Science.gov

Sample records for acquire knowledge skills

  1. Acquiring Psychomotor Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padelford, Harold E.

    1984-01-01

    The author discusses levels of psychomotor skill acquisition: perceiving, motivating, imitating, performing, adapting, and innovating. How these skills interact and how they affect the learner's ability to learn are examined. (CT)

  2. Musicality: instinct or acquired skill?

    PubMed

    Marcus, Gary F

    2012-10-01

    Is the human tendency toward musicality better thought of as the product of a specific, evolved instinct or an acquired skill? Developmental and evolutionary arguments are considered, along with issues of domain-specificity. The article also considers the question of why humans might be consistently and intensely drawn to music if musicality is not in fact the product of a specifically evolved instinct.

  3. Representing and acquiring geographic knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.

    1986-01-01

    Intended for researchers and students in AI, cognitive psychology, and computational geometry, this work presents an original theory of how knowledge of a large-scale neighborhood can be represented symbolically in a computer program, accessed for use, and increased by experience. The discussion analyzes related work in the field, presents an actual computer implementation, and suggests areas for further research.

  4. Representing and acquiring geographic knowledge

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.

    1986-01-01

    This book presents a theory of how knowledge of a large-scale neighborhood can be represented symbolically in a computer program, accessed for use, and increased by experience. The discussion analyzes related work in the field, presents an actual computer implementation, and suggests areas for further research.

  5. Acquiring case adaptation knowledge: A hybrid approach

    SciTech Connect

    Leake, D.B.; Kinley, A.; Wilson, D.

    1996-12-31

    The ability of case-based reasoning (CBR) systems to apply cases to novel situations depends on their case adaptation knowledge. However, endowing CBR systems with adequate adaptation knowledge has proven to be a very difficult task. This paper describes a hybrid method for performing case adaptation, using a combination of rule-based and case-based reasoning. It shows how this approach provides a framework for acquiring flexible adaptation knowledge from experiences with autonomous adaptation and suggests its potential as a basis for acquisition of adaptation knowledge from interactive user guidance. It also presents initial experimental results examining the benefits of the approach and comparing the relative contributions of case learning and adaptation learning to reasoning performance.

  6. Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ride, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), an education activity, allows middle school students to program a digital camera on board the International Space Station to photograph a variety of geographical targets for study in the classroom. Photos are made available on the web for viewing and study by participating schools around the world. Educators use the images for projects involving Earth Science, geography, physics, and social science.

  7. Acquired Skills Profiles for Environmental Science Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, S. J.; Grieve, T.

    1996-01-01

    Describes a project that developed software for the production of skills profiles for individual students as an appendix to the curriculum vitae submitted with employment applications. The software is specifically designed for students in modular degree programs in environmental education. (DDR)

  8. Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

  9. Consultant/Linker Knowledge and Skills Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smink, Jay

    The Consultant/Linker Knowledge and Skills Inventory is used to assess both existing and needed levels of knowledge and skills for consulting with school staff. The inventory is self-administered, and requires 20 to 30 minutes to complete. For each item, knowledge and skill are rated low, medium, or high; and need for improvement is rated none,…

  10. Motor skill depends on knowledge of facts

    PubMed Central

    Stanley, Jason; Krakauer, John W.

    2013-01-01

    Those in 20th century philosophy, psychology, and neuroscience who have discussed the nature of skilled action have, for the most part, accepted the view that being skilled at an activity is independent of knowing facts about that activity, i.e., that skill is independent of knowledge of facts. In this paper we question this view of motor skill. We begin by situating the notion of skill in historical and philosophical context. We use the discussion to explain and motivate the view that motor skill depends upon knowledge of facts. This conclusion seemingly contradicts well-known results in cognitive science. It is natural, on the face of it, to take the case of H.M., the seminal case in cognitive neuroscience that led to the discovery of different memory systems, as providing powerful evidence for the independence of knowledge and skill acquisition. After all, H.M. seems to show that motor learning is retained even when previous knowledge about the activity has been lost. Improvements in skill generally require increased precision of selected actions, which we call motor acuity. Motor acuity may indeed not require propositional knowledge and has direct parallels with perceptual acuity. We argue, however, that reflection on the specifics of H.M.'s case, as well as other research on the nature of skill, indicates that learning to become skilled at a motor task, for example tennis, depends also on knowledge-based selection of the right actions. Thus skilled activity requires both acuity and knowledge, with both increasing with practice. The moral of our discussion ranges beyond debates about motor skill; we argue that it undermines any attempt to draw a distinction between practical and theoretical activities. While we will reject the independence of skill and knowledge, our discussion leaves open several different possible relations between knowledge and skill. Deciding between them is a task to be resolved by future research. PMID:24009571

  11. Domain-Specific Knowledge and Why Teaching Generic Skills Does Not Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tricot, André; Sweller, John

    2014-01-01

    Domain-general cognitive knowledge has frequently been used to explain skill when domain-specific knowledge held in long-term memory may provide a better explanation. An emphasis on domain-general knowledge may be misplaced if domain-specific knowledge is the primary factor driving acquired intellectual skills. We trace the long history of…

  12. A Comparison of Student Skill Knowledge Estimates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Elizabeth; Nugent, Rebecca; Dean, Nema

    2009-01-01

    A fundamental goal of educational research is identifying students' current stage of skill mastery (complete/partial/none). In recent years a number of cognitive diagnosis models have become a popular means of estimating student skill knowledge. However, these models become difficult to estimate as the number of students, items, and skills grows.…

  13. Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

  14. Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions for Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Anne

    2011-01-01

    The purposes of this research are to explore how currently assessed diversity knowledge, diversity skills, and diversity dispositions of pre-service teachers (PST) relate to each other and further to surmise if the presence of diversity knowledge, diversity skills, and diversity dispositions manifests in cultural efficacy and a general cultural…

  15. [Acquiring nursing knowledge through the constructivist method].

    PubMed

    Heimann, Candice; Prado, Cláudia; de Moraes, Rose Reny Sousa Patricio; Vidal, Giselle Vieira; Liberal, Diana; Oliveira, Gésica Kelly da Silva; Barata, Michele Viana

    2013-08-01

    This article reflects on Vygotsky's theory of knowledge construction by nursing professionals. In the Vygotskian approach, persons are seen as agents who transform and are transformed by the social relationships of a particular culture, or more specifically by the life-long dialectical interaction of human beings and their social and cultural environments. The theory of constructivism seeks to explain the modification of an individual's knowledge strategy throughout his or her life. The constructivist ideas advocated by Vygotsky may represent an alternative method for theoretical and practical health studies, particularly in relation to the subjective dimension of nursing staff collective work.

  16. The Best Time to Acquire New Skills: Age-Related Differences in Implicit Sequence Learning across the Human Lifespan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janacsek, Karolina; Fiser, Jozsef; Nemeth, Dezso

    2012-01-01

    Implicit skill learning underlies obtaining not only motor, but also cognitive and social skills through the life of an individual. Yet, the ontogenetic changes in humans' implicit learning abilities have not yet been characterized, and, thus, their role in acquiring new knowledge efficiently during development is unknown. We investigated such…

  17. Managing Skills and Knowledge Using Online Tools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waller, Dave; Holland, Tom

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to explore a structured approach to measuring skills and knowledge, and to outline how such an approach can be beneficial for improving performance and supporting strategy. It also seeks to examine how online tools can help with this process and to look at implications for the wider UK and European skills development…

  18. Young Children's Recognition of How and when Knowledge Was Acquired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Connie M.; Bartsch, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated young children's understanding of how and when knowledge was acquired. In Experiment 1, thirty 4- and 5-year-olds were shown or told about various toys hidden in distinctive containers in two sessions a week apart. In the second session, children were asked how and when they learned the containers' contents. They more…

  19. The Method To Acquire the Strategic Knowledge on Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takaoka, Ryo; Okamoto, Toshio

    As a person learns, his problem solving ability improves and one reason for this is the increased acquisition of "macro-rules" which make problem solving more efficient. An intelligent computer assisted learning (ICAI) system is being developed which automatically acquires the useful knowledge from the domain experts; as experts give the learning…

  20. Essential Knowledges and Skills for Beginning Principals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Noeline

    The purpose of this literature review is to produce a list of essential knowledge and skills for beginning principals. Research on the principalship falls into two distinct categories: prescriptive and descriptive. Prescriptive research emphasizes the perceived or idealized role of the principal as "bold innovator" or "creative…

  1. Tourism Skills Delivery: Sharing Tourism Knowledge Online

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braun, Patrice; Hollick, Mary

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to share the authors' initial insights into tourism industry capacity building via flexibly delivered online skilling and knowledge sharing. Design/methodology/approach: An online research survey approach was employed, involving a sample of 64 micro tourism operators. Findings: The paper finds that the major…

  2. Counselling on breastfeeding: assessing knowledge and skills.

    PubMed Central

    Rea, M. F.; Venancio, S. I.; Martines, J. C.; Savage, F.

    1999-01-01

    Reported are the results of a randomized controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of the WHO/UNICEF 40-hour course "Breastfeeding counselling: a training course". The course was conducted in a maternity hospital which provides care to a low-income population in a metropolitan area in São Paulo, Brazil. Health workers from 60 health units were randomly assigned to be either participants (20) or controls (40), and their breastfeeding knowledge and skills were assessed before and immediately after the course, as well as 3 months later. Immediately after the course the participants' knowledge of breastfeeding had increased significantly compared to controls. Both their clinical and counselling skills also improved significantly. When assessed 3 months later, the scores remained high with only a small decrease. The implementation of the course was also evaluated. The methods used were participatory observation, key interviews and focus group discussion. In the 33 sessions of the course, the average score was 8.43 out of 10. Scores were highest for content and methodology of the theory sessions, and lowest for "use of time", "clinical management of lactation", and "discussion of clinical practice". "Breastfeeding counselling: a training course" therefore effectively increases health workers' knowledge and their clinical and counselling skills for the support of breastfeeding. The course can be conducted adequately using the material and methodology proposed, but could be more satisfactory if the time allocated to exercises and clinical practice sessions were increased. PMID:10427934

  3. 14 CFR 133.23 - Knowledge and skill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Knowledge and skill. 133.23 Section 133.23... OPERATIONS Certification Rules § 133.23 Knowledge and skill. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this... the Administrator satisfactory knowledge and skill regarding rotorcraft external-load operations...

  4. 14 CFR 133.23 - Knowledge and skill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Knowledge and skill. 133.23 Section 133.23... OPERATIONS Certification Rules § 133.23 Knowledge and skill. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this... the Administrator satisfactory knowledge and skill regarding rotorcraft external-load operations...

  5. 14 CFR 133.23 - Knowledge and skill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Knowledge and skill. 133.23 Section 133.23... OPERATIONS Certification Rules § 133.23 Knowledge and skill. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this... the Administrator satisfactory knowledge and skill regarding rotorcraft external-load operations...

  6. 49 CFR 383.135 - Passing knowledge and skills tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Passing knowledge and skills tests. 383.135... skills tests. (a) Knowledge tests. (1) To achieve a passing score on each of the knowledge tests, a... than 80 percent correct) must not be issued a Group A CLP or CDL. (b) Skills Tests. (1) To achieve...

  7. 14 CFR 133.23 - Knowledge and skill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Knowledge and skill. 133.23 Section 133.23... OPERATIONS Certification Rules § 133.23 Knowledge and skill. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this... the Administrator satisfactory knowledge and skill regarding rotorcraft external-load operations...

  8. 49 CFR 383.135 - Passing knowledge and skills tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Passing knowledge and skills tests. 383.135... skills tests. (a) Knowledge tests. (1) To achieve a passing score on each of the knowledge tests, a... than 80 percent correct) must not be issued a Group A CLP or CDL. (b) Skills Tests. (1) To achieve...

  9. 14 CFR 133.23 - Knowledge and skill.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Knowledge and skill. 133.23 Section 133.23... OPERATIONS Certification Rules § 133.23 Knowledge and skill. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (d) of this... the Administrator satisfactory knowledge and skill regarding rotorcraft external-load operations...

  10. Improving teaching skills: from interactive classroom to applicable knowledge.

    PubMed

    Vujovic, Predrag

    2016-03-01

    Making the transition from more traditional to more interactive lecturing can be successfully achieved by applying numerous teaching techniques. To use lecture time in the most efficient way, a lecturer should first instruct students to acquire basic knowledge before coming to class. Various in-class activities then can be used to help students develop higher thinking skills and gain better understanding of the studied material. These in-class activities can take many forms (multiple-choice questions of various complexities, compare-and-contrast tasks, quantitative and problem-solving tasks, questions dealing with interpretations of tables, graphs, and charts, etc.) and should be designed to help student integrate their knowledge, to facilitate communication among students, and at the same time to allow the lecturer to closely monitor the learning process as it happens in the classroom.

  11. How Do Primary School Students Acquire the Skill of Making Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darus, Faridah Binti; Saat, Rohaida Mohd

    2014-01-01

    Science education in Malaysia emphasizes three components: namely knowledge, scientific skills which include science process skills and manipulative skills; scientific attitudes; and noble values. The science process skills are important in enhancing students' cognitive development and also to facilitate students' active participation during the…

  12. GETTING LOST: TOPOGRAPHIC SKILLS IN ACQUIRED AND DEVELOPMENTAL PROSOPAGNOSIA

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Edison; Pancaroglu, Raika; Burles, Ford; Duchaine, Brad; Iaria, Giuseppe; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies report that acquired prosopagnosia is frequently associated with topographic disorientation. Whether this is associated with a specific anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, how frequently it is seen with the developmental variant, and what specific topographic function is impaired to account for this problem are not known. We studied ten subjects with acquired prosopagnosia from either occipitotemporal or anterior temporal lesions and seven with developmental prosopagnosia. Subjects were given a battery of topographic tests, including house and scene recognition, the road map test, a test of cognitive map formation, and a standardized self-report questionnaire. House and/or scene recognition were frequently impaired after either occipitotemporal or anterior temporal lesions in acquired prosopagnosia. Subjects with occipitotemporal lesions were also impaired in cognitive map formation: an overlap analysis identified right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri as a likely correlate. Only one subject with acquired prosopagnosia had mild difficulty with directional orientation on the road map test. Only one subject with developmental prosopagnosia had difficulty with cognitive map formation, and none were impaired on the other tests. Scores for house and scene recognition correlated most strongly with the results of the questionnaire. We conclude that topographic disorientation in acquired prosopagnosia reflects impaired place recognition, with a contribution from poor cognitive map formation when there is occipitotemporal damage. Topographic impairments are less frequent in developmental prosopagnosia. PMID:26874939

  13. Getting lost: Topographic skills in acquired and developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Corrow, Jeffrey C; Corrow, Sherryse L; Lee, Edison; Pancaroglu, Raika; Burles, Ford; Duchaine, Brad; Iaria, Giuseppe; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies report that acquired prosopagnosia is frequently associated with topographic disorientation. Whether this is associated with a specific anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, how frequently it is seen with the developmental variant, and what specific topographic function is impaired to account for this problem are not known. We studied ten subjects with acquired prosopagnosia from either occipitotemporal or anterior temporal (AT) lesions and seven with developmental prosopagnosia. Subjects were given a battery of topographic tests, including house and scene recognition, the road map test, a test of cognitive map formation, and a standardized self-report questionnaire. House and/or scene recognition were frequently impaired after either occipitotemporal or AT lesions in acquired prosopagnosia. Subjects with occipitotemporal lesions were also impaired in cognitive map formation: an overlap analysis identified right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri as a likely correlate. Only one subject with acquired prosopagnosia had mild difficulty with directional orientation on the road map test. Only one subject with developmental prosopagnosia had difficulty with cognitive map formation, and none were impaired on the other tests. Scores for house and scene recognition correlated most strongly with the results of the questionnaire. We conclude that topographic disorientation in acquired prosopagnosia reflects impaired place recognition, with a contribution from poor cognitive map formation when there is occipitotemporal damage. Topographic impairments are less frequent in developmental prosopagnosia.

  14. Curiosity Search: Producing Generalists by Encouraging Individuals to Continually Explore and Acquire Skills throughout Their Lifetime

    PubMed Central

    Clune, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    Natural animals are renowned for their ability to acquire a diverse and general skill set over the course of their lifetime. However, research in artificial intelligence has yet to produce agents that acquire all or even most of the available skills in non-trivial environments. One candidate algorithm for encouraging the production of such individuals is Novelty Search, which pressures organisms to exhibit different behaviors from other individuals. However, we hypothesized that Novelty Search would produce sub-populations of specialists, in which each individual possesses a subset of skills, but no one organism acquires all or most of the skills. In this paper, we propose a new algorithm called Curiosity Search, which is designed to produce individuals that acquire as many skills as possible during their lifetime. We show that in a multiple-skill maze environment, Curiosity Search does produce individuals that explore their entire domain, while a traditional implementation of Novelty Search produces specialists. However, we reveal that when modified to encourage intra-life behavioral diversity, Novelty Search can produce organisms that explore almost as much of their environment as Curiosity Search, although Curiosity Search retains a significant performance edge. Finally, we show that Curiosity Search is a useful helper objective when combined with Novelty Search, producing individuals that acquire significantly more skills than either algorithm alone. PMID:27589267

  15. The best time to acquire new skills: age-related differences in implicit sequence learning across the human lifespan.

    PubMed

    Janacsek, Karolina; Fiser, József; Nemeth, Dezso

    2012-07-01

    Implicit skill learning underlies obtaining not only motor, but also cognitive and social skills through the life of an individual. Yet, the ontogenetic changes in humans' implicit learning abilities have not yet been characterized, and, thus, their role in acquiring new knowledge efficiently during development is unknown. We investigated such learning across the lifespan, between 4 and 85 years of age with an implicit probabilistic sequence learning task, and we found that the difference in implicitly learning high- vs. low-probability events--measured by raw reaction time (RT)--exhibited a rapid decrement around age of 12. Accuracy and z-transformed data showed partially different developmental curves, suggesting a re-evaluation of analysis methods in developmental research. The decrement in raw RT differences supports an extension of the traditional two-stage lifespan skill acquisition model: in addition to a decline above the age 60 reported in earlier studies, sensitivity to raw probabilities and, therefore, acquiring new skills is significantly more effective until early adolescence than later in life. These results suggest that due to developmental changes in early adolescence, implicit skill learning processes undergo a marked shift in weighting raw probabilities vs. more complex interpretations of events, which, with appropriate timing, prove to be an optimal strategy for human skill learning.

  16. Business Knowledges and Skills in the 1970's

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stiegler, C. B.

    1974-01-01

    Business teachers must have a thorough knowledge of current events--terminology, knowledge and skills, trends--in the business environment in order to provide adequate learning for their students. (Author)

  17. Awareness Knowledge Attitude Skills of Telemedicine among Health Professional Faculty Working in Teaching Hospitals

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zayapragassarazan, Zayabalaradjane; Kumar, Santosh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Telemedicine is an emerging technology in health sector in India. The success of any new technology depends on many factors including the knowledge and understanding of the concept, skills acquired, attitude towards technology and working environment by the concerned professionals. Aim: The main objective of this study was to assess…

  18. Developing Teacher Candidates' Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions to Teach Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Young Ah; Herner-Patnode, Leah

    2010-01-01

    Although many teacher educators have suggested multiple ways to prepare teacher candidates to teach for diversity, the knowledge, skills and dispositions are not easy to acquire. The purpose of this research is to investigate how an M.Ed licensure program prepared teacher candidates to teach with concern for equity and diversity. The…

  19. Innovative Methods to Acquire and Adapt Soldier Skills (INMASS) in the Operational Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-08-01

    developing skills needed to perform complex, cognitively-loaded tasks . The method addresses problem solving skills when critical thinking might be... developed as a result of experience, trial and error, or creative thinking . We will take a Knowledge Audit approach in order to elicit a collection of...need for innovative training approaches to develop the required Soldier knowledge , skills , abilities, and attitudes (KSAAs). The primary goal of this

  20. Perceptions of Safety Knowledge and Skills in Vocational Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bani-Salameh, Zakaria

    2016-01-01

    This research aims at investigating the perceptions towards safety knowledge and skills and perceived efficacies among flight attendants onboard. Many studies have reported deficiencies in vocational training among flight attendants to handle specific onboard emergencies, but these findings are not surprising as knowledge and skills that are not…

  1. Recognition of Knowledge and Skills at Work: In Whose Interests?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berglund, Leif; Andersson, Per

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Work-place learning takes place in many settings and in different ways, resulting in knowledge and skills of different kinds. The recognition process in the work place is however often implicit and seldom discussed in terms of recognition of prior learning (RPL). The aim of this paper is to give examples of how the knowledge/skills of…

  2. Developing Knowledge and Skills in Engineers: A Learning Laboratory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platts, K.W.

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses the knowledge and skill requirements for manufacturing system design and describes an innovative "learning laboratory" approach to educating graduate level manufacturing engineers. The laboratory provides a mechanism that gives engineers a wide range of knowledge and skills in design and implementation, much of which cannot be…

  3. Learning outside the Laboratory: Ability and Non-Ability Influences on Acquiring Political Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, David Z.; Meinz, Elizabeth J.; Pink, Jeffrey E.; Pettibone, Jonathan C.; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify sources of individual differences in knowledge acquired under natural conditions. Through its direct influence on background knowledge, crystallized intelligence (Gc) had a major impact on political knowledge, acquired over a period of more than 2 months, but there were independent influences of…

  4. Autonomously acquiring declarative and procedural knowledge for ICAT systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovarik, Vincent J., Jr.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of Intelligent Computer Aided Training (ICAT) systems is critically dependent on the ability to define and encode knowledge. This knowledge engineering effort can be broadly divided into two categories: domain knowledge and expert or task knowledge. Domain knowledge refers to the physical environment or system with which the expert interacts. Expert knowledge consists of the set of procedures and heuristics employed by the expert in performing their task. Both these areas are a significant bottleneck in the acquisition of knowledge for ICAT systems. This paper presents a research project in the area of autonomous knowledge acquisition using a passive observation concept. The system observes an expert and then generalizes the observations into production rules representing the domain expert's knowledge.

  5. Increasing Aspiring Principals' Readiness to Serve: Knowledge and Skill Application Laboratories

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eiseman, Jeffrey W.; Militello, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    Most leadership programs emphasize knowledge over skills, being skillful over how to be skillful, knowledge about skills over skill application, and ad hoc and hard-to-assess field activities over focused and observable skill practice. "Knowledge and skill application laboratories" provide opportunities to experiment with--and receive…

  6. Categorical phonotactic knowledge filters second language input, but probabilistic phonotactic knowledge can still be acquired.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Tomas O; Kager, René W J

    2015-09-01

    Probabilistic phonotactic knowledge facilitates perception, but categorical phonotactic illegality can cause misperceptions, especially of non-native phoneme combinations. If misperceptions induced by first language (L1) knowledge filter second language input, access to second language (L2) probabilistic phonotactics is potentially blocked for L2 acquisition. The facilitatory effects of L2 probabilistic phonotactics and categorical filtering effects of L1 phonotactics were compared and contrasted in a series of cross-modal priming experiments. Dutch native listeners and L1 Spanish and Japanese learners of Dutch had to perform a lexical decision task on Dutch words that started with /sC/ clusters that were of different degrees of probabilistic wellformedness in Dutch but illegal in Spanish and Japanese. Versions of target words with Spanish illegality resolving epenthesis in the clusters primed the Spanish group, showing an L1 filter; a similar effect was not found for the Japanese group. In addition, words with wellformed /sC/ clusters were recognised faster, showing a positive effect on processing of probabilistic wellformedness. However, Spanish learners with higher proficiency were facilitated to a greater extent by wellformed but epenthesised clusters, showing that although probabilistic learning occurs in spite of the L1 filter, the acquired probabilistic knowledge is still affected by L1 categorical knowledge. Categorical phonotactic and probabilistic knowledge are of a different nature and interact in acquisition.

  7. Transcultural Knowledge and Skills Transfer: Issues Arising from Evaluation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Anita J.; Holloway, David G.

    2007-01-01

    The transfer of knowledge, policy and practice between nations increasingly involves knowledge of the theory and practice of evaluation. This article examines issues arising from the transcultural evaluation of a drug and alcohol misuse knowledge and skills transfer programme for nurses, nurse teachers and medical staff in the narcology service in…

  8. Higher Skills and the Knowledge Economy: The Challenge of Offshoring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Craig, John; Gunn, Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Recent economics literature on offshoring highlights the trend towards the relocation of high-skill jobs to emerging economies. This evolution presents a challenge to the established knowledge economy discourse on which the relationship between higher education, higher skills, higher productivity and higher incomes has been based. This paper…

  9. United States Program for Technical assistance to IAEA Standards. Concept Paper: Knowledge Acquisition, Skills training for enhanced IAEA safeguards inspections

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, F.A.; Toquam, J.L.

    1993-11-01

    This concept paper explores the potential contribution of ``Knowledge Acquisition Skills`` in enhancing the effectiveness of international safeguards inspections by the International Atomic energy Agency (IAEA, or Agency) and identifies types of training that could be provided to develop or improve such skills. For purposes of this concept paper, Knowledge Acquisition Skills are defined broadly to include all appropriate techniques that IAEA safeguards inspectors can use to acquire and analyze information relevant to the performance of successful safeguards inspections. These techniques include a range of cognitive, analytic, judgmental, interpersonal, and communications skills that have the potential to help IAEA safeguards inspectors function more effectively.

  10. Process Support in Learning Tasks for Acquiring Complex Cognitive Skills in the Domain of Law

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nadolski, Rob J.; Kirschner, Paul A.; van Merrienboer, Jeroen J. G.

    2006-01-01

    Whole tasks for acquiring complex skills are often too difficult for novices. To solve this problem, "process support" divides the problem solving into phases, offers driving questions, and provides feedback. A multimedia program was used to teach sophomore law students ("N"=82) to prepare and carry out a plea. In a randomised 2x2 design with the…

  11. Can Student Teachers Acquire Core Skills for Teaching from Part-Time Employment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wylie, Ken; Cummins, Brian

    2013-01-01

    Part-time employment among university students has become commonplace internationally. Research has largely focused on the impact of part-time employment on academic performance. This research takes an original approach in that it poses the question whether students can acquire core skills relevant to teaching from their part-time employment. The…

  12. Domain-Specific Knowledge and General Skills in Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhara-Kojima, Keiko; Hatano, Giyoo

    A study examined whether the reading comprehension of students with rich domain-specific knowledge will be better than that of students without it and whether assessed general skills will be correlated significantly with reading comprehension performance for students without specific knowledge, but negligible for the students with much specific…

  13. Pharmacists' and general practitioners' pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills.

    PubMed

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Leendertse, Anne J; Faber, Adrianne; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; de Wildt, Dick J; Jansen, Paul A F

    2015-08-01

    Understanding differences in the pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills of pharmacists and physicians is vital to optimizing interprofessional collaboration and education. This study investigated these differences and the potential influence of work experience. The pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills of pharmacists, general practitioners (GPs), and trainees were compared, using a written assessment; 294 participants were included. Overall scores (mean ± SD) ranged from 69.3% ± 6.5% to 76.5% ± 9.5% for basic knowledge, 70.3% ± 10.8% to 79.7% ± 8.4% for applied knowledge, and 66.3% ± 21.1% to 84.7% ± 20.7% for pharmacotherapy skills (analysis of variance all P < .05). The pharmacists had the highest scores for all domains (P < .05), with the exception of pharmacist trainees, who had comparable scores for basic knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills (both P > .05). The GPs scored the lowest for pharmacotherapy skills (P < .05). More work experience was associated with better knowledge of applied pharmacology among pharmacists (by 2% per 10 work-years), but with poorer pharmacotherapy skills among pharmacists and GPs (by 3% and 4% per 10 work-years, respectively). In conclusion, pharmacists and GPs differ in their knowledge and skills, and these differences become more pronounced with more work experience. In general, pharmacists outperform pharmacist trainees, whereas GP trainees outperform GPs. These differences could be important for interdisciplinary collaboration and education.

  14. Prospective Secondary Science Teachers' Argumentation Skills and the Interaction of These Skills with Their Conceptual Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Acar, Ömer; Patton, Bruce R.; White, Arthur L.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated if prospective secondary science teachers enhance their argumentation skills and the interaction of the change in their argumentation skills with their conceptual knowledge during an argumentation-based guided inquiry course. 37 prospective secondary science teachers constituted the study sample. They were grouped according…

  15. Differences in Spatial Knowledge Acquired from Maps and Navigation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-12-01

    1980 N-1595-ONR Prepared For The Office of Naval Research S ELECTE FEB 1 0 1981 " \\ E Rnd ISdiA AOMCA~ CA. 40 Ao 2A ,, , DUMO ,,LI,,,tO 006 This...76311 53 Majr JacK A. Thorpe, USAF NavjL Wir Coileqe Provilence. al 02846 DIPARrMENT OF rilz MARINES 54 H. dilli~a Greenup Educition Advisor CE031...Lduration Cetner, 1CDEC OUantic , VA 22134 N-1595-ONB DIFFERENCES IN SPATIAL KNOWLEDGE... 12/19/90 PAGE 7 55 Major Howard Lanqdon tiq.. Marine Corps OTTI

  16. ISS Update: Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM)

    NASA Video Gallery

    ISS Update commentator Pat Ryan talks to Brion Au, Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM) Payload Developer, about the EarthKAM investigation being performed aboard the Inter...

  17. Knowledge, Skills, and Practices Concerning Phonological Awareness among Early Childhood Education Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alghazo, Emad M.; Al-Hilawani, Yasser A.

    2010-01-01

    A sample of 83 kindergarten teachers participated in this study to examine their knowledge, skills, and classroom practices concerning phonological awareness. Analyses of data revealed significant gaps between knowledge and practice, knowledge and skills, and skills and practice. The gap between knowledge and skills, on one hand, and classroom…

  18. Collaboration Skills Pre-Service Teachers Acquire in a Responsive Preparation Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Ruben

    2012-01-01

    Collaboration skills are essential for all teachers, but crucial for personnel who instruct students with disabilities. Through collaboration, families and professionals are able to combine their strengths and wisdom to make education as appropriate as possible for the student. Capitalizing on each other's knowledge and expertise not only helps…

  19. Skills, rules and knowledge in aircraft maintenance: errors in context

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hobbs, Alan; Williamson, Ann

    2002-01-01

    Automatic or skill-based behaviour is generally considered to be less prone to error than behaviour directed by conscious control. However, researchers who have applied Rasmussen's skill-rule-knowledge human error framework to accidents and incidents have sometimes found that skill-based errors appear in significant numbers. It is proposed that this is largely a reflection of the opportunities for error which workplaces present and does not indicate that skill-based behaviour is intrinsically unreliable. In the current study, 99 errors reported by 72 aircraft mechanics were examined in the light of a task analysis based on observations of the work of 25 aircraft mechanics. The task analysis identified the opportunities for error presented at various stages of maintenance work packages and by the job as a whole. Once the frequency of each error type was normalized in terms of the opportunities for error, it became apparent that skill-based performance is more reliable than rule-based performance, which is in turn more reliable than knowledge-based performance. The results reinforce the belief that industrial safety interventions designed to reduce errors would best be directed at those aspects of jobs that involve rule- and knowledge-based performance.

  20. Improving Teaching Skills: From Interactive Classroom to Applicable Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vujovic, Predrag

    2016-01-01

    Making the transition from more traditional to more interactive lecturing can be successfully achieved by applying numerous teaching techniques. To use lecture time in the most efficient way, a lecturer should first instruct students to acquire basic knowledge before coming to class. Various in-class activities then can be used to help students…

  1. Pregnancy, Birth, Infant and Child Care: Midwifery Skill and Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negussie, Birgit

    This presentation, which is based in part on a cross-cultural survey of East Africans and also on research conducted in Ethiopia, highlights the importance of traditional knowledge of midwifery. Examples of traditional skills in pregancy and birth care, and of child care and child rearing in several East African countries, are offered. It is…

  2. Assessing Job Knowledge and Generally Useful Skills of Young Americans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmann, J. Stanley

    1977-01-01

    Discusses data collection and presents data analysis of NAEP's (National Assessment of Educational Progress) career and occupational development (COD) assessment, designed to determine how knowledgeable young Americans are about the work of the world and how well developed their basic skills (needed to obtain almost any job) are. (SH) Aspect of…

  3. Abilities, skills and knowledge in measures of health literacy

    PubMed Central

    Ownby, Raymond L.; Acevedo, Amarilis; Waldrop-Valverde, Drenna; Jacobs, Robin J.; Caballero, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Objective Health literacy has been recognized as an important factor in patients' health status and outcomes, but the relative contribution of demographic variables, cognitive abilities, academic skills, and health knowledge to performance on tests of health literacy has not been as extensively explored. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model of health literacy as a composite of cognitive abilities, academic skills, and health knowledge (ASK model) and test its relation to measures of health literacy in a model that first takes demographic variables into account. Methods A battery of cognitive, academic achievement, health knowledge and health literacy measures was administered to 359 Spanish- and English-speaking community-dwelling volunteers. The relations of health literacy tests to the model were evaluated using regression models. Results Each health literacy test was related to elements of the model but variability existed across measures. Conclusion Analyses partially support the ASK model defining health literacy as a composite of abilities, skills, and knowledge, although the relations of commonly used health literacy measures to each element of the model varied widely. Practice implications Results suggest that clinicians and researchers should be aware of the abilities and skills assessed by health literacy measures when choosing a measure. PMID:24637163

  4. Nursing leadership for the new millennium. Essential knowledge & skills.

    PubMed

    Fralic, M F

    1999-01-01

    The major plenary sessions at the NLN 24th Biennial Convention in Miami Beach, Florida, addressed the subject of leadership as an important component of the convention's theme--The Nursing Renaissance: New Ways of Being, Learning, and Leading. Dr. Maryann F. Fralic spoke to the essential knowledge and skills of nursing leaders.

  5. The Developing English Skills and Knowledge (DESK) Program Handbook

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohloff, Jean

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the DESK (Developing English Skills and Knowledge) Program at Louisiana State University (LSU) is to help deaf and hard of hearing students make a smooth transition from high school to postsecondary institutions and, in doing so, to ensure their academic and professional success. This handbook documents, in a "how-to"…

  6. The Effects of Argument Stance on Scientific Knowledge Inquiry Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horng, Ruey-Yun; Lu, Po-Hui; Chen, Pei-Hua; Hou, Shih-Huan

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the effects of argument stance on knowledge inquiry skills. Sixty-two participants were assigned to three argument stance conditions (proponent, opponent, or control) to receive scaffolded argumentation practice on two science issues in random order. After the argumentation treatment, participants were asked to write down…

  7. Knowledge, Skills and Attributes for Academic Reference Librarians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haddow, Gaby

    2012-01-01

    A survey of Australian academic reference librarians was conducted as part of an international collaboration seeking to identify the most important knowledge, skills and attributes now and for the next ten years. Librarians working in or managing reference-related services at university and vocational education and training institutions…

  8. Knowledge and Skills Transfer between MBA and Workplace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prince, Melvin; Burns, David; Lu, Xinyi; Winsor, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This paper aims to use goal-setting theory to explain the transfer of knowledge and skills between master of business administration (MBA) and the workplace. Design/methodology/approach: Data were obtained by an online survey of MBA students enrolled in at four US graduate business schools. These were a public and private institution in…

  9. Developing Curriculum: Knowledge and Skills Essential for an International Salesforce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruhland, Sheila K.

    A study explored the additional knowledge and skills an international salesforce needs based upon 95 respondents from Wisconsin manufacturing companies. Six areas were evaluated by sales representatives involved with international sales and marketing to identify the education and training needed within the next 3 years by the work force. Four…

  10. Teachers' ICT Skills and Knowledge Needs. Interchange 58.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Dorothy; Wilson, Kay; Richardson, Amanda; Tuson, Jennifer; Coles, Louisa

    The aims of this research were to: investigate teachers' needs for knowledge and skills in relation to the effective use of Information and Communications Technology (ICT), and suggest ways of enhancing future design and delivery of self- and staff-development in order to increase and improve the level of ICT use in Scottish schools. First, a…

  11. Learning to be different: Acquired skills, social learning, frequency dependence, and environmental variation can cause behaviourally mediated foraging specializations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tinker, M.T.; Mangel, M.; Estes, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    Question: How does the ability to improve foraging skills by learning, and to transfer that learned knowledge, affect the development of intra-population foraging specializations? Features of the model: We use both a state-dependent life-history model implemented by stochastic dynamic programming (SDPM) and an individual-based model (IBM) to capture the dynamic nature of behavioural preferences in feeding. Variables in the SDPM include energy reserves, skill levels, energy and handling time per single prey item, metabolic rate, the rates at which skills are learned and forgotten, the effect of skills on handling time, and the relationship between energy reserves and fitness. Additional variables in the IBM include the probability of successful weaning, the logistic dynamics of the prey species with stochastic recruitment, the intensity of top-down control of prey by predators, the mean and variance in skill levels of new recruits, and the extent to which learned Information can be transmitted via matrilineal social learning. Key range of variables: We explore the effects of approaching the time horizon in the SDPM, changing the extent to which skills can improve with experience, increasing the rates of learning or forgetting of skills, changing whether the learning curve is constant, accelerating (T-shaped) or decelerating ('r'-shaped), changing both mean and maximum possible energy reserves, changing metabolic costs of foraging, and changing the rate of encounter with prey. Conclusions: The model results show that the following factors increase the degree of prey specialization observed in a predator population: (1) Experience handling a prey type can substantially improve foraging skills for that prey. (2) There is limited ability to retain complex learned skills for multiple prey types. (3) The learning curve for acquiring new foraging skills is accelerating, or J-shaped. (4) The metabolic costs of foraging are high relative to available energy reserves. (5

  12. 20 CFR 702.419 - Action by employer upon acquiring knowledge or being given notice of injury.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action by employer upon acquiring knowledge or being given notice of injury. 702.419 Section 702.419 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT STANDARDS... acquiring knowledge or being given notice of injury. Whenever an employer acquires knowledge of an...

  13. A test of the testing effect: acquiring problem-solving skills from worked examples.

    PubMed

    van Gog, Tamara; Kester, Liesbeth

    2012-01-01

    The "testing effect" refers to the finding that after an initial study opportunity, testing is more effective for long-term retention than restudying. The testing effect seems robust and is a finding from the field of cognitive science that has important implications for education. However, it is unclear whether this effect also applies to the acquisition of problem-solving skills, which is important to establish given the key role problem solving plays in, for instance, math and science education. Worked examples are an effective and efficient way of acquiring problem-solving skills. Forty students either only studied worked examples (SSSS) or engaged in testing after studying an example by solving an isomorphic problem (STST). Surprisingly, results showed equal performance in both conditions on an immediate retention test after 5 min, but the SSSS condition outperformed the STST condition on a delayed retention test after 1 week. These findings suggest the testing effect might not apply to acquiring problem-solving skills from worked examples.

  14. Do knowledge, knowledge sources and reasoning skills affect the accuracy of nursing diagnoses? a randomised study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This paper reports a study about the effect of knowledge sources, such as handbooks, an assessment format and a predefined record structure for diagnostic documentation, as well as the influence of knowledge, disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills, on the accuracy of nursing diagnoses. Knowledge sources can support nurses in deriving diagnoses. A nurse’s disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills is also thought to influence the accuracy of his or her nursing diagnoses. Method A randomised factorial design was used in 2008–2009 to determine the effect of knowledge sources. We used the following instruments to assess the influence of ready knowledge, disposition, and reasoning skills on the accuracy of diagnoses: (1) a knowledge inventory, (2) the California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and (3) the Health Science Reasoning Test. Nurses (n = 249) were randomly assigned to one of four factorial groups, and were instructed to derive diagnoses based on an assessment interview with a simulated patient/actor. Results The use of a predefined record structure resulted in a significantly higher accuracy of nursing diagnoses. A regression analysis reveals that almost half of the variance in the accuracy of diagnoses is explained by the use of a predefined record structure, a nurse’s age and the reasoning skills of `deduction’ and `analysis’. Conclusions Improving nurses’ dispositions toward critical thinking and reasoning skills, and the use of a predefined record structure, improves accuracy of nursing diagnoses. PMID:22852577

  15. An empirical comparison of knowledge and skill in the context of traditional ecological knowledge

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We test whether traditional ecological knowledge (TEK) about how to make an item predicts a person’s skill at making it among the Tsimane’ (Bolivia). The rationale for this research is that the failure to distinguish between knowledge and skill might account for some of the conflicting results about the relationships between TEK, human health, and economic development. Methods We test the association between a commonly-used measure of individual knowledge (cultural consensus analysis) about how to make an arrow or a bag and a measure of individual skill at making these items, using ordinary least-squares regression. The study consists of 43 participants from 3 villages. Results We find no association between our measures of knowledge and skill (core model, p > 0.5, R 2  = .132). Conclusions While we cannot rule out the possibility of a real association between these phenomena, we interpret our findings as support for the claim that researchers should distinguish between methods to measure knowledge and skill when studying trends in TEK. PMID:24131733

  16. Skills for caring: valuing knowledge of applied science in nursing.

    PubMed

    Sturgeon, David

    The purpose of this article is to consider the implications of over-emphasizing the role of the nurse in terms of interpersonal relationships and emotional engagement. It seeks to explain why nurses are frequently more comfortable with the relational aspects of their work and less comfortable with their many tangible contributions. It examines why nurses often undervalue their considerable knowledge of applied science. It also evaluates why a change in attitude is necessary, and why nurses should enhance and give more prominence to their technical knowledge and skills. Finally, it includes a brief examination of current trends in nurse recruitment and retention, and their implications for the future of the profession in respect of the balance between interpersonal and technical skills.

  17. Connectionist models of artificial grammar learning: what type of knowledge is acquired?

    PubMed

    Kinder, Annette; Lotz, Anja

    2009-09-01

    Two experiments are presented that test the predictions of two associative learning models of Artificial Grammar Learning. The two models are the simple recurrent network (SRN) and the competitive chunking (CC) model. The two experiments investigate acquisition of different types of knowledge in this task: knowledge of frequency and novelty of stimulus fragments (Experiment 1) and knowledge of letter positions, of small fragments, and of large fragments up to entire strings (Experiment 2). The results show that participants acquired all types of knowledge. Simulation studies demonstrate that the CC model explains the acquisition of all types of fragment knowledge but fails to account for the acquisition of positional knowledge. The SRN model, by contrast, accounts for the entire pattern of results found in the two experiments.

  18. Athletic Training Students Demonstrate Airway Management Skill Decay, but Retain Knowledge over 6 Months

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Popp, Jennifer K.; Berry, David C.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Airway management (AM) knowledge and skills are taught in all athletic training programs; however, research suggests that skill decay occurs with acute care skills as length of nonpractice increases. Objective: Evaluate retention of AM knowledge and skills, specifically oropharyngeal airway (OPA) and nasopharyngeal airway (NPA) use, in…

  19. Acquiring Knowledge of Physics by a Hands-On Approach in Romanian Primary School

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niculae, Marcela; Niculae, C. M.; Doncu, Roxana

    2010-01-01

    The present work discusses results of a test concerning the progress of learning Natural Science at the end of the primary cycle in the context of current curriculum in Romania. The test is focused on acquiring knowledge of physics. The test is structured into four items: The first one proposes a virtual experiment for establishing the level of mathematics knowledge of students. As the second and third items the test focuses on the degree of learning through experiments described in the student book. The fourth item tests the acquired knowledge by experiments carried out directly by students. All items have two requirements: a) What happens in the experiment? and b) Explain why. Test was applied to a sample of 138 students from grade 4th. The test shows the imperative need to use a Hands-On approach for Assessing Natural Sciences in primary classes.

