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Sample records for acquired cancer phenotype

  1. Nuclear AURKA acquires kinase-independent transactivating function to enhance breast cancer stem cell phenotype.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Feimeng; Yue, Caifeng; Li, Guohui; He, Bin; Cheng, Wei; Wang, Xi; Yan, Min; Long, Zijie; Qiu, Wanshou; Yuan, Zhongyu; Xu, Jie; Liu, Bing; Shi, Qian; Lam, Eric W-F; Hung, Mien-Chie; Liu, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    Centrosome-localized mitotic Aurora kinase A (AURKA) facilitates G2/M events. Here we show that AURKA translocates to the nucleus and causes distinct oncogenic properties in malignant cells by enhancing breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) phenotype. Unexpectedly, this function is independent of its kinase activity. Instead, AURKA preferentially interacts with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) in the nucleus and acts as a transcription factor in a complex that induces a shift in MYC promoter usage and activates the MYC promoter. Blocking AURKA nuclear localization inhibits this newly discovered transactivating function of AURKA, sensitizing resistant BCSC to kinase inhibition. These findings identify a previously unknown oncogenic property of the spatially deregulated AURKA in tumorigenesis and provide a potential therapeutic opportunity to overcome kinase inhibitor resistance. PMID:26782714

  2. Nuclear AURKA acquires kinase-independent transactivating function to enhance breast cancer stem cell phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Feimeng; Yue, Caifeng; Li, Guohui; He, Bin; Cheng, Wei; Wang, Xi; Yan, Min; Long, Zijie; Qiu, Wanshou; Yuan, Zhongyu; Xu, Jie; Liu, Bing; Shi, Qian; Lam, Eric W.-F.; Hung, Mien-Chie; Liu, Quentin

    2016-01-01

    Centrosome-localized mitotic Aurora kinase A (AURKA) facilitates G2/M events. Here we show that AURKA translocates to the nucleus and causes distinct oncogenic properties in malignant cells by enhancing breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) phenotype. Unexpectedly, this function is independent of its kinase activity. Instead, AURKA preferentially interacts with heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein K (hnRNP K) in the nucleus and acts as a transcription factor in a complex that induces a shift in MYC promoter usage and activates the MYC promoter. Blocking AURKA nuclear localization inhibits this newly discovered transactivating function of AURKA, sensitizing resistant BCSC to kinase inhibition. These findings identify a previously unknown oncogenic property of the spatially deregulated AURKA in tumorigenesis and provide a potential therapeutic opportunity to overcome kinase inhibitor resistance. PMID:26782714

  3. Expression of the Homeobox Gene HOXA9 in Ovarian Cancer Induces Peritoneal Macrophages to Acquire an M2 Tumor-Promoting Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Song Yi; Ladanyi, Andras; Lengyel, Ernst; Naora, Honami

    2015-01-01

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) exhibit an M2 macrophage phenotype that suppresses anti-tumor immune responses and often correlates with poor outcomes in patients with cancer. Patients with ovarian cancer frequently present with peritoneal carcinomatosis, but the mechanisms that induce naïve peritoneal macrophages into TAMs are poorly understood. In this study, we found an increased abundance of TAMs in mouse i.p. xenograft models of ovarian cancer that expressed HOXA9, a homeobox gene that is associated with poor prognosis in patients with ovarian cancer. HOXA9 expression in ovarian cancer cells stimulated chemotaxis of peritoneal macrophages and induced macrophages to acquire TAM-like features. These features included induction of the M2 markers, CD163 and CD206, and the immunosuppressive cytokines, IL-10 and chemokine ligand 17, and down-regulation of the immunostimulatory cytokine, IL-12. HOXA9-mediated induction of TAMs was primarily due to the combinatorial effects of HOXA9-induced, tumor-derived transforming growth factor-β2 and chemokine ligand 2 levels. High HOXA9 expression in clinical specimens of ovarian cancer was strongly associated with increased abundance of TAMs and intratumoral T-regulatory cells and decreased abundance of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes. Levels of immunosuppressive cytokines were also elevated in ascites fluid of patients with tumors that highly expressed HOXA9. HOXA9 may, therefore, stimulate ovarian cancer progression by promoting an immunosuppressive microenvironment via paracrine effects on peritoneal macrophages. PMID:24332016

  4. Annexin A1 is involved in the acquisition and maintenance of a stem cell-like/aggressive phenotype in prostate cancer cells with acquired resistance to zoledronic acid.

    PubMed

    Bizzarro, Valentina; Belvedere, Raffaella; Milone, Maria Rita; Pucci, Biagio; Lombardi, Rita; Bruzzese, Francesca; Popolo, Ada; Parente, Luca; Budillon, Alfredo; Petrella, Antonello

    2015-09-22

    In this study, we have characterized the role of annexin A1 (ANXA1) in the acquisition and maintenance of stem-like/aggressive features in prostate cancer (PCa) cells comparing zoledronic acid (ZA)-resistant DU145R80 with their parental DU145 cells. ANXA1 is over-expressed in DU145R80 cells and its down-regulation abolishes their resistance to ZA. Moreover, ANXA1 induces DU145 and DU145R80 invasiveness acting through formyl peptide receptors (FPRs). Also, ANXA1 knockdown is able to inhibit epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and to reduce focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and metalloproteases (MMP)-2/9 expression in PCa cells. DU145R80 show a cancer stem cell (CSC)-like signature with a high expression of CSC markers including CD44, CD133, NANOG, Snail, Oct4 and ALDH7A1 and CSC-related genes as STAT3. Interestingly, ANXA1 knockdown induces these cells to revert from a putative prostate CSC to a more differentiated phenotype resembling DU145 PCa cell signature. Similar results are obtained concerning some drug resistance-related genes such as ATP Binding Cassette G2 (ABCG2) and Lung Resistant Protein (LRP). Our study provides new insights on the role of ANXA1 protein in PCa onset and progression. PMID:26312765

  5. Acquired resistance to zoledronic acid and the parallel acquisition of an aggressive phenotype are mediated by p38-MAP kinase activation in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Milone, M R; Pucci, B; Bruzzese, F; Carbone, C; Piro, G; Costantini, S; Capone, F; Leone, A; Di Gennaro, E; Caraglia, M; Budillon, A

    2013-01-01

    The nitrogen-containing bisphosphonates (N-BP) zoledronic acid (ZOL) inhibits osteoclast-mediated bone resorption, and it is used to prevent skeletal complications from bone metastases. ZOL has also demonstrated anticancer activities in preclinical models and, recently, in cancer patients, highlighting the interest in determining eventual mechanisms of resistance against this agent. In our study, we selected and characterised a resistant subline of prostate cancer (PCa) cells to better understand the mechanisms, by which tumour cells can escape the antitumour effect of ZOL. DU145R80-resistant cells were selected in about 5 months using stepwise increasing concentrations of ZOL from DU145 parental cells. DU145R80 cells showed a resistance index value of 5.5 and cross-resistance to another N-BP, pamidronate, but not to the non-nitrogen containing BP clodronate. Notably, compared with DU145 parental cells, DU145R80 developed resistance to apoptosis and anoikis, as well as overexpressed the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and oncoprotein c-Myc. Moreover, DU145R80 cells underwent epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) and showed increased expression of the metalloproteases MMP-2/9, as well as increased invading capability. Interestingly, compared with DU145, DU145R80 cells also increased the gene expression and protein secretion of VEGF and the cytokines Eotaxin-1 and IL-12. At the molecular level, DU145R80 cells showed strong activation of the p38-MAPK-dependent survival pathway compared with parental sensitive cells. Moreover, using the p38-inhibitor SB203580, we completely reversed the resistance to ZOL, as well as EMT marker expression and invasion. Furthermore, SB203580 treatment reduced the expression of VEGF, Eotaxin-1, IL-12, MMP-9, Bcl-2 and c-Myc. Thus, for the first time, we demonstrate that the p38-MAPK pathway can be activated under continuous extensive exposure to ZOL in PCa cells and that the p38-MAPK pathway has a critical role in the induction of

  6. Human cytotrophoblasts acquire aneuploidies as they differentiateto an invasive phenotype

    SciTech Connect

    Weier, Jingly F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich G.; Jung, Christine J.; Gormley, Matthew; Zhou, Yuan; Chu, Lisa W.; Genbacev, Olga; Wright, AlexiA.; Fisher, Susan J.

    2004-12-15

    Through an unusual differentiation process, human trophoblast progenitors (cytotrophoblasts) give rise to tumor-like cells that invade the uterus. By an unknown mechanism, invasive cytotrophoblasts exhibit permanent cell cycle withdrawal. Here we report molecular cytogenetic data showing that {approx} 20 to 60 percent of these interphase cells had acquired aneusomies involving chromosomes X, Y, o r16. The incidence positively correlated with gestational age and differentiation to an invasive phenotype. Scoring 12 chromosomes in flow-sorted cytotrophoblasts showed that more than 95 percent of the cells were hyperdiploid. Thus, aneuploidy appears to be an important component of normal placentation, perhaps limiting the proliferative and invasive potential of cytotrophoblasts within the uterus.

  7. Metabolic phenotype of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Santoni, Matteo; Iacovelli, Roberto; Mazzucchelli, Roberta; Piva, Francesco; Scarpelli, Marina; Berardi, Rossana; Tortora, Giampaolo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo

    2016-04-01

    serine hydroxymethyltransferase-2 (SHMT2), resulting in an increased glycine and purine ring of nucleotides synthesis, thus supporting cells proliferation. A deep understanding of the metabolic phenotype of bladder cancer will provide novel opportunities for targeted therapeutic strategies.

  8. Metabolic phenotype of bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Massari, Francesco; Ciccarese, Chiara; Santoni, Matteo; Iacovelli, Roberto; Mazzucchelli, Roberta; Piva, Francesco; Scarpelli, Marina; Berardi, Rossana; Tortora, Giampaolo; Lopez-Beltran, Antonio; Cheng, Liang; Montironi, Rodolfo

    2016-04-01

    serine hydroxymethyltransferase-2 (SHMT2), resulting in an increased glycine and purine ring of nucleotides synthesis, thus supporting cells proliferation. A deep understanding of the metabolic phenotype of bladder cancer will provide novel opportunities for targeted therapeutic strategies. PMID:26975021

  9. Radiofrequency treatment alters cancer cell phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ware, Matthew J.; Tinger, Sophia; Colbert, Kevin L.; Corr, Stuart J.; Rees, Paul; Koshkina, Nadezhda; Curley, Steven; Summers, H. D.; Godin, Biana

    2015-01-01

    The importance of evaluating physical cues in cancer research is gradually being realized. Assessment of cancer cell physical appearance, or phenotype, may provide information on changes in cellular behavior, including migratory or communicative changes. These characteristics are intrinsically different between malignant and non-malignant cells and change in response to therapy or in the progression of the disease. Here, we report that pancreatic cancer cell phenotype was altered in response to a physical method for cancer therapy, a non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) treatment, which is currently being developed for human trials. We provide a battery of tests to explore these phenotype characteristics. Our data show that cell topography, morphology, motility, adhesion and division change as a result of the treatment. These may have consequences for tissue architecture, for diffusion of anti-cancer therapeutics and cancer cell susceptibility within the tumor. Clear phenotypical differences were observed between cancerous and normal cells in both their untreated states and in their response to RF therapy. We also report, for the first time, a transfer of microsized particles through tunneling nanotubes, which were produced by cancer cells in response to RF therapy. Additionally, we provide evidence that various sub-populations of cancer cells heterogeneously respond to RF treatment. PMID:26165830

  10. Radiofrequency treatment alters cancer cell phenotype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ware, Matthew J.; Tinger, Sophia; Colbert, Kevin L.; Corr, Stuart J.; Rees, Paul; Koshkina, Nadezhda; Curley, Steven; Summers, H. D.; Godin, Biana

    2015-07-01

    The importance of evaluating physical cues in cancer research is gradually being realized. Assessment of cancer cell physical appearance, or phenotype, may provide information on changes in cellular behavior, including migratory or communicative changes. These characteristics are intrinsically different between malignant and non-malignant cells and change in response to therapy or in the progression of the disease. Here, we report that pancreatic cancer cell phenotype was altered in response to a physical method for cancer therapy, a non-invasive radiofrequency (RF) treatment, which is currently being developed for human trials. We provide a battery of tests to explore these phenotype characteristics. Our data show that cell topography, morphology, motility, adhesion and division change as a result of the treatment. These may have consequences for tissue architecture, for diffusion of anti-cancer therapeutics and cancer cell susceptibility within the tumor. Clear phenotypical differences were observed between cancerous and normal cells in both their untreated states and in their response to RF therapy. We also report, for the first time, a transfer of microsized particles through tunneling nanotubes, which were produced by cancer cells in response to RF therapy. Additionally, we provide evidence that various sub-populations of cancer cells heterogeneously respond to RF treatment.

  11. Metabolic Phenotypes in Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Min; Zhou, Quanbo; Zhou, Yu; Fu, Zhiqiang; Tan, Langping; Ye, Xiao; Zeng, Bing; Gao, Wenchao; Zhou, Jiajia; Liu, Yimin; Li, Zhihua; Lin, Ye; Lin, Qing; Chen, Rufu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aim of present study was to profile the glucose-dependent and glutamine- dependent metabolism in pancreatic cancer. Methods We performed Immunohistochemical staining of GLUT1, CAIX, BNIP3, p62, LC3, GLUD1, and GOT1. Based on the expression of metabolism-related proteins, the metabolic phenotypes of tumors were classified into two categories, including glucose- and glutamine-dependent metabolism. There were Warburg type, reverse Warburg type, mixed type, and null type in glucose-dependent metabolism, and canonical type, non-canonical type, mixed type, null type in glutamine-dependent metabolism. Results Longer overall survival was associated with high expression of BNIP3 in tumor (p = 0.010). Shorter overall survival was associated with high expression of GLUT1 in tumor (P = 0.002) and GOT1 in tumor (p = 0.030). Warburg type of glucose-dependent metabolism had a highest percentage of tumors with nerve infiltration (P = 0.0003), UICC stage (P = 0.0004), and activated autophagic status in tumor (P = 0.0167). Mixed type of glucose-dependent metabolism comprised the highest percentage of tumors with positive marginal status (P<0.0001), lymphatic invasion (P<0.0001), and activated autophagic status in stroma (P = 0.0002). Mixed type and Warburg type had a significant association with shorter overall survival (P = 0.018). Non-canonical type and mixed type of glutamine-dependent metabolism comprised the highest percentage of tumors with vascular invasion (p = 0.0073), highest percentage of activated autophagy in tumors (P = 0.0034). Moreover, these two types of glutamine-dependent metabolism were significantly associated with shorter overall survival (P<0.001). Further analysis suggested that most of tumors were dependent on both glucose- and glutamine-dependent metabolism. After dividing the tumors according to the number of metabolism, we found that the increasing numbers of metabolism subtypes inversely associated with survival outcome. Conclusion

  12. Restoration of normal phenotype in cancer cells

    DOEpatents

    Bissell, M.J.; Weaver, V.M.

    1998-12-08

    A method for reversing expression of malignant phenotype in cancer cells is described. The method comprises applying {beta}{sub 1} integrin function-blocking antibody to the cells. The method can be used to assess the progress of cancer therapy. Human breast epithelial cells were shown to be particularly responsive. 14 figs.

  13. Restoration of normal phenotype in cancer cells

    DOEpatents

    Bissell, Mina J.; Weaver, Valerie M.

    1998-01-01

    A method for reversing expression of malignant phenotype in cancer cells is described. The method comprises applying .beta..sub.1 integrin function-blocking antibody to the cells. The method can be used to assess the progress of cancer therapy. Human breast epithelial cells were shown to be particularly responsive.

  14. Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Luis; Chisholm, Rebecca; Clairambault, Jean; Escargueil, Alexandre; Lorenzi, Tommaso; Lorz, Alexander; Trélat, Emmanuel

    2016-06-01

    Phenotype heterogeneity in cancer cell populations, be it of genetic, epigenetic or stochastic origin, has been identified as a main source of resistance to drug treatments and a major source of therapeutic failures in cancers. The molecular mechanisms of drug resistance are partly understood at the single cell level (e.g., overexpression of ABC transporters or of detoxication enzymes), but poorly predictable in tumours, where they are hypothesised to rely on heterogeneity at the cell population scale, which is thus the right level to describe cancer growth and optimise its control by therapeutic strategies in the clinic. We review a few results from the biological literature on the subject, and from mathematical models that have been published to predict and control evolution towards drug resistance in cancer cell populations. We propose, based on the latter, optimisation strategies of combined treatments to limit emergence of drug resistance to cytotoxic drugs in cancer cell populations, in the monoclonal situation, which limited as it is still retains consistent features of cell population heterogeneity. The polyclonal situation, that may be understood as "bet hedging" of the tumour, thus protecting itself from different sources of drug insults, may lie beyond such strategies and will need further developments. In the monoclonal situation, we have designed an optimised therapeutic strategy relying on a scheduled combination of cytotoxic and cytostatic treatments that can be adapted to different situations of cancer treatments. Finally, we review arguments for biological theoretical frameworks proposed at different time and development scales, the so-called atavistic model (diachronic view relying on Darwinian genotype selection in the coursof billions of years) and the Waddington-like epigenetic landscape endowed with evolutionary quasi-potential (synchronic view relying on Lamarckian phenotype instruction of a given genome by reversible mechanisms), to

  15. Multi-Layered Cancer Chromosomal Instability Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Roschke, Anna V.; Rozenblum, Ester

    2013-01-01

    Whole-chromosomal instability (W-CIN) – unequal chromosome distribution during cell division – is a characteristic feature of a majority of cancer cells distinguishing them from their normal counterparts. The precise molecular mechanisms that may cause mis-segregation of chromosomes in tumor cells just recently became more evident. The consequences of W-CIN are numerous and play a critical role in carcinogenesis. W-CIN mediates evolution of cancer cell population under selective pressure and can facilitate the accumulation of genetic changes that promote malignancy. It has both tumor-promoting and tumor-suppressive effects, and their balance could be beneficial or detrimental for carcinogenesis. The characterization of W-CIN as a complex multi-layered adaptive phenotype highlights the intra- and extracellular adaptations to the consequences of genome reshuffling. It also provides a framework for targeting aggressive chromosomally unstable cancers. PMID:24377086

  16. DNA damage phenotype and prostate cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    Kosti, O.; Goldman, L.; Saha, D.T.; Orden, R.A.; Pollock, A.J.; Madej, H.L.; Hsing, A.W.; Chu, L.W.; Lynch, J.H.; Goldman, R.

    2010-01-01

    The capacity of an individual to process DNA damage is considered a crucial factor in carcinogenesis. The comet assay is a phenotypic measure of the combined effects of sensitivity to a mutagen exposure and repair capacity. In this paper, we evaluate the association of the DNA repair kinetics, as measured by the comet assay, with prostate cancer risk. In a pilot study of 55 men with prostate cancer, 53 men without the disease, and 71 men free of cancer at biopsy, we investigated the association of DNA damage with prostate cancer risk at early (0-15 min) and later (15-45 min) stages following gamma-radiation exposure. Although residual damage within 45 min was the same for all groups (65% of DNA in comet tail disappeared), prostate cancer cases had a slower first phase (38% vs 41%) and faster second phase (27% vs 22%) of the repair response compared to controls. When subjects were categorized into quartiles, according to efficiency of repairing DNA damage, high repair-efficiency within the first 15 min after exposure was not associated with prostate cancer risk while higher at the 15-45 min period was associated with increased risk (OR for highest-to-lowest quartiles = 3.24, 95% CI=0.98-10.66, p-trend =0.04). Despite limited sample size, our data suggest that DNA repair kinetics marginally differ between prostate cancer cases and controls. This small difference could be associated with differential responses to DNA damage among susceptible individuals. PMID:21095241

  17. Imaging the urokinase plasminongen activator receptor in preclinical breast cancer models of acquired drug resistance.

    PubMed

    LeBeau, Aaron M; Sevillano, Natalia; King, Mandy L; Duriseti, Sai; Murphy, Stephanie T; Craik, Charles S; Murphy, Laura L; VanBrocklin, Henry F

    2014-01-01

    Subtype-targeted therapies can have a dramatic impact on improving the quality and quantity of life for women suffering from breast cancer. Despite an initial therapeutic response, cancer recurrence and acquired drug-resistance are commonplace. Non-invasive imaging probes that identify drug-resistant lesions are urgently needed to aid in the development of novel drugs and the effective utilization of established therapies for breast cancer. The protease receptor urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) is a target that can be exploited for non-invasive imaging. The expression of uPAR has been associated with phenotypically aggressive breast cancer and acquired drug-resistance. Acquired drug-resistance was modeled in cell lines from two different breast cancer subtypes, the uPAR negative luminal A subtype and the uPAR positive triple negative subtype cell line MDA-MB-231. MCF-7 cells, cultured to be resistant to tamoxifen (MCF-7 TamR), were found to significantly over-express uPAR compared to the parental cell line. uPAR expression was maintained when resistance was modeled in triple-negative breast cancer by generating doxorubicin and paclitaxel resistant MDA-MB-231 cells (MDA-MB-231 DoxR and MDA-MB-231 TaxR). Using the antagonistic uPAR antibody 2G10, uPAR was imaged in vivo by near-infrared (NIR) optical imaging and (111)In-single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Tumor uptake of the (111)In-SPECT probe was high in the three drug-resistant xenografts (> 46 %ID/g) and minimal in uPAR negative xenografts at 72 hours post-injection. This preclinical study demonstrates that uPAR can be targeted for imaging breast cancer models of acquired resistance leading to potential clinical applications. PMID:24505235

  18. Sleep Duration and Breast Cancer Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Khawaja, Ali; Rao, Santosh; Li, Li; Thompson, Cheryl L.

    2013-01-01

    Emerging evidence suggests that short sleep is associated with an increased risk of cancer; however, little has been done to study the role of sleep on tumor characteristics. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between sleep duration and tumor phenotype in 972 breast cancer patients. Sleep duration was inversely associated with tumor grade (univariate P = 0.032), particularly in postmenopausal women (univariate P = 0.018). This association did not reach statistical significance after adjustments for age, race, body mass index, hormone replacement therapy use, alcohol consumption, smoking, and physical activity in the entire study sample (P = 0.052), but it remained statistically significant (P = 0.049) among post-menopausal patients. We did not observe a statistically significant association between sleep duration and stage at diagnosis, ER, or HER2 receptor status. These results present a modest association between short duration of sleep and higher grade breast cancer in post-menopausal women. Further work needs to be done to validate these findings. PMID:24319459

  19. Acquire: an open-source comprehensive cancer biobanking system

    PubMed Central

    Dowst, Heidi; Pew, Benjamin; Watkins, Chris; McOwiti, Apollo; Barney, Jonathan; Qu, Shijing; Becnel, Lauren B.

    2015-01-01

    Motivation: The probability of effective treatment of cancer with a targeted therapeutic can be improved for patients with defined genotypes containing actionable mutations. To this end, many human cancer biobanks are integrating more tightly with genomic sequencing facilities and with those creating and maintaining patient-derived xenografts (PDX) and cell lines to provide renewable resources for translational research. Results: To support the complex data management needs and workflows of several such biobanks, we developed Acquire. It is a robust, secure, web-based, database-backed open-source system that supports all major needs of a modern cancer biobank. Its modules allow for i) up-to-the-minute ‘scoreboard’ and graphical reporting of collections; ii) end user roles and permissions; iii) specimen inventory through caTissue Suite; iv) shipping forms for distribution of specimens to pathology, genomic analysis and PDX/cell line creation facilities; v) robust ad hoc querying; vi) molecular and cellular quality control metrics to track specimens’ progress and quality; vii) public researcher request; viii) resource allocation committee distribution request review and oversight and ix) linkage to available derivatives of specimen. Availability and Implementation: Acquire implements standard controlled vocabularies, ontologies and objects from the NCI, CDISC and others. Here we describe the functionality of the system, its technological stack and the processes it supports. A test version Acquire is available at https://tcrbacquire-stg.research.bcm.edu; software is available in https://github.com/BCM-DLDCC/Acquire; and UML models, data and workflow diagrams, behavioral specifications and other documents are available at https://github.com/BCM-DLDCC/Acquire/tree/master/supplementaryMaterials. Contact: becnel@bcm.edu PMID:25573920

  20. Long-term persistence of acquired resistance to 5-fluorouracil in the colon cancer cell line SW620

    SciTech Connect

    Tentes, I.K.; Schmidt, W.M.; Krupitza, G.; Steger, G.G.; Mikulits, W.; Kortsaris, A.; Mader, R.M.

    2010-11-15

    Treatment resistance to antineoplastic drugs represents a major clinical problem. Here, we investigated the long-term stability of acquired resistance to 5-fluorouracil (FU) in an in vitro colon cancer model, using four sub-clones characterised by increasing FU-resistance derived from the cell line SW620. The resistance phenotype was preserved after FU withdrawal for 15 weeks ({approx} 100 cell divisions) independent of the established level of drug resistance and of epigenetic silencing. Remarkably, resistant clones tolerated serum deprivation, adopted a CD133{sup +} CD44{sup -} phenotype, and further exhibited loss of membrane-bound E-cadherin together with predominant nuclear {beta}-catenin localisation. Thus, we provide evidence for a long-term memory of acquired drug resistance, driven by multiple cellular strategies (epithelial-mesenchymal transition and selective propagation of CD133{sup +} cells). These resistance phenomena, in turn, accentuate the malignant phenotype.

  1. The overshoot and phenotypic equilibrium in characterizing cancer dynamics of reversible phenotypic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiufang; Wang, Yue; Feng, Tianquan; Yi, Ming; Zhang, Xingan; Zhou, Da

    2016-02-01

    The paradigm of phenotypic plasticity indicates reversible relations of different cancer cell phenotypes, which extends the cellular hierarchy proposed by the classical cancer stem cell (CSC) theory. Since it is still questionable if the phenotypic plasticity is a crucial improvement to the hierarchical model or just a minor extension to it, it is worthwhile to explore the dynamic behavior characterizing the reversible phenotypic plasticity. In this study we compare the hierarchical model and the reversible model in predicting the cell-state dynamics observed in biological experiments. Our results show that the hierarchical model shows significant disadvantages over the reversible model in describing both long-term stability (phenotypic equilibrium) and short-term transient dynamics (overshoot) in cancer cell populations. In a very specific case in which the total growth of population due to each cell type is identical, the hierarchical model predicts neither phenotypic equilibrium nor overshoot, whereas the reversible model succeeds in predicting both of them. Even though the performance of the hierarchical model can be improved by relaxing the specific assumption, its prediction to the phenotypic equilibrium strongly depends on a precondition that may be unrealistic in biological experiments. Moreover, it still does not show as rich dynamics as the reversible model in capturing the overshoots of both CSCs and non-CSCs. By comparison, it is more likely for the reversible model to correctly predict the stability of the phenotypic mixture and various types of overshoot behavior.

  2. Phenotyping community-acquired pneumonia according to the presence of acute respiratory failure and severe sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory failure (ARF) and severe sepsis (SS) are possible complications in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The aim of the study was to evaluate prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and impact on mortality of hospitalized patients with CAP according to the presence of ARF and SS on admission. Methods This was a multicenter, observational, prospective study of consecutive CAP patients admitted to three hospitals in Italy, Spain, and Scotland between 2008 and 2010. Three groups of patients were identified: those with neither ARF nor SS (Group A), those with only ARF (Group B) and those with both ARF and SS (Group C) on admission. Results Among the 2,145 patients enrolled, 45% belonged to Group A, 36% to Group B and 20% to Group C. Patients in Group C were more severe than patients in Group B. Isolated ARF was correlated with age (p < 0.001), COPD (p < 0.001) and multilobar infiltrates (p < 0.001). The contemporary occurrence of ARF and SS was associated with age (p = 0.002), residency in nursing home (p = 0.007), COPD (p < 0.001), multilobar involvement (p < 0.001) and renal disease (p < 0.001). 4.2% of patients in Group A died, 9.3% in Group B and 26% in Group C, p < 0.001. After adjustment, the presence of only ARF had an OR for in-hospital mortality of 1.85 (p = 0.011) and the presence of both ARF and SS had an OR of 6.32 (p < 0.001). Conclusions The identification of ARF and SS on hospital admission can help physicians in classifying CAP patients into three different clinical phenotypes. PMID:24593040

  3. Method for restoration of normal phenotype in cancer cells

    DOEpatents

    Bissell, Mina J.; Weaver, Valerie M.

    2000-01-01

    A method for reversing expression of malignant phenotype in cancer cells is described. The method comprises applying .beta..sub.1 integrin function-blocking antibody to the cells. The method can be used to assess the progress of cancer therapy. Human breast epithelial cells were shown to be particularly responsive.

  4. Precision and error of three-dimensional phenotypic measures acquired from 3dMD photogrammetric images.

    PubMed

    Aldridge, Kristina; Boyadjiev, Simeon A; Capone, George T; DeLeon, Valerie B; Richtsmeier, Joan T

    2005-10-15

    The genetic basis for complex phenotypes is currently of great interest for both clinical investigators and basic scientists. In order to acquire a thorough understanding of the translation from genotype to phenotype, highly precise measures of phenotypic variation are required. New technologies, such as 3D photogrammetry are being implemented in phenotypic studies due to their ability to collect data rapidly and non-invasively. Before these systems can be broadly implemented, the error associated with data collected from images acquired using these technologies must be assessed. This study investigates the precision, error, and repeatability associated with anthropometric landmark coordinate data collected from 3D digital photogrammetric images acquired with the 3dMDface System. Precision, error due to the imaging system, error due to digitization of the images, and repeatability are assessed in a sample of children and adults (n = 15). Results show that data collected from images with the 3dMDface System are highly repeatable and precise. The average error associated with the placement of landmarks is sub-millimeter; both the error due to digitization and due to the imaging system are very low. The few measures showing a higher degree of error include those crossing the labial fissure, which are influenced by even subtle movement of the mandible. These results suggest that 3D anthropometric data collected using the 3dMDface System are highly reliable and, therefore, useful for evaluation of clinical dysmorphology and surgery, analyses of genotype-phenotype correlations, and inheritance of complex phenotypes. PMID:16158436

  5. Phenotypic plasticity in prostate cancer: role of intrinsically disordered proteins

    PubMed Central

    Mooney, Steven M; Jolly, Mohit Kumar; Levine, Herbert; Kulkarni, Prakash

    2016-01-01

    A striking characteristic of cancer cells is their remarkable phenotypic plasticity, which is the ability to switch states or phenotypes in response to environmental fluctuations. Phenotypic changes such as a partial or complete epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) that play important roles in their survival and proliferation, and development of resistance to therapeutic treatments, are widely believed to arise due to somatic mutations in the genome. However, there is a growing concern that such a deterministic view is not entirely consistent with multiple lines of evidence, which indicate that stochasticity may also play an important role in driving phenotypic plasticity. Here, we discuss how stochasticity in protein interaction networks (PINs) may play a key role in determining phenotypic plasticity in prostate cancer (PCa). Specifically, we point out that the key players driving transitions among different phenotypes (epithelial, mesenchymal, and hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal), including ZEB1, SNAI1, OVOL1, and OVOL2, are intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and discuss how plasticity at the molecular level may contribute to stochasticity in phenotypic switching by rewiring PINs. We conclude by suggesting that targeting IDPs implicated in EMT in PCa may be a new strategy to gain additional insights and develop novel treatments for this disease, which is the most common form of cancer in adult men. PMID:27427552

  6. Phenotypic plasticity in prostate cancer: role of intrinsically disordered proteins.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Steven M; Jolly, Mohit Kumar; Levine, Herbert; Kulkarni, Prakash

    2016-01-01

    A striking characteristic of cancer cells is their remarkable phenotypic plasticity, which is the ability to switch states or phenotypes in response to environmental fluctuations. Phenotypic changes such as a partial or complete epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) that play important roles in their survival and proliferation, and development of resistance to therapeutic treatments, are widely believed to arise due to somatic mutations in the genome. However, there is a growing concern that such a deterministic view is not entirely consistent with multiple lines of evidence, which indicate that stochasticity may also play an important role in driving phenotypic plasticity. Here, we discuss how stochasticity in protein interaction networks (PINs) may play a key role in determining phenotypic plasticity in prostate cancer (PCa). Specifically, we point out that the key players driving transitions among different phenotypes (epithelial, mesenchymal, and hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal), including ZEB1, SNAI1, OVOL1, and OVOL2, are intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) and discuss how plasticity at the molecular level may contribute to stochasticity in phenotypic switching by rewiring PINs. We conclude by suggesting that targeting IDPs implicated in EMT in PCa may be a new strategy to gain additional insights and develop novel treatments for this disease, which is the most common form of cancer in adult men. PMID:27427552

  7. Phenotypic screening in cancer drug discovery - past, present and future.

    PubMed

    Moffat, John G; Rudolph, Joachim; Bailey, David

    2014-08-01

    There has been a resurgence of interest in the use of phenotypic screens in drug discovery as an alternative to target-focused approaches. Given that oncology is currently the most active therapeutic area, and also one in which target-focused approaches have been particularly prominent in the past two decades, we investigated the contribution of phenotypic assays to oncology drug discovery by analysing the origins of all new small-molecule cancer drugs approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) over the past 15 years and those currently in clinical development. Although the majority of these drugs originated from target-based discovery, we identified a significant number whose discovery depended on phenotypic screening approaches. We postulate that the contribution of phenotypic screening to cancer drug discovery has been hampered by a reliance on 'classical' nonspecific drug effects such as cytotoxicity and mitotic arrest, exacerbated by a paucity of mechanistically defined cellular models for therapeutically translatable cancer phenotypes. However, technical and biological advances that enable such mechanistically informed phenotypic models have the potential to empower phenotypic drug discovery in oncology.

  8. The Lipid Phenotype of Breast Cancer Cells Characterized by Raman Microspectroscopy: Towards a Stratification of Malignancy

    PubMed Central

    Santana-Codina, Naiara; Rao, Satish; Petrov, Dmitri; Sierra, Angels

    2012-01-01

    Although molecular classification brings interesting insights into breast cancer taxonomy, its implementation in daily clinical care is questionable because of its expense and the information supplied in a single sample allocation is not sufficiently reliable. New approaches, based on a panel of small molecules derived from the global or targeted analysis of metabolic profiles of cells, have found a correlation between activation of de novo lipogenesis and poorer prognosis and shorter disease-free survival for many tumors. We hypothesized that the lipid content of breast cancer cells might be a useful indirect measure of a variety of functions coupled to breast cancer progression. Raman microspectroscopy was used to characterize metabolism of breast cancer cells with different degrees of malignancy. Raman spectra from MDA-MB-435, MDA-MB-468, MDA-MB-231, SKBR3, MCF7 and MCF10A cells were acquired with an InVia Raman microscope (Renishaw) with a backscattered configuration. We used Principal Component Analysis and Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analyses to assess the different profiling of the lipid composition of breast cancer cells. Characteristic bands related to lipid content were found at 3014, 2935, 2890 and 2845 cm−1, and related to lipid and protein content at 2940 cm−1. A classificatory model was generated which segregated metastatic cells and non-metastatic cells without basal-like phenotype with a sensitivity of 90% and a specificity of 82.1%. Moreover, expression of SREBP-1c and ABCA1 genes validated the assignation of the lipid phenotype of breast cancer cells. Indeed, changes in fatty acid unsaturation were related with the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition phenotype. Raman microspectroscopy is a promising technique for characterizing and classifying the malignant phenotype of breast cancer cells on the basis of their lipid profiling. The algorithm for the discrimination of metastatic ability is a first step towards stratifying breast cancer

  9. Methylator phenotype in colorectal cancer: A prognostic factor or not?

    PubMed

    Gallois, C; Laurent-Puig, P; Taieb, J

    2016-03-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is due to different types of genetic alterations that are translated into different phenotypes. Among them, CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP+) is the most recently involved in carcinogenesis of some CRC. The malignant transformation in this case is mainly due to the transcriptional inactivation of tumor suppressor genes. CIMP+ are reported to be more frequently found in the elderly and in women. The tumors are more frequently located in the proximal part of the colon, BRAF mutated and are associated with microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype. All sporadic MSI CRC belong to the methylator phenotype, however some non MSI CRC may also harbor a methylator phenotype. The prognostic value of CIMP is not well known. Most studies show a worse prognosis in CIMP+ CRC, and adjuvant treatments seem to be more efficient. We review here the current knowledge on prognostic and predictive values in CIMP+ CRC. PMID:26702883

  10. Do cancer cells undergo phenotypic switching? The case for imperfect cancer stem cell markers

    PubMed Central

    Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of cancer stem cells in vivo and in vitro relies on specific surface markers that should allow to sort cancer cells in phenotypically distinct subpopulations. Experiments report that sorted cancer cell populations after some time tend to express again all the original markers, leading to the hypothesis of phenotypic switching, according to which cancer cells can transform stochastically into cancer stem cells. Here we explore an alternative explanation based on the hypothesis that markers are not perfect and are thus unable to identify all cancer stem cells. Our analysis is based on a mathematical model for cancer cell proliferation that takes into account phenotypic switching, imperfect markers and error in the sorting process. Our conclusion is that the observation of reversible expression of surface markers after sorting does not provide sufficient evidence in support of phenotypic switching. PMID:22679555

  11. Glucose metabolic phenotype of pancreatic cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Anthony KC; Bruce, Jason IE; Siriwardena, Ajith K

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To construct a global “metabolic phenotype” of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) reflecting tumour-related metabolic enzyme expression. METHODS: A systematic review of the literature was performed using OvidSP and PubMed databases using keywords “pancreatic cancer” and individual glycolytic and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (MOP) enzymes. Both human and animal studies investigating the oncological effect of enzyme expression changes and inhibitors in both an in vitro and in vivo setting were included in the review. Data reporting changes in enzyme expression and the effects on PDAC cells, such as survival and metastatic potential, were extracted to construct a metabolic phenotype. RESULTS: Seven hundred and ten papers were initially retrieved, and were screened to meet the review inclusion criteria. 107 unique articles were identified as reporting data involving glycolytic enzymes, and 28 articles involving MOP enzymes in PDAC. Data extraction followed a pre-defined protocol. There is consistent over-expression of glycolytic enzymes and lactate dehydrogenase in keeping with the Warburg effect to facilitate rapid adenosine-triphosphate production from glycolysis. Certain isoforms of these enzymes were over-expressed specifically in PDAC. Altering expression levels of HK, PGI, FBA, enolase, PK-M2 and LDA-A with metabolic inhibitors have shown a favourable effect on PDAC, thus identifying these as potential therapeutic targets. However, the Warburg effect on MOP enzymes is less clear, with different expression levels at different points in the Krebs cycle resulting in a fundamental change of metabolite levels, suggesting that other essential anabolic pathways are being stimulated. CONCLUSION: Further characterisation of the PDAC metabolic phenotype is necessary as currently there are few clinical studies and no successful clinical trials targeting metabolic enzymes. PMID:27022229

  12. Human Cancers Express a Mutator Phenotype: Hypothesis, Origin, and Consequences.

    PubMed

    Loeb, Lawrence A

    2016-04-15

    The mutator phenotype hypothesis was postulated more than 40 years ago. It was based on the multiple enzymatic steps required to precisely replicate the 6 billion bases in the human genome each time a normal cell divides. A reduction in this accuracy during tumor progression could be responsible for the striking heterogeneity of malignant cells within a tumor and for the rapidity by which cancers become resistant to therapy. Cancer Res; 76(8); 2057-9. ©2016 AACRSee related article by Loeb et al. Cancer Res. 1974;34:2311-21.

  13. Evidence for the role of microRNA 374b in acquired cisplatin resistance in pancreatic cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, R; Mezencev, R; Matyunina, L V; McDonald, J F

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has implicated microRNAs (miRNAs) as potentially significant players in the acquisition of cancer-drug resistance in pancreatic and other cancers. To evaluate the potential contribution of miRNAs in acquired resistance to cisplatin in pancreatic cancer, we compared levels of more than 2000 human miRNAs in a cisplatin-resistant cell line (BxPC3-R) derived from parental (BxPC3) cells by step-wise exposure to increasing concentrations of the drug over more than 20 passages. The acquired drug resistance was accompanied by significant changes in the expression of 57 miRNAs, of which 23 were downregulated and 34 were upregulated. Employing a hidden Markov model (HMM) algorithm, we identified downregulation of miR-374b as likely being directly involved in acquisition of the drug-resistant phenotype. Consistent with this prediction, ectopic overexpression of miR-374b in the resistant BxPC3-R cells restored cisplatin sensitivity to levels approaching those displayed by the BxPC3 parental cells. The results are consistent with a growing body of evidence implicating miRNAs in acquired cancer-drug resistance and with the potential therapeutic value of these small regulatory RNAs in blocking and/or reversing the process. PMID:27229158

  14. Evidence for the role of microRNA 374b in acquired cisplatin resistance in pancreatic cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, R; Mezencev, R; Matyunina, L V; McDonald, J F

    2016-08-01

    Recent evidence has implicated microRNAs (miRNAs) as potentially significant players in the acquisition of cancer-drug resistance in pancreatic and other cancers. To evaluate the potential contribution of miRNAs in acquired resistance to cisplatin in pancreatic cancer, we compared levels of more than 2000 human miRNAs in a cisplatin-resistant cell line (BxPC3-R) derived from parental (BxPC3) cells by step-wise exposure to increasing concentrations of the drug over more than 20 passages. The acquired drug resistance was accompanied by significant changes in the expression of 57 miRNAs, of which 23 were downregulated and 34 were upregulated. Employing a hidden Markov model (HMM) algorithm, we identified downregulation of miR-374b as likely being directly involved in acquisition of the drug-resistant phenotype. Consistent with this prediction, ectopic overexpression of miR-374b in the resistant BxPC3-R cells restored cisplatin sensitivity to levels approaching those displayed by the BxPC3 parental cells. The results are consistent with a growing body of evidence implicating miRNAs in acquired cancer-drug resistance and with the potential therapeutic value of these small regulatory RNAs in blocking and/or reversing the process. PMID:27229158

  15. Human placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells acquire neural phenotype under the appropriate niche conditions.

    PubMed

    Martini, Maristela Maria; Jeremias, Talita da Silva; Kohler, Maria Cecília; Marostica, Lucas Lourenço; Trentin, Andréa Gonçalves; Alvarez-Silva, Marcio

    2013-02-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent stem cells with clinical interest. It has been reported that MSCs can be isolated from the human term placenta. We investigated the ability of human placenta-derived MSCs to differentiate into a neural phenotype in coculture assays with astrocytes obtained from neonatal rats. Placenta-derived MSCs were cocultured on a confluent monolayer of astrocytes obtained from the rat cerebellum to evaluate the differences in morphology. The extracellular matrix (ECM) produced by astrocytes as well as the growth factors produced by the astrocyte-conditioned medium were evaluated. The expression of the neural markers glial fibrillate acid protein (GFAP) and Nestin was studied in MSCs by immunocytochemistry. MSCs were able to respond to the astrocyte niche in coculture assays. They expressed the neural markers GFAP, Nestin, or β-Tubulin III, followed by an outgrowth of cell processes. The ECM from astrocytes was not effective in inducing the neural phenotype in MSCs, although the expression of β-Tubulin III was observed. When MSCs were cocultured with cerebellar astrocytes from newborn rats, a neural phenotype was achieved. This was determined by immunocytochemistry to GFAP, Nestin, or β-Tubulin III and by morphological changes. It was achieved without the addition of exogenous differentiation factors. This demonstrates that placenta-derived MSCs may be able to differentiate into neural cell types when in direct contact with a neural environment.

  16. Troglitazone reverses the multiple drug resistance phenotype in cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Davies, Gerald F; Juurlink, Bernhard HJ; Harkness, Troy AA

    2009-01-01

    A major problem in treating cancer is the development of drug resistance. We previously demonstrated doxorubicin (DOX) resistance in K562 human leukemia cells that was associated with upregulation of glyoxalase 1 (GLO-1) and histone H3 expression. The thiazolidinedione troglitazone (TRG) downregulated GLO-1 expression and further upregulated histone H3 expression and post-translational modifications in these cells, leading to a regained sensitivity to DOX. Given the pleiotropic effects of epigenetic changes in cancer development, we hypothesized that TRG may downregulate the multiple drug resistance (MDR) phenotype in a variety of cancer cells. To test this, MCF7 human breast cancer cells and K562 cells were cultured in the presence of low-dose DOX to establish DOX-resistant cell lines (K562/DOX and MCF7/DOX). The MDR phenotype was confirmed by Western blot analysis of the 170 kDa P-glycoprotein (Pgp) drug efflux pump multiple drug resistance protein 1 (MDR-1), and the breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP). TRG markedly decreased expression of both MDR-1 and BCRP in these cells, resulting in sensitivity to DOX. Silencing of MDR-1 expression also sensitized MCF7/DOX cells to DOX. Use of the specific and irreversible peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) inhibitor GW9662 in the nanomolar range not only demonstrated that the action of TRG on MCF/DOX was PPARγ-independent, but indicated that PPARγ may play a role in the MDR phenotype, which is antagonized by TRG. We conclude that TRG is potentially a useful adjunct therapy in chemoresistant cancers. PMID:19920924

  17. The significance of macrophage phenotype in cancer and biomaterials

    SciTech Connect

    Bygd, Hannah C.; Forsmark, Kiva D.; Bratlie, Kaitlin M.

    2014-11-25

    Macrophages have long been known to exhibit heterogeneous and plastic phenotypes. They show functional diversity with roles in homeostasis, tissue repair, immunity and disease. There exists a spectrum of macrophage phenotypes with varied effector functions, molecular determinants, cytokine and chemokine profiles, as well as receptor expression. In tumor microenvironments, the subset of macrophages known as tumor-associated macrophages generates byproducts that enhance tumor growth and angiogenesis, making them attractive targets for anti-cancer therapeutics. With respect to wound healing and the foreign body response, there is a necessity for balance between pro-inflammatory, wound healing, and regulatory macrophages in order to achieve successful implantation of a scaffold for tissue engineering. In this review, we discuss the multitude of ways macrophages are known to be important in cancer therapies and implanted biomaterials.

  18. The significance of macrophage phenotype in cancer and biomaterials

    DOE PAGES

    Bygd, Hannah C.; Forsmark, Kiva D.; Bratlie, Kaitlin M.

    2014-11-25

    Macrophages have long been known to exhibit heterogeneous and plastic phenotypes. They show functional diversity with roles in homeostasis, tissue repair, immunity and disease. There exists a spectrum of macrophage phenotypes with varied effector functions, molecular determinants, cytokine and chemokine profiles, as well as receptor expression. In tumor microenvironments, the subset of macrophages known as tumor-associated macrophages generates byproducts that enhance tumor growth and angiogenesis, making them attractive targets for anti-cancer therapeutics. With respect to wound healing and the foreign body response, there is a necessity for balance between pro-inflammatory, wound healing, and regulatory macrophages in order to achieve successfulmore » implantation of a scaffold for tissue engineering. In this review, we discuss the multitude of ways macrophages are known to be important in cancer therapies and implanted biomaterials.« less

  19. Human Cancers Express a Mutator Phenotype: Hypothesis, Origin, and Consequences

    PubMed Central

    Loeb, Lawrence A.

    2016-01-01

    The mutator phenotype hypothesis was postulated more than 40 years ago. It was based on the multiple enzymatic steps required to precisely replicate the 6 billion bases in the human genome each time a normal cell divides. A reduction in this accuracy during tumor progression could be responsible for the striking heterogeneity of malignant cells within a tumor and for the rapidity by which cancers become resistant to therapy. PMID:27197248

  20. Overshoot during phenotypic switching of cancer cell populations

    PubMed Central

    Sellerio, Alessandro L.; Ciusani, Emilio; Ben-Moshe, Noa Bossel; Coco, Stefania; Piccinini, Andrea; Myers, Christopher R.; Sethna, James P.; Giampietro, Costanza; Zapperi, Stefano; La Porta, Caterina A. M.

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of tumor cell populations is hotly debated: do populations derive hierarchically from a subpopulation of cancer stem cells (CSCs), or are stochastic transitions that mutate differentiated cancer cells to CSCs important? Here we argue that regulation must also be important. We sort human melanoma cells using three distinct cancer stem cell (CSC) markers — CXCR6, CD271 and ABCG2 — and observe that the fraction of non-CSC-marked cells first overshoots to a higher level and then returns to the level of unsorted cells. This clearly indicates that the CSC population is homeostatically regulated. Combining experimental measurements with theoretical modeling and numerical simulations, we show that the population dynamics of cancer cells is associated with a complex miRNA network regulating the Wnt and PI3K pathways. Hence phenotypic switching is not stochastic, but is tightly regulated by the balance between positive and negative cells in the population. Reducing the fraction of CSCs below a threshold triggers massive phenotypic switching, suggesting that a therapeutic strategy based on CSC eradication is unlikely to succeed. PMID:26494317

  1. Evolution of cellular morpho-phenotypes in cancer metastasis

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Pei-Hsun; Phillip, Jude M.; Khatau, Shyam B.; Chen, Wei-Chiang; Stirman, Jeffrey; Rosseel, Sophie; Tschudi, Katherine; Van Patten, Joshua; Wong, Michael; Gupta, Sonal; Baras, Alexander S.; Leek, Jeffrey T.; Maitra, Anirban; Wirtz, Denis

    2015-01-01

    Intratumoral heterogeneity greatly complicates the study of molecular mechanisms driving cancer progression and our ability to predict patient outcomes. Here we have developed an automated high-throughput cell-imaging platform (htCIP) that allows us to extract high-content information about individual cells, including cell morphology, molecular content and local cell density at single-cell resolution. We further develop a comprehensive visually-aided morpho-phenotyping recognition (VAMPIRE) tool to analyze irregular cellular and nuclear shapes in both 2D and 3D microenvironments. VAMPIRE analysis of ~39,000 cells from 13 previously sequenced patient-derived pancreatic cancer samples indicate that metastasized cells present significantly lower heterogeneity than primary tumor cells. We found the same morphological signature for metastasis for a cohort of 10 breast cancer cell lines. We further decipher the relative contributions to heterogeneity from cell cycle, cell-cell contact, cell stochasticity and heritable morphological variations. PMID:26675084

  2. Consensus nomenclature for CD8+ T cell phenotypes in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Apetoh, Lionel; Smyth, Mark J.; Drake, Charles G.; Abastado, Jean-Pierre; Apte, Ron N.; Ayyoub, Maha; Blay, Jean-Yves; Bonneville, Marc; Butterfield, Lisa H.; Caignard, Anne; Castelli, Chiara; Cavallo, Federica; Celis, Esteban; Chen, Lieping; Colombo, Mario P.; Comin-Anduix, Begoña; Coukos, Georges; Dhodapkar, Madhav V.; Dranoff, Glenn; Frazer, Ian H.; Fridman, Wolf-Hervé; Gabrilovich, Dmitry I.; Gilboa, Eli; Gnjatic, Sacha; Jäger, Dirk; Kalinski, Pawel; Kaufman, Howard L.; Kiessling, Rolf; Kirkwood, John; Knuth, Alexander; Liblau, Roland; Lotze, Michael T.; Lugli, Enrico; Marincola, Francesco; Melero, Ignacio; Melief, Cornelis J.; Mempel, Thorsten R.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Odun, Kunle; Overwijk, Willem W.; Palucka, Anna Karolina; Parmiani, Giorgio; Ribas, Antoni; Romero, Pedro; Schreiber, Robert D.; Schuler, Gerold; Srivastava, Pramod K.; Tartour, Eric; Valmori, Danila; van der Burg, Sjoerd H.; van der Bruggen, Pierre; van den Eynde, Benoît J.; Wang, Ena; Zou, Weiping; Whiteside, Theresa L.; Speiser, Daniel E.; Pardoll, Drew M.; Restifo, Nicholas P.; Anderson, Ana C.

    2015-01-01

    Whereas preclinical investigations and clinical studies have established that CD8+ T cells can profoundly affect cancer progression, the underlying mechanisms are still elusive. Challenging the prevalent view that the beneficial effect of CD8+ T cells in cancer is solely attributable to their cytotoxic activity, several reports have indicated that the ability of CD8+ T cells to promote tumor regression is dependent on their cytokine secretion profile and their ability to self-renew. Evidence has also shown that the tumor microenvironment can disarm CD8+ T cell immunity, leading to the emergence of dysfunctional CD8+ T cells. The existence of different types of CD8+ T cells in cancer calls for a more precise definition of the CD8+ T cell immune phenotypes in cancer and the abandonment of the generic terms “pro-tumor” and “antitumor.” Based on recent studies investigating the functions of CD8+ T cells in cancer, we here propose some guidelines to precisely define the functional states of CD8+ T cells in cancer. PMID:26137416

  3. Molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    During the last 15 years, traditional breast cancer classifications based on histopathology have been reorganized into the luminal A, luminal B, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and basal-like subtypes based on gene expression profiling. Each molecular subtype has shown varying risk for progression, response to treatment, and survival outcomes. Research linking the imaging phenotype with the molecular subtype has revealed that non-calcified, relatively circumscribed masses with posterior acoustic enhancement are common in the basal-like subtype, spiculated masses with a poorly circumscribed margin and posterior acoustic shadowing in the luminal subtype, and pleomorphic calcifications in the HER2-enriched subtype. Understanding the clinical implications of the molecular subtypes and imaging phenotypes could help radiologists guide precision medicine, tailoring medical treatment to patients and their tumor characteristics. PMID:27599892

  4. Evolution and Phenotypic Selection of Cancer Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Poleszczuk, Jan; Hahnfeldt, Philip; Enderling, Heiko

    2015-01-01

    Cells of different organs at different ages have an intrinsic set of kinetics that dictates their behavior. Transformation into cancer cells will inherit these kinetics that determine initial cell and tumor population progression dynamics. Subject to genetic mutation and epigenetic alterations, cancer cell kinetics can change, and favorable alterations that increase cellular fitness will manifest themselves and accelerate tumor progression. We set out to investigate the emerging intratumoral heterogeneity and to determine the evolutionary trajectories of the combination of cell-intrinsic kinetics that yield aggressive tumor growth. We develop a cellular automaton model that tracks the temporal evolution of the malignant subpopulation of so-called cancer stem cells(CSC), as these cells are exclusively able to initiate and sustain tumors. We explore orthogonal cell traits, including cell migration to facilitate invasion, spontaneous cell death due to genetic drift after accumulation of irreversible deleterious mutations, symmetric cancer stem cell division that increases the cancer stem cell pool, and telomere length and erosion as a mitotic counter for inherited non-stem cancer cell proliferation potential. Our study suggests that cell proliferation potential is the strongest modulator of tumor growth. Early increase in proliferation potential yields larger populations of non-stem cancer cells(CC) that compete with CSC and thus inhibit CSC division while a reduction in proliferation potential loosens such inhibition and facilitates frequent CSC division. The sub-population of cancer stem cells in itself becomes highly heterogeneous dictating population level dynamics that vary from long-term dormancy to aggressive progression. Our study suggests that the clonal diversity that is captured in single tumor biopsy samples represents only a small proportion of the total number of phenotypes. PMID:25742563

  5. Genetic lesions and the malignant phenotype of haematological cancers.

    PubMed

    Vandenberghe, P

    2007-01-01

    Cancer in a patient usually becomes manifest as a process of excessive cell growth in one or more organs which, if uncontrolled, will ultimately lead to death of the patient. The malignant clinical phenotype of cancer is the reflection of the altered cellular behaviour of individual cancer cells. Cumulative genetic alterations in pathways controlling cellular growth or survival, endow the latter cells with the capacity to grow independently of growth-regulating signals, to resist programmed cell death, to divide endlessly, and to interact differently with non-malignant cellular environment. The discovery of such recurrent genetic aberrations in haematological malignancies has led to new diagnostic tests, but also to a shift towards development of new rational, specific and effective targets for therapy. For instance, protein tyrosine kinases are pivotal switches for growth control, and small molecule inhibitors have profoundly reshaped therapeutic practice in in myeloproliferative disorders or acute lymphoblastic leukemias. New targets however also encompass the detrimental interactions of malignant cells with the normal environment, e.g. the immune system in the myelodysplastic syndromes. Finally, the paradigm of cancer as the result of cumulative genetic damage in normal cells also sheds new light on the vulnerability of congenital bone marrow failure syndromes to develop haematological malignancies. In this paper, we review our recent contributions to this cancer paradigm in malignant or premalignant haematological conditions.

  6. Celtic ancestry, HLA phenotype and increased risk of skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Long, C C; Darke, C; Marks, R

    1998-04-01

    Individuals of Celtic ancestry are claimed to be at greater risk of skin cancer than non-Celts, and various positive and negative associations between certain human leucocyte antigen (HLA) phenotypes and the development of skin cancer have been described. The aims of this study were to determine whether any HLA phenotypes are associated either with Celtic or non-Celtic ancestry, or skin type. One thousand and ten members of the Welsh Bone Marrow Donor Registry (WBMDR), whose HLA phenotypes are known, were asked to complete a questionnaire which enquired as to their family origins and their 'Index of Celtic Ancestry' scored out of 12. Three groups were identified: non-Celts (score < 3), Celts (score > 9), and a subset of the Celts--'high scoring' Celts (score > 10). Details of hair and eye colour and skin type were also requested. Skin type and HLA-A, -B, -DR and -DQ frequencies were compared between the three groups (Celts, non-Celts and 'high scoring' Celts), and a random indigenous population of 9196 members of the WBMDR. Seven hundred and thirty-six replies were received (279 male, 457 female, mean age 31 years). One hundred and forty-four Celts, 51 'high scoring' Celts and 170 non-Celts were identified. Forty-six (32%) Celts had skin type I or II compared with 36 (21%) non-Celts (P = 0.039), and 37 (73%) 'high scoring' Celts had skin type I or II (P < 0.0001). However, there were no significant differences between the groups with regard to hair colour, eye colour or number of episodes of painful sunburn. The frequency of HLA-DR4 was 32% in the non-Celtic group, 44% in the Celtic group (not significant), and 53% in the 'high scoring' Celts (P = 0.008). However, the difference was not significant after correction. There were no significant associations between skin type and HLA phenotype. HLA-DR4 is known to be associated with an increased risk of both basal cell carcinoma and malignant melanoma and its increased frequency in Celts may be an independent risk

  7. Axl mediates acquired resistance of head and neck cancer cells to the epidermal growth factor receptor inhibitor erlotinib.

    PubMed

    Giles, Keith M; Kalinowski, Felicity C; Candy, Patrick A; Epis, Michael R; Zhang, Priscilla M; Redfern, Andrew D; Stuart, Lisa M; Goodall, Gregory J; Leedman, Peter J

    2013-11-01

    Elevated expression and activity of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is associated with development and progression of head and neck cancer (HNC) and a poor prognosis. Clinical trials with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (e.g., erlotinib) have been disappointing in HNC. To investigate the mechanisms mediating resistance to these agents, we developed an HNC cell line (HN5-ER) with acquired erlotinib resistance. In contrast to parental HN5 HNC cells, HN5-ER cells exhibited an epithelial-mesenchymal (EMT) phenotype with increased migratory potential, reduced E-cadherin and epithelial-associated microRNAs (miRNA), and elevated vimentin expression. Phosphorylated receptor tyrosine kinase profiling identified Axl activation in HN5-ER cells. Growth and migration of HN5-ER cells were blocked with a specific Axl inhibitor, R428, and R428 resensitized HN5-ER cells to erlotinib. Microarray analysis of HN5-ER cells confirmed the EMT phenotype associated with acquired erlotinib resistance, and identified activation of gene expression associated with cell migration and inflammation pathways. Moreover, increased expression and secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8 in HN5-ER cells suggested a role for inflammatory cytokine signaling in EMT and erlotinib resistance. Expression of the tumor suppressor miR-34a was reduced in HN5-ER cells and increasing its expression abrogated Axl expression and reversed erlotinib resistance. Finally, analysis of 302 HNC patients revealed that high tumor Axl mRNA expression was associated with poorer survival (HR = 1.66, P = 0.007). In summary, our results identify Axl as a key mediator of acquired erlotinib resistance in HNC and suggest that therapeutic inhibition of Axl by small molecule drugs or specific miRNAs might overcome anti-EGFR therapy resistance. PMID:24026012

  8. Arsenic-induced cancer cell phenotype in human breast epithelia is estrogen receptor-independent but involves aromatase activation

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yuanyuan; Tokar, Erik J.; Waalkes, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Accumulating data suggest arsenic may be an endocrine disruptor, and tentatively linked to breast cancer by some studies. Therefore, we tested the effects of chronic inorganic arsenic exposure on the normal, estrogen receptor (ER)-negative breast epithelial cell line, MCF-10A. Cells were chronically exposed to a low-level arsenite (500 nM) for up to 24 weeks. Markers of cancer cell phenotype and expression of critical genes relevant to breast cancer or stem cells (SCs) were examined. After 24 weeks, chronic arsenic-exposed breast epithelial (CABE) cells showed increases in secreted MMP activity, colony formation, invasion and proliferation rate, indicating an acquired cancer cell phenotype. These CABE cells presented with basal-like breast cancer characteristics, including ER-α, HER-2 and progesterone receptor negativity, and overexpression of K5 and p63. Putative CD44+/CD24−/low breast SCs were increased to 80% over control in CABE cells. CABE cells also formed multilayer cell mounds, indicative of loss of contact inhibition. These mounds showed high levels of K5 and p63 indicating the potential presence of CSCs. Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition occurred during arsenic exposure.. Overexpression of aromatase, a key rate-limiting enzyme in estrogen synthesis, occurred with arsenic starting early on in exposure. Levels of 17β-estradiol increased in CABE cells and their conditioned medium. The aromatase inhibitor, letrozole abolished arsenic-induced increases of 17β-estradiol production, and reversed cancer cell phenotype. Thus, chronic arsenic exposure drive human breast epithelia into a cancer cell phenotype with an apparent overabundance of putative CSCs. Arsenic appears to transform breast epithelia through overexpression of aromatase, thereby activating oncogenic processes independent of ER. PMID:24068038

  9. Life-threatening hemorrhage from acquired hemophilia A as a presenting manifestation of prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sheth, Chirag; Gill, Amandeep; Sekhon, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    Acquired factor VIII deficiency (acquired hemophilia A) is a rare condition characterized by the acquisition of autoantibodies that affect the clotting activity of factor VIII (fVIII). The most common manifestation in affected patients is a hemorrhagic diathesis. This disorder is associated with autoimmune diseases, pregnancy, postpartum period, drugs, and malignancy. Management of this condition begins with attempts to arrest an acute bleed based on the site and severity of bleeding and inhibitor titer. The next priority is eradication of the fVIII antibodies using immunosuppressive therapies. We report the case of a 66-year-old male who presented with spontaneous right thigh hematoma with prolonged activated partial prothrombin time and normal prothrombin time. Mixing studies confirmed the presence of an inhibitor. Further investigation for the underlying etiology of acquired hemophilia A leads to diagnosis of prostate cancer. Treatment consisted of bypassing agents including activated factor VII and activated prothrombin plasma concentrate to arrest the bleeding. Steroids and cyclophosphamide were added to suppress the fVIII inhibitors. Concomitant treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer with chemotherapy confirmed the eradication of the inhibitors. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of prostate cancer diagnosed and treated simultaneously with acquired hemophilia A resulting in favorable patient outcome. PMID:27609734

  10. Life-threatening hemorrhage from acquired hemophilia A as a presenting manifestation of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Chirag; Gill, Amandeep; Sekhon, Sumeet

    2016-01-01

    Acquired factor VIII deficiency (acquired hemophilia A) is a rare condition characterized by the acquisition of autoantibodies that affect the clotting activity of factor VIII (fVIII). The most common manifestation in affected patients is a hemorrhagic diathesis. This disorder is associated with autoimmune diseases, pregnancy, postpartum period, drugs, and malignancy. Management of this condition begins with attempts to arrest an acute bleed based on the site and severity of bleeding and inhibitor titer. The next priority is eradication of the fVIII antibodies using immunosuppressive therapies. We report the case of a 66-year-old male who presented with spontaneous right thigh hematoma with prolonged activated partial prothrombin time and normal prothrombin time. Mixing studies confirmed the presence of an inhibitor. Further investigation for the underlying etiology of acquired hemophilia A leads to diagnosis of prostate cancer. Treatment consisted of bypassing agents including activated factor VII and activated prothrombin plasma concentrate to arrest the bleeding. Steroids and cyclophosphamide were added to suppress the fVIII inhibitors. Concomitant treatment of locally advanced prostate cancer with chemotherapy confirmed the eradication of the inhibitors. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of prostate cancer diagnosed and treated simultaneously with acquired hemophilia A resulting in favorable patient outcome. PMID:27609734

  11. DNMT3B7 Expression Promotes Tumor Progression to a More Aggressive Phenotype in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Brambert, Patrick R.; Kelpsch, Daniel J.; Hameed, Rabia; Desai, Charmi V.; Calafiore, Gianfranco; Godley, Lucy A.; Raimondi, Stacey L.

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetic changes, such as DNA methylation, have been shown to promote breast cancer progression. However, the mechanism by which cancer cells acquire and maintain abnormal DNA methylation is not well understood. We have previously identified an aberrant splice form of a DNA methyltransferase, DNMT3B7, expressed in virtually all cancer cell lines but at very low levels in normal cells. Furthermore, aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells have been shown to express increased levels of DNMT3B7 compared to poorly invasive MCF-7 cells, indicating that DNMT3B7 may have a role in promoting a more invasive phenotype. Using data gathered from The Cancer Genome Atlas, we show that DNMT3B7 expression is increased in breast cancer patient tissues compared to normal tissue. To determine the mechanism by which DNMT3B7 was functioning in breast cancer cells, two poorly invasive breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7 and T-47D, were stably transfected with a DNMT3B7 expression construct. Expression of DNMT3B7 led to hypermethylation and down-regulation of E-cadherin, altered localization of β-catenin, as well as increased adhesion turnover, cell proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth. The novel results presented in this study suggest a role for DNMT3B7 in the progression of breast cancer to a more aggressive state and the potential for future development of novel therapeutics. PMID:25607950

  12. Multiple Sporadic Colorectal Cancers Display a Unique Methylation Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalo, Victoria; Lozano, Juan Jose; Alonso-Espinaco, Virginia; Moreira, Leticia; Muñoz, Jenifer; Pellisé, Maria; Castellví-Bel, Sergi; Bessa, Xavier; Andreu, Montserrat; Xicola, Rosa M.; Llor, Xavier; Ruiz-Ponte, Clara; Carracedo, Angel; Jover, Rodrigo; Castells, Antoni; Balaguer, Francesc

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetics are thought to play a major role in the carcinogenesis of multiple sporadic colorectal cancers (CRC). Previous studies have suggested concordant DNA hypermethylation between tumor pairs. However, only a few methylation markers have been analyzed. This study was aimed at describing the epigenetic signature of multiple CRC using a genome-scale DNA methylation profiling. We analyzed 12 patients with synchronous CRC and 29 age-, sex-, and tumor location-paired patients with solitary tumors from the EPICOLON II cohort. DNA methylation profiling was performed using the Illumina Infinium HM27 DNA methylation assay. The most significant results were validated by Methylight. Tumors samples were also analyzed for the CpG Island Methylator Phenotype (CIMP); KRAS and BRAF mutations and mismatch repair deficiency status. Functional annotation clustering was performed. We identified 102 CpG sites that showed significant DNA hypermethylation in multiple tumors with respect to the solitary counterparts (difference in β value ≥0.1). Methylight assays validated the results for 4 selected genes (p = 0.0002). Eight out of 12(66.6%) multiple tumors were classified as CIMP-high, as compared to 5 out of 29(17.2%) solitary tumors (p = 0.004). Interestingly, 76 out of the 102 (74.5%) hypermethylated CpG sites found in multiple tumors were also seen in CIMP-high tumors. Functional analysis of hypermethylated genes found in multiple tumors showed enrichment of genes involved in different tumorigenic functions. In conclusion, multiple CRC are associated with a distinct methylation phenotype, with a close association between tumor multiplicity and CIMP-high. Our results may be important to unravel the underlying mechanism of tumor multiplicity. PMID:24643221

  13. Notch1 induces epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the cancer stem cell phenotype in breast cancer cells and STAT3 plays a key role.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojin; Zhao, Xiaoai; Shao, Shan; Zuo, Xiaoxiao; Ning, Qian; Luo, Minna; Gu, Shanzhi; Zhao, Xinhan

    2015-03-01

    Breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. The Notch signaling pathway has been shown to be associated with the development and progression of many human cancers, including breast cancer, but the precise mechanism remains unknown. Here, the influence of Notch1 signaling in mammary epithelial cells was studied. We showed that Notch1 promotes proliferation in MCF7 and MCF10A cells. Transwell assay indicated that Notch1 overexpression promotes cell migration and the invasion of breast cancer cells. We showed that MCF7 and MCF10A cells overexpressing Notch1 acquired features of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and displayed a cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotype. The expression levels of the epithelial markers E-cadherin and occludin were decreased, while the expression levels of the mesenchymal markers N-cadherin, vimentin and fibronectin were increased in cells overexpressing Notch1. We demonstrated that Notch1 induced phosphorylation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in breast cancer cells and increased the expression of p65 and interleukin (IL)-1β. Inhibition of STAT3 activity by JSI124 reduced the expression of p65 and IL-1. Treatment of MCF7-notch1 and MCF10A-notch1 cells with JSI124 also reduced the expression of N-cadherin, markers of epithelial mesenchymal transition and increased the expression of E-cadherin. Our results suggest that Notch1 promotes EMT and the CSC phenotype through induction of STAT3.

  14. Acquired resistance to gemcitabine and cross-resistance in human pancreatic cancer clones.

    PubMed

    Yoneyama, Hiroshi; Takizawa-Hashimoto, Asako; Takeuchi, Osamu; Watanabe, Yukiko; Atsuda, Koichiro; Asanuma, Fumiki; Yamada, Yoshinori; Suzuki, Yukio

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of gemcitabine (GEM), a standard treatment agent for pancreatic cancer, is insufficient because of primary or acquired resistance to this drug. Patients with tumors intrinsically sensitive to GEM gradually acquire resistance and require a shift to second agents, which are associated with the risk of cross-resistance. However, whether cross-resistance is actually present has long been disputed. Using six GEM-resistant and four highly GEM-resistant clones derived from the pancreatic cancer cell line BxPC-3, we determined the resistance of each clone and parent cell line to GEM and four anticancer agents (5-FU, CDDP, CPT-11, and DTX). The GEM-resistant clones had different resistances to GEM and other agents, and did not develop a specific pattern of cross-resistance. This result shows that tumor cells are heterogeneous. However, all highly GEM-resistant clones presented overexpression of ribonucleotide reductase subunit M1 (RRM1), a target enzyme for metabolized GEM, and showed cross-resistance with 5-FU. The expression level of RRM1 was high; therefore, resistance to GEM was high. We showed that a tumor cell acquired resistance to GEM, and cross-resistance developed in one clone. These results suggest that only cells with certain mechanisms for high-level resistance to GEM survive against selective pressure applied by highly concentrated GEM. RRM1 may be one of the few factors that can induce high resistance to GEM and a suitable therapeutic target for GEM-resistant pancreatic cancer.

  15. EPHA2 Blockade Overcomes Acquired Resistance to EGFR Kinase Inhibitors in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Amato, Katherine R; Wang, Shan; Tan, Li; Hastings, Andrew K; Song, Wenqiang; Lovly, Christine M; Meador, Catherine B; Ye, Fei; Lu, Pengcheng; Balko, Justin M; Colvin, Daniel C; Cates, Justin M; Pao, William; Gray, Nathanael S; Chen, Jin

    2016-01-15

    Despite the success of treating EGFR-mutant lung cancer patients with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), all patients eventually acquire resistance to these therapies. Although various resistance mechanisms have been described, there are currently no FDA-approved therapies that target alternative mechanisms to treat lung tumors with acquired resistance to first-line EGFR TKI agents. Here we found that EPHA2 is overexpressed in EGFR TKI-resistant tumor cells. Loss of EPHA2 reduced the viability of erlotinib-resistant tumor cells harboring EGFR(T790M) mutations in vitro and inhibited tumor growth and progression in an inducible EGFR(L858R+T790M)-mutant lung cancer model in vivo. Targeting EPHA2 in erlotinib-resistant cells decreased S6K1-mediated phosphorylation of cell death agonist BAD, resulting in reduced tumor cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition of EPHA2 by the small-molecule inhibitor ALW-II-41-27 decreased both survival and proliferation of erlotinib-resistant tumor cells and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. ALW-II-41-27 was also effective in decreasing viability of cells with acquired resistance to the third-generation EGFR TKI AZD9291. Collectively, these data define a role for EPHA2 in the maintenance of cell survival of TKI-resistant, EGFR-mutant lung cancer and indicate that EPHA2 may serve as a useful therapeutic target in TKI-resistant tumors.

  16. EPHA2 Blockade Overcomes Acquired Resistance to EGFR Kinase Inhibitors in Lung Cancer.

    PubMed

    Amato, Katherine R; Wang, Shan; Tan, Li; Hastings, Andrew K; Song, Wenqiang; Lovly, Christine M; Meador, Catherine B; Ye, Fei; Lu, Pengcheng; Balko, Justin M; Colvin, Daniel C; Cates, Justin M; Pao, William; Gray, Nathanael S; Chen, Jin

    2016-01-15

    Despite the success of treating EGFR-mutant lung cancer patients with EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI), all patients eventually acquire resistance to these therapies. Although various resistance mechanisms have been described, there are currently no FDA-approved therapies that target alternative mechanisms to treat lung tumors with acquired resistance to first-line EGFR TKI agents. Here we found that EPHA2 is overexpressed in EGFR TKI-resistant tumor cells. Loss of EPHA2 reduced the viability of erlotinib-resistant tumor cells harboring EGFR(T790M) mutations in vitro and inhibited tumor growth and progression in an inducible EGFR(L858R+T790M)-mutant lung cancer model in vivo. Targeting EPHA2 in erlotinib-resistant cells decreased S6K1-mediated phosphorylation of cell death agonist BAD, resulting in reduced tumor cell proliferation and increased apoptosis. Furthermore, pharmacologic inhibition of EPHA2 by the small-molecule inhibitor ALW-II-41-27 decreased both survival and proliferation of erlotinib-resistant tumor cells and inhibited tumor growth in vivo. ALW-II-41-27 was also effective in decreasing viability of cells with acquired resistance to the third-generation EGFR TKI AZD9291. Collectively, these data define a role for EPHA2 in the maintenance of cell survival of TKI-resistant, EGFR-mutant lung cancer and indicate that EPHA2 may serve as a useful therapeutic target in TKI-resistant tumors. PMID:26744526

  17. Computational imaging reveals mitochondrial morphology as a biomarker of cancer phenotype and drug response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giedt, Randy J.; Fumene Feruglio, Paolo; Pathania, Divya; Yang, Katherine S.; Kilcoyne, Aoife; Vinegoni, Claudio; Mitchison, Timothy J.; Weissleder, Ralph

    2016-09-01

    Mitochondria, which are essential organelles in resting and replicating cells, can vary in number, mass and shape. Past research has primarily focused on short-term molecular mechanisms underlying fission/fusion. Less is known about longer-term mitochondrial behavior such as the overall makeup of cell populations’ morphological patterns and whether these patterns can be used as biomarkers of drug response in human cells. We developed an image-based analytical technique to phenotype mitochondrial morphology in different cancers, including cancer cell lines and patient-derived cancer cells. We demonstrate that (i) cancer cells of different origins, including patient-derived xenografts, express highly diverse mitochondrial phenotypes; (ii) a given phenotype is characteristic of a cell population and fairly constant over time; (iii) mitochondrial patterns correlate with cell metabolic measurements and (iv) therapeutic interventions can alter mitochondrial phenotypes in drug-sensitive cancers as measured in pre- versus post-treatment fine needle aspirates in mice. These observations shed light on the role of mitochondrial dynamics in the biology and drug response of cancer cells. On the basis of these findings, we propose that image-based mitochondrial phenotyping can provide biomarkers for assessing cancer phenotype and drug response.

  18. Computational imaging reveals mitochondrial morphology as a biomarker of cancer phenotype and drug response.

    PubMed

    Giedt, Randy J; Fumene Feruglio, Paolo; Pathania, Divya; Yang, Katherine S; Kilcoyne, Aoife; Vinegoni, Claudio; Mitchison, Timothy J; Weissleder, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria, which are essential organelles in resting and replicating cells, can vary in number, mass and shape. Past research has primarily focused on short-term molecular mechanisms underlying fission/fusion. Less is known about longer-term mitochondrial behavior such as the overall makeup of cell populations' morphological patterns and whether these patterns can be used as biomarkers of drug response in human cells. We developed an image-based analytical technique to phenotype mitochondrial morphology in different cancers, including cancer cell lines and patient-derived cancer cells. We demonstrate that (i) cancer cells of different origins, including patient-derived xenografts, express highly diverse mitochondrial phenotypes; (ii) a given phenotype is characteristic of a cell population and fairly constant over time; (iii) mitochondrial patterns correlate with cell metabolic measurements and (iv) therapeutic interventions can alter mitochondrial phenotypes in drug-sensitive cancers as measured in pre- versus post-treatment fine needle aspirates in mice. These observations shed light on the role of mitochondrial dynamics in the biology and drug response of cancer cells. On the basis of these findings, we propose that image-based mitochondrial phenotyping can provide biomarkers for assessing cancer phenotype and drug response. PMID:27609668

  19. Computational imaging reveals mitochondrial morphology as a biomarker of cancer phenotype and drug response

    PubMed Central

    Giedt, Randy J.; Fumene Feruglio, Paolo; Pathania, Divya; Yang, Katherine S.; Kilcoyne, Aoife; Vinegoni, Claudio; Mitchison, Timothy J.; Weissleder, Ralph

    2016-01-01

    Mitochondria, which are essential organelles in resting and replicating cells, can vary in number, mass and shape. Past research has primarily focused on short-term molecular mechanisms underlying fission/fusion. Less is known about longer-term mitochondrial behavior such as the overall makeup of cell populations’ morphological patterns and whether these patterns can be used as biomarkers of drug response in human cells. We developed an image-based analytical technique to phenotype mitochondrial morphology in different cancers, including cancer cell lines and patient-derived cancer cells. We demonstrate that (i) cancer cells of different origins, including patient-derived xenografts, express highly diverse mitochondrial phenotypes; (ii) a given phenotype is characteristic of a cell population and fairly constant over time; (iii) mitochondrial patterns correlate with cell metabolic measurements and (iv) therapeutic interventions can alter mitochondrial phenotypes in drug-sensitive cancers as measured in pre- versus post-treatment fine needle aspirates in mice. These observations shed light on the role of mitochondrial dynamics in the biology and drug response of cancer cells. On the basis of these findings, we propose that image-based mitochondrial phenotyping can provide biomarkers for assessing cancer phenotype and drug response. PMID:27609668

  20. Insulin-like growth factor-I receptor signalling and acquired resistance to gefitinib (ZD1839; Iressa) in human breast and prostate cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Jones, H E; Goddard, L; Gee, J M W; Hiscox, S; Rubini, M; Barrow, D; Knowlden, J M; Williams, S; Wakeling, A E; Nicholson, R I

    2004-12-01

    De novo and acquired resistance to the anti-tumour drug gefitinib (ZD1839; Iressa), a specific epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) has been reported. We have determined whether signalling through the IGF-I receptor (IGF-1R) pathway plays a role in the gefitinib-acquired resistance phenotype. Continuous exposure of EGFR-positive MCF-7-derived tamoxifen resistant breast cancer cells (TAM-R) to 1 microM gefitinib resulted in a sustained growth inhibition (90%) for 4 months before the surviving cells resumed proliferation. A stable gefitinib-resistant subline (TAM/TKI-R) was established after a further 2 months and this showed no detectable basal phosphorylated EGFR activity. Compared with the parental TAM-R cells, the TAM/ TKI-R cells demonstrated (a) elevated levels of activated IGF-1R, AKT and protein kinase C (PKC)delta, (b) an increased sensitivity to growth inhibition by the IGF-1R TKI AG1024 and (c) an increased migratory capacity that was reduced by AG1024 treatment. Similarly, the EGFR-positive androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell line DU145 was also continuously challenged with 1 microM gefitinib and, although substantial growth inhibition (60%) was seen initially, a gefitinib-resistant variant (DU145/TKI-R) developed after 3 months. Like their breast cancer counterparts, the DU145/TKI-R cells showed increases in the levels of components of the IGF-1R signalling pathway and an elevated sensitivity to growth inhibition by AG1024 compared with the parent DU145 cell line. Additionally, DU145/TKI-R cell migration was also decreased by this inhibitor. We have therefore concluded that in breast and prostate cancer cells acquired resistance to gefitinib is associated with increased signalling via the IGF-1R pathway, which also plays a role in the invasive capacity of the gefitinib-resistant phenotype.

