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Sample records for acquired developmental brain

  1. Hitting a Moving Target: Basic Mechanisms of Recovery from Acquired Developmental Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Giza, Christopher C.; Kolb, Bryan; Harris, Neil G.; Asarnow, Robert F.; Prins, Mayumi L.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired brain injuries represent a major cause of disability in the pediatric population. Understanding responses to developmental acquired brain injuries requires knowledge of the neurobiology of normal development, age-at-injury effects and experience-dependent neuroplasticity. In the developing brain, full recovery cannot be considered as a return to the premorbid baseline, since ongoing maturation means that cerebral functioning in normal individuals will continue to advance. Thus, the recovering immature brain has to ‘hit a moving target’ to achieve full functional recovery, defined as parity with age-matched uninjured peers. This review will discuss the consequences of developmental injuries such as focal lesions, diffuse hypoxia and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Underlying cellular and physiological mechanisms relevant to age-at-injury effects will be described in considerable detail, including but not limited to alterations in neurotransmission, connectivity/network functioning, the extracellular matrix, response to oxidative stress and changes in cerebral metabolism. Finally, mechanisms of experience-dependent plasticity will be reviewed in conjunction with their effects on neural repair and recovery. PMID:19956795

  2. Acquired Brain Injury Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

    This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

  3. The neuropathology of acquired pre- and perinatal brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Folkerth, Rebecca D

    2007-02-01

    Acquired pre- and perinatal brain injuries comprise a significant proportion of perinatal neuropathology. They are associated with placental abnormalities, maternal factors, multiple gestations, and preterm labor, as well as with the later development of cerebral palsy and developmental delay. The patterns of perinatal brain injury depend on the etiology (often hypoxic-ischemic) and the timing relative to the development of the fetal nervous system, since the vulnerabilities of gray and white matter differ across postconceptional age and by neuroanatomic site. Nevertheless, characteristic features allow determination of the approximate age and cause of each pattern of injury in the perinatal brain. PMID:17455862

  4. Support Network Responses to Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chleboun, Steffany; Hux, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) affects social relationships; however, the ways social and support networks change and evolve as a result of brain injury is not well understood. This study explored ways in which survivors of ABI and members of their support networks perceive relationship changes as recovery extends into the long-term stage. Two…

  5. Serotonergic hyperactivity as a potential factor in developmental, acquired and drug-induced synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Berit

    2013-01-01

    Though synesthesia research has seen a huge growth in recent decades, and tremendous progress has been made in terms of understanding the mechanism and cause of synesthesia, we are still left mostly in the dark when it comes to the mechanistic commonalities (if any) among developmental, acquired and drug-induced synesthesia. We know that many forms of synesthesia involve aberrant structural or functional brain connectivity. Proposed mechanisms include direct projection and disinhibited feedback mechanisms, in which information from two otherwise structurally or functionally separate brain regions mix. We also know that synesthesia sometimes runs in families. However, it is unclear what causes its onset. Studies of psychedelic drugs, such as psilocybin, LSD and mescaline, reveal that exposure to these drugs can induce synesthesia. One neurotransmitter suspected to be central to the perceptual changes is serotonin. Excessive serotonin in the brain may cause many of the characteristics of psychedelic intoxication. Excessive serotonin levels may also play a role in synesthesia acquired after brain injury. In brain injury sudden cell death floods local brain regions with serotonin and glutamate. This neurotransmitter flooding could perhaps result in unusual feature binding. Finally, developmental synesthesia that occurs in individuals with autism may be a result of alterations in the serotonergic system, leading to a blockage of regular gating mechanisms. I conclude on these grounds that one commonality among at least some cases of acquired, developmental and drug-induced synesthesia may be the presence of excessive levels of serotonin, which increases the excitability and connectedness of sensory brain regions.

  6. Group Treatment in Acquired Brain Injury Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertisch, Hilary; Rath, Joseph F.; Langenbahn, Donna M.; Sherr, Rose Lynn; Diller, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    The current article describes critical issues in adapting traditional group-treatment methods for working with individuals with reduced cognitive capacity secondary to acquired brain injury. Using the classification system based on functional ability developed at the NYU Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (RIRM), we delineate the cognitive…

  7. Interviewing Children with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Anne-Marie; Linden, Mark; Alderdice, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Research into the lives of children with acquired brain injury (ABI) often neglects to incorporate children as participants, preferring to obtain the opinions of the adult carer (e.g. McKinlay et al., 2002). There has been a concerted attempt to move away from this position by those working in children's research with current etiquette…

  8. Getting lost: Topographic skills in acquired and developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Corrow, Jeffrey C; Corrow, Sherryse L; Lee, Edison; Pancaroglu, Raika; Burles, Ford; Duchaine, Brad; Iaria, Giuseppe; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies report that acquired prosopagnosia is frequently associated with topographic disorientation. Whether this is associated with a specific anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, how frequently it is seen with the developmental variant, and what specific topographic function is impaired to account for this problem are not known. We studied ten subjects with acquired prosopagnosia from either occipitotemporal or anterior temporal (AT) lesions and seven with developmental prosopagnosia. Subjects were given a battery of topographic tests, including house and scene recognition, the road map test, a test of cognitive map formation, and a standardized self-report questionnaire. House and/or scene recognition were frequently impaired after either occipitotemporal or AT lesions in acquired prosopagnosia. Subjects with occipitotemporal lesions were also impaired in cognitive map formation: an overlap analysis identified right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri as a likely correlate. Only one subject with acquired prosopagnosia had mild difficulty with directional orientation on the road map test. Only one subject with developmental prosopagnosia had difficulty with cognitive map formation, and none were impaired on the other tests. Scores for house and scene recognition correlated most strongly with the results of the questionnaire. We conclude that topographic disorientation in acquired prosopagnosia reflects impaired place recognition, with a contribution from poor cognitive map formation when there is occipitotemporal damage. Topographic impairments are less frequent in developmental prosopagnosia.

  9. Getting lost: Topographic skills in acquired and developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Corrow, Jeffrey C; Corrow, Sherryse L; Lee, Edison; Pancaroglu, Raika; Burles, Ford; Duchaine, Brad; Iaria, Giuseppe; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies report that acquired prosopagnosia is frequently associated with topographic disorientation. Whether this is associated with a specific anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, how frequently it is seen with the developmental variant, and what specific topographic function is impaired to account for this problem are not known. We studied ten subjects with acquired prosopagnosia from either occipitotemporal or anterior temporal (AT) lesions and seven with developmental prosopagnosia. Subjects were given a battery of topographic tests, including house and scene recognition, the road map test, a test of cognitive map formation, and a standardized self-report questionnaire. House and/or scene recognition were frequently impaired after either occipitotemporal or AT lesions in acquired prosopagnosia. Subjects with occipitotemporal lesions were also impaired in cognitive map formation: an overlap analysis identified right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri as a likely correlate. Only one subject with acquired prosopagnosia had mild difficulty with directional orientation on the road map test. Only one subject with developmental prosopagnosia had difficulty with cognitive map formation, and none were impaired on the other tests. Scores for house and scene recognition correlated most strongly with the results of the questionnaire. We conclude that topographic disorientation in acquired prosopagnosia reflects impaired place recognition, with a contribution from poor cognitive map formation when there is occipitotemporal damage. Topographic impairments are less frequent in developmental prosopagnosia. PMID:26874939

  10. Stereotypic movement disorder after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Cynthia M; Kennedy, Richard E; Hoye, Wayne; Yablon, Stuart A

    2002-05-01

    Stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) consists of repetitive, non-functional motor behaviour that interferes with daily living or causes injury to the person. It is most often described in patients with mental retardation. However, recent evidence indicates that this condition is common among otherwise normal individuals. This case study describes a patient with new-onset SMD occurring after subdural haematoma and brain injury. SMD has rarely been reported after acquired brain injury, and none have documented successful treatment. The current psychiatric literature regarding neurochemistry, neuroanatomy, and treatment of SMD are reviewed with particular application to one patient. Treatment options include serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, opioid antagonists and dopamine antagonists. SMD has been under-appreciated in intellectually normal individuals, and may also be unrecognized after brain injury. Further investigation is needed in this area, which may benefit other individuals with SMD as well.

  11. Serotonergic hyperactivity as a potential factor in developmental, acquired and drug-induced synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Berit

    2013-01-01

    Though synesthesia research has seen a huge growth in recent decades, and tremendous progress has been made in terms of understanding the mechanism and cause of synesthesia, we are still left mostly in the dark when it comes to the mechanistic commonalities (if any) among developmental, acquired and drug-induced synesthesia. We know that many forms of synesthesia involve aberrant structural or functional brain connectivity. Proposed mechanisms include direct projection and disinhibited feedback mechanisms, in which information from two otherwise structurally or functionally separate brain regions mix. We also know that synesthesia sometimes runs in families. However, it is unclear what causes its onset. Studies of psychedelic drugs, such as psilocybin, LSD and mescaline, reveal that exposure to these drugs can induce synesthesia. One neurotransmitter suspected to be central to the perceptual changes is serotonin. Excessive serotonin in the brain may cause many of the characteristics of psychedelic intoxication. Excessive serotonin levels may also play a role in synesthesia acquired after brain injury. In brain injury sudden cell death floods local brain regions with serotonin and glutamate. This neurotransmitter flooding could perhaps result in unusual feature binding. Finally, developmental synesthesia that occurs in individuals with autism may be a result of alterations in the serotonergic system, leading to a blockage of regular gating mechanisms. I conclude on these grounds that one commonality among at least some cases of acquired, developmental and drug-induced synesthesia may be the presence of excessive levels of serotonin, which increases the excitability and connectedness of sensory brain regions. PMID:24155703

  12. Serotonergic Hyperactivity as a Potential Factor in Developmental, Acquired and Drug-Induced Synesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Brogaard, Berit

    2013-01-01

    Though synesthesia research has seen a huge growth in recent decades, and tremendous progress has been made in terms of understanding the mechanism and cause of synesthesia, we are still left mostly in the dark when it comes to the mechanistic commonalities (if any) among developmental, acquired and drug-induced synesthesia. We know that many forms of synesthesia involve aberrant structural or functional brain connectivity. Proposed mechanisms include direct projection and disinhibited feedback mechanisms, in which information from two otherwise structurally or functionally separate brain regions mix. We also know that synesthesia sometimes runs in families. However, it is unclear what causes its onset. Studies of psychedelic drugs, such as psilocybin, LSD and mescaline, reveal that exposure to these drugs can induce synesthesia. One neurotransmitter suspected to be central to the perceptual changes is serotonin. Excessive serotonin in the brain may cause many of the characteristics of psychedelic intoxication. Excessive serotonin levels may also play a role in synesthesia acquired after brain injury. In brain injury sudden cell death floods local brain regions with serotonin and glutamate. This neurotransmitter flooding could perhaps result in unusual feature binding. Finally, developmental synesthesia that occurs in individuals with autism may be a result of alterations in the serotonergic system, leading to a blockage of regular gating mechanisms. I conclude on these grounds that one commonality among at least some cases of acquired, developmental and drug-induced synesthesia may be the presence of excessive levels of serotonin, which increases the excitability and connectedness of sensory brain regions. PMID:24155703

  13. Developmental dyscalculia and brain laterality.

    PubMed

    Shalev, R S; Manor, O; Amir, N; Wertman-Elad, R; Gross-Tsur, V

    1995-06-01

    The correlation between arithmetic dysfunction and brain laterality was studied in 25 children with developmental dyscalculia (DD). The children were tested on a standardized arithmetic battery and underwent a neurological and neuro-psychological evaluation. A diagnosis of left hemisphere dysfunction (n = 13) was based on right side soft neurological signs, performance IQ (PIQ) > verbal IQ (VIQ), dyslexia and intact visuo-spatial functions. The criteria for right hemisphere dysfunction (n = 12) were left body signs, VIQ > PIQ, impaired visuo-spatial functions and normal language skills. The groups were similar for age, gender, and socio-economic status. Our results showed that both groups scored more than 2 SD below the mean adjusted score on the arithmetic battery, but the left group was significantly worse in 3 areas: mastery of addition/subtraction, complex multiplication and division and visuo-spatial errors (p < 0.05). The data indicate that dysfunction of either hemisphere hampers arithmetic acquisition, but arithmetic impairment is more profound with left hemisphere dysfunction. PMID:7555012

  14. Learning: How the Brain Acquires Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Beth R.

    Eight units of instruction and four projects comprise a curriculum on the brain and information processing for fourth grade students. Units, which frequently involve a guest speaker, focus on intelligence and creativity, the appearance and mechanisms of the brain, the five senses, the art and science of perception, language, reading, a field…

  15. Brain Imaging Studies of Developmental Stuttering.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ingham, Roger J.

    2001-01-01

    A review of research on brain imaging of developmental stuttering concludes that findings increasingly point to a failure of normal temporal lobe activation during speech that may either contribute to (or is the result of) a breakdown in the sequencing of processing among premotor regions implicated in phonologic planning. (Contains references.)…

  16. Time Dysperception Perspective for Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Piras, Federica; Piras, Fabrizio; Ciullo, Valentina; Danese, Emanuela; Caltagirone, Carlo; Spalletta, Gianfranco

    2014-01-01

    Distortions of time perception are presented by a number of neuropsychiatric illnesses. Here we survey timing abilities in clinical populations with focal lesions in key brain structures recently implicated in human studies of timing. We also review timing performance in amnesic and traumatic brain injured patients in order to identify the nature of specific timing disorders in different brain damaged populations. We purposely analyzed the complex relationship between both cognitive and contextual factors involved in time estimation, as to characterize the correlation between timed and other cognitive behaviors in each group. We assume that interval timing is a solid construct to study cognitive dysfunctions following brain injury, as timing performance is a sensitive metric of information processing, while temporal cognition has the potential of influencing a wide range of cognitive processes. Moreover, temporal performance is a sensitive assay of damage to the underlying neural substrate after a brain insult. Further research in neurological and psychiatric patients will clarify whether time distortions are a manifestation of, or a mechanism for, cognitive and behavioral symptoms of neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24454304

  17. Learning: How the Brain Acquires Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Beth R.

    Developed to explore how individuals receive and process sensory information, this paper describes a curriculum designed for elementary students concerning the brain and information processing. The course is entitled "Mind Adventuring: Learning about How We Learn" and is structured into eight units of study. Descriptive accounts are provided for…

  18. Behavior Management for Children and Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slifer, Keith J.; Amari, Adrianna

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems such as disinhibition, irritability, restlessness, distractibility, and aggression are common after acquired brain injury (ABI). The persistence and severity of these problems impair the brain-injured individual's reintegration into family, school, and community life. Since the early 1980s, behavior analysis and therapy have…

  19. Toward Developmental Connectomics of the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Miao; Huang, Hao; Peng, Yun; Dong, Qi; He, Yong

    2016-01-01

    Imaging connectomics based on graph theory has become an effective and unique methodological framework for studying structural and functional connectivity patterns of the developing brain. Normal brain development is characterized by continuous and significant network evolution throughout infancy, childhood, and adolescence, following specific maturational patterns. Disruption of these normal changes is associated with neuropsychiatric developmental disorders, such as autism spectrum disorders or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In this review, we focused on the recent progresses regarding typical and atypical development of human brain networks from birth to early adulthood, using a connectomic approach. Specifically, by the time of birth, structural networks already exhibit adult-like organization, with global efficient small-world and modular structures, as well as hub regions and rich-clubs acting as communication backbones. During development, the structure networks are fine-tuned, with increased global integration and robustness and decreased local segregation, as well as the strengthening of the hubs. In parallel, functional networks undergo more dramatic changes during maturation, with both increased integration and segregation during development, as brain hubs shift from primary regions to high order functioning regions, and the organization of modules transitions from a local anatomical emphasis to a more distributed architecture. These findings suggest that structural networks develop earlier than functional networks; meanwhile functional networks demonstrate more dramatic maturational changes with the evolution of structural networks serving as the anatomical backbone. In this review, we also highlighted topologically disorganized characteristics in structural and functional brain networks in several major developmental neuropsychiatric disorders (e.g., autism spectrum disorders, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder and developmental

  20. Developmental Modes and Developmental Mechanisms can Channel Brain Evolution.

    PubMed

    Charvet, Christine J; Striedter, Georg F

    2011-01-01

    Anseriform birds (ducks and geese) as well as parrots and songbirds have evolved a disproportionately enlarged telencephalon compared with many other birds. However, parrots and songbirds differ from anseriform birds in their mode of development. Whereas ducks and geese are precocial (e.g., hatchlings feed on their own), parrots and songbirds are altricial (e.g., hatchlings are fed by their parents). We here consider how developmental modes may limit and facilitate specific changes in the mechanisms of brain development. We suggest that altriciality facilitates the evolution of telencephalic expansion by delaying telencephalic neurogenesis. We further hypothesize that delays in telencephalic neurogenesis generate delays in telencephalic maturation, which in turn foster neural adaptations that facilitate learning. Specifically, we propose that delaying telencephalic neurogenesis was a prerequisite for the evolution of neural circuits that allow parrots and songbirds to produce learned vocalizations. Overall, we argue that developmental modes have influenced how some lineages of birds increased the size of their telencephalon and that this, in turn, has influenced subsequent changes in brain circuits and behavior.

  1. Developmental Modes and Developmental Mechanisms can Channel Brain Evolution

    PubMed Central

    Charvet, Christine J.; Striedter, Georg F.

    2010-01-01

    Anseriform birds (ducks and geese) as well as parrots and songbirds have evolved a disproportionately enlarged telencephalon compared with many other birds. However, parrots and songbirds differ from anseriform birds in their mode of development. Whereas ducks and geese are precocial (e.g., hatchlings feed on their own), parrots and songbirds are altricial (e.g., hatchlings are fed by their parents). We here consider how developmental modes may limit and facilitate specific changes in the mechanisms of brain development. We suggest that altriciality facilitates the evolution of telencephalic expansion by delaying telencephalic neurogenesis. We further hypothesize that delays in telencephalic neurogenesis generate delays in telencephalic maturation, which in turn foster neural adaptations that facilitate learning. Specifically, we propose that delaying telencephalic neurogenesis was a prerequisite for the evolution of neural circuits that allow parrots and songbirds to produce learned vocalizations. Overall, we argue that developmental modes have influenced how some lineages of birds increased the size of their telencephalon and that this, in turn, has influenced subsequent changes in brain circuits and behavior. PMID:21369349

  2. Predictors of Outcome following Acquired Brain Injury in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Abigail R.; DeMatt, Ellen; Salorio, Cynthia F.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) in children and adolescents can result from multiple causes, including trauma, central nervous system infections, noninfectious disorders (epilepsy, hypoxia/ischemia, genetic/metabolic disorders), tumors, and vascular abnormalities. Prediction of outcomes is important, to target interventions, allocate resources,…

  3. Cognitive Rehabilitation for Children with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slomine, Beth; Locascio, Gianna

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are frequent consequences of acquired brain injury (ABI) and often require intervention. We review the theoretical and empirical literature on cognitive rehabilitation in a variety of treatment domains including attention, memory, unilateral neglect, speech and language, executive functioning, and family involvement/education.…

  4. Blissfully unaware: Anosognosia and anosodiaphoria after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gasquoine, Philip Gerard

    2016-01-01

    Historically, anosognosia referred to under-report of striking symptoms of acquired brain injury (e.g., hemiplegia) with debilitating functional consequences and was linked with anosodiaphoria, an emotional reaction of indifference. It was later extended to include under-report of all manner of symptoms of acquired brain injury by the patient compared to clinicians, family members, or functional performance. Anosognosia is related to time since onset of brain injury but not consistently to demographic variables, lesion location (except that it is more common after unilateral right than left hemispheric injury), or specific neuropsychological test scores. This review considers all manifestations of anosognosia as a unitary phenomenon with differing clinical characteristics dictated by variability in linked cognitive impairments. It is concluded that anosognosia has three chief contributing factors: (1) procedural: measurement differences across studies in terms of symptom selection and the designation of a "gold standard" of patient symptomatology; (2) psychological: a tendency towards positive self-evaluation and the avoidance of adverse information, that also occurs in neurologically intact individuals; and (3) neuropathological: an increased likelihood of error recognition failure from disconnections that disrupt feedback between injured brain regions governing specific behaviours (symptoms) and anterior cingulate/insular cortex. Anosodiaphoria is considered as an associated symptom, resulting from the same psychological and neuropathological factors.

  5. The brain network associated with acquiring semantic knowledge.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Eleanor A; Frith, Christopher D

    2004-05-01

    There is ongoing debate about how semantic information is acquired, whether this occurs independently of episodic memory, and what role, if any, brain areas such as hippocampus are required to play. We used auditory stimuli and functional MRI (fMRI) to assess brain activations associated with the incidental acquisition of new and true facts about the world of the sort we are exposed to day to day. A control task was included where subjects heard sentences that described novel scenarios involving unfamiliar people, but these did not convey general knowledge. The incidental encoding task was identical for two stimulus types; both shared the same episodic experience (lying in the brain scanner) and conveyed complex information. Despite this, and considering only those stimuli successfully encoded, compared to a baseline task, a more extensive network of brain regions was found to be associated with exposure to new facts including the hippocampus. Direct comparison between the two stimulus types revealed greater activity in dorsal, ventrolateral and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex, medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus, and temporal cortex for fact stimuli. The findings suggest that successful encoding is not invariably associated with activation of one particular brain network. Rather, activation patterns may depend on the type of materials being acquired, and the different processes they engender when subjects encode. Qualitatively, from postscan debriefing sessions, it emerged that the factual information was found to be potentially more useful. We suggest that current or prospective utility of incoming information may be one factor that influences the processes engaged during encoding and the concomitant neuronal responses. PMID:15110007

  6. Microglia and Inflammation: Impact on Developmental Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Li-Jin; Takanohashi, Asako; Bell, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Inflammation during the perinatal period has become a recognized risk factor for developmental brain injuries over the past decade or more. To fully understand the relationship between inflammation and brain development, a comprehensive knowledge about the immune system within the brain is essential. Microglia are resident immune cells within the…

  7. The Pediatric Acquired Brain Injury Community Outreach Program (PABICOP) - an innovative comprehensive model of care for children and youth with an acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gillett, Jane

    2004-01-01

    The Pediatric Acquired Brain Injury Community Outreach Program - an innovative, comprehensive model of care for children and youth with an acquired brain injury is described. The background to the formation of the idea is delineated and the current function of the model given. Future directions are discussed. The program addresses the needs and issues of children and youth with an acquired brain injury and their families. Subsequent literature supports the concept of care that this program espouses.

  8. Neurocognitive Outcomes Following Pediatric Brain Injury: A Developmental Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Armande Marcela

    2003-01-01

    This literature review was conducted to evaluate the developmental perspective on neurocognitive recovery/development following a child's traumatic brain injury. Overall, the described findings support a developmental view and suggest that predictions of prognosis should be based on the child's remaining ability to learn. (Contains 50 references.)…

  9. Developmental Drama for Brain-Damaged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sue

    1977-01-01

    Offers recommendations for using developmental drama including: discussion of organization of the play environment, leaders, and play groups; sensory-awareness games, movement-mime projects, and story dramatizations; and video tape utilization for play evaluation. (MH)

  10. Binge consumption of ethanol during pregnancy leads to significant developmental delay of mouse embryonic brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2014-03-01

    Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can be severely detrimental to the development of the brain in fetuses. This study explores the usage of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to the study the effects of maternal consumption of ethanol on brain development in mouse fetuses. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. A swept-source OCT (SSOCT) system was used to acquire 3D images of the brain of ethanol-exposed and control fetuses. The volume of right and left brain ventricles were measured and used to compare between ethanol-exposed and control fetuses. A total of 5 fetuses were used for each of the two groups. The average volumes of the right and left ventricles were measured to be 0.35 and 0.15 mm3 for ethanol-exposed and control fetuses, respectively. The results demonstrated that there is an alcohol-induced developmental delay in mouse fetal brains.

  11. Early developmental exposures shape trade-offs between acquired and innate immunity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Alexander V.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; McDade, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Life history theory predicts resource allocation trade-offs between competing functions and processes. We test the hypothesis that relative investment towards innate versus acquired immunity in humans is subject to such trade-offs and that three types of early developmental exposures are particularly salient in shaping adult immunophenotype: (i) pathogen exposure, (ii) nutritional resources; and (iii) extrinsic mortality cues. Methodology We quantified one aspect each of innate and acquired immune function, via C-reactive protein and Epstein–Barr virus antibodies, respectively, in a sample of 1248 men and women from the Philippines (ca. 21.5 years old). Early developmental exposures were assessed via long-term data collected prospectively since participants’ birth (1983–4). We calculated a standardized ratio to assess relative bias towards acquired versus innate immune function and examined its relationship to a suite of predictors via multiple regression. Results In partial support of our predictions, some of the measures of higher pathogen exposure, greater availability of nutritional resources, and lower extrinsic mortality cues in early life were associated with a bias toward acquired immunity in both men and women. The immune profile of women, in particular, appeared to be more sensitive to early life pathogen exposures than those of men. Finally, contrary to prediction, women exhibited a greater relative investment toward innate, not acquired, immunity. Conclusions and implications Early environments can exert considerable influence on the development of immunity. They affect trade-offs between innate and acquired immunity, which show adaptive plasticity and may differ in their influence in men and women. PMID:27530543

  12. Behavior management for children and adolescents with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Slifer, Keith J; Amari, Adrianna

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems such as disinhibition, irritability, restlessness, distractibility, and aggression are common after acquired brain injury (ABI). The persistence and severity of these problems impair the brain-injured individual's reintegration into family, school, and community life. Since the early 1980s, behavior analysis and therapy have been used to address the behavioral sequelae of ABI. These interventions are based on principles of learning and behavior that have been robustly successful when applied across a broad range of other clinical populations. Most of the research on behavioral treatment after ABI has involved clinical case studies or studies employing single-subject experimental designs across a series of cases. The literature supports the effectiveness of these interventions across ages, injury severities, and stages of recovery after ABI. Recommended guidelines for behavior management include: direct behavioral observations, systematic assessment of environmental and within-patient variables associated with aberrant behavior, antecedent management to minimize the probability of aberrant behavior, provision of functionally equivalent alternative means of controlling the environment, and differential reinforcement to shape positive behavior and coping strategies while not inadvertently shaping emergent, disruptive sequelae. This package of interventions requires direction by a highly skilled behavioral psychologist or therapist who systematically monitors target behavior to evaluate progress and guide treatment decisions. A coordinated multisite effort is needed to design intervention protocols that can be studied prospectively in randomized controlled trials. However, there will continue to be an important role for single subject experimental design for studying the results of individualized interventions and obtaining pilot data to guide subsequent randomized controlled trails.

  13. Rehabilitation for children after acquired brain injury: current and emerging approaches.

    PubMed

    Gordon, Anne L; di Maggio, Annalisa

    2012-06-01

    Evidence is emerging of diverse, chronic, cumulative disabilities experienced by children in the months and years after acquired brain injury. The long-held assumption that younger children recover better from brain injury than older children or adults has been challenged by recent studies. Populations with acquired brain injury include children with traumatic brain injury and stroke, and a proportion of children with cerebral palsy. Although characteristics of brain injury in children vary, subgroups of this population offer the potential to inform our understanding of developing brain structure-function relationships in response to intervention. Limited evidence and few controlled rehabilitation trials exist regarding children with neurologic conditions. A number of rehabilitation approaches produced benefits in adult stroke, and cerebral palsy populations may be applied to children with other acquired brain injuries. Rehabilitation approaches that have been applied to children with acquired brain injuries, or hold promise for future applications, are reviewed.

  14. Acquired Brain Injury, Social Work and the Challenges of Personalisation

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Mark; Fyson, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adults in the UK are living with acquired brain injury (ABI), with those affected requiring immediate medical care and longer-term rehabilitative and social care. Despite their social needs, limited attention has been paid to people with ABI within the social work literature and their needs are also often overlooked in policy and guidance. As a means of highlighting the challenge that ABI presents to statutory social work, this paper will start by outlining the common characteristics of ABI and consider the (limited) relevant policy guidance. The particular difficulties of reconciling the needs of people with ABI with the prevailing orthodoxies of personalisation will then be explored, with a particular focus on the mismatch between systems which rest on presumptions autonomy and the circumstances of individuals with ABI—typified by executive dysfunction and lack of insight into their own condition. Composite case studies, drawn from the first author's experiences as a case manager for individuals with ABI, will be used to illustrate the arguments being made. The paper will conclude by considering the knowledge and skills which social workers need in order to better support people with ABI. PMID:27559229

  15. Reorganization of Functional Connectivity as a Correlate of Cognitive Recovery in Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Paul, Nuria; Ordonez, Victoria E.; Demuynck, Olivier; Bajo, Ricardo; Campo, Pablo; Bilbao, Alvaro; Ortiz, Tomas; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestu, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive processes require a functional interaction between specialized multiple, local and remote brain regions. Although these interactions can be strongly altered by an acquired brain injury, brain plasticity allows network reorganization to be principally responsible for recovery. The present work evaluates the impact of brain injury on…

  16. Childcare Workers' Knowledge about the Brain and Developmentally Appropriate Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby

    2008-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience are providing information about the brain and its development. Some researchers propose that childcare workers need to understand this information because it confirms their importance and their use of developmentally appropriate practice (DAP). Given the fact that childcare workers could benefit from this insight, it seems…

  17. On Expression Patterns and Developmental Origin of Human Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Lior; Chechik, Gal

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical substructures of the human brain have characteristic cell-types, connectivity and local circuitry, which are reflected in area-specific transcriptome signatures, but the principles governing area-specific transcription and their relation to brain development are still being studied. In adult rodents, areal transcriptome patterns agree with the embryonic origin of brain regions, but the processes and genes that preserve an embryonic signature in regional expression profiles were not quantified. Furthermore, it is not clear how embryonic-origin signatures of adult-brain expression interplay with changes in expression patterns during development. Here we first quantify which genes have regional expression-patterns related to the developmental origin of brain regions, using genome-wide mRNA expression from post-mortem adult human brains. We find that almost all human genes (92%) exhibit an expression pattern that agrees with developmental brain-region ontology, but that this agreement changes at multiple phases during development. Agreement is particularly strong in neuron-specific genes, but also in genes that are not spatially correlated with neuron-specific or glia-specific markers. Surprisingly, agreement is also stronger in early-evolved genes. We further find that pairs of similar genes having high agreement to developmental region ontology tend to be more strongly correlated or anti-correlated, and that the strength of spatial correlation changes more strongly in gene pairs with stronger embryonic signatures. These results suggest that transcription regulation of most genes in the adult human brain is spatially tuned in a way that changes through life, but in agreement with development-determined brain regions. PMID:27564987

  18. Acquired Brain Injury Club at a Community College: Opportunities for Support, Involvement, and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Nancy Resendes

    2009-01-01

    College students with acquired brain injuries face unique challenges. The likelihood of individuals with acquired brain injury experiencing isolation, lack of social support, and diminished self-esteem, along with cognitive impairments, is well documented in the literature. This article presents an overview of a community college's club for…

  19. Developmental changes in NMDA receptor expression in the platyfish brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, K. M.; Schreibman, M. P.; Magliulo-Cepriano, L.

    1997-01-01

    We have examined the distribution of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the brain of a freshwater teleost using an antibody against the R1 subunit of the receptor (NMDAR1). The primary site of localization was the nucleus olfactoretinalis (NOR), a significant gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-containing brain nucleus. The number of cells expressing NMDAR1 in this nucleus was dependent upon developmental stage, with pubescent and mature animals displaying significantly more stained cells than immature and senescent animals. This is the first reported observation of age- and maturity-related NMDA receptor association with GnRH-containing brain areas.

  20. Developmental Changes in Infant Brain Activity During Naturalistic Social Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Emily J. H.; Venema, Kaitlin; Lowy, Rachel; Earl, Rachel K.; Webb, Sara Jane

    2015-01-01

    Between 6 and 12 months, typically developing infants undergo a socio-cognitive ‘revolution’. The Interactive Specialization (IS) theory of brain development predicts that these behavioral changes will be underpinned by developmental increases in the power and topographic extent of socially selective cortical responses. To test this hypothesis, we used EEG to examine developmental changes in cortical selectivity for ecologically valid dynamic social versus non-social stimuli in a large cohort of 6- and 12-month-old infants. Consistent with the Interactive Specialization model, results showed that differences in EEG theta activity between social and non-social stimuli became more pronounced and widespread with age. Differences in EEG activity were most clearly elicited by a live naturalistic interaction, suggesting that measuring brain activity in ecologically valid contexts is central to mapping social brain development in infancy. PMID:26219834

  1. Nonoral feeding for children and youth with developmental or acquired disabilities.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard C; Elias, Ellen Roy

    2014-12-01

    The decision to initiate enteral feedings is multifaceted, involving medical, financial, cultural, and emotional considerations. Children who have developmental or acquired disabilities are at risk for having primary and secondary conditions that affect growth and nutritional well-being. This clinical report provides (1) an overview of clinical issues in children who have developmental or acquired disabilities that may prompt a need to consider nonoral feedings, (2) a systematic way to support the child and family in clinical decisions related to initiating nonoral feeding, (3) information on surgical options that the family may need to consider in that decision-making process, and (4) pediatric guidance for ongoing care after initiation of nonoral feeding intervention, including care of the gastrostomy tube and skin site. Ongoing medical and psychosocial support is needed after initiation of nonoral feedings and is best provided through the collaborative efforts of the family and a team of professionals that may include the pediatrician, dietitian, social worker, and/or therapists.

  2. Developmental vitamin D deficiency causes abnormal brain development.

    PubMed

    Eyles, D W; Feron, F; Cui, X; Kesby, J P; Harms, L H; Ko, P; McGrath, J J; Burne, T H J

    2009-12-01

    There is now clear evidence that vitamin D is involved in brain development. Our group is interested in environmental factors that shape brain development and how this may be relevant to neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia. The origins of schizophrenia are considered developmental. We hypothesised that developmental vitamin D (DVD) deficiency may be the plausible neurobiological explanation for several important epidemiological correlates of schizophrenia namely: (1) the excess winter/spring birth rate, (2) increased incidence of the disease in 2nd generation Afro-Caribbean migrants and (3) increased urban birth rate. Moreover we have published two pieces of direct epidemiological support for this hypothesis in patients. In order to establish the "Biological Plausibility" of this hypothesis we have developed an animal model to study the effect of DVD deficiency on brain development. We do this by removing vitamin D from the diet of female rats prior to breeding. At birth we return all dams to a vitamin D containing diet. Using this procedure we impose a transient, gestational vitamin D deficiency, while maintaining normal calcium levels throughout. The brains of offspring from DVD-deficient dams are characterised by (1) a mild distortion in brain shape, (2) increased lateral ventricle volumes, (3) reduced differentiation and (4) diminished expression of neurotrophic factors. As adults, the alterations in ventricular volume persist and alterations in brain gene and protein expression emerge. Adult DVD-deficient rats also display behavioural sensitivity to agents that induce psychosis (the NMDA antagonist MK-801) and have impairments in attentional processing. In this review we summarise the literature addressing the function of vitamin D on neuronal and non-neuronal cells as well as in vivo results from DVD-deficient animals. Our conclusions from these data are that vitamin D is a plausible biological risk factor for neuropsychiatric disorders and that

  3. Episodic disorders of behaviour and affect after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Eames, Peter Eames; Wood, Rodger Ll

    2003-01-01

    Psychological disorders that follow traumatic brain injury are possibly more complex and diverse than those associated with other forms of "brain damage". These may include organic aggressive, or organic affective syndromes that are episodic in nature and therefore require a more specific diagnosis, a different classification, and a different approach to treatment. Consequently, it is necessary for clinicians to learn to distinguish between "primary" psychiatric illnesses and those disorders of behavioural control and mood that stem specifically from brain injury. There is relatively little in the clinical literature that explains the relationship between variable states of behaviour, mood or temperament, and clinical disorders that may have long-term implications for patient management. This concept paper therefore addresses abnormalities of mood and behaviour that are episodic in character and are not recognisably included in the DSM and ICD classifications of psychological or psychiatric disorders. PMID:21854336

  4. Acquiring "the Knowledge" of London's layout drives structural brain changes.

    PubMed

    Woollett, Katherine; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2011-12-20

    The last decade has seen a burgeoning of reports associating brain structure with specific skills and traits (e.g., [1-8]). Although these cross-sectional studies are informative, cause and effect are impossible to establish without longitudinal investigation of the same individuals before and after an intervention. Several longitudinal studies have been conducted (e.g., [9-18]); some involved children or young adults, potentially conflating brain development with learning, most were restricted to the motor domain, and all concerned relatively short timescales (weeks or months). Here, by contrast, we utilized a unique opportunity to study average-IQ adults operating in the real world as they learned, over four years, the complex layout of London's streets while training to become licensed taxi drivers. In those who qualified, acquisition of an internal spatial representation of London was associated with a selective increase in gray matter (GM) volume in their posterior hippocampi and concomitant changes to their memory profile. No structural brain changes were observed in trainees who failed to qualify or control participants. We conclude that specific, enduring, structural brain changes in adult humans can be induced by biologically relevant behaviors engaging higher cognitive functions such as spatial memory, with significance for the "nature versus nurture" debate. PMID:22169537

  5. Students with Acquired Brain Injury: A Legal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive and current synthesis of the legislation, regulations, policy interpretations, and case law concerning students with traumatic and nontraumatic brain injury from pre-K to grade 12. The primary focus is the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, but the scope extends to other applicable legal bases. The…

  6. Acquiring "the Knowledge" of London's layout drives structural brain changes.

    PubMed

    Woollett, Katherine; Maguire, Eleanor A

    2011-12-20

    The last decade has seen a burgeoning of reports associating brain structure with specific skills and traits (e.g., [1-8]). Although these cross-sectional studies are informative, cause and effect are impossible to establish without longitudinal investigation of the same individuals before and after an intervention. Several longitudinal studies have been conducted (e.g., [9-18]); some involved children or young adults, potentially conflating brain development with learning, most were restricted to the motor domain, and all concerned relatively short timescales (weeks or months). Here, by contrast, we utilized a unique opportunity to study average-IQ adults operating in the real world as they learned, over four years, the complex layout of London's streets while training to become licensed taxi drivers. In those who qualified, acquisition of an internal spatial representation of London was associated with a selective increase in gray matter (GM) volume in their posterior hippocampi and concomitant changes to their memory profile. No structural brain changes were observed in trainees who failed to qualify or control participants. We conclude that specific, enduring, structural brain changes in adult humans can be induced by biologically relevant behaviors engaging higher cognitive functions such as spatial memory, with significance for the "nature versus nurture" debate.

  7. Acquired Focal Brain Lesions in Childhood: Effects on Development and Reorganization of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilosi, A. M.; Cipriani, P.; Pecini, C.; Brizzolara, D.; Biagi, L.; Montanaro, D.; Tosetti, M.; Cioni, G.

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper, we address brain-behaviour relationships in children with acquired aphasia, by reviewing some recent studies on the effects of focal brain lesions on language development. Timing of the lesion, in terms of its occurrence, before or after the onset of speech and language acquisition, may be a major factor determining language…

  8. Computer-Aided Relearning Activity Patterns for People with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montero, Francisco; Lopez-Jaquero, Victor; Navarro, Elena; Sanchez, Enriqueta

    2011-01-01

    People with disabilities constitute a collective that requires continuous and customized attention, since their conditions or abilities are affected with respect to specific standards. People with "Acquired Brain Injury" (ABI), or those who have suffered brain injury at some stage after birth, belong to this collective. The treatment these people…

  9. Speed of perceptual grouping in acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kurylo, Daniel D; Larkin, Gabriella Brick; Waxman, Richard; Bukhari, Farhan

    2014-09-01

    Evidence exists that damage to white matter connections may contribute to reduced speed of information processing in traumatic brain injury and stroke. Damage to such axonal projections suggests a particular vulnerability to functions requiring integration across cortical sites. To test this prediction, measurements were made of perceptual grouping, which requires integration of stimulus components. A group of traumatic brain injury and cerebral vascular accident patients and a group of age-matched healthy control subjects viewed arrays of dots and indicated the pattern into which stimuli were perceptually grouped. Psychophysical measurements were made of perceptual grouping as well as processing speed. The patient group showed elevated grouping thresholds as well as extended processing time. In addition, most patients showed progressive slowing of processing speed across levels of difficulty, suggesting reduced resources to accommodate increased demands on grouping. These results support the prediction that brain injury results in a particular vulnerability to functions requiring integration of information across the cortex, which may result from dysfunction of long-range axonal connection.

  10. Noninvasive brain stimulation: the potential for use in the rehabilitation of pediatric acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Chung, Melissa G; Lo, Warren D

    2015-04-01

    Noninvasive brain stimulation (NIBS) offers the potential to modulate neural activity and recovery after acquired brain injury. There are few studies of NIBS in children, but a survey of those studies might provide insight into the potential for NIBS to modulate motor rehabilitation, seizures, and behavior in children. We surveyed the published literature prior to July 2014 for articles pertaining to children and NIBS with a focus on case series or trials. We also reviewed selected articles involving adults to illustrate specific points where the literature in children is lacking. A limited number of articles suggest that NIBS can transiently improve motor function. The evidence for an effect on seizures is mixed. Two open-label studies reported improvement of mood in adolescents with depression. NIBS may serve as a tool for pediatric neurorehabilitation, but many gaps in our knowledge must be filled before NIBS can be adopted as a clinical intervention. To move forward, the field needs adequately powered trials that can answer these questions. Such trials will be challenging to perform, will likely require multicenter collaboration, and may need to adopt novel trial designs that have been used with rare disorders.

  11. Developmental synchrony of thalamocortical circuits in the neonatal brain.

    PubMed

    Poh, Joann S; Li, Yue; Ratnarajah, Nagulan; Fortier, Marielle V; Chong, Yap-Seng; Kwek, Kenneth; Saw, Seang-Mei; Gluckman, Peter D; Meaney, Michael J; Qiu, Anqi

    2015-08-01

    The thalamus is a deep gray matter structure and consists of axonal fibers projecting to the entire cortex, which provide the anatomical support for its sensorimotor and higher-level cognitive functions. There is limited in vivo evidence on the normal thalamocortical development, especially in early life. In this study, we aimed to investigate the developmental patterns of the cerebral cortex, the thalamic substructures, and their connectivity with the cortex in the first few weeks of the postnatal brain. We hypothesized that there is developmental synchrony of the thalamus, its cortical projections, and corresponding target cortical structures. We employed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and divided the thalamus into five substructures respectively connecting to the frontal, precentral, postcentral, temporal, and parietal and occipital cortex. T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to measure cortical thickness. We found age-related increases in cortical thickness of bilateral frontal cortex and left temporal cortex in the early postnatal brain. We also found that the development of the thalamic substructures was synchronized with that of their respective thalamocortical connectivity in the first few weeks of the postnatal life. In particular, the right thalamo-frontal substructure had the fastest growth in the early postnatal brain. Our study suggests that the distinct growth patterns of the thalamic substructures are in synchrony with those of the cortex in early life, which may be critical for the development of the cortical and subcortical functional specialization.

  12. Management of developmental speech and language disorders. Part 2: acquired conditions.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Anne

    2016-03-01

    Many children who present with these acquired impairments of communication have a clear preceding event such as an acquired brain injury from a road traffic accident. Children often respond differently in this situation to adult presentations. They may have a period of mutism when the prognosis might look poor and yet they subsequently make rapid progress and recover speech. They have greater potential for neural plasticity and language recovery, although they often have persisting difficulties in oral and written language. Alternatively, there may be a presentation with a paroxysmal event such as a seizure or a period of depressed consciousness, and the unusual behaviour that may accompany dysphasia and dysarthria may be misinterpreted in the child, whereas for the adult with the more common 'stroke-like' presentation, it would be immediately considered. Rarely the aphasia/dysphasia may itself be the paroxysmal event where actually recognising that the child's disrupted communication is the basis of any observed behaviours can be the greater challenge. PMID:25990500

  13. Management of developmental speech and language disorders. Part 2: acquired conditions.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Anne

    2016-03-01

    Many children who present with these acquired impairments of communication have a clear preceding event such as an acquired brain injury from a road traffic accident. Children often respond differently in this situation to adult presentations. They may have a period of mutism when the prognosis might look poor and yet they subsequently make rapid progress and recover speech. They have greater potential for neural plasticity and language recovery, although they often have persisting difficulties in oral and written language. Alternatively, there may be a presentation with a paroxysmal event such as a seizure or a period of depressed consciousness, and the unusual behaviour that may accompany dysphasia and dysarthria may be misinterpreted in the child, whereas for the adult with the more common 'stroke-like' presentation, it would be immediately considered. Rarely the aphasia/dysphasia may itself be the paroxysmal event where actually recognising that the child's disrupted communication is the basis of any observed behaviours can be the greater challenge.

  14. I am many: the reconstruction of self following acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gelech, Jan M; Desjardins, Michel

    2011-01-01

    In this article we examine the construction of self following acquired brain injury from an experience-centered perspective. Life history and semistructured interview transcripts collected from four brain injury survivors were analyzed using thematic, syntactic, and deep structure analysis. Though notions of the "lost" or "shattered" self have dominated discussions of personhood in the acquired brain injury literature, we argue that this perspective is a crude representation of the postinjury experience of self, and that aspects of stability, recovery, transcendence, and moral growth are also involved in this process. We highlight the intersubjective nature of the self, and present the processes of delegitimation, invalidation, negotiation, and resistance as crucial aspects of the postinjury construction of personhood. We explore the implications of this complex process of construction of self for grief and bereavement theories, clinical practice, and professional discourse in the area of acquired brain injury.

  15. Seeing mathematics: perceptual experience and brain activity in acquired synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Berit; Vanni, Simo; Silvanto, Juha

    2013-01-01

    We studied the patient JP who has exceptional abilities to draw complex geometrical images by hand and a form of acquired synesthesia for mathematical formulas and objects, which he perceives as geometrical figures. JP sees all smooth curvatures as discrete lines, similarly regardless of scale. We carried out two preliminary investigations to establish the perceptual nature of synesthetic experience and to investigate the neural basis of this phenomenon. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, image-inducing formulas produced larger fMRI responses than non-image inducing formulas in the left temporal, parietal and frontal lobes. Thus our main finding is that the activation associated with his experience of complex geometrical images emerging from mathematical formulas is restricted to the left hemisphere.

  16. Words and maps: developmental changes in mental models of spatial information acquired from descriptions and depictions.

    PubMed

    Uttal, David H; Fisher, Joan A; Taylor, Holly A

    2006-03-01

    People acquire spatial information from many sources, including maps, verbal descriptions, and navigating in the environment. The different sources present spatial information in different ways. For example, maps can show many spatial relations simultaneously, but in a description, each spatial relation must be presented sequentially. The present research investigated how these source differences influence the mental models that children and adults form of the presented information. In Experiment 1, 8-year-olds, 10-year-olds and adults learned the layout of a six-room space either from verbal descriptions or from a map. They then constructed the configuration and pointed to target locations. Participants who learned from the map performed significantly better than those who learned from the description. Ten-year-olds performed nearly as well as adults did. The 8-year-olds' mental models differed substantially from the older children's and adults' mental models. The younger children retained the sequential information but did not integrate the relations into a survey-like cognitive map. Experiment 2 demonstrated that viewing the shape of the configuration, without seeing the map in full, could facilitate 8-year-olds' use of the verbal information and their ability to integrate the locations. The results demonstrate developmental differences in the mental representation of spatial information from descriptions. In addition, the results reveal that maps and other graphic representations can facilitate children's spatial thinking by helping them to transcend the sequential nature of language and direct experience.

  17. Developmental origins of brain disorders: roles for dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Money, Kelli M.; Stanwood, Gregg D.

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, such as dopamine, participate in a wide range of behavioral and cognitive functions in the adult brain, including movement, cognition, and reward. Dopamine-mediated signaling plays a fundamental neurodevelopmental role in forebrain differentiation and circuit formation. These developmental effects, such as modulation of neuronal migration and dendritic growth, occur before synaptogenesis and demonstrate novel roles for dopaminergic signaling beyond neuromodulation at the synapse. Pharmacologic and genetic disruptions demonstrate that these effects are brain region- and receptor subtype-specific. For example, the striatum and frontal cortex exhibit abnormal neuronal structure and function following prenatal disruption of dopamine receptor signaling. Alterations in these processes are implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, and emerging studies of neurodevelopmental disruptions may shed light on the pathophysiology of abnormal neuronal circuitry in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24391541

  18. Evaluation of outliers in acquired brain MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovanu, S.; (Vişan Pungǎ, M.; Moraru, L.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-processing is an important stage in the analysis of magnetic resonance images (MRI), because the effect of specific image artefacts, such as intensity inhomogeneity, noise and low contrast can adversely affect the quantitative image analysis. The image histogram is a useful tool in the analysis of MR images given that it allows a close relationship with important image features such as contrast and noise. The noise and variable contrast are elements that locally modify the quality of images. The key issue of this study derives from the fact that the spatial histogram can contain outliers indicating corrupted image information through the disorder of the bins. These aberrant errors should be excluded from the studied data sets. Here, the outliers are evaluated by using rigorous methods based on the probability theory and Chauvenet (CC), Grubbs (GC) and Peirce's (PC) criteria. In order to check the quality of the MR images, the Minkowsky (MD), Euclidean (ED) and cosine (CD) distance functions were used. They act as similarity scores between the histogram of the acquired MRI and the processed image. This analysis is necessary because, sometimes, the distance function exceeds the co-domain because of the outliers. In this paper, 32 MRIs are tested and the outliers are removed so that the distance functions generate uncorrupted and real values.

  19. Shopping with Acquired Brain Injuries, Coping Strategies and Maslowian Principles.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Jonas E; Skehan, Terry; Rydén, Monica; Lagerkrans, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    A positive outcome of the modern welfare state is prolonged life expectancy. In Sweden, the expected life span has increased with approximatively 25 years during the 20th century [Statistics Sweden]. However, ageing is associated with an increased risk for acquiring cognitive and physical disabilities. This study is based on anonymized interviews with groups of older persons who experience cognitive problems and relatives. The interviewees were asked about everyday activities like shopping groceries, clothes or other necessities. The interviewees identified problems and described a series of strategies for coping. This paper uses fictionalized characters to present problems and coping strategies that the interviewees use to overcome cognitive challenges when shopping groceries. The strategies range from complete withdrawal, an increased dependency on proxies to the development of elaborate techniques to mask their problem and obtain assistance. Following the current trend in the design of the Swedish sales environment - large scale, abundance of goods and Maslowian strategies for making people stay longer (and spend more money) - accessibility in the built environment is often an absent friend. PMID:27534318

  20. In Vivo NMR Studies of the Brain with Hereditary or Acquired Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Erica B; Lee, Phil; Choi, In-Young

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic disorders, whether hereditary or acquired, affect the brain, and abnormalities of the brain are related to cellular integrity; particularly in regard to neurons and astrocytes as well as interactions between them. Metabolic disturbances lead to alterations in cellular function as well as microscopic and macroscopic structural changes in the brain with diabetes, the most typical example of metabolic disorders, and a number of hereditary metabolic disorders. Alternatively, cellular dysfunction and degeneration of the brain lead to metabolic disturbances in hereditary neurological disorders with neurodegeneration. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques allow us to assess a range of pathophysiological changes of the brain in vivo. For example, magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects alterations in brain metabolism and energetics. Physiological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detects accompanying changes in cerebral blood flow related to neurovascular coupling. Diffusion and T1/T2-weighted MRI detect microscopic and macroscopic changes of the brain structure. This review summarizes current NMR findings of functional, physiological and biochemical alterations within a number of hereditary and acquired metabolic disorders in both animal models and humans. The global view of the impact of these metabolic disorders on the brain may be useful in identifying the unique and/or general patterns of abnormalities in the living brain related to the pathophysiology of the diseases, and identifying future fields of inquiry.

  1. Capitalizing on Basic Brain Processes in Developmental Algebra--Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughbaum, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    Basic brain function is not a mystery. Given that neuroscientists understand its basic functioning processes, one wonders what their research suggests to teachers of developmental algebra. What if we knew how to teach so as to improve understanding of the algebra taught to developmental algebra students? What if we knew how the brain processes…

  2. Capitalizing on Basic Brain Processes in Developmental Algebra--Part One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughbaum, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    Basic brain function is not a mystery. Given that neuroscientists understand the brain's basic functioning processes, one wonders what their research suggests to teachers of developmental algebra. What if we knew how to teach so as to improve understanding of the algebra taught to developmental algebra students? What if we knew how the brain…

  3. VEGF expression is developmentally regulated during human brain angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Virgintino, Daniela; Errede, Mariella; Robertson, David; Girolamo, Francesco; Masciandaro, Antonio; Bertossi, Mirella

    2003-03-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent angiogenic factor working as an endothelial cell-specific mitogen and exerting a trophic effect on neurons and glial cells, both these activities being essential during central nervous system vascularisation, development and repair. The vascularisation of human telencephalon takes place by means of an angiogenic mechanism, which starts at the beginning of corticogenesis and actively proceeds up to the last neuronal migration, when the basic scheme of the vascular network has been drawn. Our study focused on VEGF during this critical developmental period with the aim of identifying the cells that express VEGF and of correlating the events of angiogenesis with the main events of cerebral cortex formation. The results show that in fetal human brain VEGF protein is located on multiple cell types, cells proper to the nervous tissue, neuroepithelial cells, neuroblasts and radial glia cells, and non-neuronal cells, endothelial and periendothelial cells. In these cells VEGF expression appears developmentally regulated and is correlated with angiogenesis, which in turn responds to the high metabolic demands of the differentiating neocortex.

  4. Acquired Brain Injury and Return to Work in Australia and New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasou, James A.

    2003-01-01

    A research review of 9 Australian-New Zealand (n=1,010) and 23 international (n=2,182) studies found the overall return-to-work rates after head injury were 44% and 45% respectively. Methodological issues might have inflated these numbers. Only an estimated 7-10% of persons with acquired brain injury returned to the same job. (Contains 46…

  5. Reliability of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamath, Trishna; Pfeifer, Megan; Banerjee-Guenette, Priyanka; Hunter, Theresa; Ito, Julia; Salbach, Nancy M.; Wright, Virginia; Levac, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate reliability and feasibility of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument (MLSRI) in children with acquired brain injury (ABI). The MLSRI quantifies the extent to which motor learning strategies (MLS) are used within physiotherapy (PT) interventions. Methods: PT sessions conducted by ABI team physiotherapists with a…

  6. Exploring the Use of Cognitive Intervention for Children with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missiuna, Cheryl; DeMatteo, Carol; Hanna, Steven; Mandich, Angela; Law, Mary; Mahoney, William; Scott, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Children with acquired brain injury (ABI) often experience cognitive, motor, and psychosocial deficits that affect participation in everyday activities. Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) is an individualized treatment that teaches cognitive strategies necessary to support successful performance.…

  7. Preference for Progressive Delays and Concurrent Physical Therapy Exercise in an Adult with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark R.; Falcomata, Terry S.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase self-control and engagement in a physical therapy task (head holding) for a man with acquired traumatic brain injury. Once impulsivity was observed (i.e., repeated impulsive choices), an experimental condition was introduced that consisted of choices between a small immediate reinforcer, a large…

  8. The Use of Narratives to Identify Characteristics Leading to a Productive Life following Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraas, Michael R.; Calvert, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the factors leading to successful recovery and productive lifestyles after acquired brain injury (ABI). Method: Qualitative investigation examined semistructured interviews of 31 survivors of ABI. Thematic analysis followed a phenomenological approach and revealed 4 major themes and 28 subthemes in the interviews. Four…

  9. Behavioral Treatment for Pathological Gambling in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guercio, John M.; Johnson, Taylor; Dixon, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior. Using an 8-week…

  10. A Review of Family Intervention Guidelines for Pediatric Acquired Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Wesley R.; Paulos, Stephanie K.; Cole, Carolyn A. S.; Tankard, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric acquired brain injury (BI) not only affects the child with the injury, but also greatly impacts their family. Studies suggest there are higher rates of caregiver and sibling psychological distress after a child in the family has sustained a BI. Also, family functioning after BI impacts the child's recovery. In reviewing the literature,…

  11. Expressive Electronic Journal Writing: Freedom of Communication for Survivors of Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraas, Michael; Balz, Magdalen A.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to the impaired ability to effectively communicate, adults with acquired brain injury (ABI) also experience high incidences of depression, social isolation, and decreased quality of life. Expressive writing programs have been shown to be effective in alleviating these concomitant impairments in other populations including incarcerated…

  12. The Classical Classroom: Enhancing Learning for Pupils with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Sian A.; Skidmore, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to draw parallels between different approaches to classroom instruction and two contrasting musical styles and to examine how pupils with Acquired Brain Injuries (ABI) might fare in each. A polyphonic classroom is defined as one where an awareness of multiple layers of meaning are encouraged to enhance the learning opportunities,…

  13. Where Have They All Gone?: Classroom Attention Patterns after Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Siân A.

    2016-01-01

    Certain groups of pupils who have sustained an Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) have a different pattern of attention within the classroom which interferes with learning and social interactions. The delineation of these groups is suggested. By looking in detail at the classroom behaviour of eight pupils, a common account for classroom behaviour…

  14. Thinking Allowed: Use of Egocentric Speech after Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Sian A.; Skidmore, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of thinking aloud made by young people who have sustained a severe acquired brain injury (ABI). The phenomenon is compared with the concepts of egocentric speech and inner speech before the form of thinking aloud by pupils with ABI is examined. It is suggested that by using thinking aloud, this group of pupils is able…

  15. Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (Lisat-9): Reliability and Validity for Patients with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonstra, Anne M.; Reneman, Michiel F.; Stewart, Roy E.; Balk, Gerlof A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and discriminant validity of the Dutch version of the life satisfaction questionnaire (Lisat-9 DV) to assess patients with an acquired brain injury. The reliability study used a test-retest design, and the validity study used a cross-sectional design. The setting was the general rehabilitation…

  16. Using Differential Reinforcement to Decrease Academic Response Latencies of an Adolescent with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinicke, Megan R.; Carr, James E.; Mozzoni, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of contingency-specifying rules and a token economy to decrease the latency to comply with academic instructions by a 16-year-old girl with acquired brain injury. Results showed that treatment was successful in reducing academic response latencies. These results replicate previous research in which…

  17. Using differential reinforcement to decrease academic response latencies of an adolescent with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Heinicke, Megan R; Carr, James E; Mozzoni, Michael P

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of contingency-specifying rules and a token economy to decrease the latency to comply with academic instructions by a 16-year-old girl with acquired brain injury. Results showed that treatment was successful in reducing academic response latencies. These results replicate previous research in which differential reinforcement was used to decrease slow responding to academic tasks.