  20. 14 CFR 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... consolidation of knowledge and skills. 121.434 Section 121.434 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Qualifications § 121.434 Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. (a... of knowledge and skills, required by this section, except as follows: (1) Crewmembers other...

  1. 14 CFR 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... consolidation of knowledge and skills. 121.434 Section 121.434 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Qualifications § 121.434 Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. (a... of knowledge and skills, required by this section, except as follows: (1) Crewmembers other...

  2. 14 CFR 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... consolidation of knowledge and skills. 121.434 Section 121.434 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Qualifications § 121.434 Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. (a... of knowledge and skills, required by this section, except as follows: (1) Crewmembers other...

  3. 14 CFR 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consolidation of knowledge and skills. 121.434 Section 121.434 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... Qualifications § 121.434 Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills. (a... of knowledge and skills, required by this section, except as follows: (1) Crewmembers other...

  4. Engagement in Play Activities as a Means for Youth in Detention to Acquire Life Skills.

    PubMed

    Shea, Chi-Kwan; Siu, Andrew M H

    2016-09-01

    This study describes how occupational therapists in a community-based programme, Occupational Therapy Training Program (OTTP), use play activities to facilitate the acquisition of life skills by youth in detention. This pilot study explored the extent of engagement of male and female inmates aged 14 to 18 years old in structured play activities on topics such as interpersonal relationships, self-awareness, cultural celebrations and the transition to community. Retrospective analysis of data collected from surveys using the Engagement in OTTP Activities Questionnaire (EOAQ), completed by youth participants at the end of each group session, was used to measure the extent of occupational engagement. Worksheets and artworks produced by OTTP participants during those group sessions were also analysed. The participants reported very high engagement in OTTP. Engagement scores for male participants were higher than those for female participants, and male and female participants had higher engagement scores for different activities. Over 90% of the worksheets and artworks were found to be complete and relevant to the topic of the session. Play activities could be an appropriate way for occupational therapists to encourage youth in detention to acquire life skills. Demographic information and the actual number of participants are unknown because of how the existing data were collected. Future studies examining the potential gender-related preferences for specific topics deserve further investigation as well as research comparing the youth's engagement in OTTP interventions using play activities to other group interventions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Knowledge, Skills, and Resources for Pharmacy Informatics Education

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Brent I.; Flynn, Allen J.; Fortier, Christopher R.; Clauson, Kevin A.

    2011-01-01

    Pharmacy has an established history of technology use to support business processes. Pharmacy informatics education within doctor of pharmacy programs, however, is inconsistent, despite its inclusion as a requirement in the 2007 Accreditation Council for Pharmacy Education Standards and Guidelines. This manuscript describes pharmacy informatics knowledge and skills that all graduating pharmacy students should possess, conceptualized within the framework of the medication use process. Additionally, we suggest core source materials and specific learning activities to support pharmacy informatics education. We conclude with a brief discussion of emerging changes in the practice model. These changes are facilitated by pharmacy informatics and will inevitably become commonplace in our graduates’ practice environment. PMID:21829267

  6. Catalogue of knowledge and skills for sleep medicine.

    PubMed

    Penzel, Thomas; Pevernagie, Dirk; Dogas, Zoran; Grote, Ludger; de Lacy, Simone; Rodenbeck, Andrea; Bassetti, Claudio; Berg, Søren; Cirignotta, Fabio; d'Ortho, Marie-Pia; Garcia-Borreguero, Diego; Levy, Patrick; Nobili, Lino; Paiva, Teresa; Peigneux, Philippe; Pollmächer, Thomas; Riemann, Dieter; Skene, Debra J; Zucconi, Marco; Espie, Colin

    2014-04-01

    Sleep medicine is evolving globally into a medical subspeciality in its own right, and in parallel, behavioural sleep medicine and sleep technology are expanding rapidly. Educational programmes are being implemented at different levels in many European countries. However, these programmes would benefit from a common, interdisciplinary curriculum. This 'catalogue of knowledge and skills' for sleep medicine is proposed, therefore, as a template for developing more standardized curricula across Europe. The Board and The Sleep Medicine Committee of the European Sleep Research Society (ESRS) have compiled the catalogue based on textbooks, standard of practice publications, systematic reviews and professional experience, validated subsequently by an online survey completed by 110 delegates specialized in sleep medicine from different European countries. The catalogue comprises 10 chapters covering physiology, pathology, diagnostic and treatment procedures to societal and organizational aspects of sleep medicine. Required levels of knowledge and skills are defined, as is a proposed workload of 60 points according to the European Credit Transfer System (ECTS). The catalogue is intended to be a basis for sleep medicine education, for sleep medicine courses and for sleep medicine examinations, serving not only physicians with a medical speciality degree, but also PhD and MSc health professionals such as clinical psychologists and scientists, technologists and nurses, all of whom may be involved professionally in sleep medicine. In the future, the catalogue will be revised in accordance with advances in the field of sleep medicine.

  7. Acquiring background knowledge for machine learning using function decomposition: a case study in rheumatology.

    PubMed

    Zupan, B; Dzeroski, S

    1998-01-01

    Domain or background knowledge is often needed in order to solve difficult problems of learning medical diagnostic rules. Earlier experiments have demonstrated the utility of background knowledge when learning rules for early diagnosis of rheumatic diseases. A particular form of background knowledge comprising typical co-occurrences of several groups of attributes was provided by a medical expert. This paper explores the possibility of automating the process of acquiring background knowledge of this kind and studies the utility of such methods in the problem domain of rheumatic diseases. A method based on function decomposition is proposed that identifies typical co-occurrences for a given set of attributes. The method is evaluated by comparing the typical co-occurrences it identifies as well as their contribution to the performance of machine learning algorithms, to the ones provided by a medical expert.

  8. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge and risk factors in Ethiopian military personnel.

    PubMed

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N; Abebe, Yegeremu; Brodine, Stephanie K; Kraft, Heidi S; Shaffer, Richard A; Boyer, Cherrie B

    2004-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related knowledge and behaviors were assessed in face-to-face structured interviews with 314 Ethiopian military personnel. A significant finding of this research was the association between HIV/AIDS knowledge and risky sexual behavior. That is, military personnel who had inaccurate knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention were 3.4 times as likely to engage in combined sexual risk behaviors compared with personnel with accurate knowledge, after controlling for age, military rank, and marital status (odds ratio, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.86-6.22). This finding highlights the potential value of educational programs in slowing the spread of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.

  9. Enhancing health policymakers' information literacy knowledge and skill for policymaking on control of infectious diseases of poverty in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Uneke, Chigozie Jesse; Ezeoha, Abel Ebeh; Uro-Chukwu, Henry; Ezeonu, Chinonyelum Thecla; Ogbu, Ogbonnaya; Onwe, Friday; Edoga, Chima

    2015-01-01

    Background In Nigeria, one of the major challenges associated with evidence-to-policy link in the control of infectious diseases of poverty (IDP), is deficient information literacy knowledge and skill among policymakers. There is need for policymakers to acquire the skill to discover relevant information, accurately evaluate retrieved information and to apply it correctly. Objectives To use information literacy tool of International Network for Availability of Scientific Publications (INASP) to enhance policymakers' knowledge and skill for policymaking on control of IDP in Nigeria. Methods Modified "before and after" intervention study design was used in which outcomes were measured on target participants both before the intervention is implemented and after. This study was conducted in Ebonyi State, south-eastern Nigeria and participants were career health policy makers. A two-day health-policy information literacy training workshop was organized to enhance participants" information literacy capacity. Topics covered included: introduction to information literacy; defining information problem; searching for information online; evaluating information; science information; knowledge sharing interviews; and training skills. Results A total of 52 policymakers attended the workshop. The pre-workshop mean rating (MNR) of knowledge and capacity for information literacy ranged from 2.15-2.97, while the post-workshop MNR ranged from 3.34-3.64 on 4-point scale. The percentage increase in MNR of knowledge and capacity at the end of the workshop ranged from 22.6%-55.3%. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that through information literacy training workshop policy makers can acquire the knowledge and skill to identify, capture and share the right kind of information in the right contexts to influence relevant action or a policy decision. PMID:26284149

  10. 10 CFR 1046.15 - Training and qualification for security skills and knowledge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Training and qualification for security skills and... security skills and knowledge. (a) DOE contractors shall only employ as protective force personnel... appendix B, “Training and Qualification for Security Skills and Knowledge,” to this subpart. The...

  11. Action observation and acquired motor skills: an FMRI study with expert dancers.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Merino, B; Glaser, D E; Grèzes, J; Passingham, R E; Haggard, P

    2005-08-01

    When we observe someone performing an action, do our brains simulate making that action? Acquired motor skills offer a unique way to test this question, since people differ widely in the actions they have learned to perform. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study differences in brain activity between watching an action that one has learned to do and an action that one has not, in order to assess whether the brain processes of action observation are modulated by the expertise and motor repertoire of the observer. Experts in classical ballet, experts in capoeira and inexpert control subjects viewed videos of ballet or capoeira actions. Comparing the brain activity when dancers watched their own dance style versus the other style therefore reveals the influence of motor expertise on action observation. We found greater bilateral activations in premotor cortex and intraparietal sulcus, right superior parietal lobe and left posterior superior temporal sulcus when expert dancers viewed movements that they had been trained to perform compared to movements they had not. Our results show that this 'mirror system' integrates observed actions of others with an individual's personal motor repertoire, and suggest that the human brain understands actions by motor simulation.

  12. Feasibility of using intraoperatively-acquired quantitative kinematic measures to monitor development of laparoscopic skill.

    PubMed

    Cristancho, Sayra M; Hodgson, Antony J; Panton, Neely; Meneghetti, Adam; Qayumi, Karim

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to present the initial results of a study aimed at showing the feasibility of using kinematic measures to distinguish skill levels in manipulating surgical tools. Through a simulated surgical task (dissection of a mandarin orange), we acquired motor performance data from three sets of subjects representing different stages of surgical training. We computed the average lateral, axial and vertical tooltip velocities for each of the two main subtasks ('Peel Skin' and 'Detach Segment'). For each subject, we defined a 6-element vector to describe the kinematic measures extracted from the two tasks and used Principal Components Analysis (PCA) to extract the two dominant contributors to overall variability to simplify the presentation of the data to the trainer. We found that the first two principal components accounted for approximately 90% of the variance across all subjects and tasks. Moreover, the PCA plot showed good intrasubject repeatability, consistency within subjects with similar levels of training, and good separation between the subject groups. The results of this pilot study will allow us to design a future intraoperative study.

  13. Health professionals’ knowledge about relative prevalence of hospital-acquired infections in Delta State of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oli, Angus Nnamdi; Okoli, Kelechi Christian; Ujam, Nonye Treasure; Adje, Dave Ufuoma; Ezeobi, Ifeanyi

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Hospital-acquired infections (HAIs) constitute a serious global public health challenge, causing great suffering to many people across the globe at any given time. This study ascertains the knowledge of health professionals on the challenge and their compliance with infection control measures. Methods Validated questionnaires were administered to 660 health professionals and supported with face-to-face interview. Data were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) version 16.0 (SPSS Inc, USA). Chi-square was used to test association between the independent and the outcome variables. Cut-off point for statistical significance was 5% (p value<0.05). Results UTIs (61.4%) followed by Hospital-acquired Pneumonia (55.6%) were known to be the most prevalent HAIs in government hospitals while Staphylococcus aureus (54.4%) was reported the most microbial agent. In private health facilities, Hospital-acquired Pneumonia was known to be the most common (66.1%) while Pseudomonas aeruginosa was the most reported culprit. HAIs were reported to have occurred more in government hospitals and catheterization was the commonest modes of transmission in both health facilities. Conclusion The prevalence of HAIs in this state was reported to be high. Although health-care professionals have good knowledge of HAIs, active effort is not always made to identify and resolve them. Standardized surveillance of HAIs is urgently needed. PMID:27642486

  14. In-service elementary teachers' familiarity, interest, conceptual knowledge, and performance on science process skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miles, Erin

    The purposes of this research study were to determine (a) in-service elementary teachers' familiarity, interest, conceptual knowledge of , and performance on science process skills and (b) how in-service elementary teachers' familiarity with, interest in conceptual knowledge of and performance on science process skills relate to each other. The science process skills include the basic skills [observation, classification, measuring, predicting, inferring, and communication,] and the integrated skills [hypothesizing, experimenting, identifying and controlling variables, formulating models, interpreting data, and graphing]. Twenty-four in-service elementary teachers enrolled in a master of math and science education degree program participated in this study. Participants completed questionnaires on their familiarity and interest in the science process skills, a science processes conceptual knowledge test, and a performance test on science process skills. Results indicate that these teachers were highly familiar with the science process skills, but moderately interested in these skills. Results also indicate that teachers were more interested in learning more about integrated process skills than basic process skills. Teachers possessed very low conceptual knowledge of the science process skills. However, teachers performed well on science process skills performance test. Significant correlations among the four constructs (familiarity, interest, conceptual knowledge and performance) were only significant between familiarity and interest. The implications, discussion and recommendations for future research and instruction on science process skills in teacher education programs have been presented.

  15. Association of cardiopulmonary resuscitation psychomotor skills with knowledge and self-efficacy in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Roh, Young Sook; Issenberg, S Barry

    2014-12-01

    Effective cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) skills are essential for better patient survival, but whether these skills are associated with knowledge of and self-efficacy in CPR is not well known. The purpose of this study was to assess the quality of CPR skills and identify the association of the psychomotor skills with knowledge and self-efficacy at the time of CPR skills training. A convenience sample of 124 nursing students participated in a one-group posttest-only study. The quality of CPR psychomotor skills, as assessed by structured observation using a manikin, was suboptimal. Nursing students who performed correct chest compression skills reported higher self-efficacy, but there was no association between CPR psychomotor skills and total knowledge. Rigorous skills training sessions with more objective feedback on performance and individual coaching are warranted to enable mastery learning and self-efficacy.

  16. Determinants of the accuracy of nursing diagnoses: influence of ready knowledge, knowledge sources, disposition toward critical thinking, and reasoning skills.

    PubMed

    Paans, Wolter; Sermeus, Walter; Nieweg, Roos; van der Schans, Cees

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how knowledge sources, ready knowledge, and disposition toward critical thinking and reasoning skills influence the accuracy of student nurses' diagnoses. A randomized controlled trial was conducted to determine the influence of knowledge sources. We used the following questionnaires: (a) knowledge inventory, (b) California Critical Thinking Disposition Inventory, and (c) Health Science Reasoning Test (HSRT). The use of knowledge sources had very little influence on the accuracy of nursing diagnoses. Accuracy was significantly related to the analysis domain of the HSRT. Students were unable to operationalize knowledge sources to derive accurate diagnoses and did not effectively use reasoning skills.

  17. Exploring the Malaysian Rural School Teachers' Professional Local Knowledge in Enhancing Students' Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jamil, Hazri; Arbaa, Rohani; Ahmad, Mohamad Zohir

    2017-01-01

    This paper discussed a qualitative research findings on the case of Malaysian teachers employed their professional local knowledge for enhancing students' thinking skills in classroom practices. In this paper, a teacher's professional local knowledge is viewed as a teacher's professional knowledge and skills developed through the combination of…

  18. The Relationship between Writing Knowledge and Writing Performance among More and Less Skilled Writers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saddler, Bruce; Graham, Steve

    2007-01-01

    One ingredient that may serve as a catalyst for writing development is changes in writing knowledge. This study assessed the veracity of two tenets underlying this proposal: that skilled writers are more knowledgeable than less skilled writers, and that individual differences in knowledge are related to writing performance. Both of these…

  19. Naming Speed, Letter-Sound Automaticity, and Acquiring Blending Skills among Students with Moderate Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Dawn H.

    2011-01-01

    Students with moderate intellectual disabilities (MoID) typically are not taught decoding skills because they have difficulty mastering critical blending skills. In response to this skill deficit among students with MoID, an "Initial Phonics" instructional sequence was created that included student development of rapid and automatic retrieval of…

  20. Examining the Impact of Pedagogy on Student Application of Learning: Acquiring, Sharing, and Using Knowledge for Organizational Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Alice C.; Williams, Jacqueline; Smith-Gratto, Karen; Black, Sylvia Sloan; Kane, Betty Turner

    2011-01-01

    In this pilot research we examine the impact of two leadership development training programs on the ability of students to acquire knowledge, share knowledge, and apply knowledge for organizational decision making. One program emphasized concepts and case-based application based on a technical learning paradigm. The other program used a game-based…

  1. The acoustic salience of prosody trumps infants' acquired knowledge of language-specific prosodic patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hawthorne, Kara; Mazuka, Reiko; Gerken, LouAnn

    2015-01-01

    There is mounting evidence that prosody facilitates grouping the speech stream into syntactically-relevant units (e.g., Hawthorne & Gerken, 2014; Soderstrom, Kemler Nelson, & Jusczyk, 2005). We ask whether prosody's role in syntax acquisition relates to its general acoustic salience or to the learner's acquired knowledge of correlations between prosody and syntax in her native language. English- and Japanese-acquiring 19-month-olds listened to sentences from an artificial grammar with non-native prosody (Japanese or English, respectively), then were tested on their ability to recognize prosodically-marked constituents when the constituents had moved to a new position in the sentence. Both groups were able to use non-native prosody to parse speech into cohesive, reorderable, syntactic constituent-like units. Comparison with Hawthorne & Gerken (2014), in which English-acquiring infants were tested on sentences with English prosody, suggests that 19-month-olds are equally adept at using native and non-native prosody for at least some types of learning tasks and, therefore, that prosody is useful in early syntactic segmentation because of its acoustic salience. PMID:25870497

  2. Employability Skills: Perspectives from a Knowledge-Intensive Industry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collet, Chris; Hine, Damian; du Plessis, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: While the global education debate remains focused on graduate skills and employability, the absence of a shared language between student, academic and industry stakeholder groups means that defining industry skills requirements is both essential and difficult. The purpose of this paper is to assess graduate skills requirements in a…

  3. The Relationships of Information Efficacy and Media Literacy Skills to Knowledge and Self-Efficacy for Health-Related Decision Making

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Austin, Erica Weintraub; Pinkleton, Bruce E.; Austin, Bruce W.; Van de Vord, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To compare the extent to which information efficacy (confidence for acquiring useful information) and media literacy skills predict knowledge and self-efficacy for preventing or treating the health threat of influenza. Participants: A random-sample survey of 1,379 residential students enrolled at a northwestern public university was…

  4. An Analysis of Skills and Knowledge Needed by Firms in the Indianapolis, Indiana MSA.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Meredith L.

    A study was conducted to determine employers' perceptions of the technical and personal skills and knowledge needed by business and industry in the Indianapolis area. A survey instrument, requesting employers to rate the importance of 17 technical skills and 13 personal skills and to describe the nature of the work at their firms, was distributed…

  5. 10 CFR 1046.15 - Training and qualification for security skills and knowledge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Training and qualification for security skills and... SECURITY INTERESTS Protective Force Personnel § 1046.15 Training and qualification for security skills and... and Qualification for Security Skills and Knowledge,” to this subpart. The DOE contractor...

  6. 10 CFR 1046.15 - Training and qualification for security skills and knowledge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Training and qualification for security skills and... SECURITY INTERESTS Protective Force Personnel § 1046.15 Training and qualification for security skills and... and Qualification for Security Skills and Knowledge,” to this subpart. The DOE contractor...

  7. 10 CFR 1046.15 - Training and qualification for security skills and knowledge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Training and qualification for security skills and... SECURITY INTERESTS Protective Force Personnel § 1046.15 Training and qualification for security skills and... and Qualification for Security Skills and Knowledge,” to this subpart. The DOE contractor...

  8. Knowledge acquired, satisfaction attained and attitudes towards shared decision making in colorectal cancer screening

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Alonso, Francisco J.; Tejero, María Hernández; Cambrodón, Daniel Bonillo; Bermejo, Fernando

    2017-01-01

    Background Introducing shared decision making (SDM) in colorectal cancer (CRC) screening requires patients to acquire appropriate knowledge. We aimed to describe the knowledge attained by subjects with a family history of CRC. Methods Consecutive patients attending the gastroenterology clinic for a CRC family history were invited to take part in a cross-sectional survey. Attitudes towards SDM, satisfaction with the information received, knowledge currently achieved, and relevant influencing factors were evaluated. Satisfaction and attitudes towards SDM were evaluated with Likert scale questions. Knowledge was surveyed with closed (80%) and open (20%) questions. Results Of the 160 patients, 42.7% were male and the median age was 51.8 years (interquartile range: 43.9-58.5). Most subjects favored SDM; only 12.8% (8.4-19.1%) favored passive attitudes. Satisfaction with the information received about what a colonoscopy is and why it is recommended was adequate in 83.1% (76.4-88.2%). Information about risks satisfied 62.9% (55-70.1%) and about alternatives to colonoscopy only 30.6% (23.8-38.3%). The benefits of screening were better known than its risks and alternatives. The CRC decrease associated with screening was known to 71.3% (63.7-77.8%), but only 38.5% (31.1-46.4%) knew that a reduced risk still exists. Just 21.2% (15.5-26.9%) could mention an alternative screening method to colonoscopy and only 42.5% (35-50.4%) were aware of any associated harm. On multivariate analysis, higher educational level and younger age of the attending physician were associated with higher knowledge scores. Conclusion SDM is considered favorably by most patients. Although information about the benefits of CRC screening is transmitted adequately, risks and alternatives should be better addressed. PMID:28042241

  9. Supporting Students with Psychiatric Disabilities in Postsecondary Education: Important Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kupferman, Scott I.; Schultz, Jared C.

    2015-01-01

    We began the exploratory process of identifying knowledge, skills, and attitudes that are important for disability service professionals to possess in order to provide beneficial services to students with psychiatric disabilities in postsecondary education. Using a three-round Delphi survey, two groups of experts identified 54 knowledge, skill,…

  10. Effective Student Assessment and Evaluation in the Classroom: Knowledge + Skills + Attributes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Todd; Swanson, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of "Effective Student Assessment and Evaluation in the Classroom: Knowledge + Skills + Attributes" is to more clearly articulate the student assessment knowledge, skills and attributes expected under the Teaching Quality Standard Ministerial Order of applicants for Alberta interim professional teacher certification. The…

  11. Comparing Multicultural with General Counseling Knowledge and Skill Competency for Students Who Completed Counselor Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cates, Jennifer T.; Schaefle, Scott E.; Smaby, Marlowe H.; Maddux, Cleborne D.; LeBeauf, Ireon

    2007-01-01

    This study evaluates the effectiveness of a counselor education program in teaching multicultural counseling knowledge and skills. Standardized examination scores and rater evaluations compare multicultural with general counseling knowledge and skill competency for students who completed a counseling master's program. The relationship between…

  12. Identification of the Competencies, Knowledge, and Skills Needed by School Nutrition Assistants in the Current Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nettles, Mary Frances; Carr, Deborah H.; Cater, Jerry B.; Federico, Holly A.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose/Objectives: Study objectives were to identify the functional areas, competencies, knowledge, and skills needed by effective school nutrition (SN) assistants in the current SN environment, and determine at what point the SN assistant should be able to know/perform the knowledge/skill statement, at time of hire or after training. Methods: In…

  13. Interpretation of Radiological Images: Towards a Framework of Knowledge and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Gijp, A.; van der Schaaf, M. F.; van der Schaaf, I. C.; Huige, J. C. B. M.; Ravesloot, C. J.; van Schaik, J. P. J.; ten Cate, Th. J.

    2014-01-01

    The knowledge and skills that are required for radiological image interpretation are not well documented, even though medical imaging is gaining importance. This study aims to develop a comprehensive framework of knowledge and skills, required for two-dimensional and multiplanar image interpretation in radiology. A mixed-method study approach was…

  14. Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes of Preservice and Inservice Teachers in Educational Measurement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alkharusi, Hussain; Kazem, Ali Mahdi; Al-Musawai, Ali

    2011-01-01

    Optimal outcomes of the educational assessment of students require that teachers should have adequate knowledge of, strong skills in, and favourable attitudes toward educational measurement. The present study investigated differences between preservice and inservice teachers' knowledge of, perceived skills in, and attitudes toward educational…

  15. Integrating Knowledge, Skills and Attitudes: Conceptualising Learning Processes towards Vocational Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baartman, Liesbeth K. J.; de Bruijn, Elly

    2011-01-01

    Current research focuses on competence development and complex professional tasks. However, "learning processes" towards the integration of knowledge, skills and attitudes largely remain a black box. This article conceptualises three integration processes, in analogy to theories on transfer. Knowledge, skills and attitudes are defined, reconciling…

  16. The Effects of Peer Coaching on the Evaluation Knowledge, Skills, and Concerns of Gifted Program Administrators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotabish, Alicia; Robinson, Ann

    2012-01-01

    To increase knowledge and skills in program evaluation, a peer-coaching intervention provided one-on-one professional development to gifted program administrators. This randomized field study examined the effects of peer coaching on evaluation knowledge and skills and on administrators' concerns about implementing more rigorous program…

  17. ASK Standards: Assessment, Skills, and Knowledge Content Standards for Student Affairs Practitioners and Scholars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACPA College Student Educators International, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The Assessment Skills and Knowledge (ASK) standards seek to articulate the areas of content knowledge, skill and dispositions that student affairs professionals need in order to perform as practitioner-scholars to assess the degree to which students are mastering the learning and development outcomes the professionals intend. Consistent with…

  18. Acquiring Social Skills through Cooperative Learning and Teacher-Directed Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prater, Mary Anne; Bruhl, Susan; Serna, Loretta A.

    1998-01-01

    A study compared three procedures for teaching social skills with 13 intermediate-age students with learning disabilities, emotional disturbances, or visual impairments who also participated in cooperative-learning groups. Students who received teacher-directed instruction improved in listening, problem solving, and negotiating skills during…

  19. An Assessment of Workplace Skills Acquired by Students of Vocational and Technical Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bakar, Ab Rahim; Mohamed, Shamsiah; Hamzah, Ramlah

    2013-01-01

    This study was performed to identify the employability skills of technical students from the Industrial Training Institutes (ITI) and Indigenous People's Trust Council (MARA) Skills Training Institutes (IKM) in Malaysia. The study sample consisted of 850 final year trainees of IKM and ITI. The sample was chosen by a random sampling procedure from…

  20. Just Pretending Can Be Really Learning: Children Use Pretend Play as a Source for Acquiring Generic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2013-01-01

    Children can acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play with more knowledgeable partners. We report 3 experiments in which we investigated how this learning occurs-how children draw generalizations from pretense, and whether they resist doing so for pretense that is unrealistic. In all experiments, preschoolers watched pretend scenarios…

  1. The Relationship between Linguistic Skills and Arithmetic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovic, Rose K.; Lesaux, Nonie K.

    2013-01-01

    Although language is implicated in children's mathematical development, few studies have focused specifically on how different linguistic skills relate to children's mathematical performance. Building on the model proposed by LeFevre et al. (2010), this study examined how general verbal ability and phonological skills were differentially related…

  2. 49 CFR 383.135 - Passing knowledge and skills tests.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... performs the skills test in a vehicle not equipped with any type of air brake system is issued a CDL, an... applicant who performs the skills test in a vehicle equipped with air over hydraulic brakes is issued a CDL... that the applicant can safely and effectively operate the vehicle's full air brakes, air over...

  3. Knowledge Matters: Skills and Learning for Canadians. Canada's Innovation Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Human Resources Development Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This paper outlines the skills and learning challenges that Canada faces to ensure it meets its skills and learning requirements for the 21st century. It proposes a series of national goals and milestones against which progress can be measured over time and reported on regularly to Canadians. Following an introduction, Sections 2-5 discuss the…

  4. The embryonic cell lineage of Caenorhabditis elegans: A modern hieroglyph: The best way to acquire knowledge in Developmental Biology is to learn how this knowledge was derived.

    PubMed

    Sáenz-Narciso, Beatriz; Gómez-Orte, Eva; Zheleva, Angelina; Torres-Pérez, Rafael; Cabello, Juan

    2015-03-01

    Nowadays, in the Internet databases era, certain knowledge is being progressively lost. This knowledge, which we feel is essential and should be acquired through education, is the understanding of how the pioneer researchers faced major questions in their field and made their discoveries.

  5. Team Training and Retention of Skills Acquired Above Real Time Training on a Flight Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ali, Syed Friasat; Guckenberger, Dutch; Crane, Peter; Rossi, Marcia; Williams, Mayard; Williams, Jason; Archer, Matt

    2000-01-01

    Above Real-Time Training (ARTT) is the training acquired on a real time simulator when it is modified to present events at a faster pace than normal. The experiments related to training of pilots performed by NASA engineers (Kolf in 1973, Hoey in 1976) and others (Guckenberger, Crane and their associates in the nineties) have shown that in comparison with the real time training (RTT), ARTT provides the following benefits: increased rate of skill acquisition, reduced simulator and aircraft training time, and more effective training for emergency procedures. Two sets of experiments have been performed; they are reported in professional conferences and the respective papers are included in this report. The retention of effects of ARTT has been studied in the first set of experiments and the use of ARTT as top-off training has been examined in the second set of experiments. In ARTT, the pace of events was 1.5 times the pace in RTT. In both sets of experiments, university students were trained to perform an aerial gunnery task. The training unit was equipped with a joystick and a throttle. The student acted as a nose gunner in a hypothetical two place attack aircraft. The flight simulation software was installed on a Universal Distributed Interactive Simulator platform supplied by ECC International of Orlando, Florida. In the first set of experiments, two training programs RTT or ART7 were used. Students were then tested in real time on more demanding scenarios: either immediately after training or two days later. The effects of ARTT did not decrease over a two day retention interval and ARTT was more time efficient than real time training. Therefore, equal test performance could be achieved with less clock-time spent in the simulator. In the second set of experiments three training programs RTT or ARTT or RARTT, were used. In RTT, students received 36 minutes of real time training. In ARTT, students received 36 minutes of above real time training. In RARTT, students

  6. The Purpose of the PhD: Theorising the Skills Acquired by Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowbray, Susan; Halse, Christine

    2010-01-01

    In the past decade there has been a marked push for the development of employability skills to be part of the PhD process. This push is generally by stakeholders from above and outside the PhD process, i.e. government and industry, who view skills as a "summative product" of the PhD. In contrast, our study interviewed stakeholders inside…

  7. Oral Skills and Knowledge of Languages: A Resource in Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Negussie, Birgit

    Ethiopia is a country with an old and rich oral tradition. The older generation is more knowledgeable than the younger in oral literature, and there is a need to document such knowledge before it is lost. Traditional health knowledge has come into focus as self-care for ailments has become more prevalent. Indigenous knowledge and its transmission…

  8. A Method of Sharing Tacit Knowledge by a Bulletin Board Link to Video Scene and an Evaluation in the Field of Nursing Skill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimada, Satoshi; Azuma, Shouzou; Teranaka, Sayaka; Kojima, Akira; Majima, Yukie; Maekawa, Yasuko

    We developed the system that knowledge could be discovered and shared cooperatively in the organization based on the SECI model of knowledge management. This system realized three processes by the following method. (1)A video that expressed skill is segmented into a number of scenes according to its contents. Tacit knowledge is shared in each scene. (2)Tacit knowledge is extracted by bulletin board linked to each scene. (3)Knowledge is acquired by repeatedly viewing the video scene with the comment that shows the technical content to be practiced. We conducted experiments that the system was used by nurses working for general hospitals. Experimental results show that the nursing practical knack is able to be collected by utilizing bulletin board linked to video scene. Results of this study confirmed the possibility of expressing the tacit knowledge of nurses' empirical nursing skills sensitively with a clue of video images.

  9. Analysis of a Knowledge-Management-Based Process of Transferring Project Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioi, Toshihiro; Ono, Masakazu; Ishii, Kota; Kato, Kazuhiko

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to propose a method for the transfer of knowledge and skills in project management (PM) based on techniques in knowledge management (KM). Design/methodology/approach: The literature contains studies on methods to extract experiential knowledge in PM, but few studies exist that focus on methods to convert…

  10. Science Process Skill as a Predictor of Acquisition of Knowledge Among Preservice Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flehinger, Lenore Edith

    This study discusses the relationships between the level of science process skills and the degree of acquisition of new science knowledge. Participants included 257 preservice teachers enrolled in an elementary science methods course. A test, Test of Oceanographic Knowledge, was designed and used to define the level of knowledge acquisition. Level…

  11. 10 CFR 1046.15 - Training and qualification for security skills and knowledge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... knowledge. 1046.15 Section 1046.15 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF... knowledge. (a) DOE contractors shall only employ as protective force personnel individuals who successfully... and Qualification for Security Skills and Knowledge,” to this subpart. The DOE contractor...

  12. Education through Fiction: Acquiring Opinion-Forming Skills in the Context of Genomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knippels, Marie-Christine P. J.; Severiens, Sabine E.; Klop, Tanja

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the outcomes of a newly designed four-lesson science module on opinion-forming in the context of genomics in upper secondary education. The lesson plan aims to foster 16-year-old students' opinion-forming skills in the context of genomics and to test the effect of the use of fiction in the module. The basic hypothesis…

  13. Assisting critical care nurses in acquiring leadership skills: development of a leadership and management competency checklist.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Critical care nurses need to be more effective leaders and managers in healthcare. Delivering quality and cost-effective patient outcomes have become goals of all nurses. To achieve these goals, nurses must practice and attain leadership ability. This article describes a program to help nurses gain quality leadership skills.

  14. Self and Others in Team-Based Learning: Acquiring Teamwork Skills for Business

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Betta, Michela

    2016-01-01

    Team-based learning (TBL) was applied within a third-year unit of study about ethics and management with the aim of enhancing students' teamwork skills. A survey used to collect students' opinions about their experience with TBL provided insights about how TBL helped students to develop an appreciation for teamwork and team collaboration. The team…

  15. Synergy Repetition Training versus Task Repetition Training in Acquiring New Skill

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vrajeshri; Craig, Jamie; Schumacher, Michelle; Burns, Martin K.; Florescu, Ionut; Vinjamuri, Ramana

    2017-01-01

    Traditionally, repetitive practice of a task is used to learn a new skill, exhibiting as immediately improved performance. Research suggests, however, that a more experience-based rather than exposure-based training protocol may allow for better transference of the skill to related tasks. In synergy-based motor control theory, fundamental motor skills, such as hand grasping, are represented with a synergy subspace that captures essential motor patterns. In this study, we propose that motor-skill learning through synergy-based mechanisms may provide advantages over traditional task repetition learning. A new task was designed to highlight the range of motion and dexterity of the human hand. Two separate training strategies were tested in healthy subjects: task repetition training and synergy training versus a control. All three groups showed improvements when retested on the same task. When tested on a similar, but different set of tasks, only the synergy group showed improvements in accuracy (9.27% increase) compared to the repetition (3.24% decline) and control (3.22% decline) groups. A kinematic analysis revealed that although joint angular peak velocities decreased, timing benefits stemmed from the initial feed-forward portion of the task (reaction time). Accuracy improvements may have derived from general improved coordination among the four involved fingers. These preliminary results warrant further investigation of synergy-based motor training in healthy individuals, as well as in individuals undergoing hand-based rehabilitative therapy. PMID:28289680

  16. Unravelling the Lifelong Learning Process for Canadian Workers and Adult Learners Acquiring Higher Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Maurice; Trumpower, David; Pavic, Ivana

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on a mixed methods study that investigated aspects of formal, non-formal and informal learning for workers and adult high school learners seeking literacy and essential skills. Three key themes emerged from the qualitative data: motivations for participation in various forms of learning; seeking out informal learning…

  17. Effects of Student Skill Level on Knowledge, Decision Making, Skill Execution and Game Performance in a Mini-Volleyball Sport Education Season

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mahedero, Pilar; Calderón, Antonio; Arias-Estero, José Luis; Hastie, Peter A.; Guarino, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the paper was to examine the effects of student skill level on knowledge, decision making, skill execution and game performance in a mini-volleyball Sport Education season. Forty-eight secondary school students from two classes participated in a 12 lesson season. Knowledge, decision-making and skill execution (components of game…

  18. The Effects of Two Instructional Models--Tactical and Skill Teaching--On Skill Development and Game Play, Knowledge, Self-Efficacy, and Student Perceptions in Volleyball

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrison, Joyce M.; Blakemore, Connie L.; Richards, Robert P.; Oliver, Jon; Wilkinson, Carol; Fellingham, Gilbert

    2004-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Skill Teaching and Tactical approaches on skill development, game play, knowledge, and self-efficacy for 169 high- and low-skilled players of 182 beginning university Volleyball students. Three instructors each taught one Tactical and one Skill Teaching class two days a week for 16 weeks. A random coefficients…

  19. Improving Students' Understanding and Explanation Skills through the Use of a Knowledge Building Forum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamel, Christine; Turcotte, Sandrine; Laferriere, Therese; Bisson, Nicolas

    2015-01-01

    Education research has shown the importance of helping students develop comprehension skills. Explanation-seeking rather than fact-seeking pedagogies have been shown to warrant deeper student understanding. This study investigates the use of Knowledge Forum (KF) in K-6 classrooms (n = 251) to develop students' explanation skills. To this end, we…

  20. Validation of Skills, Knowledge and Experience in Lifelong Learning in Europe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ogunleye, James

    2012-01-01

    The paper examines systems of validation of skills and experience as well as the main methods/tools currently used for validating skills and knowledge in lifelong learning. The paper uses mixed methods--a case study research and content analysis of European Union policy documents and frameworks--as a basis for this research. The selection of the…

  1. Elements of Teacher Communication Competence: An Examination of Skills, Knowledge and Motivation to Communicate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubin, Rebecca B.; Feezel, Jerry D.

    In an effort to assess the communication skills of prospective teachers, a study examined the role of three pedagogical domains in speech communication instruction--skill, knowledge, and motivation. Fifty student teachers were tested using the Personal Report of Communication Apprehension (PCRA; McCroskey l977), the Communication Competency…

  2. A Survey of Knowledge Management Skills Acquisition in an Online Team-Based Distributed Computing Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Jennifer D. E.

    2007-01-01

    This paper investigates students' perceptions of their acquisition of knowledge management skills, namely thinking and team-building skills, resulting from the integration of various resources and technologies into an entirely team-based, online upper level distributed computing (DC) information systems (IS) course. Results seem to indicate that…

  3. Skills Development for the Knowledge Economy in Asia: Some Conclusions from the OECD Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinez-Fernandez, Cristina; Weyman, Tamara

    2014-01-01

    The development of a knowledge-based economy relies greatly on developing the skills and education needed for inclusive and sustainable development so that growth will reach all parts of the society. Addressing skills development for all is challenging for all OECD countries; Asian economies are working towards developing integrated pathways of…

  4. Using Assessment to Improve Early Elementary Students' Knowledge and Skills for Comprehending Informational Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Witmer, Sara E.; Duke, Nell K.; Billman, Alison K.; Betts, Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Although assessment of student progress in word reading skills is common, students' knowledge and skills for comprehending informational text are rarely assessed. Despite research indicating the need for instruction in this area and a growing national understanding of its importance that is reflected in the Common Core State Standards, few…

  5. Valuing the Knowledge, Skills and Experience of Canada's Immigrants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Canadian Community Colleges, 2005

    2005-01-01

    In the winter of 2004 the Association of Canadian Community Colleges (ACCC), with the support of Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, undertook a Diagnostic Survey of College and Institute Programs and Services for immigrants and created the college and institute portion of the Immigration Portal. In March 2004 ACCC held an invitational…

  6. Reading Skills in Down Syndrome: An Examination of Orthographic Knowledge.

    PubMed

    Loveall, Susan J; Conners, Frances A

    2016-03-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the word identification domain of the Simple View of Reading in participants with Down syndrome (DS) by comparing them to participants with typical development (TD) matched on word identification ability. Two subskills, phonological recoding and orthographic knowledge, were measured. Results revealed that individuals with DS performed similarly to controls on 2 measures of orthographic knowledge, but more poorly on phonological recoding and a third measure of orthographic knowledge. The first two orthographic tasks included real words as stimuli; the third task used letter patterns, not real words. These results suggest that individuals with DS may have a relative strength in word-specific orthographic knowledge but not in general orthographic knowledge.

  7. Building Transferable Knowledge and Skills through an Interdisciplinary Polar Science Graduate Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culler, L. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Albert, M. R.; Ayres, M.

    2015-12-01

    Modern graduate education must extend beyond disciplinary content to prepare students for diverse careers in science. At Dartmouth, a graduate program in Polar Environmental Change uses interdisciplinary study of the polar regions as a core from which students develop skills and knowledge for tackling complex environmental issues that require cooperation across scientific disciplines and with educators, policy makers, and stakeholders. Two major NSF-funded initiatives have supported professional development for graduate students in this program, including an IGERT (Integrative Graduate Education and Research Traineeship) and leadership of JSEP's (Joint Science Education Project) Arctic Science Education Week in Greenland. We teach courses that emphasize the links between science and the human dimensions of environmental change; host training sessions in science communication; invite guest speakers who work in policy, academia, journalism, government research, etc.; lead an international field-based training that includes policy-focused meetings and a large outreach component; provide multiple opportunities for outreach and collaboration with local schools; and build outreach and education into graduate research programs where students instruct and mentor high school students. Students from diverse scientific disciplines (Ecology, Earth Science, and Engineering) participate in all of the above, which significantly strengthens their interdisciplinary view of polar science and ability to communicate across disciplines. In addition, graduate students have developed awareness, confidence, and the skills to pursue and obtain diverse careers. This is reflected in the fact that recent graduates have acquired permanent and post-doctoral positions in academic and government research, full-time teaching, and also in post-docs focused on outreach and science policy. Dartmouth's interdisciplinary approach to graduate education is producing tomorrow's leaders in science.

  8. [Validation of knowledge acquired from experience: opportunity or threat for nurses working in operating theatres?].

    PubMed

    Chauvat-Bouëdec, Cécile

    2005-06-01

    The law n 2002-73, dated 17 January 2002, of social modernisation, as it is called, reformed continuing professional training in France. It established a new system of professional certification, the validation of the knowledge acquired from experience (VAE in French). Since 2003, the Health Ministry has been studying a project to set up the VAE for health professions, among which, in particular, the profession of the state registered nurse working in operating theatres (IBODES in French). A state diploma sanctions the training enabling to practise this profession. In the future, the VAE will open a new access way to this diploma. Does this evolution constitute a threat for the profession, and a risk or an opportunity for individual people? The aim of this thesis is to characterise the impacts of the VAE on the IBODE profession and its current system of training. Two sociological and educational approaches are comforted by a field survey. A historical background of the IBODE profession develops the evolution of the caring practices, and presents the evolution of the training systems. A sociological approach enables to analyse the vocational focus of the IBODE on looking at functionalist theories. Therefore, the study enables to think that the VAE will have no consequences on the vocational focus of the IBODE. The VAE is then the object of an educational approach within the context of continuing professional training. The topics on which it could apply and the resistances it causes are studied. Some examples are taken within other Ministries. This study shows that the VAE involves an adaptation of training centres. The VAE constitutes a genuine opportunity for the IBODE profession. However, to manage its setting up in a delicate human context, the field professionals should be involved as early as possible in the reflection initiated by the Ministry.

