since then been applied, also successfully and also often in association with anxiolytics, to the treatment of panic, generalized anxiety disorders and, more recently, PTSD. Extinction of learned fear involves gene expression, protein synthesis, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and signaling pathways in the hippocampus and the amygdala at the time of the first CS-no US association. It can be enhanced by increasing the exposure to the "no US" component at the time of behavioral testing, to the point of causing the complete uninstallment of the original fear response. Some theorists have recently proposed that reiteration of the CS alone may induce a reconsolidation of the learned behavior instead of its extinction. Reconsolidation would preserve the original memory from the labilization induced by its retrieval. If true, this would of course be disastrous for the psychotherapy of fear-motivated disorders. Here we show that neither the CS nor retrieval cause anything remotely like reconsolidation, but just extinction. In fact, our findings indicate that the reconsolidation hypothesis is essentially incorrect, at least for the form of contextual fear most

  16. Acquiring synaesthesia: insights from training studies

    PubMed Central

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Synaesthesia denotes a condition of remarkable individual differences in experience characterized by specific additional experiences in response to normal sensory input. Synaesthesia seems to (i) run in families which suggests a genetic component, (ii) is associated with marked structural and functional neural differences, and (iii) is usually reported to exist from early childhood. Hence, synaesthesia is generally regarded as a congenital phenomenon. However, most synaesthetic experiences are triggered by cultural artifacts (e.g., letters, musical sounds). Evidence exists to suggest that synaesthetic experiences are triggered by the conceptual representation of their inducer stimuli. Cases were identified for which the specific synaesthetic associations are related to prior experiences and large scale studies show that grapheme-color associations in synaesthesia are not completely random. Hence, a learning component is inherently involved in the development of specific synaesthetic associations. Researchers have hypothesized that associative learning is the critical mechanism. Recently, it has become of scientific and public interest if synaesthetic experiences may be acquired by means of associative training procedures and whether the gains of these trainings are associated with similar cognitive benefits as genuine synaesthetic experiences. In order to shed light on these issues and inform synaesthesia researchers and the general interested public alike, we provide a comprehensive literature review on developmental aspects of synaesthesia and specific training procedures in non-synaesthetes. Under the light of a clear working definition of synaesthesia, we come to the conclusion that synaesthesia can potentially be learned by the appropriate training. PMID:24624072

  17. Consistent Two-Dimensional Chiral Gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smailagic, A.; Spallucci, E.

    We study chiral induced gravity in the light-cone gauge and show that the theory is consistent for a particular choice of chiralities. The corresponding Kac-Moody central charge has no forbidden region of complex values. Generalized analysis of the critical exponents is given and their relation to the SL(2,R) vacuum states is elucidated. All the parameters containing information about the theory can be traced back to the characteristics of the residual symmetry group in the light-cone gauge.

  18. Malaria acquired in Haiti - 2010.

    PubMed

    2010-03-01

    On January 12, 2010, a 7.0 magnitude earthquake struck Haiti, which borders the Dominican Republic on the island of Hispaniola. The earthquake's epicenter was 10 miles west of the Haiti capital city of Port-au-Prince (estimated population: 2 million). According to the Haitian government, approximately 200,000 persons were killed, and 500,000 were left homeless. Malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum infection is endemic in Haiti, and the principal mosquito vector is Anopheles albimanus, which frequently bites outdoors. Thus, displaced persons living outdoors or in temporary shelters and thousands of emergency responders in Haiti are at substantial risk for malaria. During January 12-February 25, CDC received reports of 11 laboratory-confirmed cases of P. falciparum malaria acquired in Haiti. Patients included seven U.S. residents who were emergency responders, three Haitian residents, and one U.S. traveler. This report summarizes the 11 cases and provides chemoprophylactic and additional preventive recommendations to minimize the risk for acquiring malaria for persons traveling to Haiti.

  19. Stereotypic movement disorder after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Cynthia M; Kennedy, Richard E; Hoye, Wayne; Yablon, Stuart A

    2002-05-01

    Stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) consists of repetitive, non-functional motor behaviour that interferes with daily living or causes injury to the person. It is most often described in patients with mental retardation. However, recent evidence indicates that this condition is common among otherwise normal individuals. This case study describes a patient with new-onset SMD occurring after subdural haematoma and brain injury. SMD has rarely been reported after acquired brain injury, and none have documented successful treatment. The current psychiatric literature regarding neurochemistry, neuroanatomy, and treatment of SMD are reviewed with particular application to one patient. Treatment options include serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, opioid antagonists and dopamine antagonists. SMD has been under-appreciated in intellectually normal individuals, and may also be unrecognized after brain injury. Further investigation is needed in this area, which may benefit other individuals with SMD as well.

  20. Acquired phototrophy stabilises coexistence and shapes intrinsic dynamics of an intraguild predator and its prey.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Holly V; Peltomaa, Elina; Johnson, Matthew D; Neubert, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    In marine ecosystems, acquired phototrophs - organisms that obtain their photosynthetic ability by hosting endosymbionts or stealing plastids from their prey - are omnipresent. Such taxa function as intraguild predators yet depend on their prey to periodically obtain chloroplasts. We present a new theory for the effects of acquired phototrophy on community dynamics by analysing a mathematical model of this predator-prey interaction and experimentally verifying its predictions with a laboratory model system. We show that acquired phototrophy stabilises coexistence, but that the nature of this coexistence exhibits a 'paradox of enrichment': as light increases, the coexistence between the acquired phototroph and its prey transitions from a stable equilibrium to boom-bust cycles whose amplitude increases with light availability. In contrast, heterotrophs and mixotrophic acquired phototrophs (that obtain < 30% of their carbon from photosynthesis) do not exhibit such cycles. This prediction matches field observations, in which only strict ( > 95% of carbon from photosynthesis) acquired phototrophs form blooms.

  1. Acquired phototrophy stabilises coexistence and shapes intrinsic dynamics of an intraguild predator and its prey.

    PubMed

    Moeller, Holly V; Peltomaa, Elina; Johnson, Matthew D; Neubert, Michael G

    2016-04-01

    In marine ecosystems, acquired phototrophs - organisms that obtain their photosynthetic ability by hosting endosymbionts or stealing plastids from their prey - are omnipresent. Such taxa function as intraguild predators yet depend on their prey to periodically obtain chloroplasts. We present a new theory for the effects of acquired phototrophy on community dynamics by analysing a mathematical model of this predator-prey interaction and experimentally verifying its predictions with a laboratory model system. We show that acquired phototrophy stabilises coexistence, but that the nature of this coexistence exhibits a 'paradox of enrichment': as light increases, the coexistence between the acquired phototroph and its prey transitions from a stable equilibrium to boom-bust cycles whose amplitude increases with light availability. In contrast, heterotrophs and mixotrophic acquired phototrophs (that obtain < 30% of their carbon from photosynthesis) do not exhibit such cycles. This prediction matches field observations, in which only strict ( > 95% of carbon from photosynthesis) acquired phototrophs form blooms. PMID:26833622

  2. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Statements of Smaller Reporting Companies § 210.8-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. If, during the period for which income statements are required, the smaller reporting company has acquired... acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES...

  3. Emergency Lighting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    A lighting system originally developed for NASA's Apollo and Skylab manned spacecraft resulted in a industrial spinoff and creation of a whole new company to produce and market the product line. The company is UDEC Corp., Waltham, Mass. UDEC's "Multi-Mode" electronic lighting systems are designed for plant emergency and supplemental use, such as night lighting, "always-on" stairwell lights and illuminated exit signs. Their advantages stem from the qualities demanded for spacecraft installation: extremely high fight output with very low energy drain, compactness, light weight, and high reliability. The Multi-Mode system includes long-life fluorescent lamps operated by electronic circuitry, a sealed battery that needs no maintenance for 10 years, and a solid-state battery charger. A typical emergency installation consists of a master module with battery and an eight watt lamp, together with four remote "Satellight" modules powered by the master's battery. As a night lighting system for maintenance or I security, UDEC fixtures can bypass the battery and 1 operate on normal current at a fraction of the energy 1 demand of conventional night lighting. Industrial customers have realized savings of better than ninety percent with UDEC night lights. UDEC started as a basement industry in 1972 but the company has already sold more than 1,000 lighting systems to building operators.

  4. Lymphoma in acquired generalized lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca J; Chan, Jean L; Jaffe, Elaine S; Cochran, Elaine; DePaoli, Alex M; Gautier, Jean-Francois; Goujard, Cecile; Vigouroux, Corinne; Gorden, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Acquired generalized lipodystrophy (AGL) is a rare disease thought to result from autoimmune destruction of adipose tissue. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) has been reported in two AGL patients. We report five additional cases of lymphoma in AGL, and analyze the role of underlying autoimmunity and recombinant human leptin (metreleptin) replacement in lymphoma development. Three patients developed lymphoma during metreleptin treatment (two PTCL and one ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma), and two developed lymphomas (mycosis fungoides and Burkitt lymphoma) without metreleptin. AGL is associated with high risk for lymphoma, especially PTCL. Autoimmunity likely contributes to this risk. Lymphoma developed with or without metreleptin, suggesting metreleptin does not directly cause lymphoma development; a theoretical role of metreleptin in lymphoma progression remains possible. For most patients with AGL and severe metabolic complications, the proven benefits of metreleptin on metabolic disease will likely outweigh theoretical risks of metreleptin in lymphoma development or progression.

  5. Some Tests of Response Membership in Acquired Equivalence Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urcuioli, Peter J.; Lionello-DeNolf, Karen; Michalek, Sarah; Vasconcelos, Marco

    2006-01-01

    Pigeons were trained on many-to-one matching in which pairs of samples, each consisting of a visual stimulus and a distinctive pattern of center-key responding, occasioned the same reinforced comparison choice. Acquired equivalence between the visual and response samples then was evaluated by reinforcing new comparison choices to one set of…

  6. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  7. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  8. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  9. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  10. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  11. 12 CFR 583.1 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.1 Acquire. The term acquire means to acquire, directly or indirectly, ownership or control through an acquisition of shares, an acquisition of assets or assumption of liabilities, a merger or consolidation, or any similar transaction....

  12. Mycosis fungoides: an important differential diagnosis for acquired palmoplantar keratoderma.

    PubMed

    Kim, Janet; Foster, Rachael; Lam, Minh; Kumarasinghe, Sujith Prasad

    2015-02-01

    Mycosis fungoides is the most common subtype of primary cutaneous lymphoma and has several clinical variants. We report a 74-year-old man presenting with an acquired palmoplantar keratoderma initially diagnosed and treated as psoriasis with suboptimal improvement. Several months later the patient developed patches and plaques that were histologically consistent with mycosis fungoides. These lesions were ameliorated with the treatment of the underlying mycosis fungoides and the palmoplantar keratoderma resolved promptly with radiotherapy. This case highlights the importance of considering mycosis fungoides as an infrequent but serious cause of acquired palmoplantar keratoderma.

  13. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction.

  14. Infections Acquired in the Garden.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Cheston B; Cunha, Burke A

    2015-10-01

    Gardening is a wonderful pastime, and the garden is a very peaceful place to enjoy one's vacation. However, the garden may be a treacherous place for very young or compromised hosts when one takes into account the infectious potential residing in the soil, as well as the insect vectors on plants and animals. Even normal hosts may acquire a variety of infections from the soil, animals, or animal-related insect bites. The location of the garden, its natural animal and insect inhabitants, and the characteristics of the soil play a part in determining its infectious potential. The most important factor making the garden an infectious and dangerous place is the number and interaction of animals, whether they are pets or wild, that temporarily use the garden for part of their daily activities. The clinician should always ask about garden exposure, which will help in eliminating the diagnostic possibilities for the patient. The diagnostic approach is to use epidemiological principles in concert with clinical clues, which together should suggest a reasonable list of diagnostic possibilities. Organ involvement and specific laboratory tests help further narrow the differential diagnosis and determine the specific tests necessary to make a definitive diagnosis. PMID:26542044

  15. Inherited or acquired metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Florian; Ratai, Eva; Carroll, Jason J; Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter starts with a description of imaging of inherited metabolic disorders, followed by a discussion on imaging of acquired toxic-metabolic disorders of the adult brain. Neuroimaging is crucial for the diagnosis and management of a number of inherited metabolic disorders. Among these, inherited white-matter disorders commonly affect both the nervous system and endocrine organs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enabled new classifications of these disorders that have greatly enhanced both our diagnostic ability and our understanding of these complex disorders. Beyond the classic leukodystrophies, we are increasingly recognizing new hereditary leukoencephalopathies such as the hypomyelinating disorders. Conventional imaging can be unrevealing in some metabolic disorders, but proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may be able to directly visualize the metabolic abnormality in certain disorders. Hence, neuroimaging can enhance our understanding of pathogenesis, even in the absence of a pathologic specimen. This review aims to present pathognomonic brain MRI lesion patterns, the diagnostic capacity of proton MRS, and information from clinical and laboratory testing that can aid diagnosis. We demonstrate that applying an advanced neuroimaging approach enhances current diagnostics and management. Additional information on inherited and metabolic disorders of the brain can be found in Chapter 63 in the second volume of this series. PMID:27432685

  16. Infections Acquired in the Garden.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Cheston B; Cunha, Burke A

    2015-10-01

    Gardening is a wonderful pastime, and the garden is a very peaceful place to enjoy one's vacation. However, the garden may be a treacherous place for very young or compromised hosts when one takes into account the infectious potential residing in the soil, as well as the insect vectors on plants and animals. Even normal hosts may acquire a variety of infections from the soil, animals, or animal-related insect bites. The location of the garden, its natural animal and insect inhabitants, and the characteristics of the soil play a part in determining its infectious potential. The most important factor making the garden an infectious and dangerous place is the number and interaction of animals, whether they are pets or wild, that temporarily use the garden for part of their daily activities. The clinician should always ask about garden exposure, which will help in eliminating the diagnostic possibilities for the patient. The diagnostic approach is to use epidemiological principles in concert with clinical clues, which together should suggest a reasonable list of diagnostic possibilities. Organ involvement and specific laboratory tests help further narrow the differential diagnosis and determine the specific tests necessary to make a definitive diagnosis.

  17. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction. PMID:26793078

  18. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction. PMID:26793078

  19. Clinicopathological associations of acquired erythroblastopenia

    PubMed Central

    Gunes, Gursel; Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Yasar, Hatime Arzu; Eliacik, Eylem; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Demiroglu, Haluk; Sayinalp, Nilgun; Aksu, Salih; Etgul, Sezgin; Aslan, Tuncay; Goker, Hakan; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Buyukasik, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acquired erythroblastopenia (AE) is a rare clinical situation. It is characterized by the reduction of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow together with the low reticulocyte counts in the peripheral blood. Background: Main secondary causes of AE are drugs, Parvovirus B19 and other infectious reasons, lymphoid and myeloid neoplasia, autoimmune diseases, thymoma and pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the frequencies and clinical associations of AE via analyzing 12340 bone marrow samples in a retrospective manner. Material and method: Bone marrow aspirations which were obtained from patients who applied to Hacettepe University Hematology Clinic between 2002 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Thirty four erythroblastopenia cases were found. Patients ranged in age from 16 to 80 years with a median of 38 years. Fifteen patients were men (44%) and nineteen were women (56%). In these patients, detected causes of erythroblastopenia were MDS, idiopathic pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), parvovirus infection, post chemotherapy aplasia, plasma proliferative diseases, copper deficiency due to secondary amyloidosis, fever of unknown origin, hemophagocytic syndrome, enteric fever and legionella pneumonia. We found that between those reasons the most common causes of erythroblastopenia are MDS (17.7%) and idiopathic PRCA (17.7%). Discussion: As a result, erythroblastopenia in the bone marrow may be an early sign of MDS. In those AE cases possibility of being MDS must be kept in mind as it can be mistaken for PRCA. Conclusion: To conclude, in adults MDS without excess blast is one of the most common causes of erythroblastopenia in clinical practice and in case of erythroblastopenia the presence of MDS should be investigated. PMID:26885236

  20. Acquired cryptorchidism in a boy with disorder of sex development.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Fumi; Yamauchi, Katsuji; Matsui, Futoshi; Shimada, Kenji; Ida, Shinobu

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been reported that boys with severe hypospadias are at increased risk for acquired cryptorchidism. The reports suggested that prenatal and postnatal androgen disruption might be correlated with this condition. We experienced a case of ovotesticular disorder of sex development (DSD), which was ultimately diagnosed at surgery for acquired cryptorchidism. Ascent of the scrotal contents of the left side was detected in a 7-yr-old boy with the 46, XX karyotype, who had a history of perineal hypospadias repair. Intraoperative findings revealed the left gonad consisted of 2 segments, and this was histologically diagnosed as ovotestis by biopsy specimen. Resection of the ovarian segment was performed simultaneously. Exploration of the contralateral gonad showed the same findings. This is the first report of acquired cryptorchidism observed in a patient with DSD presenting with ambiguous genitalia.

  1. Hyperspectral light field imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitner, Raimund; Kenda, Andreas; Tortschanoff, Andreas

    2015-05-01

    A light field camera acquires the intensity and direction of rays from a scene providing a 4D representation L(x,y,u,v) called the light field. The acquired light field allows to virtually change view point and selectively re-focus regions algorithmically, an important feature for many applications in imaging and microscopy. The combination with hyperspectral imaging provides the additional advantage that small objects (beads, cells, nuclei) can be categorised using their spectroscopic signatures. Using an inverse fluorescence microscope, a LCTF tuneable filter and a light field setup as a test-bed, fluorescence-marked beads have been imaged and reconstructed into a 4D hyper-spectral image cube LHSI(x,y,z,λ). The results demonstrate the advantages of the approach for fluorescence microscopy providing extended depth of focus (DoF) and the fidelity of hyper-spectral imaging.

  2. The Principle of Energetic Consistency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohn, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    A basic result in estimation theory is that the minimum variance estimate of the dynamical state, given the observations, is the conditional mean estimate. This result holds independently of the specifics of any dynamical or observation nonlinearity or stochasticity, requiring only that the probability density function of the state, conditioned on the observations, has two moments. For nonlinear dynamics that conserve a total energy, this general result implies the principle of energetic consistency: if the dynamical variables are taken to be the natural energy variables, then the sum of the total energy of the conditional mean and the trace of the conditional covariance matrix (the total variance) is constant between observations. Ensemble Kalman filtering methods are designed to approximate the evolution of the conditional mean and covariance matrix. For them the principle of energetic consistency holds independently of ensemble size, even with covariance localization. However, full Kalman filter experiments with advection dynamics have shown that a small amount of numerical dissipation can cause a large, state-dependent loss of total variance, to the detriment of filter performance. The principle of energetic consistency offers a simple way to test whether this spurious loss of variance limits ensemble filter performance in full-blown applications. The classical second-moment closure (third-moment discard) equations also satisfy the principle of energetic consistency, independently of the rank of the conditional covariance matrix. Low-rank approximation of these equations offers an energetically consistent, computationally viable alternative to ensemble filtering. Current formulations of long-window, weak-constraint, four-dimensional variational methods are designed to approximate the conditional mode rather than the conditional mean. Thus they neglect the nonlinear bias term in the second-moment closure equation for the conditional mean. The principle of

  3. Self-consistent asset pricing models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malevergne, Y.; Sornette, D.

    2007-08-01

    We discuss the foundations of factor or regression models in the light of the self-consistency condition that the market portfolio (and more generally the risk factors) is (are) constituted of the assets whose returns it is (they are) supposed to explain. As already reported in several articles, self-consistency implies correlations between the return disturbances. As a consequence, the alphas and betas of the factor model are unobservable. Self-consistency leads to renormalized betas with zero effective alphas, which are observable with standard OLS regressions. When the conditions derived from internal consistency are not met, the model is necessarily incomplete, which means that some sources of risk cannot be replicated (or hedged) by a portfolio of stocks traded on the market, even for infinite economies. Analytical derivations and numerical simulations show that, for arbitrary choices of the proxy which are different from the true market portfolio, a modified linear regression holds with a non-zero value αi at the origin between an asset i's return and the proxy's return. Self-consistency also introduces “orthogonality” and “normality” conditions linking the betas, alphas (as well as the residuals) and the weights of the proxy portfolio. Two diagnostics based on these orthogonality and normality conditions are implemented on a basket of 323 assets which have been components of the S&P500 in the period from January 1990 to February 2005. These two diagnostics show interesting departures from dynamical self-consistency starting about 2 years before the end of the Internet bubble. Assuming that the CAPM holds with the self-consistency condition, the OLS method automatically obeys the resulting orthogonality and normality conditions and therefore provides a simple way to self-consistently assess the parameters of the model by using proxy portfolios made only of the assets which are used in the CAPM regressions. Finally, the factor decomposition with the

  4. Acquired Surface Dyslexia: The Evidence from Hebrew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnboim, Smadar

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the symptoms of acquired surface dyslexia in Hebrew. Four acquired surface dyslexic adults were compared with eight normal second graders in terms of reading strategy. Homophones and homographs were a major source of difficulty for native Hebrew surface dyslexic readers; the normal second graders used a non-lexical strategy. (45…

  5. Epipolar Consistency in Transmission Imaging.

    PubMed

    Aichert, André; Berger, Martin; Wang, Jian; Maass, Nicole; Doerfler, Arnd; Hornegger, Joachim; Maier, Andreas K

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents the derivation of the Epipolar Consistency Conditions (ECC) between two X-ray images from the Beer-Lambert law of X-ray attenuation and the Epipolar Geometry of two pinhole cameras, using Grangeat's theorem. We motivate the use of Oriented Projective Geometry to express redundant line integrals in projection images and define a consistency metric, which can be used, for instance, to estimate patient motion directly from a set of X-ray images. We describe in detail the mathematical tools to implement an algorithm to compute the Epipolar Consistency Metric and investigate its properties with detailed random studies on both artificial and real FD-CT data. A set of six reference projections of the CT scan of a fish were used to evaluate accuracy and precision of compensating for random disturbances of the ground truth projection matrix using an optimization of the consistency metric. In addition, we use three X-ray images of a pumpkin to prove applicability to real data. We conclude, that the metric might have potential in applications related to the estimation of projection geometry. By expression of redundancy between two arbitrary projection views, we in fact support any device or acquisition trajectory which uses a cone-beam geometry. We discuss certain geometric situations, where the ECC provide the ability to correct 3D motion, without the need for 3D reconstruction. PMID:25915956

  6. Averaging Internal Consistency Reliability Coefficients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldt, Leonard S.; Charter, Richard A.

    2006-01-01

    Seven approaches to averaging reliability coefficients are presented. Each approach starts with a unique definition of the concept of "average," and no approach is more correct than the others. Six of the approaches are applicable to internal consistency coefficients. The seventh approach is specific to alternate-forms coefficients. Although the…

  7. Bili lights

    MedlinePlus

    Phototherapy for jaundice; Bilirubin - bili lights; Neonatal care - bili lights; Newborn care - bili lights ... Phototherapy involves shining fluorescent light from the bili lights on bare skin. A specific wavelength of light can break down bilirubin into a form that ...

  8. Consistent transport coefficients in astrophysics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, Juan M.; Rovira, M.; Ferrofontan, C.

    1986-01-01

    A consistent theory for dealing with transport phenomena in stellar atmospheres starting with the kinetic equations and introducing three cases (LTE, partial LTE, and non-LTE) was developed. The consistent hydrodynamical equations were presented for partial-LTE, the transport coefficients defined, and a method shown to calculate them. The method is based on the numerical solution of kinetic equations considering Landau, Boltzmann, and Focker-Planck collision terms. Finally a set of results for the transport coefficients derived for a partially ionized hydrogen gas with radiation was shown, considering ionization and recombination as well as elastic collisions. The results obtained imply major changes is some types of theoretical model calculations and can resolve some important current problems concerning energy and mass balance in the solar atmosphere. It is shown that energy balance in the lower solar transition region can be fully explained by means of radiation losses and conductive flux.

  9. Consistent interpretations of quantum mechanics

    SciTech Connect

    Omnes, R. )

    1992-04-01

    Within the last decade, significant progress has been made towards a consistent and complete reformulation of the Copenhagen interpretation (an interpretation consisting in a formulation of the experimental aspects of physics in terms of the basic formalism; it is consistent if free from internal contradiction and complete if it provides precise predictions for all experiments). The main steps involved decoherence (the transition from linear superpositions of macroscopic states to a mixing), Griffiths histories describing the evolution of quantum properties, a convenient logical structure for dealing with histories, and also some progress in semiclassical physics, which was made possible by new methods. The main outcome is a theory of phenomena, viz., the classically meaningful properties of a macroscopic system. It shows in particular how and when determinism is valid. This theory can be used to give a deductive form to measurement theory, which now covers some cases that were initially devised as counterexamples against the Copenhagen interpretation. These theories are described, together with their applications to some key experiments and some of their consequences concerning epistemology.

  10. Potential disadvantages of using socially acquired information.

    PubMed Central

    Giraldeau, Luc-Alain; Valone, Thomas J; Templeton, Jennifer J

    2002-01-01

    The acquisition and use of socially acquired information is commonly assumed to be profitable. We challenge this assumption by exploring hypothetical scenarios where the use of such information either provides no benefit or can actually be costly. First, we show that the level of incompatibility between the acquisition of personal and socially acquired information will directly affect the extent to which the use of socially acquired information can be profitable. When these two sources of information cannot be acquired simultaneously, there may be no benefit to socially acquired information. Second, we assume that a solitary individual's behavioural decisions will be based on cues revealed by its own interactions with the environment. However, in many cases, for social animals the only socially acquired information available to individuals is the behavioural actions of others that expose their decisions, rather than the cues on which these decisions were based. We argue that in such a situation the use of socially acquired information can lead to informational cascades that sometimes result in sub-optimal behaviour. From this theory of informational cascades, we predict that when erroneous cascades are costly, individuals should pay attention only to socially generated cues and not behavioural decisions. We suggest three scenarios that might be examples of informational cascades in nature. PMID:12495513

  11. Thymus involution in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grody, W W; Fligiel, S; Naeim, F

    1985-07-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a severe disorder of unknown etiology and pathogenesis, predominantly affecting homosexual males and other high-risk groups and characterized by profound alterations in T-lymphocyte function. The authors have examined thymus tissue from 14 patients who died of AIDS and compared the results with findings in five control groups: healthy age-matched controls, elderly individuals, patients with chronic or debilitating illnesses other than AIDS, infants with conditions causing "stress atrophy," and patients with myasthenia gravis. The AIDS group included 11 homosexual males, 1 Haitian, 1 homosexual who was also a drug abuser, and a 10-month-old infant believed to have contracted AIDS following blood transfusion. All the AIDS cases showed marked thymus involution with severe depletion of both lymphocytes and epithelial elements. The latter component consisted primarily of thin cords and nests of primitive-appearing epithelial cells that could be defined by positive immunohistochemical staining for keratin. Many cases showed a variable plasma cell infiltration, and the majority exhibited distinct vascular changes in the form of hyalinization and/or onion-skin patterns, primarily in the adventitia. Most striking of all was the marked paucity of Hassall's corpuscles; four patients had none at all, while in the other ten patients all the Hassall's corpuscles were calcified. These changes were far more extensive than those seen in any of the control groups, which retained most of their complement of Hassall's corpuscles even in the face of marked overall involution. The physiologic function of Hassall's corpuscles is not known, but recent immunohistochemical studies have implicated them in the synthesis of "facteur thymique serique" (FTS, thymulin) and other thymic hormones known to play a role in regulating T-helper and suppressor cell activity. It is conceivable that the extensive destruction of Hassall's corpuscles observed in

  12. Acquired Brown's syndrome: an unusual cause.

    PubMed

    Booth-Mason, S; Kyle, G M; Rossor, M; Bradbury, P

    1985-10-01

    A 62-year-old man with acquired Brown's syndrome is presented. This was due to an orbital metastatic deposit, a cause not previously reported. Other causes of this disorder and its treatment are discussed.

  13. Maintaining consistency in distributed systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birman, Kenneth P.

    1991-01-01

    In systems designed as assemblies of independently developed components, concurrent access to data or data structures normally arises within individual programs, and is controlled using mutual exclusion constructs, such as semaphores and monitors. Where data is persistent and/or sets of operation are related to one another, transactions or linearizability may be more appropriate. Systems that incorporate cooperative styles of distributed execution often replicate or distribute data within groups of components. In these cases, group oriented consistency properties must be maintained, and tools based on the virtual synchrony execution model greatly simplify the task confronting an application developer. All three styles of distributed computing are likely to be seen in future systems - often, within the same application. This leads us to propose an integrated approach that permits applications that use virtual synchrony with concurrent objects that respect a linearizability constraint, and vice versa. Transactional subsystems are treated as a special case of linearizability.

  14. Epicutaneous Model of Community-Acquired Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infections

    PubMed Central

    Prabhakara, Ranjani; Foreman, Oded; De Pascalis, Roberto; Lee, Gloria M.; Plaut, Roger D.; Kim, Stanley Y.; Stibitz, Scott; Elkins, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is one of the most common etiological agents of community-acquired skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI). Although the majority of S. aureus community-acquired SSTIs are uncomplicated and self-clearing in nature, some percentage of these cases progress into life-threatening invasive infections. Current animal models of S. aureus SSTI suffer from two drawbacks: these models are a better representation of hospital-acquired SSTI than community-acquired SSTI, and they involve methods that are difficult to replicate. For these reasons, we sought to develop a murine model of community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus SSTI (CA-MRSA SSTI) that can be consistently reproduced with a high degree of precision. We utilized this model to begin to characterize the host immune response to this type of infection. We infected mice via epicutaneous challenge of the skin on the outer ear pinna using Morrow-Brown allergy test needles coated in S. aureus USA300. When mice were challenged in this model, they developed small, purulent, self-clearing lesions with predictable areas of inflammation that mimicked a human infection. CFU in the ear pinna peaked at day 7 before dropping by day 14. The Th1 and Th17 cytokines gamma interferon (IFN-γ), interleukin-12 (IL-12) p70, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), IL-17A, IL-6, and IL-21 were all significantly increased in the draining lymph node of infected mice, and there was neutrophil recruitment to the infection site. In vivo neutrophil depletion demonstrated that neutrophils play a protective role in preventing bacterial dissemination and fatal invasive infection. PMID:23381997

  15. News Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2012-05-01

    Education: Physics Education Networks meeting has global scale Competition: Competition seeks the next Brian Cox Experiment: New measurement of neutrino time-of-flight consistent with the speed of light Event: A day for all those who teach physics Conference: Students attend first Anglo-Japanese international science conference Celebration: Will 2015 be the 'Year of Light'? Teachers: Challenging our intuition in spectacular fashion: the fascinating world of quantum physics awaits Research: Science sharpens up sport Learning: Kittinger and Baumgartner: on a mission to the edge of space International: London International Youth Science Forum calls for leading young scientists Competition: Physics paralympian challenge needs inquisitive, analytical, artistic and eloquent pupils Forthcoming events

  16. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated with blood-product transfusions

    SciTech Connect

    Jett, J.R.; Kuritsky, J.N.; Katzmann, J.A.; Homburger, H.A.

    1983-11-01

    A 53-year-old white man had fever, malaise, and dyspnea on exertion. His chest roentgenogram was normal, but pulmonary function tests showed impaired diffusion capacity and a gallium scan showed marked uptake in the lungs. Results of an open-lung biopsy documented Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Immunologic test results were consistent with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The patient denied having homosexual contact or using intravenous drugs. Twenty-nine months before the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia was made, the patient had had 16 transfusions of whole blood, platelets, and fresh-frozen plasma during coronary artery bypass surgery at another medical center. This patient is not a member of any currently recognized high-risk group and is believed to have contracted the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from blood and blood-product transfusions.

  17. A method to acquire CT organ dose map using OSL dosimeters and ATOM anthropomorphic phantoms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Da; Li, Xinhua; Gao, Yiming; Xu, X. George; Liu, Bob

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To present the design and procedure of an experimental method for acquiring densely sampled organ dose map for CT applications, based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters “nanoDots” and standard ATOM anthropomorphic phantoms; and to provide the results of applying the method—a dose data set with good statistics for the comparison with Monte Carlo simulation result in the future. Methods: A standard ATOM phantom has densely located holes (in 3 × 3 cm or 1.5 × 1.5 cm grids), which are too small (5 mm in diameter) to host many types of dosimeters, including the nanoDots. The authors modified the conventional way in which nanoDots are used, by removing the OSL disks from the holders before inserting them inside a standard ATOM phantom for dose measurements. The authors solved three technical difficulties introduced by this modification: (1) energy dependent dose calibration for raw OSL readings; (2) influence of the brief background exposure of OSL disks to dimmed room light; (3) correct pairing between the dose readings and measurement locations. The authors acquired 100 dose measurements at various positions in the phantom, which was scanned using a clinical chest protocol with both angular and z-axis tube current modulations. Results: Dose calibration was performed according to the beam qualities inside the phantom as determined from an established Monte Carlo model of the scanner. The influence of the brief exposure to dimmed room light was evaluated and deemed negligible. Pairing between the OSL readings and measurement locations was ensured by the experimental design. The organ doses measured for a routine adult chest scan protocol ranged from 9.4 to 18.8 mGy, depending on the composition, location, and surrounding anatomy of the organs. The dose distribution across different slices of the phantom strongly depended on the z-axis mA modulation. In the same slice, doses to the soft tissues other than the spinal cord

  18. A method to acquire CT organ dose map using OSL dosimeters and ATOM anthropomorphic phantoms

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Da; Li, Xinhua; Liu, Bob; Gao, Yiming; Xu, X. George

    2013-08-15

    Purpose: To present the design and procedure of an experimental method for acquiring densely sampled organ dose map for CT applications, based on optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dosimeters “nanoDots” and standard ATOM anthropomorphic phantoms; and to provide the results of applying the method—a dose data set with good statistics for the comparison with Monte Carlo simulation result in the future.Methods: A standard ATOM phantom has densely located holes (in 3 × 3 cm or 1.5 × 1.5 cm grids), which are too small (5 mm in diameter) to host many types of dosimeters, including the nanoDots. The authors modified the conventional way in which nanoDots are used, by removing the OSL disks from the holders before inserting them inside a standard ATOM phantom for dose measurements. The authors solved three technical difficulties introduced by this modification: (1) energy dependent dose calibration for raw OSL readings; (2) influence of the brief background exposure of OSL disks to dimmed room light; (3) correct pairing between the dose readings and measurement locations. The authors acquired 100 dose measurements at various positions in the phantom, which was scanned using a clinical chest protocol with both angular and z-axis tube current modulations.Results: Dose calibration was performed according to the beam qualities inside the phantom as determined from an established Monte Carlo model of the scanner. The influence of the brief exposure to dimmed room light was evaluated and deemed negligible. Pairing between the OSL readings and measurement locations was ensured by the experimental design. The organ doses measured for a routine adult chest scan protocol ranged from 9.4 to 18.8 mGy, depending on the composition, location, and surrounding anatomy of the organs. The dose distribution across different slices of the phantom strongly depended on the z-axis mA modulation. In the same slice, doses to the soft tissues other than the spinal cord demonstrated

  19. Ultra-high resolution color images of the surface of comet 67P acquired by ROLIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schröder, Stefan; Mottola, Stefano; Arnold, Gabriele; Grothues, Hans-Georg; Hamm, Maximilian; Jaumann, Ralf; Michaelis, Harald; Pelivan, Ivanka; Proffe, Gerrit; Bibring, Jean-Pierre

    2015-04-01

    On Nov 12, 2014, the Rosetta Philae lander descended towards comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. The onboard ROLIS camera successfully acquired high resolution images of the surface looking down from its vantage point on the instrument platform. ROLIS is a compact CCD imager with a 1024×1024 pixel sensor and a 57° field of view (Mottola et al., 2007, SSR 128, 241). It is equipped with an infinity lens (IFL), without which the camera focus is 30 cm. At Philae's final landing site, ROLIS removed the IFL and initiated an imaging sequence that shows the surface at the highest resolution ever obtained for a cometary surface (~0.5 mm per pixel). Illumination of the scene was provided by an onboard array of LEDs in four different colors: red, green, blue, and near-IR. ROLIS acquired one image for each color and a single dark exposure. The images show a unique, almost fractal morphology for the surface below the landing site that defies easy interpretation. However, there are similarities with some structures seen by the CIVA camera. Color and albedo variations over the surface are minor, and individual grains cannot be distinguished. The images are out-of-focus, indicating the surface was further away than the nominal 30 cm. The location of the illumination spot and the change of focus over the image are consistent with an inclined surface, indicating that Philae's final resting position is strongly tilted. In fact, it was inclined so much that we see the local horizon, even though ROLIS is downward-looking. Remarkably, the scene beyond the horizon is illuminated by the Sun, and out-of-focus particles can be seen to travel in the sky. The images suggest the environment of the lander is laden with fine dust, but a final assessment requires careful consideration of possible sources of stray light. Just before Philae went to sleep, ROLIS acquired an additional exposure with the IFL and the red LED. The resulting image is fully in focus. Because Philae had rotated and lifted

  20. Self-consistent flattened isochrones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Binney, James

    2014-05-01

    We present a family of self-consistent axisymmetric stellar systems that have analytic distribution functions (DFs) of the form f(J), so they depend on three integrals of motion and have triaxial velocity ellipsoids. The models, which are generalizations of Hénon's isochrone sphere, have four dimensionless parameters, two determining the part of the DF that is even in Lz and two determining the odd part of the DF (which determines the azimuthal velocity distribution). Outside their cores, the velocity ellipsoids of all models tend to point to the model's centre, and we argue that this behaviour is generic, so near the symmetry axis of a flattened model, the long axis of the velocity ellipsoid is naturally aligned with the symmetry axis and not perpendicular to it as in many published dynamical models of well-studied galaxies. By varying one of the DF parameters, the intensity of rotation can be increased from zero up to a maximum value set by the requirement that the DF be non-negative. Since angle-action coordinates are easily computed for these models, they are ideally suited for perturbative treatments and stability analysis. They can also be used to choose initial conditions for an N-body model that starts in perfect equilibrium, and to model observations of early-type galaxies. The modelling technique introduced here is readily extended to different radial density profiles, more complex kinematics and multicomponent systems. A number of important technical issues surrounding the determination of the models' observable properties are explained in two appendices.

  1. Lighting: Green Light.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maniccia, Dorine

    2003-01-01

    Explains that by using sustainable (green) building practices, schools and universities can make their lighting systems more efficient, noting that embracing green design principles can help schools attract students. Discusses lighting-control technologies (occupancy sensing technology, daylighting technology, and scheduling based technologies),…

  2. Acquired bleeding disorders in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kruse-Jarres, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The hemostatic balance changes with advancing age which may be due to factors such as platelet activation, increase of certain clotting factor proteins, slowing of the fibrinolytic system, and modification of the endothelium and blood flow. Generally, this predisposes the elderly to thrombosis rather than bleeding. It often necessitates antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy, which can cause significant bleeding problems in an aging population. Additionally, changing renal function, modification in immune regulation, and a multitude of other disease processes, can give rise to acquired bleeding disorders. Bleeding can prove difficult to treat in a dynamic environment and in a population that may have underlying thrombotic risk factors.This article discusses some specific challenges of acquired bleeding arising in the elderly. The use of anticoagulation and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications is prevalent in the treatment of the elderly and predisposes them to increased bleeding risk as their physiology changes. When prescribing and monitoring these therapies, it is exceedingly important to weigh thrombotic versus bleeding risks. There are additional rare acquired bleeding disorders that predominantly affect the elderly. One of them is acquired hemophilia, which is an autoimmune disorder arising from antibodies against factor VIII. The treatment challenge rests in the use of hemostatic agents in a population that is already at increased risk for thrombotic complications. Another rare disorder of intensifying interest, acquired von Willebrand syndrome, has a multitude of etiologic mechanisms. Understanding the underlying pathophysiology is essential in making a treatment decision for this disorder.

  3. The Properties of Light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haglund, Richard F.

    The mystery of light has formed the core of creation stories in every culture, and attracted the earnest attentions of philosophers since at least the fifth century BCE. Their questions have ranged from how and what we see, to the interaction of light with material bodies, and finally to the nature of light itself. This chapter begins with a brief intellectual history of light from ancient Greece to the end of the 19th century. After introducing the physical parameterization of light in terms of standard units, three concepts of light are introduced: light as a wave, light as a quantum particle, and light as a quantum field. After highlighting the distinctive characteristics of light beams from various sources - thermal radiation, luminescence from atoms and molecules, and synchrotron light sources - the distinctive physical characteristics of light beams are examined in some detail. The chapter concludes with a survey of the statistical and quantum-mechanical properties of light beams. In the appropriate limits, this treatment not only recovers the classical description of light waves and the semiclassical view of light as a stream of quanta, but also forms a consistent description of quantum phenomena - such as interference phenomena generated by single photons - that have no classical analogs.

  4. Acquired cutis laxa associated with cutaneous mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Minh Van; Dang, Phuoc Van; Bui, Duc Van; Mejbel, Haider; Mani, Divya Thomas; Smoller, Bruce Robert; Phung, Thuy Linh

    2015-07-01

    Cutis laxa is characterized by dramatic wrinkling of skin that is lacking in elasticity due to inherent defects in dermal elastic fibers. Cutis laxa can be caused by genetic and metabolic disorders. It can also be acquired, possibly resulting from inflammatory processes with destruction of elastic fibers. This report describes a 26-year old woman who developed acquired cutis laxa and cutaneous mastocytosis leading to premature aging. She represents a unique co-occurrence of these two separate disease entities. To our knowledge, there has been only one published case report of acquired cutis laxa occurring in association with urticaria pigmentosa in a 4-year old girl. Our case would be a second case that exhibits the coexistence of these two disorders in an adult female. PMID:26436968

  5. Congenital and acquired bleeding disorders in infancy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sally Elizabeth; Bolton-Maggs, Paula H B

    2015-11-01

    The diagnosis of congenital and acquired bleeding disorders in infants requires an understanding of developmental haemostasis and the effect on laboratory testing. A systematic approach to bleeding in neonates will aid clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment, which may be caused by a wide variety of diseases. The clinical setting will help to direct the diagnostic pathway. This review will focus on the presentation and diagnosis of congenital and acquired bleeding disorders, including platelet disorders. Current research in this field is ongoing, including investigation into neonatal platelets and their different functionalities, platelet transfusion thresholds and how changes in coagulation factors may be linked to other homeostatic mechanisms.