  1. Ciprofloxacin mediates cancer stem cell phenotypes in lung cancer cells through caveolin-1-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Phiboonchaiyanan, Preeyaporn Plaimee; Kiratipaiboon, Chayanin; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2016-04-25

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs), a subpopulation of cancer cells with high aggressive behaviors, have been identified in many types of cancer including lung cancer as one of the key mediators driving cancer progression and metastasis. Here, we have reported for the first time that ciprofloxacin (CIP), a widely used anti-microbial drug, has a potentiating effect on CSC-like features in human non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. CIP treatment promoted CSC-like phenotypes, including enhanced anchorage-independent growth and spheroid formation. The known lung CSC markers: CD133, CD44, ABCG2 and ALDH1A1 were found to be significantly increased, while the factors involving in epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT): Slug and Snail, were depleted. Also, self-renewal transcription factors Oct-4 and Nanog were found to be up-regulated in CIP-treated cells. The treatment of CIP on CSC-rich populations obtained from secondary spheroids resulted in the further increase of CSC markers. In addition, we have proven that the mechanistic insight of the CIP induced stemness is through Caveolin-1 (Cav-1)-dependent mechanism. The specific suppression of Cav-1 by stably transfected Cav-1 shRNA plasmid dramatically reduced the effect of CIP on CSC markers as well as the CIP-induced spheroid formation ability. Cav-1 was shown to activate protein kinase B (Akt) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) pathways in CSC-rich population; however, such an effect was rarely found in the main lung cancer cells population. These findings reveal a novel effect of CIP in positively regulating CSCs in lung cancer cells via the activation of Cav-1, Akt and ERK, and may provoke the awareness of appropriate therapeutic strategy in cancer patients.

  2. Acquired Resistance to Clinical Cancer Therapy: A Twist in Physiological Signaling.

    PubMed

    Wicki, Andreas; Mandalà, Mario; Massi, Daniela; Taverna, Daniela; Tang, Huifang; Hemmings, Brian A; Xue, Gongda

    2016-07-01

    Although modern therapeutic strategies have brought significant progress to cancer care in the last 30 years, drug resistance to targeted monotherapies has emerged as a major challenge. Aberrant regulation of multiple physiological signaling pathways indispensable for developmental and metabolic homeostasis, such as hyperactivation of pro-survival signaling axes, loss of suppressive regulations, and impaired functionalities of the immune system, have been extensively investigated aiming to understand the diversity of molecular mechanisms that underlie cancer development and progression. In this review, we intend to discuss the molecular mechanisms of how conventional physiological signal transduction confers to acquired drug resistance in cancer patients. We will particularly focus on protooncogenic receptor kinase inhibition-elicited tumor cell adaptation through two major core downstream signaling cascades, the PI3K/Akt and MAPK pathways. These pathways are crucial for cell growth and differentiation and are frequently hyperactivated during tumorigenesis. In addition, we also emphasize the emerging roles of the deregulated host immune system that may actively promote cancer progression and attenuate immunosurveillance in cancer therapies. Understanding these mechanisms may help to develop more effective therapeutic strategies that are able to keep the tumor in check and even possibly turn cancer into a chronic disease.

  3. Proteomic Signatures of Acquired Letrozole Resistance in Breast Cancer: Suppressed Estrogen Signaling and Increased Cell Motility and Invasiveness*

    PubMed Central

    Tilghman, Syreeta L.; Townley, Ian; Zhong, Qiu; Carriere, Patrick P.; Zou, Jin; Llopis, Shawn D.; Preyan, Lynez C.; Williams, Christopher C.; Skripnikova, Elena; Bratton, Melyssa R.; Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Guangdi

    2013-01-01

    Aromatase inhibitors, such as letrozole, have become the first-line treatment for postmenopausal women with estrogen-dependent breast cancer. However, acquired resistance remains a major clinical obstacle. Previous studies demonstrated constitutive activation of the MAPK signaling, overexpression of HER2, and down-regulation of aromatase and ERα in letrozole-resistant breast cancer cells. Given the complex signaling network involved in letrozole-refractory breast cancer and the lack of effective treatment for hormone resistance, further investigation of aromatase inhibitor resistance by a novel systems biology approach may reveal previously unconsidered molecular changes that could be utilized as therapeutic targets. This study was undertaken to characterize for the first time global proteomic alterations occurring in a letrozole-resistant cell line. A quantitative proteomic analysis of the whole cell lysates of LTLT-Ca (resistant) versus AC-1 cells (sensitive) was performed to identify significant protein expression changes. A total of 1743 proteins were identified and quantified, of which 411 were significantly up-regulated and 452 significantly down-regulated (p < 0.05, fold change > 1.20). Bioinformatics analysis revealed that acquired letrozole resistance is associated with a hormone-independent, more aggressive phenotype. LTLT-Ca cells exhibited 84% and 138% increase in migration and invasion compared with the control cells. The ROCK inhibitor partially abrogated the enhanced migration and invasion of the letrozole-resistant cells. Flow cytometric analyses also demonstrated an increase in vimentin and twist expression in letrozole-resistance cells, suggesting an onset of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT). Moreover, targeted gene expression arrays confirmed a 28-fold and sixfold up-regulation of EGFR and HER2, respectively, whereas ERα and pS2 were dramatically reduced by 28-fold and 1100-fold, respectively. Taken together, our study revealed global

  4. The phenomenon of acquired resistance to metformin in breast cancer cells: The interaction of growth pathways and estrogen receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Scherbakov, Alexander M; Sorokin, Danila V; Tatarskiy, Victor V; Prokhorov, Nikolay S; Semina, Svetlana E; Berstein, Lev M; Krasil'nikov, Mikhail A

    2016-04-01

    Metformin, a biguanide antidiabetic drug, is used to decrease hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recently, the epidemiological studies revealed the potential of metformin as an anti-tumor drug for several types of cancer, including breast cancer. Anti-tumor metformin action was found to be mediated, at least in part, via activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-intracellular energy sensor, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and some other signaling pathways. Nevertheless, some patients can be non-sensitive or resistant to metformin action. Here we analyzed the mechanism of the formation of metformin-resistant phenotype in breast cancer cells and its role in estrogen receptor (ER) regulation. The experiments were performed on the ER-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells and metformin-resistant MCF-7 subline (MCF-7/M) developed due to long-term metformin treatment. The transcriptional activity of NF-κB and ER was measured by the luciferase reporter gene analysis. The protein expression was determined by immunoblotting (Snail1, (phospho)AMPK, (phospho)IκBα, (phospho)mTOR, cyclin D1, (phospho)Akt and ERα) and immunohistochemical analysis (E-cadherin). We have found that: 1) metformin treatment of MCF-7 cells is accompanied with the stimulation of AMPK and inhibition of growth-related proteins including IκBα, NF-κB, cyclin D1 and ERα; 2) long-term metformin treatment lead to the appearance and progression of cross-resistance to metformin and tamoxifen; the resistant cells are characterized with the unaffected AMPK activity, but the irreversible ER suppression and constitutive activation of Akt/Snail1 signaling; 3) Akt/Snail1 signaling is involved into progression of metformin resistance. The results presented may be considered as the first evidence of the progression of cross-resistance to metformin and tamoxifen in breast cancer cells. Importantly, the acquired resistance to both drugs is based on the

  5. The phenomenon of acquired resistance to metformin in breast cancer cells: The interaction of growth pathways and estrogen receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Scherbakov, Alexander M; Sorokin, Danila V; Tatarskiy, Victor V; Prokhorov, Nikolay S; Semina, Svetlana E; Berstein, Lev M; Krasil'nikov, Mikhail A

    2016-04-01

    Metformin, a biguanide antidiabetic drug, is used to decrease hyperglycemia in patients with type 2 diabetes. Recently, the epidemiological studies revealed the potential of metformin as an anti-tumor drug for several types of cancer, including breast cancer. Anti-tumor metformin action was found to be mediated, at least in part, via activation of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-intracellular energy sensor, which inhibits the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and some other signaling pathways. Nevertheless, some patients can be non-sensitive or resistant to metformin action. Here we analyzed the mechanism of the formation of metformin-resistant phenotype in breast cancer cells and its role in estrogen receptor (ER) regulation. The experiments were performed on the ER-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells and metformin-resistant MCF-7 subline (MCF-7/M) developed due to long-term metformin treatment. The transcriptional activity of NF-κB and ER was measured by the luciferase reporter gene analysis. The protein expression was determined by immunoblotting (Snail1, (phospho)AMPK, (phospho)IκBα, (phospho)mTOR, cyclin D1, (phospho)Akt and ERα) and immunohistochemical analysis (E-cadherin). We have found that: 1) metformin treatment of MCF-7 cells is accompanied with the stimulation of AMPK and inhibition of growth-related proteins including IκBα, NF-κB, cyclin D1 and ERα; 2) long-term metformin treatment lead to the appearance and progression of cross-resistance to metformin and tamoxifen; the resistant cells are characterized with the unaffected AMPK activity, but the irreversible ER suppression and constitutive activation of Akt/Snail1 signaling; 3) Akt/Snail1 signaling is involved into progression of metformin resistance. The results presented may be considered as the first evidence of the progression of cross-resistance to metformin and tamoxifen in breast cancer cells. Importantly, the acquired resistance to both drugs is based on the

  6. The ETS family member GABPα modulates androgen receptor signalling and mediates an aggressive phenotype in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Naomi L; Massie, Charlie E; Butter, Falk; Mann, Matthias; Bon, Helene; Ramos-Montoya, Antonio; Menon, Suraj; Stark, Rory; Lamb, Alastair D; Scott, Helen E; Warren, Anne Y; Neal, David E; Mills, Ian G

    2014-06-01

    In prostate cancer (PC), the androgen receptor (AR) is a key transcription factor at all disease stages, including the advanced stage of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In the present study, we show that GABPα, an ETS factor that is up-regulated in PC, is an AR-interacting transcription factor. Expression of GABPα enables PC cell lines to acquire some of the molecular and cellular characteristics of CRPC tissues as well as more aggressive growth phenotypes. GABPα has a transcriptional role that dissects the overlapping cistromes of the two most common ETS gene fusions in PC: overlapping significantly with ETV1 but not with ERG target genes. GABPα bound predominantly to gene promoters, regulated the expression of one-third of AR target genes and modulated sensitivity to AR antagonists in hormone responsive and castrate resistant PC models. This study supports a critical role for GABPα in CRPC and reveals potential targets for therapeutic intervention.

  7. Acquired immune response to oncogenic human papillomavirus associated with prophylactic cervical cancer vaccines.

    PubMed

    Einstein, Mark H

    2008-04-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common infection among women and a necessary cause of cervical cancer. Oncogenic HPV types infecting the anogenital tract have the potential to induce natural immunity, but at present we do not clearly understand the natural history of infection in humans and the mechanisms by which the virus can evade the host immune response. Natural acquired immune responses against HPV may be involved in the clearance of infection, but persistent infection with oncogenic virus types leads to the development of precancerous lesions and cancer. B cell responses are important for viral neutralization, but antibody responses in patients with cervical cancer are poor. Prophylactic vaccines targeting oncogenic virus types associated with cervical cancer have the potential to prevent up to 80% of cervical cancers by targeting HPV types 16 and 18. Clinical data show that prophylactic vaccines are effective in inducing antibody responses and in preventing persistent infection with HPV, as well as the subsequent development of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia. This article reviews the known data regarding natural immune responses to HPV and those developed by prophylactic vaccination.

  8. Karyometry of nuclear phenotypes in Cutaneous Squamous Cell Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bartels, Peter H.; Bartels, Hubert G.; Alberts, David S.; Yozwiak, M.; Prasad, Anil R.; Glazer, Evan; Krouse, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The objective of this study is to establish the karyometric characteristics of the two main nuclear phenotypes in cSCC lesions. Materials and Methods The clinical materials comprised 75 cases of cSCC, 38 with aggressive lesions and 37 with non-aggressive lesions. High-resolution images of 100 nuclei/case were recorded. The data were partitioned into four subgroups covering the range of lesion progression. Four discriminant functions were derived to distinguish aggressive from non-aggressive lesions. The most typical nuclei from the phenotype predominant in aggressive lesions, and from the phenotype predominant in non-aggressive lesions were separated out by thresholding on the discriminant function score axes. For these homogeneous sets of nuclei the karyometric features were computed. Results The nuclear populations in cSCC lesions are a very heterogeneous set. There are two axes of dispersion, along the line of lesion progression and between aggressive and non-aggressive lesions. The analysis faces the difficulty that lesions from both diagnostic categories contain nuclei of the same two phenotypes with the difference between categories consisting only of differences in proportion of the two phenotypes. Conclusions The nuclei of the aggressive phenotype I and non-aggressive phenotype II have substantially different chromatin patterns and can be distinguished with a better than 90 % correct recognition rate. PMID:22590813

  9. Endogenous myoglobin in human breast cancer is a hallmark of luminal cancer phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Kristiansen, G; Rose, M; Geisler, C; Fritzsche, F R; Gerhardt, J; Lüke, C; Ladhoff, A-M; Knüchel, R; Dietel, M; Moch, H; Varga, Z; Theurillat, J-P; Gorr, T A; Dahl, E

    2010-01-01

    Background: We aimed to clarify the incidence and the clinicopathological value of non-muscle myoglobin (Mb) in a large cohort of non-invasive and invasive breast cancer cases. Methods: Matched pairs of breast tissues from 10 patients plus 17 breast cell lines were screened by quantitative PCR for Mb mRNA. In addition, 917 invasive and 155 non-invasive breast cancer cases were analysed by immunohistochemistry for Mb expression and correlated to clinicopathological parameters and basal molecular characteristics including oestrogen receptor-α (ERα)/progesteron receptor (PR)/HER2, fatty acid synthase (FASN), hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α), HIF-2α, glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) and carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX). The spatial relationship of Mb and ERα or FASN was followed up by double immunofluorescence. Finally, the effects of estradiol treatment and FASN inhibition on Mb expression in breast cancer cells were analysed. Results: Myoglobin mRNA was found in a subset of breast cancer cell lines; in microdissected tumours Mb transcript was markedly upregulated. In all, 71% of tumours displayed Mb protein expression in significant correlation with a positive hormone receptor status and better prognosis. In silico data mining confirmed higher Mb levels in luminal-type breast cancer. Myoglobin was also correlated to FASN, HIF-2α and CAIX, but not to HIF-1α or GLUT1, suggesting hypoxia to participate in its regulation. Double immunofluorescence showed a cellular co-expression of ERα or FASN and Mb. In addition, Mb levels were modulated on estradiol treatment and FASN inhibition in a cell model. Conclusion: We conclude that in breast cancer, Mb is co-expressed with ERα and co-regulated by oestrogen signalling and can be considered a hallmark of luminal breast cancer phenotype. This and its possible new role in fatty acid metabolism may have fundamental implications for our understanding of Mb in solid tumours. PMID:20531416

  10. The phenotypic equilibrium of cancer cells: From average-level stability to path-wise convergence.

    PubMed

    Niu, Yuanling; Wang, Yue; Zhou, Da

    2015-12-01

    The phenotypic equilibrium, i.e. heterogeneous population of cancer cells tending to a fixed equilibrium of phenotypic proportions, has received much attention in cancer biology very recently. In the previous literature, some theoretical models were used to predict the experimental phenomena of the phenotypic equilibrium, which were often explained by different concepts of stabilities of the models. Here we present a stochastic multi-phenotype branching model by integrating conventional cellular hierarchy with phenotypic plasticity mechanisms of cancer cells. Based on our model, it is shown that: (i) our model can serve as a framework to unify the previous models for the phenotypic equilibrium, and then harmonizes the different kinds of average-level stabilities proposed in these models; and (ii) path-wise convergence of our model provides a deeper understanding to the phenotypic equilibrium from stochastic point of view. That is, the emergence of the phenotypic equilibrium is rooted in the stochastic nature of (almost) every sample path, the average-level stability just follows from it by averaging stochastic samples.

  11. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G.; Efimova, Nataliya Y.; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B.

    2016-08-01

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  12. Nitric oxide induces cancer stem cell-like phenotypes in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yongsanguanchai, Nuttida; Pongrakhananon, Varisa; Mutirangura, Apiwat; Rojanasakul, Yon; Chanvorachote, Pithi

    2015-01-15

    Even though tremendous advances have been made in the treatment of cancers during the past decades, the success rate among patients with cancer is still dismal, largely because of problems associated with chemo/radioresistance and relapse. Emerging evidence has indicated that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are behind the resistance and recurrence problems, but our understanding of their regulation is limited. Rapid reversible changes of CSC-like cells within tumors may result from the effect of biological mediators found in the tumor microenvironment. Here we show how nitric oxide (NO), a key cellular modulator whose level is elevated in many tumors, affects CSC-like phenotypes of human non-small cell lung carcinoma H292 and H460 cells. Exposure of NO gradually altered the cell morphology toward mesenchymal stem-like shape. NO exposure promoted CSC-like phenotype, indicated by increased expression of known CSC markers, CD133 and ALDH1A1, in the exposed cells. These effects of NO on stemness were reversible after cessation of the NO treatment for 7 days. Furthermore, such effect was reproducible using another NO donor, S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine. Importantly, inhibition of NO by the known NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxy-phenyl)-4,4,5,5 tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxy-3-oxide strongly inhibited CSC-like aggressive cellular behavior and marker expression. Last, we unveiled the underlying mechanism of NO action through the activation of caveolin-1 (Cav-1), which is upregulated by NO and is responsible for the aggressive behavior of the cells, including anoikis resistance, anchorage-independent cell growth, and increased cell migration and invasion. These findings indicate a novel role of NO in CSC regulation and its importance in aggressive cancer behaviors through Cav-1 upregulation.

  13. Body composition of the host influences dendritic cell phenotype in patients treated for colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Malietzis, George; Lee, Gui Han; Al-Hassi, Hafid O; Bernardo, David; Blakemore, Alexandra I F; Kennedy, Robin H; Moorghen, Morgan; Jenkins, John T; Knight, Stella C

    2016-08-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are antigen-presenting cells that can acquire tumour antigens and initiate cytotoxic T cell reactions. Obesity has been proposed as a cause for tumours escaping immune surveillance, but few studies investigate the impact of other body composition parameters. We examined the relationship of DC phenotype with computer tomography (CT)-defined parameters in patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). DCs were identified within peripheral blood mononuclear cells by flow cytometry as HLA-DR positive and negative for markers of other cell lineages in 21 patients. Analysis of CT scans was used to calculate lumbar skeletal muscle index (LSMI) and mean muscle attenuation (MA). Positive correlation between the LSMI and expression of CD40 in all DCs (r = 0.45; p = 0.04) was demonstrated. The MA was positively correlated with scavenger receptor CD36 [all DCs (r = 0.60; p = 0.01) and myeloid DCs (r = 0.63; p < 0.01)]. However, the MA was negatively correlated with CCR7 expression in all DCs (r = -0.46, p = 0.03.) and with CD83 [all DCs (r = -0.63; p = 0.01) and myeloid DCs (r = -0.75; p < 0.01)]. There were no relationships between the fat indexes and the DC phenotype. These results highlight a direct relationship between muscle depletion and changes in stimulatory, migratory and fatty acid-processing potential of DC in patients with CRC. PMID:26960692

  14. Acquisition of Paclitaxel Resistance Is Associated With a More Aggressive and Invasive Phenotype in Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kim, John J.; Yin, Bo; Christudass, Christhunesa S.; Terada, Naoki; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Fabry, Ben; Lee, Danielle Y.; Shiraishi, Takumi; Getzenberg, Robert H.; Veltri, Robert W.; An, Steven S.; Mooney, Steven M.

    2014-01-01

    Drug resistance is a major limitation to the successful treatment of advanced prostate cancer (PCa). Patients who have metastatic, castration-resistant PCa (mCRPC) are treated with chemotherapeutics. However, these standard therapy modalities culminate in the development of resistance. We established paclitaxel resistance in a classic, androgen-insensitive mCRPC cell line (DU145) and, using a suite of molecular and biophysical methods, characterized the structural and functional changes in vitro and in vivo that are associated with the development of drug resistance. After acquiring paclitaxel-resistance, cells exhibited an abnormal nuclear morphology with extensive chromosomal content, an increase in stiffness, and faster cytoskeletal remodeling dynamics. Compared with the parental DU145, paclitaxel-resistant (DU145-TxR) cells became highly invasive and motile in vitro, exercised greater cell traction forces, and formed larger and rapidly growing tumors in mouse xenografts. Furthermore, DU145-TxR cells showed a discrete loss of keratins but a distinct gain of ZEB1, Vimentin and Snail, suggesting an epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that paclitaxel resistance in PCa is associated with a trans-differentiation of epithelial cell machinery that enables more aggressive and invasive phenotype and portend new strategies for developing novel biomarkers and effective treatment modalities for PCa patients. PMID:23192682

  15. Opposite phenotypes of cancer and aging arise from alternative regulation of common signaling pathways.

    PubMed

    Ukraintseva, Svetlana V; Yashin, Anatoly I

    2003-12-01

    Phenotypic features of malignant and senescent cells are in many instances opposite. Cancer cells do not "age"; their metabolic, proliferative, and growth characteristics are opposite to those observed with cellular aging (both replicative and functional). In many such characteristics cancer cells resemble embryonic cells. One can say that cancer manifests itself as a local, uncontrolled "rejuvenation" in an organism. Available evidence from human and animal studies suggests that the opposite phenotypic features of aging and cancer arise from the opposite regulation of genes participating in apoptosis/growth arrest or growth signal transduction pathways in cells. This fact may be applicable in the development of new anti-aging treatments. Genes that are contrarily regulated in cancer and aging cells (e.g., proto-oncogenes or tumor suppressors) could be candidate targets for anti-aging interventions. Their "cancer-like" regulation, if strictly controlled, might help to rejuvenate the human organism. PMID:15033776

  16. Acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition phenotype of gemcitabine-resistant pancreatic cancer cells is linked with activation of the notch signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Li, Yiwei; Kong, Dejuan; Banerjee, Sanjeev; Ahmad, Aamir; Azmi, Asfar Sohail; Ali, Shadan; Abbruzzese, James L; Gallick, Gary E; Sarkar, Fazlul H

    2009-03-15

    Despite rapid advances in many fronts, pancreatic cancer (PC) remains one of the most difficult human malignancies to treat due, in part, to de novo and acquired chemoresistance and radioresistance. Gemcitabine alone or in combination with other conventional therapeutics is the standard of care for the treatment of advanced PC without any significant improvement in the overall survival of patients diagnosed with this deadly disease. Previous studies have shown that PC cells that are gemcitabine-resistant (GR) acquired epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype, which is reminiscent of "cancer stem-like cells"; however, the molecular mechanism that led to EMT phenotype has not been fully investigated. The present study shows that Notch-2 and its ligand, Jagged-1, are highly up-regulated in GR cells, which is consistent with the role of the Notch signaling pathway in the acquisition of EMT and cancer stem-like cell phenotype. We also found that the down-regulation of Notch signaling was associated with decreased invasive behavior of GR cells. Moreover, down-regulation of Notch signaling by siRNA approach led to partial reversal of the EMT phenotype, resulting in the mesenchymal-epithelial transition, which was associated with decreased expression of vimentin, ZEB1, Slug, Snail, and nuclear factor-kappaB. These results provide molecular evidence showing that the activation of Notch signaling is mechanistically linked with chemoresistance phenotype (EMT phenotype) of PC cells, suggesting that the inactivation of Notch signaling by novel strategies could be a potential targeted therapeutic approach for overcoming chemoresistance toward the prevention of tumor progression and/or treatment of metastatic PC.

  17. Pancreatic stellate cells enhance stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, Shin; Masamune, Atsushi; Takikawa, Tetsuya; Suzuki, Noriaki; Kikuta, Kazuhiro; Hirota, Morihisa; Hamada, Hirofumi; Kobune, Masayoshi; Satoh, Kennichi; Shimosegawa, Tooru

    2012-05-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs) promote the progression of pancreatic cancer. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pancreatic cancer cells co-cultured with PSCs showed enhanced spheroid formation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Expression of stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28 was increased. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This study suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche. -- Abstract: The interaction between pancreatic cancer cells and pancreatic stellate cells (PSCs), a major profibrogenic cell type in the pancreas, is receiving increasing attention. There is accumulating evidence that PSCs promote the progression of pancreatic cancer by increasing cancer cell proliferation and invasion as well as by protecting them from radiation- and gemcitabine-induced apoptosis. Recent studies have identified that a portion of cancer cells, called 'cancer stem cells', within the entire cancer tissue harbor highly tumorigenic and chemo-resistant phenotypes, which lead to the recurrence after surgery or re-growth of the tumor. The mechanisms that maintain the 'stemness' of these cells remain largely unknown. We hypothesized that PSCs might enhance the cancer stem cell-like phenotypes in pancreatic cancer cells. Indirect co-culture of pancreatic cancer cells with PSCs enhanced the spheroid-forming ability of cancer cells and induced the expression of cancer stem cell-related genes ABCG2, Nestin and LIN28. In addition, co-injection of PSCs enhanced tumorigenicity of pancreatic cancer cells in vivo. These results suggested a novel role of PSCs as a part of the cancer stem cell niche.

  18. Chronic inorganic arsenic exposure in vitro induces a cancer cell phenotype in human peripheral lung epithelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Person, Rachel J.; Olive Ngalame, Ntube N.; Makia, Ngome L.; Bell, Matthew W.; Waalkes, Michael P.; Tokar, Erik J.

    2015-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a human lung carcinogen. We studied the ability of chronic inorganic arsenic (2 μM; as sodium arsenite) exposure to induce a cancer phenotype in the immortalized, non-tumorigenic human lung peripheral epithelial cell line, HPL-1D. After 38 weeks of continuous arsenic exposure, secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) activity increased to over 200% of control, levels linked to arsenic-induced cancer phenotypes in other cell lines. The invasive capacity of these chronic arsenic-treated lung epithelial (CATLE) cells increased to 320% of control and colony formation increased to 280% of control. CATLE cells showed enhanced proliferation in serum-free media indicative of autonomous growth. Compared to control cells, CATLE cells showed reduced protein expression of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (decreased to 26% of control) and the putative tumor suppressor gene SLC38A3 (14% of control). Morphological evidence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurred in CATLE cells together with appropriate changes in expression of the EMT markers vimentin (VIM; increased to 300% of control) and e-cadherin (CDH1; decreased to 16% of control). EMT is common in carcinogenic transformation of epithelial cells. CATLE cells showed increased KRAS (291%), ERK1/2 (274%), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK; 152%), and phosphorylated AKT1 (p-AKT1; 170%) protein expression. Increased transcript expression of metallothioneins, MT1A and MT2A and the stress response genes HMOX1 (690%) and HIF1A (247%) occurred in CATLE cells possibly in adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure. Thus, arsenic induced multiple cancer cell characteristics in human peripheral lung epithelial cells. This model may be useful to assess mechanisms of arsenic-induced lung cancer. - Highlights: • Chronic arsenic exposure transforms a human peripheral lung epithelia cell line. • Cells acquire characteristics in common with human lung adenocarcinoma cells. • These transformed cells provide a

  19. Gut macrophage phenotype is dependent on the tumor microenvironment in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Norton, Samuel E; Dunn, Elliott T J; McCall, John L; Munro, Fran; Kemp, Roslyn A

    2016-01-01

    In contrast to many cancers, a high infiltration of macrophages in colorectal cancer (CRC) has been associated with improved prognosis for patients. Cytokines and other stimuli from the tumor microenvironment affect monocyte to macrophage maturation and subsequent phenotype and function. Heterogeneous myeloid populations were identified using a novel flow cytometry panel in both tumor and paired non-tumor bowel (NTB) from CRC patients. The frequency of macrophage subsets with a gut-conditioned phenotype was lower in tumor compared with NTB. We used an in vitro system to show that two of the macrophage populations represented pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory phenotypes. Conditioned media that contained high levels of interleukin-6 promoted and maintained an anti-inflammatory phenotype in vitro. This study demonstrates the plasticity and heterogeneity of macrophage subtypes in human CRC, and the feasibility of studying complex populations. Ex vivo experiments demonstrate that macrophage subsets are influenced by the tumor microenvironment. PMID:27195119

  20. Stochastic modeling and experimental analysis of phenotypic switching and survival of cancer cells under stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamani Dahaj, Seyed Alireza; Kumar, Niraj; Sundaram, Bala; Celli, Jonathan; Kulkarni, Rahul

    The phenotypic heterogeneity of cancer cells is critical to their survival under stress. A significant contribution to heterogeneity of cancer calls derives from the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a conserved cellular program that is crucial for embryonic development. Several studies have investigated the role of EMT in growth of early stage tumors into invasive malignancies. Also, EMT has been closely associated with the acquisition of chemoresistance properties in cancer cells. Motivated by these studies, we analyze multi-phenotype stochastic models of the evolution of cancers cell populations under stress. We derive analytical results for time-dependent probability distributions that provide insights into the competing rates underlying phenotypic switching (e.g. during EMT) and the corresponding survival of cancer cells. Experimentally, we evaluate these model-based predictions by imaging human pancreatic cancer cell lines grown with and without cytotoxic agents and measure growth kinetics, survival, morphological changes and (terminal evaluation of) biomarkers with associated epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes. The results derived suggest approaches for distinguishing between adaptation and selection scenarios for survival in the presence of external stresses.

  1. Predictive genomics: a cancer hallmark network framework for predicting tumor clinical phenotypes using genome sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Wang, Edwin; Zaman, Naif; Mcgee, Shauna; Milanese, Jean-Sébastien; Masoudi-Nejad, Ali; O'Connor-McCourt, Maureen

    2015-02-01

    Tumor genome sequencing leads to documenting thousands of DNA mutations and other genomic alterations. At present, these data cannot be analyzed adequately to aid in the understanding of tumorigenesis and its evolution. Moreover, we have little insight into how to use these data to predict clinical phenotypes and tumor progression to better design patient treatment. To meet these challenges, we discuss a cancer hallmark network framework for modeling genome sequencing data to predict cancer clonal evolution and associated clinical phenotypes. The framework includes: (1) cancer hallmarks that can be represented by a few molecular/signaling networks. 'Network operational signatures' which represent gene regulatory logics/strengths enable to quantify state transitions and measures of hallmark traits. Thus, sets of genomic alterations which are associated with network operational signatures could be linked to the state/measure of hallmark traits. The network operational signature transforms genotypic data (i.e., genomic alterations) to regulatory phenotypic profiles (i.e., regulatory logics/strengths), to cellular phenotypic profiles (i.e., hallmark traits) which lead to clinical phenotypic profiles (i.e., a collection of hallmark traits). Furthermore, the framework considers regulatory logics of the hallmark networks under tumor evolutionary dynamics and therefore also includes: (2) a self-promoting positive feedback loop that is dominated by a genomic instability network and a cell survival/proliferation network is the main driver of tumor clonal evolution. Surrounding tumor stroma and its host immune systems shape the evolutionary paths; (3) cell motility initiating metastasis is a byproduct of the above self-promoting loop activity during tumorigenesis; (4) an emerging hallmark network which triggers genome duplication dominates a feed-forward loop which in turn could act as a rate-limiting step for tumor formation; (5) mutations and other genomic alterations have

  2. Carbon Nanotubes Preserve Normal Phenotypes Under Cancer-Promoting Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wailes, Elizabeth; Levi-Polyachenko, Nicole

    2015-03-01

    Tumor-associated fibroblasts and cancer cells have long been known to create a feedback loop that further stimulates the cancer. While this has been explored from a molecular biology standpoint, little is known about the physical relationship of the cell types even though both sets of cells are known to be mechanosensitive. Indeed, for both fibroblasts and cancer, mechanical signals can make the difference between a normal or pathological cell. To evaluate this relationship and test if it can be manipulated to favor normal cells, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and confocal microscopy was performed on fibroblast and breast cancer cell co-cultures with a collagen gel matrix to simulate the extracellular matrix. Pathological behavior was encouraged through the addition of transforming growth factor beta (TGF- β) . In a separate group, this behavior was discouraged through the doping of the collagen gel with multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNT). Significant differences were observed both in the elastic moduli of each cell type and the cancer cells' propensity to migrate through the gel as a model for metastasis. These results shed new light on how cancer progresses and promote the further investigation of nano-mechanical solutions to cancer.

  3. Aspirin unmasking acquired haemophilia A in a patient with prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Okiro, Julie Omolola; Khan, Amjad Zaman; Keane, Fergus; Murad, Faiza

    2016-01-01

    A 72-year-old man, on treatment for prostate cancer, attended the emergency department with his 2nd episode of spontaneous extensive bruising and haematomas. His first presentation was 2 months prior but this was thought to be because of his aspirin and he improved when aspirin was discontinued. On this occasion aspirin had been restarted 7 days before he developed his symptoms. His blood investigation was significant for a much raised activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT). On his 3rd day of admission he deteriorated clinically with a drastic drop in his haemoglobin and worsening tense haematomas. Blood investigations confirmed the diagnosis of acquired factor VIII deficiency and he subsequently received treatment with factor VIII inhibitor bypassing activity, steroids and immunosuppresants. PMID:27609590

  4. Acquisition of cancer stem cell-like properties in non-small cell lung cancer with acquired resistance to afatinib

    PubMed Central

    Hashida, Shinsuke; Yamamoto, Hiromasa; Shien, Kazuhiko; Miyoshi, Yuichiro; Ohtsuka, Tomoaki; Suzawa, Ken; Watanabe, Mototsugu; Maki, Yuho; Soh, Junichi; Asano, Hiroaki; Tsukuda, Kazunori; Miyoshi, Shinichiro; Toyooka, Shinichi

    2015-01-01

    Afatinib is an irreversible epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that is known to be effective against the EGFR T790M variant, which accounts for half of the mechanisms of acquired resistance to reversible EGFR-TKIs. However, acquired resistance to afatinib was also observed in clinical use. Thus, elucidating and overcoming the mechanisms of resistance are important issues in the treatment of non-small cell lung cancer. In this study, we established various afatinib-resistant cell lines and investigated the resistance mechanisms. EGFR T790M mutations were not detected using direct sequencing in established resistant cells. Several afatinib-resistant cell lines displayed MET amplification, and these cells were sensitive to the combination of afatinib plus crizotinib. As a further investigation, a cell line that acquired resistance to afatinib plus crizotinib, HCC827-ACR, was established from one of the MET amplified-cell lines. Several afatinib-resistant cell lines including HCC827-ACR displayed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) features and epigenetic silencing of miR-200c, which is a suppresser of EMT. In addition, these cell lines also exhibited overexpression of ALDH1A1 and ABCB1, which are putative stem cell markers, and resistance to docetaxel. In conclusion, we established afatinib-resistant cells and found that MET amplification, EMT, and stem cell-like features are observed in cells with acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs. This finding may provide clues to overcoming resistance to EGFR-TKIs. PMID:26202045

  5. Cancer Phenotype Diagnosis and Drug Efficacy within Japanese Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Nishimura, Toshihide; Kato, Harubumi; Ikeda, Norihiko; Kihara, Makoto; Nomura, Masaharu; Kato, Yasufumi; Marko-Varga, György

    2012-01-01

    An overview on targeted personalized medicine is given describing the developments in Japan of lung cancer patients. These new targeted therapies with novel personalized medicine drugs require new implementations, in order to follow and monitor drug efficacy and outcome. Examples from IRESSA (Gefitinib) and TARCEVA (Erlotinib) treatments used in medication of lung cancer patients are presented. Lung cancer is one of the most common causes of cancer mortality in the world. The importance of both the quantification of disease progression, where diagnostic-related biomarkers are being implemented, in addition to the actual measurement of disease-specific mechanisms relating to pathway signalling activation of disease-progressive protein targets is summarised. An outline is also presented, describing changes and adaptations in Japan, meeting the rising costs and challenges. Today, urgent implementation of programs to address these needs has led to a rebuilding of the entire approach of medical evaluation and clinical care. PMID:22685658

  6. Disrupting the circadian clock: Gene-specific effects on aging, cancer, and other phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Elizabeth A.; Weaver, David R.

    2011-01-01

    The circadian clock imparts 24-hour rhythmicity on gene expression and cellular physiology in virtually all cells. Disruption of the genes necessary for the circadian clock to function has diverse effects, including aging-related phenotypes. Some circadian clock genes have been described as tumor suppressors, while other genes have less clear functions in aging and cancer. In this Review, we highlight a recent study [Dubrovsky et al., Aging 2: 936-944, 2010] and discuss the much larger field examining the relationship between circadian clock genes, circadian rhythmicity, aging-related phenotypes, and cancer. PMID:21566258

  7. Disrupting the circadian clock: gene-specific effects on aging, cancer, and other phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Yu, Elizabeth A; Weaver, David R

    2011-05-01

    The circadian clock imparts 24-hour rhythmicity on gene expression and cellular physiology in virtually all cells. Disruption of the genes necessary for the circadian clock to function has diverse effects, including aging-related phenotypes. Some circadian clock genes have been described as tumor suppressors, while other genes have less clear functions in aging and cancer. In this Review, we highlight a recent study [Dubrovsky et al., Aging 2: 936-944, 2010] and discuss the much larger field examining the relationship between circadian clock genes, circadian rhythmicity, aging-related phenotypes, and cancer.

  8. Pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity controls metabolic and malignant phenotype in cancer cells.

    PubMed

    McFate, Thomas; Mohyeldin, Ahmed; Lu, Huasheng; Thakar, Jay; Henriques, Jeremy; Halim, Nader D; Wu, Hong; Schell, Michael J; Tsang, Tsz Mon; Teahan, Orla; Zhou, Shaoyu; Califano, Joseph A; Jeoung, Nam Ho; Harris, Robert A; Verma, Ajay

    2008-08-15

    High lactate generation and low glucose oxidation, despite normal oxygen conditions, are commonly seen in cancer cells and tumors. Historically known as the Warburg effect, this altered metabolic phenotype has long been correlated with malignant progression and poor clinical outcome. However, the mechanistic relationship between altered glucose metabolism and malignancy remains poorly understood. Here we show that inhibition of pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) activity contributes to the Warburg metabolic and malignant phenotype in human head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. PDC inhibition occurs via enhanced expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-1 (PDK-1), which results in inhibitory phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase alpha (PDHalpha) subunit. We also demonstrate that PDC inhibition in cancer cells is associated with normoxic stabilization of the malignancy-promoting transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) by glycolytic metabolites. Knockdown of PDK-1 via short hairpin RNA lowers PDHalpha phosphorylation, restores PDC activity, reverts the Warburg metabolic phenotype, decreases normoxic HIF-1alpha expression, lowers hypoxic cell survival, decreases invasiveness, and inhibits tumor growth. PDK-1 is an HIF-1-regulated gene, and these data suggest that the buildup of glycolytic metabolites, resulting from high PDK-1 expression, may in turn promote HIF-1 activation, thus sustaining a feed-forward loop for malignant progression. In addition to providing anabolic support for cancer cells, altered fuel metabolism thus supports a malignant phenotype. Correction of metabolic abnormalities offers unique opportunities for cancer treatment and may potentially synergize with other cancer therapies. PMID:18541534

  9. Cross-platform Comparison of Two Pancreatic Cancer Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Scharpf, Robert B; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine A; Cope, Leslie; Ruczinski, Ingo; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Lakkur, Sindhu; Campagna, Domenico; Parmigiani, Giovanni

    2010-01-01

    Model-based approaches for combining gene expression data from multiple high throughput platforms can be sensitive to technological artifacts when the number of samples in each platform is small. This paper proposes simple tools for quantifying concordance in a small study of pancreatic cancer cells lines with an emphasis on visualizations that uncover intra- and inter-platform variation. Using this approach, we identify several transcripts from the integrative analysis whose over-or under-expression in pancreatic cancer cell lines was validated by qPCR.

  10. Population prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and implementation of a genetic cancer risk assessment program in southern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    In 2004, a population-based cohort (the Núcleo Mama Porto Alegre - NMPOA Cohort) was started in Porto Alegre, southern Brazil and within that cohort, a hereditary breast cancer study was initiated, aiming to determine the prevalence of hereditary breast cancer phenotypes and evaluate acceptance of a genetic cancer risk assessment (GCRA) program. Women from that cohort who reported a positive family history of cancer were referred to GCRA. Of the 9218 women enrolled, 1286 (13.9%) reported a family history of cancer. Of the 902 women who attended GCRA, 55 (8%) had an estimated lifetime risk of breast cancer ≥ 20% and 214 (23.7%) had pedigrees suggestive of a breast cancer predisposition syndrome; an unexpectedly high number of these fulfilled criteria for Li-Fraumeni-like syndrome (122 families, 66.7%). The overall prevalence of a hereditary breast cancer phenotype was 6.2% (95%CI: 5.67-6.65). These findings identified a problem of significant magnitude in the region and indicate that genetic cancer risk evaluation should be undertaken in a considerable proportion of the women from this community. The large proportion of women who attended GCRA (72.3%) indicates that the program was well-accepted by the community, regardless of the potential cultural, economic and social barriers. PMID:21637504

  11. Saikosaponin-d: A potential chemotherapeutics in castration resistant prostate cancer by suppressing cancer metastases and cancer stem cell phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Di; Zhang, Hui-Jian; Jiang, Yao-Dong; Wu, Peng; Qi, Huan; Cai, Chao; Zheng, Shao-Bin; Dang, Qiang

    2016-06-10

    Androgen deprivation therapy is the gold standard regimen for advanced Prostate cancer (PCa) patients, nevertheless, patients eventually develop into castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Currently only a few chemotherapeutics are available for CRPC. Therefore, it is critical for identifying a new drug. In this study, we will explore a new agent, Saikosaponin-d (SSd), for CRPC therapy based on its mechanism of action. DU145 and CWR22Rv1 cells representing CRPC were employed in this study. A series of cell, biochemical, and molecular biologic assays such as Immunofluorescence, Zymography, Sphere formation, Colony formation, and MTT were used. Finally, we find SSd can significantly inhibit the growth of PCa cells in both dose- and time-dependent and suppress the colony formation during a long-term drug administration, it also can inhibit their migration and invasion abilities, which was accompanied by reverse the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and suppress MMP2/9 expression as well as activities. Furthermore, SSd can suppress cancer stem cell (CSC) phenotypes such as self-renewal ability. Mechanistically, SSd blocks Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway by decreasing GSK3β phosphorylation to affect EMT and CSC. These findings demonstrate the mechanism of anti-cancer activity of SSd in targeting EMT and CSC, suggesting SSd can be a potent agent for CRPC therapy. PMID:27155154

  12. Acquired somatic ATRX mutations in myelodysplastic syndrome associated with alpha thalassemia (ATMDS) convey a more severe hematologic phenotype than germline ATRX mutations.

    PubMed

    Steensma, David P; Higgs, Douglas R; Fisher, Chris A; Gibbons, Richard J

    2004-03-15

    Acquired somatic mutations in ATRX, an X-linked gene encoding a chromatin-associated protein, were recently identified in 4 patients with the rare subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) associated with thalassemia (ATMDS). Here we describe a series of novel point mutations in ATRX detected in archival DNA samples from marrow and/or blood of patients with ATMDS by use of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), a technique sensitive to low-level mosaicism. Two of the new mutations result in changes in amino acids altered in previously described pedigrees with germ line ATRX mutations (ATR-X syndrome), but the hematologic abnormalities were much more severe in the patients with ATMDS than in the corresponding constitutional cases. In one ATMDS case where DNA samples from several time points were available, the proportion of ATRX-mutant subclones correlated with changes in the amount of hemoglobin H. This study strengthens the link between acquired, somatic ATRX mutations and ATMDS, illustrates how molecular defects associated with MDS and other hematologic malignancies masked by somatic mosaicism may be detected by DHPLC, and shows that additional factors increase the severity of the hematologic phenotype of ATRX mutations in ATMDS.

  13. HOXC9 Induces Phenotypic Switching between Proliferation and Invasion in Breast Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Ho; Lee, Ji-Yeon; Yang, Seoyeon; Kim, Jie Min; Park, Anna E.; Kim, Myoung Hee

    2016-01-01

    HOX genes encode a family of transcriptional regulators that are involved in pattern formation and organogenesis during embryo development. In addition, these genes play important roles in adult tissues and some of the dysregulated HOX genes are associated with cancer development and metastasis. Like many other HOX genes, HOXC9 is aberrantly expressed in certain breast cancer cell lines and tissues; however, its specific functions in breast cancer progression were not investigated. In the present study, we demonstrated that HOXC9 overexpression in breast cancer cell lines such as MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 increased the invasiveness but reduced the proliferation of cells, resembling a phenotype switch from a proliferative to an invasive state. Furthermore, the reciprocal result was detected in MCF7 and BT474 cells when the expression level of HOXC9 was reduced with siRNA. The clinical impact of HOXC9 in breast cancer was interpreted from the survival analysis data, in which high HOXC9 expression led to considerably poorer disease-free survival and distant metastasis-free survival, especially in lymph node-positive patients. Together, the prognostic relevance of HOXC9 and the HOXC9-derived phenotypic switch between proliferative and invasive states in the breast cancer cell lines suggest that HOXC9 could be a prognostic marker in breast cancer patients with lymph node metastasis and a target for therapeutic intervention in malignant breast cancer. PMID:27162534

  14. Tissue Metabonomic Phenotyping for Diagnosis and Prognosis of Human Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Yuan; Xu, Tangpeng; Huang, Jia; Zhang, Limin; Xu, Shan; Xiong, Bin; Wang, Yulan; Tang, Huiru

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of cancer-related death worldwide and prognosis based on the conventional histological grading method for CRC remains poor. To better the situation, we analyzed the metabonomic signatures of 50 human CRC tissues and their adjacent non-involved tissues (ANIT) using high-resolution magic-angle spinning (HRMAS) 1H NMR spectroscopy together with the fatty acid compositions of these tissues using GC-FID/MS. We showed that tissue metabolic phenotypes not only discriminated CRC tissues from ANIT, but also distinguished low-grade tumor tissues (stages I-II) from the high-grade ones (stages III-IV) with high sensitivity and specificity in both cases. Metabonomic phenotypes of CRC tissues differed significantly from that of ANIT in energy metabolism, membrane biosynthesis and degradations, osmotic regulations together with the metabolism of proteins and nucleotides. Amongst all CRC tissues, the stage I tumors exhibited largest differentiations from ANIT. The combination of the differentiating metabolites showed outstanding collective power for differentiating cancer from ANIT and for distinguishing CRC tissues at different stages. These findings revealed details in the typical metabonomic phenotypes associated with CRC tissues nondestructively and demonstrated tissue metabonomic phenotyping as an important molecular pathology tool for diagnosis and prognosis of cancerous solid tumors. PMID:26876567

  15. Activation of the Met kinase confers acquired drug resistance in FGFR-targeted lung cancer therapy.

    PubMed

    Kim, S-M; Kim, H; Yun, M R; Kang, H N; Pyo, K-H; Park, H J; Lee, J M; Choi, H M; Ellinghaus, P; Ocker, M; Paik, S; Kim, H R; Cho, B C

    2016-01-01

    Aberrant fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR) activation/expression is a common feature in lung cancer (LC). In this study, we evaluated the antitumor activity of and the mechanisms underlying acquired resistance to two potent selective FGFR inhibitors, AZD4547 and BAY116387, in LC cell lines. The antitumor activity of AZD4547 and BAY1163877 was screened in 24 LC cell lines, including 5 with FGFR1 amplification. Two cell lines containing FGFR1 amplifications, H1581 and DMS114, were sensitive to FGFR inhibitors (IC50<250 nm). Clones of FGFR1-amplified H1581 cells resistant to AZD4547 or BAY116387 (H1581AR and H1581BR cells, respectively) were established. Receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) array and immunoblotting analyses showed strong overexpression and activation of Met in H1581AR/BR cells, compared with that in the parental cells. Gene set enrichment analysis against the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) database showed that cytokine-cytokine receptor interaction pathways were significantly enriched in H1581AR/BR cells, with Met contributing significantly to the core enrichment. Genomic DNA quantitative PCR and fluorescent in situ hybridization analyses showed MET amplification in H1581AR, but not in H1581BR, cells. Met amplification drives acquired resistance to AZD4547 in H1581AR cells by activating ErbB3. Combination treatment with FGFR inhibitors and an anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK)/Met inhibitor, crizotinib, or Met-specific short interfering RNA (siRNA) synergistically inhibited cell proliferation in both H1581AR and H1581BR cells. Conversely, ectopic expression of Met in H1581 cells conferred resistance to AZD4547 and BAY1163877. Acquired resistance to FGFR inhibitors not only altered cellular morphology, but also promoted migration and invasion of resistant clones, in part by inducing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition. Taken together, our data suggest that Met activation is sufficient to bypass dependency on FGFR signaling. Concurrent

  16. Ecology meets cancer biology: The cancer swamp promotes the lethal cancer phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Amend, Sarah R.; Pienta, Kenneth J.

    2015-01-01

    As they grow, tumors fundamentally alter their microenvironment, disrupting the homeostasis of the host organ and eventually the patient as a whole. Lethality is the ultimate result of deregulated cell signaling and regulatory mechanisms as well as inappropriate host cell recruitment and activity that lead to the death of the patient. These processes have striking parallels to the framework of ecological biology: multiple interacting ecosystems (organ systems) within a larger biosphere (body), alterations in species stoichiometry (host cell types), resource cycling (cellular metabolism and cell-cell signaling), and ecosystem collapse (organ failure and death). In particular, as cancer cells generate their own niche within the tumor ecosystem, ecological engineering and autoeutrophication displace normal cell function and result in the creation of a hypoxic, acidic, and nutrient-poor environment. This “cancer swamp” has genetic and epigenetic effects at the local ecosystem level to promote metastasis and at the systemic host level to induce cytokine-mediated lethal syndromes, a major cause of death of cancer patients. PMID:25895024

  17. Ecology meets cancer biology: the cancer swamp promotes the lethal cancer phenotype.

    PubMed

    Amend, Sarah R; Pienta, Kenneth J

    2015-01-01

    As they grow, tumors fundamentally alter their microenvironment, disrupting the homeostasis of the host organ and eventually the patient as a whole. Lethality is the ultimate result of deregulated cell signaling and regulatory mechanisms as well as inappropriate host cell recruitment and activity that lead to the death of the patient. These processes have striking parallels to the framework of ecological biology: multiple interacting ecosystems (organ systems) within a larger biosphere (body), alterations in species stoichiometry (host cell types), resource cycling (cellular metabolism and cell-cell signaling), and ecosystem collapse (organ failure and death). In particular, as cancer cells generate their own niche within the tumor ecosystem, ecological engineering and autoeutrophication displace normal cell function and result in the creation of a hypoxic, acidic, and nutrient-poor environment. This "cancer swamp" has genetic and epigenetic effects at the local ecosystem level to promote metastasis and at the systemic host level to induce cytokine-mediated lethal syndromes, a major cause of death of cancer patients.

  18. Upregulation of Mucin4 in ER-positive/HER2-Overexpressing Breast Cancer Xenografts with Acquired Resistance to Endocrine and HER2-Targeted Therapies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Albert C.; Migliaccio, Ilenia; Rimawi, Mothaffar; Lopez-Tarruella, Sara; Creighton, Chad J.; Massarweh, Suleiman; Huang, Catherine; Wang, Yen-Chao; Batra, Surinder K.; Gutierrez, M. Carolina; Osborne, C. Kent; Schiff, Rachel

    2012-01-01

    Background We studied resistance to endocrine and HER2-targeted therapies using a xenograft model of estrogen receptor positive (ER)/HER2-overexpressing breast cancer. Here, we report a novel phenotype of drug resistance in this model. Methods MCF7/HER2-18 xenografts were treated with endocrine therapy alone or in combination with lapatinib and trastuzumab (LT) to inhibit HER2. Archival tumor tissues were stained with hematoxylin & eosin and mucicarmine. RNA extracted from tumors at early time points and late after acquired resistance were analyzed for mucin4 (MUC4) expression by microarray and quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR. Protein expression of the MUC4, ER and HER2 signaling pathways was measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. Results The combination of the potent anti-HER2 regimen LT with either tamoxifen (Tam+LT) or estrogen deprivation (ED+LT) can cause complete eradication of ER-positive/HER2-overexpressing tumors in mice. Tumors developing resistance to this combination, as well as those acquiring resistance to endocrine therapy alone, exhibited a distinct histological and molecular phenotype—a striking increase in mucin-filled vacuoles and upregulation of several mucins including MUC4. At the onset of resistance, MUC4 mRNA and protein were increased. These tumors also showed upregulation and reactivation of HER2 signaling, while losing ER protein and the estrogen-regulated gene, progesterone receptor. Conclusions Mucins are upregulated in a preclinical model of ER-positive/HER2-overexpressing breast cancer as resistance develops to the combination of endocrine and anti-HER2 therapy. These mucin-rich tumors reactivate the HER2 pathway and shift their molecular phenotype to become more ER-negative/HER2-positive. PMID:22644656

  19. Induction of KIAA1199/CEMIP is associated with colon cancer phenotype and poor patient survival

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Stephen P.; Myeroff, Lois L.; Kariv, Revital; Platzer, Petra; Xin, Baozhong; Mikkola, Debra; Lawrence, Earl; Morris, Nathan; Nosrati, Arman; Willson, James K. V.; Willis, Joseph; Veigl, Martina; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S.; Wang, Zhenghe; Markowitz, Sanford D.

    2015-01-01

    Genes induced in colon cancer provide novel candidate biomarkers of tumor phenotype and aggressiveness. We originally identified KIAA1199 (now officially called CEMIP) as a transcript highly induced in colon cancer: initially designating the transcript as Colon Cancer Secreted Protein 1. We molecularly characterized CEMIP expression both at the mRNA and protein level and found it is a secreted protein induced an average of 54-fold in colon cancer. Knockout of CEMIPreduced the ability of human colon cancer cells to form xenograft tumors in athymic mice. Tumors that did grow had increased deposition of hyaluronan, linking CEMIP participation in hyaluronan degradation to the modulation of tumor phenotype. We find CEMIP mRNA overexpression correlates with poorer patient survival. In stage III only (n = 31) or in combined stage II plus stage III colon cancer cases (n = 73), 5-year overall survival was significantly better (p = 0.004 and p = 0.0003, respectively) among patients with low CEMIP expressing tumors than those with high CEMIP expressing tumors. These results demonstrate that CEMIP directly facilitates colon tumor growth, and high CEMIP expression correlates with poor outcome in stage III and in stages II+III combined cohorts. We present CEMIP as a candidate prognostic marker for colon cancer and a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26437221

  20. Induction of KIAA1199/CEMIP is associated with colon cancer phenotype and poor patient survival.

    PubMed

    Fink, Stephen P; Myeroff, Lois L; Kariv, Revital; Platzer, Petra; Xin, Baozhong; Mikkola, Debra; Lawrence, Earl; Morris, Nathan; Nosrati, Arman; Willson, James K V; Willis, Joseph; Veigl, Martina; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Wang, Zhenghe; Markowitz, Sanford D

    2015-10-13

    Genes induced in colon cancer provide novel candidate biomarkers of tumor phenotype and aggressiveness. We originally identified KIAA1199 (now officially called CEMIP) as a transcript highly induced in colon cancer: initially designating the transcript as Colon Cancer Secreted Protein 1. We molecularly characterized CEMIP expression both at the mRNA and protein level and found it is a secreted protein induced an average of 54-fold in colon cancer. Knockout of CEMIPreduced the ability of human colon cancer cells to form xenograft tumors in athymic mice. Tumors that did grow had increased deposition of hyaluronan, linking CEMIP participation in hyaluronan degradation to the modulation of tumor phenotype. We find CEMIP mRNA overexpression correlates with poorer patient survival. In stage III only (n = 31) or in combined stage II plus stage III colon cancer cases (n = 73), 5-year overall survival was significantly better (p = 0.004 and p = 0.0003, respectively) among patients with low CEMIP expressing tumors than those with high CEMIP expressing tumors. These results demonstrate that CEMIP directly facilitates colon tumor growth, and high CEMIP expression correlates with poor outcome in stage III and in stages II+III combined cohorts. We present CEMIP as a candidate prognostic marker for colon cancer and a potential therapeutic target.

  1. Induction of KIAA1199/CEMIP is associated with colon cancer phenotype and poor patient survival.

    PubMed

    Fink, Stephen P; Myeroff, Lois L; Kariv, Revital; Platzer, Petra; Xin, Baozhong; Mikkola, Debra; Lawrence, Earl; Morris, Nathan; Nosrati, Arman; Willson, James K V; Willis, Joseph; Veigl, Martina; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill S; Wang, Zhenghe; Markowitz, Sanford D

    2015-10-13

    Genes induced in colon cancer provide novel candidate biomarkers of tumor phenotype and aggressiveness. We originally identified KIAA1199 (now officially called CEMIP) as a transcript highly induced in colon cancer: initially designating the transcript as Colon Cancer Secreted Protein 1. We molecularly characterized CEMIP expression both at the mRNA and protein level and found it is a secreted protein induced an average of 54-fold in colon cancer. Knockout of CEMIPreduced the ability of human colon cancer cells to form xenograft tumors in athymic mice. Tumors that did grow had increased deposition of hyaluronan, linking CEMIP participation in hyaluronan degradation to the modulation of tumor phenotype. We find CEMIP mRNA overexpression correlates with poorer patient survival. In stage III only (n = 31) or in combined stage II plus stage III colon cancer cases (n = 73), 5-year overall survival was significantly better (p = 0.004 and p = 0.0003, respectively) among patients with low CEMIP expressing tumors than those with high CEMIP expressing tumors. These results demonstrate that CEMIP directly facilitates colon tumor growth, and high CEMIP expression correlates with poor outcome in stage III and in stages II+III combined cohorts. We present CEMIP as a candidate prognostic marker for colon cancer and a potential therapeutic target. PMID:26437221

  2. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated cancers in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J O

    2001-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is considered home to more than 60% of all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected cases, with an estimated adult prevalence of 8.0%. It is stated that this region has contributed more than 90% of childhood deaths related to HIV infection and about 93% of childhood acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths. Although no country in Africa is spared of the infection, the bulk is seen in East and South Africa, with the highest recorded rates of 20% to 50% in Zimbabwe. On the other hand, West Africa is less affected, while countries in Central Africa have relatively stable infection rates. Although infections, especially tuberculosis, have emerged as the most important HIV/AIDS-associated killers in recent times, AIDS-associated malignancies are increasingly identified in the late stages. As a result of incomplete data from African countries, it is unclear whether the epidemiology and risks of these cancers are the same as observed in the developed countries. Since the advent of AIDS, epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has become more common in both sexes in Africa, with a dramatic lowering of the male to female ratio from 19:1 to 1.7:1, especially in East Africa. Although there has been a rising trend of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) worldwide, there is an apparently lower risk in Africa compared with that in the developing world. At present, there is no strong evidence linking increased incidence of invasive cervical cancer to the HIV epidemic; however, some studies have demonstrated an association between HIV and the increased prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). On the other hand, HIV infection is now established as a risk factor for the development of squamous cell neoplasia of the conjunctiva based on studies from Rwanda, Malawi, and Uganda. Despite the problems and limitations of information from sub-Saharan Africa, interesting trends of HIV/AIDS-related cancers

  3. Metabotropic Glutamate Receptor 1 Expression and Its Polymorphic Variants Associate with Breast Cancer Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Madhura S.; Dolfi, Sonia C.; Bronfenbrener, Roman; Bilal, Erhan; Chen, Chunxia; Moore, Dirk; Lin, Yong; Rahim, Hussein; Aisner, Seena; Kersellius, Romona D.; Teh, Jessica; Chen, Suzie; Toppmeyer, Deborah L.; Medina, Dan J.; Ganesan, Shridar; Vazquez, Alexei; Hirshfield, Kim M.

    2013-01-01

    Several epidemiological studies have suggested a link between melanoma and breast cancer. Metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (GRM1), which is involved in many cellular processes including proliferation and differentiation, has been implicated in melanomagenesis, with ectopic expression of GRM1 causing malignant transformation of melanocytes. This study was undertaken to evaluate GRM1 expression and polymorphic variants in GRM1 for associations with breast cancer phenotypes. Three single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in GRM1 were evaluated for associations with breast cancer clinicopathologic variables. GRM1 expression was evaluated in human normal and cancerous breast tissue and for in vitro response to hormonal manipulation. Genotyping was performed on genomic DNA from over 1,000 breast cancer patients. Rs6923492 and rs362962 genotypes associated with age at diagnosis that was highly dependent upon the breast cancer molecular phenotype. The rs362962 TT genotype also associated with risk of estrogen receptor or progesterone receptor positive breast cancer. In vitro analysis showed increased GRM1 expression in breast cancer cells treated with estrogen or the combination of estrogen and progesterone, but reduced GRM1 expression with tamoxifen treatment. Evaluation of GRM1 expression in human breast tumor specimens demonstrated significant correlations between GRM1 staining with tissue type and molecular features. Furthermore, analysis of gene expression data from primary breast tumors showed that high GRM1 expression correlated with a shorter distant metastasis-free survival as compared to low GRM1 expression in tamoxifen-treated patients. Additionally, induced knockdown of GRM1 in an estrogen receptor positive breast cancer cell line correlated with reduced cell proliferation. Taken together, these findings suggest a functional role for GRM1 in breast cancer. PMID:23922822

  4. Resistance and gain-of-resistance phenotypes in cancers harboring wild-type p53

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Rivera, Michelle; Siddik, Zahid H.

    2012-01-01

    Chemotherapy is the bedrock for the clinical management of cancer, and the tumor suppressor p53 has a central role in this therapeutic modality. This protein facilitates favorable antitumor drug response through a variety of key cellular functions, including cell cycle arrest, senescence, and apoptosis. These functions essentially cease once p53 becomes mutated, as occurs in ~50% of cancers, and some p53 mutants even exhibit gain-of-function effects, which lead to greater drug resistance. However, it is becoming increasingly evident that resistance is also seen in cancers harboring wild-type p53. In this review, we discuss how wild-type p53 is inactivated to render cells resistant to antitumor drugs. This may occur through various mechanisms, including an increase in proteasomal degradation, defects in post-translational modification, and downstream defects in p53 target genes. We also consider evidence that the resistance seen in wild-type p53 cancers can be substantially greater than that seen in mutant p53 cancers, and this poses a far greater challenge for efforts to design strategies that increase drug response in resistant cancers already primed with wild-type p53. Because the mechanisms contributing to this wild-type p53 “gain-of-resistance” phenotype are largely unknown, a concerted research effort is needed to identify the underlying basis for the occurrence of this phenotype and, in parallel, to explore the possibility that the phenotype may be a product of wild-type p53 gain-of-function effects. Such studies are essential to lay the foundation for a rational therapeutic approach in the treatment of resistant wild-type p53 cancers. PMID:22227014

  5. Phenotypic changes caused by melatonin increased sensitivity of prostate cancer cells to cytokine-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Garcia, Aida; Mayo, Juan C; Hevia, David; Quiros-Gonzalez, Isabel; Navarro, Maria; Sainz, Rosa M

    2013-01-01

    Melatonin has antiproliferative properties in prostate cancer cells. Melatonin reduces proliferation without increasing apoptosis, and it promotes cell differentiation into a neuroendocrine phenotype. Because neuroendocrine cells displayed an androgen-independent growth and high resistance to radiotherapy and chemotherapy, the role of molecules that induce neuroendocrine differentiation was questioned in terms of their usefulness as oncostatic agents. By using human epithelial androgen-dependent and androgen-independent prostate cancer cells, the role of melatonin in drug-induced apoptosis was studied after acute treatments. In addition to cytokines such as hrTNF-alpha and TRAIL, chemotherapeutic compounds, including doxorubicin, docetaxel, or etoposide, were employed in combination with melatonin to promote cell death. Melatonin promotes cell toxicity caused by cytokines without influencing the actions of chemotherapeutic agents. In addition, antioxidant properties of melatonin were confirmed in prostate cancer cells. However, its ability to increase cell death caused by cytokines was independent of the redox changes. Finally, phenotypic changes caused by chronic treatment with the indole, that is, neuroendocrine differentiation, make cells significantly more sensitive to cytokines and slightly more sensitive to some chemotherapeutic compounds. Thus, melatonin is a good inhibitor of the proliferation of prostate cancer cells, promoting phenotypic changes that do not increase survival mechanisms and make cells more sensitive to cytokines such as TNF-alpha or TRAIL.

  6. Impact of Triple-Negative Phenotype on Prognosis of Patients With Breast Cancer Brain Metastases

    SciTech Connect

    Xu Zhiyuan; Schlesinger, David; Toulmin, Sushila; Rich, Tyvin; Sheehan, Jason

    2012-11-01

    Purpose: To elucidate survival times and identify potential prognostic factors in patients with triple-negative (TN) phenotype who harbored brain metastases arising from breast cancer and who underwent stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS). Methods and Materials: A total of 103 breast cancer patients with brain metastases were treated with SRS and then studied retrospectively. Twenty-four patients (23.3%) were TN. Survival times were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, with a log-rank test computing the survival time difference between groups. Univariate and multivariate analyses to predict potential prognostic factors were performed using a Cox proportional hazard regression model. Results: The presence of TN phenotype was associated with worse survival times, including overall survival after the diagnosis of primary breast cancer (43 months vs. 82 months), neurologic survival after the diagnosis of intracranial metastases, and radiosurgical survival after SRS, with median survival times being 13 months vs. 25 months and 6 months vs. 16 months, respectively (p < 0.002 in all three comparisons). On multivariate analysis, radiosurgical survival benefit was associated with non-TN status and lower recursive partitioning analysis class at the initial SRS. Conclusion: The TN phenotype represents a significant adverse prognostic factor with respect to overall survival, neurologic survival, and radiosurgical survival in breast cancer patients with intracranial metastasis. Recursive partitioning analysis class also served as an important and independent prognostic factor.

  7. Acquired lymphangiectasis.

    PubMed

    Celis, A V; Gaughf, C N; Sangueza, O P; Gourdin, F W

    1999-01-01

    Acquired lymphangiectasis is a dilatation of lymphatic vessels that can result as a complication of surgical intervention and radiation therapy for malignancy. Acquired lymphangiectasis shares clinical and histologic features with the congenital lesion, lymphangioma circumscriptum. Diagnosis and treatment of these vesiculo-bullous lesions is important because they may be associated with pain, chronic drainage, and cellulitis. We describe two patients who had these lesions after treatment for cancer and review the pertinent literature. Although a number of treatment options are available, we have found CO2 laser ablation particularly effective. PMID:9932832

  8. MicroRNAs Induce Epigenetic Reprogramming and Suppress Malignant Phenotypes of Human Colon Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Ogawa, Hisataka; Wu, Xin; Kawamoto, Koichi; Nishida, Naohiro; Konno, Masamitsu; Koseki, Jun; Matsui, Hidetoshi; Noguchi, Kozou; Gotoh, Noriko; Yamamoto, Tsuyoshi; Miyata, Kanjiro; Nishiyama, Nobuhiro; Nagano, Hiroaki; Yamamoto, Hirofumi; Obika, Satoshi; Kataoka, Kazunori; Doki, Yuichiro; Mori, Masaki; Ishii, Hideshi

    2015-01-01

    Although cancer is a genetic disease, epigenetic alterations are involved in its initiation and progression. Previous studies have shown that reprogramming of colon cancer cells using Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and cMyc reduces cancer malignancy. Therefore, cancer reprogramming may be a useful treatment for chemo- or radiotherapy-resistant cancer cells. It was also reported that the introduction of endogenous small-sized, non-coding ribonucleotides such as microRNA (miR) 302s and miR-369-3p or -5p resulted in the induction of cellular reprogramming. miRs are smaller than the genes of transcription factors, making them possibly suitable for use in clinical strategies. Therefore, we reprogrammed colon cancer cells using miR-302s and miR-369-3p or -5p. This resulted in inhibition of cell proliferation and invasion and the stimulation of the mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition phenotype in colon cancer cells. Importantly, the introduction of the ribonucleotides resulted in epigenetic reprogramming of DNA demethylation and histone modification events. Furthermore, in vivo administration of the ribonucleotides in mice elicited the induction of cancer cell apoptosis, which involves the mitochondrial Bcl2 protein family. The present study shows that the introduction of miR-302s and miR-369s could induce cellular reprogramming and modulate malignant phenotypes of human colorectal cancer, suggesting that the appropriate delivery of functional small-sized ribonucleotides may open a new avenue for therapy against human malignant tumors. PMID:25970424

  9. D538G mutation in estrogen receptor-α: A novel mechanism for acquired endocrine resistance in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Merenbakh-Lamin, Keren; Ben-Baruch, Noa; Yeheskel, Adva; Dvir, Addie; Soussan-Gutman, Lior; Jeselsohn, Rinath; Yelensky, Roman; Brown, Myles; Miller, Vincent A; Sarid, David; Rizel, Shulamith; Klein, Baruch; Rubinek, Tami; Wolf, Ido

    2013-12-01

    Resistance to endocrine therapy occurs in virtually all patients with estrogen receptor α (ERα)-positive metastatic breast cancer, and is attributed to various mechanisms including loss of ERα expression, altered activity of coregulators, and cross-talk between the ERα and growth factor signaling pathways. To our knowledge, acquired mutations of the ERα have not been described as mediating endocrine resistance. Samples of 13 patients with metastatic breast cancer were analyzed for mutations in cancer-related genes. In five patients who developed resistance to hormonal therapy, a mutation of A to G at position 1,613 of ERα, resulting in a substitution of aspartic acid at position 538 to glycine (D538G), was identified in liver metastases. Importantly, the mutation was not detected in the primary tumors obtained prior to endocrine treatment. Structural modeling indicated that D538G substitution leads to a conformational change in the ligand-binding domain, which mimics the conformation of activated ligand-bound receptor and alters binding of tamoxifen. Indeed, experiments in breast cancer cells indicated constitutive, ligand-independent transcriptional activity of the D538G receptor, and overexpression of it enhanced proliferation and conferred resistance to tamoxifen. These data indicate a novel mechanism of acquired endocrine resistance in breast cancer. Further studies are needed to assess the frequency of D538G-ERα among patients with breast cancer and explore ways to inhibit its activity and restore endocrine sensitivity.

  10. [Multicenter study in southern South America of the in vitro activity of telithromycin in strains with defined resistance phenotypes isolated from community-acquired respiratory infections].

    PubMed

    Casellas, J M; Visser, M; Mac Dougall, N; Coco, B; Tomé, G; Gliosca, L

    2001-09-01

    Telithromycin was the first ketolide to be approved in Europe and is in the approval process in the United States. It is structurally related to the macrolides; it has a keto group in the C3 position rather than cladinose. A carbamate group is also present at C11-C12. As a result, it has a reduced induction of the MLSB resistance mechanism (erm gene), it is not affected by the flux mechanism (mef gene), it has higher stability at low pH and has increased intrinsic activity compared with clarithromycin and azithromycin. Phase III studies have shown telithromycin to be effective in the treatment of community-acquired upper and lower respiratory tract infections. Its long half-life allows for oral once-daily dosing. From a pharmacokinetic point of view, its activity has been shown to be AUC(24h)/MIC dependent. It is active against bacteria involved in atypical pneumonia. The aim of our study was to determine the activity of telithromycin in isolates with defined resistance phenotypes obtained from community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Twelve centers in Argentina, Chile, Paraguay and Uruguay participated in the study. Each center collected three strains of the following species and resistance patterns: S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae with resistance or intermediate resistance to oxacillin, erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae, clindamycin-resistant S. pneumoniae, oxacillin-susceptible S. aureus, erythromycin-resistant S. aureus, ampicillin-susceptible and -resistant M. catarrhalis and H. influenzae. Agar diffusion susceptibility tests with NeoSensitabs tablets (Rosco, Denmark) were carried out at each center. Isolates were sent to the coordinating center, where MICs were determined using agar microdilution and the Seppala test was used to determine the resistance mechanism to macrolides. The 327 isolates received were susceptible to telithromycin. Eighty percent of the erythromycin-resistant S. pneumoniae isolates were likely resistant due to a flux mechanism

  11. HeLa cells cocultured with peripheral blood lymphocytes acquire an immuno-inhibitory phenotype through up-regulation of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase activity

    PubMed Central

    Logan, Grant J; Smyth, Christine M F; Earl, John W; Zaikina, Irina; Rowe, Peter B; Smythe, Jason A; Alexander, Ian E

    2002-01-01

    The mechanisms by which tumour cells escape recognition by the immune system or subvert antitumour effector responses remain poorly understood. In the course of investigating the potential of costimulatory signals in anticancer immunotherapy strategies, we have observed that HeLa cells (a human cervical carcinoma cell line) cocultured with peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) acquire the capacity to inhibit PBL proliferation in response to interleukin-2 (IL-2). This immuno-inhibitory phenotype was further shown to result from induction of the tryptophan-catabolizing enzyme, indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), by interferon-γ (IFN-γ) secreted from cocultured allo-reactive PBL. This enzyme has recently been shown to be a critically important modulator of immunological responses, most notably through the capacity to protect allogeneic concepti from alloreactive maternal lymphocytes. While the cytostatic consequences of IDO activity in tumour cells has received attention, the data presented in this report support the hypothesis that IDO activity may also act to impair antitumour immune responses. PMID:11985668

  12. Molecular phenotype is associated with survival in breast cancer patients with spinal bone metastases.

    PubMed

    Bollen, L; Wibmer, C; Wang, M; van der Linden, Y M; Leithner, A; Bünger, C E; Jensen, A B; Fiocco, M; Bratschitsch, G; Pondaag, W; Bovée, J V M G; Dijkstra, P D S

    2015-01-01

    To aid in therapy selection for patients with spinal bone metastases (SBM), predictive models have been developed. These models consider SBM from breast cancer a positive predictive factor, but do not take phenotypes based on estrogen (ER), progesterone (PR) and human epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2) receptors into account. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether receptors are associated with survival, when the disease has progressed up to SBM. All patients who were treated for SBM from breast cancer between 2005 and 2012 were included in this international multi-center retrospective study (n = 111). Reports were reviewed for ER, PR and HER2 status and subsequently subdivided into one of four categories; luminal A, luminal B, HER2 and triple negative. Survival time was calculated as the difference between start of treatment for SBM and date of death. Analysis was performed using the Kaplan-Meier method and log-rank tests. Median follow-up was 3.7 years. Survival times in the luminal B and HER2 categories were not significantly different to the luminal A category and were joined into a single receptor positive category. Eighty-five patients (77 %) had a receptor positive phenotype and 25 (23 %) had a triple negative phenotype. Median survival time was 22.5 months (95 %CI 18.0-26.9) for the receptor positive category and 6.7 months (95 %CI 2.4-10.9) for the triple negative category (p < 0.001). Patients with SBM from breast cancer with a triple negative phenotype have a shorter survival time than patients with a receptor positive phenotype. Models estimating survival should be adjusted accordingly. PMID:25359620

  13. Curcumin mediates oxaliplatin-acquired resistance reversion in colorectal cancer cell lines through modulation of CXC-Chemokine/NF-κB signalling pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz de Porras, Vicenç; Bystrup, Sara; Martínez-Cardús, Anna; Pluvinet, Raquel; Sumoy, Lauro; Howells, Lynne; James, Mark I.; Iwuji, Chinenye; Manzano, José Luis; Layos, Laura; Bugés, Cristina; Abad, Albert; Martínez-Balibrea, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Resistance to oxaliplatin (OXA) is a complex process affecting the outcomes of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) patients treated with this drug. De-regulation of the NF-κB signalling pathway has been proposed as an important mechanism involved in this phenomenon. Here, we show that NF-κB was hyperactivated in in vitro models of OXA-acquired resistance but was attenuated by the addition of Curcumin, a non-toxic NF-κB inhibitor. The concomitant combination of Curcumin + OXA was more effective and synergistic in cell lines with acquired resistance to OXA, leading to the reversion of their resistant phenotype, through the inhibition of the NF-κB signalling cascade. Transcriptomic profiling revealed the up-regulation of three NF-κB-regulated CXC-chemokines, CXCL8, CXCL1 and CXCL2, in the resistant cells that were more efficiently down-regulated after OXA + Curcumin treatment as compared to the sensitive cells. Moreover, CXCL8 and CXCL1 gene silencing made resistant cells more sensitive to OXA through the inhibition of the Akt/NF-κB pathway. High expression of CXCL1 in FFPE samples from explant cultures of CRC patients-derived liver metastases was associated with response to OXA + Curcumin. In conclusion, we suggest that combination of OXA + Curcumin could be an effective treatment, for which CXCL1 could be used as a predictive marker, in CRC patients. PMID:27091625

  14. Acquired resistance of pancreatic cancer cells to treatment with gemcitabine and HER-inhibitors is accompanied by increased sensitivity to STAT3 inhibition

    PubMed Central

    IOANNOU, NIKOLAOS; SEDDON, ALAN M.; DALGLEISH, ANGUS; MACKINTOSH, DAVID; SOLCA, FLAVIO; MODJTAHEDI, HELMOUT

    2016-01-01

    Drug-resistance is a major contributing factor for the poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic cancer. We have shown previously that the irreversible ErbB family blocker afatinib, is more effective than the reversible EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib in inhibiting the growth of human pancreatic cancer cells. The aim of this study was to develop human pancreatic cancer cell (BxPc3) variants with acquired resistance to treatment with gemcitabine, afatinib, or erlotinib, and to investigate the molecular changes that accompany the acquisition of a drug-resistant phenotype. We also investigated the therapeutic potential of various agents in the treatment of such drug-resistant variants. Three variant forms of BxPc3 cells with acquired resistance to gemcitabine (BxPc3GEM), afatinib (BxPc3AFR) or erlotinib (BxPc3OSIR) were developed following treatment with increasing doses of such drugs. The expression level, mutational and phosphorylation status of various growth factor receptors and downstream cell signaling molecules were determined by FACS, human phopsho-RTK array, and western blot analysis while the sulforhodamine B assay was used for determining the effect of various agents on the growth of such tumours. We found that all three BxPc3 variants with acquired resistance to gemcitabine (BxPc3GEM), afatinib (BxPc3AFR) or erlotinib (BxPc3OSIR) also become less sensitive to treatment with the two other agents. Acquisition of resistance to these agents was accompanied by upregulation of p-c-MET, p-STAT3, CD44, increased autocrine production of EGFR ligand amphiregulin and differential activation status of EGFR tyrosine residues as well as downregulation of total and p-SRC. Of all therapeutic interventions examined, including the addition of an anti-EGFR antibody ICR62, an anti-CD44 monoclonal antibody, and of STAT3 or c-MET inhibitors, only treatment with the STAT3 inhibitor Stattic produced a higher growth inhibitory effect in all three drug-resistant variants

  15. Preserved muscle oxidative metabolic phenotype in newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer cachexia

    PubMed Central

    Op den Kamp, Celine M; Gosker, Harry R; Lagarde, Suzanne; Tan, Daniel Y; Snepvangers, Frank J; Dingemans, Anne-Marie C; Langen, Ramon CJ; Schols, Annemie MWJ

    2015-01-01

    Background Cachexia augments cancer-related mortality and has devastating effects on quality of life. Pre-clinical studies indicate that systemic inflammation-induced loss of muscle oxidative phenotype (OXPHEN) stimulates cancer-induced muscle wasting. The aim of the current proof of concept study is to validate the presence of muscle OXPHEN loss in newly diagnosed patients with lung cancer, especially in those with cachexia. Methods Quadriceps muscle biopsies of comprehensively phenotyped pre-cachectic (n = 10) and cachectic (n = 16) patients with non-small cell lung cancer prior to treatment were compared with healthy age-matched controls (n = 22). OXPHEN was determined by assessing muscle fibre type distribution (immunohistochemistry), enzyme activity (spectrophotometry), and protein expression levels of mitochondrial complexes (western blot) as well as transcript levels of (regulatory) oxidative genes (quantitative real-time PCR). Additionally, muscle fibre cross-sectional area (immunohistochemistry) and systemic inflammation (multiplex analysis) were assessed. Results Muscle fibre cross-sectional area was smaller, and plasma levels of interleukin 6 were significantly higher in cachectic patients compared with non-cachectic patients and healthy controls. No differences in muscle fibre type distribution or oxidative and glycolytic enzyme activities were observed between the groups. Mitochondrial protein expression and gene expression levels of their regulators were also not different. Conclusion Muscle OXPHEN is preserved in newly diagnosed non-small cell lung cancer and therefore not a primary trigger of cachexia in these patients. PMID:26136192

  16. Acquired resistance of non-small cell lung cancer to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Nurwidya, Fariz; Takahashi, Fumiyuki; Murakami, Akiko; Kobayashi, Isao; Kato, Motoyasu; Shukuya, Takehito; Tajima, Ken; Shimada, Naoko; Takahashi, Kazuhisa

    2014-03-01

    Activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) triggers anti-apoptotic signaling, proliferation, angiogenesis, invasion, metastasis, and drug resistance, which leads to development and progression of human epithelial cancers, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Inhibition of EGFR by tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as gefitinib and erlotinib has provided a new hope for the cure of NSCLC patients. However, acquired resistance to gefitinib and erlotinib via EGFR-mutant NSCLC has occurred through various molecular mechanisms such as T790M secondary mutation, MET amplification, hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) overexpression, PTEN downregulation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and other mechanisms. This review will discuss the biology of receptor tyrosine kinase inhibition and focus on the molecular mechanisms of acquired resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors of EGFR-mutant NSCLC.

  17. Modeling the Transitions between Collective and Solitary Migration Phenotypes in Cancer Metastasis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bin; Jolly, Mohit Kumar; Lu, Mingyang; Tsarfaty, Ilan; Ben-Jacob, Eshel; Onuchic, Jose' N.