  9. When You've Only Got One Class, One Chance: Acquiring Sociocultural Knowledge Using Eclectic Case Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Keffrelyn D.; Kraehe, Amelia

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we describe the creation of an eclectic case pedagogy based on case-based methods, sociocultural learning theory and visual studies successfully used in a university teacher education course designed to help students acquire sociocultural knowledge about schooling and teaching. Using qualitative data collected across three semesters…

  10. Assessment of Knowledge and Competences in Agricultural Engineering Acquired by the Senior Secondary School Students for Farm Mechanisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ndem, Joseph; Ogba, Ernest; Egbe, Benjamin

    2015-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the agricultural engineering knowledge and competencies acquired by the senior secondary students for farm mechanization in technical colleges in Ebonyi state of Nigeria. A survey research design was adopted for the study. Three research questions and two null hypotheses guided the study. The population of the…

  11. Administrative knowledge and skills needed by physician executives.

    PubMed

    Vinson, C

    1994-06-01

    A survey was mailed to 100 physician executives identified through the 1991 American College of Physicians Executives directory. The subjects were asked to rate 17 managerial areas on their value to the subjects' current work, on the subjects' preparation in the areas, and on the need for training in the areas. In addition, the subjects were asked how best to accomplish training in the areas and for a list of areas of greatest importance in the future for physician executives. The subjects rated communication skills, quality assurance, utilization review, and personnel management as being of primary value in their current roles. Preparation was most adequate in communication skills and most inadequate in the areas of finance and organizational management. Training was deemed desirable in all areas, but was thought to be most necessary in communication skills, negotiations, strategic planning, and organizational management. There was least desire for training in the areas of labor law and employment law. The most popular means of training were doing a fellowship in administrative medicine, receiving continuing education through seminars or workshops, or getting a degree in management.

  12. Evidence based library and information practice in Australia: defining skills and knowledge.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Suzanne

    2011-06-01

    This guest feature from Suzanne Lewis, a long-time advocate of evidence based library and information practice (EBLIP) in Australia, discusses a current trend within the movement that focuses on the skills, knowledge and competencies of health librarians. In particular, the feature describes three specific Australia-based research projects, on expert searching, indigenous health and future skills requirements for the health library workforce respectively, that exemplify this trend. These projects illustrate how the evidence base can be strengthened around the skills and knowledge required to deliver services that continue to meet the changing needs of health library and information users.

  13. Parenting Predictors of Cognitive Skills and Emotion Knowledge in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Emily C.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Landry, Susan H.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Assel, Michael; Taylor, Heather B.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Barnes, Marcia A.; Eisenberg, Nancy; de Villiers, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal associations of parental responsiveness and inferential language input with cognitive skills and emotion knowledge among socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers. Parents and 2- to 4-year-old children (mean age = 3.21 years; N=284) participated in a parent-child free play session, and children completed cognitive (language, early literacy, early mathematics) and emotion knowledge assessments. One year later, children completed the same assessment battery. Parental responsiveness was coded from the videotaped parent-child free play sessions, and parental inferential language input was coded from transcripts of a subset of 127 of these sessions. All analyses controlled for child age, gender, and parental education, and longitudinal analyses controlled for initial skill level. Parental responsiveness significantly predicted all concurrent cognitive skills as well as literacy, math, and emotion knowledge one year later. Parental inferential language input was significantly positively associated with children's concurrent emotion knowledge. In longitudinal analyses, an interaction was found such that for children with stronger initial language skills, higher levels of parental inferential language input facilitated greater vocabulary development, whereas for children with weaker initial language skills, there was no association between parental inferential language input and change in children's vocabulary skills. These findings further our understanding of the roles of parental responsiveness and inferential language input in promoting children's school readiness skills. PMID:25576967

  14. Writing a bachelor thesis generates transferable knowledge and skills useable in nursing practice.

    PubMed

    Lundgren, Solveig M; Robertsson, Barbro

    2013-11-01

    Generic skills or transferable skills have been discussed in terms of whether or not skills learned in one context can be transferred into another context. The current study was aimed to explore nurses' self-perceptions of the knowledge and skills they had obtained while writing a Bachelor's thesis in nursing education, their experience of the extent of transfer and utilization in their current work. Responding nurses (N=42) had all worked from 1 to 1.5 years after their final examination and had completed a questionnaire that was structured with open-ended questions. Only five nurses reported that they were unable to use any of the knowledge and skills they had obtained from writing a thesis. A majority of the nurses (37/42) could give many examples of the practical application of the skills and knowledge they had obtained. Our findings indicate that writing a thesis as part of an undergraduate degree program plays a major role in the acquisition and development of knowledge and skills which can subsequently be transferred into and utilized in nursing practice.

  15. Different Forms of Knowledge and New Chinese Skilled Immigrants' Adaptation to New Zealand's Knowledge Society

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Hong; Thorns, David

    2009-01-01

    Although it is widely accepted that knowledge plays a key role in the economic activities and social life of knowledge societies, our understanding of what counts as knowledge is often incomplete. The explicit features of knowledge enable it to be codified and thus disseminated globally. This can lead to all knowledge simply being reduced to…

  16. Computational skills, working memory, and conceptual knowledge in older children with mathematics learning disabilities.

    PubMed

    Mabbott, Donald J; Bisanz, Jeffrey

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge and skill in multiplication were investigated for late elementary-grade students with mathematics learning disabilities (MLD), typically achieving age-matched peers, low-achieving age-matched peers, and ability-matched peers by examining multiple measures of computational skill, working memory, and conceptual knowledge. Poor multiplication fact mastery and calculation fluency and general working memory discriminated children with MLD from typically achieving age-matched peers. Furthermore, children with MLD were slower in executing backup procedures than typically achieving age-matched peers. The performance of children with MLD on multiple measures of multiplication skill and knowledge was most similar to that of ability-matched younger children. MLD may be due to difficulties in computational skills and working memory. Implications for the diagnosis and remediation of MLD are discussed.

  17. Improving computer skill training: behavior modeling, symbolic mental rehearsal, and the role of knowledge structures.

    PubMed

    Davis, Fred D; Yi, Mun Y

    2004-06-01

    Effective computer skill training is vital to organizational productivity. Two experiments (N = 288) demonstrated that the behavior modeling approach to computer skill training could be substantially improved by incorporating symbolic mental rehearsal (SMR). SMR is a specific form of mental rehearsal that establishes a cognitive link between visual images and symbolic memory codes. As theorized, the significant effects of SMR on declarative knowledge and task performance were shown to be fully mediated by changes in trainees' knowledge structures. The mediational role of knowledge structures is expected to generalize to other training interventions and cognitive skill domains. Our findings have the immediate implications that practitioners should use SMR for improving the effectiveness of computer skill training.

  18. Helping Preservice Teachers with Inaccurate and Fragmentary Prior Knowledge to Acquire Conceptual Understanding of Psychological Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohst, Andrea; Glogger, Inga; Nückles, Matthias; Renkl, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Psychological research on learning has brought forth many insights that are relevant for teachers (for example, knowledge about learning strategies). However, teachers sometimes have intuitive fragmentary knowledge that is partly incorrect. Such knowledge hinders the acquisition of psychological knowledge. Tried-and-tested interventions dealing…

  19. Old skills and new knowledge: midwifery in contemporary Zimbabwe.

    PubMed

    Conway-Turner, K

    1997-01-01

    Sixty-one traditional birth attendants residing in the southern sector of Zimbabwe were interviewed concerning their midwifery practice. Traditional midwives were interviewed individually to gather information concerning: (a) the development of traditional midwifery skills, (b) the nature of traditional birthing patterns, (c) the features of the one-week midwifery training program provided to upgrade traditional midwives, and (d) traditional midwifery as practiced today, post the one-week training program. In describing past and present traditional midwifery, they reported a change in the use of sanitation practices, a heightened understanding of at-risk pregnancies and the need for formal medical intervention, and the adoption of mechanisms to record new births.

  20. 14 CFR 65.119 - Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. 65.119 Section 65.119 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.119 Master parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and...

  1. 14 CFR 65.115 - Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...: Experience, knowledge, and skill requirements. 65.115 Section 65.115 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (CONTINUED) AIRMEN CERTIFICATION: AIRMEN OTHER THAN FLIGHT CREWMEMBERS Parachute Riggers § 65.115 Senior parachute rigger certificate: Experience, knowledge, and...

  2. Effects of Reading Strategies and Depth of Vocabulary Knowledge on Turkish EFL Learners' Text Inferencing Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Çakir, Abdulvahit; Ünaldi, Ihsan; Arslan, Fadime Yalçin; Kiliç, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Within the framework of foreign language teaching and learning, reading strategies, depth of vocabulary knowledge and text inferencing skills have not been researched extensively. This study tries to fill this gap by analyzing the effects of reading strategies used by Turkish EFL learners and their depth of vocabulary knowledge on their text…

  3. The Effects of a STEM Intervention on Elementary Students' Science Knowledge and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotabish, Alicia; Dailey, Debbie; Robinson, Ann; Hughes, Gail

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess elementary students' science process skills, content knowledge, and concept knowledge after one year of participation in an elementary Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM) program. This study documented the effects of the combination of intensive professional development and the use of…

  4. Adolescent Mothers' Self-Esteem and Role Identity and Their Relationship to Parenting Skills Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurlbut, Nancy L.; Culp, Anne McDonald; Jambunathan, Saigeetha; Butler, Patrice

    1997-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between adolescent mothers' (N=24) self-esteem and their knowledge of parenting skills. Findings indicate that self-esteem is a good indicator of the adolescent mother's parenting. Significant correlations arose between the mother's baseline self-esteem and her knowledge about role reversal, empathy, developmental…

  5. Lexical Inference in L2: Predictive Roles of Vocabulary Knowledge and Reading Skill beyond Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prior, Anat; Goldina, Anna; Shany, Michal; Geva, Esther; Katzir, Tami

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined the predictive roles of L2 vocabulary knowledge and L2 word reading skills in explaining individual differences in lexical inferencing in the L2. Participants were 53 Israeli high school students who emigrated from the former Soviet Union, and spoke Russian as an L1 and Hebrew as an L2. L2 vocabulary knowledge and…

  6. Linguistic and Spatial Skills Predict Early Arithmetic Development via Counting Sequence Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiao; Koponen, Tuire; Räsänen, Pekka; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing a longitudinal sample of Finnish children (ages 6-10), two studies examined how early linguistic (spoken vs. written) and spatial skills predict later development of arithmetic, and whether counting sequence knowledge mediates these associations. In Study 1 (N = 1,880), letter knowledge and spatial visualization, measured in…

  7. Prior Knowledge, Reading Skill, and Text Cohesion in the Comprehension of Science Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozuru, Yasuhiro; Dempsey, Kyle; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined how text features (i.e., cohesion) and individual differences (i.e., reading skill and prior knowledge) contribute to biology text comprehension. College students with low and high levels of biology knowledge read two biology texts, one of which was high in cohesion and the other low in cohesion. The two groups were similar in…

  8. Interpretation of radiological images: towards a framework of knowledge and skills.

    PubMed

    van der Gijp, A; van der Schaaf, M F; van der Schaaf, I C; Huige, J C B M; Ravesloot, C J; van Schaik, J P J; Ten Cate, Th J

    2014-10-01

    The knowledge and skills that are required for radiological image interpretation are not well documented, even though medical imaging is gaining importance. This study aims to develop a comprehensive framework of knowledge and skills, required for two-dimensional and multiplanar image interpretation in radiology. A mixed-method study approach was applied. First, a literature search was performed to identify knowledge and skills that are important for image interpretation. Three databases, PubMed, PsycINFO and Embase, were searched for studies using synonyms of image interpretation skills or visual expertise combined with synonyms of radiology. Empirical or review studies concerning knowledge and skills for medical image interpretation were included and relevant knowledge and skill items were extracted. Second, a preliminary framework was built and discussed with nine selective experts in individual semi-structured interviews. The expert team consisted of four radiologists, one radiology resident, two education scientists, one cognitive psychologist and one neuropsychologist. The framework was optimised based on the experts comments. Finally, the framework was applied to empirical data, derived from verbal protocols of ten clerks interpreting two-dimensional and multiplanar radiological images. In consensus meetings adjustments were made to resolve discrepancies of the framework with the verbal protocol data. We designed a framework with three main components of image interpretation: perception, analysis and synthesis. The literature study provided four knowledge and twelve skill items. As a result of the expert interviews, one skill item was added and formulations of existing items were adjusted. The think-aloud experiment showed that all knowledge items and three of the skill items were applied within all three main components of the image interpretation process. The remaining framework items were apparent only within one of the main components. After combining

  9. Reading Skills in Down Syndrome: An Examination of Orthographic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveall, Susan J.; Conners, Frances A.

    2016-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine the word identification domain of the Simple View of Reading in participants with Down syndrome (DS) by comparing them to participants with typical development (TD) matched on word identification ability. Two subskills, phonological recoding and orthographic knowledge, were measured. Results revealed…

  10. Acquiring surgical skills: the history of surgical teaching at the University of Sydney 1883-2014.

    PubMed

    Brown, Kilian G M; Storey, Catherine E

    2016-06-01

    There have been at least 10 major revisions of the medical curriculum since the inauguration of the Faculty of Medicine at the University of Sydney in 1883. This study traced the evolution of the teaching of surgery at our institution by examination of the set curriculum of each period; the expectations of student knowledge in the final examination as well as examining some of the insights provided by past students of their surgical experience through their writings. In the early years, medical graduates were qualified to perform operative surgery without any further training, whereas the modern postgraduate medical curriculum provides students with the basis for further surgical training.

  11. Navigating Uncertainty: Health Professionals' Knowledge, Skill, and Confidence in Assessing and Managing Pain in Children with Profound Cognitive Impairment

    PubMed Central

    Bray, Lucy

    2016-01-01

    There is limited evidence to underpin the assessment and management of pain in children with profound cognitive impairment and these children are vulnerable to poor pain assessment and management. Health professionals working with children with profound cognitive impairment from a single paediatric tertiary referral centre in England were interviewed to explore how they develop and acquire knowledge and skills to assess and manage pain in children with cognitive impairment. The interviews were transcribed and subjected to thematic analysis. Nineteen health professionals representing different professional groups and different levels of experience participated in the study. A metatheme “navigating uncertainty; deficits in knowledge and skills” and two core themes “framing as different and teasing things out” and “the settling and unsettling presence of parents” were identified. Uncertainty about aspects of assessing and managing the pain of children with cognitive impairment tended to erode professional confidence and many discussed deficits in their skill and knowledge set. Uncertainty was managed through engaging with other health professionals and the child's parents. Most health professionals stated they would welcome more education and training although many felt that this input should be clinical and not classroom oriented. PMID:28096710

  12. A Direct-Learning Approach to Acquiring a Bimanual Tapping Skill.

    PubMed

    Michaels, Claire F; Gomes, Thábata V B; Benda, Rodolfo N

    2016-12-27

    The theory of direct learning (D. M. Jacobs & C. F. Michaels, 2007 ) has proven useful in understanding improvement in perception and exploratory action. Here the authors assess its usefulness for understanding the learning of a motor skill, bimanual tapping at a difficult phase relation. Twenty participants attempted to learn to tap with 2 index fingers at 2 Hz with a phase lag of 90° (i.e., with a right-right period of 500 ms and a right-left period of 125 ms). There were 30 trials, each with 50 tapping cycles. Computer-screen feedback informed of errors in both period and phase for each pair of taps. Participants differed dramatically in their success. Learning was assessed by identifying the succession of attractors capturing tapping over the experiment. A few participants' attractors migrated from antiphase to 90° with an appropriate period; others became attracted to a fixed right-left interval, rather than phase, with or without attraction to period. Changes in attractor loci were explained with mixed success by direct learning, inviting elaboration of the theory. The transition to interval attractors was understood as a change in intention, and was remarkable for its indifference to typical bimanual interactions.

  13. A Study of the Retention of Skills and Knowledge Acquired in Basic Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-06-01

    differences betwtetn thei pcrfomurwz* test 3wrsas ’John S. Tayor . Euon R. Mid4kht, and Mtask F. 8etniu. Thr contOph of Ntfuogredat Ovicostd Mut’urtiou...that was used, perhaps provides the best and most recent data that are available. However, studies are clearly needed that (a) employ a longer

  14. Understanding Ecology Content Knowledge and Acquiring Science Process Skills through Project-Based Science Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colley, Kabba E.

    2006-01-01

    This activity discusses a two-day unit on ecology implemented during the summer of 2004 using the project-based science instructional (PBSI) approach. Through collaborative fieldwork, group discussions, presentations, and reflections, students planned, implemented, and reported their own scientific investigations on the environmental health of…

  15. Argumentation skills and conceptual knowledge of undergraduate students in a physics by inquiry class

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acar, Omer

    Teaching argumentation skills has been the focus of science education research which views argumentation instruction as a way to improve scientific reasoning skills in science classrooms. Argumentation research has mostly focused on examining the quality of classroom discourse in science classes, scaffolding student argumentation process, and in-service science teacher development of pedagogical skills related to argumentation. Yet, there is paucity of studies exist in the literature which has examined prospective science teacher development of argumentation skills. This study aims to reduce this gap in the argumentation literature. This study investigated prospective science teacher development of argumentation skills and conceptual knowledge, relationship between argumentation skills and conceptual knowledge, and the relation of argumentation and conceptual knowledge gains to prospective science teacher initial conceptual knowledge level in an undergraduate course where argumentation skills were incorporated to the science curriculum. Initially, data were collected from 125 students who were involved in an inquiry-based physics course at a midwestern university. Argumentation skills for the concepts of balancing and sinking and floating were assessed by the use of argumentation tests which were constructed for this study and administered four times during the course. In addition to written argumentation tests, argumentation discourse of one small group of students was audio-taped two times during the course. Physics conceptual knowledge was administered at the beginning and at the end of the instruction by a conceptual test which was constructed for this study. A total of 36 students who responded to all the data collection activities comprised the analysis sample. It was found that the prospective science teacher argumentation skills regarding balancing and sinking and floating concepts improved during the course. More specifically, their counter-argument and

  16. Training Knowledge and Skills for the Networked Battlefield

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-13

    representation weakening and retrieval competition accounts. Poster presented at the 49th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Chicago , IL. Kole, J. A...instructions twice in the same or different modalities. Paper presented at the 49th Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Chicago , IL. Simon...Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Chicago , IL. Kole, J. A., & Healy, A. F. (2009, November). Long-term retention of knowledge about friends

  17. A cluster analysis to investigating nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding the clinical management system.

    PubMed

    Chan, M F

    2007-01-01

    Nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and skills regarding the Clinical Management System are explored by identifying profiles of nurses working in Hong Kong. A total of 282 nurses from four hospitals completed a self-reported questionnaire during the period from December 2004 to May 2005. Two-step cluster analysis yielded two clusters. The first cluster (n = 159, 56.4%) was labeled "negative attitudes, less skillful, and average knowledge" group. The second cluster (n = 123, 43.6%) was labeled "positive attitudes, good knowledge, but less skillful." There was a positive correlation in cluster 1 for nurses' knowledge and attitudes (rs = 0.28) and in cluster 2 for nurses' skills and attitudes (rs = 0.25) toward computerization. The study showed that senior and more highly educated nurses generally held more positive attitudes to computerization, whereas the attitudes among younger and less well educated nurses generally were more negative. Such findings should be used to formulate strategies to encourage nurses to resolve actual problems following computer training and to increase the depth and breadth of nurses' computer knowledge and skills and improve their attitudes toward computerization.

  18. Effectiveness of a short-course in improving knowledge and skills on evidence-based practice

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To assess the effectiveness (change in knowledge and skills measured by the Fresno test) of a short course in Evidence Based Practice (EBP) carried out in a group of family medicine residents Methods Before-after study. Participants' were 152 Family Medicine residents in their second year of the training programme. Settings were Primary Care Teaching Units in Catalonia. Intervention was comprised of a four half-day training course designed to develop the knowledge and skills required to practice evidence-based care. The main outcome measure was change in EBP knowledge and skills, measured using the Spanish version of the Fresno test (score range, 0-212) Results The mean difference between pre-test and post-test was 47.7, a statistically significant result with 95% CI of 42.8-52.5 (p < 0.0001). An important improvement was observed in the questions related to calculations such as sensitivity, specificity, the absolute risk reduction or the number needed to treat. A more modest increase was found in the residents' knowledge and skills in finding the best clinical evidence, and appraising the validity and applicability of an article. Finally, a weak and non-statistically significant improvement was found in formulating a clinical question. Conclusions The study provides evidence for responsiveness to changes in knowledge and skills in EBP after an educational intervention. PMID:21718496

  19. Effects of a Web-based course on nursing skills and knowledge learning.

    PubMed

    Lu, Der-Fa; Lin, Zu-Chun; Li, Yun-Ju

    2009-02-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effectiveness of supplementing traditional classroom teaching with Web-based learning design when teaching intramuscular injection nursing skills. Four clusters of nursing students at a junior college in eastern Taiwan were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. A total of 147 students (80 in the experimental group, 67 in the control group) completed the study. All participants received the same classroom lectures and skill demonstration. The experimental group interacted using a Web-based course and were able to view the content on demand. The students and instructor interacted via a chatroom, the bulletin board, and e-mail. Participants in the experimental group had significantly higher scores on both intramuscular injection knowledge and skill learning. A Web-based design can be an effective supplementing learning tool for teaching nursing knowledge and skills.

  20. [Role of pharmacists in disaster medicine: required knowledge and skills].

    PubMed

    Nakura, Hironori

    2014-01-01

    Immediately after the Great East Japan Earthquake of March 2011, Okayama University dispatched a medical assistance team based on the request of Iwate Prefecture. The first team was followed by 12 medical teams. I was one of the members of the fourth and fifth medical teams sent to Rikuzen-takata and Ofunato for a week beginning March 16th to support medical relief operations as a pharmacist during the sub-acute phase of the disaster. As a member of the team at the temporary clinic in Rikuzen-takata, pharmacists such as myself required physical assessment skills to perform related tasks, along with expertise in drug dispensing and consultation. In my next medical team, which headed the pneumonia unit at Oofunato Hospital, I played a critical role in the effective use of medicine reserved/provided for disasters, including antibiotics. Throughout the relief operations, strong clinical reasoning and decision making, as well as good teamwork, proved vital, especially in emergency situations. For future community medical systems, emergency/disaster medicine should be included in pharmacy education. The School of Pharmacy at Okayama University will establish emergency medicine program in the next school year, in cooperation with the Medical, Dental and Health Care Departments.

  1. Knowledgeable antenatal care as a pathway to skilled delivery: modelling the interactions between use of services and knowledge in Zambia.

    PubMed

    Ensor, Tim; Quigley, Paula; Green, Cathy; Razak Badru, Abdul; Kaluba, Dynes; Siziya, Seter

    2014-08-01

    The link between antenatal care (ANC) and facility delivery is a specific example of the effect of early medical contacts on later use of essential services. The role of ANC in improving maternal health remains unclear. High levels of ANC are reported in a number of countries where skilled delivery remains uncommon. ANC may influence the use of services by increasing willingness to use services and educating about maternal health. The objective of this study is to understand the interaction between use of skilled and unskilled ANC, knowledge of obstetric complications and danger signs, and the eventual use of a facility for delivery. The study makes use of data from a survey of around 1700 women who had recently given birth across 11 districts of Zambia in 2011. Multivariate analysis is used to explore the associations between ANC use, knowledge and place of delivery. The results suggest that place of care and number of visits is strongly associated with the eventual use of a facility for delivery; an effect that is stronger in remote areas. Both skilled and unskilled ANC and obstetric knowledge is linked to higher use of facility delivery care while care provided at home appears to have an opposite effect. The research suggests that ANC influences later use of delivery care in two ways: by developing a habit to use formal care services and in increasing maternal knowledge. The work might be generalized to other health seeking behaviour to explore how the quantity and quality of initial contacts influence later use of services.

  2. Young children's knowledge and skills related to sexual abuse prevention: a pilot study in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wenjing; Chen, Jingqi; Feng, Yanan; Li, Jingyi; Zhao, Xiaoxia; Luo, Xiaoling

    2013-09-01

    To examine the level of knowledge and skills related to prevention of child sexual abuse (CSA) in a sample of Chinese preschoolers in Beijing and to explore the associations between children's scores on the knowledge and skills and their parents' reports on the knowledge and communication with children about CSA prevention. One hundred and thirty-six preschoolers were interviewed by researchers using the Chinese versions of Personal Safety Questionnaire and the "What If" Situation Test, and one parent of each child was invited to complete an anonymous questionnaire regarding parental knowledge and parent-child communication about CSA prevention. Less than half children knew that strangers were not the only perpetrators and only 16% thought that children should report secret touching. In 3 inappropriate touching requests, less than 30% of the children were aware of using verbal response to definitely refuse the inappropriate touching and less than 20% of the children were aware of definitely removing themselves from the abusive situations. Parent-child communication about CSA and parental educational level were the significant factors for children's self-protection skills. Preschool children lack CSA prevention knowledge and related self-protection skills. Culturally relevant primary CSA prevention programs in China need to be developed and parental education should be a part of CSA prevention. Parents need to be informed about CSA knowledge concepts and need to be encouraged to communicate with their children about sexual abuse prevention.

  3. Nurses' attitudes to and perceptions of knowledge and skills regarding evidence-based practice.

    PubMed

    Sherriff, Karen L; Wallis, Marianne; Chaboyer, Wendy

    2007-12-01

    The study evaluated the effect of an evidence-based practice (EBP) educational programme on attitudes and perceptions of knowledge and skills, of registered nurses, towards EBP. The study was conducted using a quasiexperimental interrupted time series design. Participants were clinical nurses in educational and leadership roles within a Health Service District in south-east Queensland. The data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire at three points. Nurses' belief in the value of EBP for practice was high prior to the programme and did not change subsequently. There was an improvement following the intervention in nurses' attitudes to organizational support for EBP and their perceptions of their knowledge and skills in locating and evaluating research reports. Providing educational courses in a clinical setting is useful in improving clinicians' attitudes to and perceptions of knowledge and skills related to EBP.

  4. Developing a tool for assessing scientists' views about, knowledge of, and skills in science communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewenstein, B. V.; Baram-Tsabari, A.

    2011-12-01

    Although much effort is being invested in science communication training, the efforts are rarely accompanied by systematic evaluation of learning outcomes; existing evaluations are mainly anecdotal, or specific to a particular program. Standardized assessments will allow comparisons across programs and identification of best practices. This presentation describes the development and piloting of a tool for measuring scientists' views about, knowledge of, and skills in science communication. The instrument collects four types of data: (1) background information, (2) communication skills, (3) views about science communication, and (4) knowledge about the context of science communication. In the specific area of communication skills, a rationale is proposed for establishing learning goals in seven areas: content, knowledge organization, clarity and language, style, analogy, narrative, and dialogue. The resulting instrument may be used as a baseline survey or as a tool for pre-post evaluation of the learning outcomes of a wide range of science communication training programs and courses.

  5. The development of metacognitive knowledge of basic motor skill: walking.

    PubMed

    Lee, K; Chen, L

    1996-09-01

    The development of children's metacognitive knowledge of walking was investigated. Sixty elementary school children (30 boys and 30 girls), 9, 11, and 13 years of age, viewed a video presentation of an adult performing normal walking and six different forms of partial walking (varying in terms of the presence or absence of four essential features of normal walking: arm swing, leg swing, arm-leg coordination, and distance traveled). Then the children were asked to rate the partial walking. A repeated measures ANOVA revealed that children of all these ages appreciated the differences between normal walking and partial walking. As age increased, the degree of importance of the four features became more differentiated. By 13 years of age, the children considered leg swing to be the most important feature of walking, arm swing the second, arm-leg coordination the third, and distance traveled the least important feature.

  6. [To strengthen the education on basic knowledge and skills of neuro-ophthalmology].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Ning-li

    2011-12-01

    Basic knowledge and skills are cornerstone of the diagnosis and treatment of neuro-ophthalmology diseases in ophthalmology practice. Due to the interdisciplinary features of neuro-ophthalmology, neuro-anatomy, neuro-physiology related to eyes, neuro-image and neuro-electrodiagnosis, these should be included in the education for the ophthalmologist. Special attention should be paid to training on capability of logically thinking in neuro-ophthalmology. Multiple ways can be used for the education of ophthalmologists and neurologists for the enhancement of basic knowledge and skills of neuro-ophthalmology in China.

  7. The Roles of Ability, Personality, and Interests in Acquiring Current Events Knowledge: A Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hambrick, David Z.; Pink, Jeffrey E.; Meinz, Elizabeth J.; Pettibone, Jonathan C.; Oswald, Frederick L.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate sources of inter-individual differences in current events knowledge. The study occurred in two sessions. In the initial session, 579 participants completed tests to ability, personality, and interest factors, as well as prior knowledge of current events. Approximately 10 weeks later, participants…

  8. What Word-Level Knowledge Can Adult Learners Acquire after Minimal Exposure to a New Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gullberg, Marianne; Roberts, Leah; Dimroth, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Discussions about the adult L2 learning capacity often take as their starting point stages where considerable L2 knowledge has already been accumulated. This paper probes the absolute earliest stages of learning and investigates what lexical knowledge adult learners can extract from complex, continuous speech in an unknown language after minimal…

  9. [Training of health professionals in breastfeeding and its association with knowledge, skills and practices].

    PubMed

    Jesus, Patricia Carvalho de; Oliveira, Maria Inês Couto de; Moraes, José Rodrigo de

    2017-01-01

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in the 15 hospitals with over 1000 deliveries/year in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, to verify the association between training of health professionals in breastfeeding and professional knowledge, skills and practices. Interviews were staged with 215 health professionals, 48.4% working in Baby-Friendly Hospitals, by means of a questionnaire adapted from the revalidation instrument of the initiative. The three dichotomized outcomes were subjected to bivariate and multivariate analysis. Adjusted prevalence ratios were obtained by the Poisson regression model: 48.1% of the professionals had adequate knowledge, 58.9% adequate skills and 74.9% reported adequate practice. Theoretical and practical training ≥ 18 hours considered adequate (by 65.6% of the professionals) showed a significant association with professional knowledge (aPR = 1.575), skills (aPR = 1.530) and practices (aPR = 1.312). Less working experience was associated with less knowledge (aPR = 0.723), but with better practices (aPR = 1.183). Nursing staff reported better practices than physicians (aPR = 0.808) and other categories (aPR = 0.658). The study concludes that training contributes to improved breastfeeding knowledge, skills and practices that are essential for maternal and child care.

  10. Linguistic and spatial skills predict early arithmetic development via counting sequence knowledge.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao; Koponen, Tuire; Räsänen, Pekka; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2014-01-01

    Utilizing a longitudinal sample of Finnish children (ages 6-10), two studies examined how early linguistic (spoken vs. written) and spatial skills predict later development of arithmetic, and whether counting sequence knowledge mediates these associations. In Study 1 (N = 1,880), letter knowledge and spatial visualization, measured in kindergarten, predicted the level of arithmetic in first grade, and later growth through third grade. Study 2 (n = 378) further showed that these associations were mediated by counting sequence knowledge measured in first grade. These studies add to the literature by demonstrating the importance of written language for arithmetic development. The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that linguistic and spatial skills can improve arithmetic development by enhancing children's number-related knowledge.

  11. Retention of Advanced Cardiac Life Support Knowledge and Skills Following High-Fidelity Mannequin Simulation Training

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Sanchita; Finn, Laura A.; Cawley, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To assess pharmacy students’ ability to retain advanced cardiac life support (ACLS) knowledge and skills within 120 days of previous high-fidelity mannequin simulation training. Design. Students were randomly assigned to rapid response teams of 5-6. Skills in ACLS and mannequin survival were compared between teams some members of which had simulation training 120 days earlier and teams who had not had previous training. Assessment. A checklist was used to record and assess performance in the simulations. Teams with previous simulation training (n=10) demonstrated numerical superiority to teams without previous training (n=12) for 6 out of 8 (75%) ACLS skills observed, including time calculating accurate vasopressor infusion rate (83 sec vs 113 sec; p=0.01). Mannequin survival was 37% higher for teams who had previous simulation training, but this result was not significant (70% vs 33%; p=0.20). Conclusion. Teams with students who had previous simulation training demonstrated numerical superiority in ACLS knowledge and skill retention within 120 days of previous training compared to those who had no previous training. Future studies are needed to add to the current evidence of pharmacy students’ and practicing pharmacists’ ACLS knowledge and skill retention. PMID:25741028

  12. Influence of Previous Knowledge, Language Skills and Domain-specific Interest on Observation Competency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohlhauf, Lucia; Rutke, Ulrike; Neuhaus, Birgit

    2011-10-01

    Many epoch-making biological discoveries (e.g. Darwinian Theory) were based upon observations. Nevertheless, observation is often regarded as `just looking' rather than a basic scientific skill. As observation is one of the main research methods in biological sciences, it must be considered as an independent research method and systematic practice of this method is necessary. Because observation skills form the basis of further scientific methods (e.g. experiments or comparisons) and children from the age of 4 years are able to independently generate questions and hypotheses, it seems possible to foster observation competency at a preschool level. To be able to provide development-adequate individual fostering of this competency, it is first necessary to assess each child's competency. Therefore, drawing on the recent literature, we developed in this study a competency model that was empirically evaluated within learners ( N = 110) from different age groups, from kindergarten to university. In addition, we collected data on language skills, domain-specific interest and previous knowledge to analyse coherence between these skills and observation competency. The study showed as expected that previous knowledge had a high impact on observation competency, whereas the influence of domain-specific interest was nonexistent. Language skills were shown to have a weak influence. By utilising the empirically validated model consisting of three dimensions (`Describing', `Scientific reasoning' and `Interpreting') and three skill levels, it was possible to assess each child's competency level and to develop and evaluate guided play activities to individually foster a child's observation competency.

  13. The simulated delivery-room environment as the future modality for acquiring and maintaining skills in fetal and neonatal resuscitation.

    PubMed

    Halamek, Louis P

    2008-12-01

    The science underlying neonatal resuscitation is growing exponentially in quantity and quality. So, too, is the knowledge of effective methodologies that facilitate acquisition and maintenance of the cognitive, technical, and behavioral skills necessary to for successful resuscitation of the newborn. One of these methodologies, simulation-based training, offers many advantages over more traditional methodologies: By providing key visual, auditory, and tactile cues it creates a high level of physical, biological, and psychological fidelity to the real environment and thus is able to elicit realistic responses from trainees. Training scenarios coupled with debriefings (where discussion of what went well and what could be improved upon occur in a nonjudgmental fashion) provide rich learning experiences that rival or exceed those in the real clinical environment. Simulation-based training will likely become the standard for not only routine training but also high-stakes assessment such as licensure and board certification.

  14. Predictors of Knowledge and Image Interpretation Skill Development in Radiology Residents.

    PubMed

    Ravesloot, Cécile J; van der Schaaf, Marieke F; Kruitwagen, Cas L J J; van der Gijp, Anouk; Rutgers, Dirk R; Haaring, Cees; Ten Cate, Olle; van Schaik, Jan P J

    2017-04-11

    Purpose To investigate knowledge and image interpretation skill development in residency by studying scores on knowledge and image questions on radiology tests, mediated by the training environment. Materials and Methods Ethical approval for the study was obtained from the ethical review board of the Netherlands Association for Medical Education. Longitudinal test data of 577 of 2884 radiology residents who took semiannual progress tests during 5 years were retrospectively analyzed by using a nonlinear mixed-effects model taking training length as input variable. Tests included nonimage and image questions that assessed knowledge and image interpretation skill. Hypothesized predictors were hospital type (academic or nonacademic), training hospital, enrollment age, sex, and test date. Results Scores showed a curvilinear growth during residency. Image scores increased faster during the first 3 years of residency and reached a higher maximum than knowledge scores (55.8% vs 45.1%). The slope of image score development versus knowledge question scores of 1st-year residents was 16.8% versus 12.4%, respectively. Training hospital environment appeared to be an important predictor in both knowledge and image interpretation skill development (maximum score difference between training hospitals was 23.2%; P < .001). Conclusion Expertise developed rapidly in the initial years of radiology residency and leveled off in the 3rd and 4th training year. The shape of the curve was mainly influenced by the specific training hospital. (©) RSNA, 2017 Online supplemental material is available for this article.

  15. School nurse online emergency preparedness training: an analysis of knowledge, skills, and confidence.

    PubMed

    Elgie, Robert; Sapien, Robert; Fullerton, Lynne; Moore, Brian

    2010-10-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a computer-assisted emergency preparedness course for school nurses. Participants from a convenience sample (52) of school nurses from New Mexico were randomly assigned to intervention or control groups in an experimental after-only posttest design. Intervention group participants completed 15 online emergency preparedness training modules followed by posttests, and control group participants completed the posttests without taking the training modules. Tests measured emergency preparedness with written exams, confidence surveys, and skills performance in videotaped scenarios; the videotaped scenarios were scored by Pediatric Emergency Medicine physicians blinded to whether the participants were in the intervention or control group. The intervention group participants scored significantly higher in tests of knowledge and skills than control group participants. Confidence Survey scores did not differ significantly. The online training modules are a valuable resource for improving school nurse emergency preparedness knowledge and skills but may not affect participants' confidence.

  16. Teaching Residents Practice-Management Knowledge and Skills: An "in Vivo" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Laurel Lyn

    2009-01-01

    Objective: This article explores the relevant data regarding teaching psychiatric residents practice management knowledge and skills. This article also introduces a unique program for teaching practice management to residents. Methods: A literature search was conducted through PubMed and "Academic Psychiatry". Additionally residents…

  17. Moblogging Type and Its Relation with Usability and Development of Knowledge Management Skills for Blind Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mostafa, Akram Fathy

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the research is to explore the relation of mobile Blogging (Moblogging -MB) on the usability and development of Knowledge Management skills for Blind Students. The research followed a pretest and posttest quasi experimental design. Participants were 17 blind students from the third semester of the academic year 2015 in the course of…

  18. A Novice-Expert Study of Modeling Skills and Knowledge Structures about Air Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Lin, Li-Fen; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Dai-Ying; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2012-01-01

    This study compared modeling skills and knowledge structures of four groups as seen in their understanding of air quality. The four groups were: experts (atmospheric scientists), intermediates (upper-level graduate students in a different field), advanced novices (talented 11th and 12th graders), and novices (10th graders). It was found that when…

  19. Student Affairs Professionals' Self-Report of Multicultural Competence: Understanding Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Jeanett; Gloria, Alberta M.; Mayorga, Melissa M.; Salas, Christina

    2008-01-01

    Pope and Reynolds' (1997) theoretical model of multicultural competence for student affairs was empirically tested with 100 student affairs professionals. The domain subscales of awareness, knowledge, and skills revealed high internal consistency and intercorrelation. Males reported significantly higher multicultural awareness in their…

  20. The Perceptions of Teacher Skills and Knowledge by Regular and Special Educators of Mildly Handicapped Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furey, Eileen M.; Strauch, James D.

    1983-01-01

    The results indicate that, while there is consonance between the self-perceived skills and knowledge of special educators and how regular educators view them, there is an apparent dissonance between how regular educators view themselves and special educators' perceptions of regular elementary teachers. (Author)

  1. A Job Announcement Analysis of Educational Technology Professional Positions: Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, YoungJu; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the competencies of an educational technologist via a job announcement analysis. Four hundred job announcements were collected from a variety of online job databases over a 5-month period. Following a systematic process of collection, documentation, and analysis, we derived over 150 knowledge, skill,…

  2. Academic Admission Requirements as Predictors of Counseling Knowledge, Personal Development, and Counseling Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smaby, Marlowe H.; Maddux, Cleborne D.; Richmond, Aaron S.; Lepkowski, William J.; Packman, Jill

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated whether undergraduates' scores on the Verbal and Quantitative tests of the Graduate Record Examinations and their undergraduate grade point average can be used to predict knowledge, personal development, and skills of graduates of counseling programs. Multiple regression analysis produced significant models predicting…

  3. Programming Not Required: Skills and Knowledge for the Digital Library Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    Education for Library and Information professionals in managing the digital environment has been a key topic for discussion within the LIS environment for some time. However, before designing and implementing a program for digital library education, it is prudent to ensure that the skills and knowledge required to work in this environment are…

  4. Physicians as Managers: Psychiatry Residents' Perceived Gaps in Knowledge and Skills in Administrative Psychiatry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Maggi, Julie

    2007-01-01

    Objective: The authors determine psychiatry residents' perceived needs and educational preferences for a physician-manager curriculum. Method: The authors surveyed 102 psychiatry residents at the University of Toronto for their perceived current and desired knowledge and skills in specific administrative areas, and their educational preferences…

  5. The Knowledge, Experience, Skills, and Characteristics TESOL Employers Seek in Job Candidates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Caprice L.; Tanner, Mark W.; Henrichsen, Lynn E.; Dewey, Dan P.

    2013-01-01

    In a competitive marketplace, job candidates need to know what TESOL employers are seeking in new hires. A 12-month study of TESOL job announcements examined the types of work offered and the candidate knowledge, experience, skills, and personal characteristics TESOL employers were seeking in full-time hires. An analysis of 169 job advertisements…

  6. Real Scenarios and Complementary Lectures: A Classroom Training Approach to Increase Counselor Awareness, Knowledge, and Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinson, Jesse A.; Brew, Leah; Denby, Ramona

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a classroom approach for training counseling students in the area of cross-cultural competence. The authors describe real scenarios that form the foundation for an intensive classroom discussion and lecture format regarding cultural awareness, knowledge, and skills.

  7. Teaching in the Knowledge Society: New Skills and Instruments for Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cartelli, Antonio, Ed.

    2006-01-01

    "Teaching in the Knowledge Society: New Skills and Instruments for Teachers" covers a pedagogical survey of the changes induced by information and communication technology (ICT) in today's society and education. It critically analyzes facts, instruments, solutions, and strategies while suggesting interpretations and hypotheses to develop a new way…

  8. Improving Geometric and Trigonometric Knowledge and Skill for High School Mathematics Teachers: A Professional Development Partnership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrill, Chris; Devine, Kevin L.; Brown, Joshua W.; Brown, Ryan A.

    2010-01-01

    In the summer of 2009, a professional development partnership was established between the Peoria Public School District (PPSD), a local education agency (LEA), and Illinois State University (ISU) to improve geometric and trigonometric knowledge and skill for high school mathematics teachers as part of the Illinois Mathematics and Science…

  9. Activity Theory as a Lens to Understand How Facebook Develops Knowledge Application Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagarukayo, Emily; Ssentamu, Proscovia; Mayisela, Tabisa; Brown, Cheryl

    2016-01-01

    Uganda's higher education system has generally been criticized for concentrating on theory leading to a mismatch between training received and practical skills required by employers. Studies have documented the inability of graduates from some programmes at Makerere University in applying knowledge in the work environment. This could partly be…

  10. The Knowledge, Skills and Personal Qualities of Early Childhood Resource Consultants as Agents of Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frankel, Elaine B.

    2006-01-01

    This naturalistic investigation explored the knowledge, skills, and personal qualities demonstrated by two early childhood resource consultants when preschool children with special needs were included in community-based early childhood settings. This article describes the dilemmas, challenges and barriers faced by the resource consultants as they…

  11. Creating Multicultural Classrooms. Developing Multicultural Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills: Diversity Training Makes a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, J. Camille; Theriot, Matthew T.