  6. Approach and treatment of the adult acquired flatfoot deformity.

    PubMed

    Vulcano, Ettore; Deland, Jonathan T; Ellis, Scott J

    2013-12-01

    Adult acquired flatfoot deformity (AAFD), embraces a wide spectrum of deformities. AAFD is a complex pathology consisting both of posterior tibial tendon insufficiency and failure of the capsular and ligamentous structures of the foot. Each patient presents with characteristic deformities across the involved joints, requiring individualized treatment. Early stages may respond well to aggressive conservative management, yet more severe AAFD necessitates prompt surgical therapy to halt the progression of the disease to stages requiring more complex procedures. We present the most current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches to AAFD, based on the most pertinent literature and our own experience and investigations. PMID:23765382

  7. A Case Of Bilateral Acquired Localized Lipoatrophy

    PubMed Central

    Tanrıkulu, Osman; Yesilova, Yavuz; Aksoy, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Lipoatrophy is characterized by inflammation and tissue loss in fatty tissue. This disease may be congenital or acquired, primary or secondary. Secondary lipoatrophy develops with infections, collagen tissue diseases, tumors and drug injections. In this report, we present the case of a 14-year-old female patient who developed lipoatrophy following intramuscular steroid injection to both buttocks. PMID:27504088

  8. Mitral valve repair in acquired dextrocardia.

    PubMed

    Elmistekawy, Elsayed; Chan, Vincent; Hynes, Mark; Mesana, Thierry

    2015-10-01

    Surgical correction of valvular heart disease in patients with dextrocardia is extremely rare. We report a surgical case of mitral valve repair in a patient with acquired dextrocardia. Successful mitral valve repair was performed through a right lateral thoracotomy. We describe our surgical strategy and summarize the literature.

  9. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Vykuntaraju K N; Sukanya, V; Shivananda

    2012-11-01

    A 7-year-old boy with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, receiving antiretroviral drugs for 2 years, presented with a recent onset of myoclonic jerks and cognitive deterioration. On examination, he manifested myoclonic jerks once every 10-15 seconds. His electroencephalogram indicated periodic complexes, and his cerebrospinal fluid tested positive for measles antibodies.

  10. Group Treatment in Acquired Brain Injury Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertisch, Hilary; Rath, Joseph F.; Langenbahn, Donna M.; Sherr, Rose Lynn; Diller, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    The current article describes critical issues in adapting traditional group-treatment methods for working with individuals with reduced cognitive capacity secondary to acquired brain injury. Using the classification system based on functional ability developed at the NYU Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (RIRM), we delineate the cognitive…

  11. Support Network Responses to Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chleboun, Steffany; Hux, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) affects social relationships; however, the ways social and support networks change and evolve as a result of brain injury is not well understood. This study explored ways in which survivors of ABI and members of their support networks perceive relationship changes as recovery extends into the long-term stage. Two…

  12. Interviewing Children with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Anne-Marie; Linden, Mark; Alderdice, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Research into the lives of children with acquired brain injury (ABI) often neglects to incorporate children as participants, preferring to obtain the opinions of the adult carer (e.g. McKinlay et al., 2002). There has been a concerted attempt to move away from this position by those working in children's research with current etiquette…

  13. Eye Movement Correlates of Acquired Central Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schattka, Kerstin I.; Radach, Ralph; Huber, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent progress in theory and measurement techniques, the analysis of eye movements has become one of the major methodological tools in experimental reading research. Our work uses this approach to advance the understanding of impaired information processing in acquired central dyslexia of stroke patients with aphasia. Up to now there has…

  14. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acquire. 989.17 Section 989.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  15. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquire. 989.17 Section 989.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  16. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acquire. 989.17 Section 989.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  17. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acquire. 989.17 Section 989.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  18. Neural Correlates of Acquired Color Category Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna; Holmes, Amanda; Drivonikou, Vicky G.; Ozgen, Emre; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Category training can induce category effects, whereby color discrimination of stimuli spanning a newly learned category boundary is enhanced relative to equivalently spaced stimuli from within the newly learned category (e.g., categorical perception). However, the underlying mechanisms of these acquired category effects are not fully understood.…

  19. Polarised light sheet tomography.

    PubMed

    Reidt, Sascha L; O'Brien, Daniel J; Wood, Kenneth; MacDonald, Michael P

    2016-05-16

    The various benefits of light sheet microscopy have made it a widely used modality for capturing three-dimensional images. It is mostly used for fluorescence imaging, but recently another technique called light sheet tomography solely relying on scattering was presented. The method was successfully applied to imaging of plant roots in transparent soil, but is limited when it comes to more turbid samples. This study presents a polarised light sheet tomography system and its advantages when imaging in highly scattering turbid media. The experimental configuration is guided by Monte Carlo radiation transfer methods, which model the propagation of a polarised light sheet in the sample. Images of both reflecting and absorbing phantoms in a complex collagenous matrix were acquired, and the results for different polarisation configurations are compared. Focus scanning methods were then used to reduce noise and produce three-dimensional reconstructions of absorbing targets.

  20. Polarised light sheet tomography.

    PubMed

    Reidt, Sascha L; O'Brien, Daniel J; Wood, Kenneth; MacDonald, Michael P

    2016-05-16

    The various benefits of light sheet microscopy have made it a widely used modality for capturing three-dimensional images. It is mostly used for fluorescence imaging, but recently another technique called light sheet tomography solely relying on scattering was presented. The method was successfully applied to imaging of plant roots in transparent soil, but is limited when it comes to more turbid samples. This study presents a polarised light sheet tomography system and its advantages when imaging in highly scattering turbid media. The experimental configuration is guided by Monte Carlo radiation transfer methods, which model the propagation of a polarised light sheet in the sample. Images of both reflecting and absorbing phantoms in a complex collagenous matrix were acquired, and the results for different polarisation configurations are compared. Focus scanning methods were then used to reduce noise and produce three-dimensional reconstructions of absorbing targets. PMID:27409945

  1. Acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus in a dog with leptospirosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A 5 year old male neutered Cairn Terrier was evaluated for signs of polyuria and polydipsia. Initial hematology and chemistry panels were unremarkable and urinalysis showed a persistent hyposthenuria. Eleven days later, the dog became lethargic, inappetent and had developed acute renal failure. The dog was ultimately euthanized due to a poor response to treatment. Microscopic agglutination titres were consistent with a diagnosis of leptospirosis. The initial hyposthenuria in this case was consistent with acquired nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. This is an uncommon presentation of leptospirosis that has not previously been described to progress to acute renal failure. Leptospirosis should be considered as a differential diagnosis in any dog presenting with polyuria and polydipsia and these patients should be treated as a zoonotic risk. PMID:24739820

  2. Acquired undescended testis: putting the pieces together.

    PubMed

    Hack, W W M; Goede, J; van der Voort-Doedens, L M; Meijer, R W

    2012-02-01

    Acquired undescended testis is now a well-recognized disorder. It is seen in 1.5% of pre-pubertal boys and accounts for the 1-2% orchidopexy rate in older boys. Its pathogenesis remains largely unclear, but it may be caused by a fibrous remnant of the processus vaginalis. There is much controversy over its management, and the proper management awaits a randomized-controlled trial. Until now, follow-up data are available only for cases of spontaneous descent or pubertal orchidopexy. It is speculated that acquired undescended testis is in fact congenital and because of a short funiculus at birth, allowing a low-scrotal position early in life. However, as the boy grows, the testis might evolve into an undescended state. When testosterone surges at puberty, spontaneous descent occurs in three of every four cases.

  3. Clinical laboratory data: acquire, analyze, communicate, liberate.

    PubMed

    Azzazy, Hassan M E; Elbehery, Ali H A

    2015-01-01

    The availability of portable healthcare devices, which can acquire and transmit medical data to remote experts would dramatically affect healthcare in areas with poor infrastructure. Smartphones, which feature touchscreen computer capabilities and sophisticated cameras, have become widely available with over billion units shipped in 2013. In the clinical laboratory, smartphones have recently brought the capabilities of key instruments such as spectrophotometers, fluorescence analyzers and microscopes into the palm of the hand. Several research groups have developed sensitive and low-cost smartphone-based diagnostic assay prototypes for testing cholesterol, albumin, vitamin D, tumor markers, and the detection of infectious agents. This review covers the use of smartphones to acquire, analyze, communicate, and liberate clinical laboratory data. Smartphones promise to dramatically improve the quality and quantity of healthcare offered in resource-limited areas.

  4. Acquired Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cho, Do-Yeon; Woodworth, Bradford A

    2016-01-01

    In the genetic airway disease cystic fibrosis (CF), deficiency or dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis membrane conductance regulator (CFTR) alters anion transport in respiratory epithelium and consequently disrupts mucociliary clearance. An enriched understanding of the role of CFTR in the maintenance of normal epithelial function has revealed that mild and variable CFTR mutations play a causative role in a number of diseases not classically associated with CF. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that acquired defects in wild-type CFTR protein processing, endocytic recycling and function can contribute to the pathogenesis of airway diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this chapter, we discuss emerging findings implicating acquired CFTR dysfunction in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis and propose a new and leading edge approach to future CRS therapy using CFTR potentiators. PMID:27466849

  5. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging*

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Andréa Farias de Melo; Mota Jr., Américo; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaeté; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common-increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. PMID:27777479

  6. [Acquired renal cysts in maintenance dialysis patients].

    PubMed

    Lie, B; Hust, W; Asgarzadeh, A; Mann, H

    1986-03-01

    Ultrasonographic examination of the kidneys of 111 patients on long term maintenance hemodialysis was performed. None of the patients had genuine polycystic kidney disease. In many patients acquired cysts were found. Frequency and volume of these cysts were the same on the right and left side. There was no correlation between the age of the patients and the number of cysts. There were no differences concerning sex and type of primary renal disease. There was a significant positive correlation between time on maintenance hemodialysis and number of cysts but no correlation between number of cysts and hemoglobin concentration. This is in contrast to data in the literature. Clinical relevance of acquired kidney cysts in dialysis patients concerns hematuria, retroperitoneal bleeding, kidney stone formation, septicemia and malignancy.

  7. System Acquires Data On Reactivities Of Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Joe T.

    1994-01-01

    Data-acquisition and -plotting system, called DAPS(TM), developed enabling accurate and objective determination of physical properties related to reactivities of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foams. Automated, computer-controlled test apparatus that acquires data on rates of rise, rise profiles, exothermic temperatures, and internal pressures of foams prepared from both manual and machine-mixed batches. Data used to determine minute differences between reaction kinetics and exothermic profiles of foam formulations, properties of end products which are statistically undifferentiated.

  8. Management options of acquired punctal stenosis.

    PubMed

    Bukhari, Amal A

    2013-08-01

    Punctal stenosis is a frequent source of patients referral to the otoplasty clinic and the search for a procedure that can permanently eliminate epiphora without disturbing the normal lacrimal system anatomy and physiology started centuries ago and continues today. The following article summarizes the reported procedures in the English literature in the acquired punctal stenosis with a description of techniques, success rates, and potential complications with the goal of identifying the most effective treatment strategy based on the current knowledge available.

  9. Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ride, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), an education activity, allows middle school students to program a digital camera on board the International Space Station to photograph a variety of geographical targets for study in the classroom. Photos are made available on the web for viewing and study by participating schools around the world. Educators use the images for projects involving Earth Science, geography, physics, and social science.

  10. Acquired protein energy malnutrition in glutaric acidemia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liqiao; Savory, Stephanie; Agim, Nnenna G

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of acquired protein energy malnutrition with associated zinc deficiency in an 18-month-old boy with type 1 glutaric acidemia. Physical examination findings included generalized nonpitting edema, widespread desquamative plaques, and sparse hair with a reddish tinge. Laboratory abnormalities included low levels of zinc, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, and iron. A review of skin manifestations of nutritional deficiencies, specifically kwashiorkor, is presented, as well as the relatively new entity called acrodermatitis dysmetabolica.

  11. Acquired protein energy malnutrition in glutaric acidemia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liqiao; Savory, Stephanie; Agim, Nnenna G

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of acquired protein energy malnutrition with associated zinc deficiency in an 18-month-old boy with type 1 glutaric acidemia. Physical examination findings included generalized nonpitting edema, widespread desquamative plaques, and sparse hair with a reddish tinge. Laboratory abnormalities included low levels of zinc, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, and iron. A review of skin manifestations of nutritional deficiencies, specifically kwashiorkor, is presented, as well as the relatively new entity called acrodermatitis dysmetabolica. PMID:23330977

  12. Acquired Antibiotic Resistance Genes: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    van Hoek, Angela H. A. M.; Mevius, Dik; Guerra, Beatriz; Mullany, Peter; Roberts, Adam Paul; Aarts, Henk J. M.

    2011-01-01

    In this review an overview is given on antibiotic resistance (AR) mechanisms with special attentions to the AR genes described so far preceded by a short introduction on the discovery and mode of action of the different classes of antibiotics. As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance, attention is also paid to mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons, which are associated with AR genes, and involved in the dispersal of antimicrobial determinants between different bacteria. PMID:22046172

  13. Severe Acquired Idiopathic Thrombocytopenia in a Female Cynomolgus Macaque (Macaca fascicularis).

    PubMed

    Parrula, Cecilia M; Mysore, Jagannatha; Burr, Holly; Freebern, Wendy; Neef, Natasha

    2015-06-01

    A 4-y-old female cynomolgus macaque presented for veterinary evaluation prior to placement in a preclinical study showed markedly low platelet counts that continued to decrease over time. Physical examination over the next several days showed areas of pale red discoloration in forelimbs, anterior thorax, and inguinal area and multifocal pinpoint areas of erythema or scabs. An area of dark red discoloration approximately 2 cm in diameter on the dorsal surface of the tongue was discovered on day 9. The macaque was euthanized, and histopathologic evaluation showed multifocal, ulcerative or erosive, hemorrhagic, lymphohistiocytic and neutrophilic glossitis and tonsillitis. The lesions on the tongue were associated with opportunistic fungi consistent with Candida albicans. The bone marrow showed megakaryocytic hyperplasia. There was no evidence of increased consumption of platelets, sequestration of platelets, or bone marrow suppression. The monkey was serologically negative for simian retrovirus, SIV, and simian T-lymphotropic virus. In light of cases reported in humans, immune-mediated destruction of platelets due to autoantibodies secondary to Candida albicans infection was considered. However, we were unable to detect antiplatelet antibodies on the platelet surface or in serum to support this etiology; therefore idiopathic thrombocytopenia was diagnosed. To our knowledge, this case represents the second reported observation of acquired thrombocytopenia in a nonhuman primate and the first reported observation in a cynomolgus macaque.

  14. A novel method to acquire 3D data from serial 2D images of a dental cast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yaxing; Li, Zhongke; Chen, Qi; Shao, Jun; Li, Xinshe; Liu, Zhiqin

    2007-05-01

    This paper introduced a newly developed method to acquire three-dimensional data from serial two-dimensional images of a dental cast. The system consists of a computer and a set of data acquiring device. The data acquiring device is used to take serial pictures of the a dental cast; an artificial neural network works to translate two-dimensional pictures to three-dimensional data; then three-dimensional image can reconstruct by the computer. The three-dimensional data acquiring of dental casts is the foundation of computer-aided diagnosis and treatment planning in orthodontics.

  15. Light Pollution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riegel, Kurt W.

    1973-01-01

    Outdoor lighting is light pollution which handicaps certain astronomical programs. Protective measures must be adopted by the government to aid observational astronomy without sacrificing legitimate outdoor lighting needs. (PS)

  16. Light Duty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Jeff

    1996-01-01

    Discusses multipurpose athletic-field lighting specifications to enhance lighting quality and reduce costs. Topics discussed include lamp choice, lighting spillover and glare prevention, luminary assemblies and poles, and the electrical dimming and switching systems. (GR)

  17. Acquired prosopagnosia without word recognition deficits.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Tirta; Wright, Victoria; Tree, Jeremy J; Duchaine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suggested that face recognition relies on specialized mechanisms that are not involved in visual recognition of other object categories, including those that require expert, fine-grained discrimination at the exemplar level such as written words. But according to the recently proposed many-to-many theory of object recognition (MTMT), visual recognition of faces and words are carried out by common mechanisms [Behrmann, M., & Plaut, D. C. ( 2013 ). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219]. MTMT acknowledges that face and word recognition are lateralized, but posits that the mechanisms that predominantly carry out face recognition still contribute to word recognition and vice versa. MTMT makes a key prediction, namely that acquired prosopagnosics should exhibit some measure of word recognition deficits. We tested this prediction by assessing written word recognition in five acquired prosopagnosic patients. Four patients had lesions limited to the right hemisphere while one had bilateral lesions with more pronounced lesions in the right hemisphere. The patients completed a total of seven word recognition tasks: two lexical decision tasks and five reading aloud tasks totalling more than 1200 trials. The performances of the four older patients (3 female, age range 50-64 years) were compared to those of 12 older controls (8 female, age range 56-66 years), while the performances of the younger prosopagnosic (male, 31 years) were compared to those of 14 younger controls (9 female, age range 20-33 years). We analysed all results at the single-patient level using Crawford's t-test. Across seven tasks, four prosopagnosics performed as quickly and accurately as controls. Our results demonstrate that acquired prosopagnosia can exist without word recognition deficits. These findings are inconsistent with a key prediction of MTMT. They instead support the hypothesis that face

  18. Acquired prosopagnosia without word recognition deficits.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Tirta; Wright, Victoria; Tree, Jeremy J; Duchaine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suggested that face recognition relies on specialized mechanisms that are not involved in visual recognition of other object categories, including those that require expert, fine-grained discrimination at the exemplar level such as written words. But according to the recently proposed many-to-many theory of object recognition (MTMT), visual recognition of faces and words are carried out by common mechanisms [Behrmann, M., & Plaut, D. C. ( 2013 ). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219]. MTMT acknowledges that face and word recognition are lateralized, but posits that the mechanisms that predominantly carry out face recognition still contribute to word recognition and vice versa. MTMT makes a key prediction, namely that acquired prosopagnosics should exhibit some measure of word recognition deficits. We tested this prediction by assessing written word recognition in five acquired prosopagnosic patients. Four patients had lesions limited to the right hemisphere while one had bilateral lesions with more pronounced lesions in the right hemisphere. The patients completed a total of seven word recognition tasks: two lexical decision tasks and five reading aloud tasks totalling more than 1200 trials. The performances of the four older patients (3 female, age range 50-64 years) were compared to those of 12 older controls (8 female, age range 56-66 years), while the performances of the younger prosopagnosic (male, 31 years) were compared to those of 14 younger controls (9 female, age range 20-33 years). We analysed all results at the single-patient level using Crawford's t-test. Across seven tasks, four prosopagnosics performed as quickly and accurately as controls. Our results demonstrate that acquired prosopagnosia can exist without word recognition deficits. These findings are inconsistent with a key prediction of MTMT. They instead support the hypothesis that face

  19. Properties of a consistent Lorentz-violating Abelian gauge theory

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandre, J.; Vergou, A.

    2011-06-15

    A Lorentz-violating modification of massless QED is proposed, with higher-order space derivatives for the photon field. The fermion dynamical mass generation is studied with the Schwinger-Dyson approach. Perturbative properties of the model are calculated at one-loop and discussed at higher-order loops, showing the consistency of the model. We explain that there is no contradiction with the definition of the speed of light c, although fermions see an effective light cone, with a maximum speed smaller than c.

  20. Frequency and consistency effects in a pure surface dyslexic patient.

    PubMed

    Patterson, K; Behrmann, M

    1997-08-01

    Data are presented from a neurological patient (M.P.) with an acquired deficit for naming words with atypical spelling-sound correspondences. In Experiment 1, the degree of consistency within neighborhoods of orthographically similar words had a parallel impact on M.P.'s pronunciations of regular and irregular words and nonwords. This result is more compatible with models in which the same basic procedure, sensitive in a graded fashion to both frequency and consistency, computes pronunciations for all types of letter strings than it is with models postulating separate lexical and nonlexical mechanisms. In Experiment 2, both correct and regularized pronunciations of exception words yielded response times significantly modulated by word frequency, a finding not predicted by an current model. Neuropsychological observations provide an important additional source of evidence regarding models of cognitive function. PMID:9269734

  1. Women and the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wofsy, Constance B.

    1988-01-01

    SPECIAL EDITOR'S NOTE: Constance B. Wofsy, MD, is Co-Director of AIDS Activities at San Francisco General Hospital and Medical Center, as well as Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco; Assistant Chief, Infectious Diseases, San Francisco General Hospital; and Principal Investigator, Project AWARE (Association for Women's AIDS Research and Education). Although she was not able to contribute an article for WOMEN AND MEDICINE on this very important subject, she kindly agreed to an interview. Both physicians and nonphysicians were asked what questions they had about the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in women. Images PMID:3250110

  2. Acquired plate-like osteoma cutis.

    PubMed

    Vashi, Neelam; Chu, Julie; Patel, Rishi

    2011-10-15

    Plate-like osteoma cutis is a rare disorder that has been historically classified as a congenital syndrome. It has a possible relationship to a mutation in the gene (GNAS1) that encodes the α-subunit of the stimulatory G protein, which regulates adenyl cyclase activity. We report a case of extensive plaque-like masses on the scalp and face with no abnormalities in calcium or phosphate metabolism and no preceding inflammatory cutaneous conditions. With less than ten reported cases, to our knowledge, this is one the few cases of acquired plate-like osteoma cutis described in the literature.

  3. Psychological issues in acquired facial trauma

    PubMed Central

    De Sousa, Avinash

    2010-01-01

    The face is a vital component of one’s personality and body image. There are a vast number of variables that influence recovery and rehabilitation from acquired facial trauma many of which are psychological in nature. The present paper presents the various psychological issues one comes across in facial trauma patients. These may range from body image issues to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accompanied by anxiety and depression. Issues related to facial and body image affecting social life and general quality of life are vital and the plastic surgeon should be aware of such issues and competent to deal with them in patients and families. PMID:21217982

  4. Triple arthrodesis for adult acquired flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Catanzariti, Alan R; Dix, Brian T; Richardson, Phillip E; Mendicino, Robert W

    2014-07-01

    The primary goal of triple arthrodesis for stage III and IV adult acquired flatfoot is to obtain a well-aligned plantigrade foot that will support the ankle in optimal alignment. Ancillary procedures including posterior muscle group lengthening, medial displacement calcaneal osteotomy, medial column stabilization, peroneus brevis tenotomy, or transfer and harvest of regional bone graft are often necessary to achieve adequate realignment. Image intensification is helpful in confirming optimal realignment before fixation. Results of triple arthrodesis are enhanced with adequate preparation of joint surfaces, bone graft/orthobiologics, 2-point fixation of all 3 tritarsal joints, and a vertical heel position.

  5. Acquired progressive lymphangioma of the nipple

    PubMed Central

    Alkhalili, Eyas; Ayoubieh, Houriya; O'Brien, William; Billings, Steven D

    2014-01-01

    A 47-year-old woman presented with left nipple itch and discomfort. On physical examination she was found to have a 7 mm lesion. She underwent bilateral mammography and bilateral breast ultrasound which were normal. A punch biopsy of the lesion was performed in the office and the specimen submitted to pathology. Histopathological examination showed ectatic vascular spaces lined by flattened, cytologically bland endothelial cells dissecting the dermal collagen. Evident lymphatic valves were present within the vascular spaces confirming that the vessels were lymphatic in nature. The diagnosis of acquired progressive lymphangioma (benign lymphangioendothelioma) was rendered. PMID:25246470

  6. Acquired scalp alopecia. Part II: A review.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J R; Kossard, S

    1999-05-01

    The neutrophil-associated and infiltrative scarring alopecias are reviewed including folliculitis decalvans, tufted folliculitis, dissecting cellulitis of the scalp, acne keloidalis and follicular degeneration syndrome. The management of acquired scalp alopecia is also reviewed including newer, promising therapies. More specific agents targeting components of the androgen system will make the treatment of androgenetic alopecia more rewarding. Similarly new immunomodulatory therapies show great promise for the lymphocyte-associated alopecias and include a new generation of macrolide immunosuppressives (tacrolimus, SDZ ASM 981, and SDZ 281-240), some of which appear to have good transcutaneous absorption. PMID:10333615

  7. Origins of species: acquired genomes and individuality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.

    1993-01-01

    Entire genomes with their accompanying protein synthetic systems are transferred throughout the biosphere primarily as bacteria and protists which become symbionts as they irreversibly integrate into pre-existing organisms to form more complex individuals. Individualization is stabilized by simultaneous transmission of once-separate heterologous genetic systems. The origin of new species is hypothesized to correlate with the acquisition, integration and subsequent inheritance of such acquired microbial genomes. These processes were recognized by Mereschkovsky ("Symbiogenesis" in Russian, 1909) and by Wallin ("Symbionticism", see p. 181, this issue).

  8. Origins of species: acquired genomes and individuality.

    PubMed

    Margulis, L

    1993-01-01

    Entire genomes with their accompanying protein synthetic systems are transferred throughout the biosphere primarily as bacteria and protists which become symbionts as they irreversibly integrate into pre-existing organisms to form more complex individuals. Individualization is stabilized by simultaneous transmission of once-separate heterologous genetic systems. The origin of new species is hypothesized to correlate with the acquisition, integration and subsequent inheritance of such acquired microbial genomes. These processes were recognized by Mereschkovsky ("Symbiogenesis" in Russian, 1909) and by Wallin ("Symbionticism", see p. 181, this issue).

  9. AGU acquires Springer-Verlag Series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AGU has acquired Springer-Verlag's (New York) Coastal and Estuarine Studies book series. This acquisition adds thirty-nine volumes to AGU's own Coastal and Estuarine Sciences book series.Coastal and estuarine science is a rapidly growing area of research driven in part by an increasing awareness of man's impact on the coastal zone, and the importance in understanding its delicate ecosystems. This area of study enhances AGU's initiatives in interdisciplinary research. Particular emphasis is being placed on understanding the complex interactions between the physical, geological, chemical, and biological aspects of marine science.

  10. Acquired Congenital Malalignment of the Great Toenails

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Ashley; Scher, Richard K.; Avarbock, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Congenital malalignment is the lateral deviation of the nail plate along the longitudinal axis due to the lateral rotation of the nail matrix. The nail plate grows out in ridges caused by repeated microtrauma to the nail. Common complications include onychomycosis, Pseudomonas infection and acute or chronic paronychia. Treatment options range from conservative management to surgical options including realignment and nail matrixectomy. Congenital malalignment usually presents in infancy or childhood, but we present two cases of acquired malalignment occurring in the teenage years. PMID:27171597

  11. [Acquired cystic renal disease. Association with hypernephroma].

    PubMed

    Comesaña, E; Pesqueira, D; Tardáguila, F; De la Fuente, A; Antón, I; Vidal, L; Zungri, E

    1992-02-01

    Emergence of multiple bilateral renal cysts observed in patients undergoing periodic haemodialysis is 40%. The pathology, known as Acquired Cystic Renal Disease (A.C.R.D.) presents a high association to renal cancer. Two cases of A.C.R.D. and their association with hypernephroma, one resulting in secondary retroperitoneal haemorrhage and the other in intracystic haemorrhage, are presented. Forms and diagnosis are analyzed, insisting upon the need of monitoring the patients in haemodialysis from the point of view of tumour emergence.

  12. [Psychometric properties of a scale: internal consistency].

    PubMed

    Campo-Arias, Adalberto; Oviedo, Heidi C

    2008-01-01

    Internal consistency reliability is the degree of correlation between a scale's items. Internal consistency is calculated by Kuder-Richardson's formula 20 for dichotomous choices and Cronbach's alpha for polytomous items. 0.70 to 0.90 internal consistency is acceptable. 5-25 participants are needed for each item when computing the internal consistency of a twenty-item scale. Internal consistency varies according to population and then it is necessary to report it always that scale is used. PMID:19360231

  13. Light Emitting Diode (LED)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    A special lighting technology was developed for space-based commercial plant growth research on NASA's Space Shuttle. Surgeons have used this technology to treat brain cancer on Earth, in two successful operations. The treatment technique called photodynamic therapy, requires the surgeon to use tiny pinhead-size Light Emitting Diodes (LEDs) (a source releasing long wavelengths of light) to activate light-sensitive, tumor-treating drugs. Laser light has been used for this type of surgery in the past, but the LED light illuminates through all nearby tissues, reaching parts of a tumor that shorter wavelengths of laser light carnot. The new probe is safer because the longer wavelengths of light are cooler than the shorter wavelengths of laser light, making the LED less likely to injure normal brain tissue near the tumor. It can also be used for hours at a time while still remaining cool to the touch. The LED probe consists of 144 tiny pinhead-size diodes, is 9-inches long, and about one-half-inch in diameter. The small balloon aids in even distribution of the light source. The LED light source is compact, about the size of a briefcase, and can be purchased for a fraction of the cost of a laser. The probe was developed for photodynamic cancer therapy by the Marshall Space Flight Center under a NASA Small Business Innovative Research program grant.

  14. Cardiomyopathy in congenital and acquired generalized lipodystrophy: a clinical assessment.

    PubMed

    Lupsa, Beatrice C; Sachdev, Vandana; Lungu, Andreea O; Rosing, Douglas R; Gorden, Phillip

    2010-07-01

    Lipodystrophy is a rare disorder characterized by loss of adipose tissue and low leptin levels. This condition is characterized by severe dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, diabetes mellitus, and steatohepatitis. Another phenotypic feature that occurs with considerable frequency in generalized lipodystrophy is cardiomyopathy. We report here the cardiac findings in a cohort of patients with generalized congenital and acquired lipodystrophy, and present a literature review of the cardiac findings in patients with generalized lipodystrophy. We studied 44 patients with generalized congenital and acquired lipodystrophy, most of them enrolled in a clinical trial of leptin therapy. Patients underwent electrocardiograms and transthoracic echocardiograms to evaluate their cardiac status. We followed these patients for an extended time period, some of them up to 8 years. Evaluation of our cohort of patients with generalized lipodystrophy shows that cardiomyopathy is a frequent finding in this population. Most of our patients had hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and only a small number had features of dilated cardiomyopathy. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was more frequent in patients with seipin mutation, a finding consistent with the literature. The underlying mechanism for cardiomyopathy in lipodystrophy is not clear. Extreme insulin resistance and the possibility of a "lipotoxic cardiomyopathy" should be entertained as possible explanations.

  15. Blissfully unaware: Anosognosia and anosodiaphoria after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Historically, anosognosia referred to under-report of striking symptoms of acquired brain injury (e.g., hemiplegia) with debilitating functional consequences and was linked with anosodiaphoria, an emotional reaction of indifference. It was later extended to include under-report of all manner of symptoms of acquired brain injury by the patient compared to clinicians, family members, or functional performance. Anosognosia is related to time since onset of brain injury but not consistently to demographic variables, lesion location (except that it is more common after unilateral right than left hemispheric injury), or specific neuropsychological test scores. This review considers all manifestations of anosognosia as a unitary phenomenon with differing clinical characteristics dictated by variability in linked cognitive impairments. It is concluded that anosognosia has three chief contributing factors: (1) procedural: measurement differences across studies in terms of symptom selection and the designation of a "gold standard" of patient symptomatology; (2) psychological: a tendency towards positive self-evaluation and the avoidance of adverse information, that also occurs in neurologically intact individuals; and (3) neuropathological: an increased likelihood of error recognition failure from disconnections that disrupt feedback between injured brain regions governing specific behaviours (symptoms) and anterior cingulate/insular cortex. Anosodiaphoria is considered as an associated symptom, resulting from the same psychological and neuropathological factors.

  16. Asian elephants acquire inaccessible food by blowing.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kaori; Irie, Naoko; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mariko; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Many animals acquire otherwise inaccessible food with the aid of sticks and occasionally water. As an exception, some reports suggest that elephants manipulate breathing through their trunks to acquire inaccessible food. Here, we report on two female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Kamine Zoo, Japan, who regularly blew to drive food within their reach. We experimentally investigated this behaviour by placing foods in inaccessible places. The elephants blew the food until it came within accessible range. Once the food was within range, the elephants were increasingly less likely to blow as the distance to the food became shorter. One subject manipulated her blowing duration based on food distance: longer when the food was distant. These results suggest that the elephants used their breath to achieve goals: that is, they used it not only to retrieve the food but also to fine-tune the food position for easy grasping. We also observed individual differences in the elephants' aptitude for this technique, which altered the efficiency of food acquisition. Thus, we added a new example of spontaneous behaviour for achieving a goal in animals. The use of breath to drive food is probably unique to elephants, with their dexterous trunks and familiarity with manipulating the act of blowing, which is commonly employed for self-comfort and acoustic communication.

  17. Asian elephants acquire inaccessible food by blowing.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kaori; Irie, Naoko; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mariko; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Many animals acquire otherwise inaccessible food with the aid of sticks and occasionally water. As an exception, some reports suggest that elephants manipulate breathing through their trunks to acquire inaccessible food. Here, we report on two female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Kamine Zoo, Japan, who regularly blew to drive food within their reach. We experimentally investigated this behaviour by placing foods in inaccessible places. The elephants blew the food until it came within accessible range. Once the food was within range, the elephants were increasingly less likely to blow as the distance to the food became shorter. One subject manipulated her blowing duration based on food distance: longer when the food was distant. These results suggest that the elephants used their breath to achieve goals: that is, they used it not only to retrieve the food but also to fine-tune the food position for easy grasping. We also observed individual differences in the elephants' aptitude for this technique, which altered the efficiency of food acquisition. Thus, we added a new example of spontaneous behaviour for achieving a goal in animals. The use of breath to drive food is probably unique to elephants, with their dexterous trunks and familiarity with manipulating the act of blowing, which is commonly employed for self-comfort and acoustic communication. PMID:26541597

  18. Eye movement correlates of acquired central dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Schattka, Kerstin I; Radach, Ralph; Huber, Walter

    2010-08-01

    Based on recent progress in theory and measurement techniques, the analysis of eye movements has become one of the major methodological tools in experimental reading research. Our work uses this approach to advance the understanding of impaired information processing in acquired central dyslexia of stroke patients with aphasia. Up to now there has been no research attempting to analyze both word-based viewing time measures and local fixation patterns in dyslexic readers. The goal of the study was to find out whether specific eye movement parameters reflect pathologically preferred segmental reading in contrast to lexical reading. We compared oral reading of single words of normal controls (n=11) with six aphasic participants (two cases of deep, surface and residual dyslexia each). Participants were asked to read aloud lines of target words differing in length and frequency. Segmental reading was characterized by deviant spatial distribution of saccadic landing positions with initial fixations located mainly at the beginning of the word, while lexical readers showed the normative 'preferred landing positions' left to the center of the words. Contrary to expectation, word length did not distinguish between segmental and lexical readers, while word frequency showed the expected effect for lexical readers only. Their mean fixation duration was already prolonged during first pass reading reflecting their attempts of immediate access to lexical information. After first pass reading, re-reading time was significantly increased in all participants with acquired central dyslexia due to their exceedingly higher monitoring demands for oral reading.

  19. Acquiring functional object knowledge through motor imagery?

    PubMed

    Paulus, Markus; van Elk, Michiel; Bekkering, Harold

    2012-04-01

    A widely investigated question in the research on the acquisition of novel functional object representations is the role of the action system. Whereas most studies so far have investigated the role of active action training on the acquisition of object representation, we investigated whether people are able to acquire object representations by just imagining the use of novel objects, given that previous findings suggested that executed and imagined actions share a common representational format. To this end, participants trained the use of novel objects in a motor imagery condition. Training comprised the particular grip applied to the objects and the objects' typical end location. Subsequently, participants' object representations were assessed by means of an object detection task. The results show that participants responded slower when the novel objects were presented at functionally incorrect end locations, indicating that the participants had acquired functional knowledge about object use. Yet, there was no effect of correct versus incorrect grip. Altogether, the findings suggest that motor imagery can facilitate the acquisition of novel object representations, but point also to differences between first-hand action training and training by imagery.

  20. Consistent depth video segmentation using adaptive surface models.

    PubMed

    Husain, Farzad; Dellen, Babette; Torras, Carme

    2015-02-01

    We propose a new approach for the segmentation of 3-D point clouds into geometric surfaces using adaptive surface models. Starting from an initial configuration, the algorithm converges to a stable segmentation through a new iterative split-and-merge procedure, which includes an adaptive mechanism for the creation and removal of segments. This allows the segmentation to adjust to changing input data along the movie, leading to stable, temporally coherent, and traceable segments. We tested the method on a large variety of data acquired with different range imaging devices, including a structured-light sensor and a time-of-flight camera, and successfully segmented the videos into surface segments. We further demonstrated the feasibility of the approach using quantitative evaluations based on ground-truth data.

  1. Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2016-03-01

    Flashing light can enhance photosynthesis and improve the quality and quantity of microalgal biomass, as it can increase the products of interest by magnitudes. Therefore, the integration of flashing light effect into microalgal cultivation systems should be considered. However, microalgae require a balanced mix of the light/dark cycle for higher growth rates, and respond to light intensity differently according to the pigments acquired or lost during the growth. This review highlights recently published results on flashing light effect on microalgae and its applications in biotechnology, as well as the recently developed bioreactors designed to fulfill this effect. It also discusses how this knowledge can be applied in selecting the optimal light frequencies and intensities with specific technical properties for increasing biomass production and/or the yield of the chemicals of interest by microalgae belonging to different genera. PMID:26747205

  2. Flashing light in microalgae biotechnology.

    PubMed

    Abu-Ghosh, Said; Fixler, Dror; Dubinsky, Zvy; Iluz, David

    2016-03-01

    Flashing light can enhance photosynthesis and improve the quality and quantity of microalgal biomass, as it can increase the products of interest by magnitudes. Therefore, the integration of flashing light effect into microalgal cultivation systems should be considered. However, microalgae require a balanced mix of the light/dark cycle for higher growth rates, and respond to light intensity differently according to the pigments acquired or lost during the growth. This review highlights recently published results on flashing light effect on microalgae and its applications in biotechnology, as well as the recently developed bioreactors designed to fulfill this effect. It also discusses how this knowledge can be applied in selecting the optimal light frequencies and intensities with specific technical properties for increasing biomass production and/or the yield of the chemicals of interest by microalgae belonging to different genera.

  3. Self-calibrating lateral scanning white-light interferometer.

    PubMed

    Munteanu, Florin

    2010-04-20

    Lateral scanning white-light interferometry represents an attractive alternative to the standard white-light interferometry. Its main advantage over the latter procedure consists in the ability to scan large samples continuously, without the need of a cumbersome stitching procedure. Presently, the main drawback in the path of large-scale industrial acceptance of this method is the need for careful calibration of the tilt angle prior to each measurement. A novel self-calibration approach is presented. Using the data acquired during the normal scanning process, the need of an initial tilt angle calibration is eliminated and on-the-fly system adjustments for the best signal-to-noise ratio can be performed without an increase in the measurement time dictated by recalibration.

  4. Acquiring case adaptation knowledge: A hybrid approach

    SciTech Connect

    Leake, D.B.; Kinley, A.; Wilson, D.

    1996-12-31

    The ability of case-based reasoning (CBR) systems to apply cases to novel situations depends on their case adaptation knowledge. However, endowing CBR systems with adequate adaptation knowledge has proven to be a very difficult task. This paper describes a hybrid method for performing case adaptation, using a combination of rule-based and case-based reasoning. It shows how this approach provides a framework for acquiring flexible adaptation knowledge from experiences with autonomous adaptation and suggests its potential as a basis for acquisition of adaptation knowledge from interactive user guidance. It also presents initial experimental results examining the benefits of the approach and comparing the relative contributions of case learning and adaptation learning to reasoning performance.

  5. Acquire CoOmmodities Easily Card

    1998-05-29

    Acquire Commodities Easily Card (AceCard) provides an automated end-user method to distribute company credit card charges to internal charge numbers. AceCard will allow cardholders to record card purchases in an on-line order log, enter multiple account distributions per order that can be posted to the General Ledger, track orders, and receipt information, and provide a variety of cardholder and administrative reports. Please note: Customers must contact Ed Soler (423)-576-6151, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, for helpmore » with the installation of the package. The fee for this installation help will be coordinated by the customer and Lockheed Martin and is in addition to cost of the package from ESTSC. Customers should contact Sandy Presley (423)-576-4708 for user help.« less

  6. Acquired alexia: lessons from successful treatment.

    PubMed

    Beeson, P M; Insalaco, D

    1998-11-01

    Two individuals with anomic aphasia and acquired alexia were each provided treatment for their reading impairment. Although reading of single words in isolation was fairly accurate, their text reading was slow and effortful, including functor substitutions and semantic errors. Prior to treatment, reading reaction times for single words showed grammatical class and word-length effects. Both patients responded positively to a treatment protocol that included two phases: (1) multiple oral rereading of text, and (2) reading phrase-formatted text that had increased spacing between phrasal clauses. Their reading rates for text improved while maintaining good comprehension. Following treatment, reading reaction times for single words showed the elimination of grammatical class and word-length effects, suggesting improved access to word forms, particularly functors.

  7. Acquire CoOmmodities Easily Card

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, E. E.

    1998-05-29

    Acquire Commodities Easily Card (AceCard) provides an automated end-user method to distribute company credit card charges to internal charge numbers. AceCard will allow cardholders to record card purchases in an on-line order log, enter multiple account distributions per order that can be posted to the General Ledger, track orders, and receipt information, and provide a variety of cardholder and administrative reports. Please note: Customers must contact Ed Soler (423)-576-6151, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, for help with the installation of the package. The fee for this installation help will be coordinated by the customer and Lockheed Martin and is in addition to cost of the package from ESTSC. Customers should contact Sandy Presley (423)-576-4708 for user help.