    2015-12-01

    Cellular plasticity during cancer metastasis is a major clinical challenge. Two key cellular plasticity mechanisms —Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and Mesenchymal-to-Amoeboid Transition (MAT) - have been carefully investigated individually, yet a comprehensive understanding of their interconnections remains elusive. Previously, we have modeled the dynamics of the core regulatory circuits for both EMT (miR-200/ZEB/miR-34/SNAIL) and MAT (Rac1/RhoA). We now extend our previous work to study the coupling between these two core circuits by considering the two microRNAs (miR-200 and miR-34) as external signals to the core MAT circuit. We show that this coupled circuit enables four different stable steady states (phenotypes) that correspond to hybrid epithelial/mesenchymal (E/M), mesenchymal (M), amoeboid (A) and hybrid amoeboid/mesenchymal (A/M) phenotypes. Our model recapitulates the metastasis-suppressing role of the microRNAs even in the presence of EMT-inducing signals like Hepatocyte Growth Factor (HGF). It also enables mapping the microRNA levels to the transitions among various cell migration phenotypes. Finally, it offers a mechanistic understanding for the observed phenotypic transitions among different cell migration phenotypes, specifically the Collective-to-Amoeboid Transition (CAT).

  18. A Hybrid Cellular Automaton Model of Clonal Evolution in Cancer: The Emergence of the Glycolytic Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Gerlee, P.; Anderson, A.R.A.

    2009-01-01

    We present a cellular automaton model of clonal evolution in cancer aimed at investigating the emergence of the glycolytic phenotype. In the model each cell is equipped with a micro-environment response network that determines the behaviour or phenotype of the cell based on the local environment. The response network is modelled using a feed-forward neural network, which is subject to mutations when the cells divide. This implies that cells might react differently to the environment and when space and nutrients are limited only the fittest cells will survive. With this model we have investigated the impact of the environment on the growth dynamics of the tumour. In particular we have analysed the influence of the tissue oxygen concentration and extra-cellular matrix density on the dynamics of the model. We found that the environment influences both the growth and evolutionary dynamics of the tumour. For low oxygen concentration we observe tumours with a fingered morphology, while increasing the matrix density gives rise to more compact tumours with wider fingers. The distribution of phenotypes in the tumour is also affected, and we observe that the glycolytic phenotype is most likely to emerge in a poorly oxygenated tissue with a high matrix density. Our results suggest that it is the combined effect of the oxygen concentration and matrix density that creates an environment where the glycolytic phenotype has a growth advantage and consequently is most likely to appear. PMID:18068192

  19. The neuroendocrine phenotype of gastric myofibroblasts and its loss with cancer progression

    PubMed Central

    Balabanova, Silvia; Holmberg, Chris; Steele, Islay; Ebrahimi, Bahram; Rainbow, Lucille; Burdyga, Ted; McCaig, Cathy; Tiszlavicz, Lazso; Lertkowit, Nantaporn; Giger, Olivier T.; Oliver, Simon; Prior, Ian; Dimaline, Rod; Simpson, Deborah; Beynon, Rob; Hegyi, Peter; Wang, Timothy C.; Dockray, Graham J.; Varro, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Stromal cells influence cancer progression. Myofibroblasts are an important stromal cell type, which influence the tumour microenvironment by release of extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, proteases, cytokines and chemokines. The mechanisms of secretion are poorly understood. Here, we describe the secretion of marker proteins in gastric cancer and control myofibroblasts in response to insulin-like growth factor (IGF) stimulation and, using functional genomic approaches, we identify proteins influencing the secretory response. IGF rapidly increased myofibroblast secretion of an ECM protein, TGFβig-h3. The secretory response was not blocked by inhibition of protein synthesis and was partially mediated by increased intracellular calcium (Ca2+). The capacity for evoked secretion was associated with the presence of dense-core secretory vesicles and was lost in cells from patients with advanced gastric cancer. In cells responding to IGF-II, the expression of neuroendocrine marker proteins, including secretogranin-II and proenkephalin, was identified by gene array and LC-MS/MS respectively, and verified experimentally. The expression of proenkephalin was decreased in cancers from patients with advanced disease. Inhibition of secretogranin-II expression decreased the secretory response to IGF, and its over-expression recovered the secretory response consistent with a role in secretory vesicle biogenesis. We conclude that normal and some gastric cancer myofibroblasts have a neuroendocrine-like phenotype characterized by Ca2+-dependent regulated secretion, dense-core secretory vesicles and expression of neuroendocrine marker proteins; loss of the phenotype is associated with advanced cancer. A failure to regulate myofibroblast protein secretion may contribute to cancer progression. PMID:24710625

  20. Lipin-1 regulates cancer cell phenotype and is a potential target to potentiate rapamycin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Brohée, Laura; Demine, Stéphane; Willems, Jérome; Arnould, Thierry; Colige, Alain C.; Deroanne, Christophe F.

    2015-01-01

    Lipogenesis inhibition was reported to induce apoptosis and repress proliferation of cancer cells while barely affecting normal cells. Lipins exhibit dual function as enzymes catalyzing the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol and as co-transcriptional regulators. Thus, they are able to regulate lipid homeostasis at several nodal points. Here, we show that lipin-1 is up-regulated in several cancer cell lines and overexpressed in 50 % of high grade prostate cancers. The proliferation of prostate and breast cancer cells, but not of non-tumorigenic cells, was repressed upon lipin-1 knock-down. Lipin-1 depletion also decreased cancer cell migration through RhoA activation. Lipin-1 silencing did not significantly affect global lipid synthesis but enhanced the cellular concentration of phosphatidic acid. In parallel, autophagy was induced while AKT and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation were repressed. We also observed a compensatory regulation between lipin-1 and lipin-2 and demonstrated that their co-silencing aggravates the phenotype induced by lipin-1 silencing alone. Most interestingly, lipin-1 depletion or lipins inhibition with propranolol sensitized cancer cells to rapamycin. These data indicate that lipin-1 controls main cellular processes involved in cancer progression and that its targeting, alone or in combination with other treatments, could open new avenues in anticancer therapy. PMID:25834103

  1. Lipin-1 regulates cancer cell phenotype and is a potential target to potentiate rapamycin treatment.

    PubMed

    Brohée, Laura; Demine, Stéphane; Willems, Jérome; Arnould, Thierry; Colige, Alain C; Deroanne, Christophe F

    2015-05-10

    Lipogenesis inhibition was reported to induce apoptosis and repress proliferation of cancer cells while barely affecting normal cells. Lipins exhibit dual function as enzymes catalyzing the dephosphorylation of phosphatidic acid to diacylglycerol and as co-transcriptional regulators. Thus, they are able to regulate lipid homeostasis at several nodal points. Here, we show that lipin-1 is up-regulated in several cancer cell lines and overexpressed in 50 % of high grade prostate cancers. The proliferation of prostate and breast cancer cells, but not of non-tumorigenic cells, was repressed upon lipin-1 knock-down. Lipin-1 depletion also decreased cancer cell migration through RhoA activation. Lipin-1 silencing did not significantly affect global lipid synthesis but enhanced the cellular concentration of phosphatidic acid. In parallel, autophagy was induced while AKT and ribosomal protein S6 phosphorylation were repressed. We also observed a compensatory regulation between lipin-1 and lipin-2 and demonstrated that their co-silencing aggravates the phenotype induced by lipin-1 silencing alone. Most interestingly, lipin-1 depletion or lipins inhibition with propranolol sensitized cancer cells to rapamycin. These data indicate that lipin-1 controls main cellular processes involved in cancer progression and that its targeting, alone or in combination with other treatments, could open new avenues in anticancer therapy.

  2. CYP2D6 Genetic Polymorphisms and Phenotypes in Different Ethnicities of Malaysian Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Chin, Fee Wai; Chan, Soon Choy; Abdul Rahman, Sabariah; Noor Akmal, Sharifah; Rosli, Rozita

    2016-01-01

    The cytochrome P450, family 2, subfamily D, polypeptide 6 (CYP2D6) is an enzyme that is predominantly involved in the metabolism of tamoxifen. Genetic polymorphisms of the CYP2D6 gene may contribute to inter-individual variability in tamoxifen metabolism, which leads to the differences in clinical response to tamoxifen among breast cancer patients. In Malaysia, the knowledge on CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms as well as metabolizer status in Malaysian breast cancer patients remains unknown. Hence, this study aimed to comprehensively identify CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms among 80 Malaysian breast cancer patients. The genetic polymorphisms of all the 9 exons of CYP2D6 gene were identified using high-resolution melting analysis and confirmed by DNA sequencing. Seven CYP2D6 alleles consisting of CYP2D6*1, CYP2D6*2, CYP2D6*4, CYP2D6*10, CYP2D6*39, CYP2D6*49, and CYP2D6*75 were identified in this study. Among these alleles, CYP2D6*10 is the most common allele in both Malaysian Malay (54.8%) and Chinese (71.4%) breast cancer patients, whereas CYP2D6*4 in Malaysian Indian (28.6%) breast cancer patients. In relation to CYP2D6 genotype, CYP2D6*10/*10 is more frequently observed in both Malaysian Malay (28.9%) and Chinese (57.1%) breast cancer patients, whereas CYP2D6*4/*10 is more frequently observed in Malaysian Indian (42.8%) breast cancer patients. In terms of CYP2D6 phenotype, 61.5% of Malaysian Malay breast cancer patients are predicted as extensive metabolizers in which they are most likely to respond well to tamoxifen therapy. However, 57.1% of Chinese as well as Indian breast cancer patients are predicted as intermediate metabolizers and they are less likely to gain optimal benefit from the tamoxifen therapy. This is the first report of CYP2D6 genetic polymorphisms and phenotypes in Malaysian breast cancer patients for different ethnicities. These data may aid clinicians in selecting an optimal drug therapy for Malaysian breast cancer patients, hence improve the

  3. Let-7b Inhibits Human Cancer Phenotype by Targeting Cytochrome P450 Epoxygenase 2J2

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shenglan; Gong, Wei; Wang, Yan; Cianflone, Katherine; Tang, Jiarong; Wang, Dao Wen

    2012-01-01

    Background MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules of 20 to 22 nucleotides that regulate gene expression by binding to their 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR). Increasing data implicate altered miRNA participation in the progress of cancer. We previously reported that CYP2J2 epoxygenase promotes human cancer phenotypes. But whether and how CYP2J2 is regulated by miRNA is not understood. Methods and Results Using bioinformatics analysis, we found potential target sites for miRNA let-7b in 3′UTR of human CYP2J2. Luciferase and western blot assays revealed that CYP2J2 was regulated by let-7b. In addition, let-7b decreased the enzymatic activity of endogenous CYP2J2. Furthermore, let-7b may diminish cell proliferation and promote cell apoptosis of tumor cells via posttranscriptional repression of CYP2J2. Tumor xenografts were induced in nude mice by subcutaneous injection of MDA-MB-435 cells. The let-7b expression vector, pSilencer-let-7b, was injected through tail vein every 3 weeks. Let-7b significantly inhibited the tumor phenotype by targeting CYP2J2. Moreover, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and western blotting were used to determine the expression levels of let-7b and CYP2J2 protein from 18 matched lung squamous cell cancer and adjacent normal lung tissues; the expression level of CYP2J2 was inversely proportional to that of let-7b. Conclusions Our results demonstrated that the decreased expression of let-7b could lead to the high expression of CYP2J2 protein in cancerous tissues. These findings suggest that miRNA let-7b reduces CYP2J2 expression, which may contribute to inhibiting tumor phenotypes. PMID:22761738

  4. Intratumoral heterogeneity: Role of differentiation in a potentially lethal phenotype of testicular cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bilen, Mehmet Asim; Hess, Kenneth R.; Broaddus, Russell R.; Kopetz, Scott; Wei, Chongjuan; Pagliaro, Lance C.; Karam, Jose A.; Ward, John F.; Wood, Christopher G.; Rao, Priya; Tu, Zachary H.; General, Rosale; Chen, Adrienne H.; Nieto, Yago L.; Yeung, Sai‐ching J.; Lin, Sue‐Hwa; Logothetis, Christopher J.; Pisters, Louis L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Intratumoral heterogeneity presents a major obstacle to the widespread implementation of precision medicine. The authors assessed the origin of intratumoral heterogeneity in nonseminomatous germ cell tumor of the testis (NSGCT) and identified distinct tumor subtypes and a potentially lethal phenotype. METHODS In this retrospective study, all consecutive patients who had been diagnosed with an NSGCT between January 2000 and December 2010 were evaluated. The histologic makeup of primary tumors and the clinical course of disease were determined for each patient. A Fine and Gray proportional hazards regression analysis was used to determine the prognostic risk factors, and the Gray test was used to detect differences in the cumulative incidence of cancer death. In a separate prospective study, next‐generation sequencing was performed on tumor samples from 9 patients to identify any actionable mutations. RESULTS Six hundred fifteen patients were included in this study. Multivariate analysis revealed that the presence of yolk sac tumor in the primary tumor (P = .0003) was associated with an unfavorable prognosis. NSGCT could be divided into 5 subgroups. Patients in the yolk sac‐seminoma subgroup had the poorest clinical outcome (P = .0015). These tumors tended to undergo somatic transformation (P < .0001). Among the 9 NSGCTs that had a yolk sac tumor phenotype, no consistent gene mutation was detected. CONCLUSIONS The current data suggest that intratumoral heterogeneity is caused in part by differentiation of pluripotent progenitor cells. Integrated or multimodal therapy may be effective at addressing intratumoral heterogeneity and treating distinct subtypes as well as a potentially lethal phenotype of NSGCT. Cancer 2016;122:1836–43. © 2016 The Authors. Cancer published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of American Cancer Society. This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial License

  5. Disrupted interaction between CFTR and AF-6/afadin aggravates malignant phenotypes of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ting Ting; Wang, Yan; Cheng, Hong; Xiao, Hu Zhang; Xiang, Juan Juan; Zhang, Jie Ting; Yu, Siu Bun Sydney; Martin, Tracey Amanda; Ye, Lin; Tsang, Lai Ling; Jiang, Wen Guo; Xiaohua, Jiang; Chan, Hsiao Chang

    2014-03-01

    How mutations or dysfunction of CFTR may increase the risk of malignancies in various tissues remains an open question. Here we report the interaction between CFTR and an adherens junction molecule, AF-6/afadin, and its involvement in the development of colon cancer. We have found that CFTR and AF-6/afadin are co-localized at the cell-cell contacts and physically interact with each other in colon cancer cell lines. Knockdown of CFTR results in reduced epithelial tightness and enhanced malignancies, with increased degradation and reduced stability of AF-6/afadin protein. The enhanced invasive phenotype of CFTR-knockdown cells can be completely reversed by either AF-6/afadin over-expression or ERK inhibitor, indicating the involvement of AF-6/MAPK pathway. More interestingly, the expression levels of CFTR and AF-6/afadin are significantly downregulated in human colon cancer tissues and lower expression of CFTR and/or AF-6/afadin is correlated with poor prognosis of colon cancer patients. The present study has revealed a previously unrecognized interaction between CFTR and AF-6/afadin that is involved in the pathogenesis of colon cancer and indicated the potential of the two as novel markers of metastasis and prognostic predictors for human colon cancer.

  6. The tandem duplicator phenotype as a distinct genomic configuration in cancer

    PubMed Central

    Menghi, Francesca; Inaki, Koichiro; Woo, XingYi; Kumar, Pooja A.; Grzeda, Krzysztof R.; Malhotra, Ankit; Yadav, Vinod; Kim, Hyunsoo; Marquez, Eladio J.; Ucar, Duygu; Shreckengast, Phung T.; Wagner, Joel P.; MacIntyre, George; Murthy Karuturi, Krishna R.; Scully, Ralph; Keck, James; Chuang, Jeffrey H.; Liu, Edison T.

    2016-01-01

    Next-generation sequencing studies have revealed genome-wide structural variation patterns in cancer, such as chromothripsis and chromoplexy, that do not engage a single discernable driver mutation, and whose clinical relevance is unclear. We devised a robust genomic metric able to identify cancers with a chromotype called tandem duplicator phenotype (TDP) characterized by frequent and distributed tandem duplications (TDs). Enriched only in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and in ovarian, endometrial, and liver cancers, TDP tumors conjointly exhibit tumor protein p53 (TP53) mutations, disruption of breast cancer 1 (BRCA1), and increased expression of DNA replication genes pointing at rereplication in a defective checkpoint environment as a plausible causal mechanism. The resultant TDs in TDP augment global oncogene expression and disrupt tumor suppressor genes. Importantly, the TDP strongly correlates with cisplatin sensitivity in both TNBC cell lines and primary patient-derived xenografts. We conclude that the TDP is a common cancer chromotype that coordinately alters oncogene/tumor suppressor expression with potential as a marker for chemotherapeutic response. PMID:27071093

  7. The tandem duplicator phenotype as a distinct genomic configuration in cancer.

    PubMed

    Menghi, Francesca; Inaki, Koichiro; Woo, XingYi; Kumar, Pooja A; Grzeda, Krzysztof R; Malhotra, Ankit; Yadav, Vinod; Kim, Hyunsoo; Marquez, Eladio J; Ucar, Duygu; Shreckengast, Phung T; Wagner, Joel P; MacIntyre, George; Murthy Karuturi, Krishna R; Scully, Ralph; Keck, James; Chuang, Jeffrey H; Liu, Edison T

    2016-04-26

    Next-generation sequencing studies have revealed genome-wide structural variation patterns in cancer, such as chromothripsis and chromoplexy, that do not engage a single discernable driver mutation, and whose clinical relevance is unclear. We devised a robust genomic metric able to identify cancers with a chromotype called tandem duplicator phenotype (TDP) characterized by frequent and distributed tandem duplications (TDs). Enriched only in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) and in ovarian, endometrial, and liver cancers, TDP tumors conjointly exhibit tumor protein p53 (TP53) mutations, disruption of breast cancer 1 (BRCA1), and increased expression of DNA replication genes pointing at rereplication in a defective checkpoint environment as a plausible causal mechanism. The resultant TDs in TDP augment global oncogene expression and disrupt tumor suppressor genes. Importantly, the TDP strongly correlates with cisplatin sensitivity in both TNBC cell lines and primary patient-derived xenografts. We conclude that the TDP is a common cancer chromotype that coordinately alters oncogene/tumor suppressor expression with potential as a marker for chemotherapeutic response. PMID:27071093

  8. NK Cells Preferentially Target Tumor Cells with a Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Ames, Erik; Canter, Robert J.; Grossenbacher, Steven K.; Mac, Stephanie; Chen, Mingyi; Smith, Rachel C.; Hagino, Takeshi; Perez-Cunningham, Jessica; Sckisel, Gail D.; Urayama, Shiro; Monjazeb, Arta M.; Fragoso, Ruben C.; Sayers, Thomas J.; Murphy, William J.

    2016-01-01

    Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are resistant to antiproliferative therapies, able to repopulate tumor bulk, and seed metastasis. NK cells are able to target stem cells as shown by their ability to reject allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells but not solid tissue grafts. Using multiple preclinical models, including NK coculture (autologous and allogeneic) with multiple human cancer cell lines and dissociated primary cancer specimens and NK transfer in NSG mice harboring orthotopic pancreatic cancer xenografts, we assessed CSC viability, CSC frequency, expression of death receptor ligands, and tumor burden. We demonstrate that activated NK cells are capable of preferentially killing CSCs identified by multiple CSC markers (CD24+/CD44+, CD133+, and aldehyde dehydrogenasebright) from a wide variety of human cancer cell lines in vitro and dissociated primary cancer specimens ex vivo. We observed comparable effector function of allogeneic and autologous NK cells. We also observed preferential upregulation of NK activation ligands MICA/B, Fas, and DR5 on CSCs. Blocking studies further implicated an NKG2D-dependent mechanism for NK killing of CSCs. Treatment of orthotopic human pancreatic cancer tumor-bearing NSG mice with activated NK cells led to significant reductions in both intratumoral CSCs and tumor burden. Taken together, these data from multiple preclinical models, including a strong reliance on primary human cancer specimens, provide compelling preclinical evidence that activated NK cells preferentially target cancer cells with a CSC phenotype, highlighting the translational potential of NK immunotherapy as part of a combined modality approach for refractory solid malignancies. PMID:26363055

  9. NK Cells Preferentially Target Tumor Cells with a Cancer Stem Cell Phenotype.

    PubMed

    Ames, Erik; Canter, Robert J; Grossenbacher, Steven K; Mac, Stephanie; Chen, Mingyi; Smith, Rachel C; Hagino, Takeshi; Perez-Cunningham, Jessica; Sckisel, Gail D; Urayama, Shiro; Monjazeb, Arta M; Fragoso, Ruben C; Sayers, Thomas J; Murphy, William J

    2015-10-15

    Increasing evidence supports the hypothesis that cancer stem cells (CSCs) are resistant to antiproliferative therapies, able to repopulate tumor bulk, and seed metastasis. NK cells are able to target stem cells as shown by their ability to reject allogeneic hematopoietic stem cells but not solid tissue grafts. Using multiple preclinical models, including NK coculture (autologous and allogeneic) with multiple human cancer cell lines and dissociated primary cancer specimens and NK transfer in NSG mice harboring orthotopic pancreatic cancer xenografts, we assessed CSC viability, CSC frequency, expression of death receptor ligands, and tumor burden. We demonstrate that activated NK cells are capable of preferentially killing CSCs identified by multiple CSC markers (CD24(+)/CD44(+), CD133(+), and aldehyde dehydrogenase(bright)) from a wide variety of human cancer cell lines in vitro and dissociated primary cancer specimens ex vivo. We observed comparable effector function of allogeneic and autologous NK cells. We also observed preferential upregulation of NK activation ligands MICA/B, Fas, and DR5 on CSCs. Blocking studies further implicated an NKG2D-dependent mechanism for NK killing of CSCs. Treatment of orthotopic human pancreatic cancer tumor-bearing NSG mice with activated NK cells led to significant reductions in both intratumoral CSCs and tumor burden. Taken together, these data from multiple preclinical models, including a strong reliance on primary human cancer specimens, provide compelling preclinical evidence that activated NK cells preferentially target cancer cells with a CSC phenotype, highlighting the translational potential of NK immunotherapy as part of a combined modality approach for refractory solid malignancies.

  10. The Splicing Efficiency of Activating HRAS Mutations Can Determine Costello Syndrome Phenotype and Frequency in Cancer.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Anne-Mette; Swensen, Jeff; Uriz, Inaki E; Lapin, Morten; Kristjansdottir, Karen; Petersen, Ulrika S S; Bang, Jeanne Mari V; Guerra, Barbara; Andersen, Henriette Skovgaard; Dobrowolski, Steven F; Carey, John C; Yu, Ping; Vaughn, Cecily; Calhoun, Amy; Larsen, Martin R; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Stevenson, David A; Andresen, Brage S

    2016-05-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) may be caused by activating mutations in codon 12/13 of the HRAS proto-oncogene. HRAS p.Gly12Val mutations have the highest transforming activity, are very frequent in cancers, but very rare in CS, where they are reported to cause a severe, early lethal, phenotype. We identified an unusual, new germline p.Gly12Val mutation, c.35_36GC>TG, in a 12-year-old boy with attenuated CS. Analysis of his HRAS cDNA showed high levels of exon 2 skipping. Using wild type and mutant HRAS minigenes, we confirmed that c.35_36GC>TG results in exon 2 skipping by simultaneously disrupting the function of a critical Exonic Splicing Enhancer (ESE) and creation of an Exonic Splicing Silencer (ESS). We show that this vulnerability of HRAS exon 2 is caused by a weak 3' splice site, which makes exon 2 inclusion dependent on binding of splicing stimulatory proteins, like SRSF2, to the critical ESE. Because the majority of cancer- and CS- causing mutations are located here, they affect splicing differently. Therefore, our results also demonstrate that the phenotype in CS and somatic cancers is not only determined by the different transforming potentials of mutant HRAS proteins, but also by the efficiency of exon 2 inclusion resulting from the different HRAS mutations. Finally, we show that a splice switching oligonucleotide (SSO) that blocks access to the critical ESE causes exon 2 skipping and halts proliferation of cancer cells. This unravels a potential for development of new anti-cancer therapies based on SSO-mediated HRAS exon 2 skipping.

  11. The Splicing Efficiency of Activating HRAS Mutations Can Determine Costello Syndrome Phenotype and Frequency in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kristjansdottir, Karen; Petersen, Ulrika S. S.; Bang, Jeanne Mari V.; Guerra, Barbara; Andersen, Henriette Skovgaard; Dobrowolski, Steven F.; Carey, John C.; Yu, Ping; Calhoun, Amy; Larsen, Martin R.; Dyrskjøt, Lars; Stevenson, David A.; Andresen, Brage S.

    2016-01-01

    Costello syndrome (CS) may be caused by activating mutations in codon 12/13 of the HRAS proto-oncogene. HRAS p.Gly12Val mutations have the highest transforming activity, are very frequent in cancers, but very rare in CS, where they are reported to cause a severe, early lethal, phenotype. We identified an unusual, new germline p.Gly12Val mutation, c.35_36GC>TG, in a 12-year-old boy with attenuated CS. Analysis of his HRAS cDNA showed high levels of exon 2 skipping. Using wild type and mutant HRAS minigenes, we confirmed that c.35_36GC>TG results in exon 2 skipping by simultaneously disrupting the function of a critical Exonic Splicing Enhancer (ESE) and creation of an Exonic Splicing Silencer (ESS). We show that this vulnerability of HRAS exon 2 is caused by a weak 3’ splice site, which makes exon 2 inclusion dependent on binding of splicing stimulatory proteins, like SRSF2, to the critical ESE. Because the majority of cancer- and CS- causing mutations are located here, they affect splicing differently. Therefore, our results also demonstrate that the phenotype in CS and somatic cancers is not only determined by the different transforming potentials of mutant HRAS proteins, but also by the efficiency of exon 2 inclusion resulting from the different HRAS mutations. Finally, we show that a splice switching oligonucleotide (SSO) that blocks access to the critical ESE causes exon 2 skipping and halts proliferation of cancer cells. This unravels a potential for development of new anti-cancer therapies based on SSO-mediated HRAS exon 2 skipping. PMID:27195699

  12. Circulating tumor cells exhibit a biologically aggressive cancer phenotype accompanied by selective resistance to chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Pavese, Janet M; Bergan, Raymond C

    2014-10-01

    With prostate cancer (PCa), circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) portend a poor clinical prognosis. Their unknown biology precludes rational therapeutic design. We demonstrate that CTC and DTC cell lines, established from mice bearing human PCa orthotopic implants, exhibit increased cellular invasion in vitro, increased metastasis in mice, and express increased epithelial to mesenchymal transition biomarkers. Further, they are selectively resistant to growth inhibition by mitoxantrone-like agents. These findings demonstrate that CTC formation is accompanied by phenotypic progression without obligate reversion. Their increased metastatic potential, selective therapeutic resistance, and differential expression of potential therapeutic targets provide a rational basis to test further interventions.

  13. Phenotypic heterogeneity studied by immunohistochemistry and aneuploidy in non-small cell lung cancers.

    PubMed

    Pujol, J L; Simony, J; Laurent, J C; Richer, G; Mary, H; Bousquet, J; Godard, P; Michel, F B

    1989-05-15

    Non-small cell lung cancers (non-SCLC) differ from small cell lung cancers (SCLC) by many clinical features and prognosis. However, recent studies suggest that lung cancer heterogeneity frequently leads to the association of SCLC and non-SCLC in the same tumor. This phenotypic heterogeneity can be analyzed by immunohistochemistry using monoclonal antibodies (Mab) raised against differentiation related antigens. It may have clinical relevance inasmuch as the diversification of malignant cells is a well-known factor of tumor progression and may be due to chromosomal instability because inappropriate gene expression leads to the formation of antigens unrelated to cell lineage. Chromosomal instability in cancer leads to aneuploidy detectable by cell DNA content analysis. In a prospective study, we analyzed, in parallel, the expression of neuroendocrine related antigens by immunohistochemistry and the cell DNA content in frozen specimens from 40 patients who underwent complete surgical resection of primary non-SCLC in an attempt (a) to characterize the phenotypic heterogeneity and (b) to determine whether this heterogeneity is correlated with aneuploidy and clinical staging. Three Mabs were used in association as a marker of neuroendocrine antigen expression (S-L 11.14, MOC-1, and NE-25); reactivity of these Mabs in 9 SCLC and 3 lung carcinoid tissue sections was used as positive control. All SCLC and 2 of 3 lung carcinoids tested were homogeneously positive with Mabs S-L 11.14, MOC-1, and NE-25; 13 of 40 non-SCLC were homogeneously positive and 11 additional specimens focally positive with Mabs S-L 11.14, MOC-1, and NE-25. The frequency of this abnormal phenotype was significantly higher in poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas (chi 2 10.08; P less than 0.005), in clinical stage III non-SCLC (chi 2 5.93; P less than 0.02), and in tumors involving mediastinal lymph nodes (chi 2 5; P less than 0.03). The percentage of cells in the modal DNA of G0-G1 phase was

  14. Biomarker and Phenotypic Risk Factors for Breast Cancer Lymphedema | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Cancer.gov

    DESCRIPTION (provided by applicant): Lymphedema (LE) following treatment for breast cancer is the most common form of secondary LE in the industrialized world. It occurs in 20% to 87% of patients following treatment for breast cancer and results in significant disability. At the |

  15. Target Acquired: Progress and Promise of Targeted Therapeutics in the Treatment of Prostate Cancer.

    PubMed

    Stuchbery, Ryan; Kurganovs, Natalie J; McCoy, Patrick J; Nelson, Colleen C; Hayes, Vanessa M; Corcoran, Niall M; Hovens, Christopher M

    2015-01-01

    Cancer is fundamentally a genomic disease caused by mutations or rearrangements in the DNA or epigenetic machinery of a patient. An emerging field in cancer treatment targets key aberrations arising from the mutational landscape of an individual patient's disease rather than employing a cancer-wide cytotoxic therapy approach. In prostate cancer in particular, where there is an observed variation in response to standard treatments between patients with disease of a similar pathological stage and grade, mutationdirected treatment may grow to be a viable tool for clinicians to tailor more effective treatments. This review will describe a number of mutations across multiple forms of cancer that have been successfully antagonised by targeted therapeutics including their identification, the development of targeted compounds to combat them and the development of resistance to these therapies. This review will continue to examine these same mutations in the treatment and management of prostate cancer; the prevalence of targetable mutations in prostate cancer, recent clinical trials of targeted-agents and the potential or limitations for their use.

  16. Arctigenin Inhibits Lung Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer by Regulating Cell Viability and Metastatic Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Kim, Dae-Seung; Mun, Jeong-Geon; Jeong, Mi-Young; Park, Sang-Hyun; Choi, Byung-Min; Park, Sung-Joo; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2016-08-27

    Arctigenin (ARC) has been shown to have an anti-cancer effect in various cell types and tissues. However, there have been no studies concerning metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we investigated the anti-metastatic properties of ARC on colorectal metastasis and present a potential candidate drug. ARC induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CT26 cells through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via MAPKs signaling. In several metastatic phenotypes, ARC controlled epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through increasing the expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin and decreasing the expressions of mesenchymal markers; N-cadherin, vimentin, β-catenin, and Snail. Moreover, ARC inhibited migration and invasion through reducing of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 expressions. In an experimental metastasis model, ARC significantly inhibited lung metastasis of CT26 cells. Taken together, our study demonstrates the inhibitory effects of ARC on colorectal metastasis.

  17. Arctigenin Inhibits Lung Metastasis of Colorectal Cancer by Regulating Cell Viability and Metastatic Phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Kim, Dae-Seung; Mun, Jeong-Geon; Jeong, Mi-Young; Park, Sang-Hyun; Choi, Byung-Min; Park, Sung-Joo; Kim, Hyun-Jung; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2016-01-01

    Arctigenin (ARC) has been shown to have an anti-cancer effect in various cell types and tissues. However, there have been no studies concerning metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). In this study, we investigated the anti-metastatic properties of ARC on colorectal metastasis and present a potential candidate drug. ARC induced cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CT26 cells through the intrinsic apoptotic pathway via MAPKs signaling. In several metastatic phenotypes, ARC controlled epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) through increasing the expression of epithelial marker E-cadherin and decreasing the expressions of mesenchymal markers; N-cadherin, vimentin, β-catenin, and Snail. Moreover, ARC inhibited migration and invasion through reducing of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP-2) and MMP-9 expressions. In an experimental metastasis model, ARC significantly inhibited lung metastasis of CT26 cells. Taken together, our study demonstrates the inhibitory effects of ARC on colorectal metastasis. PMID:27618887

  18. Myeloid suppressor cells in cancer: recruitment, phenotype, properties, and mechanisms of immune suppression.

    PubMed

    Serafini, Paolo; Borrello, Ivan; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2006-02-01

    Growing tumors acquire the ability to resist immune recognition and immune-mediated injury. Among several mechanisms, mouse and human tumors share the ability to alter the normal hematopoiesis, leading to accumulation of cells of the myelo-monoctytic lineage at the tumor site and in different primary and secondary lymphoid organs. These cells aid tumor development by providing molecules and factors essential for tumor growth and neovascularization but also exert a profound inhibitory activity on both tumor-specific and nonspecific T lymphocytes. The present article summarizes recent findings on the interaction between developing cancers and these recently described "myeloid suppressor cells". PMID:16168663

  19. Estrogen Metabolism and Exposure in a Genotypic-Phenotypic Model for Breast Cancer Risk Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Crooke, Philip S.; Justenhoven, Christina; Brauch, Hiltrud; Dawling, Sheila; Roodi, Nady; Higginbotham, Kathryn S. P.; Plummer, W. Dale; Schuyler, Peggy A.; Sanders, Melinda E; Page, David L.; Smith, Jeffrey R.; Dupont, William D.; Parl, Fritz F.

    2012-01-01

    Background Current models of breast cancer risk prediction do not directly reflect mammary estrogen metabolism or genetic variability in exposure to carcinogenic estrogen metabolites. Methods We developed a model that simulates the kinetic effect of genetic variants of the enzymes CYP1A1, CYP1B1, and COMT on the production of the main carcinogenic estrogen metabolite, 4-hydroxyestradiol (4-OHE2), expressed as area under the curve metric (4-OHE2-AUC). The model also incorporates phenotypic factors (age, body mass index, hormone replacement therapy, oral contraceptives, family history), which plausibly influence estrogen metabolism and the production of 4-OHE2. We applied the model to two independent, population-based breast cancer case-control groups, the German GENICA study (967 cases, 971 controls) and the Nashville Breast Cohort (NBC; 465 cases, 885 controls). Results In the GENICA study, premenopausal women at the 90th percentile of 4-OHE2-AUC among control subjects had a risk of breast cancer that was 2.30 times that of women at the 10th control 4-OHE2-AUC percentile (95% CI 1.7 – 3.2, P = 2.9 × 10−7). This relative risk was 1.89 (95% CI 1.5 – 2.4, P = 2.2 × 10−8) in postmenopausal women. In the NBC, this relative risk in postmenopausal women was 1.81 (95% CI 1.3 – 2.6, P = 7.6 × 10−4), which increased to 1.83 (95% CI 1.4 – 2.3, P = 9.5 × 10−7) when a history of proliferative breast disease was included in the model. Conclusions The model combines genotypic and phenotypic factors involved in carcinogenic estrogen metabolite production and cumulative estrogen exposure to predict breast cancer risk. Impact The estrogen carcinogenesis-based model has the potential to provide personalized risk estimates. PMID:21610218

  20. Differential expression of immune-related markers in breast cancer by molecular phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Choi, Junjeong; Kim, Do Hee; Jung, Woo Hee; Koo, Ja Seung

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationship between expression of immune-related molecules such as STAT1, CD20, IL-8, IFN-γ, tumor genetic phenotype, and the clinical course of invasive breast cancer. We constructed tissue microarrays from the breast cancers of 727 patients and classified the cases as either luminal A, luminal B, HER-2, or triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) based on standard pathological and clinical classifications using genetic phenotype. Surrogate immunohistochemical stains (STAT1, CD20, IL-8, IFN-γ) and HER-2 FISH were performed on each microarray. Of the 727 patients cases, 303 (41.7 %) were luminal A, 169 (23.2 %) were luminal B, 71 (9.8 %) were HER2+, and 184 (25.3 %) were TNBC. The expression of STAT1 in tumor cells was higher in luminal-type cancers than in HER2+ and TNBC (P < 0.001), and the TNBC-type tumors showed the highest levels of stromal STAT1 expression (P < 0.001), stromal IL-8 expression (P = 0.005), and CD20 index (P < 0.001). Luminal A type tumors showed the lowest expression of these markers. The stromal IL-8 positivity was associated with shorter DFS and OS in ER positive group, HER-2 negative group, and luminal A group (P < 0.05). To conclude, the immune-related molecules, STAT1, IFN-γ, IL-8, and CD20 are differentially expressed and define particular molecular subtypes which correlate with genetically defined types of tumors. High expression of STAT1 in tumor cells is observed in luminal-type tumors, whereas stromal expression of STAT1, stromal IL-8, and IL-8 in tumor cells is the highest in TNBC-type tumors.

  1. Small cell lung cancer transformation and T790M mutation: complimentary roles in acquired resistance to kinase inhibitors in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Suda, Kenichi; Murakami, Isao; Sakai, Kazuko; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Shigeki; Sato, Katsuaki; Tomizawa, Kenji; Tomida, Shuta; Yatabe, Yasushi; Nishio, Kazuto; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2015-09-24

    Lung cancers often harbour a mutation in the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene. Because proliferation and survival of lung cancers with EGFR mutation solely depend on aberrant signalling from the mutated EGFR, these tumours often show dramatic responses to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, acquiring resistance to these drugs is almost inevitable, thus a better understanding of the underlying resistance mechanisms is critical. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) transformation is a relatively rare acquired resistance mechanism that has lately attracted considerable attention. In the present study, through an in-depth analysis of multiple EGFR-TKI refractory lesions obtained from an autopsy case, we observed a complementary relationship between SCLC transformation and EGFR T790M secondary mutation (resistance mutation). We also identified analogies and differences in genetic aberration between a TKI-refractory lesion with SCLC transformation and one with EGFR T790M mutation. In particular, target sequencing revealed a TP53 P151S mutation in all pre- and post-treatment lesions. PTEN M264I mutation was identified only in a TKI-refractory lesion with SCLC transformation, while PIK3CA and RB1 mutations were identified only in pre-treatment primary tumour samples. These results provide the groundwork for understanding acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs via SCLC transformation.

  2. Involvement of potassium channels in the progression of cancer to a more malignant phenotype.

    PubMed

    Comes, Nuria; Serrano-Albarrás, Antonio; Capera, Jesusa; Serrano-Novillo, Clara; Condom, Enric; Ramón Y Cajal, Santiago; Ferreres, Joan Carles; Felipe, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    Potassium channels are a diverse group of pore-forming transmembrane proteins that selectively facilitate potassium flow through an electrochemical gradient. They participate in the control of the membrane potential and cell excitability in addition to different cell functions such as cell volume regulation, proliferation, cell migration, angiogenesis as well as apoptosis. Because these physiological processes are essential for the correct cell function, K+ channels have been associated with a growing number of diseases including cancer. In fact, different K+ channel families such as the voltage-gated K+ channels, the ether à-go-go K+ channels, the two pore domain K+ channels and the Ca2+-activated K+ channels have been associated to tumor biology. Potassium channels have a role in neoplastic cell-cycle progression and their expression has been found abnormal in many types of tumors and cancer cells. In addition, the expression and activity of specific K+ channels have shown a significant correlation with the tumor malignancy grade. The aim of this overview is to summarize published data on K+ channels that exhibit oncogenic properties and have been linked to a more malignant cancer phenotype. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Membrane channels and transporters in cancers.

  3. Induction of an altered lipid phenotype by two cancer promoting treatments in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Riedel, S; Abel, S; Swanevelder, S; Gelderblom, W C A

    2015-04-01

    Changes in lipid metabolism have been associated with tumor promotion in rat liver. Similarities and differences of lipid parameters were investigated using the mycotoxin fumonisin B1 (FB1) and the 2-acetylaminofluorene/partial hepatectomy (AAF/PH) treatments as cancer promoters in rat liver. A typical lipid phenotype was observed, including increased membranal phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and cholesterol content, increased levels of C16:0 and monounsaturated fatty acids in PE and phosphatidylcholine (PC), as well as a decrease in C18:0 and long-chained polyunsaturated fatty acids in the PC fraction. The observed lipid changes, which likely resulted in changes in membrane structure and fluidity, may represent a growth stimulus exerted by the cancer promoters that could provide initiated cells with a selective growth advantage. This study provided insight into complex lipid profiles induced by two different cancer promoting treatments and their potential role in the development of hepatocyte nodules, which can be used to identify targets for the development of chemopreventive strategies against cancer promotion in the liver.

  4. Procoagulant activity may be a marker of the malignant phenotype in experimental prostate cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Adamson, A. S.; Luckert, P.; Pollard, M.; Snell, M. E.; Amirkhosravi, M.; Francis, J. L.

    1994-01-01

    Using a one-stage kinetic chromogenic assay, we studied the procoagulant activity (PCA) of prostatic tissue in an experimental model of prostate cancer in the rat. PCA was present in homogenates of rat prostate glands containing either benign or malignant tumours. The procoagulant activated factor X directly and was provisionally characterised as a tissue factor-factor VIIa complex. There was no significant differences in PCA between control rats and rats exposed to carcinogens that did not develop tumour. Levels in rats that developed tumours were significantly higher (P < 0.01) than all other groups and there was a positive correlation between tumour weight and PCA (r = 0.85, P < 0.001). Furthermore, prostatic PCA levels were higher in the metastasis (P < 0.02). We conclude that PCA reflects the malignant phenotype in this animals, the PCA of the primary tumour was compared with that of the corresponding secondary deposit and levels were higher in the metastasis (P < 0.02). We conclude that PCA reflects the malignant phenotype in this model of experimental prostate cancer and suggest that this parameter is worth evaluating as a potential tumour marker in the human disease. PMID:8297726

  5. Targeted nanodiamonds as phenotype-specific photoacoustic contrast agents for breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ti; Cui, Huizhong; Fang, Chia-Yi; Cheng, Kun; Yang, Xinmai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Forrest, M Laird

    2015-03-01

    The aim is to develop irradiated nanodiamonds (INDs) as a molecularly targeted contrast agent for high-resolution and phenotype-specific detection of breast cancer with photoacoustic (PA) imaging. The surface of acid treated radiation-damaged nanodiamonds was grafted with PEG to improve its stability and circulation time in blood, followed by conjugation to an anti-HER2 peptide with a final nanoparticle size of approximately 92 nm. Immunocompetent mice bearing orthotopic HER2-positive or negative tumors were administered INDs and PA imaged using an 820-nm near-infrared laser. PA images demonstrated that INDs accumulate in tumors and completely delineated the entire tumor within 10 h. HER2 targeting significantly enhanced imaging of HER2-positive tumors. Pathological examination demonstrated INDs are nontoxic. PA technology is adaptable to low-cost bedside medicine, and with new contrast agents described herein, PA can achieve high-resolution (sub-mm) and phenotype-specific monitoring of cancer growth. PMID:25723091

  6. Targeted Nanodiamonds as Phenotype Specific Photoacoustic Contrast Agents for Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ti; Cui, Huizhong; Fang, Chia-Yi; Cheng, Kun; Yang, Xinmai; Chang, Huan-Cheng; Forrest, M. Laird

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim is to develop irradiated nanodiamonds (INDs) as a molecularly-targeted contrast agent for high resolution and phenotype-specific detection of breast cancer with photoacoustic (PA) imaging. Materials & Methods The surface of acid treated radiation-damaged nanodiamonds was grafted with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to improve its stability and circulation time in blood, followed by conjugation to an anti-Human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2) peptide (KCCYSL) with a final nanoparticle size of ca. 92 nm. Immunocompetent mice bearing orthotopic HER2 positive or negative tumors were administered INDs and PA imaged using an 820-nm near infrared laser. Results PA images demonstrated that INDs accumulate in tumors and completely delineated the entire tumor within 10 hours. HER2 targeting significantly enhanced imaging of HER2-positive tumors. Pathological examination demonstrated INDs are non-toxic. Conclusions PA technology is adaptable to low-cost bedside medicine, and with new contrast agents described herein, PA can achieve high resolution (sub-mm) and phenotype specific monitoring of cancer growth. PMID:25723091

  7. Phenotypic and molecular characterization of the claudin-low intrinsic subtype of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction In breast cancer, gene expression analyses have defined five tumor subtypes (luminal A, luminal B, HER2-enriched, basal-like and claudin-low), each of which has unique biologic and prognostic features. Here, we comprehensively characterize the recently identified claudin-low tumor subtype. Methods The clinical, pathological and biological features of claudin-low tumors were compared to the other tumor subtypes using an updated human tumor database and multiple independent data sets. These main features of claudin-low tumors were also evaluated in a panel of breast cancer cell lines and genetically engineered mouse models. Results Claudin-low tumors are characterized by the low to absent expression of luminal differentiation markers, high enrichment for epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition markers, immune response genes and cancer stem cell-like features. Clinically, the majority of claudin-low tumors are poor prognosis estrogen receptor (ER)-negative, progesterone receptor (PR)-negative, and epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative (triple negative) invasive ductal carcinomas with a high frequency of metaplastic and medullary differentiation. They also have a response rate to standard preoperative chemotherapy that is intermediate between that of basal-like and luminal tumors. Interestingly, we show that a group of highly utilized breast cancer cell lines, and several genetically engineered mouse models, express the claudin-low phenotype. Finally, we confirm that a prognostically relevant differentiation hierarchy exists across all breast cancers in which the claudin-low subtype most closely resembles the mammary epithelial stem cell. Conclusions These results should help to improve our understanding of the biologic heterogeneity of breast cancer and provide tools for the further evaluation of the unique biology of claudin-low tumors and cell lines. PMID:20813035

  8. Hsp90: A Global Regulator of the Genotype-to-Phenotype Map in Cancers.

    PubMed

    Jarosz, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Cancer cells have the unusual capacity to limit the cost of the mutation load that they harbor and simultaneously harness its evolutionary potential. This property fuels drug resistance, a key failure mode in oncogene-directed therapy. However, the factors that regulate this capacity might also provide an Achilles' heel that could be exploited therapeutically. Recently, insight has come from a seemingly distant field: protein folding. It is now clear that protein homeostasis broadly supports malignancy and fuels the rapid evolution of drug resistance. Among protein homeostatic mechanisms that influence cancer biology, the essential ATP-driven molecular chaperone heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is especially important. Hsp90 catalyzes folding of many proteins that regulate growth and development. These "client" kinases, transcription factors, and ubiquitin ligases often play critical roles in human disease, especially cancer. Studies in a wide range of systems-from single-celled organisms to human tumor samples-suggest that Hsp90 can broadly reshape the map between genotype and phenotype, acting as a "capacitor" and "potentiator" of genetic variation. Indeed, it has likely done so to such a degree that it has left an impress on diverse genome sequences. Hsp90 can constitute as much as 5% of total protein in transformed cells and increased levels of heat-shock activation correlate with poor prognosis in breast cancer. These findings and others have motivated a flurry of interest in Hsp90 inhibitors as cancer therapeutics, which have met with rather limited success as single agents, but may eventually prove invaluable in limiting the emergence of resistance to other chemotherapeutics, both genotoxic and molecularly targeted. Here, we provide an overview of Hsp90 function, review its relationship to genetic variation and the evolution of new traits, and discuss the importance of these findings for cancer biology and future efforts to drug this pathway.

  9. Genomic agonism and phenotypic antagonism between estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Hari; Greene, Marianne E.; Tarulli, Gerard; Zarnke, Allison L.; Bourgo, Ryan J.; Laine, Muriel; Chang, Ya-Fang; Ma, Shihong; Dembo, Anna G.; Raj, Ganesh V.; Hickey, Theresa E.; Tilley, Wayne D.; Greene, Geoffrey L.

    2016-01-01

    The functional role of progesterone receptor (PR) and its impact on estrogen signaling in breast cancer remain controversial. In primary ER+ (estrogen receptor–positive)/PR+ human tumors, we report that PR reprograms estrogen signaling as a genomic agonist and a phenotypic antagonist. In isolation, estrogen and progestin act as genomic agonists by regulating the expression of common target genes in similar directions, but at different levels. Similarly, in isolation, progestin is also a weak phenotypic agonist of estrogen action. However, in the presence of both hormones, progestin behaves as a phenotypic estrogen antagonist. PR remodels nucleosomes to noncompetitively redirect ER genomic binding to distal enhancers enriched for BRCA1 binding motifs and sites that link PR and ER/PR complexes. When both hormones are present, progestin modulates estrogen action, such that responsive transcriptomes, cellular processes, and ER/PR recruitment to genomic sites correlate with those observed with PR alone, but not ER alone. Despite this overall correlation, the transcriptome patterns modulated by dual treatment are sufficiently different from individual treatments, such that antagonism of oncogenic processes is both predicted and observed. Combination therapies using the selective PR modulator/antagonist (SPRM) CDB4124 in combination with tamoxifen elicited 70% cytotoxic tumor regression of T47D tumor xenografts, whereas individual therapies inhibited tumor growth without net regression. Our findings demonstrate that PR redirects ER chromatin binding to antagonize estrogen signaling and that SPRMs can potentiate responses to antiestrogens, suggesting that cotargeting of ER and PR in ER+/PR+ breast cancers should be explored. PMID:27386569

  10. Genomic agonism and phenotypic antagonism between estrogen and progesterone receptors in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Hari; Greene, Marianne E; Tarulli, Gerard; Zarnke, Allison L; Bourgo, Ryan J; Laine, Muriel; Chang, Ya-Fang; Ma, Shihong; Dembo, Anna G; Raj, Ganesh V; Hickey, Theresa E; Tilley, Wayne D; Greene, Geoffrey L

    2016-06-01

    The functional role of progesterone receptor (PR) and its impact on estrogen signaling in breast cancer remain controversial. In primary ER(+) (estrogen receptor-positive)/PR(+) human tumors, we report that PR reprograms estrogen signaling as a genomic agonist and a phenotypic antagonist. In isolation, estrogen and progestin act as genomic agonists by regulating the expression of common target genes in similar directions, but at different levels. Similarly, in isolation, progestin is also a weak phenotypic agonist of estrogen action. However, in the presence of both hormones, progestin behaves as a phenotypic estrogen antagonist. PR remodels nucleosomes to noncompetitively redirect ER genomic binding to distal enhancers enriched for BRCA1 binding motifs and sites that link PR and ER/PR complexes. When both hormones are present, progestin modulates estrogen action, such that responsive transcriptomes, cellular processes, and ER/PR recruitment to genomic sites correlate with those observed with PR alone, but not ER alone. Despite this overall correlation, the transcriptome patterns modulated by dual treatment are sufficiently different from individual treatments, such that antagonism of oncogenic processes is both predicted and observed. Combination therapies using the selective PR modulator/antagonist (SPRM) CDB4124 in combination with tamoxifen elicited 70% cytotoxic tumor regression of T47D tumor xenografts, whereas individual therapies inhibited tumor growth without net regression. Our findings demonstrate that PR redirects ER chromatin binding to antagonize estrogen signaling and that SPRMs can potentiate responses to antiestrogens, suggesting that cotargeting of ER and PR in ER(+)/PR(+) breast cancers should be explored. PMID:27386569

  11. Inherent phenotypic plasticity facilitates progression of head and neck cancer: Endotheliod characteristics enable angiogenesis and invasion

    SciTech Connect

    Tong, Meng; Han, Byungdo B.; Holpuch, Andrew S.; Pei, Ping; He, Lingli; Mallery, Susan R.

    2013-04-15

    The presence of the EMT (epithelial-mesenchymal transition), EndMT (endothelial-mesenchymal transition) and VM (vasculogenic mimicry) demonstrates the multidirectional extent of phenotypic plasticity in cancers. Previous findings demonstrating the crosstalk between head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) imply that HNSCC cells share some functional commonalities with endothelial cells. Our current results reveal that cultured HNSCC cells not only possess endothelial-specific markers, but also display endotheliod functional features including low density lipoprotein uptake, formation of tube-like structures on Matrigel and growth state responsiveness to VEGF and endostatin. HNSCC cell subpopulations are also highly responsive to transforming growth factor-β1 and express its auxiliary receptor, endoglin. Furthermore, the endotheliod characteristics observed in vitro recapitulate phenotypic features observed in human HNSCC tumors. Conversely, cultured normal human oral keratinocytes and intact or ulcerated human oral epithelia do not express comparable endotheliod characteristics, which imply that assumption of endotheliod features is restricted to transformed keratinocytes. In addition, this phenotypic state reciprocity facilitates HNSCC progression by increasing production of factors that are concurrently pro-proliferative and pro-angiogenic, conserving cell energy stores by LDL internalization and enhancing cell mobility. Finally, recognition of this endotheliod phenotypic transition provides a solid rationale to evaluate the antitumorigenic potential of therapeutic agents formerly regarded as exclusively angiostatic in scope. - Highlights: ► HNSCC tumor cells express endothelial specific markers VE-cadherin, CD31 and vimentin. ► Similarly, cultured HNSCC cells retain expression of these markers. ► HNSCC cells demonstrate functional endotheliod characteristics i.e. AcLDL uptake. ► HNSCC cell

  12. Bufalin reverses intrinsic and acquired drug resistance to cisplatin through the AKT signaling pathway in gastric cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyan; Zhao, Dali; Jin, Huilin; Li, Hongwei; Yang, Xiaoying; Zhuang, Liwei; Liu, Tiefu

    2016-08-01

    Cisplatin is the most common chemotherapeutic agent for gastric cancer (GC), however it activates AKT, which contributes to intrinsic and acquired resistance. Bufalin, a traditional Chinese medicine, shows significant anticancer activity by inhibiting the AKT pathway. It was therefore hypothesized that bufalin could counteract cisplatin resistance in GC cells. SGC7901, MKN‑45 and BGC823 human GC cells were cultured under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Effects of cisplatin and bufalin on GC cells were measured by a cell counting kit, apoptosis was analyzed by flow cytometry, and immunoblotting was used to detect proteins associated with the AKT signaling pathway. It was demonstrated that bufalin synergized with cisplatin to inhibit proliferation and promote apoptosis of GC cells by diminishing the activation of cisplatin-induced AKT under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Bufalin also inhibits cisplatin-activated molecules downstream of AKT that affect proliferation and apoptosis, including glycogen synthase kinase, mammalian target of rapamycin, ribosomal protein S6 Kinase and eukaryotic translation initiation factor-4E-binding protein-1. To investigate acquired cisplatin resistance, a cisplatin‑resistant cell line SGC7901‑CR was used. It was demonstrated that bufalin reversed acquired cisplatin resistance and significantly induced apoptosis through the AKT pathway. These results imply that bufalin could extend the therapeutic effect of cisplatin on GC cells when administered in combination. PMID:27357249

  13. Afatinib increases sensitivity to radiation in non-small cell lung cancer cells with acquired EGFR T790M mutation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shirong; Zheng, Xiaoliang; Huang, Haixiu; Wu, Kan; Wang, Bing; Chen, Xufeng; Ma, Shenglin

    2015-03-20

    Afatinib is a second-generation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor and has shown a significant clinical benefit in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with EGFR-activating mutations. However, the potential therapeutic effects of afatinib combining with other modalities, including ionizing radiation (IR), are not well understood. In this study, we developed a gefitinib-resistant cell subline (PC-9-GR) with a secondary EGFR mutation (T790M) from NSCLC PC-9 cells after chronic exposures to increasing doses of gefitinib. The presence of afatinib significantly increases the cell killing effect of radiation in PC-9-GR cells harboring acquired T790M, but not in H1975 cells with de novo T790M or in H460 cells that express wild-type EGFR. In PC-9-GR cells, afatinib remarkable blocks baseline of EGFR and ERK phosphorylations, and causes delay of IR-induced AKT phosphorylation. Afatinib treatment also leads to increased apoptosis and suppressed DNA damage repair in irradiated PC-9-GR cells, and enhanced tumor growth inhibition when combined with IR in PC-9-GR xenografts. Our findings suggest a potential therapeutic impact of afatinib as a radiation sensitizer in lung cancer cells harboring acquired T790M mutation, providing a rationale for a clinical trial with combination of afatinib and radiation in NSCLCs with EGFR T790M mutation.

  14. Mutant p53 regulates ovarian cancer transformed phenotypes through autocrine matrix deposition

    PubMed Central

    Iwanicki, Marcin P.; Chen, Hsing-Yu; Iavarone, Claudia; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K.; Muranen, Taru; Novak, Marián; Ince, Tan A.; Brugge, Joan S.

    2016-01-01

    High-grade serous ovarian carcinoma (HGS-OvCa) harbors p53 mutations and can originate from the epithelial cell compartment of the fallopian tube fimbriae. From this site, neoplastic cells detach, survive in the peritoneal cavity, and form cellular clusters that intercalate into the mesothelium to form ovarian and peritoneal masses. To examine the contribution of mutant p53 to phenotypic alterations associated with HGS-OvCA, we developed live-cell microscopy assays that recapitulate these early events in cultured fallopian tube nonciliated epithelial (FNE) cells. Expression of stabilizing mutant variants of p53, but not depletion of endogenous wild-type p53, in FNE cells promoted survival and cell-cell aggregation under conditions of cell detachment, leading to the formation of cell clusters with mesothelium-intercalation capacity. Mutant p53R175H-induced phenotypes were dependent on fibronectin production, α5β1 fibronectin receptor engagement, and TWIST1 expression. These results indicate that FNE cells expressing stabilizing p53 mutants acquire anchorage independence and subsequent mesothelial intercalation capacity through a mechanism involving mesenchymal transition and matrix production. These findings provide important new insights into activities of mutant p53 in the cells of origin of HGS-OvCa. PMID:27482544

  15. Acquired resistance mechanisms to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in lung cancer with activating epidermal growth factor receptor mutation--diversity, ductility, and destiny.

    PubMed

    Suda, Kenichi; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Maehara, Yoshihiko; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2012-12-01

    Lung cancers that harbor somatic activating mutations in the gene for the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) depend on mutant EGFR for their proliferation and survival; therefore, lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations often dramatically respond to orally available EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). However, emergence of acquired resistance is virtually inevitable, thus limiting improvement in patient outcomes. To elucidate and overcome this acquired resistance, multidisciplinary basic and clinical investigational approaches have been applied, using in vitro cell line models or samples obtained from lung cancer patients treated with EGFR-TKIs. These efforts have revealed several acquired resistance mechanisms and candidates, including EGFR secondary mutations (T790M and other rare mutations), MET amplification, PTEN downregulation, CRKL amplification, high-level HGF expression, FAS-NFκB pathway activation, epithelial-mesenchymal transition, and conversion to small cell lung cancer. Interestingly, cancer cells harbor potential destiny and ductility together in acquiring resistance to EGFR-TKIs, as shown in in vitro acquired resistance models. Molecular mechanisms of "reversible EGFR-TKI tolerance" that occur in early phase EGFR-TKI exposure have been identified in cell line models. Furthermore, others have reported molecular markers that can predict response to EGFR-TKIs in clinical settings. Deeper understanding of acquired resistance mechanisms to EGFR-TKIs, followed by the development of molecular target drugs that can overcome the resistance, might turn this fatal disease into a chronic disorder.

  16. ABCG2 gene amplification and expression in esophageal cancer cells with acquired adriamycin resistance.

    PubMed

    Liu, Liang; Zuo, Lian Fu; Guo, Jian Wen

    2014-04-01

    Resistance to chemotherapeutic agents is the main reason for treatment failure in patients with cancer. The primary mechanism of multidrug resistance (MDR) is the overexpression of drug efflux transporters, including ATP‑binding cassette transporter G2 (ABCG2). To the best of our knowledge, the MDR mechanisms of esophageal cancer have not been described. An adriamycin (ADM)-resistant subline, Eca109/ADM, was generated from the Eca109 esophageal cancer cell line by a stepwise selection in ADM from 0.002 to 0.02 ng/µl. The resulting subline, designated Eca109/ADM, revealed a 3.29-fold resistance against ADM compared with the Eca109 cell line. The ABCG2 gene expression in the Eca109/ADM cells was increased compared with that of the Eca109 cells. The cellular properties of the Eca109/ADM cells were detected by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), flow cytometry and western blotting. The ABCG2 expression levels were detected by RT-PCR and flow cytometry, and the drug efflux effect was detected by flow cytometry. The present study detected the correlation between ABCG2 and the multidrug resistance of esophageal cancer. ABCG2 gene expression and the drug efflux effect of the Eca109/ADM cells were increased compared with those of the Eca109 cells. Collectively, the results of this study indicated that the overexpression of ABCG2 in the Eca109/ADM cells resulted in drug efflux, which may be responsible for the development of esophageal cancer MDR.

  17. Suppression of Spry1 inhibits triple-negative breast cancer malignancy by decreasing EGF/EGFR mediated mesenchymal phenotype

    PubMed Central

    He, Qing; Jing, Hongyu; Liaw, Lucy; Gower, Lindsey; Vary, Calvin; Hua, Shucheng; Yang, Xuehui

    2016-01-01

    Sprouty (Spry) proteins have been implicated in cancer progression, but their role in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), a subtype of lethal and aggressive breast cancer, is unknown. Here, we reported that Spry1 is significantly expressed in TNBC specimen and MDA-MB-231 cells. To understand Spry1 regulation of signaling events controlling breast cancer phenotype, we used lentiviral delivery of human Spry1 shRNAs to suppress Spry1 expression in MDA-MB-231, an established TNBC cell line. Spry1 knockdown MDA-MB-231 cells displayed an epithelial phenotype with increased membrane E-cadherin expression. Knockdown of Spry1 impaired MDA-MB-231 cell migration, Matrigel invasion, and anchorage-dependent and -independent growth. Tumor xenografts originating from Spry1 knockdown MDA-MB-231 cells grew slower, had increased E-cadherin expression, and yielded fewer lung metastases compared to control. Furthermore, suppressing Spry1 in MDA-MB-231 cells impaired the induction of Snail and Slug expression by EGF, and this effect was associated with increased EGFR degradation and decreased EGFR/Grb2/Shp2/Gab1 signaling complex formation. The same phenotype was also observed in the TNBC cell line MDA-MB-157. Together, our results show that unlike in some tumors, where Spry may mediate tumor suppression, Spry1 plays a selective role in at least a subset of TNBC to promote the malignant phenotype via enhancing EGF-mediated mesenchymal phenotype. PMID:26976794

  18. Isolation and phenotypic characterization of cancer stem-like side population cells in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Feng, Long; Wu, Jian-Bing; Yi, Feng-Ming

    2015-09-01

    Previous studies in cancer biology suggest that chemotherapeutic drug resistance and tumor relapse are driven by cells within a tumor termed 'cancer stem cells'. In the present study, a Hoechst 33342 dye exclusion technique was used to identify cancer stem‑like side population (SP) cells in colon carcinoma, which accounted for 3.4% of the total cell population. Following treatment with verapamil, the population of SP cells was reduced to 0.6%. In addition, the sorted SP cells exhibited marked multidrug resistance and enhanced cell survival rates compared with non‑SP cells. The SP cells were able to generate more tumor spheres and were CD133 positive. Subsequent biochemical analysis revealed that the levels of the adenosine triphosphate‑binding cassette sub‑family G member 2 transporter protein, B‑cell lymphoma anti‑apoptotic factor and autocrine production of interleukin‑4 were significantly enhanced in the colon cancer SP cells, which contributed to drug resistance, protection of the cells from apoptosis and tumor recurrence. Therefore, the findings suggested that treatment failure and colon tumorigenesis is dictated by a small population of SP cells, which indicate a potential target in future therapies.

  19. Adaptive landscapes and emergent phenotypes: why do cancers have high glycolysis?

    PubMed

    Gillies, Robert J; Gatenby, Robert A

    2007-06-01

    Investigating the causes of increased aerobic glycolysis in tumors (Warburg Effect) has gone in and out of fashion many times since it was first described almost a century ago. The field is currently in ascendance due to two factors. Over a million FDG-PET studies have unequivocally identified increased glucose uptake as a hallmark of metastatic cancer in humans. These observations, combined with new molecular insights with HIF-1alpha and c-myc, have rekindled an interest in this important phenotype. A preponderance of work has been focused on the molecular mechanisms underlying this effect, with the expectation that a mechanistic understanding may lead to novel therapeutic approaches. There is also an implicit assumption that a mechanistic understanding, although fundamentally reductionist, will nonetheless lead to a more profound teleological understanding of the need for altered metabolism in invasive cancers. In this communication, we describe an alternative approach that begins with teleology; i.e. adaptive landscapes and selection pressures that promote emergence of aerobic glycolysis during the somatic evolution of invasive cancer. Mathematical models and empirical observations are used to define the adaptive advantage of aerobic glycolysis that would explain its remarkable prevalence in human cancers. These studies have led to the hypothesis that increased consumption of glucose in metastatic lesions is not used for substantial energy production via Embden-Meyerhoff glycolysis, but rather for production of acid, which gives the cancer cells a competitive advantage for invasion. Alternative hypotheses, wherein the glucose is used for generation of reducing equivalents (NADPH) or anabolic precursors (ribose) are also discussed. PMID:17624581

  20. Genetic background influences murine prostate gene expression: implications for cancer phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi-Frias, Daniella; Pritchard, Colin; Mecham, Brigham H; Coleman, Ilsa M; Nelson, Peter S

    2007-01-01

    Background Cancer of the prostate is influenced by both genetic predisposition and environmental factors. The identification of genes capable of modulating cancer development has the potential to unravel disease heterogeneity and aid diagnostic and prevention strategies. To this end, mouse models have been developed to isolate the influences of individual genetic lesions in the context of consistent genotypes and environmental exposures. However, the normal prostatic phenotypic variability dictated by a genetic background that is potentially capable of influencing the process of carcinogenesis has not been established. Results In this study we used microarray analysis to quantify transcript levels in the prostates of five commonly studied inbred mouse strains. We applied a multiclass response t-test and determined that approximately 13% (932 genes) exhibited differential expression (range 1.3-190-fold) in any one strain relative to other strains (false discovery rate ≤10%). Expression differences were confirmed by quantitative RT-PCR, or immunohistochemistry for several genes previously shown to influence cancer progression, such as Psca, Mmp7, and Clusterin. Analyses of human prostate transcripts orthologous to variable murine prostate genes identified differences in gene expression in benign epithelium that correlated with the differentiation state of adjacent tumors. For example, the gene encoding apolipoprotein D, which is known to enhance resistance to cell stress, was expressed at significantly greater levels in benign epithelium associated with high-grade versus low-grade cancers. Conclusion These studies support the concept that the cellular, tissue, and organismal context contribute to oncogenesis and suggest that a predisposition to a sequence of events leading to pathology may exist prior to cancer initiation. PMID:17577413

  1. Assessment of elasticity of colorectal cancer tissue, clinical utility, pathological and phenotypical relevance

    PubMed Central

    Kawano, Shingo; Kojima, Motohiro; Higuchi, Yoichi; Sugimoto, Motokazu; Ikeda, Koji; Sakuyama, Naoki; Takahashi, Shinichiro; Hayashi, Ryuichi; Ochiai, Atsushi; Saito, Norio

    2015-01-01

    Generally, cancer tissue is palpated as a hard mass. However, the elastic nature of cancer tissue is not well understood. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the clinical utility of measuring the elastic modulus (EM) in colorectal cancer tissue. Using a tactile sensor, we measured the EM of 106 surgically resected colorectal cancer tissues. Data on the EM were compared with clinicopathological findings, including stromal features represented by Azan staining and the α-SMA positive area ratio of the tumor area. Finally, a cDNA microarray profile of the tumors with high EM were compared with the findings of tumors with low EM. A higher EM in tumors was associated with pathological T, N, and M-stage tumors (P < 0.001, P = 0.001 and P = 0.011, respectively). Patients with high EM tumors had shorter disease-free survival than had patients with low EM. The EM showed strongly positive correlation with the Azan staining positive area ratio (r = 0.908) and the α-SMA positive area ratio (r = 0.921). Finally, the cDNA microarray data of the tumors with high EM revealed a distinct gene expression profile compared with data from those tumors with low EM. The assessment of the elasticity of colorectal cancer tissue may allow a more accurate clinical stage and prognosis estimation. The distinct phenotypical features of the high EM tumors and their strong association with stromal features suggest the existence of a biological mechanism involved in this phenomenon that may contribute to future therapy. PMID:26083008

  2. In Situ Characterizing Membrane Lipid Phenotype of Human Lung Cancer Cell Lines Using Mass Spectrometry Profiling

    PubMed Central

    He, Manwen; Guo, Shuai; Ren, Junling; Li, Zhili

    2016-01-01

    Abnormal lipid metabolisms are closely associated with cancers. In this study, mass spectrometry was employed to in situ investigate the associations of membrane lipid phenotypes of six human lung cancer cell lines (i.e., A549, H1650, H1975 from adenocarcinoma, H157 and H1703 from squamous cell carcinomas, and H460 from a large cell carcinoma) with cancer cell types and finally total 230 lipids were detected. Based these 230 lipids, partial least-square discriminant analysis indicated that fifteen lipids (i.e., PE 18:0_18:1, PI 18:0_20:4, SM 42:2, PE 16:0_20:4, PE 36:2, PC 36:2, SM 34:1, PA 38:3,C18:0, C22:4, PA 34:2, C20:5, C20:2, C18:2, and CerP 36:2) with variable importance in the projection (VIP) value of > 1.0 could be used to differentiate six cancer cell lines with the Predicted Residual Sum of Square (PRESS) score of 0.1974. Positive correlation between polyunsaturated fatty acids (i.e., C20:4, C22:4, C22:5, and C22:6) and polyunsaturated phospholipids (PE 16:0_20:4, PE 38:4, and PI 18:0_20:4) was observed in lung adenocarcinoma cells, especially for H1975 cells. Three adenocarcinoma cell lines (i.e., A549, H1650, and H1975) could be differentiated from other lung cancer cell lines based on the expression of C18:1, C20:1, C20:2, C20:5, and C22:6. PMID:27162539

  3. MicroRNA-200 Family Modulation in Distinct Breast Cancer Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Sarrió, David; Romero-Pérez, Laura; López-García, María Ángeles; Vieites, Begoña; Biscuola, Michele; Ramiro-Fuentes, Susana; Isacke, Clare M.; Palacios, José

    2012-01-01

    The epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) contributes to tumor invasion and metastasis in a variety of cancer types. In human breast cancer, gene expression studies have determined that basal-B/claudin-low and metaplastic cancers exhibit EMT-related characteristics, but the molecular mechanisms underlying this observation are unknown. As the family of miR-200 microRNAs has been shown to regulate EMT in normal tissues and cancer, here we evaluated whether the expression of the miR-200 family (miR-200f) and their epigenetic state correlate with EMT features in human breast carcinomas. We analyzed by qRT-PCR the expression of miR-200f members and various EMT-transcriptional inducers in a series of 70 breast cancers comprising an array of phenotypic subtypes: estrogen receptor positive (ER+), HER2 positive (HER2+), and triple negative (TN), including a subset of metaplastic breast carcinomas (MBCs) with sarcomatous (homologous or heterologous) differentiation. No MBCs with squamous differentiation were included. The DNA methylation status of miR-200f loci in tumor samples were inspected using Sequenom MassArray® MALDI-TOF platform. We also used two non-tumorigenic breast basal cell lines that spontaneously undergo EMT to study the modulation of miR-200f expression during EMT in vitro. We demonstrate that miR-200f is strongly decreased in MBCs compared with other cancer types. TN and HER2+ breast cancers also exhibited lower miR-200f expression than ER+ tumors. Significantly, the decreased miR-200f expression found in MBCs is accompanied by an increase in the expression levels of EMT-transcriptional inducers, and hypermethylation of the miR-200c-141 locus. Similar to tumor samples, we demonstrated that downregulation of miR-200f and hypermethylation of the miR-200c-141 locus, together with upregulation of EMT-transcriptional inducers also occur in an in vitro cellular model of spontaneous EMT. Thus, the expression and methylation status of miR-200f could be used

  4. The clinical phenotype of hereditary versus sporadic prostate cancer: HPC definition revisited

    PubMed Central

    Cremers, Ruben G.; Aben, Katja K.; van Oort, Inge M.; Sedelaar, J.P. Michiel; Vasen, Hans F.; Vermeulen, Sita H.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The definition of hereditary prostate cancer (HPC) is based on family history and age at onset. Intuitively, HPC is a serious subtype of prostate cancer but there are only limited data on the clinical phenotype of HPC. Here, we aimed to compare the prognosis of HPC to the sporadic form of prostate cancer (SPC). METHODS HPC patients were identified through a national registry of HPC families in the Netherlands, selecting patients diagnosed from the year 2000 onward (n = 324). SPC patients were identified from the Netherlands Cancer Registry (NCR) between 2003 and 2006 for a population‐based study into the genetic susceptibility of PC (n = 1,664). Detailed clinical data were collected by NCR‐registrars, using a standardized registration form. Follow‐up extended up to the end of 2013. Differences between the groups were evaluated by cross‐tabulations and tested for statistical significance while accounting for familial dependency of observations by GEE. Differences in progression‐free and overall survival were evaluated using χ2 testing with GEE in a proportional‐hazards model. RESULTS HPC patients were on average 3 years younger at diagnosis, had lower PSA values, lower Gleason scores, and more often locally confined disease. Of the HPC patients, 35% had high‐risk disease (NICE‐criteria) versus 51% of the SPC patients. HPC patients were less often treated with active surveillance. Kaplan–Meier 5‐year progression‐free survival after radical prostatectomy was comparable for HPC (78%) and SPC (74%; P = 0.30). The 5‐year overall survival was 85% (95%CI 81–89%) for HPC versus 80% (95%CI 78–82%) for SPC (P = 0.03). CONCLUSIONS HPC has a favorable clinical phenotype but patients more often underwent radical treatment. The major limitation of HPC is the absence of a genetics‐based definition of HPC, which may lead to over‐diagnosis of PC in men with a family history of prostate cancer. The HPC definition should

  5. Niclosamide overcomes acquired resistance to erlotinib through suppression of STAT3 in non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rui; Hu, Zhongliang; Sun, Shi-Yong; Chen, Zhuo G.; Owonikoko, Taofeek K.; Sica, Gabriel L.; Ramalingam, Suresh S.; Curran, Walter J.; Khuri, Fadlo R.; Deng, Xingming

    2013-01-01

    The emergence of resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor therapy is a major clinical problem for patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The mechanisms underlying tumor resistance to inhibitors of the kinase activity of EGFR are not fully understood. Here we found that inhibition of EGFR by erlotinib induces STAT3 phosphorylation at Tyr705 in association with increased Bcl2/Bcl-XL at both mRNA and protein levels in various human lung cancer cells. PTPMeg2 is a physiologic STAT3 phosphatase that can directly dephosphorylate STAT3 at the Tyr705 site. Intriguingly, treatment of cells with erlotinib results in downregulation of PTPMeg2 without activation of STAT3 kinases (i.e. JAK2 or c-Src), suggesting that erlotinib enhanced phosphorylation of STAT3 may occur, at least in part, from suppression of PTPMeg2 expression. Since elevated levels of phosphorylated STAT3 (pSTAT3), Bcl2 and Bcl-XL were observed in erlotinib-resistant lung cancer (HCC827/ER) cells as compared to erlotinib-sensitive parental HCC827 cells, we postulate that erlotinib-activated STAT3/Bcl2/Bcl-XL survival pathway may contribute to acquired resistance to erlotinib. Both blockage of Tyr705 phosphorylation of STAT3 by niclosamide and depletion of STAT3 by RNA interference in HCC827/ER cells reverses erlotinib resistance. Niclosamide in combination with erlotinib potently represses erlotinib-resistant lung cancer xenografts in association with increased apoptosis in tumor tissues, suggesting that niclosamide can restore sensitivity to erlotinib. These findings uncover a novel mechanism of erlotinib resistance and provide a novel approach to overcome resistance by blocking the STAT3/Bcl2/Bcl-XL survival signaling pathway in human lung cancer. PMID:23894143

  6. Folate deficient tumor microenvironment promotes epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition and cancer stem-like phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Tse-Hung; Huang, Yan-Jiun; Sue, Yu-Kai; Huynh, Thanh-Tuan; Hsiao, Michael; Liu, Tsan-Zon; Wu, Alexander TH; Lin, Chien-Min

    2016-01-01

    Clinically, serum level of folate has been negatively correlated to the stage and progression of liver cancer. Nevertheless, the functional consequence of folate deficiency (FD) in malignancy has not been fully investigated. Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells (as study model) and other cancer types such as lung and glioma were cultured under folate deficient (FD) and folate complete (FD) conditions. Molecular characterization including intracellular ROS/RNS (reactive oxygen/nitrogen species), viability, colony formation, cancer stem-like cell (CSC) phenotype analyses were performed. In vivo tumorigenesis under FD and FC conditions were also examined. FD induced a significant increase in ROS and RNS, suppressing proliferative ability but inducing metastatic potential. Mesenchymal markers such as Snail, ZEB2, and Vimentin were significantly up-regulated while E-cadherin down-regulated. Importantly, CSC markers such as Oct4, β-catenin, CD133 were induced while PRRX1 decreased under FD condition. Furthermore, FD-conditioned HCC cells showed a decreased miR-22 level, leading to the increased expression of its target genes including HDAC4, ZEB2 and Oct4. Finally, xenograft mouse model demonstrated that FD diet promoted tumorigenesis and metastasis as compared to their FC counterparts. Our data provides rationales for the consideration of folate supplement as a metastasis preventive measure. PMID:27119349

  7. Disseminated prostate cancer cells can instruct hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells to regulate bone phenotype.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jeena; Shiozawa, Yusuke; Jung, Younghun; Kim, Jin Koo; Pedersen, Elisabeth; Mishra, Anjali; Zalucha, Janet Linn; Wang, Jingcheng; Keller, Evan T; Pienta, Kenneth J; Taichman, Russell S

    2012-03-01

    Prostate cancer metastases and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC) frequently home to the bone marrow, where they compete to occupy the same HSC niche. We have also shown that under conditions of hematopoietic stress, HSCs secrete the bone morphogenetic proteins (BMP)-2 and BMP-6 that drives osteoblastic differentiation from mesenchymal precursors. As it is not known, we examined whether metastatic prostate cancer cells can alter regulation of normal bone formation by HSCs and hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC). HSC/HPCs isolated from mice bearing nonmetastatic and metastatic tumor cells were isolated and their ability to influence osteoblastic and osteoclastic differentiation was evaluated. When the animals were inoculated with the LNCaP C4-2B cell line, which produces mixed osteoblastic and osteolytic lesions in bone, HPCs, but not HSCs, were able to induced stromal cells to differentiate down an osteoblastic phenotype. Part of the mechanism responsible for this activity was the production of BMP-2. On the other hand, when the animals were implanted with PC3 cells that exhibits predominantly osteolytic lesions in bone, HSCs derived from these animals were capable of directly differentiating into tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive osteoclasts through an interleukin-6-mediated pathway. These studies for the first time identify HSC/HPCs as novel targets for future therapy involved in the bone abnormalities of prostate cancer.

  8. Heritable clustering and pathway discovery in breast cancer integrating epigenetic and phenotypic data

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zailong; Yan, Pearlly; Potter, Dustin; Eng, Charis; Huang, Tim H-M; Lin, Shili

    2007-01-01

    Background In order to recapitulate tumor progression pathways using epigenetic data, we developed novel clustering and pathway reconstruction algorithms, collectively referred to as heritable clustering. This approach generates a progression model of altered DNA methylation from tumor tissues diagnosed at different developmental stages. The samples act as surrogates for natural progression in breast cancer and allow the algorithm to uncover distinct epigenotypes that describe the molecular events underlying this process. Furthermore, our likelihood-based clustering algorithm has great flexibility, allowing for incomplete epigenotype or clinical phenotype data and also permitting dependencies among variables. Results Using this heritable clustering approach, we analyzed methylation data obtained from 86 primary breast cancers to recapitulate pathways of breast tumor progression. Detailed annotation and interpretation are provided to the optimal pathway recapitulated. The result confirms the previous observation that aggressive tumors tend to exhibit higher levels of promoter hypermethylation. Conclusion Our results indicate that the proposed heritable clustering algorithms are a useful tool for stratifying both methylation and clinical variables of breast cancer. The application to the breast tumor data illustrates that this approach can select meaningful progression models which may aid the interpretation of pathways having biological and clinical significance. Furthermore, the framework allows for other types of biological data, such as microarray gene expression or array CGH data, to be integrated. PMID:17270052

  9. Interplay between YB-1 and IL-6 promotes the metastatic phenotype in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Castellana, Bàrbara; Aasen, Trond; Moreno-Bueno, Gema; Dunn, Sandra E.; Ramón y Cajal, Santiago

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) induces cell plasticity and promotes metastasis. The multifunctional oncoprotein Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) and the pleiotropic cytokine interleukin 6 (IL-6) have both been implicated in tumor cell metastasis and EMT, but via distinct pathways. Here, we show that direct interplay between YB-1 and IL-6 regulates breast cancer metastasis. Overexpression of YB-1 in breast cancer cell lines induced IL-6 production while stimulation with IL-6 increased YB-1 expression and YB-1 phosphorylation. Either approach was sufficient to induce EMT features, including increased cell migration and invasion. Silencing of YB-1 partially reverted the EMT and blocked the effect of IL-6 while inhibition of IL-6 signaling blocked the phenotype induced by YB-1 overexpression, demonstrating a clear YB-1/IL-6 interdependence. Our findings describe a novel signaling network in which YB-1 regulates IL-6, and vice versa, creating a positive feed-forward loop driving EMT-like metastatic features during breast cancer progression. Identification of signaling partners or pathways underlying this co-dependence may uncover novel therapeutic opportunities. PMID:26512918

  10. Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase suppresses the adverse phenotype of endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells and improves endocrine response in endocrine-sensitive cells.