    2016-01-01

    As the population becomes more diverse, social work educators will bear a larger responsibility for educating culturally competent practitioners. To enhance student learning, research should consider those factors that influence students' multicultural awareness, knowledge, and skills. This information potentially can help students better prepare…

  12. Investigating Lebanese Grade Seven Biology Teachers Mathematical Knowledge and Skills: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raad, Nawal Abou; Chatila, Hanadi

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates Lebanese grade 7 biology teachers' mathematical knowledge and skills, by exploring how they explain a visual representation in an activity depending on the mathematical concept "Function". Twenty Lebanese in-service biology teachers participated in the study, and were interviewed about their explanation for the…

  13. Testing Students under Cognitive Capitalism: Knowledge Production of Twenty-First Century Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Clara

    2016-01-01

    Scholars studying the global governance of education have noted the increasingly important role corporations play in educational policy making. I contribute to this scholarship by examining the Assessment and Teaching of twenty-first century skills (ATC21S™) project, a knowledge production apparatus operating under cognitive capitalism. I analyze…

  14. Knowledge and Skill Requirements for Marketing Jobs in the 21st Century

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlee, Regina Pefanis; Harich, Katrin R.

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the skills and conceptual knowledge that employers require for marketing positions at different levels ranging from entry- or lower-level jobs to middle- and senior-level positions. The data for this research are based on a content analysis of 500 marketing jobs posted on Monster.com for Atlanta, Chicago, Los Angeles, New York…

  15. 10 CFR Appendix B to Subpart B of... - Training and Qualification for Security Skills and Knowledge

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Training and Qualification for Security Skills and Knowledge B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part 1046 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF SECURITY INTERESTS (Eff. until 3-10-14) Protective Force Personnel Pt. 1046, Subpt. B, App. B Appendix B to Subpart B of Part...

  16. Adults with Poor Reading Skills: How Lexical Knowledge Interacts with Scores on Standardized Reading Comprehension Tests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKoon, Gai; Ratcliff, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from…

  17. 14 CFR 121.434 - Operating experience, operating cycles, and consolidation of knowledge and skills.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... consolidation of knowledge and skills. 121.434 Section 121.434 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION... paragraph (c)(3)(i) of this section for initial training. (d) A flight engineer must perform the duties of a flight engineer under the supervision of a check airman or a qualified flight engineer for at least...

  18. Developing Teachers' Knowledge and Skills at the Intersection of English Language Learners and Language Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Téllez, Kip; Mosqueda, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    The growth of teachers' professional knowledge and skills has been the topic of policy, research, and even philosophy for many decades. The assessment of English Learners (ELs), a more specific concern, has become an interest of the educational community in just the past 40 years (e.g., Harris, 1969). The authors' task in this chapter is to…

  19. Finance Graduates' Knowledge and Skills Development: Graduate and Employer Perceptions in United Arab Emirates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Al Shayeb, Abdulrahman Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    There has been considerable debate over the past decades concerning the extent to which finance education has fulfilled employers' and graduates' expectations related to knowledge and skills needed in a changing and challenging business environment. This study seeks to examine whether there are significant differences in expectations between…

  20. Conducting Psychological Assessments in Schools: Adapting for Converging Skills and Expanding Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowles, Terry; Scull, Janet; Hattie, John; Clinton, Janet; Larkins, Geraldine; Cicconi, Vincent; Kumar, Doreen; Arnup, Jessica L.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we argue for a revision of the knowledge, skills and competencies of school psychologists and specialist teachers. Evidence-based practice of psychologists and teachers, the accountability movement, and calls for improved service delivery have led to changes in the practice of both professions. The changes in technology and the…

  1. Dimensions of Knowing: A Conceptual Alternative to an Unhelpful Polarity between Knowledge and Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rand, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports research that responded to my experience of teacher trainees' perception of a polarity between knowledge and skill in English post-compulsory education and training (PCET). I developed a model of knowing designed to promote an alternative to this binary conceptualisation. The research set out to operationalise "Dimensions…

  2. [Theory and Practice of the Constructive Jigsaw Method in Advancing Domain Knowledge and Skills in Parallel].

    PubMed

    Masukawa, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    The Learning Sciences constitute a rapidly expanding discipline that focuses on the learning potential of humans. In this paper, I will discuss the particular learning mechanism involved in the concomitant advancement of domain knowledge and 21st century skills, as well as the Constructive Jigsaw Method of knowledge construction through collaboration-that is, collaborative problem solving. An especially important focus on knowledge construction separates routine experts from adaptive experts. While routine experts develop a core set of skills that they apply throughout their lives with increasing efficiency, adaptive experts are much more likely to change their core skills and continually expand the depth of their expertise. This restructuring of core ideas and skills may reduce their efficiency in the short run but make them more flexible in the long run. The Constructive Jigsaw Method employs a learning mechanism that encourages the development of adaptive experts. Under this method, students first study a piece of material in an expert group. One member from each of several expert groups then joins a new study group, a jigsaw group. The members of this new group then combine what they have learned, creating new knowledge and a deeper understanding of the concept through collaboration, communication, and innovation.

  3. Pre-Service Geography Teachers' Confidence in Geographical Subject Matter Knowledge and Teaching Geographical Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harte, Wendy; Reitano, Paul

    2015-01-01

    This research tracked the confidence of 16 undergraduate and postgraduate pre-service geography teachers as they completed a single semester, senior phase geography curriculum course. The study focused specifically on the pre-service teachers' confidence in geographical subject matter knowledge and their confidence in teaching geographical skills.…

  4. Digital News Stories: Building Language Learners' Content Knowledge and Speaking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Lina

    2014-01-01

    The study explored how the use of digital news stories promoted the development of content knowledge and oral language skills. The study involved 15 advanced Spanish students who used VoiceThread, an interactive multimedia tool, to create and exchange digital news regarding current events over the course of one semester. Both quantitative and…

  5. Young Learners: An Examination of the Psychometric Properties of the Early Literacy Knowledge and Skills Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chan, Man Ching Esther

    2015-01-01

    The Early Literacy Knowledge and Skills (ELKS) instrument was informed by the work of Ferreiro and Teberosky based on the notion that young children could be differentiated according to levels of sophistication in their understanding of the rules of written language. As an initial step to evaluate the instrument for teaching purposes, the present…

  6. Related Core Academic Knowledge and Skills. Georgia Core Standards for Occupational Clusters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Georgia Univ., Athens. Dept. of Occupational Studies.

    This document lists the industry-identified core academic knowledge and skills that should be possessed by all Georgia students who are enrolled in occupational cluster programs and are preparing to enter the work force or continue their occupational specialization at the postsecondary level. First, 63 related communications competencies are…

  7. Minimum Knowledge and Skills Objectives for Alcohol and Other Drug Abuse Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Psychiatric Association, Hartford, CT.

    This publication brings together statements concerning the minimum knowledge and skills objectives in alcohol and other drug abuse determined by the professional organizations of six medical specialties: pediatrics; emergency medicine; obstetrics and gynecology; psychiatry; general internal medicine; and family medicine for undergraduate,…

  8. Does Problem Solving = Prior Knowledge + Reasoning Skills in Earth Science? An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Chun-Yen

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationship between tenth-grade students' problem solving ability (PSA) and their domain-specific knowledge (DSK) as well as reasoning skills (RS) in a secondary school of Taiwan. The PSA test was designed to emphasize students' divergent-thinking ability (DTA) and convergent-thinking ability (CTA) subscales in the…

  9. Effects of Two Instructional Approaches on Skill Development, Knowledge, and Game Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pritchard, Tony; Hawkins, Andrew; Wiegand, Robert; Metzler, Jonathan N.

    2008-01-01

    Two instructional approaches that have been of interest in promoting sport have been the Sport Education Model (SEM) and the Traditional Style (TS) of teaching physical education. The purpose of this study was to investigate how SEM and TS would affect skill development, knowledge, and game performance for volleyball at the secondary level. A 2 x…

  10. Career Connections Instructional Modules: Implementation Materials for Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barbieri, Marty

    This curriculum guide for high school teachers contains eight units that correspond to the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS) for Career Orientation. The units cover the following topics: (1) career planning foundations (interests, aptitudes, and attitudes); (2) locating, analyzing, and applying career information (including information…

  11. How To Identify Basic Knowledge and Basic Skills? Features of Modern General Education in Mathematics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peschek, Werner; Schneider, Edith

    2001-01-01

    Discusses descriptive and normative perspectives of mathematics and of (general) mathematics education which can be found in the didactic literature. Contemplates and evaluates the use of computer algebra systems and offers suggestions for basic knowledge and basic skills in a modern technology-supported mathematics classroom. (Contains 12…

  12. Effects of Agricultural Sales CDE Modules on Content Knowledge and Argumentation Skill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapp, Sarah B.; Thoron, Andrew C.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of the type of training module on argumentation skill, student content knowledge achievement, and performance in an agricultural sales practicum completed by secondary school agriculture students. Current research has concluded that most students do not possess the academic or transferable…

  13. Assessing nursing students' knowledge and skills in performing venepuncture and inserting peripheral venous catheters.

    PubMed

    Ahlin, C; Klang-Söderkvist, B; Johansson, E; Björkholm, M; Löfmark, A

    2017-01-27

    Venepuncture and the insertion of peripheral venous catheters are common tasks in health care, and training in these procedures is included in nursing programmes. Evidence of nursing students' knowledge and skills in these procedures is limited. The main aim of this study was to assess nursing students' knowledge and skills when performing venepuncture and inserting peripheral venous catheters. Potential associations between level of knowledge and skills, self-training, self-efficacy, and demographic characteristics were also investigated. The assessment was performed by lecturers at a university college in Sweden using the two previously tested instruments "Assess Venepuncture" and "Assess Peripheral Venous Catheter Insertion". Between 81% and 100% of steps were carried out correctly by the students. The step with the highest rating was "Uses gloves", and lowest rating was 'Informs the patients about the possibility of obtaining local anaesthesia'. Significant correlations between degree of self-training and correct performance were found in the group of students who registered their self-training. No associations between demographic characteristics and correct performances were found. Assessing that students have achieved adequate levels of knowledge and skills in these procedures at different levels of the nursing education is of importance to prevent complications and support patient safety.

  14. Impact of health education on knowledge regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Angadi, M M; Sorganvi, V S; Algur, V S

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among college girl students, to expose the college girl students to targeted HIV/AIDS education and to assess the impact of HIV/ AIDS health education on college girl students. A cross-sectional study was designed over the period September 2009 to February 2010. Study participants included 139 students of BLDEA's Arts and Commerce College for Women, Bijapur, Karnataka. Results indicated knowledge regarding HIV/ AIDS improved substantially, especially, with relation to various modes of transmission viz unsterilised syringes (41% to 72%), pregnant mother to child (23% to 66%) blood transfusion (20% to71%) and regarding preventive measures namely adherence to single partner (68% to 95%), use of condom (18% to 68%/), use of tested blood for transfusion (21% to 55%). The study showed significant difference between pre and post-test knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS

  15. Interaction of memory systems during acquisition of tool knowledge and skills in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Roy, Shumita; Park, Norman W; Roy, Eric A; Almeida, Quincy J

    2015-01-01

    Previous research suggests that different aspects of tool knowledge are mediated by different memory systems. It is believed that tool attributes (e.g., function, color) are represented as declarative memory while skill learning is supported by procedural memory. It has been proposed that other aspects (e.g., skilled tool use) may rely on an interaction of both declarative and procedural memory. However, the specific form of procedural memory underlying skilled tool use and the nature of interaction between declarative and procedural memory systems remain unclear. In the current study, individuals with Parkinson's disease (PD) and healthy controls were trained over 2 sessions, 3 weeks apart, to use a set of novel complex tools. They were also tested on their ability to recall tool attributes as well as their ability to demonstrate grasp and use of the tools to command. Results showed that, compared to controls, participants with PD showed intact motor skill acquisition and tool use to command within sessions, but failed to retain performance across sessions. In contrast, people with PD showed equivalent recall of tool attributes and tool grasping relative to controls, both within and across sessions. Current findings demonstrate that the frontal-striatal network, compromised in PD, mediates long-term retention of motor skills. Intact initial skill learning raises the possibility of compensation from declarative memory for frontal-striatal dysfunction. Lastly, skilled tool use appears to rely on both memory systems which may reflect a cooperative interaction between the two systems. Current findings regarding memory representations of tool knowledge and skill learning may have important implications for delivery of rehabilitation programs for individuals with PD.

  16. Acquiring Teaching Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahorik, John A.

    1986-01-01

    Good teaching can be divided into three conceptual categories: science-research, theory-philosophy, and art-craft. The author defines and discusses these categories in terms of the developmental stages of teacher growth. (MT)

  17. How Toddlers Acquire and Transfer Tool Knowledge: Developmental Changes and the Role of Executive Functions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pauen, Sabina; Bechtel-Kuehne, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    This report investigates tool learning and its relations to executive functions (EFs) in toddlers. In Study 1 (N = 93), 18-, 20-, 22-, and 24-month-old children learned equally well to choose a correct tool from observation, whereas performance based on feedback improved with age. Knowledge transfer showed significant progress after 22 months of…

  18. The Foundation of Literacy Skills in Korean: The Relationship between Letter-Name Knowledge and Phonological Awareness and Their Relative Contribution to Literacy Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Young-Suk

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the relative contribution of letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness to literacy skills and the relationship between letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness, using data from Korean-speaking preschoolers. The results revealed that although both letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness made unique…

  19. Critical Reading of Science-Based News Reports: Establishing a knowledge, skills and attitudes framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClune, Billy; Jarman, Ruth

    2010-04-01

    A recognised aim of science education is to promote critical engagement with science in the media. Evidence would suggest that this is challenging for both teachers and pupils and that science education does not yet adequately prepare young people for this task. Furthermore, in the absence of clear guidance as to what this means and how this may be achieved it is difficult for teachers to develop approaches and resources that address the matter and that systematically promote such critical engagement within their teaching programmes. Twenty-six individuals with recognised expertise or interest in science in the media, drawn from a range of disciplines and areas of practice, constituted a specialist panel in this study. The question this research sought to answer was "what are the elements of knowledge, skill, and attitude which underpin critical reading of science-based news reports?" During in-depth individual interviews the panel were asked to explore what they considered to be essential elements of knowledge, skills, and attitude which people need to enable them to respond critically to news reports with a science component. Analysis of the data revealed 14 fundamental elements which together contribute to an individual's capacity to engage critically with science-based news. These are classified in five categories "knowledge of science", "knowledge of writing and language", "knowledge about news, newspapers and journalism", "skills", and "attitudes". Illustrative profiles of each category along with indicators of critical engagement are presented. The implications for curriculum planning and pedagogy are considered.

  20. Prescribing knowledge and skills of final year medical students in Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Oshikoya, K.A.; Bello, J.A.; Ayorinde, E.O.

    2008-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the knowledge of final year medical students in Nigeria, about good prescribing and the application of this knowledge to their prescribing skills. Materials and Methods: Thirty four final year medical students of the Lagos State University College of Medicine (LASUCOM), Ikeja, were interviewed with a structured questionnaire that assessed their knowledge on the principles of good prescribing. They were also requested to write a prescription, based on a paediatric clinical scenario of malaria and upper respiratory tract infection. The prescription was used to assess their prescribing skills. Results: Thirty one (91.18%) students knew that rational prescribing involved prescribing correct dosage of an appropriate medicine formulation. Factors considered important by the students to prescribe rationally were: Potential benefit: risk ratio of a medicine - 33 (97.06%); good knowledge of pharmacology - 29 (85.29%) and pathophysiology of the disease to be treated - 24 (70.59%); and safety of an alternative medicine to be used - 24 (70.59%). An average of 3.71 medicines was prescribed for a child suspected to have malaria. Antimalarials (38.24%) and paracetamol (20%) were the most frequently prescribed medicines. The name and signature of the prescriber were available in 51.61% and 58.06% prescriptions, respectively. Less than 50% prescriptions had the name, case file number, age and gender of the patient. Conclusion: The final year medical students of LASUCOM would require theoretical and practical teaching of principles of rational prescribing to improve their prescribing knowledge and skills. PMID:21279180

  1. Learning from Simple Ebooks, Online Cases or Classroom Teaching When Acquiring Complex Knowledge. A Randomized Controlled Trial in Respiratory Physiology and Pulmonology

    PubMed Central

    Worm, Bjarne Skjødt

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims E-learning is developing fast because of the rapid increased use of smartphones, tablets and portable computers. We might not think of it as e-learning, but today many new e-books are in fact very complex electronic teaching platforms. It is generally accepted that e-learning is as effective as classroom teaching methods, but little is known about its value in relaying contents of different levels of complexity to students. We set out to investigate e-learning effects on simple recall and complex problem-solving compared to classroom teaching. Methods 63 nurses specializing in anesthesiology were evenly randomized into three groups. They were given internet-based knowledge tests before and after attending a teaching module about respiratory physiology and pulmonology. The three groups was either an e-learning group with eBook teaching material, an e-learning group with case-based teaching or a group with face-to-face case-based classroom teaching. After the module the students were required to answer a post-test. Time spent and the number of logged into the system was also measured. Results For simple recall, all methods were equally effective. For problem-solving, the eCase group achieved a comparable knowledge level to classroom teaching, while textbook learning was inferior to both (p<0.01). The textbook group also spent the least amount of time on acquiring knowledge (33 minutes, p<0.001), while the eCase group spent significantly more time on the subject (53 minutes, p<0.001) and logged into the system significantly more (2.8 vs 1.6, p<0.001). Conclusions E-learning based cases are an effective tool for teaching complex knowledge and problem-solving ability, but future studies using higher-level e-learning are encouraged.Simple recall skills, however, do not require any particular learning method. PMID:24039917

  2. Parental Involvement and the Developmental Stages of Writing: Knowledge and Skills to Assist Children and Parent Perceptions on Their Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez-Kaltenbach, Elena

    2009-01-01

    A kindergarten parent workshop series on the developmental stages of writing was created and assessed. The intended outcome was to empower parents with writing knowledge and writing skills so that they could apply this knowledge and skills at home with their child. The researcher developed the workshops from parent involvement research,…

  3. Pediatric Minimal Knowledge and Skills: The First Step in Developing a Curriculum in Alcohol and Other Drugs for Pediatricians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adger, Hoover; And Others

    Based on an initial group of consensus statements developed at the Annenburg Center for Health Science Conference in November 1985, this resource manual for alcohol and other drug abuse education specifies minimum knowledge and skills levels for pediatric physicians. A first section details minimal knowledge and skills in alcohol and other drug…

  4. Assessment of Teachers' Reactions to a Knowledge- and Skills-Based Pay Structure at an International School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Joel Courtney

    2013-01-01

    This study explores teachers' reactions to a knowledge- and skills-based pay (KSBP) system implemented in a large international school. Such systems are designed to set teacher compensation based on demonstrated professional knowledge and skills as opposed to the traditional scale based on years of experience and degrees attained. This study fills…

  5. Multicultural Art Education in an Era of Standardized Testing: Changes in Knowledge and Skill for Art Teacher Certification in Texas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraehe, Amelia

    2010-01-01

    This article explores changes in multicultural knowledge and skill to which beginning art teachers are held accountable through standardized teacher testing in Texas. Standardized testing of preservice art teachers' knowledge and skill has been the basis of the state's certification of beginning art teachers and accreditation of art teacher…

  6. Perceptions of Career and Technology and Training and Development Students regarding Basic Personal Computer Knowledge and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jason L.; Davis, Harley

    2007-01-01

    A sample of 58 students in career and technology teacher education and training and development was surveyed to determine self-perception as to their competency in five constructs containing 43 elements related to personal computer knowledge and skills. In an analysis of all computer knowledge and skill elements combined, there was no…

  7. Knowledge to Practice: Nursing Home Staff Intentions for Learned Communication Skills

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kristine; Perkhounkova, Yelena; Bossen, Ann; Hein, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background Staff education is critical to improving nursing home dementia care practice. However, a lag in translation to practice is a barrier to improving care. As part of a clinical trial testing effects of a communication intervention on behaviors of residents with dementia, participant-reported likelihood of using learned skills in practice was evaluated in relation to organizational and individual factors in ten nursing homes. Hypotheses We hypothesized that organizational and individual factors would influence staff intention to use new skills in practice. Results Pre and post-training comparisons confirmed that staff gained knowledge about communication effectiveness. Staff reported high likelihood for using skills in practice based on modified Duke Diffusion of Innovation (DOI) Scale scores. Care organization was correlated with total DOI scores (r = .82, p < .01). DOI subscales correlations to organizational and individual attitudes are reported. Conclusion Evaluating quality improvement interventions in relation to translation to practice is essential in today’s nursing home environment. PMID:26934971

  8. Towards a machine learning framework for acquiring and exploiting monitoring and diagnostic knowledge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manganaris, Stefanos; Fisher, Doug; Kulkarni, Deepak

    1993-01-01

    In this paper we address the problem of detecting and diagnosing faults in physical systems, for which neither prior expertise for the task nor suitable system models are available. We propose an architecture that integrates the on-line acquisition and exploitation of monitoring and diagnostic knowledge. The focus of the paper is on the component of the architecture that discovers classes of behaviors with similar characteristics by observing a system in operation. We investigate a characterization of behaviors based on best fitting approximation models. An experimental prototype has been implemented to test it. We present preliminary results in diagnosing faults of the Reaction Control System of the Space Shuttle. The merits and limitations of the approach are identified and directions for future work are set.

  9. Knowledge, skills, and qualities for effectively facilitating an adolescent girls' group.

    PubMed

    Garcia, Carolyn; Lindgren, Sandi; Pintor, Jessie Kemmick

    2011-12-01

    Nurses employed in a variety of school settings often rely on group-format approaches to support the health and well-being of adolescent girls. The process of selecting an effective facilitator, and evaluating the impact of a facilitator on intervention process and outcomes, is rarely described. The purpose of this article was to synthesize the literature regarding facilitator knowledge, skills, and qualities to provide school-based researchers and practitioners with a framework for selecting and evaluating group facilitators. Literature was reviewed between Fall of 2008 and Spring of 2011. Findings were synthesized into categories that provide the organization for this article (why groups, why a facilitator, and the knowledge, skills, and qualities of an effective girls' group facilitator). Nurses need to carefully identify, select, and equip those who serve as facilitators because group successes, evidenced in the ways girls grow and support each other in growth, are the result of a successful, well-matched facilitator-group participant experience.

  10. Knowledge, skills and attitudes of nursing students regarding culturally congruent care of Native Americans.

    PubMed

    Wittig, Deborah R

    2004-01-01

    The provision of culturally congruent care for Native Americans can improve health care compliance and outcomes. The purpose of this survey was to determine the knowledge, skills, and attitudes students deem essential to provide culturally competent healthcare for Native American clients. This information provides nurse educators with critical information regarding the cultural competence of nursing students and may be used to direct curriculum development. An open-ended survey was administered to associate degree nursing students, and conceptual analysis was used for data analysis. The researcher identified four knowledge themes, two skill themes, and two attitude themes. These themes were interrelated and connected. Findings from this study indicate that the current nursing curriculum supports the development of cultural competence among the student nurses who will practice in a multicultural climate. Practice implications include the use of a cultural assessment tool by the students.

  11. A Novice-Expert Study of Modeling Skills and Knowledge Structures about Air Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Ying-Shao; Lin, Li-Fen; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Lee, Dai-Ying; Hwang, Fu-Kwun

    2012-10-01

    This study compared modeling skills and knowledge structures of four groups as seen in their understanding of air quality. The four groups were: experts (atmospheric scientists), intermediates (upper-level graduate students in a different field), advanced novices (talented 11th and 12th graders), and novices (10th graders). It was found that when the levels of modeling skills were measured, for most skills there was a gradual increase across the spectrum from the novices to the advanced novices to the intermediates to the experts. The study found the experts used model-based reasoning, the intermediates and advanced novices used relation-based reasoning, and the novices used phenomena-based reasoning to anticipate conclusions. The experts and intermediates used more bi-variable relationships in experimental design and anticipated conclusions, but used more multiple-variable relationships in identifying relationships. By contrast, the advanced novices and novices mostly used bi-variable relationships in all modeling skills. Based on these findings, we suggest design principles for model-based teaching and learning such as designing learning activities to encourage model-based reasoning, scaffolding one's modeling with multiple representations, testing models in authentic situations, and nurturing domain-specific knowledge during modeling.

  12. Guidance for the knowledge and skills required for antimicrobial stewardship leaders.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Sara E; Hermsen, Elizabeth D; Rybak, Michael J; File, Thomas M; Parker, Sarah K; Barlam, Tamar F

    2014-12-01

    Antimicrobial stewardship programs are increasingly recognized as critical in optimizing the use of antimicrobials. Consequently, more physicians, pharmacists, and other healthcare providers are developing and implementing such programs in a variety of healthcare settings. The purpose of this guidance document is to outline the knowledge and skills that are needed to lead an antimicrobial stewardship program. It was developed by antimicrobial stewardship experts from organizations that are engaged in advancing the field of antimicrobial stewardship.

  13. TAPS: an automated tool for identification of skills, knowledges, and abilities using natural language task description

    SciTech Connect

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application.

  14. Meaning-making of female genital cutting: children’s perception and acquired knowledge of the ritual

    PubMed Central

    Schultz, Jon-Håkon; Lien, Inger-Lise

    2013-01-01

    How do girls who have undergone female genital cutting understand the ritual? This study provides an analysis of the learning process and knowledge acquired in their meaning-making process. Eighteen participants were interviewed in qualitative indepth interviews. Women in Norway, mostly with Somali or Gambian backgrounds, were asked about their experiences of circumcision. Two different strategies were used to prepare girls for circumcision, ie, one involving giving some information and the other keeping the ritual a secret. Findings indicate that these two approaches affected the girls’ meaning-making differently, but both strategies seemed to lead to the same educational outcome. The learning process is carefully monitored and regulated but is brought to a halt, stopping short of critical reflexive thinking. The knowledge tends to be deeply internalized, embodied, and morally embraced. The meaning-making process is discussed by analyzing the use of metaphors and narratives. Given that the educational outcome is characterized by limited knowledge without critical reflection, behavior change programs to end female genital cutting should identify and implement educational stimuli that are likely to promote critical reflexive thinking. PMID:23637562

  15. Use of a continuing medical education course to improve fellows' knowledge and skills in esophageal disorders.

    PubMed

    Kim, H C; Pandolfino, J E; Komanduri, S; Hirano, I; Cohen, E R; Wayne, D B

    2011-08-01

    Advanced esophageal endoscopic procedures such as stricture dilation, hemostasis tools, and stent placement as well as high-resolution manometry (HRM) interpretation are necessary skills for gastroenterology fellows to obtain during their training. Becoming proficient in these skills may be challenging in light of higher complication rates compared with diagnostic procedures and infrequent opportunities to practice these skills. Our aim was to determine if intensive training during a continuing medical education (CME) course boosts the knowledge and skills of gastroenterology fellows in esophageal diagnostic test interpretation and performance of therapeutic procedures. This was a pretest-posttest design without a control group of a simulation-based, educational intervention in esophageal stricture balloon dilation and HRM interpretation. The participants were 24 gastroenterology fellows from 21 accredited US training programs. This was an intensive CME course held in Las Vegas, Nevada from August 7 to August 9, 2009. The research procedure had two phases. First, the subjects were measured at baseline (pretest) for their knowledge and procedural skill. Second, the fellows received 6 hours of education sessions featuring didactic content, instruction in HRM indications and interpretation, and deliberate practice using an esophageal stricture dilation model. After the intervention, all of the fellows were retested (posttest). A 17-item checklist was developed for the esophageal balloon dilation procedure using relevant sources, expert opinion, and rigorous step-by-step procedures. Nineteen representative HRM swallow studies were obtained from Northwestern's motility lab and formed the pretest and posttest in HRM interpretation. Mean scores on the dilation checklist improved 81% from 39.4% (standard deviation [SD]= 33.4%) at pretest to 71.3% (SD = 29.5%) after simulation training (P < 0.001). HRM mean examination scores increased from 27.2% (SD = 16.4%) to 46.5% (SD

  16. Investigating nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and skills patterns towards clinical management system: results of a cluster analysis.

    PubMed

    Chan, M F

    2006-09-01

    To determine whether definable subtypes exist within a cohort of Hong Kong nurses as related to the clinical management system use in their clinical practices based on their knowledge, attitudes, skills, and background factors. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire. The sample of 242 registered nurses was recruited from three hospitals in Hong Kong. The study employs personal and demographic variables, knowledge, attitudes, and skills scale. A cluster analysis yielded two clusters. Each cluster represents a different profile of Hong Kong nurses on the clinical management system use in their clinical practices. The first group (Cluster 1) was labeled 'lower attitudes, less skilful and average knowledge' group, and represented 55.4% of the total respondents. The second group (Cluster 2) was labeled as 'positive attitudes, good knowledge but less skilful'. They comprised almost 44.6% of this nursing sample. Cluster 2 had more older nurses, the majority were educated to the baccalaureate or above level, with more than 10 years working experience, and they held a more senior ranking then Cluster 1. A clear profile of Hong Kong nurses may benefit healthcare professionals in making appropriate education or assistance to prompt the use of the clinical management system by nurses an officially recognized profession. The findings were useful in determining nurse-users' specific needs and their preferences for modification of the clinical management system. Such findings should be used to formulate strategies to encourage nurses to resolve actual problems following computer training and to increase the depth and breadth of nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and skills toward such system.

  17. Comparison of effectiveness of class lecture versus workshop-based teaching of basic life support on acquiring practice skills among the health care providers

    PubMed Central

    Karim, Habib Md. Reazaul; Yunus, Md.; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis; Ahmed, Ghazal

    2016-01-01

    Background: Basic life support (BLS) is an integral part of emergency medical care. Studies have shown poor knowledge of it among health care providers who are usually taught BLS by lecture-based teachings in classes. Objectives: This study is designed to assess the effectiveness of class lecture versus workshop-based teaching of BLS on acquiring the practice skills on mannequin. Methods: After ethical approval and informed consent from the participants, the present study was conducted among the health care providers. Participants were grouped in lecture-based class teaching and workshop-based teaching. They were then asked to practice BLS on mannequin (Resusci Anne with QCPR) and evaluated as per performance parameters based on American Heart Association BLS. Statistical analyses are done by Fisher's exact t-test using GraphPad INSTAT software and P < 0.05 is taken as significant. Results: There were 55 participants in lecture-based teaching and 50 in workshop-based teaching group. There is no statistical difference in recognition of arrest, checking pulse, and starting chest compression (P > 0.05). Though more than 83% of lecture-based teaching group has started chest compression as compared 96% of workshop group; only 49% of the participants of lecture-based group performed quality chest compression as compared to 82% of other group (P = 0.0005). The workshop group also performed better bag mask ventilation and defibrillation (P < 0.0001). Conclusion: Workshop-based BLS teaching is more effective and lecture-based class teaching better is replaced in medical education curriculum. PMID:27308252

  18. Acquiring evidence-based medicine and research skills in the undergraduate medical curriculum: three different didactical formats compared.

    PubMed

    Zee, M; de Boer, M; Jaarsma, A D C

    2014-11-01

    Medical schools have recently witnessed a call for authentic research activities that equip students with the skills required for evidence-based medicine (EBM) and research. Because it is not always possible to make such activities available as a part of the curriculum, evaluating the effectiveness of the various choices of traditional and authentic EBM and research skills courses is essential. This study's purpose was to evaluate students' perceived EBM and research skill acquisition in three different courses in a Dutch medical school. Self-reported surveys were conducted among 163 Dutch medical undergraduates who participated in an undergraduate research project, a basic EBM skills elective, or a traditional lecture-based skills course. MANCOVA was employed to test for group differences in perceived skill acquisition. Students who finished their research project perceived themselves as more experienced in writing and information retrieval skills than students who participated in the lecture-based course or basic skills elective. Students in the lecture-based course identified themselves as being the most experienced in critical judgment. No group differences were found for overall gains. Authentic research activities may have benefits over traditional lecture-based courses in the undergraduate medical curriculum, especially in terms of equipping students with writing and information retrieval skills.

  19. Promoting the Skills of Knowledge Translation in an Online Master of Science Course in Primary Health Care

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenhalgh, Trisha; Russell, Jill

    2006-01-01

    We present 4 key arguments: (1) knowledge translation requires tacit and explicit knowledge that must be introduced into the organization as well as simply acquired by individuals; (2) educating for knowledge translation must go beyond conveying facts and developing capability; (3) a constructivist and collaborative approach to education can…

  20. Assessing children's vocabulary skills: from word knowledge to word-learning potential.

    PubMed

    Watkins, R V; DeThorne, L S

    2000-01-01

    Knowledge of word meanings and the ability to use words are fundamental to nearly every interaction of every day. Beginning long before formal schooling, vocabulary skills underpin many aspects of communicative, social, and academic well-being. Thus, evaluation of vocabulary knowledge and use is central to any complete assessment of language proficiency. We have advanced in our use of vocabulary assessment significantly since Binet and Simon first used vocabulary tests to measure cognitive proficiency. We have a repertoire of informative tools and strategies from which vocabulary assessment protocols can be fashioned. Current assessment approaches integrate multiple sources of information. They also look beyond existing word knowledge toward word-learning potential. Integrated and dynamic approaches can provide a rich way to ascertain young children's vocabulary abilities and aptitudes.

  1. Effects of Feedback Frequency and Timing on Acquisition, Retention, and Transfer of Speech Skills in Acquired Apraxia of Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hula, Shannon N. Austermann; Robin, Donald A.; Maas, Edwin; Ballard, Kirrie J.; Schmidt, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: Two studies examined speech skill learning in persons with apraxia of speech (AOS). Motor-learning research shows that delaying or reducing the frequency of feedback promotes retention and transfer of skills. By contrast, immediate or frequent feedback promotes temporary performance enhancement but interferes with retention and transfer.…

  2. Curriculum Providing Cognitive Knowledge and Problem-Solving Skills for Anesthesia Systems-Based Practice

    PubMed Central

    Wachtel, Ruth E.; Dexter, Franklin

    2010-01-01

    Background Residency programs accredited by the ACGME are required to teach core competencies, including systems-based practice (SBP). Projects are important for satisfying this competency, but the level of knowledge and problem-solving skills required presupposes a basic understanding of the field. The responsibilities of anesthesiologists include the coordination of patient flow in the surgical suite. Familiarity with this topic is crucial for many improvement projects. Intervention A course in operations research for surgical services was originally developed for hospital administration students. It satisfies 2 of the Institute of Medicine's core competencies for health professionals: evidence-based practice and work in interdisciplinary teams. The course lasts 3.5 days (eg, 2 weekends) and consists of 45 cognitive objectives taught using 7 published articles, 10 lectures, and 156 computer-assisted problem-solving exercises based on 17 case studies. We tested the hypothesis that the cognitive objectives of the curriculum provide the knowledge and problem-solving skills necessary to perform projects that satisfy the SBP competency. Standardized terminology was used to define each component of the SBP competency for the minimum level of knowledge needed. The 8 components of the competency were examined independently. Findings Most cognitive objectives contributed to at least 4 of the 8 core components of the SBP competency. Each component of SBP is addressed at the minimum requirement level of exemplify by at least 6 objectives. There is at least 1 cognitive objective at the level of summarize for each SBP component. Conclusions A curriculum in operating room management can provide the knowledge and problem-solving skills anesthesiologists need for participation in projects that satisfy the SBP competency. PMID:22132289

  3. Neonatal resuscitation training for midwives in Uganda: Strengthening skill and knowledge retention.

    PubMed

    Mildenberger, Clare; Ellis, Cathryn; Lee, Kelley

    2017-03-27

    The objective of this project was to improve birth outcomes for babies in a regional referral hospital in Uganda by strengthening factors that influence the retention and application of neonatal resuscitation skills. Initial training in neonatal resuscitation is not enough on its own. In order to better understand the gap between training and effective practice, an evaluation of a neonatal resuscitation program was carried out. This included practical skill testing of local midwives using a neonatal resuscitation doll pre- and post-training, as well as follow up testing at 1 month and 12 months, followed by focus groups and interviews. Test scores revealed that participants' knowledge grew significantly immediately following the workshop, and remained high after 1 month, but fell by 12 months post-training. Interviews with hospital staff revealed a number of facilitators and barriers to practice, namely knowledge retention and skill application. The most important barrier identified is the lack of refresher training post-workshop. Importantly, the findings demonstrated a need not for refresher training alone, but for improved organizational and administrative support for the newly assigned trainers.

  4. Postgraduate nursing student knowledge, attitudes, skills, and confidence in appropriately referencing academic work.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Melanie; Walkem, Kerrie; Smith, Lindsay Mervyn; Shearer, Toniele; Stirling, Christine

    2014-08-01

    Preventing plagiarism is an ongoing issue for higher education institutions. Although plagiarism has been traditionally seen as cheating, it is increasingly thought to be the result of poor referencing, with students reporting difficulties citing and referencing bibliographic sources. This study examined the academic knowledge, attitude, skills, and confidence of students in a school of nursing to understand poor referencing. A cross-sectional quantitative and qualitative survey was distributed to postgraduate (N = 1,000) certificate, diploma, and master's students. Quantitative data gathered demographics, cultural and linguistic background, and use of technology. Thematic analysis discovered patterns and themes. Results showed participants understood requirements for referencing; half indicated poor referencing was due to difficulty referencing Internet sources or losing track of sources, and many lacked confidence in key referencing tasks. Despite this, 50% did not make use of referencing resources. Overall, these data suggest incorrect referencing is rarely intentional and predominantly caused by skills deficit.

  5. Respiratory clinical guidelines inform ward-based nurses’ clinical skills and knowledge required for evidence-based care

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Alisha M.

    2016-01-01

    Respiratory clinical guidelines provide clinicians with evidence-based guidance for practice. Clinical guidelines also provide an opportunity to identify the knowledge and technical and non-technical skills required by respiratory ward-based registered nurses. The aim of this review was to use a systematic process to establish the core technical and non-technical skills and knowledge identified in evidence-based clinical guidelines that enable the care of hospitalised adult respiratory patients. 17 guidelines were identified in our systematic review. The quality assessment demonstrated variability in these guidelines. Common core knowledge and technical and non-technical skills were identified. These include pathophysiology, understanding of physiological measurements and monitoring, education, counselling, and ward and patient management. The knowledge and skills extracted from respiratory clinical guidelines may inform a curriculum for ward-based respiratory nursing to ensure optimal care of adult patients. PMID:28210299

  6. Respiratory clinical guidelines inform ward-based nurses' clinical skills and knowledge required for evidence-based care.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Alisha M; Smith, Sheree M S

    2016-09-01

    Respiratory clinical guidelines provide clinicians with evidence-based guidance for practice. Clinical guidelines also provide an opportunity to identify the knowledge and technical and non-technical skills required by respiratory ward-based registered nurses. The aim of this review was to use a systematic process to establish the core technical and non-technical skills and knowledge identified in evidence-based clinical guidelines that enable the care of hospitalised adult respiratory patients. 17 guidelines were identified in our systematic review. The quality assessment demonstrated variability in these guidelines. Common core knowledge and technical and non-technical skills were identified. These include pathophysiology, understanding of physiological measurements and monitoring, education, counselling, and ward and patient management. The knowledge and skills extracted from respiratory clinical guidelines may inform a curriculum for ward-based respiratory nursing to ensure optimal care of adult patients.

  7. Effects of a Peer Assessment System Based on a Grid-Based Knowledge Classification Approach on Computer Skills Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Ting-Chia

    2016-01-01

    In this study, a peer assessment system using the grid-based knowledge classification approach was developed to improve students' performance during computer skills training. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed approach, an experiment was conducted in a computer skills certification course. The participants were divided into three…

  8. The Relationship of Oral Reading, Dramatic Activities, and Theatrical Production to Student Communication Skills, Knowledge, Comprehension, and Attitudes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Robert S.; Koziol, Stephen M., Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Studies the effects and interactions of a planned curriculum and 4 different sequences of oral reading, dramatic activities, and theatrical production on ninth grade students' communication skills, knowledge, comprehension, and attitudes toward self and theater. Reports significant improvement in communication skills and attitudes toward self and…

  9. The Role of Primary Caregiver Vocabulary Knowledge in the Development of Bilingual Children's Vocabulary Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The present study examined the impact of environmental factors (socioeconomic status [SES], the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers' vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children's vocabulary skills. Method: Vocabulary skills were measured in 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5…

  10. Evidence-based practice: beliefs, attitudes, knowledge, and skills among Colombian physical therapists

    PubMed Central

    Correa-Bautista, Jorge Enrique; Muñoz-Rodríguez, Diana Isabel; Ramírez, Lorena; González-Ruíz, Katherine; Domínguez-Sánchez, María Andrea; Durán-Palomino, Diana; Girabent-Farrés, Montserrat; Flórez-López, María Eugenia; Bagur-Calafat, M Caridad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The main purpose of this study was to describe a group of Colombian physical therapists' beliefs and attitudes towards Evidence-Based Practice (EBP), their education, knowledge and skills for implementing EBP, the use of relevant literature in clinical practice, access to and availability of scientific information and perceived barriers to including EBP in practice. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study which involved 1,064 Colombian physical therapists. The study used a 50-item screening questionnaire EBP developed to estimate attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills regarding. This instrument has been adapted and was validated previously in Colombia by Flórez-López et al. Results: The population mostly consisted of young females (77.2%) aged 22 to 29 years old (79.4%). Most respondents had an undergraduate degree (87.7%). The physical therapists stated that they had positive attitudes and beliefs regarding EBP, most of them answering that they agreed or strongly agreed that EBP is necessary (71.6%), the relevant literature is useful for practice (61.3%), EBP improves the quality of patient care (64.1%) and evidence helps in decision-making (44.5%). Forty-one percent of the respondents indicated that a lack of research skills was the most important barrier to the use of evidence in practice. Conclusion: The physical therapists reported that they had a positive attitude to EBP and were interested in learning about or improving the skills necessary to adopt EBP in their clinical practice. PMID:26019383

  11. First-year family medicine residents' use of computers: knowledge, skills and attitudes.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, B H; Ryan, D T; Therrien, S; Mulloy, J V

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify the computer knowledge, skills and attitudes of first-year family medicine residents. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey of family medicine residents during the academic year 1993-94; sampling began in July 1993 and ended in October 1993. SETTING: Canada. PARTICIPANTS: All 727 first-year family medicine residents, of whom 433 (60%) responded. OUTCOME MEASURES: Previous computer experience or training, current use, barriers to use, and comfort with and attitudes regarding computers. RESULTS: There was no difference in age or sex between the respondents and all first-year family medicine residents in Canada. French-speaking respondents from Quebec were underrepresented (p < 0.001). Only 56 respondents (13%) felt extremely or very comfortable with computer use. The most commonly cited barriers to obtaining computer training were lack of time (243 respondents [56%]) and the high cost of computers (214 [49%]) but not lack of interest (69 [16%]). Most residents wanted more computer training (367 [85%]) and felt that computer training should be a mandatory component of family medicine training programs (308 [71%]). CONCLUSIONS: Computer knowledge and skills and comfort with computer use appear low among first-year family medicine residents in Canada, and barriers to acquisition of computer knowledge are impressive. Computer training should become an integral part of family medicine training in Canada, and user-friendly applicable computer systems are needed. PMID:7614442

  12. Addressing the Process Improvement Science Knowledge and Skills of Program Directors and Associate Program Directors

    PubMed Central

    Gravdal, Judith A.; Hyziak, Pamela; Belmonte, Frank; Clemens, Mary Ann; Sulo, Suela

    2015-01-01

    Background Process improvement (PI) science is relatively new to healthcare and has only recently been introduced to medical education. Most residency faculty lack training or experience in PI science activities. We assessed the impact of PI science education on the knowledge and attitudes of a group of residency and fellowship program directors and associate program directors using their respective Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education annual program evaluations (APEs) as an experiential object. Methods For this pre/post study, 16 program directors and 7 associate program directors were surveyed before and after 4 didactic modules. The APEs for the 2 years prior to the intervention and in the fall after the intervention were analyzed. Mentoring in the use of these skills in the preparation of the APEs was provided. Results The participants demonstrated improved knowledge in some areas and increased awareness of deficits in other areas. APE quality did not show consistent improvement following the intervention. Conclusion The PI science knowledge and skill gaps of program directors and associate program directors are likely to impact the content and success of residency curricula. The designed PI science curriculum was slightly effective. Using the APE as the experiential object was convenient, but the APE was not the best project for a PI exercise. New, effective strategies and interventions to develop expertise in PI science are important as programs grapple with meeting new requirements, ensuring quality programs, and preparing residents and fellows for practice. PMID:25829878

  13. Statistical learning of an auditory sequence and reorganization of acquired knowledge: A time course of word segmentation and ordering.