  8. Acquired loss of red cell Kell antigens.

    PubMed

    Vengelen-Tyler, V; Gonzalez, B; Garratty, G; Kruppe, C; Johnson, C L; Mueller, K A; Marsh, W L

    1987-02-01

    A 19-year-old patient with a long history of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura developed a potent antibody against a high-incidence antigen in the Kell blood group system. The direct antiglobulin test on his red cells was negative. His cells exhibited profound depression of Kell blood group antigens, but antigens of other blood groups were normal. Transfusion of incompatible blood was well tolerated and differential agglutination tests, using selected Rh antisera, showed in vivo survival of the transfused red cells for more than 8 weeks. However, the transfused red cells also showed acquired loss of Kell antigens. Five months after the initial findings, Kell-related antibody disappeared and Kell antigens reappeared on his red cells. The patient's serum stored from the initial investigation now reacted with his freshly collected red cells. These data suggest that an environmental agent in the patient's plasma was responsible for the temporary loss of Kell antigens from red cells in his circulation.

  9. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in gay men.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, H W; Hardy, A M; Morgan, W M; Darrow, W W

    1985-11-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major health problem for gay men in the United States. About three fourths of all reported cases have occurred in this population, and the number is projected to double in the next year. In Manhattan and San Francisco, AIDS is now the leading cause of premature mortality in men aged 25 to 44 years who have never married. In a sample of a cohort of gay men enrolled in a San Francisco clinic, 2.7% of the men had the syndrome and 26% had related conditions in 1984. Antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus, type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus was found in sera from 67% of the men, including 58% of asymptomatic men. Behavioral factors associated with an increased risk of AIDS include large numbers of sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse, and "fisting." The adoption of safer lifestyles is currently the basis of attempts to control the syndrome in gay men.

  10. Signal regulators of systemic acquired resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qing-Ming; Zhu, Shifeng; Kachroo, Pradeep; Kachroo, Aardra

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important phytohormone that plays a vital role in a number of physiological responses, including plant defense. The last two decades have witnessed a number of breakthroughs related to biosynthesis, transport, perception and signaling mediated by SA. These findings demonstrate that SA plays a crictical role in both local and systemic defense responses. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is one such SA-dependent response. SAR is a long distance signaling mechanism that provides broad spectrum and long-lasting resistance to secondary infections throughout the plant. This unique feature makes SAR a highly desirable trait in crop production. This review summarizes the recent advances in the role of SA in SAR and discusses its relationship to other SAR inducers. PMID:25918514

  11. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Simmons, J.T.; Masur, H.; Smith, P.D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Ognibene, F.P.

    1987-02-01

    All gallium-67 citrate scans obtained in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the results of bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and endoscopy. There were 164 scans of 95 patients. Twenty scans were from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 19 were abnormal, for a sensitivity of 95%. Ga-67 uptake tended to be less in patients receiving therapy for P. carinii pneumonia. Chest radiographs were normal at least initially in three patients with abnormal scans and P. carinii pneumonia. Unusually prominent colonic activity was associated with infection in some patients. No lesions of Kaposi sarcoma showed tracer uptake. Gallium scanning is useful for detecting P. carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS, but it is not useful for localizing Kaposi sarcoma.

  12. Antihelper T cell autoantibody in acquired agammaglobulinemia.

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, A; Sicklick, M; Mehra, V; Rosen, F S; Levey, R H

    1981-01-01

    A patient with acquired agammaglobulinemia had an antihelper T cell factor that was identified as an immunoglobulin of the IgG class. The factor specifically bound to the TH2- T cell subset and, in the presence of complement, abolished the helper effect of normal T cells. The antihelper T cell antibody preceded by several years the appearance of suppressor TH2+Ia+ T cells, at which time the clinical course rapidly deteriorated. Plasmapheresis resulted in lymphocytosis and reappearance of a functionally intact helper T cell population. It did not affect the suppressor cells. Conversely, total thymectomy resulted in a temporary disappearance of the TH2+Ia+ suppressor cells, but did not decrease the levels of the autoantibody to helper T cells. Neither of these treatments reversed the state of agammaglobulinemia. PMID:6450224

  13. Acquired methaemoglobinaemia related to phenazopyridine ingestion.

    PubMed

    Shahani, Lokesh; Sattovia, Stacy

    2012-09-17

    Methaemoglobin is an altered state of haemoglobin in which the ferrous ions of haeme are oxidised to the ferric state. This results in increased affinity to the bound oxygen and decreasing its availability to tissues. Most cases of methaemoglobinaemia are acquired, resulting from an increased methaemoglobin formation by various exogenous agents. The authors report an elderly patient presenting to the emergency department with a 1-month history of shortness of breath. Around the same time she had started using over-the-counter (OTC) phenazopyridine tablets for urinary symptoms. The patient was hypoxic and cyanotic; however, lacked evidence of hypoxaemia on the arterial blood gas. The presence of abnormal haemoglobin was suspected and confirmed by elevated levels of methaemoglobin. Phenazopyridine was proposed to be the likely aetiology of the methaemoglobinaemia, which the patient was not aware of. This case highlights the importance of always inquiring the OTC drug use especially in geriatric population.

  14. Acquired methaemoglobinaemia related to phenazopyridine ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Shahani, Lokesh; Sattovia, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    Methaemoglobin is an altered state of haemoglobin in which the ferrous ions of haeme are oxidised to the ferric state. This results in increased affinity to the bound oxygen and decreasing its availability to tissues. Most cases of methaemoglobinaemia are acquired, resulting from an increased methaemoglobin formation by various exogenous agents. The authors report an elderly patient presenting to the emergency department with a 1-month history of shortness of breath. Around the same time she had started using over-the-counter (OTC) phenazopyridine tablets for urinary symptoms. The patient was hypoxic and cyanotic; however, lacked evidence of hypoxaemia on the arterial blood gas. The presence of abnormal haemoglobin was suspected and confirmed by elevated levels of methaemoglobin. Phenazopyridine was proposed to be the likely aetiology of the methaemoglobinaemia, which the patient was not aware of. This case highlights the importance of always inquiring the OTC drug use especially in geriatric population. PMID:22987905

  15. Multiple myeloma associated with acquired cutis laxa.

    PubMed

    Cho, S Y; Maguire, R F

    1980-08-01

    Acquired cutis laxa is a rare disorder characterized by diffuse laxity of the skin and loss of connective tissue support with involvement of the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, pelvic organs, and aorta. The case report presented herein describes a forty-six year old woman with multiple myeloma and cutis laxa. Her history included several severe allergic reactions and the gradual development of lax skin, loss of connective tissue support throughout the body, and emphysema. At autopsy, multiple myeloma, diffuse laxity of the skin, and panacinar emphysema were found. The amount of elastic fiber in the skin, lungs, and aorta was decreased and showed abnormal fragmentation. Results of direct immunofluorescence study demonstrated IgG bound to dermal elastic fibers. Speculation regarding an immunologic etiology of the elastic tissue abnormality is presented herein.

  16. Semantic Differential Responses to Educational Posters on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Christopher; Stewin, Leonard L.

    1992-01-01

    Undergraduate students (n=131) responded to eight educational posters dealing with the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) using a nine-item semantic differential scale. Two posters were consistently rated as more informative, reassuring, effective, decent, and better than the others. The first utilized an objective and informative…

  17. 26 CFR 1.1014-2 - Property acquired from a decedent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... bequest, devise, or inheritance, or by the decedent's estate from the decedent, whether the property was acquired under the decedent's will or under the law governing the descent and distribution of the property... or inheritance from a decedent dying after August 26, 1937, and if such property consists of stock...

  18. 26 CFR 1.1014-2 - Property acquired from a decedent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... bequest, devise, or inheritance, or by the decedent's estate from the decedent, whether the property was acquired under the decedent's will or under the law governing the descent and distribution of the property... or inheritance from a decedent dying after August 26, 1937, and if such property consists of stock...

  19. 26 CFR 1.1014-2 - Property acquired from a decedent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... bequest, devise, or inheritance, or by the decedent's estate from the decedent, whether the property was acquired under the decedent's will or under the law governing the descent and distribution of the property... or inheritance from a decedent dying after August 26, 1937, and if such property consists of stock...

  20. 26 CFR 1.1014-2 - Property acquired from a decedent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., devise, or inheritance, or by the decedent's estate from the decedent, whether the property was acquired under the decedent's will or under the law governing the descent and distribution of the property of... inheritance from a decedent dying after August 26, 1937, and if such property consists of stock or...

  1. 26 CFR 1.1014-2 - Property acquired from a decedent.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... bequest, devise, or inheritance, or by the decedent's estate from the decedent, whether the property was acquired under the decedent's will or under the law governing the descent and distribution of the property... or inheritance from a decedent dying after August 26, 1937, and if such property consists of stock...

  2. Preference for Progressive Delays and Concurrent Physical Therapy Exercise in an Adult with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Falcomata, Terry S.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase self-control and engagement in a physical therapy task (head holding) for a man with acquired traumatic brain injury. Once impulsivity was observed (i.e., repeated impulsive choices), an experimental condition was introduced that consisted of choices between a small immediate reinforcer, a large…

  3. Effectiveness of Web Quest Strategy in Acquiring Geographic Concepts among Eighth Grade Students in Jordan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AL-Edwan, Zaid Suleiman

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed at identifying the Effectiveness of using Web Quest Strategy in acquiring the geographic concepts among eighth grade students in Jordan. The study individuals consisted of (119) students in the scholastic year 2013-2014. Four sections were randomly selected from two schools divided into experimental and control groups. They were…

  4. Acquired and Required Competencies in Interactive Computer in Labour Market Sector from the Employers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adodo, S. O.; Adewole, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated acquired and required competencies in interactive computer technology (ICT) in labour data were collected from employers' and employees'. The study is a descriptive research of the survey type. The population of the study consisted of unemployed graduates, employed graduates and various parastatal where graduates seek for…

  5. Guidelines for prevention of hospital acquired infections

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Yatin; Gupta, Abhinav; Todi, Subhash; Myatra, SN; Samaddar, D. P.; Patil, Vijaya; Bhattacharya, Pradip Kumar; Ramasubban, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    These guidelines, written for clinicians, contains evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of hospital acquired infections Hospital acquired infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity and provide challenge to clinicians. Measures of infection control include identifying patients at risk of nosocomial infections, observing hand hygiene, following standard precautions to reduce transmission and strategies to reduce VAP, CR-BSI, CAUTI. Environmental factors and architectural lay out also need to be emphasized upon. Infection prevention in special subsets of patients - burns patients, include identifying sources of organism, identification of organisms, isolation if required, antibiotic prophylaxis to be used selectively, early removal of necrotic tissue, prevention of tetanus, early nutrition and surveillance. Immunodeficient and Transplant recipients are at a higher risk of opportunistic infections. The post tranplant timetable is divided into three time periods for determining risk of infections. Room ventilation, cleaning and decontamination, protective clothing with care regarding food requires special consideration. Monitoring and Surveillance are prioritized depending upon the needs. Designated infection control teams should supervise the process and help in collection and compilation of data. Antibiotic Stewardship Recommendations include constituting a team, close coordination between teams, audit, formulary restriction, de-escalation, optimizing dosing, active use of information technology among other measure. The recommendations in these guidelines are intended to support, and not replace, good clinical judgment. The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of evidence supporting the recommendation, so that readers can ascertain how best to apply the recommendations in their practice environments. PMID:24701065

  6. Infantile and acquired nystagmus in childhood.

    PubMed

    Ehrt, Oliver

    2012-11-01

    Nystagmus is an involuntary, periodic eye movement caused by a slow drift of fixation which is followed by a fast refixation saccade (jerk nystagmus) or a slow movement back to fixation (pendular nystagmus). In childhood most cases are benign forms of nystagmus: idiopathic infantile, ocular or latent nystagmus. They arise at the age of 3 months, without oscillopsia and show the absence of the physiologic opto-kinetic nystagmus. A full ophthalmologic evaluation is all that is needed in most cases: albinism, macular or optic nerve hypoplasia and congenital retinal dystrophies are the most common forms of ocular nystagmus. Idiopathic infantile nystagmus can be hereditary, the most common and best analyzed form being a mutation of the FRMD7 gene on chromosome Xq26.2. The mutation shows a mild genotype-phenotype correlation. In all female carriers the opto-kinetic nystagmus is absent and half had mild nystagmus. Latent nystagmus is part of the infantile esotropia syndrome and shows the unique feature of change of direction when the fixing eye changes: it is always beating to the side of the fixing eye. There is no cure for infantile nystagmus but therapeutic options include magnifying visual aids or eye muscle surgery at the age of 6-8 y in patients with head turn. Less than 20% of childhood nystagmus are acquired and need further neurological and imaging work-up. Alarming signs and symptoms are: onset after the age of 4 months, oscillopsia, dissociated (asymmetric) nystagmus, preserved opto-kinetic nystagmus, afferent pupillary defect, papilloedema and neurological symptoms like vertigo and nausea. The most common cause is due to pathology of the anterior optic pathway (e.g. optic nerve gliomas). It shows the same clinical feature of dissociated nystagmus as spasmus nutans but has a higher frequency as in INO. Other forms of acquired nystagmus are due to brainstem, cerebellar or metabolic diseases. PMID:22459007

  7. Measuring pulp consistency and fines content with a streak camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarela, J.; Törmänen, M.; Myllylä, R.

    2003-10-01

    The problem of determining the fines content of pulp in cases where consistency is not known remains to be solved. We explored the hypothesis that this problem may be solved by studying shape changes in a laser pulse after it has travelled through the pulp. A matrix was constructed of pulp samples with consistencies varying from 0 to 1.5% by increments of 0.2% and fines contents varying from 0 to 50% by 10% increments. A streak camera was used to record three pulses simultaneously. The first was a reference pulse, which was used to calibrate the measurement pulses. The second was a pulse measured at an angle of 90° to the straight light path. The third was the straight path pulse. Different fines contents form their own lines on consistency-maximum power graphs and consistency-time of 50% power fall graphs. When transmitted power is plotted against time of 50% power fall the lines representing different fines contents cross each other. These results indicate that the fines content and consistency can be measured in some cases with a single measurement. Also, if water is added in a controlled manner, measurement of the lowering in consistency allows the original consistency and fines content to be determined.

  8. 48 CFR 970.4102 - Acquiring utility services.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Acquiring utility services... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Acquisition of Utility Services 970.4102 Acquiring utility services....

  9. 14 CFR 25.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....1397. (b) Forward position lights. Forward position lights must consist of a red and a green light... airplane in the normal flying position, the red light is on the left side and the green light is on the...) Light covers and color filters. Each light cover or color filter must be at least flame resistant...

  10. Dark light Higgs bosons.

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, P.; Liu, T.; Wagner, C. E. M.; Wang, L.-T.; Zhang, H.

    2011-03-24

    We study a limit of the nearly Peccei-Quinn-symmetric next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model possessing novel Higgs and dark matter (DM) properties. In this scenario, there naturally coexist three light singletlike particles: a scalar, a pseudoscalar, and a singlinolike DM candidate, all with masses of order 0.1-10 GeV. The decay of a standard model-like Higgs boson to pairs of the light scalars or pseudoscalars is generically suppressed, avoiding constraints from collider searches for these channels. For a certain parameter window annihilation into the light pseudoscalar and exchange of the light scalar with nucleons allow the singlino to achieve the correct relic density and a large direct-detection cross section consistent with the DM direct-detection experiments, CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA, preferred region simultaneously. This parameter space is consistent with experimental constraints from LEP, the Tevatron, ?, and flavor physics.

  11. Novel ray tracing method for stray light suppression from ocean remote sensing measurements.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eunsong; Hong, Jinsuk; Kim, Sug-Whan; Park, Young-Je; Cho, Seong-Ick

    2016-05-16

    We developed a new integrated ray tracing (IRT) technique to analyze the stray light effect in remotely sensed images. Images acquired with the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager show a radiance level discrepancy at the slot boundary, which is suspected to be a stray light effect. To determine its cause, we developed and adjusted a novel in-orbit stray light analysis method, which consists of three simulated phases (source, target, and instrument). Each phase simulation was performed in a way that used ray information generated from the Sun and reaching the instrument detector plane efficiently. This simulation scheme enabled the construction of the real environment from the remote sensing data, with a focus on realistic phenomena. In the results, even in a cloud-free environment, a background stray light pattern was identified at the bottom of each slot. Variations in the stray light effect and its pattern according to bright target movement were simulated, with a maximum stray light ratio of 8.5841% in band 2 images. To verify the proposed method and simulation results, we compared the results with the real acquired remotely sensed image. In addition, after correcting for abnormal phenomena in specific cases, we confirmed that the stray light ratio decreased from 2.38% to 1.02% in a band 6 case, and from 1.09% to 0.35% in a band 8 case. IRT-based stray light analysis enabled clear determination of the stray light path and candidates in in-orbit circumstances, and the correction process aided recovery of the radiometric discrepancy.

  12. Novel ray tracing method for stray light suppression from ocean remote sensing measurements.

    PubMed

    Oh, Eunsong; Hong, Jinsuk; Kim, Sug-Whan; Park, Young-Je; Cho, Seong-Ick

    2016-05-16

    We developed a new integrated ray tracing (IRT) technique to analyze the stray light effect in remotely sensed images. Images acquired with the Geostationary Ocean Color Imager show a radiance level discrepancy at the slot boundary, which is suspected to be a stray light effect. To determine its cause, we developed and adjusted a novel in-orbit stray light analysis method, which consists of three simulated phases (source, target, and instrument). Each phase simulation was performed in a way that used ray information generated from the Sun and reaching the instrument detector plane efficiently. This simulation scheme enabled the construction of the real environment from the remote sensing data, with a focus on realistic phenomena. In the results, even in a cloud-free environment, a background stray light pattern was identified at the bottom of each slot. Variations in the stray light effect and its pattern according to bright target movement were simulated, with a maximum stray light ratio of 8.5841% in band 2 images. To verify the proposed method and simulation results, we compared the results with the real acquired remotely sensed image. In addition, after correcting for abnormal phenomena in specific cases, we confirmed that the stray light ratio decreased from 2.38% to 1.02% in a band 6 case, and from 1.09% to 0.35% in a band 8 case. IRT-based stray light analysis enabled clear determination of the stray light path and candidates in in-orbit circumstances, and the correction process aided recovery of the radiometric discrepancy. PMID:27409848

  13. Development of a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamoto, Seiichi Hamamura, Fuka; Kato, Katsuhiko; Ogata, Yoshimune; Watabe, Tadashi; Ikeda, Hayato; Kanai, Yasukazu; Hatazawa, Jun; Watabe, Hiroshi

    2014-09-15

    Purpose: Cerenkov-light imaging is a new molecular imaging technology that detects visible photons from high-speed electrons using a high sensitivity optical camera. However, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging remains unclear. If a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system were developed, the merit of Cerenkov-light imaging would be clarified by directly comparing these two imaging modalities. Methods: The authors developed and tested a PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system that consists of a dual-head PET system, a reflection mirror located above the subject, and a high sensitivity charge coupled device (CCD) camera. The authors installed these systems inside a black box for imaging the Cerenkov-light. The dual-head PET system employed a 1.2 × 1.2 × 10 mm{sup 3} GSO arranged in a 33 × 33 matrix that was optically coupled to a position sensitive photomultiplier tube to form a GSO block detector. The authors arranged two GSO block detectors 10 cm apart and positioned the subject between them. The Cerenkov-light above the subject is reflected by the mirror and changes its direction to the side of the PET system and is imaged by the high sensitivity CCD camera. Results: The dual-head PET system had a spatial resolution of ∼1.2 mm FWHM and sensitivity of ∼0.31% at the center of the FOV. The Cerenkov-light imaging system's spatial resolution was ∼275μm for a {sup 22}Na point source. Using the combined PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid imaging system, the authors successfully obtained fused images from simultaneously acquired images. The image distributions are sometimes different due to the light transmission and absorption in the body of the subject in the Cerenkov-light images. In simultaneous imaging of rat, the authors found that {sup 18}F-FDG accumulation was observed mainly in the Harderian gland on the PET image, while the distribution of Cerenkov-light was observed in the eyes. Conclusions: The authors conclude that their developed PET/Cerenkov-light hybrid

  14. Light Visor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Seasonal Affective Disorder is a form of depression brought on by reduced light. For some people, this can lead to clinical depression. NASA has conducted research in light therapy and employs it to help astronauts adjust internal rhythms during orbital flight. Dr. George Brainard, a medical researcher and NASA consultant, has developed a portable light therapy device, which is commercially available. The Light Visor allows continuous light therapy and can be powered by either batteries or electricity. Dr. Brainard continues to research various aspects of light therapy.

  15. 43 CFR 4110.1-1 - Acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acquired lands. 4110.1-1 Section 4110.1-1... and Preference § 4110.1-1 Acquired lands. Where lands have been acquired by the Bureau of Land... of acquisition by the Bureau of Land Management, and are not subject to the requirements of § 4110.1....

  16. 19 CFR 148.38 - Sale of articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sale of articles acquired abroad. 148.38 Section... § 148.38 Sale of articles acquired abroad. An article brought in under the $800 or $1,600 exemption for articles acquired abroad for personal or household use and subsequently sold is not dutiable or subject...

  17. 19 CFR 148.38 - Sale of articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale of articles acquired abroad. 148.38 Section... § 148.38 Sale of articles acquired abroad. An article brought in under the $800 or $1,600 exemption for articles acquired abroad for personal or household use and subsequently sold is not dutiable or subject...

  18. 19 CFR 148.38 - Sale of articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sale of articles acquired abroad. 148.38 Section... § 148.38 Sale of articles acquired abroad. An article brought in under the $800 or $1,600 exemption for articles acquired abroad for personal or household use and subsequently sold is not dutiable or subject...

  19. 19 CFR 148.38 - Sale of articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sale of articles acquired abroad. 148.38 Section... § 148.38 Sale of articles acquired abroad. An article brought in under the $800 or $1,600 exemption for articles acquired abroad for personal or household use and subsequently sold is not dutiable or subject...

  20. Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

  1. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposition of acquired property. 1779.90 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.90 Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the...

  2. 7 CFR 770.8 - Use of acquired land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of acquired land. 770.8 Section 770.8 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDIAN TRIBAL LAND ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.8 Use of acquired land. (a) General. Subject to § 770.5(d) land acquired with loan funds, or other property serving as the security for a...

  3. 25 CFR 211.8 - Government employees cannot acquire leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 211.8 Government employees cannot acquire leases. U.S. Government employees are prevented from acquiring leases or interests in leases by the provisions of 25 CFR... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Government employees cannot acquire leases. 211.8...

  4. 25 CFR 212.8 - Government employees cannot acquire leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.8 Government employees cannot acquire leases. U.S. Government employees are prevented from acquiring leases or interests in leases by the provisions of 25 CFR... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Government employees cannot acquire leases. 212.8...

  5. 25 CFR 212.8 - Government employees cannot acquire leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ALLOTTED LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 212.8 Government employees cannot acquire leases. U.S. Government employees are prevented from acquiring leases or interests in leases by the provisions of 25 CFR... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government employees cannot acquire leases. 212.8...

  6. 25 CFR 211.8 - Government employees cannot acquire leases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... TRIBAL LANDS FOR MINERAL DEVELOPMENT General § 211.8 Government employees cannot acquire leases. U.S. Government employees are prevented from acquiring leases or interests in leases by the provisions of 25 CFR... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Government employees cannot acquire leases. 211.8...

  7. Stray Light Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Based on a Small Business Innovation Research contract from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, TracePro is state-of-the-art interactive software created by Lambda Research Corporation to detect stray light in optical systems. An image can be ruined by incidental light in an optical system. To maintain image excellence from an optical system, stray light must be detected and eliminated. TracePro accounts for absorption, specular reflection and refraction, scattering and aperture diffraction of light. Output from the software consists of spatial irradiance plots and angular radiance plots. Results can be viewed as contour maps or as ray histories in tabular form. TracePro is adept at modeling solids such as lenses, baffles, light pipes, integrating spheres, non-imaging concentrators, and complete illumination systems. The firm's customer base includes Lockheed Martin, Samsung Electronics and other manufacturing, optical, aerospace, and educational companies worldwide.

  8. Light Reflector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    Ultra Sales, Inc.'s fluorescent lighting fixture gets a boost in reflectivity through installation of Lightdriver, a thin tough thermoplastic film plated with aluminum, capable of reflecting 95 percent of visible light striking it. Lightdriver increases brightness without adding bulbs, and allows energy savings by removing some bulbs because the mirrorlike surface cuts light loss generally occasioned by conventional low reflectivity white painted surface above the bulbs in many fluorescent fixtures. Forty-five percent reduction in lighting electricity is attainable.

  9. Acquired prosopagnosia: structural basis and processing impairments.

    PubMed

    Davies-Thompson, Jodie; Pancaroglu, Raika; Barton, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models propose a hierarchy of parallel processing stages in face perception, and functional neuroimaging shows a network of regions involved in face processing. Reflecting this, acquired prosopagnosia is not a single entity but a family of disorders with different anatomic lesions and different functional deficits. One classic distinction is between an apperceptive variant, in which there is impaired perception of facial structure, and an associative/amnestic variant, in which perception is relatively intact, with subsequent problems matching perception to facial memories, because of either disconnection or loss of those memories. These disorders also have to be distinguished from people-specific amnesia, a multimodal impairment, and prosop-anomia, in which familiarity with faces is preserved but access to names is disrupted. These different disorders can be conceived as specific deficits at different processing stages in cognitive models, and suggests that these functional stages may have distinct neuroanatomic substrates. It remains to be seen whether a similar anatomic and functional variability is present in developmental prosopagnosia.

  10. Mycobacterial disease, immunosuppression, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, F M

    1989-01-01

    The mycobacteria are an important group of acid-fast pathogens ranging from obligate intracellular parasites such as Mycobacterium leprae to environmental species such as M. gordonae and M. fortuitum. The latter may behave as opportunistic human pathogens if the host defenses have been depleted in some manner. The number and severity of such infections have increased markedly with the emergence of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. These nontuberculous mycobacteria tend to be less virulent for humans than M. tuberculosis, usually giving rise to self-limiting infections involving the cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes of young children. However, the more virulent serovars of M. avium complex can colonize the bronchial and intestinal mucosal surfaces of healthy individuals, becoming virtual members of the commensal gut microflora and thus giving rise to low levels of skin hypersensitivity to tuberculins prepared from M. avium and M. intracellulare. Systemic disease develops when the normal T-cell-mediated defenses become depleted as a result of old age, cancer chemotherapy, or infection with human immunodeficiency virus. As many as 50% of human immunodeficiency virus antibody-positive individuals develop mycobacterial infections at some time during their disease. Most isolates of M. avium complex from AIDS patients fall into serotypes 4 and 8. The presence of these drug-resistant mycobacteria in the lungs of the AIDS patient makes their effective clinical treatment virtually impossible. More effective chemotherapeutic, prophylactic, and immunotherapeutic reagents are urgently needed to treat this rapidly increasing patient population. PMID:2680057

  11. [Acquired and congenital heart diseases during pregancy].

    PubMed

    De Feo, Stefania; Iacovoni, Attilio; Faggiano, Pompilio

    2012-05-01

    Heart diseases are the leading cause of maternal morbidity and mortality. The number of patients with congenital heart diseases reaching childbearing age, as well as the proportion of women with acquired conditions, such as ischemic heart disease, becoming pregnant is constantly increasing. All women with known heart disease should have pre-pregnancy counseling, to assess maternal and fetal risk. Women at moderate or high risk should be under the care of a specialist prenatal team with experience in managing women with heart disease during pregnancy. Conditions that are considered at particularly high risk (mortality >10%) include Marfan syndrome with dilated aortic root, severe left ventricular dysfunction, severe left heart obstructive lesions, and pulmonary hypertension. Peripartum cardiomyopathy is a rare and potentially fatal disease related to pregnancy and the postnatal period that presents with symptoms of congestion and/or hypoperfusion and may rapidly progress to acute and life-threatening heart failure. However, the majority of women with heart disease can tolerate pregnancy; therefore an adequate multidisciplinary approach with the gynecologist, anesthesiologist and cardiologist should be advocated in order to reduce maternal and fetal risks associated with pregnancy.

  12. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    PubMed

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities.

  13. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    PubMed

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities. PMID:24387877

  14. Community-acquired pneumonia: An overview.

    PubMed

    Mandell, Lionel A

    2015-08-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is still a significant cause of morbidity and mortality and is often misdiagnosed and inappropriately treated. Although it can be caused by a wide variety of micro-organisms, the pneumococcus, atypicals, such as Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus and certain Gram-negative rods are the usual pathogens encountered. The site-of-care decision is critical in determining the site and type of care as well as the extent of diagnostic workup. Antimicrobial therapy should be started as soon as possible particularly in those requiring admission to hospital, but typically the physician does not know with any degree of certainty the identity of the etiologic pathogen. A number of national guidelines have been published to help the physician with this choice. The initial drug(s) can be modified if necessary if the pathogen and its antimicrobial susceptibility pattern becomes known. Adjunctive therapy such as pressors and fluid replacement are of value and macrolides appear to help as well, likely secondary to their immunomodulatory effects. Recent data also suggest a role for steroids.

  15. [Severe community-acquired pneumonia in adults].

    PubMed

    Arancibia H, Francisco; Díaz P, Orlando

    2005-01-01

    Patients with severe community acquired pneumonia (CAP) need continuous surveillance and monitoring at intensive care units (ICU), where they can receive specialized support as mechanical ventilation and/or hemodynamic support. Patients that require ICU admittance represent 10 to 30% of all patients interned because a pneumonia. In this category, high complication rate, prolonged hospital stay and high mortality rate are the rule. The American Thoracic Society (ATS) criteria for severe pneumonia establishes the following main criteria: necessity of mechanical ventilation and presence of septic shock; minor criteria: systolic blood pressure < 90 mmHg, radiological multilobar involvement and PaO2/FiO2 < 250 mmHg. British Thoracic Society (BTS) criteria for severe CAP are: respiratory rate over 30 breaths/min, diastolic blood pressure under 60 mmHg, BUN > 20 mg/dl and mental confusion. In all patients with CAP it is recommended the evaluation of its severity at admission. This evaluation should be done in conjunction with an experienced physician, and if criteria for poor prognosis are met, an early admission to ICU is recommended. ATS and BTS modified criteria (CURB) are useful in this procedure. In severely ill patients with CAP it is recommended to perform the following microbiological analysis: sputum Gram stain and culture, blood culture, pleural fluid Gram stain and culture, if present and tapped, Legionella pneumophila urine antigen test, influenza A and B antigen detection tests (epidemic period: autumn and winter), and serology for atypical bacteria (Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia pneumoniae).

  16. Acquired Hemophilia A Successfully Treated with Rituximab

    PubMed Central

    D’Arena, Giovanni; Grandone, Elvira; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Musto, Pellegrino; Di Minno, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare bleeding disorder due to the development of specific autoantibodies against factor VIII. The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody Rituximab has been proven to be effective in obtaining a long-term suppression of inhibitors of AHA, besides other immunosuppressive standard treatments. Here we describe a case of idiopathic AHA in a 60-year old man successfully treated with rituximab. He showed a complete clinical response with a normalization of clotting parameters after 5 weekly courses of rituximab given at a dose of 375 mg/sqm., but after stopping rituximab, an initial worsening of coagulation parameters induced the addition of 3 further courses. At present, the patient is in complete clinical and hematological remission after 200 days. This case confirms that Rituximab may be a safe and useful tool to treat AHA and, a prolonged administration can overcome the initial resistance. However, the precise position of this drug in the therapeutic strategy (first or second-line, alone or in combination with other drugs) remains to be established and warrants further investigation. PMID:25745551

  17. Acquired hemophilia a successfully treated with rituximab.

    PubMed

    D'Arena, Giovanni; Grandone, Elvira; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Musto, Pellegrino; Di Minno, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare bleeding disorder due to the development of specific autoantibodies against factor VIII. The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody Rituximab has been proven to be effective in obtaining a long-term suppression of inhibitors of AHA, besides other immunosuppressive standard treatments. Here we describe a case of idiopathic AHA in a 60-year old man successfully treated with rituximab. He showed a complete clinical response with a normalization of clotting parameters after 5 weekly courses of rituximab given at a dose of 375 mg/sqm., but after stopping rituximab, an initial worsening of coagulation parameters induced the addition of 3 further courses. At present, the patient is in complete clinical and hematological remission after 200 days. This case confirms that Rituximab may be a safe and useful tool to treat AHA and, a prolonged administration can overcome the initial resistance. However, the precise position of this drug in the therapeutic strategy (first or second-line, alone or in combination with other drugs) remains to be established and warrants further investigation. PMID:25745551

  18. Community-acquired Pneumonia and its Complications.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qiang; Shen, Kun-ling

    2015-08-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in developing and developed countries, and its incidence is highest among children less than 5-y-old. Over the last five years, several international and local guidelines have been updated with new evidence concerning the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of pediatric CAP, but there are still several major problems that need to be standardised. The aim of this review is to consider the available data concerning the termination, epidemiology, microbiology and pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment, and complications of pediatric CAP. There still are many unanswered questions concerning the management of CAP, including its definition, the difficulty to identify its etiological agents, the emergence of drug, and the lack of introduction of vaccines against respiratory pathogens in developing countries. More research is required in various areas (including therapy of atypical agents), and further efforts are needed to increase vaccination in order to reduce the incidence of the disease. PMID:25976616

  19. Salmonella acquires ferrous iron from haemophagocytic macrophages.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Toni A; Moreland, Sarah M; Detweiler, Corrella S

    2014-09-01

    Bacteria harbour both ferrous and ferric iron transporters. We now report that infection of macrophages and mice with a Salmonella enterica Typhimurium strain containing an inactivated feoB-encoded ferrous iron transporter results in increased bacterial replication, compared to infection with wild type. Inactivation of other cation transporters, SitABCD or MntH, did not increase bacterial replication. The feoB mutant strain does not have an intrinsically faster growth rate. Instead, increased replication correlated with increased expression in macrophages of the fepB-encoded bacterial ferric iron transporter and also required siderophores, which capture ferric iron. Co-infection of mice with wild type and a feoB mutant strain yielded a different outcome: FeoB is clearly required for tissue colonization. In co-infected primary mouse macrophages, FeoB is required for S. Typhimurium replication if the macrophages were IFNγ treated and contain phagocytosed erythrocytes, a model for haemophagocytosis. Haemophagocytes are macrophages that have engulfed erythrocytes and/or leucocytes and can harbour Salmonella in mice. These observations suggest that Salmonella acquires ferrous iron from haemophagocytic macrophages.

  20. [Acquired polycystic degeneration of the kidneys].

    PubMed

    Kreisel-Büstgens, C; Büstgens, L; Graben, N

    1990-12-15

    Kidneys of patients with advanced renal insufficiency undergo polycystic transformation, described as acquired cystic degeneration (ACD). In 118 chronic dialysis patients clinical data were compared with sonographic findings of their 221 cirrhotic kidneys: 74 (63%) patients showed distinctly discernible renal cysts: 19 patients hat one single cyst, nine patients had two to eight cysts, 46 patients had more than eight cysts. Accordingly 39% of patients had ACD. Cystic transformation was of the same degree on both sides and in a few cases so marked that a formal discrimination to congenital cystic disease seemed impossible. Cystic degeneration was not influenced by patient's age, sex or underlying renal disease, but was dependent on the duration of both, renal disease and dialysis treatment. After eight years 71% of dialysis patients had ACD. In coincidence with cystic transformation the size of the kidneys apparently normalized and Hb-concentration rose from 8 to 10 g/dl. Complications were seen in six patients: two severe retroperitoneal bleedings and four hypernephroma were observed. The etiology of cystic transformation and its possible role as precancerosis are discussed.

  1. Lighting Utilization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crank, Ron

    This instructional unit is one of 10 developed by students on various energy-related areas that deals specifically with lighting utilization. Its objective is for the student to be able to outline the development of lighting use and conservation and identify major types and operating characteristics of lamps used in electric lighting. Some topics…

  2. SCHOOL LIGHTING

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1965

    SEVERAL ARTICLES ON SCHOOL LIGHTING ARE CONTAINED IN THIS JOURNAL. THE TITLES AND AUTHORS INCLUDED ARE AS FOLLOWS--(1) "TODAY'S CONCEPTS IN SCHOOL LIGHTING" BY CHARLES D. GIBSON, (2) "CHALLENGE OF TOMMORROW'S LIGHTING" BY S.K. GUTH AND E.H. WITTE, (3) "PEEK PREVIEW OF THE WINDOWLESS SCHOOL" BY JAMES J. MORISSEAU, (4) "MAINTENANCE BEGINS BEFORE…

  3. Acquiring neural signals for developing a perception and cognition model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wei; Li, Yunyi; Chen, Genshe; Shen, Dan; Blasch, Erik; Pham, Khanh; Lynch, Robert

    2012-06-01

    The understanding of how humans process information, determine salience, and combine seemingly unrelated information is essential to automated processing of large amounts of information that is partially relevant, or of unknown relevance. Recent neurological science research in human perception, and in information science regarding contextbased modeling, provides us with a theoretical basis for using a bottom-up approach for automating the management of large amounts of information in ways directly useful for human operators. However, integration of human intelligence into a game theoretic framework for dynamic and adaptive decision support needs a perception and cognition model. For the purpose of cognitive modeling, we present a brain-computer-interface (BCI) based humanoid robot system to acquire brainwaves during human mental activities of imagining a humanoid robot-walking behavior. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model. The BCI system consists of a data acquisition unit with an electroencephalograph (EEG), a humanoid robot, and a charge couple CCD camera. An EEG electrode cup acquires brainwaves from the skin surface on scalp. The humanoid robot has 20 degrees of freedom (DOFs); 12 DOFs located on hips, knees, and ankles for humanoid robot walking, 6 DOFs on shoulders and arms for arms motion, and 2 DOFs for head yaw and pitch motion. The CCD camera takes video clips of the human subject's hand postures to identify mental activities that are correlated to the robot-walking behaviors. We use the neural signals to investigate relationships between complex humanoid robot behaviors and human mental activities for developing the perception and cognition model.

  4. Congenital and acquired perilymph fistula: review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Roman, S; Bourliere-Najean, B; Triglia, J M

    1998-08-01

    Perilymph fistula is caused by an abnormal communication between the perilymph space and the middle ear. The etiology is either congenital or acquired. The congenital fistula can be associated or not with clinical symptoms or radiologically detectable abnormalities of the temporal bone. In patients presenting congenital fistula without symptoms or radiologically detectable abnormalities, little malformations of the middle ear may be detected during surgery. The acquired fistula can be caused by iatrogenic trauma, physical injury or erosion. As far as therapy is concerned, surgical treatment can be performed and the perilymph fistula thus represents one of the few causes of sensorineural hearing loss that can be treated surgically. However, the main challenge is the identification of those patients that need to undergo an exploratory tympanotomy, since there are no clinical-audiologic symptoms or radiographic indicators that can be considered pathognomonic of perilymph fistula. The aim of this review of the literature is to define the guidelines for preoperative diagnosis to indicate exploratory tympanotomy both in children and in adults. On the basis of our results, exploratory tympanotomy should be performed in patients with vertigo and/or progressive, sudden or fluctuating hearing loss in association with one or more than one of the following elements: a history of cranial trauma, radiographically detectable abnormalities of the inner ear, congenital malformations of the head, recurring meningitis, positive fistula test. The surgical treatment consists in placing a graft of temporalis fascia or tragal perichondrium and it usually results in a significant improvement of vestibular symptoms and sometimes of the hearing function as well.

  5. Towards a sensible comprehension of severe community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ewig, Santiago; Woodhead, Mark; Torres, Antoni

    2011-02-01

    Four different rules have been suggested and validated for intensive care unit (ICU) admission for community-acquired pneumonia: modified American Thoracic Society (ATS) rule, Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA)/ATS rule, España rule, and SMART-COP. Their performance varies, with sensitivity of around 70% and specificity of around 80-90%. Only negative predictive values are consistently high. Critical methodological issues include the appropriate reference for derivation, the populations studied, the variables included, and the time course of pneumonia. Severe community-acquired pneumonia (SCAP) may evolve because of acute respiratory failure or/and severe sepsis/septic shock. Pneumonia-related complications and decompensated comorbidities may be additional or independent reasons for a severe course. All variables included in predictive rules relate to the two principal reasons for SCAP. However, taken as major criteria, they are of little value for clinical assessment. Instead, a limited set of minor criteria reflecting severity seems appropriate. However, predictive rules may not meet principal needs of severity assessment because of failure in sensitivity, ignorance of the potential contribution of complications or decompensated comorbidity to pneumonia severity, and poor sensitivity for the lower extreme in the spectrum of severe pneumonia, i.e., patients at risk of SCAP. We therefore advocate an approach that refers to the evaluation of the need for intensified treatment rather than ICU, based on a set of minor criteria and sensitive to the dynamic nature of pneumonia. Intensified treatment such as monitoring and treatment of acute respiratory failure or/and severe sepsis/septic shock is thought to improve management and possibly outcomes by setting the focus on both patients with severity criteria at admission and those at risk for SCAP.