    PubMed

    Hiscox, Stephen; Barnfather, Peter; Hayes, Edd; Bramble, Pamela; Christensen, James; Nicholson, Robert I; Barrett-Lee, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Acquired resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer is a major clinical problem. Previous reports have demonstrated that cell models of acquired endocrine resistance have altered cell-matrix adhesion and a highly migratory phenotype, features which may impact on tumour spread in vivo. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an intracellular kinase that regulates signalling pathways central to cell adhesion, migration and survival and its expression is frequently deregulated in breast cancer. In this study, we have used the novel FAK inhibitor PF573228 to address the role of FAK in the development of endocrine resistance. Whilst total-FAK expression was similar between endocrine-sensitive and endocrine-resistant MCF7 cells, FAK phosphorylation status (Y397 or Y861) was altered in resistance. PF573228 promoted a dose-dependent inhibition of FAK phosphorylation at Y397 but did not affect other FAK activation sites (pY407, pY576 and pY861). Endocrine-resistant cells were more sensitive to these inhibitory effects versus MCF7 (mean IC(50) for FAK pY397 inhibition: 0.43 μM, 0.05 μM and 0.13 μM for MCF7, TamR and FasR cells, respectively). Inhibition of FAK pY397 was associated with a reduction in TamR and FasR adhesion to, and migration over, matrix components. PF573228 as a single agent (0-1 μM) did not affect the growth of MCF7 cells or their endocrine-resistant counterparts. However, treatment of endocrine-sensitive cells with PF573228 and tamoxifen combined resulted in greater suppression of proliferation versus single agent treatment. Together these data suggest the importance of FAK in the process of endocrine resistance, particularly in the development of an aggressive, migratory cell phenotype and demonstrate the potential to improve endocrine response through combination treatment.

  11. Inhibition of focal adhesion kinase suppresses the adverse phenotype of endocrine-resistant breast cancer cells and improves endocrine response in endocrine-sensitive cells.

    PubMed

    Hiscox, Stephen; Barnfather, Peter; Hayes, Edd; Bramble, Pamela; Christensen, James; Nicholson, Robert I; Barrett-Lee, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Acquired resistance to endocrine therapy in breast cancer is a major clinical problem. Previous reports have demonstrated that cell models of acquired endocrine resistance have altered cell-matrix adhesion and a highly migratory phenotype, features which may impact on tumour spread in vivo. Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) is an intracellular kinase that regulates signalling pathways central to cell adhesion, migration and survival and its expression is frequently deregulated in breast cancer. In this study, we have used the novel FAK inhibitor PF573228 to address the role of FAK in the development of endocrine resistance. Whilst total-FAK expression was similar between endocrine-sensitive and endocrine-resistant MCF7 cells, FAK phosphorylation status (Y397 or Y861) was altered in resistance. PF573228 promoted a dose-dependent inhibition of FAK phosphorylation at Y397 but did not affect other FAK activation sites (pY407, pY576 and pY861). Endocrine-resistant cells were more sensitive to these inhibitory effects versus MCF7 (mean IC(50) for FAK pY397 inhibition: 0.43 μM, 0.05 μM and 0.13 μM for MCF7, TamR and FasR cells, respectively). Inhibition of FAK pY397 was associated with a reduction in TamR and FasR adhesion to, and migration over, matrix components. PF573228 as a single agent (0-1 μM) did not affect the growth of MCF7 cells or their endocrine-resistant counterparts. However, treatment of endocrine-sensitive cells with PF573228 and tamoxifen combined resulted in greater suppression of proliferation versus single agent treatment. Together these data suggest the importance of FAK in the process of endocrine resistance, particularly in the development of an aggressive, migratory cell phenotype and demonstrate the potential to improve endocrine response through combination treatment. PMID:20354780

  12. ISG15 predicts poor prognosis and promotes cancer stem cell phenotype in nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Han, Ping; Wang, Hong-Bo; Liang, Fa-Ya; Feng, Guo-Kai; Zhou, Ai-Jun; Cai, Mu-Yan; Zhong, Qian; Zeng, Mu-Sheng; Huang, Xiao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15), the first identified ubiquitin-like protein, is known for its anti-viral capacity. However, its role in tumorigenesis remains controversial. Here, using RNA-seq profiling analysis, we identified ISG15 as a differentially expressed gene in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) and validated its overexpression in NPC samples and cells. High ISG15 levels in NPC tissues were correlated with more frequent local recurrence and shorter overall survival and disease-free survival. ISG15 overexpression promoted a cancer stem cell phenotype in NPC cells, including increased colony and tumorsphere formation abilities, pluripotency-associated genes expression, and in vivo tumorigenicity. By contrast, knockdown of ISG15 attenuated stemness characteristics in NPC cells. Furthermore, overexpression of ISG15 increased NPC cell resistance to radiation and cisplatin (DDP) treatment. Our study demonstrates a protumor role of ISG15, and suggests that ISG15 is a prognostic predictor and a potential therapeutic target for NPC. PMID:26919245

  13. Phenotypic differentiation does not affect tumorigenicity of primary human colon cancer initiating cells.

    PubMed

    Dubash, Taronish D; Hoffmann, Christopher M; Oppel, Felix; Giessler, Klara M; Weber, Sarah; Dieter, Sebastian M; Hüllein, Jennifer; Zenz, Thorsten; Herbst, Friederike; Scholl, Claudia; Weichert, Wilko; Werft, Wiebke; Benner, Axel; Schmidt, Manfred; Schneider, Martin; Glimm, Hanno; Ball, Claudia R

    2016-02-28

    Within primary colorectal cancer (CRC) a subfraction of all tumor-initiating cells (TIC) drives long-term progression in serial xenotransplantation. It has been postulated that efficient maintenance of TIC activity in vitro requires serum-free spheroid culture conditions that support a stem-like state of CRC cells. To address whether tumorigenicity is indeed tightly linked to such a stem-like state in spheroids, we transferred TIC-enriched spheroid cultures to serum-containing adherent conditions that should favor their differentiation. Under these conditions, primary CRC cells did no longer grow as spheroids but formed an adherent cell layer, up-regulated colon epithelial differentiation markers, and down-regulated TIC-associated markers. Strikingly, upon xenotransplantation cells cultured under either condition equally efficient formed serially transplantable tumors. Clonal analyses of individual lentivirally marked TIC clones cultured under either culture condition revealed no systematic differences in contributing clone numbers, indicating that phenotypic differentiation does not select for few individual clones adapted to unfavorable culture conditions. Our results reveal that CRC TIC can be propagated under conditions previously thought to induce their elimination. This phenotypic plasticity allows addressing primary human CRC TIC properties in experimental settings based on adherent cell growth.

  14. Systematic dissection of phenotypic, functional, and tumorigenic heterogeneity of human prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Hsueh-Ping; Deng, Qu; Jeter, Collene; Liu, Can; Honorio, Sofia; Li, Hangwen; Davis, Tammy; Suraneni, Mahipal; Laffin, Brian; Qin, Jichao; Li, Qiuhui; Yang, Tao; Whitney, Pamela; Shen, Jianjun; Huang, Jiaoti; Tang, Dean G.

    2015-01-01

    Human cancers are heterogeneous containing stem-like cancer cells operationally defined as cancer stem cells (CSCs) that possess great tumor-initiating and long-term tumor-propagating properties. In this study, we systematically dissect the phenotypic, functional and tumorigenic heterogeneity in human prostate cancer (PCa) using xenograft models and >70 patient tumor samples. In the first part, we further investigate the PSA−/lo PCa cell population, which we have recently shown to harbor self-renewing long-term tumor-propagating cells and present several novel findings. We show that discordant AR and PSA expression in both untreated and castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) results in AR+PSA+, AR+PSA−, AR−PSA−, and AR−PSA+ subtypes of PCa cells that manifest differential sensitivities to therapeutics. We further demonstrate that castration leads to a great enrichment of PSA−/lo PCa cells in both xenograft tumors and CRPC samples and systemic androgen levels dynamically regulate the relative abundance of PSA+ versus PSA−/lo PCa cells that impacts the kinetics of tumor growth. We also present evidence that the PSA−/lo PCa cells possess distinct epigenetic profiles. As the PSA−/lo PCa cell population is heterogeneous, in the second part, we employ two PSA− (Du145 and PC3) and two PSA+ (LAPC9 and LAPC4) PCa models as well as patient tumor cells to further dissect the clonogenic and tumorigenic subsets. We report that different PCa models possess distinct tumorigenic subpopulations that both commonly and uniquely express important signaling pathways that could represent therapeutic targets. Our results have important implications in understanding PCa cell heterogeneity, response to clinical therapeutics, and cellular mechanisms underlying CRPC. PMID:26246472

  15. Lactoferrin- Endothelin-1 Axis Contributes to the Development and Invasiveness of Triple Negative Breast Cancer Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Ngoc-Han; Nair, Vasudha; Reddy, Divijendra Natha Sirigiri; Mudvari, Prakriti; Ohshiro, Kazufumi; Ghanta, Krishna Sumanth; Pakala, Suresh B.; Li, Da-Qiang; Costa, Luis; Lipton, Allan; Badwe, Rajendra A.; Fuqua, Suzanne; Wallon, Margaretha; Prendergast, George C.; Kumar, Rakesh

    2013-01-01

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by the lack of expression of ERα, PR and HER-2 receptors and the pathway(s) responsible for this downregulation and thus aggressiveness, remains unknown. Here we discovered that lactoferrin (Lf) efficiently downregulates the levels of ERα, PR and HER-2 receptors in a proteasome-dependent manner in breast cancer cells, and accounts for the loss of responsiveness to ER- or HER-2- targeted therapies. Further we found that Lf increases migration and invasiveness of both non-TNBC and TNBC cell lines. We discovered that Lf directly stimulates the transcription of endothelin-1 (ET-1), a secreted pro-invasive polypeptide that acts through a specific receptor ET(A)R, leading to secretion of bioactive ET-1 peptide. Interestingly, a therapeutic ET-1 receptor antagonist drug completely blocked Lf-dependent motility and invasiveness of breast cancer cells. Physiologic significance of this newly discovered Lf-ET-1 axis in the manifestation of TNBC phenotypes is revealed by elevated plasma and tissue Lf and ET-1 levels in TNBC patients as compared to those in ER+ cases. These findings describe the first physiologically relevant polypeptide as a functional determinant of downregulating all three therapeutic receptors in breast cancer which utilizes another secreted ET-1 system to confer invasiveness. Results presented here provide proof-of-principle evidence in support of therapeutic effectiveness of ET-1 receptor antagonist to completely block the Lf-induced motility and invasiveness of the TNBC as well as non-TBNC cells, and thus, opening a remarkable opportunity to treat TNBC by targeting the Lf-ET-1 axis using an approved developmental drug. PMID:22006997

  16. Role of intracellular prostaglandin E₂ in cancer-related phenotypes in PC3 cells.

    PubMed

    Madrigal-Martínez, Antonio; Cazaña, Francisco J Lucio; Fernández-Martínez, y Ana B

    2015-02-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) affect many mechanisms that have been shown to play a role in prostate cancer. In PGE2-treated LNCaP cells, up-regulation of HIF-1α requires the internalization of PGE2, which is in sharp contrast with the generally accepted view that PGE2 acts through EP receptors located at the cell membrane. Here we aimed to study in androgen-independent PC3 cells the role of intracellular PGE2 in several events linked to prostate cancer progression. To this end, we used bromocresol green, an inhibitor of prostaglandin uptake that blocked the immediate rise in intracellular immunoreactive PGE2 following treatment with 16,16-dimethyl-PGE2. Bromocresol green prevented the stimulatory effect of 16,16-dimethyl-PGE on cell proliferation, adhesion, migration and invasion and on HIF-1α expression and activity, the latter assessed as the HIF-dependent activation of (i) a hypoxia response element-luciferase plasmid construct, (ii) production of angiogenic factor vascular endothelial growth factor-A and (iii) in vitro angiogenesis. The basal phenotype of PC3 cells was also affected by bromocresol green, that substantially lowered expression of HIF-1α, production of vascular endothelial growth factor-A and cell proliferation. These results, and the fact that we found functional intracellular EP receptors in PC3 cells, suggest that PGE2-dependent intracrine mechanisms play a role in prostate cancer Therefore, inhibition of the prostaglandin uptake transporter might be a novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  17. Molecular phenotypes in triple negative breast cancer from African American patients suggest targets for therapy.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Robert; Sullivan, Catherine; Offor, Onyinye; Lezon-Geyda, Kimberly; Halligan, Kyle; Fischbach, Neal; Shah, Mansi; Bossuyt, Veerle; Schulz, Vincent; Tuck, David P; Harris, Lyndsay N

    2013-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by high proliferation, poor differentiation and a poor prognosis due to high rates of recurrence. Despite lower overall incidence African American (AA) patients suffer from higher breast cancer mortality in part due to the higher proportion of TNBC cases among AA patients compared to European Americans (EA). It was recently shown that the clinical heterogeneity of TNBC is reflected by distinct transcriptional programs with distinct drug response profiles in preclinical models. In this study, gene expression profiling and immunohistochemistry were used to elucidate potential differences between TNBC tumors of EA and AA patients on a molecular level. In a retrospective cohort of 136 TNBC patients, a major transcriptional signature of proliferation was found to be significantly upregulated in samples of AA ethnicity. Furthermore, transcriptional profiles of AA tumors showed differential activation of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) and a signature of BRCA1 deficiency in this cohort. Using signatures derived from the meta-analysis of TNBC gene expression carried out by Lehmann et al., tumors from AA patients were more likely of basal-like subtypes whereas transcriptional features of many EA samples corresponded to mesenchymal-like or luminal androgen receptor driven subtypes. These results were validated in The Cancer Genome Atlas mRNA and protein expression data, again showing enrichment of a basal-like phenotype in AA tumors and mesenchymal subtypes in EA tumors. In addition, increased expression of VEGF-activated genes together with elevated microvessel area determined by the AQUA method suggest that AA patients exhibit higher tumor vascularization. This study confirms the existence of distinct transcriptional programs in triple negative breast cancer in two separate cohorts and that these programs differ by racial group. Differences in TNBC subtypes and levels of tumor angiogenesis in AA versus EA patients

  18. Disulfiram targets cancer stem-like cells and reverses resistance and cross-resistance in acquired paclitaxel-resistant triple-negative breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Liu, P; Kumar, I S; Brown, S; Kannappan, V; Tawari, P E; Tang, J Z; Jiang, W; Armesilla, A L; Darling, J L; Wang, W

    2013-01-01

    Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) has significantly worse prognosis. Acquired chemoresistance remains the major cause of therapeutic failure of TNBC. In clinic, the relapsed TNBC is commonly pan-resistant to various drugs with completely different resistant mechanisms. Investigation of the mechanisms and development of new drugs to target pan-chemoresistance will potentially improve the therapeutic outcomes of TNBC patients. Methods: In this study, 1-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-diphenylformazan (MTT), combination index (CI)–isobologram, western blot, ALDEFLUOR analysis, clonogenic assay and immunocytochemistry were used. Results: The chemoresistant MDA-MB-231PAC10 cells are highly cross-resistant to paclitaxel (PAC), cisplatin (CDDP), docetaxel and doxorubicin. The MDA-MB-231PAC10 cells are quiescent with significantly longer doubling time (64.9 vs 31.7 h). This may be caused by high expression of p21Waf1. The MDA-MB-231PAC10 cells express high aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) activity and a panel of embryonic stem cell-related proteins, for example, Oct4, Sox2, Nanog and nuclealisation of HIF2α and NF-κBp65. We have previously reported that disulfiram (DS), an antialcoholism drug, targets cancer stem cells (CSCs) and enhances cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs. Disulfiram abolished CSC characters and completely reversed PAC and CDDP resistance in MDA-MB-231PAC10 cells. Conclusion: Cancer stem cells may be responsible for acquired pan-chemoresistance. As a drug used in clinic, DS may be repurposed as a CSC inhibitor to reverse the acquired pan-chemoresistance. PMID:24008666

  19. Tumor phenotype and breast density in distinct categories of interval cancer: results of population-based mammography screening in Spain

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Interval cancers are tumors arising after a negative screening episode and before the next screening invitation. They can be classified into true interval cancers, false-negatives, minimal-sign cancers, and occult tumors based on mammographic findings in screening and diagnostic mammograms. This study aimed to describe tumor-related characteristics and the association of breast density and tumor phenotype within four interval cancer categories. Methods We included 2,245 invasive tumors (1,297 screening-detected and 948 interval cancers) diagnosed from 2000 to 2009 among 645,764 women aged 45 to 69 who underwent biennial screening in Spain. Interval cancers were classified by a semi-informed retrospective review into true interval cancers (n = 455), false-negatives (n = 224), minimal-sign (n = 166), and occult tumors (n = 103). Breast density was evaluated using Boyd’s scale and was conflated into: <25%; 25 to 50%; 50 to 75%; >75%. Tumor-related information was obtained from cancer registries and clinical records. Tumor phenotype was defined as follows: luminal A: ER+/HER2- or PR+/HER2-; luminal B: ER+/HER2+ or PR+/HER2+; HER2: ER-/PR-/HER2+; triple-negative: ER-/PR-/HER2-. The association of tumor phenotype and breast density was assessed using a multinomial logistic regression model. Adjusted odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated. All statistical tests were two-sided. Results Forty-eight percent of interval cancers were true interval cancers and 23.6% false-negatives. True interval cancers were associated with HER2 and triple-negative phenotypes (OR = 1.91 (95% CI:1.22-2.96), OR = 2.07 (95% CI:1.42-3.01), respectively) and extremely dense breasts (>75%) (OR = 1.67 (95% CI:1.08-2.56)). However, among true interval cancers a higher proportion of triple-negative tumors was observed in predominantly fatty breasts (<25%) than in denser breasts (28.7%, 21.4%, 11.3% and 14.3%, respectively; <0

  20. Mechanisms of acquired resistance to insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor inhibitor in MCF-7 breast cancer cell line.

    PubMed

    Ekyalongo, Roudy Chiminch; Mukohara, Toru; Kataoka, Yu; Funakoshi, Yohei; Tomioka, Hideo; Kiyota, Naomi; Fujiwara, Yutaka; Minami, Hironobu

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the mechanism of acquired resistance to the insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) tyrosine kinase inhibitor NVP-AEW541. We developed an acquired resistant model by continuously exposing MCF-7 breast cancer cells to NVP-AEW541 (MCF-7-NR). MCF-7 and MCF-7-NR were comparatively analyzed for cell signaling and cell growth. While phosphorylation of Akt was completely inhibited by 3 μM NVP-AEW541 in both MCF-7 and MCF-7-NR, phosphorylation of S6K remained high only in MCF-7-NR, suggesting a disconnection between Akt and S6K in MCF-7-NR. Consistently, the mTOR inhibitor everolimus inhibited phosphorylation of S6K and cell growth equally in both lines. Screening of both lines for phosphorylation of 42 receptor tyrosine kinases with and without NVP-AEW541 showed that Tyro3 phosphorylation remained high only in MCF-7-NR. Protein expression of Tyro3 was found to be higher in MCF-7-NR than in MCF-7. Gene silencing of Tyro3 using siRNA resulted in reduced cell growth and cyclin D1 expression in both lines. While Tyro3 expression was inhibited by NVP-AEW541 and everolimus in MCF-7, it was reduced only by everolimus in MCF-7-NR. These findings suggested that cyclin D1 expression was regulated in a S6K/Tyro3-dependent manner in both MCF-7 and MCF-7-NR, and that the disconnection between IGF-1R/Akt and S6K may enable MCF-7-NR to keep cyclin D1 high in the presence of NVP-AEW541. In summary, acquired resistance to NVP-AEW541 appears to result from IGF-1R/Akt-independent activation of S6K and expression of Tyro3 and cyclin D1.

  1. Cancer intelligence acquired (CIA): tumor glycosylation and sialylation codes dismantling antitumor defense.

    PubMed

    Boligan, Kayluz Frias; Mesa, Circe; Fernandez, Luis Enrique; von Gunten, Stephan

    2015-04-01

    Aberrant glycosylation is a key feature of malignant transformation and reflects epigenetic and genetic anomalies among the multitude of molecules involved in glycan biosynthesis. Although glycan biosynthesis is not template bound, altered tumor glycosylation is not random, but associated with common glycosylation patterns. Evidence suggests that acquisition of distinct glycosylation patterns evolves from a 'microevolutionary' process conferring advantages in terms of tumor growth, tumor dissemination, and immune escape. Such glycosylation modifications also involve xeno- and hypersialylation. Xeno-autoantigens such as Neu5Gc-gangliosides provide potential targets for immunotherapy. Hypersialylation may display 'enhanced self' to escape immunosurveillance and involves several not mutually exclusive inhibitory pathways that all rely on protein-glycan interactions. A better understanding of tumor 'glycan codes' as deciphered by lectins, such as siglecs, selectins, C-type lectins and galectins, may lead to novel treatment strategies, not only in cancer, but also in autoimmune disease or transplantation.

  2. Relation of the slow growth phenotype to neoplastic transformation: possible significance for human cancer.

    PubMed

    Chow, M; Rubin, H

    1999-09-01

    Deletions are widely distributed over the genome in the most frequently occurring human cancers and are the most abundant genetic lesion found there. Deletions are highly correlated with the slow growth phenotype of mutated animal and human cells and result in chromosomal transposition when the retained ends are joined. Transpositions are only a minor source of mutation in rapidly multiplying bacteria but are a major cause of mutations in stationary bacteria. The NIH 3T3 line of mouse cells undergoes neoplastic transformation during prolonged incubation in a stationary state and expresses the slow growth phenotype on serial subculture at low density, suggesting a relation between transformation and chromosomal deletions. To further explore the relation between neoplastic transformation and the slow growth phenotype as a surrogate for deletions, two sublines of the NIH 3T3 cells with differing competence for transformation were serially subcultured in the stationary state at confluence and tested at each subculture for transformation and growth rate. Cell death in a fraction of the population and a heritable slowdown in proliferation of most of the survivors became increasingly pronounced with successive rounds of confluence. The reduction in growth rate was not proportional to the degree of transformation of the cultures, but all of the transformed cultures were slow growers at low density. All of the discrete colonies from cloning transformed cultures developed at a lower initial rate than control colonies under optimal conditions for growth, but they continued to grow at later stages, forming multilayered colonies under conditions that inhibited the further growth of the control colonies. The results suggest that prolonged incubation of NIH 3T3 cells in the stationary state results in growth-impairing deletions over a wide range of sites in the genome, but more restricted subsets of such lesions are responsible for neoplastic transformation. These findings

  3. Mild folate deficiency induces genetic and epigenetic instability and phenotype changes in prostate cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Folate (vitamin B9) is essential for cellular proliferation as it is involved in the biosynthesis of deoxythymidine monophosphate (dTMP) and s-adenosylmethionine (AdoMet). The link between folate depletion and the genesis and progression of cancers of epithelial origin is of high clinical relevance, but still unclear. We recently demonstrated that sensitivity to low folate availability is affected by the rate of polyamine biosynthesis, which is prominent in prostate cells. We, therefore, hypothesized that prostate cells might be highly susceptible to genetic, epigenetic and phenotypic changes consequent to folate restriction. Results We studied the consequences of long-term, mild folate depletion in a model comprised of three syngenic cell lines derived from the transgenic adenoma of the mouse prostate (TRAMP) model, recapitulating different stages of prostate cancer; benign, transformed and metastatic. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis demonstrated that mild folate depletion (100 nM) sufficed to induce imbalance in both the nucleotide and AdoMet pools in all prostate cell lines. Random oligonucleotide-primed synthesis (ROPS) revealed a significant increase in uracil misincorporation and DNA single strand breaks, while spectral karyotype analysis (SKY) identified five novel chromosomal rearrangements in cells grown with mild folate depletion. Using global approaches, we identified an increase in CpG island and histone methylation upon folate depletion despite unchanged levels of total 5-methylcytosine, indicating a broad effect of folate depletion on epigenetic regulation. These genomic changes coincided with phenotype changes in the prostate cells including increased anchorage-independent growth and reduced sensitivity to folate depletion. Conclusions This study demonstrates that prostate cells are highly susceptible to genetic and epigenetic changes consequent to mild folate depletion as compared to cells grown with supraphysiological

  4. Pharmacogenomic approach for the identification of novel determinants of acquired resistance to oxaliplatin in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Cardús, Anna; Martinez-Balibrea, Eva; Bandrés, Eva; Malumbres, Raquel; Ginés, Alba; Manzano, José Luís; Taron, Miquel; Garcia-Foncillas, Jesús; Abad, Albert

    2009-01-01

    Oxaliplatin is a third-generation platinum agent used in colorectal cancer treatment. Oxaliplatin resistance acquisition is a complex process mainly based on alteration of genes and pathways involved in its mechanism of action. Therefore, our purpose was to perform a gene expression screening in an in vitro model to identify genes that could play a role in oxaliplatin resistance acquisition processes. Four colorectal cancer cell lines and their oxaliplatin-resistant derived sublines were compared. Microarray analysis was done using Human 19K Oligo Array Slides. RNA from cells were hybridized with a commercial RNA reference sample and labeled with both fluorochromes Cy3 and Cy5. Data were analyzed by hierarchical clustering method. Subsequently, quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR) was used to corroborate microarray data, considering as positively validated those genes that showed significant differences in expression levels between groups and a correlation between microarray and qRT-PCR data. By microarray analysis, 32 candidate genes were identified. After validation process by qRT-PCR, the genes AKT1, CDK5, TRIP, GARP, RGS11, and UGCGL1 were positively validated. The 3 first genes proved to be involved in regulation of nuclear factor-kappabeta antiapoptotic transcription factor previously related to drug resistance, and the other 3 genes are novel finds. We have identified 6 genes related to oxaliplatin resistance acquisition. These findings are of paramount importance to understand these processes better and open new lines of study to elucidate the relevance of this pharmacogenomic approach into the clinic.

  5. Role of WISP-2/CCN5 in the maintenance of a differentiated and noninvasive phenotype in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Fritah, Asmaà; Saucier, Cécile; De Wever, Olivier; Bracke, Marc; Bièche, Ivan; Lidereau, Rosette; Gespach, Christian; Drouot, Sylvain; Redeuilh, Gérard; Sabbah, Michèle

    2008-02-01

    WISP-2/CCN5 is an estrogen-regulated member of the "connective tissue growth factor/cysteine-rich 61/nephroblastoma overexpressed" (CCN) family of the cell growth and differentiation regulators. The WISP-2/CCN5 mRNA transcript is undetectable in normal human mammary cells, as well as in highly aggressive breast cancer cell lines, in contrast with its higher level in the breast cancer cell lines characterized by a more differentiated phenotype. We report here that knockdown of WISP-2/CCN5 by RNA interference in estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)-positive MCF-7 breast cancer cells induced an estradiol-independent growth linked to a loss of ERalpha expression and promoted epithelial-to-mesenchymal transdifferentiation. In contrast, forced expression of WISP-2/CCN5 directed MCF-7 cells toward a more differentiated phenotype. When introduced into the poorly differentiated, estrogen-independent, and invasive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells, WISP-2/CCN5 was able to reduce their proliferative and invasive phenotypes. In a series of ERalpha-positive tumor biopsies, we found a positive correlation between the expression of WISP-2/CCN5 and ID2, a transcriptional regulator of differentiation in normal and transformed breast cells. We propose that WISP-2/CCN5 is an important regulator involved in the maintenance of a differentiated phenotype in breast tumor epithelial cells and may play a role in tumor cell invasion and metastasis.

  6. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition and the cancer stem cell phenotype: Insights from cancer biology with therapeutic implications for colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Findlay, Victoria J.; Wang, Cindy; Watson, Dennis K.; Camp, E. Ramsay

    2014-01-01

    Although mortality from colorectal cancer (CRC) is decreasing, colorectal cancer is still the second highest cause of cancer related deaths in America. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy now play central roles in our strategies to fight cancer, although we continue to lack novel strategies overcoming therapeutic resistance. Molecular mechanisms of therapeutic resistance in CRC continue to be under intense investigation. In this review, we highlight the recent evidence linking epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) with aggressive tumor biology as well as with the cancer stem cells (CSC) across multiple organ systems including colon cancer. Furthermore, in the era of neo-adjuvant treatment, the clinical implications are concerning that our treatments may have the potential to induce more aggressive cancer cells through EMT, perhaps even generating CSCs more capable of metastasis and further resistant to treatment. This concern and potential reality highlights the critical need for further understanding the impact of clinical therapy on the pathobiology of cancer and further supports the need to therapeutically target the CSC. Besides serving as potential biomarkers for aggressive tumor biology and therapeutic resistance, EMT and CSC molecular pathways may highlight novel therapeutic targets as strategies for improving the response to conventional anti-neoplastic agents translating into improved oncologic outcomes. PMID:24787239

  7. Uncovering cancer cell behavioral phenotype in 3-D in vitro metastatic landscapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Liyu; Sun, Bo; Duclos, Guillaume; Kam, Yoonseok; Gatenby, Robert; Stone, Howard; Austin, Robert

    2012-02-01

    One well-known fact is that cancer cell genetics determines cell metastatic potentials. However, from a physics point of view, genetics as cell properties cannot directly act on metastasis. An agent is needed to unscramble the genetics first before generating dynamics for metastasis. Exactly this agent is cell behavioral phenotype, which is rarely studied due to the difficulties of real-time cell tracking in in vivo tissue. Here we have successfully constructed a micro in vitro environment with collagen based Extracellular Matrix (ECM) structures for cell 3-D metastasis. With stable nutrition (glucose) gradient inside, breast cancer cell MDA-MB-231 is able to invade inside the collagen from the nutrition poor site towards the nutrition rich site. Continuous confocal microscopy captures images of the cells every 12 hours and tracks their positions in 3-D space. The micro fluorescent beads pre-mixed inside the ECM demonstrate that invasive cells have altered the structures through mechanics. With the observation and the analysis of cell collective behaviors, we argue that game theory may exist between the pioneering cells and their followers in the metastatic cell group. The cell collaboration may explain the high efficiency of metastasis.

  8. Acquired resistance to combination treatment through loss of synergy with MEK and PI3K inhibitors in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Bhaskar; Low, Sarah Hong Hui; Chong, Mei Ling; Chia, Dilys; Koh, King Xin; Sapari, Nur Sabrina; Kaye, Stanley; Hung, Huynh; Benoukraf, Touati; Soong, Richie

    2016-01-01

    Historically, understanding of acquired resistance (AQR) to combination treatment has been based on knowledge of resistance to its component agents. To test whether an altered drug interaction could be an additional factor in AQR to combination treatment, models of AQR to combination and single agent MEK and PI3K inhibitor treatment were generated. Combination indices indicated combination treatment of PI3K and MEK inhibitors remained synergistic in cells with AQR to single agent but not combination AQR cells. Differences were also observed between the models in cellular phenotypes, pathway signaling and drug cross-resistance. Genomics implicated TGFB2-EDN1 overexpression as candidate determinants in models of AQR to combination treatment. Supplementation of endothelin in parental cells converted synergism to antagonism. Silencing of TGFB2 or EDN1 in cells with AQR conferred synergy between PI3K and MEK inhibitor. These results highlight that AQR to combination treatment may develop through alternative mechanisms to those of single agent treatment, including a change in drug interaction. PMID:27081080

  9. Vector prime/protein boost vaccine that overcomes defects acquired during aging and cancer.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yucheng; Akbulut, Hakan; Maynard, Jonathan; Petersen, Line; Fang, Xiangming; Zhang, Wei-Wei; Xia, Xiaoqin; Koziol, James; Linton, Phyllis-Jean; Deisseroth, Albert

    2006-10-15

    We showed that the Ad-sig-TAA/ecdCD40L vaccine induces a tumor suppressive immune response to the hMUC-1 and rH2N tumor-associated self Ags (TAA) and to the Annexin A1 tumor vascular Ag, even in mice in which anergy exists to these Ags. When the TAA/ecdCD40L protein is given s.c. as a boost following the Ad-sig-TAA/ecdCD40L vector, the levels of the TAA-specific CD8 T cells and Abs increase dramatically over that seen with vector alone, in young (2-mo-old) as well as old (18-mo-old) mice. The Abs induced against hMUC-1 react with human breast cancer. This vaccine also induces a 4-fold decrement of negative regulatory CD4CD25FOXP3-T cells in the tumor tissue of 18-mo-old mice. These results suggest that the Ad-sig-TAA/ecdCD40L vector prime-TAA/ecdCD40L protein boost vaccine platform may be valuable in reducing postsurgery recurrence in a variety of epithelial neoplasms. PMID:17015759

  10. Unique DNA methylome profiles in CpG island methylator phenotype colon cancers.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yaomin; Hu, Bo; Choi, Ae-Jin; Gopalan, Banu; Lee, Byron H; Kalady, Matthew F; Church, James M; Ting, Angela H

    2012-02-01

    A subset of colorectal cancers was postulated to have the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP), a higher propensity for CpG island DNA methylation. The validity of CIMP, its molecular basis, and its prognostic value remain highly controversial. Using MBD-isolated genome sequencing, we mapped and compared genome-wide DNA methylation profiles of normal, non-CIMP, and CIMP colon specimens. Multidimensional scaling analysis revealed that each specimen could be clearly classified as normal, non-CIMP, and CIMP, thus signifying that these three groups have distinctly different global methylation patterns. We discovered 3780 sites in various genomic contexts that were hypermethylated in both non-CIMP and CIMP colon cancers when compared with normal colon. An additional 2026 sites were found to be hypermethylated in CIMP tumors only; and importantly, 80% of these sites were located in CpG islands. These data demonstrate on a genome-wide level that the additional hypermethylation seen in CIMP tumors occurs almost exclusively at CpG islands and support definitively that these tumors were appropriately named. When these sites were examined more closely, we found that 25% were adjacent to sites that were also hypermethylated in non-CIMP tumors. Thus, CIMP is also characterized by more extensive methylation of sites that are already prone to be hypermethylated in colon cancer. These observations indicate that CIMP tumors have specific defects in controlling both DNA methylation seeding and spreading and serve as an important first step in delineating molecular mechanisms that control these processes. PMID:21990380

  11. Acquired Mitochondrial Abnormalities, Including Epigenetic Inhibition of Superoxide Dismutase 2, in Pulmonary Hypertension and Cancer: Therapeutic Implications.

    PubMed

    Archer, Stephen L

    2016-01-01

    PASMC and therapy with the SOD mimetic, MnTBAP, regresses experimental PAH. In conclusion, cancer and PAH share acquired mitochondrial abnormalities that increase proliferation and inhibit apoptosis, suggesting new therapeutic targets. PMID:27343087

  12. Self-renewal and pluripotency acquired through somatic reprogramming to human cancer stem cells.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Shogo; Hirano, Kunio; Kanemori, Michele; Sun, Liang-Tso; Tada, Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) are reprogrammed by transient expression of transcription factors in somatic cells. Approximately 1% of somatic cells can be reprogrammed into iPSCs, while the remaining somatic cells are differentially reprogrammed. Here, we established induced pluripotent cancer stem-like cells (iCSCs) as self-renewing pluripotent cell clones. Stable iCSC lines were established from unstable induced epithelial stem cell (iESC) lines through re-plating followed by embryoid body formation and serial transplantation. iCSCs shared the expression of pluripotent marker genes with iPSCs, except for REX1 and LIN28, while exhibited the expression of somatic marker genes EMP1 and PPARγ. iESCs and iCSCs could generate teratomas with high efficiency by implantation into immunodeficient mice. The second iCSCs isolated from dissociated cells of teratoma from the first iCSCs were stably maintained, showing a gene expression profile similar to the first iCSCs. In the first and second iCSCs, transgene-derived Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc were expressed. Comparative global gene expression analyses demonstrated that the first iCSCs were similar to iESCs, and clearly different from human iPSCs and somatic cells. In iCSCs, gene expression kinetics of the core pluripotency factor and the Myc-related factor were pluripotent type, whereas the polycomb complex factor was somatic type. These findings indicate that pluripotent tumorigenicity can be conferred on somatic cells through up-regulation of the core pluripotency and Myc-related factors, prior to establishment of the iPSC molecular network by full reprogramming through down-regulation of the polycomb complex factor.

  13. Effect of 23-Valent Pneumococcal Polysaccharide Vaccine Inoculated During Anti-Cancer Treatment Period in Elderly Lung Cancer Patients on Community-Acquired Pneumonia Hospitalization

    PubMed Central

    Chiou, Wen-Yen; Hung, Shih-Kai; Lai, Chun-Liang; Lin, Hon-Yi; Su, Yu-Chieh; Chen, Yi-Chun; Shen, Bing-Jie; Chen, Liang-Cheng; Tsai, Shiang-Jiun; Lee, Moon-Sing; Li, Chung-Yi

    2015-01-01

    Abstract To evaluate effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) inoculated during defined “vaccination period,” first 6 months post cancer diagnosis (ie, an anti-cancer treatment period), in elderly lung cancer patients on community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) hospitalization incidence. This was a nationwide population-based cohort study of 157 newly diagnosed elderly lung cancer patients receiving PPSV23 during “vaccination period”, and 628 age and sex one-to-one matched controls enrolled in the National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD) of Taiwan between 2007 and 2010. All patients were ≥75 years old and still survival post “vaccination period.” Incidence density (ID) of all-cause inpatient CAP and cumulative survival risk were analyzed by multivariate Poisson regression and Kaplan–Meier method, respectively. After a 4-year follow-up, IDs of all-cause inpatient CAP for vaccination and control cohorts were 297 and 444 per 1000 PYs, respectively. Less vaccinated patients had CAP incidence density >1 time per PY (12.7% vs 21.2%) than non-vaccinated patients. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, like influenza vaccination, comorbidities, cancer treatment modalities, and socioeconomic status, adjusted inpatient CAP incidence rate in PPSV23 vaccination cohort was 0.74 times lower than control cohort (incidence rate ratio [IRR] = 0.740, P = 0.0339). Two-year cumulative CAP hospitalization rates and overall survival rates were 37.1% vs. 55.4%, and 46.6% vs. 26.2%, respectively, for lung cancer patients with and without PPSV23 (both P < 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed that for elderly lung cancer patients not ever receiving influenza vaccine, PPSV23 still had trend to reduce all-cause inpatient CAP. For elderly lung cancer patients aged ≥75 years, PPSV23 inoculated during anti-cancer treatment period could reduce CAP hospitalizations and improve survival. PMID:26131806

  14. Aldehyde dehydrogenase activity selects for the holoclone phenotype in prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, R.E.; Haywood-Small, S.L.; Sisley, K.; Cross, N.A.

    2011-11-04

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Isolated ALDH{sup Hi} PC3 cells preferentially form primitive holoclone-type colonies. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Primitive holoclone colonies are predominantly ALDH{sup Lo} but contain rare ALDH{sup Hi} cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Holoclone-forming cells are not restricted to the ALDH{sup Hi} population. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ALDH phenotypic plasticity occurs in PC3 cells (ALDH{sup Lo} to ALDH{sup Hi} and vice versa). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ALDH{sup Hi} cells are observed but very rare in PC3 spheroids grown in stem cell medium. -- Abstract: Aldehyde dehydrogenase 1 (ALDH) activity is considered to be a marker of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in many tumour models, since these cells are more proliferative and tumourigenic than ALDH{sup Lo} cells in experimental models. However it is unclear whether all CSC-like cells are within the ALDH{sup Hi} population, or whether all ALDH{sup Hi} cells are highly proliferative and tumourigenic. The ability to establish a stem cell hierarchy in vitro, whereby sub-populations of cells have differing proliferative and differentiation capacities, is an alternate indication of the presence of stem cell-like populations within cell lines. In this study, we have examined the interaction between ALDH status and the ability to establish a stem cell hierarchy in PC3 prostate cancer cells. We demonstrate that PC3 cells contain a stem cell hierarchy, and isolation of ALDH{sup Hi} cells enriches for the most primitive holoclone population, however holoclone formation is not restricted to ALDH{sup Hi} cells. In addition, we show that ALDH activity undergoes phenotypic plasticity, since the ALDH{sup Lo} population can develop ALDH{sup Hi} populations comparable to parental cells within 2 weeks in culture. Furthermore, we show that the majority of ALDH{sup Hi} cells are found within the least primitive paraclone population, which is circumvented by culturing PC3 cells as spheroids in

  15. The insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor causes acquired resistance to erlotinib in lung cancer cells with the wild-type epidermal growth factor receptor.

    PubMed

    Suda, Kenichi; Mizuuchi, Hiroshi; Sato, Katsuaki; Takemoto, Toshiki; Iwasaki, Takuya; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya

    2014-08-15

    Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy often provides a dramatic response in lung cancer patients with EGFR mutations. In addition, moderate clinical efficacy of the EGFR-TKI, erlotinib, has been shown in lung cancer patients with the wild-type EGFR. Numerous molecular mechanisms that cause acquired resistance to EGFR-TKIs have been identified in lung cancers with the EGFR mutations; however, few have been reported in lung cancers with the wild-type EGFR. We used H358 lung adenocarcinoma cells lacking EGFR mutations that showed modest sensitivity to erlotinib. The H358 cells acquired resistance to erlotinib via chronic exposure to the drug. The H358 erlotinib-resistant (ER) cells do not have a secondary EGFR mutation, neither MET gene amplification nor PTEN downregulation; these have been identified in lung cancers with the EGFR mutations. From comprehensive screening of receptor tyrosine kinase phosphorylation, we observed increased phosphorylation of insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF1R) in H358ER cells compared with parental H358 cells. H358ER cells responded to combined therapy with erlotinib and NVP-AEW541, an IGF1R-TKI. Our results indicate that IGF1R activation is a molecular mechanism that confers acquired resistance to erlotinib in lung cancers with the wild-type EGFR.

  16. Human dendritic cells acquire a semimature phenotype and lymph node homing potential through interaction with CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells.

    PubMed

    Bayry, Jagadeesh; Triebel, Frédéric; Kaveri, Srini V; Tough, David F

    2007-04-01

    Interactions between dendritic cells (DC) and T cells are known to involve the delivery of signals in both directions. We sought to characterize the effects on human DC of contact with different subsets of activated CD4+ T cells. The results showed that interaction with CD25(high)CD4+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) caused DC to take on very different properties than contact with naive or memory phenotype T cells. Whereas non-Tregs stimulated DC maturation, culture with Tregs produced DC with a mixed phenotype. By many criteria, Tregs inhibited DC maturation, inducing down-regulation of costimulatory molecules and T cell stimulatory activity. However, DC exposed to Tregs also showed some changes typically associated with DC maturation, namely, increased expression of CCR7 and MHC class II molecules, and gained the ability to migrate in response to the CCR7 ligand CCL19. Both soluble factors and cell-associated molecules were shown to be involved in Treg modulation of DC, with lymphocyte activation gene 3 (LAG-3) playing a predominant role in driving maturation-associated changes. The data show that Tregs induce the generation of semimature DC with the potential to migrate into lymphoid organs, suggesting a possible mechanism by which Tregs down-modulate immune responses. PMID:17371975

  17. NCR1+ cells appear early in GALT development of the ovine foetus and acquire a c-kit+ phenotype towards the end of gestation.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Line; Åkesson, Caroline Piercey; Aleksandersen, Mona; Boysen, Preben; Press, Charles McL; Drouet, Françoise; Storset, Anne K; Espenes, Arild

    2016-01-01

    The amount, distribution and phenotype of ovine NCR1+ cells were investigated during developing GALT from day 70 of gestation. Antibodies against CD3 and CD79 were used to identify the compartments of GALT, and the localization of NCR1+ cells were correlated within these structures. Markers CD34 and c-kit, in addition to Ki67, were used to investigate possible origin and the stage of development of the NCR1+ cells. NCR1+ cells were present as single cells in the subepithelial tissue as early as 70 days of gestation, and were predominantly present in the T cell rich IFAs and domes as these intestinal wall compartments developed. While NCR1+ cells proliferated more intensively at mid-gestation (70-104 days), the number of NCR1+ cells also expressing c-kit, increased at the end of gestation. In conclusion, NCR1+ cells appeared early in T cell areas of the gut and displayed a phenotype consistent with intermediate stages of cNK cells and/or a subpopulation of ILC22.

  18. Effects of Withania somnifera and Tinospora cordifolia extracts on the side population phenotype of human epithelial cancer cells: toward targeting multidrug resistance in cancer.

    PubMed

    Maliyakkal, Naseer; Appadath Beeran, Asmy; Balaji, Sai A; Udupa, Nayanabhirama; Ranganath Pai, Sreedhara; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2015-03-01

    Recent reports suggest the existence of a subpopulation of stem-like cancer cells, termed as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which bear functional and phenotypic resemblance with the adult, tissue-resident stem cells. Side population (SP) assay based on differential efflux of Hoechst 33342 has been effectively used for the isolation of CSCs. The drug resistance properties of SP cells are typically due to the increased expression of ABC transporters leading to drug efflux. Conventionally used chemotherapeutic drugs may often leads to an enrichment of SP, revealing their inability to target the drug-resistant SP and CSCs. Thus, identification of agents that can reduce the SP phenotype is currently in vogue in cancer therapeutics. Withania somnifera (WS) and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) have been used in Ayurveda for treating various diseases, including cancer. In the current study, we have investigated the effects of ethanolic (ET) extracts of WS and TC on the cancer SP phenotype. Interestingly, we found significant decrease in SP on treatment with TC-ET, but not with WS-ET. The SP-inhibitory TC-ET was further fractionated into petroleum ether (TC-PET), dichloromethane (TC-DCM), and n-butyl alcohol (TC-nBT) fractions using bioactivity-guided fractionation. Our data revealed that TC-PET and TC-DCM, but not TC-nBT, significantly inhibited SP in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, flow cytometry-based functional assays revealed that TC-PET and TC-DCM significantly inhibited ABC-B1 and ABC-G2 transporters and sensitized cancer cells toward chemotherapeutic drug-mediated cytotoxicity. Thus, the TC-PET and TC-DCM may harbor phytochemicals with the potential to reverse the drug-resistant phenotype, thus improving the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy. PMID:25549922

  19. Effects of Withania somnifera and Tinospora cordifolia extracts on the side population phenotype of human epithelial cancer cells: toward targeting multidrug resistance in cancer.

    PubMed

    Maliyakkal, Naseer; Appadath Beeran, Asmy; Balaji, Sai A; Udupa, Nayanabhirama; Ranganath Pai, Sreedhara; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2015-03-01

    Recent reports suggest the existence of a subpopulation of stem-like cancer cells, termed as cancer stem cells (CSCs), which bear functional and phenotypic resemblance with the adult, tissue-resident stem cells. Side population (SP) assay based on differential efflux of Hoechst 33342 has been effectively used for the isolation of CSCs. The drug resistance properties of SP cells are typically due to the increased expression of ABC transporters leading to drug efflux. Conventionally used chemotherapeutic drugs may often leads to an enrichment of SP, revealing their inability to target the drug-resistant SP and CSCs. Thus, identification of agents that can reduce the SP phenotype is currently in vogue in cancer therapeutics. Withania somnifera (WS) and Tinospora cordifolia (TC) have been used in Ayurveda for treating various diseases, including cancer. In the current study, we have investigated the effects of ethanolic (ET) extracts of WS and TC on the cancer SP phenotype. Interestingly, we found significant decrease in SP on treatment with TC-ET, but not with WS-ET. The SP-inhibitory TC-ET was further fractionated into petroleum ether (TC-PET), dichloromethane (TC-DCM), and n-butyl alcohol (TC-nBT) fractions using bioactivity-guided fractionation. Our data revealed that TC-PET and TC-DCM, but not TC-nBT, significantly inhibited SP in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, flow cytometry-based functional assays revealed that TC-PET and TC-DCM significantly inhibited ABC-B1 and ABC-G2 transporters and sensitized cancer cells toward chemotherapeutic drug-mediated cytotoxicity. Thus, the TC-PET and TC-DCM may harbor phytochemicals with the potential to reverse the drug-resistant phenotype, thus improving the efficacy of cancer chemotherapy.

  20. Silibinin prevents prostate cancer cell-mediated differentiation of naïve fibroblasts into cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype by targeting TGF β2.

    PubMed

    Ting, Harold J; Deep, Gagan; Jain, Anil K; Cimic, Adela; Sirintrapun, Joseph; Romero, Lina M; Cramer, Scott D; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2015-09-01

    Tumor microenvironment (TM) is an essential element in prostate cancer (PCA), offering unique opportunities for its prevention. TM includes naïve fibroblasts that are recruited by nascent neoplastic lesion and altered into 'cancer-associated fibroblasts' (CAFs) that promote PCA. A better understanding and targeting of interaction between PCA cells and fibroblasts and inhibiting CAF phenotype through non-toxic agents are novel approaches to prevent PCA progression. One well-studied cancer chemopreventive agent is silibinin, and thus, we examined its efficacy against PCA cells-mediated differentiation of naïve fibroblasts into a myofibroblastic-phenotype similar to that found in CAFs. Silibinin's direct inhibitory effect on the phenotype of CAFs derived directly from PCA patients was also assessed. Human prostate stromal cells (PrSCs) exposed to control conditioned media (CCM) from human PCA PC3 cells showed more invasiveness, with increased alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and vimentin expression, and differentiation into a phenotype we identified in CAFs. Importantly, silibinin (at physiologically achievable concentrations) inhibited α-SMA expression and invasiveness in differentiated fibroblasts and prostate CAFs directly, as well as indirectly by targeting PCA cells. The observed increase in α-SMA and CAF-like phenotype was transforming growth factor (TGF) β2 dependent, which was strongly inhibited by silibinin. Furthermore, induction of α-SMA and CAF phenotype by CCM were also strongly inhibited by a TGFβ2-neutralizing antibody. The inhibitory effect of silibinin on TGFβ2 expression and CAF-like biomarkers was also observed in PC3 tumors. Together, these findings highlight the potential usefulness of silibinin in PCA prevention through targeting the CAF phenotype in the prostate TM.

  1. Silibinin Prevents Prostate Cancer Cell-Mediated Differentiation of Naïve Fibroblasts into Cancer-Associated Fibroblast Phenotype by Targeting TGF β2

    PubMed Central

    Ting, Harold; Deep, Gagan; Jain, Anil K.; Cimic, Adela; Sirintrapun, Joseph; Romero, Lina M.; Cramer, Scott D.; Agarwal, Chapla; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    Tumor microenvironment is an essential element in prostate cancer (PCA), offering unique opportunities for its prevention. Tumor microenvironment includes naïve fibroblasts that are recruited by nascent neoplastic lesion and altered into ‘cancer-associated fibroblasts’ (CAFs) that promote PCA. A better understanding and targeting of interaction between PCA cells and fibroblasts and inhibiting CAF phenotype through non-toxic agents are novel approaches to prevent PCA progression. One well-studied cancer chemopreventive agent is silibinin, and thus, we examined its efficacy against PCA cells-mediated differentiation of naïve fibroblasts into a myofibroblastic-phenotype similar to that found in CAFs. Silibinin’s direct inhibitory effect on the phenotype of CAFs derived directly from PCA patients was also assessed. Human prostate stromal cells (PrSCs) exposed to control conditioned media (CCM) from human PCA PC3 cells showed more invasiveness, with increased α-SMA (alpha-smooth muscle actin) and vimentin expression, and differentiation into a phenotype we identified in CAFs. Importantly, silibinin (at physiologically-achievable concentrations) inhibited α-SMA expression and invasiveness in differentiated fibroblasts and prostate CAFs directly, as well as indirectly by targeting PCA cells. The observed increase in α-SMA and CAF-like phenotype was transforming growth factor (TGF) β2 dependent, which was strongly inhibited by silibinin. Furthermore, induction of ±-SMA and CAF phenotype by CCM were also strongly inhibited by a TGFβ2-neutralizing antibody. The inhibitory effect of silibinin on TGFβ2 expression and CAF-like biomarkers was also observed in PC3 tumors. Together, these findings highlight the potential usefulness of silibinin in PCA prevention through targeting the CAF phenotype in the prostate tumor microenvironment. PMID:24615813

  2. MLK3 is critical for breast cancer cell migration and promotes a malignant phenotype in mammary epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Miller, E M; Gallo, K A

    2010-08-01

    The malignant phenotype in breast cancer is driven by aberrant signal transduction pathways. Mixed-lineage kinase-3 (MLK3) is a mammalian mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) that activates multiple MAPK pathways. Depending on the cellular context, MLK3 has been implicated in apoptosis, proliferation, migration and differentiation. Here we investigated the effect of MLK3 and its signaling to MAPKs in the acquisition of malignancy in breast cancer. We show that MLK3 is highly expressed in breast cancer cells. We provide evidence that MLK3's catalytic activity and signaling to c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) is required for migration of highly invasive breast cancer cells and for MLK3-induced migration of mammary epithelial cells. Expression of active MLK3 is sufficient to induce the invasion of mammary epithelial cells, which requires AP-1 activity and is accompanied by the expression of several proteins corresponding to AP-1-regulated invasion genes. To assess MLK3's contribution to the breast cancer malignant phenotype in a more physiological setting, we implemented a strategy to inducibly express active MLK3 in the preformed acini of MCF10A cells grown in 3D Matrigel. Induction of MLK3 expression dramatically increases acinar size and modestly perturbs apicobasal polarity. Remarkably, MLK3 expression induces luminal repopulation and suppresses the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein BimEL, as has been observed in Her2/Neu-expressing acini. Taken together, our data show that MLK3-JNK-AP-1 signaling is critical for breast cancer cell migration and invasion. Our current study uncovers both a proliferative and novel antiapoptotic role for MLK3 in the acquisition of a malignant phenotype in mammary epithelial cells. Thus, MLK3 may be an important therapeutic target for the treatment of invasive breast cancer.

  3. Patients with Concordant Triple-Negative Phenotype between Primary Breast Cancers and Corresponding Metastases Have Poor Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Hee-Chul; Han, Wonshik; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Park, In-Ae

    2016-01-01

    Purpose We investigated the prognostic impact of discordance between the receptor status of primary breast cancers and corresponding metastases. Methods A total 144 patients with breast cancer and distant metastasis were investigated. The estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR), and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) status of primary tumor and corresponding metastases were assessed. Tumor phenotype according to receptor status was classified as triple-negative phenotype (TNP) or non-TNP. Concordance and discordance was determined by whether there was a change in receptor status or phenotype between primary and metastatic lesions. Results The rates of discordance between primary breast cancer and metastatic lesions were 18.1%, 25.0%, and 10.3% for ER, PR, and HER2, respectively. The rates of concordant non-TNP, concordant TNP and discordant TNP were 65.9%, 20.9%, and 13.2%, respectively. Patients with concordant ER/PR-negative status had worse postrecurrence survival (PRS) than patients with concordant ER/PR-positive and discordant ER/PR status (p=0.001 and p=0.021, respectively). Patients who converted from HER2-positive to negative after distant metastasis had worst PRS (p=0.040). Multivariate analysis showed that concordant TNP was statistically significant factor for worse PRS (p<0.001). Conclusion Discordance in receptor status and tumor phenotype between primary breast cancer and corresponding metastatic lesions was observed. Patients with concordant TNP had worse long-term outcomes than patients with concordant non-TNP and discordant TNP between primary and metastatic breast cancer. Identifying the receptor status of metastatic lesions may lead to improvements in patient management and survival. PMID:27721876

  4. The genetics of cancer survivorship.

    PubMed

    Allan, James M

    2008-04-01

    Constitutional (hereditary) genetic variation and somatic genetic alterations acquired during transformation to the neoplastic phenotype are both critical determinants of cancer outcome, and can ultimately have a significant effect on cancer survivorship. This article discusses the role of constitutional and somatic genetics in determining outcome and survivorship following a diagnosis of cancer using illustrative examples primarily from the hematologic malignancies. PMID:18395149

  5. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator deficiency has little effect on seizure susceptibility and acquired epilepsy phenotype but reduces spontaneous exploration in mice.

    PubMed

    Rantala, J; Kemppainen, S; Ndode-Ekane, X E; Lahtinen, L; Bolkvadze, Tamuna; Gurevicius, K; Tanila, H; Pitkänen, A

    2015-01-01

    Urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), a serine protease, converts plasminogen to plasmin. Activation of plasmin leads to degradation of the extracellular matrix, which is critical for tissue recovery, angiogenesis, cell migration, and axonal and synaptic plasticity. We hypothesized that uPA deficiency would cause an abnormal neurophenotype and would lead to exacerbated epileptogenesis after brain injury. Wild-type (Wt) and uPA-/- mice underwent a battery of neurologic behavioral tests evaluating general reactivity, spontaneous exploratory activity, motor coordination, pain threshold, fear and anxiety, and memory. We placed particular emphasis on the effect of uPA deficiency on seizure susceptibility, including the response to convulsants (pentylenetetrazol, kainate, or pilocarpine) and kainate-induced epileptogenesis and epilepsy. The uPA-/- mice showed no motor or sensory impairment compared with the Wt mice. Hippocampus-dependent spatial memory also remained intact. The uPA-/- mice, however, exhibited reduced exploratory activity and an enhanced response to a tone stimulus (p<0.05 compared with the Wt mice). The urokinase-type plasminogen activator deficient mice showed no increase in spontaneous or evoked epileptiform electrographic activity. Rather, the response to pilocarpine administration was reduced compared with the Wt mice (p<0.05). Also, the epileptogenesis and the epilepsy phenotype after intrahippocampal kainate injection were similar to those in the Wt mice. Taken together, uPA deficiency led to diminished interest in the environmental surroundings and enhanced emotional reactivity to unexpected aversive stimuli. Urokinase-type plasminogen activator deficiency was not associated with enhanced seizure susceptibility or worsened poststatus epilepticus epilepsy phenotype.

  6. Molecular differences in the microsatellite stable phenotype between left-sided and right-sided colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yayoi; Sugai, Tamotsu; Habano, Wataru; Ishida, Kazuyuki; Eizuka, Makoto; Otsuka, Koki; Sasaki, Akira; Takayuki Matsumoto; Morikawa, Takanori; Unno, Michiaki; Suzuki, Hiromu

    2016-12-01

    Differences in the pathogenesis of microsatellite stable (MSS) sporadic colorectal cancers (CRCs) between left-sided CRC (LC) and right-sided CRC (RC) have not been clarified. To identify pathogenesis-related genomic differences between MSS CRCs within the two locations, we performed a comprehensive molecular analysis using crypt isolation with samples from 92 sporadic CRCs. Microsatellite instability (MSI; high and low/negative) and DNA methylation status (low methylation epigenome; intermediate methylation epigenome [IME] or high methylation epigenome [HME]) were determined using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) microsatellite analysis and PCR-bisulfite pyrosequencing, respectively. Additionally, mutations in the TP53, KRAS, BRAF and PIK3CA genes were examined using PCR-bisulfite pyrosequencing (for KRAS and BRAF mutations) or PCR-single conformation polymorphism (for TP53 and PIK3CA mutations), followed by sequencing of aberrant bands. Finally, a genome-wide study using a copy number alteration (CNA)-targeted single nucleotide polymorphism array was performed. Ninety-two CRCs were classified into 71 MSS and 21 MSI phenotypes. We examined 71 CRCs with the MSS phenotype (LC, 56; RC, 15). Mutations in KRAS were associated with RC with the MSS phenotype, whereas mutations in TP53 were more frequently found in LC with the MSS phenotype. There were significant differences in the frequencies of KRAS and TP53 mutations in the IME between LC and RC with the MSS phenotype. Although CNA gains were associated with LC with the MSS phenotype, CNA losses were not major alterations associated with the MSS phenotype. These findings suggested that the molecular pathogenesis of the MSS phenotype in LC was different from that in RC. PMID:27509333

  7. XPD Helicase Structures and Activities: Insights into the Cancer and Aging Phenotypes from XPD Mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Tainer, John; Fan, Li; Fuss, Jill O.; Cheng, Quen J.; Arvai, Andrew S.; Hammel, Michal; Roberts, Victoria A.; Cooper, Priscilla K.; Tainer, John A.

    2008-06-02

    Mutations in XPD helicase, required for nucleotide excision repair (NER) as part of the transcription/repair complex TFIIH, cause three distinct phenotypes: cancer-prone xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), or aging disorders Cockayne syndrome (CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). To clarify molecular differences underlying these diseases, we determined crystal structures of the XPD catalytic core from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and measured mutant enzyme activities. Substrate-binding grooves separate adjacent Rad51/RecA-like helicase domains (HD1, HD2) and an arch formed by 4FeS and Arch domains. XP mutations map along the HD1 ATP-binding edge and HD2 DNA-binding channel and impair helicase activity essential for NER. XP/CS mutations both impair helicase activity and likely affect HD2 functional movement. TTD mutants lose or retain helicase activity but map to sites in all four domains expected to cause framework defects impacting TFIIH integrity. These results provide a foundation for understanding disease consequences of mutations in XPD and related 4Fe-4S helicases including FancJ.

  8. XPD Helicase Structures And Activities: Insights Into the Cancer And Aging Phenotypes From XPD Mutations

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, L.; Fuss, J.O.; Cheng, Q.J.; Arvai, A.S.; Hammel, M.; Roberts, V.A.; Cooper, P.K.; Tainer, J.A.

    2009-05-18

    Mutations in XPD helicase, required for nucleotide excision repair (NER) as part of the transcription/repair complex TFIIH, cause three distinct phenotypes: cancer-prone xeroderma pigmentosum (XP), or aging disorders Cockayne syndrome (CS), and trichothiodystrophy (TTD). To clarify molecular differences underlying these diseases, we determined crystal structures of the XPD catalytic core from Sulfolobus acidocaldarius and measured mutant enzyme activities. Substrate-binding grooves separate adjacent Rad51/RecA-like helicase domains (HD1, HD2) and an arch formed by 4FeS and Arch domains. XP mutations map along the HD1 ATP-binding edge and HD2 DNA-binding channel and impair helicase activity essential for NER. XP/CS mutations both impair helicase activity and likely affect HD2 functional movement. TTD mutants lose or retain helicase activity but map to sites in all four domains expected to cause framework defects impacting TFIIH integrity. These results provide a foundation for understanding disease consequences of mutations in XPD and related 4Fe-4S helicases including FancJ.

  9. Quantitative molecular phenotyping with topically applied SERS nanoparticles for intraoperative guidance of breast cancer lumpectomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu; Kang, Soyoung; Khan, Altaz; Ruttner, Gabriel; Leigh, Steven Y.; Murray, Melissa; Abeytunge, Sanjee; Peterson, Gary; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Dintzis, Suzanne; Javid, Sara; Liu, Jonathan T.C.

    2016-01-01

    There is a need to image excised tissues during tumor-resection procedures in order to identify residual tumors at the margins and to guide their complete removal. The imaging of dysregulated cell-surface receptors is a potential means of identifying the presence of diseases with high sensitivity and specificity. However, due to heterogeneities in the expression of protein biomarkers in tumors, molecular-imaging technologies should ideally be capable of visualizing a multiplexed panel of cancer biomarkers. Here, we demonstrate that the topical application and quantification of a multiplexed cocktail of receptor-targeted surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles (NPs) enables rapid quantitative molecular phenotyping (QMP) of the surface of freshly excised tissues to determine the presence of disease. In order to mitigate the ambiguity due to nonspecific sources of contrast such as off-target binding or uneven delivery, a ratiometric method is employed to quantify the specific vs. nonspecific binding of the multiplexed NPs. Validation experiments with human tumor cell lines, fresh human tumor xenografts in mice, and fresh human breast specimens demonstrate that QMP imaging of excised tissues agrees with flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, and that this technique may be achieved in less than 15 minutes for potential intraoperative use in guiding breast-conserving surgeries. PMID:26878888

  10. Phenotype-genotype correlation in multiple primary lung cancer patients in China

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Yang; Yin, Wei; He, Wenxin; Jiang, Chao; Zhou, Xiao; Song, Xiao; Zhu, Junjie; Fei, Ke; Cao, Weijun; Jiang, Gening

    2016-01-01

    Due to recent advances in high-resolution detection technology, multiple primary lung cancer (MPLC) is becoming an increasingly common diagnosis. However, the genotype-phenotype correlations in MPLC patients have not yet been assessed. In this study, we analyzed the clinical and pathological data for 129 consecutive MPLC patients who received curative surgery at the Tongji University Shanghai Pulmonary Hospital, China. We have screened 129 patients in the present study and found mutations in EGFR, BRAF, ROS1 and KRAS genes, as well as the rearrangement of the EML4-ALK gene in 113 patients. The mean patient age was 59.9 (25–78) years old and 41 patients were males (31.8%). Among the total patients, 123 (95.4%) had two primary lesions, 5 (3.9%) had three primary lesions, and 1 (0.8%) had four primary lesions. In 38.8% of the patients, all lesions were located on only one side of the body. Most of the detected mutations (98 patients) were in the EGFR gene. The patients exhibited significant differences in the EGFR mutation, age at diagnosis, and foci location. PMID:27796337

  11. Quantitative molecular phenotyping with topically applied SERS nanoparticles for intraoperative guidance of breast cancer lumpectomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Kang, Soyoung; Khan, Altaz; Ruttner, Gabriel; Leigh, Steven Y.; Murray, Melissa; Abeytunge, Sanjee; Peterson, Gary; Rajadhyaksha, Milind; Dintzis, Suzanne; Javid, Sara; Liu, Jonathan T. C.

    2016-02-01

    There is a need to image excised tissues during tumor-resection procedures in order to identify residual tumors at the margins and to guide their complete removal. The imaging of dysregulated cell-surface receptors is a potential means of identifying the presence of diseases with high sensitivity and specificity. However, due to heterogeneities in the expression of protein biomarkers in tumors, molecular-imaging technologies should ideally be capable of visualizing a multiplexed panel of cancer biomarkers. Here, we demonstrate that the topical application and quantification of a multiplexed cocktail of receptor-targeted surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) nanoparticles (NPs) enables rapid quantitative molecular phenotyping (QMP) of the surface of freshly excised tissues to determine the presence of disease. In order to mitigate the ambiguity due to nonspecific sources of contrast such as off-target binding or uneven delivery, a ratiometric method is employed to quantify the specific vs. nonspecific binding of the multiplexed NPs. Validation experiments with human tumor cell lines, fresh human tumor xenografts in mice, and fresh human breast specimens demonstrate that QMP imaging of excised tissues agrees with flow cytometry and immunohistochemistry, and that this technique may be achieved in less than 15 minutes for potential intraoperative use in guiding breast-conserving surgeries.

  12. CXCR4-targeted lipid-coated PLGA nanoparticles deliver sorafenib and overcome acquired drug resistance in liver cancer.

    PubMed

    Gao, Dong-Yu; Lin, Ts-Ting; Sung, Yun-Chieh; Liu, Ya Chi; Chiang, Wen-Hsuan; Chang, Chih-Chun; Liu, Jia-Yu; Chen, Yunching

    2015-10-01

    Sorafenib, a multikinase inhibitor, has been used as an anti-angiogenic agent against highly vascular hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) - yet associated with only moderate therapeutic effect and the high incidence of HCC recurrence. We have shown intratumoral hypoxia induced by sorafenib activated C-X-C receptor type 4 (CXCR4)/stromal-derived factor 1α (SDF1α) axis, resulting in polarization toward a tumor-promoting microenvironment and resistance to anti-angiogenic therapy in HCC. Herein, we formulated sorafenib in CXCR4-targeted lipid-coated poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) modified with a CXCR4 antagonist, AMD3100 to systemically deliver sorafenib into HCC and sensitize HCC to sorafenib treatment. We demonstrated that CXCR4-targeted NPs efficiently delivered sorafenib into HCCs and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) to achieve cytotoxicity and anti-angiogenic effect in vitro and in vivo. Despite the increased expression of SDF1α upon the persistent hypoxia induced by sorafenib-loaded CXCR4-targeted NPs, AMD3100 attached to the NPs can block CXCR4/SDF1α, leading to the reduced infiltration of tumor-associated macrophages, enhanced anti-angiogenic effect, a delay in tumor progression and increased overall survival in the orthotopic HCC model compared with other control groups. In conclusion, our results highlight the clinical potential of CXCR4-targeted NPs for delivering sorafenib and overcoming acquired drug resistance in liver cancer.

  13. Haptoglobin phenotype is not a predictor of recurrence free survival in high-risk primary breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Gast, Marie-Christine W; van Tinteren, Harm; Bontenbal, Marijke; van Hoesel, René QGCM; Nooij, Marianne A; Rodenhuis, Sjoerd; Span, Paul N; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne CG; de Vries, Elisabeth GE; Harris, Nathan; Twisk, Jos WR; Schellens, Jan HM; Beijnen, Jos H

    2008-01-01

    Background Better breast cancer prognostication may improve selection of patients for adjuvant therapy. We conducted a retrospective follow-up study in which we investigated sera of high-risk primary breast cancer patients, to search for proteins predictive of recurrence free survival. Methods Two sample sets of high-risk primary breast cancer patients participating in a randomised national trial investigating the effectiveness of high-dose chemotherapy were analysed. Sera in set I (n = 63) were analysed by surface enhanced laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (SELDI-TOF MS) for biomarker finding. Initial results were validated by analysis of sample set II (n = 371), using one-dimensional gel-electrophoresis. Results In sample set I, the expression of a peak at mass-to-charge ratio 9198 (relative intensity ≤ 20 or > 20), identified as haptoglobin (Hp) alpha-1 chain, was strongly associated with recurrence free survival (global Log-rank test; p = 0.0014). Haptoglobin is present in three distinct phenotypes (Hp 1-1, Hp 2-1, and Hp 2-2), of which only individuals with phenotype Hp 1-1 or Hp 2-1 express the haptoglobin alpha-1 chain. As the expression of the haptoglobin alpha-1 chain, determined by SELDI-TOF MS, corresponds to the phenotype, initial results were validated by haptoglobin phenotyping of the independent sample set II by native one-dimensional gel-electrophoresis. With the Hp 1-1 phenotype as the reference category, the univariate hazard ratio for recurrence was 0.87 (95% CI: 0.56 – 1.34, p = 0.5221) and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.65 – 1.64, p = 0.8966) for the Hp 2-1 and Hp 2-2 phenotypes, respectively, in sample set II. Conclusion In contrast to our initial results, the haptoglobin phenotype was not identified as a predictor of recurrence free survival in high-risk primary breast cancer in our validation set. Our initial observation in the discovery set was probably the result of a type I error (i.e. false positive). This study

  14. Phenotypic malignant changes and untargeted lipidomic analysis of long-term exposed prostate cancer cells to endocrine disruptors

    SciTech Connect

    Bedia, Carmen Dalmau, Núria Jaumot, Joaquim Tauler, Romà

    2015-07-15

    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are a class of environmental toxic molecules able to interfere with the normal hormone metabolism. Numerous studies involve EDs exposure to initiation and development of cancers, including prostate cancer. In this work, three different EDs (aldrin, aroclor 1254 and chlorpyrifos (CPF)) were investigated as potential inducers of a malignant phenotype in DU145 prostate cancer cells after a chronic exposure. Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) induction, proliferation, migration, colony formation and release of metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) were analyzed in 50-day exposed cells to the selected EDs. As a result, aldrin and CPF exposure led to an EMT induction (loss of 16% and 14% of E-cadherin levels, respectively, compared to the unexposed cells). Aroclor and CPF presented an increased migration (134% and 126%, respectively), colony formation (204% and 144%, respectively) and MMP-2 release (137% in both cases) compared to the unexposed cells. An untargeted lipidomic analysis was performed to decipher the lipids involved in the observed transformations. As general results, aldrin exposure showed a global decrease in phospholipids and sphingolipids, and aroclor and CPF showed an increase of certain phospholipids, glycosphingolipids as well as a remarkable increase of some cardiolipin species. Furthermore, the three exposures resulted in an increase of some triglyceride species. In conclusion, some significant changes in lipids were identified and thus we postulate that some lipid compounds and lipid metabolic pathways could be involved in the acquisition of the malignant phenotype in exposed prostate cancer cells to the selected EDs. - Highlights: • Aldrin, aroclor and chlorpyrifos induced an aggressive phenotype in DU145 cells. • An untargeted lipidomic analysis has been performed on chronic exposed cells. • Lipidomic results showed changes in specific lipid species under chronic exposure. • These lipids may have a role in the

  15. DNA Hypomethylation-Mediated Overexpression of Carbonic Anhydrase 9 Induces an Aggressive Phenotype in Ovarian Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Hye Youn

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Both genetic and epigenetic alterations can lead to abnormal expression of metastasis-regulating genes in tumor cells. Recent studies suggest that aberrant epigenetic alterations, followed by differential gene expression, leads to an aggressive cancer cell phenotype. We examined epigenetically regulated genes that are involved in ovarian cancer metastasis. Materials and Methods We developed SK-OV-3 human ovarian carcinoma cell xenografts in mice. We compared the mRNA expression and DNA methylation profiles of metastatic tissues to those of the original SK-OV-3 cell line. Results Metastatic implants showed increased mRNA expression of the carbonic anhydrase 9 (CA9) gene and hypomethylation at CpG sites in the CA9 promoter. Treatment of wild-type SK-OV-3 cells with the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine reduced methylation of the CA9 promoter and increased CA9 mRNA expression. Eight CpGs, which were located at positions -197, -74, -19, -6, +4, +13, +40, and +86, relative to the transcription start site, were hypomethylated in metastatic tumor implants, compared to that of wild-type SK-OV-3. Overexpression of CA9 induced an aggressive phenotype, including increased invasiveness and migration, in SK-OV-3 cells. Conclusion Alterations in the DNA methylation profile of the CA9 promoter were correlated with a more aggressive phenotype in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:25323905

  16. siRNA Knockdown of Ribosomal Protein Gene RPL19 Abrogates the Aggressive Phenotype of Human Prostate Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bee, Alix; Brewer, Daniel; Beesley, Carol; Dodson, Andrew; Forootan, Shiva; Dickinson, Timothy; Gerard, Patricia; Lane, Brian; Yao, Sheng; Cooper, Colin S.; Djamgoz, Mustafa B. A.; Gosden, Christine M.; Ke, Youqiang; Foster, Christopher S.

    2011-01-01

    We provide novel functional data that posttranscriptional silencing of gene RPL19 using RNAi not only abrogates the malignant phenotype of PC-3M prostate cancer cells but is selective with respect to transcription and translation of other genes. Reducing RPL19 transcription modulates a subset of genes, evidenced by gene expression array analysis and Western blotting, but does not compromise cell proliferation or apoptosis in-vitro. However, growth of xenografted tumors containing the knocked-down RPL19 in-vivo is significantly reduced. Analysis of the modulated genes reveals induction of the non-malignant phenotype principally to involve perturbation of networks of transcription factors and cellular adhesion genes. The data provide evidence that extra-ribosomal regulatory functions of RPL19, beyond protein synthesis, are critical regulators of cellular phenotype. Targeting key members of affected networks identified by gene expression analysis raises the possibility of therapeutically stabilizing a benign phenotype generated by modulating the expression of an individual gene and thereafter constraining a malignant phenotype while leaving non-malignant tissues unaffected. PMID:21799931

  17. Are bilateral breast cancers and breast cancers coexisting with ovarian cancer different from solitary tumors? A pair-matched immunohistochemical analysis aimed at intrinsic tumor phenotype.

    PubMed

    Senkus, Elżbieta; Szade, Jolanta; Pieczyńska, Beata; Zaczek, Anna; Świerblewski, Maciej; Biernat, Wojciech; Jassem, Jacek

    2014-10-01

    Patients with bilateral breast cancer (BBC) and breast-ovarian cancer syndrome (BOCS) constitute populations potentially enriched for molecular defects involved in the pathomechanisms of these malignancies. The aim of our study was to compare tumor morphology and expression of estrogen and progesterone receptor, HER2, Ki67, cytokeratin 5/6, E-cadherin, vimentin and epidermal growth factor receptor in tissue microarrays from 199 tumors from BBC or BOCS patients and 199 age-matched solitary tumors. Compared to controls, BBC and BOCS considered jointly had lower incidence of DCIS, lower expression of PgR and HER2, and higher expression of Ki67 and vimentin. BOCS tumors were of higher grade, had lower expression of ER and PgR and higher expression of Ki67, CK5/6, vimentin and EGFR. BBC had less DCIS component, lower HER2 expression and higher Ki67 expression. Metachronous BBC (mBBC) had lower expression of ER, PgR and HER2, and higher expression of Ki67 and vimentin. Synchronous BBC (sBBC) had less DCIS component, higher expression of ER, and lower expression of CK5/6, EGFR and E-cadherin. BBC and breast cancers in BOCS differ in many aspects from solitary tumors. BBC are a heterogeneous group of tumors, differing between sBBC and mBBC. mBBC phenotype shares many features with BOCS tumors. PMID:25296577

  18. 3-D DNA methylation phenotypes correlate with cytotoxicity levels in prostate and liver cancer cell models

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The spatial organization of the genome is being evaluated as a novel indicator of toxicity in conjunction with drug-induced global DNA hypomethylation and concurrent chromatin reorganization. 3D quantitative DNA methylation imaging (3D-qDMI) was applied as a cell-by-cell high-throughput approach to investigate this matter by assessing genome topology through represented immunofluorescent nuclear distribution patterns of 5-methylcytosine (MeC) and global DNA (4,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole = DAPI) in labeled nuclei. Methods Differential progression of global DNA hypomethylation was studied by comparatively dosing zebularine (ZEB) and 5-azacytidine (AZA). Treated and untreated (control) human prostate and liver cancer cells were subjected to confocal scanning microscopy and dedicated 3D image analysis for the following features: differential nuclear MeC/DAPI load and codistribution patterns, cell similarity based on these patterns, and corresponding differences in the topology of low-intensity MeC (LIM) and low in intensity DAPI (LID) sites. Results Both agents generated a high fraction of similar MeC phenotypes across applied concentrations. ZEB exerted similar effects at 10–100-fold higher drug concentrations than its AZA analogue: concentration-dependent progression of global cytosine demethylation, validated by measuring differential MeC levels in repeat sequences using MethyLight, and the concurrent increase in nuclear LIM densities correlated with cellular growth reduction and cytotoxicity. Conclusions 3D-qDMI demonstrated the capability of quantitating dose-dependent drug-induced spatial progression of DNA demethylation in cell nuclei, independent from interphase cell-cycle stages and in conjunction with cytotoxicity. The results support the notion of DNA methylation topology being considered as a potential indicator of causal impacts on chromatin distribution with a conceivable application in epigenetic drug toxicology. PMID:23394161

  19. Loss of EBP50 stimulates EGFR activity to induce EMT phenotypic features in biliary cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Clapéron, A; Guedj, N; Mergey, M; Vignjevic, D; Desbois-Mouthon, C; Boissan, M; Saubaméa, B; Paradis, V; Housset, C; Fouassier, L

    2012-03-15

    Scaffold proteins form multiprotein complexes that are central to the regulation of intracellular signaling. The scaffold protein ezrin-radixin-moesin-binding phosphoprotein 50 (EBP50) is highly expressed at the plasma membrane of normal biliary epithelial cells and binds epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), a tyrosine kinase receptor with oncogenic properties. This study investigated EBP50-EGFR interplay in biliary cancer. We report that in a collection of 106 cholangiocarcinomas, EBP50 was delocalized to the cytoplasm of tumor cells in 66% of the cases. Ectopic expression of EBP50 was correlated with the presence of satellite nodules and with the expression of EGFR, which was at the plasma membrane, implying a loss of interaction with EBP50 in these cases. In vitro, loss of interaction between EBP50 and EGFR was mimicked by EBP50 depletion using a small interfering RNA approach in human biliary carcinoma cells co-expressing the two proteins at their plasma membrane, and in which interaction between EBP50 and EGFR was validated. EBP50 depletion caused an increase in EGFR expression at their surface, and a sustained activation of the receptor and of its downstream effectors (extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, signal transducer and activator of transcription 3) in both basal and EGF-stimulated conditions. Cells lacking EBP50 showed epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition-associated features, including reduction in E-cadherin and cytokeratin-19 expression, induction of S100A4 and of the E-cadherin transcriptional repressor, Slug, and loss of cell polarity. Accordingly, depletion of EBP50 induced the disruption of adherens junctional complexes, the development of lamellipodia structures and the subsequent acquisition of motility properties. All these phenotypic changes were prevented upon inhibition of EGFR tyrosine kinase by gefitinib. These findings indicate that loss of EBP50 at the plasma membrane in tumor cells may contribute to biliary carcinogenesis

  20. Mitochondrial DNA content in breast cancer: Impact on in vitro and in vivo phenotype and patient prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Weerts, Marjolein J.A.; Sieuwerts, Anieta M.; Smid, Marcel; Look, Maxime P.; Foekens, John A.; Sleijfer, Stefan; Martens, John W.M.