    PubMed

    Daikoku, Tatsuya; Yatomi, Yutaka; Yumoto, Masato

    2017-01-27

    Previous neural studies have supported the hypothesis that statistical learning mechanisms are used broadly across different domains such as language and music. However, these studies have only investigated a single aspect of statistical learning at a time, such as recognizing word boundaries or learning word order patterns. In this study, we neutrally investigated how the two levels of statistical learning for recognizing word boundaries and word ordering could be reflected in neuromagnetic responses and how acquired statistical knowledge is reorganised when the syntactic rules are revised. Neuromagnetic responses to the Japanese-vowel sequence (a, e, i, o, and u), presented every .45s, were recorded from 14 right-handed Japanese participants. The vowel order was constrained by a Markov stochastic model such that five nonsense words (aue, eao, iea, oiu, and uoi) were chained with an either-or rule: the probability of the forthcoming word was statistically defined (80% for one word; 20% for the other word) by the most recent two words. All of the word transition probabilities (80% and 20%) were switched in the middle of the sequence. In the first and second quarters of the sequence, the neuromagnetic responses to the words that appeared with higher transitional probability were significantly reduced compared with those that appeared with a lower transitional probability. After switching the word transition probabilities, the response reduction was replicated in the last quarter of the sequence. The responses to the final vowels in the words were significantly reduced compared with those to the initial vowels in the last quarter of the sequence. The results suggest that both within-word and between-word statistical learning are reflected in neural responses. The present study supports the hypothesis that listeners learn larger structures such as phrases first, and they subsequently extract smaller structures, such as words, from the learned phrases. The present

  14. Knowledge and attitude toward human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome among dental and medical undergraduate students

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Patil, Kavitha; Munoli, Karishma

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major public health challenge. Unjustified calls for the isolation of patients with HIV infection might further constrain the potential for expansion of clinical services to deal with a greater number of such patients. This infectious illness can evoke irrational emotions and fears in health care providers. Keeping this in view, a study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitudes related to HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among dental and medical students. Methodology: Descriptive cross-sectional survey of the entire dental and medical undergraduate students from two colleges was carried out using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as percentage was used to present the data. Results: Ninety-eight percentage medical and dental undergraduate graduate students knew about HIV transmission in the hospital. Journals and internet were the leading source of information among both medical and dental undergraduates. The majority of respondents discussed HIV-related issues with their classmates. Surprisingly, 38% medical and 52% dental undergraduates think that HIV patient should be quarantined (isolation) to prevent the spread of infection. 68% medical and 60% dental undergraduates are willing to rendering dental/medical care to HIV-infected patients. Relatively large proportion (98%) of participants was willing to participate for HIV prevention program. Conclusion: The knowledge of medical and dental students is adequate, but the attitude needs improvement. Dental and medical students constitute a useful public health education resource. Comprehensive training, continuing education, and motivation will improve their knowledge and attitude, which enable them to provide better care to HIV patients. PMID:26538940

  15. Evaluating a Cultural Competency Curriculum: Changes in Dental Students' Perceived Awareness, Knowledge, and Skills.

    PubMed

    Alrqiq, Hosam M; Scott, Thayer E; Mascarenhas, Ana K

    2015-09-01

    In response to current and projected demographic changes in the United States, many dental schools have taken steps to increase the cultural competence of their students through various educational methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of the cultural competency curriculum at Boston University Henry M. Goldman School of Dental Medicine (GSDM). The curriculum was evaluated using a pre and post design, utilizing an instrument developed for pharmacy students and modified for dental students. The questionnaire was comprised of 11 items designed to assess changes in students' awareness, knowledge, and skills in providing culturally competent care. Data were collected for two classes of second-year DMD students and first-year Advanced Standing students. The total number of returned surveys was 485, for a response rate of 79.5%. The students' post-curriculum mean scores were all higher than their pre-curriculum scores for overall cultural competence (pre 26.5±6.3 to post 29.8±7.2) and for individual subscores on awareness (pre 5.3±1.4 to post 5.5±1.5), knowledge (pre 7.2±1.9 to post 8.1±2.1), and skills (pre 14.1±4.4 to post 16.2±4.4). The improvements on all scores were statistically significant (p<0.0001), with the exception of the awareness component. This evaluation suggests that the cultural competency curriculum at GSDM has been effective in producing improvements in these students' cultural competence in the domains of knowledge and skills.

  16. Knowledge and skills that facilitate the personal support dimension of citizenship.

    PubMed

    Dudley, Nicole M; Cortina, Jose M

    2008-11-01

    Efforts to identify the individual attributes that predict organizational citizenship have focused largely on dispositional factors. This focus reflects an unstated assumption that anyone can engage in successful citizenship, but only some choose to do so. The authors contend that, although this may be true of some dimensions of citizenship, it is not true of others. Based on a review of research from industrial and organizational psychology, management, education, clinical psychology, conflict resolution, and other literatures, the authors offer a set of 15 propositions linking knowledge and skill variables to the 4 personal support dimensions of citizenship performance.

  17. Online educational tools developed by Heart improve the knowledge and skills of hospital doctors in cardiology.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Kieran; Rafiq, Isma; Hall, Roger

    2007-07-01

    We conducted this study to find out if online learning packages in cardiology enabled users to increase their knowledge and skills. We also looked at how acceptable users found these packages. The journal Heart in association with BMJ Learning produced a series of modules on common cardiology problems. The modules involved a pre-test, a number of interactive cases and a post-test. A total of 1786 users completed these modules. Doing the modules enabled users to improve their score from the pre-test to the post-test by a significant amount (p<0.001). Feedback to the modules was very positive.

  18. Health services management development: what formal knowledge should support the skills and experience required?

    PubMed

    Ritchie, David J; Yen, Margaret L

    2013-05-01

    This study reports on an analysis of 17 postgraduate programs in health services management. Public information was collected from websites in February 2010. Data analysed included core subject abstracts, admission requirements and length and aims of each course. Findings indicate that only three out of 16 subjects identified as core are common to more than 50% of the programs, with the eight most common individual subjects appearing in only a third of programs. This suggests diversity in what is deemed core foundational knowledge in managing health services and the approach taken to management development. We believe there should be greater consensus on core subjects in a specialist health services management qualification. WHAT IS KNOWN ABOUT THE TOPIC? With changes in the organisational structure of health organisations in Australia over the past two decades, managerial positions and roles have also changed. The educational preparation for those managerial roles would also be expected to have changed but core foundational knowledge should remain similar between the various academic institutions.WHAT DOES THIS PAPER ADD? This paper indicates greater diversity in core knowledge areas in health services management education than expected despite a similar target audience.WHAT ARE THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PRACTITIONERS? There are differences in what are deemed to be core foundational areas of knowledge required in specialist management development between academic programs. Management development requires a balance between knowledge, skills and experience and intending st

  19. Problem-based learning and the workplace: do dental hygienists in Hong Kong continue to use the skills acquired in their studies?

    PubMed

    Cheng, Brenda Siu Shan

    2009-08-01

    Problem-based learning (PBL) has been implemented in the dental hygiene program at the University of Hong Kong since 2001, but research is lacking to address the level of retention in the workplace. The purpose of this study was to explore whether dental hygienists continue to use their PBL skills and how well those skills are being applied in the workplace. A total of eighteen dental hygienists from the 2006 program were invited to participate in this study. A survey was conducted and follow-up group interviews carried out in 2008. The results revealed that dental hygienists continue to use the PBL skills of communication with the patient, patient education, and independent learning, but seldom use dental knowledge, teamwork, and communication with colleagues. Critical thinking, self-evaluation, and lifelong learning skills showed contradictory results. Besides, stressors under individual work environments, including certain Chinese cultural values, affect the way in which dental hygienists utilize PBL skills. This study concludes that the PBL approach is a worthwhile learning process for dental hygiene. However, many different variables affect the effectiveness of applying PBL skills after academic training, especially under the influence of Chinese culture in Hong Kong.

  20. A vertically integrated geriatric curriculum improves medical student knowledge and clinical skills.

    PubMed

    Supiano, Mark A; Fitzgerald, James T; Hall, Karen E; Halter, Jeffrey B

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of a vertically integrated curriculum intervention on the geriatric knowledge and performance in clinical skills of third-year medical students. This observational cohort study conducted at the University of Michigan Medical School evaluates the performance of 622 third-year medical students from the graduating class years of 2004 through 2007. An integrated curriculum intervention was developed and implemented for the class of 2006. Its elements included identification and tracking of geriatric learning outcomes in an individualized Web-based student portfolio, integration of geriatric content into preclinical courses, development of a geriatric functional assessment standardized patient instructor, and an experience in a geriatrics clinic during the ambulatory component of the third-year internal medicine clerkship. Medical student performance was assessed on a geriatric knowledge test and during a geriatric functional assessment station administered during an Observed Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) at the beginning of the fourth year. Student performance on the geriatric functional assessment OSCE station progressively improved from pre-intervention performance (mean performance+/-standard deviation 43+/-15% class of 2005, 62 + 15% class of 2006, 78+/-10% class of 2007; analysis of variance, P<.001). Similarly, student performance on the geriatric knowledge test was significantly better for the classes of 2006 and 2007 than for the class of 2005 (model F ratio=4.72; P<.001). In conclusion, an integrated approach to incorporating new educational geriatric objectives into the medical school curriculum leads to significant improvements in medical student knowledge and in important clinical skills in the functional assessment of older patients.

  1. An exploratory study to assess the computer knowledge, attitude and skill among nurses in health care setting of a selected hospital in Ludhiana, Punjab, India.

    PubMed

    Raja, Emans Evangel Joel; Mahal, Rajinder; Masih, Veena Barkat

    2004-01-01

    Explorative study conducted to assess and identify deficit areas of computer knowledge, attitudes and skills among nurses working in the hospital and to examine the relationship among these factors. 120 staff nurses were surveyed by systematic random sampling. Computer knowledge, attitudes and skills were measured by a self-structured computer knowledge questionnaire, computer attitude and skill scale respectively. Data analysis showed that the majority 75% staff nurses had good computer knowledge. 100% of nurses had positive attitudes towards computer utilization. 50.8% and 30.8% had average and fair computer skills respectively. No significant correlation was found between nurses' computer knowledge, attitude and skills. The relationships of computer knowledge, attitude and skill were analyzed among nurses with the selected variables like age, sex, designation, years of nursing service, professional qualification, area of nursing service, type of computer training received, frequency of computer usage and monthly family income. Strategies to enhance nurses' computer knowledge, attitudes and skills were proposed.

  2. Impact of a Diabetes Certificate Program on PharmD Students' Knowledge and Skills

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Karla T.; Unterwagner, Whitney; Jia, Haomiao

    2007-01-01

    Objectives To determine the impact of a pregraduation diabetes certificate program on PharmD students' knowledge and skills. Methods A comprehensive elective in diabetes was created and implemented in the third-professional year of the PharmD curriculum. A nonrandomized, single-blinded, controlled, 2-year study was conducted to determine the impact of the elective. Written and oral examinations were administered to the participants and students in a control group. Results The certificate students' (N = 25) and control students' (N = 12) average oral examination grades were 88.5% ± 13.4% and 89.5% ± 15.8%, respectively (p = 0.58). The certificate students' average grade on the counseling section of the oral examination was 9% higher than that of the students in the control group (p = 0.01). The certificate students' and control students' grades on the written examination were 80.9 ± 11.1% and 61.1 ± 17.4% (p = 0.0062), respectively. Conclusions A diabetes certificate program improved students' knowledge of diabetes disease state management and patient education skills compared to students who did not take the elective. PMID:17998981

  3. Does Problem Solving = Prior Knowledge + Reasoning Skills in Earth Science? An Exploratory Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Chun-Yen

    2010-03-01

    This study examined the interrelationship between tenth-grade students’ problem solving ability (PSA) and their domain-specific knowledge (DSK) as well as reasoning skills (RS) in a secondary school of Taiwan. The PSA test was designed to emphasize students’ divergent-thinking ability (DTA) and convergent-thinking ability (CTA) subscales in the area of Earth science. Two hundred and sixty tenth graders who were enrolled in six Earth science classes at a public senior high school located in the eastern region of Taiwan were participants. Major findings are as follows: (a) A significantly positive correlation existed between students’ PSA and their DSK and RS, approaching large effect sizes; (b) Both students’ DSK and RS significantly explained the variance of their PSA with large effect sizes; (c) Students’ RS could more significantly explain the variance of their DTA subscale with medium effect size while DSK might more significantly explain the variance of their CTA, approaching large effect size. The research suggests that more emphasis should be placed on the reasoning skills when developing students’ divergent-thinking abilities, while stressing more domain-specific knowledge when students’ convergent-thinking ability is considered.

  4. Fostering students' knowledge and argumentation skills through dilemmas in human genetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohar, Anat; Nemet, Flora

    2002-01-01

    This study examined the outcomes of a unit that integrates explicit teaching of general reasoning patterns into the teaching of a specific science content. Specifically, this article examined the teaching of argumentation skills in the context of dilemmas in human genetics. Before instruction only a minority (16.2%) of the students referred to correct, specific biological knowledge in constructing arguments in the context of dilemmas in genetics. Approximately 90% of the students were successful in formulating simple arguments. An assessment that took place following instruction supported the conclusion that integrating explicit teaching of argumentation into the teaching of dilemmas in human genetics enhances performance in both biological knowledge and argumentation. An increase was found in the frequency of students who referred to correct, specific biological knowledge in constructing arguments. Students in the experimental group scored significantly higher than students in the comparison group in a test of genetics knowledge. An increase was also found in the quality of students' argumentation. Students were able to transfer the reasoning abilities taught in the context of genetics to the context of dilemmas taken from everyday life. The effects of metacognitive thinking and of changing students' thinking dispositions by modifying what is considered valuable in the class culture are discussed.

  5. Knowledge, attitudes and management skills of medical practitioners regarding weight management

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity have become a global problem. Health professionals are poorly prepared in weight management, which has an effect on their attitudes and management skills with regard to overweight and obese patients. Aim and setting To assess the knowledge, attitudes and management skills of medical practitioners regarding weight management at Odi District Hospital, Gauteng Province, South Africa. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study on 48 medical practitioners at Odi Hospital between 01 October and 31 October 2013. A self-administered questionnaire was used to assess their knowledge, attitudes and management skills in weight management. The SPSS® statistical software (Version 22) was used for data analysis. A p < 0.05 was considered significant. Results Fifty medical practitioners were recruited, 48 consented to participate and 28 (58.3%) were male. Their categories were community service doctors (3), medical officers (21), registrars (22) and others (2). Thirty-seven (77.1%) never received training in weight management (p < 0.001). Thirty-two (66.7%) regarded weight management as not confined to a dietician (p < 0.001) and 27 (56.2%) regarded weight management as usually unsuccessful (p = 0.004). Forty-seven (97.9%) provided lifestyle modifications and 43 (89.6%) involved the patient’s family in weight management (p < 0.001). More non-registrars [14 (77.8%)] than registrars [8 (38.1%)] measured the body mass index (BMI) routinely (p = 0.013). Conclusion Few medical practitioners received training in weight management. They regarded weight management as usually unsuccessful and lacked confidence in the same owing to lack of training. They provided lifestyle modifications and involved the patient’s family in weight management. Non-registrars measured the BMI routinely. There is a need for training in weight management at undergraduate and post-graduate levels. PMID:28155319

  6. Cultural Competence in Pediatrics: Health Care Provider Knowledge, Awareness, and Skills.

    PubMed

    Dabney, Kirk; McClarin, Lavisha; Romano, Emily; Fitzgerald, Diane; Bayne, Lynn; Oceanic, Patricia; Nettles, Arie L; Holmes, Laurens

    2015-12-22

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a cultural competence training (CCT) program on pediatric health care providers' self-reported ability to provide culturally competent care to a diverse pediatric patient population. This quantitative, nested ecologic level study design used a repeated measure in the form of pre-test and post-test data to assess percent change in providers' cultural awareness, experience working or learning about different cultures, and preparedness and skills in working with different cultures before and after CCT. The study was conducted between 2011 and 2012 in a pediatric hospital and associated outpatient offices. The sample consisted of pediatric health care providers from various departments, mainly physicians and nurses (n = 69). Participants completed a pre-intervention cultural competence assessment and then were subjected to a cultural competence-training program, after which they completed the assessment a second time. The baseline and post-intervention data were collected in the form of Likert scales and transformed into a quintile or quartile scale as appropriate. Data were assessed using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon's signed-rank tests. Providers indicated a 13% increase in knowledge (53.9% vs. 66.7%, t = 3.4, p = 0.001), 8.7% increase in awareness (46.7% vs. 55.4%, t = 3.0, p = 0.002), and 8% statistically marginal increase in skills (66.4% vs. 74.5%, z = 1.8, p = 0.06). Culturally competent training in a pediatric environment significantly enhances knowledge, awareness and to some extent skills in providing care to culturally diverse patient population.

  7. Cultural Competence in Pediatrics: Health Care Provider Knowledge, Awareness, and Skills

    PubMed Central

    Dabney, Kirk; McClarin, Lavisha; Romano, Emily; Fitzgerald, Diane; Bayne, Lynn; Oceanic, Patricia; Nettles, Arie L.; Holmes, Laurens

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a cultural competence training (CCT) program on pediatric health care providers’ self-reported ability to provide culturally competent care to a diverse pediatric patient population. This quantitative, nested ecologic level study design used a repeated measure in the form of pre-test and post-test data to assess percent change in providers’ cultural awareness, experience working or learning about different cultures, and preparedness and skills in working with different cultures before and after CCT. The study was conducted between 2011 and 2012 in a pediatric hospital and associated outpatient offices. The sample consisted of pediatric health care providers from various departments, mainly physicians and nurses (n = 69). Participants completed a pre-intervention cultural competence assessment and then were subjected to a cultural competence-training program, after which they completed the assessment a second time. The baseline and post-intervention data were collected in the form of Likert scales and transformed into a quintile or quartile scale as appropriate. Data were assessed using paired t-tests or Wilcoxon’s signed-rank tests. Providers indicated a 13% increase in knowledge (53.9% vs. 66.7%, t = 3.4, p = 0.001), 8.7% increase in awareness (46.7% vs. 55.4%, t = 3.0, p = 0.002), and 8% statistically marginal increase in skills (66.4% vs. 74.5%, z = 1.8, p = 0.06). Culturally competent training in a pediatric environment significantly enhances knowledge, awareness and to some extent skills in providing care to culturally diverse patient population. PMID:26703672

  8. Does disaster education of teenagers translate into better survival knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change? A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Codeanu, Tudor A; Celenza, Antonio; Jacobs, Ian

    2014-12-01

    An increasing number of people are affected worldwide by the effects of disasters, and the United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Reduction (UNISDR) has recognized the need for a radical paradigm shift in the preparedness and combat of the effects of disasters through the implementation of specific actions. At the governmental level, these actions translate into disaster and risk reduction education and activities at school. Fifteen years after the UNISDR declaration, there is a need to know if the current methods of disaster education of the teenage population enhance their knowledge, knowledge of skills in disasters, and whether there is a behavioral change which would improve their chances for survival post disaster. This multidisciplinary systematic literature review showed that the published evidence regarding enhancing the disaster-related knowledge of teenagers and the related problem solving skills and behavior is piecemeal in design, approach, and execution in spite of consensus on the detrimental effects on injury rates and survival. There is some evidence that isolated school-based intervention enhances the theoretical disaster knowledge which may also extend to practical skills; however, disaster behavioral change is not forthcoming. It seems that the best results are obtained by combining theoretical and practical activities in school, family, community, and self-education programs. There is a still a pressing need for a concerted educational drive to achieve disaster preparedness behavioral change. School leavers' lack of knowledge, knowledge of skills, and adaptive behavioral change are detrimental to their chances of survival.

  9. Early Career Mathematics Teachers' General Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills: Do Teacher Education, Teaching Experience, and Working Conditions Make a Difference?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    König, Johannes; Blömeke, Sigrid; Kaiser, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    We examined several facets of general pedagogical knowledge and skills of early career mathematics teachers, asking how they are associated with characteristics of teacher education, teaching experience, and working conditions. Declarative general pedagogical knowledge (GPK) was assessed via a paper-and-pencil test, while early career teachers'…

  10. The Role of Parent Education and Parenting Knowledge in Children's Language and Literacy Skills among White, Black, and Latino Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Meredith L.; Denmark, Nicole; Harden, Brenda Jones; Stapleton, Laura M.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the role of parenting knowledge of infant development in children's subsequent language and pre-literacy skills among White, Black and Latino families of varying socioeconomic status. Data come from 6,150 participants in the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort. Mothers' knowledge of infant development was…

  11. Skills for the Knowledge and Service Society: Trends Determining Future Pre-Service and In-Service VET Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneeberger, Arthur

    2006-01-01

    The change-over to a knowledge and service society means greater opportunities for the highly skilled. Participation in tertiary education is increasing in all countries, and it can be seen that graduates are being absorbed into knowledge intensive services in the labour market. The international trend towards making vocational education and…

  12. An Exploratory Study of the Knowledge of Personal Safety Skills among Children with Developmental Disabilities and Their Parents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Hannah L.; Pavlik, Kathryn M.; Kim, Min Ah; Rogers, Karen C.

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study assessed the knowledge of personal safety skills among children with developmental disabilities and their parents' perceptions of children's knowledge. Method: This exploratory study examined the mental health records of 37 children with developmental disabilities referred for an abuse risk reduction group in a community…

  13. Relationship between Fidelity and Dose of Human Patient Simulation, Critical Thinking Skills, and Knowledge in an Associate Degree Nursing Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beebe, Rosella I.

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between human patient simulation (HPS), critical thinking skills, and knowledge acquisition after HPS was integrated across the curriculum of an associate degree nursing program to determine if differences existed in critical thinking and knowledge of students based on the fidelity of HPS used and amount of…

  14. A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF ACQUIRING CROSS-CULTURAL INTERACTION SKILLS THROUGH SELF-CONFRONTATION. FINAL REPORT JUL 1964-AUG 1964.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EACHUS, HERBERT T.; HAINES, DONALD B.

    AN EXPERIMENT CARRIED OUT TO ASSESS THE RELATIVE EFFECTIVENESS OF TWO METHODS OF TRAINING UNITED STATES AIR FORCE MILITARY ADVISORS IN CROSS-CULTURAL SKILLS REQUIRED SUBJECTS TO PLAY THE ROLE OF AN AMERICAN AIR FORCE CAPTAIN WHO HAD TO INTERACT, IN SPECIFIED WAYS, WITH A FOREIGN COUNTERPART PLAYED BY AN ACTOR. A LIST OF 34 BEHAVIORS APPROPRIATE TO…

  15. Examining the Effect of Social Values Education Program Being Applied to Nursery School Students upon Acquiring Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sapsaglam, Özkan; Ömeroglu, Esra

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted in an attempt to develop Social Values Education Program aimed at nursery school students and examine the effect of Social Values Education Program upon the social skill acquisition of nursery school students. The effect of the education program that was developed within the scope of the study upon the social skill…

  16. Improving Nurses' Peripheral Intravenous Catheter Insertion Knowledge, Confidence, and Skills Using a Simulation-Based Blended Learning Program

    PubMed Central

    Keleekai, Nowai L.; Schuster, Catherine A.; Murray, Connie L.; King, Mary Anne; Stahl, Brian R.; Labrozzi, Laura J.; Gallucci, Susan; LeClair, Matthew W.; Glover, Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Peripheral intravenous catheter (PIVC) insertion is one of the most common invasive procedures performed in a hospital, but most nurses receive little formal training in this area. Blended PIVC insertion training programs that incorporate deliberate simulated practice have the potential to improve clinical practice and patient care. Methods The study was a randomized, wait-list control group with crossover using nurses on three medical/surgical units. Baseline PIVC knowledge, confidence, and skills assessments were completed for both groups. The intervention group then received a 2-hour PIVC online course, followed by an 8-hour live training course using a synergistic mix of three simulation tools. Both groups were then reassessed. After crossover, the wait-list group received the same intervention and both groups were reassessed. Results At baseline, both groups were similar for knowledge, confidence, and skills. Compared with the wait-list group, the intervention group had significantly higher scores for knowledge, confidence, and skills upon completing the training program. After crossover, the wait-list group had similarly higher scores for knowledge, confidence, and skills than the intervention group. Between the immediate preintervention and postintervention periods, the intervention group improved scores for knowledge by 31%, skills by 24%, and decreased confidence by 0.5%, whereas the wait-list group improved scores for knowledge by 28%, confidence by 16%, and skills by 15%. Conclusions Results demonstrate significant improvements in nurses' knowledge, confidence, and skills with the use of a simulation-based blended learning program for PIVC insertion. Transferability of these findings from a simulated environment into clinical practice should be further explored. PMID:27504890

  17. Non-genetic health professionals' attitude towards, knowledge of and skills in discussing and ordering genetic testing for hereditary cancer.

    PubMed

    Douma, Kirsten F L; Smets, Ellen M A; Allain, Dawn C

    2016-04-01

    Non-genetic health professionals (NGHPs) have insufficient knowledge of cancer genetics, express educational needs and are unprepared to counsel their patients regarding their genetic test results. So far, it is unclear how NGHPs perceive their own communication skills. This study was undertaken to gain insight in their perceptions, attitudes and knowledge. Two publically accessible databases were used to invite NGHPs providing cancer genetic services to complete a questionnaire. The survey assessed: sociodemographic attributes, experience in ordering hereditary cancer genetic testing, attitude, knowledge, perception of communication skills (e.g. information giving, decision-making) and educational needs. Of all respondents (N = 49, response rate 11%), most have a positive view of their own information giving (mean = 53.91, range 13-65) and decision making skills (64-77% depending on topic). NGHPs feel responsible for enabling disease and treatment related behavior (89-91%). However, 20-30% reported difficulties managing patients' emotions and did not see management of long-term emotions as their responsibility. Correct answers on knowledge questions ranged between 41 and 96%. Higher knowledge was associated with more confidence in NGHPs' own communication skills (r(s) = .33, p = 0.03). Although NGHPs have a positive view of their communication skills, they perceive more difficulties managing emotions. The association between less confidence in communication skills and lower knowledge level suggests awareness of knowledge gaps affects confidence. NGHPs might benefit from education about managing client emotions. Further research using observation of actual counselling consultations is needed to investigate the skills of this specific group of providers.

  18. How useful are skills acquired at adult non-formal education and training centres for finding employment in South Africa?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayombe, Celestin; Lombard, Antoinette

    2015-10-01

    Non-formal adult education and training (NFET) in South Africa is instrumental in breaking the high level of poverty and decreasing the social inequality the country continues to face as a post-apartheid democracy. Public and private NFET centres in South Africa aim to meet the training needs of adults who have been deprived of formal education with courses which foster access to opportunities for skills acquisition and employment and bring about social and economic inclusion. However, many adults who were facing long-term unemployment due to a lack of marketable skills remain unemployed after completing NFET programmes. This paper reports on a study which investigated what constitutes favourable conditions ("internal enabling environments") for skills acquisition inside NFET centres leading to employment and how they can be improved to contribute to coordinated efforts of increasing NFET graduates' paid and/or self-employment capacities. The authors found that centres focusing on activities suitable for self-employment during training were more likely to create internal enabling environments for skills acquisition and income generation than centres offering courses designed for entering paid employment. The authors conclude that there appears to be a significant correlation between NFET centres' training programme objectives, financial resources, trainee selection criteria, the process of training needs assessment, and skills acquisition for successful employment outcomes of NFET graduates. Without these internal enabling factors, adult trainees are likely to continue finding it difficult to integrate into the labour market or participate in economic activities and hence break the cycle of poverty and social exclusion.

  19. Technical Skill, Industry Knowledge and Experience, and Interpersonal Skill Competencies for Fashion Design Careers: A Comparison of Perspectives between Fashion Industry Professionals and Fashion Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Eunyoung

    2010-01-01

    In updating fashion and apparel related design programs, many educators are striving to address the perspective of the fashion industry to obtain the career-specific skill and knowledge requirements sought by employers when hiring college or university graduates. Identifying such competencies from the view of fashion industry professionals as well…

  20. An inquiry into the integration of indigenous knowledges and skills in the Kenyan secondary science curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kithinji, Wanja

    A major argument in the promotion of 'science' in the schools is the need to link 'scientific' thinking to everyday problem-solving. It is assumed that such a linkage will help improve existing life conditions. However, in rural Kenya and in many other parts of rural Africa, secondary science education has not had a significant effect on existing life conditions. This study attempts to explain this failure in terms of two underlying deficiencies: first, secondary science omits and de-emphasizes everyday knowledge and skills; second, it promotes sets of ideas and myths about science that are incompatible with its 'experienced' practices. Some academic theorizing and empirical research work to address these issues has focused on the context-boundedness of knowledge, a field of study that is known as situated cognition theory. A closely linked focus for academic theorizing is the notion of alternative sources of knowledge production and validation outside the existing 'schooled'1 frameworks, which are mainly Eurocentric. An alternative framework view holds that all cultures have their ways of understanding and explaining natural phenomena. It follows that promoting just one way of understanding and explaining natural phenomena is limiting the diversity of human experiences and is potentially alienating and disempowering to students and teachers who may choose to explain and understand natural phenomena differently, or at least to consider alternatives. The study aims to contribute to the body of literature on situated cognition by identifying modes of everyday knowing and suggesting how to establish a dialectic between these modes of knowing and 'schooled' science. To identify modes of knowing, I investigated health and healing in a rural part of Kenya, Kirumi, between April and September 1997. Most participants were women because women are, in their role as caretakers, heavily involved in matters of health and healing and, tberefore, are more likely than men to

  1. Nurses' knowledge and skills in providing mental health care to people living with HIV/AIDS in Malawi.

    PubMed

    Chorwe-Sungani, G

    2013-09-01

    Nurses are the majority of health-care professionals who frequently come in contact with people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). However, most health workers such as nurses lack competence and confidence in dealing with the mental health problems (MHPs) of their clients in Malawi. The study aimed at exploring nurses' levels of knowledge and skills in providing mental health care to PLWHA. The study used a descriptive quantitative survey design. Ethical approval and permission were granted by relevant authorities to conduct the study. A convenient sample of 109 nurses was used. They gave written consent and completed self-administered questionnaires. Descriptive statistics namely: means, frequencies and percentages were used to analyse data. The findings suggest that nurses who care for PLWHA lack knowledge and skills to deal with MHPs of these people. Many participants (53.2%, n = 58) lacked knowledge and skills to care for PLWHA who have MHPs. Nurses are potentially essential human resource for dealing with MHPs of PLWHA in Malawi. Unfortunately, some nurses lack the necessary knowledge and skills to deal with MHPs. Nurses must be equipped with adequate knowledge and skills so that they are able to deal with MHPs of PLWHA.

  2. Knowledge Transfer in B-O-R-N Model to Enhance Computer Learners' Learning Outcomes in Knowledge and Cognitive Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duangchant, Shatchaya; Kiattikomol, Paiboon; Kaewkuekool, Sittichai

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The process of knowledge transfer under the B-O-R-N Model is based on the concepts of knowledge transfer and change of knowledge patterns to create new knowledge. It stimulates learners to learn under the process of knowledge transfer during the learning with an aim to allow learners to achieve the learning outcomes.…

  3. Management knowledge and skills required in the health care system of the Federation bosnia and herzegovina.

    PubMed

    Slipicevic, Osman; Masic, Izet

    2012-01-01

    Extremely complex health care organizations, by their structure and organization, operate in a constantly changing business environment, and such situation implies and requires complex and demanding health management. Therefore, in order to manage health organizations in a competent manner, health managers must possess various managerial skills and be familiar with problems in health care. Research, identification, analysis, and assessment of health management education and training needs are basic preconditions for the development and implementation of adequate programs to meet those needs. Along with other specific activities, this research helped to determine the nature, profile, and level of top-priority needs for education. The need for knowledge of certain areas in health management, as well as the need for mastering concrete managerial competencies has been recognized as top-priorities requiring additional improvement and upgrading.

  4. Knowledge, skills, and abilities for key radiation protection positions at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This document provides detailed qualification criteria for contractor key radiation protection personnel. Although federal key radiation protection positions are also identified, qualification standards for federal positions are provided in DOE O 360.1 and the DOE Technical Qualifications Program. Appendices B and D provide detailed listings for knowledge, skills, and abilities for contractor and DOE federal key radiation protection positions. This information may be used in developing position descriptions and individual development plans. Information provided in Appendix C may be useful in developing performance measures and assessing an individual`s performance in his or her specific position. Additionally, Federal personnel may use this information to augment their Office/facility qualification standards under the Technical Qualifications Program.

  5. Training the gastroenterologist of the future: a different mix of knowledge, skills and attitudes is needed.

    PubMed

    Roy, Claude C

    2003-10-01

    In the United States, the declining interest of residents in gastroenterology is thought to be the result of the specialty being too procedure driven and not intellectually challenging. It is clear that the growth of technology and excessive demands for procedures have forced the curtailing of clinic time, erosion of clinical skills, distraction from scholarly pursuits and a decrease in the intellectual content of our training programs. In order to attract the 'best and the brightest' and to better prepare gastroenterologists for the future, trainees will require more knowledge and experience in nutrition, genetics and the evaluative sciences. Furthermore, they need to realize that the main responsibility of clinicians is problem solving. This can be learned only through personal clinical experience and teaching by clinicians with good analytical and intuitive skills. Quality care requires the integration of the needs, means and preferences of patients with evidence-based medical practice. Finally, new physicians should be imbued with the concept that an empathic relationship with patients is crucial for the accurate collection of information and plays an important therapeutic role.

  6. Declarative memory and skill-related knowledge: Evidence from a case study of amnesia and implications for theories of memory.

    PubMed

    Gregory, Emma; McCloskey, Michael; Ovans, Zoe; Landau, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Theoretical and empirical studies of memory have long been framed by a distinction between declarative and non-declarative memory. We question the sharpness of the distinction by reporting evidence from amnesic L.S.J., who despite retrograde memory losses in declarative knowledge domains, shows sparing of declarative knowledge related to premorbid skill (e.g., playing an instrument). We previously showed that L.S.J. had severe losses of retrograde declarative knowledge across areas of premorbid expertise (e.g., artists of famous works) and everyday knowledge (e.g., company names for logos). Here we present evidence that L.S.J. has sparing of what we call skill-related declarative knowledge, in four domains in which she had premorbid skill (art, music, aviation, driving). L.S.J.'s pattern of loss and sparing raises questions about the strict separation between classically-defined memory types and aligns with a recent proposal by Stanley and Krakauer [2013. Motor skill depends on knowledge of facts. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, 7,1-11].

  7. Changing HIV clinical knowledge and skill in context: the impact of longitudinal training in the Southeast United States.

    PubMed

    Culyba, Rebecca J; McGee, Blake Tyler; Weyer, Dianne

    2011-01-01

    In the Southeast United States, HIV care is provided in a context of disproportionate HIV prevalence and barriers to care, including rural locales, higher proportions of African American and uninsured patients, and inadequate health care workforce and infrastructure. The authors describe a regional on-site longitudinal training program developed to target multidisciplinary teams providing HIV primary care at clinical sites in the region. The effect of this training program was evaluated using pre- and 3-month post-program knowledge and skills tests, a post-training evaluation questionnaire, and a post-program focus group. The authors found desired effects, with increases in knowledge and skills and improved capacity of providers to meet patient care needs across all clinical sites despite variations in terms of HIV-infected patient loads. However, the lack of enabling factors present in clinic environments may attenuate the application of new knowledge and skills, underscoring the relevance of teamwork training in HIV care settings.

  8. What Are the Appropriate Skills and Knowledge Required for Entry into the Practice of Optometry?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penna, Richard P.

    1992-01-01

    Entry-level skills needed of optometrists, as of allied health occupations practitioners, include thinking skills, communication skills, sensitivity to personal and professional values and ethics, awareness of self and individual social responsibility, lifelong learning skills and habits, interpersonal and group competence, and management…

  9. Sichere Sprachkenntnisse als Grundlage fuer eine hoehere Qualitaet der Koennensentwicklung. 1 (Secure Language Knowledge as a Basis for a Higher Quality of Skill Development. 1)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guenther, Klaus

    1974-01-01

    Topics are: aspects in the systematic acquisition of firm, lasting and ready-to-use knowledge and skill as a basis of instruction; nature of language knowledge; the dialectic of knowledge acquisition and the development of skill; intensive learning; and the design of vocabulary drill units. (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  10. Adults with poor reading skills: How lexical knowledge interacts with scores on standardized reading comprehension tests.

    PubMed

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff's, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model's estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults.

  11. Influence of Sex Education on Condom Knowledge and Condom Use Skills Among Texas College Students.

    PubMed

    Clifton, Jessica; Penrose, Lindsay; Prien, Sam; Farooqi, Naghma

    2015-10-01

    Condoms have proven effective when used correctly; however, few studies have examined the relationship between a student's previous sex education and his or her general condom knowledge and ability to use a condom correctly. Educational systems in Texas provide a myriad of types of sexual education to their student populations. The objective of the present study was to compare the type of previous sex education with the condom knowledge and condom use skills among students attending college. Participants were recruited at health fairs conducted at a major Texas university during October 2010 and March 2011. Students were first asked to complete a computerized questionnaire and then participated in a condom demonstration. Of 180 students who completed both the questionnaire and the condom demonstration, 67% failed to apply the condom correctly. Further, the results were equally poor regardless of previous sex education format. The results of this study suggest that none of the current training mechanisms provide adequate information to ensure the proper use of condoms by college students and that alternatives need to be considered to protect the health and well-being of this important segment of the state's population.

  12. Adults with poor reading skills: How lexical knowledge interacts with scores on standardized reading comprehension tests

    PubMed Central

    McKoon, Gail; Ratcliff, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Millions of adults in the United States lack the necessary literacy skills for most living wage jobs. For students from adult learning classes, we used a lexical decision task to measure their knowledge of words and we used a decision-making model (Ratcliff’s, 1978, diffusion model) to abstract the mechanisms underlying their performance from their RTs and accuracy. We also collected scores for each participant on standardized IQ tests and standardized reading tests used commonly in the education literature. We found significant correlations between the model’s estimates of the strengths with which words are represented in memory and scores for some of the standardized tests but not others. The findings point to the feasibility and utility of combining a test of word knowledge, lexical decision, that is well-established in psycholinguistic research, a decision-making model that supplies information about underlying mechanisms, and standardized tests. The goal for future research is to use this combination of approaches to understand better how basic processes relate to standardized tests with the eventual aim of understanding what these tests are measuring and what the specific difficulties are for individual, low-literacy adults. PMID:26550803

  13. Developing a Research Skill Set

    PubMed Central

    You, Y. Nancy; Bednarski, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The recent decades have witnessed a significant expansion in the diversity of career paths within academic surgery. Although the skills for providing exemplary surgical care and for maintaining a strong work ethic are the foundations of an academic surgeon, deliberate career planning and organized acquisition of research skills contribute to the success of an academic career. In this article, we identify a set of core academic skills and propose a framework for acquiring them. We also describe specific career paths within academic surgery and provide an overview of the opportunities for acquiring specific skill sets. The development of an academic career is challenging, and firm knowledge of the personal motivations will sustain and endure the time needed for acquiring the needed skills. PMID:25067917

  14. Developing a research skill set.

    PubMed

    You, Y Nancy; Bednarski, Brian

    2014-06-01

    The recent decades have witnessed a significant expansion in the diversity of career paths within academic surgery. Although the skills for providing exemplary surgical care and for maintaining a strong work ethic are the foundations of an academic surgeon, deliberate career planning and organized acquisition of research skills contribute to the success of an academic career. In this article, we identify a set of core academic skills and propose a framework for acquiring them. We also describe specific career paths within academic surgery and provide an overview of the opportunities for acquiring specific skill sets. The development of an academic career is challenging, and firm knowledge of the personal motivations will sustain and endure the time needed for acquiring the needed skills.

  15. E-learning improves knowledge and practical skills in haemophilia patients on home treatment: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mulders, G; de Wee, E M; Vahedi Nikbakht-Van de Sande, M C V M; Kruip, M J H A; Elfrink, E J; Leebeek, F W G

    2012-09-01

    Home treatment of haemophilia is currently the standard of care for patients with severe haemophilia. Home treatment increases the responsibility of the patients for their own treatment and care. Therefore, it is of utmost importance to attain a high level of knowledge and practical skills. The aim of our study was to investigate whether or not an educational e-learning program improves knowledge and skills of adult patients with haemophilia on home treatment. Participants treated at the Haemophilia Treatment Center of the Erasmus University Medical Centre completed a questionnaire to test their knowledge of haemophilia, treatment of bleedings and of complications of treatment and were observed during the intravenous injection of clotting factor concentrate, using a standardized scoring list. Afterwards they were randomized to follow an e-learning program or no intervention (control group). After 1 month they completed the same questionnaire again and practical skills were scored once more. At baseline, haemophilia patients (n = 30) scored 24 of 48 questions in the questionnaire correctly. Seventy-five per cent of the items on the practical skills scoring list were performed correctly. One month later, the e-learning group (n = 16; 36; 18-45) showed a higher level of theoretical knowledge compared to the control group (n = 14; 26; 19-32; P < 0.001). Also practical skills were significantly better in the group that followed the e-learning program compared to the control group (respectively P = 0.002). Self-efficacy of 90% vs. 80% the patients with haemophilia was high in all patients. Our study shows that in haemophilia patients with haemophilia, who are on home treatment, knowledge of haemophilia treatment and complications as well as practical skills can be improved by an educational e-learning program.

  16. The music therapy clinical intern: performance skills, academic knowledge, personal qualities, and interpersonal skills necessary for a student seeking clinical training.

    PubMed

    Brookins, L M

    1984-01-01

    The music therapy curriculum consists of two distinct parts: the academic phase and the internship. The music therapy student must apply for a clinical internship during the last year of the academic phase, and the student is expected to evolve from student to professional music therapist during the internship phase. The present study sought to determine the skills, knowledge, and qualities clinical training directors considered most important for a prospective intern to possess. The sample population of the survey consisted of 25 clinical training directors from the Great Lakes Region. Results of the survey indicated that piano skills, knowledge of psychology, emotional maturity, and the ability to express needs and feelings were considered most important for the prospective intern to possess.

  17. Nature of Science Knowledge and Scientific Argumentation Skills in Taiwanese College Biology Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Mei-Chun

    Although many believe that students with mature understanding of NOS engage in argumentation more, mixed results were found in empirical studies. In argumentation studies, consensus assessment was lacking and most researchers only evaluated the structural aspects of argumentation. However in the science classroom, an assessment that examines the "content correctness" in addition to the "structural complexity" is necessary because scientific argumentation that is structurally complicated but full of misconceptions cannot be considered strong. Therefore, the goal of this study was first to develop a method to evaluate the quality of students' scientific argumentation in both the content and structure aspects. The second goal was to examine to what extent NOS knowledge and argumentation skills correlate. Furthermore, through semi-structured interview, this study documented students' NOS understandings in the target aspects of NOS. Significant correlation between NOS and argumentation was found in the first year of the study. Although no correlation between NOS and argumentation was found in follow-up study, the score distribution implied that students with mixed views of NOS engaged more in scientific argumentation in which specific scientific data were required to support their claims. The qualitative analysis of students' NOS interview revealed that students with strong argumentation skills view science as an open entity that may be challenged and discussed. Further, all of the interview participants placed high values on empirical support. The majority of the participants held the misconception about theories and laws, and expressed that the theory of evolution is less persuasive than other theories because some parts of the supporting evidence lack empirical support.