  6. Development of ultraviolet- and visible-light one-shot spectral domain optical coherence tomography and in situ measurements of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirayama, Heijiro; Nakamura, Sohichiro

    2015-07-01

    We have developed ultraviolet (UV)- and visible-light one-shot spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) that enables in situ imaging of human skin with an arbitrary wavelength in the UV-visible-light region (370-800 nm). We alleviated the computational burden for each color OCT image by physically dispersing the irradiating light with a color filter. The system consists of SD-OCT with multicylindrical lenses; thus, mechanical scanning of the mirror or stage is unnecessary to obtain an OCT image. Therefore, only a few dozens of milliseconds are necessary to obtain single-image data. We acquired OCT images of one subject's skin in vivo and of a skin excision ex vivo for red (R, 650±20 nm), green (G, 550±20 nm), blue (B, 450±20 nm), and UV (397±5 nm) light. In the visible-light spectrum, R light penetrated the skin and was reflected at a lower depth than G or B light. On the skin excision, we demonstrated that UV light reached the dermal layer. We anticipated that basic knowledge about the spectral properties of human skin in the depth direction could be acquired with this system.

  7. Development of ultraviolet- and visible-light one-shot spectral domain optical coherence tomography and in situ measurements of human skin.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Heijiro; Nakamura, Sohichiro

    2015-07-01

    We have developed ultraviolet (UV)- and visible-light one-shot spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) that enables in situ imaging of human skin with an arbitrary wavelength in the UV-visible-light region (370-800 nm). We alleviated the computational burden for each color OCT image by physically dispersing the irradiating light with a color filter. The system consists of SD-OCT with multicylindrical lenses; thus, mechanical scanning of the mirror or stage is unnecessary to obtain an OCT image. Therefore, only a few dozens of milliseconds are necessary to obtain single-image data. We acquired OCT images of one subject's skin in vivo and of a skin excision ex vivo for red (R, 650 ± 20 nm), green (G, 550 ± 20 nm), blue (B, 450 ± 20 nm), and UV (397 ± 5 nm) light. In the visible-light spectrum, R light penetrated the skin and was reflected at a lower depth than G or B light. On the skin excision, we demonstrated that UV light reached the dermal layer. We anticipated that basic knowledge about the spectral properties of human skin in the depth direction could be acquired with this system. PMID:26222961

  8. Development of ultraviolet- and visible-light one-shot spectral domain optical coherence tomography and in situ measurements of human skin.

    PubMed

    Hirayama, Heijiro; Nakamura, Sohichiro

    2015-07-01

    We have developed ultraviolet (UV)- and visible-light one-shot spectral domain (SD) optical coherence tomography (OCT) that enables in situ imaging of human skin with an arbitrary wavelength in the UV-visible-light region (370-800 nm). We alleviated the computational burden for each color OCT image by physically dispersing the irradiating light with a color filter. The system consists of SD-OCT with multicylindrical lenses; thus, mechanical scanning of the mirror or stage is unnecessary to obtain an OCT image. Therefore, only a few dozens of milliseconds are necessary to obtain single-image data. We acquired OCT images of one subject's skin in vivo and of a skin excision ex vivo for red (R, 650 ± 20 nm), green (G, 550 ± 20 nm), blue (B, 450 ± 20 nm), and UV (397 ± 5 nm) light. In the visible-light spectrum, R light penetrated the skin and was reflected at a lower depth than G or B light. On the skin excision, we demonstrated that UV light reached the dermal layer. We anticipated that basic knowledge about the spectral properties of human skin in the depth direction could be acquired with this system.

  9. Student Effort, Consistency, and Online Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patron, Hilde; Lopez, Salvador

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines how student effort, consistency, motivation, and marginal learning, influence student grades in an online course. We use data from eleven Microeconomics courses taught online for a total of 212 students. Our findings show that consistency, or less time variation, is a statistically significant explanatory variable, whereas…

  10. Does Acquiescence Affect Individual Items Consistently?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kam, Chester Chun Seng; Zhou, Mingming

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has found the effects of acquiescence to be generally consistent across item "aggregates" within a single survey (i.e., essential tau-equivalence), but it is unknown whether this phenomenon is consistent at the" individual item" level. This article evaluated the often assumed but inadequately tested…

  11. 40 CFR 55.12 - Consistency updates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Consistency updates. 55.12 Section 55.12 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) OUTER CONTINENTAL SHELF AIR REGULATIONS § 55.12 Consistency updates. (a) The Administrator will...

  12. Consistent-handed individuals are more authoritarian.

    PubMed

    Lyle, Keith B; Grillo, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Individuals differ in the consistency with which they use one hand over the other to perform everyday activities. Some individuals are very consistent, habitually using a single hand to perform most tasks. Others are relatively inconsistent, and hence make greater use of both hands. More- versus less-consistent individuals have been shown to differ in numerous aspects of personality and cognition. In several respects consistent-handed individuals resemble authoritarian individuals. For example, both consistent-handedness and authoritarianism have been linked to cognitive inflexibility. Therefore we hypothesised that consistent-handedness is an external marker for authoritarianism. Confirming our hypothesis, we found that consistent-handers scored higher than inconsistent-handers on a measure of submission to authority, were more likely to identify with a conservative political party (Republican), and expressed less-positive attitudes towards out-groups. We propose that authoritarianism may be influenced by the degree of interaction between the left and right brain hemispheres, which has been found to differ between consistent- and inconsistent-handed individuals. PMID:23586369

  13. Consistency and Enhancement Processes in Understanding Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stets, Jan E.; Asencio, Emily K.

    2008-01-01

    Many theories in the sociology of emotions assume that emotions emerge from the cognitive consistency principle. Congruence among cognitions produces good feelings whereas incongruence produces bad feelings. A work situation is simulated in which managers give feedback to workers that is consistent or inconsistent with what the workers expect to…

  14. 24 CFR 91.510 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., the proposed activities are consistent with the jurisdiction's strategic plan, and the location of the... of consistency of the application with the approved consolidated plan for the jurisdiction may be... unit of general local government that: is required to have a consolidated plan, is authorized to use...

  15. 24 CFR 91.510 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., the proposed activities are consistent with the jurisdiction's strategic plan, and the location of the... of consistency of the application with the approved consolidated plan for the jurisdiction may be... unit of general local government that: is required to have a consolidated plan, is authorized to use...

  16. [Hand Preference: Cognitive Development, Asymmetry, and Consistency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bathurst, Kay; And Others

    Reported are results of three studies: (1) Hand Preference Consistency during Infancy and Preschool Years (K. Bathurst and A. W. Gottfried), (2) Asymmetry of Verbal Processing: Influence of Family Handedness (K. Bathurst and D. W. Kee), (3) Consistency of Hand Preference and Cognitive Development in Young Children (K. Bathurst and A. W.…

  17. 44 CFR 206.349 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... § 206.349 Consistency determinations. Section 6(a)(6) of CBRA requires that certain actions be consistent with the purposes of that statute if the actions are to be carried out on a unit of the CBRA. The... associated with the coastal barriers along with Atlantic and Gulf coasts. For those actions where...

  18. Steps toward Promoting Consistency in Educational Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klein, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The literature indicates the advantages of decisions formulated through intuition, as well as the limitations, such as lack of consistency in similar situations. The principle of consistency (invariance), requiring that two equivalent versions of choice-problems will produce the same preference, is violated in intuitive judgment. This…

  19. Acquired prosopagnosia abolishes the face inversion effect.

    PubMed

    Busigny, Thomas; Rossion, Bruno

    2010-09-01

    Individual faces are notoriously difficult to recognize when they are presented upside-down. Since acquired prosopagnosia (AP) has been associated with an impairment of expert face processes, a reduced or abolished face inversion effect (FIE) is expected in AP. However, previous studies have incongruently reported apparent normal effects of inversion, a decreased or abolished FIE, but also a surprisingly better performance for inverted faces for some patients. While these discrepant observations may be due to the variability of high-level processes impaired, a careful look at the literature rather suggests that the pattern of FIE in prosopagnosia has been obscured by a selection of patients with associated low-level defects and general visual recognition impairments, as well as trade-offs between accuracy and correct RT measures. Here we conducted an extensive investigation of upright and inverted face processing in a well-characterized case of face-selective AP, PS (Rossion et al., 2003). In 4 individual face discrimination experiments, PS did not present any inversion effect at all, taking into account all dependent measures of performance. However, she showed a small inversion cost for individualizing members of a category of non-face objects (cars), just like normal observers. A fifth experiment with personally familiar faces to recognize confirmed the lack of inversion effect for PS. Following the present report and a survey of the literature, we conclude that the FIE is generally absent, or at least clearly reduced following AP. We also suggest that the paradoxical superior performance for inverted faces observed in rare cases may be due to additional upper visual field defects rather than to high-level competing visual processes. These observations are entirely compatible with the view that AP is associated with a disruption of a process that is also abolished following inversion: the holistic representation of individual exemplars of the face class.

  20. Impact of lactobacilli on orally acquired listeriosis

    PubMed Central

    Archambaud, Cristel; Nahori, Marie-Anne; Soubigou, Guillaume; Bécavin, Christophe; Laval, Laure; Lechat, Pierre; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Cossart, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that crosses the intestinal barrier and disseminates within the host. Here, we report a unique comprehensive analysis of the impact of two Lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-3689 and Lactobacillus casei BL23, on L. monocytogenes and orally acquired listeriosis in a gnotobiotic humanized mouse model. We first assessed the effect of treatment with each Lactobacillus on L. monocytogenes counts in host tissues and showed that each decreases L. monocytogenes systemic dissemination in orally inoculated mice. A whole genome intestinal transcriptomic analysis revealed that each Lactobacillus changes expression of a specific subset of genes during infection, with IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) being the most affected by both lactobacilli. We also examined microRNA (miR) expression and showed that three miRs (miR-192, miR-200b, and miR-215) are repressed during L. monocytogenes infection. Treatment with each Lactobacillus increased miR-192 expression, whereas only L. casei association increased miR-200b and miR-215 expression. Finally, we showed that treatment with each Lactobacillus significantly reshaped the L. monocytogenes transcriptome and up-regulated transcription of L. monocytogenes genes encoding enzymes allowing utilization of intestinal carbon and nitrogen sources in particular genes involved in propanediol and ethanolamine catabolism and cobalamin biosynthesis. Altogether, these data reveal that the modulation of L. monocytogenes infection by treatment with lactobacilli correlates with a decrease in host gene expression, in particular ISGs, miR regulation, and a dramatic reshaping of L. monocytogenes transcriptome. PMID:23012479

  1. [Clinical aspects of acquired antithrombin III deficiency].

    PubMed

    von Blohn, G; Hellstern, P; Köhler, M; Scheffler, P; Wenzel, E

    1986-02-01

    The significance of acquired antithrombin III (AT III) deficiency must be interpreted in close relation to the underlying disease process. In patients with acute or chronic liver impairment, the AT III activity is related to a decrease of procoagulatory factors, whereas, in protein loss syndromes such as nephrotic syndrome, the AT III indicates an increased risk of thromboembolic events. The effect of oral contraceptives (OC) on AT III levels in young healthy females (n = 30) was determined prospectively. AT III decreases during OC usage could not be related to the estrogen content of the examined oral contraceptives, and there was no parallel decrease of AT III activity and concentration in each type of OC. In a prospective study, the extent of AT III decrease was determined in patients undergoing cardiopulmonary bypass operations (CPB) receiving different anticoagulant schedules during extracorporeal circulation (n = 49). There was no significant influence on the effectiveness of anticoagulation by the observed AT III decreases. AT III deficiency during CPB was primarily the result of hemodilution. However, the AT III kinetics were significantly influenced by the different protamin dosages and were not affected by the different heparin dosages. Correction of diminished AT III levels by substitution of AT III concentrates is beneficial in cases, in which an interruption of an enhanced coagulatory process such as disseminated intravascular coagulation is necessary or in patients requiring high dosage heparinization as in deep vein thrombosis. In those cases the quality of AT III correction correlates to the course of the disease. However, the potency of concentrates as well as the individual AT III recovery and half-life must be considered for an appropriate treatment with AT III substitution. PMID:3718407

  2. MECHANISMS OF ACQUIRED RESISTANCE IN MOUSE TYPHOID

    PubMed Central

    Blanden, R. V.; Mackaness, G. B.; Collins, F. M.

    1966-01-01

    Experiments in vitro comparing normal mouse peritoneal macrophages with cells from Salmonella typhimurium-infected mice have shown that the "immune" macrophages have conspicuously enhanced microbicidal properties. Whereas normal macrophages could inactivate only 50 to 60% of intracellular S. typhimurium pretreated with immune serum, cells from infected animals killed virtually all ingested organisms and did so at an accelerated rate. Macrophages from Listeria monocytogenes-infected mice were shown to possess similarly enhanced microbicidal activity against S. typhimurium. Furthermore, the growth of S. typhimurium in the liver and spleen was more effectively restricted in Listeria-infected mice than in animals vaccinated with heat-killed S. typhimurium, even though the Listeria-infected animals possessed no demonstrable cross-reacting antibody to S. typhimurium. The lack of resistance in the mice vaccinated with heat-killed organisms could not be attributed to any deficiency of humoral factors, since the serum from these animals was as effective at promoting phagocytosis and killing by macrophages as serum from actively infected (and demonstrably resistant) mice. Conversely, Salmonella-infected mice were totally resistant to intravenous challenge with L. monocytogenes. The level of resistance in individual animals was related to the numbers of residual Salmonellae remaining in the tissues; mice with heavier residual infections being the more resistant. Specific antiserum from mice vaccinated with heat-killed S. typhimurium was found to be significantly protective only when the intraperitoneal route of challenge was employed. The foregoing studies have been interpreted to mean that enhancement of the microbicidal ability of macrophages is the mechanism of major importance in acquired resistance to S. typhimurium infection in mice. PMID:4958757

  3. Impact of lactobacilli on orally acquired listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Archambaud, Cristel; Nahori, Marie-Anne; Soubigou, Guillaume; Bécavin, Christophe; Laval, Laure; Lechat, Pierre; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Cossart, Pascale

    2012-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that crosses the intestinal barrier and disseminates within the host. Here, we report a unique comprehensive analysis of the impact of two Lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-3689 and Lactobacillus casei BL23, on L. monocytogenes and orally acquired listeriosis in a gnotobiotic humanized mouse model. We first assessed the effect of treatment with each Lactobacillus on L. monocytogenes counts in host tissues and showed that each decreases L. monocytogenes systemic dissemination in orally inoculated mice. A whole genome intestinal transcriptomic analysis revealed that each Lactobacillus changes expression of a specific subset of genes during infection, with IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) being the most affected by both lactobacilli. We also examined microRNA (miR) expression and showed that three miRs (miR-192, miR-200b, and miR-215) are repressed during L. monocytogenes infection. Treatment with each Lactobacillus increased miR-192 expression, whereas only L. casei association increased miR-200b and miR-215 expression. Finally, we showed that treatment with each Lactobacillus significantly reshaped the L. monocytogenes transcriptome and up-regulated transcription of L. monocytogenes genes encoding enzymes allowing utilization of intestinal carbon and nitrogen sources in particular genes involved in propanediol and ethanolamine catabolism and cobalamin biosynthesis. Altogether, these data reveal that the modulation of L. monocytogenes infection by treatment with lactobacilli correlates with a decrease in host gene expression, in particular ISGs, miR regulation, and a dramatic reshaping of L. monocytogenes transcriptome. PMID:23012479

  4. On the initial state and consistency relations

    SciTech Connect

    Berezhiani, Lasha; Khoury, Justin E-mail: jkhoury@sas.upenn.edu

    2014-09-01

    We study the effect of the initial state on the consistency conditions for adiabatic perturbations. In order to be consistent with the constraints of General Relativity, the initial state must be diffeomorphism invariant. As a result, we show that initial wavefunctional/density matrix has to satisfy a Slavnov-Taylor identity similar to that of the action. We then investigate the precise ways in which modified initial states can lead to violations of the consistency relations. We find two independent sources of violations: i) the state can include initial non-Gaussianities; ii) even if the initial state is Gaussian, such as a Bogoliubov state, the modified 2-point function can modify the q-vector → 0 analyticity properties of the vertex functional and result in violations of the consistency relations.

  5. Consistency of homogenization schemes in linear poroelasticity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, Bernhard; Dormieux, Luc

    2008-08-01

    In view of extending classical micromechanics of poroelasticity to the non-saturated regime, one has to deal with different pore stresses which may be affected by the size and the shape of the pores. Introducing the macrostrain and these pore stresses as loading parameters, the macrostress of a representative volume element of a porous material can be derived by means of Levin's theorem or by means of the direct formulation of the stress average rule, respectively. A consistency requirement for a given homogenization scheme is obtained from the condition that the two approaches should yield identical results. Classical approaches (Mori-Tanaka scheme, self-consistent scheme) are shown to be only conditionally consistent. In contrast, the Ponte Castañeda-Willis scheme proves to provide consistent descriptions both of porous matrix-inclusion composites and of porous polycrystals. To cite this article: B. Pichler, L. Dormieux, C. R. Mecanique 336 (2008).

  6. Safety performance functions incorporating design consistency variables.

    PubMed

    Montella, Alfonso; Imbriani, Lella Liana

    2015-01-01

    Highway design which ensures that successive elements are coordinated in such a way as to produce harmonious and homogeneous driver performances along the road is considered consistent and safe. On the other hand, an alignment which requires drivers to handle high speed gradients and does not meet drivers' expectancy is considered inconsistent and produces higher crash frequency. To increase the usefulness and the reliability of existing safety performance functions and contribute to solve inconsistencies of existing highways as well as inconsistencies arising in the design phase, we developed safety performance functions for rural motorways that incorporate design consistency measures. Since the design consistency variables were used only for curves, two different sets of models were fitted for tangents and curves. Models for the following crash characteristics were fitted: total, single-vehicle run-off-the-road, other single vehicle, multi vehicle, daytime, nighttime, non-rainy weather, rainy weather, dry pavement, wet pavement, property damage only, slight injury, and severe injury (including fatal). The design consistency parameters in this study are based on operating speed models developed through an instrumented vehicle equipped with a GPS continuous speed tracking from a field experiment conducted on the same motorway where the safety performance functions were fitted (motorway A16 in Italy). Study results show that geometric design consistency has a significant effect on safety of rural motorways. Previous studies on the relationship between geometric design consistency and crash frequency focused on two-lane rural highways since these highways have the higher crash rates and are generally characterized by considerable inconsistencies. Our study clearly highlights that the achievement of proper geometric design consistency is a key design element also on motorways because of the safety consequences of design inconsistencies. The design consistency measures

  7. Consistency relations for non-Gaussianity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Miao; Wang, Yi

    2008-09-01

    We investigate consistency relations for non-Gaussianity. We provide a model-independent dynamical proof for the consistency relation for three-point correlation functions from the Hamiltonian and field redefinition. This relation can be applied to single-field inflation, multi-field inflation and the curvaton scenario. This relation can also be generalized to n-point correlation functions up to arbitrary order in perturbation theory and with arbitrary number of loops.

  8. Light water reactor program

    SciTech Connect

    Franks, S.M.

    1994-12-31

    The US Department of Energy`s Light Water Reactor Program is outlined. The scope of the program consists of: design certification of evolutionary plants; design, development, and design certification of simplified passive plants; first-of-a-kind engineering to achieve commercial standardization; plant lifetime improvement; and advanced reactor severe accident program. These program activities of the Office of Nuclear Energy are discussed.

  9. Self consistent modeling of accretion columns in accretion powered pulsars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falkner, Sebastian; Schwarm, Fritz-Walter; Wolff, Michael Thomas; Becker, Peter A.; Wilms, Joern

    2016-04-01

    We combine three physical models to self-consistently derive the observed flux and pulse profiles of neutron stars' accretion columns. From the thermal and bulk Comptonization model by Becker & Wolff (2006) we obtain seed photon continua produced in the dense inner regions of the accretion column. In a thin outer layer these seed continua are imprinted with cyclotron resonant scattering features calculated using Monte Carlo simulations. The observed phase and energy dependent flux corresponding to these emission profiles is then calculated, taking relativistic light bending into account. We present simulated pulse profiles and the predicted dependency of the observable X-ray spectrum as a function of pulse phase.

  10. Consistency-based rectification of nonrigid registrations

    PubMed Central

    Gass, Tobias; Székely, Gábor; Goksel, Orcun

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. We present a technique to rectify nonrigid registrations by improving their group-wise consistency, which is a widely used unsupervised measure to assess pair-wise registration quality. While pair-wise registration methods cannot guarantee any group-wise consistency, group-wise approaches typically enforce perfect consistency by registering all images to a common reference. However, errors in individual registrations to the reference then propagate, distorting the mean and accumulating in the pair-wise registrations inferred via the reference. Furthermore, the assumption that perfect correspondences exist is not always true, e.g., for interpatient registration. The proposed consistency-based registration rectification (CBRR) method addresses these issues by minimizing the group-wise inconsistency of all pair-wise registrations using a regularized least-squares algorithm. The regularization controls the adherence to the original registration, which is additionally weighted by the local postregistration similarity. This allows CBRR to adaptively improve consistency while locally preserving accurate pair-wise registrations. We show that the resulting registrations are not only more consistent, but also have lower average transformation error when compared to known transformations in simulated data. On clinical data, we show improvements of up to 50% target registration error in breathing motion estimation from four-dimensional MRI and improvements in atlas-based segmentation quality of up to 65% in terms of mean surface distance in three-dimensional (3-D) CT. Such improvement was observed consistently using different registration algorithms, dimensionality (two-dimensional/3-D), and modalities (MRI/CT). PMID:26158083

  11. Temporal consistent depth map upscaling for 3DTV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwarz, Sebastian; Sjöström, Mârten; Olsson, Roger

    2014-03-01

    The ongoing success of three-dimensional (3D) cinema fuels increasing efforts to spread the commercial success of 3D to new markets. The possibilities of a convincing 3D experience at home, such as three-dimensional television (3DTV), has generated a great deal of interest within the research and standardization community. A central issue for 3DTV is the creation and representation of 3D content. Acquiring scene depth information is a fundamental task in computer vision, yet complex and error-prone. Dedicated range sensors, such as the Time­ of-Flight camera (ToF), can simplify the scene depth capture process and overcome shortcomings of traditional solutions, such as active or passive stereo analysis. Admittedly, currently available ToF sensors deliver only a limited spatial resolution. However, sophisticated depth upscaling approaches use texture information to match depth and video resolution. At Electronic Imaging 2012 we proposed an upscaling routine based on error energy minimization, weighted with edge information from an accompanying video source. In this article we develop our algorithm further. By adding temporal consistency constraints to the upscaling process, we reduce disturbing depth jumps and flickering artifacts in the final 3DTV content. Temporal consistency in depth maps enhances the 3D experience, leading to a wider acceptance of 3D media content. More content in better quality can boost the commercial success of 3DTV.

  12. 14 CFR 25.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....1397. (b) Forward position lights. Forward position lights must consist of a red and a green light... airplane in the normal flying position, the red light is on the left side and the green light is on the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Position light system installation....

  13. 14 CFR 29.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....1397. (b) Forward position lights. Forward position lights must consist of a red and a green light... rotorcraft in the normal flying position, the red light is on the left side, and the green light is on the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Position light system installation....

  14. 14 CFR 25.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....1397. (b) Forward position lights. Forward position lights must consist of a red and a green light... airplane in the normal flying position, the red light is on the left side and the green light is on the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Position light system installation....

  15. 14 CFR 27.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....1397. (b) Forward position lights. Forward position lights must consist of a red and a green light... rotorcraft in the normal flying position, the red light is on the left side and the green light is on the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Position light system installation....

  16. 14 CFR 27.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ....1397. (b) Forward position lights. Forward position lights must consist of a red and a green light... rotorcraft in the normal flying position, the red light is on the left side and the green light is on the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Position light system installation....

  17. 14 CFR 29.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ....1397. (b) Forward position lights. Forward position lights must consist of a red and a green light... rotorcraft in the normal flying position, the red light is on the left side, and the green light is on the... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Position light system installation....

  18. 14 CFR 27.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....1397. (b) Forward position lights. Forward position lights must consist of a red and a green light... rotorcraft in the normal flying position, the red light is on the left side and the green light is on the.... Each light cover or color filter must be at least flame resistant and may not change color or shape...

  19. 14 CFR 29.1385 - Position light system installation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ....1397. (b) Forward position lights. Forward position lights must consist of a red and a green light... rotorcraft in the normal flying position, the red light is on the left side, and the green light is on the.... Each light cover or color filter must be at least flame resistant and may not change color or shape...

  20. Spectrum zooming in network topology based on a white light fiber optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Song; Ferhati, Mokhtar; Yuan, Li-Bo

    2015-07-01

    A bus line network based on white light fiber-optic Mach-Zehnder interferometer is introduced by consideration of multiplexing capacity and coupler tailoring. The network topology which consists of N rungs sensing elements linked by N-1 couplers has been contrasted with three cases. The optimization formula has been used to couple more sensors, and Zoom-FFT has been used to analyze spectrum. After using these two methods, the multiplexing capability of the structure is enhanced evidently and a unambiguous spectrum is acquired.

  1. [Surgical Therapy of Acquired Unilateral Diaphragmatic Paralysis: Indication and Results].

    PubMed

    Wiesemann, S; Haager, B; Passlick, B

    2016-09-01

    Unilateral elevation of the diaphragm may be due to various causes and requires further elucidation when the aetiology is unknown. Elevation of the diaphragm is often caused by diaphragmatic paralysis, either due to damage to the phrenic nerve or to the phrenic muscle. Patients typically complain of increased respiratory distress when lying down, bending or swimming. Basic diagnostic testing consists of a chest X-ray, as well as spirometry and computer tomography of the neck and chest. In many cases, no cause can be identified for the diaphragmatic paralysis. In symptomatic patients, diaphragm plication leads to fixation and thus to a reduction in the paradoxal respiratory movement of the paralysed diaphragm. In a large majority of studies, this results in significant and lasting improvement in vital capacity and respiratory distress. Spontaneous recovery of diaphragm paralysis is possible, even after several months, so a waiting period of at least 6 months should elapse before diaphragmatic plication is performed, if the clinical situation allows. The procedure can be performed minimally invasively, with low morbidity and mortality. When cutting the phrenic nerve, a nerve suture is recommended, if possible, or otherwise diaphragm plication during the procedure, especially in the case of pneumonectomy. This review provides an overview of the causes, pathophysiology, symptoms, diagnosis, therapy and results of diaphragmatic plication in acquired, unilateral diaphragmatic paralysis in adults, and suggests an algorithm for diagnostic testing and therapy. PMID:27607888

  2. Acquired hemophilia: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Mulliez, S M N; Vantilborgh, A; Devreese, K M J

    2014-06-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare bleeding disorder caused by autoantibodies against clotting factor VIII (FVIII). FVIII autoantibody is characterized as polyclonal immunoglobulin G directed against the FVIII procoagulant activity. This disease occurs most commonly in the elderly population and with preponderance of men in nonpregnancy-related AHA. There are well-established clinical associations with AHA such as malignancy, other autoimmune diseases and pregnancy. However, up to 50% of reported cases remain idiopathic. The clinical manifestation of AHA includes mostly spontaneous hemorrhages into skin, muscles and soft tissues, or mucous membranes. AHA should be suspected when a patient with no previous history of bleeding presents with bleeding and an unexplained prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time. The diagnosis is confirmed in the laboratory by the subsequent identification of reduced FVIII levels and FVIII inhibitor titration. There is a high mortality, making prompt diagnosis and treatment vitally important. The principles of treatment consist in controlling the bleeding and eradicating the inhibitor. Because of the overall high relapse rate (15-33%), it is also recommended to follow up these patients. The review summarizes what is currently known about the epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of AHA and starts with a case report.

  3. Genetic engineering and therapy for inherited and acquired cardiomyopathies.

    PubMed

    Day, Sharlene; Davis, Jennifer; Westfall, Margaret; Metzger, Joseph

    2006-10-01

    The cardiac myofilaments consist of a highly ordered assembly of proteins that collectively generate force in a calcium-dependent manner. Defects in myofilament function and its regulation have been implicated in various forms of acquired and inherited human heart disease. For example, during cardiac ischemia, cardiac myocyte contractile performance is dramatically downregulated due in part to a reduced sensitivity of the myofilaments to calcium under acidic pH conditions. Over the last several years, the thin filament regulatory protein, troponin I, has been identified as an important mediator of this response. Mutations in troponin I and other sarcomere genes are also linked to several distinct inherited cardiomyopathic phenotypes, including hypertrophic, dilated, and restrictive cardiomyopathies. With the cardiac sarcomere emerging as a central player for such a diverse array of human heart diseases, genetic-based strategies that target the myofilament will likely have broad therapeutic potential. The development of safe vector systems for efficient gene delivery will be a critical hurdle to overcome before these types of therapies can be successfully applied. Nonetheless, studies focusing on the principles of acute genetic engineering of the sarcomere hold value as they lay the essential foundation on which to build potential gene-based therapies for heart disease.

  4. Severe Acquired Toxoplasmosis in Immunocompetent Adult Patients in French Guiana

    PubMed Central

    Carme, B.; Bissuel, F.; Ajzenberg, D.; Bouyne, R.; Aznar, C.; Demar, M.; Bichat, S.; Louvel, D.; Bourbigot, A. M.; Peneau, C.; Neron, P.; Dardé, M. L.

    2002-01-01

    The most common presentation of symptomatic postnatally acquired toxoplasmosis in immunocompetent patients is painless cervical adenopathy. Acute visceral manifestations are associated in rare cases. We report 16 cases of severe primary toxoplasmosis diagnosed in French Guiana during a 6.5-year period. All of the subjects were immunocompetent adults hospitalized with clinical presentations consisting of a marked, nonspecific infectious syndrome accompanied by an altered general status with at least one visceral localization, mainly pulmonary involvement (14 cases). Acute toxoplasmosis was diagnosed according to the results of serological tests suggestive of recent primary infection and the absence of an alternative etiology. Recovery was rapid following specific antitoxoplasmosis treatment. Thirteen of the 16 patients had consumed game in the 2 weeks before the onset of the symptoms, and in eight cases the game was considered to have been undercooked. Toxoplasma strains, which were virulent in mice, were isolated from three patients. Microsatellite analysis showed that all of these isolates exhibited an atypical multilocus genotype, with one allele found only for isolates of this region. PMID:12409371

  5. Quantifying the Consistency of Scientific Databases

    PubMed Central

    Šubelj, Lovro; Bajec, Marko; Mileva Boshkoska, Biljana; Kastrin, Andrej; Levnajić, Zoran

    2015-01-01

    Science is a social process with far-reaching impact on our modern society. In recent years, for the first time we are able to scientifically study the science itself. This is enabled by massive amounts of data on scientific publications that is increasingly becoming available. The data is contained in several databases such as Web of Science or PubMed, maintained by various public and private entities. Unfortunately, these databases are not always consistent, which considerably hinders this study. Relying on the powerful framework of complex networks, we conduct a systematic analysis of the consistency among six major scientific databases. We found that identifying a single "best" database is far from easy. Nevertheless, our results indicate appreciable differences in mutual consistency of different databases, which we interpret as recipes for future bibliometric studies. PMID:25984946

  6. Consistency and derangements in brane tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanany, Amihay; Jejjala, Vishnu; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2016-09-01

    Brane tilings describe Lagrangians (vector multiplets, chiral multiplets, and the superpotential) of four-dimensional { N }=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. These theories, written in terms of a bipartite graph on a torus, correspond to worldvolume theories on N D3-branes probing a toric Calabi–Yau threefold singularity. A pair of permutations compactly encapsulates the data necessary to specify a brane tiling. We show that geometric consistency for brane tilings, which ensures that the corresponding quantum field theories are well behaved, imposes constraints on the pair of permutations, restricting certain products constructed from the pair to have no one-cycles. Permutations without one-cycles are known as derangements. We illustrate this formulation of consistency with known brane tilings. Counting formulas for consistent brane tilings with an arbitrary number of chiral bifundamental fields are written down in terms of delta functions over symmetric groups.

  7. Consistency and derangements in brane tilings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanany, Amihay; Jejjala, Vishnu; Ramgoolam, Sanjaye; Seong, Rak-Kyeong

    2016-09-01

    Brane tilings describe Lagrangians (vector multiplets, chiral multiplets, and the superpotential) of four-dimensional { N }=1 supersymmetric gauge theories. These theories, written in terms of a bipartite graph on a torus, correspond to worldvolume theories on N D3-branes probing a toric Calabi-Yau threefold singularity. A pair of permutations compactly encapsulates the data necessary to specify a brane tiling. We show that geometric consistency for brane tilings, which ensures that the corresponding quantum field theories are well behaved, imposes constraints on the pair of permutations, restricting certain products constructed from the pair to have no one-cycles. Permutations without one-cycles are known as derangements. We illustrate this formulation of consistency with known brane tilings. Counting formulas for consistent brane tilings with an arbitrary number of chiral bifundamental fields are written down in terms of delta functions over symmetric groups.

  8. Personalized recommendation based on unbiased consistence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Xuzhen; Tian, Hui; Zhang, Ping; Hu, Zheng; Zhou, Tao

    2015-08-01

    Recently, in physical dynamics, mass-diffusion-based recommendation algorithms on bipartite network provide an efficient solution by automatically pushing possible relevant items to users according to their past preferences. However, traditional mass-diffusion-based algorithms just focus on unidirectional mass diffusion from objects having been collected to those which should be recommended, resulting in a biased causal similarity estimation and not-so-good performance. In this letter, we argue that in many cases, a user's interests are stable, and thus bidirectional mass diffusion abilities, no matter originated from objects having been collected or from those which should be recommended, should be consistently powerful, showing unbiased consistence. We further propose a consistence-based mass diffusion algorithm via bidirectional diffusion against biased causality, outperforming the state-of-the-art recommendation algorithms in disparate real data sets, including Netflix, MovieLens, Amazon and Rate Your Music.

  9. Temporal and kinematic consistency predict sequence awareness.

    PubMed

    Jaynes, Molly J; Schieber, Marc H; Mink, Jonathan W

    2016-10-01

    Many human motor skills can be represented as a hierarchical series of movement patterns. Awareness of underlying patterns can improve performance and decrease cognitive load. Subjects (n = 30) tapped a finger sequence with changing stimulus-to-response mapping and a common movement sequence. Thirteen subjects (43 %) became aware that they were tapping a familiar movement sequence during the experiment. Subjects who became aware of the underlying motor pattern tapped with greater kinematic and temporal consistency from task onset, but consistency was not sufficient for awareness. We found no effect of age, musical experience, tapping evenness, or inter-key-interval on awareness of the pattern in the motor response. We propose that temporal or kinematic consistency reinforces a pattern representation, but cognitive engagement with the contents of the sequence is necessary to bring the pattern to conscious awareness. These findings predict benefit for movement strategies that limit temporal and kinematic variability during motor learning. PMID:27324192

  10. Acquired Cell-Mediated Immunodepression in Acute Chagas' Disease

    PubMed Central

    Teixeira, Antonio R. L.; Teixeira, Glória; Macêdo, Vanize; Prata, Aluizio

    1978-01-01

    In this study two groups of patients with acute Chagas' disease were identified. Group one consisted of five patients with apparent acute Chagas' disease. These patients showed symptoms and signals of an acute illness, such as high fever and enlarged spleen. One of these patients developed severe myocarditis and heart failure. Group two consisted of seven patients with inapparent acute Chagas' disease. This was a nonclinical entity, not perceived by the patient who did not seek medical care. The diagnosis was made by the shift of a serologic test which indicates the presence of immunoglobulin M antibodies to Trypanosoma cruzi. The patients with apparent acute Chagas' disease showed positive delayed-type skin response to T. cruzi antigen. Also, their leukocytes showed significant inhibition of migration in the presence of this antigen. By contrast, the patients with the inapparent acute Chagas' disease did not show positive delayed-type skin response to T. cruzi antigen and no significant inhibition was observed when their cells migrated in the presence of this antigen. Of interest, none of these patients was capable of developing contact sensitivity to 2,4-dinitrochlorobenzene. However, three out of five patients with the apparent acute disease and all the normal control subjects showed positive contact reaction after sensitization to this drug. The results of these experiments would suggest that the thymus-derived (T)-lymphocyte function is depressed in patients with the clinically inapparent acute Chagas' disease. This immunodepression seems to be acquired in the course of the T. cruzi infection because all patients showed positive delayed-type skin response to at least one ubiquitous microbial extract, thus indicating previously normal T-cell function. We hypothesize that T. cruzi antigens may directly stimulate T cells with the concomitant release of factors that might become supressive for T-cell responses. Furthermore, the suppressive effect might interfere

  11. Origins of evolution: non-acquired characters dominates over acquired characters in changing environment.

    PubMed

    Gaucherel, Cédric; Jensen, Henrik Jeldtoft

    2012-07-01

    Natural Selection is so ubiquitous that we never wonder how it appeared as the evolution rule driving Life. We usually wonder how Life appeared, and seldom do we make an explicit distinction between Life and natural selection. Here, we apply the evolution concept commonly used for studying Life to evolution itself. More precisely, we developed two models aiming at selecting among different evolution rules competing for their supremacy. We explored competition between acquired (AQ) versus non-acquired (NAQ) character inheritance. The first model is parsimonious and non-spatial, in order to understand relationships between environmental forcings and rule selection. The second model is spatially explicit and studies the adaptation differences between AQ and NAQ populations. We established that NAQ evolution rule is dominating in case of changing environment. Furthermore, we observed that a more adapted population better fits its environmental constraints, but fails in rapidly changing environments. NAQ principle and less adapted populations indeed act as a reservoir of traits that helps populations to survive in rapidly changing environments, such as the ones that probably Life experienced at its origins. Although perfectible, our modeling approaches will certainly help us to improve our understanding of origins of Life and Evolution, on Earth or elsewhere.

  12. Early surgery for hospital-acquired and community-acquired active infective endocarditis.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Toshihiko; Sasaki, Yasuyuki; Hirai, Hidekazu; Fukui, Toshihiro; Hosono, Mitsuharu; Suehiro, Shigefumi

    2007-06-01

    Active infective endocarditis (IE) is classified into two groups; hospital acquired IE (HIE) and IE other than HIE, which was defined as community-acquired IE (CIE). Eighty-two patients underwent surgical treatment for active IE. Seventy-one cases were CIE group and eleven were HIE. There were six patients with native valve endocarditis and five cases of prosthetic valve endocarditis in the HIE group. We compared the surgical outcome of both types of active IE retrospectively. The preoperative status of the patients in the HIE group was more critical than that in the CIE group. Streptococcus spp. were the major micro-organisms in the CIE group (39%), while 82% of the HIE cases were caused by Staphylococcus spp. All Staphylococcus organisms in the HIE group were methicillin resistant. There were 10 hospital deaths, three in the CIE group and seven in the HIE group. Operative mortality in the HIE group was significantly higher than in the CIE group (63.6% vs. 4.2%, P<0.001). The outcome of early operation was satisfactory for active CIE, but poor for HIE. These types of active IE should be considered separately.

  13. Consistent matter couplings for Plebanski gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tennie, Felix; Wohlfarth, Mattias N. R.

    2010-11-01

    We develop a scheme for the minimal coupling of all standard types of tensor and spinor field matter to Plebanski gravity. This theory is a geometric reformulation of vacuum general relativity in terms of two-form frames and connection one-forms, and provides a covariant basis for various quantization approaches. Using the spinor formalism we prove the consistency of the newly proposed matter coupling by demonstrating the full equivalence of Plebanski gravity plus matter to Einstein-Cartan gravity. As a by-product we also show the consistency of some previous suggestions for matter actions.

  14. Consistent Data Distribution Over Optical Links

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palumbo, Daniel L.

    1988-01-01

    Fiber optics combined with IDE's provide consistent data communication between fault-tolerant computers. Data-transmission-checking system designed to provide consistent and reliable data communications for fault-tolerant and highly reliable computers. New technique performs variant of algorithm for fault-tolerant computers and uses fiber optics and independent decision elements (IDE's) to require fewer processors and fewer transmissions of messages. Enables fault-tolerant computers operating at different levels of redundancy to communicate with each other over triply redundant bus. Level of redundancy limited only by maximum number of wavelengths active on bus.

  15. Dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratajczak, Joanna; Tchoń, Krzysztof

    2016-06-01

    By analogy to the definition of the dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for robotic manipulators, we have designed a dynamically consistent Jacobian inverse for mobile manipulators built of a non-holonomic mobile platform and a holonomic on-board manipulator. The endogenous configuration space approach has been exploited as a source of conceptual guidelines. The new inverse guarantees a decoupling of the motion in the operational space from the forces exerted in the endogenous configuration space and annihilated by the dual Jacobian inverse. A performance study of the new Jacobian inverse as a tool for motion planning is presented.

  16. Accuracy and consistency of modern elastomeric pumps.

    PubMed

    Weisman, Robyn S; Missair, Andres; Pham, Phung; Gutierrez, Juan F; Gebhard, Ralf E

    2014-01-01

    Continuous peripheral nerve blockade has become a popular method of achieving postoperative analgesia for many surgical procedures. The safety and reliability of infusion pumps are dependent on their flow rate accuracy and consistency. Knowledge of pump rate profiles can help physicians determine which infusion pump is best suited for their clinical applications and specific patient population. Several studies have investigated the accuracy of portable infusion pumps. Using methodology similar to that used by Ilfeld et al, we investigated the accuracy and consistency of several current elastomeric pumps. PMID:25140510

  17. Anticholinergic substances: A single consistent conformation

    PubMed Central

    Pauling, Peter; Datta, Narayandas

    1980-01-01

    An interactive computer-graphics analysis of 24 antagonists of acetylcholine at peripheral autonomic post-ganglionic (muscarinic) nervous junctions and at similar junctions in the central nervous system, the crystal structures of which are known, has led to the determination of a single, consistent, energetically favorable conformation for all 24 substances, although their observed crystal structure conformations vary widely. The absolute configuration and the single, consistent (ideal) conformation of the chemical groups required for maximum anticholinergic activity are described quantitatively. Images PMID:16592775

  18. Consistency of Students' Pace in Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hershkovitz, Arnon; Nachmias, Rafi

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the consistency of students' behavior regarding their pace of actions over sessions within an online course. Pace in a session is defined as the number of logged actions divided by session length (in minutes). Log files of 6,112 students were collected, and datasets were constructed for examining pace…

  19. Developing consistent time series landsat data products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Landsat series satellite has provided earth observation data record continuously since early 1970s. There are increasing demands on having a consistent time series of Landsat data products. In this presentation, I will summarize the work supported by the USGS Landsat Science Team project from 20...