  18. The development of a measure of motivational changes following acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Oddy, Michael; Cattran, Charlotte; Wood, Rodger

    2008-07-01

    Motivational deficits following acquired brain injury have been found to be both prevalent and particularly disabling. Despite this, relatively little attention has been given to such deficits. The development of self and informant versions of a new questionnaire measure of the changes in motivation that may occur following acquired brain injury is described. The measure demonstrates excellent psychometric properties including high test-retest (r = .90) and split-half reliability (.94), high internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = .94), and good concurrent validity. The study also demonstrates that the questionnaire is measuring a different domain to cognitive tests and tests of affect, but one that is predictive of brain injury outcome. There was moderate overlap between self-report and relative versions of the questionnaire (r = .41) but results suggest that the relative version has the stronger predictive value. The potential uses of the measure in relation to theory and practice are discussed.

  19. The needs of aging parents caring for an adult with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Minnes, Patricia; Woodford, Lynn; Carlson, Peter; Johnston, Jane; McColl, Mary Ann

    2010-06-01

    This study focused on issues of concern to and service needs of older parents caring for an adult son or daughter with an acquired brain injury (ABI) in Ontario. Three issues were identified as particularly challenging: diagnosis of the brain injury, parents' feelings about the cause of the brain injury, and planning for long-term accommodation for their family member with a brain injury. The most frequently cited services needed for the person with ABI were social and/or recreational activities, day programs, and residential placement. The most frequently cited services needed by parents were parent education and support groups. The information gathered provides a base for further research in other sectors. Implications of these initial findings for clinical practice and policy and program development are discussed.

  20. A Primer on Brain Imaging in Developmental Psychopathology: What Is It Good For?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pine, Daniel S.

    2006-01-01

    This primer introduces a Special Section on brain imaging, which includes a commentary and 10 data papers presenting applications of brain imaging to questions on developmental psychopathology. This primer serves two purposes. First, the article summarizes the strength and weaknesses of various brain-imaging techniques typically employed in…

  1. Larger Brains in Medication Naive High-Functioning Subjects with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmen, Saskia J. M. C.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Kemner, Chantal; Schnack, Hugo G.; Janssen, Joost; Kahn, Rene S.; van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Background: Are brain volumes of individuals with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) still enlarged in adolescence and adulthood, and if so, is this enlargement confined to the gray and/or the white matter and is it global or more prominent in specific brain regions. Methods: Brain MRI scans were made of 21 adolescents with PDD and 21 closely…

  2. Uncovering cortico-striatal correlates of cognitive fatigue in pediatric acquired brain disorder: Evidence from traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ryan, Nicholas P; Beauchamp, Miriam H; Beare, Richard; Coleman, Lee; Ditchfield, Michael; Kean, Michael; Silk, Timothy J; Genc, Sila; Catroppa, Cathy; Anderson, Vicki A

    2016-10-01

    Cognitive fatigue is among the most profound and disabling sequelae of pediatric acquired brain disorders, however the neural correlates of these symptoms in children remains unexplored. One hypothesis suggests that cognitive fatigue may arise from dysfunction of cortico-striatal networks (CSNs) implicated in effort output and outcome valuation. Using pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) as a model, this study investigated (i) the sub-acute effect of brain injury on CSN volume; and (ii) potential relationships between cognitive fatigue and sub-acute volumetric abnormalities of the CSN. 3D T1 weighted magnetic resonance imaging sequences were acquired sub-acutely in 137 children (TBI: n = 103; typically developing - TD children: n = 34). 67 of the original 137 participants (49%) completed measures of cognitive fatigue and psychological functioning at 24-months post-injury. Results showed that compared to TD controls and children with milder injuries, children with severe TBI showed volumetric reductions in the overall CSN package, as well as regional gray matter volumetric change in cortical and subcortical regions of the CSN. Significantly greater cognitive fatigue in the TBI patients was associated with volumetric reductions in the CSN and its putative hub regions, even after adjusting for injury severity, socioeconomic status (SES) and depression. In the first study to evaluate prospective neuroanatomical correlates of cognitive fatigue in pediatric acquired brain disorder, these findings suggest that post-injury cognitive fatigue is related to structural abnormalities of cortico-striatal brain networks implicated in effort output and outcome valuation. Morphometric magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may have potential to unlock early prognostic markers that may assist to identify children at elevated risk for cognitive fatigue post-TBI.

  3. Beyond utterances: distributed cognition as a framework for studying discourse in adults with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Duff, Melissa C; Mutlu, Bilge; Byom, Lindsey; Turkstra, Lyn S

    2012-02-01

    Considerable effort has been directed at understanding the nature of the communicative deficits observed in individuals with acquired brain injuries. Yet several theoretical, methodological, and clinical challenges remain. In this article, we examine distributed cognition as a framework for understanding interaction among communication partners, interaction of communication and cognition, and interaction with the environments and contexts of everyday language use. We review the basic principles of distributed cognition and the implications for applying this approach to the study of discourse in individuals with cognitive-communication disorders. We also review a range of protocols and findings from our research that highlight how the distributed cognition approach might offer a deeper understanding of communicative mechanisms and deficits in individuals with cognitive communication impairments. The advantages and implications of distributed cognition as a framework for studying discourse in adults with acquired brain injury are discussed. PMID:22362323

  4. Beyond Utterances: Distributed Cognition as a Framework for Studying Discourse in Adults with Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Melissa C.; Mutlu, Bilge; Byom, Lindsey; Turkstra, Lyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable effort has been directed at understanding the nature of the communicative deficits observed in individuals with acquired brain injuries. Yet several theoretical, methodological, and clinical challenges remain. In this article, we examine distributed cognition as a framework for understanding interaction among communication partners, interaction of communication and cognition, and interaction with the environments and contexts of everyday language use. We review the basic principles of distributed cognition and the implications for applying this approach to the study of discourse in individuals with cognitive-communication disorders. We also review a range of protocols and findings from our research that highlight how the distributed cognition approach might offer a deeper understanding of communicative mechanisms and deficits in individuals with cognitive communication impairments. The advantages and implications of distributed cognition as a framework for studying discourse in adults with acquired brain injury are discussed. PMID:22362323

  5. Reorganization of functional connectivity as a correlate of cognitive recovery in acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Nazareth P; Paúl, Nuria; Ordóñez, Victoria E; Demuynck, Olivier; Bajo, Ricardo; Campo, Pablo; Bilbao, Alvaro; Ortiz, Tomás; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestú, Fernando

    2010-08-01

    Cognitive processes require a functional interaction between specialized multiple, local and remote brain regions. Although these interactions can be strongly altered by an acquired brain injury, brain plasticity allows network reorganization to be principally responsible for recovery. The present work evaluates the impact of brain injury on functional connectivity patterns. Networks were calculated from resting-state magnetoencephalographic recordings from 15 brain injured patients and 14 healthy controls by means of wavelet coherence in standard frequency bands. We compared the parameters defining the network, such as number and strength of interactions as well as their topology, in controls and patients for two conditions: following a traumatic brain injury and after a rehabilitation treatment. A loss of delta- and theta-based connectivity and conversely an increase in alpha- and beta-band-based connectivity were found. Furthermore, connectivity parameters approached controls in all frequency bands, especially in slow-wave bands. A correlation between network reorganization and cognitive recovery was found: the reduction of delta-band-based connections and the increment of those based on alpha band correlated with Verbal Fluency scores, as well as Perceptual Organization and Working Memory Indexes, respectively. Additionally, changes in connectivity values based on theta and beta bands correlated with the Patient Competency Rating Scale. The current study provides new evidence of the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying neuronal plasticity processes after brain injury, and suggests that these changes are related with observed changes at the behavioural level.

  6. Predictors of Change in Participation Rates Following Acquired Brain Injury: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anaby, Dana; Law, Mary; Hanna, Steven; DeMatteo, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was (1) to examine the changes in participation rates over 1 year among children and adolescents after acquired brain injury and (2) to explore the effect of child and family factors on these changes. Method: The participation levels of 136 children and young people (88 males; 48 females; age range 4y 11mo-17y 6mo;…

  7. USING DIFFERENTIAL REINFORCEMENT TO DECREASE ACADEMIC RESPONSE LATENCIES OF AN ADOLESCENT WITH ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Heinicke, Megan R; Carr, James E; Mozzoni, Michael P

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of contingency-specifying rules and a token economy to decrease the latency to comply with academic instructions by a 16-year-old girl with acquired brain injury. Results showed that treatment was successful in reducing academic response latencies. These results replicate previous research in which differential reinforcement was used to decrease slow responding to academic tasks. PMID:20514195

  8. Developmental Hypothyroidism Alters Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Expression in Adulthood.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Severe developmental thyroid hormone (TH) insufficiency results in alterations in brain structure/function and lasting behavioral impairments. Environmental toxicants reduce circulating levels of TH, but the disruption is modest and the doseresponse relationships of TH and neuro...

  9. Developmental origins of mosaic brain evolution: Morphometric analysis of the developing zebra finch brain.

    PubMed

    Charvet, Christine J; Striedter, Georg F

    2009-05-10

    In adult zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata), the telencephalon occupies 64% of the entire brain. This fraction is similar to what is seen in parrots, but many other birds possess a significantly smaller telencephalon. The aim of the present study was to determine the developmental time course and cellular basis of telencephalic enlargement in zebra finches, and then to compare these findings with what is known about telencephalic enlargement in other birds. To this end we estimated the volumes of all major brain regions from serial sections in embryonic and post-hatching zebra finches. We also labeled proliferating cells with antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen and phosphorylated histone H3. An important finding to emerge from this work is that the telencephalon of zebra finches at hatching contains a thick proliferative subventricular zone (SVZ) that extends from the subpallium into the dorsal pallium. The data also show that the onset and offset of telencephalic neurogenesis are both delayed in zebra finches relative to quail (Galliformes). This delay in neurogenesis, in conjunction with the expanded SVZ, probably accounts for most of the telencephalic enlargement in passerines such as the zebra finch. In addition, passerines enlarged their telencephalon by decreasing the proportional size of their midbrain tectum. Because the presumptive tectum is proportionally smaller in zebra finches than quail before neurogenesis begins, this difference in tectum size cannot be due to evolutionary alterations in neurogenesis timing. Collectively these findings indicate that several different developmental mechanisms underlie the evolution of a large telencephalon in passerines.

  10. Tackling the 'dyslexia paradox': reading brain and behavior for early markers of developmental dyslexiax.

    PubMed

    Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Gaab, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is an unexplained inability to acquire accurate or fluent reading that affects approximately 5-17% of children. Dyslexia is associated with structural and functional alterations in various brain regions that support reading. Neuroimaging studies in infants and pre-reading children suggest that these alterations predate reading instruction and reading failure, supporting the hypothesis that variant function in dyslexia susceptibility genes lead to atypical neural migration and/or axonal growth during early, most likely in utero, brain development. Yet, dyslexia is typically not diagnosed until a child has failed to learn to read as expected (usually in second grade or later). There is emerging evidence that neuroimaging measures, when combined with key behavioral measures, can enhance the accuracy of identification of dyslexia risk in pre-reading children but its sensitivity, specificity, and cost-efficiency is still unclear. Early identification of dyslexia risk carries important implications for dyslexia remediation and the amelioration of the psychosocial consequences commonly associated with reading failure.

  11. Neurosurgical targets for compulsivity: what can we learn from acquired brain lesions?

    PubMed

    Figee, Martijn; Wielaard, Ilse; Mazaheri, Ali; Denys, Damiaan

    2013-03-01

    Treatment efficacy of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and other neurosurgical techniques in refractory obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is greatly dependent on the targeting of relevant brain regions. Over the years, several case reports have been published on either the emergence or resolution of obsessive-compulsive symptoms due to neurological lesions. These reports can potentially serve as an important source of insight into the neuroanatomy of compulsivity and have implications for targets of DBS. For this purpose, we have reviewed all published case reports of patients with acquired or resolved obsessive-compulsive symptoms after brain lesions. We found a total of 37 case reports describing 71 patients with acquired and 6 with resolved obsessive-compulsive symptoms as a result of hemorrhaging, infarctions or removal of tumors. Behavioral symptoms following brain lesions consisted of typical obsessive-compulsive symptoms, but also symptoms within the compulsivity spectrum. These data suggests that lesions in the cortico-striato-thalamic circuit, parietal and temporal cortex, cerebellum and brainstem may induce compulsivity. Moreover, the resolution of obsessive-compulsive symptoms has been reported following lesions in the putamen, internal capsule and fronto-parietal lobe. These case reports provide strong evidence supporting the rationale for DBS in the ventral striatum and internal capsule for treatment of compulsivity and reveal the putamen and fronto-parietal cortex as promising new targets. PMID:23313647

  12. [Focal connatal acquired brain damage--sonographic study of the course of healing].

    PubMed

    Franek, A

    1985-06-01

    A case of a perinatal acquired focal brain lesion is reported, and the process of resorption and healing demonstrated by ultrasound. Within four weeks a cortical area of increased echogenicity was resorbed. After two months, the resulting porencephalic cyst had been transformed into glial tissue of very high echogenicity. The neurologic development of two children with such glial focus was good. These cases demonstrate that porencephalic cysts are not always the final state after resorption of a focal brain lesion. They are no reliable prognostic indicator of poor neurological outcome. Traumatic and complicated delivery, asphyxia and coagulopathy are conditions which have been found several times in connection with a focal brain lesion. In contrast to periventricular injury, prematurity does not seem to be a factor of higher risk. PMID:3895372

  13. Words and Maps: Developmental Changes in Mental Models of Spatial Information Acquired from Descriptions and Depictions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uttal, David H.; Fisher, Joan A.; Taylor, Holly A.

    2006-01-01

    People acquire spatial information from many sources, including maps, verbal descriptions, and navigating in the environment. The different sources present spatial information in different ways. For example, maps can show many spatial relations simultaneously, but in a description, each spatial relation must be presented sequentially. The present…

  14. Developmental changes in brain activation and functional connectivity during response inhibition in the early childhood brain.

    PubMed

    Mehnert, Jan; Akhrif, Atae; Telkemeyer, Silke; Rossi, Sonja; Schmitz, Christoph H; Steinbrink, Jens; Wartenburger, Isabell; Obrig, Hellmuth; Neufang, Susanne

    2013-11-01

    Response inhibition is an attention function which develops relatively early during childhood. Behavioral data suggest that by the age of 3, children master the basic task requirements for the assessment of response inhibition but performance improves substantially until the age of 7. The neuronal mechanisms underlying these developmental processes, however, are not well understood. In this study, we examined brain activation patterns and behavioral performance of children aged between 4 and 6 years compared to adults by applying a go/no-go paradigm during near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) brain imaging. We furthermore applied task-independent functional connectivity measures to the imaging data to identify maturation of intrinsic neural functional networks. We found a significant group×condition related interaction in terms of inhibition-related reduced right fronto-parietal activation in children compared to adults. In contrast, motor-related activation did not differ between age groups. Functional connectivity analysis revealed that in the children's group, short-range coherence within frontal areas was stronger, and long-range coherence between frontal and parietal areas was weaker, compared to adults. Our findings show that in children aged from 4 to 6 years fronto-parietal brain maturation plays a crucial part in the cognitive development of response inhibition. PMID:23265620

  15. STATISTICAL APPROACH TO BRAIN MORPHOMETRY DATA REQUIRED IN DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY (DNT) TESTING GUIDELINES: PROFILE ANALYSIS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brain morphometry measurements are required in test guidelines proposed by the USEPA to screen chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity. Because the DNT is a screening battery, the analysis of this data should be sensitive to dose-related changes in the pattern of brain growt...

  16. Glioblastoma multiforme of the brain stem in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wolff, R; Zimmermann, M; Marquardt, Gerhard; Lanfermann, H; Nafe, R; Seifert, V

    2002-09-01

    Glioblastoma of the brain stem is rare and there is no description of such a lesion in patients suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The majority of intracerebral mass lesions are due either to toxoplasmosis or primary central nervous system lymphomas so that it is usually not included in the differential diagnosis of enhancing lesions of the central nervous system in these patients. A 31-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected man presented with a four months history of slowly progressive deterioration of brainstem associated symptoms despite antitoxoplasmic therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large ring enhancing lesion in the brainstem. Clinical and neuroradiological data could not establish a proper diagnosis and a stereotactic serial biopsy was undertaken. Histological examination of the specimen showed a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) as the first reported case of GBM located in the brainstem in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient. Patient management and effectiveness of stereotactic serial biopsy are discussed.

  17. BEHAVIORAL TREATMENT FOR PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLING IN PERSONS WITH ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Guercio, John M; Johnson, Taylor; Dixon, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior. Using an 8-week one-on-one client–patient format, a treatment program was developed in which the patient learned about the antecedents, consequences, and motivating operations that controlled the emission of gambling behavior. Data were collected on both self-report of gambling urges and behavior following therapy and during in situ gambling opportunities. The therapy program reduced urges to gamble and actual gambling for all patients. The potential of behavior-analytic therapy for reducing the pathological gambling of patients with and without brain injury is discussed. PMID:23060663

  18. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Patterns Predict Consciousness Level and Recovery Outcome in Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xuehai; Zou, Qihong; Hu, Jin; Tang, Weijun; Mao, Ying; Gao, Liang; Zhu, Jianhong; Jin, Yi; Wu, Xin; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Yaojun; Zhang, Yao; Dai, Zhengjia; Gao, Jia-Hong; Weng, Xuchu; Northoff, Georg; Giacino, Joseph T.; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    For accurate diagnosis and prognostic prediction of acquired brain injury (ABI), it is crucial to understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying loss of consciousness. However, there is no consensus on which regions and networks act as biomarkers for consciousness level and recovery outcome in ABI. Using resting-state fMRI, we assessed intrinsic functional connectivity strength (FCS) of whole-brain networks in a large sample of 99 ABI patients with varying degrees of consciousness loss (including fully preserved consciousness state, minimally conscious state, unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state, and coma) and 34 healthy control subjects. Consciousness level was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Scale and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised on the day of fMRI scanning; recovery outcome was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale 3 months after the fMRI scanning. One-way ANOVA of FCS, Spearman correlation analyses between FCS and the consciousness level and recovery outcome, and FCS-based multivariate pattern analysis were performed. We found decreased FCS with loss of consciousness primarily distributed in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCU), medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral parietal cortex. The FCS values of these regions were significantly correlated with consciousness level and recovery outcome. Multivariate support vector machine discrimination analysis revealed that the FCS patterns predicted whether patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state and coma would regain consciousness with an accuracy of 81.25%, and the most discriminative region was the PCC/PCU. These findings suggest that intrinsic functional connectivity patterns of the human posteromedial cortex could serve as a potential indicator for consciousness level and recovery outcome in individuals with ABI. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Varying degrees of consciousness loss and recovery are commonly observed in acquired brain injury patients, yet the

  19. Outcomes of a multicomponent intervention on occupational performance in persons with unilateral acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Hoyas, Elisabet Huertas; Pérez, Eduardo José Pedrero; Águila Maturana, Ana M.; Mota, Gloria Rojo; Piédrola, Rosa Martínez; de Heredia Torres, Marta Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Summary Complications after unilateral acquired brain injury (ABI) can affect various areas of expertise causing (depending on the location of the lesion) impairment in occupational performance. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the concepts of occupational performance and functional independence, both before and after a multicomponent intervention including occupational therapy, in persons with unilateral brain damage. This was a longitudinal quasi-experimental pretest post-test study in a sample of 58 patients with unilateral brain injury (28 with traumatic brain injury and 30 with ischemic stroke). The patients’ level of independence was measured using the short version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. We also measured quality of performance using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. The findings of this study showed that patients with injury in the right hemisphere improved more than those with left hemisphere damage (p<0.001). All the patients with ABI, especially those with right-sided injury, derived benefit from the multicomponent intervention, except in the area of motor skills. More research is needed on the specific techniques that might address such skills. PMID:27358224

  20. Investigation of the best model to characterize diffuse correlation spectroscopy measurements acquired directly on the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdecchia, K.; Diop, M.; St. Lawrence, K.

    2015-03-01

    Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is a non-invasive optical technique capable of monitoring tissue perfusion changes, particularly in the brain. The normalized temporal intensity autocorrelation function generated by DCS is typically characterized by assuming that the movement of erythrocytes can be modeled as a Brownian diffusion-like process instead of the expected random flow model. Carp et al. [Biomedical Optics Express, 2011] proposed a hybrid model, referred to as the hydrodynamic diffusion model, to capture both the random ballistic and diffusive nature of erythrocyte motion. The purpose of this study was to compare how well the Brownian diffusion and the hydrodynamic diffusion models characterized DCS data acquired directly on the brain, avoiding the confounding effects of scalp and skull. Data were acquired from seven pigs during normocapnia (39.9 +/- 0.7 mmHg) and hypocapnia (22.1 +/- 1.6 mmHg) with the DCS fibers placed 7 mm apart, directly on the cerebral cortex. The hydrodynamic diffusion model was found to provide a consistently better fit to the autocorrelation functions compared to the Brownian diffusion model and was less sensitive to the chosen start and end time points used in the fitting. However, the decrease in cerebral blood flow from normocapnia to hypocapnia determined was similar for the two models (-42.6 +/- 8.6 % for the Brownian model and -42.2 +/- 10.2 % for the hydrodynamic model), suggesting that the latter is reasonable for monitoring flow changes.

  1. Fast attainment of computer cursor control with noninvasively acquired brain signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradberry, Trent J.; Gentili, Rodolphe J.; Contreras-Vidal, José L.

    2011-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are allowing humans and non-human primates to drive prosthetic devices such as computer cursors and artificial arms with just their thoughts. Invasive BCI systems acquire neural signals with intracranial or subdural electrodes, while noninvasive BCI systems typically acquire neural signals with scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Some drawbacks of invasive BCI systems are the inherent risks of surgery and gradual degradation of signal integrity. A limitation of noninvasive BCI systems for two-dimensional control of a cursor, in particular those based on sensorimotor rhythms, is the lengthy training time required by users to achieve satisfactory performance. Here we describe a novel approach to continuously decoding imagined movements from EEG signals in a BCI experiment with reduced training time. We demonstrate that, using our noninvasive BCI system and observational learning, subjects were able to accomplish two-dimensional control of a cursor with performance levels comparable to those of invasive BCI systems. Compared to other studies of noninvasive BCI systems, training time was substantially reduced, requiring only a single session of decoder calibration (~20 min) and subject practice (~20 min). In addition, we used standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography to reveal that the neural sources that encoded observed cursor movement may implicate a human mirror neuron system. These findings offer the potential to continuously control complex devices such as robotic arms with one's mind without lengthy training or surgery.

  2. Validation of the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT) in patients with acquired brain injury in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Kutlay, Sehim; Küçükdeveci, Ayşe A; Elhan, Atilla H; Tennant, Alan

    2009-06-01

    The aim of this descriptive study was to evaluate the construct validity and reliability of the Behavioural Inattention Test (BIT) in patients with acquired brain injury in Turkey. One hundred and eighteen acquired brain injury patients undergoing rehabilitation were assessed by the BIT. Internal construct validity was tested by Rasch analysis; reliability by internal consistency and the Person Separation Index; and external construct validity by associations with physical and cognitive disability. Analysis of the data revealed that some subtests deviated from Rasch model expectation and the conventional subscale of the BIT had an unsatisfactory reliability for individual use. Consequently, a common 10-item scale (BIT-10) was derived from both the behavioural and conventional subscales of the BIT. Reliability of .87 met expectation for individual use. The BIT-10 correlated at .52 with cognitive disability upon admission. As a conclusion the original BIT adapted for use in Turkey was shown to lack reliability and internal construct validity. A revised 10-item new version, BIT-10, gave a valid unidimensional summed score, with high sensitivity and specificity to the original cut points. Reliability of the BIT-10 was high and external construct validity was as expected.

  3. Plasticity of Nonneuronal Brain Tissue: Roles in Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Willie K.; Greenough, William T.

    2004-01-01

    Neuronal and nonneuronal plasticity are both affected by environmental and experiential factors. Remodeling of existing neurons induced by such factors has been observed throughout the brain, and includes alterations in dendritic field dimensions, synaptogenesis, and synaptic morphology. The brain loci affected by these plastic neuronal changes…

  4. The "Globularization Hypothesis" of the Language-ready Brain as a Developmental Frame for Prosodic Bootstrapping Theories of Language Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Irurtzun, Aritz

    2015-01-01

    In recent research (Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco, 2014a,b) have advanced the hypothesis that our species-specific language-ready brain should be understood as the outcome of developmental changes that occurred in our species after the split from Neanderthals-Denisovans, which resulted in a more globular braincase configuration in comparison to our closest relatives, who had elongated endocasts. According to these authors, the development of a globular brain is an essential ingredient for the language faculty and in particular, it is the centrality occupied by the thalamus in a globular brain that allows its modulatory or regulatory role, essential for syntactico-semantic computations. Their hypothesis is that the syntactico-semantic capacities arise in humans as a consequence of a process of globularization, which significantly takes place postnatally (cf. Neubauer et al., 2010). In this paper, I show that Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco's hypothesis makes an interesting developmental prediction regarding the path of language acquisition: it teases apart the onset of phonological acquisition and the onset of syntactic acquisition (the latter starting significantly later, after globularization). I argue that this hypothesis provides a developmental rationale for the prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis of language acquisition (cf. i.a. Gleitman and Wanner, 1982; Mehler et al., 1988, et seq.; Gervain and Werker, 2013), which claim that prosodic cues are employed for syntactic parsing. The literature converges in the observation that a large amount of such prosodic cues (in particular, rhythmic cues) are already acquired before the completion of the globularization phase, which paves the way for the premises of the prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis, allowing babies to have a rich knowledge of the prosody of their target language before they can start parsing the primary linguistic data syntactically. PMID:26696916

  5. The "Globularization Hypothesis" of the Language-ready Brain as a Developmental Frame for Prosodic Bootstrapping Theories of Language Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Irurtzun, Aritz

    2015-01-01

    In recent research (Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco, 2014a,b) have advanced the hypothesis that our species-specific language-ready brain should be understood as the outcome of developmental changes that occurred in our species after the split from Neanderthals-Denisovans, which resulted in a more globular braincase configuration in comparison to our closest relatives, who had elongated endocasts. According to these authors, the development of a globular brain is an essential ingredient for the language faculty and in particular, it is the centrality occupied by the thalamus in a globular brain that allows its modulatory or regulatory role, essential for syntactico-semantic computations. Their hypothesis is that the syntactico-semantic capacities arise in humans as a consequence of a process of globularization, which significantly takes place postnatally (cf. Neubauer et al., 2010). In this paper, I show that Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco's hypothesis makes an interesting developmental prediction regarding the path of language acquisition: it teases apart the onset of phonological acquisition and the onset of syntactic acquisition (the latter starting significantly later, after globularization). I argue that this hypothesis provides a developmental rationale for the prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis of language acquisition (cf. i.a. Gleitman and Wanner, 1982; Mehler et al., 1988, et seq.; Gervain and Werker, 2013), which claim that prosodic cues are employed for syntactic parsing. The literature converges in the observation that a large amount of such prosodic cues (in particular, rhythmic cues) are already acquired before the completion of the globularization phase, which paves the way for the premises of the prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis, allowing babies to have a rich knowledge of the prosody of their target language before they can start parsing the primary linguistic data syntactically.

  6. Immune endocrinological evaluation in patients with severe vascular acquired brain injuries: therapeutical approaches.

    PubMed

    Amico, Angelo Paolo; Terlizzi, Annamaria; Annamaria, Terlizzi; Megna, Marisa; Marisa, Megna; Megna, Gianfranco; Gianfranco, Megna; Damiani, Sabino; Sabino, Damiani

    2013-06-01

    It is known that in severe acquired brain injuries there is process of neuroinflammation, with the activation of a local and general stress response. In our study we considered six patients with disorders of consciousness (five in vegetative state and one in minimal consciousness state) in subacute phase, which had both a clinical assessment and a functional imaging (fMRI): in all these patients we analised blood levels of osteopontin (OPN), a cytokin involved in neuroinflammation but also in neurorepair with a still discussed role. Besides we studied the lymphocyte subsets and blood levels of some hormones (ADH, ACTH, PRL, GH, TSH, fT3, fT4). We found a positive correlation between the levels of serum osteopontin (higher than normal in all subjects) and the severity of the brain injury, especially for prognosis: actually, the patient with the lowest level has emerged from minimal consciousness state, while the one with the highest level has died a few days after the evaluation. The lymphocyte subset was altered, with a general increase of CD4+/CD3+ ratio, but without a so strict correlation with clinical severity; the only hormone with a significant increase in the worse patients was prolactin. In fMRI we detected some responses to visual and acoustic stimuli also in vegetative states, which had no clinical response to this kind of stimulation but generally have had a better prognosis. So we conclude that osteopontin could be a good marker of neuroinflammation and relate to a worse prognosis of brain injuries; the lymphocyte alterations in these disorders are not clear, but we suspect an unbalance of CD4 towards Th2; PRL is the best endocrinological marker of brain injury severity; fMRI surely plays an important role in the detection of subclinical responses and in prognostic stratification, that is still to define with more studies and statistical analysis.

  7. A Principled Relation between Reading and Naming in Acquired and Developmental Anomia: Surface Dyslexia Following Impairment in the Phonological Output Lexicon

    PubMed Central

    Gvion, Aviah; Friedmann, Naama

    2016-01-01

    Lexical retrieval and reading aloud are often viewed as two separate processes. However, they are not completely separate—they share components. This study assessed the effect of an impairment in a shared component, the phonological output lexicon, on lexical retrieval and on reading aloud. Because the phonological output lexicon is part of the lexical route for reading, individuals with an impairment in this lexicon may be forced to read aloud via the sublexical route and therefore show a reading pattern that is typical of surface dyslexia. To examine the effect of phonological output lexicon deficit on reading, we tested the reading of 16 Hebrew-speaking individuals with phonological output lexicon anomia, eight with acquired anomia following brain damage and eight with developmental anomia. We established that they had a phonological output lexicon deficit according to the types of errors and the effects on their naming in a picture naming task, and excluded other deficit loci in the lexical retrieval process according to a line of tests assessing their picture and word comprehension, word and non-word repetition, and phonological working memory. After we have established that the participants have a phonological output lexicon deficit, we tested their reading. To assess their reading and type of reading impairment, we tested their reading aloud, lexical decision, and written word comprehension. We found that all of the participants with phonological output lexicon impairment showed, in addition to anomia, also the typical surface dyslexia errors in reading aloud of irregular words, words with ambiguous conversion to phonemes, and potentiophones (words like “now” that, when read via the sublexical route, can be sounded out as another word, “know”). Importantly, the participants performed normally on pseudohomophone lexical decision and on homophone/potentiophone reading comprehension, indicating spared orthographic input lexicon and spared access to it

  8. A Principled Relation between Reading and Naming in Acquired and Developmental Anomia: Surface Dyslexia Following Impairment in the Phonological Output Lexicon.

    PubMed

    Gvion, Aviah; Friedmann, Naama

    2016-01-01

    Lexical retrieval and reading aloud are often viewed as two separate processes. However, they are not completely separate-they share components. This study assessed the effect of an impairment in a shared component, the phonological output lexicon, on lexical retrieval and on reading aloud. Because the phonological output lexicon is part of the lexical route for reading, individuals with an impairment in this lexicon may be forced to read aloud via the sublexical route and therefore show a reading pattern that is typical of surface dyslexia. To examine the effect of phonological output lexicon deficit on reading, we tested the reading of 16 Hebrew-speaking individuals with phonological output lexicon anomia, eight with acquired anomia following brain damage and eight with developmental anomia. We established that they had a phonological output lexicon deficit according to the types of errors and the effects on their naming in a picture naming task, and excluded other deficit loci in the lexical retrieval process according to a line of tests assessing their picture and word comprehension, word and non-word repetition, and phonological working memory. After we have established that the participants have a phonological output lexicon deficit, we tested their reading. To assess their reading and type of reading impairment, we tested their reading aloud, lexical decision, and written word comprehension. We found that all of the participants with phonological output lexicon impairment showed, in addition to anomia, also the typical surface dyslexia errors in reading aloud of irregular words, words with ambiguous conversion to phonemes, and potentiophones (words like "now" that, when read via the sublexical route, can be sounded out as another word, "know"). Importantly, the participants performed normally on pseudohomophone lexical decision and on homophone/potentiophone reading comprehension, indicating spared orthographic input lexicon and spared access to it and from

  9. Increasing functional rehabilitation in acquired brain injury treatment: effective applications of behavioural principles.

    PubMed

    Guercio, John; Davis, Paula; Faw, Gerry; McMorrow, Martin; Ori, Lindsay; Berkowitz, Brooke; Nigra, Megan

    2002-10-01

    This paper investigated ways to increase the participation of direct care staff in the functional rehabilitation activities (FRAs) of adults with acquired brain injuries (ABIs). FRAs were rehabilitation agendas written by clinical staff for delivery by paraprofessionals. Increases in FRA completion were believed to be directly related to clinical success. These FRAs had been identified as key components in the rehabilitation programmes of the adults living within the residential facilities. Increases in FRAs were crucial in improving the quality of the rehabilitation programmes of the participants involved. The study observed four residential settings serving adults with ABIs using a multiple baseline design. The treatment approach consisted of public posting of weekly FRA documentation, incorporation of staff input, and reinforcement for documentation of FRAs. The results indicated a positive impact on the participation of staff in all of the residences in the study, consistent with implementation of the treatment package. PMID:12418998

  10. Predicting competency in automated machine use in an acquired brain injury population using neuropsychological measures.

    PubMed

    Crowe, Simon F; Mahony, Kate; Jackson, Martin

    2004-08-01

    The purpose of the current study was to explore whether performance on standardised neuropsychological measures could predict functional ability with automated machines and services among people with an acquired brain injury (ABI). Participants were 45 individuals who met the criteria for mild, moderate or severe ABI and 15 control participants matched on demographic variables including age- and education. Each participant was required to complete a battery of neuropsychological tests, as well as performing three automated service delivery tasks: a transport automated ticketing machine, an automated teller machine (ATM) and an automated telephone service. The results showed consistently high relationship between the neuropsychological measures, both as single predictors and in combination, and level of competency with the automated machines. Automated machines are part of a relatively new phenomena in service delivery and offer an ecologically valid functional measure of performance that represents a true indication of functional disability. PMID:15271411

  11. Further validation of the Motivation for Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation Questionnaire (MOT-Q) in patients with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Boosman, Hileen; van Heugten, Caroline M; Winkens, Ieke; Smeets, Sanne M J; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2016-01-01

    The Motivation for Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation Questionnaire (MOT-Q) evaluates motivation for rehabilitation in four subscales: Interest in rehabilitation, Lack of anger, Lack of denial, and Reliance on professional help. The objective of this study was to further validate the MOT-Q in 122 inpatients and 92 outpatients with acquired brain injury (ABI). The main measures were motivation for rehabilitation (MOT-Q), self-awareness (Patient Competency Rating Scale), and treatment motivation (Visual Analogue Scale). The MOT-Q showed adequate feasibility in terms of few items with missing responses and few undecided responses. We found no floor or ceiling effects, and significant item-total MOT-Q correlations for 29 of 31 items. Internal consistency was good for the MOT-Q total and acceptable to good for the subscales. The MOT-Q scores were significantly intercorrelated except for the subscales Lack of denial and Reliance on professional help in the inpatient group. The MOT-Q total and subscales were significantly associated with treatment motivation. The Lack of denial subscale showed no significant association with treatment motivation and no to moderate significant associations with self-awareness. In conclusion, the overall MOT-Q is a valid instrument to assess motivation for rehabilitation in patients with ABI. Further research is needed to examine the validity of the subscales.

  12. Developmental Vitamin D3 deficiency alters the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Féron, F; Burne, T H J; Brown, J; Smith, E; McGrath, J J; Mackay-Sim, A; Eyles, D W

    2005-03-15

    There is growing evidence that Vitamin D(3) (1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D(3)) is involved in brain development. We have recently shown that the brains of newborn rats from Vitamin D(3) deficient dams were larger than controls, had increased cell proliferation, larger lateral ventricles, and reduced cortical thickness. Brains from these animals also had reduced expression of nerve growth factor (NGF) and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. The aim of the current study was to examine if there were any permanent outcomes into adulthood when the offspring of Vitamin D(3) deficient dams were restored to a normal diet. The brains of adult rats were examined at 10 weeks of age after Vitamin D(3) deficiency until birth or weaning. Compared to controls animals that were exposed to transient early Vitamin D(3) deficiency had larger lateral ventricles, reduced NGF protein content, and reduced expression of a number genes involved in neuronal structure, i.e. neurofilament or MAP-2 or neurotransmission, i.e. GABA-A(alpha4). We conclude that transient early life hypovitaminosis D(3) not only disrupts brain development but leads to persistent changes in the adult brain. In light of the high incidence of hypovitaminosis D(3) in women of child-bearing age, the public health implications of these findings warrant attention. PMID:15763180

  13. Developmental Risk I: Depression and the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Weir, John M.; Zakama, Arthurine; Rao, Uma

    2012-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This article discusses recent findings on the neurobiology of pediatric depression as well as the interplay between genetic and environmental factors in determining the risk for the disorder. Utilizing data from both animal and human studies, the authors focus on the evolving understanding of the developmental neurobiology of emotional regulation, cognitive function and social behavior as it applies to the risk and clinical course of depression. Treatment implications and directions for future research are also discussed. PMID:22537725

  14. Global and regional cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI) of developmental human brain with quantification of short-range association tracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Minhui; Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Du, Haixiao; Wang, Yu; Peng, Yun; Huang, Hao

    2016-03-01

    From early childhood to adulthood, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning continuously reshape the structural architecture and neural connection in developmental human brains. Disturbance of the precisely balanced strengthening of certain axons and pruning of others may cause mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. To characterize this balance, we proposed a novel measurement based on cortical parcellation and diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography, a cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI). To evaluate the spatiotemporal sensitivity of CCMI as a potential biomarker, dMRI and T1 weighted datasets of 21 healthy subjects 2-25 years were acquired. Brain cortex was parcellated into 68 gyral labels using T1 weighted images, then transformed into dMRI space to serve as the seed region of interest for dMRI-based tractography. Cortico-cortical association fibers initiated from each gyrus were categorized into long- and short-range ones, based on the other end of fiber terminating in non-adjacent or adjacent gyri of the seed gyrus, respectively. The regional CCMI was defined as the ratio between number of short-range association tracts and that of all association tracts traced from one of 68 parcellated gyri. The developmental trajectory of the whole brain CCMI follows a quadratic model with initial decreases from 2 to 16 years followed by later increases after 16 years. Regional CCMI is heterogeneous among different cortical gyri with CCMI dropping to the lowest value earlier in primary somatosensory cortex and visual cortex while later in the prefrontal cortex. The proposed CCMI may serve as sensitive biomarker for brain development under normal or pathological conditions.

  15. Global and regional cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI) of developmental human brain with quantification of short-range association tracts

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Minhui; Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Du, Haixiao; Wang, Yu; Peng, Yun; Huang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    From early childhood to adulthood, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning continuously reshape the structural architecture and neural connection in developmental human brains. Disturbance of the precisely balanced strengthening of certain axons and pruning of others may cause mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. To characterize this balance, we proposed a novel measurement based on cortical parcellation and diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography, a cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI). To evaluate the spatiotemporal sensitivity of CCMI as a potential biomarker, dMRI and T1 weighted datasets of 21 healthy subjects 2–25 years were acquired. Brain cortex was parcellated into 68 gyral labels using T1 weighted images, then transformed into dMRI space to serve as the seed region of interest for dMRI-based tractography. Cortico-cortical association fibers initiated from each gyrus were categorized into long- and short-range ones, based on the other end of fiber terminating in non-adjacent or adjacent gyri of the seed gyrus, respectively. The regional CCMI was defined as the ratio between number of short-range association tracts and that of all association tracts traced from one of 68 parcellated gyri. The developmental trajectory of the whole brain CCMI follows a quadratic model with initial decreases from 2 to 16 years followed by later increases after 16 years. Regional CCMI is heterogeneous among different cortical gyri with CCMI dropping to the lowest value earlier in primary somatosensory cortex and visual cortex while later in the prefrontal cortex. The proposed CCMI may serve as sensitive biomarker for brain development under normal or pathological conditions. PMID:27076697

  16. Post-traumatic growth following acquired brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Grace, Jenny J.; Kinsella, Elaine L.; Muldoon, Orla T.; Fortune, Dónal G.

    2015-01-01

    The idea that acquired brain injury (ABI) caused by stroke, hemorrhage, infection or traumatic insult to the brain can result in post-traumatic growth (PTG) for individuals is increasingly attracting psychological attention. However, PTG also attracts controversy as a result of ambiguous empirical findings. The extent that demographic variables, injury factors, subjective beliefs, and psychological health are associated with PTG following ABI is not clear. Consequently, this systematic review and meta-analysis explores the correlates of variables within these four broad areas and PTG. From a total of 744 published studies addressing PTG in people with ABI, eight studies met inclusion criteria for detailed examination. Meta-analysis of these studies indicated that growth was related to employment, longer education, subjective beliefs about change post-injury, relationship status, older age, longer time since injury, and lower levels of depression. Results from homogeneity analyses indicated significant inter-study heterogeneity across variables. There is general support for the idea that people with ABI can experience growth, and that various demographics, injury-related variables, subjective beliefs and psychological health are related to growth. The contribution of social integration and the forming of new identities post-ABI to the experience of PTG is explored. These meta-analytic findings are however constrained by methodological limitations prevalent in the literature. Clinical and research implications are discussed with specific reference to community and collective factors that enable PTG. PMID:26321983

  17. Sex Biased Gene Expression Profiling of Human Brains at Major Developmental Stages

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Lei; Zhang, Zhe; Su, Bing

    2016-01-01

    There are many differences in brain structure and function between males and females. However, how these differences were manifested during development and maintained through adulthood are still unclear. Here we present a time series analyses of genome-wide transcription profiles of the human brain, and we identified genes showing sex biased expression at major developmental stages (prenatal time, early childhood, puberty time and adulthood). We observed a great number of genes (>2,000 genes) showing between-sex expression divergence at all developmental stages with the greatest number (4,164 genes) at puberty time. However, there are little overlap of sex-biased genes among the major developmental stages, an indication of dynamic expression regulation of the sex-biased genes in the brain during development. Notably, the male biased genes are highly enriched for genes involved in neurological and psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer’s disease and autism, while no such pattern was seen for the female-biased genes, suggesting that the differences in brain disorder susceptibility between males and females are likely rooted from the sex-biased gene expression regulation during brain development. Collectively, these analyses reveal an important role of sex biased genes in brain development and neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26880485

  18. Developmental expression of the glucose transporter in brain microvessels

    SciTech Connect

    Hohimer, A.R.; Bissonnette, J.M.; Machida, C.M. )

    1990-02-26

    Brain microvessels were isolated from late gestation fetal (55-68 days), newborn (5-9 day old) and adult guinea pigs. Glucose transport was assessed by measuring the initial uptake of ({sup 3}H)-2-deoxy-D-glucose, a glucose analog that is transported and phosphorylated but not further metabolized. At 22C and substrate concentrations of 40 mM, uptakes were linear for 8 minutes. The data reported here were uptakes over the first 2 minutes. 2-deoxy-D-glucose uptake was 3.5 fold higher in newborn microvessels, 99.5{+-}18.4 (SEM) fmols/mg protein/2 minutes, compared to fetal, 27.8{+-}7.9. The number of glucose transporters was estimated using the ({sup 3}H) cytochalasin B which can be displaced by D-glucose (250 mM). Binding at 35 nM cytochalasin B was higher in newborn brain microvessels (8.2{+-}1.6 pmole/mg protein) than in fetal (3.4{+-}1.1) or adult (2.8{+-}0.6) brain microvessels. Initial RNA blot experiments using a cDNA for the brain/erythrocyte (HepG2) glucose transporter show increased expression in newborn microvessels compared to the fetus or the adult. The authors conclude that the brain microvessel glucose transporter is increased in the newborn period.

  19. Novel insights into the rehabilitation of memory post acquired brain injury: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Spreij, Lauriane A.; Visser-Meily, Johanna M. A.; van Heugten, Caroline M.; Nijboer, Tanja C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) frequently results in memory impairment causing significant disabilities in daily life and is therefore a critical target for cognitive rehabilitation. Current understanding of brain plasticity has led to novel insights in remediation-oriented approaches for the rehabilitation of memory deficits. We will describe 3 of these approaches that have emerged in the last decade: Virtual Reality (VR) training, Computer-Based Cognitive Retraining (CBCR) and Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation (NBS) and evaluate its effectiveness. Methods: A systematic literature search was completed in regard to studies evaluating interventions aiming to improve the memory function after ABI. Information concerning study content and reported effectiveness were extracted. Quality of the studies and methods were evaluated. Results: A total of 786 studies were identified, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. Three of those studies represent the VR technique, 7 studies represent CBCR and 5 studies NBS. All 3 studies found a significant improvement of the memory function after VR-based training, however these studies are considered preliminary. All 7 studies have shown that CBCR can be effective in improving memory function in patients suffering from ABI. Four studies of the 5 did not find significant improvement of the memory function after the use of NBS in ABI patients. Conclusion: On the basis of this review, CBCR is considered the most promising novel approach of the last decade because of the positive results in improving memory function post ABI. The number of studies representing VR were limited and the methodological quality low, therefore the results should be considered preliminary. The studies representing NBS did not detect evidence for the use of NBS in improving memory function. PMID:25566021

  20. Early Psychosocial Neglect Adversely Impacts Developmental Trajectories of Brain Oscillations and Their Interactions.

    PubMed

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-12-01

    Rhythmicity is a fundamental property of neural activity at multiple spatiotemporal scales, and associated oscillations represent a critical mechanism for communication and transmission of information across brain regions. During development, these oscillations evolve dynamically as a function of neural maturation and may be modulated by early experiences, positive and/or negative. This study investigated the impact of psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional rearing in early life and the effects of subsequent foster care intervention on developmental trajectories of neural oscillations and their cross-frequency correlations. Longitudinally acquired nontask EEGs from three cohorts of children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project were analyzed. These included abandoned children initially reared in institutions and subsequently randomized to be placed in foster care or receive care as usual (prolonged institutional rearing) and a group of never-institutionalized children. Oscillation trajectories were estimated from 42 to 96 months, that is, 1-3 years after all children in the intervention arm of the study had been placed in foster care. Significant differences between groups were estimated for the amplitude trajectories of cognitive-related gamma, beta, alpha, and theta oscillations. Similar differences were identified as a function of time spent in institutions, suggesting that increased time spent in psychosocial neglect may have profound and widespread effects on brain activity. Significant group differences in cross-frequency coupling were estimated longitudinally between gamma and lower frequencies as well as alpha and lower frequencies. Lower cross-gamma coupling was estimated at 96 months in the group of children that remained in institutions at that age compared to the other two groups, suggesting potentially impaired communication between local and long-distance brain networks in these children. In contrast, higher cross

  1. Early Psychosocial Neglect Adversely Impacts Developmental Trajectories of Brain Oscillations and Their Interactions.

    PubMed

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-12-01

    Rhythmicity is a fundamental property of neural activity at multiple spatiotemporal scales, and associated oscillations represent a critical mechanism for communication and transmission of information across brain regions. During development, these oscillations evolve dynamically as a function of neural maturation and may be modulated by early experiences, positive and/or negative. This study investigated the impact of psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional rearing in early life and the effects of subsequent foster care intervention on developmental trajectories of neural oscillations and their cross-frequency correlations. Longitudinally acquired nontask EEGs from three cohorts of children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project were analyzed. These included abandoned children initially reared in institutions and subsequently randomized to be placed in foster care or receive care as usual (prolonged institutional rearing) and a group of never-institutionalized children. Oscillation trajectories were estimated from 42 to 96 months, that is, 1-3 years after all children in the intervention arm of the study had been placed in foster care. Significant differences between groups were estimated for the amplitude trajectories of cognitive-related gamma, beta, alpha, and theta oscillations. Similar differences were identified as a function of time spent in institutions, suggesting that increased time spent in psychosocial neglect may have profound and widespread effects on brain activity. Significant group differences in cross-frequency coupling were estimated longitudinally between gamma and lower frequencies as well as alpha and lower frequencies. Lower cross-gamma coupling was estimated at 96 months in the group of children that remained in institutions at that age compared to the other two groups, suggesting potentially impaired communication between local and long-distance brain networks in these children. In contrast, higher cross

  2. Genetic Influences on Brain Developmental Trajectories on Neuroimaging Studies: From Infancy to Young Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    Douet, Vanessa; Chang, Linda; Cloak, Christine; Ernst, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Human brain development has been studied intensively with neuroimaging. However, little is known about how genes influence developmental brain trajectories, even though a significant number of genes (about 10,000, or approximately one-third) in the human genome are expressed primarily in the brain and during brain development. Interestingly, in addition to showing differential expression among tissues, many genes are differentially expressed across the ages (e.g., antagonistic pleiotropy). Age-specific gene expression plays an important role in several critical events in brain development, including neuronal cell migration, synaptogenesis and neurotransmitter receptor specificity, as well as in aging and neurodegenerative disorders (e.g., Alzheimer disease or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis). In addition, the majority of psychiatric and mental disorders are polygenic, and many have onsets during childhood and adolescence. In this review, we summarize the major findings from neuroimaging studies that link genetics with brain development, from infancy to young adulthood. Specifically, we focus on the heritability of brain structures across the ages, age-related genetic influences on brain development and sex-specific developmental trajectories. PMID:24077983

  3. The Developmental Brain Disorders Database (DBDB): a curated neurogenetics knowledge base with clinical and research applications.

    PubMed

    Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Millen, Kathleen J; Barkovich, A James; Dobyns, William B; Paciorkowski, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    The number of single genes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders has increased dramatically over the past decade. The identification of causative genes for these disorders is important to clinical outcome as it allows for accurate assessment of prognosis, genetic counseling, delineation of natural history, inclusion in clinical trials, and in some cases determines therapy. Clinicians face the challenge of correctly identifying neurodevelopmental phenotypes, recognizing syndromes, and prioritizing the best candidate genes for testing. However, there is no central repository of definitions for many phenotypes, leading to errors of diagnosis. Additionally, there is no system of levels of evidence linking genes to phenotypes, making it difficult for clinicians to know which genes are most strongly associated with a given condition. We have developed the Developmental Brain Disorders Database (DBDB: https://www.dbdb.urmc.rochester.edu/home), a publicly available, online-curated repository of genes, phenotypes, and syndromes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. DBDB contains the first referenced ontology of developmental brain phenotypes, and uses a novel system of levels of evidence for gene-phenotype associations. It is intended to assist clinicians in arriving at the correct diagnosis, select the most appropriate genetic test for that phenotype, and improve the care of patients with developmental brain disorders. For researchers interested in the discovery of novel genes for developmental brain disorders, DBDB provides a well-curated source of important genes against which research sequencing results can be compared. Finally, DBDB allows novel observations about the landscape of the neurogenetics knowledge base.

  4. Social Outcomes in Childhood Brain Disorder: A Heuristic Integration of Social Neuroscience and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer…

  5. Ordinary and Extraordinary Brain Development: Anatomical Variation in Developmental Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galaburda, Albert M.

    1989-01-01

    Autopsy analysis of eight dyslexic brains found that the ordinary asymmetry in a language-relevant area of the temporal lobe was missing. The greater development of the right side may reflect an increase in the total number of neurons involved in language processing, resulting in changes in interhemispheric interactions. (JDD)

  6. Traumatic Brain Injury in Early Childhood: Developmental Effects and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara; Lowenthal, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Describes the unique effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on development in early childhood and offers suggestions for interventions in the cognitive, language, social-emotional, motor, and adaptive domains. Urges more intensive, long-term studies on the immediate and long-term effects of TBI. (Author/DB)

  7. The significance of the subplate for evolution and developmental plasticity of the human brain.

    PubMed

    Judaš, Miloš; Sedmak, Goran; Kostović, Ivica

    2013-01-01

    The human life-history is characterized by long development and introduction of new developmental stages, such as childhood and adolescence. The developing brain had important role in these life-history changes because it is expensive tissue which uses up to 80% of resting metabolic rate (RMR) in the newborn and continues to use almost 50% of it during the first 5 postnatal years. Our hominid ancestors managed to lift-up metabolic constraints to increase in brain size by several interrelated ecological, behavioral and social adaptations, such as dietary change, invention of cooking, creation of family-bonded reproductive units, and life-history changes. This opened new vistas for the developing brain, because it became possible to metabolically support transient patterns of brain organization as well as developmental brain plasticity for much longer period and with much greater number of neurons and connectivity combinations in comparison to apes. This included the shaping of cortical connections through the interaction with infant's social environment, which probably enhanced typically human evolution of language, cognition and self-awareness. In this review, we propose that the transient subplate zone and its postnatal remnant (interstitial neurons of the gyral white matter) probably served as the main playground for evolution of these developmental shifts, and describe various features that makes human subplate uniquely positioned to have such a role in comparison with other primates.

  8. Reading-related oculomotor testing and training protocols for acquired brain injury in humans.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J; Kapoor, Neera

    2004-11-01

    Many individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) report reading problems of oculomotor origin. These may include frequent loss of place, skipping of lines and difficulty shifting to the next line of print. We describe two protocols for the testing and training of reading-related eye movements in adult individuals with ABI (traumatic brain injury [TBI] and stroke with hemianopia), who experience oculomotor-based symptoms when reading. These protocols use objective eye movement recording techniques and computer-based stimulus presentation and analysis. One protocol tests and the other trains basic horizontal and vertical versional eye movements (fixation, saccades and pursuit), as well as reading eye movements using simulated single and multiple line dynamic arrays. In addition, a reading rating-scale questionnaire is administered before and after completion of training to assess subjective reading improvement. In all paradigms, the target consists of a 0.5 degrees luminous square, which is displayed on a computer monitor positioned 40 cm from the subject along the midline. All testing and training are conducted under binocular viewing conditions with optical correction in place. There are two modes of training: normal internal oculomotor visual feedback either alone (4 weeks) or in conjunction with external oculomotor auditory feedback (4 weeks) administered in a counterbalanced manner within each diagnostic group. Training is performed 1 h, twice weekly for the 8 weeks. Oculomotor testing is conducted before, midway and after training. Following training, reading-related eye movements and reading ability improved as assessed both subjectively and objectively. These protocols provide a systematic approach to the quantitative and comprehensive testing and training of reading-related eye movement skills and behaviors in the ABI population manifesting oculomotor-based reading dysfunctions. Furthermore, the training protocol results in the rapid remediation of the eye

  9. Promoting Adaptive Behavior in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury, Extensive Motor and Communication Disabilities, and Consciousness Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Badagliacca, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    These two studies extended the evidence on the use of technology-based intervention packages to promote adaptive behavior in persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities. Study I involved five participants in a minimally conscious state who were provided with intervention packages based on specific arrangements of optic, tilt, or…

  10. A Systematic Review of Psychological Interventions to Alleviate Cognitive and Psychosocial Problems in Children with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Kimberley A.; Dorris, Liam; McMillan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Aim: It is now generally accepted that paediatric acquired brain injury (ABI) can have an impact on a child's cognitive, social, and behavioural functioning. However, the lack of guidelines on effective interventions for the affected children and their families, particularly beyond the acute recovery phase, can limit access to effective support.…

  11. Social communication features in children following moderate to severe acquired brain injury: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    PubMed

    Breau, Lynn M; Clark, Brenda; Scott, Ori; Wilkes, Courtney; Reynolds, Shawn; Ricci, Florencia; Sonnenberg, Lyn; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Rashid, Marghalara; Goez, Helly R

    2015-04-01

    We compared the social communication deficits of children with moderate to severe acquired brain injury or autism spectrum disorder, while accounting for the role of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Parents of 20 children aged 6 to 10 years (10 acquired brain injury; 10 autism spectrum disorder) completed the Social Communication Questionnaire, and Conners 3 Parent Short. A multivariate analysis of covariance revealed significant differences between groups in Social Communication Questionnaire restricted repetitive behavior scores, but not reciprocal social interaction or social communication. Multiple linear regressions indicated diagnosis did not predict reciprocal social interaction or social communication scores and that Conners 3 Parent Short Form hyperactivity scores were the strongest predictor of Social Communication Questionnaire reciprocal social interaction scores after accounting for age and Intelligence Quotient. The lack of difference in social communication deficits between groups may help in understanding the pathophysiology underlying the behavioral consequences of acquired brain injury. The link between hyperactivity and reciprocal interaction suggests that targeting hyperactivity may improve social outcomes in children following acquired brain injury.