  18. TV as storyteller: how exposure to television narratives impacts at-risk preschoolers' story knowledge and narrative skills.

    PubMed

    Linebarger, Deborah L; Piotrowski, Jessica Taylor

    2009-03-01

    Educational media serve as informal educators within the home by supplementing young children's development. Substantial evidence documents the contributions of educational television to preschoolers' acquisition of a variety of skills; however, television's natural capacity as storyteller and the role it plays in preschoolers' early literacy development has been largely overlooked. This study examined the effects of viewing different TV program types on 311 at-risk preschoolers' story knowledge and narrative skills. Children were assigned to one of 4 viewing conditions (i.e. watching up to 40 episodes of a particular program type): no viewing; expository; embedded narrative; or traditional narrative. Story knowledge scores were higher for those viewing either narrative type. In contrast, viewing specific narrative types differentially affected the component skills of narrative competence. Story retelling and identification of explicit story events were higher after repeat viewing of embedded narratives while generating implicit story content was higher after repeat viewing of traditional narratives.

  19. Associations of Emotion-Related Regulation with Language Skills, Emotion Knowledge, and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Sadovsky, Adrienne; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that the development of emotional regulation in early childhood is interrelated with emotional understanding and language skills. Heuristic models are proposed on how these factors influence children's emerging academic motivation and skills. (Contains 2 figures.)

  20. Establishing an Accepted Skill Set and Knowledge Base for Directors of University and College Intensive English Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes, Megan Julie

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to establish an accepted skill set, knowledge base, and overview of personal qualities necessary to be a director of a university or college based, non-proprietary intensive English program (UIEP). This research serves as a means of moving towards meeting three critical needs in the field. This research should inform…

  1. Knowledge, Skills and Abilities of International Business Majors: What We Teach Them "versus" What Companies Need Them to Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prestwich, Roger; Ho-Kim, Thu-Mai

    2007-01-01

    To compete in a global environment, firms need people with the appropriate international knowledge, skills and abilities (KSA). Undergraduate international business (IB) majors may not be taught the specific KSA that match those business needs. This study surveyed the most active international companies in Minnesota (USA) that had recently hired…

  2. Can I Read between the Lines? An Outsider's Observations on the CEC-CED Joint Knowledge and Skills Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saur, Rosemary

    This commentary on the Council for Exceptional Children-Council on Education of the Deaf's (CEC-CED's) Joint Knowledge and Skills Statement, which sets forth qualifications needed by those who teach deaf and hard of hearing students, discusses key issues impacting the education of students who are deaf or hard-of-hearing: cultural flexibility,…

  3. Recognizing the Importance of Aging Skills and Knowledge in Generalist Social Work Practice: Effective Strategies for MSW Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bonifas, Robin P.; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I.; Bailey, Kathleen A.

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a curricular infusion strategy aimed at integrating gerontological practice issues into social work education. Findings (N = 83) illustrate that student interest, knowledge, and skills in aging practice increased immediately following implementation of a three-tiered infusion approach; however, ongoing exposure…

  4. Development of a Performance Assessment Task and Rubric to Measure Prospective Secondary School Mathematics Teachers' Pedagogical Content Knowledge and Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koirala, Hari P.; Davis, Marsha; Johnson, Peter

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to share a performance assessment task and rubric designed to assess secondary school mathematics preservice teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and skills. The assessment task and rubric were developed in collaboration with five education faculty, four arts and sciences faculty, and four high school teachers over…

  5. Skills and Knowledge Needs Assessment To Support Multi-Craft Maintenance and Training Design. Report Number Four.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geroy, Gary D.; And Others

    The needs assessment reported in this document was undertaken to identify the skills and knowledge needed in the maintenance department of Standard Steel of Burnham, Pennsylvania, so that curriculum could be developed to: (1) train most department employees for most tasks across crafts; and thereby (2) increase productivity by decreasing the time…

  6. Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for the Market Economy: An Investigation of Student Perceptions before and after China's WTO Entry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Bonnie P.; Veliyath, Raj; Joyce, Teresa; Adams, Janet S.

    2010-01-01

    This exploratory study conducted in the People's Republic of China sought to determine the managerial knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) that are perceived as important for the Chinese market economy. Questionnaire responses were collected from 145 business students in 2001 (before China's WTO entry) and 141 business students in 2006 (after…

  7. Investigating Peer Review as a Systemic Pedagogy for Developing the Design Knowledge, Skills, and Dispositions of Novice Instructional Design Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brill, Jennifer M.

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated peer review as a contemporary instructional pedagogy for fostering the design knowledge, skills, and dispositions of novice Instructional Design and Technology (IDT) professionals. Participants were graduate students enrolled in an introductory instructional design (ID) course. Survey, artifact, and observation data were…

  8. Computer Modeling of the Instructionally Insensitive Nature of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Exam

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pham, Vinh Huy

    2009-01-01

    Stakeholders of the educational system assume that standardized tests are transparently about the subject content being tested and therefore can be used as a metric to measure achievement in outcome-based educational reform. Both analysis of longitudinal data for the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) exam and agent based computer…

  9. Critical Combat Performances, Knowledges, and Skills Required of the Infantry Rifle Squad Leader: Human Maintenance under Campaign Conditions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Frank L.; Jacobs, T. O.

    The paper covers the performances, skills, and kinds of knowledge demanded of an infantry rifle squad leader to maintain an organized and effective fighting unit under campaign conditions and to set an example as a leader for his men. It covers personal hygiene and field sanitation, the maintenance of minimal fighting and existence loads, water…

  10. The Relative Value of Skills, Knowledge, and Teaching Methods in Explaining Master of Business Administration (MBA) Program Return on Investment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Auken, Stuart; Wells, Ludmilla Gricenko; Chrysler, Earl

    2005-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide insight into alumni perceptions of Master of Business Administration (MBA) program return on investment (ROI). They sought to assess the relative value of skills, knowledge, and teaching methods in explaining ROI. By developing insight into the drivers of ROI, the real utility of MBA program ingredients can be…

  11. Mathematics Teachers' Level of Knowledge and Practice on the Implementation of Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdullah, Abdul Halim; Mokhtar, Mahani; Halim, Noor Dayana Abd; Ali, Dayana Farzeeha; Tahir, Lokman Mohd; Kohar, Umar Haiyat Abdul

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to identify the level of knowledge and practice on the implementation of higher-order thinking skills (HOTS) among mathematics teachers at a secondary school in the district of Terengganu. The study focused on the aspects of curriculum, pedagogy and assessment and compared them with demographic factors of the respondents. It used…

  12. Retention of Second Graders' Knowledge and Skills One Year after a Brief Primary Sexual Abuse Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hensley, Beth H.; Soled, Suzanne Wegener

    This study investigated the long-term cognitive effects for 40 second graders 1 year after participating in a brief, 50-minute, primary sexual abuse prevention program. It was expected that participants would retain knowledge of body safety and of sexual abuse prevention skills 1 year after the treatment program. The Personal Safety Questionnaire…

  13. Investigating Changes in Pedagogical Knowledge and Skills from Pre-Service to the Initial Year of Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Angela F. L.; Chong, Sylvia; Choy, Doris; Lim, Kam Ming

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the levels of pedagogical knowledge and skills as perceived by student teachers who were enrolled in the Post Graduate Diploma in Education program at the National Institute of Education, Singapore, from the beginning of their initial teacher preparation program to the end of their first year of teaching. Their perceptions were…

  14. Integrating Knowledge, Skills, and Values into the Curriculum Development Process at the University of Guelph-Humber

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evers, Frederick; Wolstenholme, Janet

    2007-01-01

    The focus of this paper is the curriculum development process that led to the intentional integration of knowledge, skills, and values in every course at a newly created institution, the University of Guelph-Humber (G-H). Among the many unique features of G-H, the integration of theory and practice in each course is one of the most important. The…

  15. Perception of Teachers' Knowledge, Attitude and Teaching Skills as Predictor of Academic Performance in Nigerian Secondary Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adediwura, A. A.; Tayo, Bada

    2007-01-01

    The study investigated the relationship/effect of students' perception of teachers' knowledge of subject matter, attitude to work and teaching skills on students' academic performance. The population consisted of senior secondary three (SS.III) students in the South West Nigeria senior secondary schools. The study sample consisted of 1600…

  16. How to Study the Influence of Intensity of Treatment on Generalized Skill and Knowledge Acquisition in Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoder, Paul J.; Woynaroski, Tiffany

    2015-01-01

    Seven empirical studies from this special issue and an overview chapter are reviewed to illustrate several points about studying the possible effects of treatment intensity manipulations on generalized skill or knowledge acquisition in students with disabilities. First, we make a case in favor of studying intensity as separate from complexity and…

  17. Online Course Increases Nutrition Professionals' Knowledge, Skills, and Self-Efficacy in Using an Ecological Approach to Prevent Childhood Obesity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Christina M.; Graham-Kiefer, Meredith L.; Devine, Carol M.; Dollahite, Jamie S.; Olson, Christine M.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the impact of an online continuing education course on the knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy of nutrition professionals to use an ecological approach to prevent childhood obesity. Design: Quasi-experimental design using intervention and delayed intervention comparison groups with pre/post-course assessments. Setting: Online…

  18. An Enquiry into the Professional Competence of Inclusive Education Teachers in Beijing: Attitudes, Knowledge, Skills, and Agency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mu, Guanglun Michael; Wang, Yan; Wang, Zhiqiang; Feng, Yajing; Deng, Meng; Liang, Songmei

    2015-01-01

    Attitudes, knowledge, and skills are widely recognised as the three pillars of professional competence of inclusive education teachers. Studies emerging from the Chinese context consider these three pillars important for the practice of Learning in Regular Classrooms--an idiosyncratic Chinese form of inclusive education. Our mixed methods study…

  19. Determining Training Requirements for Electronic System Maintenance: Development and Test of a New Method of Skill and Knowledge Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shriver, Edgar L.

    This is the report of a study designed to develop and test methods of deriving, directly from an analysis of the system or its surrogate, an effective and economical set of skills and knowledge for operating and maintaining a weapon system. Two methods for analyzing electronic weapon systems were developed, one method for the operator task and one…

  20. Mathematical Knowledge and Skills Expected by Higher Education in Engineering and the Social Sciences: Implications for High School Mathematics Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Basaran, Mehmet; Özalp, Gülümser; Kalender, Ilker; Alacaci, Cengiz

    2015-01-01

    One important function of school mathematics curriculum is to prepare high school students with the knowledge and skills needed for university education. Identifying them empirically will help making sound decisions about the contents of high school mathematics curriculum. It will also help students to make informed choices in course selection at…

  1. Identifying the Knowledge, Skills, and Values Needed to Perform Entry-Level Child Welfare Work in Utah

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Topuzova, Lazarina N.

    2009-01-01

    Because child welfare workers serve the most vulnerable children and families, it is necessary that they have sufficient knowledge, skills, and values (competencies) to provide quality services. This study focuses on competencies that the Division of Child and Family Services, Utah (DCFS) views as essential for entry-level child welfare work, and…

  2. Understanding Gender Differences in Achievement on the Social Studies Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills: An Interactive Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ungurait, Michelle D.

    2007-01-01

    The Texas Education Agency's Social Studies Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills results show an achievement gap between males and females for every criteria on every test given since 2003. The most dramatic achievement difference is in the area of "traditional" U.S. History. The Texas results mimic a gender gap reported by College…

  3. How the Skills, Competencies, and Knowledge Areas Necessary for Success as Entry-Level Student Affairs Practitioners Are Learned

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Jason Ignazio

    2008-01-01

    Although there is an extensive review of the literature about the skills/competencies and knowledge areas needed for success as an entry-level student affairs professional (Hyman, 1988; Kinser, 1993; Lovell & Kosten, 2000; Ostroth, 1981; Waple, 2006), no such study or studies have been conducted regarding how graduates of College Student Personnel…

  4. The Writer's Individualized Transfer Tool: A Freeware Innovation for Fostering and Researching Transfer of Writing Skills and Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khost, Peter H.

    2015-01-01

    Most higher education institutions lack a program that promotes students' transfer--that is, reapplication or repurposing--of writing skills and knowledge across the curriculum, a phenomenon that research shows does not tend to happen without deliberate sustained support. This article introduces an online instrument, the Writer's Individualized…

  5. 49 CFR Appendix to Part 380 - LCV Driver Training Programs, Required Knowledge and Skills

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... operating characteristics of an LCV. Utilizing an LCV, students must be able to perform the skills learned... maneuvers. Driver-students practice skills and maneuvers learned in the Basic Control and Handling; Basic... opportunity to refine, within the on-street traffic environment, their vehicle handling skills learned in...

  6. The Communication Skills of Accountants: What We Know and the Gaps in Our Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siriwardane, Harshini P.; Durden, Chris H.

    2014-01-01

    This paper critically reviews 19 studies published between 1972 and 2012 that investigated the written and/or oral communication skills of practicing accountants. The core aim of the review was to identify skills considered important and highlight gaps regarding what is known about existing and desired communication skills in the accounting…

  7. Effectiveness of current teaching methods in Cardiology: the SKILLS (medical Students Knowledge Integration of Lower Level clinical Skills) study

    PubMed Central

    Lavranos, G; Koliaki, C; Briasoulis, A; Nikolaou, A; Stefanadis, C

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of the study is to assess reported changes in medical students’ capacity to attain five basic cardiological clinical skills, following a one-month intensive cardiology course provisioned in the core curriculum. Materials and Methods: An anonymous questionnaire comprising self reported performance in the five skills, namely 1) arterial blood pressure measurement, 2) cardiac auscultation, 3) electrocardiogram (ECG) carry out, 4) ECG interpretation and 5) defibrillation, was distributed to 177 fifth year students of the Athens Medical School upon initiating the cardiology course (pre-training group) and to 59 students matched for sex, age, year of study and training centre, following completion of the course (post training group). Comparison of pre- and post- training performance was evaluated using the χ2 test. Results: No change was noted with regards to blood pressure measurement, cardiac auscultation or defibrillation. By contrast, a statistically significant improvement was reported for ECG execution (54.3 versus 81.4%; p<0.001) and interpretation (from 33.1 to 89.8%; p<0.001). Conclusions: Improvement in the execution and interpretation of ECGs seems to be among the strengths of the cardiology training program. Further studies including larger samples from multiple medical schools and objective assessment of skill execution might facilitate accurate training evaluation and define opportunities for improvement. PMID:23935341

  8. High Altitude Long Endurance (HALE) Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS): Pilot Knowledge, Skills and Abilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes the initial work accomplished by the ACCESS 5 Human System Integration (HSI) team to identify Unmanned Aircraft System (UAS) Pilot Knowledge, Skill and Ability (KSA), Training and Medical requirements. To derive this information the following tasks were accomplished: a) Mission and Function analyses were performed; b) Applicable FARs and FAA Advisory Circulars (ACs) were reviewed; c) Meetings were conducted with NASA and FAA Human Factors personnel; d) Surveys were completed by ACCESS 5 HSI Working group UA Pilots; e) Coordination meetings were conducted with the ACCESS 5 Policy IPT. The results of these efforts were used to develop a summary of the current qualifications. for an individual to function as a Pilot In Command (PIC) for UAs currently flown by UNITE companies, to develop preliminary Pilot KSAs for each phase of flight, and to delineate preliminary Pilot Training and Medical requirements. These results are to be provided to the Policy IPT to support their development of recommendations for UA Pilot Rating Criteria, training and medical qualifications. It is expected that the initially an instrument rated pilot will be required to serve as the PIC. However, as operational experience is gained, and automation is applied to accomplish various system functions, it is expected that pilot rating criteria could be lessened.

  9. Identification of functionally necessary knowledge and skills in the practice of Canadian health care management.

    PubMed

    Curry, L

    1989-01-01

    The Canadian College of Health Service Executives (CCHSE) conducted a project in 1985-87 to identify basic competencies required in the field practice of health care management in Canada. The project derived from the College's mission to establish and promote professional standards for all health care executives in Canada. The project also addressed more specific short-term problems: to validate an existing examination purporting to measure the basic competence required for field practice of health care management in Canada; to create a data base upon which a CCHSE criterion reference test of field-based professional competence in health care administration could be created; and to provide to the training programs in Canadian health care management a detailed compilation and testing of the knowledge and skill attributes considered necessary for adequate field practice in Canadian health care administration. The project demonstrated an improved model for professional competence identification. The first step was to identify the level of professional targeted for competence assessment. Then a representative expert committee was to return to the field to examine the range of jobs done by those target individuals. This expert committee collected lists of elements from the tasks done in these target positions and then organized the elements into mutually exclusive groupings. Finally a stratified random sample of field practitioners was asked to rate the importance of these elements for competent job performance.

  10. Balance maintenance as an acquired motor skill: Delayed gains and robust retention after a single session of training in a virtual environment.

    PubMed

    Elion, Orit; Sela, Itamar; Bahat, Yotam; Siev-Ner, Itzhak; Weiss, Patrice L Tamar; Karni, Avi

    2015-06-03

    Does the learning of a balance and stability skill exhibit time-course phases and transfer limitations characteristic of the acquisition and consolidation of voluntary movement sequences? Here we followed the performance of young adults trained in maintaining balance while standing on a moving platform synchronized with a virtual reality road travel scene. The training protocol included eight 3 min long iterations of the road scene. Center of Pressure (CoP) displacements were analyzed for each task iteration within the training session, as well as during tests at 24h, 4 weeks and 12 weeks post-training to test for consolidation phase ("offline") gains and assess retention. In addition, CoP displacements in reaction to external perturbations were assessed before and after the training session and in the 3 subsequent post-training assessments (stability tests). There were significant reductions in CoP displacements as experience accumulated within session, with performance stabilizing by the end of the session. However, CoP displacements were further reduced at 24h post-training (delayed "offline" gains) and these gains were robustly retained. There was no transfer of the practice-related gains to performance in the stability tests. The time-course of learning the balance maintenance task, as well as the limitation on generalizing the gains to untrained conditions, are in line with the results of studies of manual movement skill learning. The current results support the conjecture that a similar repertoire of basic neuronal mechanisms of plasticity may underlay skill (procedural, "how to" knowledge) acquisition and skill memory consolidation in voluntary and balance maintenance tasks.

  11. Acquiring Information from Simple Weather Maps: Influences of Domain-Specific Knowledge and General Visual-Spatial Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Gary L.; Miller, Christy R.; Power, Helen

    2006-01-01

    The influences of domain-specific meteorological knowledge and general visual-spatial abilities on the comprehension of simple weather maps were examined in a regression-based study involving a sample of participants with relatively low meteorological knowledge and in an experiment involving a contrast between samples of higher- and…

  12. Intelligent Tutoring Systems for Scientific Inquiry Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shute, Valerie; Bonar, Jeffrey

    Described are the initial prototypes of several intelligent tutoring systems designed to build students' scientific inquiry skills. These inquiry skills are taught in the context of acquiring knowledge of principles from a microworld that models a specific domain. This paper discusses microworlds that have been implemented for microeconomics,…

  13. Effects of Prior Knowledge on Memory: Implications for Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shing, Yee Lee; Brod, Garvin

    2016-01-01

    The encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of events and facts form the basis for acquiring new skills and knowledge. Prior knowledge can enhance those memory processes considerably and thus foster knowledge acquisition. But prior knowledge can also hinder knowledge acquisition, in particular when the to-be-learned information is inconsistent with…

  14. The role of primary caregiver vocabulary knowledge in the development of bilingual children’s vocabulary skills

    PubMed Central

    Buac, Milijana; Gross, Megan; Kaushanskaya, Margarita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The current study examined the impact of environmental factors (SES, the percent of language exposure to English and to Spanish, and primary caregivers’ vocabulary knowledge) on bilingual children’s vocabulary skills. Method We measured vocabulary skills of 58 bilingual children between the ages of 5 and 7 who spoke Spanish as their native language and English as their second language. Data related to language environment in the home, specifically the percent of language exposure to each language and SES, were obtained from primary caregiver interviews. Primary caregivers’ vocabulary knowledge was measured directly using expressive and receptive vocabulary assessments in both languages. Results Multiple regression analyses indicated that primary caregivers’ vocabulary knowledge, the child’s percent exposure to each language, and SES were robust predictors of children’s English, but not Spanish, vocabulary skills. Conclusions These findings indicate that in the early school age, primary caregiver vocabulary skills have a stronger impact on bilingual children’s second-language than native-language vocabulary. PMID:24824882

  15. The Effects of Kinetic Structure on Knowledge About and Performance of a Psychomotor Skill: Teaching Students to Use the Compound Microscope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, Ellen Stephanie

    1977-01-01

    Investigates effects of method of presentation and structure on secondary student's acquisition of knowledge and psychomotor skills in teaching use of the compound microscope. Psychomotor skills and knowledge acquisitions were both found to be directly related to high structure and separated presentations. (SL)

  16. Considering Human Capital Theory in Assessment and Training: Mapping the Gap between Current Skills and the Needs of a Knowledge-Based Economy in Northeast Iowa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihm-Herold, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    In light of the current economic downturn, thousands of Iowans are unemployed and this is the ideal time to build the skills of the workforce to compete in the knowledge-based economy so businesses and entrepreneurs can compete in a global economy. A tool for assessing the skills and knowledge of dislocated workers and students as well as…

  17. Rock and Mineral Bingo: Applying and Assessing Student Rock and Mineral Knowledge and Identification Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pound, K. S.

    2005-12-01

    A rock and mineral "Bingo" that is based on knowledge and identification skills (not luck) was developed to help teachers and introductory as well as more advanced-level students develop and improve rock and mineral identification skills. The game was initially designed to use a rock and mineral kit provided to all students in Lab Classes, but could be adapted for any suite of samples. The rock and mineral kits include 13 mineral samples (olivine, pyroxene, amphibole, biotite, muscovite, potassium feldspar, plagioclase, quartz, galena, gypsum, hematite, pyrite, calcite), 7 igneous rock samples (rhyolite, granite, andesite, diorite, basalt, gabbro, peridotite), 3 sedimentary rock samples (sandstone, shale, limestone), and 5 metamorphic rock samples (slate, mica schist, gneiss, marble, quartzite). The kit also includes a small magnifying glass, a streak plate and a tempered steel nail. The Bingo cards are composed of 9 squares ("questions") each. A total of 8 groups of questions have been developed to encompass introductory through more advanced levels. The question sets developed so far are: (a) General distinction between rocks and minerals; (b) Igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks; (c) Mineral luster; (d) Mineral fracture and cleavage; (e) Mineral crystal form; (f) Mineral chemistry; (g) General mineralogy; (h) Geologic Context. Each square on the card is numbered (1-9). The same card is used for each group of questions. The questions are written on a separate set of small question cards that are color-coded (according to question set) and numbered. These cards are pulled out of the `bag' by the caller, and a copy of the question is posted for all to see. The players need to choose the sample from their collection that best fits the question or description given by the caller. The questions are set up so that some samples fit more than one answer, which requires the students to review their choices. The first person or group to win presents their board and

  18. Teaching methodologies to promote creativity in the professional skills related to optics knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Oliveras, Alicia; Fernandez, Paz; Peña-García, Antonio; Oliveras, Maria L.

    2014-07-01

    We present the methodologies proposed and applied in the context of a teaching-innovation project developed at the University of Granada, Spain. The main objective of the project is the implementation of teaching methodologies that promote the creativity in the learning process and, subsequently, in the acquisition of professional skills. This project involves two subjects related with optics knowledge in undergraduate students. The subjects are "Illumination Engineering" (Bachelor's degree in Civil-Engineering) and "Optical and Optometric Instrumentation" (Bachelor's degree in and Optics and Optometry). For the first subject, the activities of our project were carried out in the theoretical classes. By contrast, in the case of the second subject, such activities were designed for the laboratory sessions. For "Illumination Engineering" we applied the maieutic technique. With this method the students were encouraged to establish relationships between the main applications of the subject and concepts that apparently unrelated with the subject framework. By means of several examples, the students became aware of the importance of cross-curricular and lateral thinking. We used the technique based on protocols of control and change in "Optical and Optometric Instrumentation". The modus operandi was focused on prompting the students to adopt the role of the professionals and to pose questions to themselves concerning the practical content of the subject from that professional role. This mechanism boosted the critical capacity and the independent-learning ability of the students. In this work, we describe in detail both subject proposals and the results of their application in the 2011-2012 academic course.

  19. Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of…

  20. 49 CFR Appendix to Part 380 - LCV Driver Training Programs, Required Knowledge and Skills

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... operating characteristics of an LCV. Utilizing an LCV, students must be able to perform the skills learned... maneuvers. Driver-students practice skills and maneuvers learned in the Basic Control and Handling; Basic... learned in the first three sections. Driver-student performance progress must be closely monitored...

  1. Net Knowledge: Performance of New College Students on an Internet Skills Proficiency Test.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Hanlon, Nancy

    2002-01-01

    Reviews recent data on computing and information literacy research skills of new college students and describes results from an Internet skills proficiency test administered to freshmen during a summer orientation at Ohio State University. Considers technological preparedness in regard to race, class, gender, and academic background. (Author/LRW)

  2. Self-Perceived Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes, and Use of Evidence-Based Dentistry Among Practitioners Transitioning to Dental Educators.

    PubMed

    Ciancio, Mae J; Lee, Michelle M; Krumdick, Nathaniel D; Lencioni, Catherine; Kanjirath, Preetha P

    2017-03-01

    Dental practitioners transitioning to dental educators (PTEs) have an integral role in dental education. While PTEs intrinsically apply some form of evidence-based dentistry (EBD) in patient care, it may not be a standardized, systematic approach. The aims of this study were to determine the self-perceived knowledge, skills, attitudes, and behaviors of PTEs regarding EBD at one U.S. dental school and to identify areas where formal calibration may be warranted to facilitate their competence and confidence as dental educators. Participants voluntarily completed a 32-question survey regarding their EBD training and self-perceived EBD skills in several areas: use of the clinical evidence pyramid; systematic, objective, and critical appraisal of the evidence; application of the evidence to patient care; and integrating clinical expertise, scientific evidence, and patient's preferences to formulate a treatment plan. The PTEs were invited to participate in the anonymous survey during regularly scheduled calibration sessions held between May and July 2014. After study information was distributed, 100% of the attendees (n=43) completed the survey. The percentage of total PTEs at the school could not be calculated. Of the responding PTEs, 69% rated themselves better than satisfactory (70% proficiency) in their knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding EBD skills application. However, only 33-42% of the respondents indicated that they frequently used the evidence pyramid and systematically, objectively, and critically appraised the evidence, even though 65% indicated they applied the evidence to improve patient care over 70% of the time. In addition, the participating PTEs identified a need for more frequent use of formal EBD skills. Providing case-based EBD projects involving PTEs as mentors may provide more opportunities for the judicious and effective use of these important skills and may improve PTEs' self-perceived confidence.

  3. The National Health Service Knowledge and Skills Framework and its implications for continuing professional development in nursing.

    PubMed

    Gould, Dinah; Berridge, Emma-Jane; Kelly, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The National Health Service Knowledge and Skills Framework has been introduced as part of the Agenda for Change Reforms in the United Kingdom to link pay and career progression to competency. The purpose of this paper is to consider the implications for nurses, their managers and the impact on university departments delivering continuing professional development for nurses. The new system has the potential to increase the human resources management aspect of the clinical nurse managers' role and could have legal implications, for example if practitioners perceive that their needs for continuing professional development have been overlooked to the detriment of their pay and career aspirations. The new system also has implications for providers of continuing professional development in the universities and is likely to demand closer liaison between education providers and trust staff who commission education and training. The Knowledge and Skills Framework is of interest to nurses and nurse educators internationally because the system, if effective, could be introduced elsewhere.

  4. Knowledge, attitude, and willingness of Nigerian physiotherapy students to provide care for patients living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oyeyemi, Adetoyeje; Utti, Victor; Oyeyemi, Luqman; Onigbinde, Teslim

    2007-01-01

    In the current AIDS pandemics, equipping health professional students with adequate knowledge and positive attitude is necessary to produce graduates who can deliver appropriate intervention to patients infected with HIV or who have developed AIDS. The purpose of this study was 1) to investigate the Nigerian physiotherapy students' knowledge, attitude, and their willingness to provide care for patients living with AIDS (PWA) and to 2) determine the sociodemographic variables that could influence the students' attitude and willingness to provide care for PWA. Physiotherapy students (N = 104) in four training programs in Nigeria were surveyed using a two-part questionnaire. Part I elicited sociodemographic and previous AIDS encounter information, and Part II assessed knowledge, attitude, and willingness to provide care to PWA. Nigerian students showed unsatisfactory knowledge, harbored negative attitude, and many of them were unwilling to render care for PWA. Religious affiliation, training programs, long-term career goals, and previous instructions on AIDS influenced the students' attitude. The study identified the need for a comprehensive AIDS curriculum and recommend that all programs in Nigeria include clinical clerkship, small group discussions, and seminars on ethical and medico-legal issues on AIDS in their curriculum.

  5. Student Knowledge, Skills, and Self-Efficacy Gains After Completing an Advanced Pharmacy Practice Experience in Geriatrics

    PubMed Central

    Drisaldi, Aulbrey G.; Alotaibi, Fawaz M.; Bonas, Tabatha N.; Shibley, Edward M.; Slattum, Patricia W.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. To assess changes in pharmacy students’ knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy after completing an advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) in geriatrics. Design. During the 2013-2014 academic year, 30 Virginia Commonwealth University (VCU) School of Pharmacy students were required to complete a 5-week Geriatrics APPE at Plaza Professional Pharmacy in Richmond, Virginia. All students completed a 25-point knowledge-based pre- and post-assessment to measure students’ self-efficacy. The average time required to accurately fill one unit dose prescription card before and after completing the APPE was also evaluated. Assessment. Students’ average score on the knowledge component improved significantly from 54% to 88% after completing the APPE. The average time required to fill one prescription decreased significantly from 4.0 minutes to 2.5 minutes. Students reported an increase in self-efficacy in the following areas: communication, immunizations, geriatrics-specific pharmacotherapy knowledge, and the ability to fill and check monthly unit dose prescription cards. Conclusion. Requiring fourth-year pharmacy students to complete a geriatrics APPE as a capstone experience to the integrated geriatrics content covered in the first through third years of the doctor of pharmacy (PharmD) curriculum provides an important opportunity to improve students’ knowledge, skills, and self-efficacy in providing care to older adults. PMID:28090105

  6. The instruction and assessment of expository text: A content analysis of fifth grade reading and science Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills, state adopted text teacher's manuals, and Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Alison Adair

    The purpose of this content analysis study was to examine how and with what frequency explicit directions for the instruction or assessment of expository text were presented in six fifth grade reading and science data sources. The study analyzed the science and reading Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), conforming state adopted basal readers and science textbooks, and the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) for fifth grade. Additionally, a determination was made concerning whether and alignment existed between the data sources. An inter coder examined 10% of the entries from each data source to ensure reliability. Data collection included recording message units that referred to the explicit directions for the instruction and assessment of expository text were from each of the six data sources. Next, the message units were organized into categories and recorded in an Excel spreadsheet. Due to the differences in the length, format, and content of each data source, a matrix was designed in order to determine if any alignment was present between data sources. The study resulted in 5 major findings: First, the science teacher's editions presented more message units related to the explicit directions for instruction or assessment of reading in expository text. Second, formatting in the basal reader teacher's editions has remained much the same as in the past, in that they are still scripted and many of the activities continue to be presented without directions to teachers. Third, the instruction of word attack skills is still included in the fifth grade science and reading teacher's editions. Fourth, there was no clear definition for the meaning of the terms skills and strategies in order for teachers to become more effective when teaching students. Finally, an alignment did exist between the TEKS and teacher's editions, with the exception of word analysis in all but one of the science series. The only categories assessed in either the reading or

  7. Information and psychomotor skills knowledge acquisition: A student-customer-centered and computer-supported approach.

    PubMed

    Nicholson, Anita; Tobin, Mary

    2006-01-01

    This presentation will discuss coupling commercial and customized computer-supported teaching aids to provide BSN nursing students with a friendly customer-centered self-study approach to psychomotor skill acquisition.

  8. Phonological Awareness, Reading Skills, and Vocabulary Knowledge in Children Who Use Cochlear Implants

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, Caitlin M.; de Jong, Kenneth; Pisoni, David B.

    2012-01-01

    In hearing children, reading skills have been found to be closely related to phonological awareness. We used several standardized tests to investigate the reading and phonological awareness skills of 27 deaf school-age children who were experienced cochlear implant users. Approximately two-thirds of the children performed at or above the level of their hearing peers on the phonological awareness and reading tasks. Reading scores were found to be strongly correlated with measures of phonological awareness. These correlations remained the same when we statistically controlled for potentially confounding demographic variables such as age at testing and speech perception skills. However, these correlations decreased even after we statistically controlled for vocabulary size. This finding suggests that lexicon size is a mediating factor in the relationship between the children’s phonological awareness and reading skills, a finding that has also been reported for typically developing hearing children. PMID:22057983

  9. The effect of songwriting on knowledge of coping skills and working alliance in psychiatric patients: a randomized clinical effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a songwriting intervention on psychiatric patients' knowledge of coping skills and working alliance. Participants were randomly assigned to scripted and manualized experimental (n=48) or control (n=41) conditions. The experimental condition was a group psychoeducational music therapy songwriting session concerning coping skills while the control condition was a group psychoeducational session concerning coping skills. Both conditions were single-session therapy with patients on an acute adult psychiatric unit. Results indicated no significant between group differences in measures of knowledge of coping skills, consumer working alliance, or perception of enjoyment (p>.05), although the experimental condition tended to have slightly higher mean scores than the control group for these measures. There was a significant between group difference in measures of therapist working alliance (p<.001), with the therapist scoring the experimental group higher than the control group. Although the music therapy group had a higher mean rate of previous psychiatric hospitalizations, their perception of enjoyment scores were still higher than those of the control condition, a finding incongruent in the literature. Furthermore, despite the increased number of previous hospitalizations, the music therapy condition had higher attendance rates than the control condition, thus possibly providing incentives for funding. It seems that group songwriting about coping skills can be as effective a psychosocial intervention as traditional talk-based psychoeducation to teach psychiatric inpatients how to proactively manage their illness. Additionally, music therapy can be as effective as talk-based psychoeducation in establishing working alliance. Implications for clinical practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.

  10. A Study of the Competency of Third Year Medical Students to Interpret Biochemically Based Clinical Scenarios Using Knowledge and Skills Gained in Year 1 and 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gowda, Veena Bhaskar S.; Nagaiah, Bhaskar Hebbani; Sengodan, Bharathi

    2016-01-01

    Medical students build clinical knowledge on the grounds of previously obtained basic knowledge. The study aimed to evaluate the competency of third year medical students to interpret biochemically based clinical scenarios using knowledge and skills gained during year 1 and 2 of undergraduate medical training. Study was conducted on year 3 MBBS…

  11. Knowledge of First Aid Skills Among Students of a Medical College in Mangalore City of South India

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, N; Kumar, GS; Babu, YPR; Nelliyanil, M; Bhaskaran, U

    2014-01-01

    Background: The adequate knowledge required for handling an emergency without hospital setting at the site of the accident or emergency may not be sufficient as most medical schools do not have formal first aid training in the teaching curriculum. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the level of knowledge of medical students in providing first aid care. Subjects and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted during May 2011 among 152 medical students. Data was collected using a self-administered questionnaire. Based on the scores obtained in each condition requiring first aid, the overall knowledge was graded as good, moderate and poor. Results: Only 11.2% (17/152) of the total student participants had previous exposure to first aid training. Good knowledge about first aid was observed in 13.8% (21/152), moderate knowledge in 68.4% (104/152) and poor knowledge in 17.8% (27/152) participants. Analysis of knowledge about first aid management in select conditions found that 21% (32/152) had poor knowledge regarding first aid management for shock and for gastro esophageal reflux disease and 20.4% (31/152) for epistaxis and foreign body in eyes. All students felt that first aid skills need to be taught from the school level onwards and all of them were willing to enroll in any formal first aid training sessions. Conclusion: The level of knowledge about first aid was not good among majority of the students. The study also identified the key areas in which first aid knowledge was lacking. There is thus a need for formal first aid training to be introduced in the medical curriculum. PMID:24761231

  12. Design-based science and the transfer of science knowledge and real-world problem-solving skills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortus, David Leon

    Design-Based Science (DBS) helps students develop new scientific knowledge and problem-solving skills in the context of designing artifacts. This pedagogy was developed as a response to the potential problem of transfer of knowledge from academic settings to extra classroom environments. This dissertation describes DBS in detail and attempts to answer three questions: (1) Do DBS curricula support students' efforts to transfer newly constructed science knowledge and 'designerly' skills (Baynes, 1994) to the solution of new real-world design problems in an extra-classroom setting? (2) Do DBS curricula support students' efforts to construct new scientific knowledge? (3) Do DBS curricula support students' efforts to develop 'designerly' problem-solving skills? Ninety-two students attending a public high school serving a working class community participated in the consecutive enactments of three different DBS units over one school year. The analysis of pre- and posttests and of artifacts created by the students demonstrated that substantial knowledge was constructed during each of the enactments, with the tests leading to effect sizes of 2.1 on the first unit, 1.9 on the second, and 2.7 on the third. After each enactment the students solved a new design problem as a transfer task. The transfer tasks were unsequestered, unsupported by the teacher, lasted three days, were done in the school's library, required new learning, and were solved in groups of four. In order to generate an individual measure of transfer, the students responded to an individual post-transfer written test after each transfer task was completed, that assessed their understanding and recollection of the solution their group submitted. For all three units there was a stronger correlation between the individual transfer scores and posttests scores than with pretest scores, indicating that the knowledge and skills that were constructed during the enactments supported the solution of the transfer tasks

  13. Dental Hygiene, Dental, and Medical Students' OMFS/Hospital Dentistry-Related Knowledge/Skills, Attitudes, and Behavior: An Exploration.

    PubMed

    Munz, Stephanie M; Kim, Roderick Y; Holley, Tyler J; Donkersloot, John N; Inglehart, Marita R

    2017-02-01

    Engaging other health care providers in oral health-related activities and interprofessional care (IPC) could increase access to oral health care for underserved populations in the U.S. The aims of this study were to assess dental hygiene, dental, and medical students' intra- and interprofessional and oral and maxillofacial surgery (OMFS)/hospital dentistry-related knowledge/skills, attitudes, and behavior; determine whether first and second year vs. third and fourth year cohorts' responses differed; and explore how intra- and interprofessional knowledge was related to interprofessional education (IPE) and interprofessional attitudes and behavior. Data were collected between April 2014 and May 2015 from 69 dental hygiene, 316 dental, and 187 medical students. Response rates across classes for the dental hygiene students ranged from 85% to 100%; 24% to 100% for the dental students; and 13% to 35% for the medical students. The results showed that the medical students had lower oral health-related and interprofessional knowledge and less positive attitudes about oral health-related behavior, IPE, and interprofessional teamwork than the dental hygiene and dental students. While third- and fourth-year medical students' interprofessional knowledge/skills and behavior were higher than those of first- and second-year students, the two groups' IPE-related and interprofessional attitudes did not differ. The students' knowledge correlated with their IPE and interprofessional communication-related skills and behavior, but not with their interprofessional attitudes. These dental hygiene, dental, and medical students' OMFS/hospital dentistry-related knowledge/skills and behavior increased over the course of their academic programs, while their IPE-related and intra- and interprofessional attitudes, especially for medical students, did not improve over time. OMFS and hospital dentistry units in medical centers offer distinctive opportunities for IPE and IPC. Utilizing these units

  14. The anterior temporal lobes are critically involved in acquiring new conceptual knowledge: evidence for impaired feature integration in semantic dementia.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Paul; Evans, Gemma A L; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A

    2014-01-01

    Recent evidence from multiple neuroscience techniques indicates that regions within the anterior temporal lobes (ATLs) are a critical node in the neural network for representing conceptual knowledge, yet their function remains elusive. The hub-and-spoke model holds that ATL regions act as a transmodal conceptual hub, distilling the various sensory-motor features of objects and words into integrated, coherent conceptual representations. Single-cell recordings in monkeys suggest that the ATLs are critically involved in visual associative learning; however, investigations of this region in humans have focused on existing knowledge rather than learning. We studied acquisition of new concepts in semantic dementia patients, who have cortical damage centred on the ventrolateral aspects of the ATLs. Patients learned to assign abstract visual stimuli to two categories. The categories conformed to a family resemblance structure in which no individual stimulus features were fully diagnostic; thus the task required participants to form representations that integrate multiple features into a single concept. Patients were unable to do this, instead responding only on the basis of individual features. The study reveals that integrating disparate sources of information into novel coherent concepts is a critical computational function of the ATLs. This explains the central role of this region in conceptual representation and the catastrophic breakdown of concepts in semantic dementia.

  15. "Broadband" Bioinformatics Skills Transfer with the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP): Educational Model for Upliftment and Sustainable Development.

    PubMed

    Chimusa, Emile R; Mbiyavanga, Mamana; Masilela, Velaphi; Kumuthini, Judit

    2015-11-01

    A shortage of practical skills and relevant expertise is possibly the primary obstacle to social upliftment and sustainable development in Africa. The "omics" fields, especially genomics, are increasingly dependent on the effective interpretation of large and complex sets of data. Despite abundant natural resources and population sizes comparable with many first-world countries from which talent could be drawn, countries in Africa still lag far behind the rest of the world in terms of specialized skills development. Moreover, there are serious concerns about disparities between countries within the continent. The multidisciplinary nature of the bioinformatics field, coupled with rare and depleting expertise, is a critical problem for the advancement of bioinformatics in Africa. We propose a formalized matchmaking system, which is aimed at reversing this trend, by introducing the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP). Instead of individual researchers travelling to other labs to learn, researchers with desirable skills are invited to join African research groups for six weeks to six months. Visiting researchers or trainers will pass on their expertise to multiple people simultaneously in their local environments, thus increasing the efficiency of knowledge transference. In return, visiting researchers have the opportunity to develop professional contacts, gain industry work experience, work with novel datasets, and strengthen and support their ongoing research. The KTP develops a network with a centralized hub through which groups and individuals are put into contact with one another and exchanges are facilitated by connecting both parties with potential funding sources. This is part of the PLOS Computational Biology Education collection.

  16. A Comparative Study of University of Wisconsin-Stout Freshmen and Senior Education Major's Computing and Internet Technology Skills/Knowledge and Associated Learning Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sveum, Evan Charles

    2010-01-01

    A study comparing University of Wisconsin-Stout freshmen and senior education majors' computing and Internet technology skills/knowledge and associated learning experiences was conducted. Instruments used in this study included the IC[superscript 3][R] Exam by Certiport, Inc. and the investigator's Computing and Internet Skills Learning…

  17. Sicheres Wissen und Koennen im Franzoesischunterricht (Secure Knowledge and Skill in the Teaching of French)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greiner, Ingrid

    1974-01-01

    Describes work with "topic sheets," acquiring an understanding of them, their use in teaching and the concrete help of topic sheets in the pupil's personal activity, taking as an example the theme unit "Ma famille et moi." (Text is in German.) (IFS/WGA)

  18. Developing Student Knowledge and Skills for Home-Based Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Susan F.; Tracy, Elizabeth M.