  20. Image recognition and consistency of response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haygood, Tamara M.; Ryan, John; Liu, Qing Mary A.; Bassett, Roland; Brennan, Patrick C.

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the connection between conscious recognition of an image previously encountered in an experimental setting and consistency of response to the experimental question.
    Materials and Methods: Twenty-four radiologists viewed 40 frontal chest radiographs and gave their opinion as to the position of a central venous catheter. One-to-three days later they again viewed 40 frontal chest radiographs and again gave their opinion as to the position of the central venous catheter. Half of the radiographs in the second set were repeated images from the first set and half were new. The radiologists were asked of each image whether it had been included in the first set. For this study, we are evaluating only the 20 repeated images. We used the Kruskal-Wallis test and Fisher's exact test to determine the relationship between conscious recognition of a previously interpreted image and consistency in interpretation of the image.
    Results. There was no significant correlation between recognition of the image and consistency in response regarding the position of the central venous catheter. In fact, there was a trend in the opposite direction, with radiologists being slightly more likely to give a consistent response with respect to images they did not recognize than with respect to those they did recognize.
    Conclusion: Radiologists' recognition of previously-encountered images in an observer-performance study does not noticeably color their interpretation on the second encounter.

  1. Consistent Visual Analyses of Intrasubject Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kahng, SungWoo; Chung, Kyong-Mee; Gutshall, Katharine; Pitts, Steven C.; Kao, Joyce; Girolami, Kelli

    2010-01-01

    Visual inspection of single-case data is the primary method of interpretation of the effects of an independent variable on a dependent variable in applied behavior analysis. The purpose of the current study was to replicate and extend the results of DeProspero and Cohen (1979) by reexamining the consistency of visual analysis across raters. We…

  2. Environmental Decision Support with Consistent Metrics

    EPA Science Inventory

    One of the most effective ways to pursue environmental progress is through the use of consistent metrics within a decision making framework. The US Environmental Protection Agency’s Sustainable Technology Division has developed TRACI, the Tool for the Reduction and Assessment of...

  3. 36 CFR 241.22 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest, Alaska... conservation of fish, wildlife, and their habitat. A use or activity may be determined to be consistent if it will not materially interfere with or detract from the conservation of fish, wildlife and their...

  4. 36 CFR 241.22 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest, Alaska... conservation of fish, wildlife, and their habitat. A use or activity may be determined to be consistent if it will not materially interfere with or detract from the conservation of fish, wildlife and their...

  5. 36 CFR 241.22 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... FISH AND WILDLIFE Conservation of Fish, Wildlife, and Their Habitat, Chugach National Forest, Alaska... conservation of fish, wildlife, and their habitat. A use or activity may be determined to be consistent if it will not materially interfere with or detract from the conservation of fish, wildlife and their...

  6. 24 CFR 91.510 - Consistency determinations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Consistency determinations. 91.510 Section 91.510 Housing and Urban Development Office of the Secretary, Department of Housing and Urban... HOPWA grant is a city that is the most populous unit of general local government in an EMSA, it...

  7. Effecting Consistency across Curriculum: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devasagayam, P. Raj; Mahaffey, Thomas R.

    2008-01-01

    Continuous quality improvement is the clarion call across all business schools which is driving the emphasis on assessing the attainment of learning outcomes. An issue that deems special attention in assurance of learning outcomes is related to consistency across courses and, more specifically, across multiple sections of the same course taught by…

  8. Consistency and stability of recombinant fermentations.

    PubMed

    Wiebe, M E; Builder, S E

    1994-01-01

    Production of proteins of consistent quality in heterologous, genetically-engineered expression systems is dependent upon identifying the manufacturing process parameters which have an impact on product structure, function, or purity, validating acceptable ranges for these variables, and performing the manufacturing process as specified. One of the factors which may affect product consistency is genetic instability of the primary product sequence, as well as instability of genes which code for proteins responsible for post-translational modification of the product. Approaches have been developed for mammalian expression systems to assure that product quality is not changing through mechanisms of genetic instability. Sensitive protein analytical methods, particularly peptide mapping, are used to evaluate product structure directly, and are more sensitive in detecting genetic instability than is direct genetic analysis by nucleotide sequencing of the recombinant gene or mRNA. These methods are being employed to demonstrate that the manufacturing process consistently yields a product of defined structure from cells cultured through the range of cell ages used in the manufacturing process and well beyond the maximum cell age defined for the process. The combination of well designed validation studies which demonstrate consistent product quality as a function of cell age, and rigorous quality control of every product lot by sensitive protein analytical methods provide the necessary assurance that product structure is not being altered through mechanisms of mutation and selection.

  9. RULE GENERALITY AND CONSISTENCY IN MATHEMATICS LEARNING.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCANDURA, JOSEPH M.

    PSYCHOLOGICAL PRINCIPLES INVOLVED WITH RULE GENERALITY (DEGREE OF NONSPECIFICITY) AND PERFORMANCE CONSISTENCY IN MATHEMATICAL PRESENTATIONS WERE STUDIED. SPECIFICALLY, THE PURPOSES WERE (1) TO DETERMINE IF TEST BEHAVIOR CONFORMS TO THE SCOPE OF A VERBALLY ADMINISTERED TEST RULE, (2) TO EXPLORE THE INTERPRETABILITY OF VERBAL TEST RULES, AND (3) TO…

  10. Consistency of Toddler Engagement across Two Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aguiar, Cecilia; McWilliam, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    This study documented the consistency of child engagement across two settings, toddler child care classrooms and mother-child dyadic play. One hundred twelve children, aged 14-36 months (M = 25.17, SD = 6.06), randomly selected from 30 toddler child care classrooms from the district of Porto, Portugal, participated. Levels of engagement were…

  11. An image-guided tool to prevent hospital acquired infections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagy, Melinda; Szilágyi, László; Lehotsky, Ákos; Haidegger, Tamás; Benyó, Balázs

    2011-03-01

    Hospital Acquired Infections (HAI) represent the fourth leading cause of death in the United States, and claims hundreds of thousands of lives annually in the rest of the world. This paper presents a novel low-cost mobile device|called Stery-Hand|that helps to avoid HAI by improving hand hygiene control through providing an objective evaluation of the quality of hand washing. The use of the system is intuitive: having performed hand washing with a soap mixed with UV re ective powder, the skin appears brighter in UV illumination on the disinfected surfaces. Washed hands are inserted into the Stery-Hand box, where a digital image is taken under UV lighting. Automated image processing algorithms are employed in three steps to evaluate the quality of hand washing. First, the contour of the hand is extracted in order to distinguish the hand from the background. Next, a semi-supervised clustering algorithm classies the pixels of the hand into three groups, corresponding to clean, partially clean and dirty areas. The clustering algorithm is derived from the histogram-based quick fuzzy c-means approach, using a priori information extracted from reference images, evaluated by experts. Finally, the identied areas are adjusted to suppress shading eects, and quantied in order to give a verdict on hand disinfection quality. The proposed methodology was validated through tests using hundreds of images recorded in our laboratory. The proposed system was found robust and accurate, producing correct estimation for over 98% of the test cases. Stery-Hand may be employed in general practice, and it may also serve educational purposes.

  12. Prelexical representations and processes in reading: evidence from acquired dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Teresa; McCloskey, Michael

    2013-01-01

    We report a detailed and extensive single-case study of an acquired dyslexic patient, L.H.D., who suffered a left-hemisphere lesion as a result of a ruptured aneurysm. We present evidence that L.H.D.'s reading errors stem from a deficit in visual letter identification, and we use her deficit as a basis for exploring a variety of issues concerning prelexical representations and processes in reading. First, building on the work of other researchers, we present evidence that the prelexical reading system includes an allograph level of representation that represents each distinct visual shape of a letter (e.g., a, A, etc., for the letter A). We extend a theory proposed by Caramazza and Hillis [Caramazza, A., & Hillis, A. (1990a). Spatial representation of words in the brain implied by studies of a unilateral neglect patient. Nature, 346, 267-269] to include an allograph level, and we probe the nature of the allograph representations in some detail. Next, we explore the implications of visual similarity effects and letter perseverations in L.H.D.'s reading performance, arguing that these effects shed light on activation dynamics in the prelexical reading system and on the genesis of L.H.D.'s errors. We also probe the processing of letter case in the visual letter identification process, proposing that separate abstract letter identity and case representations are computed. Finally, we present evidence that the allograph level as well as the abstract letter identity level implement a word-based frame of reference.

  13. Consistent anomalies of the induced W gravities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abud, Mario; Ader, Jean-Pierre; Cappiello, Luigi

    1996-02-01

    The BRST anomaly which may be present in the induced Wn gravity quantized on the light-cone is evaluated in the geometrical framework of Zucchini. The cocycles linked by the cohomology of the BRST operator to the anomaly are straightforwardly calculated thanks to the analogy between this formulation and the Yang-Mills theory. We give also a conformally covariant formulation of these quantities including the anomaly, which is valid on arbitrary Riemann surfaces. The example of the W3 theory is discussed and a comparison with other candidates for the anomaly available in the literature is presented.

  14. Consistency and variability in functional localisers

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Keith J.; Pattamadilok, Chotiga; Knierim, Iris; Devlin, Joseph T.

    2009-01-01

    A critical assumption underlying the use of functional localiser scans is that the voxels identified as the functional region-of-interest (fROI) are essentially the same as those activated by the main experimental manipulation. Intra-subject variability in the location of the fROI violates this assumption, reducing the sensitivity of the analysis and biasing the results. Here we investigated consistency and variability in fROIs in a set of 45 volunteers. They performed two functional localiser scans to identify word- and object-sensitive regions of ventral and lateral occipito-temporal cortex, respectively. In the main analyses, fROIs were defined as the category-selective voxels in each region and consistency was measured as the spatial overlap between scans. Consistency was greatest when minimally selective thresholds were used to define “active” voxels (p < 0.05 uncorrected), revealing that approximately 65% of the voxels were commonly activated by both scans. In contrast, highly selective thresholds (p < 10− 4 to 10− 6) yielded the lowest consistency values with less than 25% overlap of the voxels active in both scans. In other words, intra-subject variability was surprisingly high, with between one third and three quarters of the voxels in a given fROI not corresponding to those activated in the main task. This level of variability stands in striking contrast to the consistency seen in retinotopically-defined areas and has important implications for designing robust but efficient functional localiser scans. PMID:19289173

  15. Acquired agraphia caused by focal brain damage.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S W; Saver, J; Tranel, D; Damasio, H

    1993-03-01

    Motor and linguistic aspects of writing were evaluated in 31 subjects with focal damage in 1 of 3 regions of the left hemisphere: (1) dorsolateral frontal lobe sparing primary motor cortex (group FL), (2) parietal lobe (group PL), or (3) temporal lobe (group TL). A standard procedure was used to evaluate writing for grapheme formation, spatial arrangement, spelling, word selection, grammar, and perseveration. It was predicted that agraphia would be observed in all 3 groups, and that the most severe impairments would be associated with frontal lobe damage, particularly in aspects of writing dependent on sequencing (grapheme formation, spelling, and grammar). It was found that agraphia was common in all groups, particularly in the acute epoch, and that all groups showed considerable recovery of writing by the chronic epoch. Few differences were found between groups. However, the FL group was impaired on spelling and grammar relative to the PL group in the acute epoch and impaired on grammar relative to the TL group in the chronic epoch. The findings are consistent with the notion that writing relies on a distributed neuroanatomical network, which acts in concert to link fragments of visuomotor activity with component linguistic elements.

  16. Atmospheric movies acquired at the Mars Science Laboratory landing site: Cloud morphology, frequency and significance to the Gale Crater water cycle and Phoenix mission results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moores, John E.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Rafkin, Scot C. R.; Francis, Raymond; Pla-Garcia, Jorge; de la Torre Juárez, Manuel; Bean, Keri; Kass, David; Haberle, Robert; Newman, Claire; Mischna, Michael; Vasavada, Ashwin; Rennó, Nilton; Bell, Jim; Calef, Fred; Cantor, Bruce; Mcconnochie, Timothy H.; Harri, Ari-Matti; Genzer, Maria; Wong, Michael; Smith, Michael D.; Javier Martín-Torres, F.; Zorzano, María-Paz; Kemppinen, Osku; McCullough, Emily

    2015-05-01

    We report on the first 360 sols (LS 150° to 5°), representing just over half a Martian year, of atmospheric monitoring movies acquired using the NavCam imager from the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) Rover Curiosity. Such movies reveal faint clouds that are difficult to discern in single images. The data set acquired was divided into two different classifications depending upon the orientation and intent of the observation. Up to sol 360, 73 Zenith movies and 79 Supra-Horizon movies have been acquired and time-variable features could be discerned in 25 of each. The data set from MSL is compared to similar observations made by the Surface Stereo Imager (SSI) onboard the Phoenix Lander and suggests a much drier environment at Gale Crater (4.6°S) during this season than was observed in Green Valley (68.2°N) as would be expected based on latitude and the global water cycle. The optical depth of the variable component of clouds seen in images with features are up to 0.047 ± 0.009 with a granularity to the features observed which averages 3.8°. MCS also observes clouds during the same period of comparable optical depth at 30 and 50 km that would suggest a cloud spacing of 2.0 to 3.3 km. Multiple motions visible in atmospheric movies support the presence of two distinct layers of clouds. At Gale Crater, these clouds are likely caused by atmospheric waves given the regular spacing of features observed in many Zenith movies and decreased spacing towards the horizon in sunset movies consistent with clouds forming at a constant elevation. Reanalysis of Phoenix data in the light of the NavCam equatorial dataset suggests that clouds may have been more frequent in the earlier portion of the Phoenix mission than was previously thought.

  17. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Articles acquired abroad. 148.33 Section 148.33... Articles acquired abroad. (a) Exemption. Each returning resident is entitled to bring in free of duty and..., Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202), articles for his personal or household...

  18. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Articles acquired abroad. 148.33 Section 148.33... Articles acquired abroad. (a) Exemption. Each returning resident is entitled to bring in free of duty and..., Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202), articles for his personal or household...

  19. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Articles acquired abroad. 148.33 Section 148.33... Articles acquired abroad. (a) Exemption. Each returning resident is entitled to bring in free of duty and..., Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202), articles for his personal or household...

  20. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Articles acquired abroad. 148.33 Section 148.33... Articles acquired abroad. (a) Exemption. Each returning resident is entitled to bring in free of duty and..., Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202), articles for his personal or household...

  1. Validation of current land cover maps utilizing astronaut acquired photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gebelein, Jennifer; Estes, John E.

    2000-01-01

    This investigation focuses on the potential use of astronaut acquired photography for the validation of current, land cover maps. More specifically, this study is directed at assessing the potential for the use of astronaut acquired photography to document and validate land cover change. Space Shuttle, astronaut acquired photography is employed to test the potential utility of data that may be acquired by astronauts employing the Window Observational Rack Facility (WORF) on International Space Station (ISS). The majority of astronaut acquired photography has been obtained under conditions similar to ISS operations in terms of both spectral as well as spatial resolution. Validation of land cover maps utilizing this type of imagery is being accomplished through a process of comparison among three different land cover classification legends created from the Eros Data Center (EDC) Land Characteristics Database. Our study area is a subregional scale portion of an Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) based global Land Characteristics Database. The goal of this research is to attempt to establish: 1. which legend derived for this area provides the highest overall accuracy for the land cover classes present: 2. which legend is best validated using astronaut acquired photography; and 3. which classes of these legends best lend themselves to validation with astronaut acquired photography. Preliminary results indicate that astronaut acquired photography can be employed to validate land cover maps and that results achieved using this imagery corresponds well to those achieved utilizing Landsat data. .

  2. 27 CFR 6.45 - Assistance in acquiring license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assistance in acquiring license. 6.45 Section 6.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Furnishing Things of Value § 6.45 Assistance in acquiring license....

  3. 27 CFR 6.45 - Assistance in acquiring license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assistance in acquiring license. 6.45 Section 6.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Furnishing Things of Value § 6.45 Assistance in acquiring license....

  4. 27 CFR 6.45 - Assistance in acquiring license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assistance in acquiring license. 6.45 Section 6.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Furnishing Things of Value § 6.45 Assistance in acquiring license....

  5. Free Reading: A Powerful Tool for Acquiring a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priya, J.; Ponniah, R. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The paper claims that free reading is a crucial ingredient in acquiring a second or foreign language. It contributes to the development of all measures of language competence which include grammar, vocabulary, spelling, syntax, fluency and style. The review supports the claim that readers acquire language subconsciously when they receive…

  6. 45 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.4 Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should...

  7. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the final... develop a plan to fully protect the collateral, and the lender must dispose of the collateral without delay. (b) Re-title collateral. Any collateral accepted by the lender must not be titled in the...

  8. 45 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.4 Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should...

  9. 34 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.4 Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should be assigned to...

  10. 34 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.4 Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should be assigned to...

  11. 26 CFR 1.471-9 - Inventories of acquiring corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of acquiring corporations. 1.471-9 Section 1.471-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-9 Inventories of acquiring corporations....

  12. 26 CFR 1.472-7 - Inventories of acquiring corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of acquiring corporations. 1.472-7 Section 1.472-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.472-7 Inventories of acquiring corporations....

  13. Acquired hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency in an American child.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Merrian J; Post, Ernest M

    2014-11-01

    Acquired hypothyroidism secondary to iodine deficiency is rarely reported in iodine-replete environments. The case of a 9-year-old patient with severe acquired hypothyroidism due to iodine deficiency is presented. His deficiency occurred because of a restrictive diet used to control eosinophilic esophagitis. Hypothyroidism and iodine deficiency were quickly corrected with a kelp supplement.

  14. Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

  15. Safety and Efficacy of Antimicrobial Peptides against Naturally Acquired Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Alberola, J.; Rodríguez, A.; Francino, O.; Roura, X.; Rivas, L.; Andreu, D.

    2004-01-01

    Leishmaniases, which are important causes of morbidity and mortality in humans and dogs, are extremely difficult to treat. Antimicrobial peptides are rarely used as alternative treatments for naturally acquired parasitic diseases. Here we report that the acylated synthetic antimicrobial peptide Oct-CA(1-7)M(2-9) is safe and effective for treating naturally acquired canine leishmaniasis. PMID:14742227

  16. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... necessary. No land shall be acquired on account of the United States except under a law authorizing such... of the Army to acquire real estate for river and harbor improvements, flood control projects and... appropriating funds therefor. These enactments are generally termed Flood Control Acts and are passed...

  17. EDITORIAL: Slow light Slow light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyd, Robert; Hess, Ortwin; Denz, Cornelia; Paspalakis, Emmanuel

    2010-10-01

    Research into slow light began theoretically in 1880 with the paper [1] of H A Lorentz, who is best known for his work on relativity and the speed of light. Experimental work started some 60 years later with the work of S L McCall and E L Hahn [2] who explored non-linear self-induced transparency in ruby. This field of research has burgeoned in the last 10 years, starting with the work of L Vestergaard Hau and coworkers on slow light via electromagnetically induced transparency in a Bose-Einstein condensate [3]. Many groups are now able to slow light down to a few metres per second or even stop the motion of light entirely [4]. Today, slow light - or more often `slow and fast light' - has become its own vibrant field with a strongly increasing number of publications. In broad scope, slow light research can be categorized in terms of the sort of physical mechanism used to slow down the light. One sort of slow light makes use of material dispersion. This dispersion can be the natural dispersion of the ordinary refractive index or can be the frequency dependence of some nonlinear optical process, such as electromagnetically induced transparency, coherent population oscillations, stimulated light scattering, or four-wave mixing processes. The second sort of slow light makes use of the wavelength dependence of artificially structured materials, such as photonic crystals, optical waveguides, and collections of microresonators. Material systems in which slow light has been observed include metal vapours, rare-earth-doped materials, Raman and Brillioun gain media, photonic crystals, microresonators and, more recently, metamaterials. A common feature of all of these schemes is the presence of a sharp single resonance or multiple resonances produced by an atomic transition, a resonance in a photonic structure, or in a nonlinear optical process. Current applications of slow light include a series of attractive topics in optical information processing, such as optical data

  18. Acquired cutis laxa following urticarial vasculitis associated with IgA myeloma.

    PubMed

    Turner, Ryan B; Haynes, Harley A; Granter, Scott R; Miller, Danielle M

    2009-06-01

    Cutis laxa (CL) is an inherited or acquired connective tissue disorder characterized clinically by loosely hanging skin folds. There is often preceding cutaneous inflammatory eruption (ie, urticaria, eczema, erythema multiforme), and there is frequently internal organ involvement of the gastrointestinal, urogenital, pulmonary, and cardiovascular systems. Histologically, there are degenerative changes in the dermal elastic fibers. Of the few reports on this rare disorder, authors have speculated about an immune-mediated destruction of elastic fibers, and monoclonal gammopathies, such as multiple myeloma or heavy chain deposition disease, have a recognized association with CL. We report an unusual case of rapidly progressing acquired CL associated with leukocytoclastic vasculitis, IgA myeloma, and an immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis. Light microscopy of the lax skin revealed complete absence of elastic fibers in areas of vasculitis.

  19. Color influence on accuracy of 3D scanners based on structured light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voisin, Sophie; Page, David L.; Foufou, Sebti; Truchetet, Frédéric; Abidi, Mongi A.

    2006-02-01

    The characterization of commercial 3D scanners allows acquiring precise and useful data. The accuracy of range and, more recently, color for 3D scanners is usually studied separately, but when the 3D scanner is based on structured light with a color coding pattern, color influence on range accuracy should be investigated. The commercial product that we have tested has the particularity that it can acquire data under ambient light instead of a controlled environment as it is with most available scanners. Therefore, based on related work in the literature and on experiments we have done on a variety of standard illuminants, we have designed an interesting setup to control illuminant interference. Basically, the setup consists of acquiring the well-known Macbeth ColorChecker under a controlled environment and also ambient daylight. The results have shown variations with respect to the color. We have performed several statistical studies to show how the range results evolve with respect to the RGB and the HSV channels. In addition, a systematic noise error has also been identified. This noise depends on the object color. A subset of colors shows strong noise errors while other colors have minimal or even no systematic error under the same illuminant.

  20. Consistent Pauli reduction on group manifolds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baguet, A.; Pope, C. N.; Samtleben, H.

    2016-01-01

    We prove an old conjecture by Duff, Nilsson, Pope and Warner asserting that the NSsbnd NS sector of supergravity (and more general the bosonic string) allows for a consistent Pauli reduction on any d-dimensional group manifold G, keeping the full set of gauge bosons of the G × G isometry group of the bi-invariant metric on G. The main tool of the construction is a particular generalised Scherk-Schwarz reduction ansatz in double field theory which we explicitly construct in terms of the group's Killing vectors. Examples include the consistent reduction from ten dimensions on S3 ×S3 and on similar product spaces. The construction is another example of globally geometric non-toroidal compactifications inducing non-geometric fluxes.

  1. Consistency relation for cosmic magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Rajeev Kumar; Sloth, Martin S.

    2012-12-01

    If cosmic magnetic fields are indeed produced during inflation, they are likely to be correlated with the scalar metric perturbations that are responsible for the cosmic microwave background anisotropies and large scale structure. Within an archetypical model of inflationary magnetogenesis, we show that there exists a new simple consistency relation for the non-Gaussian cross correlation function of the scalar metric perturbation with two powers of the magnetic field in the squeezed limit where the momentum of the metric perturbation vanishes. We emphasize that such a consistency relation turns out to be extremely useful to test some recent calculations in the literature. Apart from primordial non-Gaussianity induced by the curvature perturbations, such a cross correlation might provide a new observational probe of inflation and can in principle reveal the primordial nature of cosmic magnetic fields.

  2. Self-Consistent Scattering and Transport Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, S. B.; Grabowski, P. E.

    2015-11-01

    An average-atom model with ion correlations provides a compact and complete description of atomic-scale physics in dense, finite-temperature plasmas. The self-consistent ionic and electronic distributions from the model enable calculation of x-ray scattering signals and conductivities for material across a wide range of temperatures and densities. We propose a definition for the bound electronic states that ensures smooth behavior of these measurable properties under pressure ionization and compare the predictions of this model with those of less consistent models for Be, C, Al, and Fe. SNL is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corp., a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corp, for the U.S. DoE NNSA under contract DE-AC04-94AL85000. This work was supported by DoE OFES Early Career grant FWP-14-017426.

  3. Self-consistency in Capital Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benbrahim, Hamid

    2013-03-01

    Capital Markets are considered, at least in theory, information engines whereby traders contribute to price formation with their diverse perspectives. Regardless whether one believes in efficient market theory on not, actions by individual traders influence prices of securities, which in turn influence actions by other traders. This influence is exerted through a number of mechanisms including portfolio balancing, margin maintenance, trend following, and sentiment. As a result market behaviors emerge from a number of mechanisms ranging from self-consistency due to wisdom of the crowds and self-fulfilling prophecies, to more chaotic behavior resulting from dynamics similar to the three body system, namely the interplay between equities, options, and futures. This talk will address questions and findings regarding the search for self-consistency in capital markets.

  4. Observers are consistent when rating image conspicuity.

    PubMed

    Cerf, Moran; Cleary, Daniel R; Peters, Robert J; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Koch, Christof

    2007-11-01

    Human perception of an image's conspicuity depends on the stimulus itself and the observer's semantic interpretation. We investigated the relative contribution of the former, sensory-driven, component. Participants viewed sequences of images from five different classes-fractals, overhead satellite imagery, grayscale and colored natural scenes, and magazine covers-and graded each numerically according to its perceived conspicuity. We found significant consistency in this rating within and between observers for all image categories. In a subsequent recognition memory test, performance was significantly above chance for all categories, with the weakest memory for satellite imagery, and reaching near ceiling for magazine covers. When repeating the experiment after one year, ratings remained consistent within each observer and category, despite the absence of explicit scene memory. Our findings suggest that the rating of image conspicuity is driven by image-immanent, sensory factors common to all observers.

  5. Consistency Test and Constraint of Quintessence

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Chien-Wen; Gu, Je-AN; Chen, Pisin; /SLAC /Taiwan, Natl. Taiwan U.

    2012-04-30

    In this paper we highlight our recent work in arXiv:0803.4504. In that work, we proposed a new consistency test of quintessence models for dark energy. Our test gave a simple and direct signature if certain category of quintessence models was not consistent with the observational data. For a category that passed the test, we further constrained its characteristic parameter. Specifically, we found that the exponential potential was ruled out at the 95% confidence level and the power-law potential was ruled out at the 68% confidence level based on the current observational data. We also found that the confidence interval of the index of the power-law potential was between -2 and 0 at the 95% confidence level.

  6. Nanoparticles heat through light localization.

    PubMed

    Hogan, Nathaniel J; Urban, Alexander S; Ayala-Orozco, Ciceron; Pimpinelli, Alberto; Nordlander, Peter; Halas, Naomi J

    2014-08-13

    Aqueous solutions containing light-absorbing nanoparticles have recently been shown to produce steam at high efficiencies upon solar illumination, even when the temperature of the bulk fluid volume remains far below its boiling point. Here we show that this phenomenon is due to a collective effect mediated by multiple light scattering from the dispersed nanoparticles. Randomly positioned nanoparticles that both scatter and absorb light are able to concentrate light energy into mesoscale volumes near the illuminated surface of the liquid. The resulting light absorption creates intense localized heating and efficient vaporization of the surrounding liquid. Light trapping-induced localized heating provides the mechanism for low-temperature light-induced steam generation and is consistent with classical heat transfer.

  7. Consistency of color representation in smart phones.

    PubMed

    Dain, Stephen J; Kwan, Benjamin; Wong, Leslie

    2016-03-01

    One of the barriers to the construction of consistent computer-based color vision tests has been the variety of monitors and computers. Consistency of color on a variety of screens has necessitated calibration of each setup individually. Color vision examination with a carefully controlled display has, as a consequence, been a laboratory rather than a clinical activity. Inevitably, smart phones have become a vehicle for color vision tests. They have the advantage that the processor and screen are associated and there are fewer models of smart phones than permutations of computers and monitors. Colorimetric consistency of display within a model may be a given. It may extend across models from the same manufacturer but is unlikely to extend between manufacturers especially where technologies vary. In this study, we measured the same set of colors in a JPEG file displayed on 11 samples of each of four models of smart phone (iPhone 4s, iPhone5, Samsung Galaxy S3, and Samsung Galaxy S4) using a Photo Research PR-730. The iPhones are white LED backlit LCD and the Samsung are OLEDs. The color gamut varies between models and comparison with sRGB space shows 61%, 85%, 117%, and 110%, respectively. The iPhones differ markedly from the Samsungs and from one another. This indicates that model-specific color lookup tables will be needed. Within each model, the primaries were quite consistent (despite the age of phone varying within each sample). The worst case in each model was the blue primary; the 95th percentile limits in the v' coordinate were ±0.008 for the iPhone 4 and ±0.004 for the other three models. The u'v' variation in white points was ±0.004 for the iPhone4 and ±0.002 for the others, although the spread of white points between models was u'v'±0.007. The differences are essentially the same for primaries at low luminance. The variation of colors intermediate between the primaries (e.g., red-purple, orange) mirror the variation in the primaries. The variation in

  8. Polarized light scanning for cultural heritage investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toque, Jay Arre; Murayama, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Yohei; Ide-Ektessabi, Ari

    2011-03-01

    Numerous cultural heritage art works have shiny surfaces resulting form gold, silver, and other metallic pigments. In addition varnish overlayer on oil paintings makes it challenging to retrieve true color information. This is due to the great effect of lighting condition when images are acquired and viewed. The reflection of light from such surfaces is a combination of the surface's specular and diffused light reflections. In this paper, this specific problems encountered when digitizing cultural heritage were discussed. Experimental results using the images acquired with a high-resolution large flat bed scanner, together with a mathematical method for processing the captured images were presented and discussed in detail. Focus was given in separating the diffused and specular components of the reflected light for the purpose of analytical imaging. The mathematical algorithm developed in this study enables imaging of cultural heritage with shiny and glossy surfaces effectively and efficiently.

  9. Combination Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Rayovac TANDEM is an advanced technology combination work light and general purpose flashlight that incorporates several NASA technologies. The TANDEM functions as two lights in one. It features a long range spotlight and wide angle floodlight; simple one-hand electrical switching changes the beam from spot to flood. TANDEM developers made particular use of NASA's extensive research in ergonomics in the TANDEM's angled handle, convenient shape and different orientations. The shatterproof, water resistant plastic casing also draws on NASA technology, as does the shape and beam distance of the square diffused flood. TANDEM's heavy duty magnet that permits the light to be affixed to any metal object borrows from NASA research on rare earth magnets that combine strong magnetic capability with low cost. Developers used a NASA-developed ultrasonic welding technique in the light's interior.

  10. Light Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cutshall, Sandy

    2002-01-01

    Describes a career and technical education program on photonics, the study, research, and development of equipment and concepts used in the transmission of information through light, including fiber optics and experimental laser technologies. (JOW)

  11. Light's twist

    PubMed Central

    Padgett, Miles

    2014-01-01

    That light travels in straight lines is a statement of the obvious. However, the energy and momentum flow within light beams can twist to form vortices such as eddies in a stream. These twists carry angular momentum, which can make microscopic objects spin, be used to encode extra information in communication systems, enable the design of novel imaging systems and allow new tests of quantum mechanics. PMID:25484612

  12. Controlling Light Harvesting with Light.

    PubMed

    Gwizdala, Michal; Berera, Rudi; Kirilovsky, Diana; van Grondelle, Rienk; Krüger, Tjaart P J

    2016-09-14

    When exposed to intense sunlight, all organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis implement various photoprotective strategies to prevent potentially lethal photodamage. The rapidly responding photoprotective mechanisms, occurring in the light-harvesting pigment-protein antennae, take effect within tens of seconds, while the dramatic and potentially harmful light intensity fluctuations manifest also on shorter time scales. Here we show that, upon illumination, individual phycobilisomes from Synechocystis PCC 6803, which, in vivo under low-light conditions, harvest solar energy, and have the built-in capacity to switch rapidly and reversibly into light-activated energy-dissipating states. Simultaneously measured fluorescence intensity, lifetime, and spectra, compared with a multicompartmental kinetic model, revealed that essentially any subunit of a phycobilisome can be quenched, and that the core complexes were targeted most frequently. Our results provide the first evidence for fluorescence blinking from a biologically active system at physiological light intensities and suggest that the light-controlled switches to intrinsically available energy-dissipating states are responsible for a novel type of photoprotection in cyanobacteria. We anticipate other photosynthetic organisms to employ similar strategies to respond instantly to rapid solar light intensity fluctuations. A detailed understanding of the photophysics of photosynthetic antenna complexes is of great interest for bioinspired solar energy technologies. PMID:27546794

  13. Controlling Light Harvesting with Light.

    PubMed

    Gwizdala, Michal; Berera, Rudi; Kirilovsky, Diana; van Grondelle, Rienk; Krüger, Tjaart P J

    2016-09-14

    When exposed to intense sunlight, all organisms performing oxygenic photosynthesis implement various photoprotective strategies to prevent potentially lethal photodamage. The rapidly responding photoprotective mechanisms, occurring in the light-harvesting pigment-protein antennae, take effect within tens of seconds, while the dramatic and potentially harmful light intensity fluctuations manifest also on shorter time scales. Here we show that, upon illumination, individual phycobilisomes from Synechocystis PCC 6803, which, in vivo under low-light conditions, harvest solar energy, and have the built-in capacity to switch rapidly and reversibly into light-activated energy-dissipating states. Simultaneously measured fluorescence intensity, lifetime, and spectra, compared with a multicompartmental kinetic model, revealed that essentially any subunit of a phycobilisome can be quenched, and that the core complexes were targeted most frequently. Our results provide the first evidence for fluorescence blinking from a biologically active system at physiological light intensities and suggest that the light-controlled switches to intrinsically available energy-dissipating states are responsible for a novel type of photoprotection in cyanobacteria. We anticipate other photosynthetic organisms to employ similar strategies to respond instantly to rapid solar light intensity fluctuations. A detailed understanding of the photophysics of photosynthetic antenna complexes is of great interest for bioinspired solar energy technologies.

  14. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots

    PubMed Central

    Barner, Allison K.; Benkwitt, Cassandra E.; Boersma, Kate S.; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B.; Ingeman, Kurt E.; Kindinger, Tye L.; Lindsley, Amy J.; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N.; Rowe, Jennifer C.; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A.; Heppell, Selina S.

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon’s diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  15. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    PubMed

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  16. Evaluating Temporal Consistency in Marine Biodiversity Hotspots.

    PubMed

    Piacenza, Susan E; Thurman, Lindsey L; Barner, Allison K; Benkwitt, Cassandra E; Boersma, Kate S; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Ingeman, Kurt E; Kindinger, Tye L; Lindsley, Amy J; Nelson, Jake; Reimer, Jessica N; Rowe, Jennifer C; Shen, Chenchen; Thompson, Kevin A; Heppell, Selina S

    2015-01-01

    With the ongoing crisis of biodiversity loss and limited resources for conservation, the concept of biodiversity hotspots has been useful in determining conservation priority areas. However, there has been limited research into how temporal variability in biodiversity may influence conservation area prioritization. To address this information gap, we present an approach to evaluate the temporal consistency of biodiversity hotspots in large marine ecosystems. Using a large scale, public monitoring dataset collected over an eight year period off the US Pacific Coast, we developed a methodological approach for avoiding biases associated with hotspot delineation. We aggregated benthic fish species data from research trawls and calculated mean hotspot thresholds for fish species richness and Shannon's diversity indices over the eight year dataset. We used a spatial frequency distribution method to assign hotspot designations to the grid cells annually. We found no areas containing consistently high biodiversity through the entire study period based on the mean thresholds, and no grid cell was designated as a hotspot for greater than 50% of the time-series. To test if our approach was sensitive to sampling effort and the geographic extent of the survey, we followed a similar routine for the northern region of the survey area. Our finding of low consistency in benthic fish biodiversity hotspots over time was upheld, regardless of biodiversity metric used, whether thresholds were calculated per year or across all years, or the spatial extent for which we calculated thresholds and identified hotspots. Our results suggest that static measures of benthic fish biodiversity off the US West Coast are insufficient for identification of hotspots and that long-term data are required to appropriately identify patterns of high temporal variability in biodiversity for these highly mobile taxa. Given that ecological communities are responding to a changing climate and other

  17. Self-consistent gravitational self-force

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pound, Adam

    2010-01-01

    I review the problem of motion for small bodies in general relativity, with an emphasis on developing a self-consistent treatment of the gravitational self-force. An analysis of the various derivations extant in the literature leads me to formulate an asymptotic expansion in which the metric is expanded while a representative worldline is held fixed. I discuss the utility of this expansion for both exact point particles and asymptotically small bodies, contrasting it with a regular expansion in which both the metric and the worldline are expanded. Based on these preliminary analyses, I present a general method of deriving self-consistent equations of motion for arbitrarily structured (sufficiently compact) small bodies. My method utilizes two expansions: an inner expansion that keeps the size of the body fixed, and an outer expansion that lets the body shrink while holding its worldline fixed. By imposing the Lorenz gauge, I express the global solution to the Einstein equation in the outer expansion in terms of an integral over a worldtube of small radius surrounding the body. Appropriate boundary data on the tube are determined from a local-in-space expansion in a buffer region where both the inner and outer expansions are valid. This buffer-region expansion also results in an expression for the self-force in terms of irreducible pieces of the metric perturbation on the worldline. Based on the global solution, these pieces of the perturbation can be written in terms of a tail integral over the body’s past history. This approach can be applied at any order to obtain a self-consistent approximation that is valid on long time scales, both near and far from the small body. I conclude by discussing possible extensions of my method and comparing it to alternative approaches.

  18. Consistent energy treatment for radiation transport methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglass, Steven James

    The approximations used in the standard multigroup method and cross section condensation procedure introduce several known errors, such those caused by spectral core environment effects and the neglect of the energy and angular coupling of the flux when condensing the total cross section. In this dissertation, a multigroup formulation is developed which maintains direct consistency with the continuous energy or fine-group structure, exhibiting the accuracy of the detailed energy spectrum within the coarse-group calculation. Two methods are then developed which seek to invert the condensation process -- turning the standard one-way condensation (from fine-group to coarse-group) into the first step of a two-way iterative process. The first method is based on the previously published Generalized Energy Condensation, which established a framework for obtaining the finegroup flux by preserving the flux energy spectrum in orthogonal energy expansion functions, but did not maintain a consistent coarse-group formulation. It is demonstrated that with a consistent extension of the GEC, a cross section recondensation scheme can be used to correct for the spectral core environment error. This is then verified numerically in a 1D VHTR core. In addition, a more practical and efficient new method, termed the "Subgroup Decomposition (SGD) Method," is developed which eliminates the need for expansion functions altogether, and allows the fine-group flux to be decomposed from a consistent coarse-group flux with minimal additional computation or memory requirements. This method, as a special case of a more general spline-approximation for radiation transport, is shown to be highly effective in a cross section recondensation scheme, providing fine-group results in a fraction of the time generally necessary to obtain a fine-group solution. In addition, a whole-core BWR benchmark problem is generated based on operating reactor parameters, in 2D and 3D. This contributes to the furthering

  19. Consistency of the triplet seesaw model revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonilla, Cesar; Fonseca, Renato M.; Valle, J. W. F.

    2015-10-01

    Adding a scalar triplet to the Standard Model is one of the simplest ways of giving mass to neutrinos, providing at the same time a mechanism to stabilize the theory's vacuum. In this paper, we revisit these aspects of the type-II seesaw model pointing out that the bounded-from-below conditions for the scalar potential in use in the literature are not correct. We discuss some scenarios where the correction can be significant and sketch the typical scalar boson profile expected by consistency.

  20. Surface consistent finite frequency phase corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kimman, W. P.

    2016-07-01

    Static time-delay corrections are frequency independent and ignore velocity variations away from the assumed vertical ray path through the subsurface. There is therefore a clear potential for improvement if the finite frequency nature of wave propagation can be properly accounted for. Such a method is presented here based on the Born approximation, the assumption of surface consistency and the misfit of instantaneous phase. The concept of instantaneous phase lends itself very well for sweep-like signals, hence these are the focus of this study. Analytical sensitivity kernels are derived that accurately predict frequency-dependent phase shifts due to P-wave anomalies in the near surface. They are quick to compute and robust near the source and receivers. An additional correction is presented that re-introduces the nonlinear relation between model perturbation and phase delay, which becomes relevant for stronger velocity anomalies. The phase shift as function of frequency is a slowly varying signal, its computation therefore does not require fine sampling even for broad-band sweeps. The kernels reveal interesting features of the sensitivity of seismic arrivals to the near surface: small anomalies can have a relative large impact resulting from the medium field term that is dominant near the source and receivers. Furthermore, even simple velocity anomalies can produce a distinct frequency-dependent phase behaviour. Unlike statics, the predicted phase corrections are smooth in space. Verification with spectral element simulations shows an excellent match for the predicted phase shifts over the entire seismic frequency band. Applying the phase shift to the reference sweep corrects for wavelet distortion, making the technique akin to surface consistent deconvolution, even though no division in the spectral domain is involved. As long as multiple scattering is mild, surface consistent finite frequency phase corrections outperform traditional statics for moderately large

  1. Consistency relations for the conformal mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Creminelli, Paolo; Joyce, Austin; Khoury, Justin; Simonović, Marko E-mail: joyceau@sas.upenn.edu E-mail: marko.simonovic@sissa.it

    2013-04-01

    We systematically derive the consistency relations associated to the non-linearly realized symmetries of theories with spontaneously broken conformal symmetry but with a linearly-realized de Sitter subalgebra. These identities relate (N+1)-point correlation functions with a soft external Goldstone to N-point functions. These relations have direct implications for the recently proposed conformal mechanism for generating density perturbations in the early universe. We study the observational consequences, in particular a novel one-loop contribution to the four-point function, relevant for the stochastic scale-dependent bias and CMB μ-distortion.