  12. Evaluation of a Reading Comprehension Strategy Package to Improve Reading Comprehension of Adult College Students with Acquired Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Gina G.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI.…

  13. Usual and Virtual Reality Video Game-Based Physiotherapy for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levac, Danielle; Miller, Patricia; Missiuna, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how therapists promote learning of functional motor skills for children with acquired brain injuries. This study explores physiotherapists' description of these interventions in comparison to virtual reality (VR) video game-based therapy. Six physiotherapists employed at a children's rehabilitation center participated in…

  14. How Can Educational Psychologists Support the Reintegration of Children with an Acquired Brain Injury upon Their Return to School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Heather; Howe, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the process of reintegration into school for children with an acquired brain injury (ABI) and considers the role of the educational psychologist (EP) in supporting these children. Interviews were conducted with a range of professionals in two specialist settings: a specialist rehabilitation centre and a children's hospital with…

  15. Expressive Art for the Social and Community Integration of Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injuries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, Anita; Keightley, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents with acquired brain injuries suffer from social and community withdrawal that result in isolation from their peer groups. The review highlights the evidence of effectiveness of expressive art interventions in the form of theatre for populations with difficulties in physical, emotional, cognitive, or social functioning. A systematic…

  16. Meeting the Needs of Persons with Acquired Brain Injury in the Republic of Ireland: A Contextual Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degeneffe, Charles Edmund; Fullerton, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This article examines how the Republic of Ireland conceptualizes disability, specifically acquired brain injury (ABI); how it meets the needs of people with ABI; and its similarities and difference with the U.S. system of ABI professional care, policy, and services. The article provides ideas for improvements and innovations toward ABI…

  17. Certification standards of professionals coordinating life care plans for individuals who have acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cloie B; Lacerte, Michel; Fountaine, John D

    2015-01-01

    This article will discuss the history and evolution of what is now known as a life care plan. The objectives will be to understand that a life care plan is a tool of case management. A life care plan is based on a proper medical, psychological, case management, and/or rehabilitation foundation. The development of a life care plan requires following generally accepted and peer-reviewed methodology and standards of practice. Life care planning is a trans-disciplinary specialty practice. A life care plan is a dynamic document based upon published standards of practice, comprehensive assessment, data analysis and research that provides an organized, concise plan for current and future needs with associated costs for individuals who have experienced catastrophic injury or have chronic health care needs. The reader will also learn there are Standards of Practice for life care planning that have been a long-standing guide for the practitioner and its core components will be discussed. There are qualifications of professionals who perform the specialty practice of life care planning which will be reviewed, and in conclusion there are special considerations for individuals coordinating life care plans with individuals who have sustained an acquired brain injury will also be discussed.

  18. Music evoked autobiographical memory after severe acquired brain injury: preliminary findings from a case series.

    PubMed

    Baird, A; Samson, S

    2014-01-01

    Music evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) have been characterised in the healthy population, but not, to date, in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). Our aim was to investigate music compared with verbal evoked autobiographical memories. Five patients with severe ABI and matched controls completed the experimental music (MEAM) task (a written questionnaire) while listening to 50 "Number 1 Songs of the Year" (from 1960 to 2010). Patients also completed the Autobiographical Memory Interview (AMI) and a standard neuropsychological assessment. With the exception of Case 5, who reported no MEAMs and no autobiographical incidents on the AMI and who also had impaired pitch perception, the range of frequency and type of MEAMs in patients was broadly in keeping with their matched controls. The relative preservation of MEAMs in four cases was particularly noteworthy given their impaired verbal and/or visual anterograde memory, and in three cases, autobiographical memory impairment. The majority of MEAMs in both cases and matched controls were of a person/people or a period of life. In three patients music was more efficient at evoking autobiographical memories than the AMI verbal prompts. This is the first study of MEAMs after ABI. The findings suggest that music is an effective stimulus for eliciting autobiographical memories, and may be beneficial in the rehabilitation of autobiographical amnesia, but only in patients without a fundamental deficit in autobiographical recall memory and intact pitch perception.

  19. Developmental Decrease of Neuronal Chloride Concentration Is Independent of Trauma in Thalamocortical Brain Slices

    PubMed Central

    Glykys, Joseph; Staley, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    The intraneuronal chloride concentration ([Cl-]i) is paramount for determining the polarity of signaling at GABAA synapses in the central nervous system. Sectioning hippocampal brain slices increases [Cl-]i in the superficial layers. It is not known whether cutting trauma also increases [Cl-]i in the neocortex and thalamus, and whether the effects of trauma change during development. We used Cl- imaging to study the [Cl-]i vs. the distance from the cut surface in acute thalamocortical slices from mice at developmental ages ranging from post-natal day 5 (P5) to P20. We demonstrate: 1) [Cl-]i is higher in the most superficial areas in both neocortical and thalamic brain slices at all ages tested and, 2) there is a developmental decrease in [Cl-]i that is independent of acute trauma caused by brain slicing. We conclude that [Cl-]i has a developmental progression during P5-20 in both the neocortex and thalamus. However, in both brain regions and during development the neurons closest to the slicing trauma have an elevated [Cl-]i. PMID:27337272

  20. Developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency and brain development: A role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)?*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for normal brain development. Even subclinical hypothyroidism experienced in utero can result in neuropsychological deficits in children despite normal thyroid status at birth. Neurotrophins have been implicated in a host of brain cellular func...

  1. Planarian brain regeneration as a model system for developmental neurotoxicology

    PubMed Central

    Hagstrom, Danielle; Cochet‐Escartin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Freshwater planarians, famous for their regenerative prowess, have long been recognized as a valuable in vivo animal model to study the effects of chemical exposure. In this review, we summarize the current techniques and tools used in the literature to assess toxicity in the planarian system. We focus on the planarian's particular amenability for neurotoxicology and neuroregeneration studies, owing to the planarian's unique ability to regenerate a centralized nervous system. Zooming in from the organismal to the molecular level, we show that planarians offer a repertoire of morphological and behavioral readouts while also being amenable to mechanistic studies of compound toxicity. Finally, we discuss the open challenges and opportunities for planarian brain regeneration to become an important model system for modern toxicology. PMID:27499880

  2. Social Outcomes in Childhood Brain Disorder: A Heuristic Integration of Social Neuroscience and Developmental Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer interactions and relationships, social problem solving and communication, social-affective and cognitive-executive processes, and their neural substrates. The model is illustrated by research on a specific form of childhood brain disorder, traumatic brain injury. The heuristic model may promote research regarding the neural and cognitive-affective substrates of children’s social development. It also may engender more precise methods of measuring impairments and disabilities in children with brain disorder and suggest ways to promote their social adaptation. PMID:17469991

  3. Intelligent Therapy Assistant (ITA) for cognitive rehabilitation in patients with acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper presents the design, development and first evaluation of an algorithm, named Intelligent Therapy Assistant (ITA), which automatically selects, configures and schedules rehabilitation tasks for patients with cognitive impairments after an episode of Acquired Brain Injury. The ITA is integrated in “Guttmann, Neuro Personal Trainer” (GNPT), a cognitive tele-rehabilitation platform that provides neuropsychological services. Methods The ITA selects those tasks that are more suitable for the specific needs of each patient, considering previous experiences, and improving the personalization of the treatment. The system applies data mining techniques to cluster the patients according their cognitive impairment profile. Then, the algorithm rates every rehabilitation task, based on its cognitive structure and the clinical impact of executions done by similar patients. Finally, it configures the most suitable degree of difficulty, depending on the impairment of the patient and his/her evolution during the treatment. Results The ITA has been evaluated during 18 months by 582 patients. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the ITA, a comparison between the traditional manual planning procedure and the one presented in this paper has been done, taking into account: a) the selected tasks assigned to rehabilitation sessions; b) the difficulty level configured for the sessions; c) and the improvement of their cognitive capacities after completing treatment. Conclusions The obtained results reveal that the rehabilitation treatment proposed by the ITA is as effective as the one performed manually by therapists, arising as a new powerful support tool for therapists. The obtained results make us conclude that the proposal done by the ITA is very close to the one done by therapists, so it is suitable for real treatments. PMID:25038823

  4. Developmental Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency Reduces Expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Adults But Not in Neonates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin critical for many developmental and physiological aspects of CNS function. Severe hypothyroidism in the early neonatal period results in developmental and cognitive impairments and reductions in mRNA and protein expressio...

  5. The Effects of Exercise on Cognitive Recovery after Acquired Brain Injury in Animal Models: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wogensen, Elise; Malá, Hana; Mogensen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to review the current status of exercise as a tool to promote cognitive rehabilitation after acquired brain injury (ABI) in animal model-based research. Searches were conducted on the PubMed, Scopus, and psycINFO databases in February 2014. Search strings used were: exercise (and) animal model (or) rodent (or) rat (and) traumatic brain injury (or) cerebral ischemia (or) brain irradiation. Studies were selected if they were (1) in English, (2) used adult animals subjected to acquired brain injury, (3) used exercise as an intervention tool after inflicted injury, (4) used exercise paradigms demanding movement of all extremities, (5) had exercise intervention effects that could be distinguished from other potential intervention effects, and (6) contained at least one measure of cognitive and/or emotional function. Out of 2308 hits, 22 publications fulfilled the criteria. The studies were examined relative to cognitive effects associated with three themes: exercise type (forced or voluntary), timing of exercise (early or late), and dose-related factors (intensity, duration, etc.). The studies indicate that exercise in many cases can promote cognitive recovery after brain injury. However, the optimal parameters to ensure cognitive rehabilitation efficacy still elude us, due to considerable methodological variations between studies. PMID:26509085

  6. The Effects of Exercise on Cognitive Recovery after Acquired Brain Injury in Animal Models: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Wogensen, Elise; Malá, Hana; Mogensen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to review the current status of exercise as a tool to promote cognitive rehabilitation after acquired brain injury (ABI) in animal model-based research. Searches were conducted on the PubMed, Scopus, and psycINFO databases in February 2014. Search strings used were: exercise (and) animal model (or) rodent (or) rat (and) traumatic brain injury (or) cerebral ischemia (or) brain irradiation. Studies were selected if they were (1) in English, (2) used adult animals subjected to acquired brain injury, (3) used exercise as an intervention tool after inflicted injury, (4) used exercise paradigms demanding movement of all extremities, (5) had exercise intervention effects that could be distinguished from other potential intervention effects, and (6) contained at least one measure of cognitive and/or emotional function. Out of 2308 hits, 22 publications fulfilled the criteria. The studies were examined relative to cognitive effects associated with three themes: exercise type (forced or voluntary), timing of exercise (early or late), and dose-related factors (intensity, duration, etc.). The studies indicate that exercise in many cases can promote cognitive recovery after brain injury. However, the optimal parameters to ensure cognitive rehabilitation efficacy still elude us, due to considerable methodological variations between studies.

  7. Developmental changes in the structure of the social brain in late childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mills, Kathryn L; Lalonde, François; Clasen, Liv S; Giedd, Jay N; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Social cognition provides humans with the necessary skills to understand and interact with one another. One aspect of social cognition, mentalizing, is associated with a network of brain regions often referred to as the 'social brain.' These consist of medial prefrontal cortex [medial Brodmann Area 10 (mBA10)], temporoparietal junction (TPJ), posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and anterior temporal cortex (ATC). How these specific regions develop structurally across late childhood and adolescence is not well established. This study examined the structural developmental trajectories of social brain regions in the longest ongoing longitudinal neuroimaging study of human brain maturation. Structural trajectories of grey matter volume, cortical thickness and surface area were analyzed using surface-based cortical reconstruction software and mixed modeling in a longitudinal sample of 288 participants (ages 7-30 years, 857 total scans). Grey matter volume and cortical thickness in mBA10, TPJ and pSTS decreased from childhood into the early twenties. The ATC increased in grey matter volume until adolescence and in cortical thickness until early adulthood. Surface area for each region followed a cubic trajectory, peaking in early or pre-adolescence before decreasing into the early twenties. These results are discussed in the context of developmental changes in social cognition across adolescence. PMID:23051898

  8. Fetal Functional Brain Age Assessed from Universal Developmental Indices Obtained from Neuro-Vegetative Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Dirk; Tetschke, Florian; Jaekel, Susan; Nowack, Samuel; Witte, Otto W.; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Schneider, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Fetal brain development involves the development of the neuro-vegetative (autonomic) control that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Disturbances of the fetal brain development have implications for diseases in later postnatal life. In that context, the fetal functional brain age can be altered. Universal principles of developmental biology applied to patterns of autonomic control may allow a functional age assessment. The work aims at the development of a fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS) based on heart rate patterns. We analysed n = 113 recordings in quiet sleep, n = 286 in active sleep, and n = 29 in active awakeness from normals. We estimated fABAS from magnetocardiographic recordings (21.4–40.3 weeks of gestation) preclassified in quiet sleep (n = 113, 63 females) and active sleep (n = 286, 145 females) state by cross-validated multivariate linear regression models in a cross-sectional study. According to universal system developmental principles, we included indices that address increasing fluctuation range, increasing complexity, and pattern formation (skewness, power spectral ratio VLF/LF, pNN5). The resulting models constituted fABAS. fABAS explained 66/63% (coefficient of determination R2 of training and validation set) of the variance by age in quiet, while 51/50% in active sleep. By means of a logistic regression model using fluctuation range and fetal age, quiet and active sleep were automatically reclassified (94.3/93.1% correct classifications). We did not find relevant gender differences. We conclude that functional brain age can be assessed based on universal developmental indices obtained from autonomic control patterns. fABAS reflect normal complex functional brain maturation. The presented normative data are supplemented by an explorative study of 19 fetuses compromised by intrauterine growth restriction. We observed a shift in the state distribution towards active awakeness. The lower WGA dependent f

  9. Developmental expression of key steroidogenic enzymes in the brain of protandrous black porgy fish, Acanthopagrus schlegeli.

    PubMed

    Tomy, S; Wu, G-C; Huang, H-R; Dufour, S; Chang, C-F

    2007-08-01

    In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that the brain of the black porgy fish, Acanthopagrus schlegeli, has the capacity for de novo steroidogenesis and that these neurosteroids may impact sex differentiation. Gonadal histology and Dmrt1 gene expression revealed that the fish were not sex differentiated until 155 dah (days after hatching). We further demonstrated the developmental expressions of the mRNAs encoding for four key neurosteroidogenic enzymes, namely, the cytochrome P450 side chain cleavage (CYP11A1), 3beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/Delta(5)-Delta(4) isomerase (3betaHSD), cytochrome P450c17 (CYP17) and aromatase (CYP19b) in the brain at different post-hatching developmental ages. The results indicated that steroidogenic genes are expressed in brain from the earliest sampling time, 60 dah. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis demonstrated significantly higher expression levels of these enzymes at 120 dah compared to 60 dah in all the brain regions. However, the increase for 3betaHSD was significant only in hypothalamus and midbrain, whereas it was significant only in forebrain and hypothalamus for CYP19b. A decline in mRNA levels were observed for all the genes at 155 dah except in midbrain for CYP11A1 and in hindbrain for CYP19b. Analysis of aromatase enzyme activity showed a significant increase in aromatase activity in the forebrain at 120 dah. Thus, the present study demonstrated for the first time an age- and/or region dependent expression of the mRNAs encoding the steroidogenic enzyme genes in the brain of black porgy. The presence of key steroidogenic enzymes as early as 60 dah, before gonadal sex differentiation, demonstrates that steroid biosynthetic capacity in brain precedes histological gonad differentiation. The mRNA transcripts of these genes showed a synchronous peak at 120 dah, suggesting that oestradiol may be locally formed in most parts of the brain. The study suggests an important role for brain

  10. Cross-talk between the fat body and brain regulates insect developmental arrest

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei-Hua; Lu, Yu-Xuan; Denlinger, David L.

    2012-01-01

    Developmental arrest, a critical component of the life cycle in animals as diverse as nematodes (dauer state), insects (diapause), and vertebrates (hibernation), results in dramatic depression of the metabolic rate and a profound extension in longevity. Although many details of the hormonal systems controlling developmental arrest are well-known, we know little about the interactions between metabolic events and the hormones controlling the arrested state. Here, we show that diapause is regulated by an interplay between blood-borne metabolites and regulatory centers within the brain. Gene expression in the fat body, the insect equivalent of the liver, is strongly suppressed during diapause, resulting in low levels of tricarboxylic acid (TCA) intermediates circulating within the blood, and at diapause termination, the fat body becomes activated, releasing an abundance of TCA intermediates that act on the brain to stimulate synthesis of regulatory peptides that prompt production of the insect growth hormone ecdysone. This model is supported by our success in breaking diapause by injecting a mixture of TCA intermediates and upstream metabolites. The results underscore the importance of cross-talk between the brain and fat body as a regulator of diapause and suggest that the TCA cycle may be a checkpoint for regulating different forms of animal dormancy. PMID:22912402

  11. Case against Diagnosing Developmental Language Disorder by Default: A Single Case Study of Acquired Aphasia Associated with Convulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinac, Julie V.; Harper, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to inform the diagnostic knowledge base for professionals working in the field of language disorders when classic symptoms, characteristics and sequences are not found. The information reveals the risk of diagnosis with a developmental language disorder (DLD) by default when no underlying cause can be readily identified.…

  12. Standing between Two Worlds in Harlem: A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective of Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Ezer; Mellins, Claude Ann; Ng, Warren Yiu Kee; Robinson, Lisa-Gaye; Abrams, Elaine J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal HIV infection in the US continues to evolve from a fatal pediatric illness to a chronic medical condition of childhood and adolescence. Although navigating this period is influenced by multi-leveled deprivations commonly experienced by low-income minority families, HIV alters the timing and experience of developmental milestones for many…

  13. Left Brain/Right Brain Theory: Implications for Developmental Math Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchens, Anita N.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Perhaps the most dramatic failure in postsecondary education has been in the teaching of mathematical skills. The different functions of the right and left hemispheres of the brain require different approaches to education. Due to their emphasis on language and verbal processing, schools have failed to give adequate stimulation to the right side…

  14. Resting-State and Task-Based Functional Brain Connectivity in Developmental Dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Schurz, Matthias; Wimmer, Heinz; Richlan, Fabio; Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Klackl, Johannes; Kronbichler, Martin

    2015-10-01

    Reading requires the interaction between multiple cognitive processes situated in distant brain areas. This makes the study of functional brain connectivity highly relevant for understanding developmental dyslexia. We used seed-voxel correlation mapping to analyse connectivity in a left-hemispheric network for task-based and resting-state fMRI data. Our main finding was reduced connectivity in dyslexic readers between left posterior temporal areas (fusiform, inferior temporal, middle temporal, superior temporal) and the left inferior frontal gyrus. Reduced connectivity in these networks was consistently present for 2 reading-related tasks and for the resting state, showing a permanent disruption which is also present in the absence of explicit task demands and potential group differences in performance. Furthermore, we found that connectivity between multiple reading-related areas and areas of the default mode network, in particular the precuneus, was stronger in dyslexic compared with nonimpaired readers.

  15. Resting-State and Task-Based Functional Brain Connectivity in Developmental Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Schurz, Matthias; Wimmer, Heinz; Richlan, Fabio; Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Klackl, Johannes; Kronbichler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Reading requires the interaction between multiple cognitive processes situated in distant brain areas. This makes the study of functional brain connectivity highly relevant for understanding developmental dyslexia. We used seed-voxel correlation mapping to analyse connectivity in a left-hemispheric network for task-based and resting-state fMRI data. Our main finding was reduced connectivity in dyslexic readers between left posterior temporal areas (fusiform, inferior temporal, middle temporal, superior temporal) and the left inferior frontal gyrus. Reduced connectivity in these networks was consistently present for 2 reading-related tasks and for the resting state, showing a permanent disruption which is also present in the absence of explicit task demands and potential group differences in performance. Furthermore, we found that connectivity between multiple reading-related areas and areas of the default mode network, in particular the precuneus, was stronger in dyslexic compared with nonimpaired readers. PMID:25169986

  16. Left-Sided Brain Injury Associated With More Hospital-Acquired Infections During Inpatient Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Frisina, Pasquale G.; Kutlik, Ann M.; Barrett, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that a left-dominant brain immune network (LD-BIN) might affect the occurrence of infection during inpatient rehabilitation of stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design A retrospective analysis was performed on electronic medical records between January 2009 and December 2010. All patients with left-or right-sided stroke or TBI were included into the study. The LD-BIN hypothesis was tested by comparing HAI rates depending on whether patients had left- or right-sided brain lesions. Setting A large inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Participants Among the patients (N=2236) with stroke or TBI who had either a left- or right-sided brain lesion, 163 patients were identified with HAIs. Intervention Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure Frequency of HAIs. Results In the 163 patients identified with HAIs with a diagnosis of stroke or TBI, chi-square analysis revealed a significantly higher proportion of HAIs among patients with left-sided (n=98; 60.1%) relative to right-sided (n=65; 39.9%) brain injuries (χ2=6.68, P<.01). These effects could not be attributed to either clinical or demographic factors. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that an LD-BIN may mediate vulnerability to infection during rehabilitation of patients with stroke or TBI. Further translational research investigating novel means of managing patients based on brain lesion location, and modulating the LD-BIN via behavioral and physiologic interventions, may result in neuroscience-based methods to improve infection resistance in brain-injured patients. PMID:23123439

  17. Assessment of the best flow model to characterize diffuse correlation spectroscopy data acquired directly on the brain

    PubMed Central

    Verdecchia, Kyle; Diop, Mamadou; Morrison, Laura B.; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is a non-invasive optical technique capable of monitoring tissue perfusion. The normalized temporal intensity autocorrelation function generated by DCS is typically characterized by assuming that the movement of erythrocytes can be modeled as a Brownian diffusion-like process instead of by the expected random flow model. Recently, a hybrid model, referred to as the hydrodynamic diffusion model, was proposed, which combines the random and Brownian flow models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the best model to describe autocorrelation functions acquired directly on the brain in order to avoid confounding effects of extracerebral tissues. Data were acquired from 11 pigs during normocapnia and hypocapnia, and flow changes were verified by computed tomography perfusion (CTP). The hydrodynamic diffusion model was found to provide the best fit to the autocorrelation functions; however, no significant difference for relative flow changes measured by the Brownian and hydrodynamic diffusion models was observed. PMID:26600995

  18. Sexual differentiation of the adolescent rodent brain: hormonal influences and developmental mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Juraska, Janice M; Sisk, Cheryl L; DonCarlos, Lydia L

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". Sexual differentiation is the process by which the nervous system becomes structurally and functionally dissimilar in females and males. In mammals, this process has been thought to occur during prenatal and early postnatal development, when a transient increase in testosterone secretion masculinizes and defeminizes the developing male nervous system. Decades of research have led to the views that structural sexual dimorphisms created during perinatal development are passively maintained throughout life, and that ovarian hormones do not play an active role in feminization of the nervous system. Furthermore, perinatal testosterone was thought to determine sex differences in neuron number by regulating cell death and cell survival, and not by regulating cell proliferation. As investigations of neural development during adolescence became more prominent in the late 20th century and revealed the extent of brain remodeling during this time, each of these tenets has been challenged and modified. Here we review evidence from the animal literature that 1) the brain is further sexually differentiated during puberty and adolescence; 2) ovarian hormones play an active role in the feminization of the brain during puberty; and 3) hormonally modulated, sex-specific addition of new neurons and glial cells, as well as loss of neurons, contribute to sexual differentiation of hypothalamic, limbic, and cortical regions during adolescence. This architectural remodeling during the adolescent phase of sexual differentiation of the brain may underlie the known sex differences in vulnerability to addiction and psychiatric disorders that emerge during this developmental period.

  19. An innovative approach to meeting the educational needs of children following acquired brain injury in the UK.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Children with acquired brain injury encounter problems both in terms of academic attainment and in other aspects of their lives in relation to social, behavioural and independent life skills. Many previous rehabilitation programmes for these children have been inappropriately adapted versions of adult models but there has often not been a recognition that successful current adult models of vocational rehabilitation can translate to educational rehabilitation models for children and adolescents. This article considers the historical basis of provision for these children in the UK and describes the development of a new programme of education as rehabilitation.

  20. Are orchids left and dandelions right? Frontal brain activation asymmetry and its sensitivity to developmental context.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Paz; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Waxman, Jordana A; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj; Schmidt, Louis A

    2014-08-01

    To clarify long-standing conceptual and empirical inconsistencies in models describing the relation between frontal brain asymmetry and emotion, we tested a theory of biological sensitivity to context. We examined whether asymmetry of alpha activation in frontal brain regions, as measured by resting electroencephalography, is sensitive to early developmental contexts. Specifically, we investigated whether frontal asymmetry moderates the association between birth weight and adult outcomes. Adults with left frontal asymmetry (LFA) who were born at extremely low birth weight exhibited high levels of attention problems and withdrawn behaviors in their 30s, whereas normal-birth-weight adults with LFA had low levels of these problem behaviors. Adults with right frontal asymmetry (RFA) displayed a relatively moderate amount of problem behavior regardless of birth weight. Our findings suggest that LFA is associated with sensitivity to developmental context and may help explain why LFA is associated with both positive and negative outcomes, whereas RFA seems to be associated with a more canalized process in some contexts. PMID:24966069

  1. Are orchids left and dandelions right? Frontal brain activation asymmetry and its sensitivity to developmental context.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Paz; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Waxman, Jordana A; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj; Schmidt, Louis A

    2014-08-01

    To clarify long-standing conceptual and empirical inconsistencies in models describing the relation between frontal brain asymmetry and emotion, we tested a theory of biological sensitivity to context. We examined whether asymmetry of alpha activation in frontal brain regions, as measured by resting electroencephalography, is sensitive to early developmental contexts. Specifically, we investigated whether frontal asymmetry moderates the association between birth weight and adult outcomes. Adults with left frontal asymmetry (LFA) who were born at extremely low birth weight exhibited high levels of attention problems and withdrawn behaviors in their 30s, whereas normal-birth-weight adults with LFA had low levels of these problem behaviors. Adults with right frontal asymmetry (RFA) displayed a relatively moderate amount of problem behavior regardless of birth weight. Our findings suggest that LFA is associated with sensitivity to developmental context and may help explain why LFA is associated with both positive and negative outcomes, whereas RFA seems to be associated with a more canalized process in some contexts.

  2. The Developmental Transcriptome of the Human Brain: Implications for Neurodevelopmental Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Tebbenkamp, Andrew T. N.; Willsey, A. Jeremy; State, Matthew W.; Šestan, Nenad

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Recent characterizations of the transcriptome of the developing human brain by several groups have generated comprehensive datasets on coding and noncoding RNAs that will be instrumental for illuminating the underlying biology of complex neurodevelopmental disorders. This review summarizes recent studies successfully utilizing these data to increase our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of pathogenesis. Recent findings Several approaches have successfully integrated developmental transcriptome data with gene discovery to generate testable hypotheses about when and where in the developing human brain disease-associated genes converge. Specifically, these include the projection neurons in the prefrontal and primary motor-somatosensory cortex during mid-fetal development in autism spectrum disorder and the frontal cortex during fetal development in schizophrenia. Summary Developmental transcriptome data is a key to interpreting disease-associated mutations and transcriptional changes. Novel approaches integrating the spatial and temporal dimensions of these data have increased our understanding of when and where pathology occurs. Refinement of spatial and temporal properties and expanding these findings to other neurodevelopmental disorders will provide critical insights for understanding disease biology. PMID:24565942

  3. Current Evidence for Developmental, Structural, and Functional Brain Defects following Prenatal Radiation Exposure.

    PubMed

    Verreet, Tine; Verslegers, Mieke; Quintens, Roel; Baatout, Sarah; Benotmane, Mohammed A

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is omnipresent. We are continuously exposed to natural (e.g., radon and cosmic) and man-made radiation sources, including those from industry but especially from the medical sector. The increasing use of medical radiation modalities, in particular those employing low-dose radiation such as CT scans, raises concerns regarding the effects of cumulative exposure doses and the inappropriate utilization of these imaging techniques. One of the major goals in the radioprotection field is to better understand the potential health risk posed to the unborn child after radiation exposure to the pregnant mother, of which the first convincing evidence came from epidemiological studies on in utero exposed atomic bomb survivors. In the following years, animal models have proven to be an essential tool to further characterize brain developmental defects and consequent functional deficits. However, the identification of a possible dose threshold is far from complete and a sound link between early defects and persistent anomalies has not yet been established. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on brain developmental and persistent defects resulting from in utero radiation exposure and addresses the many questions that still remain to be answered. PMID:27382490

  4. Current Evidence for Developmental, Structural, and Functional Brain Defects following Prenatal Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Verreet, Tine; Quintens, Roel; Baatout, Sarah; Benotmane, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is omnipresent. We are continuously exposed to natural (e.g., radon and cosmic) and man-made radiation sources, including those from industry but especially from the medical sector. The increasing use of medical radiation modalities, in particular those employing low-dose radiation such as CT scans, raises concerns regarding the effects of cumulative exposure doses and the inappropriate utilization of these imaging techniques. One of the major goals in the radioprotection field is to better understand the potential health risk posed to the unborn child after radiation exposure to the pregnant mother, of which the first convincing evidence came from epidemiological studies on in utero exposed atomic bomb survivors. In the following years, animal models have proven to be an essential tool to further characterize brain developmental defects and consequent functional deficits. However, the identification of a possible dose threshold is far from complete and a sound link between early defects and persistent anomalies has not yet been established. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on brain developmental and persistent defects resulting from in utero radiation exposure and addresses the many questions that still remain to be answered. PMID:27382490

  5. Improving the Quality of Staff and Participant Interaction in an Acquired Brain Injury Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guercio, John M.; Dixon, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Weekly observations of direct-care staff in a facility for persons with brain injury yielded less than optimal interactional style with facility residents. Following an observational baseline, staff were asked to self-rate a 15-min video sample of their interaction behavior with participants on their unit. They were then asked to compare their…

  6. The “Globularization Hypothesis” of the Language-ready Brain as a Developmental Frame for Prosodic Bootstrapping Theories of Language Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Irurtzun, Aritz

    2015-01-01

    In recent research (Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco, 2014a,b) have advanced the hypothesis that our species-specific language-ready brain should be understood as the outcome of developmental changes that occurred in our species after the split from Neanderthals-Denisovans, which resulted in a more globular braincase configuration in comparison to our closest relatives, who had elongated endocasts. According to these authors, the development of a globular brain is an essential ingredient for the language faculty and in particular, it is the centrality occupied by the thalamus in a globular brain that allows its modulatory or regulatory role, essential for syntactico-semantic computations. Their hypothesis is that the syntactico-semantic capacities arise in humans as a consequence of a process of globularization, which significantly takes place postnatally (cf. Neubauer et al., 2010). In this paper, I show that Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco's hypothesis makes an interesting developmental prediction regarding the path of language acquisition: it teases apart the onset of phonological acquisition and the onset of syntactic acquisition (the latter starting significantly later, after globularization). I argue that this hypothesis provides a developmental rationale for the prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis of language acquisition (cf. i.a. Gleitman and Wanner, 1982; Mehler et al., 1988, et seq.; Gervain and Werker, 2013), which claim that prosodic cues are employed for syntactic parsing. The literature converges in the observation that a large amount of such prosodic cues (in particular, rhythmic cues) are already acquired before the completion of the globularization phase, which paves the way for the premises of the prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis, allowing babies to have a rich knowledge of the prosody of their target language before they can start parsing the primary linguistic data syntactically. PMID:26696916

  7. Effects of dietary folate deficiency on developmental increase of myelin lipids in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Hirono, H; Wada, Y

    1978-05-01

    Rats were fed a folic acid deficient purified diet from day 12 of gestation throughout the lactational period. Offsprings were fed the same diet after weaning. Control rats were given 170 microgram of folic acid per day per rat supplemented to the same diet, which was fed ad libitum or by pair-feeding. At 3 and 6 weeks of age, myelin was isolated from rat brains. It was found that in comparison with the controls, myelin yield was significantly decreased as well as the brain weight in the folic acid deficient rats at 6 weeks of age. There were no differences of gross composition of myelin, protein, ratio of cholesterol, glycolipids, phospholipids, and total lipid with or without folate deficiency either at 3 or 6 weeks of age. The hydroxy fatty acid composition of myelin lipids in brain was not changed with folate deficiency at 3 or 6 weeks of age. The developmental increase of the percentages of 22:6, 22:4, and 20:1 in nonhydroxy fatty acids of myelin lipids from the folic acid deficient rats were significantly lower at 6 weeks of age in comparison with the controls. The n-3:n-6 ratio in myelin fatty acids from the folic acid deficient rat brains was abnormally low at 3 weeks of age and was not increased at even 6 weeks of age. The implications of these findings are that folic acid may play an important role in desaturation or chain elongation of polyunsaturated fatty acids in the brain of developing rats. PMID:641593

  8. FMR1 transcript isoforms: association with polyribosomes; regional and developmental expression in mouse brain.

    PubMed

    Brackett, David M; Qing, Feng; Amieux, Paul S; Sellers, Drew L; Horner, Philip J; Morris, David R

    2013-01-01

    The primary transcript of the mammalian Fragile X Mental Retardation-1 gene (Fmr1), like many transcripts in the central nervous system, is alternatively spliced to yield mRNAs encoding multiple proteins, which can possess quite different biochemical properties. Despite the fact that the relative levels of the 12 Fmr1 transcript isoforms examined here vary by as much as two orders of magnitude amongst themselves in both adult and embryonic mouse brain, all are associated with polyribosomes, consistent with translation into the corresponding isoforms of the protein product, FMRP (Fragile X Mental Retardation Protein). Employing the RiboTag methodology developed in our laboratory, the relative proportions of the 7 most abundant transcript isoforms were measured specifically in neurons and found to be similar to those identified in whole brain. Measurements of isoform profiles across 11 regions of adult brain yielded similar distributions, with the exceptions of the hippocampus and the olfactory bulb. These two regions differ from most of the brain in relative amounts of transcripts encoding an alternate form of one of the KH RNA binding domains. A possible relationship between patterns of expression in the hippocampus and olfactory bulb and the presence of neuroblasts in these two regions is suggested by the isoform patterns in early embryonic brain and in cultured neural progenitor cells. These results demonstrate that the relative levels of the Fmr1 isoforms are modulated according to developmental stage, highlighting the complex ramifications of losing all the protein isoforms in individuals with Fragile X Syndrome. It should also be noted that, of the eight most prominent FMRP isoforms (1-3, 6-9 and 12) in mouse, only two have the major site of phosphorylation at Ser-499, which is thought to be involved in some of the regulatory interactions of this protein.

  9. "You Can't Imagine Unless You've Been There Yourself": A Report on the Concerns of Parents of Children with Acquired Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, George H. S.; Nixon, Charles

    This report describes a qualitative study of the experiences and perceptions of parents of children with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) and summarizes the experiences of several parents during the first year following their child's traumatic brain injury. Twenty-five parents participated in a day-long focus group, in lengthy structured…

  10. Acquired self-control of insula cortex modulates emotion recognition and brain network connectivity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Sergio; Lee, Sangkyun; Soekadar, Surjo R; Caria, Andrea; Veit, Ralf; Kircher, Tilo; Birbaumer, Niels; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2013-01-01

    Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) is a novel technique that has allowed subjects to achieve self-regulation of circumscribed brain regions. Despite its anticipated therapeutic benefits, there is no report on successful application of this technique in psychiatric populations. The objectives of the present study were to train schizophrenia patients to achieve volitional control of bilateral anterior insula cortex on multiple days, and to explore the effect of learned self-regulation on face emotion recognition (an extensively studied deficit in schizophrenia) and on brain network connectivity. Nine patients with schizophrenia were trained to regulate the hemodynamic response in bilateral anterior insula with contingent rtfMRI neurofeedback, through a 2-weeks training. At the end of the training stage, patients performed a face emotion recognition task to explore behavioral effects of learned self-regulation. A learning effect in self-regulation was found for bilateral anterior insula, which persisted through the training. Following successful self-regulation, patients recognized disgust faces more accurately and happy faces less accurately. Improvements in disgust recognition were correlated with levels of self-activation of right insula. RtfMRI training led to an increase in the number of the incoming and outgoing effective connections of the anterior insula. This study shows for the first time that patients with schizophrenia can learn volitional brain regulation by rtfMRI feedback training leading to changes in the perception of emotions and modulations of the brain network connectivity. These findings open the door for further studies of rtfMRI in severely ill psychiatric populations, and possible therapeutic applications.

  11. Modelling verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    James, Andrew I. W.; Böhnke, Jan R.; Young, Andrew W.; Lewis, Gary J.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the underpinnings of behavioural disturbances following brain injury is of considerable importance, but little at present is known about the relationships between different types of behavioural disturbances. Here, we take a novel approach to this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis to elucidate the architecture of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour using systematic records made across an eight-week observation period for a large sample (n = 301) of individuals with a range of brain injuries. This approach offers a powerful test of the architecture of these behavioural disturbances by testing the fit between observed behaviours and different theoretical models. We chose models that reflected alternative theoretical perspectives based on generalized disinhibition (Model 1), a difference between aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour (Model 2), or on the idea that verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour reflect broadly distinct but correlated clinical phenomena (Model 3). Model 3 provided the best fit to the data indicating that these behaviours can be viewed as distinct, but with substantial overlap. These data are important both for developing models concerning the architecture of behaviour as well as for clinical management in individuals with brain injury. PMID:26136449

  12. [Evaluation of the community integration of persons with lateralised post-acute acquired brain injury].

    PubMed

    Huertas-Hoyas, E; Pedrero-Perez, E J; Aguila-Maturana, A M; Gonzalez-Alted, C

    2013-08-16

    INTRODUCTION. Hemispheric specialization is a topic of interest that has motivated an enormous amount of research in recent decades. After a unilateral brain injury, the consequences can affect various areas of specialization, leading, depending on the location of the injury, impairment in quality of life and community integration. PATIENTS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional study with a sample of 58 patients, 28 traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 30 cerebrovascular accidents, both lateralized. The level of integration in the community is measured by the Community Integration Questionnaire. RESULTS. There were three groups analyzed by considering unilateral injury (full sample, stroke sample, and TBI sample). Results showed a significantly high community integration of people with right hemisphere injury. However, to measure the level of community integration between TBI and stroke, the results showed no significant differences. CONCLUSION. According to the results of the study people with brain injury in the right hemisphere have a better community integration than people with lesions in the left hemisphere regardless of the origin of the lesions (vascular or traumatic). We discussed the reasons that may motivate the differences and clinical implications.

  13. Modelling verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    James, Andrew I W; Böhnke, Jan R; Young, Andrew W; Lewis, Gary J

    2015-07-22

    Understanding the underpinnings of behavioural disturbances following brain injury is of considerable importance, but little at present is known about the relationships between different types of behavioural disturbances. Here, we take a novel approach to this issue by using confirmatory factor analysis to elucidate the architecture of verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour using systematic records made across an eight-week observation period for a large sample (n = 301) of individuals with a range of brain injuries. This approach offers a powerful test of the architecture of these behavioural disturbances by testing the fit between observed behaviours and different theoretical models. We chose models that reflected alternative theoretical perspectives based on generalized disinhibition (Model 1), a difference between aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour (Model 2), or on the idea that verbal aggression, physical aggression and inappropriate sexual behaviour reflect broadly distinct but correlated clinical phenomena (Model 3). Model 3 provided the best fit to the data indicating that these behaviours can be viewed as distinct, but with substantial overlap. These data are important both for developing models concerning the architecture of behaviour as well as for clinical management in individuals with brain injury.

  14. Integrating functional brain neuroimaging and developmental cognitive neuroscience in child psychiatry research

    PubMed Central

    Pavuluri, Mani N; Sweeney, John A

    2009-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of clinical research aiming to develop a mechanistic understanding of brain dysfunction in child psychiatric disorders. Method Technological, conceptual and translational approaches relevant to the investigation of brain function in pediatric psychiatric illnesses are explored. Research in the area of pediatric bipolar disorder is used as a prototypic model illustrating the use of complementary techniques of functional magnetic neuroimaging and neurocognitive studies to identify abnormalities in neural circuitry function. Results Studies of bipolar youth indicate impairment in cognitive and affective neural systems and in the interface of these two circuits. This evolving field paves a future pathway for identifying diagnostic biomarkers for the disorder, providing tools for monitoring response to pharmacotherapy, examining illness-associated alterations in developmental trajectory, and facilitating the use of animal research for guiding the development of novel treatment strategies. Conclusion Studies of brain function in child psychiatry are establishing a platform of knowledge and methods that offer promise for revolutionizing both models of illness pathophysiology as well as future diagnostic and therapeutic practice. PMID:18827719

  15. Bovine Brain: An in vitro Translational Model in Developmental Neuroscience and Neurodegenerative Research.

    PubMed

    Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Animal models provide convenient and clinically relevant tools in the research on neurodegenerative diseases. Studies on developmental disorders extensively rely on the use of laboratory rodents. The present mini-review proposes an alternative translational model based on the use of fetal bovine brain tissue. The bovine (Bos taurus) possesses a large and highly gyrencephalic brain and the long gestation period (41 weeks) is comparable to human pregnancy (38-40 weeks). Primary cultures obtained from fetal bovine brain constitute a validated in vitro model that allows examinations of neurons and/or glial cells under controlled and reproducible conditions. Physiological processes can be also studied on cultured bovine neural cells incubated with specific substrates or by electrically coupled electrolyte-oxide-semiconductor capacitors that permit direct recording from neuronal cells. Bovine neural cells and specific in vitro cell culture could be an alternative in comparative neuroscience and in neurodegenerative research, useful for studying development of normal and altered circuitry in a long gestation mammalian species. Use of bovine tissues would promote a substantial reduction in the use of laboratory animals. PMID:25072040

  16. Acquired infection with Toxoplasma gondii in adult mice results in sensorimotor deficits but normal cognitive behavior despite widespread brain pathology

    PubMed Central

    Gulinello, Maria; Acquarone, Mariana; Kim, John H; Spray, David C.; Barbosa, Helene S.; Sellers, Rani; Tanowitz, Herbert B.; Weiss, Louis M.

    2010-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii is a ubiquitous intracellular parasite which chronically infects 30 to 50% of the human population. While acquired infection is primarily asymptomatic several studies have suggested that such infections may contribute to neurological and psychiatric symptoms. Previous studies in rodents have demonstated that T. gondii infection does not just kill its host, but alters the behavioral repertoire of an infected animal making it more likely that predation with occur completing the parasite life cycle. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the behavioral changes in C57BL/6 mice chronically infected with the avirulent T. gondii (ME49, a type II strain), in a comprehensive test battery. Infected mice demonstrated profound and widespread brain pathology, motor coordination and sensory deficits. In contrast, cognitive function, anxiety levels, social behavior and the motivation to explore novel objects were normal. The observed changes in behavior did not represent “gross” brain damage or dysfunction and were not due to targeted destruction of specific areas of the brain. Such changes point out the subtle interaction of this parasite with its intermediate hosts and are consistent with ideas about increased predation being an outcome of infection. PMID:20348009

  17. Altered Recruitment of the Attention Network Is Associated with Disability and Cognitive Impairment in Pediatric Patients with Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Strazzer, Sandra; Rocca, Maria A.; Molteni, Erika; De Meo, Ermelinda; Recla, Monica; Valsasina, Paola; Arrigoni, Filippo; Galbiati, Susanna; Bardoni, Alessandra; Filippi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    We assessed abnormalities of brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity during a sustained attention task (Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CCPT)) in 20 right-handed pediatric acquired brain injury (ABI) patients versus 7 right-handed age-matched healthy controls, and we estimated the correlation of such abnormalities with clinical and cognitive deficits. Patients underwent the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) evaluations. During fMRI, patients and controls activated regions of the attention network. Compared to controls, ABI patients experienced a decreased average fMRI recruitment of the left cerebellum and a decreased deactivation of the left anterior cingulate cortex. With increasing task demand, compared to controls, ABI patients had an impaired ability to increase the recruitment of several posterior regions of the attention network. They also experienced a greater activation of frontal regions, which was correlated with worse performance on FIM, WISC, and fMRI CCPT. Such abnormal brain recruitment was significantly influenced by the type of lesion (focal versus diffuse axonal injury) and time elapsed from the event. Pediatric ABI patients experienced an inability to optimize attention network recruitment, especially when task difficulty was increased, which likely contributes to their clinical and cognitive deficits. PMID:26448878

  18. Clinical impact of RehaCom software for cognitive rehabilitation of patients with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Elízabeth; Bringas, María Luisa; Salazar, Sonia; Rodríguez, Daymí; García, María Eugenia; Torres, Maydané

    2012-10-01

    We describe the clinical impact of the RehaCom computerized cognitive training program instituted in the International Neurological Restoration Center for rehabilitation of brain injury patients. Fifty patients admitted from 2008 through 2010 were trained over 60 sessions. Attention and memory functions were assessed with a pre- and post-treatment design, using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Wechsler Memory Scale and Trail Making Test (Parts A and B). Negative effects were assessed, including mental fatigue, headache and eye irritation. The program's clinical usefulness was confirmed, with 100% of patients showing improved performance in trained functions. PMID:23154316

  19. Exploring social cognition in patients with apathy following acquired brain damage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Research on cognition in apathy has largely focused on executive functions. To the best of our knowledge, no studies have investigated the relationship between apathy symptoms and processes involved in social cognition. Apathy symptoms include attenuated emotional behaviour, low social engagement and social withdrawal, all of which may be linked to underlying socio-cognitive deficits. Methods We compared patients with brain damage who also had apathy symptoms against similar patients with brain damage but without apathy symptoms. Both patient groups were also compared against normal controls on key socio-cognitive measures involving moral reasoning, social awareness related to making judgements between normative and non-normative behaviour, Theory of Mind processing, and the perception of facial expressions of emotion. We also controlled for the likely effects of executive deficits and depressive symptoms on these comparisons. Results Our results indicated that patients with apathy were distinctively impaired in making moral reasoning decisions and in judging the social appropriateness of behaviour. Deficits in Theory of Mind and perception of facial expressions of emotion did not distinguish patients with apathy from those without apathy. Conclusion Our findings point to a possible socio-cognitive profile for apathy symptoms and provide initial insights into how socio-cognitive deficits in patients with apathy may affect social functioning. PMID:24450311

  20. Neural correlates of apathy in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, acquired brain injury, and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kos, Claire; van Tol, Marie-José; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    2016-10-01

    Apathy can be described as a loss of goal-directed purposeful behavior and is common in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although previous studies investigated associations between abnormal brain functioning and apathy, it is unclear whether the neural basis of apathy is similar across different pathological conditions. The purpose of this systematic review was to provide an extensive overview of the neuroimaging literature on apathy including studies of various patient populations, and evaluate whether the current state of affairs suggest disorder specific or shared neural correlates of apathy. Results suggest that abnormalities within fronto-striatal circuits are most consistently associated with apathy across the different pathological conditions. Of note, abnormalities within the inferior parietal cortex were also linked to apathy, a region previously not included in neuroanatomical models of apathy. The variance in brain regions implicated in apathy may suggest that different routes towards apathy are possible. Future research should investigate possible alterations in different processes underlying goal-directed behavior, ranging from intention and goal-selection to action planning and execution. PMID:27527825

  1. A heme oxygenase-1 transducer model of degenerative and developmental brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Schipper, Hyman M; Song, Wei

    2015-03-09

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a 32 kDa protein which catalyzes the breakdown of heme to free iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin. The Hmox1 promoter contains numerous consensus sequences that render the gene exquisitely sensitive to induction by diverse pro-oxidant and inflammatory stimuli. In "stressed" astroglia, HO-1 hyperactivity promotes mitochondrial iron sequestration and macroautophagy and may thereby contribute to the pathological iron deposition and bioenergetic failure documented in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease and certain neurodevelopmental conditions. Glial HO-1 expression may also impact neuroplasticity and cell survival by modulating brain sterol metabolism and the proteasomal degradation of neurotoxic proteins. The glial HO-1 response may represent a pivotal transducer of noxious environmental and endogenous stressors into patterns of neural damage and repair characteristic of many human degenerative and developmental CNS disorders.

  2. Developmental effects of irradiation on the brain of the embryo and fetus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This publication represents an evaluation of the data relating to radiation-induced effects on the central nervous system, especially radiation-induced mental retardation;assesses the gestational age at risk and the quantitative risk at low doses;analyses these effects in the light of what is known about cell survival, proliferation, repopulation and differentiation in the development of the fetal rain;and identifies the needs for future research. Contents: Preface;Introduction;Prenatal development of the primate brain and cerebral adnexa;Developmental disorders of the central nervous system;Ionizing radiation as a central nervous system teratogen;Periods of maximum sensitivity;Risk estimates in humans;Research needs;References.

  3. Developmental changes in the expression of Sox2 in the zebrafish brain.

    PubMed

    Germanà, Antonino; Montalbano, Giuseppe; Guerrera, M Cristina; Amato, Valentina; Laurà, Rosaria; Magnoli, Domenico; Campo, Salvatore; Suarez-Fernandez, Elda; Ciriaco, Emilia; Vega, Josè A

    2011-04-01

    The family of B1 Sox transcription factors plays critical roles in the early stages of development, including the central nervous system. It was demonstrated that Sox2 is expressed in repressed neural stem cells. Therefore, we decided to investigate the expression of Sox2 in the brain of zebrafish at different ages to identify potential neurogenic areas, and to establish the developmental changes they undergo. The brains were assessed by qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunohistochemistry. The maximal expression of Sox2 was found at 15 dpf progressively decreases up to 30 dpf, then increases up to 40 dpf and remains unchanged up to 180 dpf. By western blot three protein bands of 28 kDa, 34 kDa (main band), and 38 kDa were detected in the brain of 180 dpf animals. The immunolocalization of Sox2 revealed that by 15 dpf Sox2 was detected in cells of the olfactory bulb, the walls of the telencephalic and diencephalic ventricles, several nucleus in the diencephalons, and the tectum opticum; by 25-50 dpf the Sox2 positive areas were the same as above, and in the rhombencephalic ventricle and cerebellum. In adult animals Sox2 was restricted to the olfactory bulb and to cells of the telencephalic ventricle walls. Taken together present results demonstrate that the potential neurogenic areas in the brain of zebrafish are widespread than in mammals and change with development, but they are primarily concentrated around the ventricles and olfactory bulb in adults, following a similar localization as in mammals.

  4. The Contribution of Novel Brain Imaging Techniques to Understanding the Neurobiology of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Furfaro, Joyce A.; Penniman, Lauren C.; Glover, Gary H.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2005-01-01

    Studying the biological mechanisms underlying mental retardation and developmental disabilities (MR/DD) is a very complex task. This is due to the wide heterogeneity of etiologies and pathways that lead to MR/DD. Breakthroughs in genetics and molecular biology and the development of sophisticated brain imaging techniques during the last decades…

  5. Brain Hyper-Connectivity and Operation-Specific Deficits during Arithmetic Problem Solving in Children with Developmental Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Chen, Tianwen; Young, Christina B.; Geary, David C.; Menon, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is marked by specific deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information despite normal intelligence (IQ) and reading ability. We examined how brain circuits used by young children with DD to solve simple addition and subtraction problems differ from those used by typically developing (TD) children who…

  6. The efficacy of image-guided stereotactic brain biopsy in neurologically symptomatic acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Levy, R M; Russell, E; Yungbluth, M; Hidvegi, D F; Brody, B A; Dal Canto, M C

    1992-02-01

    A prospective series of 50 neurologically symptomatic human immunodeficiency infected patients with intracranial lesions who underwent image-guided stereotactic brain biopsy is presented. Patients were diagnosed with primary central nervous system lymphoma (14 patients), progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (14 patients), toxoplasmosis (13 patients), human immunodeficiency virus encephalitis (3 patients), infarction (2 patients), and 1 patient each with metastatic adenocarcinoma, metastatic melanoma, cryptococcoma, and atypical mycobacterial infection. Two of the patients with toxoplasmosis had a second intracranial abnormality. Two biopsies resulted in either descriptive diagnosis only or were nondiagnostic; the definitive diagnostic efficacy of image-guided stereotactic biopsy was thus 96%. No deaths were incurred as a result of biopsy. Four intraoperative or postoperative hemorrhages occurred; in only 1 patient was there a residual neurological deficit related to the surgery. Image-guided stereotactic biopsy may thus be considered both safe and effective in this patient population.

  7. Reappraisal generation after acquired brain damage: The role of laterality and cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Christian E.; Gross, James J.; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been growing interest in the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal. Findings suggest that reappraisal activates a set of areas in the left hemisphere (LH), which are commonly associated with language abilities and verbally mediated cognitive control. The main goal of this study was to investigate whether individuals with focal damage to the LH (n = 8) were more markedly impaired on a reappraisal generation task than individuals with right hemisphere lesions (RH, n = 8), and healthy controls (HC, n = 14). The reappraisal generation task consisted of a set of ten pictures from the IAPS, depicting negative events of different sorts. Participants were asked to quickly generate as many positive reinterpretations as possible for each picture. Two scores were derived from this task, namely difficulty and productivity. A second goal of this study was to explore which cognitive control processes were associated with performance on the reappraisal task. For this purpose, participants were assessed on several measures of cognitive control. Findings indicated that reappraisal difficulty – defined as the time taken to generate a first reappraisal – did not differ between LH and RH groups. However, differences were found between patients with brain injury (LH + RH) and HC, suggesting that brain damage in either hemisphere influences reappraisal difficulty. No differences in reappraisal productivity were found across groups, suggesting that neurological groups and HC are equally productive when time constraints are not considered. Finally, only two cognitive control processes inhibition and verbal fluency- were inversely associated with reappraisal difficulty. Implications for the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal generation are discussed, and implications for neuro-rehabilitation are considered. PMID:24711799

  8. Reappraisal generation after acquired brain damage: The role of laterality and cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Salas, Christian E; Gross, James J; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been growing interest in the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal. Findings suggest that reappraisal activates a set of areas in the left hemisphere (LH), which are commonly associated with language abilities and verbally mediated cognitive control. The main goal of this study was to investigate whether individuals with focal damage to the LH (n = 8) were more markedly impaired on a reappraisal generation task than individuals with right hemisphere lesions (RH, n = 8), and healthy controls (HC, n = 14). The reappraisal generation task consisted of a set of ten pictures from the IAPS, depicting negative events of different sorts. Participants were asked to quickly generate as many positive reinterpretations as possible for each picture. Two scores were derived from this task, namely difficulty and productivity. A second goal of this study was to explore which cognitive control processes were associated with performance on the reappraisal task. For this purpose, participants were assessed on several measures of cognitive control. Findings indicated that reappraisal difficulty - defined as the time taken to generate a first reappraisal - did not differ between LH and RH groups. However, differences were found between patients with brain injury (LH + RH) and HC, suggesting that brain damage in either hemisphere influences reappraisal difficulty. No differences in reappraisal productivity were found across groups, suggesting that neurological groups and HC are equally productive when time constraints are not considered. Finally, only two cognitive control processes inhibition and verbal fluency- were inversely associated with reappraisal difficulty. Implications for the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal generation are discussed, and implications for neuro-rehabilitation are considered.

  9. Usual and virtual reality video game-based physiotherapy for children and youth with acquired brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Levac, Danielle; Miller, Patricia; Missiuna, Cheryl

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about how therapists promote learning of functional motor skills for children with acquired brain injuries. This study explores physiotherapists' description of these interventions in comparison to virtual reality (VR) video game-based therapy. Six physiotherapists employed at a children's rehabilitation center participated in semi-structured interviews, which were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. Physiotherapists describe using interventions that motivate children to challenge performance quality and optimize real-life functioning. Intervention strategies are influenced by characteristics of the child, parent availability to practice skills outside therapy, and therapist experience. VR use motivates children to participate, but can influence therapist use of verbal strategies and complicate interventions. Physiotherapists consider unique characteristics of this population when providing interventions that promote learning of motor skills. The VR technology has advantageous features but its use with this population can be challenging; further research is recommended.

  10. Estimating the diagnostic value of the trail making test for suboptimal effort in acquired brain injury rehabilitation patients.

    PubMed

    Powell, Matthew R; Locke, Dona E C; Smigielski, Jeffrey S; McCrea, Michael

    2011-01-01

    This investigation explored the classification accuracy of Trail Making Test (TMT; Reitan & Wolfson, 1992) indices for suboptimal effort in a sample of non-litigious acquired brain injury patients seeking outpatient rehabilitation. Patients who exhibited optimal effort completed TMT A and B faster than suboptimal effort patients. Although TMT A time to completion demonstrated adequate sensitivity to suboptimal effort, positive predictive value was fair to poor unless the base rate of suboptimal effort was inflated to 40%. TMT B time to completion yielded poor sensitivity and positive predictive value for suboptimal effort. While TMT A time to completion appears to have some value as a validity indicator, no TMT validity indicator should replace more precise symptom validity tests during neuropsychological assessment.

  11. Promoting social plasticity in developmental disorders with non-invasive brain stimulation techniques

    PubMed Central

    Boggio, Paulo S.; Asthana, Manish K.; Costa, Thiago L.; Valasek, Cláudia A.; Osório, Ana A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Being socially connected directly impacts our basic needs and survival. People with deficits in social cognition might exhibit abnormal behaviors and face many challenges in our highly social-dependent world. These challenges and limitations are associated with a substantial economical and subjective impact. As many conditions where social cognition is affected are highly prevalent, more treatments have to be developed. Based on recent research, we review studies where non-invasive neuromodulatory techniques have been used to promote Social Plasticity in developmental disorders. We focused on three populations where non-invasive brain stimulation seems to be a promising approach in inducing social plasticity: Schizophrenia, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Williams Syndrome (WS). There are still very few studies directly evaluating the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the social cognition of these populations. However, when considering the promising preliminary evidences presented in this review and the limited amount of clinical interventions available for treating social cognition deficits in these populations today, it is clear that the social neuroscientist arsenal may profit from non-invasive brain stimulation techniques for rehabilitation and promotion of social plasticity. PMID:26388712

  12. Translational developmental studies of stress on brain and behavior: implications for adolescent mental health and illness?

    PubMed

    Malter Cohen, M; Tottenham, N; Casey, B J

    2013-09-26

    Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood, with onset marked by puberty and the offset by relative independence from parents. Across species, it is a time of incredible change that carries increased risks and rewards. The ability of the individual to respond adequately to the mental, physical and emotional stresses of life during this time is a function of both their early environment and their present state. In this article, we focus on the effects that acute threat and chronic stress have on the brain and behavior in humans and rodents. First, we highlight developmental changes in frontolimbic function as healthy individuals transition into and out of adolescence. Second, we examine genetic factors that may enhance susceptibility to stress in one individual over another using translation from genetic mouse models to human neuroimaging. Third, we examine how the timing and nature of stress varies in its impact on brain and behavior. These findings are discussed in the context of implications for adolescent mental health and illness. PMID:23340244

  13. Translational developmental studies of stress on brain and behavior: implications for adolescent mental health and illness?