    2008-01-01

    Providing social work services for clients in their homes is often a distinguishing feature of social work practice. The home environment affects the intervention process at each stage of contact with a family. Home-based practice requires specific skills to deal with clients' presenting concerns as well as safety, boundary, confidentiality, and…

  19. Collaborative Doctoral Programmes: Employer Engagement, Knowledge Mediation and Skills for Innovation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitagawa, Fumi

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates forms of collaborative doctoral programmes that enable employer engagement in innovation and skills development. Collaborative doctoral programmes exist in different national contexts for the development of the science and technology human capital. Such programmes are also seen as policy tools that enhance relationships…

  20. Adolescent Depression: Evaluating Pediatric Residents' Knowledge, Confidence, and Interpersonal Skills Using Standardized Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewy, Colleen; Sells, C. Wayne; Gilhooly, Jennifer; McKelvey, Robert

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The authors aim to determine whether pediatric residents used DSM-IV criteria to diagnose major depressive disorder and how this related to residents' confidence in diagnosis and treatment skills before and after clinical training with depressed adolescents. Methods: Pediatric residents evaluated two different standardized patients…

  1. Fostering Students' Knowledge and Argumentation Skills through Dilemmas in Human Genetics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zohar, Anat; Nemet, Flora

    2002-01-01

    Examines the outcomes of a unit that integrates explicit teaching of general reasoning patterns into the teaching of a specific science content. Focuses on the teaching of argumentation skills in the context of dilemmas in human genetics. (Contains 50 references.) (Author/YDS)

  2. Reframing Student Outcomes to Develop 21st Century Skills. Knowledge Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rice, Erik

    2011-01-01

    In this brief, Erik Rice identifies three strategic practices schools, districts, and communities can use to help prepare students for college and career success: (1) To collectively articulate and align a set of student outcomes that prioritize 21st century skills; (2) Transform defined outcomes into functioning frameworks for curriculum and…

  3. The Effects of BI on Library Knowledge and Skills among Education Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franklin, Godfrey; Toifel, Ronald C.

    1994-01-01

    Reports on a study of library skills retention which showed that the inclusion of library exercises and hands-on training in undergraduate and graduate bibliographic instruction programs influences education students' retention of subject matter. Statistics are given for each item on a 24-question pre- and posttest; a copy of the test is appended.…

  4. Knowledge and Understanding of 21st Century Skills through Educator Externships: Programs in Southern New England

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibson-Cayouette, Lizann R.

    2010-01-01

    An acute shortage of a competent, highly-skilled workforce faces the United States workplace. Studies and reports from 1983 to present, repeatedly state that the education system in the United States must change to prepare the emergent workforce for success in the 21st century global challenges of both post-secondary education and the workplace.…

  5. An Inventory of Skills, Knowledge, and Attitudes Necessary for a Career in Diversified Agriculture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. Office of the State Director for Vocational Education.

    To review the relevance of vocational criteria to industry needs, a study was conducted in Hawaii to assess the entry-level employment requirements in the occupational area of diversified agriculture. Materials from other states were reviewed, and three versions of a skills inventory were developed and revised. The third revision of the inventory…

  6. Integrating the Visual Arts--Building Young Children's Knowledge, Skills, and Confidence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Jill Englebright; Diffily, Deborah

    2001-01-01

    Explores the visual arts as a means to develop skills and abilities across the curriculum and nurture aesthetic development. Considers benefits of art for socioemotional, psychomotor, and cognitive development; integration of art into the curriculum; and the role of adults, children's books, and the classroom for encouraging art appreciation.…

  7. Classroom Profiling Training: Increasing Preservice Teachers' Confidence and Knowledge of Classroom Management Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Cliff; Simoncini, Kym; Davidson, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Classroom management is a serious concern for beginning teachers including preservice teachers. The Queensland Department of Education, Training and Employment (DETE) has developed the Essential Skills for Classroom Management (ESCM), a system of positive and pro-active strategies for maintaining supportive learning environments. In addition, the…

  8. Core Academic Language Skills: Moving beyond Vocabulary Knowledge to Predict Reading Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uccelli, Paola; Galloway, Emily Phillips; Kim, Ha Yeon; Barr, Christopher D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite a longstanding awareness of academic language as a pedagogically-relevant research area, the construct of academic language proficiency--understood as a more comprehensive set of skills than just academic vocabulary--has remained only vaguely specified. This study examines the potential--for both research and practice--of a more inclusive…

  9. Teaching Thinking Skills in Context-Based Learning: Teachers' Challenges and Assessment Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avargil, Shirly; Herscovitz, Orit; Dori, Yehudit Judy

    2012-01-01

    For an educational reform to succeed, teachers need to adjust their perceptions to the reform's new curricula and strategies and cope with new content, as well as new teaching and assessment strategies. Developing students' scientific literacy through context-based chemistry and higher order thinking skills was the framework for establishing a new…

  10. Designing Online Strategy Instruction for Integrated Vocabulary Depth of Knowledge and Web-Based Dictionary Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranalli, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a CALL resource that teaches aspects of word combinability (i.e., grammatical collocation, transitivity, and complementation) to tertiary-level ESL learners by integrating conceptual understanding with related text-analysis and web-based dictionary skills. The resource delivers an automated,…

  11. Children's Orthographic Knowledge and Their Word Reading Skill: Testing Bidirectional Relations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conrad, Nicole J.; Deacon, S. Hélène

    2016-01-01

    Prominent models of word reading concur that the development of efficient word reading depends on the establishment of lexical orthographic representations in memory. In turn, word reading skills are conceptualised as supporting the development of these orthographic representations. As such, models of word reading development make clear…

  12. The Client Company Marginally Utilises the Knowledge of Highly Skilled Temporary Staff

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Augustsson, Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    This study is based on the presumption that there is often an underuse of temporary staff in client companies (CC) with highly skilled professionals. The study combines theories of the flexible organisation and a sociocultural perspective on learning within the framework of an inter-organisational context. The data are based partly on 17…

  13. Signs of Knowledge: The Appropriation of a Symbolic Skill in a Five-Year-Old

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magnusson, Maria; Pramling, Niklas

    2011-01-01

    In this empirical study, the appropriation of a symbolic skill by a five-year old child is analysed. His evolving production and understanding are investigated through his sign-making and his explanations of these when speaking with a researcher. The child is studied in his home. A contrasting case of another child of the same age also making…

  14. Do Nimble Hands Make for Nimble Lexicons? Fine Motor Skills Predict Knowledge of Embodied Vocabulary Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suggate, Sebastian P.; Stoeger, Heidrun

    2014-01-01

    Theories and research in embodied cognition postulate that cognition grounded in action enjoys a processing advantage. Extending this theory to the study of how fine motor skills (FMS) link to vocabulary development in preschool children, the authors investigated FMS and vocabulary in 76 preschoolers. Building on previous research, they…

  15. Relationships between Scientific Process Skills and Scientific Creativity: Mediating Role of Nature of Science Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozdemir, Gokhan; Dikici, Ayhan

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the strength of relationships between 7th grade students' Scientific Process Skills (SPS), Nature of Science (NOS) beliefs, and Scientific Creativity (SC) through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). For this purpose, data were collected from 332 students of two public middle school students in Turkey. SPS,…

  16. Educational workshop improved information-seeking skills, knowledge, attitudes and the search outcome of hospital clinicians: a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Grace Y T

    2003-06-01

    A double-blind randomised controlled trial was conducted on a group of Hong Kong hospital clinicians. The objective was to test if a three-hour educational workshop (with supervised hands-on practice) is more effective (than no training) to improve clinical question formulation, information-seeking skills, knowledge, attitudes, and search outcomes. The design was a post-test-only control group; recruitment by stratified randomization (by profession), blocked at 800. End-user training was more effective than no training in improving clinical question formulation, in raising awareness, knowledge, confidence and use of databases, but had made no impact on preference for secondary databases. It changed the attitude of clinicians to become more positive towards the use of electronic information services (EIS). Participants had higher search performance and outcomes (satisfaction with information obtained (NNT = 3), EIS satisfaction (NNT = 3) and success in problem solving (NNT = 4)). The workshop improved knowledge and skills in evidence-based searching, but this effect gradually eroded with time. Search logs confirmed that follow-up is required if effects are to be sustained. Longer effects on search behaviours appear to be positive. A randomised controlled trial is valuable in identifying cause-and-effect relations and to quantify the magnitude of the effects for management decision-making.

  17. Self-Regulation, Language Skills, and Emotion Knowledge in Young Children from Northern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Salisch, Maria; Haenel, Martha; Denham, Susanne Ayers

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: In order to examine the explanatory power of behavioral self-regulation in the domain of emotion knowledge, especially in a non-U.S. culture, 365 German 4- and 5-year-olds were individually tested on these constructs. Path analyses revealed that children's behavioral self-regulation explained their emotion knowledge in the…

  18. Knowledge Production through Interdisciplinary Skills: Producing an Effective Postgraduate Research Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chitakunye, Pepukayi; Takhar-Lail, Amandeep

    2015-01-01

    This study contributes to existing methodological knowledge by showing how a transformed research methods curriculum, which is beyond the milieu of schooling, can engage postgraduate students in a critical dialogue on how knowledge is produced in industry and higher education. Initial insights are drawn from two interpretive studies that employed…

  19. Effectiveness of pharmacovigilance: multifaceted educational intervention related to the knowledge, skills and attitudes of multidisciplinary hospital staff

    PubMed Central

    Varallo, Fabiana Rossi; Planeta, Cleopatra S; de Carvalho Mastroianni, Patricia

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Most educational interventions in pharmacovigilance are designed to encourage physicians to report adverse drug reactions. However, multidisciplinary teams may play an important role in reporting drug-related problems. This study assessed the impact of a multifaceted educational intervention in pharmacovigilance on the knowledge, skills and attitudes of hospital professionals. METHOD: This prospective, open-label, non-randomized study was performed in a medium-complexity hospital in São Paulo, Brazil. The intervention involved four activities: 1) an interactive lecture, 2) a practical class, 3) a pre-post questionnaire administered to professionals on a multidisciplinary team, and 4) educational material. The intervention’s impact on the professionals’ knowledge and skills was assessed using the World Health Organization’s definitions. The intervention’s effect on the professionals’ attitudes was analysed by the prevalence of adverse drug event reports (adverse drug reactions, medication errors, therapeutic failure and drug quality deviations) and the relevance (seriousness and expectancy) of the events. RESULTS: One hundred seventy-three professionals were enrolled. A 70-fold increase in the number of adverse drug event reports was observed during the 12 months post-intervention. The intervention improved the professionals’ form-completion skills (p<0.0001) and their knowledge of pharmacovigilance (p<0.0001). The intervention also contributed to detecting serious drug-induced events. The nursing staff reported medication errors, and pharmacists and physiotherapists recognized serious adverse drug reactions. Physicians communicated suspicions of therapeutic failure. CONCLUSIONS: A multidisciplinary approach to drug-safety assessments contributes to identifying new, relevant drug-related problems and improving the rate of adverse drug event reporting. This strategy may therefore be applied to improve risk communication in hospitals. PMID

  20. Are expectations too high for transitioning adolescents with IBD? Examining adult medication knowledge and self-management skills

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Laurie N.; Mitchell, Paul D.; Lakin, Paul R.; Masciarelli, Lisa; Flier, Sarah N.

    2017-01-01

    Objective Transition readiness assessment has focused attention on adolescent knowledge and skills, but data-driven benchmarks have not been established. Methods Patients with IBD, aged 25–55 years, attending an outpatient gastroenterology clinic, were recruited to complete a voluntary, confidential survey asking patients to recall medications and potential side effects, and to rate their degree of independence performing health maintenance tasks. Results The 141 respondents (48% response rate) had mean age of 36 years with median disease duration of 11 years. They were 60% female, 54% had Crohn’s disease, and 23% were diagnosed before age 18. Nearly all patients were fully independent answering doctor’s questions during the visit (93%) and scheduling office visits (92%). Excluding pharmacy pick up, full independence seen in only 57%, while 16% significantly delegated tasks. No differences by gender, disease type, medication class, age at disease onset, or disease duration were found across levels of self-management. Almost all (97%) respondents could recall medication name, while fewer were able to recall dose (63%) or frequency (65%). Side effect knowledge was poor; among 81 patients on a biologic or immunomodulator, only 17 (21%) cited cancer and 22 (27%) cited infection. Conclusions Adolescent IBD transition programs now have empiric data from this study about adult benchmarks for independence in self-management skills. Further research can establish which skills correlate with medication adherence and active collaboration with the medical team. This study also exposes important gaps in medication risk knowledge and may allow improved patient education for subgroups of adult IBD patients. PMID:27280748

  1. Recognizing the importance of aging skills and knowledge in generalist social work practice: effective strategies for MSW students.

    PubMed

    Bonifas, Robin P; Fredriksen-Goldsen, Karen I; Bailey, Kathleen A

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the impact of a curricular infusion strategy aimed at integrating gerontological practice issues into social work education. Findings (N = 83) illustrate that student interest, knowledge, and skills in aging practice increased immediately following implementation of a three-tiered infusion approach; however, ongoing exposure to gerontology in and out of the classroom appears necessary to sustain students' interest in working with older adults over time. Although the majority of students endorsed aging issues as important to social work in general, many did not understand its relevance to their own careers. Next steps are outlined to enable students to make this important connection.

  2. Implementation of the WHO-6-step method in the medical curriculum to improve pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills

    PubMed Central

    Keijsers, Carolina J P W; Segers, Wieke S; de Wildt, Dick J; Brouwers, Jacobus R B J; Keijsers, Loes; Jansen, Paul A F

    2015-01-01

    Aim The only validated tool for pharmacotherapy education for medical students is the 6-step method of the World Health Organization. It has proven effective in experimental studies with short term interventions. The generalizability of this effect after implementation in a contextual-rich medical curriculum was investigated. Methods The pharmacology knowledge and pharmacotherapy skills of cohorts of students, from years before, during and after implementation of a WHO-6-step-based integrated learning programme were tested using a standardized assessment containing 50 items covering knowledge of basic (n = 25) and clinical (n = 24) pharmacology, and pharmacotherapy skills (n = 1 open question). All scores are expressed as a percentage of the maximum score possible per (sub)domain. Results In total, 1652 students were included between September 2010 and July 2014 (participation rate 89%). The WHO-6-step-based learning programme improved students’ knowledge of basic pharmacology (mean score ± SD, 60.6 ± 10.5% vs. 63.4 ± 10.9%, P < 0.01) and clinical or applied pharmacology (63.7 ± 10.4% vs. 67.4 ± 10.3%, P < 0.01), and improved their pharmacotherapy skills (68.8 ± 26.1% vs. 74.6% ± 22.9%, P 0.02). Moreover, satisfaction with education increased (5.7 ± 1.3 vs. 6.3 ± 1.0 on a 10-point scale, P < 0.01) and as did students’ confidence in daily practice (from −0.81 ± 0.72 to −0.50 ± 0.79 on a −2 to +2 scale, P < 0.01). Conclusions The WHO-6-step method was successfully implemented in a medical curriculum. In this observational study, the integrated learning programme had positive effects on students’ knowledge of basic and applied pharmacology, improved their pharmacotherapy skills, and increased satisfaction with education and self-confidence in prescribing. Whether this training method leads to better patient care remains to be established. PMID:25556708

  3. Relating indices of knowledge structure coherence and accuracy to skill-based performance: Is there utility in using a combination of indices?

    PubMed

    Schuelke, Matthew J; Day, Eric Anthony; McEntire, Lauren E; Boatman, Jazmine Espejo; Wang, Xiaoqian; Kowollik, Vanessa; Boatman, Paul R

    2009-07-01

    The authors examined the relative criterion-related validity of knowledge structure coherence and two accuracy-based indices (closeness and correlation) as well as the utility of using a combination of knowledge structure indices in the prediction of skill acquisition and transfer. Findings from an aggregation of 5 independent samples (N = 958) whose participants underwent training on a complex computer simulation indicated that coherence and the accuracy-based indices yielded comparable zero-order predictive validities. Support for the incremental validity of using a combination of indices was mixed; the most, albeit small, gain came in pairing coherence and closeness when predicting transfer. After controlling for baseline skill, general mental ability, and declarative knowledge, only coherence explained a statistically significant amount of unique variance in transfer. Overall, the results suggested that the different indices largely overlap in their representation of knowledge organization, but that coherence better reflects adaptable aspects of knowledge organization important to skill transfer.

  4. Phonological skills and vocabulary knowledge mediate socioeconomic status effects in predicting reading outcomes for Chinese children.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuping; Tardif, Twila; Shu, Hua; Li, Hong; Liu, Hongyun; McBride-Chang, Catherine; Liang, Weilan; Zhang, Zhixiang

    2013-04-01

    This study examined the relations among socioeconomic status (SES), early phonological processing, vocabulary, and reading in 262 children from diverse SES backgrounds followed from ages 4 to 9 in Beijing, China. SES contributed to variations in phonological skills and vocabulary in children's early development. Nonetheless, early phonological and vocabulary abilities exerted equally strong and independent mediation of the SES effects on children's reading achievement by the end of 3rd grade for this Chinese sample. These findings not only replicate studies in alphabetic languages but, because of their longitudinal nature, also demonstrate the potential for interventions focused on improving children's early language skills, and at which ages these factors may have the greatest impact.

  5. Total Quality Leadership Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities for Surface Warfare Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-03-01

    material utilized for the education and training of the TQ Team Organization, (2) Five studies of corporate quality managers and (3) information on the Air...the surface warfare community as a whole at all levels. Additionally, the five studies on corporate quality managers skills and characteristics are...further assumed to represent those of all corporate quality managers. D. ORGANIZATION OF THESIS Chapter II follows with a brief history of Navy

  6. Knowledge and skill retention of in-service versus preservice nursing professionals following an informal training program in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation: a repeated-measures quasiexperimental study.

    PubMed

    Sankar, Jhuma; Vijayakanthi, Nandini; Sankar, M Jeeva; Dubey, Nandkishore

    2013-01-01

    Our objective was to compare the impact of a training program in pediatric cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) on the knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses at prespecified time points. This repeated-measures quasiexperimental study was conducted in the pediatric emergency and ICU of a tertiary care teaching hospital between January and March 2011. We assessed the baseline knowledge and skills of nursing staff (in-service nurses) and final year undergraduate nursing students (preservice nurses) using a validated questionnaire and a skill checklist, respectively. The participants were then trained on pediatric CPR using standard guidelines. The knowledge and skills were reassessed immediately after training and at 6 weeks after training. A total of 74 participants-28 in-service and 46 preservice professionals-were enrolled. At initial assessment, in-service nurses were found to have insignificant higher mean knowledge scores (6.6 versus 5.8, P = 0.08) while the preservice nurses had significantly higher skill scores (6.5 versus 3.2, P < 0.001). Immediately after training, the scores improved in both groups. At 6 weeks however, we observed a nonuniform decline in performance in both groups-in-service nurses performing better in knowledge test (10.5 versus 9.1, P = 0.01) and the preservice nurses performing better in skill test (9.8 versus 7.4, P < 0.001). Thus, knowledge and skills of in-service and preservice nurses in pediatric CPR improved with training. In comparison to preservice nurses, the in-service nurses seemed to retain knowledge better with time than skills.

  7. Medical Student Attitudes Toward Communication Skills Training and Knowledge of Appropriate Provider-Patient Communication: A Comparison of First-Year and Fourth-Year Medical Students.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin B; Bylund, Carma; Ware, Jennifer; Parker, Patricia; Query, Jim L; Baile, Walter

    2006-12-01

    Drawing upon Bloom's taxonomy of educational objectives as a theoretical framework, this study examines attitudes toward communication skills training, knowledge of appropriate provider-patient communication, and confidence communicating with patients between first-year and fourth-year medical students at a large medical school in the southern United States. The study findings indicate that fourth-year medical students do not differ from first-year medical students in terms of attitudes towards communication skills training or knowledge of appropriate provider-patient communication, but they have significantly higher confidence scores about communicating with patients. In addition, positive attitudes towards communication skills training are significantly related to perceived importance of communication skills and confidence when communicating with patients. Finally, female medical students have more positive attitudes towards communication skills training than male medical students. The implications of the study findings and directions for future research are also discussed.

  8. Knowledge and skills retention following Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission course for final year medical students in Rwanda: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tuyisenge, Lisine; Kyamanya, Patrick; Van Steirteghem, Samuel; Becker, Martin; English, Mike; Lissauer, Tom

    2014-01-01

    Aim To determine whether, after the Emergency Triage, Assessment and Treatment plus Admission (ETAT+) course, a comprehensive paediatric life support course, final year medical undergraduates in Rwanda would achieve a high level of knowledge and practical skills and if these were retained. To guide further course development, student feedback was obtained. Methods Longitudinal cohort study of knowledge and skills of all final year medical undergraduates at the University of Rwanda in academic year 2011–2012 who attended a 5-day ETAT+ course. Students completed a precourse knowledge test. Knowledge and clinical skills assessments, using standardised marking, were performed immediately postcourse and 3–9 months later. Feedback was obtained using printed questionnaires. Results 84 students attended the course and re-evaluation. Knowledge test showed a significant improvement, from median 47% to 71% correct answers (p<0.001). For two clinical skills scenarios, 98% passed both scenarios, 37% after a retake, 2% failed both scenarios. Three to nine months later, students were re-evaluated, median score for knowledge test 67%, not significantly different from postcourse (p>0.1). For clinical skills, 74% passed, with 32% requiring a retake, 8% failed after retake, 18% failed both scenarios, a significant deterioration (p<0.0001). Conclusions Students performed well on knowledge and skills immediately after a comprehensive ETAT+ course. Knowledge was maintained 3–9 months later. Clinical skills, which require detailed sequential steps, declined, but most were able to perform them satisfactorily after feedback. The course was highly valued, but several short courses and more practical teaching were advocated. PMID:24925893

  9. What Are the Required Outcomes of Education--Professional Competencies, Personal Attributes and Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gow, Kathryn

    Although students need to be competent in a wide range of work knowledge, skills, and abilities, they also need to be "capable" human beings to take their place as contributors to the Australian community. Capability has been described as having confidence in one's ability to acquire and apply knowledge, new skills, and understanding,…

  10. Survey Instruments for Knowledge, Skills, Attitudes and Behaviour Related to Evidence-based Practice in Occupational Therapy: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Helen; Siegfried, Nandi; Jelsma, Jennifer

    2016-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate, through a systematic review, assessment instruments for evidence-based practice (EBP). The specific objectives were to (1) identify survey instruments testing EBP knowledge, skills, attitudes and behaviour; (2) determine the attributes measured by each instrument; (3) evaluate the psychometric properties of the instruments; and (4) evaluate the methodological quality of the instruments. Using the Cochrane approach, searches were conducted in Pubmed, EBSCOHost and Scopus from inception to February 2014. Papers were screened by two independent assessors, and data were extracted by one researcher. Forty papers reporting 34 instruments met the inclusion criteria and were included in the qualitative synthesis. Most instruments measured EBP behaviour (n = 33) and attitudes (n = 21). This review provides a single source of information to enable researchers to select the most robust descriptive instruments to measure EBP learner attributes. Instruments used only with occupational therapists may have resulted in some instruments being missed. For further research, it is recommended that attention is given to developing objective instruments with a focus on knowledge and skills. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. The use of simulation procedural training to improve self-efficacy, knowledge, and skill to perform cricothyroidotomy.

    PubMed

    Jayaraman, Vijay; Feeney, James M; Brautigam, Robert T; Burns, Karyl J; Jacobs, Lenworth M

    2014-04-01

    The pre-eminent requirement for surgical education is that it is effective and efficient. We sought to determine if the addition of low-fidelity simulation to our standard method of teaching cricothyroidotomy improves Postgraduate Year 1 residents' self-efficacy, knowledge, and skill to perform cricothyroidotomy. The teaching methods were standard education using a lecture and video compared with standard education plus low-fidelity simulation instruction and practice on a mannequin. The methods were randomly assigned. After the assigned teaching in the morning and completion of pre- and posttests of self-efficacy and knowledge, the residents were evaluated on performance of cricothyroidotomy during the afternoon on euthanized swine. Time to complete the procedure and complications were recorded. Nineteen residents participated. Time to complete cricothyroidotomy was significantly less (P = 0.047) and performance scores were significantly higher (P = 0.01) in the simulation group. This group had four (36.4%) complications and the no simulation group had one (12.5%) complication (P = 0.34). Both groups improved on self-efficacy from pre- to posteducation (P < 0.05). Low-fidelity simulation can improve time and skill to perform cricothyroidotomy.

  12. E-inclusion Process and Societal Digital Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vitolina, Ieva

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the focus shifts from information and communication technology access to skills and knowledge. Moreover, lack of digital skills is an obstacle in the process of learning new digital competences using technologies and e-learning. The objective of this research is to investigate how to facilitate students to use the acquired digital skills…

  13. “Broadband” Bioinformatics Skills Transfer with the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP): Educational Model for Upliftment and Sustainable Development

    PubMed Central

    Chimusa, Emile R.; Mbiyavanga, Mamana; Masilela, Velaphi; Kumuthini, Judit

    2015-01-01

    A shortage of practical skills and relevant expertise is possibly the primary obstacle to social upliftment and sustainable development in Africa. The “omics” fields, especially genomics, are increasingly dependent on the effective interpretation of large and complex sets of data. Despite abundant natural resources and population sizes comparable with many first-world countries from which talent could be drawn, countries in Africa still lag far behind the rest of the world in terms of specialized skills development. Moreover, there are serious concerns about disparities between countries within the continent. The multidisciplinary nature of the bioinformatics field, coupled with rare and depleting expertise, is a critical problem for the advancement of bioinformatics in Africa. We propose a formalized matchmaking system, which is aimed at reversing this trend, by introducing the Knowledge Transfer Programme (KTP). Instead of individual researchers travelling to other labs to learn, researchers with desirable skills are invited to join African research groups for six weeks to six months. Visiting researchers or trainers will pass on their expertise to multiple people simultaneously in their local environments, thus increasing the efficiency of knowledge transference. In return, visiting researchers have the opportunity to develop professional contacts, gain industry work experience, work with novel datasets, and strengthen and support their ongoing research. The KTP develops a network with a centralized hub through which groups and individuals are put into contact with one another and exchanges are facilitated by connecting both parties with potential funding sources. This is part of the PLOS Computational Biology Education collection. PMID:26583922

  14. Utilizing STEM experiential learning to influence attitudes, skills, and knowledge in urban high school

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Considine, Shannon L.

    This qualitative research study focused on the influence of experiential learning on urban students' performance in science classes. It also explored how experiential learning influenced the development of urban students' independent innovation skills and ability to explore topics in greater depth as required by STEM education. The experiential learning method that was investigated in this study was an Explore College program, which was a program created by a college in the same city as the urban high school that the student participants attended. This program was created with the intent to boost college readiness and aspirations among high-achieving, low-income students in urban schools. The student participants were asked eleven open-ended questions regarding their experience in the Explore College program; they were asked to reflect on the influence that participating that program had on their academic performance in science and on their perspective of science education. The teacher participants were asked ten open-ended questions regarding their opinion of whether student participation in this program influenced their performance in the classroom and in the development of their independent innovation skills. This study detailed the influence that experiential learning had on student academic performance and perspective of science education. Utilizing this type of education will improve student achievement, attitudes towards education and academic success. The completion of the study proved that experiential learning does in fact influence student performance in science, can influence students' perspective of science, and does indeed influence the development of independent innovation skills which are crucial in STEM education.

  15. Relating Indices of Knowledge Structure Coherence and Accuracy to Skill-Based Performance: Is There Utility in Using a Combination of Indices?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schuelke, Matthew J.; Day, Eric Anthony; McEntire, Lauren E.; Boatman, Paul R.; Boatman, Jazmine Espejo; Kowollik, Vanessa; Wang, Xiaoqian

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined the relative criterion-related validity of knowledge structure coherence and two accuracy-based indices (closeness and correlation) as well as the utility of using a combination of knowledge structure indices in the prediction of skill acquisition and transfer. Findings from an aggregation of 5 independent samples (N = 958)…

  16. Knowledge and Skill Differences between Expert and Novice Service Technicians on Technical Troubleshooting Tasks. Training and Development Research Center Project Number Twenty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Scott Duncan

    The major purpose of a study was to identify the knowledge, skill, and cognitive process differences between expert and novice technicians on technical troubleshooting tasks. Identification of these differences was conducted through two investigations. Investigation 1 sought to describe differences in the declarative and procedural knowledge bases…

  17. A comparison of tele-education versus conventional lectures in wound care knowledge and skill acquisition.

    PubMed

    Haney, Marisa; Silvestri, Salvatore; Van Dillen, Christine; Ralls, George; Cohen, Ethan; Papa, Linda

    2012-03-01

    We conducted a randomized controlled study to compare conventional lectures with tele-education for delivering wound care education. Education was delivered by the two methods simultaneously to two classes. Forty-eight paramedics received a live didactic presentation and 41 paramedics received the same lecture via videoconferencing. The participants were evaluated by a multiple-choice examination and a practical test of their wound closure skills. There were no significant differences in any category of the practical skills test, and no difference in the results of the written examination: the mean total score was was 109.0 (95% CI 105.7-112.4) in the conventional lecture group and 110.3 (95% CI 106.2-114.3) in the video group (P = 0.63). In a survey at the end of the study the live lecture group rated the overall effectiveness of teaching significantly higher than the video-based group: the median scores for effectiveness of teaching were 6.0 (IQR 5.5-6.0) in the live lecture group and 4.0 (IQR 3.0-5.0) in the video group (P < 0.001). Videoconferencing was at least as effective as live didactic presentation.

  18. Acquiring Knowledge and Using It.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smilkstein, Rita

    1993-01-01

    Understanding why students are not naturally and easily able to generalize or apply what they have learned in other situations involves understanding what teachers want their students to learn; what learning is; what teaching is; and what is involved in generalizing or applying what has been learned. Research in educational psychology identifies…

  19. Representing and Acquiring Geographic Knowledge.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Management, Inc. 5 copies 1300 Wilson Boulevard, Suite 102 Arlington, Virginia 22209 Ms. Robin Dillard 1 copy Naval Ocean System Center C2 Information...the road. Conceivably, it could curl round and come closer to *the pond at some other point. We mus,. therefore ask for the minimal distance between...both of th’se. There is no general scheme for resolving these interactions. Rather, we must simply decide priorities , and force the lower priority

  20. The Big 5: Teacher Knowledge and Skill Acquisition in Early Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vesay, Joanne P.; Gischlar, Karen L.

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the investigators surveyed 215 early childhood educators throughout New Jersey and eastern Pennsylvania to determine teacher knowledge and training in early literacy instruction, with a focus on The 5 Big Ideas in Reading as identified by the National Reading Panel: phonological awareness, accuracy and fluency, alphabetic principle,…

  1. Not Just Skills: What a Focus on Knowledge Means for Vocational Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wheelahan, Leesa

    2015-01-01

    This contribution to the symposium on Michael Young's article "Overcoming the crisis in curriculum theory: a knowledge based approach", supports his contention that curriculum theory has lost sight of its object--"what is taught and learned in schools", and argues that this has particularly deleterious consequences for…

  2. Pre-Service Teachers' Understanding of Fraction Multiplication, Representational Knowledge, and Computational Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Son, Ji-Won; Lee, Ji-Eun

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of teacher fractional knowledge, there are several areas of teacher understanding that are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to characterise profiles of pre-service teachers' (PSTs) mathematical competence on the topic of fraction multiplication by examining PSTs' understanding of multiplication of fractions…

  3. What Teachers Need To Know: The Knowledge, Skills, and Values Essential to Good Teaching. First Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dill, David D., Ed.; And Others

    The papers presented as chapters in this book outline the background and professional preparation teachers need in subject area knowledge, understanding of intellectual and emotional growth, learning theory, and moral principles. The volume is organized into four parts. Each part is introduced with a brief essay that relates the accompanying…

  4. Knowledge and Skill Differences between Expert and Novice Service Technicians on Technical Troubleshooting Tasks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Scott D.

    A two-part study examined the relationship between technical troubleshooting behavior and the level of expertise of service technicians who diagnose faulty equipment. The first investigation addressed the differences in the knowledge base that troubleshooters bring to a problem. A group of five novice troubleshooters and five experts was given…

  5. Effects of a Single-Lesson Tobacco Prevention Curriculum on Knowledge, Skill Identification and Smoking Intention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Stephen; Birch, David; Thyagaraj, Sujan; Teufel, James; Phillips, Cheryl

    2007-01-01

    One in five students report experimenting with tobacco before the age of 13 and most prevention efforts take place in the school setting. This study measures the effect of a single-lesson tobacco prevention curriculum, conducted by a health education center, focusing on knowledge of tobacco, ability to identify refusal techniques, and intent not…

  6. How Word Reading Skill Impacts Text Memory: The Centrality Deficit and How Domain Knowledge Can Compensate

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Amanda C.; Keenan, Janice M.

    2010-01-01

    We examined text memory in children with word reading deficits to determine how these difficulties impact representations of text meaning. We show that even though children with poor word decoding recall more central than peripheral information, they show a significantly bigger deficit relative to controls on central than on peripheral information. We call this the centrality deficit and argue that it is the consequence of insufficient cognitive resources for connecting ideas together due to these children's resources being diverted from comprehension to word decoding. We investigated a possible compensatory mechanism for making these connections. Because a text representation is a synthesis of text information and a reader's prior knowledge, we hypothesized that having knowledge of the passage topic might reduce or eliminate the centrality deficit. Our results support this knowledge compensation hypothesis: the centrality deficit was evident when poor readers did not have prior knowledge, but was eliminated when they did. This presents an exciting avenue to pursue for possible remediation of reading comprehension in children with word identification difficulties. PMID:19475514

  7. Beyond Knowledge and Skills: Self-Competence in Working with Death, Dying, and Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ho Chan, Wallace Chi; Tin, Agnes Fong

    2012-01-01

    This study explored helping professionals' views on death work competencies. A total of 176 helping professionals were invited to state what the necessary competencies in death work are. Content analysis was conducted. Results showed that death work competencies can be categorized into 4 major areas: (a) knowledge competence, (b) practice…

  8. Influence of Gender and Knowledge on Secondary School Students' Scientific Creativity Skills in Nakuru District, Kenya

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Okere, Mark I. O.; Ndeke, Grace C. W.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of gender and knowledge on scientific creativity among form three biology students (third year in secondary school cycle) in Nakuru district in Kenya. The cross- sectional survey research was employed. A sample of eight schools with a total of 363 students was selected from the population…

  9. The Effect of Mobility on Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills Test Scores

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Ray

    2006-01-01

    This research studies the effects of mobility on the high-stakes test scores of a Title I South Central Texas school district. The study involved 10, 5th-grade elementary feeder school populations graduating to the 6th grade in 3 middle schools. The researcher compared the 1st administration scores of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills…

  10. Graduate Employability, "Soft Skills" versus "Hard" Business Knowledge: A European Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Jane; Higson, Helen

    2008-01-01

    There is a growing awareness in the UK and mainland Europe of the importance of higher education to the development of a knowledge-based economy. European universities are increasingly required to produce highly mobile graduates able to respond to the ever-changing needs of the contemporary workplace. Following the Bologna Declaration (1999),…

  11. Knowledge, attitude, and perception of disease among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome: A study from a tertiary care center in North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Chauahn, Pushpinder S.; Mehta, Karainder S.; Rawat, Ritu; Shiny, T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although modification of behavioral practices among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-affected patients is important in decreasing HIV disease transmission, the knowledge, attitude, and perception studies about HIV infection rarely include persons living with HIV/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Aims: To assess knowledge, attitude, and perceptions of persons living with HIV/AIDS for the disease and other epidemiological aspects. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and fifty consecutive persons living with HIV/AIDS were enrolled for this questionnaire-based cross-sectional, descriptive study. Results: These 150 patients comprised 93 men and 57 women, aged between 14 and 78 (mean 37.13) years. The majority, 112 (74.67%) patients were between 20 and 50 years of age and 116 (77.3%) patients were either illiterate or high-school dropouts. Drivers, laborers, and self-employed comprised 69 (74.2%) patients among affected males. Only 129 (86%) respondents had heard about HIV/AIDS and knew about its heterosexual transmission. Ninety-eight (65.3%) respondents were aware of disease transmission from infected blood or needle pricks. Interestingly, 106 (70.7%) respondents were aware of the importance of using condom in preventing disease transmission. Television/radio was the most common sources of information for 135 (90%) patients. Nearly, 69% respondents disfavored disclosing their disease to friends/colleagues fearing stigmatization. Conclusions: Information, education, and communication activities are imperative to educate persons living with HIV/AIDS about life-long nature of the disease, modes of its transmission, and significance of preventive measures to bridge the gaps in their knowledge. While improvement in individual economic status, education, and health services remains highly desirable, mass media can play a pivotal role in creating awareness among masses. PMID:27890953

  12. Improvement in the prediction of the translation initiation site through balancing methods, inclusion of acquired knowledge and addition of features to sequences of mRNA

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    concept of acquired knowledge which increased the accuracy in all databases evaluated. PMID:22369295

  13. Bidirectional relations between phonological awareness and letter knowledge in preschool revisited: A growth curve analysis of the relation between two code-related skills.

    PubMed

    Lerner, Matthew D; Lonigan, Christopher J

    2016-04-01

    Despite the importance of phonological awareness for the development of reading in alphabetic languages, little attention has been paid to its developmental origins. In this study, dual-process, latent growth models were used to examine patterns of bidirectional relations between letter knowledge and phonological awareness during preschool. The sample comprised 358 children (mean age=48.60 months, SD=7.26). Growth models were used to quantify the unique longitudinal relations between the initial level of each skill and growth in the other skill during the preschool year, after controlling for initial level of the same skill, vocabulary, age, and growth in the code-related skill being used as a predictor. Letter-name knowledge and phonological awareness were bidirectionally related; the initial level of each uniquely predicted growth in the other. Initial letter-sound knowledge and phonological awareness growth were not uniquely related, and vocabulary was not related to growth in phonological awareness. These findings extend the evidence of the relation between letter knowledge and phonological awareness to supra-phonemic tasks, indicating that this bidirectional relation begins at an earlier point in the development of phonological awareness than previously reported. In addition, these findings help to rule out general growth in letter knowledge and phonological awareness as an alternative explanation for the bidirectional relation between these two code-related skills.

  14. The importance of knowledge, skills, and attitude attributes for veterinarians in clinical and non-clinical fields of practice: a survey of licensed veterinarians in Quebec, Canada.

    PubMed

    Doucet, Michèle Y; Vrins, André

    2009-01-01

    To improve content validity and the pertinence of outcome assessment tools used for the undergraduate Doctor of Veterinary Medicine program at the University of Montreal's Faculté de médecine vétérinaire, a survey of members of the Quebec veterinary association was conducted. This survey aimed to determine the importance of a list of 71 attributes-categorized as knowledge, general skills, specific skills, and attitudes-for clinical and non-clinical types of professional activities. The results indicated that all basic knowledge components, general skills, and attitudes were equally important for all types of veterinary professional activities, while the importance of specific skills was significantly different for clinical practice and non-clinical fields. It was therefore proposed that outcomes assessment surveys of stakeholders, such as alumni and employers, be analyzed separately for each type of career option.

  15. Computer Modeling of the Instructionally Insensitive Nature of the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) Exam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Vinh Huy

    Stakeholders of the educational system assume that standardized tests are transparently about the subject content being tested and therefore can be used as a metric to measure achievement in outcome-based educational reform. Both analysis of longitudinal data for the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS) exam and agent based computer modeling of its underlying theoretical testing framework have yielded results that indicate the exam only rank orders students on a persistent but uncharacterized latent trait across domains tested as well as across years. Such persistent rank ordering of students is indicative of an instructionally insensitive exam. This is problematic in the current atmosphere of high stakes testing which holds teachers, administrators, and school systems accountable for student achievement.

  16. The CCMC's national study of case manager job descriptions: an understanding of the activities, role relationships, knowledges, skills, and abilities.

    PubMed

    Tahan, Hussein A; Huber, Diane L

    2006-01-01

    Defining the roles and functions of case managers is crucial in today's healthcare environment and necessary for the case management field. One way to address this issue is through the examination of case managers' job descriptions used in various healthcare organizations. The study reported herein used qualitative analysis procedures and the latent class cluster analysis method to examine a national sample of 1028 job descriptions of case managers. The study identified the activities, role relationships, knowledge, skills, and abilities of case managers working in varied settings. It also described the changes that occurred in the practice of case management, based on these job descriptions, over 5 years: from the mid-1990s until the early 2000s. One benefit of this study was a change in one eligibility criterion of the CCM credential. Another was the development of a taxonomy of case managers' roles and functions that can be used as a step toward standardization of case managers' job descriptions.

  17. Building young women's knowledge and skills in female condom use: lessons learned from a South African intervention.

    PubMed

    Schuyler, A C; Masvawure, T B; Smit, J A; Beksinska, M; Mabude, Z; Ngoloyi, C; Mantell, J E

    2016-04-01

    Partner negotiation and insertion difficulties are key barriers to female condom (FC) use in sub-Saharan Africa. Few FC interventions have provided comprehensive training in both negotiation and insertion skills, or focused on university students. In this study we explored whether training in FC insertion and partner negotiation influenced young women's FC use. 296 female students at a South African university were randomized to a one-session didactic information-only minimal intervention (n= 149) or a two-session cognitive-behavioral enhanced intervention (n= 147), which received additional information specific to partner negotiation and FC insertion. Both groups received FCs. We report the 'experiences of' 39 randomly selected female students who participated in post-intervention qualitative interviews. Two-thirds of women reported FC use. Most women (n= 30/39) applied information learned during the interventions to negotiate with partners. Women reported that FC insertion practice increased their confidence. Twelve women failed to convince male partners to use the FC, often due to its physical attributes or partners' lack of knowledge about insertion. FC educational and skills training can help facilitate use, improve attitudes toward the device and help women to successfully negotiate safer sex with partners. Innovative strategies and tailored interventions are needed to increase widespread FC adoption.

  18. Extraction of Knowledge from the Topographic Attentive Mapping Network and its Application in Skill Analysis of Table Tennis

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Masanori; Maeda, Toshiyuki; Leveille, Jasmin; Tasaka, Tokio

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The Topographic Attentive Mapping (TAM) network is a biologically-inspired classifier that bears similarities to the human visual system. In case of wrong classification during training, an attentional top-down signal modulates synaptic weights in intermediate layers to reduce the difference between the desired output and the classifier’s output. When used in a TAM network, the proposed pruning algorithm improves classification accuracy and allows extracting knowledge as represented by the network structure. In this paper, sport technique evaluation of motion analysis modelled by the TAM network was discussed. The trajectory pattern of forehand strokes of table tennis players was analyzed with nine sensor markers attached to the right upper arm of players. With the TAM network, input attributes and technique rules were extracted in order to classify the skill level of players of table tennis from the sensor data. In addition, differences between the elite player, middle level player and beginner were clarified; furthermore, we discussed how to improve skills specific to table tennis from the view of data analysis. PMID:28210337

  19. Specifying voicing differences in children's productions of syllable-final stops: Knowledge versus skill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nittrouer, Susan

    2002-05-01

    Among the acoustic correlates of phonetic identity considered to be universal is the length of vocalic segments preceding syllable-final stops, which is a correlate to the voicing of those stops. However, findings reported earlier [S. Nittrouer et al., J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 109, 2312(A) (2001)] showed that the commonly described length effect (i.e., shorter segments before voiceless than before voiced stops) is attenuated in adults' samples from continuous discourse, and that listeners of all ages fail to make much use of this effect in perceptual decisions, preferring instead to base voicing judgments on dynamic spectral information. Subsequent to that study, acoustic measures (duration of the preceding vocalic segment and frequency of the first formant at voicing offset) of children's (5 and 7 years of age) productions of words differing in the voicing of syllable-final stops showed that by 5 years of age children's productions generally had the same acoustic structure as those of adults, but within-speaker variability on both measures was roughly twice as great in children's as in adults' productions. Thus, children were trying to coordinate the vocal-tract closing and glottal abduction gestures as adults do, but were not skilled enough to do so reliably. [Work supported by NIDCD.