  2. Rethinking responsibility in offenders with acquired paedophilia: punishment or treatment?

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Frédéric; Focquaert, Farah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the current neurobiological literature on the aetiology of developmental and acquired paedophilia and examines what the consequences could be in terms of responsibility and treatment for the latter. Addressing the question of responsibility and punishment of offenders with acquired paedophilia from a neurobiological perspective is controversial. Consequently it is essential to avoid hasty conclusions based strictly on neurobiological abnormality justifications. This study establishes a distinction between developmental and acquired paedophilia. The article investigates whether offenders who fulfil the diagnosis of acquired paedophilia should be held fully responsible, particularly in cases where the offender's conduct appears to result from volitionally controlled behaviour that is seemingly incompatible with a neurological cause. Moreover, the article explores how responsibility can be compromised when offenders with acquired paedophilia have (partially) preserved moral knowledge despite their sexual disorder. The article then examines the option of offering mandatory treatment as an alternative to imprisonment for offenders with acquired paedophilia. Furthermore, the article addresses the ethical issues related to offering any form of quasi-coercive treatment as a condition of release. This study concludes that decisions to fully or partially excuse an individual who fulfil the diagnosis of acquired paedophilia should take all relevant information into account, both neurobiological and other environmental evidence, and should proceed on a careful case by case analysis before sentencing or offering treatment.

  3. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy.

    PubMed

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O; Huisken, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos. PMID:26329685

  4. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-09-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos.

  5. Hyperspectral light sheet microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Jahr, Wiebke; Schmid, Benjamin; Schmied, Christopher; Fahrbach, Florian O.; Huisken, Jan

    2015-01-01

    To study the development and interactions of cells and tissues, multiple fluorescent markers need to be imaged efficiently in a single living organism. Instead of acquiring individual colours sequentially with filters, we created a platform based on line-scanning light sheet microscopy to record the entire spectrum for each pixel in a three-dimensional volume. We evaluated data sets with varying spectral sampling and determined the optimal channel width to be around 5 nm. With the help of these data sets, we show that our setup outperforms filter-based approaches with regard to image quality and discrimination of fluorophores. By spectral unmixing we resolved overlapping fluorophores with up to nanometre resolution and removed autofluorescence in zebrafish and fruit fly embryos. PMID:26329685

  6. Consistency of scalar potentials from quantum de Sitter space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Espinosa, José R.; Fortin, Jean-François; Trépanier, Maxime

    2016-06-01

    Consistency of the unconventional view of de Sitter space as a quantum theory of gravity with a finite number of degrees of freedom requires that Coleman-De Luccia tunneling rates to vacua with negative cosmological constant should be interpreted as recurrences to low-entropy states. This demand translates into two constraints, or consistency conditions, on the scalar potential that are generically as follows: (1) the distance in field space between the de Sitter vacuum and any other vacuum with negative cosmological constant must be of the order of the reduced Planck mass or larger and (2) the fourth root of the vacuum energy density of the de Sitter vacuum must be smaller than the fourth root of the typical scale of the scalar potential. These consistency conditions shed a different light on both outstanding hierarchy problems of the standard model of particle physics: the scale of electroweak symmetry breaking and the scale of the cosmological constant. Beyond the unconventional interpretation of quantum de Sitter space, we complete the analytic understanding of the thin-wall approximation of Coleman-De Luccia tunneling, extend its numerical analysis to generic potentials and discuss the role of gravity in stabilizing the standard model potential.

  7. Life-threatening hemorrhage from acquired hemophilia A as a presenting manifestation of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Chirag; Gill, Amandeep; Sekhon, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    Acquired factor VIII deficiency (acquired hemophilia A) is a rare condition characterized by the acquisition of autoantibodies that affect the clotting activity of factor VIII (fVIII). The most common manifestation in affected patients is a hemorrhagic diathesis. This disorder is associated with autoimmune diseases, pregnancy, postpartum period, drugs, and malignancy. Management of this condition begins with attempts to arrest an acute bleed based on the site and severity of bleeding and inhibitor titer. The next priority is eradication of the fVIII antibodies using immunosuppressive therapies. We report the case of a 66-year-old male who presented with spontaneous right thigh hematoma with prolonged activated partial prothrombin time and normal prothrombin time. Mixing studies confirmed the presence of an inhibitor. Further investigation for the underlying etiology of acquired hemophilia A leads to diagnosis of prostate cancer. Treatment consisted of bypassing agents including activated factor VII and activated prothrombin plasma concentrate to arrest the bleeding. Steroids and cyclophosphamide were added to suppress the fVIII inhibitors. Concomitant treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer with chemotherapy confirmed the eradication of the inhibitors. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of prostate cancer diagnosed and treated simultaneously with acquired hemophilia A resulting in favorable patient outcome. PMID:27609734

  8. Superior voice recognition in a patient with acquired prosopagnosia and object agnosia.

    PubMed

    Hoover, Adria E N; Démonet, Jean-François; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2010-11-01

    Anecdotally, it has been reported that individuals with acquired prosopagnosia compensate for their inability to recognize faces by using other person identity cues such as hair, gait or the voice. Are they therefore superior at the use of non-face cues, specifically voices, to person identity? Here, we empirically measure person and object identity recognition in a patient with acquired prosopagnosia and object agnosia. We quantify person identity (face and voice) and object identity (car and horn) recognition for visual, auditory, and bimodal (visual and auditory) stimuli. The patient is unable to recognize faces or cars, consistent with his prosopagnosia and object agnosia, respectively. He is perfectly able to recognize people's voices and car horns and bimodal stimuli. These data show a reverse shift in the typical weighting of visual over auditory information for audiovisual stimuli in a compromised visual recognition system. Moreover, the patient shows selectively superior voice recognition compared to the controls revealing that two different stimulus domains, persons and objects, may not be equally affected by sensory adaptation effects. This also implies that person and object identity recognition are processed in separate pathways. These data demonstrate that an individual with acquired prosopagnosia and object agnosia can compensate for the visual impairment and become quite skilled at using spared aspects of sensory processing. In the case of acquired prosopagnosia it is advantageous to develop a superior use of voices for person identity recognition in everyday life.

  9. Vitamin B12 Synthesis and Salvage Pathways Were Acquired by Horizontal Gene Transfer to the Thermotogales

    PubMed Central

    Swithers, Kristen S.; Petrus, Amanda K.; Secinaro, Michael A.; Nesbø, Camilla L.; Gogarten, J. Peter; Noll, Kenneth M.; Butzin, Nicholas C.

    2012-01-01

    The availability of genome sequences of Thermotogales species from across the order allows an examination of the evolutionary origins of phenotypic characteristics in this lineage. Several studies have shown that the Thermotogales have acquired large numbers of genes from distantly related lineages, particularly Firmicutes and Archaea. Here, we report the finding that some Thermotogales acquired the ability to synthesize vitamin B12 by acquiring the requisite genes from these distant lineages. Thermosipho species, uniquely among the Thermotogales, contain genes that encode the means to synthesize vitamin B12 de novo from glutamate. These genes are split into two gene clusters: the corrinoid synthesis gene cluster, that is unique to the Thermosipho and the cobinamide salvage gene cluster. The corrinoid synthesis cluster was acquired from the Firmicutes lineage, whereas the salvage pathway is an amalgam of bacteria- and archaea-derived proteins. The cobinamide salvage gene cluster has a patchy distribution among Thermotogales species, and ancestral state reconstruction suggests that this pathway was present in the common Thermotogales ancestor. We show that Thermosipho africanus can grow in the absence of vitamin B12, so its de novo pathway is functional. We detected vitamin B12 in the extracts of T. africanus cells to verify the synthetic pathway. Genes in T. africanus with apparent B12 riboswitches were found to be down-regulated in the presence of vitamin B12 consistent with their roles in B12 synthesis and cobinamide salvage. PMID:22798452

  10. Life-threatening hemorrhage from acquired hemophilia A as a presenting manifestation of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Chirag; Gill, Amandeep; Sekhon, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    Acquired factor VIII deficiency (acquired hemophilia A) is a rare condition characterized by the acquisition of autoantibodies that affect the clotting activity of factor VIII (fVIII). The most common manifestation in affected patients is a hemorrhagic diathesis. This disorder is associated with autoimmune diseases, pregnancy, postpartum period, drugs, and malignancy. Management of this condition begins with attempts to arrest an acute bleed based on the site and severity of bleeding and inhibitor titer. The next priority is eradication of the fVIII antibodies using immunosuppressive therapies. We report the case of a 66-year-old male who presented with spontaneous right thigh hematoma with prolonged activated partial prothrombin time and normal prothrombin time. Mixing studies confirmed the presence of an inhibitor. Further investigation for the underlying etiology of acquired hemophilia A leads to diagnosis of prostate cancer. Treatment consisted of bypassing agents including activated factor VII and activated prothrombin plasma concentrate to arrest the bleeding. Steroids and cyclophosphamide were added to suppress the fVIII inhibitors. Concomitant treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer with chemotherapy confirmed the eradication of the inhibitors. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of prostate cancer diagnosed and treated simultaneously with acquired hemophilia A resulting in favorable patient outcome. PMID:27609734

  11. Investigations of the pathogenesis of acquired pendular nystagmus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Averbuch-Heller, L.; Zivotofsky, A. Z.; Das, V. E.; DiScenna, A. O.; Leigh, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    We investigated the pathogenesis of acquired pendular nystagmus (APN) in six patients, three of whom had multiple sclerosis. First, we tested the hypothesis that the oscillations of APN are due to a delay in visual feedback secondary, for example, to demyelination of the optic nerves. We manipulated the latency to onset of visually guided eye movements using an electronic technique that induces sinusoidal oscillations in normal subjects. This manipulation did not change the characteristics of the APN, but did superimpose lower-frequency oscillations similar to those induced in normal subjects. These results are consistent with current models for smooth (non-saccadic) eye movements, which predict that prolongation of visual feedback could not account for the high-frequency oscillations that often characterize APN. Secondly, we attempted to determine whether an increase in the gain of the visually-enhanced vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR), produced by viewing a near target, was accompanied by a commensurate increase in the amplitude of APN. Increases in horizontal or vertical VOR gain during near viewing occurred in four patients, but only two of them showed a parallel increase in APN amplitude. On the other hand, APN amplitude decreased during viewing of the near target in the two patients who showed no change in VOR gain. Taken together, these data suggest that neither delayed visual feedback nor a disorder of central vestibular mechanisms is primarily responsible for APN. More likely, these ocular oscillations are produced by abnormalities of internal feedback circuits, such as the reciprocal connections between brainstem nuclei and cerebellum.

  12. Artificial-intelligence-based hospital-acquired infection control.

    PubMed

    Adlassnig, Klaus-Peter; Blacky, Alexander; Koller, Walter

    2009-01-01

    Nosocomial or hospital-acquired infections (NIs) are a frequent complication in hospitalized patients. The growing availability of computerized patient records in hospitals permits automated identification and extended monitoring for signs of NIs. A fuzzy- and knowledge-based system to identify and monitor NIs at intensive care units (ICUs) according to the European Surveillance System HELICS (NI definitions derived from the Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) criteria) was developed and put into operation at the Vienna General Hospital. This system, named Moni, for monitoring of nosocomial infections contains medical knowledge packages (MKPs) to identify and monitor various infections of the bloodstream, pneumonia, urinary tract infections, and central venous catheter-associated infections. The MKPs consist of medical logic modules (MLMs) in Arden syntax, a medical knowledge representation scheme, whose definition is part of the HL7 standards. These MLM packages together with the Arden software are well suited to be incorporated in medical information systems such as hospital information or intensive-care patient data management systems, or in web-based applications. In terms of method, Moni contains an extended data-to-symbol conversion with several layers of abstraction, until the top level defining NIs according to HELICS is reached. All included medical concepts such as "normal", "increased", "decreased", or similar ones are formally modeled by fuzzy sets, and fuzzy logic is used to process the interpretations of the clinically observed and measured patient data through an inference network. The currently implemented cockpit surveillance connects 96 ICU beds with Moni and offers the hospital's infection control department a hitherto unparalleled NI infection survey.

  13. Acute Acquired Concomitant Esotropia: Clinical features, Classification, and Etiology.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingchang; Deng, Daming; Sun, Yuan; Shen, Tao; Cao, Guobin; Yan, Jianhua; Chen, Qiwen; Ye, Xuelian

    2015-12-01

    Acute acquired concomitant esotropia (AACE) is a rare, distinct subtype of esotropia. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the clinical characteristics and discuss the classification and etiology of AACE.Charts from 47 patients with AACE referred to our institute between October 2010 and November 2014 were reviewed. All participants underwent a complete medical history, ophthalmologic and orthoptic examinations, and brain and orbital imaging.Mean age at onset was 26.6 ± 12.2 years. Of the 18 cases with deviations ≤ 20 PD, 16 presented with diplopia at distance and fusion at near vision at the onset of deviation; differences between distance and near deviations were < 8 PD; all cases except one were treated with prism and diplopia resolved. Of the 29 cases with deviations > 20 PD, 5 were mild hypermetropic with age at onset between 5 and 19 years, 16 were myopic, and 8 were emmetropic with age at onset > 12 years; 24 were surgically treated and 5 cases remained under observation; all 24 cases achieved normal retinal correspondence or fusion or stereopsis on postoperative day 1 in synoptophore; in 23 cases diplopia or visual confusion resolved postoperatively. Of the 47 cases, brain and orbital imaging in 2 cases revealed a tumor in the cerebellopontine angle and 1 case involved spinocerebellar ataxia as revealed by genetic testing.AACE in this study was characterized by a sudden onset of concomitant nonaccommodative esotropia with diplopia or visual confusion at 5 years of age or older and the potential for normal binocular vision. We suggest that AACE can be divided into 2 subgroups consisting of patients with relatively small versus large angle deviations. Coexisting or underlying neurological diseases were infrequent in AACE. PMID:26705210

  14. Incidence, Outcomes, and Risk Factors of Community-Acquired and Hospital-Acquired Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chien-Ning; Lee, Chien-Te; Su, Chien-Hao; Wang, Yu-Ching Lily; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Chuang, Jiin-Haur; Tain, You-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The disease burden and outcomes of community-acquired (CA-) and hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (HA-AKI) are not well understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence, outcomes, and risk factors of AKI in a large Taiwanese adult cohort. This retrospective cohort study examined 734,340 hospital admissions from a group of hospitals within an organization in Taiwan between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014. Patients with AKI at discharge were classified as either CA- or HA-AKI based on the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss of function, end stage of kidney disease) classification criteria. Outcomes were in-hospital mortality, dialysis, recovery of renal function, and length of stay. Risks of developing AKI were determined using multivariate logistic regression based on demographic and baseline clinical characteristics and nephrotoxin use before admission. AKI occurred in 1.68% to 2% hospital discharges among adults without and with preexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD), respectively. The incidence of CA-AKI was 17.25 and HA-AKI was 8.14 per 1000 admissions. The annual rate of CA-AKI increased from 12.43 to 19.96 per 1000 people, but the change in HA-AKI was insignificant. Comparing to CA-AKI, those with HA-AKI had higher levels of in-hospital mortality (26.07% vs 51.58%), mean length of stay (21.25 ± 22.35 vs 35.84 ± 34.62 days), and dialysis during hospitalization (1.45% vs 2.06%). Preexisting systemic diseases, including CKD were associated with increased risks of CA-AKI, and nephrotoxic polypharmacy increased risk of both CA- and HA-AKI. Patients with HA-AKI had more severe outcomes than patients with CA-AKI, and demonstrated different spectrum of risk factors. Although patients with CA-AKI with better outcomes, the incidence increased over time. It is also clear that optimal preventive and management strategies of HA- and CA-AKI are urgently needed to limit the risks in susceptible individuals. PMID:27175701

  15. ASTM/NBS base stock consistency study

    SciTech Connect

    Frassa, K.A.

    1980-11-01

    This paper summarizes the scope of a cooperative ASTM/NBS program established in June 1979. The contemplated study will ascertain the batch-to-batch consistency of re-refined and virgin base stocks manufactured by various processes. For one year, approximately eight to ten different base stocks samples, will be obtained by NBS every two weeks. One set of bi-monthly samples will be forwarded to each participant, on a coded basis monthly. Seven to eight samples will be obtained from six different re-refining processes and two virgin oil samples from a similar manufacturing process. The participants will report their results on a monthly basis. The second set of samples will be retained by NBS for an interim monthly sample study, if required, based on data analysis. Each sample's properties will be evaluated using various physical tests, chemical tests, and bench tests. The total testing program should define the batch-to-batch base stock consistency short of engine testing.

  16. Toward an internally consistent pressure scale

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Yingwei; Ricolleau, Angele; Frank, Mark; Mibe, Kenji; Shen, Guoyin; Prakapenka, Vitali

    2007-01-01

    Our ability to interpret seismic observations including the seismic discontinuities and the density and velocity profiles in the earth's interior is critically dependent on the accuracy of pressure measurements up to 364 GPa at high temperature. Pressure scales based on the reduced shock-wave equations of state alone may predict pressure variations up to 7% in the megabar pressure range at room temperature and even higher percentage at high temperature, leading to large uncertainties in understanding the nature of the seismic discontinuities and chemical composition of the earth's interior. Here, we report compression data of gold (Au), platinum (Pt), the NaCl-B2 phase, and solid neon (Ne) at 300 K and high temperatures up to megabar pressures. Combined with existing experimental data, the compression data were used to establish internally consistent thermal equations of state of Au, Pt, NaCl-B2, and solid Ne. The internally consistent pressure scales provide a tractable, accurate baseline for comparing high pressure–temperature experimental data with theoretical calculations and the seismic observations, thereby advancing our understanding fundamental high-pressure phenomena and the chemistry and physics of the earth's interior. PMID:17483460

  17. Consistent Kaluza-Klein sphere reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cvetič, M.; Lü, H.; Pope, C. N.

    2000-09-01

    We study the circumstances under which a Kaluza-Klein reduction on an n-sphere, with a massless truncation that includes all the Yang-Mills fields of SO(n+1), can be consistent at the full non-linear level. We take as the starting point a theory comprising a p-form field strength and (possibly) a dilaton, coupled to gravity in the higher dimension D. We show that aside from the previously studied cases with (D,p)=(11,4) and (10,5) (associated with the S4 and S7 reductions of D=11 supergravity, and the S5 reduction of type IIB supergravity), the only other possibilities that allow consistent reductions are for p=2, reduced on S2, and for p=3, reduced on S3 or SD-3. We construct the fully non-linear Kaluza-Klein Ansätze in all these cases. In particular, we obtain D=3, N=8, SO(8) and D=7, N=2, SO(4) gauged supergravities from S7 and S3 reductions of N=1 supergravity in D=10.

  18. Consistency check of {Lambda}CDM phenomenology

    SciTech Connect

    Lombriser, Lucas

    2011-03-15

    The standard model of cosmology {Lambda}CDM assumes general relativity, flat space, and the presence of a positive cosmological constant. We relax these assumptions allowing spatial curvature, a time-dependent effective dark energy equation of state, as well as modifications of the Poisson equation for the lensing potential, and modifications of the growth of linear matter density perturbations in alternate combinations. Using six parameters characterizing these relations, we check {Lambda}CDM for consistency utilizing cosmic microwave background anisotropies, cross correlations thereof with high-redshift galaxies through the integrated Sachs-Wolfe effect, the Hubble constant, supernovae, and baryon acoustic oscillation distances, as well as the relation between weak gravitational lensing and galaxy flows. In all scenarios, we find consistency of the concordance model at the 95% confidence level. However, we emphasize that constraining supplementary background parameters and parametrizations of the growth of large-scale structure separately may lead to a priori exclusion of viable departures from the concordance model.

  19. On the consistent use of constructed observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trott, Michael

    2015-02-01

    We define "constructed observables" as relating experimental measurements to terms in a Lagrangian while simultaneously making assumptions about possible deviations from the Standard Model (SM), in other Lagrangian terms. Ensuring that the SM effective field theory (EFT) is constrained correctly when using constructed observables requires that their defining conditions are imposed on the EFT in a manner that is consistent with the equations of motion. Failing to do so can result in a "functionally redundant" operator basis (We define the concept of functional redundancy, which is distinct from the usual concept of an operator basis redundancy, in the introduction.) and the wrong expectation as to how experimental quantities are related in the EFT. We illustrate the issues involved considering the S parameter and the off shell triple gauge coupling (TGC) verticies. We show that the relationships between decay and the off shell TGC verticies are subject to these subtleties, and how the connections between these observables vanish in the limit of strong bounds due to LEP. The challenge of using constructed observables to consistently constrain the Standard Model EFT is only expected to grow with future LHC data, as more complex processes are studied.

  20. Cauldron of Light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image to view the animation

    In this animation, a seething cauldron of light appears to bubble and ooze around the remains of a giant star that astronomers have been watching tear itself apart for the last 300 years. This movie flips quickly between different observations taken over three years by NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope.

    Beginning in the center, the well-studied Cassiopeia A supernova remnant is shown. Cassiopeia A is the remnant of a once massive star that died in a violent supernova explosion. It consists of a dead star, called a neutron star, and a surrounding shell of material that was blasted off as the star died.

    Panning outward, 'light echoes' create the illusion of motion in the clouds, as different areas of the material are lit up in succession by the light flash of the supernova. A light echo occurs when a star explodes, acting like a cosmic flashbulb. The light from this explosion zips through nearby dust clumps, illuminating and heating them up slightly. This brief period of warming causes them to glow in infrared, like a chain of Christmas bulbs lighting up one by one. The result is an optical illusion, in which the dust appears to be flying outward at the speed of light.

    In reality, the clouds are stationary, at least in the brief time over which these observations were taken. The inclination of the clouds cause some light echoes to appear to expand away from the supernova remnant, while others move towards it or boil in many directions with seeming turbulence.

  1. Allopurinol in the treatment of acquired reactive perforating collagenosis*

    PubMed Central

    Tilz, Hemma; Becker, Jürgen Christian; Legat, Franz; Schettini, Antonio Pedro Mendes; Inzinger, Martin; Massone, Cesare

    2013-01-01

    Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis is a perforating dermatosis usually associated with different systemic diseases, mainly diabetes mellitus and/or chronic renal insufficiency. Different therapies have been tried but treatment is not standardized yet and remains a challenge. In the last few years, allopurinol has been reported as a good therapeutic option for acquired reactive perforating collagenosis. We describe the case of a 73-year-old man affected by acquired reactive perforating collagenosis associated with diabetes type 1 and chronic renal failure with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The patient was successfully treated with allopurinol 100mg once/day p.o.. PMID:23539010

  2. Probing entrainment of Ostreococcus tauri circadian clock by green and blue light through a mathematical modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Thommen, Quentin; Pfeuty, Benjamin; Schatt, Philippe; Bijoux, Amandine; Bouget, François-Yves; Lefranc, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Most organisms anticipate daily environmental variations and orchestrate cellular functions thanks to a circadian clock which entrains robustly to the day/night cycle, despite fluctuations in light intensity due to weather or seasonal variations. Marine organisms are also subjected to fluctuations in light spectral composition as their depth varies, due to differential absorption of different wavelengths by sea water. Studying how light input pathways contribute to circadian clock robustness is therefore important. Ostreococcus tauri, a unicellular picoplanktonic marine green alga with low genomic complexity and simple cellular organization, has become a promising model organism for systems biology. Functional and modeling approaches have shown that a core circadian oscillator based on orthologs of Arabidopsis TOC1 and CCA1 clock genes accounts for most experimental data acquired under a wide range of conditions. Some evidence points at putative light input pathway(s) consisting of a two-component signaling system (TCS) controlled by the only two histidine kinases (HK) of O. tauri. LOV-HK is a blue light photoreceptor under circadian control, that is required for circadian clock function. An involvement of Rhodopsin-HK (Rhod-HK) is also conceivable since rhodopsin photoreceptors mediate blue to green light input in animal circadian clocks. Here, we probe the role of LOV-HK and Rhod-HK in mediating light input to the TOC1-CCA1 oscillator using a mathematical model incorporating the TCS hypothesis. This model agrees with clock gene expression time series representative of multiple environmental conditions in blue or green light, characterizing entrainment by light/dark cycles, free-running in constant light, and resetting. Experimental and theoretical results indicate that both blue and green light can reset O. tauri circadian clock. Moreover, our mathematical analysis suggests that Rhod-HK is a blue-green light receptor and drives the clock together with LOV-HK.

  3. MEMS Incandescent Light Source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tuma, Margaret; King, Kevin; Kim, Lynn; Hansler, Richard; Jones, Eric; George, Thomas

    2001-01-01

    A MEMS-based, low-power, incandescent light source is being developed. This light source is fabricated using three bonded chips. The bottom chip consists of a reflector on Silicon, the middle chip contains a Tungsten filament bonded to silicon and the top layer is a transparent window. A 25-micrometer-thick spiral filament is fabricated in Tungsten using lithography and wet-etching. A proof-of-concept device has been fabricated and tested in a vacuum chamber. Results indicate that the filament is electrically heated to approximately 2650 K. The power required to drive the proof-of-concept spiral filament to incandescence is 1.25 W. The emitted optical power is expected to be approximately 1.0 W with the spectral peak at 1.1 microns. The micromachining techniques used to fabricate this light source can be applied to other MEMS devices.

  4. Light emitting ceramic device

    DOEpatents

    Valentine, Paul; Edwards, Doreen D.; Walker, Jr., William John; Slack, Lyle H.; Brown, Wayne Douglas; Osborne, Cathy; Norton, Michael; Begley, Richard

    2010-05-18

    A light-emitting ceramic based panel, hereafter termed "electroceramescent" panel, is herein claimed. The electroceramescent panel is formed on a substrate providing mechanical support as well as serving as the base electrode for the device. One or more semiconductive ceramic layers directly overlay the substrate, and electrical conductivity and ionic diffusion are controlled. Light emitting regions overlay the semiconductive ceramic layers, and said regions consist sequentially of a layer of a ceramic insulation layer and an electroluminescent layer, comprised of doped phosphors or the equivalent. One or more conductive top electrode layers having optically transmissive areas overlay the light emitting regions, and a multi-layered top barrier cover comprising one or more optically transmissive non-combustible insulation layers overlay said top electrode regions.

  5. Acquired Phototrophy through Retention of Functional Chloroplasts Increases Growth Efficiency of the Sea Slug Elysia viridis

    PubMed Central

    Baumgartner, Finn A.; Pavia, Henrik; Toth, Gunilla B.

    2015-01-01

    Photosynthesis is a fundamental process sustaining heterotrophic organisms at all trophic levels. Some mixotrophs can retain functional chloroplasts from food (kleptoplasty), and it is hypothesized that carbon acquired through kleptoplasty may enhance trophic energy transfer through increased host growth efficiency. Sacoglossan sea slugs are the only known metazoans capable of kleptoplasty, but the relative fitness contributions of heterotrophy through grazing, and phototrophy via kleptoplasts, are not well understood. Fitness benefits (i.e. increased survival or growth) of kleptoplasty in sacoglossans are commonly studied in ecologically unrealistic conditions under extended periods of complete darkness and/or starvation. We compared the growth efficiency of the sacoglossan Elysia viridis with access to algal diets providing kleptoplasts of differing functionality under ecologically relevant light conditions. Individuals fed Codium fragile, which provide highly functional kleptoplasts, nearly doubled their growth efficiency under high compared to low light. In contrast, individuals fed Cladophora rupestris, which provided kleptoplasts of limited functionality, showed no difference in growth efficiency between light treatments. Slugs feeding on Codium, but not on Cladophora, showed higher relative electron transport rates (rETR) in high compared to low light. Furthermore, there were no differences in the consumption rates of the slugs between different light treatments, and only small differences in nutritional traits of algal diets, indicating that the increased growth efficiency of E. viridis feeding on Codium was due to retention of functional kleptoplasts. Our results show that functional kleptoplasts from Codium can provide sacoglossan sea slugs with fitness advantages through photosynthesis. PMID:25830355

  6. Immunosuppression for acquired hemophilia A: results from the European Acquired Haemophilia Registry (EACH2).

    PubMed

    Collins, Peter; Baudo, Francesco; Knoebl, Paul; Lévesque, Hervé; Nemes, László; Pellegrini, Fabio; Marco, Pascual; Tengborn, Lilian; Huth-Kühne, Angela

    2012-07-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is an autoimmune disease caused by an autoantibody to factor VIII. Patients are at risk of severe and fatal hemorrhage until the inhibitor is eradicated, and guidelines recommend immunosuppression as soon as the diagnosis has been made. The optimal immunosuppressive regimen is unclear; therefore, data from 331 patients entered into the prospective EACH2 registry were analyzed. Steroids combined with cyclophosphamide resulted in more stable complete remission (70%), defined as inhibitor undetectable, factor VIII more than 70 IU/dL and immunosuppression stopped, than steroids alone (48%) or rituximab-based regimens (59%). Propensity score-matched analysis controlling for age, sex, factor VIII level, inhibitor titer, and underlying etiology confirmed that stable remission was more likely with steroids and cyclophosphamide than steroids alone (odds ratio = 3.25; 95% CI, 1.51-6.96; P < .003). The median time to complete remission was approximately 5 weeks for steroids with or without cyclophosphamide; rituximab-based regimens required approximately twice as long. Immunoglobulin administration did not improve outcome. Second-line therapy was successful in approximately 60% of cases that failed first-line therapy. Outcome was not affected by the choice of first-line therapy. The likelihood of achieving stable remission was not affected by underlying etiology but was influenced by the presenting inhibitor titer and FVIII level.

  7. Management of bleeding in acquired hemophilia A: results from the European Acquired Haemophilia (EACH2) Registry.

    PubMed

    Baudo, Francesco; Collins, Peter; Huth-Kühne, Angela; Lévesque, Hervé; Marco, Pascual; Nemes, László; Pellegrini, Fabio; Tengborn, Lilian; Knoebl, Paul

    2012-07-01

    Acquired hemophilia A is a rare bleeding disorder caused by autoantibodies to coagulation FVIII. Bleeding episodes at presentation are spontaneous and severe in most cases. Optimal hemostatic therapy is controversial, and available data are from observational and retrospective studies only. The EACH2 registry, a multicenter, pan-European, Web-based database, reports current patient management. The aim was to assess the control of first bleeding episodes treated with a bypassing agent (rFVIIa or aPCC), FVIII, or DDAVP among 501 registered patients. Of 482 patients with one or more bleeding episodes, 144 (30%) received no treatment for bleeding; 31 were treated with symptomatic therapy only. Among 307 patients treated with a first-line hemostatic agent, 174 (56.7%) received rFVIIa, 63 (20.5%) aPCC, 56 (18.2%) FVIII, and 14 (4.6%) DDAVP. Bleeding was controlled in 269 of 338 (79.6%) patients treated with a first-line hemostatic agent or ancillary therapy alone. Propensity score matching was applied to allow unbiased comparison between treatment groups. Bleeding control was significantly higher in patients treated with bypassing agents versus FVIII/DDAVP (93.3% vs 68.3%; P = .003). Bleeding control was similar between rFVIIa and aPCC (93.0%; P = 1). Thrombotic events were reported in 3.6% of treated patients with a similar incidence between rFVIIa (2.9%) and aPCC (4.8%).

  8. Immunosuppression for acquired hemophilia A: results from the European Acquired Haemophilia Registry (EACH2)

    PubMed Central

    Baudo, Francesco; Knoebl, Paul; Lévesque, Hervé; Nemes, László; Pellegrini, Fabio; Marco, Pascual; Tengborn, Lilian; Huth-Kühne, Angela

    2012-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is an autoimmune disease caused by an autoantibody to factor VIII. Patients are at risk of severe and fatal hemorrhage until the inhibitor is eradicated, and guidelines recommend immunosuppression as soon as the diagnosis has been made. The optimal immunosuppressive regimen is unclear; therefore, data from 331 patients entered into the prospective EACH2 registry were analyzed. Steroids combined with cyclophosphamide resulted in more stable complete remission (70%), defined as inhibitor undetectable, factor VIII more than 70 IU/dL and immunosuppression stopped, than steroids alone (48%) or rituximab-based regimens (59%). Propensity score-matched analysis controlling for age, sex, factor VIII level, inhibitor titer, and underlying etiology confirmed that stable remission was more likely with steroids and cyclophosphamide than steroids alone (odds ratio = 3.25; 95% CI, 1.51-6.96; P < .003). The median time to complete remission was approximately 5 weeks for steroids with or without cyclophosphamide; rituximab-based regimens required approximately twice as long. Immunoglobulin administration did not improve outcome. Second-line therapy was successful in approximately 60% of cases that failed first-line therapy. Outcome was not affected by the choice of first-line therapy. The likelihood of achieving stable remission was not affected by underlying etiology but was influenced by the presenting inhibitor titer and FVIII level. PMID:22517903

  9. Light Microscopy Module (LMM)-Emulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, Howard G.; Smith, Trent M.; Richards, Stephanie E.

    2016-01-01

    The Light Microscopy Module (LMM) is a microscope facility developed at Glenn Research Center (GRC) that provides researchers with powerful imaging capability onboard the International Space Station (ISS). LMM has the ability to have its hardware recongured on-orbit to accommodate a wide variety of investigations, with the capability of remotely acquiring and downloading digital images across multiple levels of magnication.

  10. Quantum cosmological consistency condition for inflation

    SciTech Connect

    Calcagni, Gianluca; Kiefer, Claus; Steinwachs, Christian F. E-mail: kiefer@thp.uni-koeln.de

    2014-10-01

    We investigate the quantum cosmological tunneling scenario for inflationary models. Within a path-integral approach, we derive the corresponding tunneling probability distribution. A sharp peak in this distribution can be interpreted as the initial condition for inflation and therefore as a quantum cosmological prediction for its energy scale. This energy scale is also a genuine prediction of any inflationary model by itself, as the primordial gravitons generated during inflation leave their imprint in the B-polarization of the cosmic microwave background. In this way, one can derive a consistency condition for inflationary models that guarantees compatibility with a tunneling origin and can lead to a testable quantum cosmological prediction. The general method is demonstrated explicitly for the model of natural inflation.

  11. Trisomy 21 consistently activates the interferon response.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kelly D; Lewis, Hannah C; Hill, Amanda A; Pandey, Ahwan; Jackson, Leisa P; Cabral, Joseph M; Smith, Keith P; Liggett, L Alexander; Gomez, Eliana B; Galbraith, Matthew D; DeGregori, James; Espinosa, Joaquín M

    2016-01-01

    Although it is clear that trisomy 21 causes Down syndrome, the molecular events acting downstream of the trisomy remain ill defined. Using complementary genomics analyses, we identified the interferon pathway as the major signaling cascade consistently activated by trisomy 21 in human cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that trisomy 21 activates the interferon transcriptional response in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cell lines, as well as circulating monocytes and T cells. Trisomy 21 cells show increased induction of interferon-stimulated genes and decreased expression of ribosomal proteins and translation factors. An shRNA screen determined that the interferon-activated kinases JAK1 and TYK2 suppress proliferation of trisomy 21 fibroblasts, and this defect is rescued by pharmacological JAK inhibition. Therefore, we propose that interferon activation, likely via increased gene dosage of the four interferon receptors encoded on chromosome 21, contributes to many of the clinical impacts of trisomy 21, and that interferon antagonists could have therapeutic benefits. PMID:27472900

  12. Toward a Fully Consistent Radiation Hydrodynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Castor, J I

    2009-07-07

    Dimitri Mihalas set the standard for all work in radiation hydrodynamics since 1984. The present contribution builds on 'Foundations of Radiation Hydrodynamics' to explore the relativistic effects that have prevented having a consistent non-relativistic theory. Much of what I have to say is in FRH, but the 3-D development is new. Results are presented for the relativistic radiation transport equation in the frame obtained by a Lorentz boost with the fluid velocity, and the exact momentum-integrated moment equations. The special-relativistic hydrodynamic equations are summarized, including the radiation contributions, and it is shown that exact conservation is obtained, and certain puzzles in the non-relativistic radhydro equations are explained.

  13. Plasma Diffusion in Self-Consistent Fluctuations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smets, R.; Belmont, G.; Aunai, N.

    2012-01-01

    The problem of particle diffusion in position space, as a consequence ofeleclromagnetic fluctuations is addressed. Numerical results obtained with a self-consistent hybrid code are presented, and a method to calculate diffusion coefficient in the direction perpendicular to the mean magnetic field is proposed. The diffusion is estimated for two different types of fluctuations. The first type (resuiting from an agyrotropic in itiai setting)is stationary, wide band white noise, and associated to Gaussian probability distribution function for the magnetic fluctuations. The second type (result ing from a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) is non-stationary, with a power-law spectrum, and a non-Gaussian probabi lity distribution function. The results of the study allow revisiting the question of loading particles of solar wind origin in the Earth magnetosphere.

  14. Consistent evolution in a pedestrian flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Junbiao; Wang, Kaihua

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, pedestrian evacuation considering different human behaviors is studied by using a cellular automaton (CA) model combined with the snowdrift game theory. The evacuees are divided into two types, i.e. cooperators and defectors, and two different human behaviors, herding behavior and independent behavior, are investigated. It is found from a large amount of numerical simulations that the ratios of the corresponding evacuee clusters are evolved to consistent states despite 11 typically different initial conditions, which may largely owe to self-organization effect. Moreover, an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of herding behavior, coupled with an appropriate proportion of initial defectors who are of rationally independent thinking, are two necessary factors for short evacuation time.

  15. Consistency tests for the cosmological constant.

    PubMed

    Zunckel, Caroline; Clarkson, Chris

    2008-10-31

    We propose consistency tests for the cosmological constant which provide a direct observational signal if Lambda is wrong, regardless of the densities of matter and curvature. As an example of its utility, our flat case test can warn of a small transition of the equation of state w(z) from w(z)=-1 of 20% from SNAP (Supernova Acceleration Probe) quality data at 4-sigma, even when direct reconstruction techniques see virtually no evidence for deviation from Lambda. It is shown to successfully rule out a wide range of non-Lambda dark energy models with no reliance on knowledge of Omega_{m} using SNAP quality data and a large range for using 10;{5} supernovae as forecasted for the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope. PMID:18999813

  16. Reliability and Consistency of Surface Contamination Measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Rouppert, F.; Rivoallan, A.; Largeron, C.

    2002-02-26

    Surface contamination evaluation is a tough problem since it is difficult to isolate the radiations emitted by the surface, especially in a highly irradiating atmosphere. In that case the only possibility is to evaluate smearable (removeable) contamination since ex-situ countings are possible. Unfortunately, according to our experience at CEA, these values are not consistent and thus non relevant. In this study, we show, using in-situ Fourier Transform Infra Red spectrometry on contaminated metal samples, that fixed contamination seems to be chemisorbed and removeable contamination seems to be physisorbed. The distribution between fixed and removeable contamination appears to be variable. Chemical equilibria and reversible ion exchange mechanisms are involved and are closely linked to environmental conditions such as humidity and temperature. Measurements of smearable contamination only give an indication of the state of these equilibria between fixed and removeable contamination at the time and in the environmental conditions the measurements were made.

  17. Trisomy 21 consistently activates the interferon response.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kelly D; Lewis, Hannah C; Hill, Amanda A; Pandey, Ahwan; Jackson, Leisa P; Cabral, Joseph M; Smith, Keith P; Liggett, L Alexander; Gomez, Eliana B; Galbraith, Matthew D; DeGregori, James; Espinosa, Joaquín M

    2016-07-29

    Although it is clear that trisomy 21 causes Down syndrome, the molecular events acting downstream of the trisomy remain ill defined. Using complementary genomics analyses, we identified the interferon pathway as the major signaling cascade consistently activated by trisomy 21 in human cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that trisomy 21 activates the interferon transcriptional response in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cell lines, as well as circulating monocytes and T cells. Trisomy 21 cells show increased induction of interferon-stimulated genes and decreased expression of ribosomal proteins and translation factors. An shRNA screen determined that the interferon-activated kinases JAK1 and TYK2 suppress proliferation of trisomy 21 fibroblasts, and this defect is rescued by pharmacological JAK inhibition. Therefore, we propose that interferon activation, likely via increased gene dosage of the four interferon receptors encoded on chromosome 21, contributes to many of the clinical impacts of trisomy 21, and that interferon antagonists could have therapeutic benefits.

  18. Plasma diffusion in self-consistent fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Smets, R.; Belmont, G.; Aunai, N.; Rezeau, L.

    2011-10-15

    The problem of particle diffusion in position space, as a consequence of electromagnetic fluctuations is addressed. Numerical results obtained with a self-consistent hybrid code are presented, and a method to calculate diffusion coefficient in the direction perpendicular to the mean magnetic field is proposed. The diffusion is estimated for two different types of fluctuations. The first type (resulting from an agyrotropic initial setting) is stationary, wide band white noise, and associated to Gaussian probability distribution function for the magnetic fluctuations. The second type (resulting from a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) is non-stationary, with a power-law spectrum, and a non-Gaussian probability distribution function. The results of the study allow revisiting the question of loading particles of solar wind origin in the Earth magnetosphere.

  19. Quantifying consistent individual differences in habitat selection.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Martin; Vander Wal, Eric; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E; Kindberg, Jonas; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-03-01

    Habitat selection is a fundamental behaviour that links individuals to the resources required for survival and reproduction. Although natural selection acts on an individual's phenotype, research on habitat selection often pools inter-individual patterns to provide inferences on the population scale. Here, we expanded a traditional approach of quantifying habitat selection at the individual level to explore the potential for consistent individual differences of habitat selection. We used random coefficients in resource selection functions (RSFs) and repeatability estimates to test for variability in habitat selection. We applied our method to a detailed dataset of GPS relocations of brown bears (Ursus arctos) taken over a period of 6 years, and assessed whether they displayed repeatable individual differences in habitat selection toward two habitat types: bogs and recent timber-harvest cut blocks. In our analyses, we controlled for the availability of habitat, i.e. the functional response in habitat selection. Repeatability estimates of habitat selection toward bogs and cut blocks were 0.304 and 0.420, respectively. Therefore, 30.4 and 42.0 % of the population-scale habitat selection variability for bogs and cut blocks, respectively, was due to differences among individuals, suggesting that consistent individual variation in habitat selection exists in brown bears. Using simulations, we posit that repeatability values of habitat selection are not related to the value and significance of β estimates in RSFs. Although individual differences in habitat selection could be the results of non-exclusive factors, our results illustrate the evolutionary potential of habitat selection.