    PubMed

    Malter Cohen, M; Tottenham, N; Casey, B J

    2013-09-26

    Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood, with onset marked by puberty and the offset by relative independence from parents. Across species, it is a time of incredible change that carries increased risks and rewards. The ability of the individual to respond adequately to the mental, physical and emotional stresses of life during this time is a function of both their early environment and their present state. In this article, we focus on the effects that acute threat and chronic stress have on the brain and behavior in humans and rodents. First, we highlight developmental changes in frontolimbic function as healthy individuals transition into and out of adolescence. Second, we examine genetic factors that may enhance susceptibility to stress in one individual over another using translation from genetic mouse models to human neuroimaging. Third, we examine how the timing and nature of stress varies in its impact on brain and behavior. These findings are discussed in the context of implications for adolescent mental health and illness.

  14. Translational developmental studies of stress on brain and behavior: Implications for adolescent mental health and illness?

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Matthew Malter; Tottenham, Nim

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood, with onset marked by puberty and the offset by relative independence from parents. Across species, it is a time of incredible change that carries increased risks and rewards. The ability of the individual to respond adequately to the mental, physical and emotional stresses of life during this time is a function of both their early environment and their present state. In this article, we focus on the effects that acute threat and chronic stress have on the brain and behavior in humans and rodents. First, we highlight developmental changes in frontolimbic function as healthy individuals transition into and out of adolescence. Second, we examine genetic factors that may enhance susceptibility to stress in one individual over another using translation from genetic mouse models to human neuroimaging. Third, we examine how the timing and nature of stress varies in its impact on brain and behavior. These findings are discussed in the context of implications for adolescent mental health and illness. PMID:23340244

  15. Promoting social plasticity in developmental disorders with non-invasive brain stimulation techniques.

    PubMed

    Boggio, Paulo S; Asthana, Manish K; Costa, Thiago L; Valasek, Cláudia A; Osório, Ana A C

    2015-01-01

    Being socially connected directly impacts our basic needs and survival. People with deficits in social cognition might exhibit abnormal behaviors and face many challenges in our highly social-dependent world. These challenges and limitations are associated with a substantial economical and subjective impact. As many conditions where social cognition is affected are highly prevalent, more treatments have to be developed. Based on recent research, we review studies where non-invasive neuromodulatory techniques have been used to promote Social Plasticity in developmental disorders. We focused on three populations where non-invasive brain stimulation seems to be a promising approach in inducing social plasticity: Schizophrenia, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Williams Syndrome (WS). There are still very few studies directly evaluating the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the social cognition of these populations. However, when considering the promising preliminary evidences presented in this review and the limited amount of clinical interventions available for treating social cognition deficits in these populations today, it is clear that the social neuroscientist arsenal may profit from non-invasive brain stimulation techniques for rehabilitation and promotion of social plasticity. PMID:26388712

  16. Structure and function in acquired prosopagnosia: lessons from a series of 10 patients with brain damage.

    PubMed

    Barton, Jason J S

    2008-03-01

    Acquired prosopagnosia varies in both behavioural manifestations and the location and extent of underlying lesions. We studied 10 patients with adult-onset lesions on a battery of face-processing tests. Using signal detection methods, we found that discriminative power for the familiarity of famous faces was most reduced by bilateral occipitotemporal lesions that involved the fusiform gyri, and better preserved with unilateral right-sided lesions. Tests of perception of facial structural configuration showed severe deficits with lesions that included the right fusiform gyrus, whether unilateral or bilateral. This deficit was most consistent for eye configuration, with some patients performing normally for mouth configuration. Patients with anterior temporal lesions had better configuration perception, though at least one patient showed a more subtle failure to integrate configural data from different facial regions. Facial imagery, an index of facial memories, was severely impaired by bilateral lesions that included the right anterior temporal lobe and marginally impaired by fusiform lesions alone; unilateral right fusiform lesions tended to spare imagery for facial features. These findings suggest that (I) prosopagnosia is more severe with bilateral than unilateral lesions, indicating a minor contribution of the left hemisphere to face recognition, (2) perception of facial configuration critically involves the right fusiform gyrus and (3) access to facial memories is most disrupted by bilateral lesions that also include the right anterior temporal lobe. This supports assertions that more apperceptive variants of prosopagnosia are linked to fusiform damage, whereas more associative variants are linked to anterior temporal damage. Next, we found that behavioural indices of covert recognition correlated with measures of overt familiarity, consistent with theories that covert behaviour emerges from the output of damaged neural networks, rather than alternative

  17. Social cognition and its relationship to functional outcomes in patients with sustained acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Ubukata, Shiho; Tanemura, Rumi; Yoshizumi, Miho; Sugihara, Genichi; Murai, Toshiya; Ueda, Keita

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in social cognition are common after traumatic brain injury (TBI). However, little is known about how such deficits affect functional outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between social cognition and functional outcomes in patients with TBI. We studied this relationship in 20 patients with TBI over the course of 1 year post-injury. Patients completed neurocognitive assessments and social cognition tasks. The social cognition tasks included an emotion-perception task and three theory of mind tasks: the Faux Pas test, Reading the Mind in the Eyes (Eyes) test, and the Moving-Shapes paradigm. The Craig Handicap Assessment and Reporting Technique was used to assess functional outcomes. Compared with our database of normal subjects, patients showed impairments in all social cognition tasks. Multiple regression analysis revealed that theory of mind ability as measured by the Eyes test was the best predictor of the cognitive aspects of functional outcomes. The findings of this pilot study suggest that the degree to which a patient can predict what others are thinking is an important measure that can estimate functional outcomes over 1 year following TBI. PMID:25395854

  18. Difficulties in using everyday technology after acquired brain injury: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Engström, Ann-Louice Lövgreen; Lexell, Jan; Lund, Maria Larsson

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe the characteristics of the difficulties using everyday technology in persons with an aquired brain injury (ABI), and their experiences of how these difficulties influenced their life. Thirteen persons with an ABI were interviewed about their difficulties in using everyday technology and were observed in their use of technology. Data were analysed qualitatively with a constant comparative method. The results showed that the persons' experiences formed two categories: “A variety of combinations of difficulties in the use of everyday technology” and “Restrictions in life”. The difficulties identified were related not only to everyday technology itself but also to the interaction between the technology, the task, the person, and the environment. These difficulties influenced their experiences of restrictions in occupational performance, personal identification, and participation in society. The results emphasize that occupational therapists who design interventions for people with an ABI need to accommodate both the technology and other interacting aspects in order to overcome difficulties in using everyday technology.

  19. Impact of a family-focused intervention on self-concept after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amber; Ponsford, Jennie; Couchman, Grace

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of a family inclusive intervention on the multidimensional self-concept of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Forty one individuals with TBI and a matched control group completed the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale: Second Edition (TSCS: 2), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), the Family Assessment Device (FAD), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) on two occasions: at immediate contact (pre-group, T1) and post-group (3 months after initial contact, T2). Controls did not attend the intervention. Total scores for the measures, as well as scores on subdomains of self-concept, taken pre- and post-intervention for the TBI sample and at the same time for matched controls were compared between groups using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA); followed by a series of repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) to determine whether significant changes occurred. Contrary to the main aim, the use of a family-focused intervention did not result in self-concept improvement, either globally or across self-concept domains. Nor did mood or family functioning improve for the TBI sample. Measures remained stable across time for the controls. PMID:23656483

  20. Developmentally Sensitive Interaction Effects of Genes and the Social Environment on Total and Subcortical Brain Volumes.

    PubMed

    Richards, Jennifer S; Arias Vásquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V; Buitelaar, Jan K; Hartman, Catharina A

    2016-01-01

    Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes have been linked to psychopathology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying mechanisms underlying these alterations, therefore, is of great importance. We investigated the role of gene-environment interactions (GxE) in interindividual variability of total gray matter (GM), caudate, and putamen volumes. Brain volumes were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in participants with (N = 312) and without ADHD (N = 437) from N = 402 families (age M = 17.00, SD = 3.60). GxE effects between DAT1, 5-HTT, and DRD4 and social environments (maternal expressed warmth and criticism; positive and deviant peer affiliation) as well as the possible moderating effect of age were examined using linear mixed modeling. We also tested whether findings depended on ADHD severity. Deviant peer affiliation was associated with lower caudate volume. Participants with low deviant peer affiliations had larger total GM volumes with increasing age. Likewise, developmentally sensitive GxE effects were found on total GM and putamen volume. For total GM, differential age effects were found for DAT1 9-repeat and HTTLPR L/L genotypes, depending on the amount of positive peer affiliation. For putamen volume, DRD4 7-repeat carriers and DAT1 10/10 homozygotes showed opposite age relations depending on positive peer affiliation and maternal criticism, respectively. All results were independent of ADHD severity. The presence of differential age-dependent GxE effects might explain the diverse and sometimes opposing results of environmental and genetic effects on brain volumes observed so far. PMID:27218681

  1. Developmentally Sensitive Interaction Effects of Genes and the Social Environment on Total and Subcortical Brain Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Arias Vásquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2016-01-01

    Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes have been linked to psychopathology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying mechanisms underlying these alterations, therefore, is of great importance. We investigated the role of gene-environment interactions (GxE) in interindividual variability of total gray matter (GM), caudate, and putamen volumes. Brain volumes were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in participants with (N = 312) and without ADHD (N = 437) from N = 402 families (age M = 17.00, SD = 3.60). GxE effects between DAT1, 5-HTT, and DRD4 and social environments (maternal expressed warmth and criticism; positive and deviant peer affiliation) as well as the possible moderating effect of age were examined using linear mixed modeling. We also tested whether findings depended on ADHD severity. Deviant peer affiliation was associated with lower caudate volume. Participants with low deviant peer affiliations had larger total GM volumes with increasing age. Likewise, developmentally sensitive GxE effects were found on total GM and putamen volume. For total GM, differential age effects were found for DAT1 9-repeat and HTTLPR L/L genotypes, depending on the amount of positive peer affiliation. For putamen volume, DRD4 7-repeat carriers and DAT1 10/10 homozygotes showed opposite age relations depending on positive peer affiliation and maternal criticism, respectively. All results were independent of ADHD severity. The presence of differential age-dependent GxE effects might explain the diverse and sometimes opposing results of environmental and genetic effects on brain volumes observed so far. PMID:27218681

  2. Effect of antisera to beta and gamma goldfish brain proteins on the retention of a newly acquired behavior.

    PubMed

    Shashoua, V E; Moore, M E

    1978-06-16

    The metabolism of 3 brain cytoplasmic proteins (alpha, beta, and gamma) increases markedly when goldfish acquire a new pattern of behavior. Antisera specific to beta and beta + gamma proteins were prepared and injected into the fourth ventricle of the brains of trained animals at 8 and 24 h after the initiation of training. When tested 3 days later, such goldfish (N = 98) could not recall the training; whereas trained goldfish (N = 97) receiving non-immunized rabbit serum had complete recall of the behavior. Also no amnesia was obtained in control experiments in which trained goldfish were injected with an antiserum to a neural surface membrane protein NS-6. The fact that antisera to beta + gamma had no toxic effects was demonstrated by injecting them prior to training; no effects on the rate of acquisition and recall of the behavior was found. The antisera to beta + gamma were effective in inhibiting recall of the training when they were injected any time between 3 h up to 48 h after training; no effect was obtained at 72 h post training. These results are consistent with the hypothesis that beta and gamma might have some functional role in the plasticity of the CNS.

  3. Inheritance of Acquired Behaviour Adaptations and Brain Gene Expression in Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Nätt, Daniel; Lindqvist, Niclas; Stranneheim, Henrik; Lundeberg, Joakim; Torjesen, Peter A.; Jensen, Per

    2009-01-01

    Background Environmental challenges may affect both the exposed individuals and their offspring. We investigated possible adaptive aspects of such cross-generation transmissions, and hypothesized that chronic unpredictable food access would cause chickens to show a more conservative feeding strategy and to be more dominant, and that these adaptations would be transmitted to the offspring. Methodology/Principal Findings Parents were raised in an unpredictable (UL) or in predictable diurnal light rhythm (PL, 12∶12 h light∶dark). In a foraging test, UL birds pecked more at freely available, rather than at hidden and more attractive food, compared to birds from the PL group. Female offspring of UL birds, raised in predictable light conditions without parental contact, showed a similar foraging behavior, differing from offspring of PL birds. Furthermore, adult offspring of UL birds performed more food pecks in a dominance test, showed a higher preference for high energy food, survived better, and were heavier than offspring of PL parents. Using cDNA microarrays, we found that the differential brain gene expression caused by the challenge was mirrored in the offspring. In particular, several immunoglobulin genes seemed to be affected similarly in both UL parents and their offspring. Estradiol levels were significantly higher in egg yolk from UL birds, suggesting one possible mechanism for these effects. Conclusions/Significance Our findings suggest that unpredictable food access caused seemingly adaptive responses in feeding behavior, which may have been transmitted to the offspring by means of epigenetic mechanisms, including regulation of immune genes. This may have prepared the offspring for coping with an unpredictable environment. PMID:19636381

  4. The Italian version of the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust (BIRT) personality questionnaires: five new measures of personality change after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Basagni, Benedetta; Navarrete, Eduardo; Bertoni, Debora; Cattran, Charlotte; Mapelli, Daniela; Oddy, Michael; De Tanti, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the translation and adaptation of the BIRT personality questionnaires for the Italian population. This included the replication of validity testing and the collection of normative data. Following translation and adaptation according to cross-cultural guidelines, the questionnaires were administered as a pre-test to a sample of 20 healthy subjects and then to 10 patients. The questionnaires were then administered to 120 healthy subjects equally distributed by sex, education, and age, to collect normative data from an Italian population. The questionnaires were easily administered to both healthy subjects and patients. Statistical analysis on normative data was conducted to find the mean value for each questionnaire. This study lays the foundations for using a new instrument to assess behavioral changes after acquired brain injury on the Italian population. PMID:25981230

  5. The Italian version of the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust (BIRT) personality questionnaires: five new measures of personality change after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Basagni, Benedetta; Navarrete, Eduardo; Bertoni, Debora; Cattran, Charlotte; Mapelli, Daniela; Oddy, Michael; De Tanti, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the translation and adaptation of the BIRT personality questionnaires for the Italian population. This included the replication of validity testing and the collection of normative data. Following translation and adaptation according to cross-cultural guidelines, the questionnaires were administered as a pre-test to a sample of 20 healthy subjects and then to 10 patients. The questionnaires were then administered to 120 healthy subjects equally distributed by sex, education, and age, to collect normative data from an Italian population. The questionnaires were easily administered to both healthy subjects and patients. Statistical analysis on normative data was conducted to find the mean value for each questionnaire. This study lays the foundations for using a new instrument to assess behavioral changes after acquired brain injury on the Italian population.

  6. Automatic regional analysis of DTI properties in the developmental macaque brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styner, Martin; Knickmeyer, Rebecca; Coe, Christopher; Short, Sarah J.; Gilmore, John

    2008-03-01

    Many neuroimaging studies are applied to monkeys as pathologies and environmental exposures can be studied in well-controlled settings and environment. In this work, we present a framework for the use of an atlas based, fully automatic segmentation of brain tissues, lobar parcellations, subcortical structures and the regional extraction of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) properties. We first built a structural atlas from training images by iterative, joint deformable registration into an unbiased average image. On this atlas, probabilistic tissue maps, a lobar parcellation and subcortical structures were determined. This information is applied to each subjects structural image via affine, followed by deformable registration. The affinely transformed atlas is employed for a joint T1 and T2 based tissue classification. The deformed parcellation regions mask the tissue segmentations to define the parcellation for white and gray matter separately. Each subjects structural image is then non-rigidly matched with its DTI image by normalized mutual information, b-spline based registration. The DTI property histograms were then computed using the probabilistic white matter information for each lobar parcellation. We successfully built an average atlas using a developmental training datasets of 18 cases aged 16-34 months. Our framework was successfully applied to over 50 additional subjects in the age range of 9 70 months. The probabilistically weighted FA average in the corpus callosum region showed the largest increase over time in the observed age range. Most cortical regions show modest FA increase, whereas the cerebellums FA values remained stable. The individual methods used in this segmentation framework have been applied before, but their combination is novel, as is their application to macaque MRI data. Furthermore, this is the first study to date looking at the DTI properties of the developing macaque brain.

  7. Neuromagnetic correlates of developmental changes in endogenous high-frequency brain oscillations in children: a wavelet-based beamformer study.

    PubMed

    Xiang, Jing; Liu, Yang; Wang, Yingying; Kotecha, Rupesh; Kirtman, Elijah G; Chen, Yangmei; Huo, Xiaolin; Fujiwara, Hisako; Hemasilpin, Nat; DeGrauw, Ton; Rose, Douglas

    2009-06-01

    Recent studies have found that the brain generates very fast oscillations. The objective of the present study was to investigate the spectral, spatial and coherent features of high-frequency brain oscillations in the developing brain. Sixty healthy children and 20 healthy adults were studied using a 275-channel magnetoencephalography (MEG) system. MEG data were digitized at 12,000 Hz. The frequency characteristics of neuromagnetic signals in 0.5-2000 Hz were quantitatively determined with Morlet wavelet transform. The magnetic sources were volumetrically estimated with wavelet-based beamformer at 2.5 mm resolution. The neural networks of endogenous brain oscillations were analyzed with coherent imaging. Neuromagnetic activities in 8-12 Hz and 800-900 Hz were found to be the most reliable frequency bands in healthy children. The neuromagnetic signals were localized in the occipital, temporal and frontal cortices. The activities in the occipital and temporal cortices were strongly correlated in 8-12 Hz but not in 800-900 Hz. In comparison to adults, children had brain oscillations in intermingled frequency bands. Developmental changes in children were identified for both low- and high-frequency brain activities. The results of the present study suggest that the development of the brain is associated with spatial and coherent changes of endogenous brain activities in both low- and high-frequency ranges. Analysis of high-frequency neuromagnetic oscillation may provide novel insights into cerebral mechanisms of brain function. The noninvasive measurement of neuromagnetic brain oscillations in the developing brain may open a new window for analysis of brain function. PMID:19362072

  8. Down Syndrome Developmental Brain Transcriptome Reveals Defective Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Myelination.

    PubMed

    Olmos-Serrano, Jose Luis; Kang, Hyo Jung; Tyler, William A; Silbereis, John C; Cheng, Feng; Zhu, Ying; Pletikos, Mihovil; Jankovic-Rapan, Lucija; Cramer, Nathan P; Galdzicki, Zygmunt; Goodliffe, Joseph; Peters, Alan; Sethares, Claire; Delalle, Ivana; Golden, Jeffrey A; Haydar, Tarik F; Sestan, Nenad

    2016-03-16

    Trisomy 21, or Down syndrome (DS), is the most common genetic cause of developmental delay and intellectual disability. To gain insight into the underlying molecular and cellular pathogenesis, we conducted a multi-region transcriptome analysis of DS and euploid control brains spanning from mid-fetal development to adulthood. We found genome-wide alterations in the expression of a large number of genes, many of which exhibited temporal and spatial specificity and were associated with distinct biological processes. In particular, we uncovered co-dysregulation of genes associated with oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination that were validated via cross-species comparison to Ts65Dn trisomy mice. Furthermore, we show that hypomyelination present in Ts65Dn mice is in part due to cell-autonomous effects of trisomy on oligodendrocyte differentiation and results in slower neocortical action potential transmission. Together, these results identify defects in white matter development and function in DS, and they provide a transcriptional framework for further investigating DS neuropathogenesis. PMID:26924435

  9. Social competence in pediatric brain tumor survivors: application of a model from social neuroscience and developmental psychology.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Matthew C; McCurdy, Mark; Turner, Elise; Kazak, Anne E; Noll, Robert B; Phillips, Peter; Barakat, Lamia P

    2015-03-01

    Pediatric brain tumor (BT) survivors are at risk for psychosocial late effects across many domains of functioning, including neurocognitive and social. The literature on the social competence of pediatric BT survivors is still developing and future research is needed that integrates developmental and cognitive neuroscience research methodologies to identify predictors of survivor social adjustment and interventions to ameliorate problems. This review discusses the current literature on survivor social functioning through a model of social competence in childhood brain disorder and suggests future directions based on this model. Interventions pursuing change in survivor social adjustment should consider targeting social ecological factors.

  10. The impact of acquired brain damage in terms of epidemiology, economics and loss in quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with acquired brain damage (ABD) have suffered a brain lesion that interrupts vital development in the physical, psychological and social spheres. Stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) are the two main causes. The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and prevalence of ABD in the population of the Basque Country and Navarre in 2008, to calculate the associated cost of the care required and finally to assess the loss in health-related quality of life. Methods On the one hand, a cross-sectional survey was carried out, in order to estimate the incidence of ABD and its consequences in terms of costs and loss in quality of life from the evolution of a sample of patients diagnosed with stroke and TBI. On the other hand, a discrete event simulation model was built that enabled the prevalence of ABD to be estimated. Finally, a calculation was made of the formal and informal costs of ABD in the population of the Basque Country and Navarre (2,750,000 people). Results The cross-sectional study showed that the incidences of ABD caused by stroke and TBI were 61.8 and 12.5 cases per 100,000 per year respectively, while the overall prevalence was 657 cases per 100,000 people. The SF-36 physical and mental component scores were 28.9 and 44.5 respectively. The total economic burden was calculated to be 382.14 million euro per year, distributed between 215.27 and 166.87 of formal and informal burden respectively. The average cost per individual was 21,040 € per year. Conclusions The main conclusion of this study is that ABD has a high impact in both epidemiological and economic terms as well as loss in quality of life. The overall prevalence obtained is equivalent to 0.7% of the total population. The substantial economic burden is distributed nearly evenly between formal and informal costs. Specifically, it was found that the physical dimensions of quality of life are the most severely affected. The prevalence-based approach showed adequate

  11. Is it time to act? The potential of acceptance and commitment therapy for psychological problems following acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kangas, Maria; McDonald, Skye

    2011-04-01

    Behaviour therapies have a well-established, useful tradition in psychological treatments and have undergone several major revisions. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and mindfulness-based approaches are considered a third wave of behavioural therapies. Emerging evidence for ACT has demonstrated that this paradigm has promising effectiveness in improving functionality and well-being in a variety of populations that have psychological disturbances and/or medical problems. In this review we first evaluate traditional cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions used to manage psychological problems in distressed individuals who have sustained an acquired brain injury (ABI). We provide an overview of the ACT paradigm and the existent evidence base for this intervention. A rationale is outlined for why ACT-based interventions may have potential utility in assisting distressed individuals who have sustained a mild to moderate ABI to move forward with their lives. We also review emerging evidence that lends preliminary support to the implementation of acceptance and mindfulness-based interventions in the rehabilitation of ABI patient groups. On the basis of existent literature, we recommend that it is an opportune time for forthcoming research to rigorously test the efficacy of ACT-based interventions in facilitating ABI patient groups to re-engage in living a valued and meaningful life, in spite of their neurocognitive and physical limitations. The promising utility of testing the efficacy of the ACT paradigm in the context of multimodal rehabilitation programmes for ABI populations is also addressed.

  12. Can, Want and Try: Parents’ Viewpoints Regarding the Participation of Their Child with an Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Melanie; Elliott, Catherine; Willis, Claire; Ward, Roslyn; Falkmer, Marita; Falkmer, Torbjӧrn; Gubbay, Anna; Girdler, Sonya

    2016-01-01

    Background Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a leading cause of permanent disability, currently affecting 20,000 Australian children. Community participation is essential for childhood development and enjoyment, yet children with ABI can often experience barriers to participation. The factors which act as barriers and facilitators to community participation for children with an ABI are not well understood. Aim To identify the viewpoints of parents of children with an ABI, regarding the barriers and facilitators most pertinent to community participation for their child. Methods Using Q-method, 41 parents of children with moderate/severe ABI sorted 37 statements regarding barriers and facilitators to community participation. Factor analysis identified three viewpoints. Results This study identified three distinct viewpoints, with the perceived ability to participate decreasing with a stepwise trend from parents who felt their child and family “can” participate in viewpoint one, to “want” in viewpoint two and “try” in viewpoint three. Conclusions Findings indicated good participation outcomes for most children and families, however some families who were motivated to participate experienced significant barriers. The most significant facilitators included child motivation, supportive relationships from immediate family and friends, and supportive community attitudes. The lack of supportive relationships and attitudes was perceived as a fundamental barrier to community participation. Significance This research begins to address the paucity of information regarding those factors that impact upon the participation of children with an ABI in Australia. Findings have implications for therapists, service providers and community organisations. PMID:27367231

  13. RNA Sequence Analysis of Human Huntington Disease Brain Reveals an Extensive Increase in Inflammatory and Developmental Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Labadorf, Adam; Hoss, Andrew G.; Lagomarsino, Valentina; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Hadzi, Tiffany C.; Bregu, Joli; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Gusella, James F.; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Akbarian, Schahram; Weng, Zhiping; Myers, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s Disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Transcriptional dysregulation in the human HD brain has been documented but is incompletely understood. Here we present a genome-wide analysis of mRNA expression in human prefrontal cortex from 20 HD and 49 neuropathologically normal controls using next generation high-throughput sequencing. Surprisingly, 19% (5,480) of the 28,087 confidently detected genes are differentially expressed (FDR<0.05) and are predominantly up-regulated. A novel hypothesis-free geneset enrichment method that dissects large gene lists into functionally and transcriptionally related groups discovers that the differentially expressed genes are enriched for immune response, neuroinflammation, and developmental genes. Markers for all major brain cell types are observed, suggesting that HD invokes a systemic response in the brain area studied. Unexpectedly, the most strongly differentially expressed genes are a homeotic gene set (represented by Hox and other homeobox genes), that are almost exclusively expressed in HD, a profile not widely implicated in HD pathogenesis. The significance of transcriptional changes of developmental processes in the HD brain is poorly understood and warrants further investigation. The role of inflammation and the significance of non-neuronal involvement in HD pathogenesis suggest anti-inflammatory therapeutics may offer important opportunities in treating HD. PMID:26636579

  14. Quantitative Analysis of Metabolic Abnormality Associated with Brain Developmental Venous Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Timerman, Dmitriy; Thum, Jasmine A

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Abnormal hypometabolism is common in the brain parenchyma surrounding developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), although the degree of DVA-associated hypometabolism (DVAAh) has not been quantitatively analyzed. In this study, we demonstrate a simple method for the measurement of DVAAh and test the hypothesis that DVAs are associated with a quantifiable decrement in metabolic activity. Materials and Methods: Measurements of DVAAh using ratios of standardized uptake values (SUVs) and comparison to a normal database were performed on a cohort of 25 patients (12 male, 13 female), 14 to 76 years old, with a total of 28 DVAs (20 with DVAAh, seven with isometabolic activity, and one with hypermetabolic activity). Results: Qualitative classification of none, mild, moderate, and severe DVAAh corresponded to quantitative measurements of DVAAh of 1 ± 3%, 12 ± 7%, 18 ± 6%, and 37 ± 6%, respectively. A statistically significant linear correlation between DVAAh and age was observed (P = 0.003), with a 3% reduction in metabolic activity per decade. A statistically significant linear correlation between DVAAh and DVA size was observed (P = 0.01), with a 4% reduction in metabolic activity per each 1 cm in the longest dimension. The SUVDVA-based measures of DVAAh correlated (P = 0.001) with measures derived from comparison with a standardized database. Conclusion: We present a simple method for the quantitative measurement of DVAAh using ratios of SUVs, and find that this quantitative analysis is consistent with a qualitative classification. We find that 54% (15 of 28) of DVAs are associated with a greater than 10% decrease in metabolic activity. PMID:27774365

  15. Evaluation of use of reading comprehension strategies to improve reading comprehension of adult college students with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gina G; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Kirk, Cecilia; Fickas, Stephen; Biancarosa, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI. Despite the rising need, empirical evaluation of reading comprehension interventions for adults with ABI is scarce. This study used a within-subject design to evaluate whether adult college students with ABI with no more than moderate cognitive impairments benefited from using reading comprehension strategies to improve comprehension of expository text. Integrating empirical support from the cognitive rehabilitation and special education literature, the researchers designed a multi-component reading comprehension strategy package. Participants read chapters from an introductory-level college anthropology textbook in two different conditions: strategy and no-strategy. The results indicated that reading comprehension strategy use was associated with recall of more correct information units in immediate and delayed free recall tasks; more efficient recall in the delayed free recall task; and increased accuracy recognising statements from a sentence verification task designed to reflect the local and global coherence of the text. The findings support further research into using reading comprehension strategies as an intervention approach for the adult ABI population. Future research needs include identifying how to match particular reading comprehension strategies to individuals, examining whether reading comprehension performance improves further through the incorporation of systematic training, and evaluating texts from a range of disciplines and genres. PMID:25712402

  16. A Systematic Review of Hospital-to-School Reintegration Interventions for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Sally; Hartman, Laura R.; Reed, Nick; Gan, Caron; Thomson, Nicole; Solomon, Beverely

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We reviewed the literature on interventions that aimed to improve hospital-to-school reintegration for children and youth with acquired brain injury (ABI). ABI is the leading cause of disability among children and youth. A successful hospital-to-school reintegration process is essential to the rehabilitative process. However, little is known about the effective components of of such interventions. Methods and findings Our research team conducted a systematic review, completing comprehensive searches of seven databases and selected reference lists for relevant articles published in a peer-reviewed journal between 1989 and June 2014. We selected articles for inclusion that report on studies involving: a clinical population with ABI; sample had an average age of 20 years or younger; an intentional structured intervention affecting hospital-to-school transitions or related components; an experimental design; and a statistically evaluated health outcome. Two independent reviewers applied our inclusion criteria, extracted data, and rated study quality. A meta-analysis was not feasible due to the heterogeneity of the studies reported. Of the 6933 articles identified in our initial search, 17 articles (reporting on 350 preadolescents and adolescents, aged 4–19, (average age 11.5 years, SD: 2.21) met our inclusion criteria. They reported on interventions varying in number of sessions (one to 119) and session length (20 minutes to 4 hours). The majority of interventions involved multiple one-to-one sessions conducted by a trained clinician or educator, homework activities, and parental involvement. The interventions were delivered through different settings and media, including hospitals, schools, and online. Although outcomes varied (with effect sizes ranging from small to large), 14 of the articles reported at least one significant improvement in cognitive, social, psychological, or behavioral functioning or knowledge of ABI. Conclusions Cognitive, behavioral

  17. Evaluation of use of reading comprehension strategies to improve reading comprehension of adult college students with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gina G; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Kirk, Cecilia; Fickas, Stephen; Biancarosa, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI. Despite the rising need, empirical evaluation of reading comprehension interventions for adults with ABI is scarce. This study used a within-subject design to evaluate whether adult college students with ABI with no more than moderate cognitive impairments benefited from using reading comprehension strategies to improve comprehension of expository text. Integrating empirical support from the cognitive rehabilitation and special education literature, the researchers designed a multi-component reading comprehension strategy package. Participants read chapters from an introductory-level college anthropology textbook in two different conditions: strategy and no-strategy. The results indicated that reading comprehension strategy use was associated with recall of more correct information units in immediate and delayed free recall tasks; more efficient recall in the delayed free recall task; and increased accuracy recognising statements from a sentence verification task designed to reflect the local and global coherence of the text. The findings support further research into using reading comprehension strategies as an intervention approach for the adult ABI population. Future research needs include identifying how to match particular reading comprehension strategies to individuals, examining whether reading comprehension performance improves further through the incorporation of systematic training, and evaluating texts from a range of disciplines and genres.

  18. Developmental, regional, and cellular expression of SFT/UbcH5A and DMT1 mRNA in brain.

    PubMed

    Knutson, Mitchell; Menzies, Sharon; Connor, James; Wessling-Resnick, Marianne

    2004-06-01

    Brain iron has marked developmental, regional, and cellular distribution patterns. To characterize better the potential mechanisms for iron transport into and within the brain, we have analyzed expression patterns of two factors: divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) and stimulator of Fe transport (SFT). DMT1 is known to participate in brain iron uptake although functional information is lacking. Even less clear is the possible role of SFT, which is related to a member of the ubiquitin-conjugating E2 family UbcH5A, but previous studies have found SFT/Ubc5Ha mRNA expressed abundantly in mouse brain. Like DMT1, SFT function has been implicated in transferrin and nontransferrin-bound iron uptake. Comparative Northern analysis indicates that SFT/UbcH5A mRNA levels are threefold higher in 3-day-old mice than at later ages, whereas levels of DMT1 mRNA do not change. In situ analysis of neonatal mouse brain reveals prominent SFT/UbcH5A mRNA expression in epithelial and ependymal cells in the choroid plexus and neurons of the olfactory bulb, hippocampus, and cortex. Adult mouse brain expresses SFT/UbcH5A mRNA mainly in white matter of the cerebellum and pons. Using a multiple tissue expression (MTE) array containing 20 different human brain regions, the highest levels of both SFT/UbcH5A and DMT1 mRNA are detected in the corpus callosum and cerebellum. The significantly elevated levels of SFT/UbcH5A mRNA in the neonatal mouse and its localization to choroid plexus, a major site of brain iron acquisition, suggest that this factor may contribute to the rapid rate of brain iron uptake that occurs in the early postnatal period.

  19. Capitalizing on Basic Brain Processes in Developmental Algebra--Part 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughbaum, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    In Part Three, the author reviews the basic ideas presented in Parts One and Two while arguing why the traditional equation-solving developmental algebra curricula is not a good choice for implementing neural response strategies presented in the first two parts. He continues by showing that the developmental algebra student audience is simply…

  20. BRAIN AND BLOOD TIN LEVELS IN A DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY STUDY OF DIBUTYLTIN.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dibutyltin (DBT), a widely used plastic stabilizer, is detected in the environment and human tissues. While teratological and developmental effects are known, we could find no published report of DBT effects on the developing nervous system. As part of a developmental neurotoxi...

  1. The behavioral neurogenetics of fragile X syndrome: analyzing gene-brain-behavior relationships in child developmental psychopathologies.

    PubMed

    Reiss, Allan L; Dant, Christopher C

    2003-01-01

    Analyzing gene-brain-behavior linkages in childhood neurodevelopmental disorders, a research approach called "behavioral neurogenetics," has provided new insights into understanding how both genetic and environmental factors contribute to complex variations in typical and atypical human development. Research into etiologically more homogeneous disorders, such as fragile X syndrome, in particular, allows the use of more precise metrics of genetic risk so that we can more fully understand the complex pathophysiology of childhood onset neurodevelopmental disorders. In this paper, we review our laboratory's behavioral neurogenetics research by examining gene-brain-behavior relationships in fragile X syndrome, a single-gene disorder that has become a well-characterized model for studying neurodevelopmental dysfunction in childhood. Specifically, we examine genetic influences, trajectories of cognition and behavior, variation in brain structure and function, and biological and environmental factors that influence developmental and cognitive outcomes of children with fragile X. The converging approaches across these multilevel scientific domains indicate that fragile X, which arises from disruption of a single gene leading to the loss of a specific protein, is associated with a cascade of aberrations in neurodevelopment, resulting in a central nervous system that is suboptimal with respect to structure and function. In turn, structural and functional brain alterations lead to early disruption in emotion, cognition, and behavior in the child with fragile X. The combination of molecular genetics, neuroimaging, and behavioral research have advanced our understanding of the linkages between genetic variables, neurobiological measures, IQ, and behavior. Our research and that of others demonstrates that neurobehavior and neurocognition, genetics, and neuroanatomy are all different views of the same intriguing biological puzzle, a puzzle that today is rapidly emerging into a

  2. The International Society for Developmental Psychobiology annual meeting symposium: Impact of early life experiences on brain and behavioral development.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Regina; Wilson, Donald A; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K; Meyer, Urs; Richter-Levin, Gal; Avi, Avital; Michael, Tsoory; Gruss, Michael; Bock, Jörg; Helmeke, Carina; Braun, Katharina

    2006-11-01

    Decades of research in the area of developmental psychobiology have shown that early life experience alters behavioral and brain development, which canalizes development to suit different environments. Recent methodological advances have begun to identify the mechanisms by which early life experiences cause these diverse adult outcomes. Here we present four different research programs that demonstrate the intricacies of early environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in both pathological and normal development. First, an animal model of schizophrenia is presented that suggests prenatal immune stimulation influences the postpubertal emergence of psychosis-related behavior in mice. Second, we describe a research program on infant rats that demonstrates how early odor learning has unique characteristics due to the unique functioning of the infant limbic system. Third, we present work on the rodent Octodon degus, which shows that early paternal and/or maternal deprivation alters development of limbic system synaptic density that corresponds to heightened emotionality. Fourth, a juvenile model of stress is presented that suggests this developmental period is important in determining adulthood emotional well being. The approach of each research program is strikingly different, yet all succeed in delineating a specific aspect of early development and its effects on infant and adult outcome that expands our understanding of the developmental impact of infant experiences on emotional and limbic system development. Together, these research programs suggest that the developing organism's developmental trajectory is influenced by environmental factors beginning in the fetus and extending through adolescence, although the specific timing and nature of the environmental influence has unique impact on adult mental health.

  3. The International Society for Developmental Psychobiology Annual Meeting Symposium: Impact of Early Life Experiences on Brain and Behavioral Development

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Regina; Wilson, Donald A.; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K.; Meyer, Urs; Richter-Levin, Gal; Avi, Avital; Michael, Tsoory; Gruss, Michael; Bock, Jörg; Helmeke, Carina; Braun, Katharina

    2007-01-01

    Decades of research in the area of developmental psychobiology have shown that early life experience alters behavioral and brain development, which canalizes development to suit different environments. Recent methodological advances have begun to identify the mechanisms by which early life experiences cause these diverse adult outcomes. Here we present four different research programs that demonstrate the intricacies of early environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in both pathological and normal development. First, an animal model of schizophrenia is presented that suggests prenatal immune stimulation influences the postpubertal emergence of psychosis-related behavior in mice. Second, we describe a research program on infant rats that demonstrates how early odor learning has unique characteristics due to the unique functioning of the infant limbic system. Third, we present work on the rodent Octodon degus, which shows that early paternal and/or maternal deprivation alters development of limbic system synaptic density that corresponds to heightened emotionality. Fourth, ajuvenile model of stress is presented that suggests this developmental period is important in determining adulthood emotional well being. The approach of each research program is strikingly different, yet all succeed in delineating a specific aspect of early development and its effects on infant and adult outcome that expands our understanding of the developmental impact of infant experiences on emotional and limbic system development. Together, these research programs suggest that the developing organism’s developmental trajectory is influenced by environmental factors beginning in the fetus and extending through adolescence, although the specific timing and nature of the environmental influence has unique impact on adult mental health. PMID:17016842

  4. Intelligent speed adaptation as an assistive device for drivers with acquired brain injury: a single-case field experiment.

    PubMed

    Klarborg, Brith; Lahrmann, Harry; NielsAgerholm; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Harms, Lisbeth

    2012-09-01

    Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) was tested as an assistive device for drivers with an acquired brain injury (ABI). The study was part of the "Pay as You Speed" project (PAYS) and used the same equipment and technology as the main study (Lahrmann et al., in press-a, in press-b). Two drivers with ABI were recruited as subjects and had ISA equipment installed in their private vehicle. Their speed was logged with ISA equipment for a total of 30 weeks of which 12 weeks were with an active ISA user interface (6 weeks=Baseline 1; 12 weeks=ISA period; 12 weeks=Baseline 2). The subjects participated in two semi-structured interviews concerning their strategies for driving with ABI and for driving with ISA. Furthermore, they gave consent to have data from their clinical journals and be a part of the study. The two subjects did not report any instances of being distracted or confused by ISA, and in general they described driving with ISA as relaxed. ISA reduced the percentage of the total distance that was driven with a speed above the speed limit (PDA), but the subjects relapsed to their previous PDA level in Baseline 2. This suggests that ISA is more suited as a permanent assistive device (i.e. cognitive prosthesis) than as a temporary training device. As ABI is associated with a multitude of cognitive deficits, we developed a conceptual framework, which focused on the cognitive parameters that have been shown to relate to speeding behaviour, namely "intention to speed" and "inattention to speeding". The subjects' combined status on the two independent parameters made up their "speeding profile". A comparison of the speeding profiles and the speed logs indicated that ISA in the present study was more efficient in reducing inattention to speeding than affecting intention to speed. This finding suggests that ISA might be more suited for some neuropsychological profiles than for others, and that customisation of ISA for different neuropsychological profiles may be required

  5. Effectiveness of a Very Early Stepping Verticalization Protocol in Severe Acquired Brain Injured Patients: A Randomized Pilot Study in ICU

    PubMed Central

    Bonini, Sara; Maffia, Sara; Molatore, Katia; Sebastianelli, Luca; Zarucchi, Alessio; Matteri, Diana; Ercoli, Giuseppe; Maestri, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Verticalization was reported to improve the level of arousal and awareness in patients with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) and to be safe in ICU. We evaluated the effectiveness of a very early stepping verticalization protocol on their functional and neurological outcome. Methods Consecutive patients with Vegetative State or Minimally Conscious State were enrolled in ICU on the third day after an ABI. They were randomized to undergo conventional physiotherapy alone or associated to fifteen 30-minute sessions of verticalization, using a tilt table with robotic stepping device. Once stabilized, patients were transferred to our Neurorehabilitation unit for an individualized treatment. Outcome measures (Glasgow Coma Scale, Coma Recovery Scale revised -CRSr-, Disability Rating Scale–DRS- and Levels of Cognitive Functioning) were assessed on the third day from the injury (T0), at ICU discharge (T1) and at Rehab discharge (T2). Between- and within-group comparisons were performed by the Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test, respectively. Results Of the 40 patients enrolled, 31 completed the study without adverse events (15 in the verticalization group and 16 in the conventional physiotherapy). Early verticalization started 12.4±7.3 (mean±SD) days after ABI. The length of stay in ICU was longer for the verticalization group (38.8 ± 15.7 vs 25.1 ± 11.2 days, p = 0.01), while the total length of stay (ICU+Neurorehabilitation) was not significantly different (153.2 ± 59.6 vs 134.0 ± 61.0 days, p = 0.41). All outcome measures significantly improved in both groups after the overall period (T2 vs T0, p<0.001 all), as well as after ICU stay (T1 vs T0, p<0.004 all) and after Neurorehabilitation (T2 vs T1, p<0.004 all). The improvement was significantly better in the experimental group for CRSr (T2-T0 p = 0.033, T1-T0 p = 0.006) and (borderline) for DRS (T2-T0 p = 0.040, T1-T0 p = 0.058). Conclusions A stepping verticalization

  6. Screening for Developmental Neurotoxicants using In Vitro "Brain on a Chip" Cultures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently there are thousands of chemicals in the environment that have not been screened for their potential to cause developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). The use of microelectrode array (MEA) technology allows for simultaneous extracellular measurement of action potential (spike)...

  7. Prediction of reading skill several years later depends on age and brain region: implications for developmental models of reading.

    PubMed

    McNorgan, Chris; Alvarez, Aubrey; Bhullar, Annum; Gayda, Jessica; Booth, James R

    2011-06-29

    We investigated whether brain activity was predictive of future reading skill and, if so, how this brain-behavior correlation informs developmental models of reading. A longitudinal study followed 26 normally developing human children ranging in age from 9 to 15 years who were initially assessed for reading skill and performed a rhyming judgment task during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Patterns of brain activation in this task predicted changes between initial and a follow-up assessment of nonword reading skill administered up to 6 years later. Brain activity in areas typically active during imaging studies of reading was found to predict future nonword reading ability, but the predictive ability of these areas depended on age. Increased activity relative to peers in neural circuits associated with phonological recoding (i.e., inferior frontal gyrus and basal ganglia) was predictive of greater gains in reading fluency in younger children, whereas increased activity relative to peers in orthographic processing circuits (i.e., fusiform gyrus) was predictive of smaller gains in fluency for older children. Interpreted within the context of a connectionist model of reading, these results suggest that younger children who are more sensitive to higher-order phonological word characteristics (e.g., coarticulations) may make greater reading proficiency gains, whereas older children who focus more on whole-word orthographic representations may make smaller proficiency gains. PMID:21715629

  8. Margaret Kennard (1899–1975): Not a ‘Principle’ of Brain Plasticity But a Founding Mother of Developmental Neuropsychology

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    According to the ‘Kennard Principle’, there is a negative linear relation between age at brain injury and functional outcome. Other things being equal, the younger the lesioned organism, the better the outcome. But the ‘Kennard Principle’ is neither Kennard’s nor a principle. In her work, Kennard sought to explain the factors that predicted functional outcome (age, to be sure, but also staging, laterality, location, and number of brain lesions, and outcome domain) and the neural mechanisms that altered the lesioned brain’s functionality. This paper discusses Kennard’s life and years at Yale (1931–1943); considers the genesis and scope of her work on early-onset brain lesions, which represents an empirical and theoretical foundation for current developmental neuropsychology; offers an historical explanation of why the ‘Kennard Principle’ emerged in the context of early 1970s work on brain plasticity; shows why uncritical belief in the ‘Kennard Principle’ continues to shape current research and practice; and reviews the continuing importance of her work. PMID:20079891

  9. Brain Responses to Words in 2-Year-Olds with Autism Predict Developmental Outcomes at Age 6

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Patricia K.; Coffey-Corina, Sharon; Padden, Denise; Munson, Jeffrey; Estes, Annette; Dawson, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that affects social behavior and language acquisition. ASD exhibits great variability in outcomes, with some individuals remaining nonverbal and others exhibiting average or above average function. Cognitive ability contributes to heterogeneity in autism and serves as a modest predictor of later function. We show that a brain measure (event-related potentials, ERPs) of word processing in children with ASD, assessed at the age of 2 years (N = 24), is a broad and robust predictor of receptive language, cognitive ability, and adaptive behavior at ages 4 and 6 years, regardless of the form of intensive clinical treatment during the intervening years. The predictive strength of this brain measure increases over time, and exceeds the predictive strength of a measure of cognitive ability, used here for comparison. These findings have theoretical implications and may eventually lead to neural measures that allow early prediction of developmental outcomes as well as more individually tailored clinical interventions, with the potential for greater effectiveness in treating children with ASD. PMID:23734230

  10. Acquired Cerebral Trauma: Epilogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    The article summarizes a series of articles concerning acquired cerebral trauma. Reviewed are technological advances, treatment, assessment, potential innovative therapies, long-term outcome, family impact of chronic brain injury, and prevention. (DB)

  11. Integrating Functional Brain Neuroimaging and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience in Child Psychiatry Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of cognitive neuroscience and functional brain neuroimaging to understand brain dysfunction in pediatric psychiatric disorders is discussed. Results show that bipolar youths demonstrate impairment in affective and cognitive neural systems and in these two circuits' interface. Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric…

  12. ALTERATIONS IN BRAIN PROTEIN KINASE C ISOFORMS FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL MIXTURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    PCBs have been shown to alter several neurochemical end-points and are implicated in the etiology of some neurological diseases. Recent in vivo studies from our laboratory indicated that developmental exposure to a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254, caused perturbations in cal...

  13. Brief Report: Neuroanatomic Observations of the Brain in Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Margaret L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews neuroanatomic studies on syndromes classified as Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Findings in autism and Asperger's syndrome suggest that these two disorders may represent a continuum along a neurobiological spectrum with a common neuroanatomic substrate, while Rett syndrome appears to be clinically and anatomically distinct…

  14. Abnormal Functional Lateralization and Activity of Language Brain Areas in Typical Specific Language Impairment (Developmental Dysphasia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guibert, Clement; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Treguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting…

  15. Mutations in BMP4 Cause Eye, Brain, and Digit Developmental Anomalies: Overlap between the BMP4 and Hedgehog Signaling Pathways

    PubMed Central

    Bakrania, Preeti; Efthymiou, Maria; Klein, Johannes C.; Salt, Alison; Bunyan, David J.; Wyatt, Alex; Ponting, Chris P.; Martin, Angela; Williams, Steven; Lindley, Victoria; Gilmore, Joanne; Restori, Marie; Robson, Anthony G.; Neveu, Magella M.; Holder, Graham E.; Collin, J Richard O.; Robinson, David O.; Farndon, Peter; Johansen-Berg, Heidi; Gerrelli, Dianne; Ragge, Nicola K.

    2008-01-01

    Developmental ocular malformations, including anophthalmia-microphthalmia (AM), are heterogeneous disorders with frequent sporadic or non-Mendelian inheritance. Recurrent interstitial deletions of 14q22-q23 have been associated with AM, sometimes with poly/syndactyly and hypopituitarism. We identify two further cases of AM (one with associated pituitary anomalies) with a 14q22-q23 deletion. Using a positional candidate gene approach, we analyzed the BMP4 (Bone Morphogenetic Protein-4) gene and identified a frameshift mutation (c.226del2, p.S76fs104X) that segregated with AM, retinal dystrophy, myopia, brain anomalies, and polydactyly in a family and a nonconservative missense mutation (c.278A→G, p.E93G) in a highly conserved base in another family. MR imaging and tractography in the c.226del2 proband revealed a primary brain developmental disorder affecting thalamostriatal and callosal pathways, also present in the affected grandmother. Using in situ hybridization in human embryos, we demonstrate expression of BMP4 in optic vesicle, developing retina and lens, pituitary region, and digits strongly supporting BMP4 as a causative gene for AM, pituitary, and poly/syndactyly. Because BMP4 interacts with HH signaling genes in animals, we evaluated gene expression in human embryos and demonstrate cotemporal and cospatial expression of BMP4 and HH signaling genes. We also identified four cases, some of whom had retinal dystrophy, with “low-penetrant” mutations in both BMP4 and HH signaling genes: SHH (Sonic Hedgehog) or PTCH1 (Patched). We propose that BMP4 is a major gene for AM and/or retinal dystrophy and brain anomalies and may be a candidate gene for myopia and poly/syndactyly. Our finding of low-penetrant variants in BMP4 and HH signaling partners is suggestive of an interaction between the two pathways in humans. PMID:18252212

  16. Schizophrenia-risk variant rs6994992 in the neuregulin-1 gene on brain developmental trajectories in typically developing children

    PubMed Central

    Douet, V; Chang, L; Pritchett, A; Lee, K; Keating, B; Bartsch, H; Jernigan, T L; Dale, A; Akshoomoff, N; Murray, S; Bloss, C; Kennedy, D N; Amaral, D; Gruen, J; Kaufmann, W E; Casey, B J; Sowell, E; Ernst, T

    2014-01-01

    The neuregulin-1 (NRG1) gene is one of the best-validated risk genes for schizophrenia, and psychotic and bipolar disorders. The rs6994992 variant in the NRG1 promoter (SNP8NRG243177) is associated with altered frontal and temporal brain macrostructures and/or altered white matter density and integrity in schizophrenic adults, as well as healthy adults and neonates. However, the ages when these changes begin and whether neuroimaging phenotypes are associated with cognitive performance are not fully understood. Therefore, we investigated the association of the rs6994992 variant on developmental trajectories of brain macro- and microstructures, and their relationship with cognitive performance. A total of 972 healthy children aged 3–20 years had the genotype available for the NRG1-rs6994992 variant, and were evaluated with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and neuropsychological tests. Age-by-NRG1-rs6994992 interactions and genotype effects were assessed using a general additive model regression methodology, covaried for scanner type, socioeconomic status, sex and genetic ancestry factors. Compared with the C-carriers, children with the TT-risk-alleles had subtle microscopic and macroscopic changes in brain development that emerge or reverse during adolescence, a period when many psychiatric disorders are manifested. TT-children at late adolescence showed a lower age-dependent forniceal volume and lower fractional anisotropy; however, both measures were associated with better episodic memory performance. To our knowledge, we provide the first multimodal imaging evidence that genetic variation in NRG1 is associated with age-related changes on brain development during typical childhood and adolescence, and delineated the altered patterns of development in multiple brain regions in children with the T-risk allele(s). PMID:24865593

  17. Wide spectrum of developmental brain disorders from megalencephaly to focal cortical dysplasia and pigmentary mosaicism caused by mutations of MTOR

    PubMed Central

    Solovieff, Nadia; Goold, Carleton; Jansen, Laura A.; Menon, Suchithra; Timms, Andrew E.; Conti, Valerio; Biag, Jonathan D.; Adams, Carissa; Boyle, Evan August; Collins, Sarah; Ishak, Gisele; Poliachik, Sandra; Girisha, Katta M.; Yeung, Kit San; Chung, Brian Hon Yin; Rahikkala, Elisa; Gunter, Sonya A.; McDaniel, Sharon S.; Macmurdo, Colleen Forsyth; Bernstein, Jonathan A.; Martin, Beth; Leary, Rebecca; Mahan, Scott; Liu, Shanming; Weaver, Molly; Doerschner, Michael; Jhangiani, Shalini; Muzny, Donna M.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Gibbs, Richard A.; Lupski, James R.; Shendure, Jay; Saneto, Russell P.; Novotny, Edward J.; Wilson, Christopher J.; Sellers, William R.; Morrissey, Michael; Hevner, Robert F.; Ojemann, Jeffrey G.; Guerrini, Renzo; Murphy, Leon O.; Winckler, Wendy; Dobyns, William B.

    2016-01-01

    Importance Focal cortical dysplasia (FCD), hemimegalencephaly (HMEG) and megalencephaly constitute a spectrum of malformations of cortical development with shared neuropathologic features. Collectively, these disorders are associated with significant childhood morbidity and mortality. FCD, in particular, represents the most frequent cause of intractable focal epilepsy in children. Objective To identify the underlying molecular etiology of FCD, HMEG, and diffuse megalencephaly. Design, Setting and Participants We performed whole exome sequencing (WES) on eight children with FCD or HMEG using standard depth (~50-60X) sequencing in peripheral samples (blood, saliva or skin) from the affected child and their parents, and deep (~150-180X) sequencing in affected brain tissue. We used both targeted sequencing and WES to screen a cohort of 93 children with molecularly unexplained diffuse or focal brain overgrowth (42 with FCD-HMEG, and 51 with diffuse megalencephaly). Histopathological and functional assays of PI3K-AKT-MTOR pathway activity in resected brain tissue and cultured neurons were performed to validate mutations. Main Outcomes and Measures Whole exome sequencing and targeted sequencing identified variants associated with this spectrum of developmental brain disorders. Results We identified low-level mosaic mutations of MTOR in brain tissue in four children with FCD type 2a with alternative allele fractions ranging from 0.012–0.086. We also identified intermediate level mosaic mutation of MTOR (p.Thr1977Ile) in three unrelated children with diffuse megalencephaly and pigmentary mosaicism in skin that resembles hypomelanosis of Ito. Finally, we identified a constitutional de novo mutation of MTOR (p.Glu1799Lys) in three unrelated children with diffuse megalencephaly and intellectual disability. Molecular and functional analysis in two children with FCD type 2a from whom multiple affected brain tissue samples were available revealed a gradient of alternate allele

  18. CD4+ T cell-dependent acquired state of immunity that protects the brain against Cryptococcus neoformans.

    PubMed

    Hill, J O; Aguirre, K M

    1994-03-01

    In immunodeficient hosts, a failure in defense mechanisms allows Cryptococcus neoformans to establish foci of infection in the brain. Immune and nonspecific responses in the primary site of infection in the lung have been described, but those extrapulmonary defense mechanisms that can be mobilized against the yeast have received little attention. This paper describes a response expressed against yeast in the brain of immunocompetent hosts, a response that is weakened in hosts deficient in CD4+ T cells. When a small number of yeast gain access to the vasculature, for example through an i.v. injection, about 0.1% establish themselves in the brain. Normal mice but not SCID mice have the capacity to suppress the multiplication of these yeast cells. The host response is accelerated in mice that are recovering from a primary lung infection, resulting in long term survival without antibiotic chemotherapy. This response is ablated by anti-CD4 mAb treatment and CD4+ cells obtained from infected primed donors are needed to confer immunity on SCID recipients. The critical target for the anti-Cryptococcus immune response are yeast in the brain cortex. However, rather than preventing the colonization of the brain by blood-borne yeast, immunity apparently serves to restrict the growth of yeast in a small number of established foci.

  19. Developmental programming of brain and behavior by perinatal diet: focus on inflammatory mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Bolton, Jessica L; Bilbo, Staci D

    2014-09-01

    Obesity is now epidemic worldwide. Beyond associated diseases such as diabetes, obesity is linked to neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. Alarmingly maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption during gestation/lactation may "program" offspring longterm for increased obesity themselves, along with increased vulnerability to mood disorders. We review the evidence that programming of brain and behavior by perinatal diet is propagated by inflammatory mechanisms, as obesity and high-fat diets are independently associated with exaggerated systemic levels of inflammatory mediators. Due to the recognized dual role of these immune molecules (eg, interleukin [IL]-6, 11-1β) in placental function and brain development, any disruption of their delicate balance with growth factors or neurotransmitters (eg, serotonin) by inflammation early in life can permanently alter the trajectory of fetal brain development. Finally, epigenetic regulation of inflammatory pathways is a likely candidate for persistent changes in metabolic and brain function as a consequence of the perinatal environment.