    2016-01-01

    Reduced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content in breast cancer cell lines has been associated with transition towards a mesenchymal phenotype, but its clinical consequences concerning breast cancer dissemination remain unidentified. Here, we aimed to clarify the link between mtDNA content and a mesenchymal phenotype and its relation to prognosis of breast cancer patients. We analyzed mtDNA content in 42 breast cancer cell lines and 207 primary breast tumor specimens using a combination of quantitative PCR and array-based copy number analysis. By associating mtDNA content with expression levels of genes involved in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and with the intrinsic breast cancer subtypes, we could not identify a relation between low mtDNA content and mesenchymal properties in the breast cancer cell lines or in the primary breast tumors. In addition, we explored the relation between mtDNA content and prognosis in our cohort of primary breast tumor specimens that originated from patients with lymph node-negative disease who did not receive any (neo)adjuvant systemic therapy. When patients were divided based on the tumor quartile levels of mtDNA content, those in the lowest quarter (≤ 350 mtDNA molecules per cell) showed a poorer 10-year distant metastasis-free survival than patients with > 350 mtDNA molecules per cell (HR 0.50 [95% CI 0.29–0.87], P = 0.015). The poor prognosis was independent of established clinicopathological markers (HR 0.54 [95% CI 0.30–0.97], P = 0.038). We conclude that, despite a lack of evidence between mtDNA content and EMT, low mtDNA content might provide meaningful prognostic value for distant metastasis in breast cancer. PMID:27081694

  1. Blockade of EGFR and MEK intercepts heterogeneous mechanisms of acquired resistance to anti-EGFR therapies in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Misale, Sandra; Arena, Sabrina; Lamba, Simona; Siravegna, Giulia; Lallo, Alice; Hobor, Sebastijan; Russo, Mariangela; Buscarino, Michela; Lazzari, Luca; Sartore-Bianchi, Andrea; Bencardino, Katia; Amatu, Alessio; Lauricella, Calogero; Valtorta, Emanuele; Siena, Salvatore; Di Nicolantonio, Federica; Bardelli, Alberto

    2014-02-19

    Colorectal cancers (CRCs) that are sensitive to the anti-epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) antibodies cetuximab or panitumumab almost always develop resistance within several months of initiating therapy. We report the emergence of polyclonal KRAS, NRAS, and BRAF mutations in CRC cells with acquired resistance to EGFR blockade. Regardless of the genetic alterations, resistant cells consistently displayed mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) and extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) activation, which persisted after EGFR blockade. Inhibition of MEK1/2 alone failed to impair the growth of resistant cells in vitro and in vivo. An RNA interference screen demonstrated that suppression of EGFR, together with silencing of MEK1/2, was required to hamper the proliferation of resistant cells. Indeed, concomitant pharmacological blockade of MEK and EGFR induced prolonged ERK inhibition and severely impaired the growth of resistant tumor cells. Heterogeneous and concomitant mutations in KRAS and NRAS were also detected in plasma samples from patients who developed resistance to anti-EGFR antibodies. A mouse xenotransplant from a CRC patient who responded and subsequently relapsed upon EGFR therapy showed exquisite sensitivity to combinatorial treatment with MEK and EGFR inhibitors. Collectively, these results identify genetically distinct mechanisms that mediate secondary resistance to anti-EGFR therapies, all of which reactivate ERK signaling. These observations provide a rational strategy to overcome the multifaceted clonal heterogeneity that emerges when tumors are treated with targeted agents. We propose that MEK inhibitors, in combination with cetuximab or panitumumab, should be tested in CRC patients who become refractory to anti-EGFR therapies.

  2. Correlation of the osteoblastic phenotype with prostate-specific antigen expression in metastatic prostate cancer: implications for paracrine growth.

    PubMed

    Doherty, A; Smith, G; Banks, L; Christmas, T; Epstein, R J

    1999-07-01

    The characteristic sclerotic appearance of bone metastases from prostate cancer is unexplained but could involve excess peritumoural activity of osteoblast mitogens such as the insulin-like growth factors (IGFs). Since prostatic metastases are distinguished by androgen-dependent secretion of prostate-specific antigen (PSA), a serine protease which cleaves extracellular IGF-binding proteins and thereby enhances the bioavailability of IGFs, the relationship was examined between tumour PSA expression and the osteoblastic phenotype. To this end, a cohort of 27 prostate cancer patients was evaluated to determine the relationship between serum PSA and radiographic bone lesion density at first presentation with metastatic disease. No linear correlation between absolute PSA levels and metastatic osteosclerosis was apparent. However, non-parametric statistical analysis revealed a highly significant link between low-PSA (<20 ng/ml) metastatic prostate cancer and osteolytic bone lesions (p<0.0001, chi(2)=21.5). This finding raises the possibility that the osteoblastic phenotype of prostate cancer derives in part from PSA-dependent proteolysis of IGF-binding proteins within bone matrix.

  3. AMPK Reverses the Mesenchymal Phenotype of Cancer Cells by Targeting the Akt-MDM2-Foxo3a Signaling Axis

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chih-Chien; Lee, Kuen-Haur; Lai, I-Lu; Wang, Dasheng; Mo, Xiaokui; Kulp, Samuel K.; Shapiro, Charles L.; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2014-01-01

    In cancer cells, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) confers the ability to invade basement membranes and metastasize to distant sites, establishing it as an appealing target for therapeutic intervention. Here, we report a novel function of the master metabolic kinase AMPK in suppressing EMT by modulating the Akt-MDM2-Foxo3 signaling axis. This mechanistic link was supported by the effects of siRNA-mediated knockdown and pharmacological activation of AMPK on epithelial and mesenchymal markers in established breast and prostate cancer cells. Exposure of cells to OSU-53, a novel allosteric AMPK activator, as well as metformin and AICAR, was sufficient to reverse their mesenchymal phenotype. These effects were abrogated by AMPK silencing. Phenotypic changes were mediated by Foxo3a activation, insofar as silencing or overexpressing Foxo3a mimicked the effects of AMPK silencing or OSU-53 treatment on EMT, respectively. Mechanistically, Foxo3a activation led to the transactivation of the E-cadherin gene and repression of genes encoding EMT-inducing transcription factors. OSU-53 activated Foxo3a through two Akt-dependent pathways, one at the level of nuclear localization by blocking Akt- and IKKβ-mediated phosphorylation, and a second at the level of protein stabilization via cytoplasmic sequestration of MDM2, an E3 ligase responsible for Foxo3a degradation. The suppressive effects of OSU-53 on EMT had therapeutic implications illustrated by its ability to block invasive phenotypes in vitro and metastatic properties in vivo. Overall, our work illuminates a mechanism of EMT regulation in cancer cells mediated by AMPK, along with preclinical evidence supporting a tractable therapeutic strategy to reverse mesenchymal phenotypes associated with invasion and metastasis. PMID:24994714

  4. AMPK reverses the mesenchymal phenotype of cancer cells by targeting the Akt-MDM2-Foxo3a signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chih-Chien; Lee, Kuen-Haur; Lai, I-Lu; Wang, Dasheng; Mo, Xiaokui; Kulp, Samuel K; Shapiro, Charles L; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2014-09-01

    In cancer cells, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) confers the ability to invade basement membranes and metastasize to distant sites, establishing it as an appealing target for therapeutic intervention. Here, we report a novel function of the master metabolic kinase AMPK in suppressing EMT by modulating the Akt-MDM2-Foxo3 signaling axis. This mechanistic link was supported by the effects of siRNA-mediated knockdown and pharmacologic activation of AMPK on epithelial and mesenchymal markers in established breast and prostate cancer cells. Exposure of cells to OSU-53, a novel allosteric AMPK activator, as well as metformin and AICAR, was sufficient to reverse their mesenchymal phenotype. These effects were abrogated by AMPK silencing. Phenotypic changes were mediated by Foxo3a activation, insofar as silencing or overexpressing Foxo3a mimicked the effects of AMPK silencing or OSU-53 treatment on EMT, respectively. Mechanistically, Foxo3a activation led to the transactivation of the E-cadherin gene and repression of genes encoding EMT-inducing transcription factors. OSU-53 activated Foxo3a through two Akt-dependent pathways, one at the level of nuclear localization by blocking Akt- and IKKβ-mediated phosphorylation, and a second at the level of protein stabilization via cytoplasmic sequestration of MDM2, an E3 ligase responsible for Foxo3a degradation. The suppressive effects of OSU-53 on EMT had therapeutic implications illustrated by its ability to block invasive phenotypes in vitro and metastatic properties in vivo. Overall, our work illuminates a mechanism of EMT regulation in cancer cells mediated by AMPK, along with preclinical evidence supporting a tractable therapeutic strategy to reverse mesenchymal phenotypes associated with invasion and metastasis.

  5. AMPK reverses the mesenchymal phenotype of cancer cells by targeting the Akt-MDM2-Foxo3a signaling axis.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chih-Chien; Lee, Kuen-Haur; Lai, I-Lu; Wang, Dasheng; Mo, Xiaokui; Kulp, Samuel K; Shapiro, Charles L; Chen, Ching-Shih

    2014-09-01

    In cancer cells, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) confers the ability to invade basement membranes and metastasize to distant sites, establishing it as an appealing target for therapeutic intervention. Here, we report a novel function of the master metabolic kinase AMPK in suppressing EMT by modulating the Akt-MDM2-Foxo3 signaling axis. This mechanistic link was supported by the effects of siRNA-mediated knockdown and pharmacologic activation of AMPK on epithelial and mesenchymal markers in established breast and prostate cancer cells. Exposure of cells to OSU-53, a novel allosteric AMPK activator, as well as metformin and AICAR, was sufficient to reverse their mesenchymal phenotype. These effects were abrogated by AMPK silencing. Phenotypic changes were mediated by Foxo3a activation, insofar as silencing or overexpressing Foxo3a mimicked the effects of AMPK silencing or OSU-53 treatment on EMT, respectively. Mechanistically, Foxo3a activation led to the transactivation of the E-cadherin gene and repression of genes encoding EMT-inducing transcription factors. OSU-53 activated Foxo3a through two Akt-dependent pathways, one at the level of nuclear localization by blocking Akt- and IKKβ-mediated phosphorylation, and a second at the level of protein stabilization via cytoplasmic sequestration of MDM2, an E3 ligase responsible for Foxo3a degradation. The suppressive effects of OSU-53 on EMT had therapeutic implications illustrated by its ability to block invasive phenotypes in vitro and metastatic properties in vivo. Overall, our work illuminates a mechanism of EMT regulation in cancer cells mediated by AMPK, along with preclinical evidence supporting a tractable therapeutic strategy to reverse mesenchymal phenotypes associated with invasion and metastasis. PMID:24994714

  6. Overcoming acquired drug resistance in colorectal cancer cells by targeted delivery of 5-FU with EGF grafted hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lijue; She, Xiaodong; Wang, Tao; He, Li; Shigdar, Sarah; Duan, Wei; Kong, Lingxue

    2015-08-01

    Acquired drug resistance (ADR) can be developed in colorectal cancer cells after 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment and diminish the effectiveness of chemotherapy. In this work, acquired 5-FU resistance in the colorectal cancer cell line SW480 was obtained with the up-regulation of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) gene expression which can convert 5-FU to its inactive metabolite. To overcome ADR in colorectal cancer, hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) grafted with epidermal growth factor (EGF) were used as nanocarriers to deliver 5-FU to colorectal cancer cells with acquired drug resistance. The effect and mechanism of 5-FU loaded EGF grafted HMSNs (EGF-HMSNs-5-FU) in overcoming acquired drug resistance in SW480/ADR cells were studied. The EGF-HMSNs were demonstrated to be specifically internalized in EGFR overexpressed SW480/ADR cells via a receptor-mediated endocytosis and can escape from endo-lysosomes. The EGF-HMSNs-5-FU exhibited much higher cytotoxicity on SW480/ADR cells than HMSNs-5-FU and free 5-FU while the plain HMSNs did not show significant cytotoxicity. The mechanism of EGF-HMSNs-5-FU in overcoming drug resistance in SW480/ADR cells could be attributed to the specific internalization of EGF-HMSNs-5-FU in EGFR overexpressed cells which can lead to high intracellular drug accumulation and cause cell death through S phase arrest.Acquired drug resistance (ADR) can be developed in colorectal cancer cells after 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment and diminish the effectiveness of chemotherapy. In this work, acquired 5-FU resistance in the colorectal cancer cell line SW480 was obtained with the up-regulation of dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPYD) gene expression which can convert 5-FU to its inactive metabolite. To overcome ADR in colorectal cancer, hollow mesoporous silica nanoparticles (HMSNs) grafted with epidermal growth factor (EGF) were used as nanocarriers to deliver 5-FU to colorectal cancer cells with acquired drug resistance. The

  7. Atypical Cell Populations Associated with Acquired Resistance to Cytostatics and Cancer Stem Cell Features: The Role of Mitochondria in Nuclear Encapsulation

    PubMed Central

    Gustmann, Sebastian; Jastrow, Holger; Acikelli, Ali Haydar; Dammann, Philip; Klein, Jacqueline; Dembinski, Ulrike; Bardenheuer, Walter; Malak, Sascha; Araúzo-Bravo, Marcos J.; Schultheis, Beate; Aldinger, Constanze; Strumberg, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Until recently, acquired resistance to cytostatics had mostly been attributed to biochemical mechanisms such as decreased intake and/or increased efflux of therapeutics, enhanced DNA repair, and altered activity or deregulation of target proteins. Although these mechanisms have been widely investigated, little is known about membrane barriers responsible for the chemical imperviousness of cell compartments and cellular segregation in cytostatic-treated tumors. In highly heterogeneous cross-resistant and radiorefractory cell populations selected by exposure to anticancer agents, we found a number of atypical recurrent cell types in (1) tumor cell cultures of different embryonic origins, (2) mouse xenografts, and (3) paraffin sections from patient tumors. Alongside morphologic peculiarities, these populations presented cancer stem cell markers, aberrant signaling pathways, and a set of deregulated miRNAs known to confer both stem-cell phenotypes and highly aggressive tumor behavior. The first type, named spiral cells, is marked by a spiral arrangement of nuclei. The second type, monastery cells, is characterized by prominent walls inside which daughter cells can be seen maturing amid a rich mitochondrial environment. The third type, called pregnant cells, is a giant cell with a syncytium-like morphology, a main nucleus, and many endoreplicative functional progeny cells. A rare fourth cell type identified in leukemia was christened shepherd cells, as it was always associated with clusters of smaller cells. Furthermore, a portion of resistant tumor cells displayed nuclear encapsulation via mitochondrial aggregation in the nuclear perimeter in response to cytostatic insults, probably conferring imperviousness to drugs and long periods of dormancy until nuclear eclosion takes place. This phenomenon was correlated with an increase in both intracellular and intercellular mitochondrial traffic as well as with the uptake of free extracellular mitochondria. All these cellular

  8. Reciprocal regulation between O-GlcNAcylation and tribbles pseudokinase 2 (TRIB2) maintains transformative phenotypes in liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bingjie; Xu, Yanli; Wang, Jiayi; Qiao, Yongxia; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Yan; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Yinghui; Zhu, Guoqing; Sun, Fenyong; Li, Zhi; Yuan, Hong

    2016-11-01

    TRIB2 has been identified as an onco-protein, and O-GlcNAcylation of target proteins has been reported to stimulate transformative phenotypes in liver cancer cells. However, the relationships between TRIB2 and O-GlcNAcylation are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how O-GlcNAcylation and TRIB2 regulate each other. We found that stimulation of O-GlcNAcylation elevates TRIB2 by enhancing its protein stability. TRIB2 can be O-GlcNAcylated by the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP). Also, O-GlcNAcylation boosting of transformative phenotypes of liver cancer cells might occur in a TRIB2-dependent manner. Interestingly, TRIB2 stimulated the metabolism of HBP, demonstrating that TRIB2 has positive feedback on O-GlcNAcylation. Notably, TRIB2 was found to maintain the stability of guanylate cyclase 1 alpha 3 (GUCY1A3), a key component of HBP, by interacting GUCY1A3 and reducing its ubiquitination. Importantly, TRIB2-dependent regulation of metabolism, transformative phenotypes, and O-GlcNAcylation all rely on GUCY1A3. Mouse experiments demonstrate that O-GlcNAcylation of TRIB2 is much higher in the livers of diabetic mice compared to control mice, suggesting that O-GlcNAcylation of TRIB2 might be critical for diabetes-associated liver cancer. Collectively, we have uncovered a positive auto-regulatory feedback between O-GlcNAcylation and TRIB2, which might be regarded as a promising therapeutic target for liver cancer. PMID:27515988

  9. Reciprocal regulation between O-GlcNAcylation and tribbles pseudokinase 2 (TRIB2) maintains transformative phenotypes in liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yao, Bingjie; Xu, Yanli; Wang, Jiayi; Qiao, Yongxia; Zhang, Yue; Zhang, Xiao; Chen, Yan; Wu, Qi; Zhao, Yinghui; Zhu, Guoqing; Sun, Fenyong; Li, Zhi; Yuan, Hong

    2016-11-01

    TRIB2 has been identified as an onco-protein, and O-GlcNAcylation of target proteins has been reported to stimulate transformative phenotypes in liver cancer cells. However, the relationships between TRIB2 and O-GlcNAcylation are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how O-GlcNAcylation and TRIB2 regulate each other. We found that stimulation of O-GlcNAcylation elevates TRIB2 by enhancing its protein stability. TRIB2 can be O-GlcNAcylated by the hexosamine biosynthesis pathway (HBP). Also, O-GlcNAcylation boosting of transformative phenotypes of liver cancer cells might occur in a TRIB2-dependent manner. Interestingly, TRIB2 stimulated the metabolism of HBP, demonstrating that TRIB2 has positive feedback on O-GlcNAcylation. Notably, TRIB2 was found to maintain the stability of guanylate cyclase 1 alpha 3 (GUCY1A3), a key component of HBP, by interacting GUCY1A3 and reducing its ubiquitination. Importantly, TRIB2-dependent regulation of metabolism, transformative phenotypes, and O-GlcNAcylation all rely on GUCY1A3. Mouse experiments demonstrate that O-GlcNAcylation of TRIB2 is much higher in the livers of diabetic mice compared to control mice, suggesting that O-GlcNAcylation of TRIB2 might be critical for diabetes-associated liver cancer. Collectively, we have uncovered a positive auto-regulatory feedback between O-GlcNAcylation and TRIB2, which might be regarded as a promising therapeutic target for liver cancer.

  10. Neutralizing murine TGFβR2 promotes a differentiated tumor cell phenotype and inhibits pancreatic cancer metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ostapoff, Katherine T; Cenik, Bercin Kutluk; Wang, Miao; Ye, Risheng; Xu, Xiaohong; Nugent, Desiree; Hagopian, Moriah M; Topalovski, Mary; Rivera, Lee B; Carroll, Kyla D; Brekken, Rolf A

    2014-09-15

    Elevated levels of TGFβ are a negative prognostic indicator for patients diagnosed with pancreatic cancer; as a result, the TGFβ pathway is an attractive target for therapy. However, clinical application of pharmacologic inhibition of TGFβ remains challenging because TGFβ has tumor suppressor functions in many epithelial malignancies, including pancreatic cancer. In fact, direct neutralization of TGFβ promotes tumor progression of genetic murine models of pancreatic cancer. Here, we report that neutralizing the activity of murine TGFβ receptor 2 using a monoclonal antibody (2G8) has potent antimetastatic activity in orthotopic human tumor xenografts, syngeneic tumors, and a genetic model of pancreatic cancer. 2G8 reduced activated fibroblasts, collagen deposition, microvessel density, and vascular function. These stromal-specific changes resulted in tumor cell epithelial differentiation and a potent reduction in metastases. We conclude that TGFβ signaling within stromal cells participates directly in tumor cell phenotype and pancreatic cancer progression. Thus, strategies that inhibit TGFβ-dependent effector functions of stromal cells could be efficacious for the therapy of pancreatic tumors. Cancer Res; 74(18); 4996-5007. ©2014 AACR. PMID:25060520

  11. The lncRNA PVT1 Contributes to the Cervical Cancer Phenotype and Associates with Poor Patient Prognosis.

    PubMed

    Iden, Marissa; Fye, Samantha; Li, Keguo; Chowdhury, Tamjid; Ramchandran, Ramani; Rader, Janet S

    2016-01-01

    The plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 gene (PVT1) is an lncRNA that has been designated as an oncogene due to its contribution to the phenotype of multiple cancers. Although the mechanism by which PVT1 influences disease processes has been studied in multiple cancer types, its role in cervical tumorigenesis remains unknown. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the role of PVT1 in cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. PVT1 expression was measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in 121 invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) samples, 30 normal cervix samples, and cervical cell lines. Functional assays were carried out using both siRNA and LNA-mediated knockdown to examine PVT1's effects on cervical cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion, apoptosis, and cisplatin resistance. Our results demonstrate that PVT1 expression is significantly increased in ICC tissue versus normal cervix and that higher expression of PVT1 correlates with poorer overall survival. In cervical cancer cell lines, PVT1 knockdown resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and invasion, while apoptosis and cisplatin cytotoxicity were significantly increased in these cells. Finally, we show that PVT1 expression is augmented in response to hypoxia and immune response stimulation and that this lncRNA associates with the multifunctional and stress-responsive protein, Nucleolin. Collectively, our results provide strong evidence for an oncogenic role of PVT1 in cervical cancer and lend insight into potential mechanisms by which PVT1 overexpression helps drive cervical carcinogenesis. PMID:27232880

  12. A discordance of the cytochrome P450 2C19 genotype and phenotype in patients with advanced cancer

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Marion L; Bhargava, Pankaj; Cherrouk, Ilham; Marshall, John L; Flockhart, David A; Wainer, Irving W

    2000-01-01

    Aims To examine the relationship between cytochrome P450 2C19 (CYP2C19) genotype and expressed metabolic activity in 16 patients with advanced metastatic cancer. Methods Individual CYP2C19 genotypes were determined by PCR-based amplification, followed by restriction fragment length analysis, and compared with observed CYP2C19 metabolic activity, as determined using the log hydroxylation index of omeprazole. Results All 16 patients had an extensive metabolizer genotype. However, based on the antimode in a distribution of log omeprazole hydroxylation indices from healthy volunteers, four of the patients had a poor metabolizer phenotype and there was a general shift of the remaining 12 patients towards a slower metabolic phenotype. This suggests a reduction in metabolic activity for all patients relative to healthy volunteers. A careful analysis of patient medical records failed to reveal any drug interactions or other source for the observed discordance between genotype and phenotype. Conclusions There are no previous reports of a ‘discordance’ between genotype and expressed enzyme activity in cancer patients. Such a decrease in enzyme activity could have an impact on the efficacy and toxicity of chemotherapeutic agents and other drugs, used in standard oncology practice. PMID:10792207

  13. FGFR1 promotes the stem cell-like phenotype of FGFR1-amplified non-small cell lung cancer cells through the Hedgehog pathway

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Wenxiang; Yu, Yongfeng; Li, Ziming; Wang, Guan; Li, Fan; Xia, Weiliang; Lu, Shun

    2016-01-01

    Cancer stem cell-like phenotype is critical for tumor formation and treatment resistance. FGFR1 is found to be amplified in non-small cell lung cancer, particularly in the lung squamous cell cancer (LSCC). Whether FGFR1 contributes to the maintenance of stem cell-like phenotype of FGFR1-amplified lung cancer cells remains elusive. In this study, treatment with FGFR1 inhibitor AZD4547 suppressed the growth of tumor spheres and reduced ALDH positive proportion in FGFR1-amplified lung cancer cells in vitro, as well as inhibited the growth of oncospheres and parental cells in xenograft models. Knockdown of FGFR1 recaptured the similar effect as AZD4547 in vitro. Furthermore, activation of FGFR1 and subsequently its downstream ERK signaling enhanced the expression and transcriptional activity of GLI2, which could be blocked by FGFR1 inhibitor/silencing or ERK inhibitor. Knockdown of GLI2 directly inhibited the stem-like phenotype of FGFR1-amilified cells, whereas overexpression of GLI2 sufficiently rescued the phenotype caused by FGFR1 knockdown. Notably we also identified a correlation between FGFR1 and GLI2 expressions from clinical data, as well as an inverse relationship with progression free survival (PFS). Together our study suggests that the FGFR1/GLI2 axis promotes the lung cancer stem cell-like phenotype. These results support a rational strategy of combination of FGFR1 and GLI inhibitors for treatment of FGFR1-amplified lung cancers, especially LSCC. PMID:26936993

  14. Stool-fermented Plantago ovata husk induces apoptosis in colorectal cancer cells independently of molecular phenotype.

    PubMed

    Sohn, Vanessa R; Giros, Anna; Xicola, Rosa M; Fluvià, Lourdes; Grzybowski, Mike; Anguera, Anna; Llor, Xavier

    2012-06-01

    Several studies have suggested that the partially fermentable fibre Plantago ovata husk (PO) may have a protective effect on colorectal cancer (CRC). We studied the potentially pro-apoptotic effect of PO and the implicated mechanisms in CRC cells with different molecular phenotypes (Caco-2, HCT116, LoVo, HT-29, SW480) after PO anaerobic fermentation with colonic bacteria as it occurs in the human colon. The fermentation products of PO induced apoptosis in all primary tumour and metastatic cell lines, independent of p53, adenomatous polyposis coli, β-catenin or cyclo-oxygenase-2 status. Apoptosis was caspase-dependent and both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways were implicated. The intrinsic pathway was activated through a shift in the balance towards a pro-apoptotic environment with an up-regulation of B-cell lymphoma protein 2 homologous antagonist killer (BAK) and a down-regulation of B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) seen in HCT116 and LoVo cells. This resulted in mitochondrial membrane depolarisation, increased expression of caspase activators second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac)/Diablo, death effector apoptosis-inducing factor, apoptosome member apoptotic protease activating factor 1 and down-regulation of inhibitors of apoptosis Survivin and X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis in most cells. The extrinsic pathway was activated presumably through the up-regulation of death receptor (DR5). Some important differences were seen between primary tumour and metastatic CRC cells. Thus, metastatic PO-treated LoVo cells had a remarkable up-regulation of TNF-α ligand along with death-inducing signalling complex components receptor interacting protein and TNF-α receptor 1-associated death domain protein. The extrinsic pathway modulator FCICE-inhibitory protein (FLIP), an inhibitor of both spontaneous death ligand-independent and death receptor-mediated apoptosis, was significantly down-regulated after PO treatment in all primary tumour cells, but not

  15. A Nested Case–Control Study of Metabolically Defined Body Size Phenotypes and Risk of Colorectal Cancer in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC)

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Neil; Cross, Amanda J.; Abubakar, Mustapha; Jenab, Mazda; Aleksandrova, Krasimira; Boutron-Ruault, Marie-Christine; Dossus, Laure; Racine, Antoine; Kühn, Tilman; Katzke, Verena A.; Tjønneland, Anne; Petersen, Kristina E. N.; Overvad, Kim; Quirós, J. Ramón; Jakszyn, Paula; Molina-Montes, Esther; Dorronsoro, Miren; Huerta, José-María; Barricarte, Aurelio; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Wareham, Nick; Travis, Ruth C.; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Lagiou, Pagona; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Masala, Giovanna; Krogh, Vittorio; Tumino, Rosario; Vineis, Paolo; Panico, Salvatore; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Siersema, Peter D.; Peeters, Petra H.; Ohlsson, Bodil; Ericson, Ulrika; Palmqvist, Richard; Nyström, Hanna; Weiderpass, Elisabete; Skeie, Guri; Freisling, Heinz; Kong, So Yeon; Tsilidis, Kostas; Muller, David C.; Riboli, Elio; Gunter, Marc J

    2016-01-01

    Background Obesity is positively associated with colorectal cancer. Recently, body size subtypes categorised by the prevalence of hyperinsulinaemia have been defined, and metabolically healthy overweight/obese individuals (without hyperinsulinaemia) have been suggested to be at lower risk of cardiovascular disease than their metabolically unhealthy (hyperinsulinaemic) overweight/obese counterparts. Whether similarly variable relationships exist for metabolically defined body size phenotypes and colorectal cancer risk is unknown. Methods and Findings The association of metabolically defined body size phenotypes with colorectal cancer was investigated in a case–control study nested within the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition (EPIC) study. Metabolic health/body size phenotypes were defined according to hyperinsulinaemia status using serum concentrations of C-peptide, a marker of insulin secretion. A total of 737 incident colorectal cancer cases and 737 matched controls were divided into tertiles based on the distribution of C-peptide concentration amongst the control population, and participants were classified as metabolically healthy if below the first tertile of C-peptide and metabolically unhealthy if above the first tertile. These metabolic health definitions were then combined with body mass index (BMI) measurements to create four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories: (1) metabolically healthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), (2) metabolically healthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2), (3) metabolically unhealthy/normal weight (BMI < 25 kg/m2), and (4) metabolically unhealthy/overweight (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2). Additionally, in separate models, waist circumference measurements (using the International Diabetes Federation cut-points [≥80 cm for women and ≥94 cm for men]) were used (instead of BMI) to create the four metabolic health/body size phenotype categories. Statistical tests used in the analysis were all two-sided, and a

  16. Opposite regulation of MDM2 and MDMX expression in acquisition of mesenchymal phenotype in benign and cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Slabáková, Eva; Kharaishvili, Gvantsa; Smějová, Monika; Pernicová, Zuzana; Suchánková, Tereza; Remšík, Ján; Lerch, Stanislav; Straková, Nicol; Bouchal, Jan; Král, Milan; Culig, Zoran; Kozubík, Alois; Souček, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Plasticity of cancer cells, manifested by transitions between epithelial and mesenchymal phenotypes, represents a challenging issue in the treatment of neoplasias. Both epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) are implicated in the processes of metastasis formation and acquisition of stem cell-like properties. Mouse double minute (MDM) 2 and MDMX are important players in cancer progression, as they act as regulators of p53, but their function in EMT and metastasis may be contradictory. Here, we show that the EMT phenotype in multiple cellular models and in clinical prostate and breast cancer samples is associated with a decrease in MDM2 and increase in MDMX expression. Modulation of EMT-accompanying changes in MDM2 expression in benign and transformed prostate epithelial cells influences their migration capacity and sensitivity to docetaxel. Analysis of putative mechanisms of MDM2 expression control demonstrates that in the context of defective p53 function, MDM2 expression is regulated by EMT-inducing transcription factors Slug and Twist. These results provide an alternative context-specific role of MDM2 in EMT, cell migration, metastasis, and therapy resistance. PMID:26416355

  17. Acquired pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 in acute myeloid leukemia.

    PubMed

    Udayakumar, A M; Pathare, A V; Dennison, D; Raeburn, J A

    2009-01-01

    Pericentric inversion of chromosome 9 involving the qh region is relatively common as a constitutional genetic aberration without any apparent phenotypic consequences. However, it has not been established as an acquired abnormality in cancer. Among the three patients reported so far in the literature with acquired inv(9), only one had acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Here we describe an unique case where both chromosomes 9 presented with an acquired pericentric inversion with breakpoints at 9p13 and 9q12 respectively, in a AML patient with aberrant CD7 and CD9 positivity. Additionally, one der(9) also showed short arm deletion at 9p21 to the centromeric region and including the p16 gene. The constitutional karyotype was normal. This is probably the first report describing an acquired inv(9) involving both chromosomes 9 in AML. The possible significance of this inversion is discussed.

  18. B7H1 Expression and Epithelial-To-Mesenchymal Transition Phenotypes on Colorectal Cancer Stem-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhi, Yidan; Mou, Zhirong; Chen, Jun; He, Yujun; Dong, Hui; Fu, Xiaolan; Wu, Yuzhang

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) can invade and metastasize by epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, how they escape immune surveillance is unclear. B7H1 is crucial negative co-stimulatory molecule but little information about whether it works in CSCs. Therefore, we determined the expression of B7H1 and EMT-associated markers in colorectal cancer stem-like cells to investigate a possible immunoevasion way of CSCs. We enriched CD133+ colorectal cancer cells which manifested the CSCs-like properties such as higher levels of other stem cell markers Oct-4 and Sox-2, tumor sphere forming ability and more tumorigenic in NOD/SCID mice. These CD133+ cells possess EMT gene expression profile including higher level of Snail, Twist, vimentin, fibronectin and lower level of E-cadherin. Moreover, CD133+ cells in both cell line and colorectal cancer tissues expressed high level of negative co-stimulate molecule B7H1. Furthermore, some B7H1+ cancer cells also showed the characteristic of EMT, indicating EMT cells could escape immune attack during metastasis. B7H1 expression and EMT phenotypes on CSCs indicates a possible immunoevasion way. PMID:26284927

  19. Curcumin-treated cancer cells show mitotic disturbances leading to growth arrest and induction of senescence phenotype.

    PubMed

    Mosieniak, Grażyna; Sliwinska, Małgorzata A; Przybylska, Dorota; Grabowska, Wioleta; Sunderland, Piotr; Bielak-Zmijewska, Anna; Sikora, Ewa

    2016-05-01

    Cellular senescence is recognized as a potent anticancer mechanism that inhibits carcinogenesis. Cancer cells can also undergo senescence upon chemo- or radiotherapy. Curcumin, a natural polyphenol derived from the rhizome of Curcuma longa, shows anticancer properties both in vitro and in vivo. Previously, we have shown that treatment with curcumin leads to senescence of human cancer cells. Now we identified the molecular mechanism underlying this phenomenon. We observed a time-dependent accumulation of mitotic cells upon curcumin treatment. The time-lapse analysis proved that those cells progressed through mitosis for a significantly longer period of time. A fraction of cells managed to divide or undergo mitotic slippage and then enter the next phase of the cell cycle. Cells arrested in mitosis had an improperly formed mitotic spindle and were positive for γH2AX, which shows that they acquired DNA damage during prolonged mitosis. Moreover, the DNA damage response pathway was activated upon curcumin treatment and the components of this pathway remained upregulated while cells were undergoing senescence. Inhibition of the DNA damage response decreased the number of senescent cells. Thus, our studies revealed that the induction of cell senescence upon curcumin treatment resulted from aberrant progression through the cell cycle. Moreover, the DNA damage acquired by cancer cells, due to mitotic disturbances, activates an important molecular mechanism that determines the potential anticancer activity of curcumin. PMID:26916504

  20. Chronic inorganic arsenic exposure in vitro induces a cancer cell phenotype in human peripheral lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Person, Rachel J; Ngalame, Ntube N Olive; Makia, Ngome L; Bell, Matthew W; Waalkes, Michael P; Tokar, Erik J

    2015-07-01

    Inorganic arsenic is a human lung carcinogen. We studied the ability of chronic inorganic arsenic (2 μM; as sodium arsenite) exposure to induce a cancer phenotype in the immortalized, non-tumorigenic human lung peripheral epithelial cell line, HPL-1D. After 38 weeks of continuous arsenic exposure, secreted matrix metalloproteinase-2 (MMP2) activity increased to over 200% of control, levels linked to arsenic-induced cancer phenotypes in other cell lines. The invasive capacity of these chronic arsenic-treated lung epithelial (CATLE) cells increased to 320% of control and colony formation increased to 280% of control. CATLE cells showed enhanced proliferation in serum-free media indicative of autonomous growth. Compared to control cells, CATLE cells showed reduced protein expression of the tumor suppressor gene PTEN (decreased to 26% of control) and the putative tumor suppressor gene SLC38A3 (14% of control). Morphological evidence of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) occurred in CATLE cells together with appropriate changes in expression of the EMT markers vimentin (VIM; increased to 300% of control) and e-cadherin (CDH1; decreased to 16% of control). EMT is common in carcinogenic transformation of epithelial cells. CATLE cells showed increased KRAS (291%), ERK1/2 (274%), phosphorylated ERK (p-ERK; 152%), and phosphorylated AKT1 (p-AKT1; 170%) protein expression. Increased transcript expression of metallothioneins, MT1A and MT2A and the stress response genes HMOX1 (690%) and HIF1A (247%) occurred in CATLE cells possibly in adaptation to chronic arsenic exposure. Thus, arsenic induced multiple cancer cell characteristics in human peripheral lung epithelial cells. This model may be useful to assess mechanisms of arsenic-induced lung cancer.

  1. Modifying metabolically sensitive histone marks by inhibiting glutamine metabolism affects gene expression and alters cancer cell phenotype.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Natalie E; Tryndyak, Volodymyr P; Pogribna, Marta; Beland, Frederick A; Pogribny, Igor P

    2012-12-01

    The interplay of metabolism and epigenetic regulatory mechanisms has become a focal point for a better understanding of cancer development and progression. In this study, we have acquired data supporting previous observations that demonstrate glutamine metabolism affects histone modifications in human breast cancer cell lines. Treatment of non-invasive epithelial (T-47D and MDA-MB-361) and invasive mesenchymal (MDA-MB-231 and Hs-578T) breast cancer cell lines with the glutaminase inhibitor, Compound 968, resulted in cytotoxicity in all cell lines, with the greatest effect being observed in MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. Compound 968-treatment induced significant downregulation of 20 critical cancer-related genes, the majority of which are anti-apoptotic and/or promote metastasis, including AKT, BCL2, BCL2L1, CCND1, CDKN3, ERBB2, ETS1, E2F1, JUN, KITLG, MYB, and MYC. Histone H3K4me3, a mark of transcriptional activation, was reduced at the promoters of all but one of these critical cancer genes. The decrease in histone H3K4me3 at global and gene-specific levels correlated with reduced expression of SETD1 and ASH2L, genes encoding the histone H3K4 methyltransferase complex. Further, the expression of other epigenetic regulatory genes, known to be downregulated during apoptosis (e.g., DNMT1, DNMT3B, SETD1 and SIRT1), was also downregulated by Compound 968. These changes in gene expression and histone modifications were accompanied by the activation of apoptosis, and decreased invasiveness and resistance of MDA-MB-231 cells to chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin. The results of this study provide evidence to a link between cytotoxicity caused by inhibiting glutamine metabolism with alterations of the epigenome of breast cancer cells and suggest that modification of intracellular metabolism may enhance the efficiency of epigenetic therapy. PMID:23117580

  2. Nano-mechanical Phenotype as a Promising Biomarker to Evaluate Cancer Development, Progression, and Anti-cancer Drug Efficacy.

    PubMed

    Park, Soyeun

    2016-06-01

    Since various bio-mechanical assays have been introduced for studying mechanical properties of biological samples, much progress has been made in cancer biology. It has been noted that enhanced mechanical deformability can be used as a marker for cancer diagnosis. The relation between mechanical compliances and the metastatic potential of cancer cells has been suggested to be a promising prognostic marker. Although it is yet to be conclusive about its clinical application due to the complexity in the tissue integrity, the nano-mechanical compliance of human cell samples has been evaluated by several groups as a promising marker in diagnosing cancer development and anticipating its progression. In this review, we address the mechanical properties of diverse cancer cells obtained by atomic force microscopy-based indentation experiments and reiterate prognostic relations between the nano-mechanical compliance and cancer progression. We also review the nano-mechanical responses of cancer cells to the anti-cancer drug treatment in order to interrogate a possible use of nano-mechanical compliance as a means to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-cancer drugs.

  3. Nano-mechanical Phenotype as a Promising Biomarker to Evaluate Cancer Development, Progression, and Anti-cancer Drug Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Park, Soyeun

    2016-01-01

    Since various bio-mechanical assays have been introduced for studying mechanical properties of biological samples, much progress has been made in cancer biology. It has been noted that enhanced mechanical deformability can be used as a marker for cancer diagnosis. The relation between mechanical compliances and the metastatic potential of cancer cells has been suggested to be a promising prognostic marker. Although it is yet to be conclusive about its clinical application due to the complexity in the tissue integrity, the nano-mechanical compliance of human cell samples has been evaluated by several groups as a promising marker in diagnosing cancer development and anticipating its progression. In this review, we address the mechanical properties of diverse cancer cells obtained by atomic force microscopy-based indentation experiments and reiterate prognostic relations between the nano-mechanical compliance and cancer progression. We also review the nano-mechanical responses of cancer cells to the anti-cancer drug treatment in order to interrogate a possible use of nano-mechanical compliance as a means to evaluate the effectiveness of anti-cancer drugs. PMID:27390735

  4. Acquired EGFR C797S mutation mediates resistance to AZD9291 in non-small cell lung cancer harboring EGFR T790M.

    PubMed

    Thress, Kenneth S; Paweletz, Cloud P; Felip, Enriqueta; Cho, Byoung Chul; Stetson, Daniel; Dougherty, Brian; Lai, Zhongwu; Markovets, Aleksandra; Vivancos, Ana; Kuang, Yanan; Ercan, Dalia; Matthews, Sarah E; Cantarini, Mireille; Barrett, J Carl; Jänne, Pasi A; Oxnard, Geoffrey R

    2015-06-01

    Here we studied cell-free plasma DNA (cfDNA) collected from subjects with advanced lung cancer whose tumors had developed resistance to the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) AZD9291. We first performed next-generation sequencing of cfDNA from seven subjects and detected an acquired EGFR C797S mutation in one; expression of this mutant EGFR construct in a cell line rendered it resistant to AZD9291. We then performed droplet digital PCR on serial cfDNA specimens collected from 15 AZD9291-treated subjects. All were positive for the T790M mutation before treatment, but upon developing AZD9291 resistance three molecular subtypes emerged: six cases acquired the C797S mutation, five cases maintained the T790M mutation but did not acquire the C797S mutation and four cases lost the T790M mutation despite the presence of the underlying EGFR activating mutation. Our findings provide insight into the diversity of mechanisms through which tumors acquire resistance to AZD9291 and highlight the need for therapies that are able to overcome resistance mediated by the EGFR C797S mutation.

  5. The metabolically-modulated stem cell niche: a dynamic scenario regulating cancer cell phenotype and resistance to therapy

    PubMed Central

    Rovida, Elisabetta; Peppicelli, Silvia; Bono, Silvia; Bianchini, Francesca; Tusa, Ignazia; Cheloni, Giulia; Marzi, Ilaria; Cipolleschi, Maria Grazia; Calorini, Lido; Sbarba, Persio Dello

    2014-01-01

    This Perspective addresses the interactions of cancer stem cells (CSC) with environment which result in the modulation of CSC metabolism, and thereby of CSC phenotype and resistance to therapy. We considered first as a model disease chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), which is triggered by a well-identified oncogenetic protein (BCR/Abl) and brilliantly treated with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKi). However, TKi are extremely effective in inducing remission of disease, but unable, in most cases, to prevent relapse. We demonstrated that the interference with cell metabolism (oxygen/glucose shortage) enriches cells exhibiting the leukemia stem cell (LSC) phenotype and, at the same time, suppresses BCR/Abl protein expression. These LSC are therefore refractory to the TKi Imatinib-mesylate, pointing to cell metabolism as an important factor controlling the onset of TKi-resistant minimal residual disease (MRD) of CML and the related relapse. Studies of solid neoplasias brought another player into the control of MRD, low tissue pH, which often parallels cancer growth and progression. Thus, a 3-party scenario emerged for the regulation of CSC/LSC maintenance, MRD induction and disease relapse: the “hypoxic” versus the “ischemic” vs. the “acidic” environment. As these environments are unlikely constrained within rigid borders, we named this model the “metabolically-modulated stem cell niche.” PMID:25485495

  6. Whole-genome sequencing analysis of phenotypic heterogeneity and anticipation in Li–Fraumeni cancer predisposition syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ariffin, Hany; Hainaut, Pierre; Puzio-Kuter, Anna; Choong, Soo Sin; Chan, Adelyne Sue Li; Tolkunov, Denis; Rajagopal, Gunaretnam; Kang, Wenfeng; Lim, Leon Li Wen; Krishnan, Shekhar; Chen, Kok-Siong; Achatz, Maria Isabel; Karsa, Mawar; Shamsani, Jannah; Levine, Arnold J.; Chan, Chang S.

    2014-01-01

    The Li–Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) and its variant form (LFL) is a familial predisposition to multiple forms of childhood, adolescent, and adult cancers associated with germ-line mutation in the TP53 tumor suppressor gene. Individual disparities in tumor patterns are compounded by acceleration of cancer onset with successive generations. It has been suggested that this apparent anticipation pattern may result from germ-line genomic instability in TP53 mutation carriers, causing increased DNA copy-number variations (CNVs) with successive generations. To address the genetic basis of phenotypic disparities of LFS/LFL, we performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 13 subjects from two generations of an LFS kindred. Neither de novo CNV nor significant difference in total CNV was detected in relation with successive generations or with age at cancer onset. These observations were consistent with an experimental mouse model system showing that trp53 deficiency in the germ line of father or mother did not increase CNV occurrence in the offspring. On the other hand, individual records on 1,771 TP53 mutation carriers from 294 pedigrees were compiled to assess genetic anticipation patterns (International Agency for Research on Cancer TP53 database). No strictly defined anticipation pattern was observed. Rather, in multigeneration families, cancer onset was delayed in older compared with recent generations. These observations support an alternative model for apparent anticipation in which rare variants from noncarrier parents may attenuate constitutive resistance to tumorigenesis in the offspring of TP53 mutation carriers with late cancer onset. PMID:25313051

  7. An endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis inversely correlates with side population phenotype and function in human lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Han, H; Bourboulia, D; Jensen-Taubman, S; Isaac, B; Wei, B; Stetler-Stevenson, W G

    2014-02-27

    The side population (SP) in human lung cancer cell lines and tumors is enriched with cancer stem cells. An endogenous inhibitor of angiogenesis known as tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (TIMP-2), characterized for its ability to inhibit matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), has been shown by several laboratories to impede tumor progression through MMP-dependent or -independent mechanisms. We recently reported that forced expression of TIMP-2, as well as the modified form Ala+TIMP-2 (that lacks MMP inhibitory activity) significantly blocks growth of A549 human lung cancer cells in vivo. However, the mechanisms underlying TIMP-2 antitumor effects are not fully characterized. Here, we examine the hypothesis that the TIMP-2 antitumor activity may involve regulation of the SP in human lung cancer cells. Indeed, using Hoechst dye efflux assay and flow cytometry, as well as quantitative reverse transcriptase-PCR analysis, we found that endogenous TIMP-2 mRNA levels showed a significant inverse correlation with SP fraction size in six non-small cell lung cancer cell lines. In A549 cells expressing increased levels of TIMP-2, a significant decrease in SP was observed, and this decrease was associated with lowered gene expression of ABCG2, ABCB1 and AKR1C1. Functional analysis of A549 cells showed that TIMP-2 overexpression increased chemosensitivity to cytotoxic drugs. The SP isolated from TIMP-2-overexpressing A549 cells also demonstrated impaired migratory capacity compared with the SP from empty vector control. More importantly, our data provide strong evidence that these TIMP-2 functions occur independent of MMP inhibition, as A549 cells overexpressing Ala+TIMP-2 exhibited identical behavior to those overexpressing TIMP-2 alone. Our findings provide the first indication that TIMP-2 modulates SP phenotype and function, and suggests that TIMP-2 may act as an endogenous suppressor of the SP in human lung cancer cells.

  8. The lncRNA PVT1 Contributes to the Cervical Cancer Phenotype and Associates with Poor Patient Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Iden, Marissa; Fye, Samantha; Li, Keguo; Chowdhury, Tamjid; Ramchandran, Ramani; Rader, Janet S.

    2016-01-01

    The plasmacytoma variant translocation 1 gene (PVT1) is an lncRNA that has been designated as an oncogene due to its contribution to the phenotype of multiple cancers. Although the mechanism by which PVT1 influences disease processes has been studied in multiple cancer types, its role in cervical tumorigenesis remains unknown. Thus, the present study was designed to investigate the role of PVT1 in cervical cancer in vitro and in vivo. PVT1 expression was measured by quantitative PCR (qPCR) in 121 invasive cervical carcinoma (ICC) samples, 30 normal cervix samples, and cervical cell lines. Functional assays were carried out using both siRNA and LNA-mediated knockdown to examine PVT1’s effects on cervical cancer cell proliferation, migration and invasion, apoptosis, and cisplatin resistance. Our results demonstrate that PVT1 expression is significantly increased in ICC tissue versus normal cervix and that higher expression of PVT1 correlates with poorer overall survival. In cervical cancer cell lines, PVT1 knockdown resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation, migration and invasion, while apoptosis and cisplatin cytotoxicity were significantly increased in these cells. Finally, we show that PVT1 expression is augmented in response to hypoxia and immune response stimulation and that this lncRNA associates with the multifunctional and stress-responsive protein, Nucleolin. Collectively, our results provide strong evidence for an oncogenic role of PVT1 in cervical cancer and lend insight into potential mechanisms by which PVT1 overexpression helps drive cervical carcinogenesis. PMID:27232880

  9. Whole-genome sequencing analysis of phenotypic heterogeneity and anticipation in Li-Fraumeni cancer predisposition syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ariffin, Hany; Hainaut, Pierre; Puzio-Kuter, Anna; Choong, Soo Sin; Chan, Adelyne Sue Li; Tolkunov, Denis; Rajagopal, Gunaretnam; Kang, Wenfeng; Lim, Leon Li Wen; Krishnan, Shekhar; Chen, Kok-Siong; Achatz, Maria Isabel; Karsa, Mawar; Shamsani, Jannah; Levine, Arnold J; Chan, Chang S

    2014-10-28

    The Li-Fraumeni syndrome (LFS) and its variant form (LFL) is a familial predisposition to multiple forms of childhood, adolescent, and adult cancers associated with germ-line mutation in the TP53 tumor suppressor gene. Individual disparities in tumor patterns are compounded by acceleration of cancer onset with successive generations. It has been suggested that this apparent anticipation pattern may result from germ-line genomic instability in TP53 mutation carriers, causing increased DNA copy-number variations (CNVs) with successive generations. To address the genetic basis of phenotypic disparities of LFS/LFL, we performed whole-genome sequencing (WGS) of 13 subjects from two generations of an LFS kindred. Neither de novo CNV nor significant difference in total CNV was detected in relation with successive generations or with age at cancer onset. These observations were consistent with an experimental mouse model system showing that trp53 deficiency in the germ line of father or mother did not increase CNV occurrence in the offspring. On the other hand, individual records on 1,771 TP53 mutation carriers from 294 pedigrees were compiled to assess genetic anticipation patterns (International Agency for Research on Cancer TP53 database). No strictly defined anticipation pattern was observed. Rather, in multigeneration families, cancer onset was delayed in older compared with recent generations. These observations support an alternative model for apparent anticipation in which rare variants from noncarrier parents may attenuate constitutive resistance to tumorigenesis in the offspring of TP53 mutation carriers with late cancer onset. PMID:25313051

  10. Malignant cancer and invasive placentation: A case for positive pleiotropy between endometrial and malignancy phenotypes.

    PubMed

    D'Souza, Alaric W; Wagner, Günter P

    2014-01-01

    Cancer metastasis is an invasive process that involves the transplantation of cells into new environments. Since human placentation is also invasive, hypotheses about a relationship between invasive placentation in eutherian mammals and metastasis have been proposed. The relationship between metastatic cancer and invasive placentation is usually presented in terms of antagonistic pleiotropy. According to this hypothesis, evolution of invasive placentation also established the mechanisms for cancer metastasis. Here, in contrast, we argue that the secondary evolution of less invasive placentation in some mammalian lineages may have resulted in positive pleiotropic effects on cancer survival by lowering malignancy rates. These positive pleiotropic effects would manifest themselves as resistance to cancer cell invasion. To provide a preliminary test of this proposal, we re-analyze data from Priester and Mantel (Occurrence of tumors in domestic animals. Data from 12 United States and Canadian colleges of veterinary medicine. J Natl Cancer Inst 1971; 47: :1333-44) about malignancy rates in cows, horses, cats and dogs. From our analysis we found that equines and bovines, animals with less invasive placentation, have lower rates of metastatic cancer than felines and canines in skin and glandular epithelial cancers as well as connective tissue sarcomas. We conclude that a link between type of placentation and species-specific malignancy rates is more likely related to derived mechanisms that suppress invasion rather than different degrees of fetal placental aggressiveness. PMID:25324490

  11. Differences among college women for breast cancer prevention acquired information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and daughter-initiated information to mothers.

    PubMed

    Kratzke, Cynthia; Amatya, Anup; Vilchis, Hugo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine among college women acquired breast cancer prevention information-seeking, desired apps and texts, and information given to mothers. Using a cross-sectional study, a survey was administered to college women at a southwestern university. College women (n = 546) used the Internet (44 %) for active breast cancer prevention information-seeking and used the Internet (74 %), magazines (69 %), and television (59 %) for passive information receipt. Over half of the participants desired breast cancer prevention apps (54 %) and texts (51 %). Logistic regression analyses revealed predictors for interest to receive apps were ethnicity (Hispanic), lower self-efficacy, actively seeking online information, and older age and predictors for interest to receive texts were lower self-efficacy and higher university level. Eighteen percent of college women (n = 99) reported giving information to mothers and reported in an open-ended item the types of information given to mothers. Predictors for giving information to mothers were actively and passively seeking online information, breast self-exam practice, and higher university level. Screenings were the most frequent types of information given to mothers. Breast cancer prevention information using apps, texts, or Internet and daughter-initiated information for mothers should be considered in health promotion targeting college students or young women in communities. Future research is needed to examine the quality of apps, texts, and online information and cultural differences for breast cancer prevention sources.

  12. Overexpression of Specific CD44 Isoforms Is Associated with Aggressive Cell Features in Acquired Endocrine Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Bellerby, Rebecca; Smith, Chris; Kyme, Sue; Gee, Julia; Günthert, Ursula; Green, Andy; Rakha, Emad; Barrett-Lee, Peter; Hiscox, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    While endocrine therapy is the mainstay of ER+ breast cancer, the clinical effectiveness of these agents is limited by the phenomenon of acquired resistance that is associated with disease relapse and poor prognosis. Our previous studies revealed that acquired resistance is accompanied by a gain in cellular invasion and migration and also that CD44 family proteins are overexpressed in the resistant phenotype. Given the association of CD44 with tumor progression, we hypothesized that its overexpression may act to promote the aggressive behavior of endocrine-resistant breast cancers. Here, we have investigated further the role of two specific CD44 isoforms, CD44v3 and CD44v6, in the endocrine-resistant phenotype. Our data revealed that overexpression of CD44v6, but not CD44v3, in endocrine-sensitive MCF-7 cells resulted in a gain in EGFR signaling, enhanced their endogenous invasive capacity, and attenuated their response to endocrine treatment. Suppression of CD44v6 in endocrine-resistant cell models was associated with a reduction in their invasive capacity. Our data suggest that upregulation of CD44v6 in acquired resistant breast cancer may contribute to a gain in the aggressive phenotype of these cells and loss of endocrine response through transactivation of the EGFR pathway. Future therapeutic targeting of CD44v6 may prove to be an effective strategy alongside EGFR-targeted agents in delaying/preventing acquired resistance in breast cancer. PMID:27379207

  13. Joint Effect of Genotypic and Phenotypic Features of Reproductive Factors on Endometrial Cancer Risk

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhanwei; Risch, Harvey; Lu, Lingeng; Irwin, Melinda L.; Mayne, Susan; Schwartz, Peter; Rutherford, Thomas; De Vivo, Immaculata; Yu, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Prolonged estrogen exposure is believed to be the major cause of endometrial cancer. As possible markers of estrogen exposure, various menstrual and reproductive features, e.g., ages at menarche and menopause, are found to be associated with endometrial cancer risk. In order to assess their combined effects on endometrial cancer, we created the total number of menstrual cycles (TNMC) that a woman experienced during her life or up to the time of study and two genetic risk scores, GRS1 for age at menarche and GRS2 for age at menopause. Comparing 482 endometrial cancer patients with 571 population controls, we found TNMC was associated with endometrial cancer risk and that the association remained statistically significant after adjustment for obesity and other potential confounders. Risk increased by about 2.5% for every additional 10 menstrual-cycles. The study also showed that high GRS1 was associated with increased risk. This relationship, however, was attenuated after adjustment for obesity. Our study further indicated women with high TNMC and GRS1 had twice the risk of endometrial cancer compared to those low in both indices. Our results provided additional support to the involvement of estrogen exposure in endometrial cancer risk with regard to genetic background and lifestyle features. PMID:26498156

  14. Epigenetic silencing of neurofilament genes promotes an aggressive phenotype in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Calmon, Marilia Freitas; Jeschke, Jana; Zhang, Wei; Dhir, Mashaal; Siebenkäs, Cornelia; Herrera, Alexander; Tsai, Hsing-Chen; O'Hagan, Heather M; Pappou, Emmanouil P; Hooker, Craig M; Fu, Tao; Schuebel, Kornel E; Gabrielson, Edward; Rahal, Paula; Herman, James G; Baylin, Stephen B; Ahuja, Nita

    2015-01-01

    Neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NEFH) has recently been identified as a candidate DNA hypermethylated gene within the functional breast cancer hypermethylome. NEFH exists in a complex with neurofilament medium polypeptide (NEFM) and neurofilament light polypeptide (NEFL) to form neurofilaments, which are structural components of the cytoskeleton in mature neurons. Recent studies reported the deregulation of these proteins in several malignancies, suggesting that neurofilaments may have a role in other cell types as well. Using a comprehensive approach, we studied the epigenetic inactivation of neurofilament genes in breast cancer and the functional significance of this event. We report that DNA methylation-associated silencing of NEFH, NEFL, and NEFM in breast cancer is frequent, cancer-specific, and correlates with clinical features of disease progression. DNA methylation-mediated inactivation of these genes occurs also in multiple other cancer histologies including pancreas, gastric, and colon. Restoration of NEFH function, the major subunit of the neurofilament complex, reduces proliferation and growth of breast cancer cells and arrests them in Go/G1 phase of the cell cycle along with a reduction in migration and invasion. These findings suggest that DNA methylation-mediated silencing of the neurofilament genes NEFH, NEFM, and NEFL are frequent events that may contribute to the progression of breast cancer and possibly other malignancies. PMID:25985363

  15. Epigenetic silencing of neurofilament genes promotes an aggressive phenotype in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Calmon, Marilia Freitas; Jeschke, Jana; Zhang, Wei; Dhir, Mashaal; Siebenkäs, Cornelia; Herrera, Alexander; Tsai, Hsing-Chen; O'Hagan, Heather M; Pappou, Emmanouil P; Hooker, Craig M; Fu, Tao; Schuebel, Kornel E; Gabrielson, Edward; Rahal, Paula; Herman, James G; Baylin, Stephen B; Ahuja, Nita

    2015-01-01

    Neurofilament heavy polypeptide (NEFH) has recently been identified as a candidate DNA hypermethylated gene within the functional breast cancer hypermethylome. NEFH exists in a complex with neurofilament medium polypeptide (NEFM) and neurofilament light polypeptide (NEFL) to form neurofilaments, which are structural components of the cytoskeleton in mature neurons. Recent studies reported the deregulation of these proteins in several malignancies, suggesting that neurofilaments may have a role in other cell types as well. Using a comprehensive approach, we studied the epigenetic inactivation of neurofilament genes in breast cancer and the functional significance of this event. We report that DNA methylation-associated silencing of NEFH, NEFL, and NEFM in breast cancer is frequent, cancer-specific, and correlates with clinical features of disease progression. DNA methylation-mediated inactivation of these genes occurs also in multiple other cancer histologies including pancreas, gastric, and colon. Restoration of NEFH function, the major subunit of the neurofilament complex, reduces proliferation and growth of breast cancer cells and arrests them in Go/G1 phase of the cell cycle along with a reduction in migration and invasion. These findings suggest that DNA methylation-mediated silencing of the neurofilament genes NEFH, NEFM, and NEFL are frequent events that may contribute to the progression of breast cancer and possibly other malignancies.

  16. The mannose receptor LY75 (DEC205/CD205) modulates cellular phenotype and metastatic potential of ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Faddaoui, Adnen; Bachvarova, Magdalena; Plante, Marie; Gregoire, Jean; Renaud, Marie-Claude; Sebastianelli, Alexandra; Gobeil, Stephane; Morin, Chantale; Macdonald, Elizabeth; Vanderhyden, Barbara; Bachvarov, Dimcho

    2016-03-22

    The molecular basis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) dissemination is still poorly understood. Previously, we identified the mannose receptor LY75 gene as hypomethylated in high-grade (HG) serous EOC tumors, compared to normal ovarian tissues. LY75 represents endocytic receptor expressed on dendritic cells and so far, has been primarily studied for its role in antigen processing and presentation. Here we demonstrate that LY75 is overexpressed in advanced EOC and that LY75 suppression induces mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) in EOC cell lines with mesenchymal morphology (SKOV3 and TOV112), accompanied by reduction of their migratory and invasive capacity in vitro and enhanced tumor cell colonization and metastatic growth in vivo. LY75 knockdown in SKOV3 cells also resulted in predominant upregulation of functional pathways implicated in cell proliferation and metabolism, while pathways associated with cell signaling and adhesion, complement activation and immune response were mostly suppressed. Moreover, LY75 suppression had an opposite effect on EOC cell lines with epithelial phenotype (A2780s and OV2008), by directing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated with reduced capacity for in vivo EOC cell colonization, as similar/identical signaling pathways were reversely regulated, when compared to mesenchymal LY75 knockdown EOC cells.To our knowledge, this is the first report of a gene displaying such pleiotropic effects in sustaining the cellular phenotype of EOC cells and points to novel functions of this receptor in modulating EOC dissemination. Our data also support previous findings regarding the superior capacity of epithelial cancer cells in metastatic colonization of distant sites, compared to cancer cells with mesenchymal-like morphology.

  17. The mannose receptor LY75 (DEC205/CD205) modulates cellular phenotype and metastatic potential of ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Faddaoui, Adnen; Bachvarova, Magdalena; Plante, Marie; Gregoire, Jean; Renaud, Marie-Claude; Sebastianelli, Alexandra; Gobeil, Stephane; Morin, Chantale; Macdonald, Elizabeth; Vanderhyden, Barbara; Bachvarov, Dimcho

    2016-01-01

    The molecular basis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC) dissemination is still poorly understood. Previously, we identified the mannose receptor LY75 gene as hypomethylated in high-grade (HG) serous EOC tumors, compared to normal ovarian tissues. LY75 represents endocytic receptor expressed on dendritic cells and so far, has been primarily studied for its role in antigen processing and presentation. Here we demonstrate that LY75 is overexpressed in advanced EOC and that LY75 suppression induces mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) in EOC cell lines with mesenchymal morphology (SKOV3 and TOV112), accompanied by reduction of their migratory and invasive capacity in vitro and enhanced tumor cell colonization and metastatic growth in vivo. LY75 knockdown in SKOV3 cells also resulted in predominant upregulation of functional pathways implicated in cell proliferation and metabolism, while pathways associated with cell signaling and adhesion, complement activation and immune response were mostly suppressed. Moreover, LY75 suppression had an opposite effect on EOC cell lines with epithelial phenotype (A2780s and OV2008), by directing epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) associated with reduced capacity for in vivo EOC cell colonization, as similar/identical signaling pathways were reversely regulated, when compared to mesenchymal LY75 knockdown EOC cells. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a gene displaying such pleiotropic effects in sustaining the cellular phenotype of EOC cells and points to novel functions of this receptor in modulating EOC dissemination. Our data also support previous findings regarding the superior capacity of epithelial cancer cells in metastatic colonization of distant sites, compared to cancer cells with mesenchymal-like morphology. PMID:26871602

  18. Polymer nanoparticles for drug and small silencing RNA delivery to treat cancers of different phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Devulapally, Rammohan; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy

    2013-01-01

    Advances in nanotechnology have provided powerful and efficient tools in development of cancer diagnosis and therapy. There are numerous nanocarriers that are currently approved for clinical use in cancer therapy. In recent years, biodegradable polymer nanoparticles (NPs) have attracted a considerable attention for their ability to function as a possible carrier for target-specific delivery of various drugs, genes, proteins, peptides, vaccines, and other biomolecules in humans without much toxicity. This review will specifically focus on the recent advances in polymer-based nanocarriers for various drugs and small silencing RNA’s loading and delivery to treat different types of cancer. PMID:23996830

  19. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  20. Ethanol exposure induces the cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype and lethal tumor metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez-Alvarez, Rosa; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E.; Lin, Zhao; Lamb, Rebecca; Hulit, James; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Rubin, Emanuel; Lisanti, Michael P.

    2013-01-01

    Little is known about how alcohol consumption promotes the onset of human breast cancer(s). One hypothesis is that ethanol induces metabolic changes in the tumor microenvironment, which then enhances epithelial tumor growth. To experimentally test this hypothesis, we used a co-culture system consisting of human breast cancer cells (MCF7) and hTERT-immortalized fibroblasts. Here, we show that ethanol treatment (100 mM) promotes ROS production and oxidative stress in cancer-associated fibroblasts, which is sufficient to induce myofibroblastic differentiation. Oxidative stress in stromal fibroblasts also results in the onset of autophagy/mitophagy, driving the induction of ketone body production in the tumor microenvironment. Interestingly, ethanol has just the opposite effect in epithelial cancer cells, where it confers autophagy resistance, elevates mitochondrial biogenesis and induces key enzymes associated with ketone re-utilization (ACAT1/OXCT1). During co-culture, ethanol treatment also converts MCF7 cells from an ER(+) to an ER(-) status, which is thought to be associated with “stemness,” more aggressive behavior and a worse prognosis. Thus, ethanol treatment induces ketone production in cancer-associated fibroblasts and ketone re-utilization in epithelial cancer cells, fueling tumor cell growth via oxidative mitochondrial metabolism (OXPHOS). This “two-compartment” metabolic model is consistent with previous historical observations that ethanol is first converted to acetaldehyde (which induces oxidative stress) and then ultimately to acetyl-CoA (a high-energy mitochondrial fuel), or can be used to synthesize ketone bodies. As such, our results provide a novel mechanism by which alcohol consumption could metabolically convert “low-risk” breast cancer patients to “high-risk” status, explaining tumor recurrence or disease progression. Hence, our findings have clear implications for both breast cancer prevention and therapy. Remarkably, our results

  1. Phenotype characterization of embryoid body structures generated by a crystal comet effect tail in an intercellular cancer collision scenario

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Jairo A; Murillo, Mauricio F

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is, by definition, the uncontrolled growth of autonomous cells that eventually destroy adjacent tissues and generate architectural disorder. However, this concept cannot be totally true. In three well documented studies, we have demonstrated that cancer tissues produce order zones that evolve over time and generate embryoid body structures in a space-time interval. The authors decided to revise the macroscopic and microscopic material in well-developed malignant tumors in which embryoid bodies were identified to determine the phenotype characterization that serves as a guideline for easy recognition. The factors responsible for this morphogenesis are physical, bioelectric, and magnetic susceptibilities produced by crystals that act as molecular designers for the topographic gradients that guide the surrounding silhouette and establish tissue head-tail positional identities. The structures are located in amniotic-like cavities and show characteristic somite-like embryologic segmentation. Immunophenotypic study has demonstrated exclusion factor positional identity in relation to enolase-immunopositive expression of embryoid body and human chorionic gonadotropin immunopositivity exclusion factor expression in the surrounding tissues. The significance of these observations is that they can also be predicted by experimental image data collected by the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) accelerator at the European Organization for Nuclear Research, in which two-beam subatomic collision particles in the resulting debris show hyperorder domains similar to those identified by us in intercellular cancer collisions. Our findings suggest that we are dealing with true reverse biologic system information in an activated collective cancer stem cell memory, in which physics participates in the elaboration of geometric complexes and chiral biomolecules that serve to build bodies with embryoid print as it develops during gestation. Reversal mechanisms in biology are intimately

  2. G-CSF regulates macrophage phenotype and associates with poor overall survival in human triple-negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hollmén, Maija; Karaman, Sinem; Schwager, Simon; Lisibach, Angela; Christiansen, Ailsa J.; Maksimow, Mikael; Varga, Zsuzsanna; Jalkanen, Sirpa; Detmar, Michael

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) have been implicated in the promotion of breast cancer growth and metastasis, and a strong infiltration by TAMs has been associated with estrogen receptor (ER)-negative tumors and poor prognosis. However, the molecular mechanisms behind these observations are unclear. We investigated macrophage activation in response to co-culture with several breast cancer cell lines (T47D, MCF-7, BT-474, SKBR-3, Cal-51 and MDA-MB-231) and found that high granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) secretion by the triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) cell line MDA-MB-231 gave rise to immunosuppressive HLA-DRlo macrophages that promoted migration of breast cancer cells via secretion of TGF-α. In human breast cancer samples (n = 548), G-CSF was highly expressed in TNBC (p < 0.001) and associated with CD163+ macrophages (p < 0.0001), poorer overall survival (OS) (p = 0.021) and significantly increased numbers of TGF-α+ cells. While G-CSF blockade in the 4T1 mammary tumor model promoted maturation of MHCIIhi blood monocytes and TAMs and significantly reduced lung metastasis, anti-CSF-1R treatment promoted MHCIIloF4/80hiMRhi anti-inflammatory TAMs and enhanced lung metastasis in the presence of high G-CSF levels. Combined anti-G-CSF and anti-CSF-1R therapy significantly increased lymph node metastases, possibly via depletion of the so-called “gate-keeper” subcapsular sinus macrophages. These results indicate that G-CSF promotes the anti-inflammatory phenotype of tumor-induced macrophages when CSF-1R is inhibited and therefore caution against the use of M-CSF/CSF-1R targeting agents in tumors with high G-CSF expression. PMID:27141367

  3. Ethanol exposure induces the cancer-associated fibroblast phenotype and lethal tumor metabolism: implications for breast cancer prevention.

    PubMed

    Sanchez-Alvarez, Rosa; Martinez-Outschoorn, Ubaldo E; Lin, Zhao; Lamb, Rebecca; Hulit, James; Howell, Anthony; Sotgia, Federica; Rubin, Emanuel; Lisanti, Michael P

    2013-01-15

    Little is known about how alcohol consumption promotes the onset of human breast cancer(s). One hypothesis is that ethanol induces metabolic changes in the tumor microenvironment, which then enhances epithelial tumor growth. To experimentally test this hypothesis, we used a co-culture system consisting of human breast cancer cells (MCF7) and hTERT-immortalized fibroblasts. Here, we show that ethanol treatment (100 mM) promotes ROS production and oxidative stress in cancer-associated fibroblasts, which is sufficient to induce myofibroblastic differentiation. Oxidative stress in stromal fibroblasts also results in the onset of autophagy/mitophagy, driving the induction of ketone body production in the tumor microenvironment. Interestingly, ethanol has just the opposite effect in epithelial cancer cells, where it confers autophagy resistance, elevates mitochondrial biogenesis and induces key enzymes associated with ketone re-utilization (ACAT1/OXCT1). During co-culture, ethanol treatment also converts MCF7 cells from an ER(+) to an ER(-) status, which is thought to be associated with "stemness," more aggressive behavior and a worse prognosis. Thus, ethanol treatment induces ketone production in cancer-associated fibroblasts and ketone re-utilization in epithelial cancer cells, fueling tumor cell growth via oxidative mitochondrial metabolism (OXPHOS). This "two-compartment" metabolic model is consistent with previous historical observations that ethanol is first converted to acetaldehyde (which induces oxidative stress) and then ultimately to acetyl-CoA (a high-energy mitochondrial fuel), or can be used to synthesize ketone bodies. As such, our results provide a novel mechanism by which alcohol consumption could metabolically convert "low-risk" breast cancer patients to "high-risk" status, explaining tumor recurrence or disease progression. Hence, our findings have clear implications for both breast cancer prevention and therapy. Remarkably, our results also show that

  4. Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 mediates TAZ expression and nuclear localization to induce the breast cancer stem cell phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Lisha; Gilkes, Daniele M.; Hu, Hongxia; Takano, Naoharu; Luo, Weibo; Lu, Haiquan; Bullen, John W.; Samanta, Debangshu; Liang, Houjie; Semenza, Gregg L.

    2014-01-01

    Intratumoral hypoxia, which is associated with breast cancer metastasis and patient mortality, increases the percentage of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been delineated. Here we report that hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) triggers the expression and activity of TAZ, a transcriptional co-activator that is required for BCSC maintenance, through two discrete mechanisms. First, HIF-1 binds directly to the WWTR1 gene and activates transcription of TAZ mRNA. Second, HIF-1 activates transcription of the SIAH1 gene, which encodes a ubiquitin protein ligase that is required for the hypoxia-induced ubiquitination and proteasome-dependent degradation of LATS2, a kinase that inhibits the nuclear localization of TAZ. Inhibition of HIF-1α, TAZ, or SIAH1 expression by short hairpin RNA blocked the enrichment of BCSCs in response to hypoxia. Human breast cancer database analysis revealed that increased expression (greater than the median) of both TAZ and HIF-1 target genes, but neither one alone, is associated with significantly increased patient mortality. Taken together, these results establish a molecular mechanism for induction of the BCSC phenotype in response to hypoxia. PMID:25587023

  5. Inhibitors of Rho kinase (ROCK) signaling revert the malignant phenotype of breast cancer cells in 3D context.

    PubMed

    Matsubara, Masahiro; Bissell, Mina J

    2016-05-31

    Loss of polarity and quiescence along with increased cellular invasiveness are associated with breast tumor progression. ROCK plays a central role in actin-cytoskeletal rearrangement. We used physiologically relevant 3D cultures of nonmalignant and cancer cells in gels made of laminin-rich extracellular matrix, to investigate ROCK function. Whereas expression levels of ROCK1 and ROCK2 were elevated in cancer cells compared to nonmalignant cells, this was not observed in 2D cultures. Malignant cells showed increased phosphorylation of MLC, corresponding to disorganized F-actin. Inhibition of ROCK signaling restored polarity, decreased disorganization of F-actin, and led to reduction of proliferation. Inhibition of ROCK also decreased EGFR and Integrinβ1 levels, and consequently suppressed activation of Akt, MAPK and FAK as well as GLUT3 and LDHA levels. Again, ROCK inhibition did not inhibit these molecules in 2D. A triple negative breast cancer cell line, which lacks E-cadherin, had high levels of ROCK but was less sensitive to ROCK inhibitors. Exogenous overexpression of E-cadherin, however, rendered these cells strikingly sensitive to ROCK inhibition. Our results add to the growing literature that demonstrate the importance of context and tissue architecture in determining not only regulation of normal and malignant phenotypes but also drug response.

  6. A miR-335/COX-2/PTEN axis regulates the secretory phenotype of senescent cancer-associated fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kabir, Tasnuva D.; Leigh, Ross J.; Tasena, Hataitip; Mellone, Massimiliano; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Parkinson, Eric K.; Prime, Stephen S.; Thomas, Gareth J.; Paterson, Ian C.; Zhou, Donghui; McCall, John; Speight, Paul M.; Lambert, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    Senescent cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF) develop a senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP) that is believed to contribute to cancer progression. The mechanisms underlying SASP development are, however, poorly understood. Here we examined the functional role of microRNA in the development of the SASP in normal fibroblasts and CAF. We identified a microRNA, miR-335, up-regulated in the senescent normal fibroblasts and CAF and able to modulate the secretion of SASP factors and induce cancer cell motility in co-cultures, at least in part by suppressing the expression of phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN). Additionally, elevated levels of cyclo-oxygenase 2 (PTGS2; COX-2) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) secretion were observed in senescent fibroblasts, and inhibition of COX-2 by celecoxib reduced the expression of miR-335, restored PTEN expression and decreased the pro-tumourigenic effects of the SASP. Collectively these data demonstrate the existence of a novel miRNA/PTEN-regulated pathway modulating the inflammasome in senescent fibroblasts. PMID:27385366

  7. MiR-210 promotes a hypoxic phenotype and increases radioresistance in human lung cancer cell lines.

    PubMed

    Grosso, S; Doyen, J; Parks, S K; Bertero, T; Paye, A; Cardinaud, B; Gounon, P; Lacas-Gervais, S; Noël, A; Pouysségur, J; Barbry, P; Mazure, N M; Mari, B

    2013-01-01

    The resistance of hypoxic cells to radiotherapy and chemotherapy is a major problem in the treatment of cancer. Recently, an additional mode of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-dependent transcriptional regulation, involving modulation of a specific set of micro RNAs (miRNAs), including miR-210, has emerged. We have recently shown that HIF-1 induction of miR-210 also stabilizes HIF-1 through a positive regulatory loop. Therefore, we hypothesized that by stabilizing HIF-1 in normoxia, miR-210 may protect cancer cells from radiation. We developed a non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC)-derived cell line (A549) stably expressing miR-210 (pmiR-210) or a control miRNA (pmiR-Ctl). The miR-210-expressing cells showed a significant stabilization of HIF-1 associated with mitochondrial defects and a glycolytic phenotype. Cells were subjected to radiation levels ranging from 0 to 10 Gy in normoxia and hypoxia. Cells expressing miR-210 in normoxia had the same level of radioresistance as control cells in hypoxia. Under hypoxia, pmiR-210 cells showed a low mortality rate owing to a decrease in apoptosis, with an ability to grow even at 10 Gy. This miR-210 phenotype was reproduced in another NSCLC cell line (H1975) and in HeLa cells. We have established that radioresistance was independent of p53 and cell cycle status. In addition, we have shown that genomic double-strand breaks (DSBs) foci disappear faster in pmiR-210 than in pmiR-Ctl cells, suggesting that miR-210 expression promotes a more efficient DSB repair. Finally, HIF-1 invalidation in pmiR-210 cells removed the radioresistant phenotype, showing that this mechanism is dependent on HIF-1. In conclusion, miR-210 appears to be a component of the radioresistance of hypoxic cancer cells. Given the high stability of most miRNAs, this advantage could be used by tumor cells in conditions where reoxygenation has occurred and suggests that strategies targeting miR-210 could enhance tumor radiosensitization.

  8. Simultaneous MEMS-based electro-mechanical phenotyping of breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pandya, Hardik J.; Park, Kihan; Chen, Wenjin; Chekmareva, Marina A.; Foran, David J.; Desai, Jaydev P.

    2015-01-01

    Carcinomas are the most commonly diagnosed cancers originating in the skin, lungs, breasts, pancreas, and other organs and glands. In most of the cases, the microenvironment within the tissue changes with the progression of disease. A key challenge is to develop a device capable of providing quantitative indicators in diagnosing cancer by measuring alteration in electrical and mechanical property of the tissues from the onset of malignancy. We demonstrate micro-electro-mechanical-systems (MEMS) based flexible polymer microsensor array capable of simultaneously measuring electro-mechanical properties of the breast tissues cores (1mm in diameter and 10μm in thickness) from onset through progression of the cancer. The electrical and mechanical signatures obtained from the tissue cores shows the capability of the device to clearly demarcate the specific stages of cancer in epithelial and stromal regions providing quantitative indicators facilitating the diagnosis of breast cancer. The present study shows that electro-mechanical properties of the breast tissue core at the micro-level are different than those at the macro-level. PMID:26224116

  9. A nuclear-directed human pancreatic ribonuclease (PE5) targets the metabolic phenotype of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Vert, Anna; Castro, Jessica; Ribó, Marc; Benito, Antoni; Vilanova, Maria

    2016-04-01

    Ribonucleases represent a new class of antitumor RNA-damaging drugs. However, many wild-type members of the vertebrate secreted ribonuclease family are not cytotoxic because they are not able to evade the cytosolic ribonuclease inhibitor. We previously engineered the human pancreatic ribonuclease to direct it to the cell nucleus where the inhibitor is not present. The best characterized variant is PE5 that kills cancer cells through apoptosis mediated by the p21(WAF1/CIP1) induction and the inactivation of JNK. Here, we have used microarray-derived transcriptional profiling to identify PE5 regulated genes on the NCI/ADR-RES ovarian cancer cell line. RT-qPCR analyses have confirmed the expression microarray findings. The results show that PE5 cause pleiotropic effects. Among them, it is remarkable the down-regulation of multiple genes that code for enzymes involved in deregulated metabolic pathways in cancer cells.

  10. A nuclear-directed human pancreatic ribonuclease (PE5) targets the metabolic phenotype of cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Vert, Anna; Castro, Jessica; Ribó, Marc; Benito, Antoni; Vilanova, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Ribonucleases represent a new class of antitumor RNA-damaging drugs. However, many wild-type members of the vertebrate secreted ribonuclease family are not cytotoxic because they are not able to evade the cytosolic ribonuclease inhibitor. We previously engineered the human pancreatic ribonuclease to direct it to the cell nucleus where the inhibitor is not present. The best characterized variant is PE5 that kills cancer cells through apoptosis mediated by the p21WAF1/CIP1 induction and the inactivation of JNK. Here, we have used microarray-derived transcriptional profiling to identify PE5 regulated genes on the NCI/ADR-RES ovarian cancer cell line. RT-qPCR analyses have confirmed the expression microarray findings. The results show that PE5 cause pleiotropic effects. Among them, it is remarkable the down-regulation of multiple genes that code for enzymes involved in deregulated metabolic pathways in cancer cells. PMID:26918450

  11. Phosphoglucose isomerase/autocrine motility factor mediates epithelial and mesenchymal phenotype conversions in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Funasaka, Tatsuyoshi; Hogan, Victor; Raz, Avraham

    2009-07-01

    Phosphoglucose isomerase/autocrine motility factor (PGI/AMF) is a housekeeping gene product/cytokine that catalyzes a step in glycolysis and gluconeogenesis, and acts as a multifunctional cytokine associated with aggressive tumors. PGI/AMF has been correlated significantly with breast cancer progression and poor prognosis in breast cancer. We show here that ectopic expression of PGI/AMF induced epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in MCF10A normal human breast epithelial cells, and inhibition of PGI/AMF expression triggered mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) in aggressive mesenchymal-type human breast cancer MDA-MB-231 cells. EMT in MCF10A cells was shown by morphologic changes and loss of E-cadherin/beta-catenin-mediated cell-cell adhesion, which is concomitant with the induction of the E-cadherin transcriptional repressor Snail and proteosome-dependent degradation of beta-catenin protein. Molecular analysis showed that PGI/AMF suppressed epithelial marker expressions and enhanced mesenchymal marker expressions. Silencing of PGI/AMF expression by RNA interference in MDA-MB-231 cells induced the reverse processes of EMT including altered cell shape, gain of epithelial marker, and reduction of mesenchymal marker, e.g., MET. Taken together, the results show the involvement of PGI/AMF in both EMT and MET: overexpression of PGI/AMF induces EMT in normal breast epithelial cells and reduction of PGI/AMF expression led to MET in aggressive breast cancer cells. These results suggest for the first time that PGI/AMF is a key gene to both EMT in the initiating step of cancer metastasis and MET in the later stage of metastasis during breast cancer progression.