  20. Open and Distance Education Systems: Do They Enhance Graduates' Soft Skills? The Results from 2009 Universitas Terbuka Tracer Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratnaningsih, Dewi Juliah

    2013-01-01

    The vision and mission of Universitas Terbuka (UT) is to become a highly qualified open and distance education institution and to provide higher education access to all communities. Graduates of UT are expected to acquire adequate knowledge, hard skills and soft skills. Soft skills play important roles in the world of work. The aim of this article…

  1. Frequency of provision of knowledge of performance on skill acquisition in older persons.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Marcelo E S; Souza, Marina G T X; Basso, Luciano; Monteiro, Carlos B M; Corrêa, Umberto C; Santos, Suely

    2014-01-01

    The provision of feedback is a crucial factor for the evolution of the learner's performance. It is known that the knowledge of performance has the function of guiding the learner's attention to critical aspects of the movement pattern. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of frequency of knowledge of performance (KP) during the acquisition of the basketball free throw in older persons. Sixty active individuals (men and women) aged 60-69 years of age, divided into three experimental groups received KP in 100, 66, and 33% of their attempts during three practice sessions totaling 90 trials. The task was the basketball free throw. Volunteers were asked to conduct tests of immediate retention, 24 h retention, and 24 h transfer test, after the last practice session. During the acquisition phase, the volunteers received KP on the movement pattern on the previous attempt, which was obtained from a qualitative hierarchical checklist of the free throw (14 items). Sessions were recorded in order to confirm whether volunteers were able to score throughout sessions. ANOVA indicated that all individuals showed an improved performance in the retention and transfer tests. But the KP frequency of 66% was superior in both qualitative (movement pattern) and quantitative (score) measurements throughout the trials (p ≤ 0.05). In conclusion older persons seem to need an optimal KP frequency supply during the learning process.

  2. Health-care providers' perception of knowledge, skills and preparedness for disaster management in primary health-care centres in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Al-Ali, N M; Ibaid, A H Abu

    2015-12-13

    This survey in primary health-care centres in north Jordan aimed to assess health-care providers' perceptions of their knowledge, skills and preparedness for disaster management. A multistage random sample was used to recruit nurses and physicians from 57 health centres. A total of 207 participants completed the Arabic version of the Disaster Preparedness Evaluation Tool. Participants perceived themselves as having moderate preparation for disaster management [mean score 74.9 (SD 21.6)], moderate knowledge [mean 49.9 (SD 12.3)] and moderate to weak skills in disaster management [mean 35.3 (SD 12.7)]. Significant differences were revealed in participants' perceptions of their disaster preparedness, knowledge and skills according to their sex, specialty and exposure to a real disaster situation. Further education and training courses are needed to enhance providers' preparedness for disaster management in Jordan.

  3. Effect of screen-based computer simulation on knowledge and skill in nursing students' learning of preoperative and postoperative care management: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Durmaz, Aylin; Dicle, Aklime; Cakan, Emre; Cakir, Şen

    2012-04-01

    Screen-based computer simulations are considered a method of skill teaching in health education. This study examined the effect of screen-based computer simulation on knowledge, skill, and the clinical decision-making process in teaching preoperative and postoperative care management to second-year students in an undergraduate school of nursing. It is a randomized controlled study. The study sample was composed of 82 students. They received education in screen-based computer simulation (n = 41) and skill laboratories (n = 41). Three instruments were used: a preoperative and postoperative care management cognitive level assessment test, skill control lists of preoperative and postoperative care management, and the Clinical Decision Making in Nursing Scale. There was not a significant difference between the students' posteducation knowledge levels (P = .421), practical deep breathing and coughing exercise education skills (P = .867), or clinical decision-making scale total and subscale scores (P = .065). However, a significant difference was found between the admission of the patient in the surgical clinic after surgery skill scores of the students (P = .04). Education provided in the screen-based computer simulation laboratory was equivalent to that provided in the skill laboratory.

  4. The Influence of Children's Prior Knowledge and Previous Experience on Their Spatial Orientation Skills in an Urban Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemmer, Ingrid; Hemmer, Michael; Neidhardt, Eva; Obermaier, Gabriele; Uphues, Rainer; Wrenger, Katja

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the capacity of children to develop map-based skills in spatial orientation in an urban environment unknown to them. In this quantitative study, a total of 328 pupils of grades 3-5 had to achieve specific skills with regard to map-based skills in spatial orientation (such as turning-off skills, transformation from map to…

  5. Are short-term focused training courses on a phantom model using porcine gall bladder useful for trainees in acquiring basic laparoscopic skills?

    PubMed

    Bansal, Virinder Kumar; Panwar, Rajesh; Misra, Mahesh C; Bhattacharjee, Hemanga K; Jindal, Vikas; Loli, Athiko; Goswami, Amit; Krishna, Asuri; Tamang, Tseten

    2012-04-01

    The best training method in laparoscopic surgery has not been defined. We evaluated the efficacy of laparoscopic skills acquisition in a short-term focused program. Two hundred fifty-six participants undergoing training on a phantom model were divided into 2 groups. Group 1 had no exposure and group 2 had performed a few laparoscopic surgeries. Acquisition of laparoscopic skills was assessed by operation time and the modified Global Operative Assessment of Laparoscopic Skills (GOALS) scale. A questionnaire was sent to the participants after 3 to 6 months for assessment of impact of training. There was a statistically significant improvement in the assessed parameters and in the mean score of all 5 domains of GOALS. The participants in group 2 performed better than those in group 1 in the first case. The difference between both the groups disappeared after the training. Participants who responded to the questionnaire felt that training helped them in improving their performance in the operation theater.

  6. Development of Implanted Deaf Children's Conversational Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Maner-Idrissi, Gaid; Dardier, Virginie; Pajon, Cecile; Tan-Bescond, Geraldine; David, Kristell; Deleau, Michel; Godey, Benoit

    2010-01-01

    Previous studies of preverbal development have highlighted the recurrent difficulties experienced by deaf children in acquiring knowledge of the social rules and social skills pertaining to discourse. We expected cochlear implants in children with bilateral profound deafness to improve their use of verbal language, so that their communication…

  7. New Materials for the Undergraduate Classroom to Build Pre-Service Teachers' NGSS Skills and Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egger, A. E.; Awad, A. A.; Baldwin, K. A.; Birnbaum, S. J.; Bruckner, M. Z.; DeBari, S. M.; Dechaine, J.; Ebert, J. R.; Gray, K. R.; Hauge, R.; Linneman, S. R.; Monet, J.; Thomas, J.; Varrella, G.

    2014-12-01

    As part of InTeGrate, teams of 3 instructors at 3 different institutions developed modules that help prepare pre-service teachers to teach Earth science aligned with the NGSS. Modules were evaluated against a rubric, which addresses InTeGrate's five guiding principles, learning objectives and outcomes, assessment and measurement, resources and materials, instructional strategies and alignment. As all modules must address one or more Earth-related grand challenge facing society, develop student ability to address interdisciplinary problems, improve student understanding of the methods of geoscience, use authentic geoscience data, and incorporate systems thinking, they align well with the NGSS. Once modules passed the rubric, they were tested by the authors in their classrooms. Testing included pre- and post-assessment of geoscience literacy and assessment of student learning towards the module goal; materials were revised based on the results of testing. In "Exploring Geoscience Methods with Secondary Education Students," pre-service science teachers compare geoscientific thinking with the classic (experimental) scientific method, investigate global climate change and its impacts on human systems, and prepare an interdisciplinary lesson plan that addresses geoscience methods in context of a socioscientific issue. In "Soils and Society," pre-service elementary teachers explore societal issues where soil is important, develop skills to describe and test soil properties, and create a standards-based Soils and Society Kit that consists of lessons and supporting materials to teach K-8 students about a soil-and-society issue. In "Interactions between Water, Earth's Surface, and Human Activity," students explore the effects of running water on shaping Earth's surface both over geologic time and through short-term flooding events, and produce a brochure to inform citizens of the impact of living near a river. The modules are freely available at http

  8. Transferring ANDRILL Research on Antarctic Cenozoic Climate Change into the Classroom: Teaching Exercises that build Student Skills and Content Knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pound, K. S.; Krissek, L. A.; Jones, M. H.; Leckie, R. M.; St. John, K.

    2009-12-01

    This set of undergraduate student-active learning exercises focuses on the status and role of Antarctica in Cenozoic climate change, and builds skills and knowledge required to evaluate sediment cores retrieved from the floor of McMurdo Sound by the ANDRILL Project. Students discover new advances in understanding late Neogene Antarctic glacial history based on recent ANDRILL results. These exercises are part of the larger suite of activities in the project “Building Core Knowledge and Reconstructing Earth History”, which use authentic data to teach foundational concepts of climate change through sediment core archives (NSF Grant # 0737335). The Antarctic exercises involve a review of the composite benthic foraminifer oxygen isotope curve, and of global climate interpretations based in part on this record. Basic geographic and geologic knowledge of Antarctica and cryospheric processes are constructed in order to build the rationale for selecting drillsites in McMurdo Sound. Student attention is then focused on the use of sedimentary facies and depositional environments in core interpretation, with particular attention to the facies associations that are diagnostic of ice-proximal and ice-distal settings in high latitudes. This is constructed through diagrams, geological reasoning, use of core images and core logs, and culminates in the construction of models for ice-retreat and ice-advance sequences. The general climate record of the entire ANDRILL 1-B core log (1285 m) is then interpreted, by characterizing each of the key lithostratigraphic sub-units in terms of the dominant depositional environments represented. Students write a brief history of the late Miocene-Pliocene climatic and environmental conditions in the Ross Sea region. Students conclude by evaluating facies patterns in the ANDRILL 1-B Pliocene sequence completing calculations that lead to interpretations of orbitally paced Pliocene ice sheet oscillations.

  9. 3D Simulation as a Learning Environment for Acquiring the Skill of Self-Management: An Experience Involving Spanish University Students of Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cela-Ranilla, Jose María; Esteve-Gonzalez, Vanessa; Esteve-Mon, Francesc; Gisbert-Cervera, Merce

    2014-01-01

    In this study we analyze how 57 Spanish university students of Education developed a learning process in a virtual world by conducting activities that involved the skill of self-management. The learning experience comprised a serious game designed in a 3D simulation environment. Descriptive statistics and non-parametric tests were used in the…

  10. Observation of the Effectiveness of Drama Method in Helping to Acquire the Addition-Subtraction Skills by Children at Preschool Phase

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soydan, Sema; Quadir, Seher Ersoy

    2013-01-01

    Principal aim of this study is to show the effectiveness of the program prepared by researchers in order to enable 6 year-old children attending pre-school educational institutions to effectively gain addition subtraction skills through a drama-related method. The work group in the research comprised of 80 kids who continued their education in…

  11. [Disaster nursing and primary school teachers' disaster-related healthcare knowledge and skills].

    PubMed

    Lai, Fu-Chih; Lei, Hsin-Min; Fang, Chao-Ming; Chen, Jiun-Jung; Chen, Bor-An

    2012-06-01

    The World Bank has ranked Taiwan as the 5th highest risk country in the world in terms of full-spectrum disaster risk. With volatile social, economic, and geologic environments and the real threat of typhoons, earthquakes, and nuclear disasters, the government has made a public appeal to raise awareness and reduce the impact of disasters. Disasters not only devastate property and the ecology, but also cause striking and long-lasting impacts on life and health. Thus, healthcare preparation and capabilities are critical to reducing their impact. Relevant disaster studies indicate children as a particularly vulnerable group during a disaster due to elevated risks of physical injury, infectious disease, malnutrition, and post-traumatic stress disorder. Primary school teachers are frontline educators, responders, and rehabilitators, respectively, prior to, during, and after disasters. The disaster prevention project implemented by the Taiwan Ministry of Education provides national guidelines for disaster prevention and education. However, within these guidelines, the focus of elementary school disaster prevention education is on disaster prevention and mitigation. Little guidance or focus has been given to disaster nursing response protocols necessary to handle issues such as post-disaster infectious diseases, chronic disease management, and psychological health and rehabilitation. Disaster nursing can strengthen the disaster healthcare response capabilities of school teachers, school nurses, and children as well as facilitate effective cooperation among communities, disaster relief institutes, and schools. Disaster nursing can also provide healthcare knowledge essential to increase disaster awareness, preparation, response, and rehabilitation. Implementing proper disaster nursing response protocols in Taiwan's education system is critical to enhancing disaster preparedness in Taiwan.

  12. Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1999

    1999-01-01

    This theme issue on knowledge includes annotated listings of Web sites, CD-ROMs and computer software, videos, books, and additional resources that deal with knowledge and differences between how animals and humans learn. Sidebars discuss animal intelligence, learning proper behavior, and getting news from the Internet. (LRW)

  13. NASA/DOD Aerospace Knowledge Diffusion Research Project. Paper 51: Workplace communications skills and the value of communications and information-use skills instruction: Engineering students' perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pinelli, Thomas E.; Barclay, Rebecca O.; Kennedy, John M.

    1995-01-01

    Studies indicate that communications and information-related activities take up a substantial portion of an engineer's work week; therefore, effective communications and information use skills are one of the key engineering competencies that recent graduates of engineering programs are expected to possess. Feedback from industry rates communications and information use skills of entry-level engineers low. Missing from current discussions of communications and information use skills and competencies for engineering students is a clear explanation from the professional engineering community about what constitutes 'acceptable and desirable communications and information norms' within that community. To gather adequate and generalizable data about communications and information skills instruction and to provide a student perspective on the communications skills of engineers, we undertook a national study of aerospace engineering students in March 1993. The study included questions about the importance of certain communications and information skills to professional success, the instruction students had received in these skills, and perceived helpfulness of the instruction. Selected results from the study study are reported in this paper.

  14. The Role of Cognitive Processes, Foundational Math Skill, and Calculation Accuracy and Fluency in Word-Problem Solving versus Prealgebraic Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Powell, Sarah R.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Tolar, Tammy D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine child-level pathways in development of prealgebraic knowledge versus word-problem solving, while evaluating the contribution of calculation accuracy and fluency as mediators of foundational skills/processes. Children (n = 962; mean 7.60 years) were assessed on general cognitive processes and early…

  15. Using an Assessment of Early Mathematical Knowledge and Skills to Inform Policy and Practice: Examples from the Early Grade Mathematics Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Platas, Linda M.; Ketterlin-Geller, Leanne R.; Sitabkhan, Yasmin

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the development and intended uses of the Early Grades Mathematics Assessment (EGMA), which measures essential early mathematical knowledge and skills that are foundational to more sophisticated mathematical abilities, predictive of later achievement, and teachable. Administering the EGMA can provide policy makers,…

  16. Using Knowledge, Skill and Ability (KSA) Data to Identify Career Pathing Opportunities: An Application of Job Analysis to Internal Manpower Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wooten, William

    1993-01-01

    When knowledge, skills, and abilities of four job classes (secretarial/clerical, managerial/administrative, professional/technical, service) were identified, 68% of those determined important for managerial/administrative were also important for secretarial/clerical. Job analysis proved useful in identifying possible career paths, and potential…

  17. Development of Environmental Knowledge, Team Working Skills and Desirable Behaviors on Environmental Conservation of Matthayomsuksa 6 Students Using Good Science Thinking Moves Method with Metacognition Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladawan, Charinrat; Singseewo, Adisak; Suksringarm, Paitool

    2015-01-01

    The research aimed to investigate environmental knowledge, team working skills, and desirable behaviors of students learning through the good science thinking moves method with metacognition techniques. The sample group included Matthayomsuksa 6 students from Nadoon Prachasan School, Nadoon District, Maha Sarakham Province. The research tools were…

  18. Finding the Common Ground: A Comparison of Writing Expectations and Outcomes between the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills and the Common Core State Standards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacoby, Pat; Vasinda, Sheri

    2014-01-01

    In the Winter 2013 edition of the "Texas Journal of Literacy Education," we announced that a special task force from the TALE board would be sharing the common ground among the Texas Essential Knowledge and Skills (TEKS), Common Core State Standards (CCSS), and the College and Career Readiness Standards (CCRS). In that first edition, we…

  19. Mediation Game When the Conflict Can Be Fun to Learn--A Legal Skill Learning Tool: The Integration of Knowledge Management, Learning Theory and Serious Game Concept

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luengvilai, Chainarong; Yodmongkol, Pitipong

    2016-01-01

    Legal justice in Thailand has been shifted to restorative justice for reasons. But Thai law schools have not been changed to promote lawyering skill learning opportunities due to various obstacles and limitations caused by existing legal educational policies, law curriculum's structure, knowledgeable instructors, and learners' characteristics. As…

  20. Teacher Design in Teams as a Professional Development Arrangement for Developing Technology Integration Knowledge and Skills of Science Teachers in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kafyulilo, Ayoub; Fisser, Petra; Voogt, Joke

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of teacher design teams as a professional development arrangement for developing technology integration knowledge and skills among in-service science teachers. The study was conducted at a secondary school in Tanzania, where 12 in-service science teachers participated in a workshop about technology integration in…

  1. The Effects of a Socioscientific Issues Instructional Model in Secondary Agricultural Education on Students' Content Knowledge, Scientific Reasoning Ability, Argumentation Skills, and Views of the Nature of Science

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shoulders, Catherine Woglom

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a socioscientific issues-based instructional model on secondary agricultural education students' content knowledge, scientific reasoning ability, argumentation skills, and views of the nature of science. This study utilized a pre-experimental, single group pretest-posttest design to assess…

  2. Report on the Present Trainer Training Course of the Pestalozzi Programme (Council of Europe) "Evaluation of Transversal Attitudes, Skills and Knowledge" (Module A)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gebauer, Bernt

    2016-01-01

    In July 2015, the Pestalozzi Programme of the Council of Europe launched a 15-month trainer training course on the "Evaluation of transversal attitudes, skills and knowledge." The tradition of offering trainer training courses that relate to the Council of Europe's core values of human rights, democracy and rule of law has been well…

  3. Models of Rehabilitation and Evidence of Their Effectiveness: Production & Movements of Disability Knowledge, Skill & Design within the Cultures and Concepts of Southern Africa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    This address begins with a study of self-help by a Mozambican in the 1590s and then imagines a period between the years 2050 to 2150, during which women caring for people with disabilities abolish the need for specialist educational, medical and social services, by multiplying and democratizing the necessary knowledge, skills and design to make…

  4. Learning on the Job: How Do Farm Business Managers Get the Skills and Knowledge To Manage Their Businesses? CRLRA Discussion Paper Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilpatrick, Sue

    The methods used by Australian farm managers to obtain the skills and knowledge needed to manage their businesses were examined. Semi-structured telephone interviews were conducted with 85 farm owners/managers from South Australia, the Northern Territory, Queensland, Tasmania, and New South Wales. The farmers interviewed identified a wide range of…

  5. The Urban Teacher Residency Program: A Recursive Process to Develop Professional Dispositions, Knowledge, and Skills of Candidates to Teach Diverse Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tindle, Kathleen; Freund, Maxine; Belknap, Bridget; Green, Colin; Shotel, Jay

    2011-01-01

    To be prepared to teach in an urban setting, preservice teachers must exit their teacher preparation program with a professional disposition toward equity and social justice as well as the knowledge and skills required to meet the needs of all students in their classroom. The National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education (NCATE)…

  6. Grade 11 Students' Interconnected Use of Conceptual Knowledge, Procedural Skills, and Strategic Competence in Algebra: A Mixed Method Study of Error Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egodawatte, Gunawardena; Stoilescu, Dorian

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this mixed-method study was to investigate grade 11 university/college stream mathematics students' difficulties in applying conceptual knowledge, procedural skills, strategic competence, and algebraic thinking in solving routine (instructional) algebraic problems. A standardized algebra test was administered to thirty randomly…

  7. Assessing Equity beyond Knowledge- and Skills-Based Outcomes: A Comparative Ethnography of Two Fourth-Grade Reform-Based Science Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlone, Heidi B.; Haun-Frank, Julie; Webb, Angela

    2011-01-01

    When evaluating equity, researchers often look at the "achievement gap." Privileging knowledge and skills as primary outcomes of science education misses other, more subtle, but critical, outcomes indexing inequitable science education. In this comparative ethnography, we examined what it meant to "be scientific" in two fourth-grade classes taught…

  8. Developing Students' Higher-Order Thinking Skills (HOTS) through Technology-Rich Tasks: The Influence of Technological Pedagogical and Content Knowledge (TPACK)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polly, Drew

    2011-01-01

    Technology has been shown to positively influence student learning when students explore technology-rich tasks that simultaneously require them to use higher-order thinking skills (HOTS), such as analyzing or evaluating information or creating new representations of knowledge. Educational technology researchers have posited that in order for…

  9. The Effects of Mind Mapping with Cooperative Learning on Programming Performance, Problem Solving Skill and Metacognitive Knowledge among Computer Science Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Mohd Nasir; Ngah, Nor Azilah; Umar, Irfan Naufal

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to investigate the effects of mind mapping with cooperative learning (MMCL) and cooperative learning (CL) on: (a) programming performance; (b) problem solving skill; and (c) metacognitive knowledge among computer science students in Malaysia. The moderating variable is the students' logical thinking level with two…

  10. Pursuing a Purpose: The Role of Career Exploration Courses and Service-Learning Internships in Recognizing and Developing Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Jamie J.; Wardwell, Clair; Will, Kelsey; Campana, Kristie L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) undergraduate psychology students were able to articulate while engaging in a career preparation seminar with an embedded service-learning internship. Results from the students' reflective journals indicated students were able to describe a wide range of…

  11. Effects of Multimedia on Knowledge, Understanding, Skills, Practice and Confidence in Environmental Sustainability: A Non-Equivalent Pre-Test-Post-Test, Quasi Experimental Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jena, Ananta Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Satarupa; Langthasa, Pimily

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to evaluate the outcomes of the local community members, secondary school students, and the university students participated in the multimedia programme with reference to knowledge, understanding, skills, practice, and confidence in environmental sustainability. About two hundred students participated in this multimedia programme.…

  12. In Search of Solutions to the Obesity Epidemic: K-12 Physical Education Teachers' Ratings of Their Knowledge, Skills, Preparation, Attitudes, Barriers, and Efforts to Address the Obesity Epidemic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kristie

    2013-01-01

    The New York State Physical Education Learning Standards for K-12 students were transformed into a survey administered to a sample of teachers of physical education (N = 261), ascertaining their ratings of their knowledge, ability/skill, education/training, and attitudes on the importance of future professionals receiving training to teach…

  13. A Teacher Action Research Study: Enhancing Student Critical Thinking Knowledge, Skills, Dispositions, Application and Transfer in a Higher Education Technology Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelan, Jack Gordon

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of a critical thinking instructional intervention in a higher education technology course with the purpose of determining the extent to which the intervention enhanced student critical thinking knowledge, skills, dispositions, application and transfer abilities. Historically, critical thinking has been considered…

  14. Pre-Service Teachers' Opinions about the Course on Scientific Research Methods and the Levels of Knowledge and Skills They Gained in This Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tosun, Cemal

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to ascertain whether the pre-service teachers taking the Scientific Research Methods course attained basic research knowledge and skills. In addition, the impact of the process, which is followed while implementing the course, on the students' anxiety and attitude during the course is examined. Moreover, the study…

  15. The Impact of a Training Program Based on Pedagogical Knowledge on Improving the Speaking and Writing Skills Teaching Practices of Female English Language Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weshah, Hani A.; Tomok, Tamara N.

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of a training program based on pedagogical knowledge on improving the speaking and writing skills teaching practices of female English language teachers. The participants consisted of 30 teachers: 10 as an experimental group and 20 as a control group. To answer the study questions, the researchers developed a…

  16. A Survey to Determine the Knowledge and Skills Needed by Clerical Workers in First-Level Entry Occupations in Digital Computer Installations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Adaline Dorothy Seitz

    The purposes of this study were to determine the occupational opportunities for which high school graduates can qualify in the field of digital computer installations, the knowledges and skills needed for employment, the training needed, the pattern of advancement, the effect of automatic coding, and significant recent developments. Sixty-nine…

  17. Using Standardized Patients to Evaluate Screening, Brief Intervention, and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) Knowledge and Skill Acquisition for Internal Medicine Residents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Satterfield, Jason M.; O'Sullivan, Patricia; Satre, Derek D.; Tsoh, Janice Y.; Batki, Steven L.; Julian, Kathy; McCance-Katz, Elinore F.; Wamsley, Maria

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive clinical competency curricula for hazardous drinking and substance use disorders (SUDs) exists for medical students, residents, and practicing health care providers. Evaluations of these curricula typically focus on learner attitudes and knowledge, although changes in clinical skills are of greater interest and utility. The authors…

  18. Generic Skills for Graduate Accountants: The Bigger Picture, a Social and Economic Imperative in the New Knowledge Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunney, Diane; Sharplin, Elaine; Howitt, Christine

    2015-01-01

    The case for integrating generic skills in university accounting programmes is well documented in the literature, but the implementation of strategies designed to teach generic skills in the context of accounting courses has posed ongoing challenges for academics and course administrators. The imperative for generic skills in accounting programmes…

  19. The 'dark side' and 'bright side' of personality: when too much conscientiousness and too little anxiety are detrimental with respect to the acquisition of medical knowledge and skill.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eamonn; Semper, Heather; Yates, Janet; Fitzgerald, J Edward; Skatova, Anya; James, David

    2014-01-01

    Theory suggests that personality traits evolved to have costs and benefits, with the effectiveness of a trait dependent on how these costs and benefits relate to the present circumstances. This suggests that traits that are generally viewed as positive can have a 'dark side' and those generally viewed as negative can have a 'bright side' depending on changes in context. We test this in a sample of 220 UK medical students with respect to associations between the Big 5 personality traits and learning outcomes across the 5 years of a medical degree. The medical degree offers a changing learning context from pre-clinical years (where a more methodical approach to learning is needed) to the clinical years (where more flexible learning is needed, in a more stressful context). We argue that while trait conscientiousness should enhance pre-clinical learning, it has a 'dark side' reducing the acquisition of knowledge in the clinical years. We also suggest that anxiety has a 'bright side' enhancing the acquisition of skills in the clinical years. We also explore if intelligence enhances learning across the medical degree. Using confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling we show that medical skills and knowledge assessed in the pre-clinical and clinical years are psychometrically distinguishable, forming a learning 'backbone', whereby subsequent learning outcomes are predicted by previous ones. Consistent with our predictions conscientiousness enhanced preclinical knowledge acquisition but reduced the acquisition of clinical knowledge and anxiety enhanced the acquisition of clinical skills. We also identified a curvilinear U shaped association between Surgency (extraversion) and pre-clinical knowledge acquisition. Intelligence predicted initial clinical knowledge, and had a positive total indirect effect on clinical knowledge and clinical skill acquisition. For medical selection, this suggests that selecting students high on conscientiousness may be

  20. The conceptual process of skill progression development in artistic gymnastics.

    PubMed

    Irwin, Gareth; Hanton, Sheldon; Kerwin, David G

    2005-10-01

    In this study, we examined the methods used and knowledge required by 16 elite men's gymnastic coaches in the development of skill progressions. Following in-depth interviews, a conceptual model representing the process of skill progression development was generated. We found that: (1) elite gymnastic coaches developed skill progressions through experimental practice, reflection and critical inquiry; (2) the development of skill progressions was underpinned by the coaches acquiring a mindset based on four further sub-components (i.e. skill progression refinement, current coaching knowledge, mental imagery and biomechanical understanding); and (3) coaches identified the importance of replication of the spatial and temporal characteristics of the final skill. The results are consistent with task analysis, reflective practice and the principle of specificity. Practically, these findings suggest the need to develop coaches with a more objective approach to skill progression development and a greater understanding of the controlling mechanisms inherent in such practices.

  1. Comparing levels of school performance to science teachers' reports on knowledge/skills, instructional use and student use of computers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerr, Rebecca

    The purpose of this descriptive quantitative and basic qualitative study was to examine fifth and eighth grade science teachers' responses, perceptions of the role of technology in the classroom, and how they felt that computer applications, tools, and the Internet influence student understanding. The purposeful sample included survey and interview responses from fifth grade and eighth grade general and physical science teachers. Even though they may not be generalizable to other teachers or classrooms due to a low response rate, findings from this study indicated teachers with fewer years of teaching science had a higher level of computer use but less computer access, especially for students, in the classroom. Furthermore, teachers' choice of professional development moderated the relationship between the level of school performance and teachers' knowledge/skills, with the most positive relationship being with workshops that occurred outside of the school. Eighteen interviews revealed that teachers perceived the role of technology in classroom instruction mainly as teacher-centered and supplemental, rather than student-centered activities.

  2. Developing 21st Century Skills through Gameplay: To What Extent Are Young People Who Play the Online Computer Game Minecraft Acquiring and Developing Media Literacy and the Four Cs Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morgan, Mia Lynn

    2015-01-01

    Two questions drove this case study. 1) To what extent does playing the online computer game Minecraft at home in a multiplayer environment impact a player's media literacy skills of analysis, evaluation, and access? 2) To what extent does playing the online computer game Minecraft at home in a multiplayer environment impact a player's 21st…

  3. Colorin Colorado! ELL Starter Kit for Educators: Tools for Monitoring Language Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Federation of Teachers (NJ), 2007

    2007-01-01

    Keeping periodic track of the progress English language learners (ELLs) are making in their second language acquisition skills is essential. Learning a second language is a complex process. It's important for educators to gauge each student's abilities and skills regularly; each English language learner will acquire second language knowledge and…

  4. Learning Paramedic Science Skills from a First Person Point of View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lynch, Kathy; Barr, Nigel; Oprescu, Florin

    2012-01-01

    Paramedic students need to acquire knowledge and skills necessary to perform basic as well as complex clinical skills, to ensure patient safety, and to manage sophisticated equipment. Time and resource pressures on students, teaching staff and institutions have led health professional educators to develop and embrace alternative opportunities such…

  5. Destrezas Pre-Vocacionales: Curriculo Basico. Guia para el Maestro (Prevocational Skills: Basic Curriculum. Teacher's Guide).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puerto Rico State Dept. of Education, Hato Rey. Office of Special Education.

    The Auxiliary Secretary of Vocational, Technical, and Higher Skill Instruction of Puerto Rico has the responsibility of offering prevocational services to students with disabilities. In the prevocational phase, the student receives academic instruction and acquires the knowledge and skills of general employment. This teacher's guide, in Spanish,…

  6. School Counselor Role in Planning and Integrating Basic Skills. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feller, Rich; And Others

    This digest considers the school counselor's role in helping students to acquire the basic skills they will need throughout their lives. A contemporary definition of basic skills includes not only the modern versions of the "three Rs" (reading, writing, and computing), but also encompasses a variety of attitudes, knowledge, and behaviors…

  7. Strategizing Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning toward Knowledge Building

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mukama, Evode

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to explore how university students can develop knowledge in small task-based groups while acquiring hands-on computer skills. Inspired by the sociocultural perspective, this study presents a theoretical framework on co-construction of knowledge and on computer-supported collaborative learning. The participants were…

  8. Evaluation of Retention of Knowledge and Skills Imparted to First-Year Medical Students through Basic Life Support Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pande, Sushma; Pande, Santosh; Parate, Vrushali; Pande, Sanket; Sukhsohale, Neelam

    2014-01-01

    Poor awareness among medical graduates about basic life support (BLS) is a matter of great concern. The presence of a trained rescuer is the key determinant of ultimate survival from life-threatening emergencies. To achieve this goal, early exposure to such life-saving skills is the right decision to foster these skills for medical students, which…

  9. Skills Needed to Survive and Thrive as a Scholar in the 21st Century: Information, Knowledge, and Publication Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conceição, Simone C. O.

    2013-01-01

    The changes in the way our work is created, published, and disseminated have implications for our own professional development and require us to be aware of the necessary skills. In this article, I identify three important skills scholars need to have and tools to be effective, efficient, and productive scholars in the 21st century: information…

  10. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  11. Knowledge and Skills of Healthcare Providers in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia before and after Competency-Based Training in Emergency Obstetric and Early Newborn Care

    PubMed Central

    Ameh, Charles A.; Kerr, Robert; Madaj, Barbara; Mdegela, Mselenge; Kana, Terry; Jones, Susan; Lambert, Jaki; Dickinson, Fiona; White, Sarah; van den Broek, Nynke

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthcare provider training in Emergency Obstetric and Newborn Care (EmOC&NC) is a component of 65% of intervention programs aimed at reducing maternal and newborn mortality and morbidity. It is important to evaluate the effectiveness of this. Methods We evaluated knowledge and skills among 5,939 healthcare providers before and after 3–5 days ‘skills and drills’ training in emergency obstetric and newborn care (EmOC&NC) conducted in 7 sub-Saharan Africa countries (Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Nigeria, Sierra Leone, Tanzania, Zimbabwe) and 2 Asian countries (Bangladesh, Pakistan). Standardised assessments using multiple choice questions and objective structured clinical examination (OSCE) were used to measure change in knowledge and skills and the Improvement Ratio (IR) by cadre and by country. Linear regression was performed to identify variables associated with pre-training score and IR. Results 99.7% of healthcare providers improved their overall score with a median (IQR) increase of 10.0% (5.0% - 15.0%) for knowledge and 28.8% (23.1% - 35.1%) for skill. There were significant improvements in knowledge and skills for each cadre of healthcare provider and for each country (p<0.05). The mean IR was 56% for doctors, 50% for mid-level staff and nurse-midwives and 38% for nursing-aides. A teaching job, previous in-service training, and higher percentage of work-time spent providing maternity care were each associated with a higher pre-training score. Those with more than 11 years of experience in obstetrics had the lowest scores prior to training, with mean IRs 1.4% lower than for those with no more than 2 years of experience. The largest IR was for recognition and management of obstetric haemorrhage (49–70%) and the smallest for recognition and management of obstructed labour and use of the partograph (6–15%). Conclusions Short in-service EmOC&NC training was associated with improved knowledge and skills for all cadres of healthcare providers working

  12. FORECAST 2000: a prediction of skills, knowledge, and abilities required by senior medical treatment facility leaders into the 21st century.

    PubMed

    Hudak, R P; Brooke, P P; Finstuen, K

    1994-07-01

    This paper reports results from a Delphi study conducted among the Commanders and Deputy Commanders for Administration of 37 Army medical treatment facilities (MTFs), who identified the most important issues challenging their institutions for the remainder of this decade, and the skills, knowledge, and abilities required by MTF leaders to deal successfully with those challenges. A Delphi mail-out was conducted in two iterations. Respondents identified 187 health care issues which were divided by content into nine domains by a panel of health care experts. The domains, ranked by importance, were cost-finance, health care delivery, access to care, quality and risk management, technology, professional staff relations, leadership, marketing, and ethics. In the second Delphi iteration, MTF leaders agreed upon the necessary skills, knowledge, and abilities of future leaders. Results indicated that future leadership will require enhanced financial, quantitative, and technical skills, as well as competence in a broad array of interpersonal and communication skills. Implications for military medical leader development initiatives are discussed.

  13. Knowledge, skills, and behavior improvements on peer educators and low-income Hispanic participants after a stage of change-based bilingual nutrition education program.

    PubMed

    Taylor, T; Serrano, E; Anderson, J; Kendall, P

    2000-06-01

    A nutrition education program, entitled La Cocina Saludable, was designed according to the Stage of Change Model and implemented in ten southern Colorado counties. The objectives were to improve the nutrition related knowledge, skills, and behaviors that lead to healthy lifestyles in a low-income Hispanic population. The content of the program included nutrition information designed to help mothers of preschool children provide for their children's nutritional needs. Previous studies suggest that low-income Hispanics often demonstrate low intakes of vitamins A and C, calcium, iron, and protein, and high rates of diabetes, obesity, and infections. Additionally, this population presents many obstacles for nutrition educators including limited resources, child care, transportation, time, language, culture, literacy, health beliefs, and, in some cases, the transient nature of the population. The program attempted to overcome these barriers by incorporating a flexible program format carried out by abuela (Hispanic grandmother) educators using the processes described in the Stage of Change Model. The program was evaluated using a knowledge, skills and behavior pre-test, post-test, and six-month follow-up survey on both the abuela educators as well as the actual class participants. Results of the peer education training sessions suggest that this type of training program can be effective in increasing the knowledge, skills, and behavior of peer educators as well as reduce need for retraining for educators who continuously teach classes. Additionally, the results suggest that this type of program can be effective in changing selected nutrition related knowledge, skills, and behaviors leading to healthy lifestyles for low-income Hispanic mothers of preschool children.

  14. The effectiveness of a long-term professional development program on teachers' self-efficacy, attitudes, skills, and knowledge using a thematic learning approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinnin, Richard Kinna

    The purpose of this research study was to determine the effectiveness of a long-term professional development program on self-efficacy beliefs, science attitudes, skills, and knowledge of elementary teachers. The target school was located in the Lower Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Major elements of the study included the use of thematic science strands, use of the 5E constructivist-oriented instructional model, a focus on the interdisciplinary nature of the science process skills, and guided, inquiry-based learning experiences. These elements mirror the principles identified as being essential components of effective professional development for mathematics, and science education (Fullan, 1985; Sparks & Loucks-Horsley, 1990; Loucks-Horsley, 1997). The research team was actively involved with the participants for a total of 30 days at their school over the 24 months of the study. During each training, the research team modeled the 5E constructivist-oriented instructional strategy, and the interdisciplinary nature of the science process skills, set up a wide variety of activity centers, and provided the teachers with opportunities to improve their attitudes, skills, and knowledge of the science content, and teaching strategies. The 15 participants completed pre-, post-, and post-post-Leadership Team Surreys. Quantitative data analyses of gain scores measuring level of confidence to teach Marine and Earth Science, content knowledge, and teaching strategies were significant, p < .001. The participants' efficacy-beliefs and outcome expectancy were assessed with a pre- and posttest Science Teacher Self-Efficacy Beliefs Instrument that measures both elements. Self-efficacy beliefs were significant at p < .001. Outcome expectancies were not significant, p > .05. Qualitative analysis of reflective journal comments, classroom observations, and the participants understanding, and use of science process skills across the curriculum supported the quantitative data results. The

  15. Framework for the Evolution of Acquiring Knowledge Modules to Integrate the Acquisition of High-Level Cognitive Skills and Professional Competencies: Principles and Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warin, Bruno; Kolski, Christophe; Sagar, Mouldi

    2011-01-01

    The changing profile of students, the expectations of business and the capabilities offered by Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) makes it necessary to change teaching practices, particularly in higher education. This paper proposes a methodological framework destined to force disciplinary course modules to evolve in order to…

  16. Making predictions skill level analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katarína, Krišková; Marián, Kireš

    2017-01-01

    The current trend in the education is focused on skills that are cross-subject and have a great importance for the pupil future life. Pupils should acquire different types of skills during their education to be prepared for future careers and life in the 21st century. Physics as a subject offers many opportunities for pupils' skills development. One of the skills that are expected to be developed in physics and also in other sciences is making predictions. The prediction, in the meaning of the argument about what may happen in the future, is an integral part of the empirical cognition, in which students confront existing knowledge and experience with new, hitherto unknown and surprising phenomena. The extent of the skill is the formulation of hypotheses, which is required in the upper secondary physics education. In the contribution, the prediction skill is specified and its eventual levels are classified. Authors focus on the tools for skill level determination based on the analysis of pupils` worksheets. Worksheets are the part of the educational activities conducted within the Inquiry Science Laboratory Steelpark. Based on the formulation of pupils' prediction the pupils thinking can be seen and their understanding of the topic, as well as preconceptions and misconceptions.

  17. The Role of Cognitive Processes, Foundational Math Skill, and Calculation Accuracy and Fluency in Word-Problem Solving versus Pre-Algebraic Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Fuchs, Lynn S.; Gilbert, Jennifer K.; Powell, Sarah R.; Cirino, Paul T.; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L.; Seethaler, Pamela M.; Tolar, Tammy D.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine child-level pathways in development of pre-algebraic knowledge versus word-problem solving, while evaluating the contribution of calculation accuracy and fluency as mediators of foundational skills/processes. Children (n = 962; mean 7.60 years) were assessed on general cognitive processes and early calculation, word-problem, and number knowledge at start of grade 2; calculation accuracy and calculation fluency at end of grade 2; and pre-algebraic knowledge and word-problem solving at end of grade 4. Important similarities in pathways were identified, but path analysis also indicated that language comprehension is more critical for later word-problem solving than pre-algebraic knowledge. We conclude that pathways in development of these forms of 4th-grade mathematics performance are more alike than different, but demonstrate the need to fine-tune instruction for strands of the mathematics curriculum in ways that address individual students’ foundational mathematics skills or cognitive processes. PMID:27786534

  18. The role of cognitive processes, foundational math skill, and calculation accuracy and fluency in word-problem solving versus prealgebraic knowledge.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Lynn S; Gilbert, Jennifer K; Powell, Sarah R; Cirino, Paul T; Fuchs, Douglas; Hamlett, Carol L; Seethaler, Pamela M; Tolar, Tammy D

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine child-level pathways in development of prealgebraic knowledge versus word-problem solving, while evaluating the contribution of calculation accuracy and fluency as mediators of foundational skills/processes. Children (n = 962; mean 7.60 years) were assessed on general cognitive processes and early calculation, word-problem, and number knowledge at start of Grade 2; calculation accuracy and calculation fluency at end of Grade 2; and prealgebraic knowledge and word-problem solving at end of Grade 4. Important similarities in pathways were identified, but path analysis also indicated that language comprehension is more critical for later word-problem solving than prealgebraic knowledge. We conclude that pathways in development of these forms of 4th-grade mathematics performance are more alike than different, but demonstrate the need to fine-tune instruction for strands of the mathematics curriculum in ways that address individual students' foundational mathematics skills or cognitive processes. (PsycINFO Database Record

  19. Using Social Software for Personal Knowledge Management in Formal Online Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pettenati, Maria Chiara; Cigognini, Elisabetta; Mangione, Jose; Guerin, Elizabeth

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we focus our attention on the use of social software as educational enablers for use in formal online education contexts. To this end we study the hypothesis that users have to acquire a set of important Personal Knowledge Management (PKM) skills. Such PKM skills are presented in the paper. They are also examined in relation to…

  20. Sales Training for Army Recruiter Success: Modeling the Sales Strategies and Skills of Excellent Recruiters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-11-01

    strategies used by excellent Army recruiters. Neurolinguistic programming (NLP) was used as the protocol for modeling performance and acquiring...Behavioral and Social Sciences 3001 Eisenhower Avenue, Alexandria, VA 22333-5600 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT. PROJECT. TASK ARE* 4 WORK UNIT...Modeling ’Expert knowledge,, Neurolinguistics Knowledge engineering; Recruiting Sales, &’ Sales cycle Sales skills Sales strategies 20