  20. Developmental programming of brain and behavior by perinatal diet: focus on inflammatory mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Bolton, Jessica L.; Bilbo, Staci D.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is now epidemic worldwide. Beyond associated diseases such as diabetes, obesity is linked to neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression. Alarmingly maternal obesity and high-fat diet consumption during gestation/lactation may “program” offspring longterm for increased obesity themselves, along with increased vulnerability to mood disorders. We review the evidence that programming of brain and behavior by perinatal diet is propagated by inflammatory mechanisms, as obesity and high-fat diets are independently associated with exaggerated systemic levels of inflammatory mediators. Due to the recognized dual role of these immune molecules (eg, interleukin [IL]-6, 11-1β) in placental function and brain development, any disruption of their delicate balance with growth factors or neurotransmitters (eg, serotonin) by inflammation early in life can permanently alter the trajectory of fetal brain development. Finally, epigenetic regulation of inflammatory pathways is a likely candidate for persistent changes in metabolic and brain function as a consequence of the perinatal environment. PMID:25364282

  1. Evidence from imaging on the relationship between brain structure and developmental language disorders.

    PubMed

    Semrud-Clikeman, M

    1997-06-01

    This article discusses findings using various imaging techniques regarding the neurological underpinnings of developmental language and learning disorders. Evidence from magnetic resonance imaging, functional magnetic resonance imaging, single photon emission spectroscopy, and positron emission tomography implicates the left perisylvian regions in the processing of phonemes and auditory information, as had been predicted from lesion data and from neurobiological theory. The areas of the planum temporale and angular gyrus have been found to be compromised in children and adults with dyslexia or language impairment. Emerging evidence suggests that these differences are also present in members of families with a history of developmental language disorders, which provides support for a transmittable, biological factor involved in such disorders. Dynamic imaging procedures are beginning to provide an understanding of the relationship between structure and function in normal and abnormal language acquisition.

  2. Narrative Medicine: Suggestions for Clinicians to Help Their Clients Construct a New Identity Following Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraas, Michael R.

    2015-01-01

    Survivors of brain injury from trauma and stroke often lose their sense of identity and face a series of lifelong obstacles that challenge their ability to integrate back into their communities and live meaningful and productive lives. Their stories provide powerful accounts of these challenges, which can inform clinical decision-making. Arguably,…

  3. Dilemmas in auditory assessment of developmentally retarded children using behavioural observation audiometry and brain stem evoked response audiometry.

    PubMed

    Rupa, V

    1995-07-01

    The records of 94 consecutive developmentally retarded children with speech retardation and suspected hearing loss who underwent auditory assessment by both conventional behavioural observation audiometry (BOA) and brain stem evoked response audiometry (BERA) were analysed. In 54 children (57.4 per cent) there was good agreement between the results of both techniques leading to a clearcut diagnosis. In 22 children a diagnosis was possible only by the results of BERA as the results of BOA were inconclusive. Of the remaining 18 children, two groups could be identified whose results posed a dilemma. Group 1 (n = 7) consisted of children whose BOA test results differed considerably from their BERA results. Group 2 (n = 11) consisted of children in whom there was no discernible response by BERA while the response by BOA was either inconsistent (n = 5) or not elicitable (n = 6). The specific strategies to be adopted for hearing assessment in these situations are discussed.

  4. High Fat Diet Induced Developmental Defects in the Mouse: Oocyte Meiotic Aneuploidy and Fetal Growth Retardation/Brain Defects

    PubMed Central

    Purcell, Scott H.; Chi, Maggie; Jimenez, Patricia T.; Grindler, Natalia; Schedl, Tim; Moley, Kelle H.

    2012-01-01

    Background Maternal obesity is associated with poor outcomes across the reproductive spectrum including infertility, increased time to pregnancy, early pregnancy loss, fetal loss, congenital abnormalities and neonatal conditions. Furthermore, the proportion of reproductive-aged woman that are obese in the population is increasing sharply. From current studies it is not clear if the origin of the reproductive complications is attributable to problems that arise in the oocyte or the uterine environment. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined the developmental basis of the reproductive phenotypes in obese animals by employing a high fat diet mouse model of obesity. We analyzed very early embryonic and fetal phenotypes, which can be parsed into three abnormal developmental processes that occur in obese mothers. The first is oocyte meiotic aneuploidy that then leads to early embryonic loss. The second is an abnormal process distinct from meiotic aneuploidy that also leads to early embryonic loss. The third is fetal growth retardation and brain developmental abnormalities, which based on embryo transfer experiments are not due to the obese uterine environment but instead must be from a defect that arises prior to the blastocyst stage. Conclusions/Significance Our results suggest that reproductive complications in obese females are, at least in part, from oocyte maternal effects. This conclusion is consistent with IVF studies where the increased pregnancy failure rate in obese women returns to the normal rate if donor oocytes are used instead of autologous oocytes. We postulate that preconceptional weight gain adversely affects pregnancy outcomes and fetal development. In light of our findings, preconceptional counseling may be indicated as the preferable, earlier target for intervention in obese women desiring pregnancy and healthy outcomes. PMID:23152876

  5. Developmental fluoxetine exposure and prenatal stress alter sexual differentiation of the brain and reproductive behavior in male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Rayen, Ine; Steinbusch, Harry W M; Charlier, Thierry D; Pawluski, Jodi L

    2013-09-01

    Depression during pregnancy and postpartum is a significant health problem and affects up to 20% of women. While selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) medications are the drug of choice for treatment of maternal depression, the combined effect of maternal depression and perinatal SSRI exposure on offspring development is poorly investigated. Our aim was to determine the role of exposure to fluoxetine during development on sexual behavior and sexually dimorphic brain structures in male offspring using a rodent model of maternal adversity. Sprague-Dawley rat dams were stressed during gestation and were chronically treated throughout lactation with either fluoxetine or vehicle beginning on postnatal day 1. Four groups of offspring were used: (1) Control+Vehicle, (2) Control+Fluoxetine, (3) Prenatal Stress+Vehicle, and (4) Prenatal Stress+Fluoxetine. We show here that developmental fluoxetine treatment decreases the anogenital distance in juvenile male offspring. In adult male offspring, maternal fluoxetine treatment results in a decrease in the number of intromissions, a longer latency to the first intromission, and a longer latency to the first ejaculation. Furthermore, developmental fluoxetine and/or prenatal stress decrease the area of the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the preoptic area (SDN-POA). Prenatal stress, but not exposure to developmental fluoxetine, decreases the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells in anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPv) and the volume of the posterior bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (pBST) in male offspring. These results provide important evidence for the long-term impact of maternal adversity and maternal fluoxetine use on the development of primary endocrinology systems in juvenile and adult male offspring.

  6. Developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Shalev, R S; Gross-Tsur, V

    2001-05-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is a specific learning disability affecting the acquisition of arithmetic skills in an otherwise-normal child. Although poor teaching, environmental deprivation, and low intelligence have been implicated in the etiology of developmental dyscalculia, current data indicate that this learning disability is a brain-based disorder with a familial-genetic predisposition. The neurologic substrate of developmental dyscalculia is thought to involve both hemispheres, particularly the left parietotemporal areas. Developmental dyscalculia is a common cognitive handicap; its prevalence in the school population is about 5-6%, a frequency similar to those of developmental dyslexia and attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Unlike these, however, it is as common in females as in males. Developmental dyscalculia frequently is encountered in neurologic disorders, examples of which include attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder, developmental language disorder, epilepsy, and fragile X syndrome. The long-term prognosis of developmental dyscalculia is unknown; it appears, however, to persist, at least for the short-term, in about half of affected preteen children. The consequences of developmental dyscalculia and its impact on education, employment, and psychologic well-being of affected individuals are unknown. PMID:11516606

  7. Fully automated rodent brain MR image processing pipeline on a Midas server: from acquired images to region-based statistics

    PubMed Central

    Budin, Francois; Hoogstoel, Marion; Reynolds, Patrick; Grauer, Michael; O'Leary-Moore, Shonagh K.; Oguz, Ipek

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of rodent brains enables study of the development and the integrity of the brain under certain conditions (alcohol, drugs etc.). However, these images are difficult to analyze for biomedical researchers with limited image processing experience. In this paper we present an image processing pipeline running on a Midas server, a web-based data storage system. It is composed of the following steps: rigid registration, skull-stripping, average computation, average parcellation, parcellation propagation to individual subjects, and computation of region-based statistics on each image. The pipeline is easy to configure and requires very little image processing knowledge. We present results obtained by processing a data set using this pipeline and demonstrate how this pipeline can be used to find differences between populations. PMID:23964234

  8. Internally and externally generated emotions in people with acquired brain injury: preservation of emotional experience after right hemisphere lesions.

    PubMed

    Salas Riquelme, Christian E; Radovic, Darinka; Castro, Osvaldo; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2015-01-01

    The study of emotional changes after brain injury has contributed enormously to the understanding of the neural basis of emotion. However, little attention has been placed on the methods used to elicit emotional responses in people with brain damage. Of particular interest are subjects with right hemisphere [RH] cortical lesions, who have been described as presenting impairment in emotional processing. In this article, an internal and external mood induction procedure [MIP] was used to trigger positive and negative emotions, in a sample of 10 participants with RH damage, and 15 healthy controls. Emotional experience was registered by using a self-report questionnaire. As observed in previous studies, internal and external MIPs were equally effective in eliciting the target emotion, but the internal procedure generated higher levels of intensity. Remarkably, participants with RH lesions were equally able to experience both positive and negative affect. The results are discussed in relation to the role of the RH in the capacity to experience negative emotions.

  9. Functional cliques in the amygdala and related brain networks driven by fear assessment acquired during movie viewing.

    PubMed

    Kinreich, Sivan; Intrator, Nathan; Hendler, Talma

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges involved in studying the brain mechanisms of fear is capturing the individual's unique instantaneous experience. Brain imaging studies to date commonly sacrifice valuable information regarding the individual real-time conscious experience, especially when focusing on elucidating the amygdala's activity. Here, we assumed that by using a minimally intrusive cue along with applying a robust clustering approach to probe the amygdala, it would be possible to rate fear in real time and to derive the related network of activation. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, healthy volunteers viewed two excerpts from horror movies and were periodically auditory cued to rate their instantaneous experience of "I'm scared." Using graph theory and community mathematical concepts, data-driven clustering of the fear-related functional cliques in the amygdala was performed guided by the individually marked periods of heightened fear. Individually tailored functions derived from these amygdala activation cliques were subsequently applied as general linear model predictors to a whole-brain analysis to reveal the correlated networks. Our results suggest that by using a localized robust clustering approach, it is possible to probe activation in the right dorsal amygdala that is directly related to individual real-time emotional experience. Moreover, this fear-evoked amygdala revealed two opposing networks of co-activation and co-deactivation, which correspond to vigilance and rest-related circuits, respectively.

  10. Functional cliques in the amygdala and related brain networks driven by fear assessment acquired during movie viewing.

    PubMed

    Kinreich, Sivan; Intrator, Nathan; Hendler, Talma

    2011-01-01

    One of the greatest challenges involved in studying the brain mechanisms of fear is capturing the individual's unique instantaneous experience. Brain imaging studies to date commonly sacrifice valuable information regarding the individual real-time conscious experience, especially when focusing on elucidating the amygdala's activity. Here, we assumed that by using a minimally intrusive cue along with applying a robust clustering approach to probe the amygdala, it would be possible to rate fear in real time and to derive the related network of activation. During functional magnetic resonance imaging scanning, healthy volunteers viewed two excerpts from horror movies and were periodically auditory cued to rate their instantaneous experience of "I'm scared." Using graph theory and community mathematical concepts, data-driven clustering of the fear-related functional cliques in the amygdala was performed guided by the individually marked periods of heightened fear. Individually tailored functions derived from these amygdala activation cliques were subsequently applied as general linear model predictors to a whole-brain analysis to reveal the correlated networks. Our results suggest that by using a localized robust clustering approach, it is possible to probe activation in the right dorsal amygdala that is directly related to individual real-time emotional experience. Moreover, this fear-evoked amygdala revealed two opposing networks of co-activation and co-deactivation, which correspond to vigilance and rest-related circuits, respectively. PMID:22432905

  11. Emotion Regulation in the Brain: Conceptual Issues and Directions for Developmental Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Marc D.; Stieben, Jim

    2004-01-01

    Emotion regulation cannot be temporally distinguished from emotion in the brain, but activation patterns in prefrontal cortex appear to mediate cognitive control during emotion episodes. Frontal event-related potentials (ERPs) can tap cognitive control hypothetically mediated by the anterior cingulate cortex, and developmentalists have used these…

  12. Quantitative analysis of brain nuclear phosphoproteins identifies developmentally regulated phosphorylation events.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lujian; McClatchy, Daniel B; Park, Sung Kyu; Xu, Tao; Lu, Bingwen; Yates, John R

    2008-11-01

    Protein phosphorylation is a globally adopted and tightly controlled post-translational modification, and represents one of the most important molecular switching mechanisms that govern the entire spectrum of biological processes. In the central nervous system, it has been demonstrated that phosphorylation of key proteins mediating chromatin remodeling and gene transcription plays an important role controlling brain development, synaptogenesis, learning and memory. Many studies have focused on large scale identification of phosphopeptides in brain tissue. These studies have identified phosphorylation site specific motifs useful for predicting protein kinase substrates. In this study, we applied a previously developed quantitative approach, stable isotope labeling of amino acids in mammals (SILAM), to quantify changes in the phosphorylation of nuclear proteins between a postnatal day one (p1) and a p45 rat brain cortex. Using a 15N labeled rat brain as an internal standard, we quantified 705 phosphopeptides in the p1 cortex and 1477 phosphopeptides in the p45 cortex, which translates to 380 and 585 phosphoproteins in p1 and p45 cortex, respectively. Bioinformatic analysis of the differentially modified phosphoproteins revealed that phosphorylation is upregulated on multiple components of chromatin remodeling complexes in the p1 cortex. Taken together, we demonstrated for the first time the usefulness of employing stable isotope labeled rat tissue for global quantitative phosphorylation analysis.

  13. Brain Connectivity in Non-Reading Impaired Children and Children Diagnosed with Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odegard, Timothy N.; Farris, Emily A.; Ring, Jeremiah; McColl, Roderick; Black, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) was used to investigate the relationship between white matter and reading abilities in reading impaired and non-reading impaired children. Seventeen children (7 non-reading impaired, 10 reading impaired) participated in this study. DTI was performed with 2 mm isotropic resolution to cover the entire brain along 30…

  14. Discussion of Developmental Plasticity: Factors Affecting Cognitive Outcome after Pediatric Traumatic Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Sandra Bond; McKinnon, Lyn

    2000-01-01

    This article discusses psychobiological factors that affect recovery after traumatic brain injury in children and adolescents, including biological pathophysiology of the injury, the cognitive stage of the child at injury, the amount of time after injury, the challenge level of tasks, and the child's reserve of psychosocial resources. (Contains…

  15. GFAPδ Expression in Glia of the Developmental and Adolescent Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    Mamber, Carlyn; Kamphuis, Willem; Haring, Nina L.; Peprah, Nuzrat; Middeldorp, Jinte; Hol, Elly M.

    2012-01-01

    Glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) is the major intermediate filament (IF) protein in astrocytes. In the human brain, GFAP isoforms have unique expression patterns, which indicate that they play distinct functional roles. One isoform, GFAPδ, is expressed by proliferative radial glia in the developing human brain. In the adult human, GFAPδ is a marker for neural stem cells. However, it is unknown whether GFAPδ marks the same population of radial glia and astrocytes in the developing mouse brain as it does in the developing human brain. This study characterizes the expression pattern of GFAPδ throughout mouse embryogenesis and into adolescence. Gfapδ transcripts are expressed from E12, but immunohistochemistry shows GFAPδ staining only from E18. This finding suggests a translational uncoupling. GFAPδ expression increases from E18 to P5 and then decreases until its expression plateaus around P25. During development, GFAPδ is expressed by radial glia, as denoted by the co-expression of markers like vimentin and nestin. GFAPδ is also expressed in other astrocytic populations during development. A similar pattern is observed in the adolescent mouse, where GFAPδ marks both neural stem cells and mature astrocytes. Interestingly, the Gfapδ/Gfapα transcript ratio remains stable throughout development as well as in primary astrocyte and neurosphere cultures. These data suggest that all astroglia cells in the developing and adolescent mouse brain express GFAPδ, regardless of their neurogenic capabilities. GFAPδ may be an integral component of all mouse astrocytes, but it is not a specific neural stem cell marker in mice as it is in humans. PMID:23285135

  16. Developmental changes in brain activation involved in the production of novel speech sounds in children.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sugiura, Motoaki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-08-01

    Older children are more successful at producing unfamiliar, non-native speech sounds than younger children during the initial stages of learning. To reveal the neuronal underpinning of the age-related increase in the accuracy of non-native speech production, we examined the developmental changes in activation involved in the production of novel speech sounds using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Healthy right-handed children (aged 6-18 years) were scanned while performing an overt repetition task and a perceptual task involving aurally presented non-native and native syllables. Productions of non-native speech sounds were recorded and evaluated by native speakers. The mouth regions in the bilateral primary sensorimotor areas were activated more significantly during the repetition task relative to the perceptual task. The hemodynamic response in the left inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis (IFG pOp) specific to non-native speech sound production (defined by prior hypothesis) increased with age. Additionally, the accuracy of non-native speech sound production increased with age. These results provide the first evidence of developmental changes in the neural processes underlying the production of novel speech sounds. Our data further suggest that the recruitment of the left IFG pOp during the production of novel speech sounds was possibly enhanced due to the maturation of the neuronal circuits needed for speech motor planning. This, in turn, would lead to improvement in the ability to immediately imitate non-native speech.

  17. Developmental aspects of the intracerebral microvasculature and perivascular spaces: insights into brain response to late-life diseases.

    PubMed

    Marín-Padilla, Miguel; Knopman, David S

    2011-12-01

    The development of the microvasculature of the human cerebral cortex offers insight into the response of the cerebral cortex to later-life brain injury. We describe the 3 basic and distinct components of the developmental anatomy of the cerebral cortical microvascular system. The first compartment is meningeal and, therefore, extracerebral. In addition to the major venous sinuses, arachnoidal arteries, and veins, the pial anastomotic capillary plexus that covers the surface of the developing and adult cerebral cortex represents the source of thepenetrating vessels that become the second component, the intracerebral extrinsic microvascular compartment. During embryogenesis, sprouting vascular elements from pial capillaries pierce the brain's external glial limiting membrane and penetrate the cortex. These vessels, which eventually differentiate into arterioles and venules, are separated from the cortical tissue by the extravascular Virchow-Robin compartment (V-RC) formed between the internal vascular and the external glial basal laminae. The V-RC remains open to the meningeal interstitial spaces and outside the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and acts asa prelymphatic drainage system for removal of substances that cannot be transported into the blood or catabolized intracellularly. The third element is the dense intracerebralintrinsic microvascular compartment. Intracerebral capillary vessels sprout from the perforating vessels, penetrate through the Virchow-Robin glial membrane, and enter the neuropil. Intracerebral capillaries lack smooth muscle and a V-RC and consist only of endothelial cells separated from the intracerebral space by a basal lamina. Their role as the physiological BBB is the exchange of oxygen, glucose, and small molecules. This developmental perspective highlights 3 principles: (a) the V-RC is intimately related to the cortical penetrating arterioles and venules and represents an inefficient protolymphatic system that lacks the anatomic and

  18. Mental retardation genes in drosophila: New approaches to understanding and treating developmental brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Restifo, Linda L

    2005-01-01

    Drosophila melanogaster is emerging as a valuable genetic model system for the study of mental retardation (MR). MR genes are remarkably similar between humans and fruit flies. Cognitive behavioral assays can detect reductions in learning and memory in flies with mutations in MR genes. Neuroanatomical methods, including some at single-neuron resolution, are helping to reveal the cellular bases of faulty brain development caused by MR gene mutations. Drosophila fragile X mental retardation 1 (dfmr1) is the fly counterpart of the human gene whose malfunction causes fragile X syndrome. Research on the fly gene is leading the field in molecular mechanisms of the gene product's biological function and in pharmacological rescue of brain and behavioral phenotypes. Future work holds the promise of using genetic pathway analysis and primary neuronal culture methods in Drosophila as tools for drug discovery for a wide range of MR and related disorders. PMID:16240406

  19. Inflammatory-induced hibernation in the fetus: priming of fetal sheep metabolism correlates with developmental brain injury.

    PubMed

    Keller, Matthias; Enot, David P; Hodson, Mark P; Igwe, Emeka I; Deigner, Hans-Peter; Dean, Justin; Bolouri, Hayde; Hagberg, Henrik; Mallard, Carina

    2011-01-01

    Prenatal inflammation is considered an important factor contributing to preterm birth and neonatal mortality and morbidity. The impact of prenatal inflammation on fetal bioenergetic status and the correlation of specific metabolites to inflammatory-induced developmental brain injury are unknown. We used a global metabolomics approach to examine plasma metabolites differentially regulated by intrauterine inflammation. Preterm-equivalent sheep fetuses were randomized to i.v. bolus infusion of either saline-vehicle or LPS. Blood samples were collected at baseline 2 h, 6 h and daily up to 10 days for metabolite quantification. Animals were killed at 10 days after LPS injection, and brain injury was assessed by histopathology. We detected both acute and delayed effects of LPS on fetal metabolism, with a long-term down-regulation of fetal energy metabolism. Within the first 3 days after LPS, 121 metabolites were up-regulated or down-regulated. A transient phase (4-6 days), in which metabolite levels recovered to baseline, was followed by a second phase marked by an opposing down-regulation of energy metabolites, increased pO(2) and increased markers of inflammation and ADMA. The characteristics of the metabolite response to LPS in these two phases, defined as 2 h to 2 days and at 6-9 days, respectively, were strongly correlated with white and grey matter volumes at 10 days recovery. Based on these results we propose a novel concept of inflammatory-induced hibernation of the fetus. Inflammatory priming of fetal metabolism correlated with measures of brain injury, suggesting potential for future biomarker research and the identification of therapeutic targets. PMID:22242129

  20. Altered Brain Function, Structure, and Developmental Trajectory in Children Born Late Preterm

    PubMed Central

    Brumbaugh, Jane E.; Conrad, Amy L.; Lee, Jessica K.; DeVolder, Ian J.; Zimmerman, M. Bridget; Magnotta, Vincent A.; Axelson, Eric D.; Nopoulos, Peggy C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Late preterm birth (34-36 weeks’ gestation) is a common occurrence with potential for altered brain development. Methods This observational cohort study compared children at age 6-13 years based on the presence or absence of the historical risk factor of late preterm birth. Children completed a battery of cognitive assessments and underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain. Results Late preterm children (n=52) demonstrated slower processing speed (p=0.035) and scored more poorly in visual-spatial perception (p=0.032) and memory (p=0.007) than full term children (n=74). Parents of late preterm children reported more behavioral difficulty (p=0.004). There were no group differences in cognitive ability or academic achievement. Imaging revealed similar intracranial volumes but less total tissue and more cerebrospinal fluid (p=0.004) for late preterm children compared to full term children. The tissue difference was driven by differences in the cerebrum (p=0.028) and distributed across cortical (p=0.051) and subcortical tissue (p=0.047). Late preterm children had a relatively smaller thalamus (p=0.012) than full term children. Only full term children demonstrated significant decreases in cortical tissue volume (p<0.001) and thickness (p<0.001) with age. Conclusion Late preterm birth may affect cognition, behavior, and brain structure well beyond infancy. PMID:27064239

  1. Internally and externally generated emotions in people with acquired brain injury: preservation of emotional experience after right hemisphere lesions.

    PubMed

    Salas Riquelme, Christian E; Radovic, Darinka; Castro, Osvaldo; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2015-01-01

    The study of emotional changes after brain injury has contributed enormously to the understanding of the neural basis of emotion. However, little attention has been placed on the methods used to elicit emotional responses in people with brain damage. Of particular interest are subjects with right hemisphere [RH] cortical lesions, who have been described as presenting impairment in emotional processing. In this article, an internal and external mood induction procedure [MIP] was used to trigger positive and negative emotions, in a sample of 10 participants with RH damage, and 15 healthy controls. Emotional experience was registered by using a self-report questionnaire. As observed in previous studies, internal and external MIPs were equally effective in eliciting the target emotion, but the internal procedure generated higher levels of intensity. Remarkably, participants with RH lesions were equally able to experience both positive and negative affect. The results are discussed in relation to the role of the RH in the capacity to experience negative emotions. PMID:25762951

  2. Internally and externally generated emotions in people with acquired brain injury: preservation of emotional experience after right hemisphere lesions

    PubMed Central

    Salas Riquelme, Christian E.; Radovic, Darinka; Castro, Osvaldo; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2015-01-01

    The study of emotional changes after brain injury has contributed enormously to the understanding of the neural basis of emotion. However, little attention has been placed on the methods used to elicit emotional responses in people with brain damage. Of particular interest are subjects with right hemisphere [RH] cortical lesions, who have been described as presenting impairment in emotional processing. In this article, an internal and external mood induction procedure [MIP] was used to trigger positive and negative emotions, in a sample of 10 participants with RH damage, and 15 healthy controls. Emotional experience was registered by using a self-report questionnaire. As observed in previous studies, internal and external MIPs were equally effective in eliciting the target emotion, but the internal procedure generated higher levels of intensity. Remarkably, participants with RH lesions were equally able to experience both positive and negative affect. The results are discussed in relation to the role of the RH in the capacity to experience negative emotions. PMID:25762951

  3. Gliotransmitter Release from Astrocytes: Functional, Developmental, and Pathological Implications in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Harada, Kazuki; Kamiya, Taichi; Tsuboi, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    Astrocytes comprise a large population of cells in the brain and are important partners to neighboring neurons, vascular cells, and other glial cells. Astrocytes not only form a scaffold for other cells, but also extend foot processes around the capillaries to maintain the blood–brain barrier. Thus, environmental chemicals that exist in the blood stream could have potentially harmful effects on the physiological function of astrocytes. Although astrocytes are not electrically excitable, they have been shown to function as active participants in the development of neural circuits and synaptic activity. Astrocytes respond to neurotransmitters and contribute to synaptic information processing by releasing chemical transmitters called “gliotransmitters.” State-of-the-art optical imaging techniques enable us to clarify how neurotransmitters elicit the release of various gliotransmitters, including glutamate, D-serine, and ATP. Moreover, recent studies have demonstrated that the disruption of gliotransmission results in neuronal dysfunction and abnormal behaviors in animal models. In this review, we focus on the latest technical approaches to clarify the molecular mechanisms of gliotransmitter exocytosis, and discuss the possibility that exposure to environmental chemicals could alter gliotransmission and cause neurodevelopmental disorders. PMID:26793048

  4. Developmental and degenerative modulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcript variants in the mouse hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinwook; Yang, Miyoung; Kim, Juhwan; Song, Lina; Lee, Sueun; Son, Yeonghoon; Kang, Sohi; Bae, Chun-Sik; Kim, Jong-Choon; Kim, Sung-Ho; Shin, Taekyun; Wang, Hongbing; Moon, Changjong

    2014-11-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is regarded as an important factor for neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, and neuronal network organization in brain circuits. However, little is known about the regulation of BDNF transcript variants in the hippocampus during postnatal development and following chemically induced neurotoxicity. In the present study, we examined the expression of individual BDNF transcript variants in the mouse hippocampus on postnatal day (PD) 3, 7, 14, 21, and 56, as well as in the adult hippocampus 1, 2, 4, and 8 days after trimethyltin (TMT) treatment. During postnatal development, the expression levels of common BDNF-coding transcripts and BDNF transcript variants increased gradually in the hippocampus, but the temporal patterns of each exon transcript showed significant differences. In the TMT-treated hippocampus, the levels of common BDNF-coding transcripts and exon I, IIC, III, VII, VIII, and IXA transcripts were significantly increased 1 day post-treatment. These observations suggest that the differential regulation of BDNF exon transcripts may be associated with neuronal and synaptic maturation during postnatal development, and neuronal survival and synaptic plasticity in chemically induced neurodegeneration.

  5. Further developments in summarising and meta-analysing single-case data: An illustration with neurobehavioural interventions in acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Manolov, Rumen; Rochat, Lucien

    2015-01-01

    Data analysis for single-case designs is an issue that has prompted many researchers to propose a variety of alternatives, including use of randomisation tests, regression-based procedures, and standardised mean difference. Another option consists in computing unstandardised or raw differences between conditions: the changes in slope and in level, or the difference between the projected baseline (including trend) and the actual treatment phase measurements. Apart from the strengths of these procedures (potentially easier interpretation clinically, separate estimations and an overall quantification of effects, reasonable performance), they require further development, such as (a) creating extensions for dealing with methodologically strong designs such as multiple baseline, (b) achieving comparability across studies and making possible meta-analytical integrations, and (c) implementing software for the extensions. The proposals are illustrated herein in the context of a meta-analysis of 28 studies on (neuro)behavioural interventions in adults who have challenging behaviours after acquired brain injury.

  6. Large-Volume Reconstruction of Brain Tissue from High-Resolution Serial Section Images Acquired by SEM-Based Scanning Transmission Electron Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Kuwajima, Masaaki; Mendenhall, John M.; Harris, Kristen M.

    2013-01-01

    With recent improvements in instrumentation and computational tools, serial section electron microscopy has become increasingly straightforward. A new method for imaging ultrathin serial sections is developed based on a field emission scanning electron microscope fitted with a transmitted electron detector. This method is capable of automatically acquiring high-resolution serial images with a large field size and very little optical and physical distortions. In this chapter, we describe the procedures leading to the generation and analyses of a large-volume stack of high-resolution images (64 μm × 64 μm × 10 μm, or larger, at 2 nm pixel size), including how to obtain large-area serial sections of uniform thickness from well-preserved brain tissue that is rapidly perfusion-fixed with mixed aldehydes, processed with a microwave-enhanced method, and embedded into epoxy resin. PMID:23086880

  7. Large-volume reconstruction of brain tissue from high-resolution serial section images acquired by SEM-based scanning transmission electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Kuwajima, Masaaki; Mendenhall, John M; Harris, Kristen M

    2013-01-01

    With recent improvements in instrumentation and computational tools, serial section electron microscopy has become increasingly straightforward. A new method for imaging ultrathin serial sections is developed based on a field emission scanning electron microscope fitted with a transmitted electron detector. This method is capable of automatically acquiring high-resolution serial images with a large field size and very little optical and physical distortions. In this chapter, we describe the procedures leading to the generation and analyses of a large-volume stack of high-resolution images (64 μm × 64 μm × 10 μm, or larger, at 2 nm pixel size), including how to obtain large-area serial sections of uniform thickness from well-preserved brain tissue that is rapidly perfusion-fixed with mixed aldehydes, processed with a microwave-enhanced method, and embedded into epoxy resin.

  8. Developmental lead effects on behavior and brain gene expression in male and female BALB/cAnNTac mice.

    PubMed

    Kasten-Jolly, Jane; Pabello, Nina; Bolivar, Valerie J; Lawrence, David A

    2012-10-01

    Lead (Pb) was one of the first poisons identified, and the developing nervous system is particularly vulnerable to its toxic effects. Relatively low, subclinical doses, of Pb that produce no overt signs of encephalopathy can affect cognitive, emotional, and motor functions. In the present study, the effects of developmental Pb-exposure on behavioral performance and gene expression in BALB/cAnNTac mice were evaluated. Pups were exposed to Pb from gestational-day (gd) 8 to postnatal-day (pnd) 21 and later evaluated in exploratory behavior, rotarod, Morris water maze, and resident-intruder assays as adults. Pb-exposure caused significant alterations in exploratory behavior and water maze performance during the probe trial, but rotarod performance was not affected. Pb-exposed males displayed violent behavior towards their cage mates, but not to a stranger in the resident-intruder assay. Gene expression analysis at pnd21 by microarray and qRT-PCR was performed to provide a molecular link to the behavior changes that were observed. Pb strongly up-regulated gene expression within the signaling pathways of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), extra-cellular matrix (ECM) receptor, focal adhesion, and vascular endothelial growth-factor (VEGF), but Pb down-regulated gene expression within the pathways for glycan structures-biosynthesis 1, purine metabolism, and N-glycan biosynthesis. Pb increased transcription of genes for major histocompatibility (MHC) proteins, the chemokine Ccl28, chemokine receptors, IL-7, IL7R, and proteases. The qRT-PCR analysis indicated an increase of gene expression in the whole brain for caspase 1 and NOS2. Analysis of IL-1β, caspase 1, NOS2, Trail, IL-18 and IL-33 gene expression of brain regions indicated that Pb perturbed the inter-regional expression pattern of pro-inflammatory genes. Brain region protein concentrations for IL-10, an anti-inflammatory cytokine, showed a significant decrease only within the cortex region. Results indicate

  9. Ecologically valid assessment of executive dysfunction using a novel virtual reality task in patients with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Jovanovski, Diana; Zakzanis, Konstantine; Ruttan, Lesley; Campbell, Zachariah; Erb, Suzanne; Nussbaum, David

    2012-01-01

    The current investigation sought to further establish the psychometric properties and ecological validity of the Multitasking in the City Test (MCT) in a clinical population. Ecological validity was addressed via correlational analyses between performance on this test and a subjective measure of everyday executive functioning (Frontal Systems Behavior Scale; FrSBe). The sample was composed of 13 individuals (11 males) who suffered a stroke or traumatic brain injury. A neuropsychological test battery consisting of the MCT and common executive and nonexecutive measures was administered. The only executive function tests that were significantly related to the FrSBe were the MCT and a semantic fluency test. Compared with a sample of normal participants, the patient group produced better plans but completed fewer tasks on the MCT. Patients made similar types of errors as normals, although some of these errors occurred more frequently in the patient sample. This study demonstrated the ecological validity of the MCT and suggested that patients can be differentiated from healthy individuals by quantitative (i.e., number of errors) rather than qualitative (i.e., type of errors) aspects of performance. Further interpretation of MCT performance and comparison with existing executive function tests is discussed.

  10. Developmental Changes in Brain Function Underlying Inhibitory Control in Autism Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Garver, Krista; O’Hearn, Kirsten; Nawarawong, Natalie; Liu, Ran; Minshew, Nancy; Sweeney, John; Luna, Beatriz

    2016-01-01

    The development of inhibitory control—the ability to suppress inappropriate actions in order to make goal-directed responses—is often impaired in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). In the present study, we examined whether the impairments in inhibitory control evident in ASD reflect—in part—differences in the development of the neural substrates of inhibitory control from adolescence into adulthood. We conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study on the anti-saccade task, a probe of inhibitory control, in high-functioning adolescents and adults with ASD compared to a matched group of typically developing (TD) individuals. The ASD group did not show the age-related improvements in behavioral performance from adolescence to adulthood evident in the typical group, consistent with previous behavioral work. The fMRI results indicated that much of the circuitry recruited by the ASD group was similar to the TD group. However, the ASD group demonstrated some unique patterns, including: (a) a failure to recruit the frontal eye field during response preparation in adolescence but comparable recruitment in adulthood; (b) greater recruitment of putamen in adolescence and precuneus in adolescence and adulthood than the TD group; and (c) decreased recruitment in the inferior parietal lobule relative to TD groups. Taken together, these results suggest that brain circuitry underlying inhibitory control develops differently from adolescence to adulthood in ASD. Specifically, there may be relative underdevelopment of brain processes underlying inhibitory control in ASD, which may lead to engagement of subcortical compensatory processes. PMID:25382787

  11. Developmental logics: Brain science, child welfare, and the ethics of engagement in Japan.

    PubMed

    Goldfarb, Kathryn E

    2015-10-01

    This article explores the unintended consequences of the ways scholars and activists take up the science of child development to critique the Japanese child welfare system. Since World War II, Japan has depended on a system of child welfare institutions (baby homes and children's homes) to care for state wards. Opponents of institutional care advocate instead for family foster care and adoption, and cite international research on the developmental harms of institutionalizing newborns and young children during the "critical period" of the first few years. The "critical period" is understood as the time during which the caregiving a child receives shapes neurological development and later capacity to build interpersonal relationships. These discourses appear to press compellingly for system reform, the proof resting on seemingly objective knowledge about child development. However, scientific evidence of harm is often mobilized in tandem with arguments that the welfare system is rooted in Japanese culture, suggesting durability and resistance to change. Further, reform efforts that use universalizing child science as "proof" of the need for change are prone to slip into deterministic language that pathologizes the experiences of people who grew up in the system. This article explores the reasons why deterministic models of child development, rather than more open-ended models like neuroplasticity, dominate activist rhetorics. It proposes a concept, "ethics of engagement," to advocate for attention to multiple scales and domains through which interpersonal ties are experienced and embodied over time. Finally, it suggests the possibility of child welfare reform movements that take seriously the need for caring and transformative relationships throughout life, beyond the first "critical years," that do not require deterministic logics of permanent delay or damage. PMID:25530189

  12. Brain hyper-connectivity and operation-specific deficits during arithmetic problem solving in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Chen, Tianwen; Young, Christina B; Geary, David C; Menon, Vinod

    2015-05-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is marked by specific deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information despite normal intelligence (IQ) and reading ability. We examined how brain circuits used by young children with DD to solve simple addition and subtraction problems differ from those used by typically developing (TD) children who were matched on age, IQ, reading ability, and working memory. Children with DD were slower and less accurate during problem solving than TD children, and were especially impaired on their ability to solve subtraction problems. Children with DD showed significantly greater activity in multiple parietal, occipito-temporal and prefrontal cortex regions while solving addition and subtraction problems. Despite poorer performance during subtraction, children with DD showed greater activity in multiple intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) and superior parietal lobule subdivisions in the dorsal posterior parietal cortex as well as fusiform gyrus in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Critically, effective connectivity analyses revealed hyper-connectivity, rather than reduced connectivity, between the IPS and multiple brain systems including the lateral fronto-parietal and default mode networks in children with DD during both addition and subtraction. These findings suggest the IPS and its functional circuits are a major locus of dysfunction during both addition and subtraction problem solving in DD, and that inappropriate task modulation and hyper-connectivity, rather than under-engagement and under-connectivity, are the neural mechanisms underlying problem solving difficulties in children with DD. We discuss our findings in the broader context of multiple levels of analysis and performance issues inherent in neuroimaging studies of typical and atypical development. PMID:25098903

  13. Brain hyper-connectivity and operation-specific deficits during arithmetic problem solving in children with developmental dyscalculia

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Chen, Tianwen; Young, Christina B.; Geary, David C.; Menon, Vinod

    2014-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is marked by specific deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information despite normal intelligence (IQ) and reading ability. We examined how brain circuits used by young children with DD to solve simple addition and subtraction problems differ from those used by typically developing (TD) children who were matched on age, IQ, reading ability, and working memory. Children with DD were slower and less accurate during problem solving than TD children, and were especially impaired on their ability to solve subtraction problems. Children with DD showed significantly greater activity in multiple parietal, occipito-temporal and prefrontal cortex regions while solving addition and subtraction problems. Despite poorer performance during subtraction, children with DD showed greater activity in multiple intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) and superior parietal lobule subdivisions in the dorsal posterior parietal cortex as well as fusiform gyrus in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Critically, effective connectivity analyses revealed hyper-connectivity, rather than reduced connectivity, between the IPS and multiple brain systems including the lateral fronto-parietal and default mode networks in children with DD during both addition and subtraction. These findings suggest the IPS and its functional circuits are a major locus of dysfunction during both addition and subtraction problem solving in DD, and that inappropriate task modulation and hyper-connectivity, rather than under-engagement and under-connectivity, are the neural mechanisms underlying problem solving difficulties in children with DD. We discuss our findings in the broader context of multiple levels of analysis and performance issues inherent in neuroimaging studies of typical and atypical development. PMID:25098903

  14. Brain hyper-connectivity and operation-specific deficits during arithmetic problem solving in children with developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Chen, Tianwen; Young, Christina B; Geary, David C; Menon, Vinod

    2015-05-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is marked by specific deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information despite normal intelligence (IQ) and reading ability. We examined how brain circuits used by young children with DD to solve simple addition and subtraction problems differ from those used by typically developing (TD) children who were matched on age, IQ, reading ability, and working memory. Children with DD were slower and less accurate during problem solving than TD children, and were especially impaired on their ability to solve subtraction problems. Children with DD showed significantly greater activity in multiple parietal, occipito-temporal and prefrontal cortex regions while solving addition and subtraction problems. Despite poorer performance during subtraction, children with DD showed greater activity in multiple intra-parietal sulcus (IPS) and superior parietal lobule subdivisions in the dorsal posterior parietal cortex as well as fusiform gyrus in the ventral occipito-temporal cortex. Critically, effective connectivity analyses revealed hyper-connectivity, rather than reduced connectivity, between the IPS and multiple brain systems including the lateral fronto-parietal and default mode networks in children with DD during both addition and subtraction. These findings suggest the IPS and its functional circuits are a major locus of dysfunction during both addition and subtraction problem solving in DD, and that inappropriate task modulation and hyper-connectivity, rather than under-engagement and under-connectivity, are the neural mechanisms underlying problem solving difficulties in children with DD. We discuss our findings in the broader context of multiple levels of analysis and performance issues inherent in neuroimaging studies of typical and atypical development.

  15. Rehabilitation of Executive Functions in Patients with Chronic Acquired Brain Injury with Goal Management Training, External Cuing, and Emotional Regulation: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Tornås, Sveinung; Løvstad, Marianne; Solbakk, Anne-Kristin; Evans, Jonathan; Endestad, Tor; Hol, Per Kristian; Schanke, Anne-Kristine; Stubberud, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Executive dysfunction is a common consequence of acquired brain injury (ABI), causing significant disability in daily life. This randomized controlled trial investigated the efficacy of Goal Management Training (GMT) in improving executive functioning in patients with chronic ABI. Seventy patients with a verified ABI and executive dysfunction were randomly allocated to GMT (n=33) or a psycho-educative active control condition, Brain Health Workshop (BHW) (n=37). In addition, all participants received external cueing by text messages. Neuropsychological tests and self-reported questionnaires of executive functioning were administered pre-intervention, immediately after intervention, and at 6 months follow-up. Assessors were blinded to group allocation. Questionnaire measures indicated significant improvement of everyday executive functioning in the GMT group, with effects lasting at least 6 months post-treatment. Both groups improved on the majority of the applied neuropsychological tests. However, improved performance on tests demanding executive attention was most prominent in the GMT group. The results indicate that GMT combined with external cueing is an effective metacognitive strategy training method, ameliorating executive dysfunction in daily life for patients with chronic ABI. The strongest effects were seen on self-report measures of executive functions 6 months post-treatment, suggesting that strategies learned in GMT were applied and consolidated in everyday life after the end of training. Furthermore, these findings show that executive dysfunction can be improved years after the ABI.

  16. Chronic Unpredictable Stress Decreases Expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Mouse Ovaries: Relationship to Oocytes Developmental Potential

    PubMed Central

    Tong, Xian-Hong; Han, Hui; Shen, Ni; Jin, Ren-Tao; Wang, Wei; Zhou, Gui-Xiang; He, Guo-Ping; Liu, Yu-Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Background Brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) was originally described in the nervous system but has been shown to be expressed in ovary tissues recently, acting as a paracrine/autocrine regulator required for developments of follicles and oocytes. Although it is generally accepted that chronic stress impairs female reproduction and decreases the expression of BDNF in limbic structures of central nervous system, which contributes to mood disorder. However, it is not known whether chronic stress affects oocytes developments, nor whether it affects expression of BDNF in ovary. Methods Mice were randomly assigned into control group, stressed group, BDNF-treated group and BDNF-treated stressed group. The chronic unpredictable mild stress model was used to produce psychosocial stress in mice, and the model was verified by open field test and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. The methods of immunohistochemistry and western blotting were used to detect BDNF protein level and distribution. The number of retrieved oocytes, oocyte maturation, embryo cleavage and the rates of blastocyst formation after parthenogenetic activation were evaluated. Results Chronic unpredictable stress decreased the BDNF expression in antral follicles, but didn’t affect the BDNF expression in primordial, primary and secondary follicles. Chronic unpredictable stress also decreased the number of retrieved oocytes and the rate of blastocyst formation, which was rescued by exogenous BDNF treatment. Conclusion BDNF in mouse ovaries may be related to the decreased number of retrieved oocytes and impaired oocytes developmental potential induced by chronic unpredictable stress. PMID:23284991

  17. Early (N170/M170) Face-Sensitivity Despite Right Lateral Occipital Brain Damage in Acquired Prosopagnosia

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Esther Alonso; Caharel, Stéphanie; Henson, Richard; Rossion, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    Compared to objects, pictures of faces elicit a larger early electromagnetic response at occipito-temporal sites on the human scalp, with an onset of 130 ms and a peak at about 170 ms. This N170 face effect is larger in the right than the left hemisphere and has been associated with the early categorization of the stimulus as a face. Here we tested whether this effect can be observed in the absence of some of the visual areas showing a preferential response to faces as typically identified in neuroimaging. Event-related potentials were recorded in response to faces, cars, and their phase-scrambled versions in a well-known brain-damaged case of prosopagnosia (PS). Despite the patient’s right inferior occipital gyrus lesion encompassing the most posterior cortical area showing preferential response to faces (“occipital face area”), we identified an early face-sensitive component over the right occipito-temporal hemisphere of the patient that was identified as the N170. A second experiment supported this conclusion, showing the typical N170 increase of latency and amplitude in response to inverted faces. In contrast, there was no N170 in the left hemisphere, where PS has a lesion to the middle fusiform gyrus and shows no evidence of face-preferential response in neuroimaging (no left “fusiform face area”). These results were replicated by a magnetoencephalographic investigation of the patient, disclosing a M170 component only in the right hemisphere. These observations indicate that face-preferential activation in the inferior occipital cortex is not necessary to elicit early visual responses associated with face perception (N170/M170) on the human scalp. These results further suggest that when the right inferior occipital cortex is damaged, the integrity of the middle fusiform gyrus and/or the superior temporal sulcus – two areas showing face-preferential responses in the patient’s right hemisphere – might be necessary to generate the N170 effect

  18. Analyzing collaboration networks and developmental patterns of nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD) for brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Ma, Jing; Porter, Alan L; Kwon, Seokbeom; Zhu, Donghua

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of new and emerging science & technologies (NESTs) brings unprecedented challenges, but also opportunities. In this paper, we use bibliometric and social network analyses, at country, institution, and individual levels, to explore the patterns of scientific networking for a key nano area - nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD). NEDD has successfully been used clinically to modulate drug release and to target particular diseased tissues. The data for this research come from a global compilation of research publication information on NEDD directed at brain cancer. We derive a family of indicators that address multiple facets of research collaboration and knowledge transfer patterns. Results show that: (1) international cooperation is increasing, but networking characteristics change over time; (2) highly productive institutions also lead in influence, as measured by citation to their work, with American institutes leading; (3) research collaboration is dominated by local relationships, with interesting information available from authorship patterns that go well beyond journal impact factors. Results offer useful technical intelligence to help researchers identify potential collaborators and to help inform R&D management and science & innovation policy for such nanotechnologies.

  19. Analyzing collaboration networks and developmental patterns of nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD) for brain cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Ying; Ma, Jing; Kwon, Seokbeom; Zhu, Donghua

    2015-01-01

    Summary The rapid development of new and emerging science & technologies (NESTs) brings unprecedented challenges, but also opportunities. In this paper, we use bibliometric and social network analyses, at country, institution, and individual levels, to explore the patterns of scientific networking for a key nano area – nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD). NEDD has successfully been used clinically to modulate drug release and to target particular diseased tissues. The data for this research come from a global compilation of research publication information on NEDD directed at brain cancer. We derive a family of indicators that address multiple facets of research collaboration and knowledge transfer patterns. Results show that: (1) international cooperation is increasing, but networking characteristics change over time; (2) highly productive institutions also lead in influence, as measured by citation to their work, with American institutes leading; (3) research collaboration is dominated by local relationships, with interesting information available from authorship patterns that go well beyond journal impact factors. Results offer useful technical intelligence to help researchers identify potential collaborators and to help inform R&D management and science & innovation policy for such nanotechnologies. PMID:26425417

  20. Analyzing collaboration networks and developmental patterns of nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD) for brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Huang, Ying; Ma, Jing; Porter, Alan L; Kwon, Seokbeom; Zhu, Donghua

    2015-01-01

    The rapid development of new and emerging science & technologies (NESTs) brings unprecedented challenges, but also opportunities. In this paper, we use bibliometric and social network analyses, at country, institution, and individual levels, to explore the patterns of scientific networking for a key nano area - nano-enabled drug delivery (NEDD). NEDD has successfully been used clinically to modulate drug release and to target particular diseased tissues. The data for this research come from a global compilation of research publication information on NEDD directed at brain cancer. We derive a family of indicators that address multiple facets of research collaboration and knowledge transfer patterns. Results show that: (1) international cooperation is increasing, but networking characteristics change over time; (2) highly productive institutions also lead in influence, as measured by citation to their work, with American institutes leading; (3) research collaboration is dominated by local relationships, with interesting information available from authorship patterns that go well beyond journal impact factors. Results offer useful technical intelligence to help researchers identify potential collaborators and to help inform R&D management and science & innovation policy for such nanotechnologies. PMID:26425417

  1. Developmental changes in brain function underlying the influence of reward processing on inhibitory control

    PubMed Central

    Padmanabhan, Aarthi; Geier, Charles F; Ordaz, Sarah J; Teslovich, Theresa; Luna, Beatriz

    2011-01-01

    Adolescence is a period marked by changes in motivational and cognitive brain systems. However, the development of the interactions between reward and cognitive control processing are just beginning to be understood. Using event-related functional neuroimaging and an incentive modulated antisaccade task, we compared blood-oxygen level dependent activity underlying motivated response inhibition in children, adolescents, and adults. Behaviorally, children and adolescents performed significantly worse than adults during neutral trials. However, children and adolescents showed significant performance increases during reward trials. Adults showed no performance changes across conditions. fMRI results demonstrated that all groups recruited a similar circuitry to support task performance, including regions typically associated with rewards (striatum and orbital frontal cortex), and regions known to be involved in inhibitory control (putative frontal and supplementary eye fields, and posterior parietal cortex, and prefrontal loci). During rewarded trials adolescents showed increased activity in striatal regions, while adults demonstrated heightened activation in the OFC relative to children and adolescents. Children showed greater reliance on prefrontal executive regions that may be related to increased effort inhibiting responses. Overall, these results indicate that response inhibition is enhanced with reward contingencies over development. Adolescents’ heightened response in striatal regions may be one factor contributing to reward-biased decision making and perhaps risk taking behavior. PMID:21966352

  2. Developmental aspects of sleep slow waves: linking sleep, brain maturation and behavior.

    PubMed

    Ringli, Maya; Huber, Reto

    2011-01-01

    Sleep slow waves are the major electrophysiological features of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) sleep. Although there is growing understanding of where slow waves originate and how they are generated during sleep, the function of slow waves is still largely unclear. A recently proposed hypothesis relates slow waves to the homeostatic regulation of synaptic plasticity. While several studies confirm a correlation between experimentally triggered synaptic changes and slow-wave activity (SWA), little is known about its association to synaptic changes occurring during cortical maturation. Interestingly, slow waves undergo remarkable changes during development that parallel the time course of cortical maturation. In a recent cross-sectional study including children and adolescents, the topographical distribution of SWA was analyzed with high-density electroencephalography. The results showed age-dependent differences in SWA topography: SWA was highest over posterior regions during early childhood and then shifted over central derivations to the frontal cortex in late adolescence. This trajectory of SWA topography matches the course of cortical gray maturation. In this chapter, the major changes in slow waves during development are highlighted and linked to cortical maturation and behavior. Interestingly, synaptic density and slow-wave amplitude increase during childhood are highest shortly before puberty, decline thereafter during adolescence, reaching overall stable levels during adulthood. The question arises whether SWA is merely reflecting cortical changes or if it plays an active role in brain maturation. We thereby propose a model, by which sleep slow waves may contribute to cortical maturation. We hypothesize that while there is a balance between synaptic strengthening and synaptic downscaling in adults, the balance of strengthening/formation and weakening/elimination is tilted during development. PMID:21854956

  3. Changes in aspects of social functioning depend upon prior changes in neurodisability in people with acquired brain injury undergoing post-acute neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Fortune, Dónal G.; Walsh, R. Stephen; Waldron, Brian; McGrath, Caroline; Harte, Maurice; Casey, Sarah; McClean, Brian

    2015-01-01

    Post-acute community-based rehabilitation is effective in reducing disability. However, while social participation and quality of life are valued as distal outcomes of neurorehabilitation, it is often not possible to observe improvements on these outcomes within the limited time-frames used in most investigations of rehabilitation. The aim of the current study was to examine differences in the sequence of attainments for people with acquired brain injury (ABI) undergoing longer term post-acute neurorehabilitation. Participants with ABI who were referred to comprehensive home and community-based neurorehabilitation were assessed at induction to service, at 6 months and again at 1.5 years while still in service on the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Index (MPAI-4), Community Integration Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and World Health Organisation Quality of Life measure. At 6 months post-induction to service, significant differences were evident in MPAI abilities, adjustment, and total neurodisability; and in anxiety and depression. By contrast, there was no significant effect at 6 months on more socially oriented features of experience namely quality of life (QoL), Community Integration and Participation. Eighteen month follow-up showed continuation of the significant positive effects with the addition of QoL-related to physical health, Psychological health, Social aspects of QoL and Participation at this later time point. Regression analyses demonstrated that change in QoL and Participation were dependent upon prior changes in aspects of neurodisability. Age, severity or type of brain injury did not significantly affect outcome. Results suggest that different constructs may respond to neurorehabilitation at different time points in a dose effect manner, and that change in social aspects of experience may be dependent upon the specific nature of prior neurorehabilitation attainments. PMID:26441744

  4. Gait rehabilitation with a high tech platform based on virtual reality conveys improvements in walking ability of children suffering from acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Biffi, E; Beretta, E; Diella, E; Panzeri, D; Maghini, C; Turconi, A C; Strazzer, S; Reni, G

    2015-01-01

    The Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab (GRAIL) is an instrumented multi-sensor platform based on immersive virtual reality for gait training and rehabilitation. Few studies have been included GRAIL to evaluate gait patterns in normal and disabled people and to improve gait in adults, while at our knowledge no evidence on its use for the rehabilitation of children is available. In this study, 4 children suffering from acquired brain injury (ABI) underwent a 5 session treatment with GRAIL, to improve walking and balance ability in engaging VR environments. The first and the last sessions were partially dedicated to gait evaluation. Results are promising: improvements were recorded at the ankle level, selectively at the affected side, and at the pelvic level, while small changes were measured at the hip and knee joints, which were already comparable to healthy subjects. All these changes also conveyed advances in the symmetry of the walking pattern. In the next future, a longer intervention will be proposed and more children will be enrolled to strongly prove the effectiveness of GRAIL in the rehabilitation of children with ABI.

  5. Affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities: Relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst survivors of acquired brain injury (ABI).

    PubMed

    Walsh, R Stephen; Muldoon, Orla T; Gallagher, Stephen; Fortune, Donal G

    2015-01-01

    Social support is an important factor in rehabilitation following acquired brain injury (ABI). Research indicates that social identity makes social support possible and that social identity is made possible by social support. In order to further investigate the reciprocity between social identity and social support, the present research applied the concepts of affiliative and "self-as-doer" identities to an analysis of relationships between social identity, social support, and emotional status amongst a cohort of 53 adult survivors of ABI engaged in post-acute community neurorehabilitation. Path analysis was used to test a hypothesised mediated model whereby affiliative identities have a significant indirect relationship with emotional status via social support and self-as-doer identification. Results support the hypothesised model. Evidence supports an "upward spiral" between social identity and social support such that affiliative identity makes social support possible and social support drives self-as-doer identity. Our discussion emphasises the importance of identity characteristics to social support, and to emotional status, for those living with ABI.

  6. Evaluating the usability of a single UK community acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation service website: implications for research methodology and website design.

    PubMed

    Newby, Gavin; Groom, Christina

    2010-04-01

    Information provision is an important resource for those living with acquired brain injury (ABI) and their families. Web-based health information services are now common additions to health service provision. Ideally, they should be easy to use and provide useful, relevant and accurate information. ABI injuries do not affect individuals in the same way, and survivors can have a wide range of abilities and impairments. Therefore, any informational resource intended for this group should take account of their needs and help to compensate for their limitations. This pilot study recruited a group of individuals with ABI (of a median Extended Glasgow Outcome Scale rating of "lower moderate disability") who were clients of a UK National Health Service rehabilitation service and asked them to assess a specialised website provided by that service and hosted by their employing Primary Care Trust organisation. Participants completed a practical task and then gave their opinions on various aspects of website design, and content. They were also asked to suggest improvements and recommend additions. Overall the results were favourable. However, improvements in the legibility, layout and writing style were identified. There were also requests to add more information on the existing topics and add additional topics. The discussion also evaluates the utility of the methodology and the implications of the results for others considering constructing their own website.