  12. Common colorectal cancer risk alleles contribute to the multiple colorectal adenoma phenotype, but do not influence colonic polyposis in FAP

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Timothy H T; Gorman, Maggie; Martin, Lynn; Barclay, Ella; Casey, Graham; Newcomb, Polly A; Casey, Graham; Conti, David V; Schumacher, Fred; Gallinger, Steve; Lindor, Noralane M; Hopper, John; Jenkins, Mark; Hunter, David J; Kraft, Peter; Jacobs, Kevin B; Cox, David G; Yeager, Meredith; Hankinson, Susan E; Wacholder, Sholom; Wang, Zhaoming; Welch, Robert; Hutchinson, Amy; Wang, Junwen; Yu, Kai; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Orr, Nick; Willett, Walter C; Colditz, Graham A; Ziegler, Regina G; Berg, Christine D; Buys, Saundra S; McCarty, Catherine A; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Calle, Eugenia E; Thun, Michael J; Hayes, Richard B; Tucker, Margaret; Gerhard, Daniela S; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Hoover, Robert N; Thomas, Gilles; Chanock, Stephen J; Yeager, Meredith; Chatterjee, Nilanjan; Ciampa, Julia; Jacobs, Kevin B; Gonzalez-Bosquet, Jesus; Hayes, Richard B; Kraft, Peter; Wacholder, Sholom; Orr, Nick; Berndt, Sonja; Yu, Kai; Hutchinson, Amy; Wang, Zhaoming; Amundadottir, Laufey; Feigelson, Heather Spencer; Thun, Michael J; Diver, W Ryan; Albanes, Demetrius; Virtamo, Jarmo; Weinstein, Stephanie; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Cancel-Tassin, Geraldine; Cussenot, Olivier; Valeri, Antoine; Andriole, Gerald L; Crawford, E David; Haiman, Christopher A; Henderson, Brian; Kolonel, Laurence; Marchand, Loic Le; Siddiq, Afshan; Riboli, Elio; Key, Timothy J; Kaaks, Rudolf; Isaacs, William; Isaacs, Sarah; Wiley, Kathleen E; Gronberg, Henrik; Wiklund, Fredrik; Stattin, Pär; Xu, Jianfeng; Zheng, S Lilly; Sun, Jielin; Vatten, Lars J; Hveem, Kristian; Kumle, Merethe; Tucker, Margaret; Gerhard, Daniela S; Hoover, Robert N; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Hunter, David J; Thomas, Gilles; Chanock, Stephen J; Purdue, Mark P; Johansson, Mattias; Zelenika, Diana; Toro, Jorge R; Scelo, Ghislaine; Moore, Lee E; Prokhortchouk, Egor; Wu, Xifeng; Kiemeney, Lambertus A; Gaborieau, Valerie; Jacobs, Kevin B; Chow, Wong-Ho; Zaridze, David; Matveev, Vsevolod; Lubinski, Jan; Trubicka, Joanna; Szeszenia-Dabrowska, Neonila; Lissowska, Jolanta; Rudnai, Péter; Fabianova, Eleonora; Bucur, Alexandru; Bencko, Vladimir; Foretova, Lenka; Janout, Vladimir; Boffetta, Paolo; Colt, Joanne S; Davis, Faith G; Schwartz, Kendra L; Banks, Rosamonde E; Selby, Peter J; Harnden, Patricia; Berg, Christine D; Hsing, Ann W; Grubb III, Robert L; Boeing, Heiner; Vineis, Paolo; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Palli, Domenico; Tumino, Rosario; Krogh, Vittorio; Panico, Salvatore; Duell, Eric J; Quirós, José Ramón; Sanchez, Maria-José; Navarro, Carmen; Ardanaz, Eva; Dorronsoro, Miren; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Allen, Naomi E; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Peeters, Petra H M; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Linseisen, Jakob; Ljungberg, Börje; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Romieu, Isabelle; Riboli, Elio; Mukeria, Anush; Shangina, Oxana; Stevens, Victoria L; Thun, Michael J; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Pharoah, Paul D; Easton, Douglas F; Albanes, Demetrius; Weinstein, Stephanie J; Virtamo, Jarmo; Vatten, Lars; Hveem, Kristian; Njølstad, Inger; Tell, Grethe S; Stoltenberg, Camilla; Kumar, Rajiv; Koppova, Kvetoslava; Cussenot, Olivier; Benhamou, Simone; Oosterwijk, Egbert; Vermeulen, Sita H; Aben, Katja K H; van der Marel, Saskia L; Ye, Yuanqing; Wood, Christopher G; Pu, Xia; Mazur, Alexander M; Boulygina, Eugenia S; Chekanov, Nikolai N; Foglio, Mario; Lechner, Doris; Gut, Ivo; Heath, Simon; Blanche, Hélène; Hutchinson, Amy; Thomas, Gilles; Wang, Zhaoming; Yeager, Meredith; Fraumeni, Joseph F; Skryabin, Konstantin G; McKay, James D; Rothman, Nathaniel; Chanock, Stephen J; Lathrop, Mark; Brennan, Paul; Saunders, Brian; Thomas, Huw; Clark, Sue; Tomlinson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    The presence of multiple (5–100) colorectal adenomas suggests an inherited predisposition, but the genetic aetiology of this phenotype is undetermined if patients test negative for Mendelian polyposis syndromes such as familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and MUTYH-associated polyposis (MAP). We investigated whether 18 common colorectal cancer (CRC) predisposition single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) could help to explain some cases with multiple adenomas who phenocopied FAP or MAP, but had no pathogenic APC or MUTYH variant. No multiple adenoma case had an outlying number of CRC SNP risk alleles, but multiple adenoma patients did have a significantly higher number of risk alleles than population controls (P=5.7 × 10−7). The association was stronger in those with ≥10 adenomas. The CRC SNPs accounted for 4.3% of the variation in multiple adenoma risk, with three SNPs (rs6983267, rs10795668, rs3802842) explaining 3.0% of the variation. In FAP patients, the CRC risk score did not differ significantly from the controls, as we expected given the overwhelming effect of pathogenic germline APC variants on the phenotype of these cases. More unexpectedly, we found no evidence that the CRC SNPs act as modifier genes for the number of colorectal adenomas in FAP patients. In conclusion, common colorectal tumour risk alleles contribute to the development of multiple adenomas in patients without pathogenic germline APC or MUTYH variants. This phenotype may have ‘polygenic' or monogenic origins. The risk of CRC in relatives of multiple adenoma cases is probably much lower for cases with polygenic disease, and this should be taken into account when counselling such patients. PMID:24801760

  13. Annexin A1 contributes to pancreatic cancer cell phenotype, behaviour and metastatic potential independently of Formyl Peptide Receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Belvedere, Raffaella; Bizzarro, Valentina; Forte, Giovanni; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio; Parente, Luca; Petrella, Antonello

    2016-01-01

    Annexin A1 (ANXA1) is a Ca2+-binding protein over-expressed in pancreatic cancer (PC). We recently reported that extracellular ANXA1 mediates PC cell motility acting on Formyl Peptide Receptors (FPRs). Here, we describe other mechanisms by which intracellular ANXA1 could mediate PC progression. We obtained ANXA1 Knock-Out (KO) MIA PaCa-2 cells using the CRISPR/Cas9 genome editing technology. LC-MS/MS analysis showed altered expression of several proteins involved in cytoskeletal organization. As a result, ANXA1 KO MIA PaCa-2 partially lost their migratory and invasive capabilities with a mechanism that appeared independent of FPRs. The acquisition of a less aggressive phenotype has been further investigated in vivo. Wild type (WT), PGS (scrambled) and ANXA1 KO MIA PaCa-2 cells were engrafted orthotopically in SCID mice. No differences were found about PC primary mass, conversely liver metastatization appeared particularly reduced in ANXA1 KO MIA PaCa-2 engrafted mice. In summary, we show that intracellular ANXA1 is able to preserve the cytoskeleton integrity and to maintain a malignant phenotype in vitro. The protein has a relevant role in the metastatization process in vivo, as such it appears attractive and suitable as prognostic and therapeutic marker in PC progression. PMID:27412958

  14. Small cell lung cancer: Circulating tumor cells of extended stage patients express a mesenchymal-epithelial transition phenotype.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, Gerhard; Hochmair, Maximilian; Rath, Barbara; Klameth, Lukas; Zeillinger, Robert

    2016-07-01

    Small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is distinguished by aggressive growth, early dissemination and a poor prognosis at advanced stage. The remarkably high count of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) of SCLC allowed for the establishment of permanent CTC cultures at our institution for the first time. CTCs are assumed to have characteristics of cancer stem cells (CSCs) and an epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenotype, but extravasation of tumors at distal sites is marked by epithelial features. Two SCLC CTC cell lines, namely BHGc7 and BHGc10, as well as SCLC cell lines derived from primary tumors and metastases were analyzed for the expression of pluripotent stem cell markers and growth factors. Expression of E-cadherin and β-Catenin were determined by flow cytometry. Stem cell-associated markers SOX17, α-fetoprotein, OCT-3/4, KDR, Otx2, GATA-4, Nanog, HCG, TP63 and Goosecoid were not expressed in the 2 CTC lines. In contrast, high expression was found for HNF-3β/FOXA2, SOX2, PDX-1/IPF1 and E-cadherin. E-cadherin expression was restricted to the 2 CTCs and 2 cell lines derived from pleural effusion (SCLC26A) and bone metastases (NCI-H526), respectively. Thus, these SCLC CTCs established from extended disease SCLC patients lack expression of stem cell markers which suppress the epithelial phenotype. Instead they express high levels of E-cadherin consistent with a mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET or EMrT) and form large tumorospheres possibly in response to the selection pressure of first-line chemotherapy. HNF-3β/FOXA2 and PDX-1/IPF1 expression seem to be related to growth factor dependence on insulin/IGF-1 receptors and IGF-binding proteins. PMID:26919626

  15. Isolation and characterization of calcium sensing receptor null cells: a highly malignant and drug resistant phenotype of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navneet; Liu, Guangming; Chakrabarty, Subhas

    2013-05-01

    The expression of calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) in the human colonic crypt epithelium is linked to cellular differentiation while its lack of expression is associated with undifferentiated and invasive colon carcinoma. Human colon carcinoma cell lines contain small subpopulations (10-20%) that do not express CaSR (termed CaSR null cells). Here, we report on the isolation, propagation, maintenance and characterization of CaSR null cells from the CBS and HCT116 human colon carcinoma cell lines. CaSR null cells grew as three-dimensional non-adherent spherical clusters with increased propensity for anchorage independent growth, cellular proliferation and invasion of matrigels. CaSR null cells were highly resistant to fluorouracil and expressed abundant amount of thymidylate synthase and survivin. Molecular profiling by real time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Western blots showed a high level of expression of the previously reported cancer stem cell markers CD133, CD44 and Nanog in CaSR null cells. A significant increase in the expression of epithelial-mesenchymal transitional molecules and transcription factors was also observed. These include N-cadherin, β-catenin, vimentin, fibronectin, Snail1, Snail2, Twist and FOXC2. The expression of the tumor suppressive E-cadherin and miR145, on the other hand, was greatly reduced while expression of the oncogenic microRNAs: miR21, miR135a and miR135b was significantly up-regulated. CaSR null cells possess a myriad of cellular and molecular features that drive and sustain the malignant phenotype. We conclude that CaSR null constitutes a highly malignant and drug resistant phenotype of colon cancer.

  16. A miRNA Signature of Chemoresistant Mesenchymal Phenotype Identifies Novel Molecular Targets Associated with Advanced Pancreatic Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Alakesh; VenkataSubbaRao, Kolaparthi; Manoharan, Muthu Saravanan; Hill, Ping; Freeman, James W.

    2014-01-01

    In this study a microRNA (miRNA) signature was identified in a gemcitabine resistant pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) cell line model (BxPC3-GZR) and this signature was further examined in advanced PDAC tumor specimens from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database. BxPC3-GZR showed a mesenchymal phenotype, expressed high levels of CD44 and showed a highly significant deregulation of 17 miRNAs. Based on relevance to cancer, a seven-miRNA signature (miR-100, miR-125b, miR-155, miR-21, miR-205, miR-27b and miR-455-3p) was selected for further studies. A strong correlation was observed for six of the seven miRNAs in 43 advanced tumor specimens compared to normal pancreas tissue. To assess the functional relevance we initially focused on miRNA-125b, which is over-expressed in both the BxPC3-GZR model and advanced PDAC tumor specimens. Knockdown of miRNA-125b in BxPC3-GZR and Panc-1 cells caused a partial reversal of the mesenchymal phenotype and enhanced response to gemcitabine. Moreover, RNA-seq data from each of 40 advanced PDAC tumor specimens from the TCGA data base indicate a negative correlation between expression of miRNA-125b and five of six potential target genes (BAP1, BBC3, NEU1, BCL2, STARD13). Thus far, two of these target genes, BBC3 and NEU1, that are tumor suppressor genes but not yet studied in PDAC, appear to be functional targets of miR-125b since knockdown of miR125b caused their up regulation. These miRNAs and their molecular targets may serve as targets to enhance sensitivity to chemotherapy and reduce metastatic spread. PMID:25184537

  17. Cellular and molecular determinants of all-trans retinoic acid sensitivity in breast cancer: Luminal phenotype and RARα expression

    PubMed Central

    Centritto, Floriana; Paroni, Gabriela; Bolis, Marco; Garattini, Silvio Ken; Kurosaki, Mami; Barzago, Maria Monica; Zanetti, Adriana; Fisher, James Neil; Scott, Mark Francis; Pattini, Linda; Lupi, Monica; Ubezio, Paolo; Piccotti, Francesca; Zambelli, Alberto; Rizzo, Paola; Gianni', Maurizio; Fratelli, Maddalena; Terao, Mineko; Garattini, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    Forty-two cell lines recapitulating mammary carcinoma heterogeneity were profiled for all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) sensitivity. Luminal and ER+ (estrogen-receptor-positive) cell lines are generally sensitive to ATRA, while refractoriness/low sensitivity is associated with a Basal phenotype and HER2 positivity. Indeed, only 2 Basal cell lines (MDA-MB157 and HCC-1599) are highly sensitive to the retinoid. Sensitivity of HCC-1599 cells is confirmed in xenotransplanted mice. Short-term tissue-slice cultures of surgical samples validate the cell-line results and support the concept that a high proportion of Luminal/ER+ carcinomas are ATRA sensitive, while triple-negative (Basal) and HER2-positive tumors tend to be retinoid resistant. Pathway-oriented analysis of the constitutive gene-expression profiles in the cell lines identifies RARα as the member of the retinoid pathway directly associated with a Luminal phenotype, estrogen positivity and ATRA sensitivity. RARα3 is the major transcript in ATRA-sensitive cells and tumors. Studies in selected cell lines with agonists/antagonists confirm that RARα is the principal mediator of ATRA responsiveness. RARα over-expression sensitizes retinoid-resistant MDA-MB453 cells to ATRA anti-proliferative action. Conversely, silencing of RARα in retinoid-sensitive SKBR3 cells abrogates ATRA responsiveness. All this is paralleled by similar effects on ATRA-dependent inhibition of cell motility, indicating that RARα may mediate also ATRA anti-metastatic effects. We define gene sets of predictive potential which are associated with ATRA sensitivity in breast cancer cell lines and validate them in short-term tissue cultures of Luminal/ER+ and triple-negative tumors. In these last models, we determine the perturbations in the transcriptomic profiles afforded by ATRA. The study provides fundamental information for the development of retinoid-based therapeutic strategies aimed at the stratified treatment of breast cancer subtypes

  18. Acquired resistance to metformin in breast cancer cells triggers transcriptome reprogramming toward a degradome-related metastatic stem-like profile

    PubMed Central

    Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Joven, Jorge; Menendez, Javier A

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic interventions based on metabolic inhibitor-based therapies are expected to be less prone to acquired resistance. However, there has not been any study assessing the possibility that the targeting of the tumor cell metabolism may result in unforeseeable resistance. We recently established a pre-clinical model of estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells that were chronically adapted to grow (> 10 months) in the presence of graded, millimolar concentrations of the anti-diabetic biguanide metformin, an AMPK agonist/mTOR inhibitor that has been evaluated in multiple in vitro and in vivo cancer studies and is now being tested in clinical trials. To assess what impact the phenomenon of resistance might have on the metformin-like “dirty” drugs that are able to simultaneously hit several metabolic pathways, we employed the ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) software to functionally interpret the data from Agilent whole-human genome arrays in the context of biological processes, networks, and pathways. Our findings establish, for the first time, that a “global” targeting of metabolic reprogramming using metformin certainly imposes a great selective pressure for the emergence of new breast cancer cellular states. Intriguingly, acquired resistance to metformin appears to trigger a transcriptome reprogramming toward a metastatic stem-like profile, as many genes encoding the components of the degradome (KLK11, CTSF, FREM1, BACE-2, CASP, TMPRSS4, MMP16, HTRA1), cancer cell migration and invasion factors (TP63, WISP2, GAS3, DKK1, BCAR3, PABPC1, MUC1, SPARCL1, SEMA3B, SEMA6A), stem cell markers (DCLK1, FAK), and key pro-metastatic lipases (MAGL and Cpla2) were included in the signature. Because this convergent activation of pathways underlying tumor microenvironment interactions occurred in low-proliferative cancer cells exhibiting a notable downregulation of the G2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulators that maintain genome stability (CCNB1, CCNB2, CDC20, CDC25C

  19. Acquired resistance to metformin in breast cancer cells triggers transcriptome reprogramming toward a degradome-related metastatic stem-like profile.

    PubMed

    Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Cuyàs, Elisabet; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Joven, Jorge; Menendez, Javier A

    2014-01-01

    Therapeutic interventions based on metabolic inhibitor-based therapies are expected to be less prone to acquired resistance. However, there has not been any study assessing the possibility that the targeting of the tumor cell metabolism may result in unforeseeable resistance. We recently established a pre-clinical model of estrogen-dependent MCF-7 breast cancer cells that were chronically adapted to grow (> 10 months) in the presence of graded, millimolar concentrations of the anti-diabetic biguanide metformin, an AMPK agonist/mTOR inhibitor that has been evaluated in multiple in vitro and in vivo cancer studies and is now being tested in clinical trials. To assess what impact the phenomenon of resistance might have on the metformin-like "dirty" drugs that are able to simultaneously hit several metabolic pathways, we employed the ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) software to functionally interpret the data from Agilent whole-human genome arrays in the context of biological processes, networks, and pathways. Our findings establish, for the first time, that a "global" targeting of metabolic reprogramming using metformin certainly imposes a great selective pressure for the emergence of new breast cancer cellular states. Intriguingly, acquired resistance to metformin appears to trigger a transcriptome reprogramming toward a metastatic stem-like profile, as many genes encoding the components of the degradome (KLK11, CTSF, FREM1, BACE-2, CASP, TMPRSS4, MMP16, HTRA1), cancer cell migration and invasion factors (TP63, WISP2, GAS3, DKK1, BCAR3, PABPC1, MUC1, SPARCL1, SEMA3B, SEMA6A), stem cell markers (DCLK1, FAK), and key pro-metastatic lipases (MAGL and Cpla2) were included in the signature. Because this convergent activation of pathways underlying tumor microenvironment interactions occurred in low-proliferative cancer cells exhibiting a notable downregulation of the G 2/M DNA damage checkpoint regulators that maintain genome stability (CCNB1, CCNB2, CDC20, CDC25C, AURKA

  20. Ovatodiolide sensitizes aggressive breast cancer cells to doxorubicin, eliminates their cancer stem cell-like phenotype, and reduces doxorubicin-associated toxicity.

    PubMed

    Bamodu, Oluwaseun Adebayo; Huang, Wen-Chien; Tzeng, David T W; Wu, Alexander; Wang, Liang Shun; Yeh, Chi-Tai; Chao, Tsu-Yi

    2015-08-10

    Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is chemotherapy-refractory and associated with poor clinical prognosis. Doxorubicin (Doxo), a class I anthracycline and first-line anticancer agent, effective against a wide spectrum of neoplasms including breast carcinoma, is associated with several cumulative dose-dependent adverse effects, including cardiomyopathy, typhilitis, and acute myelotoxicity. This study evaluated the usability of Ovatodiolide (Ova) in sensitizing TNBC cells to Doxo cytotoxicity, so as to reduce Doxo effective dose and consequently its adverse effects. TNBC cell lines MDA-MB-231 and HS578T were used. Pre-treatment of the TNBC cells with 10 µM Ova 24 h before Doxo administration increased the Doxo anticancer effect (IC50 1.4 µM) compared to simultaneous treatment with Doxo ( IC50 1.8 µM), or Doxo alone (IC50 9.2 µM). Intracellular accumulation of Doxo was lowest in Ova pre-treated cells at all Doxo concentrations, when compared with Doxo or simultaneously treated cells. In comparison to the Doxo-only group, cell cycle analysis of MDA-MB-231 cells treated concurrently with 2.5 µM Ova and 1.25 µM Doxo showed increased percentage of cells arrested at G0/G1; however, pre-treatment with the same concentration of Ova 24 h before Doxo showed greater tumor growth inhibition, with a 2.4-fold increased percentage of cells in G0/G1 arrest, greater Doxo-induced apoptosis, and significantly reduced intracellular Doxo accumulation. Additionally, Ova-sensitized TNBC cells also lost their cancer stem cell-like phenotype evidenced by significant dissolution, necrosis of formed mammospheres. Taken together, these findings indicate that Ova sensitizes TNBC cells to Doxo and potentiates doxorubicin-induced elimination of the TNBC cancer stem cell-like phenotype.

  1. In situ characterizing membrane lipid phenotype of breast cancer cells using mass spectrometry profiling

    PubMed Central

    He, Manwen; Guo, Shuai; Li, Zhili

    2015-01-01

    Lipid composition in cell membrane is closely associated with cell characteristics. Here, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization- Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry was employed to in situ determine membrane components of human mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10 A) and six different breast cancer cell lines (i.e., BT-20, MCF-7, SK-BR-3, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-157, and MDA-MB-361) without any lipid extraction and separation. Partial least-square discriminant analysis indicated that changes in the levels of these membrane lipids were closely correlated with the types of breast cell lines. Elevated levels of polyunsaturated lipids in MCF-10 A cells relative to six breast cancer cells and in BT-20 cells relative to other breast cancer cell lines were detected. The Western blotting assays indicated that the expression of five lipogenesis-related enzymes (i.e., fatty acid synthase 1(FASN1), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (SCD1), stearoyl-CoA desaturase 5 (SCD5), choline kinase α (CKα), and sphingomyelin synthase 1) was associated with the types of the breast cells, and that the SCD1 level in MCF-7 cells was significantly increased relative to other breast cell lines. Our findings suggest that elevated expression levels of FASN1, SCD1, SCD5, and CKα may closely correlated with enhanced levels of saturated and monounsaturated lipids in breast cancer cell lines. PMID:26061164

  2. From sequence to molecular pathology, and a mechanism driving the neuroendocrine phenotype in prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    Lapuk, Anna V; Wu, Chunxiao; Wyatt, Alexander W; McPherson, Andrew; McConeghy, Brian J; Brahmbhatt, Sonal; Mo, Fan; Zoubeidi, Amina; Anderson, Shawn; Bell, Robert H; Haegert, Anne; Shukin, Robert; Wang, Yuzhuo; Fazli, Ladan; Hurtado-Coll, Antonio; Jones, Edward C; Hach, Faraz; Hormozdiari, Fereydoun; Hajirasouliha, Iman; Boutros, Paul C; Bristow, Robert G; Zhao, Yongjun; Marra, Marco A; Fanjul, Andrea; Maher, Christopher A; Chinnaiyan, Arul M; Rubin, Mark A; Beltran, Himisha; Sahinalp, S Cenk; Gleave, Martin E; Volik, Stanislav V; Collins, Colin C

    2012-07-01

    The current paradigm of cancer care relies on predictive nomograms which integrate detailed histopathology with clinical data. However, when predictions fail, the consequences for patients are often catastrophic, especially in prostate cancer where nomograms influence the decision to therapeutically intervene. We hypothesized that the high dimensional data afforded by massively parallel sequencing (MPS) is not only capable of providing biological insights, but may aid molecular pathology of prostate tumours. We assembled a cohort of six patients with high-risk disease, and performed deep RNA and shallow DNA sequencing in primary tumours and matched metastases where available. Our analysis identified copy number abnormalities, accurately profiled gene expression levels, and detected both differential splicing and expressed fusion genes. We revealed occult and potentially dormant metastases, unambiguously supporting the patients' clinical history, and implicated the REST transcriptional complex in the development of neuroendocrine prostate cancer, validating this finding in a large independent cohort. We massively expand on the number of novel fusion genes described in prostate cancer; provide fresh evidence for the growing link between fusion gene aetiology and gene expression profiles; and show the utility of fusion genes for molecular pathology. Finally, we identified chromothripsis in a patient with chronic prostatitis. Our results provide a strong foundation for further development of MPS-based molecular pathology.

  3. The DBP Phenotype Gc-1f/Gc-1f Is Associated with Reduced Risk of Cancer. The Tromsø Study

    PubMed Central

    Jorde, Rolf; Schirmer, Henrik; Wilsgaard, Tom; Bøgeberg Mathiesen, Ellisiv; Njølstad, Inger; Løchen, Maja-Lisa; Joakimsen, Ragnar Martin; Grimnes, Guri

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objective In addition to its role as a transport protein, the vitamin D binding protein (DBP) may also affect lipid metabolism, inflammation and carcinogenesis. There are three common variants of the DBP, Gc1s (1s), Gc1f (1f), Gc2 (2) that result in six common phenotypes (1s/1s, 1s/1f, 1s/2, 1f/1f, 1f/2, and 2/2). These phenotypes can be identified by genotyping for the two single nucleotide polymorphisms rs7041 and rs4588 in the GC gene. The DBP variants have different binding coefficients for the vitamin D metabolites, and accordingly there may be important relations between DBP phenotypes and health. Methods DNA was prepared from subjects who participated in the fourth survey of the Tromsø Study in 1994-1995 and who were registered with the endpoints myocardial infarction (MI), type 2 diabetes (T2DM), cancer or death as well as a randomly selected control group. The endpoint registers were complete up to 2010- 2013. Genotyping was performed for rs7041 and rs4588 and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) was measured. Results Genotyping for rs7041 and rs4588 was performed successfully in 11 704 subjects. Among these, 1660 were registered with incident MI, 958 with T2DM, 2410 with cancer and 4318 had died. Subjects with the DBP phenotype 1f/1f had 23 – 26 % reduced risk of incident cancer compared to the 1s/1s and 2/2 phenotypes (P < 0.02, Cox regression with gender as covariate). Differences in serum 25(OH)D levels could not explain the apparent cancer protective effect of the DBP variant 1f. In addition to cancer and 25(OH)D, there were significant associations between DBP phenotype and body height, hip circumference and serum calcium. Conclusion There are important biological differences between the common DBP phenotypes. If the relation between the DBP variant 1f and cancer is confirmed in other studies, determination of DBP phenotype may have clinical importance. PMID:25993554

  4. Acquired resistance to the second-generation androgen receptor antagonist enzalutamide in castration-resistant prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kregel, Steven; Chen, James L.; Tom, Westin; Krishnan, Venkatesh; Kach, Jacob; Brechka, Hannah; Fessenden, Tim B.; Isikbay, Masis; Paner, Gladell P.

    2016-01-01

    Enzalutamide (MDV3100) is a second generation Androgen Receptor (AR) antagonist with proven efficacy in the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). The majority of treated patients, however, develop resistance and disease progression and there is a critical need to identify novel targetable pathways mediating resistance. The purpose of this study was to develop and extensively characterize a series of enzalutamide-resistant prostate cancer cell lines. Four genetically distinct AR-positive and AR-pathway dependent prostate cancer cell lines (CWR-R1, LAPC-4, LNCaP, VCaP) were made resistant to enzalutamide by long-term culture (> 6 months) in enzalutamide. Extensive characterization of these lines documented divergent in vitro growth characteristics and AR pathway modulation. Enzalutamide-resistant LNCaP and CWR-R1 cells, but not LAPC-4 and VCAP cells, demonstrated increased castration-resistant and metastatic growth in vivo. Global gene expression analyses between short-term enzalutamide treated vs. enzalutamide-resistant cells identified both AR pathway and non-AR pathway associated changes that were restored upon acquisition of enzalutamide resistance. Further analyses revealed very few common gene expression changes between the four resistant cell lines. Thus, while AR-mediated pathways contribute in part to enzalutamide resistance, an unbiased approach across several cell lines demonstrates a greater contribution toward resistance via pleiotropic, non-AR mediated mechanisms. PMID:27036029

  5. Oxidative stress induces the acquisition of cancer stem-like phenotype in breast cancer detectable by using a Sox2 regulatory region-2 (SRR2) reporter

    PubMed Central

    Gopal, Keshav; Gupta, Nidhi; Zhang, Haifeng; Alshareef, Abdulraheem; Alqahtani, Hind; Bigras, Gilbert; Lewis, Jamie; Douglas, Donna; Kneteman, Norman; Lavasanifar, Afsaneh; Lai, Raymond

    2016-01-01

    We have previously identified a novel intra-tumoral dichotomy in breast cancer based on the differential responsiveness to a Sox2 reporter (SRR2), with cells responsive to SRR2 (RR) being more stem-like than unresponsive cells (RU). Here, we report that RR cells derived from MCF7 and ZR751 displayed a higher tolerance to oxidative stress than their RU counterparts, supporting the concept that the RR phenotype correlates with cancer stemness. Sox2 is directly implicated in this differential H2O2 tolerance, since siRNA knockdown of Sox2 in RR cells leveled this difference. Interestingly, H2O2 converted a proportion of RU cells into RR cells, as evidenced by their expression of luciferase and GFP, markers of SRR2 activity. Compared to RU cells, converted RR cells showed a significant increase in mammosphere formation and tolerance to H2O2. Converted RR cells also adopted the biochemical features of RR cells, as evidenced by their substantial increase in Sox2-SRR2 binding and the expression of 3 signature genes of RR cells (CD133, GPR49 and MUC15). Lastly, the H2O2-induced RU/RR conversion was detectable in a SCID mouse xenograft model and primary tumor cells. To conclude, the H2O2-induced RU/RR conversion has provided a novel model to study the acquisition of cancer stemness and plasticity. PMID:26683522

  6. In vivo relevant mixed urolithins and ellagic acid inhibit phenotypic and molecular colon cancer stem cell features: A new potentiality for ellagitannin metabolites against cancer.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Sánchez, María Ángeles; Karmokar, Ankur; González-Sarrías, Antonio; García-Villalba, Rocío; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Brown, Karen; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) offer a novel paradigm for colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment and dietary polyphenols may contribute to battle these cells. Specifically, polyphenol-derived colon metabolites have the potential to interact with and affect colon CSCs. We herein report the effects against colon CSCs of two mixtures of ellagitannin (ET) metabolites, ellagic acid (EA) and the gut microbiota-derived urolithins (Uro) at concentrations detected in the human colon tissues following the intake of ET-containing products (pomegranate, walnuts). These mixtures reduce phenotypic and molecular features in two models of colon CSCs: Caco-2 cells and primary tumour cells from a patient with CRC. The mixture containing mostly Uro-A (85% Uro-A, 10% Uro-C, 5% EA) was most effective at inhibiting the number and size of colonospheres and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH, a marker of chemoresistance) whereas the mixture containing less Uro-A but IsoUro-A and Uro-B (30% Uro-A, 50% IsoUro-A, 10% Uro-B, 5% Uro-C, 5% EA) had some effects on the number and size of colonospheres but not on ALDH. These data support a role for polyphenols metabolites in the control of colon cancer chemoresistance and relapse and encourage the research on the effects of polyphenols against CSCs.

  7. Induced cancer stem-like cells as a model for biological screening and discovery of agents targeting phenotypic traits of cancer stem cell.

    PubMed

    Nishi, Mayuko; Akutsu, Hidenori; Kudoh, Ayumi; Kimura, Hirokazu; Yamamoto, Naoki; Umezawa, Akihiro; Lee, Sam W; Ryo, Akihide

    2014-09-30

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) retain the capacity to propagate themselves through self-renewal and to produce heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells constituting the tumor. Novel drugs that target CSCs can potentially eliminate the tumor initiating cell population therefore resulting in complete cure of the cancer. We recently established a CSC-like model using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology to reprogram and partially differentiate human mammary epithelial MCF-10A cells. Using the induced CSC-like (iCSCL) model, we developed a phenotypic drug assay system to identify agents that inhibit the stemness and self-renewal properties of CSCs. The selectivity of the agents was assessed using three distinct assays characterized by cell viability, cellular stemness and tumor sphere formation. Using this approach, we found that withaferin A (WA), an Ayurvedic medicine constituent, was a potent inhibitor of CSC stemness leading to cellular senescence primarily via the induction of p21Cip1 expression. Moreover, WA exhibited strong anti-tumorigenic activity against the iCSCL. These results indicate that our iCSCL model provides an innovative high throughput platform for a simple, easy, and cost-effective method to search for novel CSC-targeting drugs. Furthermore, our current study identified WA as a putative drug candidate for abrogating the stemness and tumor initiating ability of CSCs.

  8. In vivo relevant mixed urolithins and ellagic acid inhibit phenotypic and molecular colon cancer stem cell features: A new potentiality for ellagitannin metabolites against cancer.

    PubMed

    Núñez-Sánchez, María Ángeles; Karmokar, Ankur; González-Sarrías, Antonio; García-Villalba, Rocío; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; García-Conesa, María Teresa; Brown, Karen; Espín, Juan Carlos

    2016-06-01

    Colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) offer a novel paradigm for colorectal cancer (CRC) treatment and dietary polyphenols may contribute to battle these cells. Specifically, polyphenol-derived colon metabolites have the potential to interact with and affect colon CSCs. We herein report the effects against colon CSCs of two mixtures of ellagitannin (ET) metabolites, ellagic acid (EA) and the gut microbiota-derived urolithins (Uro) at concentrations detected in the human colon tissues following the intake of ET-containing products (pomegranate, walnuts). These mixtures reduce phenotypic and molecular features in two models of colon CSCs: Caco-2 cells and primary tumour cells from a patient with CRC. The mixture containing mostly Uro-A (85% Uro-A, 10% Uro-C, 5% EA) was most effective at inhibiting the number and size of colonospheres and aldehyde dehydrogenase activity (ALDH, a marker of chemoresistance) whereas the mixture containing less Uro-A but IsoUro-A and Uro-B (30% Uro-A, 50% IsoUro-A, 10% Uro-B, 5% Uro-C, 5% EA) had some effects on the number and size of colonospheres but not on ALDH. These data support a role for polyphenols metabolites in the control of colon cancer chemoresistance and relapse and encourage the research on the effects of polyphenols against CSCs. PMID:26995228

  9. HER2 and uPAR cooperativity contribute to metastatic phenotype of HER2-positive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chandran, Vineesh Indira; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Venkatesh, Thejaswini; Vine, Kara Lea; Ranson, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (HER2)-positive breast carcinoma is highly aggressive and mostly metastatic in nature though curable/manageable in part by molecular targeted therapy. Recent evidence suggests a subtype of cells within HER2-positive breast tumors that concomitantly expresses the urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (uPAR) with inherent stem cell/mesenchymal-like properties promoting tumor cell motility and a metastatic phenotype. This HER-positive/uPAR-positive subtype may be partially responsible for the failure of HER2-targeted treatment strategies. Herein we discuss and substantiate the cumulative preclinical and clinical evidence on HER2-uPAR cooperativity in terms of gene co-amplification and/or mRNA/protein co-overexpression. We then propose a regulatory signaling model that we hypothesize to maintain upregulation and cooperativity between HER2 and uPAR in aggressive breast cancer. An improved understanding of the HER2/uPAR interaction in breast cancer will provide critical biomolecular information that may help better predict disease course and response to therapy. PMID:25897424

  10. Bioreactor-engineered cancer tissue-like structures mimic phenotypes, gene expression profiles and drug resistance patterns observed "in vivo".

    PubMed

    Hirt, Christian; Papadimitropoulos, Adam; Muraro, Manuele G; Mele, Valentina; Panopoulos, Evangelos; Cremonesi, Eleonora; Ivanek, Robert; Schultz-Thater, Elke; Droeser, Raoul A; Mengus, Chantal; Heberer, Michael; Oertli, Daniel; Iezzi, Giandomenica; Zajac, Paul; Eppenberger-Castori, Serenella; Tornillo, Luigi; Terracciano, Luigi; Martin, Ivan; Spagnoli, Giulio C

    2015-09-01

    Anticancer compound screening on 2D cell cultures poorly predicts "in vivo" performance, while conventional 3D culture systems are usually characterized by limited cell proliferation, failing to produce tissue-like-structures (TLS) suitable for drug testing. We addressed engineering of TLS by culturing cancer cells in porous scaffolds under perfusion flow. Colorectal cancer (CRC) HT-29 cells were cultured in 2D, on collagen sponges in static conditions or in perfused bioreactors, or injected subcutaneously in immunodeficient mice. Perfused 3D (p3D) cultures resulted in significantly higher (p < 0.0001) cell proliferation than static 3D (s3D) cultures and yielded more homogeneous TLS, with morphology and phenotypes similar to xenografts. Transcriptome analysis revealed a high correlation between xenografts and p3D cultures, particularly for gene clusters regulating apoptotic processes and response to hypoxia. Treatment with 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU), a frequently used but often clinically ineffective chemotherapy drug, induced apoptosis, down-regulation of anti-apoptotic genes (BCL-2, TRAF1, and c-FLIP) and decreased cell numbers in 2D, but only "nucleolar stress" in p3D and xenografts. Conversely, BCL-2 inhibitor ABT-199 induced cytotoxic effects in p3D but not in 2D cultures. Our findings advocate the importance of perfusion flow in 3D cultures of tumor cells to efficiently mimic functional features observed "in vivo" and to test anticancer compounds. PMID:26051518

  11. Reversal of multidrug resistance phenotype in human breast cancer cells using doxorubicin-liposome-microbubble complexes assisted by ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhiting; Yan, Fei; Jin, Qiaofeng; Li, Fei; Wu, Junru; Liu, Xin; Zheng, Hairong

    2014-01-28

    The circumvention of multidrug resistance (MDR) plays a critically important role in the success of chemotherapy. The aim of this work is to investigate the effectiveness and possible mechanisms of the reversal of MDR phenotype in human breast cancer cells by using doxorubicin-liposome-microbubble complexes (DLMC) assisted by ultrasound (US). DLMC is fabricated through conjugating doxorubicin (DOX)-liposome (DL) to the surface of microbubbles (MBs) via the biotin-avidin linkage. The resulting drug-loaded complexes are then characterized and incubated with MCF-7/ADR human breast cancer cells and followed by US exposure. Our results show the more rapid cellular uptake, evident enhancement of nuclear accumulation and less drug efflux in the resistant cells treated by DLMC+US than those treated by DL, DL+verapamil under the same US treatment or DLMC without US. The enhanced drug delivery and cellular uptake also associated with the increase of cytotoxicity against MCF-7/ADR cells, lower MCF-7/ADR cell viability and higher apoptotic cells. Mechanism investigations further disclose a significant increase of reactive oxygen species (ROS) level, enhanced DNA damage and obvious reduction of P-glycoprotein expression in the resistant cells treated with DLMC+US compared with the control cases of cells treated by DLMC, DL+US or DL+verapamil+US. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that DLMC in combination with US may provide an effective delivery of drug to sensitize cells to circumvent MDR and to enhance the therapeutic index of the chemotherapy.

  12. Narrowing the focus: a toolkit to systematically connect oncogenic signaling pathways with cancer phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Katherine R.; Wood, Kris C.

    2016-01-01

    Functional genomics approaches such as gain- and loss-of-function screening can efficiently reveal genes that control cancer cell growth, survival, signal transduction, and drug resistance, but distilling the results of large-scale screens into actionable therapeutic strategies is challenging given our incomplete understanding of the functions of many genes. Research over several decades, including the results of large-scale cancer sequencing projects, has made it clear that many oncogenic properties are controlled by a common set of core oncogenic signaling pathways. By directly screening this core set of pathways, rather than much larger numbers of individual genes, it may be possible to more directly and efficiently connect functional genomic screening results with therapeutic targets. Here, we describe the recent development of methods to directly screen oncogenic pathways in high-throughput. We summarize the results of studies that have used pathway-centric screening to map the pathways of resistance to targeted therapies in diverse cancer types, then conclude by expanding on potential future applications of this approach.

  13. Interstitial flows promote an amoeboid cell phenotype and motility of breast cancer cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tung, Chih-Kuan; Huang, Yu Ling; Zheng, Angela; Wu, Mingming

    2015-03-01

    Lymph nodes, the drainage systems for interstitial flows, are clinically known to be the first metastatic sites of many cancer types including breast and prostate cancers. Here, we demonstrate that breast cancer cell morphology and motility is modulated by interstitial flows in a cell-ECM adhesion dependent manner. The average aspect ratios of the cells are significantly lower (or are more amoeboid like) in the presence of the flow in comparison to the case when the flow is absent. The addition of exogenous adhesion molecules within the extracellular matrix (type I collagen) enhances the overall aspect ratio (or are more mesenchymal like) of the cell population. Using measured cell trajectories, we find that the persistence of the amoeboid cells (aspect ratio less than 2.0) is shorter than that of mesenchymal cells. However, the maximum speed of the amoeboid cells is larger than that of mesenchymal cells. Together these findings provide the novel insight that interstitial flows promote amoeboid cell morphology and motility and highlight the plasticity of tumor cell motility in response to its biophysical environment. Supported by NIH Grant R21CA138366.

  14. Coexpression analysis of large cancer datasets provides insight into the cellular phenotypes of the tumour microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Biopsies taken from individual tumours exhibit extensive differences in their cellular composition due to the inherent heterogeneity of cancers and vagaries of sample collection. As a result genes expressed in specific cell types, or associated with certain biological processes are detected at widely variable levels across samples in transcriptomic analyses. This heterogeneity also means that the level of expression of genes expressed specifically in a given cell type or process, will vary in line with the number of those cells within samples or activity of the pathway, and will therefore be correlated in their expression. Results Using a novel 3D network-based approach we have analysed six large human cancer microarray datasets derived from more than 1,000 individuals. Based upon this analysis, and without needing to isolate the individual cells, we have defined a broad spectrum of cell-type and pathway-specific gene signatures present in cancer expression data which were also found to be largely conserved in a number of independent datasets. Conclusions The conserved signature of the tumour-associated macrophage is shown to be largely-independent of tumour cell type. All stromal cell signatures have some degree of correlation with each other, since they must all be inversely correlated with the tumour component. However, viewed in the context of established tumours, the interactions between stromal components appear to be multifactorial given the level of one component e.g. vasculature, does not correlate tightly with another, such as the macrophage. PMID:23845084

  15. Targeting ceramide synthase 6–dependent metastasis-prone phenotype in lung cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Motoshi; Cao, Ke; Kato, Seiichi; Komizu, Yuji; Mizutani, Naoki; Tanaka, Kouji; Arima, Chinatsu; Tai, Mei Chee; Yanagisawa, Kiyoshi; Togawa, Norie; Shiraishi, Takahiro; Usami, Noriyasu; Taniguchi, Tetsuo; Fukui, Takayuki; Yokoi, Kohei; Wakahara, Keiko; Hasegawa, Yoshinori; Mizutani, Yukiko; Igarashi, Yasuyuki; Inokuchi, Jin-ichi; Iwaki, Soichiro; Fujii, Satoshi; Satou, Akira; Matsumoto, Yoko; Ueoka, Ryuichi; Tamiya-Koizumi, Keiko; Murate, Takashi; Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Kyogashima, Mamoru; Takahashi, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids make up a family of molecules associated with an array of biological functions, including cell death and migration. Sphingolipids are often altered in cancer, though how these alterations lead to tumor formation and progression is largely unknown. Here, we analyzed non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) specimens and cell lines and determined that ceramide synthase 6 (CERS6) is markedly overexpressed compared with controls. Elevated CERS6 expression was due in part to reduction of microRNA-101 (miR-101) and was associated with increased invasion and poor prognosis. CERS6 knockdown in NSCLC cells altered the ceramide profile, resulting in decreased cell migration and invasion in vitro, and decreased the frequency of RAC1-positive lamellipodia formation while CERS6 overexpression promoted it. In murine models, CERS6 knockdown in transplanted NSCLC cells attenuated lung metastasis. Furthermore, combined treatment with l-α-dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine liposome and the glucosylceramide synthase inhibitor D-PDMP induced cell death in association with ceramide accumulation and promoted cancer cell apoptosis and tumor regression in murine models. Together, these results indicate that CERS6-dependent ceramide synthesis and maintenance of ceramide in the cellular membrane are essential for lamellipodia formation and metastasis. Moreover, these results suggest that targeting this homeostasis has potential as a therapeutic strategy for CERS6-overexpressing NSCLC. PMID:26650179

  16. A phenotype from tumor stroma based on the expression of metalloproteases and their inhibitors, associated with prognosis in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Eiró, Noemí; Fernandez-Garcia, Belen; Vázquez, Julio; del Casar, José M; González, Luis O; Vizoso, Francisco J

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present work was to evaluate the impact of the phenotype of both mononuclear inflammatory cells (MICs) and cancer-associated fibroblast (CAFs) in early breast cancer patients, specifically assessed as to their expression of MMP/TIMP relative to their position within the tumor (i.e., localization at the tumor center or invasive front) and the occurrence of distant metastases.. An immunohistochemical study was performed using tissue arrays and specific antibodies against matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)−1, −2, −7, −9, −11, −13 and −14, tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinase (TIMP)−1, −2 and −3, both at tumor center and at invasive front, in 107 patients with primary ductal invasive breast tumors. Data were analyzed by unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis. Our results indicated that MMP-11 expression by MICs, and TIMP-2 expression by CAFs at either the tumor center or the invasive front, were the most potent independent prognostic factors for predicting the clinical outcome of patients. Using the unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis, we found well-defined clusters of cases identifying subgroups of tumors showing a high molecular profile of MMPs/TIMPs expression by stromal cells (CAFs and MICs), both at the tumor center and at the invasive front, which were strongly associated with a higher prevalence of distant metastasis. In addition, we found combinations of these clusters defining subpopulations of breast carcinomas differing widely in their clinical outcome. The results presented here identify biologic markers useful to categorize patients into different subgroups based on their tumor stroma, which may contribute to improved understanding of the prognosis of breast cancer patients. PMID:26140253

  17. Targeting glucosylceramide synthase induction of cell surface globotriaosylceramide (Gb3) in acquired cisplatin-resistance of lung cancer and malignant pleural mesothelioma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tyler, Andreas; Johansson, Anders; Karlsson, Terese; Gudey, Shyam Kumar; Brännström, Thomas; Grankvist, Kjell; Behnam-Motlagh, Parviz

    2015-08-01

    Background: Acquired resistance to cisplatin treatment is a caveat when treating patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM). Ceramide increases in response to chemotherapy, leading to proliferation arrest and apoptosis. However, a tumour stress activation of glucosylceramide synthase (GCS) follows to eliminate ceramide by formation of glycosphingolipids (GSLs) such as globotriaosylceramide (Gb3), the functional receptor of verotoxin-1. Ceramide elimination enhances cell proliferation and apoptosis blockade, thus stimulating tumor progression. GSLs transactivate multidrug resistance 1/P-glycoprotein (MDR1) and multidrug resistance-associated protein 1 (MRP1) expression which further prevents ceramide accumulation and stimulates drug efflux. We investigated the expression of Gb3, MDR1 and MRP1 in NSCLC and MPM cells with acquired cisplatin resistance, and if GCS activity or MDR1 pump inhibitors would reduce their expression and reverse cisplatin-resistance. Methods: Cell surface expression of Gb3, MDR1 and MRP1 and intracellular expression of MDR1 and MRP1 was analyzed by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy on P31 MPM and H1299 NSCLC cells and subline cells with acquired cisplatin resistance. The effect of GCS inhibitor PPMP and MDR1 pump inhibitor cyclosporin A for 72 h on expression and cisplatin cytotoxicity was tested. Results: The cisplatin-resistant cells expressed increased cell surface Gb3. Cell surface Gb3 expression of resistant cells was annihilated by PPMP whereas cyclosporin A decreased Gb3 and MDR1 expression in H1299 cells. No decrease of MDR1 by PPMP was noted in using flow cytometry, whereas a decrease of MDR1 in H1299 and H1299res was indicated with confocal microscopy. No certain co-localization of Gb3 and MDR1 was noted. PPMP, but not cyclosporin A, potentiated cisplatin cytotoxicity in all cells. Conclusions: Cell surface Gb3 expression is a likely tumour biomarker for acquired cisplatin

  18. β-Catenin and NF-κB co-activation triggered by TLR3 stimulation facilitates stem cell-like phenotypes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Jia, D; Yang, W; Li, L; Liu, H; Tan, Y; Ooi, S; Chi, L; Filion, L G; Figeys, D; Wang, L

    2015-02-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are responsible for tumor initiation and progression. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are highly expressed in cancer cells and associated with poor prognosis. However, a linkage between CSCs and TLRs is unclear, and potential intervention strategies to prevent TLR stimulation-induced CSC formation and underlying mechanisms are lacking. Here, we demonstrate that stimulation of toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) promotes breast cancer cells toward a CSC phenotype in vitro and in vivo. Importantly, conventional NF-κB signaling pathway is not exclusively responsible for TLR3 activation-enriched CSCs. Intriguingly, simultaneous activation of both β-catenin and NF-κB signaling pathways, but neither alone, is required for the enhanced CSC phenotypes. We have further identified a small molecule cardamonin that can concurrently inhibit β-catenin and NF-κB signals. Cardamonin is capable of effectively abolishing TLR3 activation-enhanced CSC phenotypes in vitro and successfully controlling TLR3 stimulation-induced tumor growth in human breast cancer xenografts. These findings may provide a foundation for developing new strategies to prevent the induction of CSCs during cancer therapies.

  19. Gene Expression Correlations in Human Cancer Cell Lines Define Molecular Interaction Networks for Epithelial Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Kohn, Kurt W.; Zeeberg, Barry M.; Reinhold, William C.; Pommier, Yves

    2014-01-01

    Using gene expression data to enhance our knowledge of control networks relevant to cancer biology and therapy is a challenging but urgent task. Based on the premise that genes that are expressed together in a variety of cell types are likely to functions together, we derived mutually correlated genes that function together in various processes in epithelial-like tumor cells. Expression-correlated genes were derived from data for the NCI-60 human tumor cell lines, as well as data from the Broad Institute’s CCLE cell lines. NCI-60 cell lines that selectively expressed a mutually correlated subset of tight junction genes served as a signature for epithelial-like cancer cells. Those signature cell lines served as a seed to derive other correlated genes, many of which had various other epithelial-related functions. Literature survey yielded molecular interaction and function information about those genes, from which molecular interaction maps were assembled. Many of the genes had epithelial functions unrelated to tight junctions, demonstrating that new function categories were elicited. The most highly correlated genes were implicated in the following epithelial functions: interactions at tight junctions (CLDN7, CLDN4, CLDN3, MARVELD3, MARVELD2, TJP3, CGN, CRB3, LLGL2, EPCAM, LNX1); interactions at adherens junctions (CDH1, ADAP1, CAMSAP3); interactions at desmosomes (PPL, PKP3, JUP); transcription regulation of cell-cell junction complexes (GRHL1 and 2); epithelial RNA splicing regulators (ESRP1 and 2); epithelial vesicle traffic (RAB25, EPN3, GRHL2, EHF, ADAP1, MYO5B); epithelial Ca(+2) signaling (ATP2C2, S100A14, BSPRY); terminal differentiation of epithelial cells (OVOL1 and 2, ST14, PRSS8, SPINT1 and 2); maintenance of apico-basal polarity (RAB25, LLGL2, EPN3). The findings provide a foundation for future studies to elucidate the functions of regulatory networks specific to epithelial-like cancer cells and to probe for anti-cancer drug targets. PMID:24940735

  20. Elevated Cellular PD1/PD-L1 Expression Confers Acquired Resistance to Cisplatin in Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fei; Pang, Jiuxia; Peng, Yong; Molina, Julian R; Yang, Ping; Liu, Shujun

    2016-01-01

    Although small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is highly responsive to chemotherapies (e.g., cisplatin-etoposide doublet), virtually almost all responsive SCLC patients experience disease recurrence characterized by drug resistance. The mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance remain elusive. Here we report that cell-intrinsic expression of PD1 and PD-L1, two immune checkpoints, is required for sustained expansion of SCLC cells under cisplatin selection. Indeed, PD1 and PD-L1 were expressed at a higher level in lung cancer cell lines, tumor tissues, and importantly, in SCLC cells resistant to cisplatin (H69R, H82R), when compared to respective controls. Genetic abrogation of PD1 and PD-L1 in H69R and H82R cells decreased their proliferation rate, and restored their sensitivity to cisplatin. Mechanistically, PD-L1 upregulation in H69R and H82R cells was attributed to the overexpression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) or receptor tyrosine kinase KIT, as knockdown of DNMT1 or KIT in H69R and H82R cells led to PD-L1 downregulation. Consequently, combined knockdown of PD-L1 with KIT or DNMT1 resulted in more pronounced inhibition of H69R and H82R cell growth. Thus, cell intrinsic PD1/PD-L1 signaling may be a predictor for poor efficacy of cisplatin treatment, and targeting the cellular PD1/PD-L1 axis may improve chemosensitization of aggressive SCLC.

  1. Acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer: a new era begins.

    PubMed

    Remon, J; Morán, T; Majem, M; Reguart, N; Dalmau, E; Márquez-Medina, D; Lianes, P

    2014-02-01

    The discovery of mutated oncogenes has opened up a new era for the development of more effective treatments for non-small cell lung cancer patients (NSCLC) harbouring EGFR mutations. However, patients with EGFR-activating mutation ultimately develop acquired resistance (AR). Several studies have identified some of the mechanisms involved in the development of AR to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) that can be potential therapeutic strategies, although in up to 30% of cases, the underlying mechanism of AR are still unexplained. In this review we aim to summarize the main mechanisms of AR to EGFR TKI and some clinical strategies that can be used in the daily clinical practice to overcome this resistance and try to prolong the outcomes in this subgroup of patients.

  2. New findings on primary and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer: do all roads lead to RAS?

    PubMed

    Bronte, Giuseppe; Silvestris, Nicola; Castiglia, Marta; Galvano, Antonio; Passiglia, Francesco; Sortino, Giovanni; Cicero, Giuseppe; Rolfo, Christian; Peeters, Marc; Bazan, Viviana; Fanale, Daniele; Giordano, Antonio; Russo, Antonio

    2015-09-22

    Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy with the monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab is the main targeted treatment to combine with standard chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. Many clinical studies have shown the benefit of the addition of these agents for patients without mutations in the EGFR pathway. Many biomarkers, including KRAS and NRAS mutations, BRAF mutations, PIK3CA mutations, PTEN loss, AREG and EREG expression, and HER-2 amplification have already been identified to select responders to anti-EGFR agents. Among these alterations KRAS and NRAS mutations are currently recognized as the best predictive factors for primary resistance. Liquid biopsy, which helps to isolate circulating tumor DNA, is an innovative method to study both primary and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. However, high-sensitivity techniques should be used to enable the identification of a wide set of gene mutations related to resistance.

  3. New findings on primary and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR therapy in metastatic colorectal cancer: do all roads lead to RAS?

    PubMed Central

    Castiglia, Marta; Galvano, Antonio; Passiglia, Francesco; Sortino, Giovanni; Cicero, Giuseppe; Rolfo, Christian; Peeters, Marc; Bazan, Viviana; Fanale, Daniele; Giordano, Antonio; Russo, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Anti-epidermal growth factor receptor therapy with the monoclonal antibodies cetuximab and panitumumab is the main targeted treatment to combine with standard chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer. Many clinical studies have shown the benefit of the addition of these agents for patients without mutations in the EGFR pathway. Many biomarkers, including KRAS and NRAS mutations, BRAF mutations, PIK3CA mutations, PTEN loss, AREG and EREG expression, and HER-2 amplification have already been identified to select responders to anti-EGFR agents. Among these alterations KRAS and NRAS mutations are currently recognized as the best predictive factors for primary resistance. Liquid biopsy, which helps to isolate circulating tumor DNA, is an innovative method to study both primary and acquired resistance to anti-EGFR monoclonal antibodies. However, high-sensitivity techniques should be used to enable the identification of a wide set of gene mutations related to resistance. PMID:26318427

  4. Taxonomy of breast cancer based on normal cell phenotype predicts outcome

    PubMed Central

    Santagata, Sandro; Thakkar, Ankita; Ergonul, Ayse; Wang, Bin; Woo, Terri; Hu, Rong; Harrell, J. Chuck; McNamara, George; Schwede, Matthew; Culhane, Aedin C.; Kindelberger, David; Rodig, Scott; Richardson, Andrea; Schnitt, Stuart J.; Tamimi, Rulla M.; Ince, Tan A.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate classification is essential for understanding the pathophysiology of a disease and can inform therapeutic choices. For hematopoietic malignancies, a classification scheme based on the phenotypic similarity between tumor cells and normal cells has been successfully used to define tumor subtypes; however, use of normal cell types as a reference by which to classify solid tumors has not been widely emulated, in part due to more limited understanding of epithelial cell differentiation compared with hematopoiesis. To provide a better definition of the subtypes of epithelial cells comprising the breast epithelium, we performed a systematic analysis of a large set of breast epithelial markers in more than 15,000 normal breast cells, which identified 11 differentiation states for normal luminal cells. We then applied information from this analysis to classify human breast tumors based on normal cell types into 4 major subtypes, HR0–HR3, which were differentiated by vitamin D, androgen, and estrogen hormone receptor (HR) expression. Examination of 3,157 human breast tumors revealed that these HR subtypes were distinct from the current classification scheme, which is based on estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2. Patient outcomes were best when tumors expressed all 3 hormone receptors (subtype HR3) and worst when they expressed none of the receptors (subtype HR0). Together, these data provide an ontological classification scheme associated with patient survival differences and provides actionable insights for treating breast tumors. PMID:24463450

  5. SU-E-J-241: Creation of Ventilation CT From Daily 4D CTs Or 4D Conebeam CTs Acquired During IGRT for Thoracic Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, A; Ahunbay, E; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to create ventilation CTs from daily 4D CTs or 4D KV conebeam CTs (4DCBCT) acquired during image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for thoracic tumors, and to explore the potential for using the ventilation CTs as a means for early detection of lung injury during radiation treatment. Methods: 4DCT acquired using an in-room CT (CTVision, Siemens) and 4DCBCT acquired using the X-ray Volume Imaging (XVI) system (Infinity, Elekta) for representative lung cancer patients were analyzed. These 4D data sets were sorted into 10 phase images. A newly-available deformable image registration tool (ADMIRE, Elekta) is used to deform the phase images at the end of exhale (EE) to the phase images at the end of inhale (EI). The lung volumes at EI and EE were carefully contoured using an intensity-based auto-contour tool and then manually edited. The ventilation images were calculated from the variations of CT numbers of those voxels masked by the lung contour at EI between the registered phase images. The deformable image registration is also performed between the daily 4D images and planning 4DCT, and the resulting deformable field vector (DFV) is used to deform the planning doses to the daily images by an in-house Matlab program. Results: The ventilation images were successfully created. The tide volumes calculated using the ventilation images agree with those measured through volume difference of contours at EE and EI, indicating the accuracy of ventilation images. The association between the delivered doses and the change of lung ventilation from the daily ventilation CTs is identified. Conclusions: A method to create the ventilation CT using daily 4DCTs or 4D KV conebeam CTs was developed and demonstrated.

  6. Chemotherapy With Erlotinib or Chemotherapy Alone in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer With Acquired Resistance to EGFR Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitors

    PubMed Central

    Oxnard, Geoffrey R.; Digumarthy, Subba; Muzikansky, Alona; Jackman, David M.; Lennes, Inga T.; Sequist, Lecia V.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutant non-small cell lung cancer has an oncogene-addicted biology that confers sensitivity to EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Published data suggest that EGFR addiction persists after development of TKI acquired resistance, leading many clinicians to continue TKI with subsequent chemotherapy; however, this strategy has not been formally evaluated. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed an institutional database to identify patients with advanced EGFR mutation with acquired resistance who subsequently received chemotherapy. Patients were classified as receiving chemotherapy with continued erlotinib or chemotherapy alone. We assessed differences in outcomes between the two strategies. Results. Seventy-eight patients were included, 34 treated with chemotherapy and erlotinib and 44 treated with chemotherapy alone. Objective response rate was evaluable in 57 patients and was 41% for those treated with chemotherapy and erlotinib and 18% for those treated with chemotherapy alone. After adjusting for chemotherapy regimen and length of initial TKI course, the odds ratio for the response rate was 0.20 (95% confidence interval: 0.05–0.78; p = .02) favoring treatment with chemotherapy and erlotinib. The median progression-free survival was 4.4 months on chemotherapy and erlotinib and 4.2 months on chemotherapy alone (adjusted hazard ratio = 0.79; 95% confidence interval: 0.48–1.29; p = .34). There was no difference in overall survival. Conclusion. This is the first study, to our knowledge, to demonstrate that continuation of EGFR TKI with chemotherapy in patients with acquired resistance improves outcomes compared with chemotherapy alone. We observed an improved response rate but no difference in progression-free survival or overall survival. A larger prospective clinical trial is needed to evaluate this promising strategy further. PMID:24072220

  7. Robot-Guided Atomic Force Microscopy for Mechano-Visual Phenotyping of Cancer Specimens.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wenjin; Brandes, Zachary; Roy, Rajarshi; Chekmareva, Marina; Pandya, Hardik J; Desai, Jaydev P; Foran, David J

    2015-10-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and other forms of scanning probe microscopy have been successfully used to assess biomechanical and bioelectrical characteristics of individual cells. When extending such approaches to heterogeneous tissue, there exists the added challenge of traversing the tissue while directing the probe to the exact location of the targeted biological components under study. Such maneuvers are extremely challenging owing to the relatively small field of view, limited availability of reliable visual cues, and lack of context. In this study we designed a system that leverages the visual topology of the serial tissue sections of interest to help guide robotic control of the AFM stage to provide the requisite navigational support. The process begins by mapping the whole-slide image of a stained specimen with a well-matched, consecutive section of unstained section of tissue in a piecewise fashion. The morphological characteristics and localization of any biomarkers in the stained section can be used to position the AFM probe in the unstained tissue at regions of interest where the AFM measurements are acquired. This general approach can be utilized in various forms of microscopy for navigation assistance in tissue specimens.

  8. Robot-Guided Atomic Force Microscopy for Mechano-Visual Phenotyping of Cancer Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wenjin; Brandes, Zachary; Roy, Rajarshi; Chekmareva, Marina; Pandya, Hardik J.; Desai, Jaydev P.; Foran, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and other forms of scanning probe microscopy have been successfully used to assess biomechanical and bioelectrical characteristics of individual cells. When extending such approaches to heterogeneous tissue, there exists the added challenge of traversing the tissue while directing the probe to the exact location of the targeted biological components under study. Such maneuvers are extremely challenging owing to the relatively small field of view, limited availability of reliable visual cues, and lack of context. In this study we designed a system that leverages the visual topology of the serial tissue sections of interest to help guide robotic control of the AFM stage to provide the requisite navigational support. The process begins by mapping the whole-slide image of a stained specimen with a well-matched, consecutive section of unstained section of tissue in a piecewise fashion. The morphological characteristics and localization of any biomarkers in the stained section can be used to position the AFM probe in the unstained tissue at regions of interest where the AFM measurements are acquired. This general approach can be utilized in various forms of microscopy for navigation assistance in tissue specimens. PMID:26343283

  9. Elevated Cellular PD1/PD-L1 Expression Confers Acquired Resistance to Cisplatin in Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Fei; Pang, Jiuxia; Peng, Yong; Molina, Julian R.; Yang, Ping; Liu, Shujun

    2016-01-01

    Although small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is highly responsive to chemotherapies (e.g., cisplatin-etoposide doublet), virtually almost all responsive SCLC patients experience disease recurrence characterized by drug resistance. The mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance remain elusive. Here we report that cell-intrinsic expression of PD1 and PD-L1, two immune checkpoints, is required for sustained expansion of SCLC cells under cisplatin selection. Indeed, PD1 and PD-L1 were expressed at a higher level in lung cancer cell lines, tumor tissues, and importantly, in SCLC cells resistant to cisplatin (H69R, H82R), when compared to respective controls. Genetic abrogation of PD1 and PD-L1 in H69R and H82R cells decreased their proliferation rate, and restored their sensitivity to cisplatin. Mechanistically, PD-L1 upregulation in H69R and H82R cells was attributed to the overexpression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) or receptor tyrosine kinase KIT, as knockdown of DNMT1 or KIT in H69R and H82R cells led to PD-L1 downregulation. Consequently, combined knockdown of PD-L1 with KIT or DNMT1 resulted in more pronounced inhibition of H69R and H82R cell growth. Thus, cell intrinsic PD1/PD-L1 signaling may be a predictor for poor efficacy of cisplatin treatment, and targeting the cellular PD1/PD-L1 axis may improve chemosensitization of aggressive SCLC. PMID:27610620

  10. Prostate cancer bone metastases acquire resistance to androgen deprivation via WNT5A-mediated BMP-6 induction

    PubMed Central

    Lee, G T; Kang, D I; Ha, Y-S; Jung, Y S; Chung, J; Min, K; Kim, T H; Moon, K H; Chung, J M; Lee, D H; Kim, W-J; Kim, I Y

    2014-01-01

    Background: Androgen ablation is the first-line therapy for patients with metastatic prostate cancer (CaP). However, castration resistance will eventually emerge. In the present study, we have investigated the role of bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) in the context of bone metastases. Methods: We initially investigated the clinical course of 158 men with advanced CaP who were treated with primary androgen deprivation therapy. To elucidate the underlying mechanism of CRPC in the context of bone metastases, we examined the impact of bone stromal cells on CaP in the absence of androgens using a co-culture model. Results: In the 158 patients, we found that the median time to prostate-specific antigen progression was significantly shorter when bone metastases were present (14 months (95% CI, 10.2–17.8 months) vs 57 months (95% CI, 19.4–94.6 months)). These results suggest that bone–tumour interactions may accelerate castration resistance. Consistent with this hypothesis, in vitro co-cultures demonstrated that CaP cells proliferated under an androgen-depleted condition when incubated with bone stromal cells. Mechanistically, gene expression analysis using quantitative polymerase chain reaction arrays showed a dramatic induction of BMP-6 by CaP cell lines in the presence of bone stromal cells. Further studies revealed that WNT5A derived from bone stromal cells induced the expression of BMP-6 by CaP cells; BMP-6 in turn stimulated cellular proliferation of CaP cells in an androgen-deprived media via a physical interaction between Smad5 and β-catenin. Intracellularly, WNT5A increased BMP-6 expression via protein kinase C/NF-κB pathway in CaP cell lines. Conclusions: These observations suggest that bone–CaP interaction leads to castration resistance via WNT5A/BMP-6 loop. PMID:24518599

  11. Elevated Cellular PD1/PD-L1 Expression Confers Acquired Resistance to Cisplatin in Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells.

    PubMed

    Yan, Fei; Pang, Jiuxia; Peng, Yong; Molina, Julian R; Yang, Ping; Liu, Shujun

    2016-01-01

    Although small cell lung cancer (SCLC) is highly responsive to chemotherapies (e.g., cisplatin-etoposide doublet), virtually almost all responsive SCLC patients experience disease recurrence characterized by drug resistance. The mechanisms underlying cisplatin resistance remain elusive. Here we report that cell-intrinsic expression of PD1 and PD-L1, two immune checkpoints, is required for sustained expansion of SCLC cells under cisplatin selection. Indeed, PD1 and PD-L1 were expressed at a higher level in lung cancer cell lines, tumor tissues, and importantly, in SCLC cells resistant to cisplatin (H69R, H82R), when compared to respective controls. Genetic abrogation of PD1 and PD-L1 in H69R and H82R cells decreased their proliferation rate, and restored their sensitivity to cisplatin. Mechanistically, PD-L1 upregulation in H69R and H82R cells was attributed to the overexpression of DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1) or receptor tyrosine kinase KIT, as knockdown of DNMT1 or KIT in H69R and H82R cells led to PD-L1 downregulation. Consequently, combined knockdown of PD-L1 with KIT or DNMT1 resulted in more pronounced inhibition of H69R and H82R cell growth. Thus, cell intrinsic PD1/PD-L1 signaling may be a predictor for poor efficacy of cisplatin treatment, and targeting the cellular PD1/PD-L1 axis may improve chemosensitization of aggressive SCLC. PMID:27610620

  12. [Acquired haemophilia (acquired factor VIII inhibitor)].

    PubMed

    Ceresetto, José M; Duboscq, Cristina; Fondevila, Carlos; Tezanos Pinto, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Acquired haemophilia is a rare disorder. The clinical picture ranges from mild ecchymosis and anaemia to life threatening bleeding in up to 20% of patients. The disease is produced by an antibody against Factor VIII and it usually occurs in the elderly, with no previous history of a bleeding disorder. It can be associated to an underlying condition such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, drugs or pregnancy. It has a typical laboratory pattern with isolated prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) that fails to correct upon mixing tests with normal plasma and low levels of factor VIII. Treatment recommendations are based on controlling the acute bleeding episodes with either bypassing agent, recombinant activated factor VII or activated prothrombin complex concentrate, and eradication of the antibody with immunosuppressive therapy.

  13. C. elegans and mutants with chronic nicotine exposure as a novel model of cancer phenotype.

    PubMed

    Kanteti, Rajani; Dhanasingh, Immanuel; El-Hashani, Essam; Riehm, Jacob J; Stricker, Thomas; Nagy, Stanislav; Zaborin, Alexander; Zaborina, Olga; Biron, David; Alverdy, John C; Im, Hae Kyung; Siddiqui, Shahid; Padilla, Pamela A; Salgia, Ravi

    2016-01-01

    We previously investigated MET and its oncogenic mutants relevant to lung cancer in C. elegans. The inactive orthlogues of the receptor tyrosine kinase Eph and MET, namely vab-1 and RB2088 respectively, the temperature sensitive constitutively active form of KRAS, SD551 (let-60; GA89) and the inactive c-CBL equivalent mutants in sli-1 (PS2728, PS1258, and MT13032) when subjected to chronic exposure of nicotine resulted in a significant loss in egg-laying capacity and fertility. While the vab-1 mutant revealed increased circular motion in response to nicotine, the other mutant strains failed to show any effect. Overall locomotion speed increased with increasing nicotine concentration in all tested mutant strains except in the vab-1 mutants. Moreover, chronic nicotine exposure, in general, upregulated kinases and phosphatases. Taken together, these studies provide evidence in support of C. elegans as initial in vivo model to study nicotine and its effects on oncogenic mutations identified in humans.

  14. Treatment to sustain a Th17-type phenotype to prevent skewing toward Treg and to limit premalignant lesion progression to cancer.

    PubMed

    Young, M Rita I; Levingston, Corinne A; Johnson, Sara D

    2016-05-15

    While immune suppression is a hallmark of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HSNCC), the immunological impact of premalignant oral lesions, which often precedes development of HNSCC, is unknown. The present study assessed the changes in splenic and draining lymph node CD4(+) cell populations and their production of select cytokines that occur in mice with carcinogen-induced premalignant oral lesions and the changes that occur as lesions progress to oral cancer. These studies found skewing toward Th1 and Th17-type phenotypes in the spleen and lymph nodes of mice with premalignant oral lesions and a shift to Treg as lesions progress to cancer. Since the role of Th17 cells in the progression from premalignant lesions to cancer is not clear, studies determined the immunological and clinical effect of treating mice bearing premalignant oral lesions with a TGF-β type 1 receptor inhibitor plus IL-23 as an approach to sustain the Th17 phenotype. These studies showed that the treatment approach not only sustained the Th17 phenotype, but also increased distal spleen cell and regional lymph node cell production of other stimulatory/inflammatory mediators and slowed premalignant lesion progression to cancer.

  15. Refinement of the prediction of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) phenotypes with respect to enzyme activity and urinary bladder cancer risk.

    PubMed

    Selinski, Silvia; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Ickstadt, Katja; Hengstler, Jan G; Golka, Klaus

    2013-12-01

    Polymorphisms of N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) are well known to modify urinary bladder cancer risk as well as efficacy and toxicity of pharmaceuticals via reduction in the enzyme's acetylation capacity. Nevertheless, the discussion about optimal NAT2 phenotype prediction, particularly differentiation between different degrees of slow acetylation, is still controversial. Therefore, we investigated the impact of single nucleotide polymorphisms and their haplotypes on slow acetylation in vivo and on bladder cancer risk. For this purpose, we used a study cohort of 1,712 bladder cancer cases and 2,020 controls genotyped for NAT2 by RFLP-PCR and for the tagSNP rs1495741 by TaqMan(®) assay. A subgroup of 344 individuals was phenotyped by the caffeine test in vivo. We identified an 'ultra-slow' acetylator phenotype based on combined *6A/*6A, *6A/*7B and *7B/*7B genotypes containing the homozygous minor alleles of C282T (rs1041983, *6A, *7B) and G590A (rs1799930, *6A). 'Ultra-slow' acetylators have significantly about 32 and 46 % lower activities of caffeine metabolism compared with other slow acetylators and with the *5B/*5B genotypes, respectively (P < 0.01, both). The 'ultra-slow' genotype showed an association with bladder cancer risk in the univariate analysis (OR = 1.31, P = 0.012) and a trend adjusted for age, gender and smoking habits (OR = 1.22, P = 0.082). In contrast, slow acetylators in general were not associated with bladder cancer risk, neither in the univariate (OR = 1.02, P = 0.78) nor in the adjusted (OR = 0.98, P = 0.77) analysis. In conclusion, this study suggests that NAT2 phenotype prediction should be refined by consideration of an 'ultra-slow' acetylation genotype.

  16. Systems Medicine for Lung Diseases: Phenotypes and Precision Medicine in Cancer, Infection, and Allergy.

    PubMed

    Schmeck, Bernd; Bertrams, Wilhelm; Lai, Xin; Vera, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Lung diseases cause an enormous socioeconomic burden. Four of them are among the ten most important causes of deaths worldwide: Pneumonia has the highest death toll of all infectious diseases, lung cancer kills the most people of all malignant proliferative disorders, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) ranks third in mortality among the chronic noncommunicable diseases, and tuberculosis is still one of the most important chronic infectious diseases. Despite all efforts, for example, by the World Health Organization and clinical and experimental researchers, these diseases are still highly prevalent and harmful. This is in part due to the specific organization of tissue homeostasis, architecture, and immunity of the lung. Recently, several consortia have formed and aim to bring together clinical and molecular data from big cohorts of patients with lung diseases with novel experimental setups, biostatistics, bioinformatics, and mathematical modeling. This "systems medicine" concept will help to match the different disease modalities with adequate therapeutic and possibly preventive strategies for individual patients in the sense of precision medicine.

  17. Epigenetic regulation of ID4 in the determination of the BRCAness phenotype in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Branham, M T; Campoy, E; Laurito, S; Branham, R; Urrutia, G; Orozco, J; Gago, F; Urrutia, R; Roqué, M

    2016-01-01

    BRCAness breast tumors represent a group of sporadic tumors characterized by a reduction in BRCA1 gene expression. As BRCA1 is involved in double-strand breaks (DSBs) repair, dysfunctional BRCA pathway could make a tumor sensitive to DNA damaging drugs (e.g., platinum agents). Thus, accurately identifying BRCAness could contribute to therapeutic decision making in patients harboring these tumors. The purpose of this study was to identify if BRCAness tumors present a characteristic methylation profile and/or were related to specific clinico-pathological features. BRCAness was measured by MLPA in 63 breast tumors; methylation status of 98 CpG sites within 84 cancer-related genes was analyzed by MS-MLPA. Protein and mRNA expressions of the selected genes were measured by quantitative real-time PCR and Western Blot. BRCAness was associated with younger age, higher nuclear pleomorphism, and triple-negative (TN) status. Epigenetically, we found that the strongest predictors for BRCAness tumors were the methylations of MLH1 and PAX5 plus the unmethylations of CCND2 and ID4. We determined that ID4 unmethylation correlated with the expression levels of both its mRNA and protein. We observed an inverse relation between the expressions of ID4 and BRCA1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report suggesting an epigenetic regulation of ID4 in BRCAness tumors. Our findings give new information of BRCAness etiology and encourage future studies on potential drug targets for BRCAness breast tumors.

  18. Continuous administration of bevacizumab plus capecitabine, even after acquired resistance to bevacizumab, restored anti-angiogenic and antitumor effect in a human colorectal cancer xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Iwai, Toshiki; Sugimoto, Masamichi; Harada, Suguru; Yorozu, Keigo; Kurasawa, Mitsue; Yamamoto, Kaname

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-neutralizing therapy with bevacizumab has become increasingly important for treating colorectal cancer. It was demonstrated that second-line chemotherapy together with bevacizumab after disease progression (PD) on first-line therapy including bevacizumab showed clinical benefits in metastatic colorectal and breast cancers (ML18147 trial, TANIA trial). One of the rationales for these trials was that the refractoriness to first-line therapy is caused by resistance to not so much bevacizumab as to the chemotherapeutic agents. Nevertheless, resistance to bevacizumab cannot be ruled out because VEGF-independent angiogenesis has been reported to be a mechanism of resistance to anti-VEGF therapy. In this study, we used a xenograft model with the human colon cancer HT-29 cells to investigate the mechanisms underlying the effect of continued administration of bevacizumab plus capecitabine even after resistance to bevacizumab was acquired. The combination of capecitabine plus bevacizumab exhibited significantly stronger antitumor and anti-angiogenic activities than did monotherapy with either agent. Capecitabine treatment significantly increased the intratumoral VEGF level compared with the control group; however, the combination with bevacizumab neutralized the VEGF. Among angiogenic factors other than VEGF, intratumoral galectin-3, which reportedly promotes angiogenesis both dependent on, and independently of VEGF, was significantly decreased in the capecitabine group and the combination group compared with the control group. In an in vitro experiment, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), an active metabolite of capecitabine, inhibited galectin-3 production by HT-29 cells. These results suggested that capecitabine has a dual mode of action: namely, inhibition of tumor cell growth and inhibition of galectin-3 production by tumor cells. Thus, capecitabine and bevacizumab may work in a mutually complementary manner in tumor angiogenesis inhibition

  19. Oral mucosal stigmata in hereditary-cancer syndromes: From germline mutations to distinctive clinical phenotypes and tailored therapies.

    PubMed

    Ponti, Giovanni; Tomasi, Aldo; Manfredini, Marco; Pellacani, Giovanni

    2016-05-10

    Numerous familial tumor syndromes are associated with distinctive oral mucosal findings, which may make possible an early diagnosis as an efficacious marker for the risk of developing visceral malignancies. In detail, Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP), Gardner syndrome, Peutz-Jeghers syndrome, Cowden Syndrome, Gorlin Syndrome, Lynch/Muir-Torre Syndrome and Multiple Endocrine Neoplasia show specific lesions of the oral mucosa and other distinct clinical and molecular features. The common genetic background of the above mentioned syndromes involve germline mutations in tumor suppressor genes, such as APC, PTEN, PTCH1, STK11, RET, clearly implied in both ectodermal and mesodermal differentiation, being the oral mucosal and dental stigmata frequently associated in the specific clinical phenotypes. The oral and maxillofacial manifestations of these syndromes may become visible several years before the intestinal lesions, constituting a clinical marker that is predictive for the development of intestinal polyps and/or other visceral malignancies. A multidisciplinary approach is therefore necessary for both clinical diagnosis and management of the gene-carriers probands and their family members who have to be referred for genetic testing or have to be investigated for the presence of visceral cancers. PMID:26850131

  20. VGLL1 expression is associated with a triple-negative basal-like phenotype in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Castilla, María Ángeles; López-García, María Ángeles; Atienza, María Reina; Rosa-Rosa, Juan Manuel; Díaz-Martín, Juan; Pecero, María Luisa; Vieites, Begoña; Romero-Pérez, Laura; Benítez, Javier; Calcabrini, Annarica; Palacios, José

    2014-08-01

    Vestigial-like 1 (VGLL1) is a poorly characterized gene encoding a transcriptional co-activator structurally homologous to TAZ and YAP that modulates the Hippo pathway in Drosophila. In this study, we examined the expression of VGLL1 and its intronic miRNA, miR-934, in breast cancer. VGLL1 and miR-934 expression miRNA profiling was carried out on frozen samples of grade 3 invasive ductal carcinomas. VGLL1 protein was also examined in 433 sporadic and BRCA1-associated breast carcinomas on tissue microarrays. RNA-seq data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) was used to confirm differences in VGLL1 and miR-934 expression in different breast cancer subtypes, and to correlate their expression with that of other genes and miRNAs. Of 28 miRNAs differentially expressed in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive and ER-negative grade 3 breast carcinomas, miR-934 was most strongly upregulated in ER-negative carcinomas, and its expression was correlated with that of VGLL1. Nuclear VGLL1 expression was observed in 13% of sporadic breast carcinomas, and while VGLL1 was only occasionally found in luminal A (0.70%) and B (5.60%) carcinomas, it was often expressed in HER2-positive (17%), triple-negative (TN) breast carcinomas (>40%) and BRCA1-associated TN carcinomas (>50%). These findings were confirmed in the TCGA dataset, which revealed positive associations with luminal progenitor genes (GABRP, SLC6A14, FOXC1, PROM1, and BBOX1) and strong negative correlations with ER-associated genes (ESR1, C6ORF211, GATA3, and FOXA1). Moreover, VGLL1 expression was associated with reduced overall survival. In conclusion, VGLL1 and miR-934 are mainly expressed in sporadic and BRCA1-associated TN basal-like breast carcinomas, and their coordinated expression, at least partially mediated by the direct modulation of ESR1, might be involved in the maintenance of a luminal progenitor phenotype.