  20. Quantifying consistent individual differences in habitat selection.

    PubMed

    Leclerc, Martin; Vander Wal, Eric; Zedrosser, Andreas; Swenson, Jon E; Kindberg, Jonas; Pelletier, Fanie

    2016-03-01

    Habitat selection is a fundamental behaviour that links individuals to the resources required for survival and reproduction. Although natural selection acts on an individual's phenotype, research on habitat selection often pools inter-individual patterns to provide inferences on the population scale. Here, we expanded a traditional approach of quantifying habitat selection at the individual level to explore the potential for consistent individual differences of habitat selection. We used random coefficients in resource selection functions (RSFs) and repeatability estimates to test for variability in habitat selection. We applied our method to a detailed dataset of GPS relocations of brown bears (Ursus arctos) taken over a period of 6 years, and assessed whether they displayed repeatable individual differences in habitat selection toward two habitat types: bogs and recent timber-harvest cut blocks. In our analyses, we controlled for the availability of habitat, i.e. the functional response in habitat selection. Repeatability estimates of habitat selection toward bogs and cut blocks were 0.304 and 0.420, respectively. Therefore, 30.4 and 42.0 % of the population-scale habitat selection variability for bogs and cut blocks, respectively, was due to differences among individuals, suggesting that consistent individual variation in habitat selection exists in brown bears. Using simulations, we posit that repeatability values of habitat selection are not related to the value and significance of β estimates in RSFs. Although individual differences in habitat selection could be the results of non-exclusive factors, our results illustrate the evolutionary potential of habitat selection. PMID:26597548

  1. Successful treatment of acquired undescended testes with human chorionic gonadotropin.

    PubMed

    Meijer, R W; Hack, W W; Haasnoot, K

    2001-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotrophin therapy may have its place in the management of acquired undescended testes and surgery should be reserved for those who fail to respond to therapy. Further studies are necessary to evaluate these preliminary results.

  2. Acquired localised hypertrichosis in a Chinese child after cast immobilisation.

    PubMed

    Yuen, M W; Lai, Loretta K P; Chan, P F; Chao, David V K

    2015-08-01

    Hypertrichosis refers to excessive hair growth that is independent of any androgen effect. Hypertrichosis could be congenital or acquired, localised or generalised. The phenomenon of acquired localised hypertrichosis following cast application for a fracture is well known to orthopaedic surgeons, but is rarely encountered by primary care physicians. We describe a 28-month-old Chinese boy who had fracture of right leg as a result of an injury. He had a cast applied by an orthopaedic surgeon as treatment. On removal of the cast 6 weeks later, he was noticed to have significant hair growth on his right leg compared with the left leg. The patient was reassessed 3 months after removal of the cast. The hypertrichosis resolved completely with time. This patient was one of the youngest among the reported cases of acquired localised hypertrichosis after cast application. We illustrate the significance of management of post-cast-acquired localised hypertrichosis in the primary care setting.

  3. Acquired alopecia, mental retardation, short stature, microcephaly, and optic atrophy.

    PubMed Central

    Hennekam, R C; Renckens-Wennen, E G

    1990-01-01

    We report on a female patient who had acquired total alopecia, short stature, microcephaly, optic atrophy, severe myopia, and mental retardation. A survey of published reports failed to show an identical patient, despite various similar cases. Images PMID:2246773

  4. Acquired disorders of elastic tissue: Part II. decreased elastic tissue.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kevan G; Bercovitch, Lionel; Dill, Sara W; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2004-08-01

    Elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix are integral components of dermal connective tissue. The resilience and elasticity required for normal structure and function of the skin are attributable to the network of elastic tissue. Advances in our understanding of elastic tissue physiology provide a foundation for studying the pathogenesis of elastic tissue disorders. Many acquired disorders are nevertheless poorly understood owing to the paucity of reported cases. Several acquired disorders in which loss of dermal elastic tissue produces prominent clinical and histopathologic features have recently been described, including middermal elastolysis, papular elastorrhexis, and pseudoxanthoma-like papillary dermal elastolysis, which must be differentiated from more well-known disorders such as anetoderma, acquired cutis laxa, and acrokeratoelastoidosis. Learning objective At the conclusion of this learning activity, participants should have an understanding of the similarities and differences between acquired disorders of elastic tissue that are characterized by a loss of elastic tissue.

  5. CT findings in complications of acquired renal cystic disease.

    PubMed

    Soffer, O; Miller, L R; Lichtman, J B

    1987-01-01

    A 42-year-old man with end-stage renal disease developed acquired renal cystic disease. The left kidney underwent tumorous degeneration necessitating nephrectomy. Eight months later acute hemorrhagic renal cyst rupture culminated in right nephrectomy.

  6. Acquired pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Udayakumar, A M; Pathare, A V; Dennison, D; Raeburn, J A

    2009-01-01

    Pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 involving the qh region is relatively common as a constitutional genetic aberration without any apparent phenotypic consequences. However, it has not been established as an acquired abnormality in cancer. Among the three patients reported so far in the literature with acquired inv(9), only one had acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here we describe an unique case where both chromosomes 9 presented with an acquired pericentric inversion with breakpoints at 9p13 and 9q12 respectively, in a AML patient with aberrant CD7 and CD9 positivity. Additionally, one der(9) also showed short arm deletion at 9p21 to the centromeric region and including the p16 gene. The constitutional karyotype was normal. This is probably the first report describing an acquired inv(9) involving both chromosomes 9 in AML. The possible significance of this inversion is discussed.

  7. Hysterosalpingographic features of cervical abnormalities: acquired structural anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Zafarani, F; Shahrzad, G

    2015-01-01

    Cervical abnormalities may be congenital or acquired. Congenital cervical structural anomalies are relatively uncommon, whereas acquired cervical abnormalities are commonly seen in gynaecology clinics. Acquired abnormalities of the cervix can cause cervical factor infertility and recurrent spontaneous abortion. Various imaging tools have been used for evaluation of the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes. Hysterosalpingography (HSG) is a quick and minimally invasive tool for evaluation of infertility that facilitates visualization of the inner surfaces of the uterine cavity and fallopian tubes, as well as the cervical canal and isthmus. The lesions of the uterine cervix show various imaging manifestations on HSG such as narrowing, dilatation, filling defects, irregularities and diverticular projections. This pictorial review describes and illustrates the hysterosalpingographic appearances of normal variants and acquired structural abnormalities of the cervix. Accurate diagnosis of such cases is considered essential for optimal treatment. The pathological findings and radiopathological correlation will be briefly discussed. PMID:26111269

  8. Light's Darkness

    ScienceCinema

    Padgett, Miles [University of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland

    2016-07-12

    Optical vortices and orbital angular momentum are currently topical subjects in the optics literature. Although seemingly esoteric, they are, in fact, the generic state of light and arise whenever three or more plane waves interfere. To be observed by eye the light must be monochromatic. Laser speckle is one such example, where the optical energy circulates around each black spot, giving a local orbital angular momentum. This talk with report three on-going studies. First, when considering a volume of interfering waves, the laser specs map out threads of complete darkness embedded in the light. Do these threads form loops? Links? Or even knots? Second, when looking through a rapidly spinning window, the image of the world on the other side is rotated: true or false? Finally, the entanglement of orbital angular momentum states means measuring how the angular position of one photons sets the angular momentum of another: is this an angular version of the EPR (Einstein, Podolsky, and Rosen) paradox?

  9. Lighting installations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schurer, Kees

    1994-01-01

    Model computations that give the lay-out of a lighting installation have to be implemented in the real world. There, deviations from the ideal performance of just about every element of the installation will be felt. A list of possible sources of non-ideal behavior, based on practical experience, are: lamps, ballasts, reflectors, mounting position, sagging of lamps, and soiling. It is clear that with all possible deviations from the ideal the homogeneity of a real lighting installation can never be as good as the one computed. The only way to make sure it is nearly as good is by measurement of the actual light distribution. Then, an occasional adjustment or replacement may often yield a satisfactory result. This measurement should really be part of the installation contract.

  10. Research on integrating sphere low-light level stress system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Donglin; Feng, Dawei

    2010-10-01

    Low-light level night vision device must be assessed by light stress reliability test in the design approval testing and production approval testing. The low-light level stress environment is the key to light stress reliability test on Low-light level night vision device. This paper studies the actual working environment of Low-light level night vision device from the aspects of night sky spectrum of nature light and illumination, and designs a low-light level stress system. The system consists of double-integrating-sphere light source, light stress automatic switching device, collimator, monitoring and control system for light stress. The system uses a total light source with radiation structure to improve the light efficiency, solve the question of light stress consistency, achieve a typical night-day simulation of the environment and the monitoring and control of the whole process.

  11. Acquired pure megakaryocytic aplasia successfully treated with cyclosporine.

    PubMed

    Omri, Halima El; Ibrahim, Firyal; Taha, Ruba Yasin; Negm, Riham Hassan; Khinji, Aisha Al; Yassin, Mohammed; Hijji, Ibrahim Al; Ayoubi, Hanadi El; Baden, Hussein

    2010-12-01

    Acquired pure megakaryocytic aplasia is a rare hematological disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia with absent or markedly reduced megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. We report a case of a 25-year-old male diagnosed as acquired pure megakaryocytic aplasia. Treatment with prednisone and intravenous immunoglobulin failed, but he was successfully treated with cyclosporine, with complete remission after 90 days and normal platelet count maintained thereafter. PMID:27263744

  12. Surgical management of stage 2 adult acquired flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Maker, Jared M; Cottom, James M

    2014-07-01

    Adult acquired flatfoot deformity is a progressive disorder with multiple symptoms and degrees of deformity. Stage II adult acquired flatfoot can be divided into stage IIA and IIB based on severity of deformity. Surgical procedures should be chosen based on severity as well as location of the flatfoot deformity. Care must be taken not to overcorrect the flatfoot deformity so as to decrease the possibility of lateral column overload as well as stiffness.

  13. [Differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Deĭkina, O N; Mishin, V Iu; Demikhova, O V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to enhance the efficiency of differential diagnosis of pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis. A hundred and fifty-nine adult patients were examined. These included 78 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 81 with community-acquired p neumonia. The clinical features of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 48) and mild community-acquired pneumonia (n = 51) were compared. The course of caseous pneumonia (n = 30) was compared with that of moderate and severe community-acquired pneumonia (n = 30). Significant differences in the manifestations of the intoxication and bronchopulmonary syndrome were not found in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Physical studies showed that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, moist rale (54.9%) and crepitation (11.8%) were prevalent, but in those with infiltrative tuberculosis rale was absent in 60.4% of cases and the pattern of respiration was unchanged in 79.2%. Chest X-ray studies indicated that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, lower lobar inflammatory changes were predominant in 62.8% of cases whereas in those with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis the process was mainly bilateral (43.8%) with the presence of destructive changes (83.3%) and bronchogenic dissemination (66.7%). In patients with caseous pneumonia, the intoxication syndrome was more significant than in those with severe community-acquired pneumonia. Chest X-ray studies demonstrated that in patients with caseous pneumonia, specific changes were bilateral with the involvement of 2 lobes or more, with destruction and bronchogenic dissemination while in those with community-acquired pneumonia, the pulmonary processes were predominantly bilateral (76.6%) at the lower lobar site (36.7%).

  14. [Differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Deĭkina, O N; Mishin, V Iu; Demikhova, O V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to enhance the efficiency of differential diagnosis of pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis. A hundred and fifty-nine adult patients were examined. These included 78 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 81 with community-acquired p neumonia. The clinical features of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 48) and mild community-acquired pneumonia (n = 51) were compared. The course of caseous pneumonia (n = 30) was compared with that of moderate and severe community-acquired pneumonia (n = 30). Significant differences in the manifestations of the intoxication and bronchopulmonary syndrome were not found in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Physical studies showed that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, moist rale (54.9%) and crepitation (11.8%) were prevalent, but in those with infiltrative tuberculosis rale was absent in 60.4% of cases and the pattern of respiration was unchanged in 79.2%. Chest X-ray studies indicated that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, lower lobar inflammatory changes were predominant in 62.8% of cases whereas in those with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis the process was mainly bilateral (43.8%) with the presence of destructive changes (83.3%) and bronchogenic dissemination (66.7%). In patients with caseous pneumonia, the intoxication syndrome was more significant than in those with severe community-acquired pneumonia. Chest X-ray studies demonstrated that in patients with caseous pneumonia, specific changes were bilateral with the involvement of 2 lobes or more, with destruction and bronchogenic dissemination while in those with community-acquired pneumonia, the pulmonary processes were predominantly bilateral (76.6%) at the lower lobar site (36.7%). PMID:17338353

  15. Acquired coagulation inhibitor-associated bleeding disorders: an update.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Veneri, Dino

    2005-12-01

    Acquired blood coagulation inhibitors are circulating immunoglobulins that neutralize the activity of a specific coagulation protein or accelerate its clearance from the plasma, thus causing a bleeding tendency. In this review, we focus on the nonhemophilic inhibitors of coagulation, i.e. the autoantibodies occurring in individuals without a pre-existent coagulation defect, reporting the most recent advances in the pathophysiology, diagnosis and treatment of these rare acquired bleeding disorders.

  16. Acquiring 3-D Spatial Data Of A Real Object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. K.; Wang, D. Q.; Bajcsy, R. K...

    1983-10-01

    A method of acquiring spatial data of a real object via a stereometric system is presented. Three-dimensional (3-D) data of an object are acquired by: (1) camera calibration; (2) stereo matching; (3) multiple stereo views covering the whole object; (4) geometrical computations to determine the 3-D coordinates for each sample point of the object. The analysis and the experimental results indicate the method implemented is capable of measuring the spatial data of a real object with satisfactory accuracy.

  17. Surgical management of stage 2 adult acquired flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Maker, Jared M; Cottom, James M

    2014-07-01

    Adult acquired flatfoot deformity is a progressive disorder with multiple symptoms and degrees of deformity. Stage II adult acquired flatfoot can be divided into stage IIA and IIB based on severity of deformity. Surgical procedures should be chosen based on severity as well as location of the flatfoot deformity. Care must be taken not to overcorrect the flatfoot deformity so as to decrease the possibility of lateral column overload as well as stiffness. PMID:24980928

  18. Adult-Onset Acquired Partial Lipodystrophy Accompanied by Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Muto, Yusuke; Fujimura, Taku; Kakizaki, Aya; Tsuchiyama, Kenichiro; Kusakari, Yoshiyuki; Aiba, Setsuya

    2015-01-01

    Lipodystrophy is a group of metabolic disorders, possibly caused by autoimmune disease. In this report, we describe a case of adult-onset acquired partial lipodystrophy accompanied by rheumatoid arthritis without a family history. Interestingly, immunohistochemical staining revealed dense infiltration of IL-27-producing cells as well as MMP-7-and MMP-28-expressing cells, both of which have been reported to facilitate the development of autoimmune disease. Our present case might suggest possible mechanisms for acquired partial lipodystrophy. PMID:26034476

  19. 14 CFR 27.1401 - Anticollision light system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anticollision light system. 27.1401 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1401 Anticollision light system. (a... light system that— (1) Consists of one or more approved anticollision lights located so that...

  20. 14 CFR 27.1401 - Anticollision light system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anticollision light system. 27.1401 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1401 Anticollision light system. (a... light system that— (1) Consists of one or more approved anticollision lights located so that...

  1. 14 CFR 29.1401 - Anticollision light system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Anticollision light system. 29.1401 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1401 Anticollision light system. (a... light system that— (1) Consists of one or more approved anticollision lights located so that...

  2. 14 CFR 29.1401 - Anticollision light system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Anticollision light system. 29.1401 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1401 Anticollision light system. (a... light system that— (1) Consists of one or more approved anticollision lights located so that...

  3. 14 CFR 29.1401 - Anticollision light system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anticollision light system. 29.1401 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 29.1401 Anticollision light system. (a... light system that— (1) Consists of one or more approved anticollision lights located so that...

  4. 14 CFR 27.1401 - Anticollision light system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Anticollision light system. 27.1401 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1401 Anticollision light system. (a... light system that— (1) Consists of one or more approved anticollision lights located so that...

  5. 14 CFR 27.1401 - Anticollision light system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Anticollision light system. 27.1401 Section... AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Equipment Lights § 27.1401 Anticollision light system. (a... light system that— (1) Consists of one or more approved anticollision lights located so that...

  6. Radiometric consistency in source specifications for lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosenbluth, Alan E.; Tirapu Azpiroz, Jaione; Lai, Kafai; Tian, Kehan; Melville, David O. S.; Totzeck, Michael; Blahnik, Vladan; Koolen, Armand; Flagello, Donis

    2008-03-01

    There is a surprising lack of clarity about the exact quantity that a lithographic source map should specify. Under the plausible interpretation that input source maps should tabulate radiance, one will find with standard imaging codes that simulated wafer plane source intensities appear to violate the brightness theorem. The apparent deviation (a cosine factor in the illumination pupil) represents one of many obliquity/inclination factors involved in propagation through the imaging system whose interpretation in the literature is often somewhat obscure, but which have become numerically significant in today's hyper-NA OPC applications. We show that the seeming brightness distortion in the illumination pupil arises because the customary direction-cosine gridding of this aperture yields non-uniform solid-angle subtense in the source pixels. Once the appropriate solid angle factor is included, each entry in the source map becomes proportional to the total |E|^2 that the associated pixel produces on the mask. This quantitative definition of lithographic source distributions is consistent with the plane-wave spectrum approach adopted by litho simulators, in that these simulators essentially propagate |E|^2 along the interfering diffraction orders from the mask input to the resist film. It can be shown using either the rigorous Franz formulation of vector diffraction theory, or an angular spectrum approach, that such an |E|^2 plane-wave weighting will provide the standard inclination factor if the source elements are incoherent and the mask model is accurate. This inclination factor is usually derived from a classical Rayleigh-Sommerfeld diffraction integral, and we show that the nominally discrepant inclination factors used by the various diffraction integrals of this class can all be made to yield the same result as the Franz formula when rigorous mask simulation is employed, and further that these cosine factors have a simple geometrical interpretation. On this basis

  7. AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; Information and Procedural Guidelines for Providing Services to Persons with AIDS/HIV. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Helena. Health Education Bureau.

    This volume consists of updated information to be inserted into a Montana AIDS Project manual on providing services to persons with acquired immune deficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV), originally published in December 1985. The updates are mainly statistics and terminology, along with the addition of several new sections.…

  8. The development of a measure of motivational changes following acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Oddy, Michael; Cattran, Charlotte; Wood, Rodger

    2008-07-01

    Motivational deficits following acquired brain injury have been found to be both prevalent and particularly disabling. Despite this, relatively little attention has been given to such deficits. The development of self and informant versions of a new questionnaire measure of the changes in motivation that may occur following acquired brain injury is described. The measure demonstrates excellent psychometric properties including high test-retest (r = .90) and split-half reliability (.94), high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .94), and good concurrent validity. The study also demonstrates that the questionnaire is measuring a different domain to cognitive tests and tests of affect, but one that is predictive of brain injury outcome. There was moderate overlap between self-report and relative versions of the questionnaire (r = .41) but results suggest that the relative version has the stronger predictive value. The potential uses of the measure in relation to theory and practice are discussed.

  9. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 536: Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and women of color.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    In the United States, most new cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occur among women of color (primarily African American and Hispanic women). Most women of color acquire the disease from heterosexual contact, often from a partner who has undisclosed risk factors for HIV infection. Safe sex practices, especially consistent condom use, must be emphasized for all women, including women of color. A combination of testing, education, and brief behavioral interventions can help reduce the rate of HIV infection and its complications among women of color. In addition,biomedical interventions such as early treatment of patients infected with HIV and pre-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis of high-risk individuals offer promise for future reductions in infections.

  10. On consistent mapping in distributed environments using mobile sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saha, Roshmik

    The problem of robotic mapping, also known as simultaneous localization and mapping (SLAM), by a mobile agent for large distributed environments is addressed in this dissertation. This has sometimes been referred to as the holy grail in the robotics community, and is the stepping stone towards making a robot completely autonomous. A hybrid solution to the SLAM problem is proposed based on "first localize then map" principle. It is provably consistent and has great potential for real time application. It provides significant improvements over state-of-the-art Bayesian approaches by reducing the computational complexity of the SLAM problem without sacrificing consistency. The localization is achieved using a feature based extended Kalman filter (EKF) which utilizes a sparse set of reliable features. The common issues of data association, loop closure and computational cost of EKF based methods are kept tractable owing to the sparsity of the feature set. A novel frequentist mapping technique is proposed for estimating the dense part of the environment using the sensor observations. Given the pose estimate of the robot, this technique can consistently map the surrounding environment. The technique has linear time complexity in map components and for the case of bounded sensor noise, it is shown that the frequentist mapping technique has constant time complexity which makes it capable of estimating large distributed environments in real time. The frequentist mapping technique is a stochastic approximation algorithm and is shown to converge to the true map probabilities almost surely. The Hybrid SLAM software is developed in the C-language and is capable of handling real experimental data as well as simulations. The Hybrid SLAM technique is shown to perform well in simulations, experiments with an iRobot Create, and on standard datasets from the Robotics Data Set Repository, known as Radish. It is demonstrated that the Hy··id SLAM technique can successfully map large

  11. Trisomy 21 consistently activates the interferon response

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Kelly D; Lewis, Hannah C; Hill, Amanda A; Pandey, Ahwan; Jackson, Leisa P; Cabral, Joseph M; Smith, Keith P; Liggett, L Alexander; Gomez, Eliana B; Galbraith, Matthew D; DeGregori, James; Espinosa, Joaquín M

    2016-01-01

    Although it is clear that trisomy 21 causes Down syndrome, the molecular events acting downstream of the trisomy remain ill defined. Using complementary genomics analyses, we identified the interferon pathway as the major signaling cascade consistently activated by trisomy 21 in human cells. Transcriptome analysis revealed that trisomy 21 activates the interferon transcriptional response in fibroblast and lymphoblastoid cell lines, as well as circulating monocytes and T cells. Trisomy 21 cells show increased induction of interferon-stimulated genes and decreased expression of ribosomal proteins and translation factors. An shRNA screen determined that the interferon-activated kinases JAK1 and TYK2 suppress proliferation of trisomy 21 fibroblasts, and this defect is rescued by pharmacological JAK inhibition. Therefore, we propose that interferon activation, likely via increased gene dosage of the four interferon receptors encoded on chromosome 21, contributes to many of the clinical impacts of trisomy 21, and that interferon antagonists could have therapeutic benefits. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16220.001 PMID:27472900

  12. Generalized arc consistency for global cardinality constraint

    SciTech Connect

    Regin, J.C.

    1996-12-31

    A global cardinality constraint (gcc) is specified in terms of a set of variables X = (x{sub 1},..., x{sub p}) which take their values in a subset of V = (v{sub 1},...,v{sub d}). It constrains the number of times a value v{sub i} {epsilon} V is assigned to a variable in X to be in an interval [l{sub i}, c{sub i}]. Cardinality constraints have proved very useful in many real-life problems, such as scheduling, timetabling, or resource allocation. A gcc is more general than a constraint of difference, which requires each interval to be. In this paper, we present an efficient way of implementing generalized arc consistency for a gcc. The algorithm we propose is based on a new theorem of flow theory. Its space complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}) and its time complexity is O({vert_bar}X{vert_bar}{sup 2} {times} {vert_bar}V{vert_bar}). We also show how this algorithm can efficiently be combined with other filtering techniques.

  13. Self consistency grouping: a stringent clustering method

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Numerous types of clustering like single linkage and K-means have been widely studied and applied to a variety of scientific problems. However, the existing methods are not readily applicable for the problems that demand high stringency. Methods Our method, self consistency grouping, i.e. SCG, yields clusters whose members are closer in rank to each other than to any member outside the cluster. We do not define a distance metric; we use the best known distance metric and presume that it measures the correct distance. SCG does not impose any restriction on the size or the number of the clusters that it finds. The boundaries of clusters are determined by the inconsistencies in the ranks. In addition to the direct implementation that finds the complete structure of the (sub)clusters we implemented two faster versions. The fastest version is guaranteed to find only the clusters that are not subclusters of any other clusters and the other version yields the same output as the direct implementation but does so more efficiently. Results Our tests have demonstrated that SCG yields very few false positives. This was accomplished by introducing errors in the distance measurement. Clustering of protein domain representatives by structural similarity showed that SCG could recover homologous groups with high precision. Conclusions SCG has potential for finding biological relationships under stringent conditions. PMID:23320864

  14. Volume Haptics with Topology-Consistent Isosurfaces.

    PubMed

    Corenthy, Loc; Otaduy, Miguel A; Pastor, Luis; Garcia, Marcos

    2015-01-01

    Haptic interfaces offer an intuitive way to interact with and manipulate 3D datasets, and may simplify the interpretation of visual information. This work proposes an algorithm to provide haptic feedback directly from volumetric datasets, as an aid to regular visualization. The haptic rendering algorithm lets users perceive isosurfaces in volumetric datasets, and it relies on several design features that ensure a robust and efficient rendering. A marching tetrahedra approach enables the dynamic extraction of a piecewise linear continuous isosurface. Robustness is achieved using a continuous collision detection step coupled with state-of-the-art proxy-based rendering methods over the extracted isosurface. The introduced marching tetrahedra approach guarantees that the extracted isosurface will match the topology of an equivalent isosurface computed using trilinear interpolation. The proposed haptic rendering algorithm improves the consistency between haptic and visual cues computing a second proxy on the isosurface displayed on screen. Our experiments demonstrate the improvements on the isosurface extraction stage as well as the robustness and the efficiency of the complete algorithm.

  15. Ciliate communities consistently associated with coral diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweet, M. J.; Séré, M. G.

    2016-07-01

    Incidences of coral disease are increasing. Most studies which focus on diseases in these organisms routinely assess variations in bacterial associates. However, other microorganism groups such as viruses, fungi and protozoa are only recently starting to receive attention. This study aimed at assessing the diversity of ciliates associated with coral diseases over a wide geographical range. Here we show that a wide variety of ciliates are associated with all nine coral diseases assessed. Many of these ciliates such as Trochilia petrani and Glauconema trihymene feed on the bacteria which are likely colonizing the bare skeleton exposed by the advancing disease lesion or the necrotic tissue itself. Others such as Pseudokeronopsis and Licnophora macfarlandi are common predators of other protozoans and will be attracted by the increase in other ciliate species to the lesion interface. However, a few ciliate species (namely Varistrombidium kielum, Philaster lucinda, Philaster guamense, a Euplotes sp., a Trachelotractus sp. and a Condylostoma sp.) appear to harbor symbiotic algae, potentially from the coral themselves, a result which may indicate that they play some role in the disease pathology at the very least. Although, from this study alone we are not able to discern what roles any of these ciliates play in disease causation, the consistent presence of such communities with disease lesion interfaces warrants further investigation.

  16. Odor recognition: familiarity, identifiability, and encoding consistency.

    PubMed

    Rabin, M D; Cain, W S

    1984-04-01

    The investigation examined the association between the perceived identity of odorous stimuli and the ability to recognize the previous occurrence of them. The stimuli comprised 20 relatively familiar odorous objects such as chocolate, leather, popcorn, and soy sauce. Participants rated the familiarity of the odors and sought to identify them. At various intervals up to 7 days after initial inspection, the participants sought to recognize the odors among sets of distractor odors that included such items as soap, cloves, pipe tobacco, and so on. The recognition response entailed a confidence rating as to whether or not an item had appeared in the original set. At the time of testing, the participants also sought to identify the stimuli again. The results upheld previous findings of excellent initial recognition memory for environmentally relevant odors and slow forgetting. The results also uncovered, for the first time, a strong association between recognition memory and identifiability, rated familiarity, and the ability to use an odor label consistently at inspection and subsequent testing. Encodability seems to enhance rather than to permit recognizability. Even items identified incorrectly or inconsistently were recognized at levels above chance.

  17. School Lighting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennhackkamp, W. M. H.

    Research gathered by the Functional Efficiency Division of the National Building Research Institute, South Africa, is aimed at providing lighting conditions under which the school child can produce his maximum effort with the least strain and fatigue. These favorable conditions are outlined along with specific examples of their realization in…

  18. Sound practices for consistent human visual inspection.

    PubMed

    Melchore, James A

    2011-03-01

    Numerous presentations and articles on manual inspection of pharmaceutical drug products have been released, since the pioneering articles on inspection by Knapp and associates Knapp and Kushner (J Parenter Drug Assoc 34:14, 1980); Knapp and Kushner (Bull Parenter Drug Assoc 34:369, 1980); Knapp and Kushner (J Parenter Sci Technol 35:176, 1981); Knapp and Kushner (J Parenter Sci Technol 37:170, 1983). This original work by Knapp and associates provided the industry with a statistical means of evaluating inspection performance. This methodology enabled measurement of individual inspector performance, performance of the entire inspector pool and provided basic suggestions for the conduct of manual inspection. Since that time, numerous subject matter experts (SMEs) have presented additional valuable information for the conduct of manual inspection Borchert et al. (J Parenter Sci Technol 40:212, 1986); Knapp and Abramson (J Parenter Sci Technol 44:74, 1990); Shabushnig et al. (1994); Knapp (1999); Knapp (2005); Cherris (2005); Budd (2005); Barber and Thomas (2005); Knapp (2005); Melchore (2007); Leversee and Ronald (2007); Melchore (2009); Budd (2007); Borchert et al. (1986); Berdovich (2005); Berdovich (2007); Knapp (2007); Leversee and Shabushing (2009); Budd (2009). Despite this abundance of knowledge, neither government regulations nor the multiple compendia provide more than minimal guidance or agreement for the conduct of manual inspection. One has to search the literature for useful information that has been published by SMEs in the field of Inspection. The purpose of this article is to restate the sound principles proclaimed by SMEs with the hope that they serve as a useful guideline to bring greater consistency to the conduct of manual inspection.

  19. Consistent scaling of persistence time in metapopulations.

    PubMed

    Yaari, Gur; Ben-Zion, Yossi; Shnerb, Nadav M; Vasseur, David A

    2012-05-01

    Recent theory and experimental work in metapopulations and metacommunities demonstrates that long-term persistence is maximized when the rate at which individuals disperse among patches within the system is intermediate; if too low, local extinctions are more frequent than recolonizations, increasing the chance of regional-scale extinctions, and if too high, dynamics exhibit region-wide synchrony, and local extinctions occur in near unison across the region. Although common, little is known about how the size and topology of the metapopulation (metacommunity) affect this bell-shaped relationship between dispersal rate and regional persistence time. Using a suite of mathematical models, we examined the effects of dispersal, patch number, and topology on the regional persistence time when local populations are subject to demographic stochasticity. We found that the form of the relationship between regional persistence time and the number of patches is consistent across all models studied; however, the form of the relationship is distinctly different among low, intermediate, and high dispersal rates. Under low and intermediate dispersal rates, regional persistence times increase logarithmically and exponentially (respectively) with increasing numbers of patches, whereas under high dispersal, the form of the relationship depends on local dynamics. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the forms of these relationships, which give rise to the bell-shaped relationship between dispersal rate and persistence time, are a product of recolonization and the region-wide synchronization (or lack thereof) of population dynamics. Identifying such metapopulation attributes that impact extinction risk is of utmost importance for managing and conserving the earth's evermore fragmented populations.

  20. Comparative exoplanetology with consistent retrieval methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barstow, Joanna Katy; Aigrain, Suzanne; Irwin, Patrick Gerard Joseph; Sing, David

    2016-10-01

    The number of hot Jupiters with broad wavelength spectroscopic data has finally become large enough to make comparative planetology a reasonable proposition. New results presented by Sing et al. (2016) showcase ten hot Jupiters with spectra from the Hubble Space Telescope and photometry from Spitzer, providing insights into the presence of clouds and hazes.Spectral retrieval methods allow interpretation of exoplanet spectra using simple models, with minimal prior assumptions. This is particularly useful for exotic exoplanets, for which we may not yet fully understand the physical processes responsible for their atmospheric characteristics. Consistent spectral retrieval of a range of exoplanets can allow robust comparisons of their derived atmospheric properties.I will present a retrieval analysis using the NEMESIS code (Irwin et al. 2008) of the ten hot Jupiter spectra presented by Sing et al. (2016). The only distinctive aspects of the model for each planet are the mass and radius, and the temperature range explored. All other a priori model parameters are common to all ten objects. We test a range of cloud and haze scenarios, which include: Rayleigh-dominated and grey clouds; different cloud top pressures; and both vertically extended and vertically confined clouds.All ten planets, with the exception of WASP-39b, can be well represented by models with at least some haze or cloud. Our analysis of cloud properties has uncovered trends in cloud top pressure, vertical extent and particle size with planet equilibrium temperature. Taken together, we suggest that these trends indicate condensation and sedimentation of at least two different cloud species across planets of different temperatures, with condensates forming higher up in hotter atmospheres and moving progressively further down in cooler planets.Sing, D. et al. (2016), Nature, 529, 59Irwin, P. G. J. et al. (2008), JQSRT, 109, 1136

  1. View from Europe: stability, consistency or pragmatism

    SciTech Connect

    Dunster, H.J.

    1988-08-01

    The last few years of this decade look like a period of reappraisal of radiation protection standards. The revised risk estimates from Japan will be available, and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation will be publishing new reports on biological topics. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has started a review of its basic recommendations, and the new specification for dose equivalent in radiation fields of the International Commission on Radiation Units and Measurements (ICRU) will be coming into use. All this is occurring at a time when some countries are still trying to catch up with committed dose equivalent and the recently recommended change in the value of the quality factor for neutrons. In Europe, the problems of adapting to new ICRP recommendations are considerable. The European Community, including 12 states and nine languages, takes ICRP recommendations as a basis and develops council directives that are binding on member states, which have then to arrange for their own regulatory changes. Any substantial adjustments could take 5 y or more to work through the system. Clearly, the regulatory preference is for stability. Equally clearly, trade unions and public interest groups favor a rapid response to scientific developments (provided that the change is downward). Organizations such as the ICRP have to balance their desire for internal consistency and intellectual purity against the practical problems of their clients in adjusting to change. This paper indicates some of the changes that might be necessary over the next few years and how, given a pragmatic approach, they might be accommodated in Europe without too much regulatory confusion.

  2. Improving electrofishing catch consistency by standardizing power

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burkhardt, Randy W.; Gutreuter, Steve

    1995-01-01

    The electrical output of electrofishing equipment is commonly standardized by using either constant voltage or constant amperage, However, simplified circuit and wave theories of electricity suggest that standardization of power (wattage) available for transfer from water to fish may be critical for effective standardization of electrofishing. Electrofishing with standardized power ensures that constant power is transferable to fish regardless of water conditions. The in situ performance of standardized power output is poorly known. We used data collected by the interagency Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) in the upper Mississippi River system to assess the effectiveness of standardizing power output. The data consisted of 278 electrofishing collections, comprising 9,282 fishes in eight species groups, obtained during 1990 from main channel border, backwater, and tailwater aquatic areas in four reaches of the upper Mississippi River and one reach of the Illinois River. Variation in power output explained an average of 14.9% of catch variance for night electrofishing and 12.1 % for day electrofishing. Three patterns in catch per unit effort were observed for different species: increasing catch with increasing power, decreasing catch with increasing power, and no power-related pattern. Therefore, in addition to reducing catch variation, controlling power output may provide some capability to select particular species. The LTRMP adopted standardized power output beginning in 1991; standardized power output is adjusted for variation in water conductivity and water temperature by reference to a simple chart. Our data suggest that by standardizing electrofishing power output, the LTRMP has eliminated substantial amounts of catch variation at virtually no additional cost.

  3. Tracking Steady Light Sources Amid Luminous Transients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kissh, Frank; Fowski, Walter; Miklus, Kenneth; Abreu, Rene; Bolin, Kenneth; Flynn, David

    1994-01-01

    The Transient Event Rejection for Acquisition and Tracking (TERAT) algorithm governs operation of image-data-acquisition and -processing system. TERAT processes digitized image data to acquire (that is, identify) candidate steady source of light, validate candidate source, and track validated source, all in presence of real or apparent luminous transients represented in image data. Source of light tracked could be star or distant luminous beacon. Transients caused by impacts of ionizing radiation on imaging array of photodetectors or by unsteady light sources not meant to be tracked. TERAT functions with limited data-processing resources. TERAT algorithm currently operational on NASA's TOPEX mission.

  4. Measuring consistent masses for 25 Milky Way globular clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Kimmig, Brian; Seth, Anil; Ivans, Inese I.; Anderton, Tim; Gregersen, Dylan; Strader, Jay; Caldwell, Nelson

    2015-02-01

    We present central velocity dispersions, masses, mass-to-light ratios (M/Ls ), and rotation strengths for 25 Galactic globular clusters (GCs). We derive radial velocities of 1951 stars in 12 GCs from single order spectra taken with Hectochelle on the MMT telescope. To this sample we add an analysis of available archival data of individual stars. For the full set of data we fit King models to derive consistent dynamical parameters for the clusters. We find good agreement between single-mass King models and the observed radial dispersion profiles. The large, uniform sample of dynamical masses we derive enables us to examine trends of M/L with cluster mass and metallicity. The overall values of M/L and the trends with mass and metallicity are consistent with existing measurements from a large sample of M31 clusters. This includes a clear trend of increasing M/L with cluster mass and lower than expected M/Ls for the metal-rich clusters. We find no clear trend of increasing rotation with increasing cluster metallicity suggested in previous work.

  5. Integrating data to acquire new knowledge: Three modes of integration in plant science.

    PubMed

    Leonelli, Sabina

    2013-12-01

    This paper discusses what it means and what it takes to integrate data in order to acquire new knowledge about biological entities and processes. Maureen O'Malley and Orkun Soyer have pointed to the scientific work involved in data integration as important and distinct from the work required by other forms of integration, such as methodological and explanatory integration, which have been more successful in captivating the attention of philosophers of science. Here I explore what data integration involves in more detail and with a focus on the role of data-sharing tools, like online databases, in facilitating this process; and I point to the philosophical implications of focusing on data as a unit of analysis. I then analyse three cases of data integration in the field of plant science, each of which highlights a different mode of integration: (1) inter-level integration, which involves data documenting different features of the same species, aims to acquire an interdisciplinary understanding of organisms as complex wholes and is exemplified by research on Arabidopsis thaliana; (2) cross-species integration, which involves data acquired on different species, aims to understand plant biology in all its different manifestations and is exemplified by research on Miscanthus giganteus; and (3) translational integration, which involves data acquired from sources within as well as outside academia, aims at the provision of interventions to improve human health (e.g. by sustaining the environment in which humans thrive) and is exemplified by research on Phytophtora ramorum. Recognising the differences between these efforts sheds light on the dynamics and diverse outcomes of data dissemination and integrative research; and the relations between the social and institutional roles of science, the development of data-sharing infrastructures and the production of scientific knowledge.