  7. What are the barriers and facilitators to goal-setting during rehabilitation for stroke and other acquired brain injuries? A systematic review and meta-synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Plant, Sarah E; Tyson, Sarah F; Kirk, Susan; Parsons, John

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To identify the barriers and facilitators to goal-setting during rehabilitation for stroke and other acquired brain injuries. Data sources: AMED, Proquest, CINAHL and MEDLINE. Review methods: Two reviewers independently screened, extracted data and assessed study quality using the Mixed Methods Appraisal Tool and undertook thematic content analysis for papers examining the barriers and facilitators to goal-setting during stroke/neurological rehabilitation (any design). Last searches were completed in May 2016. Results: Nine qualitative papers were selected, involving 202 participants in total: 88 patients, 89 health care professionals and 25 relatives of participating patients. Main barriers were: Differences in staff and patients perspectives of goal-setting; patient-related barriers; staff-related barriers, and organisational level barriers. Main facilitators were: individually tailored goal-setting processes, strategies to promote communication and understanding, and strategies to avoid disappointment and unrealistic goals. In addition, patients’ and staff’s knowledge, experience, skill, and engagement with goal-setting could be either a barrier (if these aspects were absent) or a facilitator (if they were present). Conclusion: The main barriers and facilitators to goal-setting during stroke rehabilitation have been identified. They suggest that current methods of goal-setting during inpatient/early stage stroke or neurological rehabilitation are not fit for purpose. PMID:27496701

  8. Return to Work: A Cut-Off of FIM Gain with Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score in Order to Identify Predictive Factors in Subjects with Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Return to work (RTW) for people with acquired brain injury (ABI) represents a main objective of rehabilitation: this work presents a strong correlation between personal well-being and quality of life. The aim of this study is to investigate the prognostic factors that can predict RTW after ABI (traumatic or non- traumatic aetiology) in patients without disorders of consciousness (e.g. coma, vegetative or minimally conscious state) at the beginning of their admission to rehabilitation. At the end of a 6-month follow-up after discharge, data were successfully collected in 69 patients. The rehabilitation effectiveness (functional Recovery) between admission and discharge was assessed by Functional Independent Measure (FIM) gain, through the Montebello Rehabilitation Factor Score (MRFS), which was obtained as follows: (discharge FIM—admission FIM)/(Maximum possible FIM—Admission FIM) x 100. The cut-off value (criterion) deriving from MRFS, which helped identify RTW patients, resulted in .659 (sn 88.9%; sp 52.4%). Considering the Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the MRFS data, the multivariable binary logistic regression analysis presented 62.96% of correct RTW classification cases, 80.95% of non-RTW leading to an overall satisfactory predictability of 73.91%. The results of the present study suggest that occupational therapy intervention could modify cut-off in patients with an MFRS close to target at the end of an in-hospital rehabilitative program thus developing their capabilities and consequently surpassing cut-off itself. PMID:27780215

  9. EXTENDING THE ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY-AIDED PROGRAMS TO SUPPORT LEISURE AND COMMUNICATION IN PEOPLE WITH ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY AND EXTENSIVE MULTIPLE DISABILITIES.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; D'amico, Fiora; Quaranta, Sara; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; Colonna, Fabio

    2015-10-01

    Intervention programs for people with acquired brain injury and extensive motor and communication impairment need to be diversified according to their characteristics and environment. These two studies assessed two technology-aided programs for supporting leisure (i.e., access to songs and videos) and communication (i.e., expressing needs and feelings and making requests) in six of those people. The three people participating in Study 1 did not possess speech but were able to understand spoken and written sentences. Their program presented leisure and communication options through written phrases appearing on the computer screen. The three people participating in Study 2 did not possess any speech and were unable to understand spoken or written language. Their program presented leisure and communication options through pictorial images. All participants relied on a simple microswitch response to enter the options and activate songs, videos, and communication messages. The data showed that the participants of both studies learned to use the program available to them and to engage in leisure and communication independently. The importance of using programs adapted to the participants and their environment was discussed. PMID:26445152

  10. EXTENDING THE ASSESSMENT OF TECHNOLOGY-AIDED PROGRAMS TO SUPPORT LEISURE AND COMMUNICATION IN PEOPLE WITH ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY AND EXTENSIVE MULTIPLE DISABILITIES.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Buonocunto, Francesca; D'amico, Fiora; Quaranta, Sara; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; Colonna, Fabio

    2015-10-01

    Intervention programs for people with acquired brain injury and extensive motor and communication impairment need to be diversified according to their characteristics and environment. These two studies assessed two technology-aided programs for supporting leisure (i.e., access to songs and videos) and communication (i.e., expressing needs and feelings and making requests) in six of those people. The three people participating in Study 1 did not possess speech but were able to understand spoken and written sentences. Their program presented leisure and communication options through written phrases appearing on the computer screen. The three people participating in Study 2 did not possess any speech and were unable to understand spoken or written language. Their program presented leisure and communication options through pictorial images. All participants relied on a simple microswitch response to enter the options and activate songs, videos, and communication messages. The data showed that the participants of both studies learned to use the program available to them and to engage in leisure and communication independently. The importance of using programs adapted to the participants and their environment was discussed.

  11. Brain

    MedlinePlus

    ... will return after updating. Resources Archived Modules Updates Brain Cerebrum The cerebrum is the part of the ... the outside of the brain and spinal cord. Brain Stem The brain stem is the part of ...

  12. Acquired lymphangiectasis.

    PubMed

    Celis, A V; Gaughf, C N; Sangueza, O P; Gourdin, F W

    1999-01-01

    Acquired lymphangiectasis is a dilatation of lymphatic vessels that can result as a complication of surgical intervention and radiation therapy for malignancy. Acquired lymphangiectasis shares clinical and histologic features with the congenital lesion, lymphangioma circumscriptum. Diagnosis and treatment of these vesiculo-bullous lesions is important because they may be associated with pain, chronic drainage, and cellulitis. We describe two patients who had these lesions after treatment for cancer and review the pertinent literature. Although a number of treatment options are available, we have found CO2 laser ablation particularly effective. PMID:9932832

  13. [Participation limitations following acquired brain damage: a pilot study on the relationship among functional disorders as well as personal and environmental context factors].

    PubMed

    Fries, W; Fischer, S

    2008-10-01

    The SGB IX, book 9 of the German social code (Sozialgesetzbuch, SGB), which is the legal basis of rehabilitation in Germany, states "participation and self-determined conduct of life" as the ultimate ambition of rehabilitation. This concept of participation and disability is based on the WHO model expressed in the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). In this model, participation after the onset of a health problem may not only be infringed by disturbances in body functions and structures and the resulting activity limitations but also by contextual factors such as environmental and personal factors. In an outpatient neurological rehabilitation centre we prospectively rated for 49 patients the influence of these contextual factors as well as of objectively assessed functional/activity limitations on the overall disability. On average, functional/activity limitations were rated as contributing 58.4% (SD=17.2%), personal factors 26.4% (SD=12.7%) and environmental factors 15.1% (SD=11.2%) to the overall disability. The functional/activity limitations closely matched the expected limitations based on the underlying brain lesions. The degree of disability based on contextual factors was not related to activity limitations based on disturbances of body functions and structures. Also, demographic variables such as age, sex or chronicity were not significantly linked to contextual factors. Since contextual factors together contributed 41.6% (SD=17.2%) to the overall disability they have major relevance for the rehabilitation process, because they essentially decide on the extent to which abilities acquired by the rehabilitant during rehabilitation actually be transfered to his everyday life. Therefore, rehabilitation programmes need to include assessment and treatment of contextual factors. It hence is necessary to develop instruments to quantify contextual factors.

  14. Developmental Thyroid Hormone (TH) Disruption: In Search of Sensitive Bioindicators of Altered TH-Dependent Signaling in Brain###

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development, yet clear indicators of disruption at low levels of TH insufficiency have yet to be identified. Brain TH is difficult to measure, but TH-responsive genes can serve as sensitive indicators of TH action in brain. A large nu...

  15. Developmental Thyroid Hormone (TH) Disruption: In Search of Sensitive Bioindicators of Altered TH-Dependent Signaling in Brain

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for brain development, yet clear indicators of disruption at low levels of TH insufficiency have yet to be identified. Brain TH is difficult to measure, but TH-responsive genes can serve as sensitive indicators of TH action in brain. A large nu...

  16. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  17. Pervasive Developmental Disorders

    MedlinePlus

    ... surroundings, and repetitive body movements or behavior patterns. Autism (a developmental brain disorder characterized by impaired social ... TTY) Fax: 301-984-1473 MAAP Services for Autism, Asperger Syndrome, and PDD P.O. Box 524 ...

  18. Developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Shalev, Ruth S

    2004-10-01

    Developmental dyscalculia is a specific learning disability affecting the normal acquisition of arithmetic skills. Genetic, neurobiologic, and epidemiologic evidence indicates that dyscalculia, like other learning disabilities, is a brain-based disorder. However, poor teaching and environmental deprivation have also been implicated in its etiology. Because the neural network of both hemispheres comprises the substrate of normal arithmetic skills, dyscalculia can result from dysfunction of either hemisphere, although the left parietotemporal area is of particular significance. The prevalence of developmental dyscalculia is 5 to 6% in the school-aged population and is as common in girls as in boys. Dyscalculia can occur as a consequence of prematurity and low birthweight and is frequently encountered in a variety of neurologic disorders, such as attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), developmental language disorder, epilepsy, and fragile X syndrome. Developmental dyscalculia has proven to be a persisting learning disability, at least for the short term, in about half of affected preteen pupils. Educational interventions for dyscalculia range from rote learning of arithmetic facts to developing strategies for solving arithmetic exercises. The long-term prognosis of dyscalculia and the role of remediation in its outcome are yet to be determined. PMID:15559892

  19. Decreased Cerebellar-Orbitofrontal Connectivity Correlates with Stuttering Severity: Whole-Brain Functional and Structural Connectivity Associations with Persistent Developmental Stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Sitek, Kevin R.; Cai, Shanqing; Beal, Deryk S.; Perkell, Joseph S.; Guenther, Frank H.; Ghosh, Satrajit S.

    2016-01-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering is characterized by speech production disfluency and affects 1% of adults. The degree of impairment varies widely across individuals and the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder and this variability remain poorly understood. Here we elucidate compensatory mechanisms related to this variability in impairment using whole-brain functional and white matter connectivity analyses in persistent developmental stuttering. We found that people who stutter had stronger functional connectivity between cerebellum and thalamus than people with fluent speech, while stutterers with the least severe symptoms had greater functional connectivity between left cerebellum and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Additionally, people who stutter had decreased functional and white matter connectivity among the perisylvian auditory, motor, and speech planning regions compared to typical speakers, but greater functional connectivity between the right basal ganglia and bilateral temporal auditory regions. Structurally, disfluency ratings were negatively correlated with white matter connections to left perisylvian regions and to the brain stem. Overall, we found increased connectivity among subcortical and reward network structures in people who stutter compared to controls. These connections were negatively correlated with stuttering severity, suggesting the involvement of cerebellum and OFC may underlie successful compensatory mechanisms by more fluent stutterers. PMID:27199712

  20. Decreased Cerebellar-Orbitofrontal Connectivity Correlates with Stuttering Severity: Whole-Brain Functional and Structural Connectivity Associations with Persistent Developmental Stuttering.

    PubMed

    Sitek, Kevin R; Cai, Shanqing; Beal, Deryk S; Perkell, Joseph S; Guenther, Frank H; Ghosh, Satrajit S

    2016-01-01

    Persistent developmental stuttering is characterized by speech production disfluency and affects 1% of adults. The degree of impairment varies widely across individuals and the neural mechanisms underlying the disorder and this variability remain poorly understood. Here we elucidate compensatory mechanisms related to this variability in impairment using whole-brain functional and white matter connectivity analyses in persistent developmental stuttering. We found that people who stutter had stronger functional connectivity between cerebellum and thalamus than people with fluent speech, while stutterers with the least severe symptoms had greater functional connectivity between left cerebellum and left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Additionally, people who stutter had decreased functional and white matter connectivity among the perisylvian auditory, motor, and speech planning regions compared to typical speakers, but greater functional connectivity between the right basal ganglia and bilateral temporal auditory regions. Structurally, disfluency ratings were negatively correlated with white matter connections to left perisylvian regions and to the brain stem. Overall, we found increased connectivity among subcortical and reward network structures in people who stutter compared to controls. These connections were negatively correlated with stuttering severity, suggesting the involvement of cerebellum and OFC may underlie successful compensatory mechanisms by more fluent stutterers. PMID:27199712

  1. Functional and developmental identification of a molecular subtype of brain serotonergic neuron specialized to regulate breathing dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Brust, Rachael D.; Corcoran, Andrea E.; Richerson, George B.; Nattie, Eugene; Dymecki, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Serotonergic neurons modulate behavioral and physiological responses from aggression and anxiety to breathing and thermoregulation. Disorders involving serotonin (5HT) dysregulation are commensurately heterogeneous and numerous. We hypothesized that this breadth in functionality derives in part from a developmentally determined substructure of distinct subtypes of 5HT neurons each specialized to modulate specific behaviors. We find, by manipulating developmentally defined subgroups one-by-one chemogenetically, that the Egr2-Pet1 subgroup is specialized to drive increased ventilation in response to carbon dioxide elevation and acidosis. Further, this subtype exhibits intrinsic chemosensitivity and modality-specific projections – increasing firing during hypercapnic acidosis and selectively projecting to respiratory chemosensory but not motor centers, respectively. These findings show that serotonergic regulation of the respiratory chemoreflex is mediated by a specialized molecular subtype of 5HT neuron harboring unique physiological, biophysical, and hodological properties specified developmentally, and demonstrate that the serotonergic system contains specialized modules contributing to its collective functional breadth. PMID:25497093

  2. Hospital Acquired Pneumonia is an Independent Predictor of Poor Global Outcome in Severe Traumatic Brain Injury up to 5 Years after Discharge

    PubMed Central

    Kesinger, Matthew R.; Kumar, Raj G.; Wagner, Amy K.; Puyana, Juan C.; Peitzman, Andrew P.; Billiar, Timothy R.; Sperry, Jason L.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Long-term outcomes following traumatic brain injury (TBI) correlate with initial head injury severity and other acute factors. Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is a common complication in TBI. Little information exists regarding the significance of infectious complications on long-term outcomes post-TBI. We sought to characterize risks associated with HAP on outcomes 5 years post-TBI. Methods Ddata from the merger of an institutional trauma registry and the TBI Model Systems outcome data. Individuals with severe head injuries (Abbreviated Injury Scale≥4), who survived to rehabilitation were analyzed. Primary outcome was Glasgow Outcome Scaled-Extended (GOSE) at 1, 2, and 5 years. GOSE was dichotomized into LOW (GOSE<6) and HIGH (GOSE≥6). Logistic regression was utilized to determine adjusted odds of LOW-GOSE associated with HAP after controlling for age, sex, head and overall injury severity, cranial surgery, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), ventilation days, and other important confounders. A general estimating equation (GEE) model was used to analyze all outcome observations simultaneously while controlling for within-patient correlation. Results A total of 141 individuals met inclusion criteria, with a 30% incidence of HAP. Individuals with and without HAP had similar demographic profiles, presenting vitals, head injury severity, and prevalence of cranial surgery. Individuals with HAP had lower presenting GCS. Logistic regression demonstrated that HAP was independently associated with LOW-GOSE scores at follow-up (1year: OR=6.39, 95%CI: 1.76-23.14, p=0.005; 2-years: OR=7.30, 95%CI 1.87-27.89, p=0.004; 5-years: OR=6.89, 95%CI: 1.42-33.39, p=0.017). Stratifying by GCS≤8 and early intubation, HAP remained a significant independent predictor of LOW-GOSE in all strata. In the GEE model, HAP continued to be an independent predictor of LOW-GOSE (OR: 4.59; 95%CI: 1.82-11.60′ p=0.001). Conclusion HAP is independently associated with poor outcomes in severe

  3. Effectiveness of a Wii balance board-based system (eBaViR) for balance rehabilitation: a pilot randomized clinical trial in patients with acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Acquired brain injury (ABI) is the main cause of death and disability among young adults. In most cases, survivors can experience balance instability, resulting in functional impairments that are associated with diminished health-related quality of life. Traditional rehabilitation therapy may be tedious. This can reduce motivation and adherence to the treatment and thus provide a limited benefit to patients with balance disorders. We present eBaViR (easy Balance Virtual Rehabilitation), a system based on the Nintendo® Wii Balance Board® (WBB), which has been designed by clinical therapists to improve standing balance in patients with ABI through motivational and adaptative exercises. We hypothesize that eBaViR, is feasible, safe and potentially effective in enhancing standing balance. Methods In this contribution, we present a randomized and controlled single blinded study to assess the influence of a WBB-based virtual rehabilitation system on balance rehabilitation with ABI hemiparetic patients. This study describes the eBaViR system and evaluates its effectiveness considering 20 one-hour-sessions of virtual reality rehabilitation (n = 9) versus standard rehabilitation (n = 8). Effectiveness was evaluated by means of traditional static and dynamic balance scales. Results The final sample consisted of 11 men and 6 women. Mean ± SD age was 47.3 ± 17.8 and mean ± SD chronicity was 570.9 ± 313.2 days. Patients using eBaViR had a significant improvement in static balance (p = 0.011 in Berg Balance Scale and p = 0.011 in Anterior Reaches Test) compared to patients who underwent traditional therapy. Regarding dynamic balance, the results showed significant improvement over time in all these measures, but no significant group effect or group-by-time interaction was detected for any of them, which suggests that both groups improved in the same way. There were no serious adverse events during treatment in either group. Conclusions The results suggest that e

  4. Developmental exposure to terbutaline and chlorpyrifos: pharmacotherapy of preterm labor and an environmental neurotoxicant converge on serotonergic systems in neonatal rat brain regions

    SciTech Connect

    Aldridge, Justin E.; Meyer, Armando; Seidler, Frederic J.; Slotkin, Theodore A. . E-mail: t.slotkin@duke.edu

    2005-03-01

    Developmental exposure to unrelated neurotoxicants can nevertheless produce similar neurobehavioral outcomes. We examined the effects of developmental exposure to terbutaline, a tocolytic {beta}{sub 2}-adrenoceptor agonist used to arrest preterm labor, and chlorpyrifos (CPF), a widely used organophosphate pesticide, on serotonin (5HT) systems. Treatments were chosen to parallel periods typical of human developmental exposures, terbutaline (10 mg/kg) on postnatal days (PN) 2-5 and CPF (5 mg/kg) on PN11-14, with assessments conducted on PN45, comparing each agent alone as well as sequential administration of both. Although neither treatment affected growth or viability, each elicited similar alterations in factors that are critical to the function of the 5HT synapse: 5HT{sub 1A} receptors, 5HT{sub 2} receptors, and the presynaptic 5HT transporter (5HTT). Either agent elicited global increases in 5HT receptors and the 5HTT in brain regions possessing 5HT cell bodies (midbrain, brainstem) as well as in the hippocampus, which contains 5HT projections. For both terbutaline and CPF, males were affected more than females, although there were some regional disparities in the sex selectivity between the two agents. Both altered 5HT receptor-mediated cell signaling, suppressing stimulatory effects on adenylyl cyclase and enhancing inhibitory effects. When animals were exposed sequentially to both agents, the outcomes were no more than additive and, for many effects, less than additive, suggesting convergence of the two agents on a common set of developmental mechanisms. Our results indicate that 5HT systems represent a target for otherwise unrelated neuroteratogens.

  5. Gene expression profile of brain regions reflecting aberrations in nervous system development targeting the process of neurite extension of rat offspring exposed developmentally to glycidol.

    PubMed

    Akane, Hirotoshi; Saito, Fumiyo; Shiraki, Ayako; Imatanaka, Nobuya; Akahori, Yumi; Itahashi, Megu; Wang, Liyun; Shibutani, Makoto

    2014-12-01

    We previously found that exposure to glycidol at 1000 ppm in drinking water caused axonopathy in maternal rats and aberrations in late-stage hippocampal neurogenesis, targeting the process of neurite extension in offspring. To identify the profile of developmental neurotoxicity of glycidol, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were given drinking water containing glycidol from gestational day 6 until weaning on day 21 after delivery, and offspring at 0, 300 and 1000 ppm were subjected to region-specific global gene expression profiling. Four brain regions were selected to represent both cerebral and cerebellar tissues, i.e., the cingulate cortex, corpus callosum, hippocampal dentate gyrus and cerebellar vermis. Downregulated genes in the dentate gyrus were related to axonogenesis (Nfasc), myelination (Mal, Mrf and Ugt8), and cell proliferation (Aurkb and Ndc80) at ≥ 300 ppm, and upregulated genes were related to neural development (Frzb and Fzd6) at 1000 ppm. Upregulation was observed for genes related to myelination (Kl, Igf2 and Igfbp2) in the corpus callosum and axonogenesis and neuritogenesis (Efnb3, Tnc and Cd44) in the cingulate cortex, whereas downregulation was observed for genes related to synaptic transmission (Thbs2 and Ccl2) in the cerebellar vermis; all of these changes were mostly observed at 1000 ppm. Altered gene expression of Cntn3, which functions on neurite outgrowth-promotion, was observed in all four brain regions at 1000 ppm. Gene expression profiles suggest that developmental exposure to glycidol affected plasticity of neuronal networks in the broad brain areas, and dentate gyrus neurogenesis may be the sensitive target of this type of toxicity.

  6. Expression of the Ly-6 family proteins Lynx1 and Ly6H in the rat brain is compartmentalized, cell-type specific, and developmentally regulated.

    PubMed

    Thomsen, Morten Skøtt; Cinar, Betül; Jensen, Majbrit Myrup; Lyukmanova, Ekaterina N; Shulepko, Mikhail A; Tsetlin, Victor; Klein, Anders Bue; Mikkelsen, Jens D

    2014-11-01

    The Ly-6 superfamily of proteins, which affects diverse processes in the immune system, has attracted renewed attention due to the ability of some Ly-6 proteins to bind to and modulate the function of neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). However, there is a scarcity of knowledge regarding the distribution and developmental regulation of these proteins in the brain. We use protein cross-linking and synaptosomal fractions to demonstrate that the Ly-6 proteins Lynx1 and Ly6H are membrane-bound proteins in the brain, which are present on the cell surface and localize to synaptic compartments. We further estimate the amount of Lynx1 in the rat cortex using known amounts of a heterologously expressed soluble Lynx1 variant (ws-Lynx1) to be approximately 8.6 ng/μg total protein, which is in line with the concentrations of ws-Lynx1 required to affect nAChR function. In addition, we demonstrate that Lynx1 and Ly6H are expressed in cultured neurons, but not cultured micro- or astroglial cultures. In addition, Lynx1, but not Ly6H was detected in the CSF. Finally, we show that the Ly-6 proteins Lynx1, Lynx2, Ly6H, and PSCA, display distinct expression patterns during postnatal development in the rat frontal cortex and hippocampus at the mRNA and protein level, and that this is paralleled to some degree by the expression of the nAChR subunits α2, α4, α7 and β2. Our results demonstrate a developmental pattern, localization, and concentration of Ly-6 proteins in the brain, which support a role for these proteins in the modulation of signaling at synaptic membranes.

  7. Developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Robin L; Pennington, Bruce F

    2015-01-01

    This review uses a levels-of-analysis framework to summarize the current understanding of developmental dyslexia's etiology, brain bases, neuropsychology, and social context. Dyslexia is caused by multiple genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their interplay. Several candidate genes have been identified in the past decade. At the brain level, dyslexia is associated with aberrant structure and function, particularly in left hemisphere reading/language networks. The neurocognitive influences on dyslexia are also multifactorial and involve phonological processing deficits as well as weaknesses in other oral language skills and processing speed. We address contextual issues such as how dyslexia manifests across languages and social classes as well as what treatments are best supported. Throughout the review, we highlight exciting new research that cuts across levels of analysis. Such work promises eventually to provide a comprehensive explanation of the disorder as well as its prevention and remediation.

  8. Developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Robin L; Pennington, Bruce F

    2015-01-01

    This review uses a levels-of-analysis framework to summarize the current understanding of developmental dyslexia's etiology, brain bases, neuropsychology, and social context. Dyslexia is caused by multiple genetic and environmental risk factors as well as their interplay. Several candidate genes have been identified in the past decade. At the brain level, dyslexia is associated with aberrant structure and function, particularly in left hemisphere reading/language networks. The neurocognitive influences on dyslexia are also multifactorial and involve phonological processing deficits as well as weaknesses in other oral language skills and processing speed. We address contextual issues such as how dyslexia manifests across languages and social classes as well as what treatments are best supported. Throughout the review, we highlight exciting new research that cuts across levels of analysis. Such work promises eventually to provide a comprehensive explanation of the disorder as well as its prevention and remediation. PMID:25594880

  9. The "where" and "what" in developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Henik, Avishai; Rubinsten, Orly; Ashkenazi, Sarit

    2011-08-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is a congenital deficit that affects the ability to acquire arithmetical skills. Individuals with DD have problems learning standard number facts and procedures. Estimates of the prevalence rate of DD are similar to those of developmental dyslexia. Recent reports and discussions suggest that those with DD suffer from specific deficits (e.g., subitizing, comparative judgment). Accordingly, DD has been described as a domain-specific disorder that involves particular brain areas (e.g., intra-parietal sulcus). However, we and others have found that DD is characterized by additional deficiencies and may be affected by domain-general (e.g., attention) factors. Hence "pure DD" might be rather rare and not as pure as one would think. We suggest that the heterogeneity of symptoms that commonly characterize learning disabilities needs to be taken into account in future research and treatment. PMID:21955112

  10. Developmental exposure to terbutaline alters cell signaling in mature rat brain regions and augments the effects of subsequent neonatal exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Armando; Seidler, Frederic J.; Aldridge, Justin E.; Slotkin, Theodore A. . E-mail: t.slotkin@duke.edu

    2005-03-01

    Exposure to apparently unrelated neurotoxicants can nevertheless converge on common neurodevelopmental events. We examined the long-term effects of developmental exposure of rats to terbutaline, a {beta}-adrenoceptor agonist used to arrest preterm labor, and the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) separately and together. Treatments mimicked the appropriate neurodevelopmental stages for human exposures: terbutaline on postnatal days (PN) 2-5 and CPF on PN11-14, with assessments conducted on PN45. Although neither treatment affected growth or viability, each elicited alterations in CNS cell signaling mediated by adenylyl cyclase (AC), a transduction pathway shared by numerous neuronal and hormonal signals. Terbutaline altered signaling in the brainstem and cerebellum, with gender differences particularly notable in the cerebellum (enhanced AC in males, suppressed in females). By itself, CPF exposure elicited deficits in AC signaling in the midbrain, brainstem, and striatum. However, sequential exposure to terbutaline followed by CPF produced larger alterations and involved a wider spectrum of brain regions than were obtained with either agent alone. In the cerebral cortex, adverse effects of the combined treatment intensified between PN45 and PN60, suggesting that exposures alter the long-term program for development of synaptic communication, leading to alterations in AC signaling that emerge even after adolescence. These findings indicate that terbutaline, like CPF, is a developmental neurotoxicant, and reinforce the idea that its use in preterm labor may create a subpopulation that is sensitized to long-term CNS effects of organophosphorus insecticides.

  11. Pericentric inversion of chromosome 11 (p14.3q21) associated with developmental delays, hypopigmented skin lesions and abnormal brain MRI findings - a new case report

    SciTech Connect

    Zachor, D.A.; Lofton, M.

    1994-09-01

    We report 3 year old male, referred for evaluation of developmental delays. Pregnancy was complicated by oligohydramnios, proteinuria and prematurity. Medical history revealed: bilateral inguinal hernia, small scrotal sac, undescended testes, developmental delays and behavioral problems. The child had: microcephaly, facial dysmorphic features, single palmar creases, hypopigmented skin lesions of variable size, intermittent exotropia and small retracted testes. Neurological examination was normal. Cognitive level was at the average range with mild delay in his adaptive behavior. Expressive language delays and severe articulation disorder were noted, as well as clumsiness, poor control and precision of gross and fine motor skills. Chromosomal analysis of peripheral leukocytes indicated that one of the number 11 chromosomes had undergone a pericentric inversion with breakpoints on the short (p) arm at band p14.3 and the long (q) arm at band q21. An MRI of the brain showed mild delay in myelinization pattern of white matter. Chromosome 11 inversion in other sites was associated with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome and several malignancies. To our knowledge this is the first description of inv(11)(p14.3q21) that is associated with microcephaly, dysmorphic features, hypopigmented skin lesions and speech delay. This inversion may disrupt the expression of the involved genes. However, additional cases with the same cytogenetic anomaly are needed to explore the phenotypic significance of this disorder.

  12. Longitudinal in-vivo diffusion tensor imaging for assessing brain developmental changes in BALB/cJ mice, a model of reduced sociability relevant to autism

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Manoj; Kim, Sungheon; Pickup, Stephen; Chen, Rong; Fairless, Andrew H.; Ittyerah, Ranjit; Abel, Ted; Brodkin, Edward S.; Poptani, Harish

    2012-01-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is highly sensitive in detecting brain structure and connectivity phenotypes in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Since one of the core symptoms of ASD is reduced sociability (reduced tendency to seek social interaction), we hypothesized that DTI will be sensitive in detecting neural phenotypes that correlate with decreased sociability in mouse models. Relative to C57BL/6J (B6) mice, juvenile BALB/cJ mice show reduced sociability. We performed social approach test in a three-chambered apparatus and in-vivo longitudinal DTI at post-natal days 30, 50 and 70 days-of-age in BALB/cJ (n=32) and B6 (n=15) mice to assess the correlation between DTI and sociability and to evaluate differences in DTI parameters between these two strains. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) values from in-vivo DTI data were analyzed from white matter (corpus callosum, internal and external capsule) and gray matter (cerebral cortex, frontal motor cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and amygdaloid) regions based on their relevance to ASD. A moderate but significant (p<0.05) negative correlation between sociability and FA in hippocampus and frontal motor cortex was noted for BALB/cJ mice at 30 days-of-age. Significant differences in FA and MD values between BALB/cJ and B6 mice were observed in most white and gray matter areas at all three time points. Significant differences in developmental trajectories of FA and MD values from thalamus and frontal motor cortex were also observed between BALB/cJ and B6, indicating relative under-connectivity in BALB/cJ mice. These results indicate that DTI may be used as an in-vivo, non-invasive imaging method to assess developmental trajectories of brain connectivity in mouse models of neurodevelopmental and behavioral disorders. PMID:22513103

  13. Fos Protein Expression in Olfactory-Related Brain Areas after Learning and after Reactivation of a Slowly Acquired Olfactory Discrimination Task in the Rat

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roullet, Florence; Lienard, Fabienne; Datiche, Frederique; Cattarelli, Martine

    2005-01-01

    Fos protein immunodetection was used to investigate the neuronal activation elicited in some olfactory-related areas after either learning of an olfactory discrimination task or its reactivation 10 d later. Trained rats (T) progressively acquired the association between one odor of a pair and water-reward in a four-arm maze. Two groups of…

  14. Developmental programming by high fructose decreases phosphorylation efficiency in aging offspring brain mitochondria, correlating with enhanced UCP5 expression

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Ole H; Larsen, Lea H; Ørstrup, Laura KH; Hansen, Lillian HL; Grunnet, Niels; Quistorff, Bjørn

    2014-01-01

    Fructose has recently been observed to affect brain metabolism and cognitive function in adults. Yet, possible late-onset effects by gestational fructose exposure have not been examined. We evaluated mitochondrial function in the brain of aging (15 months) male offspring of Fischer F344 rat dams fed a high-fructose diet (50% energy from fructose) during gestation and lactation. Maternal fructose exposure caused a significantly lower body weight of the offspring throughout life after weaning, while birth weight, litter size, and body fat percentage were unaffected. Isolated brain mitochondria displayed a significantly increased state 3 respiration of 8%, with the substrate combinations malate/pyruvate, malate/pyruvate/succinate, and malate/pyruvate/succinate/rotenone, as well as a significant decrease in the P/O2 ratio, compared with the control. Uncoupling protein 5 (UCP5) protein levels increased in the fructose group compared with the control (P=0.03) and both UCP5 mRNA and protein levels were inversely correlated with the P/O2 ratio (P=0.008 and 0.03, respectively), suggesting that UCP5 may have a role in the observed decreased phosphorylation efficiency. In conclusion, maternal high-fructose diet during gestation and lactation has long-term effects (fetal programming) on brain mitochondrial function in aging rats, which appears to be linked to an increase in UCP5 protein levels. PMID:24756078

  15. Developmental changes in category-specific brain responses to numbers and letters in a working memory task

    PubMed Central

    Libertus, Melissa E.; Brannon, Elizabeth M.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2009-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have identified a common network of brain regions involving the prefrontal and parietal cortices across a variety of working memory (WM) tasks. However, previous studies have also reported category-specific dissociations of activation within this network. In this study, we investigated the development of category-specific activation in a WM task with digits, letters, and faces. Eight-year-old children and adults performed a 2-back WM task while their brain activity was measured using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Overall, children were significantly slower and less accurate than adults on all three WM conditions (digits, letters, and faces); however, within each age group, behavioral performance across the three conditions was very similar. FMRI results revealed category-specific activation in adults but not children in the intraparietal sulcus for the digit condition. Likewise, during the letter condition, category-specific activation was observed in adults but not children in the left occipital–temporal cortex. In contrast, children and adults showed highly similar brain-activity patterns in the lateral fusiform gyri when solving the 2-back WM task with face stimuli. Our results suggest that 8-year-old children do not yet engage the typical brain regions that have been associated with abstract or semantic processing of numerical symbols and letters when these processes are task-irrelevant and the primary task is demanding. Nevertheless, brain activity in letter-responsive areas predicted children’s spelling performance underscoring the relationship between abstract processing of letters and linguistic abilities. Lastly, behavioral performance on the WM task was predictive of math and language abilities highlighting the connection between WM and other cognitive abilities in development. PMID:19027079

  16. Developmental species differences in brain cell cycle rates between northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus) and parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus): implications for mosaic brain evolution.

    PubMed

    Charvet, Christine J; Striedter, Georg F

    2008-01-01

    Adult brains differ among species in the proportional sizes of their major subdivisions. For example, the telencephalon occupies 71% of the entire brain in parakeets (Melopsittacus undulatus) but only 54% in quail (Colinus virginianus). In contrast, the tectum is smaller in parakeets than in quail. To determine whether these differences in brain region size arise because of species differences in cell cycle rates, parakeet and quail embryos were collected at various stages of development (HH24-HH37) and stained with antibodies against proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), which labels all dividing cells, and phosphorylated histone-3 (pH3), which labels M-phase cells. Analysis of pH3+ cell densities and pH3+/PCNA+ cell ratios were used to compare cell cycle rates across stages and species. Cumulative labeling with bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) was also used to compare cell cycle rates at stages 24 and 28 in quail. We found that telencephalic cell cycle rates lengthen with age in both species, but that they lengthen significantly later in parakeets than in quail. This species difference in cell cycle rates explains, at least partly, why adult parakeets have a proportionately larger telencephalon. Tectal cell cycle rates also remain elevated for a prolonged period of time in parakeets compared to quail. This seems paradoxical at first, given that the parakeet's adult tectum is relatively small. However, the tectum is initially much smaller but then grows more extensively in parakeets than in quail. Thus, species differences in adult brain proportions can be traced back to species differences in cell cycle kinetics.

  17. Effect of a single neonatal oxytocin treatment (hormonal imprinting) on the biogenic amine level of the adult rat brain: could oxytocin-induced labor cause pervasive developmental diseases?

    PubMed

    Hashemi, F; Tekes, Kornélia; Laufer, R; Szegi, P; Tóthfalusi, L; Csaba, G

    2013-10-01

    Perinatal single-hormone treatment causes hormonal imprinting with lifelong consequences in receptor-binding capacity, hormone production as well as in social and sexual behavior. In the present experiments, newborn rats were treated with a single dose of oxytocin, and the levels of biogenic amines and their metabolites were studied in 8 different brain regions and in the sera when the male and female animals were 4 months old. Both dopaminergic and serotonergic neurotransmission was found to be significantly influenced. The levels of 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid, homovanillic acid, and 5-hydroxyindole acetic acid metabolites decreased in the hypothalamus and striatum. Dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, and 5-hydroxytryptophol levels were hardly altered, and there was no difference in the epinephrine levels. The results show that dopamine and serotonin metabolism of hypothalamus and striatum are deeply and lifelong influenced by a single neonatal oxytocin treatment Oxytocin imprinting resulted in decreased dopamine turnover in the hypothalamus and decreased serotonin turnover in the hypothalamus, medulla oblongata, and striatum of females. As the disturbance of brain dopamine and serotonin system has an important role in the development of pervasive developmental diseases (eg, autism) and neuropsychiatric disorders (eg, schizophrenia), the growing number of oxytocin-induced labor as a causal factor, cannot be omitted. PMID:23548412

  18. The influences of environmental enrichment, cognitive enhancement, and physical exercise on brain development: can we alter the developmental trajectory of ADHD?

    PubMed

    Halperin, Jeffrey M; Healey, Dione M

    2011-01-01

    Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a pervasive pattern of developmentally inappropriate inattentive, impulsive and hyperactive behaviors that typically begin during the preschool years and often persist into adulthood. The most effective and widely used treatments for ADHD are medication and behavior modification. These empirically-supported interventions are generally successful in reducing ADHD symptoms, but treatment effects are rarely maintained beyond the active intervention. Because ADHD is now generally thought of as a chronic disorder that is often present well into adolescence and early adulthood, the need for continued treatment throughout the lifetime is both costly and problematic for a number of logistical reasons. Therefore, it would be highly beneficial if treatments would have lasting effects that remain after the intervention is terminated. This review examines the burgeoning literature on the underlying neural determinants of ADHD along with research demonstrating powerful influences of environmental factors on brain development and functioning. Based upon these largely distinct scientific literatures, we propose an approach that employs directed play and physical exercise to promote brain growth which, in turn, could lead to the development of potentially more enduring treatments for the disorder.

  19. The Influences of Environmental Enrichment, Cognitive Enhancement, and Physical Exercise on Brain Development: Can we Alter the Developmental Trajectory of ADHD?

    PubMed Central

    Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Healey, Dione M.

    2010-01-01

    Attention-deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is characterized by a pervasive pattern of developmentally inappropriate inattentive, impulsive and hyperactive behaviors that typically begin during the preschool years and often persist into adulthood. The most effective and widely used treatments for ADHD are medication and behavior modification. These empirically-supported interventions are generally successful in reducing ADHD symptoms, but treatment effects are rarely maintained beyond the active intervention. Because ADHD is now generally thought of as a chronic disorder that is often present well into adolescence and early adulthood, the need for continued treatment throughout the lifetime is both costly and problematic for a number of logistical reasons. Therefore, it would be highly beneficial if treatments would have lasting effects that remain after the intervention is terminated. This review examines the burgeoning literature on the underlying neural determinants of ADHD along research demonstrating powerful influences of environmental factors on brain development and functioning. Based upon these largely distinct scientific literatures, we propose an approach that employs directed play and physical exercise to promote brain growth which, in turn, could lead to the development of potentially more enduring treatments for the disorder. PMID:20691725

  20. Unique developmental trajectories of cortical thickness and surface area.

    PubMed

    Wierenga, Lara M; Langen, Marieke; Oranje, Bob; Durston, Sarah

    2014-02-15

    There is evidence that the timing of developmental changes in cortical volume and thickness varies across the brain, although the processes behind these differences are not well understood. In contrast to volume and thickness, the regional developmental trajectories of cortical surface area have not yet been described. The present study used a combined cross-sectional and longitudinal design with 201 MRI-scans (acquired at 1.5-T) from 135 typically developing children and adolescents. Scans were processed using FreeSurfer software and the Desikan-Killiany atlas. Developmental trajectories were estimated using mixed model regression analysis. Within most regions, cortical thickness showed linear decreases with age, whereas both cortical volume and surface area showed curvilinear trajectories. On average, maximum surface area occurred later in development than maximum volume. Global gender differences were more pronounced in cortical volume and surface area than in average thickness. Our findings suggest that developmental trajectories of surface area and thickness differ across the brain, both in their pattern and their timing, and that they also differ from the developmental trajectory of global cortical volume. Taken together, these findings indicate that the development of surface area and thickness is driven by different processes, at least in part. PMID:24246495

  1. Developmental pattern of diacylglycerol lipase-α (DAGLα) immunoreactivity in brain regions important for song learning and control in the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata)

    PubMed Central

    Soderstrom, Ken; Wilson, Ashley R.

    2013-01-01

    Zebra finch song is a learned behavior dependent upon successful progress through a sensitive period of late-postnatal development. This learning is associated with maturation of distinct brain nuclei and the fiber tract interconnections between them. We have previously found remarkably distinct and dense CB1 cannabinoid receptor expression within many of these song control brain regions, implying a normal role for endocannabinoid signaling in vocal learning. Activation of CB1 receptors via daily treatments with exogenous agonist during sensorimotor stages of song learning (but not in adulthood) results in persistent alteration of song patterns. Now we are working to understand physiological changes responsible for this cannabinoid-altered vocal learning. We have found that song-altering developmental treatments are associated with changes in expression of endocannabinoid signaling elements, including CB1 receptors and the principal CNS endogenous agonist, 2-AG. Within CNS, 2-AG is produced largely through activity of the α isoform of the enzyme diacylglycerol lipase (DAGLα). To better appreciate the role of 2-AG production in normal vocal development we have determined the spatial distribution of DAGLα expression within zebra finch CNS during vocal development. Early during vocal development at 25 days, DAGLα staining is typically light and of fibroid processes. Staining peaks late in the sensorimotor stage of song learning at 75 days and is characterized by fiber, neuropil and some staining of both small and large cell somata. Results provide insight to the normal role for endocannabinoid signaling in the maturation of brain regions responsible for song learning and vocal-motor output, and suggest mechanisms by which exogenous cannabinoid exposure alters acquisition of this form of vocal communication. PMID:24140814

  2. Introduction to the special issue: Substance use and the adolescent brain: Developmental impacts, interventions, and longitudinal outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Luciana, Monica; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W.

    2016-01-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health problem, particularly given the negative brain and behavioral consequences that often occur during and following acute intoxication. Negative outcomes appear to be especially pronounced when substance use is initiated in the early adolescent years, perhaps due to neural adaptations that increase risk for substance use disorders into adulthood. Recent models to explain these epidemiological trends have focused on brain-based vulnerabilities to use as well as neurodevelopmental aberrations associated with initiation of use in substance naïve samples or through the description of case-control differences between heavy users and controls. Within this research, adolescent alcohol and marijuana users have shown relative decreases in regional gray matter volumes, substance-specific alterations in white matter volumes, deviations in microstructural integrity in white matter tracts that regulate communication between subcortical areas and higher level regulatory control regions, and deficits in functional connectivity. How these brain anomalies map onto other types of youth risk behavior and later vulnerabilities represent major questions for continued research. This special issue addresses these compelling and timely questions by introducing new methodologies, empirical relationships, and perspectives from major leaders in this field. PMID:26589541

  3. Introduction to the special issue: Substance use and the adolescent brain: Developmental impacts, interventions, and longitudinal outcomes.

    PubMed

    Luciana, Monica; Feldstein Ewing, Sarah W

    2015-12-01

    Adolescent substance abuse is a major public health problem, particularly given the negative brain and behavioral consequences that often occur during and following acute intoxication. Negative outcomes appear to be especially pronounced when substance use is initiated in the early adolescent years, perhaps due to neural adaptations that increase risk for substance use disorders into adulthood. Recent models to explain these epidemiological trends have focused on brain-based vulnerabilities to use as well as neurodevelopmental aberrations associated with initiation of use in substance naïve samples or through the description of case-control differences between heavy users and controls. Within this research, adolescent alcohol and marijuana users have shown relative decreases in regional gray matter volumes, substance-specific alterations in white matter volumes, deviations in microstructural integrity in white matter tracts that regulate communication between subcortical areas and higher level regulatory control regions, and deficits in functional connectivity. How these brain anomalies map onto other types of youth risk behavior and later vulnerabilities represent major questions for continued research. This special issue addresses these compelling and timely questions by introducing new methodologies, empirical relationships, and perspectives from major leaders in this field. PMID:26589541

  4. Brain phosphorylation of MeCP2 at serine 164 is developmentally regulated and globally alters its chromatin association

    PubMed Central

    Stefanelli, Gilda; Gandaglia, Anna; Costa, Mario; Cheema, Manjinder S.; Di Marino, Daniele; Barbiero, Isabella; Kilstrup-Nielsen, Charlotte; Ausió, Juan; Landsberger, Nicoletta

    2016-01-01

    MeCP2 is a transcriptional regulator whose functional alterations are responsible for several autism spectrum and mental disorders. Post-translational modifications (PTMs), and particularly differential phosphorylation, modulate MeCP2 function in response to diverse stimuli. Understanding the detailed role of MeCP2 phosphorylation is thus instrumental to ascertain how MeCP2 integrates the environmental signals and directs its adaptive transcriptional responses. The evolutionarily conserved serine 164 (S164) was found phosphorylated in rodent brain but its functional role has remained uncharacterized. We show here that phosphorylation of S164 in brain is dynamically regulated during neuronal maturation. S164 phosphorylation highly impairs MeCP2 binding to DNA in vitro and largely affects its nucleosome binding and chromatin affinity in vivo. Strikingly, the chromatin-binding properties of the global MeCP2 appear also extensively altered during the course of brain maturation. Functional assays reveal that proper temporal regulation of S164 phosphorylation controls the ability of MeCP2 to regulate neuronal morphology. Altogether, our results support the hypothesis of a complex PTM-mediated functional regulation of MeCP2 potentially involving a still poorly characterized epigenetic code. Furthermore, they demonstrate the relevance of the Intervening Domain of MeCP2 for binding to DNA. PMID:27323888

  5. Albumin induces excitatory synaptogenesis through astrocytic TGF-β/ALK5 signaling in a model of acquired epilepsy following blood-brain barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Weissberg, Itai; Wood, Lydia; Kamintsky, Lyn; Vazquez, Oscar; Milikovsky, Dan Z; Alexander, Allyson; Oppenheim, Hannah; Ardizzone, Carolyn; Becker, Albert; Frigerio, Federica; Vezzani, Annamaria; Buckwalter, Marion S; Huguenard, John R; Friedman, Alon; Kaufer, Daniela

    2015-06-01

    Post-injury epilepsy (PIE) is a common complication following brain insults, including ischemic, and traumatic brain injuries. At present, there are no means to identify the patients at risk to develop PIE or to prevent its development. Seizures can occur months or years after the insult, do not respond to anti-seizure medications in over third of the patients, and are often associated with significant neuropsychiatric morbidities. We have previously established the critical role of blood-brain barrier dysfunction in PIE, demonstrating that exposure of brain tissue to extravasated serum albumin induces activation of inflammatory transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling in astrocytes and eventually seizures. However, the link between the acute astrocytic inflammatory responses and reorganization of neural networks that underlie recurrent spontaneous seizures remains unknown. Here we demonstrate in vitro and in vivo that activation of the astrocytic ALK5/TGF-β-pathway induces excitatory, but not inhibitory, synaptogenesis that precedes the appearance of seizures. Moreover, we show that treatment with SJN2511, a specific ALK5/TGF-β inhibitor, prevents synaptogenesis and epilepsy. Our findings point to astrocyte-mediated synaptogenesis as a key epileptogenic process and highlight the manipulation of the TGF-β-pathway as a potential strategy for the prevention of PIE.

  6. Albumin induces excitatory synaptogenesis through astrocytic TGF-β/ALK5 signaling in a model of acquired epilepsy following blood-brain barrier dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Weissberg, Itai; Wood, Lydia; Kamintsky, Lyn; Vazquez, Oscar; Milikovsky, Dan Z; Alexander, Allyson; Oppenheim, Hannah; Ardizzone, Carolyn; Becker, Albert; Frigerio, Federica; Vezzani, Annamaria; Buckwalter, Marion S; Huguenard, John R; Friedman, Alon; Kaufer, Daniela

    2015-06-01

    Post-injury epilepsy (PIE) is a common complication following brain insults, including ischemic, and traumatic brain injuries. At present, there are no means to identify the patients at risk to develop PIE or to prevent its development. Seizures can occur months or years after the insult, do not respond to anti-seizure medications in over third of the patients, and are often associated with significant neuropsychiatric morbidities. We have previously established the critical role of blood-brain barrier dysfunction in PIE, demonstrating that exposure of brain tissue to extravasated serum albumin induces activation of inflammatory transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) signaling in astrocytes and eventually seizures. However, the link between the acute astrocytic inflammatory responses and reorganization of neural networks that underlie recurrent spontaneous seizures remains unknown. Here we demonstrate in vitro and in vivo that activation of the astrocytic ALK5/TGF-β-pathway induces excitatory, but not inhibitory, synaptogenesis that precedes the appearance of seizures. Moreover, we show that treatment with SJN2511, a specific ALK5/TGF-β inhibitor, prevents synaptogenesis and epilepsy. Our findings point to astrocyte-mediated synaptogenesis as a key epileptogenic process and highlight the manipulation of the TGF-β-pathway as a potential strategy for the prevention of PIE. PMID:25836421

  7. Developmental Toxicology##

    EPA Science Inventory

    Developmental toxicology encompasses the study of developmental exposures, pharmacokinetics, mechanisms, pathogenesis, and outcomes potentially leading to adverse health effects. Manifestations of developmental toxicity include structural malformations, growth retardation, functi...

  8. Sexually dimorphic gene regulation in brain as a target for endocrine disrupters: Developmental exposure of rats to 4-methylbenzylidene camphor

    SciTech Connect

    Maerkel, Kirsten; Durrer, Stefan; Henseler, Manuel; Schlumpf, Margret; Lichtensteiger, Walter . E-mail: Walter.Lichtensteiger@access.unizh.ch

    2007-01-15

    The developing neuroendocrine brain represents a potential target for endocrine active chemicals. The UV filter 4-methylbenzylidene camphor (4-MBC) exhibits estrogenic activity, but also interferes with the thyroid axis. We investigated effects of pre- and postnatal exposure to 4-MBC in the same rat offspring at brain and reproductive organ levels. 4-MBC (7, 24, 47 mg/kg/day) was administered in chow to the parent generation before mating, during gestation and lactation, and to the offspring until adulthood. mRNA of estrogen target genes involved in control of sexual behavior and gonadal functions was measured by real-time RT-PCR in ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus (VMH) and medial preoptic area (MPO) of adult offspring. 4-MBC exposure affected mRNA levels of ER alpha, progesterone receptor (PR), preproenkephalin (PPE) and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in a sex- and region-specific manner. In order to assess possible changes in sensitivity of target genes to estrogens, offspring were gonadectomized on day 70, injected with estradiol (E2, 10 or 50 {mu}g/kg s.c.) or vehicle on day 84, and sacrificed 6 h later. The acute induction of PR mRNA, and repression (at 6 h) of PPE mRNA by E2 was enhanced by 4-MBC in male and female VMH and female MPO, whereas male MPO exhibited reduced responsiveness of both genes. Steroid receptor coactivator SRC-1 mRNA levels were increased in female VMH and MPO. The data indicate profound sex- and region-specific alterations in the regulation of estrogen target genes at brain level. Effect patterns in baseline and E2-induced gene expression differ from those in uterus and prostate.

  9. Mapping Subcortical Brain Maturation during Adolescence: Evidence of Hemisphere-and Sex-Specific Longitudinal Changes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dennison, Meg; Whittle, Sarah; Yücel, Murat; Vijayakumar, Nandita; Kline, Alexandria; Simmons, Julian; Allen, Nicholas B.

    2013-01-01

    Early to mid-adolescence is an important developmental period for subcortical brain maturation, but longitudinal studies of these neurodevelopmental changes are lacking. The present study acquired repeated magnetic resonance images from 60 adolescent subjects (28 female) at ages 12.5 and 16.5 years to map changes in subcortical structure volumes.…

  10. Cognitive reserve and preinjury educational attainment: effects on outcome of community-based rehabilitation for longer-term individuals with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Fortune, Dónal G; Walsh, R Stephen; Richards, Helen L

    2016-09-01

    The cognitive reserve hypothesis has been proposed to account for the mismatch between brain pathology and its clinical expression. The aim of the current research was to explore, in a longitudinal data set, the effects of level of educational attainment before brain injury (cognitive reserve) and clinical factors on the level of rehabilitation-induced changes in disability and community integration. Participants in receipt of postacute rehabilitation were assessed at induction to the service and again at between 14 and 18 months of follow-up while still in service on changes in aspects of their abilities, adjustment and participation (Mayo Portland Adaptability Indices) and community integration (Community Integration Questionnaire). Controlling for type and severity of injury, age at onset of injury and duration of time since injury, participants with higher previous educational attainment showed significantly greater changes over the course of rehabilitation on adjustment to their injury and participation, but not on abilities, or community integration following postacute rehabilitation. Level of education would appear to be an important element of cognitive reserve in brain injury that serves to aid responses to postacute rehabilitation in terms of an individual's adjustment to disability and participation.

  11. Developmental differences between cation-independent and cation-dependent mannose-6-phosphate receptors in rat brain at perinatal stages.

    PubMed

    Romano, P S; Carvelli, L; López, A C; Jofré, G; Sartor, T; Sosa, M A

    2005-08-01

    Mannose-6-phosphate receptors (MPRs) play a role in the selective transport of macromolecules bearing mannose-6-phosphate residue to lysosomes. To date, two types of MPRs have been described in most of cells and tissues: the cation-dependent (CD-MPR) and cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor (CI-MPR). In order to elucidate their possible role in the central nervous system, the expression and binding properties of both MPRs were studied in rat brain along perinatal development. It was observed that the expression of CI-MPR decreases progressively from fetuses to adults, while the CD-MPR increases around the 10th day of birth, and maintains these values up to adulthood. Binding assays showed differences in the Bmax and KD values between the ages studied, and they did not correlate with the expression levels of both MPRs. Variations in lysosomal enzyme activities and expression of phosphomannosylated ligands during development correlated more with CD-MPR than with CI-MPR expression. These results suggest that both receptors play a different role in rat brain during perinatal development, being CD-MPR mostly involved in lysosome maturation.

  12. Age, Plasticity, and Homeostasis In Childhood Brain Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Maureen; Spiegler, Brenda J.; Juranek, Jenifer J.; Bigler, Erin D.; Snead, O. Carter; Fletcher, Jack M.

    2013-01-01

    It has been widely accepted that the younger the age and/or immaturity of the organism, the greater the brain plasticity, the young age plasticity privilege. This paper examines the relation of a young age to plasticity, reviewing human pediatric brain disorders, as well as selected animal models, human developmental and adult brain disorder studies. As well, we review developmental and childhood acquired disorders that involve a failure of regulatory homeostasis. Our core arguments are: Plasticity is neutral with respect to outcome. Although the effects of plasticity are often beneficial, the outcome of plasticity may be adaptive or maladaptive.The young age plasticity privilege has been overstated.Plastic change operates in concert with homeostatic mechanisms regulating change at every point in the lifespan.The same mechanisms that propel developmental change expose the immature brain to adverse events, making it more difficult for the immature than for the mature brain to sustain equilibrium between plasticity and homeostasis.Poor outcome in many neurodevelopmental disorders and childhood acquired brain insults is related to disequilibrium between plasticity and homeostasis. PMID:24096190

  13. Brain circuit imprints of developmental 17α-Ethinylestradiol exposure in guppies (Poecilia reticulata): persistent effects on anxiety but not on reproductive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Volkova, Kristina; Reyhanian, Nasim; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Olsén, Håkan; Porsch-Hällström, Inger; Hallgren, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    The effects of endocrine disruptors may vary with the timing of exposure. The physiological implications of adult exposure are present during and shortly after exposure while embryonic exposure can imprint changes manifested in adulthood. In this study, guppy (Poecilia reticulata) embryos were exposed to 2 and 20 ng/L of 17α-ethinylestradiol during development via the mother and reared in clean water from gestation until 6 months of age. As adults, fish exposed to 20 ng/L during development showed significantly altered behaviour in the Novel Tank test, where anxiety is determined as the tendency to remain at the bottom upon introduction into an unfamiliar tank. 17α-ethinylestradiol treatment increased the latency time before swimming to the upper half of the tank and decreased the number of transitions to the upper half. In control females the basal stress behaviour responses were significantly higher than in males, as indicated by longer latency period and fewer and shorter visits to the upper half, supporting the importance of gonadal hormones for the behaviour. The anxiety increased, however, with treatment in both sexes, suggesting that the observed response is not entirely due to feminisation of the males. Shoaling behaviour, analysed as tendency to leave a shoal of littermates, was neither sex-differentiated nor changed by treatment. Also male reproductive behaviour, brain aromatase activity and testes histology, previously shown to respond to oestrogen exposure in adult guppy, were unaffected by the developmental treatment. This suggests that the stress system in the guppy is very sensitive to 17α-ethinylestradiol, which possibly causes an early organisational imprint on the brain circuit that regulates stress reactions.

  14. Brain circuit imprints of developmental 17α-Ethinylestradiol exposure in guppies (Poecilia reticulata): persistent effects on anxiety but not on reproductive behaviour.

    PubMed

    Volkova, Kristina; Reyhanian, Nasim; Kot-Wasik, Agata; Olsén, Håkan; Porsch-Hällström, Inger; Hallgren, Stefan

    2012-09-01

    The effects of endocrine disruptors may vary with the timing of exposure. The physiological implications of adult exposure are present during and shortly after exposure while embryonic exposure can imprint changes manifested in adulthood. In this study, guppy (Poecilia reticulata) embryos were exposed to 2 and 20 ng/L of 17α-ethinylestradiol during development via the mother and reared in clean water from gestation until 6 months of age. As adults, fish exposed to 20 ng/L during development showed significantly altered behaviour in the Novel Tank test, where anxiety is determined as the tendency to remain at the bottom upon introduction into an unfamiliar tank. 17α-ethinylestradiol treatment increased the latency time before swimming to the upper half of the tank and decreased the number of transitions to the upper half. In control females the basal stress behaviour responses were significantly higher than in males, as indicated by longer latency period and fewer and shorter visits to the upper half, supporting the importance of gonadal hormones for the behaviour. The anxiety increased, however, with treatment in both sexes, suggesting that the observed response is not entirely due to feminisation of the males. Shoaling behaviour, analysed as tendency to leave a shoal of littermates, was neither sex-differentiated nor changed by treatment. Also male reproductive behaviour, brain aromatase activity and testes histology, previously shown to respond to oestrogen exposure in adult guppy, were unaffected by the developmental treatment. This suggests that the stress system in the guppy is very sensitive to 17α-ethinylestradiol, which possibly causes an early organisational imprint on the brain circuit that regulates stress reactions. PMID:22687331

  15. [Is the early brain organisation of spatial information conveyed by tactile stimuli performed in different ways in congenital and acquired blind children? A pilot study].

    PubMed

    Ortiz, Tomás; Santos, Juan M; Ortiz-Teran, Laura; Nogales, Ramón; Serrano-Marugán, Isabel; Martínez, José M; Minguito-García, Carlos; Requena, Carmen; Poch-Broto, Joaquín

    2013-02-22

    Cortical reorganization after congenital blindness is not sufficiently known yet it does offer an optimum window of opportunity to study the effects of absolute sensorial deprivation. Cross-modality in people with blindness has been documented, but it may differ in congenital blindness and in early blindness. Vibrotactile passive stimulation of lines and letters generates different electroencephalographic patterns with different source localizations in two children with blindness, aged 9 and 10, respectively with congenital blindness and early blindness with some remnants of vision. Most of the brain electrical activity is centered in auditive areas in P50 and P100 in the case of the child with congenital blindness, while the other shows activity in multiple areas. Reaction times to letters are shorter than to lines of different orientation in both children.