  1. Colorectal cancer cell-derived extracellular vesicles induce phenotypic alteration of T cells into tumor-growth supporting cells with transforming growth factor-β1-mediated suppression

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Nami; Kuranaga, Yuki; Kumazaki, Minami; Shinohara, Haruka; Taniguchi, Kohei; Akao, Yukihiro

    2016-01-01

    Emerging studies on tumor cell-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) have shown the biological significance in tumor development and microenvironment through reprogramming immune cells around cancer cells. In this study, we used colorectal cancer cells as EVs donor, and T cells as recipients to examine whether EVs impair the T cell function. As a result, we found that colorectal cancer cell-derived EVs (CRC-EVs) were enriched with TGF-β1. Interestingly, CRC-EVs induced phenotypic alteration of the T cells to Treg-like cells through activating TGF-β/Smad signaling and inactivating SAPK signaling. Furthermore, the CRC-EVs-induced-Treg-like cells had a remarkable tumor-growth promoting activity in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that colorectal cancer cells utilize EVs to tame immune cells for their prosperity. PMID:27081032

  2. Tumor-derived CCL-2 and CXCL-8 as possible prognostic markers of breast cancer: correlation with estrogen and progestrone receptor phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, H M; Maher, Sara; Abdel-Aty, Asmaa; Saad, A; Kazem, A; Demian, S R

    2009-01-01

    Prognosis of breast cancer is believed to be a multifactorial process best achieved by complex factors including host and tumor-derived biomarkers together with traditional clinicopathological parameters and tumor histologic markers. The present study aimed at evaluating the prognostic significance of chemokine ligand-2 (CCL-2) and interleukin-8 (CXCL-8) expression in extracts of breast carcinomas through correlation with clinicopathological aspects as well as estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) phenotyping. The study was conducted on 30 Egyptian breast cancer patients diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and subjected to modified radical mastectomy. Excised tissues were used to prepare tissue sections and extracts for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Expression of CCL-2 and CXCL-8 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 26 patients had invasive ductal carcinoma, grades II and III with metastasis to axillary lymph nodes and ER and PR positive phenotype. Expression of CCL-2 and CXCL-8 was significantly influenced by patient's age, menopausal status, nodal involvement, tumor grade and the ER phenotype. In contrast, it was not affected by either tumor size or PR staining pattern. Both chemokines correlated positively to each other and to tumor grade and negatively to age, menopausal status of patients and ER phenotyping. It is concluded that the angiogenic chemokine CXCL-8 and the macrophage chemoattractant CCL-2 might be useful prognostic markers where their routine follow up might be of importance in assessment of tumor aggressiveness in clinical settings.

  3. Tumor-derived CCL-2 and CXCL-8 as possible prognostic markers of breast cancer: correlation with estrogen and progestrone receptor phenotyping.

    PubMed

    Ghoneim, H M; Maher, Sara; Abdel-Aty, Asmaa; Saad, A; Kazem, A; Demian, S R

    2009-01-01

    Prognosis of breast cancer is believed to be a multifactorial process best achieved by complex factors including host and tumor-derived biomarkers together with traditional clinicopathological parameters and tumor histologic markers. The present study aimed at evaluating the prognostic significance of chemokine ligand-2 (CCL-2) and interleukin-8 (CXCL-8) expression in extracts of breast carcinomas through correlation with clinicopathological aspects as well as estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR) phenotyping. The study was conducted on 30 Egyptian breast cancer patients diagnosed by fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) and subjected to modified radical mastectomy. Excised tissues were used to prepare tissue sections and extracts for histopathological and immunohistochemical studies. Expression of CCL-2 and CXCL-8 was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). 26 patients had invasive ductal carcinoma, grades II and III with metastasis to axillary lymph nodes and ER and PR positive phenotype. Expression of CCL-2 and CXCL-8 was significantly influenced by patient's age, menopausal status, nodal involvement, tumor grade and the ER phenotype. In contrast, it was not affected by either tumor size or PR staining pattern. Both chemokines correlated positively to each other and to tumor grade and negatively to age, menopausal status of patients and ER phenotyping. It is concluded that the angiogenic chemokine CXCL-8 and the macrophage chemoattractant CCL-2 might be useful prognostic markers where their routine follow up might be of importance in assessment of tumor aggressiveness in clinical settings. PMID:22059352

  4. Hyperthermia treatment planning for cervical cancer patients based on electrical conductivity tissue properties acquired in vivo with EPT at 3 T MRI.

    PubMed

    Balidemaj, Edmond; Kok, Henny Petra; Schooneveldt, Gerben; van Lier, Astrid L H M W; Remis, Rob F; Stalpers, Lukas J A; Westerveld, Henrike; Nederveen, Aart J; van den Berg, Cornelis A T; Crezee, Johannes

    2016-08-01

    Introduction The reliability of hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) is strongly dependent on the accuracy of the electric properties of each tissue. The values currently used are mostly based on ex vivo measurements. In this study, in vivo conductivity of human muscle, bladder content and cervical tumours, acquired with magnetic resonance-based electric properties tomography (MR-EPT), are exploited to investigate the effect on HTP for cervical cancer patients. Methods Temperature-based optimisation of five different patients was performed using literature-based conductivity values yielding certain antenna settings, which are then used to compute the temperature distribution of the patient models with EPT-based conductivity values. Furthermore, the effects of altered bladder and muscle conductivity were studied separately. Finally, the temperature-based optimisation was performed with patient models based on EPT conductivity values. Results The tumour temperatures for all EPT-based dielectric patient models were lower compared to the optimal tumour temperatures based on literature values. The largest deviation was observed for patient 1 with ΔT90 = -1.37 °C. A negative impact was also observed when the treatment was optimised based on the EPT values. For four patients ΔT90 was less than 0.6 °C; for one patient it was 1.5 °C. Conclusions Electric conductivity values acquired by EPT are higher than commonly used from literature. This difference has a substantial impact on cervical tumour temperatures achieved during hyperthermia. A higher conductivity in the bladder and in the muscle tissue surrounding the tumour leads to higher power dissipation in the bladder and muscle, and therefore to lower tumour temperatures.

  5. Mind the gap: Racial differences in breast cancer incidence and biologic phenotype, but not stage, among low-income women participating in a government-funded screening program

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Joan E.; Walters, Christine A.; Hill, Elizabeth G.; Ford, Marvella E.; Barker-Elamin, Tiffany; Bennett, Charles L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Breast cancer mortality rates in South Carolina (SC) are 40% higher among African-American (AA) than European-American (EA) women. Proposed reasons include race-associated variations in care and/or tumor characteristics, which may be subject to income effects. We evaluated race-associated differences in tumor biologic phenotype and stage among low-income participants in a government-funded screening program. Methods Best Chance Network (BCN) data were linked with the SC Central Cancer Registry. Characteristics of breast cancers diagnosed in BCN participants aged 47–64 years during 1996–2006 were abstracted. Race-specific case proportions and incidence rates based on estrogen receptor (ER) status and histologic grade were estimated. Results Among 33,880 low-income women accessing BCN services, repeat breast cancer screening utilization was poor, especially among EAs. Proportionally, stage at diagnosis did not differ by race (607 cancers, 53% among AAs), with about 40% advanced stage. Compared to EAs, invasive tumors in AAs were 67% more likely (proportions) to be of poor-prognosis phenotype (both ER-negative and high-grade); this was more a result of the 46% lesser AA incidence (rates) of better-prognosis (ER+ lower-grade) cancer than the 32% greater incidence of poor-prognosis disease (p-values <0.01). When compared to the general SC population, racial disparities in poor prognostic features within the BCN population were attenuated; this was due to more frequent adverse tumor features in EAs rather than improvements for AAs. Conclusion Among low-income women in SC, closing the breast cancer racial and income mortality gaps will require improved early diagnosis, addressing causes of racial differences in tumor biology, and improved care for cancers of poor-prognosis biology. PMID:23239148

  6. Melanocortin-1 receptor, skin cancer and phenotypic characteristics (M-SKIP) project: study design and methods for pooling results of genetic epidemiological studies

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background For complex diseases like cancer, pooled-analysis of individual data represents a powerful tool to investigate the joint contribution of genetic, phenotypic and environmental factors to the development of a disease. Pooled-analysis of epidemiological studies has many advantages over meta-analysis, and preliminary results may be obtained faster and with lower costs than with prospective consortia. Design and methods Based on our experience with the study design of the Melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) gene, SKin cancer and Phenotypic characteristics (M-SKIP) project, we describe the most important steps in planning and conducting a pooled-analysis of genetic epidemiological studies. We then present the statistical analysis plan that we are going to apply, giving particular attention to methods of analysis recently proposed to account for between-study heterogeneity and to explore the joint contribution of genetic, phenotypic and environmental factors in the development of a disease. Within the M-SKIP project, data on 10,959 skin cancer cases and 14,785 controls from 31 international investigators were checked for quality and recoded for standardization. We first proposed to fit the aggregated data with random-effects logistic regression models. However, for the M-SKIP project, a two-stage analysis will be preferred to overcome the problem regarding the availability of different study covariates. The joint contribution of MC1R variants and phenotypic characteristics to skin cancer development will be studied via logic regression modeling. Discussion Methodological guidelines to correctly design and conduct pooled-analyses are needed to facilitate application of such methods, thus providing a better summary of the actual findings on specific fields. PMID:22862891

  7. Rapid detection of the epidermal growth factor receptor mutation in non-small-cell lung cancer for analysis of acquired resistance using molecular beacons.

    PubMed

    Oh, Young-Hee; Kim, Youngwook; Kim, Young-Pil; Seo, Soo-Won; Mitsudomi, Tetsuya; Ahn, Myung-Ju; Park, Keunchil; Kim, Hak-Sung

    2010-09-01

    A secondary mutation (T790M) in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is a hallmark of acquired resistance to EGFR inhibitors used to treat non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Therefore, identifying the T790M mutation is crucial to guide treatment decisions. Given that DNA sequencing methods are time-consuming and insensitive, we developed and investigated the feasibility of using molecular beacons for the detection of the T790M mutation in EGFR. A molecular beacon complementary to the region of the secondary EGFR mutation (T790M) was designed and used in NSCLC samples bearing drug-sensitive and -resistant EGFR mutations. For a rapid and simple assay, we attempted to use the molecular beacon with real-time PCR and in situ fluorescence imaging. The ability of the designed molecular beacon to specifically detect the T790M mutation of EGFR was tested for samples from two patients with drug resistance and compared with conventional DNA sequencing methods. The molecular beacon successfully detected the T790M mutation in patient samples with drug resistance. The sensitivity of the molecular beacon, which detected as little as 2% of genomic DNA from the drug-resistant cells (H1975), was much higher than direct sequencing. Furthermore, in situ fluorescence imaging with the molecular beacon gave rise to a distinguishable signal for the T790M mutation in drug-resistant cells. The molecular beacon-based approach enabled rapid and sensitive detection of the EGFR mutation (T790M) in NSCLC with in situ fluorescence imaging, which can be directed to determine various treatment options in patients with cancer.

  8. Changes in the phenotype of human small cell lung cancer cell lines after transfection and expression of the c-myc proto-oncogene.

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, B E; Battey, J; Linnoila, I; Becker, K L; Makuch, R W; Snider, R H; Carney, D N; Minna, J D

    1986-01-01

    Small cell lung cancer growing in cell culture possesses biologic properties that allow classification into two categories: classic and variant. Compared with classic small cell lung cancer cell lines, variant lines have altered large cell morphology, shorter doubling times, higher cloning efficiencies in soft agarose, and very low levels of L dopa decarboxylase production and bombesin-like immunoreactivity. C-myc is amplified and expressed in some small cell lung cancer cell lines and all c-myc amplified lines studied to date display the variant phenotype. To investigate if c-myc amplification and expression is responsible for the variant phenotype, a normal human c-myc gene was transfected into a cloned classic small cell lung cancer cell line not amplified for or expressing detectable c-myc messenger RNA (mRNA). Clones were isolated with one to six copies of c-myc stably integrated into DNA that expressed c-myc mRNA. In addition, one clone with an integrated neo gene but a deleted c-myc gene was isolated and in this case c-myc was not expressed. C-myc expression in transfected clones was associated with altered large cell morphology, a shorter doubling time, and increased cloning efficiency, but no difference in L dopa decarboxylase levels and bombesin-like immunoreactivity. We conclude increased c-myc expression observed here in transfected clones correlates with some of the phenotypic properties distinguishing c-myc amplified variants from unamplified classic small cell lung cancer lines. Images PMID:3016030

  9. Androgen deprivation induces phenotypic plasticity and promotes resistance to molecular targeted therapy in a PTEN-deficient mouse model of prostate cancer.

    PubMed

    De Velasco, Marco A; Tanaka, Motoyoshi; Yamamoto, Yutaka; Hatanaka, Yuji; Koike, Hiroyuki; Nishio, Kazuto; Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Uemura, Hirotsugu

    2014-09-01

    Castration-resistant prostate cancer is an incurable heterogeneous disease that is characterized by a complex multistep process involving different cellular and biochemical changes brought on by genetic and epigenetic alterations. These changes lead to the activation or overexpression of key survival pathways that also serve as potential therapeutic targets. Despite promising preclinical results, molecular targeted therapies aimed at such signaling pathways have so far been dismal. In the present study, we used a PTEN-deficient mouse model of prostate cancer to show that plasticity in castration-resistant tumors promotes therapeutic escape. Unlike castration-naïve tumors which depend on androgen receptor and PI3K/AKT signal activation for growth and survival, castration-resistant tumors undergo phenotypic plasticity leading to increased intratumoral heterogeneity. These tumors attain highly heterogeneous phenotypes that are characterized by cancer cells relying on alternate signal transduction pathways for growth and survival, such as mitogen-activated protein kinase and janus kinase/signal transducer and activator of transcription, and losing their dependence on PI3K signaling. These features thus enabled castration-resistant tumors to become insensitive to the therapeutic effects of PI3K/AKT targeted therapy. Overall, our findings provide evidence that androgen deprivation drives phenotypic plasticity in prostate cancer cells and implicate it as a crucial contributor to therapeutic resistance in castration-resistant prostate cancer. Therefore, incorporating intratumoral heterogeneity in a dynamic tumor model as a part of preclinical efficacy determination could improve prediction for response and provide better rationale for the development of more effective therapies. PMID:24986896

  10. Nuclear maspin expression correlates with the CpG island methylator phenotype and tumor aggressiveness in colorectal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jung Ho; Cho, Nam-Yun; Bae, Jeong Mo; Kim, Kyung-Ju; Rhee, Ye-Young; Lee, Hye Seung; Kang, Gyeong Hoon

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that nuclear expression of maspin (mammary serine protease inhibitor; also known as SERPINB5) in colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with proximal colonic tumor location, mucinous and poorly differentiated histology, microsatellite instability-high (MSI-H), and poor prognosis. Based on these findings, there may be a potential association between nuclear maspin expression and the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP) in CRC, but no study has elucidated this issue. Here, we evaluated maspin protein expression status by immunohistochemistry in 216 MSI-H CRCs. CIMP status was also determined by methylation-specific quantitative PCR method (MethyLight) using eight CIMP markers (MLH1, NEUROG1, CRABP1, CACNA1G, CDKN2A (p16), IGF2, SOCS1, and RUNX3) in 216 MSI-H CRCs. Associations between maspin expression status and various pathological, molecular, and survival data were statistically analyzed. Among the 216 MSI-H CRCs, 111 (51%) cases presented nuclear maspin-positive tumors. Nuclear maspin-positive MSI-H CRCs were significantly associated with proximal tumor location (P = 0.003), tumor budding (P < 0.001), lymphovascular invasion (P = 0.001), perineural invasion (P = 0.008), absence of peritumoral lymphoid reaction (P = 0.045), lymph node metastasis (P = 0.003), distant metastasis (P = 0.005), advanced AJCC/UICC stage (stage III/IV) (P = 0.001), and CIMP-high (CIMP-H) status (P < 0.001). Patients with nuclear maspin-positive tumors showed worse disease-free survival than patients with nuclear maspin-negative tumors (log-rank P = 0.025). In conclusion, nuclear maspin expression is molecularly associated with CIMP-H rather than MSI-H, and clinicopathologically correlates with tumor aggressiveness in CRC.

  11. Delivery-Corrected Imaging of Fluorescently-Labeled Glucose Reveals Distinct Metabolic Phenotypes in Murine Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Frees, Amy E.; Rajaram, Narasimhan; McCachren, Samuel S.; Fontanella, Andrew N.; Dewhirst, Mark W.; Ramanujam, Nimmi

    2014-01-01

    When monitoring response to cancer therapy, it is important to differentiate changes in glucose tracer uptake caused by altered delivery versus a true metabolic shift. Here, we propose an optical imaging method to quantify glucose uptake and correct for in vivo delivery effects. Glucose uptake was measured using a fluorescent D-glucose derivative 2-(N-(7-Nitrobenz-2-oxa-1,3-diazol-4-yl)Amino)-2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-NBDG) in mice implanted with dorsal skin flap window chambers. Additionally, vascular oxygenation (SO2) was calculated using only endogenous hemoglobin contrast. Results showed that the delivery factor proposed for correction, “RD”, reported on red blood cell velocity and injected 2-NBDG dose. Delivery-corrected 2-NBDG uptake (2-NBDG60/RD) inversely correlated with blood glucose in normal tissue, indicating sensitivity to glucose demand. We further applied our method in metastatic 4T1 and nonmetastatic 4T07 murine mammary adenocarcinomas. The ratio 2-NBDG60/RD was increased in 4T1 tumors relative to 4T07 tumors yet average SO2 was comparable, suggesting a shift toward a “Warburgian” (aerobic glycolysis) metabolism in the metastatic 4T1 line. In heterogeneous regions of both 4T1 and 4T07, 2-NBDG60/RD increased slightly but significantly as vascular oxygenation decreased, indicative of the Pasteur effect in both tumors. These data demonstrate the utility of delivery-corrected 2-NBDG and vascular oxygenation imaging for differentiating metabolic phenotypes in vivo. PMID:25526261

  12. Intersection of Smoking, Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Cancer: Proceedings of the 8th Annual Texas Conference on Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Rajendiran, Smrithi; Kashyap, Meghana V.; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K.

    2013-01-01

    The Texas Center for Health Disparities, a National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Center of Excellence, presents an annual conference to discuss prevention, awareness education and ongoing research about health disparities both in Texas and among the national population. The 2013 Texas Conference on Health Disparities brought together experts, in research, patient care and community outreach, on the “Intersection of Smoking, Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and Cancer”. Smoking, HIV/AIDS and cancer are three individual areas of public health concern, each with its own set of disparities and risk factors based on race, ethnicity, gender, geography and socio-economic status. Disparities among patient populations, in which these issues are found to be comorbid, provide valuable information on goals for patient care. The conference consisted of three sessions addressing “Comorbidities and Treatment”, “Public Health Perspectives”, and “Best Practices”. This article summarizes the basic science, clinical correlates and public health data presented by the speakers. PMID:24227993

  13. Androgen receptors are acquired by healthy postmenopausal endometrial epithelium and their subsequent loss in endometrial cancer is associated with poor survival

    PubMed Central

    Kamal, A M; Bulmer, J N; DeCruze, S B; Stringfellow, H F; Martin-Hirsch, P; Hapangama, D K

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endometrial cancer (EC) is a hormone-driven disease, and androgen receptor (AR) expression in high-grade EC (HGEC) and metastatic EC has not yet been described. Methods: The expression pattern and prognostic value of AR in relation to oestrogen (ERα and ERβ) and progesterone (PR) receptors, and the proliferation marker Ki67 in all EC subtypes (n=85) were compared with that of healthy and hyperplastic endometrium, using immunohistochemisty and qPCR. Results: Compared with proliferative endometrium, postmenopausal endometrtial epithelium showed significantly higher expression of AR (P<0.001) and ERα (P=0.035), which persisted in hyperplastic epithelium and in low-grade EC (LGEC). High-grade EC showed a significant loss of AR (P<0.0001), PR (P<0.0001) and ERβ (P<0.035) compared with LGEC, whilst maintaining weak to moderate ERα. Unlike PR, AR expression in metastatic lesions was significantly (P=0.039) higher than that in primary tumours. Androgen receptor expression correlated with favourable clinicopathological features and a lower proliferation index. Loss of AR, with/without the loss of PR was associated with a significantly lower disease-free survival (P<0.0001, P<0.0001, respectively). Conclusions: Postmenopausal endometrial epithelium acquires AR whilst preserving other steroid hormone receptors. Loss of AR, PR with retention of ERα and ERβ may promote the unrestrained growth of HGEC. Androgen receptor may therefore be a clinically relevant prognostic indicator and a potential therapeutic target in EC. PMID:26930451

  14. Estrogen receptor-α36 is involved in development of acquired tamoxifen resistance via regulating the growth status switch in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangliang; Zhang, Jing; Jin, Ketao; He, Kuifeng; Zheng, Yi; Xu, Xin; Wang, Haohao; Wang, Haiyong; Li, Zhongqi; Yu, Xiongfei; Teng, Xiaodong; Cao, Jiang; Teng, Lisong

    2013-06-01

    Acquired tamoxifen (TAM) resistance limits the therapeutic benefit of TAM in patients with hormone-dependent breast cancer. The switch from estrogen-dependent to growth factor-dependent growth is a critical step in this process. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying this switch remain poorly understood. In this study, we established a TAM resistant cell sub line (MCF-7/TAM) from estrogen receptor-α (ER-α66) positive breast cancer MCF-7 cells by culturing ER-α66-positive MCF-7 cells in medium plus 1 μM TAM over 6 months. MCF-7/TAM cells were then found to exhibit accelerated proliferation rate together with enhanced in vitro migratory and invasive ability. And the estrogen receptor-α36 (ER-α36), a novel 36-kDa variant of ER-α66, was dramatically overexpressed in this in vitro model, compared to the parental MCF-7 cells. Meanwhile, the expression of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in MCF-7/TAM cells was significantly up-regulated both in mRNA level and protein level, and the expression of ER-α66 was greatly down-regulated oppositely. In the subsequent studies, we overexpressed ER-α36 in MCF-7 cells by stable transfection and found that ER-α36 transfected MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/ER-α36) similarly exhibited decreased sensitivity to TAM, accelerated proliferative rate and enhanced in vitro migratory and invasive ability, compared to empty vector transfected MCF-7 cells (MCF-7/V). Real-time qPCR and Western blotting analysis revealed that MCF-7/ER-α36 cells possessed increased EGFR expression but decreased ER-α66 expression both in mRNA level and protein level, compared to MCF-7/V cells. This change in MCF-7/ER-α36 cells could be reversed by neutralizing anti-ER-α36 antibody treatment. Furthermore, knock-down of ER-α36 expression in MCF-7/TAM cells resulted in reduced proliferation rate together with decreased in vitro migratory and invasive ability. Decreased EGFR mRNA and protein expression as well as increased ER-α66 mRNA expression were

  15. Promotion of a cancer-like phenotype, through chronic exposure to inflammatory cytokines and hypoxia in a bronchial epithelial cell line model

    PubMed Central

    Baird, Anne-Marie; Gray, Steven G.; Richard, Derek J.; O’Byrne, Kenneth J.

    2016-01-01

    Globally, lung cancer accounts for approximately 20% of all cancer related deaths. Five-year survival is poor and rates have remained unchanged for the past four decades. There is an urgent need to identify markers of lung carcinogenesis and new targets for therapy. Given the recent successes of immune modulators in cancer therapy and the improved understanding of immune evasion by tumours, we sought to determine the carcinogenic impact of chronic TNF-α and IL-1β exposure in a normal bronchial epithelial cell line model. Following three months of culture in a chronic inflammatory environment under conditions of normoxia and hypoxia (0.5% oxygen), normal cells developed a number of key genotypic and phenotypic alterations. Important cellular features such as the proliferative, adhesive and invasive capacity of the normal cells were significantly amplified. In addition, gene expression profiles were altered in pathways associated with apoptosis, angiogenesis and invasion. The data generated in this study provides support that TNF-α, IL-1β and hypoxia promotes a neoplastic phenotype in normal bronchial epithelial cells. In turn these mediators may be of benefit for biomarker and/or immune-therapy target studies. This project provides an important inflammatory in vitro model for further immuno-oncology studies in the lung cancer setting. PMID:26759080

  16. Antiproliferative effects of phenylaminonaphthoquinones are increased by ascorbate and associated with the appearance of a senescent phenotype in human bladder cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Felipe, K.B.; Benites, J.; Glorieux, C.; Sid, B.; Valenzuela, M.; Kviecinski, M.R.; Pedrosa, R.C.; Valderrama, J.A.; Levêque, Ph.; Gallez, B.; Verrax, J.; Buc Calderon, P.

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Phenylaminonaphthoquinones are redox cyclers able to form ROS. •Phenylaminonaphthoquinones plus ascorbate inhibit T24 cell growth. •Phenylaminonaphthoquinones plus ascorbate lead to necrotic-like cell death. •Phenylaminonaphthoquinones plus ascorbate impair cell cycle and affect MAPKs. •Phenylaminonaphthoquinones plus ascorbate induce a senescent cancer cell phenotype. -- Abstract: Quinone-containing molecules have been developed against cancer mainly for their redox cycling ability leading to reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. We have previously shown that donor-acceptor phenylaminonaphthoquinones are biologically active against a panel of cancer cells. In this report, we explored the mechanisms involved in cancer cell growth inhibition caused by two phenylaminonaphthoquinones, namely Q7 and Q9, with or without ascorbate (ASC). The results show that Q7 and Q9 are both redox cyclers able to form ROS, which strongly inhibit the proliferation of T24 cells. Q9 was a better redox cycler than Q7 because of marked stabilization of the semiquinone radical species arising from its reduction by ascorbate. Indeed, ASC dramatically enhances the inhibitory effect of Q9 on cell proliferation. Q9 plus ASC impairs the cell cycle, causing a decrease in the number of cells in the G2/M phase without involving other cell cycle regulating key proteins. Moreover, Q9 plus ASC influences the MAPK signaling pathways, provoking the appearance of a senescent cancer cell phenotype and ultimately leading to necrotic-like cell death. Because cellular senescence limits the replicative capacity of cells, our results suggest that induction of senescence may be exploited as a basis for new approaches to cancer therapy.

  17. Adipocyte hypoxia promotes epithelial-mesenchymal transition-related gene expression and estrogen receptor-negative phenotype in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    YAO-BORENGASSER, AIWEI; MONZAVI-KARBASSI, BEHJATOLAH; HEDGES, REBECCA A; ROGERS, LORA J; KADLUBAR, SUSAN A; KIEBER-EMMONS, THOMAS

    2015-01-01

    The development of breast cancer is linked to the loss of estrogen receptor (ER) during the course of tumor progression, resulting in loss of responsiveness to hormonal treatment. The mechanisms underlying dynamic ERα gene expression change in breast cancer remain unclear. A range of physiological and biological changes, including increased adipose tissue hypoxia, accompanies obesity. Hypoxia in adipocytes can establish a pro-malignancy environment in breast tissues. Epidemiological studies have linked obesity with basal-like breast cancer risk and poor disease outcome, suggesting that obesity may affect the tumor phenotype by skewing the microenvironment toward support of more aggressive tumor phenotypes. In the present study, human SGBS adipocytes were co-cultured with ER-positive MCF7 cells for 24 h. After co-culture, HIF1α, TGF-β, and lectin-type oxidized LDL receptor 1 (LOX1) mRNA levels in the SGBS cells were increased. Expression levels of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-inducing transcription factors FOXC2 and TWIST1 were increased in the co-cultured MCF7 cells. In addition, the E-cadherin mRNA level was decreased, while the N-cadherin mRNA level was increased in the co-cultured MCF7 cells. ERα mRNA levels were significantly repressed in the co-cultured MCF7 cells. ERα gene expression in the MCF7 cells was decreased due to increased HIF1α in the SGBS cells. These results suggest that adipocytes can modify breast cancer cell ER gene expression through hypoxia and also can promote EMT processes in breast cancer cells, supporting an important role of obesity in aggressive breast cancer development. PMID:25823469

  18. Autophagy is involved in TGF-β1-induced protective mechanisms and formation of cancer-associated fibroblasts phenotype in tumor microenvironment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Fang-Lan; Mo, En-Pan; Yang, Liu; Du, Jun; Wang, Hong-Sheng; Zhang, Huan; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Xu, Jun; Cai, Shao-Hui

    2016-01-01

    Transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) present in tumor microenvironment acts in a coordinated fashion to either suppress or promote tumor development. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the effects of TGF-β1 on tumor microenvironment are not well understood. Our clinical data showed a positive association between TGF-β1 expression and cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) in tumor microenvironment of breast cancer patients. Thus we employed starved NIH3T3 fibroblasts in vitro and 4T1 cells mixed with NIH3T3 fibroblasts xenograft model in vivo to simulate nutritional deprivation of tumor microenvironment to explore the effects of TGF-β1. We demonstrated that TGF-β1 protected NIH3T3 fibroblasts from Star-induced growth inhibition, mitochondrial damage and cell apoptosis. Interestingly, TGF-β1 induced the formation of CAFs phenotype in starvation (Star)-treated NIH3T3 fibroblasts and xenografted Balb/c mice, which promoted breast cancer tumor growth. In both models, autophagy agonist rapamycin increased TGF-β1-induced protective effects and formation of CAFs phenotypes, while autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine, Atg5 knockdown or TGF-β type I receptor kinase inhibitor LY-2157299 blocked TGF-β1 induced these effects. Taken together, our results indicated that TGF-β/Smad autophagy was involved in TGF-β1-induced protective effects and formation of CAFs phenotype in tumor microenvironment, which may be used as therapy targets in breast cancer. PMID:26716641

  19. Attenuation of malignant phenotypes of breast cancer cells through eIF2α-mediated downregulation of Rac1 signaling.

    PubMed

    Hamamura, Kazunori; Minami, Kazumasa; Tanjung, Nancy; Wan, Qiaoqiao; Koizumi, Masahiko; Matsuura, Nariaki; Na, Sungsoo; Yokota, Hiroki

    2014-06-01

    Blocking dephosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) is reported to alter proliferation and differentiation of various cells. Using salubrinal and guanabenz as an inhibitory agent of dephosphorylation of eIF2α, we addressed a question whether an elevated level of phosphorylated eIF2α attenuates malignant phenotypes of triple negative breast cancer cells (TNBCs) that lack estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2. We determined effects of salubrinal and guanabenz on in vitro phenotype of 4T1 mammary tumor cells and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells and evaluated their effects on in vivo tumor growth using BALB/c mice injected with 4T1 cells. The results revealed that these agents block the proliferation and survival of 4T1 and MDA-MB-231 cells, as well as their invasion and motility. Silencing eIF2α revealed that eIF2α is involved in the reduction in invasion and motility. Furthermore, salubrinal-driven inactivation of Rac1 was suppressed in the cells treated with eIF2α siRNA, and treatment with Rac1 siRNA reduced cell invasion and motility. In vivo assay revealed that subcutaneous administration of salubrinal reduced the volume and weight of tumors induced by 4T1 cells. Collectively, the results indicate that these agents can attenuate malignant phenotype and tumor growth of breast cancer cells through the eIF2α-mediated Rac1 pathway. Since salubrinal and guanabenz are known to inhibit bone resorption, this study provides a potential use of eIF2α-mediated Rac1 regulation in suppressing the growth and metastasis of breast cancer. PMID:24691491

  20. Functional characterisation of osteosarcoma cell lines and identification of mRNAs and miRNAs associated with aggressive cancer phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Lauvrak, S U; Munthe, E; Kresse, S H; Stratford, E W; Namløs, H M; Meza-Zepeda, L A; Myklebost, O

    2013-01-01

    Background: Osteosarcoma is the most common primary malignant bone tumour, predominantly affecting children and adolescents. Cancer cell line models are required to understand the underlying mechanisms of tumour progression and for preclinical investigations. Methods: To identify cell lines that are well suited for studies of critical cancer-related phenotypes, such as tumour initiation, growth and metastasis, we have evaluated 22 osteosarcoma cell lines for in vivo tumorigenicity, in vitro colony-forming ability, invasive/migratory potential and proliferation capacity. Importantly, we have also identified mRNA and microRNA (miRNA) gene expression patterns associated with these phenotypes by expression profiling. Results: The cell lines exhibited a wide range of cancer-related phenotypes, from rather indolent to very aggressive. Several mRNAs were differentially expressed in highly aggressive osteosarcoma cell lines compared with non-aggressive cell lines, including RUNX2, several S100 genes, collagen genes and genes encoding proteins involved in growth factor binding, cell adhesion and extracellular matrix remodelling. Most notably, four genes—COL1A2, KYNU, ACTG2 and NPPB—were differentially expressed in high and non-aggressive cell lines for all the cancer-related phenotypes investigated, suggesting that they might have important roles in the process of osteosarcoma tumorigenesis. At the miRNA level, miR-199b-5p and mir-100-3p were downregulated in the highly aggressive cell lines, whereas miR-155-5p, miR-135b-5p and miR-146a-5p were upregulated. miR-135b-5p and miR-146a-5p were further predicted to be linked to the metastatic capacity of the disease. Interpretation: The detailed characterisation of cell line phenotypes will support the selection of models to use for specific preclinical investigations. The differentially expressed mRNAs and miRNAs identified in this study may represent good candidates for future therapeutic targets. To our knowledge, this is

  1. The Distribution of Macrophages with a M1 or M2 Phenotype in Relation to Prognosis and the Molecular Characteristics of Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dahlin, Anna M.; Rutegård, Jörgen; Öberg, Åke; Oldenborg, Per-Arne; Palmqvist, Richard

    2012-01-01

    High macrophage infiltration has been correlated to improved survival in colorectal cancer (CRC). Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) play complex roles in tumorigenesis since they are believed to hold both tumor preventing (M1 macrophages) and tumor promoting (M2 macrophages) activities. Here we have applied an immunohistochemical approach to determine the degree of infiltrating macrophages with a M1 or M2 phenotype in clinical specimens of CRC in relation to prognosis, both in CRC in general but also in subgroups of CRC defined by microsatellite instability (MSI) screening status and the CpG island methylator phenotype (CIMP). A total of 485 consecutive CRC specimens were stained for nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) (also denoted iNOS) as a marker for the M1 macrophage phenotype and the scavenger receptor CD163 as a marker for the M2 macrophage phenotype. The average infiltration of NOS2 and CD163 expressing macrophages along the invasive tumor front was semi-quantitatively evaluated using a four-graded scale. Two subtypes of macrophages, displaying M1 (NOS2+) or M2 (CD163+) phenotypes, were recognized. We observed a significant correlation between the amount of NOS2+ and CD163+ cells (P<0.0001). A strong inverse correlation to tumor stage was found for both NOS2 (P<0.0001) and CD163 (P<0.0001) infiltration. Furthermore, patients harbouring tumors highly infiltrated by NOS2+ cells had a significantly better prognosis than those infiltrated by few NOS2+ cells, and this was found to be independent of MSI screening status and CIMP status. No significant difference was found on cancer-specific survival in groups of CRC with different NOS2/CD163 ratios. In conclusion, an increased infiltration of macrophages with a M1 phenotype at the tumor front is accompanied by a concomitant increase in macrophages with a M2 phenotype, and in a stage dependent manner correlated to a better prognosis in patients with CRC. PMID:23077543

  2. The metastasis inducer CCN1 (CYR61) activates the fatty acid synthase (FASN)-driven lipogenic phenotype in breast cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    Menendez, Javier A.; Vellon, Luciano; Espinoza, Ingrid; Lupu, Ruth

    2016-01-01

    The angiogenic inducer CCN1 (Cysteine-rich 61, CYR61) is differentially activated in metastatic breast carcinomas. However, little is known about the precise mechanisms that underlie the pro-metastatic actions of CCN1. Here, we investigated the impact of CCN1 expression on fatty acid synthase (FASN), a metabolic oncogene thought to provide cancer cells with proliferative and survival advantages. Forced expression of CCN1 in MCF-7 cells robustly up-regulated FASN protein expression and also significantly increased FASN gene promoter activity 2- to 3-fold, whereas deletion of the sterol response element-binding protein (SREBP) binding site in the FASN promoter completely abrogated CCN1-driven transcriptional activation. Pharmacological blockade of MAPK or PI-3'K activation similarly prevented the ability of CCN1 to induce FASN gene activation. Pharmacological inhibition of FASN activity with the mycotoxin cerulenin or the small compound C75 reversed CCN1-induced acquisition of estrogen independence and resistance to hormone therapies such as tamoxifen and fulvestrant in anchorage-independent growth assays. This study uncovers FASNdependent endogenous lipogenesis as a new mechanism controlling the metastatic phenotype promoted by CCN1. Because estrogen independence and progression to a metastatic phenotype are hallmarks of therapeutic resistance and mortality in breast cancer, this previously unrecognized CCN1-driven lipogenic phenotype represents a novel metabolic target to clinically manage metastatic disease progression. PMID:27713913

  3. Tumor growth affects the metabonomic phenotypes of multiple mouse non-involved organs in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Shan; Tian, Yuan; Hu, Yili; Zhang, Nijia; Hu, Sheng; Song, Dandan; Wu, Zhengshun; Wang, Yulan; Cui, Yanfang; Tang, Huiru

    2016-01-01

    The effects of tumorigenesis and tumor growth on the non-involved organs remain poorly understood although many research efforts have already been made for understanding the metabolic phenotypes of various tumors. To better the situation, we systematically analyzed the metabolic phenotypes of multiple non-involved mouse organ tissues (heart, liver, spleen, lung and kidney) in an A549 lung cancer xenograft model at two different tumor-growth stages using the NMR-based metabonomics approaches. We found that tumor growth caused significant metabonomic changes in multiple non-involved organ tissues involving numerous metabolic pathways, including glycolysis, TCA cycle and metabolisms of amino acids, fatty acids, choline and nucleic acids. Amongst these, the common effects are enhanced glycolysis and nucleoside/nucleotide metabolisms. These findings provided essential biochemistry information about the effects of tumor growth on the non-involved organs. PMID:27329570

  4. Identification of Variant-Specific Functions of PIK3CA by Rapid Phenotyping of Rare Mutations | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Large-scale sequencing efforts are uncovering the complexity of cancer genomes, which are composed of causal "driver" mutations that promote tumor progression along with many more pathologically neutral "passenger" events. The majority of mutations, both in known cancer drivers and uncharacterized genes, are generally of low occurrence, highlighting the need to functionally annotate the long tail of infrequent mutations present in heterogeneous cancers.

  5. Gain of oncogenic function of p53 mutants induces invasive phenotypes in human breast cancer cells by silencing CCN5/WISP-2.

    PubMed

    Dhar, Gopal; Banerjee, Snigdha; Dhar, Kakali; Tawfik, Ossama; Mayo, Matthew S; Vanveldhuizen, Peter J; Banerjee, Sushanta K

    2008-06-15

    CCN5/WISP-2 is overexpressed in noninvasive breast cancer cells and tissue samples, whereas its expression is minimal or undetected in invasive conditions. CCN5/WISP-2 has been considered as an antiinvasive gene because CCN5/WISP-2 silencing augments the invasive phenotypes in vitro. However, the mechanism of silencing of CCN5 during the progression of the disease has been elusive. Because p53 mutations are associated with breast cancer progression and have been shown to correlate inversely with CCN5/WISP-2 expression in other cancer cell types, the objective of this study was to explore whether p53 mutants suppress CCN5 expression in breast tumor cells resulting in the progression of this disease. We found CCN5 expression is inversely correlated with the mutational activation of p53 in human breast tumor cells. The ectopic expression of p53 mutants in ER-positive noninvasive breast tumor cells silenced the CCN5/WISP-2 expression and enhanced invasive phenotypes, including the induction of morphologic changes from the epithelial-to-mesenchymal type along with the alterations of hallmark proteins of these cell types and an augmentation of the migration of these cells. The suppression of CCN5 by the p53 mutants can be nullified by estrogen signaling in these cells through the transcriptional activation of the CCN5 gene. Moreover, the invasive changes can be imitated by blocking the CCN5/WISP-2 expression through RNA interference or can be reversed by the addition of CCN5/WISP-2 recombinant protein in the culture. Thus, these studies suggest that CCN5 inactivation could be an essential molecular event for p53 mutant-induced invasive phenotypes.

  6. Hot Spot Mutation in TP53 (R248Q) Causes Oncogenic Gain-of-Function Phenotypes in a Breast Cancer Cell Line Derived from an African American patient.

    PubMed

    Shtraizent, Nataly; Matsui, Hiroshi; Polotskaia, Alla; Bargonetti, Jill

    2016-01-01

    African American (AA) breast cancer patients often have triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) that contains mutations in the TP53 gene. The point mutations at amino acid residues R273 and R248 both result in oncogenic gain-of-function (GOF) phenotypes. Expression of mutant p53 (mtp53) R273H associates with increased cell elasticity, survival under serum deprivation conditions, and increased Poly (ADP ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) on the chromatin in the AA-derived TNBC breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468. We hypothesized that GOF mtp53 R248Q expression could stimulate a similar phenotype in the AA-derived TNBC cell line HCC70. To test this hypothesis we depleted the R248Q protein in the HCC70 cell line using shRNA-mediated knockdown. Using impedance-based real-time analysis we correlated the expression of mtp53 R248Q with increased cell deformability. We also documented that depletion of mtp53 R248Q increased PARP1 in the cytoplasm and decreased PARP1 on the chromatin. We conclude that in the AA-derived TNBC HCC70 cells mtp53 R248Q expression results in a causative tumor associated phenotype. This study supports using the biological markers of high expression of mtp53 R273H or R248Q as additional diagnostics for TNBC resistant subtypes often found in the AA community. Each mtp53 protein must be considered separately and this work adds R248Q to the increasing list of p53 mutations that can be used for diagnostics and drug targeting. Here we report that when R248Q mtp53 proteins are expressed in TNBC, then targeting the gain-of-function pathways may improve treatment efficacy.

  7. Hot Spot Mutation in TP53 (R248Q) Causes Oncogenic Gain-of-Function Phenotypes in a Breast Cancer Cell Line Derived from an African American patient

    PubMed Central

    Shtraizent, Nataly; Matsui, Hiroshi; Polotskaia, Alla; Bargonetti, Jill

    2015-01-01

    African American (AA) breast cancer patients often have triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) that contains mutations in the TP53 gene. The point mutations at amino acid residues R273 and R248 both result in oncogenic gain-of-function (GOF) phenotypes. Expression of mutant p53 (mtp53) R273H associates with increased cell elasticity, survival under serum deprivation conditions, and increased Poly (ADP ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) on the chromatin in the AA-derived TNBC breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-468. We hypothesized that GOF mtp53 R248Q expression could stimulate a similar phenotype in the AA-derived TNBC cell line HCC70. To test this hypothesis we depleted the R248Q protein in the HCC70 cell line using shRNA-mediated knockdown. Using impedance-based real-time analysis we correlated the expression of mtp53 R248Q with increased cell deformability. We also documented that depletion of mtp53 R248Q increased PARP1 in the cytoplasm and decreased PARP1 on the chromatin. We conclude that in the AA-derived TNBC HCC70 cells mtp53 R248Q expression results in a causative tumor associated phenotype. This study supports using the biological markers of high expression of mtp53 R273H or R248Q as additional diagnostics for TNBC resistant subtypes often found in the AA community. Each mtp53 protein must be considered separately and this work adds R248Q to the increasing list of p53 mutations that can be used for diagnostics and drug targeting. Here we report that when R248Q mtp53 proteins are expressed in TNBC, then targeting the gain-of-function pathways may improve treatment efficacy. PMID:26703669

  8. Increased PTP1B expression and phosphatase activity in colorectal cancer results in a more invasive phenotype and worse patient outcome

    PubMed Central

    Hoekstra, Elmer; Das, Asha M.; Swets, Marloes; Cao, Wanlu; van der Woude, C. Janneke; Bruno, Marco J.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.; Kuppen, Peter J.K.; ten Hagen, Timo L.M.; Fuhler, Gwenny M.

    2016-01-01

    Cell signaling is dependent on the balance between phosphorylation of proteins by kinases and dephosphorylation by phosphatases. This balance if often disrupted in colorectal cancer (CRC), leading to increased cell proliferation and invasion. For many years research has focused on the role of kinases as potential oncogenes in cancer, while phosphatases were commonly assumed to be tumor suppressive. However, this dogma is currently changing as phosphatases have also been shown to induce cancer growth. One of these phosphatases is protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B). Here we report that the expression of PTP1B is increased in colorectal cancer as compared to normal tissue, and that the intrinsic enzymatic activity of the protein is also enhanced. This suggests a role for PTP1B phosphatase activity in CRC formation and progression. Furthermore, we found that increased PTP1B expression is correlated to a worse patient survival and is an independent prognostic marker for overall survival and disease free survival. Knocking down PTP1B in CRC cell lines results in a less invasive phenotype with lower adhesion, migration and proliferation capabilities. Together, these results suggest that inhibition of PTP1B activity is a promising new target in the treatment of colorectal cancer and the prevention of metastasis. PMID:26942883

  9. Protein-bound Polysaccharide-K Inhibits Hedgehog Signaling Through Down-regulation of MAML3 and RBPJ Transcription Under Hypoxia, Suppressing the Malignant Phenotype in Pancreatic Cancer.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Akio; Onishi, Hideya; Imaizumi, Akira; Kawamoto, Makoto; Fujimura, Akiko; Oyama, Yasuhiro; Katano, Mitsuo

    2016-08-01

    Hedgehog signaling is activated in pancreatic cancer and could be a therapeutic target. We previously demonstrated that recombination signal binding protein for immunoglobulin-kappa-J region (RBPJ) and mastermind-like 3 (MAML3) contribute to the hypoxia-induced up-regulation of Smoothened (SMO) transcription. We have also shown that protein-bound polysaccharide-K (PSK) could be effective for refractory pancreatic cancer that down-regulates SMO transcription under hypoxia. In this study, we evaluated whether the anticancer mechanism of PSK involves inhibiting RBPJ and MAML3 expression under hypoxia. PSK reduced SMO, MAML3 and RBPJ expression in pancreatic cancer cells under hypoxia. PSK also blocked RBPJ-induced invasiveness under hypoxia by inhibiting matrix metalloproteinase expression. Lastly, we showed that PSK attenuated RBPJ-induced proliferation both in vitro and in vivo. These results suggest that PSK suppresses Hedgehog signaling through down-regulation of MAML3 and RBPJ transcription under hypoxia, inhibiting the induction of a malignant phenotype in pancreatic cancer. Our results may lead to development of new treatments for refractory pancreatic cancer using PSK as a Hedgehog inhibitor. PMID:27466498

  10. Chloroquine resistance in Plasmodium falciparum is not reversed by BIBW-22, a compound reversing the multidrug resistance phenotype in mammalian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Dieckmann-Schuppert, A; Bamberger, U; Schwarz, R T

    1993-10-19

    The pteridine derivative BIBW-22 (4-[N-(2-hydroxy-2-methyl-propyl)-ethanolamino]-2,7-bis(cis-2,6-di methyl-morpholino)-6-phenylpteridine), which had been developed for the treatment of multidrug-resistant cancer and binds to P-glycoprotein, was tested against chloroquine resistant Plasmodium falciparum strains in culture. Based on the result that BIBW-22 enhanced rather than lowered chloroquine resistance in vitro, it is concluded that chloroquine resistance in malaria parasites may not be mechanistically linked to the multidrug-resistant phenotype of chloroquine resistant P. falciparum. PMID:8240391

  11. Cervical Cancer Cell Supernatants Induce a Phenotypic Switch from U937-Derived Macrophage-Activated M1 State into M2-Like Suppressor Phenotype with Change in Toll-Like Receptor Profile

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez-Reyes, Karina; Bravo-Cuellar, Alejandro; Hernández-Flores, Georgina; Lerma-Díaz, José Manuel; Jave-Suárez, Luis Felipe; Gómez-Lomelí, Paulina; de Celis, Ruth; Aguilar-Lemarroy, Adriana; Domínguez-Rodríguez, Jorge Ramiro; Ortiz-Lazareno, Pablo Cesar

    2014-01-01

    Cervical cancer (CC) is the second most common cancer among women worldwide. Infection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is the main risk factor for developing CC. Macrophages are important immune effector cells; they can be differentiated into two phenotypes, identified as M1 (classically activated) and M2 (alternatively activated). Macrophage polarization exerts profound effects on the Toll-like receptor (TLR) profile. In this study, we evaluated whether the supernatant of human CC cells HeLa, SiHa, and C-33A induces a shift of M1 macrophage toward M2 macrophage in U937-derived macrophages. Results. The results showed that soluble factors secreted by CC cells induce a change in the immunophenotype of macrophages from macrophage M1 into macrophage M2. U937-derived macrophages M1 released proinflammatory cytokines and nitric oxide; however, when these cells were treated with the supernatant of CC cell lines, we observed a turnover of M1 toward M2. These cells increased CD163 and IL-10 expression. The expression of TLR-3, -7, and -9 is increased when the macrophages were treated with the supernatant of CC cells. Conclusions. Our result strongly suggests that CC cells may, through the secretion of soluble factors, induce a change of immunophenotype M1 into M2 macrophages. PMID:25309919

  12. Maternal Embryonic Leucine-zipper Kinase: Key Kinase for Stem Cell Phenotype in Glioma and Other Cancers

    PubMed Central

    Ganguly, Ranjit; Hong, Christopher; Smith, Luke; Kornblum, Harley I; Nakano, Ichiro

    2014-01-01

    Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase (MELK) is a member of the snf1/AMPK family of protein Serine/Threonine kinases that has recently gained significant attention in the stem cell and cancer biology field. Recent studies suggest that activation of this kinase is tightly associated with extended survival and accelerated proliferation of cancer stem cells (CSCs) in various organs. Overexpression of MELK has been noted in various cancers, including colon, breast, ovaries, pancreas, prostate, and brain, making the inhibition of MELK an attractive therapeutic strategy for a variety of cancers. In the experimental cancer models, depletion of MELK by RNA interference or small molecule inhibitors induces apoptotic cell death of cancer stem cells derived from glioblastoma and breast cancer, both in vitro and in vivo. Mechanism of action of MELK includes, yet may not be restricted to, direct binding and activation of the oncogenic transcription factors c-JUN and FOXM1 in cancer cells but not in the normal counterparts. Following these pre-clinical studies, the Phase I clinical trial for advanced cancers with OTS167 started in 2013, as the first-in-class MELK inhibitor. This review summarizes the current molecular understanding of MELK and the recent pre-clinical studies about MELK as a cancer therapeutic target. PMID:24795222

  13. Individualized Nonadaptive and Online-Adaptive Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy Treatment Strategies for Cervical Cancer Patients Based on Pretreatment Acquired Variable Bladder Filling Computed Tomography Scans

    SciTech Connect

    Bondar, M.L.; Hoogeman, M.S.; Mens, J.W.; Quint, S.; Ahmad, R.; Dhawtal, G.; Heijmen, B.J.

    2012-08-01

    Purpose: To design and evaluate individualized nonadaptive and online-adaptive strategies based on a pretreatment established motion model for the highly deformable target volume in cervical cancer patients. Methods and Materials: For 14 patients, nine to ten variable bladder filling computed tomography (CT) scans were acquired at pretreatment and after 40 Gy. Individualized model-based internal target volumes (mbITVs) accounting for the cervix and uterus motion due to bladder volume changes were generated by using a motion-model constructed from two pretreatment CT scans (full and empty bladder). Two individualized strategies were designed: a nonadaptive strategy, using an mbITV accounting for the full-range of bladder volume changes throughout the treatment; and an online-adaptive strategy, using mbITVs of bladder volume subranges to construct a library of plans. The latter adapts the treatment online by selecting the plan-of-the-day from the library based on the measured bladder volume. The individualized strategies were evaluated by the seven to eight CT scans not used for mbITVs construction, and compared with a population-based approach. Geometric uniform margins around planning cervix-uterus and mbITVs were determined to ensure adequate coverage. For each strategy, the percentage of the cervix-uterus, bladder, and rectum volumes inside the planning target volume (PTV), and the clinical target volume (CTV)-to-PTV volume (volume difference between PTV and CTV) were calculated. Results: The margin for the population-based approach was 38 mm and for the individualized strategies was 7 to 10 mm. Compared with the population-based approach, the individualized nonadaptive strategy decreased the CTV-to-PTV volume by 48% {+-} 6% and the percentage of bladder and rectum inside the PTV by 5% to 45% and 26% to 74% (p < 0.001), respectively. Replacing the individualized nonadaptive strategy by an online-adaptive, two-plan library further decreased the percentage of

  14. Integrin β1-mediated acquired gefitinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer cells occurs via the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-dependent pathway

    PubMed Central

    DENG, QIN-FANG; SU, BO; ZHAO, YIN-MIN; TANG, LIANG; ZHANG, JIE; ZHOU, CAI-CUN

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to explore the role of integrin β1 and the relevant signaling pathways in acquired gefitinib resistance in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). The inhibitory effects of gefitinib, with or without LY294002, on cellular proliferation were evaluated by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl) 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. Cell cycle progression and apoptosis were analyzed by flow cytometry, while western blotting was used to evaluate the expression of EGFR, phosphorylated (phospho)-EGFR, protein kinase B (Akt), phospho-Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and phospho-Erk. The gene expression profiles of PC9 and PC9/G cells were determined by DNA microarray. Integrin β1 was knocked down in PC9/G cells by transiently transfected short interfering RNA (siRNA). A scrambled siRNA sequence was used as a control. Apoptosis of transfected cells was determined by Annexin V-phycoerythrin-Cy5/propidium iodide staining. Sequencing products were amplified by nested PCR. The resistant index of PC9/G cells to gefitinib was ~138- to 256-fold higher than that of PC9 cells, and this resistance was accompanied by significant increase in integrin β1 expression in PC9/G cells. Knockdown of integrin β1 with short hairpin RNA in PC9/G cells markedly inhibited proliferation and enhanced apoptosis in response to gefitinib, restoring the sensitivity of PC9/G cells gefitinib. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt activation was observed in PC9/G cells in the presence of gefitinib and the sensitivity of PC9/G cells to gefitinib was also able to be restored by PI3K/Akt pathway inhibitor LY294002. Finally, knockdown of integrin β1 significantly reduced the levels of phospho-Akt. These findings suggest that integrin β1 signaling via the PI3K/Akt pathway may be a significant mechanism underlying gefitinib resistance, and may potentially present an alternative therapeutic target for the treatment of NSCLC unresponsive to EGFR inhibitors. PMID:26870244

  15. Hypoxia induces the breast cancer stem cell phenotype by HIF-dependent and ALKBH5-mediated m6A-demethylation of NANOG mRNA.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chuanzhao; Samanta, Debangshu; Lu, Haiquan; Bullen, John W; Zhang, Huimin; Chen, Ivan; He, Xiaoshun; Semenza, Gregg L

    2016-04-01

    N(6)-methyladenosine (m(6)A) modification of mRNA plays a role in regulating embryonic stem cell pluripotency. However, the physiological signals that determine the balance between methylation and demethylation have not been described, nor have studies addressed the role of m(6)A in cancer stem cells. We report that exposure of breast cancer cells to hypoxia stimulated hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α- and HIF-2α-dependent expression of AlkB homolog 5 (ALKBH5), an m(6)A demethylase, which demethylated NANOG mRNA, which encodes a pluripotency factor, at an m(6)A residue in the 3'-UTR. Increased NANOG mRNA and protein expression, and the breast cancer stem cell (BCSC) phenotype, were induced by hypoxia in an HIF- and ALKBH5-dependent manner. Insertion of the NANOG 3'-UTR into a luciferase reporter gene led to regulation of luciferase activity by O2, HIFs, and ALKBH5, which was lost upon mutation of the methylated residue. ALKBH5 overexpression decreased NANOG mRNA methylation, increased NANOG levels, and increased the percentage of BCSCs, phenocopying the effect of hypoxia. Knockdown of ALKBH5 expression in MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells significantly reduced their capacity for tumor initiation as a result of reduced numbers of BCSCs. Thus, HIF-dependent ALKBH5 expression mediates enrichment of BCSCs in the hypoxic tumor microenvironment. PMID:27001847

  16. Overexpression of Lon contributes to survival and aggressive phenotype of cancer cells through mitochondrial complex I-mediated generation of reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Cheng, C-W; Kuo, C-Y; Fan, C-C; Fang, W-C; Jiang, S S; Lo, Y-K; Wang, T-Y; Kao, M-C; Lee, A Y-L

    2013-06-20

    Lon protease is a multifunction protein and operates in protein quality control and stress response pathways in mitochondria. Human Lon is upregulated under oxidative and hypoxic stresses that represent the stress phenotypes of cancer. However, little literature undertakes comprehensive and detailed investigations on the tumorigenic role of Lon. Overexpression of Lon promotes cell proliferation, apoptotic resistance to stresses, and transformation. Furthermore, Lon overexpression induces the production of mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) that result from Lon-mediated upregulation of NDUFS8, a mitochondrial Fe-S protein in complex I of electron transport chain. Increased level of mitochondrial ROS promotes cell proliferation, cell survival, cell migration, and epithelial-mesenchymal transition through mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and Ras-ERK activation. Overall, the present report for the first time demonstrates the role of Lon overexpression in tumorigenesis. Lon overexpression gives an apoptotic resistance to stresses and induces mitochondrial ROS production through Complex I as signaling molecules to activate Ras and MAPK signaling, giving the survival advantages and adaptation to cancer cells. Finally, in silico and immunohistochemistry analysis showed that Lon is overexpressed specifically in various types of cancer tissue including oral cancer.

  17. rs1495741 as a tag single nucleotide polymorphism of N-acetyltransferase 2 acetylator phenotype associates bladder cancer risk and interacts with smoking

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chong; Gu, Liyan; Yang, Mingyuan; Zhang, Zhensheng; Zeng, Shuxiong; Song, Ruixiang; Xu, Chuanliang; Sun, Yinghao

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rs1495741 has been identified to infer N-acetyltransferase 2 (NAT2) acetylator phenotype, and to decrease the risk of bladder cancer. However, a number of studies conducted in various regions showed controversial results. To quantify the association between rs1495741 and the risk of bladder cancer and to estimate the interaction effect of this genetic variant with smoking, we performed a systematic literature review and meta-analysis involving 14,815 cases and 58,282 controls from 29 studies. Our results indicates rs1495741 significantly associated with bladder cancer risk (OR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.82–0.89, test for heterogeneity P = 0.36, I2 = 7.0%). And we verified this association in populations from Europe, America, and Asia. Further, our stratified meta-analysis showed rs1495741's role is typically evident only in ever smokers, which suggests its interaction with smoking. This study may provide new insight into gene-environment study on bladder cancer. PMID:27495060

  18. Blockade of Wnt/β-catenin signaling suppresses breast cancer metastasis by inhibiting CSC-like phenotype.

    PubMed

    Jang, Gyu-Beom; Kim, Ji-Young; Cho, Sung-Dae; Park, Ki-Soo; Jung, Ji-Youn; Lee, Hwa-Yong; Hong, In-Sun; Nam, Jeong-Seok

    2015-01-01

    The identification of cancer stem cells (CSCs) represents an important milestone in the understanding of chemodrug resistance and cancer recurrence. More specifically, some studies have suggested that potential metastasis-initiating cells (MICs) might be present within small CSC populations. The targeting and eradication of these cells represents a potential strategy for significantly improving clinical outcomes. A number of studies have suggested that dysregulation of Wnt/β-catenin signaling occurs in human breast cancer. Consistent with these findings, our previous data have shown that the relative level of Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity in breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs) is significantly higher than that in bulk cancer cells. These results suggest that BCSCs could be sensitive to therapeutic approaches targeting Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway. In this context, abnormal Wnt/β-catenin signaling activity may be an important clinical feature of breast cancer and a predictor of poor survival. We therefore hypothesized that Wnt/β-catenin signaling might regulate self-renewal and CSC migration, thereby enabling metastasis and systemic tumor dissemination in breast cancer. Here, we investigated the effects of inhibiting Wnt/β-catenin signaling on cancer cell migratory potential by examining the expression of CSC-related genes, and we examined how this pathway links metastatic potential with tumor formation in vitro and in vivo. PMID:26202299

  19. SNAILs promote G1 phase in selected cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wu, Ya-Lan; Xue, Jian-Xin; Zhou, Lin; Deng, Lei; Shang, Yan-Na; Liu, Fang; Mo, Xian-Ming; Lu, You

    2015-11-01

    Cells can acquire a stem-like cell phenotype through epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). However, it is not known which of the stem-like cancer cells are generated by these phenotype transitions. We studied the EMT-inducing roles of SNAILs (the key inducers for the onset of EMT) in selected cancer cells (lung cancer cell line with relatively stable genome), in order to provide more implications for the investigation of EMT-related phenotype transitions in cancer. However, SNAILs fail to induce completed EMT. In addition, we proved that Snail accelerates the early G1 phase whereas Slug accelerates the late G1 phase. Blocking G1 phase is one of the basic conditions for the onset of EMT-related phenotype transitions (e.g., metastasis, acquiring stemness). The discovery of this unexpected phenomenon (promoting G1 phase) typically reveals the heterogeneity of cancer cells. The onset of EMT-related phenotype transitions in cancer needs not only the induction and activation of SNAILs, but also some particular heredity alterations (genetic or epigenetic alterations, which cause heterogeneity). The new connection between heredity alteration (heterogeneity) and phenotype transition suggests a novel treatment strategy, the heredity alteration-directed specific target therapy. Further investigations need to be conducted to study the relevant heredity alterations.

  20. Integrative analysis reveals clinical phenotypes and oncogenic potentials of long non-coding RNAs across 15 cancer types

    PubMed Central

    Piccolo, Stephen R.; Zhang, Xiao-Qin; Li, Jun-Hao; Zhou, Hui; Yang, Jian-Hua; Qu, Liang-Hu

    2016-01-01

    Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) have been shown to contribute to tumorigenesis. However, surprisingly little is known about the comprehensive clinical and genomic characterization of lncRNAs across human cancer. In this study, we conducted comprehensive analyses for the expression profile, clinical outcomes, somatic copy number alterations (SCNAs) profile of lncRNAs in ~7000 clinical samples from 15 different cancer types. We identified significantly differentially expressed lncRNAs between tumor and normal tissues from each cancer. Notably, we characterized 47 lncRNAs which were extensively dysregulated in at least 10 cancer types, suggesting a conserved function in cancer development. We also analyzed the associations between lncRNA expressions and patient survival, and identified sets of lncRNAs that possessed significant prognostic values in specific cancer types. Our combined analysis of SCNA data and expression data uncovered 116 dysregulated lncRNAs are strikingly genomic altered across 15 cancer types, indicating their oncogenic potentials. Our study may lay the groundwork for future functional studies of lncRNAs and help facilitate the discovery of novel clinical biomarkers. PMID:27147563

  1. Association between basal-like phenotype and BRCA1/2 germline mutations in Korean breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Jung, J.; Kang, E.; Gwak, J.M.; Seo, A.N.; Park, S.Y.; Lee, A.S.; Baek, H.; Chae, S.; Kim, E.K.; Kim, S.W.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction BRCA mutation testing allows index patients and their families to be provided with appropriate cancer risk-reduction strategies. Because of the low prevalence of BRCA mutations in unselected breast cancer patients and the high cost of genetic testing, it is important to identify the subset of women who are likely to carry BRCA mutations. In the present study, we examined the association between BRCA1/2 germline mutations and the immunohistochemical features of breast cancer. Methods In a retrospective review of 498 breast cancer patients who had undergone BRCA testing at Seoul National University Bundang Hospital between July 2003 and September 2012, we gathered immunohistochemical information on estrogen receptor (er), progesterone receptor (pr), her2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2), cytokeratin 5/6, egfr (epidermal growth factor receptor), and p53 status. Results Among the 411 patients eligible for the study, 50 (12.2%) had germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Of the 93 patients with triple-negative breast cancer (tnbc), 25 with BRCA1/2 mutations were identified (BRCA1, 20.4%; BRCA2, 6.5%). On univariate analysis, er, pr, cytokeratin 5/6, egfr, and tnbc were found to be related to BRCA1 mutations, but on multivariate analysis, only tnbc was significantly associated with BRCA1 mutations. Among patients with early-onset breast cancer or with a family history of breast or ovarian cancer, BRCA1 mutations were significantly more prevalent in the tnbc group than in the non-tnbc group. Conclusions In the present study, tnbc was the only independent predictor of BRCA1 mutation in patients at high risk of hereditary breast and ovarian cancers. Other histologic features of basal-like breast cancer did not improve the estimate of BRCA1 mutation risk. PMID:27803593

  2. Loss of androgen receptor expression promotes a stem-like cell phenotype in prostate cancer through STAT3 signaling.

    PubMed

    Schroeder, Anne; Herrmann, Andreas; Cherryholmes, Gregory; Kowolik, Claudia; Buettner, Ralf; Pal, Sumanta; Yu, Hua; Müller-Newen, Gerhard; Jove, Richard

    2014-02-15

    Androgen receptor (AR) signaling is important for prostate cancer progression. However, androgen-deprivation and/or AR targeting-based therapies often lead to resistance. Here, we demonstrate that loss of AR expression results in STAT3 activation in prostate cancer cells. AR downregulation further leads to development of prostate cancer stem-like cells (CSC), which requires STAT3. In human prostate tumor tissues, elevated cancer stem-like cell markers coincide with those cells exhibiting high STAT3 activity and low AR expression. AR downregulation-induced STAT3 activation is mediated through increased interleukin (IL)-6 expression. Treating mice with soluble IL-6 receptor fusion protein or silencing STAT3 in tumor cells significantly reduced prostate tumor growth and CSCs. Together, these findings indicate an opposing role of AR and STAT3 in prostate CSC development.

  3. Self-Styled ZnO Nanostructures Promotes the Cancer Cell Damage and Supresses the Epithelial Phenotype of Glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Wahab, Rizwan; Kaushik, Neha; Khan, Farheen; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A

    2016-01-01

    Extensive researches have been done on the applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) for the biological purposes. However, the role and toxicity mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures (ZnO-NSts) such as nanoplates (NPls), nanorods (NRs), nanosheets (NSs), nanoflowers (NFs) on cancer cells are not largely known. Present study was focused to investigate the possible mechanisms of apoptosis induced by self-designed ZnO-NSts, prepared at fix pH via solution process and exposed against human T98G gliomas including various cancers and non-malignant embryonic kidney HEK293, MRC5 fibroblast cells. NSts were used for the induction of cell death in malignant human T98G gliomas including various cancers and compared with the non-malignant cells. Notably, NRs were found to induce higher cytotoxicity, inhibitory effects on cancer and normal cells in a dose dependent manner. We also showed that NRs induced cancer cell death through oxidative stress and caspase-dependent pathways. Furthermore, quantitative and qualitative analysis of ZnO-NSts have also been confirmed by statistical analytical parameters such as precision, accuracy, linearity, limits of detection and limit of quantitation. These self-styled NSts could provide new perception in the research of targeted cancer nanotechnology and have potentiality to improve new therapeutic outcomes with poor diagnosis. PMID:26818603

  4. The noncoding RNA MALAT1 is a critical regulator of the metastasis phenotype of lung cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Gutschner, Tony; Hämmerle, Monika; Eissmann, Moritz; Hsu, Jeff; Kim, Youngsoo; Hung, Gene; Revenko, Alexey; Arun, Gayatri; Stentrup, Marion; Gross, Matthias; Zörnig, Martin; MacLeod, A Robert; Spector, David L; Diederichs, Sven

    2013-02-01

    The long noncoding RNA MALAT1 (metastasis-associated lung adenocarcinoma transcript 1), also known as MALAT-1 or NEAT2 (nuclear-enriched abundant transcript 2), is a highly conserved nuclear noncoding RNA (ncRNA) and a predictive marker for metastasis development in lung cancer. To uncover its functional importance, we developed a MALAT1 knockout model in human lung tumor cells by genomically integrating RNA destabilizing elements using zinc finger nucleases. The achieved 1,000-fold MALAT1 silencing provides a unique loss-of-function model. Proposed mechanisms of action include regulation of splicing or gene expression. In lung cancer, MALAT1 does not alter alternative splicing but actively regulates gene expression including a set of metastasis-associated genes. Consequently, MALAT1-deficient cells are impaired in migration and form fewer tumor nodules in a mouse xenograft. Antisense oligonucleotides (ASO) blocking MALAT1 prevent metastasis formation after tumor implantation. Thus, targeting MALAT1 with ASOs provides a potential therapeutic approach to prevent lung cancer metastasis with this ncRNA serving as both predictive marker and therapeutic target. Finally, regulating gene expression, but not alternative splicing, is the critical function of MALAT1 in lung cancer metastasis. In summary, 10 years after the discovery of the lncRNA MALAT1 as a biomarker for lung cancer metastasis, our loss-of-function model unravels the active function of MALAT1 as a regulator of gene expression governing hallmarks of lung cancer metastasis.

  5. Self-Styled ZnO Nanostructures Promotes the Cancer Cell Damage and Supresses the Epithelial Phenotype of Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Wahab, Rizwan; Kaushik, Neha; Khan, Farheen; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive researches have been done on the applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) for the biological purposes. However, the role and toxicity mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures (ZnO-NSts) such as nanoplates (NPls), nanorods (NRs), nanosheets (NSs), nanoflowers (NFs) on cancer cells are not largely known. Present study was focused to investigate the possible mechanisms of apoptosis induced by self-designed ZnO-NSts, prepared at fix pH via solution process and exposed against human T98G gliomas including various cancers and non-malignant embryonic kidney HEK293, MRC5 fibroblast cells. NSts were used for the induction of cell death in malignant human T98G gliomas including various cancers and compared with the non-malignant cells. Notably, NRs were found to induce higher cytotoxicity, inhibitory effects on cancer and normal cells in a dose dependent manner. We also showed that NRs induced cancer cell death through oxidative stress and caspase-dependent pathways. Furthermore, quantitative and qualitative analysis of ZnO-NSts have also been confirmed by statistical analytical parameters such as precision, accuracy, linearity, limits of detection and limit of quantitation. These self-styled NSts could provide new perception in the research of targeted cancer nanotechnology and have potentiality to improve new therapeutic outcomes with poor diagnosis. PMID:26818603

  6. Self-Styled ZnO Nanostructures Promotes the Cancer Cell Damage and Supresses the Epithelial Phenotype of Glioblastoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wahab, Rizwan; Kaushik, Neha; Khan, Farheen; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha; Musarrat, Javed; Al-Khedhairy, Abdulaziz A.

    2016-01-01

    Extensive researches have been done on the applications of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs) for the biological purposes. However, the role and toxicity mechanisms of ZnO nanostructures (ZnO-NSts) such as nanoplates (NPls), nanorods (NRs), nanosheets (NSs), nanoflowers (NFs) on cancer cells are not largely known. Present study was focused to investigate the possible mechanisms of apoptosis induced by self-designed ZnO-NSts, prepared at fix pH via solution process and exposed against human T98G gliomas including various cancers and non-malignant embryonic kidney HEK293, MRC5 fibroblast cells. NSts were used for the induction of cell death in malignant human T98G gliomas including various cancers and compared with the non-malignant cells. Notably, NRs were found to induce higher cytotoxicity, inhibitory effects on cancer and normal cells in a dose dependent manner. We also showed that NRs induced cancer cell death through oxidative stress and caspase-dependent pathways. Furthermore, quantitative and qualitative analysis of ZnO-NSts have also been confirmed by statistical analytical parameters such as precision, accuracy, linearity, limits of detection and limit of quantitation. These self-styled NSts could provide new perception in the research of targeted cancer nanotechnology and have potentiality to improve new therapeutic outcomes with poor diagnosis.

  7. Cytochrome P450 2E1 variable number tandem repeat polymorphisms and health risks: a genotype-phenotype study in cancers associated with drinking and/or smoking.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Irene; Naselli, Flores; Saverini, Marghereth; Giacalone, Antonio; Montalto, Giuseppe; Caradonna, Fabio

    2012-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is one of the main enzymes involved in the oxidation of ethanol and in the transformation of a number of potentially dangerous compounds. It has various polymorphic sites, one of which is a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism previously described in the 5'-flanking region. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype-phenotype association between CYP2E1 VNTR polymorphisms and risky health habits in healthy subjects and to analyze the associations between these polymorphisms with drinking- and/or smoking-related cancers. We analyzed 166 healthy subjects by genotyping for the CYP2E1 VNTR polymorphism associated with drinking and/or smoking habits by the more sensitive restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) method, using the NlaIV restriction enzyme. Sixty cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) and 66 with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), were also genotyped. Statistical analysis was carried out to investigate the genotype-phenotype associations and to compare certain genotypes and cancer. We found 7 genotypes both in the healthy subjects and patients. The A1/A1 genotype was observed to be mainly associated with non-drinkers and -smokers (87.5 and 75.0%, respectively); moreover it was never found in the PA or HCC patients. Conversely, a weak association between A2/A3 with smokers (45.8%) and A4/A4 with drinkers (53.9%) was detected. In addition, the A4/A4 genotype was found to be significantly associated to PA [odds ratio (OR)=3.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-7.50]. Our data demonstrate that certain CYP2E1 VNTR genotypes are associated with drinking and/or smoking habits; consequently, they may contribute either to the decreased or increased risk of developing drinking- and/or smoking-related cancers. In particular, we hypothesize that the A1/A1 VNTR genotype may have a protective role against drinking- and/or smoking-related cancers, and that A4/A4 may be a high

  8. Cytochrome P450 2E1 variable number tandem repeat polymorphisms and health risks: a genotype-phenotype study in cancers associated with drinking and/or smoking.

    PubMed

    Catanzaro, Irene; Naselli, Flores; Saverini, Marghereth; Giacalone, Antonio; Montalto, Giuseppe; Caradonna, Fabio

    2012-08-01

    Cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) is one of the main enzymes involved in the oxidation of ethanol and in the transformation of a number of potentially dangerous compounds. It has various polymorphic sites, one of which is a variable number tandem repeat (VNTR) polymorphism previously described in the 5'-flanking region. The aim of this study was to investigate the genotype-phenotype association between CYP2E1 VNTR polymorphisms and risky health habits in healthy subjects and to analyze the associations between these polymorphisms with drinking- and/or smoking-related cancers. We analyzed 166 healthy subjects by genotyping for the CYP2E1 VNTR polymorphism associated with drinking and/or smoking habits by the more sensitive restriction fragment length polymorphism-polymerase chain reaction (RFLP-PCR) method, using the NlaIV restriction enzyme. Sixty cases of pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PA) and 66 with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), were also genotyped. Statistical analysis was carried out to investigate the genotype-phenotype associations and to compare certain genotypes and cancer. We found 7 genotypes both in the healthy subjects and patients. The A1/A1 genotype was observed to be mainly associated with non-drinkers and -smokers (87.5 and 75.0%, respectively); moreover it was never found in the PA or HCC patients. Conversely, a weak association between A2/A3 with smokers (45.8%) and A4/A4 with drinkers (53.9%) was detected. In addition, the A4/A4 genotype was found to be significantly associated to PA [odds ratio (OR)=3.25; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.21-7.50]. Our data demonstrate that certain CYP2E1 VNTR genotypes are associated with drinking and/or smoking habits; consequently, they may contribute either to the decreased or increased risk of developing drinking- and/or smoking-related cancers. In particular, we hypothesize that the A1/A1 VNTR genotype may have a protective role against drinking- and/or smoking-related cancers, and that A4/A4 may be a high

  9. A common cancer-associated DNA polymerase ε mutation causes an exceptionally strong mutator phenotype, indicating fidelity defects distinct from loss of proofreading.

    PubMed

    Kane, Daniel P; Shcherbakova, Polina V

    2014-04-01

    Exonucleolytic proofreading and DNA mismatch repair (MMR) act in series to maintain high-fidelity DNA replication and to avoid mutagenesis. MMR defects elevate the overall mutation rate and are associated with increased cancer incidence. Hypermutable colorectal and endometrial tumors with functional MMR were recently reported to carry amino acid substitutions in the exonuclease domain of DNA polymerase ε (Polε). This created a notion that loss of the proofreading activity of Polε is an initiating cause of some sporadic human cancers. In this study, we identified a somatic P286R substitution in the conserved ExoI motif of Polε in a collection of 52 sporadic colorectal tumor specimens. This change has been repeatedly observed in colorectal and endometrial tumors in previous studies despite many possible ways to inactivate Polε proofreading. To understand the reasons for the recurrent appearance of the P286R variant, we characterized its functional consequences using the yeast model system. An analogous substitution in the yeast Polε produced an unusually strong mutator phenotype exceeding that of proofreading-deficient mutants by two orders of magnitude. This argues that the P286R mutation acts at some level other than loss of exonuclease to elevate cancer risk. Heterozygosity for the variant allele caused a strong mutator effect comparable with that of complete MMR deficiency, providing an explanation for why loss of heterozygosity is not required for the development of Polε-mutant human tumors.

  10. GLI1 Confers Profound Phenotypic Changes upon LNCaP Prostate Cancer Cells That Include the Acquisition of a Hormone Independent State

    PubMed Central

    Nadendla, Sandeep K.; Hazan, Allon; Ward, Matt; Harper, Lisa J.; Moutasim, Karwan; Bianchi, Lucia S.; Naase, Mahmoud; Ghali, Lucy; Thomas, Gareth J.; Prowse, David M.; Philpott, Michael P.; Neill, Graham W.

    2011-01-01

    The GLI (GLI1/GLI2) transcription factors have been implicated in the development and progression of prostate cancer although our understanding of how they actually contribute to the biology of these common tumours is limited. We observed that GLI reporter activity was higher in normal (PNT-2) and tumourigenic (DU145 and PC-3) androgen-independent cells compared to androgen-dependent LNCaP prostate cancer cells and, accordingly, GLI mRNA levels were also elevated. Ectopic expression of GLI1 or the constitutively active ΔNGLI2 mutant induced a distinct cobblestone-like morphology in LNCaP cells that, regarding the former, correlated with increased GLI2 as well as expression of the basal/stem-like markers CD44, β1-integrin, ΔNp63 and BMI1, and decreased expression of the luminal marker AR (androgen receptor). LNCaP-GLI1 cells were viable in the presence of the AR inhibitor bicalutamide and gene expression profiling revealed that the transcriptome of LNCaP-GLI1 cells was significantly closer to DU145 and PC-3 cells than to control LNCaP-pBP (empty vector) cells, as well as identifying LCN2/NGAL as a highly induced transcript which is associated with hormone independence in breast and prostate cancer. Functionally, LNCaP-GLI1 cells displayed greater clonal growth and were more invasive than control cells but they did not form colonies in soft agar or prostaspheres in suspension suggesting that they do not possess inherent stem cell properties. Moreover, targeted suppression of GLI1 or GLI2 with siRNA did not reverse the transformed phenotype of LNCaP-GLI1 cells nor did double GLI1/GLI2 knockdowns activate AR expression in DU145 or PC-3 cells. As such, early targeting of the GLI oncoproteins may hinder progression to a hormone independent state but a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms that maintain this phenotype is required to determine if their inhibition will enhance the efficacy of anti-hormonal therapy through the induction of a luminal phenotype and

  11. Folate supplementation induces differential dose-dependent modulation of proliferative phenotypes among cancerous and noncancerous oral cell lines in vitro.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Jonathan; Chang, Sarah; Hajibandeh, Jeffrey; Tran, Michael D; Meeder, Colby A; Sharma, Kanika; Nguyen, Dieu-Hoa; Moody, Michael; Keiserman, Mark A; Bergman, Christine J; Kingsley, Karl

    2010-12-01

    Sufficient folate intake confers positive health benefits, while deficiency is linked with many health problems. Although the US policy of dietary folic acid fortification has reduced the incidence of these deficiency-related health problems, recent evidence has demonstrated an association between folic acid supplementation and increased colorectal cancer incidence. Few studies have explored the possibility that folate affects other slowly developing cancers. This study sought to determine whether folic acid supplementation is sufficient to alter the growth and development of existing oral cancers. A series of in vitro growth, viability, and adhesion assays were performed using the well-characterized human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, to determine the effects of folic acid supplementation. Folic acid administration significantly stimulated CAL27 and SCC25 proliferation in a dose-dependent manner, but it was not sufficient to increase proliferation at any concentration tested in the normal control cell line, HGF-1. Neither oral cancer cell line harbored the common C677T DNA polymorphism of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) gene, which might reduce folate bioavailability. Overexpression of p53 mRNA was observed in both cancerous cell lines, but it was differentially altered by folic acid administration in only SCC25 cells. These findings suggest folic acid administration may significantly alter growth of oral cancers in vitro via p53-dependent and p53-independent pathways. As oral cancer rates continue to rise in specific geographic areas, and among specific subsets of the US population, understanding environmental mediators, such as folic acid supplementation, becomes increasingly important for nutrition and public health scientists.