  6. Consistent probabilistic outputs for protein function prediction

    PubMed Central

    Obozinski, Guillaume; Lanckriet, Gert; Grant, Charles; Jordan, Michael I; Noble, William Stafford

    2008-01-01

    In predicting hierarchical protein function annotations, such as terms in the Gene Ontology (GO), the simplest approach makes predictions for each term independently. However, this approach has the unfortunate consequence that the predictor may assign to a single protein a set of terms that are inconsistent with one another; for example, the predictor may assign a specific GO term to a given protein ('purine nucleotide binding') but not assign the parent term ('nucleotide binding'). Such predictions are difficult to interpret. In this work, we focus on methods for calibrating and combining independent predictions to obtain a set of probabilistic predictions that are consistent with the topology of the ontology. We call this procedure 'reconciliation'. We begin with a baseline method for predicting GO terms from a collection of data types using an ensemble of discriminative classifiers. We apply the method to a previously described benchmark data set, and we demonstrate that the resulting predictions are frequently inconsistent with the topology of the GO. We then consider 11 distinct reconciliation methods: three heuristic methods; four variants of a Bayesian network; an extension of logistic regression to the structured case; and three novel projection methods - isotonic regression and two variants of a Kullback-Leibler projection method. We evaluate each method in three different modes - per term, per protein and joint - corresponding to three types of prediction tasks. Although the principal goal of reconciliation is interpretability, it is important to assess whether interpretability comes at a cost in terms of precision and recall. Indeed, we find that many apparently reasonable reconciliation methods yield reconciled probabilities with significantly lower precision than the original, unreconciled estimates. On the other hand, we find that isotonic regression usually performs better than the underlying, unreconciled method, and almost never performs worse

  7. No-Light Light Bulbs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Modern Schools, 1976

    1976-01-01

    A thumbnail sketch of some of the light bulbs manufactured for a purpose other than seeing. These "dark" lamps perform varied tasks including keeping food fresh, detecting and preventing disease, spurring plant growth, heating, and copying printed material. (Author/MLF)

  8. Light Sources and Lighting Circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honda, Hisashi; Suwa, Takumi; Yasuda, Takeo; Ohtani, Yoshihiko; Maehara, Akiyoshi; Okada, Atsunori; Komatsu, Naoki; Mannami, Tomoaki

    According to the Machinery Statistics of the Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, the production of incandescent lamps in Japan in 2007 was 990 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total), in which the production of incandescent lamps for general lighting was 110 million units (90.0% of the previous year's total) and of tungsten-halogen lamps was 44 million units (96.6% of the previous year's total). The production of fluorescent lamps was 927 million units (93.9% of the previous year's total), in which general fluorescent lamps, excluding those for LCD back lighting, was 320 million units (87.2% of the previous year's total). Also, the production of HID lamps was 10 million units (101.5% of the previous year's total). On the other hand, when the numbers of sales are compared with the sales of the previous year, incandescent lamps for general use was 99.8%, tungsten-halogen lamps was 96.9%, fluorescent lamps was 95.9%, and HID lamps was 98.9%. Self-ballasted fluorescent lamps alone showed an increase in sales as strong as 29 million units, or 121.7% of the previous year's sales. It is considered that the switchover of incandescent lamps to HID lamps was promoted for energy conservation and carbon dioxide reduction with the problem of global warming in the background. In regard to exhibitions, Lighting Fair 2007 was held in Tokyo in March, and LIGHTFAIR INTERNATIONAL 2007 was held in New York in May. Regarding academic conferences, LS:11 (the 11th International Symposium on the Science & Technology of Light Sources) was held in Shanghai in May, and the First International Conference on White LEDs and Solid State Lighting was held in Tokyo in November. Both conferences suggested that there are strong needs and concerns now about energy conservation, saving natural resources, and restrictions of hazardous materials. In regard to incandescent lamps, the development of products aiming at higher efficacy, electric power savings, and longer life was advanced by

  9. Mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Somenath; Mondal, Modhuchanda; Das, Kapildev; Shrimal, Arpit

    2012-09-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder of calcium and phosphorus metabolism due to decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism can be hereditary and acquired. Acquired hypoparathyroidism usually occurs following neck surgery (thyroid surgery or parathyroid surgery). Along with systemic manifestations, hypoparathyroidism produces some skin manifestations. Lack of study regarding mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism prompted us to undertake this study. To evaluate the mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism. An observational study done in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata by comprehensive history taking, through clinical examination and relevant laboratory investigations. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. The commonest form of acquired hypoparathyroidism was neck surgery (thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy operation). Mucocutaneous manifestations were present in 76.19% of patients. The most frequent mucocutaneous manifestation was found in the hairs like the loss of axillary hair (61.9%), loss of pubic hair (52.38%), coarsening of body hair (47.62%), and alopecia areata (9.52%). The nail changes noted were brittle and ridged nail, followed by onycholysis, onychosezia, and onychomedesis. The most common skin features were xerotic skin in 11 patients (52.38%), followed by pellagra-like skin pigmentation, pustular psoriasis and acne form eruption, bullous impetigo, etc. Mucosa was normal in all the cases excepting the one which showed oral candidiasis. PMID:23087872

  10. Getting lost: Topographic skills in acquired and developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Corrow, Jeffrey C; Corrow, Sherryse L; Lee, Edison; Pancaroglu, Raika; Burles, Ford; Duchaine, Brad; Iaria, Giuseppe; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies report that acquired prosopagnosia is frequently associated with topographic disorientation. Whether this is associated with a specific anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, how frequently it is seen with the developmental variant, and what specific topographic function is impaired to account for this problem are not known. We studied ten subjects with acquired prosopagnosia from either occipitotemporal or anterior temporal (AT) lesions and seven with developmental prosopagnosia. Subjects were given a battery of topographic tests, including house and scene recognition, the road map test, a test of cognitive map formation, and a standardized self-report questionnaire. House and/or scene recognition were frequently impaired after either occipitotemporal or AT lesions in acquired prosopagnosia. Subjects with occipitotemporal lesions were also impaired in cognitive map formation: an overlap analysis identified right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri as a likely correlate. Only one subject with acquired prosopagnosia had mild difficulty with directional orientation on the road map test. Only one subject with developmental prosopagnosia had difficulty with cognitive map formation, and none were impaired on the other tests. Scores for house and scene recognition correlated most strongly with the results of the questionnaire. We conclude that topographic disorientation in acquired prosopagnosia reflects impaired place recognition, with a contribution from poor cognitive map formation when there is occipitotemporal damage. Topographic impairments are less frequent in developmental prosopagnosia.

  11. Acquired angio-oedema caused by IgA paraprotein.

    PubMed

    van Spronsen, D J; Hoorntje, S J; Hannema, A J; Hack, C E

    1998-01-01

    The syndrome of acquired angio-oedema is characterized by late onset of recurrent bouts of angio-oedema or abdominal pain and may be caused by an acquired deficiency of C1-inhibitor (C1-INH), the inhibitor of the first component of complement. Acquired C1-INH deficiency has been described in approximately 50 patients and is strongly associated with malignant B-cell proliferations. We describe a patient with an 8-year history of recurrent abdominal symptoms and angio-oedema with acquired C1-INH deficiency, caused by the presence of IgA-kappa antibodies that inactivate C1-INH. Analysis of the bone marrow revealed an IgA-kappa monoclonal population of plasma cells, without evidence of overt myeloma. Angio-oedema caused by an autoantibody of the IgA isotype is extremely rare and has never been described in a Dutch patient. Recognition of angio-oedema, both hereditary and acquired, is important because of the therapeutic consequences, as will be discussed.

  12. Getting lost: Topographic skills in acquired and developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Corrow, Jeffrey C; Corrow, Sherryse L; Lee, Edison; Pancaroglu, Raika; Burles, Ford; Duchaine, Brad; Iaria, Giuseppe; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies report that acquired prosopagnosia is frequently associated with topographic disorientation. Whether this is associated with a specific anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, how frequently it is seen with the developmental variant, and what specific topographic function is impaired to account for this problem are not known. We studied ten subjects with acquired prosopagnosia from either occipitotemporal or anterior temporal (AT) lesions and seven with developmental prosopagnosia. Subjects were given a battery of topographic tests, including house and scene recognition, the road map test, a test of cognitive map formation, and a standardized self-report questionnaire. House and/or scene recognition were frequently impaired after either occipitotemporal or AT lesions in acquired prosopagnosia. Subjects with occipitotemporal lesions were also impaired in cognitive map formation: an overlap analysis identified right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri as a likely correlate. Only one subject with acquired prosopagnosia had mild difficulty with directional orientation on the road map test. Only one subject with developmental prosopagnosia had difficulty with cognitive map formation, and none were impaired on the other tests. Scores for house and scene recognition correlated most strongly with the results of the questionnaire. We conclude that topographic disorientation in acquired prosopagnosia reflects impaired place recognition, with a contribution from poor cognitive map formation when there is occipitotemporal damage. Topographic impairments are less frequent in developmental prosopagnosia. PMID:26874939

  13. Connectionist neuropsychology: uncovering ultimate causes of acquired dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Woollams, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    Acquired dyslexia offers a unique window on to the nature of the cognitive and neural architecture supporting skilled reading. This paper provides an integrative overview of recent empirical and computational work on acquired dyslexia within the context of the primary systems framework as implemented in connectionist neuropsychological models. This view proposes that damage to general visual, phonological or semantic processing abilities are the root causes of different forms of acquired dyslexia. Recent case-series behavioural evidence concerning pure alexia, phonological dyslexia and surface dyslexia that supports this perspective is presented. Lesion simulations of these findings within connectionist models of reading demonstrate the viability of this approach. The commitment of such models to learnt representations allows them to capture key aspects of performance in each type of acquired dyslexia, particularly the associated non-reading deficits, the role of relearning and the influence of individual differences in the premorbid state of the reading system. Identification of these factors not only advances our understanding of acquired dyslexia and the mechanisms of normal reading but they are also relevant to the complex interactions underpinning developmental reading disorders.

  14. EDITORIAL: Controlling light with light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hesselink, Lambertus; Feinberg, Jack; Roosen, Gerald

    2008-11-01

    The field of photorefractive physics and optics is mature and, although there is no significant commercial activity using photorefractive media, researchers in the field have had an extraordinary impact on many related areas of research and development. For example, in the late 1990s many of the telecom innovations and products were based on the interaction between light and matter. Examples include optical switches, filters, gratings, routers and light sources. The theory of multiple interacting beams of light inside a photosensitive medium, many of which were developed or further explored in photorefractive media, has found application in medicine, engineering, communication systems, displays and other photonics devices. On the occasions of the 30th anniversary of the theory of coupled wave analysis and the 10th anniversary of the meetings on Photorefractive Effects and Devices, it seemed appropriate to the meeting organizers of PR'07 to broaden the scope to include other related fields. The name of the meeting was changed to Controlling Light with Light: Photorefractive Effects, Photosensitivity, Fiber Gratings, Photonic Materials and More to attract a larger audience than traditionally would attend the more narrowly focused photorefractive meeting. To further disseminate the results of the 2007 meeting, Gerald Roosen proposed a special publication of original full research articles arising from key presentations at the meeting. The selection of papers in this Cluster Issue of Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics is the result of that initiative. We would like to thank all the authors for their contributions, the committee members for their valuable insight and efforts in helping to organize the meeting, and the Optical Society of America for their professional assistance throughout the preparation period of the meeting as well as during the three beautiful days in Lake Tahoe, CA.

  15. Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Jennifer L; Phillips, Samuel C; Evans, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed 'personality'). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.

  16. Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Jennifer L.; Phillips, Samuel C.; Evans, Jonathan P.

    2013-10-01

    While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed ‘personality’). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies ( Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success.

  17. Individual consistency in exploratory behaviour and mating tactics in male guppies.

    PubMed

    Kelley, Jennifer L; Phillips, Samuel C; Evans, Jonathan P

    2013-10-01

    While behavioural plasticity is considered an adaptation to fluctuating social and environmental conditions, many animals also display a high level of individual consistency in their behaviour over time or across contexts (generally termed 'personality'). However, studies of animal personalities that include sexual behaviour, or functionally distinct but correlated traits, are relatively scarce. In this study, we tested for individual behavioural consistency in courtship and exploratory behaviour in male guppies (Poecilia reticulata) in two light environments (high vs. low light intensity). Based on previous work on guppies, we predicted that males would modify their behaviour from sneak mating tactics to courtship displays under low light conditions, but also that the rank orders of courtship effort would remain unchanged (i.e. highly sexually active individuals would display relatively high levels of courtship under both light regimes). We also tested for correlations between courtship and exploratory behaviour, predicting that males that had high display rates would also be more likely to approach a novel object. Although males showed significant consistency in their exploratory and mating behaviour over time (1 week), we found no evidence that these traits constituted a behavioural syndrome. Furthermore, in contrast to previous work, we found no overall effect of the light environment on any of the behaviours measured, although males responded to the treatment on an individual-level basis, as reflected by a significant individual-by-environment interaction. The future challenge is to investigate how individual consistency across different environmental contexts relates to male reproductive success. PMID:24036665

  18. Dark light-Higgs bosons.

    PubMed

    Draper, Patrick; Liu, Tao; Wagner, Carlos E M; Wang, Lian-Tao; Zhang, Hao

    2011-03-25

    We study a limit of the nearly Peccei-Quinn-symmetric next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model possessing novel Higgs and dark matter (DM) properties. In this scenario, there naturally coexist three light singletlike particles: a scalar, a pseudoscalar, and a singlinolike DM candidate, all with masses of order 0.1-10 GeV. The decay of a standard model-like Higgs boson to pairs of the light scalars or pseudoscalars is generically suppressed, avoiding constraints from collider searches for these channels. For a certain parameter window annihilation into the light pseudoscalar and exchange of the light scalar with nucleons allow the singlino to achieve the correct relic density and a large direct-detection cross section consistent with the DM direct-detection experiments, CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA, preferred region simultaneously. This parameter space is consistent with experimental constraints from LEP, the Tevatron, Υ, and flavor physics. PMID:21517303

  19. Dark Light-Higgs Bosons

    SciTech Connect

    Draper, Patrick; Liu Tao; Wagner, Carlos E. M.; Wang, Lian-Tao; Zhang Hao

    2011-03-25

    We study a limit of the nearly Peccei-Quinn-symmetric next-to-minimal supersymmetric standard model possessing novel Higgs and dark matter (DM) properties. In this scenario, there naturally coexist three light singletlike particles: a scalar, a pseudoscalar, and a singlinolike DM candidate, all with masses of order 0.1-10 GeV. The decay of a standard model-like Higgs boson to pairs of the light scalars or pseudoscalars is generically suppressed, avoiding constraints from collider searches for these channels. For a certain parameter window annihilation into the light pseudoscalar and exchange of the light scalar with nucleons allow the singlino to achieve the correct relic density and a large direct-detection cross section consistent with the DM direct-detection experiments, CoGeNT and DAMA/LIBRA, preferred region simultaneously. This parameter space is consistent with experimental constraints from LEP, the Tevatron, {Upsilon}, and flavor physics.

  20. 12 CFR 225.140 - Disposition of property acquired in satisfaction of debts previously contracted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of five years. 1 Viewed in light of the Congressional policy evidenced by section 4(c)(2), the Board... property. In the Depository Institutions Deregulation and Monetary Control Act of 1980, (Pub. L. 96-221... subject to certain conditions. Consistent with the policy underlying the recent Congressional...

  1. The Detection of a Light Echo from Type Ia SN 2007af in NGC 5584

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozdov, Dina; Leising, M. D.; Milne, P.; Riess, A. G.

    2013-06-01

    We report the discovery of a light echo (LE) at t ~1000 days past maximum from the normal Type Ia supernova (SNe Ia) SN 2007af in the spiral galaxy NGC 5584. The presence of a LE is supported by photometric data and analysis of the images acquired during the Cepheid campaign using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) Wide Field Camera 3 (Riess et al. 2011). The F350 and F555 images show a distinct ring-like structure with an additional central source. The images, taken months apart, show an evolution of the ring structure, which is consistent with a growing light echo in time. We find an angular radius of the outer echo to be ~0.29'' - 0.36''. Using the Cepheid distance to NGC 5584 of 24 Mpc, we find the dust illuminated by the light echo to be at a distance ~800 pc from the supernova. This rare discovery adds to the select few light echoes found in Type Ia SNe: SN 1572, SN 1991T, SN 1995E, SN 1998bu, and SN 2006X. Light echoes are powerful tools that probe the environment around supernovae, determine dust properties and characteristics, and could provide constraints on the progenitors, which are not fully understood for SN Ia.

  2. The mechanism of acquired resistance to irreversible EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor-afatinib in lung adenocarcinoma patients

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Shang-Gin; Liu, Yi-Nan; Tsai, Meng-Feng; Chang, Yih-Leong; Yu, Chong-Jen; Yang, Pan-Chyr; Yang, James Chih-Hsin; Wen, Yueh-Feng; Shih, Jin-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are associated with favorable response in EGFR mutant lung cancer. Acquired resistance to reversible EGFR TKIs remains a significant barrier, and acquired EGFR T790M-mutation is the major mechanism. Second-generation irreversible EGFR TKI, afatinib, had also been approved for treating EGFR mutant lung cancer patients, but the mechanism of acquired resistance to afatinib has not been well studied. Results Forty-two patients had tissue specimens taken after acquiring resistance to afatinib. The sensitizing EGFR mutation were all consistent between pre- and post-afatinib tissues. Twenty patients (47.6%) had acquired T790M mutation. T790M rate was not different between first-generation EGFR TKI-naïve patients (50%) and first-generation EGFR TKI-treated patients (46.4%) (p = 0.827). No clinical characteristics or EGFR mutation types were associated with the development of acquired T790M. No other second-site EGFR mutations were detected. There were no small cell or squamous cell lung cancer transformation. Other genetic mutations were not identified in PIK3CA, BRAF, HER2, KRAS, NRAS, MEK1, AKT2, LKB1 and JAK2. Methods Afatinib-prescription record of our department of pharmacy from January 2007 and December 2014 was retrieved. We investigated patients with tissue specimens available after acquiring resistance to afatinib. Enrolled patients should have partial response or durable stable disease of treatment response to afatinib. Various mechanisms of acquired resistance to first-generation EGFR TKIs were evaluated. Histology and cytology were reviewed. EGFR, PIK3CA, BRAF, HER2, KRAS, NRAS, MEK1, AKT2, LKB1 and JAK2 genetic alterations were evaluated by sequencing. Statistical analysis was performed using Chi-square test and Kaplan-Meier method. Conclusions T790M was detected in half of the lung adenocarcinoma after acquiring resistance to afatinib. T790M is still the major acquired

  3. Exciting Polaritons with Quantum Light.

    PubMed

    López Carreño, J C; Sánchez Muñoz, C; Sanvitto, D; del Valle, E; Laussy, F P

    2015-11-01

    We discuss the excitation of polaritons-strongly coupled states of light and matter-by quantum light, instead of the usual laser or thermal excitation. As one illustration of the new horizons thus opened, we introduce "Mollow spectroscopy"-a theoretical concept for a spectroscopic technique that consists of scanning the output of resonance fluorescence onto an optical target-from which weak nonlinearities can be read with high precision even in strongly dissipative environments. PMID:26588401

  4. The Development of Sensitivity to Sublexical Orthographic Constraints: An Investigation of Positional Frequency and Consistency Using a Wordlikeness Choice Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Brien, Beth A.

    2014-01-01

    The developmental sequence of the types of orthographic knowledge that children acquire early in reading development is unclear. Following findings of skilled reading, the orthographic constraints of positional frequency and feedback consistency were explored with a wordlikeness judgement task for grades 1-3 English-speaking children. The data…

  5. Idiopathic acquired dacryocystocele treated with endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy

    PubMed Central

    Koltsidopoulos, Petros; Papageorgiou, Elena; Konidaris, Vasileios Efstathios; Skoulakis, Charalambos

    2013-01-01

    A 64-year-old woman presented with a medial canthal mass in her left eye, which was accompanied only by mild epiphora. There was no history of dacryocystitis, bloody tears, midfacial trauma or surgery. Physical examination showed a non-inflammatory, subcutaneous, immobile mass below the level of the medial canthal tendon. Lacrimal irrigation demonstrated blockage at the nasolacrimal duct. A CT revealed a non-enhancing, low density, cystic lesion in the inferomedial aspect of the left orbit without bony erosion, which was compatible with an idiopathic acquired dacryocystocele. The patient underwent endonasal endoscopic dacryocystorhinostomy (DCR) and silicone intubation. Epiphora resolved immediately after surgery. Two years after surgery, the patient has had no recurrence of either the epiphora or the orbital. Idiopathic acquired dacryocystocele associated only with epiphora without accompanying dacryocystitis although rare should be considered in the differential diagnosis of acquired non-inflammatory medial canthal masses. Endonasal endoscopic DCR represents a safe and effective treatment. PMID:23960153

  6. Acquired night blindness due to bad eating patterns.

    PubMed

    Parafita-Fernández, A; Escalona-Fermín, M M; Sampil, M; Moraña, N; Viso, E; Fernández-Vila, P C

    2015-06-01

    We report a case of acquired night blindness in a developed country (Spain) without risk factors for nutritional deficiency disease or family history of hereditary retinal disease. A 76-year-old woman presented with acquired night blindness of 6-month progression. After a thorough inquiry about eating patterns she becomes suspicious of vitamin A low dietary intake, which is analytically confirmed and successfully treated. Despite being very uncommon in our environment and even more in patients without digestive problems, in a patient reporting acquired night blindness vitamin A deficiency should not be discarded until eating patterns have been investigated. It might be especially relevant in certain socioeconomic situations and eating disorders such as bulimia or anorexia nervosa.

  7. Free Auricular Composite Graft for Acquired Nasal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Charles A.; Lawlor, Claire M.; Gray, Mingyang Liu; Graham, H. Devon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acquired nasal stenosis poses a reconstructive challenge for the facial plastic surgeon. Many surgical options are available, ranging from primary closure to skin grafts to free flap reconstruction for complex defects. The free auricular composite graft is a single-stage procedure that can be used to repair nasal vestibular stenosis causing nasal obstruction. Case Report: We present the case of a patient with acquired nasal stenosis as a result of prolonged nasal tampon placement secondary to severe epistaxis and subsequent nasal vestibular infection. Repair via auricular composite graft was successful, and we provide a thorough explanation of graft design and operative technique. Conclusion: Free auricular composite grafts can produce desirable functional and aesthetic outcomes and should be considered in patients presenting with acquired nasal stenosis. PMID:27303225

  8. Narratives of athletic identity after acquiring a permanent physical disability.

    PubMed

    Perrier, Marie-José; Smith, Brett; Strachan, Shaelyn M; Latimer, Amy E

    2014-04-01

    Individuals with acquired physical disabilities report lower levels of athletic identity. The objective of this study was to further explore why athletic identity may be lost or (re)developed after acquiring a physical disability. Seven women and four men (range = 28-60 years) participated in approximately 1-hour-long semistructured interviews; data were subjected to a narrative analysis. The structural analysis revealed three narrative types. The nonathlete narrative described physical changes in the body as reasons for diminished athletic identity. The athlete as a future self primarily focused on present sport behavior and performance goals such that behavior changes diminished athletic identity. The present self as athlete narrative type focused on the aspects of their present sport involvement, such as feedback from other athletes and skill development, which supported their athletic identity. Implications of these narrative types with respect to sport promotion among people with acquired physical disabilities are discussed.

  9. Hospital-acquired infections - when are hospitals legally liable?

    PubMed

    McQuoid-Mason, David

    2012-04-12

    Hospital-acquired infections (nosocomial infections) are acquired in healthcare settings by patients admitted for reasons unrelated to the infection or not previously infected when admitted to the facility. Liability for hospital-acquired infections depends on whether the hospital: (i) has introduced best practice infection control measures; (ii) has implemented best practice infection control measures; or (iii) will be vicariously liable for negligent or intentional failures by staff to comply with the infection control measures implemented. A hospital and hospital administrators may be held directly liable for not introducing or implementing best practice infection control measures, resulting in harm to patients. The hospital may also be held vicariously liable where patients have been harmed because hospital staff negligently or intentionally failed to comply with the infection control measures that have been implemented by the hospital, during the course and scope of their employment.

  10. Detecting mechanisms of acquired BRAF inhibitor resistance in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Lo, Roger S; Shi, Hubing

    2014-01-01

    (V600)BRAF mutation was identified as an ideal target for clinical therapy due to its indispensable roles in supporting melanoma initiation and progression. Despite the fact that BRAF inhibitors (BRAFi) can elicit anti-tumor responses in the majority of treated patients and confer overall survival benefits, acquired drug resistance is a formidable obstacle to long-term management of the disease. Several aberrant events including RTK upregulation, NRAS mutation, mutant BRAF amplification or alternative splicing, and MEK mutation have been reported as acquired BRAFi resistance mechanisms. Clinially, detection of these resistance mechanisms help understand drug response patterns and help guide combinatorial therapeutic strategies. Therefore, quick and accurate diagnosis of the resistant mechanisms in tumor biopsies has become an important starting point for personalized therapy. In this chapter, we review the major acquired BRAFi resistance mechanisms, highlight their therapeutic implications, and provide the diagnostic methods from clinical samples.

  11. Assessing the risk of laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease.

    PubMed

    Sejvar, James J; Johnson, David; Popovic, Tanja; Miller, J Michael; Downes, Frances; Somsel, Patricia; Weyant, Robbin; Stephens, David S; Perkins, Bradley A; Rosenstein, Nancy E

    2005-09-01

    Neisseria meningitidis is infrequently reported as a laboratory-acquired infection. Prompted by two cases in the United States in 2000, we assessed this risk among laboratorians. We identified cases of meningococcal disease that were possibly acquired or suspected of being acquired in a laboratory by placing an information request on e-mail discussion groups of infectious disease, microbiology, and infection control professional organizations. A probable case of laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease was defined as illness meeting the case definition for meningococcal disease in a laboratorian who had occupational exposure to an N. meningitidis isolate of the same serogroup within 14 days of illness onset. Sixteen cases of probable laboratory-acquired meningococcal disease occurring worldwide between 1985 and 2001 were identified, including six U.S. cases between 1996 and 2000. Nine cases (56%) were serogroup B; seven (44%) were serogroup C. Eight cases (50%) were fatal. All cases occurred among clinical microbiologists. In 15 cases (94%), isolate manipulation was performed without respiratory protection. We estimated that an average of three microbiologists are exposed to the 3,000 meningococcal isolates seen in U.S. laboratories yearly and calculated an attack rate of 13/100,000 microbiologists between 1996 and 2001, compared to 0.2/100,000 among U.S. adults in general. The rate and case/fatality ratio of meningococcal disease among microbiologists are higher than those in the general U.S. population. Specific risk factors for laboratory-acquired infection are likely associated with exposure to droplets or aerosols containing N. meningitidis. Prevention should focus on the implementation of class II biological safety cabinets or additional respiratory protection during manipulation of suspected meningococcal isolates.

  12. [The dangers of blue light: True story!].

    PubMed

    Renard, G; Leid, J

    2016-05-01

    The dangers of the blue light are the object of numerous publications, for both the scientific community and the general public. The new prolific development of light sources emitting potentially toxic blue light (415-455nm) ranges from LED (Light Emitting Diodes) lamps for interior lighting to television screens, computers, digital tablets and smartphones using OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diode) or AMOLED (Active-Matrix Organic Light Emitting Diode) technology. First we will review some technical terms and the main characteristics of light perceived by the human eye. Then we will discuss scientific proof of the toxicity of blue light to the eye, which may cause cataract or macular degeneration. Analysis of the light spectra of several light sources, from natural light to LED lamps, will allow us to specify even better the dangers related to each light source. LED lamps, whether used as components for interior lighting or screens, are of concern if they are used for extended viewing times and at short distance. While we can protect ourselves from natural blue light by wearing colored glasses which filter out, on both front and back surfaces, the toxic wavelengths, it is more difficult to protect oneself from LED lamps in internal lighting, the use of which should be restricted to "white warmth" lamps (2700K). As far as OLED or AMOLED screens are concerned, the only effective protection consists of using them occasionally and only for a short period of time. PMID:27039979

  13. [Features of morbidity community-acquired pneumonia among young recruits].

    PubMed

    Serdukov, D U; Gordienko, A V; Kozlov, M S; Mikhailov, A A; Davydov, P A

    2015-10-01

    Were examined 3338 military personnel of the combined training center. 183 of them diagnosed community-acquired pneumonia, in 3155 focal and infiltrative changes in lung tissue were not identified. The analisys of prevalence been made among young recruits of the acute respiratory illness before arriving in part and at the assembly point, foci of chronic infection, smoking, low body weight. 511 military personnel arrived at the training center in the disease state with symptoms of acute respiratory illness. Examined the relationship these risk factor to the development of community-acquired pneumonia in this category of servicemen. PMID:26827502

  14. Acquired Tracheo-oesophageal Fistula: A Challenging Complication of Tracheostomy.

    PubMed

    Sethi, Priyanka; Bhatia, Pradeep Kumar; Biyani, Ghansham; Paliwal, Bharat; Sharma, Vandana

    2015-10-01

    Acquired tracheo-oesophageal fistula (TEF) after tracheostomy is a life threatening complication and can occur in about 1% of cases of tracheostomy. Percutaneous tracheostomy was performed in intensive care unit on a 40 years male patient for long-term mechanical ventilation. Subsequently patient developed TEF as the complication of tracheostomy. He was initially managed with endoscopically inserted self expanding plastic stent but later on required surgery for definitive repair. The problems associated with acquired TEF and its management are discussed hereby. PMID:26522209

  15. Imaging of acquired coronary diseases: From children to adults.

    PubMed

    Dehaene, A; Jacquier, A; Falque, C; Gorincour, G; Gaubert, J Y

    2016-05-01

    Acquired coronary diseases include aneurysms, fistulae, dissections, and stenosis. Aneurysms may occur secondarily to Kawasaki disease, a childhood vasculitis, the prognosis of which depends on the coronary involvement, or they may be degenerative, infectious, inflammatory, or traumatic in origin. Fistulae develop between the coronary arterial system and a pulmonary or bronchial artery, or cardiac cavity. Dissections may occur spontaneously or may be post-traumatic. These coronary abnormalities may be found incidentally or may present as complications, infarction or rupture. The goals of this article are to understand acquired childhood and adult coronary diseases and their usual means of presentation, the ways of investigating them, and the principles of their treatment. PMID:27130480

  16. Acquired hemophilia A in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, T; Tsukamoto, N; Suto, M; Uchiumi, H; Mitsuhashi, H; Yokohama, A; Maesawa, A; Nojima, Y; Naruse, T

    2001-06-01

    A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed acquired hemophilia A. The patient, a 24-year-old Japanese woman, was referred to our hospital because of uncontrollable bleeding following a tooth extraction. Laboratory examination revealed prolonged APTT (116 seconds), reduced factor VIII activity (2.8 %) and the presence of factor VIII inhibitor at a titer of 46.5 Bethesda units/ml. Transfusion of prothrombin complex concentrate and activated prothrombin complex concentrate followed by administration of prednisolone and cyclophosphamide successfully arrested bleeding and reduced the factor VIII inhibitor level. Acquired hemophilia A is a rare but lethal condition. Rapid diagnosis and introduction of adequate therapies are critical. PMID:11446683

  17. The molecular mechanisms of acquired proteasome inhibitor resistance

    PubMed Central

    Kale, Andrew J.; Moore, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    The development of proteasome inhibitors (PIs) has transformed the treatment of multiple myeloma and mantle cell lymphoma. To date, two PIs have been FDA approved, the boronate peptide bortezomib and, most recently, the epoxyketone peptide carfilzomib. However, intrinsic and acquired resistance to PIs, for which the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood, may limit their efficacy. In this perspective, we discuss recent advances in the molecular understanding of PI resistance through acquired bortezomib resistance in human cell lines to evolved saliniosporamide A (marizomib) resistance in nature. Resistance mechanisms discussed include the upregulation of proteasome subunits and mutations of the catalytic β-subunits. Additionally, we explore potential strategies to overcome PI resistance. PMID:22978849

  18. Differences in acquired immune deficiency syndrome treatment and evaluation strategies between Chinese and Western Medicine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhibin; Li, Xia; Yang, Jiping; Xu, Liran; Guo, Huijun

    2015-12-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine, including Chinese medicine (CM), has been used to treat acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) foralmost 30 years. We aimed to compare the main differences between AIDS treatment and evaluation strategies between CM and Western Medicine (WM), and analyze advantages and disadvantages. The characteristics of integrative medicine (IM), based on CM and WM, include a patient-centered mode of medicine based on evidence. IM focuses on complex intervention and management with systemic and individual treatment. The evaluation indexes of IM might consist of objective indicators and subjective indexes. IM might be a more valuable method for treating AIDS in the future instead of WM or CM alone.

  19. Angiostrongylus vasorum Causing Severe Granulomatous Hepatitis with Concurrent Multiple Acquired PSS.

    PubMed

    Cook, Simon; Priestnall, Simon L; Blake, Damer; Meeson, Richard L

    2015-01-01

    A 14 mo old female Jack Russell terrier presented with a 12 hr history of vomiting and inappetence. She was subsequently diagnosed with multiple acquired portosystemic shunts during an exploratory celiotomy. Gross and histopathological hepatic abnormalities were consistent with chronic disease, including features suggestive of portal hypertension that was potentially caused by migrating and resident Angiostrongylus vasorum larvae. Fecal analysis and polymerase chain reaction of hepatic tissue confirmed the presence of Angiostrongylus vasorum . The dog recovered clinically following empirical treatment and supportive care. A lack of parasite burden was confirmed 9 wk postdiagnosis; however, serum biochemical analysis at that time was suggestive of ongoing hepatic dysfunction.

  20. Combining land use data acquired from Landsat with soil map data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westin, F. C.; Brandner, T. M.

    1981-01-01

    A method currently used to derive agrophysical units (APUs), i.e., geographical areas having definable/comparable agronomic and physical parameters which reflect a range in agricultural use and management, is discussed with reference to results obtained for South Dakota and an area in China. The method consists of combining agricultural land use data acquired from Landsat with soil map data. The resulting map units are soil associations characterized by cropland use intensity, and they can be used to identify major cropland areas and to develop a rating reflecting the relative potential of the soils in the delineated area for crop production, as well as to update small-scale soil maps.

  1. An approach to acquiring quantitative and qualitative knowledge for fault diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Stratton, R.C.; Jarrell, D.B.

    1990-06-01

    Operation and maintenance activities associated with complex systems require knowledge of the physical system and knowledge of the cognitive task. This paper discusses our methodology for acquiring physical process knowledge necessary for reasoning about faults. Acquisition of process knowledge used in fault diagnosis consists of (1) problem definition and (2) model development. Problem definition activity determines the constraints, physics, physical structure, function, and fault cases associated with the physical system. Model development activity builds knowledge models via fault-case analysis and qualitative analysis. We discuss problem definition and model development activities in context of a single-pass heat exchanger. 6 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Incorporating rapid neocortical learning of new schema-consistent information into complementary learning systems theory.

    PubMed

    McClelland, James L

    2013-11-01

    The complementary learning systems theory of the roles of hippocampus and neocortex (McClelland, McNaughton, & O'Reilly, 1995) holds that the rapid integration of arbitrary new information into neocortical structures is avoided to prevent catastrophic interference with structured knowledge representations stored in synaptic connections among neocortical neurons. Recent studies (Tse et al., 2007, 2011) showed that neocortical circuits can rapidly acquire new associations that are consistent with prior knowledge. The findings challenge the complementary learning systems theory as previously presented. However, new simulations extending those reported in McClelland et al. (1995) show that new information that is consistent with knowledge previously acquired by a putatively cortexlike artificial neural network can be learned rapidly and without interfering with existing knowledge; it is when inconsistent new knowledge is acquired quickly that catastrophic interference ensues. Several important features of the findings of Tse et al. (2007, 2011) are captured in these simulations, indicating that the neural network model used in McClelland et al. has characteristics in common with neocortical learning mechanisms. An additional simulation generalizes beyond the network model previously used, showing how the rate of change of cortical connections can depend on prior knowledge in an arguably more biologically plausible network architecture. In sum, the findings of Tse et al. are fully consistent with the idea that hippocampus and neocortex are complementary learning systems. Taken together, these findings and the simulations reported here advance our knowledge by bringing out the role of consistency of new experience with existing knowledge and demonstrating that the rate of change of connections in real and artificial neural networks can be strongly prior-knowledge dependent.

  3. Gender Differences in Community-acquired Meningitis in Adults: Clinical Presentations and Prognostic Factors

    PubMed Central

    Dharmarajan, Lavanya; Salazar, Lucrecia; Hasbun, Rodrigo

    2016-01-01

    Community-acquired meningitis is a serious disease that is associated with high morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to investigate the gender differences involved with the clinical presentations of and prognostic factors for this disease. We conducted a retrospective study of 619 adults diagnosed with community-acquired meningitis in Houston, Texas, who were hospitalized between 2005 and 2010. Patients were categorized as male or female. Those who were evaluated to have a Glasgow Outcome Scale score of four or less were classified to have an adverse clinical outcome. Males consisted of 47.2% (292/619) of the total cohort, and more often presented with coexisting medical conditions, fever, abnormal microbiology results, and abnormalities on head computed tomography. Females more often presented with nuchal rigidity. On logistic regression, fever, CSF glucose <45 mg/dL, and an abnormal neurological examination were predictors of an adverse outcome in male patients, while age greater than 60 years and an abnormal neurological examination were associated with a poor prognosis in female patients. Thus, community-acquired meningitis in males differs significantly from females in regards to comorbidities, presenting symptoms and signs, abnormal laboratory and imaging analysis, and predictors of adverse clinical outcomes. PMID:27500284

  4. Low-dose exposure to inorganic mercury accelerates disease and mortality in acquired murine lupus.

    PubMed

    Via, Charles S; Nguyen, Phuong; Niculescu, Florin; Papadimitriou, John; Hoover, Dennis; Silbergeld, Ellen K

    2003-08-01

    Inorganic mercury (iHg) is known to induce autoimmune disease in susceptible rodent strains. Additionally, in inbred strains of mice prone to autoimmune disease, iHg can accelerate and exacerbate disease manifestations. Despite these well-known links between iHg and autoimmunity in animal models, no association between iHg alone and autoimmune disease in humans has been documented. However, it is possible that low-level iHg exposure can interact with disease triggers to enhance disease expression or susceptibility. To address whether exposure to iHg can alter the course of subsequent acquired autoimmune disease, we used a murine model of acquired autoimmunity, lupus-like chronic graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), in which autoimmunity is induced using normal, nonautoimmune prone donor and F1 recipient mice resistant to Hg-induced autoimmunity. Our results indicate that a 2-week exposure to low-dose iHg (20 or 200 micro g/kg every other day) to donor and host mice ending 1 week before GVHD induction can significantly worsen parameters of disease severity, resulting in premature mortality. iHg pretreatment clearly worsened chronic lupus-like disease, rather than GVHD worsening iHg immunotoxicity. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that low-level, nontoxic iHg preexposure may interact with other risk factors, genetic or acquired, to promote subsequent autoimmune disease development.

  5. Light fantastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-05-01

    The laser has become so ubiquitous that it would be impossible to acknowledge everyone who has played a role in its success. As Roy Glauber said at the 2005 Nobel-prize banquet, when it comes to lasers, "many hands make light work". And he should know: the prize Glauber shared with fellow optics pioneers John Hall and Theodore Hänsch is one of more than 10 Nobels awarded (so far!) for laser-related research. This timeline marking 50 years of the laser contains Physics World's pick of events from laser history, including prizes (gold text), applications (green) and "firsts" (blue).

  6. Scattering Of Light Nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Quaglioni, S; Navratil, P; Roth, R

    2009-12-15

    The exact treatment of nuclei starting from the constituent nucleons and the fundamental interactions among them has been a long-standing goal in nuclear physics. Above all nuclear scattering and reactions, which require the solution of the many-body quantum-mechanical problem in the continuum, represent an extraordinary theoretical as well as computational challenge for ab initio approaches.We present a new ab initio many-body approach which derives from the combination of the ab initio no-core shell model with the resonating-group method [4]. By complementing a microscopic cluster technique with the use of realistic interactions, and a microscopic and consistent description of the nucleon clusters, this approach is capable of describing simultaneously both bound and scattering states in light nuclei. We will discuss applications to neutron and proton scattering on sand light p-shell nuclei using realistic nucleon-nucleon potentials, and outline the progress toward the treatment of more complex reactions.

  7. 10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.6 Acquiring oil by direct purchase. (a) General. For the direct purchase... or refining capability, logistical problems for moving petroleum products, macroeconomic factors,...

  8. Acquiring Software Design Schemas: A Machine Learning Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harandi, Mehdi T.; Lee, Hing-Yan

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an approach based on machine learning that acquires software design schemas from design cases of existing applications. An overview of the technique, design representation, and acquisition system are presented. the paper also addresses issues associated with generalizing common features such as biases. The generalization process is illustrated using an example.

  9. Learning through Business Games: Acquiring Competences within Virtual Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortmuller, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The didactic function of business games is often seen only in the development of sociocommunicative competences and general problem-solving strategies. An equally important aspect of business games lies in the acquirement of technical and problem-oriented knowledge, which is the focus of this article. Moreover, this knowledge dimension is further…

  10. Amazing Stories: Acquiring and Avoiding Inaccurate Information from Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, David N.; Hinze, Scott R.; Slaten, Daniel G.; Horton, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Authors of fiction need not provide accurate accounts of the world, which might generate concern about the kinds of information people can acquire from narratives. Research has demonstrated that readers liberally encode and rely upon the information provided in fictional stories. To date, materials used to demonstrate these effects have largely…

  11. 43 CFR 3110.5-3 - Acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... nearest official survey corner. If a portion of the boundary of the desired lands coincides with the... land surveys and constitute either all or a portion of the tract acquired by the United States, such...) If the lands applied for do not conform to the rectangular system of public land surveys, but...

  12. Acquired inducible antimicrobial resistance in Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chancey, Scott T; Zähner, Dorothea; Stephens, David S

    2012-01-01

    A major contributor to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive bacterial pathogens is the expansion of acquired, inducible genetic elements. Although acquired, inducible antibiotic resistance is not new, the interest in its molecular basis has been accelerated by the widening distribution and often ‘silent’ spread of the elements responsible, the diagnostic challenges of such resistance and the mounting limitations of available agents to treat Gram-positive infections. Acquired, inducible antibiotic resistance elements belong to the accessory genome of a species and are horizontally acquired by transformation/recombination or through the transfer of mobile DNA elements. The two key, but mechanistically very different, induction mechanisms are: ribosome-sensed induction, characteristic of the macrolide–lincosamide–streptogramin B antibiotics and tetracycline resistance, leading to ribosomal modifications or efflux pump activation; and resistance by cell surface-associated sensing of β-lactams (e.g., oxacillin), glycopeptides (e.g., vancomycin) and the polypeptide bacitracin, leading to drug inactivation or resistance due to cell wall alterations. PMID:22913355

  13. Young Children's Recognition of How and when Knowledge Was Acquired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Connie M.; Bartsch, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated young children's understanding of how and when knowledge was acquired. In Experiment 1, thirty 4- and 5-year-olds were shown or told about various toys hidden in distinctive containers in two sessions a week apart. In the second session, children were asked how and when they learned the containers' contents. They more…

  14. 30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879.14... be deposited in the appropriate Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section...

  15. 30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879.14... be deposited in the appropriate Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section...

  16. 30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879.14... be deposited in the appropriate Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section...

  17. 30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER § 879.14... be deposited in the appropriate Abandoned Mine Reclamation Fund. ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section...

  18. Grief and Needs of Adults with Acquired Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Shirley A.; McKay, Robert C.; Nieuwoudt, Johan M.

    2010-01-01

    This report aims to illuminate the complex phenomenon of grief and the needs experienced throughout the time course of their impairments by adults with acquired visual impairments. The study applied a phenomenological research strategy using 10 case studies of South African adults, visually impaired within and beyond six years. Qualitative…

  19. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  20. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. Cigars, cigarettes, manufactured tobacco, and alcoholic... limits: (1) No more than 200 cigarettes and 100 cigars may be included, except that in the case of... States the cigarette limit is 1,000, not more than 200 of which shall have been acquired elsewhere...