  16. Developmental Concept of Idiocy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simpson, Murray

    2007-01-01

    In dominant definitions of mental retardation, researchers have insisted on the diagnosis being restricted to conditions manifested during the developmental period. However, even in the 19th century, this was only one of several conceptual options, some of which did not exclude adult brain injury or dementia. Events in the 19th and early 20th…

  17. Divergent developmental expression and function of the proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters PepT2 and PhT1 in regional brain slices of mouse and rat.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yongjun; Xie, Yehua; Keep, Richard F; Smith, David E

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated the developmental gene and protein expression of proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters (POTs: peptide transporter, PepT1 and PepT2; peptide-histidine transporter, PhT1 and PhT2) in different regions of rodent brain, and the age-dependent uptake of a POT substrate, glycylsarcosine (GlySar), in brain slices. Slices were obtained from cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus of wildtype and PepT2 null mice, and from rats at different ages. Gene and protein expression were determined by real-time PCR and immunoblot analyses. Brain slice uptakes of radiolabeled glycylsarcosine were determined in the absence and presence of excess unlabeled glycylsarcosine or l-histidine, the latter being an inhibitor of PhT1/2 but not PepT1/2. As PepT2 and PhT1 transcripts were abundantly expressed in all three regions of mouse brain, little to no expression was observed for PepT1 and PhT2. PhT1 protein was present in brain regions of adult but not neonatal mice and expression levels increased with age in rats. Glycylsarcosine uptake, inhibition and transporter dominance did not show regional brain or species differences. However, there were clear age-related differences in functional activity, with PepT2 dominating in neonatal mice and rats, and PhT1 dominating in adult rodents. These developmental changes may markedly impact the neural activity of both endogenous and exogenous (drug) peptides/mimetics. Developmental gene and protein expression of peptide transporters was evaluated in various regions of rodent brain, along with age-dependent uptake of dipeptide. We found marked changes in protein expression and functional activity of PhT1 and PepT2, the former predominating in adult and the latter in neonate. These developmental changes may markedly impact the neural activity of endogenous and exogenous peptides/mimetics.

  18. The effect of adult-acquired hippocampal damage on memory retrieval: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Eleanor A; Frith, Christopher D; Rudge, Peter; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2005-08-01

    Bilateral hippocampal pathology typically results in significant memory problems. Despite apparently similar structural damage, patients with such lesions can differ in the pattern of impairment and preservation of memory functions. Previously, an fMRI study of a developmental amnesic patient whose anoxic hippocampal damage was incurred perinatally revealed his residual hippocampal tissue to be active during memory retrieval. This hippocampal activity was apparent during the retrieval of personal and general facts relative to a control task. In this study, we used a similar fMRI paradigm to investigate whether residual hippocampal activation was present also in patient VC with adult-acquired anoxic hippocampal pathology. VC's performance and reaction times on the experimental personal and general fact tasks were comparable to age-matched control subjects. However, in contrast to the elderly control sample and the previous developmental amnesic patient, his residual hippocampal tissue did not show activation changes during the experimental tasks. This finding indicates that patient VC's successful retrieval of personal and general facts was achieved without a significant hippocampal contribution. It further suggests that the hippocampal activation observed in the elderly controls and previous developmental amnesic patient was not necessary for successful task performance. The reason for this difference in hippocampal responsivity between VC and the developmental amnesic patient remains to be determined. We speculate that it may relate to the age at which hippocampal damage occurred reflecting plasticity within the developing brain, or to cognitive differences between VC, the developmental amnesic patient, and the control subjects. PMID:15886022

  19. New approaches to the developmental dyslexias.

    PubMed

    Temple, C M

    1984-01-01

    Although Hinshelwood (10-15), at the turn of the century, was interested in both analysis of individual cases and comparisons between acquired and developmental dyslexia, the most widespread approach to the developmental dyslexias has been the investigation of large groups of dyslexics in comparison to normal readers on a variety of tests. These studies ignore the heterogeneity of the disorder. In contrast, progress has been made in the investigation of acquired disorders of reading by conducting individual psycholinguistic analyses of reading difficulties and utilizing input from cognitive psychology to construct explanatory models and theories. Two of the disorders described and elucidated by this approach are acquired surface dyslexia, in which there is an impairment in whole word recognition and overreliance on sounding out words to obtain their pronunciation and meaning, and acquired phonological dyslexia, in which whole word recognition is good but sounding out of words and nonwords is poor. This approach has recently been used with cases of developmental dyslexia. This chapter compares and contrasts the pattern of performance of different dyslexic children when investigated in this way. Two of the children described are developmental phonological dyslexics; one is a developmental surface dyslexic. The developmental phonological dyslexics are poorer at reading words than non-words; the developmental surface dyslexic performs equally well on both. The developmental surface dyslexic is significantly influenced by spelling-to-sound regularity; the developmental phonological dyslexics are unaffected by this linguistic dimension. The developmental surface dyslexic makes more neologistic responses than the developmental phonological dyslexics, and also makes more valid errors. The developmental phonological dyslexics make derivational, pseudoderivational, and visuosemantic errors. Both groups make visual errors. The developmental phonological dyslexics are

  20. Developmental Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter provides an overview the developmental toxicity resulting from exposure to perfluorinated alkyl acids (PFAAs). The majority of studies of PFAA-induced developmental toxicity have examined effects of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) or perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) a...

  1. Developmental Screening

    MedlinePlus

    Learn More about Your Child’s Development: Developmental Monitoring and Screening Taking a first step, waving “bye-bye,” and pointing to something interesting are all developmental milestones, ...

  2. Developmental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bibb, T. Clifford

    1998-01-01

    Outlines steps developmental educators need to take to win the cooperation of more students. Argues also that developmental educators must include computer literacy in their understanding of literacy. (SR)

  3. [Community-based rehabilitation and outpatient care for patients with acquired brain injury and chronic neurological disability in Germany: continuing support for social participation and re-integration in the neurological care system?].

    PubMed

    Reuther, P; Hendrich, A; Kringler, W; Vespo, E

    2012-12-01

    In Germany a number of patients who are suffering from acquired brain injury and chronic neurological disability are either undersupplied or exposed to inappropriate care in their social environment. The number of these patients is increasing due to the changes in the procedures of care and due to demographic factors. While acute medical care and early rehabilitative treatment is accessible throughout the German health care system the necessary multimodal and competent care is rare or absent in the social participative sites such as life and occupational environments of the patients. The complex impairment of the brain, the central organ for sensorial, executive and other cognitive functions of human beings, renders the affected patient an exception in the system of medical and social care - this has only inadequately been considered in the past. The authors explain the necessity to disclose the status of a "human-with acquired-brain damage (Mensch-mit-erworbener-Hirnschädigung, MeH)" explicitly as severely disabled. The paper recommends a number of structural and procedural elements that have proven to overcome the insufficient or inappropriate support in integrating the patients suffering from acquired brain injury and chronic neurological disability in their social environment as well as for a demand-focused support with sustainable rehabilitative and ambulant follow-up procedures. Comparisons with other developed health care systems and international guidelines show that with organizing of early-supported-discharge, community-ambulation, shared-care and community-based-rehabilitation these problems have long since been identified elsewhere. Community-based and resident-oriented concepts have already been systematically implemented. In order to achieve the necessary support for the individual patient, a nation-wide development is necessary in Germany to perform the principles of the German social code and the principles of the Convention on the Rights of

  4. Ontogenetic Shape Change in the Chicken Brain: Implications for Paleontology.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Soichiro; Matsuda, Seiji; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Endo, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Paleontologists have investigated brain morphology of extinct birds with little information on post-hatching changes in avian brain morphology. Without the knowledge of ontogenesis, assessing brain morphology in fossil taxa could lead to misinterpretation of the phylogeny or neurosensory development of extinct species. Hence, it is imperative to determine how avian brain morphology changes during post-hatching growth. In this study, chicken brain shape was compared at various developmental stages using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric analysis and the growth rate of brain regions was evaluated to explore post-hatching morphological changes. Microscopic MRI (μMRI) was used to acquire in vivo data from living and post-mortem chicken brains. The telencephalon rotates caudoventrally during growth. This change in shape leads to a relative caudodorsal rotation of the cerebellum and myelencephalon. In addition, all brain regions elongate rostrocaudally and this leads to a more slender brain shape. The growth rates of each brain region were constant and the slopes from the growth formula were parallel. The dominant pattern of ontogenetic shape change corresponded with interspecific shape changes due to increasing brain size. That is, the interspecific and ontogenetic changes in brain shape due to increased size have similar patterns. Although the shape of the brain and each brain region changed considerably, the volume ratio of each brain region did not change. This suggests that the brain can change its shape after completing functional differentiation of the brain regions. Moreover, these results show that consideration of ontogenetic changes in brain shape is necessary for an accurate assessment of brain morphology in paleontological studies.

  5. Ontogenetic Shape Change in the Chicken Brain: Implications for Paleontology

    PubMed Central

    Kawabe, Soichiro; Matsuda, Seiji; Tsunekawa, Naoki; Endo, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    Paleontologists have investigated brain morphology of extinct birds with little information on post-hatching changes in avian brain morphology. Without the knowledge of ontogenesis, assessing brain morphology in fossil taxa could lead to misinterpretation of the phylogeny or neurosensory development of extinct species. Hence, it is imperative to determine how avian brain morphology changes during post-hatching growth. In this study, chicken brain shape was compared at various developmental stages using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric analysis and the growth rate of brain regions was evaluated to explore post-hatching morphological changes. Microscopic MRI (μMRI) was used to acquire in vivo data from living and post-mortem chicken brains. The telencephalon rotates caudoventrally during growth. This change in shape leads to a relative caudodorsal rotation of the cerebellum and myelencephalon. In addition, all brain regions elongate rostrocaudally and this leads to a more slender brain shape. The growth rates of each brain region were constant and the slopes from the growth formula were parallel. The dominant pattern of ontogenetic shape change corresponded with interspecific shape changes due to increasing brain size. That is, the interspecific and ontogenetic changes in brain shape due to increased size have similar patterns. Although the shape of the brain and each brain region changed considerably, the volume ratio of each brain region did not change. This suggests that the brain can change its shape after completing functional differentiation of the brain regions. Moreover, these results show that consideration of ontogenetic changes in brain shape is necessary for an accurate assessment of brain morphology in paleontological studies. PMID:26053849

  6. Pre- and Post-Natal Stress Programming: Developmental Exposure to Glucocorticoids Causes Long-Term Brain-Region Specific Changes to Transcriptome in the Precocial Japanese Quail.

    PubMed

    Marasco, V; Herzyk, P; Robinson, J; Spencer, K A

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to stress during early development can permanently influence an individual's physiology and behaviour, and affect its subsequent health. The extent to which elevated glucocorticoids cause such long-term 'programming' remains largely untested. In the present study, using the Japanese quail as our study species, we independently manipulated exposure to corticosterone during pre- and/or post-natal development and investigated the subsequent effects on global gene expression profiles within the hippocampus and hypothalamus upon achieving adulthood. Our results showed that the changes in transcriptome profiles in response to corticosterone exposure clearly differed between the hippocampus and the hypothalamus. We also showed that these effects depended on the developmental timing of exposure and identified brain-region specific gene expression patterns that were either: (i) similarly altered by corticosterone regardless of the developmental stage in which hormonal exposure occurred or (ii) specifically and uniquely altered by either pre-natal or post-natal exposure to corticosterone. Corticosterone-treated birds showed alterations in networks of genes that included known markers of the programming actions of early-life adversity (e.g. brain-derived neurotrophic factor and mineralocorticoid receptor within the hippocampus; corticotrophin-releasing hormone and serotonin receptors in the hypothalamus). Altogether, for the first time, these findings provide experimental support for the hypothesis that exposure to elevated glucocorticoids during development may be a key hormonal signalling pathway through which the long-term phenotypic effects associated with early-life adversity emerge and potentially persist throughout the lifespan. These data also highlight that stressors might have different long-lasting impacts on the brain transcriptome depending on the developmental stage in which they are experienced; more work is now required to relate these mechanisms to

  7. Acquired agraphia caused by focal brain damage.

    PubMed

    Anderson, S W; Saver, J; Tranel, D; Damasio, H

    1993-03-01

    Motor and linguistic aspects of writing were evaluated in 31 subjects with focal damage in 1 of 3 regions of the left hemisphere: (1) dorsolateral frontal lobe sparing primary motor cortex (group FL), (2) parietal lobe (group PL), or (3) temporal lobe (group TL). A standard procedure was used to evaluate writing for grapheme formation, spatial arrangement, spelling, word selection, grammar, and perseveration. It was predicted that agraphia would be observed in all 3 groups, and that the most severe impairments would be associated with frontal lobe damage, particularly in aspects of writing dependent on sequencing (grapheme formation, spelling, and grammar). It was found that agraphia was common in all groups, particularly in the acute epoch, and that all groups showed considerable recovery of writing by the chronic epoch. Few differences were found between groups. However, the FL group was impaired on spelling and grammar relative to the PL group in the acute epoch and impaired on grammar relative to the TL group in the chronic epoch. The findings are consistent with the notion that writing relies on a distributed neuroanatomical network, which acts in concert to link fragments of visuomotor activity with component linguistic elements.

  8. Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Philippe; Landrigan, Philip J

    2014-03-01

    Neurodevelopmental disabilities, including autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, and other cognitive impairments, affect millions of children worldwide, and some diagnoses seem to be increasing in frequency. Industrial chemicals that injure the developing brain are among the known causes for this rise in prevalence. In 2006, we did a systematic review and identified five industrial chemicals as developmental neurotoxicants: lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, arsenic, and toluene. Since 2006, epidemiological studies have documented six additional developmental neurotoxicants-manganese, fluoride, chlorpyrifos, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, and the polybrominated diphenyl ethers. We postulate that even more neurotoxicants remain undiscovered. To control the pandemic of developmental neurotoxicity, we propose a global prevention strategy. Untested chemicals should not be presumed to be safe to brain development, and chemicals in existing use and all new chemicals must therefore be tested for developmental neurotoxicity. To coordinate these efforts and to accelerate translation of science into prevention, we propose the urgent formation of a new international clearinghouse. PMID:24556010

  9. Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity

    PubMed Central

    Grandjean, Philippe; Landrigan, Philip J

    2015-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disabilities, including autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, and other cognitive impairments, affect millions of children worldwide, and some diagnoses seem to be increasing in frequency. Industrial chemicals that injure the developing brain are among the known causes for this rise in prevalence. In 2006, we did a systematic review and identified five industrial chemicals as developmental neurotoxicants: lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, arsenic, and toluene. Since 2006, epidemiological studies have documented six additional developmental neurotoxicants—manganese, fluoride, chlorpyrifos, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, and the polybrominated diphenyl ethers. We postulate that even more neurotoxicants remain undiscovered. To control the pandemic of developmental neurotoxicity, we propose a global prevention strategy. Untested chemicals should not be presumed to be safe to brain development, and chemicals in existing use and all new chemicals must therefore be tested for developmental neurotoxicity. To coordinate these efforts and to accelerate translation of science into prevention, we propose the urgent formation of a new international clearinghouse. PMID:24556010

  10. Neurobehavioural effects of developmental toxicity.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, Philippe; Landrigan, Philip J

    2014-03-01

    Neurodevelopmental disabilities, including autism, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder, dyslexia, and other cognitive impairments, affect millions of children worldwide, and some diagnoses seem to be increasing in frequency. Industrial chemicals that injure the developing brain are among the known causes for this rise in prevalence. In 2006, we did a systematic review and identified five industrial chemicals as developmental neurotoxicants: lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, arsenic, and toluene. Since 2006, epidemiological studies have documented six additional developmental neurotoxicants-manganese, fluoride, chlorpyrifos, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane, tetrachloroethylene, and the polybrominated diphenyl ethers. We postulate that even more neurotoxicants remain undiscovered. To control the pandemic of developmental neurotoxicity, we propose a global prevention strategy. Untested chemicals should not be presumed to be safe to brain development, and chemicals in existing use and all new chemicals must therefore be tested for developmental neurotoxicity. To coordinate these efforts and to accelerate translation of science into prevention, we propose the urgent formation of a new international clearinghouse.

  11. Congenital and acquired bleeding disorders in infancy.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Sally Elizabeth; Bolton-Maggs, Paula H B

    2015-11-01

    The diagnosis of congenital and acquired bleeding disorders in infants requires an understanding of developmental haemostasis and the effect on laboratory testing. A systematic approach to bleeding in neonates will aid clinicians in the diagnosis and treatment, which may be caused by a wide variety of diseases. The clinical setting will help to direct the diagnostic pathway. This review will focus on the presentation and diagnosis of congenital and acquired bleeding disorders, including platelet disorders. Current research in this field is ongoing, including investigation into neonatal platelets and their different functionalities, platelet transfusion thresholds and how changes in coagulation factors may be linked to other homeostatic mechanisms.

  12. Modeling Developmental Transitions in Adaptive Resonance Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raijmakers, Maartje E. J.; Molenaar, Peter C. M.

    2004-01-01

    Neural networks are applied to a theoretical subject in developmental psychology: modeling developmental transitions. Two issues that are involved will be discussed: discontinuities and acquiring qualitatively new knowledge. We will argue that by the appearance of a bifurcation, a neural network can show discontinuities and may acquire…

  13. Arguments from Developmental Order.

    PubMed

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind - getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged 'philosophy of development.'

  14. Arguments from Developmental Order

    PubMed Central

    Stöckle-Schobel, Richard

    2016-01-01

    In this article1, I investigate a special type of argument regarding the role of development in theorizing about psychological processes and cognitive capacities. Among the issues that developmental psychologists study, discovering the ontogenetic trajectory of mechanisms or capacities underpinning our cognitive functions ranks highly. The order in which functions are developed or capacities are acquired is a matter of debate between competing psychological theories, and also philosophical conceptions of the mind – getting the role and the significance of the different steps in this order right could be seen as an important virtue of such theories. Thus, a special kind of strategy in arguments between competing philosophical or psychological theories is using developmental order in arguing for or against a given psychological claim. In this article, I will introduce an analysis of arguments from developmental order, which come in two general types: arguments emphasizing the importance of the early cognitive processes and arguments emphasizing the late cognitive processes. I will discuss their role in one of the central tools for evaluating scientific theories, namely in making inferences to the best explanation. I will argue that appeal to developmental order is, by itself, an insufficient criterion for theory choice and has to be part of an argument based on other core explanatory or empirical virtues. I will end by proposing a more concerted study of philosophical issues concerning (cognitive) development, and I will present some topics that also pertain to a full-fledged ‘philosophy of development.’ PMID:27242648

  15. Structural brain development between childhood and adulthood: Convergence across four longitudinal samples.

    PubMed

    Mills, Kathryn L; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Herting, Megan M; Meuwese, Rosa; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Crone, Eveline A; Dahl, Ronald E; Güroğlu, Berna; Raznahan, Armin; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Tamnes, Christian K

    2016-11-01

    Longitudinal studies including brain measures acquired through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have enabled population models of human brain development, crucial for our understanding of typical development as well as neurodevelopmental disorders. Brain development in the first two decades generally involves early cortical grey matter volume (CGMV) increases followed by decreases, and monotonic increases in cerebral white matter volume (CWMV). However, inconsistencies regarding the precise developmental trajectories call into question the comparability of samples. This issue can be addressed by conducting a comprehensive study across multiple datasets from diverse populations. Here, we present replicable models for gross structural brain development between childhood and adulthood (ages 8-30years) by repeating analyses in four separate longitudinal samples (391 participants; 852 scans). In addition, we address how accounting for global measures of cranial/brain size affect these developmental trajectories. First, we found evidence for continued development of both intracranial volume (ICV) and whole brain volume (WBV) through adolescence, albeit following distinct trajectories. Second, our results indicate that CGMV is at its highest in childhood, decreasing steadily through the second decade with deceleration in the third decade, while CWMV increases until mid-to-late adolescence before decelerating. Importantly, we show that accounting for cranial/brain size affects models of regional brain development, particularly with respect to sex differences. Our results increase confidence in our knowledge of the pattern of brain changes during adolescence, reduce concerns about discrepancies across samples, and suggest some best practices for statistical control of cranial volume and brain size in future studies.

  16. Developmental Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... many causes of developmental disabilities, including Genetic or chromosome abnormalities. These cause conditions such as Down syndrome and Rett syndrome. Prenatal exposure to substances. Drinking alcohol when ... also help. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

  17. Developmental Immunotoxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    Animal models suggest that the immature immune system is more susceptible to xenobiotics than the fully mature system, and sequelae of developmental immunotoxicant exposure may be persistent well into adulthood. Immune maturation may be delayed by xenobiotic exposure and recover...

  18. Developmental Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howe, Frederick C.

    1993-01-01

    Explores developmental patterns in children from kindergarten through grade six. Highlights physical development, including height, activity level, motor skills, and health; mental development, including abstract thought, academic focus, learning difficulties, subject preferences, and creativity; psychosocial development, including interpersonal…

  19. Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration Performance in Children with Traumatic Brain Injury and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Griffin P.; Barchard, Kimberly A.; Bello, Danielle T.; Thaler, Nicholas S.; Ringdahl, Erik; Mayfield, Joan; Allen, Daniel N.

    2011-01-01

    Evaluation of visuoconstructional abilities is a common part of clinical neuropsychological assessment, and the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI; K. E. Beery & N. A. Beery, 2004) is often used for this purpose. However, few studies have examined its psychometric properties when used to assess children and…

  20. Inherited or acquired metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Florian; Ratai, Eva; Carroll, Jason J; Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter starts with a description of imaging of inherited metabolic disorders, followed by a discussion on imaging of acquired toxic-metabolic disorders of the adult brain. Neuroimaging is crucial for the diagnosis and management of a number of inherited metabolic disorders. Among these, inherited white-matter disorders commonly affect both the nervous system and endocrine organs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enabled new classifications of these disorders that have greatly enhanced both our diagnostic ability and our understanding of these complex disorders. Beyond the classic leukodystrophies, we are increasingly recognizing new hereditary leukoencephalopathies such as the hypomyelinating disorders. Conventional imaging can be unrevealing in some metabolic disorders, but proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may be able to directly visualize the metabolic abnormality in certain disorders. Hence, neuroimaging can enhance our understanding of pathogenesis, even in the absence of a pathologic specimen. This review aims to present pathognomonic brain MRI lesion patterns, the diagnostic capacity of proton MRS, and information from clinical and laboratory testing that can aid diagnosis. We demonstrate that applying an advanced neuroimaging approach enhances current diagnostics and management. Additional information on inherited and metabolic disorders of the brain can be found in Chapter 63 in the second volume of this series. PMID:27432685

  1. Phenotypic Integration of Neurocranium and Brain

    PubMed Central

    RICHTSMEIER, JOAN T.; ALDRIDGE, KRISTINA; DeLEON, VALERIE B.; PANCHAL, JAYESH; KANE, ALEX A.; MARSH, JEFFREY L.; YAN, PENG; COLE, THEODORE M.

    2009-01-01

    Evolutionary history of Mammalia provides strong evidence that the morphology of skull and brain change jointly in evolution. Formation and development of brain and skull co-occur and are dependent upon a series of morphogenetic and patterning processes driven by genes and their regulatory programs. Our current concept of skull and brain as separate tissues results in distinct analyses of these tissues by most researchers. In this study, we use 3D computed tomography and magnetic resonance images of pediatric individuals diagnosed with premature closure of cranial sutures (craniosynostosis) to investigate phenotypic relationships between the brain and skull. It has been demonstrated previously that the skull and brain acquire characteristic dysmorphologies in isolated craniosynostosis, but relatively little is known of the developmental interactions that produce these anomalies. Our comparative analysis of phenotypic integration of brain and skull in premature closure of the sagittal and the right coronal sutures demonstrates that brain and skull are strongly integrated and that the significant differences in patterns of association do not occur local to the prematurely closed suture. We posit that the current focus on the suture as the basis for this condition may identify a proximate, but not the ultimate cause for these conditions. Given that premature suture closure reduces the number of cranial bones, and that a persistent loss of skull bones is demonstrated over the approximately 150 million years of synapsid evolution, craniosynostosis may serve as an informative model for evolution of the mammalian skull. PMID:16526048

  2. A developmental study of serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the embryonic brain of the marbled crayfish and the migratory locust: evidence for a homologous protocerebral group of neurons.

    PubMed

    Zieger, Elisabeth; Bräunig, Peter; Harzsch, Steffen

    2013-11-01

    It is well established that the brains of adult malacostracan crustaceans and winged insects display distinct homologies down to the level of single neuropils such as the central complex and the optic neuropils. We wanted to know if developing insect and crustacean brains also share similarities and therefore have explored how neurotransmitter systems arise during arthropod embryogenesis. Previously, Sintoni et al. (2007) had already reported a homology of an individually identified cluster of neurons in the embryonic crayfish and insect brain, the secondary head spot cells that express the Engrailed protein. In the present study, we have documented the ontogeny of the serotonergic system in embryonic brains of the Marbled Crayfish in comparison to Migratory Locust embryos using immunohistochemical methods combined with confocal laser-scan microscopy. In both species, we found a cluster of early emerging serotonin-immunoreactive neurons in the protocerebrum with neurites that cross to the contralateral brain hemisphere in a characteristic commissure suggesting a homology of this cell cluster. Our study is a first step towards a phylogenetic analysis of neurotransmitter system development and shows that, as for the ventral nerve cord, traits related to neurogenesis in the brain can provide valuable hints for resolving the much debated question of arthropod phylogeny.

  3. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  4. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... tends to be more serious than other lung infections because: People in the hospital are often very sick and cannot fight off ... prevent pneumonia. Most hospitals have programs to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  5. Reverse asymmetry and changes in brain structural volume of the basal ganglia in ADHD, developmental changes and the impact of stimulant medications.

    PubMed

    Paclt, Ivo; Pribilová, Nikol; Kollárová, Patricie; Kohoutová, Milada; Dezortová, Monika; Hájek, Milan; Csemy, Ladislav

    2016-01-01

    We discussed the cross section studies and the meta-analysis of published data in children and adolescents with ADHD (both drug naive and receiving stimulant medications), in comparison with healthy children and adolescents of the same age. In children and adolescents with ADHD the deceleration of the maturation dynamics of discrete CNS structures is found, volume reduction and decreased grey matter in prefrontal and occipital regions, which is accompanied by reverse asymmetry of the basal ganglia volume (putamen, nucleus caudate). The above mentioned developmental characteristics are valid only for the ADHD children, who have not been treated by stimulant medications. The stimulant treatment eliminates the mentioned changes into various extend. These developmental changes of CNS structures volume are missing in girls. PMID:26994382

  6. Advances in developmental prosopagnosia research.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Tirta; Duchaine, Bradley

    2013-06-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) refers to face recognition deficits in the absence of brain damage. DP affects ∼2% of the population, and it often runs in families. DP studies have made considerable progress in identifying the cognitive and neural characteristics of the disorder. A key challenge is to develop a valid taxonomy of DP that will facilitate many aspects of research.

  7. [Acquired haemophilia (acquired factor VIII inhibitor)].

    PubMed

    Ceresetto, José M; Duboscq, Cristina; Fondevila, Carlos; Tezanos Pinto, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Acquired haemophilia is a rare disorder. The clinical picture ranges from mild ecchymosis and anaemia to life threatening bleeding in up to 20% of patients. The disease is produced by an antibody against Factor VIII and it usually occurs in the elderly, with no previous history of a bleeding disorder. It can be associated to an underlying condition such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, drugs or pregnancy. It has a typical laboratory pattern with isolated prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) that fails to correct upon mixing tests with normal plasma and low levels of factor VIII. Treatment recommendations are based on controlling the acute bleeding episodes with either bypassing agent, recombinant activated factor VII or activated prothrombin complex concentrate, and eradication of the antibody with immunosuppressive therapy.

  8. Developmental expression of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits in human white and gray matter: potential mechanism of increased vulnerability in the immature brain.

    PubMed

    Jantzie, Lauren L; Talos, Delia M; Jackson, Michele C; Park, Hyun-Kyung; Graham, Dionne A; Lechpammer, Mirna; Folkerth, Rebecca D; Volpe, Joseph J; Jensen, Frances E

    2015-02-01

    The pathophysiology of perinatal brain injury is multifactorial and involves hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and inflammation. N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDAR) are present on neurons and glia in immature rodents, and NMDAR antagonists are protective in HI models. To enhance clinical translation of rodent data, we examined protein expression of 6 NMDAR subunits in postmortem human brains without injury from 20 postconceptional weeks through adulthood and in cases of periventricular leukomalacia (PVL). We hypothesized that the developing brain is intrinsically vulnerable to excitotoxicity via maturation-specific NMDAR levels and subunit composition. In normal white matter, NR1 and NR2B levels were highest in the preterm period compared with adult. In gray matter, NR2A and NR3A expression were highest near term. NR2A was significantly elevated in PVL white matter, with reduced NR1 and NR3A in gray matter compared with uninjured controls. These data suggest increased NMDAR-mediated vulnerability during early brain development due to an overall upregulation of individual receptors subunits, in particular, the presence of highly calcium permeable NR2B-containing and magnesium-insensitive NR3A NMDARs. These data improve understanding of molecular diversity and heterogeneity of NMDAR subunit expression in human brain development and supports an intrinsic prenatal vulnerability to glutamate-mediated injury; validating NMDAR subunit-specific targeted therapies for PVL.

  9. Fueling and imaging brain activation.

    PubMed

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron-astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models. PMID:22612861

  10. Fueling and imaging brain activation

    PubMed Central

    Dienel, Gerald A

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic signals are used for imaging and spectroscopic studies of brain function and disease and to elucidate the cellular basis of neuroenergetics. The major fuel for activated neurons and the models for neuron–astrocyte interactions have been controversial because discordant results are obtained in different experimental systems, some of which do not correspond to adult brain. In rats, the infrastructure to support the high energetic demands of adult brain is acquired during postnatal development and matures after weaning. The brain's capacity to supply and metabolize glucose and oxygen exceeds demand over a wide range of rates, and the hyperaemic response to functional activation is rapid. Oxidative metabolism provides most ATP, but glycolysis is frequently preferentially up-regulated during activation. Underestimation of glucose utilization rates with labelled glucose arises from increased lactate production, lactate diffusion via transporters and astrocytic gap junctions, and lactate release to blood and perivascular drainage. Increased pentose shunt pathway flux also causes label loss from C1 of glucose. Glucose analogues are used to assay cellular activities, but interpretation of results is uncertain due to insufficient characterization of transport and phosphorylation kinetics. Brain activation in subjects with low blood-lactate levels causes a brain-to-blood lactate gradient, with rapid lactate release. In contrast, lactate flooding of brain during physical activity or infusion provides an opportunistic, supplemental fuel. Available evidence indicates that lactate shuttling coupled to its local oxidation during activation is a small fraction of glucose oxidation. Developmental, experimental, and physiological context is critical for interpretation of metabolic studies in terms of theoretical models. PMID:22612861

  11. Developmental changes in choline acetyltransferase and glutamate decarboxylase activity in various regions of the brain of the male, female, and neonatally androgenized female rat.

    PubMed

    Brown, R; Brooksbank, B W

    1979-04-01

    In attempt to discern effects of sex hormones on the development of neurotransmitter systems in the rat brain, choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) have been measured at postnatal days 8, 12, 25, and 60 in five regions (amygdala, anterior hypothalamus, hippocampus, olfactory bulbs, and cerebral cortex) of the brains of normal male, normal female, and neonatally androgen-treated female rats. Essentially no association between sex or of neonatal "androgenization" on either enzymol were found. The data, however, provide new information on the relative rates of development of ChAT and GAD in five regions of the rat brain which supplement the limited information already available in the literature. ChAT activity was highest in amygdala and hypothalamus, but developed most rapidly in hippocampus and cerebral cortex. The relative activities and patterns of development of GAD activity were similar to those of ChAT.

  12. Developmental Milestones.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Rebecca J; Scharf, Graham J; Stroustrup, Annemarie

    2016-01-01

    • On the basis of observational studies (level C), preterm birth is a leading cause of neurodevelopmental disabilities in children, and the degree of neurodevelopmental disability is inversely correlated with gestational age at birth. When comparing performance of preterm children to developmental norms, “corrected age” or age from due date rather than birth date should be used for the first 24 to 36 months. • On the basis of observational studies (level C), clinicians should pay specific attention to sensory function in children born preterm because the incidence of visual and hearing impairments is higher in preterm than term children. Due to the elevated risk of cognitive and behavioral disabilities, clinicians caring for children born preterm should be vigilant when performing developmental assessments to improve outcomes. • On the basis of observational studies (level C), early identification of developmental delays allows for referral to therapeutic services, and children referred for early intervention are more likely to make gains in developmental milestones. PMID:26729779

  13. [Developmental Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fenichel, Emily, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This newsletter theme issue contains contributions by parents, practitioners, researchers, administrators, and providers of technical assistance, which explore aspects of the complex process of developmental assessment of infants and young children. They describe what is helpful and what can be harmful in current assessment practice. They offer…

  14. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach. PMID:26186969

  15. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Martin W; MacDonald, Stephen G

    2016-01-01

    Acquired hypofibrinogenemia is most frequently caused by hemodilution and consumption of clotting factors. The aggressive replacement of fibrinogen has become one of the core principles of modern management of massive hemorrhage. The best method for determining the patient’s fibrinogen level remains controversial, and particularly in acquired dysfibrinogenemia, could have major therapeutic implications depending on which quantification method is chosen. This review introduces the available laboratory and point-of-care methods and discusses the relative advantages and limitations. It also discusses current strategies for the correction of hypofibrinogenemia. PMID:27713652

  16. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach.

  17. Probabilistic maps of the white matter tracts with known associated functions on the neonatal brain atlas: Application to evaluate longitudinal developmental trajectories in term-born and preterm-born infants.

    PubMed

    Akazawa, Kentaro; Chang, Linda; Yamakawa, Robyn; Hayama, Sara; Buchthal, Steven; Alicata, Daniel; Andres, Tamara; Castillo, Deborrah; Oishi, Kumiko; Skranes, Jon; Ernst, Thomas; Oishi, Kenichi

    2016-03-01

    Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) has been widely used to investigate the development of the neonatal and infant brain, and deviations related to various diseases or medical conditions like preterm birth. In this study, we created a probabilistic map of fiber pathways with known associated functions, on a published neonatal multimodal atlas. The pathways-of-interest include the superficial white matter (SWM) fibers just beneath the specific cytoarchitectonically defined cortical areas, which were difficult to evaluate with existing DTI analysis methods. The Jülich cytoarchitectonic atlas was applied to define cortical areas related to specific brain functions, and the Dynamic Programming (DP) method was applied to delineate the white matter pathways traversing through the SWM. Probabilistic maps were created for pathways related to motor, somatosensory, auditory, visual, and limbic functions, as well as major white matter tracts, such as the corpus callosum, the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, and the middle cerebellar peduncle, by delineating these structures in eleven healthy term-born neonates. In order to characterize maturation-related changes in diffusivity measures of these pathways, the probabilistic maps were then applied to DTIs of 49 healthy infants who were longitudinally scanned at three time-points, approximately five weeks apart. First, we investigated the normal developmental pattern based on 19 term-born infants. Next, we analyzed 30 preterm-born infants to identify developmental patterns related to preterm birth. Last, we investigated the difference in diffusion measures between these groups to evaluate the effects of preterm birth on the development of these functional pathways. Term-born and preterm-born infants both demonstrated a time-dependent decrease in diffusivity, indicating postnatal maturation in these pathways, with laterality seen in the corticospinal tract and the optic radiation. The comparison between term- and preterm

  18. Trib3 is developmentally and nutritionally regulated in the brain but is dispensable for spatial memory, fear conditioning and sensing of amino acid-imbalanced diet.

    PubMed

    Örd, Tiit; Innos, Jürgen; Lilleväli, Kersti; Tekko, Triin; Sütt, Silva; Örd, Daima; Kõks, Sulev; Vasar, Eero; Örd, Tõnis

    2014-01-01

    Tribbles homolog 3 (TRIB3) is a mammalian pseudokinase that is induced in neuronal cell cultures in response to cell death-inducing stresses, including neurotrophic factor deprivation. TRIB3 is an inhibitor of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), the central transcriptional regulator in the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α) phosphorylation pathway that is involved in the cellular stress response and behavioral processes. In this article, we study the expression of Trib3 in the mouse brain, characterize the brain morphology of mice with a genetic ablation of Trib3 and investigate whether Trib3 deficiency alters eIF2α-dependent cognitive abilities. Our data show that the consumption of a leucine-deficient diet induces Trib3 expression in the anterior piriform cortex, the brain region responsible for detecting essential amino acid intake imbalance. However, the aversive response to leucine-devoid diet does not differ in Trib3 knockout and wild type mice. Trib3 deletion also does not affect long-term spatial memory and reversal learning in the Morris water maze and auditory or contextual fear conditioning. During embryonic development, Trib3 expression increases in the brain and persists in the early postnatal stadium. Neuroanatomical characterization of mice lacking Trib3 revealed enlarged lateral ventricles. Thus, although the absence of Trib3 does not alter the eIF2α pathway-dependent cognitive functions of several areas of the brain, including the hippocampus, amygdala and anterior piriform cortex, Trib3 may serve a role in other central nervous system processes and molecular pathways.

  19. [Neural mechanism underlying autistic savant and acquired savant syndrome].

    PubMed

    Takahata, Keisuke; Kato, Motoichiro

    2008-07-01

    It is well known that the cases with savant syndrome, demonstrate outstanding mental capability despite coexisting severe mental disabilities. In many cases, savant skills are characterized by its domain-specificity, enhanced memory capability, and excessive focus on low-level perceptual processing. In addition, impaired integrative cognitive processing such as social cognition or executive function, restricted interest, and compulsive repetition of the same act are observed in savant individuals. All these are significantly relevant to the behavioral characteristics observed in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). A neurocognitive model of savant syndrome should explain these cognitive features and the juxtaposition of outstanding talents with cognitive disabilities. In recent neuropsychological studies, Miller (1998) reported clinical cases of "acquired savant," i.e., patients who improved or newly acquired an artistic savant-like skill in the early stage of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Although the relationship between an autistic savant and acquired savant remains to be elucidated, the advent of neuroimaging study of ASD and the clarification of FTD patients with savant-like skills may clarify the shared neural mechanisms of both types of talent. In this review, we classified current cognitive models of savant syndrome into the following 3 categories. (1) A hypermnesic model that suggests that savant skills develop from existing or dormant cognitive functions such as memory. However, recent findings obtained through neuropsychological examinations imply that savant individuals solve problems using a strategy that is fairly different from a non-autistic one. (2) A paradoxical functional facilitation model (Kapur, 1996) that offers possible explanations about how pathological states in the brain lead to development of prodigious skills. This model emphasizes the role of reciprocal inhibitory interaction among adjacent or distant cortical regions

  20. Unraveling the Miswired Connectome: A Developmental Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Di Martino, Adriana; Fair, Damien A.; Kelly, Clare; Satterthwaite, Theodore D.; Castellanos, F. Xavier; Thomason, Moriah E.; Craddock, R. Cameron; Luna, Beatriz; Leventhal, Bennett L.; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Milham, Michael P.

    2014-01-01

    Summary The vast majority of mental illnesses can be conceptualized as developmental disorders of neural interactions within the connectome, or developmental miswiring. The recent maturation of pediatric in vivo brain imaging is bringing within reach the identification of clinically meaningful brain-based biomarkers of developmental disorders. Even more auspicious, is the ability to study the evolving connectome throughout life, beginning in utero, which promises to move the field from topological phenomenology to etiological nosology. Here, we scope advances in pediatric imaging of the brain connectome as the field faces the challenge of unraveling developmental miswiring. We highlight promises while also providing a pragmatic review of the many obstacles ahead that must be overcome to significantly impact public health. PMID:25233316

  1. Developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    Shalev, R S; Weirtman, R; Amir, N

    1988-12-01

    We conducted a neurobehavioral evaluation on eleven children with developmental dyscalculia in order to determine which aspects of arithmetic processes are affected in this disorder. Our results indicate that memorization of numerical facts in these children was poor or virtually non-existent and the ability to solve simple arithmetic exercises impaired. By contrast, comprehension and production of number functions were intact. Although all children had been referred for evaluation of selective deficits in arithmetic skills, they also displayed a mild degree of dyslexia, dysgraphia, anomia, and grapho-motor dysfunction. We conclude that cognitive mechanisms underlying arithmetic ability can be dissociated developmentally and suggest that remediation programs be designed only after detailed analyses of arithmetic and associated cognitive skills. PMID:2464456

  2. Analysis of the contribution of experimental bias, experimental noise, and inter-subject biological variability on the assessment of developmental trajectories in diffusion MRI studies of the brain.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi, Neda; Nayak, Amritha; Walker, Lindsay; Okan Irfanoglu, M; Albert, Paul S; Pierpaoli, Carlo

    2015-04-01

    Metrics derived from the diffusion tensor, such as fractional anisotropy (FA) and mean diffusivity (MD) have been used in many studies of postnatal brain development. A common finding of previous studies is that these tensor-derived measures vary widely even in healthy populations. This variability can be due to inherent inter-individual biological differences as well as experimental noise. Moreover, when comparing different studies, additional variability can be introduced by different acquisition protocols. In this study we examined scans of 61 individuals (aged 4-22 years) from the NIH MRI study of normal brain development. Two scans were collected with different protocols (low and high resolution). Our goal was to separate the contributions of biological variability and experimental noise to the overall measured variance, as well as to assess potential systematic effects related to the use of different protocols. We analyzed FA and MD in seventeen regions of interest. We found that biological variability for both FA and MD varies widely across brain regions; biological variability is highest for FA in the lateral part of the splenium and body of the corpus callosum along with the cingulum and the superior longitudinal fasciculus, and for MD in the optic radiations and the lateral part of the splenium. These regions with high inter-individual biological variability are the most likely candidates for assessing genetic and environmental effects in the developing brain. With respect to protocol-related effects, the lower resolution acquisition resulted in higher MD and lower FA values for the majority of regions compared with the higher resolution protocol. However, the majority of the regions did not show any age-protocol interaction, indicating similar trajectories were obtained irrespective of the protocol used.

  3. Sense and antisense transcripts of the developmentally regulated murine hsp70.2 gene are expressed in distinct and only partially overlapping areas in the adult brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murashov, A. K.; Wolgemuth, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    We have examined the spatial pattern of expression of a member of the hsp70 gene family, hsp70.2, in the mouse central nervous system. Surprisingly, RNA blot analysis and in situ hybridization revealed abundant expression of an 'antisense' hsp70.2 transcript in several areas of adult mouse brain. Two different transcripts recognized by sense and antisense riboprobes for the hsp70.2 gene were expressed in distinct and only partially overlapping neuronal populations. RNA blot analysis revealed low levels of the 2.7 kb transcript of hsp70.2 in several areas of the brain, with highest signal in the hippocampus. Abundant expression of a slightly larger (approximately 2.8 kb) 'antisense' transcript was detected in several brain regions, notably in the brainstem, cerebellum, mesencephalic tectum, thalamus, cortex, and hippocampus. In situ hybridization revealed that the sense and antisense transcripts were both predominantly neuronal and localized to the same cell types in the granular layer of the cerebellum, trapezoid nucleus of the superior olivary complex, locus coeruleus and hippocampus. The hsp70.2 antisense transcripts were particularly abundant in the frontal cortex, dentate gyrus, subthalamic nucleus, zona incerta, superior and inferior colliculi, central gray, brainstem, and cerebellar Purkinje cells. Our findings have revealed a distinct cellular and spatial localization of both sense and antisense transcripts, demonstrating a new level of complexity in the function of the heat shock genes.

  4. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Prina, Elena; Ranzani, Otavio T; Torres, Antoni

    2015-09-12

    Community-acquired pneumonia causes great mortality and morbidity and high costs worldwide. Empirical selection of antibiotic treatment is the cornerstone of management of patients with pneumonia. To reduce the misuse of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance, and side-effects, an empirical, effective, and individualised antibiotic treatment is needed. Follow-up after the start of antibiotic treatment is also important, and management should include early shifts to oral antibiotics, stewardship according to the microbiological results, and short-duration antibiotic treatment that accounts for the clinical stability criteria. New approaches for fast clinical (lung ultrasound) and microbiological (molecular biology) diagnoses are promising. Community-acquired pneumonia is associated with early and late mortality and increased rates of cardiovascular events. Studies are needed that focus on the long-term management of pneumonia.

  5. Systemic Acquired Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Upon infection with necrotizing pathogens many plants develop an enhanced resistance to further pathogen attack also in the uninoculated organs. This type of enhanced resistance is referred to as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In the SAR state, plants are primed (sensitized) to more quickly and more effectively activate defense responses the second time they encounter pathogen attack. Since SAR depends on the ability to access past experience, acquired disease resistance is a paradigm for the existence of a form of “plant memory”. Although the phenomenon has been known since the beginning of the 20th century, major progress in the understanding of SAR was made over the past sixteen years. This review covers the current knowledge of molecular, biochemical and physiological mechanisms that are associated with SAR. PMID:19521483

  6. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  7. Neonatal Brain Tissue Classification with Morphological Adaptation and Unified Segmentation.

    PubMed

    Beare, Richard J; Chen, Jian; Kelly, Claire E; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Smyser, Christopher D; Rogers, Cynthia E; Loh, Wai Y; Matthews, Lillian G; Cheong, Jeanie L Y; Spittle, Alicia J; Anderson, Peter J; Doyle, Lex W; Inder, Terrie E; Seal, Marc L; Thompson, Deanne K

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the distribution of brain tissue types (tissue classification) in neonates is necessary for studying typical and atypical brain development, such as that associated with preterm birth, and may provide biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcomes. Compared with magnetic resonance images of adults, neonatal images present specific challenges that require the development of specialized, population-specific methods. This paper introduces MANTiS (Morphologically Adaptive Neonatal Tissue Segmentation), which extends the unified segmentation approach to tissue classification implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software to neonates. MANTiS utilizes a combination of unified segmentation, template adaptation via morphological segmentation tools and topological filtering, to segment the neonatal brain into eight tissue classes: cortical gray matter, white matter, deep nuclear gray matter, cerebellum, brainstem, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), hippocampus and amygdala. We evaluated the performance of MANTiS using two independent datasets. The first dataset, provided by the NeoBrainS12 challenge, consisted of coronal T 2-weighted images of preterm infants (born ≤30 weeks' gestation) acquired at 30 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5), coronal T 2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5) and axial T 2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5). The second dataset, provided by the Washington University NeuroDevelopmental Research (WUNDeR) group, consisted of T 2-weighted images of preterm infants (born <30 weeks' gestation) acquired shortly after birth (n = 12), preterm infants acquired at term-equivalent age (n = 12), and healthy term-born infants (born ≥38 weeks' gestation) acquired within the first 9 days of life (n = 12). For the NeoBrainS12 dataset, mean Dice scores comparing MANTiS with manual segmentations were all above 0.7, except for the cortical

  8. Neonatal Brain Tissue Classification with Morphological Adaptation and Unified Segmentation

    PubMed Central

    Beare, Richard J.; Chen, Jian; Kelly, Claire E.; Alexopoulos, Dimitrios; Smyser, Christopher D.; Rogers, Cynthia E.; Loh, Wai Y.; Matthews, Lillian G.; Cheong, Jeanie L. Y.; Spittle, Alicia J.; Anderson, Peter J.; Doyle, Lex W.; Inder, Terrie E.; Seal, Marc L.; Thompson, Deanne K.

    2016-01-01

    Measuring the distribution of brain tissue types (tissue classification) in neonates is necessary for studying typical and atypical brain development, such as that associated with preterm birth, and may provide biomarkers for neurodevelopmental outcomes. Compared with magnetic resonance images of adults, neonatal images present specific challenges that require the development of specialized, population-specific methods. This paper introduces MANTiS (Morphologically Adaptive Neonatal Tissue Segmentation), which extends the unified segmentation approach to tissue classification implemented in Statistical Parametric Mapping (SPM) software to neonates. MANTiS utilizes a combination of unified segmentation, template adaptation via morphological segmentation tools and topological filtering, to segment the neonatal brain into eight tissue classes: cortical gray matter, white matter, deep nuclear gray matter, cerebellum, brainstem, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), hippocampus and amygdala. We evaluated the performance of MANTiS using two independent datasets. The first dataset, provided by the NeoBrainS12 challenge, consisted of coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born ≤30 weeks' gestation) acquired at 30 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5), coronal T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5) and axial T2-weighted images of preterm infants acquired at 40 weeks' corrected gestational age (n = 5). The second dataset, provided by the Washington University NeuroDevelopmental Research (WUNDeR) group, consisted of T2-weighted images of preterm infants (born <30 weeks' gestation) acquired shortly after birth (n = 12), preterm infants acquired at term-equivalent age (n = 12), and healthy term-born infants (born ≥38 weeks' gestation) acquired within the first 9 days of life (n = 12). For the NeoBrainS12 dataset, mean Dice scores comparing MANTiS with manual segmentations were all above 0.7, except for the cortical gray

  9. Rethinking responsibility in offenders with acquired paedophilia: punishment or treatment?

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Frédéric; Focquaert, Farah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the current neurobiological literature on the aetiology of developmental and acquired paedophilia and examines what the consequences could be in terms of responsibility and treatment for the latter. Addressing the question of responsibility and punishment of offenders with acquired paedophilia from a neurobiological perspective is controversial. Consequently it is essential to avoid hasty conclusions based strictly on neurobiological abnormality justifications. This study establishes a distinction between developmental and acquired paedophilia. The article investigates whether offenders who fulfil the diagnosis of acquired paedophilia should be held fully responsible, particularly in cases where the offender's conduct appears to result from volitionally controlled behaviour that is seemingly incompatible with a neurological cause. Moreover, the article explores how responsibility can be compromised when offenders with acquired paedophilia have (partially) preserved moral knowledge despite their sexual disorder. The article then examines the option of offering mandatory treatment as an alternative to imprisonment for offenders with acquired paedophilia. Furthermore, the article addresses the ethical issues related to offering any form of quasi-coercive treatment as a condition of release. This study concludes that decisions to fully or partially excuse an individual who fulfil the diagnosis of acquired paedophilia should take all relevant information into account, both neurobiological and other environmental evidence, and should proceed on a careful case by case analysis before sentencing or offering treatment.

  10. Inside the Adolescent Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Drury, Stacy S.

    2009-01-01

    Dr. Jay Giedd says that the main alterations in the adolescent brain are the inverted U-shaped developmental trajectories with late childhood/early teen peaks for gray matter volume among others. Giedd adds that the adolescent brain is vulnerable to substances that artificially modulate dopamine levels since its reward system is in a state of flux.

  11. Motor sequence learning and developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Orban, Pierre; Lungu, Ovidiu; Doyon, Julien

    2008-12-01

    Beyond the reading-related deficits typical of developmental dyslexia (DD), recent evidence suggests that individuals afflicted with this condition also show difficulties in motor sequence learning. To date, however, little is known with respect to the characteristics of the learning impairments, nor to the neural correlates associated with this type of procedural deficit in DD patients. Here, we first summarize the results of the few behavioral and brain imaging studies that have investigated the effects of DD on motor sequence learning. To help guide research in this field, we then discuss relevant psychophysical and neuroimaging work conducted in healthy volunteers in relation to three different conceptual perspectives: when, how, and what. More specifically, we examine the cognitive boundaries that affect performance across the different stages of learning (i.e., "when"), the different cognitive processes (i.e., "how") under which learning occurs, and the mental representations (i.e., "what") that are elicited when acquiring this type of skilled behavior. It is hoped that this conceptual framework will be useful to researchers interested in further studying the nature of the motor learning impairment reported in DD.

  12. Acquired methemoglobinemia revisited.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Larry; Will, John

    2010-10-01

    Dentistry has two medications in its pain management armamentarium that may cause the potentially life-threatening disorder methemoglobinemia. The first medications are the topical local anesthetics benzocaine and prilocaine. The second medication is the injectable local anesthetic prilocaine. Acquired methemoglobinemia remains a source of morbidity and mortality in dental and medical patients despite the fact that it is better understood now than it was even a decade ago. It is in the interest of all dental patients that their treating dentists review this disorder. The safety of dental patients mandates professional awareness.

  13. The development of brain network architecture.

    PubMed

    Wierenga, Lara M; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; van Dijk, Sarai; Rijks, Yvonne; de Reus, Marcel A; Durston, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Brain connectivity shows protracted development throughout childhood and adolescence, and, as such, the topology of brain networks changes during this period. The complexity of these changes with development is reflected by regional differences in maturation. This study explored age-related changes in network topology and regional developmental patterns during childhood and adolescence. We acquired two sets of Diffusion Weighted Imaging-scans and anatomical T1-weighted scans. The first dataset included 85 typically developing individuals (53 males; 32 females), aged between 7 and 23 years and was acquired on a Philips Achieva 1.5 Tesla scanner. A second dataset (N = 38) was acquired on a different (but identical) 1.5 T scanner and was used for independent replication of our results. We reconstructed whole brain networks using tractography. We operationalized fiber tract development as changes in mean diffusivity and radial diffusivity with age. Most fibers showed maturational changes in mean and radial diffusivity values throughout childhood and adolescence, likely reflecting increasing white matter integrity. The largest age-related changes were observed in association fibers within and between the frontal and parietal lobes. Furthermore, there was a simultaneous age-related decrease in average path length (P < 0.0001), increase in node strength (P < 0.0001) as well as network clustering (P = 0.001), which may reflect fine-tuning of topological organization. These results suggest a sequential maturational model where connections between unimodal regions strengthen in childhood, followed by connections from these unimodal regions to association regions, while adolescence is characterized by the strengthening of connections between association regions within the frontal and parietal cortex. Hum Brain Mapp 37:717-729, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Rhesus monkey brain development during late infancy and the effect of phencyclidine: a longitudinal MRI and DTI study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Cirong; Tian, Xiaoguang; Liu, Huilang; Mo, Yin; Bai, Fan; Zhao, Xudong; Ma, Yuanye; Wang, Jianhong

    2015-02-15

    Early brain development is a complex and rapid process, the disturbance of which may cause the onset of brain disorders. Based on longitudinal imaging data acquired from 6 to 16 months postnatal, we describe a systematic trajectory of monkey brain development during late infancy, and demonstrate the influence of phencyclidine (PCP) on this trajectory. Although the general developmental trajectory of the monkey brain was close to that of the human brain, the development in monkeys was faster and regionally specific. Gray matter volume began to decrease during late infancy in monkeys, much earlier than in humans in whom it occurs in adolescence. Additionally, the decrease of gray matter volume in higher-order association regions (the frontal, parietal and temporal lobes) occurred later than in regions for primary functions (the occipital lobe and cerebellum). White matter volume displayed an increasing trend in most brain regions, but not in the occipital lobe, which had a stable volume. In addition, based on diffusion tensor imaging, we found an increase in fractional anisotropy and a decrease in diffusivity, which may be associated with myelination and axonal changes in white matter tracts. Meanwhile, we tested the influence of 14-day PCP treatment on the developmental trajectories. Such treatment tended to accelerated brain maturation during late infancy, although not statistically significant. These findings provide comparative information for the understanding of primate brain maturation and neurodevelopmental disorders.

  15. See the brain at work: intraoperative laser Doppler functional brain imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin-Williams, E. J.; Raabe, A.; Van De Ville, D.; Leutenegger, M.; Szelényi, A.; Hattingen, E.; Gerlach, R.; Seifert, V.; Hauger, C.; Lopez, A.; Leitgeb, R.; Unser, M.; Lasser, T.

    2009-07-01

    During open brain surgery we acquire perfusion images non-invasively using laser Doppler imaging. The regions of brain activity show a distinct signal in response to stimulation providing intraoperative functional brain maps of remarkably strong contrast.

  16. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Polverino, E; Torres Marti, A

    2011-02-01

    Despite the remarkable advances in antibiotic therapies, diagnostic tools, prevention campaigns and intensive care, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still among the primary causes of death worldwide, and there have been no significant changes in mortality in the last decades. The clinical and economic burden of CAP makes it a major public health problem, particularly for children and the elderly. This issue provides a clinical overview of CAP, focusing on epidemiology, economic burden, diagnosis, risk stratification, treatment, clinical management, and prevention. Particular attention is given to some aspects related to the clinical management of CAP, such as the microbial etiology and the available tools to achieve it, the usefulness of new and old biomarkers, and antimicrobial and other non-antibiotic adjunctive therapies. Possible scenarios in which pneumonia does not respond to treatment are also analyzed to improve clinical outcomes of CAP. PMID:21242952

  17. Study on the possible association of brain-derived neurotrophic factor polymorphism with the developmental course of symptoms of attention deficit and hyperactivity.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Olle; Westberg, Lars; Lichtenstein, Paul; Eriksson, Elias; Larsson, Henrik

    2011-11-01

    Several studies have, with conflicting results, investigated the relationship between the Val⁶⁶Met polymorphism in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). We assessed longitudinal, quantitative phenotypes of hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention in order to determine whether the Val⁶⁶Met polymorphism is associated with age-specific and/or persistent symptoms of hyperactivity-impulsivity and/or inattention in a community-based cohort of 1236 Swedish individuals for which ADHD symptom data were collected when the participants were aged 8-9, 13-14 and 16-17 yr. The Met allele was associated with symptoms of ADHD at ages 8-9 and 13-14 yr. A multivariate regression analysis revealed that the observed effect of the Met allele on ADHD symptoms reflects an influence on persistent hyperactivity-impulsivity symptoms. The present findings support the hypothesis that BDNF is involved in the pathogenesis of ADHD. The results highlight the importance of distinguishing between hyperactivity-impulsivity and inattention, respectively, and demonstrate the value of using a longitudinal approach in genetic studies of ADHD symptoms.