  12. Loss of membranous VEGFR1 expression is associated with an adverse phenotype and shortened survival in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lebok, Patrick; Huber, Julia; Burandt, Eike-Christian; Lebeau, Annette; Marx, Andreas Holger; Terracciano, Luigi; Heilenkötter, Uwe; Jänicke, Fritz; Müller, Volkmar; Paluchowski, Peter; Geist, Stefan; Wilke, Christian; Simon, Ronald; Sauter, Guido; Quaas, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Angiogenesis is a key process in tumor growth and progression, which is controlled by vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs) and their receptors (VEGFRs). In order to better understand the prevalence and prognostic value of VEGFR1 expression in breast cancer, a tissue microarray containing >2,100 breast cancer specimens, with clinical follow-up data, was analyzed by immunohistochemistry using an antibody directed against the membrane-bound full-length receptor protein. The results demonstrated that membranous VEGFR1 staining was detected in all (5 of 5) normal breast specimens. In carcinoma specimens, membranous staining was negative in 3.1%, weak in 6.3%, moderate in 10.9%, and strong in 79.7% of the 1,630 interpretable tissues. Strong staining was significantly associated with estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor expression, but was inversely associated with advanced tumor stage (P=0.0431), high Bloom-Richardson-Ellis Score for Breast Cancer grade and low Ki67 labeling index (both P<0.0001). Cancers with moderate to strong (high) VEGFR1 expression were associated with significantly improved overall survival, as compared with tumors exhibiting negative or weak (low) expression (P=0.0015). This association was also detected in the subset of nodal-positive cancers (P=0.0018), and in the subset of 185 patients who had received tamoxifen as the sole therapy (P=0.001). In conclusion, these data indicated that membrane-bound VEGFR1 is frequently expressed in normal and cancerous breast epithelium. In addition, reduced or lost VEGFR1 expression may serve as a marker for poor prognosis in patients with breast cancer, who might not optimally benefit from endocrine therapy. PMID:27357606

  13. Estrogen Receptor-β Expression in Invasive Breast Cancer in Relation to Molecular Phenotype: Results from the Nurses’ Health Study

    PubMed Central

    Marotti, Jonathan; Collins, Laura C.; Hu, Rong; Tamimi, Rulla M.

    2011-01-01

    The expression of estrogen receptor-alpha (ER-α) and related genes has emerged as one of the major determinants of molecular classification of invasive breast cancers. However, patterns of expression of a second estrogen receptor, estrogen receptor-beta (ER-β), have not been previously evaluated in a large population-based study. Therefore, we examined ER-β expression in a large population of women with breast cancer to assess its relationship to molecular categories of invasive breast cancer. We constructed tissue microarrays from paraffin blocks of 3,093 breast cancers that developed in women enrolled in the Nurses' Health Study. Tissue microarray sections were immunostained for ER-α, progesterone receptor (PR), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), cytokeratin 5/6 and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). Cancers were categorized as luminal A (ER-α+ and/or PR+ and HER2−); luminal B (ER-α+ and/or PR+ and HER2+); HER2 (ER-α− and PR− and HER2+); and basal-like (ER-α−, PR−, HER2− and EGFR or cytokeratin 5/6+). Tissue microarray sections were also immunostained with a monoclonal antibody to ER-β (ER-β1, clone PPG5/1/0, Serotec). The relationship between expression of ER-β to molecular class of invasive breast cancer was analyzed. Overall, 68% of the invasive breast carcinomas were ER-β positive. Expression of ER-β was significantly associated with expression of ER-α (p<0.0001) and PR (p<0.0001), and was inversely related to expression of HER2 (p=0.004), CK5/6 (p=0.02) and EGFR (p=0.006). Among 2,170 invasive cancers with complete immunophenotypic data, 73% were luminal A, 5% luminal B, 6 % HER2 and 11% basal-like. ER-β expression was significantly related to molecular category (p<0.0001) and was more common in luminal A (72% of cases) and B (68% of cases) than in HER2 or basal-like types. However, despite their being defined by the absence of ER-α expression, 55% of HER2-type and 60% of basal-like cancers showed expression of

  14. CD133 Modulate HIF-1α Expression under Hypoxia in EMT Phenotype Pancreatic Cancer Stem-Like Cells

    PubMed Central

    Maeda, Koki; Ding, Qiang; Yoshimitsu, Makoto; Kuwahata, Taisaku; Miyazaki, Yumi; Tsukasa, Koichirou; Hayashi, Tomomi; Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Natsugoe, Shoji; Takao, Sonshin

    2016-01-01

    Although CD133 is a known representative cancer stem cell marker, its function in tumor aggressiveness under hypoxia is not fully known. The aim of this study is to demonstrate that CD133 regulates hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α expression with tumor migration. The CD133+ pancreatic cancer cell line, Capan1M9, was compared with the CD133− cell line, shCD133M9, under hypoxia. HIF-1α expression levels were compared by Western blot, HIF-1α nucleus translocation assay and real-time (RT)-PCR. The hypoxia responsive element (HRE) was observed by luciferase assay. The migration ability was analyzed by migration and wound healing assays. Epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) related genes were analyzed by real-time RT-PCR. HIF-1α was highly expressed in Capan1M9 compared to shCD133M9 under hypoxia because of the high activation of HRE. Furthermore, the migration ability of Capan1M9 was higher than that of shCD133M9 under hypoxia, suggesting higher expression of EMT related genes in Capan1M9 compared to shCD133M9. Conclusion: HIF-1α expression under hypoxia in CD133+ pancreatic cancer cells correlated with tumor cell migration through EMT gene expression. Understanding the function of CD133 in cancer aggressiveness provides a novel therapeutic approach to eradicate pancreatic cancer stem cells. PMID:27367674

  15. Tetrandrine suppresses metastatic phenotype of prostate cancer cells by regulating Akt/mTOR/MMP-9 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Kou, Bo; Liu, Wei; He, Wenbo; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Zheng, Jianjie; Yan, Yang; Zhang, Yongjian; Xu, Suochun; Wang, Haichen

    2016-05-01

    Tetrandrine (TET), a bisbenzylisoquinoline alkaloid found in traditional Chinese medicines, exerts anticancer activity in vitro and in vivo. However, its potential role in the prostate cancer metastatic process has not yet been elucidated. Thus, we investigated the inhibition effect of tetrandrine on prostate cancer migration and invasion and the corresponding molecular basis underlying its anticancer activity. Cell migration and invasion were determined using the Transwell chamber model. The protein expression of Akt, phosphorylated Akt, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), phosphorylated mTOR and matrix metalloproteinases 9 (MMP-9) was detected by western blot in the presence or absence of tetrandrine or in the group tetrandrine combination with LY294002 (inhibitor of Akt) and rapamycin (inhibitor of mTOR). Our studies showed that excluding the effect of tetrandrine on cell proliferation, tetrandrine significantly inhibited cell migration and invasion in prostate cancer DU145 and PC3 cells. Furthermore, tetrandrine decreased the protein levels of p-Akt, p-mTOR, and MMP-9. While the inhibition of Akt or mTOR by the respective inhibitors could potentiate this effect of tetrandrine on prostate cancer cells, the studies indicate that tetrandrine inhibits the metastasis process by negatively regulating the Akt/mTOR/MMP-9 signaling pathway. These results suggest that tetrandrine might serve as a potential metastasis suppressor to treat cancer cells that have escaped surgical removal or that have disseminated widely. PMID:26935264

  16. Nestin expression associates with poor prognosis and triple negative phenotype in locally advanced (T4) breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Piras, F.; Ionta, M.T.; Lai, S.; Perra, M.T.; Atzori, F.; Minerba, L.; Pusceddu, V.; Maxia, C.; Murtas, D.; Demurtas, P.; Massidda, B.; Sirigu, P.

    2011-01-01

    Nestin, an intermediate filament protein, has traditionally been noted for its importance as a neural stem cell marker. However, in recent years, expression of nestin has shown to be associated with general proliferation of progenitor cell populations within neoplasms. There is no reported study addressing nestin expression in T4 breast cancer patients. Thus, the aim of the present study was to investigate, through immunohistochemistry, the expression and distribution of nestin in T4 breast cancer, in order to determine its association with clinical and pathological parameters as well as with patients' outcome. Nestin was detectable in tumoral cells and in endothelial cells of blood microvessels, and it is significantly expressed in triple-negative and in inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) subgroups of T4 breast tumours. The Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that the presence of nestin in tumoral cells significantly predicted poor prognosis at 5-years survival (P=0.02) and with borderline significance at 10-years of survival (P=0.05) in T4 breast cancer patients. On the basis of these observations, we speculate that nestin expression may characterize tumours with an aggressive clinical behavior, suggesting that the presence of nestin in tumoral cells and vessels may be considered an important factor that leads to a poor prognosis. Further studies are awaited to define the biological role of nestin in the etiology of these subgroups of breast cancers. PMID:22297445

  17. Multiplicity of acquired cross-resistance in paclitaxel-resistant cancer cells is associated with feedback control of TUBB3 via FOXO3a-mediated ABCB1 regulation

    PubMed Central

    Aldonza, Mark Borris D.; Hong, Ji-Young; Alinsug, Malona V.; Song, Jayoung; Lee, Sang Kook

    2016-01-01

    Acquired drug resistance is a primary obstacle for effective cancer therapy. The correlation of point mutations in class III β-tubulin (TUBB3) and the prominent overexpression of ATP-binding cassette P-glycoprotein (ABCB1), a multidrug resistance gene, have been protruding mechanisms of resistance to microtubule disruptors such as paclitaxel (PTX) for many cancers. However, the precise underlying mechanism of the rapid onset of cross-resistance to an array of structurally and functionally unrelated drugs in PTX-resistant cancers has been poorly understood. We determined that our established PTX-resistant cancer cells display ABCB1/ABCC1-associated cross-resistance to chemically different drugs such as 5-fluorouracil, docetaxel, and cisplatin. We found that feedback activation of TUBB3 can be triggered through the FOXO3a-dependent regulation of ABCB1, which resulted in the accentuation of induced PTX resistance and encouraged multiplicity in acquired cross-resistance. FOXO3a-directed regulation of P-glycoprotein (P-gp) function suggests that control of ABCB1 involves methylation-dependent activation. Consistently, transcriptional overexpression or downregulation of FOXO3a directs inhibitor-controlled protease-degradation of TUBB3. The functional PI3K/Akt signaling is tightly responsive to FOXO3a activation alongside doxorubicin treatment, which directs FOXO3a arginine hypermethylation. In addition, we found that secretome factors from PTX-resistant cancer cells with acquired cross-resistance support a P-gp-dependent association in multidrug resistance (MDR) development, which assisted the FOXO3a-mediated control of TUBB3 feedback. The direct silencing of TUBB3 reverses induced multiple cross-resistance, reduces drug-resistant tumor mass, and suppresses the impaired microtubule stability status of PTX-resistant cells with transient cross-resistance. These findings highlight the control of the TUBB3 response to ABCB1 genetic suppressors as a mechanism to reverse the

  18. Molecular characterization of anastrozole resistance in breast cancer: pivotal role of the Akt/mTOR pathway in the emergence of de novo or acquired resistance and importance of combining the allosteric Akt inhibitor MK-2206 with an aromatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Vilquin, Paul; Villedieu, Marie; Grisard, Evelyne; Ben Larbi, Sabrina; Ghayad, Sandra E; Heudel, Pierre-Etienne; Bachelot, Thomas; Corbo, Laura; Treilleux, Isabelle; Vendrell, Julie A; Cohen, Pascale A

    2013-10-01

    Acquisition of resistance to aromatase inhibitors (AIs) remains a major drawback in the treatment of estrogen receptor alpha (ERα)-positive breast cancers. The Res-Ana cells, a new model of acquired resistance to anastrozole, were established by long-term exposure of aromatase-overexpressing MCF-7 cells to this drug. These resistant cells developed ER-independent mechanisms of resistance and decreased sensitivity to the AI letrozole or to ERα antagonists. They also displayed a constitutive activation of the PI3K/Akt/mTOR pathway and a deregulated expression of several ErbB receptors. An observed increase in the phospho-Akt/Akt ratio between primary and matched recurrent breast tumors of patients who relapsed under anastrozole adjuvant therapy also argued for a pivotal role of the Akt pathway in acquired resistance to anastrozole. Ectopic overexpression of constitutively active Akt1 in control cells was sufficient to induce de novo resistance to anastrozole. Strikingly, combining anastrozole with the highly selective and allosteric Akt inhibitor MK-2206 or with the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin increased sensitivity to this AI in the control cells and was sufficient to overcome resistance and restore sensitivity to endocrine therapy in the resistant cells. Our findings lead to us proposing a model of anastrozole-acquired resistance based on the selection of cancer-initiating-like cells possessing self-renewing properties, intrinsic resistance to anastrozole and sensitivity to MK-2206. Altogether, our work demonstrated that the Akt/mTOR pathway plays a key role in resistance to anastrozole and that combining anastrozole with Akt/mTOR pathway inhibitors represents a promising strategy in the clinical management of hormone-dependent breast cancer patients.

  19. Phenotypic and Functional Dysregulated Blood NK Cells in Colorectal Cancer Patients Can Be Activated by Cetuximab Plus IL-2 or IL-15

    PubMed Central

    Rocca, Yamila Sol; Roberti, María Paula; Juliá, Estefanía Paula; Pampena, María Betina; Bruno, Luisina; Rivero, Sergio; Huertas, Eduardo; Sánchez Loria, Fernando; Pairola, Alejandro; Caignard, Anne; Mordoh, José; Levy, Estrella Mariel

    2016-01-01

    The clinical outcome of colorectal cancer (CRC) is associated with the immune response; thus, these tumors could be responsive to different immune therapy approaches. Natural killer (NK) cells are key antitumor primary effectors that can eliminate CRC cells without prior immunization. We previously determined that NK cells from the local tumor environment of CRC tumors display a profoundly altered phenotype compared with circulating NK cells from healthy donors (HD). In this study, we evaluated peripheral blood NK cells from untreated patients and their possible role in metastasis progression. We observed profound deregulation in receptor expression even in early stages of disease compared with HD. CRC-NK cells displayed underexpression of CD16, NKG2D, DNAM-1, CD161, NKp46, and NKp30 activating receptors, while inhibitory receptors CD85j and NKG2A were overexpressed. This inhibited phenotype affected cytotoxic functionality against CRC cells and interferon-γ production. We also determined that NKp30 and NKp46 are the key receptors involved in detriment of CRC-NK cells’ antitumor activity. Moreover, NKp46 expression correlated with relapse-free survival of CRC patients with a maximum follow-up of 71 months. CRC-NK cells also exhibited altered antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity function responding poorly to cetuximab. IL-2 and IL-15 in combination with cetuximab stimulated NK cell, improving cytotoxicity. These results show potential strategies to enhance CRC-NK cell activity. PMID:27777574

  20. Clinical Relevance and Molecular Phenotypes in Gastric Cancer, of TP53 Mutations and Gene Expressions, in Combination With Other Gene Mutations

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sungjin; Lee, Jinhyuk; Kim, Yon Hui; Park, Jaheun; Shin, Jung-Woog; Nam, Seungyoon

    2016-01-01

    While altered TP53 is the most frequent mutation in gastric cancer (GC), its association with molecular or clinical phenotypes (e.g., overall survival, disease-free survival) remains little known. To that end, we can use genome-wide approaches to identify altered genes significantly related to mutated TP53. Here, we identified significant differences in clinical outcomes, as well as in molecular phenotypes, across specific GC tumor subpopulations, when combining TP53 with other signaling networks, including WNT and its related genes NRXN1, CTNNB1, SLITRK5, NCOR2, RYR1, GPR112, MLL3, MTUS2, and MYH6. Moreover, specific GC subpopulations indicated by dual mutation of NRXN1 and TP53 suggest different drug responses, according to the Connectivity Map, a pharmacological drug-gene association tool. Overall, TP53 mutation status in GC is significantly relevant to clinical or molecular categories. Thus, our approach can potentially provide a patient stratification strategy by dissecting previously unknown multiple TP53-mutated patient groups. PMID:27708434

  1. Digital pattern recognition-based image analysis quantifies immune infiltrates in distinct tissue regions of colorectal cancer and identifies a metastatic phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Angell, H K; Gray, N; Womack, C; Pritchard, D I; Wilkinson, R W; Cumberbatch, M

    2013-01-01

    Background: Several studies in colorectal cancer (CRC) indicate a relationship between tumour immune infiltrates and clinical outcome. We tested the utility of a digital pattern recognition-based image analysis (DPRIA) system to segregate tissue regions and facilitate automated quantification of immune infiltrates in CRC. Methods: Primary CRC with matched hepatic metastatic (n=7), primary CRC alone (n=18) and primary CRC with matched normal (n=40) tissue were analysed immunohistochemically. Genie pattern recognition software was used to segregate distinct tissue regions in combination with image analysis algorithms to quantify immune cells. Results: Immune infiltrates were observed predominately at the invasive margin. Quantitative image analysis revealed a significant increase in the prevalence of Foxp3 (P<0.0001), CD8 (P<0.0001), CD68 (<0.0001) and CD31 (<0.0001) positive cells in the stroma of primary and metastatic CRC, compared with tumour cell mass. A direct comparison between non-metastatic primary CRC (MET−) and primary CRC that resulted in metastasis (MET+) showed an immunosuppressive phenotype, with elevated Foxp3 (P<0.05) and reduced numbers of CD8 (P<0.05) cells in the stroma of MET+ compared with MET− samples. Conclusion: By combining immunohistochemistry with DPRIA, we demonstrate a potential metastatic phenotype in CRC. Our study accelerates wider acceptance and use of automated systems as an adjunct to traditional histopathological techniques. PMID:23963148

  2. CD20+ T cells have a predominantly Tc1 effector memory phenotype and are expanded in the ascites of patients with ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    de Bruyn, Marco; Wiersma, Valerie R; Wouters, Maartje C A; Samplonius, Douwe F; Klip, Harry G; Helfrich, Wijnand; Nijman, Hans W; Eggleton, Paul; Bremer, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Recently, a small subset of T cells that expresses the B cell marker CD20 has been identified in healthy volunteers and in patients with rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. The origin of these CD20-positive T cells as well as their relevance in human disease remains unclear. Here, we identified that after functional B cell/T cell interaction CD20 molecules are transferred to the cell surface of T cells by trogocytosis together with the established trogocytosis marker HLA-DR. Further, the presence of CD20 on isolated CD20+ T cells remained stable for up to 48h of ex vivo culture. These CD20+ T cells almost exclusively produced IFNγ (∼70% vs. ∼20% in the CD20− T cell population) and were predominantly (CD8+) effector memory T cells (∼60–70%). This IFNγ producing and effector memory phenotype was also determined for CD20+ T cells as detected in the peripheral blood and ascitic fluids of ovarian cancer (OC) patients. In the latter, the percentage of CD20+ T cells was further strongly increased (from ∼6% in peripheral blood to 23% in ascitic fluid). Taken together, the data presented here indicate that CD20 is transferred to T cells upon intimate T cell/B cell interaction. Further, CD20+ T cells are of memory and IFNγ producing phenotype and are present in increased amounts in ascitic fluid of OC patients. PMID:26137418

  3. Targeting the SIN3A-PF1 interaction inhibits epithelial to mesenchymal transition and maintenance of a stem cell phenotype in triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Nidhi; Petrie, Kevin; Leibovitch, Boris A.; Howell, Louise; Gil, Veronica; Sbirkov, Yordan; Lee, EunJee; Wexler, Joanna; Ariztia, Edgardo V.; Sharma, Rajal; Zhu, Jun; Bernstein, Emily; Zhou, Ming-Ming; Zelent, Arthur; Farias, Eduardo; Waxman, Samuel

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) is characterized by a poorly differentiated phenotype and limited treatment options. Aberrant epigenetics in this subtype represent a potential therapeutic opportunity, but a better understanding of the mechanisms contributing to the TNBC pathogenesis is required. The SIN3 molecular scaffold performs a critical role in multiple cellular processes, including epigenetic regulation, and has been identified as a potential therapeutic target. Using a competitive peptide corresponding to the SIN3 interaction domain of MAD (Tat-SID), we investigated the functional consequences of selectively blocking the paired amphipathic α-helix (PAH2) domain of SIN3. Here, we report the identification of the SID-containing adaptor PF1 as a factor required for maintenance of the TNBC stem cell phenotype and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Tat-SID peptide blocked the interaction between SIN3A and PF1, leading to epigenetic modulation and transcriptional downregulation of TNBC stem cell and EMT markers. Importantly, Tat-SID treatment also led to a reduction in primary tumor growth and disseminated metastatic disease in vivo. In support of these findings, knockdown of PF1 expression phenocopied treatment with Tat-SID both in vitro and in vivo. These results demonstrate a critical role for a complex containing SIN3A and PF1 in TNBC and provide a rational for its therapeutic targeting. PMID:26460951

  4. EGFR and IGF-1R in regulation of prostate cancer cell phenotype and polarity: opposing functions and modulation by T-cadherin.

    PubMed

    Maslova, Kseniya; Kyriakakis, Emmanouil; Pfaff, Dennis; Frachet, Audrey; Frismantiene, Agne; Bubendorf, Lukas; Ruiz, Christian; Vlajnic, Tatjana; Erne, Paul; Resink, Thérèse J; Philippova, Maria

    2015-02-01

    T-cadherin is an atypical glycosylphosphatidylinsoitol-anchored member of the cadherin superfamily of adhesion molecules. We found that T-cadherin overexpression in malignant (DU145) and benign (BPH-1) prostatic epithelial cell lines or silencing in the BPH-1 cell line, respectively, promoted or inhibited migration and spheroid invasion in collagen I gel and Matrigel. T-cadherin-dependent effects were associated with changes in cell phenotype: overexpression caused cell dissemination and loss of polarity evaluated by relative positioning of the Golgi/nuclei in cell groups, whereas silencing caused formation of compact polarized epithelial-like clusters. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and IGF factor-1 receptor (IGF-1R) were identified as mediators of T-cadherin effects. These receptors per se had opposing influences on cell phenotype. EGFR activation with EGF or IGF-1R inhibition with NVP-AEW541 promoted dissemination, invasion, and polarity loss. Conversely, inhibition of EGFR with gefitinib or activation of IGF-1R with IGF-1 rescued epithelial morphology and decreased invasion. T-cadherin silencing enhanced both EGFR and IGF-1R phosphorylation, yet converted cells to the morphology typical for activated IGF-1R. T-cadherin effects were sensitive to modulation of EGFR or IGF-1R activity, suggesting direct involvement of both receptors. We conclude that T-cadherin regulates prostate cancer cell behavior by tuning the balance in EGFR/IGF-1R activity and enhancing the impact of IGF-1R.

  5. Functional interaction between acyl-CoA synthetase 4, lipooxygenases and cyclooxygenase-2 in the aggressive phenotype of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Maloberti, Paula M; Duarte, Alejandra B; Orlando, Ulises D; Pasqualini, María E; Solano, Angela R; López-Otín, Carlos; Podestá, Ernesto J

    2010-11-11

    The acyl-CoA synthetase 4 (ACSL4) is increased in breast cancer, colon and hepatocellular carcinoma. ACSL4 mainly esterifies arachidonic acid (AA) into arachidonoyl-CoA, reducing free AA intracellular levels, which is in contradiction with the need for AA metabolites in tumorigenesis. Therefore, the causal role of ACSL4 is still not established. This study was undertaken to determine the role of ACSL4 in AA metabolic pathway in breast cancer cells. The first novel finding is that ACSL4 regulates the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and the production of prostaglandin in MDA-MB-231 cells. We also found that ACSL4 is significantly up-regulated in the highly aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. In terms of its overexpression and inhibition, ACSL4 plays a causal role in the control of the aggressive phenotype. These results were confirmed by the increase in the aggressive behaviour of MCF-7 cells stably transfected with a Tet-off ACSL4 vector. Concomitantly, another significant finding was that intramitochondrial AA levels are significantly higher in the aggressive cells. Thus, the esterification of AA by ACSL4 compartmentalizes the release of AA in mitochondria, a mechanism that serves to drive the specific lipooxygenase metabolization of the fatty acid. To our knowledge, this is the first report that ACSL4 expression controls both lipooxygenase and cyclooxygenase metabolism of AA. Thus, this functional interaction represents an integrated system that regulates the proliferating and metastatic potential of cancer cells. Therefore, the development of combinatory therapies that profit from the ACSL4, lipooxygenase and COX-2 synergistic action may allow for lower medication doses and avoidance of side effects.

  6. Nucleolin overexpression in breast cancer cell sub-populations with different stem-like phenotype enables targeted intracellular delivery of synergistic drug combination.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Nuno A; Rodrigues, Ana S; Rodrigues-Santos, Paulo; Alves, Vera; Gregório, Ana C; Valério-Fernandes, Ângela; Gomes-da-Silva, Lígia C; Rosa, Manuel Santos; Moura, Vera; Ramalho-Santos, João; Simões, Sérgio; Moreira, João Nuno

    2015-11-01

    Breast cancer stem cells (CSC) are thought responsible for tumor growth and relapse, metastization and active evasion to standard chemotherapy. The recognition that CSC may originate from non-stem cancer cells (non-SCC) through plastic epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition turned these into relevant cell targets. Of crucial importance for successful therapeutic intervention is the identification of surface receptors overexpressed in both CSC and non-SCC. Cell surface nucleolin has been described as overexpressed in cancer cells as well as a tumor angiogenic marker. Herein we have addressed the questions on whether nucleolin was a common receptor among breast CSC and non-SCC and whether it could be exploited for targeting purposes. Liposomes functionalized with the nucleolin-binding F3 peptide, targeted simultaneously, nucleolin-overexpressing putative breast CSC and non-SCC, which was paralleled by OCT4 and NANOG mRNA levels in cells from triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) origin. In murine embryonic stem cells, both nucleolin mRNA levels and F3 peptide-targeted liposomes cellular association were dependent on the stemness status. An in vivo tumorigenic assay suggested that surface nucleolin overexpression per se, could be associated with the identification of highly tumorigenic TNBC cells. This proposed link between nucleolin expression and the stem-like phenotype in TNBC, enabled 100% cell death mediated by F3 peptide-targeted synergistic drug combination, suggesting the potential to abrogate the plasticity and adaptability associated with CSC and non-SCC. Ultimately, nucleolin-specific therapeutic tools capable of simultaneous debulk multiple cellular compartments of the tumor microenvironment may pave the way towards a specific treatment for TNBC patient care.

  7. Tumor Cell Heterogeneity in Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC): Phenotypical and Functional Differences Associated with Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) and DNA Methylation Changes

    PubMed Central

    Yalcin, Arzu; Plönes, Till; Wehrle, Julius; Taromi, Sanaz; Wollner, Stefan; Follo, Marie; Brabletz, Thomas; Mani, Sendurai A.; Claus, Rainer; Hackanson, Björn; Burger, Meike

    2014-01-01

    Small Cell Lung Cancer (SCLC) is a specific subtype of lung cancer presenting as highly metastatic disease with extremely poor prognosis. Despite responding initially well to chemo- or radiotherapy, SCLC almost invariably relapses and develops resistance to chemotherapy. This is suspected to be related to tumor cell subpopulations with different characteristics resembling stem cells. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition (EMT) is known to play a key role in metastatic processes and in developing drug resistance. This is also true for NSCLC, but there is very little information on EMT processes in SCLC so far. SCLC, in contrast to NSCLC cell lines, grow mainly in floating cell clusters and a minor part as adherent cells. We compared these morphologically different subpopulations of SCLC cell lines for EMT and epigenetic features, detecting significant differences in the adherent subpopulations with high levels of mesenchymal markers such as Vimentin and Fibronectin and very low levels of epithelial markers like E-cadherin and Zona Occludens 1. In addition, expression of EMT-related transcription factors such as Snail/Snai1, Slug/Snai2, and Zeb1, DNA methylation patterns of the EMT hallmark genes, functional responses like migration, invasion, matrix metalloproteases secretion, and resistance to chemotherapeutic drug treatment all differed significantly between the sublines. This phenotypic variability might reflect tumor cell heterogeneity and EMT during metastasis in vivo, accompanied by the development of refractory disease in relapse. We propose that epigenetic regulation plays a key role during phenotypical and functional changes in tumor cells and might therefore provide new treatment options for SCLC patients. PMID:24959847

  8. The cancer stem cell phenotype: You can't win until you learn how to lose it

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Bertoni, Hernando; Laterra, John

    2015-01-01

    Cancer stem cells and their relatively differentiated progenitors coexist in dynamic equilibrium and are subject to bidirectional conversion. We recently showed that reprogramming transcription factors induce glioblastoma cells to become stem-like and tumor propagating via a mechanism involving changes in global DNA methylation and downregulation of miRNAs. PMID:27308470

  9. Isolation and Characterization of Tumor Cells from the Ascites of Ovarian Cancer Patients: Molecular Phenotype of Chemoresistant Ovarian Tumors

    PubMed Central

    Latifi, Ardian; Luwor, Rodney B.; Bilandzic, Maree; Nazaretian, Simon; Stenvers, Kaye; Pyman, Jan; Zhu, Hongjian; Thompson, Erik W.; Quinn, Michael A.; Findlay, Jock K.; Ahmed, Nuzhat

    2012-01-01

    Tumor cells in ascites are a major source of disease recurrence in ovarian cancer patients. In an attempt to identify and profile the population of ascites cells obtained from ovarian cancer patients, a novel method was developed to separate adherent (AD) and non-adherent (NAD) cells in culture. Twenty-five patients were recruited to this study; 11 chemonaive (CN) and 14 chemoresistant (CR). AD cells from both CN and CR patients exhibited mesenchymal morphology with an antigen profile of mesenchymal stem cells and fibroblasts. Conversely, NAD cells had an epithelial morphology with enhanced expression of cancer antigen 125 (CA125), epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and cytokeratin 7. NAD cells developed infiltrating tumors and ascites within 12–14 weeks after intraperitoneal (i.p.) injections into nude mice, whereas AD cells remained non-tumorigenic for up to 20 weeks. Subsequent comparison of selective epithelial, mesenchymal and cancer stem cell (CSC) markers between AD and NAD populations of CN and CR patients demonstrated an enhanced trend in mRNA expression of E-cadherin, EpCAM, STAT3 and Oct4 in the NAD population of CR patients. A similar trend of enhanced mRNA expression of CD44, MMP9 and Oct4 was observed in the AD population of CR patients. Hence, using a novel purification method we demonstrate for the first time a distinct separation of ascites cells into epithelial tumorigenic and mesenchymal non-tumorigenic populations. We also demonstrate that cells from the ascites of CR patients are predominantly epithelial and show a trend towards increased mRNA expression of genes associated with CSCs, compared to cells isolated from the ascites of CN patients. As the tumor cells in the ascites of ovarian cancer patients play a dominant role in disease recurrence, a thorough understanding of the biology of the ascites microenvironment from CR and CN patients is essential for effective therapeutic interventions. PMID:23056490

  10. Comparison of the viscoelastic properties of cells from different kidney cancer phenotypes measured with atomic force microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rebelo, L. M.; de Sousa, J. S.; Mendes Filho, J.; Radmacher, M.

    2013-02-01

    The viscoelastic properties of human kidney cell lines from different tumor types (carcinoma (A-498) and adenocarcinoma (ACHN)) are compared to a non-tumorigenic cell line (RC-124). Our methodology is based on the mapping of viscoelastic properties (elasticity modulus E and apparent viscosity η) over the surface of tens of individual cells with atomic force microscopy (AFM). The viscoelastic properties are averaged over datasets as large as 15000 data points per cell line. We also propose a model to estimate the apparent viscosity of soft materials using the hysteresis observed in conventional AFM deflection-displacement curves, without any modification to the standard AFM apparatus. The comparison of the three cell lines show that the non-tumorigenic cells are less deformable and more viscous than cancerous cells, and that cancer cell lines have distinctive viscoelastic properties. In particular, we obtained that ERC-124 > EA-498 > EACHN and ηRC-124 > ηA-498 > ηACHN.

  11. Nuclear factor-ĸB plays a critical role in both intrinsic and acquired resistance against endocrine therapy in human breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Oida, Kumiko; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Xia, Yan; Jang, Hyosun; Amagai, Yosuke; Ahn, Ginnae; Nishikawa, Sho; Ishizaka, Saori; Jensen-Jarolim, Erika; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Akane

    2014-01-01

    Since more than 75% of breast cancers overexpress estrogen receptors (ER), endocrine therapy targeting ER has significantly improved the survival rate. Nonetheless, breast cancer still afflicts women worldwide and the major problem behind it is resistance to endocrine therapy. We have previously shown the involvement of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in neoplastic proliferation of human breast cancer cells; however, the association with the transformation of ER-positive cells remains unclear. In the current study, we focused on roles of NF-κB in the hormone dependency of breast cancers by means of ER-positive MCF-7 cells. Blocking of NF-κB signals in ER-negative cells stopped proliferation by downregulation of D-type cyclins. In contrast, the MCF-7 cells were resistant to NF-κB inhibition. Under estrogen-free conditions, the ER levels were reduced when compared with the original MCF-7 cells and the established cell subline exhibited tamoxifen resistance. Additionally, NF-κB participated in cell growth instead of the estrogen-ER axis in the subline and consequently, interfering with the NF-κB signals induced additive anticancer effects with tamoxifen. MMP-9 production responsible for cell migration, as well as the cell expansion in vivo, were suppressed by NF-κB inhibition. Therefore, we suggest that NF-κB is a master switch in both ER-positive and ER-negative breast cancers. PMID:24531845

  12. IGF-1 Receptor and Adhesion Signaling: An Important Axis in Determining Cancer Cell Phenotype and Therapy Resistance

    PubMed Central

    Cox, Orla T.; O’Shea, Sandra; Tresse, Emilie; Bustamante-Garrido, Milan; Kiran-Deevi, Ravi; O’Connor, Rosemary

    2015-01-01

    IGF-1R expression and activation levels generally cannot be correlated in cancer cells, suggesting that cellular proteins may modulate IGF-1R activity. Strong candidates for such modulation are found in cell-matrix and cell–cell adhesion signaling complexes. Activated IGF-1R is present at focal adhesions, where it can stabilize β1 integrin and participate in signaling complexes that promote invasiveness associated with epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) and resistance to therapy. Whether IGF-1R contributes to EMT or to non-invasive tumor growth may be strongly influenced by the degree of extracellular matrix engagement and the presence or absence of key proteins in IGF-1R-cell adhesion complexes. One such protein is PDLIM2, which promotes both cell polarization and EMT by regulating the stability of transcription factors including NFκB, STATs, and beta catenin. PDLIM2 exhibits tumor suppressor activity, but is also highly expressed in certain invasive cancers. It is likely that distinct adhesion complex proteins modulate IGF-1R signaling during cancer progression or adaptive responses to therapy. Thus, identifying the key modulators will be important for developing effective therapeutic strategies and predictive biomarkers. PMID:26191041

  13. Chemotherapy triggers HIF-1–dependent glutathione synthesis and copper chelation that induces the breast cancer stem cell phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haiquan; Samanta, Debangshu; Xiang, Lisha; Zhang, Huimin; Hu, Hongxia; Chen, Ivan; Bullen, John W.; Semenza, Gregg L.

    2015-01-01

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 10–15% of all breast cancer but is responsible for a disproportionate share of morbidity and mortality because of its aggressive characteristics and lack of targeted therapies. Chemotherapy induces enrichment of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), which are responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that chemotherapy induces the expression of the cystine transporter xCT and the regulatory subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCLM) in a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1–dependent manner, leading to increased intracellular glutathione levels, which inhibit mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) activity through copper chelation. Loss of MEK-ERK signaling causes FoxO3 nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of the gene encoding the pluripotency factor Nanog, which is required for enrichment of BCSCs. Inhibition of xCT, GCLM, FoxO3, or Nanog blocks chemotherapy-induced enrichment of BCSCs and impairs tumor initiation. These results suggest that, in combination with chemotherapy, targeting BCSCs by inhibiting HIF-1–regulated glutathione synthesis may improve outcome in TNBC. PMID:26229077

  14. Chemotherapy triggers HIF-1-dependent glutathione synthesis and copper chelation that induces the breast cancer stem cell phenotype.

    PubMed

    Lu, Haiquan; Samanta, Debangshu; Xiang, Lisha; Zhang, Huimin; Hu, Hongxia; Chen, Ivan; Bullen, John W; Semenza, Gregg L

    2015-08-18

    Triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) accounts for 10-15% of all breast cancer but is responsible for a disproportionate share of morbidity and mortality because of its aggressive characteristics and lack of targeted therapies. Chemotherapy induces enrichment of breast cancer stem cells (BCSCs), which are responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. Here, we demonstrate that chemotherapy induces the expression of the cystine transporter xCT and the regulatory subunit of glutamate-cysteine ligase (GCLM) in a hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1-dependent manner, leading to increased intracellular glutathione levels, which inhibit mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) activity through copper chelation. Loss of MEK-ERK signaling causes FoxO3 nuclear translocation and transcriptional activation of the gene encoding the pluripotency factor Nanog, which is required for enrichment of BCSCs. Inhibition of xCT, GCLM, FoxO3, or Nanog blocks chemotherapy-induced enrichment of BCSCs and impairs tumor initiation. These results suggest that, in combination with chemotherapy, targeting BCSCs by inhibiting HIF-1-regulated glutathione synthesis may improve outcome in TNBC.

  15. Differential urinary specific gravity as a molecular phenotype of the bladder cancer genetic association in the urea transporter gene, SLC14A1.

    PubMed

    Koutros, Stella; Baris, Dalsu; Fischer, Alexander; Tang, Wei; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Karagas, Margaret R; Schwenn, Molly; Johnson, Alison; Figueroa, Jonine; Waddell, Richard; Prokunina-Olsson, Ludmila; Rothman, Nathaniel; Silverman, Debra T

    2013-12-15

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) identified associations between markers within the solute carrier family 14 (urea transporter), member 1 (SLC14A1) gene and risk of bladder cancer. SLC14A1 defines the Kidd blood groups in erythrocytes and is also involved in concentration of the urine in the kidney. We evaluated the association between a representative genetic variant (rs10775480) of SLC14A1 and urine concentration, as measured by urinary specific gravity (USG), in a subset of 275 population-based controls enrolled in the New England Bladder Cancer Study. Overnight urine samples were collected, and USG was measured using refractometry. Analysis of covariance was used to estimate adjusted least square means for USG in relation to rs10775480. We also examined the mRNA expression of both urea transporters, SLC14A1 and SLC14A2, in a panel of human tissues. USG was decreased with each copy of the rs10775480 risk T allele (p-trend = 0.011) with a significant difference observed for CC vs. TT genotypes (p-value(tukey) = 0.024). RNA-sequencing in the bladder tissue showed high expression of SLC14A1 and the absence of SLC14A2, while both transporters were expressed in the kidney. We suggest that the molecular phenotype of this GWAS finding is the genotype-specific biological activity of SLC14A1 in the bladder tissue. Our data suggest that SLC14A1 could be a unique urea transporter in the bladder that has the ability to influence urine concentration and that this mechanism might explain the increased bladder cancer susceptibility associated with rs10775480.

  16. Phenotypic profile of dendritic and T cells in the lymph node of Balb/C mice with breast cancer submitted to dendritic cells immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Alessandra; Antoniazi Michelin, Marcia; Cândido Murta, Eddie Fernando

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignant neoplasm and the cause of death by cancer among women worldwide. Its development influenced by various mutations that occur in the tumor cell and by the immune system's status, which has a direct influence on the tumor microenvironment and, consequently, on interactions with non-tumor cells involved in the immunological response. Strategies using dendritic cells (DCs) or antigen-presenting cells (APCs), therapeutic mode, in cancer have been developed for some time. The proper interaction between DCs and T cells upon antigen presentation is of greatest importance for an antitumor immune response activation. Thus, various receptors on the surface of T cells must be able to recognize ligands that are located on the surface of APCs. However, little is known about the real behavior and interaction forms of CDs and T cells after vaccination. Due to the crucial importance of DCs in an effective anti-tumor immune response activation and the search for compliant results in inducing this response by immunotherapies with DCs, the phenotypic profile of DCs and T cells in lymph nodes obtained from female Balb/C mice with breast cancer induced by 4T1 cells and DCs treated with vaccines was investigated. We evaluated through flow cytometry based on the surface and intracellular molecules marking; as well as the presence of cytokines and chemokines, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ, TNF-α and TGF-β in the supernatant of the culture of Balb/C lymph nodes by ELISA. The results show that the vaccination with DCs, in the maturation parameters used in this study, was able to stimulate the secretion of cytokines such as IFN-γ and IL-12 and inhibit the secretion of TGF-β and IL-10 in nodal lymph infiltrates, as well as co-stimulatory activating (CD86) and adhesion molecules in DCs and T cells LFA-1/ICAM-1 and inhibit the secretion of CTLA-4 present in lymph nodes. Facts that led to aTh1 profile polarization, immuno competent in relation

  17. A novel breast cancer cell line initially established from pleural effusion: evolution towards a more aggressive phenotype.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Melanie; Khan, Ashraf; Schmidt, André Michael; Heinze, Barbara; Hack, Eva; Waltenberger, Johannes; Kreienberg, Rolf

    2007-03-01

    Many human breast cancer cell lines have been in culture for several years, serving as model systems for studying aspects of breast cancer biology. Molecular alterations might occur in these cells during cultivation, and it remains unknown to which extent findings in these cell lines can be related to human disease. Hereby, we describe the establishment of a breast cancer cell line, MW1, from malignant pleural effusion. We compare expression patterns of several molecular markers in breast biopsy tissue, in cultivated tumor cells derived from pleural effusion reflecting the metastatic state, and in late passages of a lineage derived from the pleural culture. Our data show that expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors was lost in the cultivated tumor cells derived from pleural effusion as shown by immunohistochemical staining. Cytokeratin expression patterns remained luminal. During cultivation, the growth rate of MW1 cells increased dramatically and the morphology underwent alterations. As shown by Western blotting, E-cadherin expression remained unchanged whereas P-cadherin expression had increased after 4 years of cultivation of the cell line. Integrin beta4 expression was low in early passages of the pleural effusion whereas the cell line exhibited high expression levels of beta4. HGF receptor (c-Met), EGF receptor, VEGF and VEGF receptor-2 (KDR) expression was detectable by semiquantitative RT-PCR and remained unchanged during cultivation. In contrast, VEGF receptor-1 (flt-1) expression showed lower expression after 4 years of cultivation. The cell line migrated towards HGF, but not towards VEGF. This study provides exemplary insight into the molecular metamorphosis tumor cells undergo in vivo or in vitro on their way from the primary tumor via an equivalent of the metastatic state and during the development of a clonal cell line.

  18. Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition and Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Yanyuan; Sarkissyan, Marianna; Vadgama, Jaydutt V.

    2016-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer in women and distant site metastasis is the main cause of death in breast cancer patients. There is increasing evidence supporting the role of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in tumor cell progression, invasion, and metastasis. During the process of EMT, epithelial cancer cells acquire molecular alternations that facilitate the loss of epithelial features and gain of mesenchymal phenotype. Such transformation promotes cancer cell migration and invasion. Moreover, emerging evidence suggests that EMT is associated with the increased enrichment of cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) and these CSCs display mesenchymal characteristics that are resistant to chemotherapy and target therapy. However, the clinical relevance of EMT in human cancer is still under debate. This review will provide an overview of current evidence of EMT from studies using clinical human breast cancer tissues and its associated challenges. PMID:26821054

  19. Bladder cancer cells acquire competent mechanisms to escape Fas-mediated apoptosis and immune surveillance in the course of malignant transformation

    PubMed Central

    Perabo, F G E; Kamp, S; Schmidt, D; Lindner, H; Steiner, G; Mattes, R H; Wirger, A; Pegelow, K; Albers, P; Kohn, E C; Ruecker, A von; Mueller, S C

    2001-01-01

    Mechanisms of resistance against Fas-mediated cell killing have been reported in different malignancies. However, the biological response of immune escape mechanisms might depend on malignant transformation of cancer cells. In this study we investigated different mechanisms of immune escape in 2 well-differentiated low-grade (RT4 and RT112) and 2 poorly differentiated high-grade (T24 and TCCSUP) bladder cancer cell lines. Fas, the receptor of Fas-ligand, is expressed and shedded by human transitional bladder carcinoma cell lines RT4, RT112, T24 and TCCSUP. Cytotoxicity and apoptosis assays demonstrate that in spite of the Fas expression, poorly differentiated T24 and TCCSUP cells are insensitive towards either recombinant Fas-ligand or agonistic apoptosis-inducing monoclonal antibody against Fas. In poorly differentiated T24 and TCCSUP cell lines we were able to detect marked Fas-ligand protein by flow cytometry and Western blot analysis. In grade 1 RT4 and RT112 cells only minor expression of Fas-ligand possibly because of proteinase action. Fas-ligand mRNA translation or post-translational processing seems to be regulated differentially in the cancer cell lines depending on malignant transformation. In co-culture experiments we show that poorly differentiated cells can induce apoptosis and cell death in Jurkat cells and activated peripheral blood mononuclear cells. This in vitro study suggests that bladder cancer cells can take advantage of different mechanisms of immune evasion and become more competent in avoiding immune surveillance during transformation to higher-grade malignant disease. © 2001 Cancer Research Campaign www.bjcancer.com PMID:11355943

  20. Novel genotype-phenotype associations in human cancers enabled by advanced molecular platforms and computational analysis of whole slide images

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Lee A.D.; Kong, Jun; Gutman, David A.; Dunn, William D.; Nalisnik, Michael; Brat, Daniel J.

    2014-01-01

    Technological advances in computing, imaging and genomics have created new opportunities for exploring relationships between histology, molecular events and clinical outcomes using quantitative methods. Slide scanning devices are now capable of rapidly producing massive digital image archives that capture histological details in high-resolution. Commensurate advances in computing and image analysis algorithms enable mining of archives to extract descriptions of histology, ranging from basic human annotations to automatic and precisely quantitative morphometric characterization of hundreds of millions of cells. These imaging capabilities represent a new dimension in tissue-based studies, and when combined with genomic and clinical endpoints, can be used to explore biologic characteristics of the tumor microenvironment and to discover new morphologic biomarkers of genetic alterations and patient outcomes. In this paper we review developments in quantitative imaging technology and illustrate how image features can be integrated with clinical and genomic data to investigate fundamental problems in cancer. Using motivating examples from the study of glioblastomas (GBMs), we demonstrate how public data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) can serve as an open platform to conduct in silico tissue based studies that integrate existing data resources. We show how these approaches can be used to explore the relation of the tumor microenvironment to genomic alterations and gene expression patterns and to define nuclear morphometric features that are predictive of genetic alterations and clinical outcomes. Challenges, limitations and emerging opportunities in the area of quantitative imaging and integrative analyses are also discussed. PMID:25599536

  1. The stress phenotype makes cancer cells addicted to CDT2, a substrate receptor of the CRL4 ubiquitin ligase.

    PubMed

    Olivero, Martina; Dettori, Daniela; Arena, Sabrina; Zecchin, Davide; Lantelme, Erica; Di Renzo, Maria Flavia

    2014-08-15

    CDT2/L2DTL/RAMP is one of the substrate receptors of the Cullin Ring Ubiquitin Ligase 4 that targets for ubiquitin mediated degradation a number of substrates, such as CDT1, p21 and CHK1, involved in the regulation of cell cycle and survival. Here we show that CDT2 depletion was alone able to induce the apoptotic death in 12/12 human cancer cell lines from different tissues, regardless of the mutation profile and CDT2 expression level. Cell death was associated to rereplication and to loss of CDT1 degradation. Conversely, CDT2 depletion did not affect non-transformed human cells, such as immortalized kidney, lung and breast cell lines, and primary cultures of endothelial cells and osteoblasts. The ectopic over-expression of an activated oncogene, such as the mutation-activated RAS or the amplified MET in non-transformed immortalized breast cell lines and primary human osteoblasts, respectively, made cells transformed in vitro, tumorigenic in vivo, and susceptible to CDT2 loss. The widespread effect of CDT2 depletion in different cancer cells suggests that CDT2 is not in a synthetic lethal interaction to a single specific pathway. CDT2 likely is a non-oncogene to which transformed cells become addicted because of their enhanced cellular stress, such as replicative stress and DNA damage.

  2. Pneumonia - adults (community acquired)

    MedlinePlus

    ... during cancer treatment, or due to HIV/AIDS, organ transplant, or other diseases) Other serious illnesses, such as ... with diabetes, asthma, emphysema, HIV, cancer, people with organ transplants, or other long-term conditions.

  3. Novel phenotypes related to the breeding of purple-fruited tomatoes and effect of peel extracts on human cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mazzucato, Andrea; Willems, Daniela; Bernini, Roberta; Picarella, Maurizio E; Santangelo, Enrico; Ruiu, Fabrizio; Tilesi, Francesca; Soressi, Gian Piero

    2013-11-01

    The production of anthocyanins in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit is normally absent or poor, but a number of mutants or introgression lines are known to increase anthocyanin levels in vegetative and reproductive tissues. Through conventional breeding, a genetic combination was obtained with the remarkable phenotype of a deep purple fruit pigmentation, due to an accumulation of anthocyanins on the peel. Such a genotype was named Sun Black (SB) as a consequence of its sensitivity to light induction. When characterized for morpho-agronomic traits, SB plants showed increased fertility. Purple fruits displayed an arrangement of the epicarp cells different from normal tomatoes, a feature that could account for different mechanical properties and shelf-life potential. The SB genotype and, to a lesser extent, its single mutant parents showed the capacity to accumulate anthocyanins in the seedling root when grown under light. This phenotype, which was greatly improved by the addition of sucrose to the germination medium, proved to be useful as selection index and gave new insights for in vitro production of anthocyanin extracts. To assess the nutraceutical potential of purple tomatoes, we tested the activity of SB skin extracts on the proliferation of two human cancer cells lines. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by SB extract in a dose-dependent manner. When the bioactivity of SB extracts was compared with that of other anthocyanin-containing fruits or vegetables, a significant "Extract*Line" interaction was evidenced, suggesting a crucial role for the extract composition in terms of anthocyanidins and other eventual cell growth-inhibiting compounds. PMID:23769702

  4. Novel phenotypes related to the breeding of purple-fruited tomatoes and effect of peel extracts on human cancer cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Mazzucato, Andrea; Willems, Daniela; Bernini, Roberta; Picarella, Maurizio E; Santangelo, Enrico; Ruiu, Fabrizio; Tilesi, Francesca; Soressi, Gian Piero

    2013-11-01

    The production of anthocyanins in the tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) fruit is normally absent or poor, but a number of mutants or introgression lines are known to increase anthocyanin levels in vegetative and reproductive tissues. Through conventional breeding, a genetic combination was obtained with the remarkable phenotype of a deep purple fruit pigmentation, due to an accumulation of anthocyanins on the peel. Such a genotype was named Sun Black (SB) as a consequence of its sensitivity to light induction. When characterized for morpho-agronomic traits, SB plants showed increased fertility. Purple fruits displayed an arrangement of the epicarp cells different from normal tomatoes, a feature that could account for different mechanical properties and shelf-life potential. The SB genotype and, to a lesser extent, its single mutant parents showed the capacity to accumulate anthocyanins in the seedling root when grown under light. This phenotype, which was greatly improved by the addition of sucrose to the germination medium, proved to be useful as selection index and gave new insights for in vitro production of anthocyanin extracts. To assess the nutraceutical potential of purple tomatoes, we tested the activity of SB skin extracts on the proliferation of two human cancer cells lines. Cell proliferation was significantly inhibited by SB extract in a dose-dependent manner. When the bioactivity of SB extracts was compared with that of other anthocyanin-containing fruits or vegetables, a significant "Extract*Line" interaction was evidenced, suggesting a crucial role for the extract composition in terms of anthocyanidins and other eventual cell growth-inhibiting compounds.

  5. Phenotypic profile of dendritic and T cells in the lymph node of Balb/C mice with breast cancer submitted to dendritic cells immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    da Cunha, Alessandra; Antoniazi Michelin, Marcia; Cândido Murta, Eddie Fernando

    2016-09-01

    Breast cancer (BC) is the most common malignant neoplasm and the cause of death by cancer among women worldwide. Its development influenced by various mutations that occur in the tumor cell and by the immune system's status, which has a direct influence on the tumor microenvironment and, consequently, on interactions with non-tumor cells involved in the immunological response. Strategies using dendritic cells (DCs) or antigen-presenting cells (APCs), therapeutic mode, in cancer have been developed for some time. The proper interaction between DCs and T cells upon antigen presentation is of greatest importance for an antitumor immune response activation. Thus, various receptors on the surface of T cells must be able to recognize ligands that are located on the surface of APCs. However, little is known about the real behavior and interaction forms of CDs and T cells after vaccination. Due to the crucial importance of DCs in an effective anti-tumor immune response activation and the search for compliant results in inducing this response by immunotherapies with DCs, the phenotypic profile of DCs and T cells in lymph nodes obtained from female Balb/C mice with breast cancer induced by 4T1 cells and DCs treated with vaccines was investigated. We evaluated through flow cytometry based on the surface and intracellular molecules marking; as well as the presence of cytokines and chemokines, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IFN-γ, TNF-α and TGF-β in the supernatant of the culture of Balb/C lymph nodes by ELISA. The results show that the vaccination with DCs, in the maturation parameters used in this study, was able to stimulate the secretion of cytokines such as IFN-γ and IL-12 and inhibit the secretion of TGF-β and IL-10 in nodal lymph infiltrates, as well as co-stimulatory activating (CD86) and adhesion molecules in DCs and T cells LFA-1/ICAM-1 and inhibit the secretion of CTLA-4 present in lymph nodes. Facts that led to aTh1 profile polarization, immuno competent in relation

  6. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  7. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... tends to be more serious than other lung infections because: People in the hospital are often very sick and cannot fight off ... prevent pneumonia. Most hospitals have programs to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  8. Acquired Cerebral Trauma: Epilogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    The article summarizes a series of articles concerning acquired cerebral trauma. Reviewed are technological advances, treatment, assessment, potential innovative therapies, long-term outcome, family impact of chronic brain injury, and prevention. (DB)

  9. Activation of MAPK pathways due to DUSP4 loss promotes cancer stem cell-like phenotypes in basal-like breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Balko, Justin M; Schwarz, Luis J; Bhola, Neil E; Kurupi, Richard; Owens, Phillip; Miller, Todd W; Gómez, Henry; Cook, Rebecca S; Arteaga, Carlos L

    2013-10-15

    Basal-like breast cancer (BLBC) is an aggressive disease that lacks a clinically approved targeted therapy. Traditional chemotherapy is effective in BLBC, but it spares the cancer stem cell (CSC)-like population, which is likely to contribute to cancer recurrence after the initial treatment. Dual specificity phosphatase-4 (DUSP4) is a negative regulator of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that is deficient in highly aggressive BLBCs treated with chemotherapy, leading to aberrant MAPK activation and resistance to taxane-induced apoptosis. Herein, we investigated how DUSP4 regulates the MAP-ERK kinase (MEK) and c-jun-NH2-kinase (JNK) pathways in modifying CSC-like behavior. DUSP4 loss increased mammosphere formation and the expression of the CSC-promoting cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-8. These effects were caused in part by loss of control of the MEK and JNK pathways and involved downstream activation of the ETS-1 and c-JUN transcription factors. Enforced expression of DUSP4 reduced the CD44(+)/CD24(-) population in multiple BLBC cell lines in a MEK-dependent manner, limiting tumor formation of claudin-low SUM159PT cells in mice. Our findings support the evaluation of MEK and JNK pathway inhibitors as therapeutic agents in BLBC to eliminate the CSC population.

  10. Characterisation of the triple negative breast cancer phenotype associated with the development of central nervous system metastases

    PubMed Central

    Laimito, Katerin Rojas; Gámez-Pozo, Angelo; Sepúlveda, Juan; Manso, Luis; López-Vacas, Rocío; Pascual, Tomás; Fresno Vara, Juan A; Ciruelos, Eva

    2016-01-01

    Aims Breast cancer (BC) is the most frequent tumour in women, representing 20–30% of all malignancies, and continues to be the leading cause of cancer deaths among European women. Triple-negative (TN) BC biological aggressiveness is associated with a higher dissemination rate, with central nervous system (CNS) metastases common. This study aims to elucidate the association between gene expression profiles of PTGS2, HBEGF and ST6GALNAC5 and the development of CNS metastases in TNBC. Methods This is a case-controlled retrospective study comparing patients (pts) with CNS metastases versus patients without them after adjuvant treatment. The selection of the samples was performed including 30 samples in both case and control groups. Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples were retrieved from the Hospital 12 de Octubre Biobank. Five 10 µm sections from each FFPE sample were deparaffinised with xylene and washed with ethanol, and the RNA was then extracted with the RecoverAll Kit (Ambion). Gene expression was assessed using TaqMan assays. Results A total of 53 patients were included in the study. The average age was 55 years (range 25–85). About 47 patients (88.67%) had ductal histology and presented high grade (III) tumours (40 patients; 75.47%). Eight women in the case group presented first distant recurrence in the CNS (34.80%), local recurrence (three patients, 13.04%), lungs (two patients; 8.7%), bone (one patient; 4.34%) and other locations (seven patients; 30.38%). In the control group, first distant recurrence occurred locally (six patients; 46.1%), in bone (two patients; 15.4%), lungs (one patient; 7.7%) and other sites (four patients; 23.1%). RNA was successfully obtained from 53 out of 60 samples. PTGS2, HBEGF, and ST6GALNAC5 expression values were not related to metastasis location. Conclusion TN tumours frequently metastasise to the visceral organs, particularly lungs and brain, and are less common in bone. The literature suggests that expression of

  11. Induction of calcium sensing receptor in human colon cancer cells by calcium, vitamin D and aquamin: Promotion of a more differentiated, less malignant and indolent phenotype.

    PubMed

    Singh, Navneet; Aslam, Muhammad N; Varani, James; Chakrabarty, Subhas

    2015-07-01

    The calcium sensing receptor (CaSR) is a robust promoter of differentiation in colonic epithelial cells and functions as a tumor suppressor. Cancer cells that do not express CaSR (termed CaSR null) are highly malignant while acquisition of CaSR expression in these cells circumvents the malignant phenotype. We hypothesize that chemopreventive agents mediate their action through the induction of CaSR. Here, we compare the effectiveness of Ca(2+), vitamin D, and Aquamin (a marine algae product containing Ca(2+), magnesium and detectable levels of 72 additional minerals) on the induction of CaSR in the CBS and HCT116 human colon carcinoma cell lines and the corresponding CaSR null cells isolated from these lines. All three agonists induced CaSR mRNA and protein expression and inhibited cellular proliferation in the parental and CaSR null cells. Aquamin was found to be most potent in this regard. Induction of CaSR expression by these agonists resulted in demethylation of the CaSR gene promoter with a concurrent increase in CaSR promoter reporter activity. However, demethylation per se did not induce CaSR transcription. Induction of CaSR expression resulted in a down-regulated expression of tumor inducers and up-regulated expression of tumor suppressors. Again, Aquamin was found to be most potent in these biologic effects. This study provides a rationale for the use of a multi-mineral approach in the chemoprevention of colon cancer and suggests that induction of CaSR may be a measure of the effectiveness of chemopreventive agents.

  12. Long Term Culture of the A549 Cancer Cell Line Promotes Multilamellar Body Formation and Differentiation towards an Alveolar Type II Pneumocyte Phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, James Ross; Abdullatif, Muhammad Bilal; Burnett, Edward C.; Kempsell, Karen E.; Conforti, Franco; Tolley, Howard; Collins, Jane E.; Davies, Donna E.

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary research requires models that represent the physiology of alveolar epithelium but concerns with reproducibility, consistency and the technical and ethical challenges of using primary or stem cells has resulted in widespread use of continuous cancer or other immortalized cell lines. The A549 ‘alveolar’ cell line has been available for over four decades but there is an inconsistent view as to its suitability as an appropriate model for primary alveolar type II (ATII) cells. Since most work with A549 cells involves short term culture of proliferating cells, we postulated that culture conditions that reduced proliferation of the cancer cells would promote a more differentiated ATII cell phenotype. We examined A549 cell growth in different media over long term culture and then used microarray analysis to investigate temporal regulation of pathways involved in cell cycle and ATII differentiation; we also made comparisons with gene expression in freshly isolated human ATII cells. Analyses indicated that long term culture in Ham’s F12 resulted in substantial modulation of cell cycle genes to result in a quiescent population of cells with significant up-regulation of autophagic, differentiation and lipidogenic pathways. There were also increased numbers of up- and down-regulated genes shared with primary cells suggesting adoption of ATII characteristics and multilamellar body (MLB) development. Subsequent Oil Red-O staining and Transmission Electron Microscopy confirmed MLB expression in the differentiated A549 cells. This work defines a set of conditions for promoting ATII differentiation characteristics in A549 cells that may be advantageous for studies with this cell line. PMID:27792742

  13. Down-regulation of both p21/Cip1 and p27/Kip1 produces a more aggressive prostate cancer phenotype

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Srirupa; Singh, Rana P.; Agarwal, Chapla; Siriwardana, Sunitha; Sclafani, Robert; Agarwal, Rajesh

    2009-01-01

    Roles of cyclin dependent kinase inhibitors, p21/Cip1 (p21) and p27/Kip1 (p27) in prostate cancer (PCa) progression is still not clear. Lower p27 protein expression in PCa tissues is often associated with poor prognosis, but prognostic significance of p21 is still controversial. Herein, we investigated the role of these molecules in determining PCa growth characteristics. We generated human PCa DU145 cell variants with knocked down levels of p21 (DU-p21) or p27 (DU-p27), or both (DU-p21+p27) via retroviral transduction of respective shRNAs and compared their various characteristics with empty vector-transduced DU145 (DU-EV) cells in vitro as well as in vivo. Knocking down either p21 or p27 did not show any significant change in doubling time, clonogenicity and cell cycle progression in DU145 cells, but simultaneous knock-down of both p21 and p27 significantly enhanced these parameters. In athymic mice, DU-p21+p27 tumors showed higher growth rate than the comparable growth of DU-EV, DU-p21 and DU-p27 tumors. Concurrently, DU-p21+p27 tumors had significantly higher proliferation rate, showing 54% and 48% increase in proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) and Ki-67-positive cells, respectively, compared to DU-EV tumors. DU-p21+p27 tumors also showed higher microvessel density and increased expression of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Proliferation and angiogenic status of DU-p21 and DU-p27 tumors was comparable to DU-EV tumors. Both in vitro and in vivo results implicate that p21 and p27 have compensatory roles in advanced prostate cancer cells, and ablation or down-modulation of both these molecules essentially enhances the aggressive prostate carcinoma phenotype. PMID:18583941

  14. Loss of miR-449a in ERG-associated prostate cancer promotes the invasive phenotype by inducing SIRT1

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Parameet; Sharad, Shashwat; Petrovics, Gyorgy; Mohamed, Ahmed; Dobi, Albert; Sreenath, Taduru L.; Srivastava, Shiv; Biswas, Roopa

    2016-01-01

    Epigenetic regulation by SIRT1, a multifaceted NAD+-dependent protein deacetylase, is one of the most common factors modulating cellular processes in a broad range of diseases, including prostate cancer (CaP). SIRT1 is over-expressed in CaP cells, however the associated mechanism is not well understood. To identify whether specific microRNAs might mediate this linkage, we have screened a miRNA library for differential expression in ERG-associated CaP tissues. Of 20 differentially and significantly expressed miRNAs that distinguish ERG-positive tumors from ERG-negative tumors, we find miR-449a is highly suppressed in ERG-positive tumors. We establish that SIRT1 is a direct target of miR-449a and is also induced by ERG in ERG-associated CaP. Our data suggest that attenuation of miR-449a promotes the invasive phenotype of the ERG-positive CaP in part by inducing the expression of SIRT1 in prostate cancer cells. Furthermore, we also find that suppression of SIRT1 results in a significant reduction in ERG expression in ERG-positive CaP cells, indicating a feed-back regulatory loop associated with ERG, miR-449a and SIRT1. We also report that ERG suppresses p53 acetylation perhaps through miR-449a-SIRT1 axis in CaP cells. Our findings provide new insight into the function of miRNAs in regulating ERG-associated CaP. Thus, miR-449a activation or SIRT1 suppression may represent new therapeutic opportunity for ERG-associated CaP. PMID:26988912

  15. Detection of circulating tumour cells with a hybrid (epithelial/mesenchymal) phenotype in patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lecharpentier, A; Vielh, P; Perez-Moreno, P; Planchard, D; Soria, J C; Farace, F

    2011-01-01

    Background: Circulating tumour cells (CTC) have a crucial role in metastasis formation and can consistently provide information on patient prognosis. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is considered as an essential process in the metastatic cascade, but there is currently very few data demonstrating directly the existence of the EMT process in CTCs. Methods: CTCs were enriched by blood filtration using ISET (isolation by size of epithelial tumour cells), triply labelled with fluorescent anti-vimentin, anti-pan-keratin antibodies and SYTOX orange nuclear dye, and examined by confocal microscopy in six patients with metastatic non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). In parallel, CTCs were morphocytologically identified by an experienced cytopathologist. Results: Isolated or clusters of dual CTCs strongly co-expressing vimentin and keratin were evidenced in all patients (range 5–88/5 ml). CTCs expressing only vimentin were detected in three patients, but were less frequent (range 3–15/5 ml). No CTC expressing only keratin was detected. Conclusion: We showed for the first time the existence of hybrid CTCs with an epithelial/mesenchymal phenotype in patients with NSCLC. Their characterisation should provide further insight on the significance of EMT in CTCs and on the mechanism of metastasis in patients with NSCLC. PMID:21970878

  16. RhoA-ROCK and p38MAPK-MSK1 mediate vitamin D effects on gene expression, phenotype, and Wnt pathway in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Ordóñez-Morán, Paloma; Larriba, María Jesús; Pálmer, Héctor G; Valero, Ruth A; Barbáchano, Antonio; Duñach, Mireia; de Herreros, Antonio García; Villalobos, Carlos; Berciano, María Teresa; Lafarga, Miguel; Muñoz, Alberto

    2008-11-17

    The active vitamin D metabolite 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3) (1,25(OH)(2)D(3)) inhibits proliferation and promotes differentiation of colon cancer cells through the activation of vitamin D receptor (VDR), a transcription factor of the nuclear receptor superfamily. Additionally, 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) has several nongenomic effects of uncertain relevance. We show that 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) induces a transcription-independent Ca(2+) influx and activation of RhoA-Rho-associated coiled kinase (ROCK). This requires VDR and is followed by activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) and mitogen- and stress-activated kinase 1 (MSK1). As shown by the use of chemical inhibitors, dominant-negative mutants and small interfering RNA, RhoA-ROCK, and p38MAPK-MSK1 activation is necessary for the induction of CDH1/E-cadherin, CYP24, and other genes and of an adhesive phenotype by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). RhoA-ROCK and MSK1 are also required for the inhibition of Wnt-beta-catenin pathway and cell proliferation. Thus, the action of 1,25(OH)(2)D(3) on colon carcinoma cells depends on the dual action of VDR as a transcription factor and a nongenomic activator of RhoA-ROCK and p38MAPK-MSK1.

  17. Networks of intergenic long-range enhancers and snpRNAs drive castration-resistant phenotype of prostate cancer and contribute to pathogenesis of multiple common human disorders

    PubMed Central

    Glinskii, Anna B; Ma, Shuang; Ma, Jun; Grant, Denise; Lim, Chang-Uk; Guest, Ian; Sell, Stewart; Buttyan, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    The mechanistic relevance of intergenic disease-associated genetic loci (IDAGL) containing highly statistically significant disease-linked SNPs remains unknown. Here, we present experimental and clinical evidence supporting the importantance of the role of IDAGL in human diseases. A targeted RT-PCR screen coupled with sequencing of purified PCR products detects widespread transcription at multiple IDAGL and identifies 96 small noncoding trans-regulatory RNAs of ∼100–300 nt in length containing SNPs (snpRNAs) associated with 21 common disorders. Multiple independent lines of experimental evidence support functionality of snpRNAs by documenting their cell type-specific expression and evolutionary conservation of sequences, genomic coordinates and biological effects. Chromatin state signatures, expression profiling experiments and luciferase reporter assays demonstrate that many IDAGL are Polycomb-regulated long-range enhancers. Expression of snpRNAs in human and mouse cells markedly affects cellular behavior and induces allele-specific clinically relevant phenotypic changes: NLRP1-locus snpRNAs rs2670660 exert regulatory effects on monocyte/macrophage transdifferentiation, induce prostate cancer (PC) susceptibility snpRNAs and transform low-malignancy hormone-dependent human PC cells into highly malignant androgen-independent PC. Q-PCR analysis and luciferase reporter assays demonstrate that snpRNA sequences represent allele-specific “decoy” targets of microRNAs that function as SNP allele-specific modifiers of microRNA expression and activity. We demonstrate that trans-acting RNA molecules facilitating resistance to androgen depletion (RAD) in vitro and castration-resistant phenotype (CRP) in vivo of PC contain intergenic 8q24-locus SNP variants (rs1447295; rs16901979; rs6983267) that were recently linked with increased risk of PC. Q-PCR analysis of clinical samples reveals markedly increased and highly concordant (r = 0.896; p < 0.0001) snpRNA expression

  18. Activation of the IGF1R pathway potentially mediates acquired resistance to mutant-selective 3rd-generation EGF receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors in advanced non-small cell lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Park, Ji Hyun; Choi, Yun Jung; Kim, Seon Ye; Lee, Jung-Eun; Sung, Ki Jung; Park, Sojung; Kim, Woo Sung; Song, Joon Seon; Choi, Chang-Min; Sung, Young Hoon; Rho, Jin Kyung; Lee, Jae Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Mutant-selective, 3rd-generation EGFR-TKIs were recently developed to control lung cancer cells harboring T790M-mediated resistance. However, the development of resistance to these novel drugs seems inevitable. Thus, we investigated the mechanism of acquired resistance to the mutant-selective EGFR-TKI WZ4002. We established five WZ4002-resistant cells, derived from cells harboring both EGFR and T790M mutations by long-term exposure to increasing doses of WZ4002. Compared with the parental cells, all resistant cells showed 10–100-folds higher resistance to WZ4002, as well as cross-resistance to other mutant-selective inhibitors. Among them, three resistant cells (HCC827/WR, PC-9/WR and H1975/WR) showed dependency on EGFR signaling, but two other cells (PC-9/GR/WR and PC-9/ER/WR) were not. Notably, insulin-like growth factor-1 receptor (IGF1R) was aberrantly activated in PC-9/GR/WR cells in phospho-receptor tyrosine kinase array, consistently accompanied by loss of IGF binding protein-3 (IGFBP3). Down-regulation of IGF1R by shRNA, as well as inhibition of IGF1R activity either by AG-1024 (a small molecule IGF1R inhibitor) or BI 836845 (a monoclonal anti-IGF1/2 blocking antibody), restored the sensitivity to WZ4002 both in vitro and xenograft. Taken together, these results suggest that activation of the IGF1R pathway associated with IGFBP3 loss can induce an acquired resistance to the mutant-selective EGFR-TKI, WZ4002. Therefore, a combined therapy of IGF1R inhibitors and mutant-selective EGFR-TKIs might be a viable treatment strategy for overcoming acquired resistance. PMID:26980747

  19. Acquired resistance to tamoxifen is associated with loss of the type I insulin-like growth factor receptor: implications for breast cancer treatment.

    PubMed

    Fagan, Dedra H; Uselman, Ryan R; Sachdev, Deepali; Yee, Douglas

    2012-07-01

    The role of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system in breast cancer is well defined, and inhibitors of this pathway are currently in clinical trials. The majority of anti-IGF1R clinical trials are in estrogen receptor-positive patients who have progressed on prior endocrine therapy; early reports show no benefit for addition of IGF1R inhibitors to endocrine therapy in this setting. In this study, we examined the effectiveness of IGF1R inhibitors in vitro by generating tamoxifen-resistant (TamR) cells. We found that TamR cells had diminished levels of IGF1R with unchanged levels of insulin receptor (IR), and failed to respond to IGF-I-induced Akt activation, proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth while retaining responsiveness to both insulin and IGF-II. The IGF1R antibody dalotuzumab inhibited IGF-I-mediated Akt phosphorylation, proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth in parental cells, but had no effect on TamR cells. An IGF1R tyrosine kinase inhibitor, AEW541, with equal potency for the IGF1R and IR, inhibited IGF-I-, IGF-II-, and insulin-stimulated Akt phosphorylation, proliferation, and anchorage-independent growth in parental cells. Interestingly, AEW541 also inhibited insulin- and IGF-II-stimulated effects in TamR cells. Tamoxifen-treated xenografts also had reduced levels of IGF1R, and dalotuzumab did not enhance the effect of tamoxifen. We conclude that cells selected for tamoxifen resistance in vitro have downregulated IGF1R making antibodies directed against this receptor ineffective. Inhibition of IR may be necessary to manage tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer.

  20. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach. PMID:26186969

  1. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Martin W; MacDonald, Stephen G

    2016-01-01

    Acquired hypofibrinogenemia is most frequently caused by hemodilution and consumption of clotting factors. The aggressive replacement of fibrinogen has become one of the core principles of modern management of massive hemorrhage. The best method for determining the patient’s fibrinogen level remains controversial, and particularly in acquired dysfibrinogenemia, could have major therapeutic implications depending on which quantification method is chosen. This review introduces the available laboratory and point-of-care methods and discusses the relative advantages and limitations. It also discusses current strategies for the correction of hypofibrinogenemia. PMID:27713652

  2. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach.

  3. [Epithelial-mesenchymal transition in cancer progression].

    PubMed

    Gos, Monika; Miłoszewska, Joanna; Przybyszewska, Małgorzata

    2009-01-01

    According to recently published data, the epithelial-mesenchymal transition--a process important for embryonic development, may be involved in many pathological processes such as wound healing, tissue fibrosis or cancer progression. The EMT process in cell is driven by growth factors (EGF, PDGF, HGF) or other signaling proteins such as TGF-beta, sonic hedgehog (Shh), Wnt/beta-catenin and extracellular matrix (ECM) components that may stimulate cellular growth and migration. During cancer progression, the EMT process is necessary to the conversion of benign tumor to aggressive and highly invasive cancer. This is due to complex changes in cancer cells and their microenvironment that lead to dissolution of intracellular junctions and their detachment from basolateral membrane, and changes in the interactions between cancer cells and ECM. The loss of adhesion is accompanied by molecular and morphologic changes in cancer cells that are essential for the phenotypic change from epithelial to mesenchymal one, and the acquirement of higher migration and invasion potential. During the colonization of distant sites, a reverse process mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET) takes place and metastatic cancer cells again acquire the epithelial phenotype. The EMT in cancer progression is not only specific for cancer cells. It has been suggested that also cells within tumor microenvironment e.g. cancer associated fibroblasts (CAF) are generated in part from normal epithelial cells in EMT process. The understanding of the role of EMT and MET processes in cancer progression and their relationship with cancer stem cells, cancer associated fibroblasts and other stroma cells might lead to the discovery of new, targeted cancer therapies.

  4. Acquired Brain Injury Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

    This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

  5. Degradation of the Tumor Suppressor PML by Pin1 Contributes to the Cancer Phenotype of Breast Cancer MDA-MB-231 Cells▿

    PubMed Central

    Reineke, Erin L.; Lam, Minh; Liu, Qing; Liu, Yu; Stanya, Kristopher J.; Chang, Kun-Sang; Means, Anthony R.; Kao, Hung-Ying

    2008-01-01

    Promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) is an important regulator due to its role in numerous cellular processes including apoptosis, viral infection, senescence, DNA damage repair, and cell cycle regulation. Despite the role of PML in many cellular functions, little is known about the regulation of PML itself. We show that PML stability is regulated through interaction with the peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase Pin1. This interaction is mediated through four serine-proline motifs in the C terminus of PML. Binding to Pin1 results in degradation of PML in a phosphorylation-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data indicate that sumoylation of PML blocks the interaction, thus preventing degradation of PML by this pathway. Functionally, we show that in the MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line modulating levels of Pin1 affects steady-state levels of PML. Furthermore, degradation of PML due to Pin1 acts both to protect these cells from hydrogen peroxide-induced death and to increase the rate of proliferation. Taken together, our work defines a novel mechanism by which sumoylation of PML prevents Pin1-dependent degradation. This interaction likely occurs in numerous cell lines and may be a pathway for oncogenic transformation. PMID:18039859

  6. Wharton's jelly mesenchymal stromal cells have contrasting effects on proliferation and phenotype of cancer stem cells from different subtypes of lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Vulcano, Francesca; Milazzo, Luisa; Ciccarelli, Carmela; Eramo, Adriana; Sette, Giovanni; Mauro, Annunziata; Macioce, Giampiero; Martinelli, Andrea; La Torre, Renato; Casalbore, Patrizia; Hassan, Hamisa Jane; Giampaolo, Adele

    2016-07-15

    Studies on the role of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) on tumor growth have reported both a tumor promoting and a suppressive effect. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of MSC isolated from Wharton's jelly of umbilical cord (WJMSC) on lung cancer stem cells (LCSC) derived from human lung tumors: two adenocarcinomas (AC) and two squamous cell carcinomas (SCC). LCSC derived from SCC and AC expressed, to varying extents, the more relevant stem cell markers. The effect of WJMSC on LCSC was investigated in vitro using conditioned medium (WJ-CM): a proliferation increase in AC-LCSC was observed, with an increase in the ALDH+ and in the CD133+ cell population. By contrast, WJ-CM hampered the growth of SCC-LCSC, with an increase in the pre-G1 phase indicating the induction of apoptosis. Furthermore, the ALDH+ and CD133+ population was also reduced. In vivo, subcutaneous co-transplantation of AC-LCSC/WJMSC generated larger tumors than AC-LCSC alone, characterized by an increased percentage of CD133+ and CD166+ cells. By contrast, co-transplantation of WJMSC and SCC-LCSC did not affect the tumor size. Our results strongly suggest that WJMSC exert, both in vitro and in vivo, contrasting effects on LCSC derived from different lung tumor subtypes. PMID:27343631

  7. Ionizing radiation promotes advanced malignant traits in nasopharyngeal carcinoma via activation of epithelial-mesenchymal transition and the cancer stem cell phenotype

    PubMed Central

    SU, ZHONGWU; LI, GUO; LIU, CHAO; REN, SHULING; TIAN, YONGQUAN; LIU, YONG; QIU, YUANZHENG

    2016-01-01

    Post-irradiation residual mass and recurrence always suggest a worse prognosis for nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Our study aimed to investigate the malignant behaviors of post-irradiation residual NPC cells, to identify the potential underlying mechanisms and to search for appropriate bio-targets to overcome this malignancy. Two NPC cell lines were firstly exposed to 60 Gy irradiation, and residual cells were collected. In our previous study, colony formation assay detected the radioresistance of these cells. Here, the CCK-8 assay examined the cell sensitivity to paclitaxel and cisplatin. Wound-healing and Transwell assays were performed to investigate cell motility and invasion capabilities. Inverted phase-contrast microscopy was used to observe and photograph the morphology of cells. Expression levels of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related proteins were detected by western blot assay in NPC cells and tissues. The mRNA levels of cancer stem cell (CSC)-related genes were detected via qRT-PCR. The results revealed that residual NPC cells exhibited enhanced radioresistance and cross-resistance to paclitaxel and cisplatin. Higher capacities of invasion and migration were also observed. An elongated morphology with pseudopodia formation and broadening in the intercellular space was observed in the residual cells. Downregulation of E-cadherin and upregulation of vimentin were detected in the residual NPC cells and tissues. CSC-related Lgr5 and c-myc were significantly upregulated in the CNE-2-Rs and 6-10B-Rs radioresistance cells. Higher proportions of Lgr5+ cells were observed in radioresistant cells via immunofluorescent staining and flow cytometry. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that residual NPC cells had an advanced malignant transition and presented with both EMT and a CSC phenotype. This provides a possible clue and treatment strategy for advanced and residual NPC. PMID:27108809

  8. Proteomics of the Radioresistant Phenotype in Head-and-Neck Cancer: Gp96 as a Novel Prediction Marker and Sensitizing Target for Radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Ting-Yang; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chieh; Wang, Hung-Ming

    2010-09-01

    Purpose: Radiotherapy is an integral part of the treatment modality for head-neck cancer (HNC), but in some cases the disease is radioresistant. We designed this study to identify molecules that may be involved in this resistance. Methods and Materials: Two radioresistant sublines were established by fractionated irradiation of the HNC cell lines, to determine differentially proteins between parental and radioresistant cells. Proteomic analysis and reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction were used to i