  18. Developmental colour agnosia.

    PubMed

    van Zandvoort, Martine J E; Nijboer, Tanja C W; de Haan, Edward

    2007-08-01

    Colour agnosia concerns the inability to recognise colours despite intact colour perception, semantic memory for colour information, and colour naming. Patients with selective colour agnosia have been described and the deficit is associated with left hemisphere damage. Here we report a case study of a 43-year-old man who was referred to us with a stroke in his right cerebellar hemisphere. During the standard assessment it transpired that he was unable to name coloured patches. Detailed assessment of his colour processing showed that he suffers from a selective colour agnosia. As he claimed to have had this problem all his life, and the fact that the infratentorial infarct that he had incurred was in an area far away from the brain structures that are known to be involved in colour processing, we suggest that he is the first reported case of developmental colour agnosia.

  19. Developmental regulation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors in the premature brain and their protective role in a rodent model of periventricular leukomalacia.

    PubMed

    Jantzie, Lauren L; Talos, Delia M; Selip, Debra B; An, Li; Jackson, Michele C; Folkerth, Rebecca D; Deng, Wenbin; Jensen, Frances E

    2010-11-01

    Cerebral white matter injury in premature infants, known as periventricular leukomalacia (PVL), is common after hypoxia-ischemia (HI). While ionotropic glutamate receptors (iGluRs) can mediate immature white matter injury, we have previously shown that excitotoxic injury to premyelinating oligodendrocytes (preOLs) in vitro can be attenuated by group I metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) agonists. Thus, we evaluated mGluR expression in developing white matter in rat and human brain, and tested the protective efficacy of a central nervous system (CNS)-penetrating mGluR agonist on injury to developing oligodendrocytes (OLs) in vivo. Group I mGluRs (mGluR1 and mGluR5) were strongly expressed on OLs in neonatal rodent cerebral white matter throughout normal development, with highest expression early in development on preOLs. Specifically at P6, mGluR1 and mGLuR5 were most highly expressed on GalC-positive OLs compared to neurons, axons, astrocytes and microglia. Systemic administration of (1S,3R) 1-aminocyclopentane-trans-1,3,-dicarboxylic acid (ACPD) significantly attenuated the loss of myelin basic protein in the white matter following HI in P6 rats. Assessment of postmortem human tissue showed both mGluR1 and mGluR5 localized on immature OLs in white matter throughout development, with mGluR5 highest in the preterm period. These data indicate group I mGluRs are highly expressed on OLs during the peak period of vulnerability to HI and modulation of mGluRs is protective in a rodent model of PVL. Group I mGluRs may represent important therapeutic targets for protection from HI-mediated white matter injury.

  20. Developmental Surface Dysgraphia: A Case Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Temple, Christine M.

    1985-01-01

    Reports a study that compared the spelling performance of a 17-year-old developmental dysgraphic of normal intelligence to that of an acquired dysgraphic. Findings indicate that both make phonologically valid errors and spell regular words better than irregular words. These performances reflect a phonological routine corresponding to that used by…

  1. Acquired aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Elaine M

    2004-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a disorder characterized by a profound deficit of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, bone marrow hypocellularity, and peripheral blood pancytopenia. It primarily affects children, young adults, and those over 60 years of age. The majority of cases are idiopathic; however, idiosyncratic reactions to some drugs, chemicals, and viruses have been implicated in its etiology. An autoimmune T-cell reaction likely causes the stem cell depletion, but the precise mechanism, as well as the eliciting and target antigens, is unknown. Symptoms vary from severe life-threatening cytopenias to moderate or non-severe disease that does not require transfusion support. The peripheral blood typically exhibits pancytopenia, reticulocytopenia, and normocytic or macrocytic erythrocytes. The bone marrow is hypocellular and may exhibit dysplasia of the erythrocyte precursors. First line treatment for severe AA consists of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in young patients with HLA identical siblings, while immunosuppression therapy is used for older patients and for those of any age who lack a HLA matched donor. Patients with AA have an increased risk of developing paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), or acute leukemia. Further elucidation of the pathophysiology of this disease will result in a better understanding of the interrelationship among AA, PNH, and MDS, and may lead to novel targeted therapies.

  2. Developmental behavior.

    PubMed

    Crowell-Davis, S L

    1986-12-01

    Examination of the developmental changes that occur in the behavior of foals reveals three major periods that can be characterized by certain types of behavior. Although the beginnings and endings of these periods are not definitive, these periods may be conceptually useful in evaluating a foal's behavior. Period of Dependence. During the first 4 weeks of life, a foal is maximally dependent on its mother for sustenance, remains near her, and has little contact with other horses or ponies of any age. Period of Socialization. During the second and third months of life, foals have rapidly increasing contact with ponies and horses other than their mother, especially with other foals. Mutual-grooming peaks during this period, as does snapping, which is probably being carried out as a displacement activity during the stressful period of initial contact with non-mother horses. Period of Stabilization and Developing Independence. From the fourth month onward, foals gradually become more independent, both from their mother and from other herd members as they progress toward adult patterns of spatial relationships, social interactions, and maintenance behaviors. PMID:3492246

  3. Developmental alcohol and circadian clock function.

    PubMed

    Earnest, D J; Chen, W J; West, J R

    2001-01-01

    Studies in rats found that alcohol exposure during the early postnatal period, particularly during the brain-growth-spurt period, can result in cell loss in various brain regions and persistent behavioral impairments. Some investigators have speculated that the body's internal clock, which is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) in the brain, may also be affected by developmental alcohol exposure. For example, alcohol-induced damage to the SCN cells and their function could result in disturbances of the circadian timekeeping function, and these disturbances might contribute to the behavioral impairments and affective disorders observed in people prenatally exposed to alcohol. Preliminary findings of studies conducted in rats suggest that developmental alcohol exposure may indeed interfere with circadian clock function as evidenced by a shortened circadian sleep-wake cycle and changes in the release of certain brain chemicals (i.e., neuropeptides) by SCN cells. PMID:11584552

  4. Developmental Thyroid Hormone Disruption: Prevalence, Environmental Contaminants and Neurodevelopmental Consequences

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are critical for growth and development and particularly brain development. There are numerous environmental agents that lead to marginal reductions of circulating TH. Although it is clear that severe developmental hypothyroidism is profoundly detrimental to...

  5. Structural brain development between childhood and adulthood: Convergence across four longitudinal samples.

    PubMed

    Mills, Kathryn L; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Herting, Megan M; Meuwese, Rosa; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne; Crone, Eveline A; Dahl, Ronald E; Güroğlu, Berna; Raznahan, Armin; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Tamnes, Christian K

    2016-11-01

    Longitudinal studies including brain measures acquired through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have enabled population models of human brain development, crucial for our understanding of typical development as well as neurodevelopmental disorders. Brain development in the first two decades generally involves early cortical grey matter volume (CGMV) increases followed by decreases, and monotonic increases in cerebral white matter volume (CWMV). However, inconsistencies regarding the precise developmental trajectories call into question the comparability of samples. This issue can be addressed by conducting a comprehensive study across multiple datasets from diverse populations. Here, we present replicable models for gross structural brain development between childhood and adulthood (ages 8-30years) by repeating analyses in four separate longitudinal samples (391 participants; 852 scans). In addition, we address how accounting for global measures of cranial/brain size affect these developmental trajectories. First, we found evidence for continued development of both intracranial volume (ICV) and whole brain volume (WBV) through adolescence, albeit following distinct trajectories. Second, our results indicate that CGMV is at its highest in childhood, decreasing steadily through the second decade with deceleration in the third decade, while CWMV increases until mid-to-late adolescence before decelerating. Importantly, we show that accounting for cranial/brain size affects models of regional brain development, particularly with respect to sex differences. Our results increase confidence in our knowledge of the pattern of brain changes during adolescence, reduce concerns about discrepancies across samples, and suggest some best practices for statistical control of cranial volume and brain size in future studies. PMID:27453157

  6. Revealing latent value of clinically acquired CTs of traumatic brain injury through multi-atlas segmentation in a retrospective study of 1,003 with external cross-validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plassard, Andrew J.; Kelly, Patrick D.; Asman, Andrew J.; Kang, Hakmook; Patel, Mayur B.; Landman, Bennett A.

    2015-03-01

    Medical imaging plays a key role in guiding treatment of traumatic brain injury (TBI) and for diagnosing intracranial hemorrhage; most commonly rapid computed tomography (CT) imaging is performed. Outcomes for patients with TBI are variable and difficult to predict upon hospital admission. Quantitative outcome scales (e.g., the Marshall classification) have been proposed to grade TBI severity on CT, but such measures have had relatively low value in staging patients by prognosis. Herein, we examine a cohort of 1,003 subjects admitted for TBI and imaged clinically to identify potential prognostic metrics using a "big data" paradigm. For all patients, a brain scan was segmented with multi-atlas labeling, and intensity/volume/texture features were computed in a localized manner. In a 10-fold crossvalidation approach, the explanatory value of the image-derived features is assessed for length of hospital stay (days), discharge disposition (five point scale from death to return home), and the Rancho Los Amigos functional outcome score (Rancho Score). Image-derived features increased the predictive R2 to 0.38 (from 0.18) for length of stay, to 0.51 (from 0.4) for discharge disposition, and to 0.31 (from 0.16) for Rancho Score (over models consisting only of non-imaging admission metrics, but including positive/negative radiological CT findings). This study demonstrates that high volume retrospective analysis of clinical imaging data can reveal imaging signatures with prognostic value. These targets are suited for follow-up validation and represent targets for future feature selection efforts. Moreover, the increase in prognostic value would improve staging for intervention assessment and provide more reliable guidance for patients.

  7. Neuropathophysiology of Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Quillinan, Nidia; Herson, Paco S; Traystman, Richard J

    2016-09-01

    Every year in the United States, millions of individuals incur ischemic brain injury from stroke, cardiac arrest, or traumatic brain injury. These acquired brain injuries can lead to death or long-term neurologic and neuropsychological impairments. The mechanisms of ischemic and traumatic brain injury that lead to these deficiencies result from a complex interplay of interdependent molecular pathways, including excitotoxicity, acidotoxicity, ionic imbalance, oxidative stress, inflammation, and apoptosis. This article reviews several mechanisms of brain injury and discusses recent developments. Although much is known from animal models of injury, it has been difficult to translate these effects to humans. PMID:27521191

  8. What Aspects of Face Processing Are Impaired in Developmental Prosopagnosia?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le Grand, Richard; Cooper, Philip A.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Lewis, Terri L.; Sagiv, Noam; de Gelder, Beatrice; Maurer, Daphne

    2006-01-01

    Developmental prosopagnosia (DP) is a severe impairment in identifying faces that is present from early in life and that occurs despite no apparent brain damage and intact visual and intellectual function. Here, we investigated what aspects of face processing are impaired/spared in developmental prosopagnosia by examining a relatively large group…

  9. Developmentally Appropriate Music Practice: Children Learn What They Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neelly, Linda Page

    2001-01-01

    Discusses how adults can infuse music in young children's routines to nurture powerful learning connections. Includes discussion of musical development, its impact on other developmental domains, and brain development and music. Highlights four music activities to illustrate developmentally appropriate music experiences, asserting that…

  10. Developmental disorders: what can be learned from cognitive neuropsychology?

    PubMed

    Castles, Anne; Kohnen, Saskia; Nickels, Lyndsey; Brock, Jon

    2014-01-01

    The discipline of cognitive neuropsychology has been important for informing theories of cognition and describing the nature of acquired cognitive disorders, but its applicability in a developmental context has been questioned. Here, we revisit this issue, asking whether the cognitive neuropsychological approach can be helpful for exploring the nature and causes of developmental disorders and, if so, how. We outline the key features of the cognitive neuropsychological approach, and then consider how some of the major challenges to this approach from a developmental perspective might be met. In doing so, we distinguish between challenges to the methods of cognitive neuropsychology and those facing its deeper conceptual underpinnings. We conclude that the detailed investigation of patterns of both associations and dissociations, and across both developmental and acquired cases, can assist in describing the cognitive deficits within developmental disorders and in delineating possible causal pathways to their acquisition.

  11. Developmental stress impairs performance on an association task in male and female songbirds, but impairs auditory learning in females only.

    PubMed

    Farrell, Tara M; Morgan, Amanda; MacDougall-Shackleton, Scott A

    2016-01-01

    In songbirds, early-life environments critically shape song development. Many studies have demonstrated that developmental stress impairs song learning and the development of song-control regions of the brain in males. However, song has evolved through signaller-receiver networks and the effect stress has on the ability to receive auditory signals is equally important, especially for females who use song as an indicator of mate quality. Female song preferences have been the metric used to evaluate how developmental stress affects auditory learning, but preferences are shaped by many non-cognitive factors and preclude the evaluation of auditory learning abilities in males. To determine whether developmental stress specifically affects auditory learning in both sexes, we subjected juvenile European starlings, Sturnus vulgaris, to either an ad libitum or an unpredictable food supply treatment from 35 to 115 days of age. In adulthood, we assessed learning of both auditory and visual discrimination tasks. Females reared in the experimental group were slower than females in the control group to acquire a relative frequency auditory task, and slower than their male counterparts to acquire an absolute frequency auditory task. There was no difference in auditory performance between treatment groups for males. However, on the colour association task, birds from the experimental group committed more errors per trial than control birds. There was no correlation in performance across the cognitive tasks. Developmental stress did not affect all cognitive processes equally across the sexes. Our results suggest that the male auditory system may be more robust to developmental stress than that of females.

  12. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.2 Acquiring... each holds half of V's shares. Therefore, A and B each control V (see § 801.1(b)), and V is included...” are acquiring persons. (b) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 801.12, the...

  13. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.2 Acquiring... each holds half of V's shares. Therefore, A and B each control V (see § 801.1(b)), and V is included...” are acquiring persons. (b) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 801.12, the...

  14. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...” are acquiring persons. (b) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 801.12, the person(s.... Examples: 1. Corporation A (the ultimate parent entity included within person “A”) proposes to acquire Y, a... to be carried out by merging Y into X, a wholly-owned subsidiary of A, with X surviving, and...

  15. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...” are acquiring persons. (b) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 801.12, the person(s.... Examples: 1. Corporation A (the ultimate parent entity included within person “A”) proposes to acquire Y, a... to be carried out by merging Y into X, a wholly-owned subsidiary of A, with X surviving, and...

  16. Disrupted white matter connectivity underlying developmental dyslexia: A machine learning approach.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zaixu; Xia, Zhichao; Su, Mengmeng; Shu, Hua; Gong, Gaolang

    2016-04-01

    Developmental dyslexia has been hypothesized to result from multiple causes and exhibit multiple manifestations, implying a distributed multidimensional effect on human brain. The disruption of specific white-matter (WM) tracts/regions has been observed in dyslexic children. However, it remains unknown if developmental dyslexia affects the human brain WM in a multidimensional manner. Being a natural tool for evaluating this hypothesis, the multivariate machine learning approach was applied in this study to compare 28 school-aged dyslexic children with 33 age-matched controls. Structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and diffusion tensor imaging were acquired to extract five multitype WM features at a regional level: white matter volume, fractional anisotropy, mean diffusivity, axial diffusivity, and radial diffusivity. A linear support vector machine (LSVM) classifier achieved an accuracy of 83.61% using these MRI features to distinguish dyslexic children from controls. Notably, the most discriminative features that contributed to the classification were primarily associated with WM regions within the putative reading network/system (e.g., the superior longitudinal fasciculus, inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus, thalamocortical projections, and corpus callosum), the limbic system (e.g., the cingulum and fornix), and the motor system (e.g., the cerebellar peduncle, corona radiata, and corticospinal tract). These results were well replicated using a logistic regression classifier. These findings provided direct evidence supporting a multidimensional effect of developmental dyslexia on WM connectivity of human brain, and highlighted the involvement of WM tracts/regions beyond the well-recognized reading system in dyslexia. Finally, the discriminating results demonstrated a potential of WM neuroimaging features as imaging markers for identifying dyslexic individuals.

  17. Developmental Dynamics of Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Danielle; Banerjee, Abhishek; Sur, Mriganka

    2016-01-01

    Rett Syndrome was long considered to be simply a disorder of postnatal development, with phenotypes that manifest only late in development and into adulthood. A variety of recent evidence demonstrates that the phenotypes of Rett Syndrome are present at the earliest stages of brain development, including developmental stages that define neurogenesis, migration, and patterning in addition to stages of synaptic and circuit development and plasticity. These phenotypes arise from the pleotropic effects of MeCP2, which is expressed very early in neuronal progenitors and continues to be expressed into adulthood. The effects of MeCP2 are mediated by diverse signaling, transcriptional, and epigenetic mechanisms. Attempts to reverse the effects of Rett Syndrome need to take into account the developmental dynamics and temporal impact of MeCP2 loss. PMID:26942018

  18. Toward a Developmental Neurobiology of Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polleux, Franck; Lauder, Jean M.

    2004-01-01

    Autism is a complex, behaviorally defined, developmental brain disorder with an estimated prevalence of 1 in 1,000. It is now clear that autism is not a disease, but a syndrome with a strong genetic component. The etiology of autism is poorly defined both at the cellular and the molecular levels. Based on the fact that seizure activity is…

  19. Developmental Dyslexia: A Review of Biological Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galaburda, Albert M.

    1985-01-01

    The author considers cerebral dominance and brain asymmetry, the development of the cerebral cortex and examples of aberrancy, and diseases of the immune system, all of which relate to recent anatomical and epidemiological findings in developmental dyslexia. These discoveries have led to testable hypotheses which may enhance current understandings…

  20. Developmental Outcomes after Early Prefrontal Cortex Damage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eslinger, Paul J.; Flaherty-Craig, Claire V.; Benton, Arthur L.

    2004-01-01

    The neuropsychological bases of cognitive, social, and moral development are minimally understood, with a seemingly wide chasm between developmental theories and brain maturation models. As one approach to bridging ideas in these areas, we review 10 cases of early prefrontal cortex damage from the clinical literature, highlighting overall clinical…

  1. Astrocytes and Developmental White Matter Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sen, Ellora; Levison, Steven W.

    2006-01-01

    There is an increasing awareness that the astrocytes in the immature periventricular white matter are vulnerable to ischemia and respond to inflammation. Here we provide a synopsis of the articles that have evaluated the causes and consequences of developmental brain injuries to white matter astrocytes as well as the consequences of several…

  2. The Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience of Functional Connectivity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stevens, Michael C.

    2009-01-01

    Developmental cognitive neuroscience is a rapidly growing field that examines the relationships between biological development and cognitive ability. In the past decade, there has been ongoing refinement of concepts and methodology related to the study of "functional connectivity" among distributed brain regions believed to underlie cognition and…

  3. [Neurotransmission in developmental disorders].

    PubMed

    Takeuchi, Yoshihiro

    2008-11-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (AD/HD) is a heterogeneous developmental disorder with an etiology that is not fully understood. AD/HD has been considered to occur due to a disturbance in cathecholaminergic neurotransmission, with particular emphasis on dopamine. The neurotransmission of dopamine in subcortical regions such as the basal ganglia and limbic areas is synaptic; on the other hand, dopamine neurotransmission in the frontal cortex is quite different, because there are very few dopamine transporters (DAT) in the frontal cortex that allow dopamine to diffuse away from the dopamine synapse ("volume transmission"). It is now clear that noradrenergic neurons play a key regulatory role in dopaminergic function in the frontal cortex. Furthermore, serotonergic neurons exert an inhibitory effect on midbrain dopamine cell bodies, and they have an influence on dopamine release in terminal regions. There is accumulating neurobiological evidence pointing toward a role of the serotonin system in AD/HD. The etiology of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) is still unclear, but information from genetics, neuropathology, brain imaging, and basic neuroscience has provided insights into the understanding of this developmental disorder. In addition to abnormal circuitry in specific limbic and neocortical areas of the cerebral cortex, impairments in brainstem, cerebellar, thalamic, and basal ganglia connections have been reported. Numerous studies have pointed to abnormalities in serotonin and glutamate neurotransmission. Three important aspects involved in the pathophysiology of ASD have been proposed. The first is cell migration, the second is unbalanced excitatory-inhibitory networks, and the third is synapse formation and pruning, the key factors being reelin, neurexin, and neuroligin. Serotonin is considered to play an important role in all of these aspects of the pathophysiology of ASD. Finally, I would like to emphasize that it is crucial in the field of child

  4. Acquiring and Organizing Curriculum Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lare, Gary A.

    This book addresses two areas of need in a curriculum materials center--where to find curriculum materials for acquisition and how to organize these materials for efficient and effective access once they are acquired. The book is arranged in two parts: "Acquiring and Organizing the Collection" and "Resources." The book brings together many…

  5. Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, P; Landrigan, P J

    2006-12-16

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, attention deficit disorder, mental retardation, and cerebral palsy are common, costly, and can cause lifelong disability. Their causes are mostly unknown. A few industrial chemicals (eg, lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], arsenic, and toluene) are recognised causes of neurodevelopmental disorders and subclinical brain dysfunction. Exposure to these chemicals during early fetal development can cause brain injury at doses much lower than those affecting adult brain function. Recognition of these risks has led to evidence-based programmes of prevention, such as elimination of lead additives in petrol. Although these prevention campaigns are highly successful, most were initiated only after substantial delays. Another 200 chemicals are known to cause clinical neurotoxic effects in adults. Despite an absence of systematic testing, many additional chemicals have been shown to be neurotoxic in laboratory models. The toxic effects of such chemicals in the developing human brain are not known and they are not regulated to protect children. The two main impediments to prevention of neurodevelopmental deficits of chemical origin are the great gaps in testing chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity and the high level of proof required for regulation. New, precautionary approaches that recognise the unique vulnerability of the developing brain are needed for testing and control of chemicals. PMID:17174709

  6. Developmental neurotoxicity of industrial chemicals.

    PubMed

    Grandjean, P; Landrigan, P J

    2006-12-16

    Neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism, attention deficit disorder, mental retardation, and cerebral palsy are common, costly, and can cause lifelong disability. Their causes are mostly unknown. A few industrial chemicals (eg, lead, methylmercury, polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs], arsenic, and toluene) are recognised causes of neurodevelopmental disorders and subclinical brain dysfunction. Exposure to these chemicals during early fetal development can cause brain injury at doses much lower than those affecting adult brain function. Recognition of these risks has led to evidence-based programmes of prevention, such as elimination of lead additives in petrol. Although these prevention campaigns are highly successful, most were initiated only after substantial delays. Another 200 chemicals are known to cause clinical neurotoxic effects in adults. Despite an absence of systematic testing, many additional chemicals have been shown to be neurotoxic in laboratory models. The toxic effects of such chemicals in the developing human brain are not known and they are not regulated to protect children. The two main impediments to prevention of neurodevelopmental deficits of chemical origin are the great gaps in testing chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity and the high level of proof required for regulation. New, precautionary approaches that recognise the unique vulnerability of the developing brain are needed for testing and control of chemicals.

  7. Translating Developmental Neuroscience to Substance Use Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Riggs, Nathaniel R.

    2015-01-01

    Several preventive interventions have demonstrated efficacy in reducing substance use. However, opportunities exist to further improve prevention approaches. The application of recent advances in developmental neuroscience can inform the design, implementation, and evaluation of substance use prevention programs. This paper first briefly describes the developmental integration of the prefrontal cortex with emotion and motivation centers of the brain, and the implications of this process for substance use vulnerability. Discussed next are specific examples of how developmental neuroscience can inform prevention timing, development, and evaluation. Contextual considerations are then suggested including a critical role for schools in substance misuse prevention. Finally, current theoretical and methodological challenges to the translation of developmental neuroscience to substance use prevention are discussed. PMID:26236576

  8. Developmental Biodynamics: Brain, Body, Behavior Connections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockman, Jeffrey J.; Thelen, Esther

    1993-01-01

    Advances in the neurosciences, biomechanics, and behavior sciences, along with attempts to integrate theories and findings across these disciplines, have led to a renewed interest in the study of motor development. Considers the contributions that have led to the reinvigoration of this field of study and its new interdisciplinary outlook. (MDM)

  9. Using Developmental Trajectories to Understand Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Michael S. C.; Annaz, Dagmara; Ansari, Daniel; Scerif, Gaia; Jarrold, Chris; Karmiloff-Smith, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: In this article, the authors present a tutorial on the use of developmental trajectories for studying language and cognitive impairments in developmental disorders and compare this method with the use of matching. Method: The authors assess the strengths, limitations, and practical implications of each method. The contrast between the…

  10. Cortical Volume and Developmental Instability Are Independent Predictors of General Intellectual Ability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thoma, Robert J.; Yeo, Ronald A.; Gangestad, Steven W.; Halgren, Eric; Sanchez, Natalie M.; Lewine, Jeffrey D.

    2005-01-01

    Measures of developmental instability (DI) reflect developmental disruptions due to genetic and environmental perturbations during normal development. DI might be expected to influence the developmental course of brain development and hence intelligence, and several studies indicate this to be the case. The factors that mediate this relationship…

  11. Pharmacology of epigenetics in brain disorders

    PubMed Central

    Narayan, Pritika; Dragunow, Mike

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetics is a rapidly growing field and holds great promise for a range of human diseases, including brain disorders such as Rett syndrome, anxiety and depressive disorders, schizophrenia, Alzheimer disease and Huntington disease. This review is concerned with the pharmacology of epigenetics to treat disorders of the epigenome whether induced developmentally or manifested/acquired later in life. In particular, we will focus on brain disorders and their treatment by drugs that modify the epigenome. While the use of DNA methyl transferase inhibitors and histone deacetylase inhibitors in in vitro and in vivo models have demonstrated improvements in disease-related deficits, clinical trials in humans have been less promising. We will address recent advances in our understanding of the complexity of the epigenome with its many molecular players, and discuss evidence for a compromised epigenome in the context of an ageing or diseased brain. We will also draw on examples of species differences that may exist between humans and model systems, emphasizing the need for more robust pre-clinical testing. Finally, we will discuss fundamental issues to be considered in study design when targeting the epigenome. PMID:20015091

  12. Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (IDDs): Overview Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDDs) are a primary focus of the NICHD’s ...

  13. Brain disorders and the biological role of music.

    PubMed

    Clark, Camilla N; Downey, Laura E; Warren, Jason D

    2015-03-01

    Despite its evident universality and high social value, the ultimate biological role of music and its connection to brain disorders remain poorly understood. Recent findings from basic neuroscience have shed fresh light on these old problems. New insights provided by clinical neuroscience concerning the effects of brain disorders promise to be particularly valuable in uncovering the underlying cognitive and neural architecture of music and for assessing candidate accounts of the biological role of music. Here we advance a new model of the biological role of music in human evolution and the link to brain disorders, drawing on diverse lines of evidence derived from comparative ethology, cognitive neuropsychology and neuroimaging studies in the normal and the disordered brain. We propose that music evolved from the call signals of our hominid ancestors as a means mentally to rehearse and predict potentially costly, affectively laden social routines in surrogate, coded, low-cost form: essentially, a mechanism for transforming emotional mental states efficiently and adaptively into social signals. This biological role of music has its legacy today in the disordered processing of music and mental states that characterizes certain developmental and acquired clinical syndromes of brain network disintegration.

  14. Brain disorders and the biological role of music

    PubMed Central

    Clark, Camilla N.; Downey, Laura E.

    2015-01-01

    Despite its evident universality and high social value, the ultimate biological role of music and its connection to brain disorders remain poorly understood. Recent findings from basic neuroscience have shed fresh light on these old problems. New insights provided by clinical neuroscience concerning the effects of brain disorders promise to be particularly valuable in uncovering the underlying cognitive and neural architecture of music and for assessing candidate accounts of the biological role of music. Here we advance a new model of the biological role of music in human evolution and the link to brain disorders, drawing on diverse lines of evidence derived from comparative ethology, cognitive neuropsychology and neuroimaging studies in the normal and the disordered brain. We propose that music evolved from the call signals of our hominid ancestors as a means mentally to rehearse and predict potentially costly, affectively laden social routines in surrogate, coded, low-cost form: essentially, a mechanism for transforming emotional mental states efficiently and adaptively into social signals. This biological role of music has its legacy today in the disordered processing of music and mental states that characterizes certain developmental and acquired clinical syndromes of brain network disintegration. PMID:24847111

  15. Trade-offs between acquired and innate immune defenses in humans

    PubMed Central

    McDade, Thomas W.; Georgiev, Alexander V.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.

    2016-01-01

    Immune defenses provide resistance against infectious disease that is critical to survival. But immune defenses are costly, and limited resources allocated to immunity are not available for other physiological or developmental processes. We propose a framework for explaining variation in patterns of investment in two important subsystems of anti-pathogen defense: innate (non-specific) and acquired (specific) immunity. The developmental costs of acquired immunity are high, but the costs of maintenance and activation are relatively low. Innate immunity imposes lower upfront developmental costs, but higher operating costs. Innate defenses are mobilized quickly and are effective against novel pathogens. Acquired responses are less effective against novel exposures, but more effective against secondary exposures due to immunological memory. Based on their distinct profiles of costs and effectiveness, we propose that the balance of investment in innate versus acquired immunity is variable, and that this balance is optimized in response to local ecological conditions early in development. Nutritional abundance, high pathogen exposure and low signals of extrinsic mortality risk during sensitive periods of immune development should all favor relatively higher levels of investment in acquired immunity. Undernutrition, low pathogen exposure, and high mortality risk should favor innate immune defenses. The hypothesis provides a framework for organizing prior empirical research on the impact of developmental environments on innate and acquired immunity, and suggests promising directions for future research in human ecological immunology. PMID:26739325

  16. Reading, Complexity and the Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goswami, Usha

    2008-01-01

    Brain imaging offers a new technology for understanding the acquisition of reading by children. It can contribute novel evidence concerning the key mechanisms supporting reading, and the brain systems that are involved. The extensive neural architecture that develops to support efficient reading testifies to the complex developmental processes…

  17. Language and the Developing Brain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eliot, Lise

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the centers of language in the brain and the critical period for language acquisition. Explains developmental milestones of language development--receptive language, babbling, short phrases, full sentences--in the context of brain development. Emphasizes parents' role in language development, including talking to the child, dialogic…

  18. Ivey's Developmental Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Thomas G.

    1993-01-01

    Ivey's Developmental Counseling and Therapy (DCT) is an innovative and comprehensive approach to helping which views client functioning in terms of cognitive-developmental functioning. DCT approximates a metamodel of helping in which treatment strategies are logically derived from and integrated with the cognitive-developmental level of the…

  19. Developmental Academic Advising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raushi, Thaddeus M.

    1993-01-01

    Describes developmental academic advising as a comprehensive, collaborative, and empowering process designed to maximize students' educational potential. Reviews basic developmental theories (i.e., psychosocial, cognitive-developmental, and person-environmental), and focussed theories dealing with adult learners, women, people of color, and gays…

  20. The Domain of Developmental Psychopathology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sroufe, L. Alan; Rutter, Michael

    1984-01-01

    Describes how developmental psychopathology differs from related disciplines, including abnormal psychology, psychiatry, clinical child psychology, and developmental psychology. Points out propositions underlying a developmental perspective and discusses implications for research in developmental psychopathology. (Author/RH)

  1. Neuropathology of Acquired Cerebral Trauma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D.

    1987-01-01

    To help educators understand the cognitive and behavioral sequelae of cerebral injury, the neuropathology of traumatic brain injury and the main neuropathological features resulting from trauma-related brain damage are reviewed. A glossary with definitions of 37 neurological terms is appended. (Author/DB)

  2. Saguenay Youth Study: a multi-generational approach to studying virtual trajectories of the brain and cardio-metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Paus, T; Pausova, Z; Abrahamowicz, M; Gaudet, D; Leonard, G; Pike, G B; Richer, L

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Saguenay Youth Study (SYS) and its parental arm. The overarching goal of this effort is to develop trans-generational models of developmental cascades contributing to the emergence of common chronic disorders, such as depression, addictions, dementia and cardio-metabolic diseases. Over the past 10 years, we have acquired detailed brain and cardio-metabolic phenotypes, and genome-wide genotypes, in 1029 adolescents recruited in a population with a known genetic founder effect. At present, we are extending this dataset to acquire comparable phenotypes and genotypes in the biological parents of these individuals. After providing conceptual background for this work (transactions across time, systems and organs), we describe briefly the tools employed in the adolescent arm of this cohort and highlight some of the initial accomplishments. We then outline in detail the phenotyping protocol used to acquire comparable data in the parents. PMID:25454417

  3. Saguenay Youth Study: a multi-generational approach to studying virtual trajectories of the brain and cardio-metabolic health.

    PubMed

    Paus, T; Pausova, Z; Abrahamowicz, M; Gaudet, D; Leonard, G; Pike, G B; Richer, L

    2015-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of the Saguenay Youth Study (SYS) and its parental arm. The overarching goal of this effort is to develop trans-generational models of developmental cascades contributing to the emergence of common chronic disorders, such as depression, addictions, dementia and cardio-metabolic diseases. Over the past 10 years, we have acquired detailed brain and cardio-metabolic phenotypes, and genome-wide genotypes, in 1029 adolescents recruited in a population with a known genetic founder effect. At present, we are extending this dataset to acquire comparable phenotypes and genotypes in the biological parents of these individuals. After providing conceptual background for this work (transactions across time, systems and organs), we describe briefly the tools employed in the adolescent arm of this cohort and highlight some of the initial accomplishments. We then outline in detail the phenotyping protocol used to acquire comparable data in the parents.

  4. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Holekamp, Kay E.; Swanson, Eli M.; Van Meter, Page E.

    2013-01-01

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility. PMID:23569298

  5. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    PubMed

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility. PMID:23569298

  6. Developmental constraints on behavioural flexibility.

    PubMed

    Holekamp, Kay E; Swanson, Eli M; Van Meter, Page E

    2013-05-19

    We suggest that variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility not accounted for by current socioecological models may be explained in part by developmental constraints. From our own work, we provide examples of constraints affecting variation in behavioural flexibility, not only among individuals, but also among species and higher taxonomic units. We first implicate organizational maternal effects of androgens in shaping individual differences in aggressive behaviour emitted by female spotted hyaenas throughout the lifespan. We then compare carnivores and primates with respect to their locomotor and craniofacial adaptations. We inquire whether antagonistic selection pressures on the skull might impose differential functional constraints on evolvability of skulls and brains in these two orders, thus ultimately affecting behavioural flexibility in each group. We suggest that, even when carnivores and primates would theoretically benefit from the same adaptations with respect to behavioural flexibility, carnivores may nevertheless exhibit less behavioural flexibility than primates because of constraints imposed by past adaptations in the morphology of the limbs and skull. Phylogenetic analysis consistent with this idea suggests greater evolutionary lability in relative brain size within families of primates than carnivores. Thus, consideration of developmental constraints may help elucidate variation in mammalian behavioural flexibility.

  7. Brain Growth Gains and Losses in Extremely Preterm Infants at Term.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Nelly; Alexandrou, Georgios; Blennow, Mats; Lagercrantz, Hugo; Ådén, Ulrika

    2015-07-01

    Premature exposure to the extrauterine environment negatively affects the brains' developmental trajectory. Our aim was to determine whether extremely preterm (EPT) infants, with no evidence of focal brain lesions, show morphological brain differences when compared with term-born infants. Additionally, we investigated associations between perinatal factors and neuroanatomical alterations. Conventional magnetic resonance imaging was acquired at term-equivalent age (TEA) from 47 EPT infants born before 27 weeks of gestation, and 15 healthy, term-born controls. Automatic segmentation and voxel-based morphometry-Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration through Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) were used. Compared with controls, EPT infants displayed global reductions in cortical and subcortical gray matter, brainstem, and an increased cerebrospinal fluid volume. Regionally, they showed decreased volumes of all brain tissues, in particular cortical gray matter. Increased volumes of cortical gray and white matter were observed in regions involved in visual processing. Increasing prematurity, intraventricular hemorrhage grade I-II, and patent ductus arteriosus ligation were associated with decreased volumes and had a particular effect on the cerebellum. Concluding, EPT infants without focal brain lesions had an altered brain growth at TEA that particularly affected the gray matter, and varied when it came to the presence of perinatal risk factors. Brain growth gains in EPT infants may be related to a longer extrauterine experience.

  8. Co-Occurrence of Developmental Disorders: The Case of Developmental Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rubinsten, Orly

    2009-01-01

    Five to seven percent of children experience severe difficulties in learning mathematics and/or reading. Current trials that are focused on identifying biological markers suggest that these learning disabilities, known as Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) and Dyslexia (for reading), are due to underlying brain dysfunctions. One ongoing controversy…

  9. Epileptic encephalopathies: Optimizing seizure control and developmental outcome.

    PubMed

    Jehi, Lara; Wyllie, Elaine; Devinsky, Orrin

    2015-10-01

    Cognitive and developmental outcomes in patients with epileptic encephalopathy are hypothesized to result from an interplay between the underlying epileptic pathologic substrate and the acquired consequences of frequent and repetitive seizures and epileptiform discharges that often straddle the interictal and ictal boundaries. This article briefly reviews the evidence related to this assumption, presents critical questions that need to be answered to clarify this relationship, and advances a set of concrete steps that may help improve developmental patient outcomes. PMID:26293588

  10. Brain Development in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Although human brain development continues throughout childhood and adolescence, it is a non-linear process both structurally and functionally. Here we review studies of brain development in healthy children from the viewpoint of structure and the perfusion of gray and white matter. Gray matter volume increases and then decreases with age, with the developmental time of the peak volume differing among brain regions in the first and second decades of life. On the other hand, white matter volume increase is mostly linear during those periods. As regards fractional anisotropy, most regions show an exponential trajectory with aging. In addition, cerebral blood flow and gray matter volume are proportional at similar developmental ages. Moreover, we show that several lifestyle choices, such as sleeping habits and breakfast staple, affect gray matter volume in healthy children. There are a number of uninvestigated important issues that require future study. PMID:23166579

  11. Brain development in childhood.

    PubMed

    Taki, Yasuyuki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2012-01-01

    Although human brain development continues throughout childhood and adolescence, it is a non-linear process both structurally and functionally. Here we review studies of brain development in healthy children from the viewpoint of structure and the perfusion of gray and white matter. Gray matter volume increases and then decreases with age, with the developmental time of the peak volume differing among brain regions in the first and second decades of life. On the other hand, white matter volume increase is mostly linear during those periods. As regards fractional anisotropy, most regions show an exponential trajectory with aging. In addition, cerebral blood flow and gray matter volume are proportional at similar developmental ages. Moreover, we show that several lifestyle choices, such as sleeping habits and breakfast staple, affect gray matter volume in healthy children. There are a number of uninvestigated important issues that require future study.

  12. Genetic and early environmental influences on the serotonin system: consequences for brain development and risk for psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Booij, Linda; Tremblay, Richard E.; Szyf, Moshe; Benkelfat, Chawki

    2015-01-01

    Background Despite more than 60 years of research in the role of serotonin (5-HT) in psychopathology, many questions still remain. From a developmental perspective, studies have provided more insight into how 5-HT dysfunctions acquired in utero or early in life may modulate brain development. This paper discusses the relevance of the developmental role of 5-HT for the understanding of psychopathology. We review developmental milestones of the 5-HT system, how genetic and environmental 5-HT disturbances could affect brain development and the potential role of DNA methylation in 5-HT genes for brain development. Methods Studies were identified using common databases (e.g., PubMed, Google Scholar) and reference lists. Results Despite the widely supported view that the 5-HT system matures in early life, different 5-HT receptors, proteins and enzymes have different developmental patterns, and development is brain region–specific. A disruption in 5-HT homeostasis during development may lead to structural and functional changes in brain circuits that modulate emotional stress responses, including subcortical limbic and (pre)frontal areas. This may result in a predisposition to psychopathology. DNA methylation might be one of the underlying physiologic mechanisms. Limitations There is a need for prospective studies. The impact of stressors during adolescence on the 5-HT system is understudied. Questions regarding efficacy of drugs acting on 5-HT still remain. Conclusion A multidisciplinary and longitudinal approach in designing studies on the role of 5-HT in psychopathology might help to bring us closer to the understanding of the role of 5-HT in psychopathology. PMID:25285876

  13. Postnatal toxic and acquired disorders.

    PubMed

    Saint-Amour, Dave; Dallaire, Renee; Dulac, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    To develop and function optimally, the brain requires a balanced environment of electrolytes, amino acids, neurotransmitters, and metabolic substrates. As a consequence, organ dysfunction has the potential to induce brain disorders and toxic-metabolic encephalopathies, particularly when occurring during early stages of cerebral maturation. Induced toxicity of three different organ systems that are commonly associated with brain complications are discussed. First, thyroid hormone deficiency caused by intrinsic or extrinsic factors (e.g., environmental toxins) may induce severe adverse effects on child neurological development from reversible impairments to permanent mental retardation. Second, inadequate removal of wastes due to chronic renal failure leads to the accumulation of endogenous toxins that are harmful to brain function. In uremic pediatric patients, the brain becomes more vulnerable to exogenous substances such as aluminum, which can induce aluminum encephalopathy. Following surgical procedures, neurological troubles including focal defects and severe epileptic seizures may result from hypertensive encephalopathy combined with toxicity of immunomodulating substances, or from the delayed consequences of cardiovascular defect. Taken together, this illustrates that organ disorders clearly have an impact on child brain function in various ways.

  14. Connectionist neuropsychology: uncovering ultimate causes of acquired dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Woollams, Anna M

    2014-01-01

    Acquired dyslexia offers a unique window on to the nature of the cognitive and neural architecture supporting skilled reading. This paper provides an integrative overview of recent empirical and computational work on acquired dyslexia within the context of the primary systems framework as implemented in connectionist neuropsychological models. This view proposes that damage to general visual, phonological or semantic processing abilities are the root causes of different forms of acquired dyslexia. Recent case-series behavioural evidence concerning pure alexia, phonological dyslexia and surface dyslexia that supports this perspective is presented. Lesion simulations of these findings within connectionist models of reading demonstrate the viability of this approach. The commitment of such models to learnt representations allows them to capture key aspects of performance in each type of acquired dyslexia, particularly the associated non-reading deficits, the role of relearning and the influence of individual differences in the premorbid state of the reading system. Identification of these factors not only advances our understanding of acquired dyslexia and the mechanisms of normal reading but they are also relevant to the complex interactions underpinning developmental reading disorders.

  15. In vivo 3D MRI of insect brain: cerebral development during metamorphosis of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Michaelis, Thomas; Watanabe, Takashi; Natt, Oliver; Boretius, Susann; Frahm, Jens; Utz, Sandra; Schachtner, Joachim

    2005-01-15

    High-resolution 3D MRI of male pupae of Manduca sexta was performed at 2.35 T in order to evaluate its potential for an in vivo characterization of insect brain during metamorphosis. T1-weighted 3D FLASH (TR/TE = 20/7.8 ms, 25 degrees flip angle) and T2-weighted 3D fast SE MRI data sets (TR/TEeff = 3000/100 ms) were acquired at different developmental stages with an isotropic resolution of 100 microm. Both T1- and T2-weighted 3D MRI allowed for the identification of cerebral structures such as the antennal nerve, antennal and optical lobe, and central brain. Pronounced developmental alterations of the morphology were observed during metamorphosis. The results demonstrate the feasibility of 3D MRI at nanoliter resolution to identify major brain systems of M. sexta and respective changes during pupal development from caterpillar to sphinx moth. Together with the use of suitable contrast agents, this approach may provide new ways for studying the axonal connectivity and neural function of the developing insect brain.

  16. Magnetic resonance imaging quality and volumes of brain structures from live and postmortem imaging of California sea lions with clinical signs of domoic acid toxicosis.

    PubMed

    Montie, Eric W; Wheeler, Elizabeth; Pussini, Nicola; Battey, Thomas W K; Barakos, Jerome; Dennison, Sophie; Colegrove, Kathleen; Gulland, Frances

    2010-09-17

    Our goal in this study was to compare magnetic resonance images and volumes of brain structures obtained alive versus postmortem of California sea lions Zalophus californianus exhibiting clinical signs of domoic acid (DA) toxicosis and those exhibiting normal behavior. Proton density-(PD) and T2-weighted images of postmortem-intact brains, up to 48 h after death, provided similar quality to images acquired from live sea lions. Volumes of gray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) of the cerebral hemispheres were similar to volumes calculated from images acquired when the sea lions were alive. However, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) volumes decreased due to leakage. Hippocampal volumes from postmortem-intact images were useful for diagnosing unilateral and bilateral atrophy, consequences of DA toxicosis. These volumes were similar to the volumes in the live sea lion studies, up to 48 h postmortem. Imaging formalin-fixed brains provided some information on brain structure; however, images of the hippocampus and surrounding structures were of poorer quality compared to the images acquired alive and postmortem-intact. Despite these issues, volumes of cerebral GM and WM, as well as the hippocampus, were similar to volumes calculated from images of live sea lions and sufficient to diagnose hippocampal atrophy. Thus, postmortem MRI scanning (either intact or formalin-fixed) with volumetric analysis can be used to investigate the acute, chronic and possible developmental effects of DA on the brain of California sea lions.

  17. Re-thinking diagnostic classification of the dysarthrias: a developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Morgan, A T; Liégeois, F

    2010-01-01

    Acquired childhood dysarthria (ACD) receives little attention in the research literature in contrast with the adult correlate of the disorder. Speech language pathologists working in this field find diagnosis and management challenging, arguably because there is no child-based dysarthria diagnostic classification. Clinicians are either dependent upon developmental speech models that are not specific to dysarthria and that ignore the neural basis of the disorder, or on adult-based neurobehavioural classification systems. Here we consider the necessary elements for developing a clinically useful and empirically driven diagnostic classification system for ACD. The paper is divided into 2 parts. First, we question whether an adult diagnostic model can be validly applied to children. Second, we propose a methodological approach to develop a classification system for ACD. Specifically, we propose that advancing knowledge in neurobehavioural correlations of ACD is contingent upon large-scale studies, likely requiring international collaboration, which pool brain and speech outcome data. Ideally, researchers across centres would apply standard protocols to: (1) characterize speech behaviour, and (2) brain structure, function and connectivity. When enough data is available to achieve statistical power, analysis could determine subgroups of dysarthria defined by speech behaviour. The commonalities of neural profiles of subgroups could then be examined to create an empirically driven theory of brain-behaviour relationships in ACD to underpin the classification system. Clinical diagnosis for children with ACD will remain limited until such data become available. PMID:20424467

  18. Acquired prosopagnosia: structural basis and processing impairments.

    PubMed

    Davies-Thompson, Jodie; Pancaroglu, Raika; Barton, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models propose a hierarchy of parallel processing stages in face perception, and functional neuroimaging shows a network of regions involved in face processing. Reflecting this, acquired prosopagnosia is not a single entity but a family of disorders with different anatomic lesions and different functional deficits. One classic distinction is between an apperceptive variant, in which there is impaired perception of facial structure, and an associative/amnestic variant, in which perception is relatively intact, with subsequent problems matching perception to facial memories, because of either disconnection or loss of those memories. These disorders also have to be distinguished from people-specific amnesia, a multimodal impairment, and prosop-anomia, in which familiarity with faces is preserved but access to names is disrupted. These different disorders can be conceived as specific deficits at different processing stages in cognitive models, and suggests that these functional stages may have distinct neuroanatomic substrates. It remains to be seen whether a similar anatomic and functional variability is present in developmental prosopagnosia.

  19. Acquiring synaesthesia: insights from training studies

    PubMed Central

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Synaesthesia denotes a condition of remarkable individual differences in experience characterized by specific additional experiences in response to normal sensory input. Synaesthesia seems to (i) run in families which suggests a genetic component, (ii) is associated with marked structural and functional neural differences, and (iii) is usually reported to exist from early childhood. Hence, synaesthesia is generally regarded as a congenital phenomenon. However, most synaesthetic experiences are triggered by cultural artifacts (e.g., letters, musical sounds). Evidence exists to suggest that synaesthetic experiences are triggered by the conceptual representation of their inducer stimuli. Cases were identified for which the specific synaesthetic associations are related to prior experiences and large scale studies show that grapheme-color associations in synaesthesia are not completely random. Hence, a learning component is inherently involved in the development of specific synaesthetic associations. Researchers have hypothesized that associative learning is the critical mechanism. Recently, it has become of scientific and public interest if synaesthetic experiences may be acquired by means of associative training procedures and whether the gains of these trainings are associated with similar cognitive benefits as genuine synaesthetic experiences. In order to shed light on these issues and inform synaesthesia researchers and the general interested public alike, we provide a comprehensive literature review on developmental aspects of synaesthesia and specific training procedures in non-synaesthetes. Under the light of a clear working definition of synaesthesia, we come to the conclusion that synaesthesia can potentially be learned by the appropriate training. PMID:24624072

  20. What underlies the diversity of brain tumors?

    PubMed Central

    Swartling, Fredrik J.; Hede, Sanna-Maria; Weiss, William A.

    2012-01-01

    Glioma and medulloblastoma represent the most commonly occurring malignant brain tumors in adults and in children respectively. Recent genomic and transcriptional approaches present a complex group of diseases, and delineate a number of molecular subgroups within tumors that share a common histopathology. Differences in cells of origin, regional niches, developmental timing and genetic events all contribute to this heterogeneity. In an attempt to recapitulate the diversity of brain tumors, an increasing array of genetically engineered mouse models (GEMMs) has been developed. These models often utilize promoters and genetic drivers from normal brain development, and can provide insight into specific cells from which these tumors originate. GEMMs show promise in both developmental biology and developmental therapeutics. This review describes numerous murine brain tumor models in the context of normal brain development, and the potential for these animals to impact brain tumor research. PMID:23085857

  1. Systems theory and cascades in developmental psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Cox, Martha J; Mills-Koonce, Roger; Propper, Cathi; Gariépy, Jean-Louis

    2010-08-01

    In the wake of prominent theoreticians in developmental science, whose contributions we review in this article, many developmental psychologists came to endorse a systems approach to understanding how the individual, as it develops, establishes functional relationships to social ecological contexts that from birth to school entry rapidly increase in complexity. The concept of developmental cascade has been introduced in this context to describe lawful processes by which antecedent conditions may be related with varying probabilities to specified outcomes. These are understood as processes by which function at one level or in one domain of behavior affect the organization of competency in later developing domains of general adaptation. Here we propose a developmental sequence by which the developing child acquires regulative capacities that are key to adjustment to a society that demands considerable control of emotional and cognitive functions early in life. We report empirical evidence showing that the acquisition of regulative capacities may be understood as a cascade of shifts in control parameters induced by the progressive integration of biological, transactional, and socioaffective systems over development. We conclude by suggesting how the developmental process may be accessed for effective intervention in populations deemed "at risk" for later problems of psychosocial adjustment.

  2. Brain birth and personal identity.

    PubMed Central

    Jones, D G

    1989-01-01

    The concept of brain birth has assumed a position of some significance in discussions on the status of the human embryo and on the point in embryonic development prior to which experimental procedures may be undertaken on human embryos. This paper reviews previous discussions of this concept, which have placed brain birth at various points between 12 days' and 20 weeks' gestation and which have emphasised the symmetry of brain birth and brain death. Major developmental features of brain development are outlined, including the gradualness with which new features generally appear, and also the electroencephalogram (EEG) characteristics of premature infants. From this it is concluded that, if the concept of brain birth is a valid one, it should be placed at 24-28 weeks' gestation. More importantly, it is concluded that the differences between brain development and brain death throw doubt on the concept itself. PMID:2614785

  3. Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

  4. Screening for Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Foster, Carol; Duran-Flores, Deborah; Dumars, Kenneth W.; Stills, Stanley

    1985-01-01

    Developmental disabilities are responsible for a combination of severe physical, mental, psychological and social deficits. They develop before age 22 years and involve a little more than 1% of the population. Screening for developmental disabilities is the first step in their prevention. Various screening instruments are available for use throughout the developmental years that are designed to detect the wide variety of developmental problems that interfere with a developing person's optimal adaptation to his or her environment. The screening instruments must be inexpensive, reproducible, widely available and cost effective to the child, family and society. PMID:2413633

  5. Discover Your Brain: Memory. Acquiring, Editing, Recalling, Forgetting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Margulies, Nancy; Sylwester, Robert

    This guide presents current scientific research on the process of human learning and stresses the importance of metacognition. Focus is placed on memory and learning with analogies to photography being employed to aid understanding. This guide also includes background information on human memory; a poster; instructions for the four short term…

  6. 12 CFR 583.1 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.1 Acquire. The term acquire means to acquire, directly or indirectly, ownership or control through an acquisition of shares, an acquisition of assets or assumption of...

  7. 12 CFR 583.1 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.1 Acquire. The term acquire means to acquire, directly or indirectly, ownership or control through an acquisition of shares, an acquisition of assets or assumption of...

  8. 12 CFR 583.1 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.1 Acquire. The term acquire means to acquire, directly or indirectly, ownership or control through an acquisition of shares, an acquisition of assets or assumption of...

  9. 12 CFR 583.1 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... AND LOAN HOLDING COMPANIES § 583.1 Acquire. The term acquire means to acquire, directly or indirectly, ownership or control through an acquisition of shares, an acquisition of assets or assumption of...

  10. The Basics of Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Stiles, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Over the past several decades, significant advances have been made in our understanding of the basic stages and mechanisms of mammalian brain development. Studies elucidating the neurobiology of brain development span the levels of neural organization from the macroanatomic, to the cellular, to the molecular. Together this large body of work provides a picture of brain development as the product of a complex series of dynamic and adaptive processes operating within a highly constrained, genetically organized but constantly changing context. The view of brain development that has emerged from the developmental neurobiology literature presents both challenges and opportunities to psychologists seeking to understand the fundamental processes that underlie social and cognitive development, and the neural systems that mediate them. This chapter is intended to provide an overview of some very basic principles of brain development, drawn from contemporary developmental neurobiology, that may be of use to investigators from a wide range of disciplines. PMID:21042938

  11. Multidimensional MRI-CT atlas of the naked mole-rat brain (Heterocephalus glaber).

    PubMed

    Seki, Fumiko; Hikishima, Keigo; Nambu, Sanae; Okanoya, Kazuo; Okano, Hirotaka J; Sasaki, Erika; Miura, Kyoko; Okano, Hideyuki

    2013-01-01

    Naked mole-rats have a variety of distinctive features such as the organization of a hierarchical society (known as eusociality), extraordinary longevity, and cancer resistance; thus, it would be worthwhile investigating these animals in detail. One important task is the preparation of a brain atlas database that provide comprehensive information containing multidimensional data with various image contrasts, which can be achievable using a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Advanced MRI techniques such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), which generates high contrast images of fiber structures, can characterize unique morphological properties in addition to conventional MRI. To obtain high spatial resolution images, MR histology, DTI, and X-ray computed tomography were performed on the fixed adult brain. Skull and brain structures were segmented as well as reconstructed in stereotaxic coordinates. Data were also acquired for the neonatal brain to allow developmental changes to be observed. Moreover, in vivo imaging of naked mole-rats was established as an evaluation tool of live animals. The data obtained comprised three-dimensional (3D) images with high tissue contrast as well as stereotaxic coordinates. Developmental differences in the visual system were highlighted in particular by DTI. Although it was difficult to delineate optic nerves in the mature adult brain, parts of them could be distinguished in the immature neonatal brain. From observation of cortical thickness, possibility of high somatosensory system development replaced to the visual system was indicated. 3D visualization of brain structures in the atlas as well as the establishment of in vivo imaging would promote neuroimaging researches towards detection of novel characteristics of eusocial naked mole-rats. PMID:24391551

  12. A comprehensive transcriptional map of primate brain development.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Trygve E; Miller, Jeremy A; Ding, Song-Lin; Sunkin, Susan M; Smith, Kimberly A; Ng, Lydia; Szafer, Aaron; Dalley, Rachel A; Royall, Joshua J; Lemon, Tracy; Shapouri, Sheila; Aiona, Kaylynn; Arnold, James; Bennett, Jeffrey L; Bertagnolli, Darren; Bickley, Kristopher; Boe, Andrew; Brouner, Krissy; Butler, Stephanie; Byrnes, Emi; Caldejon, Shiella; Carey, Anita; Cate, Shelby; Chapin, Mike; Chen, Jefferey; Dee, Nick; Desta, Tsega; Dolbeare, Tim A; Dotson, Nadia; Ebbert, Amanda; Fulfs, Erich; Gee, Garrett; Gilbert, Terri L; Goldy, Jeff; Gourley, Lindsey; Gregor, Ben; Gu, Guangyu; Hall, Jon; Haradon, Zeb; Haynor, David R; Hejazinia, Nika; Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Howard, Robert; Jochim, Jay; Kinnunen, Marty; Kriedberg, Ali; Kuan, Chihchau L; Lau, Christopher; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Felix; Luong, Lon; Mastan, Naveed; May, Ryan; Melchor, Jose; Mosqueda, Nerick; Mott, Erika; Ngo, Kiet; Nyhus, Julie; Oldre, Aaron; Olson, Eric; Parente, Jody; Parker, Patrick D; Parry, Sheana; Pendergraft, Julie; Potekhina, Lydia; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L; Roberts, Tyson; Rogers, Brandon; Roll, Kate; Rosen, David; Sandman, David; Sarreal, Melaine; Shapovalova, Nadiya; Shi, Shu; Sjoquist, Nathan; Sodt, Andy J; Townsend, Robbie; Velasquez, Lissette; Wagley, Udi; Wakeman, Wayne B; White, Cassandra; Bennett, Crissa; Wu, Jennifer; Young, Rob; Youngstrom, Brian L; Wohnoutka, Paul; Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey; Hohmann, John G; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Hevner, Robert F; Molnár, Zoltán; Phillips, John W; Dang, Chinh; Jones, Allan R; Amaral, David G; Bernard, Amy; Lein, Ed S

    2016-07-21

    The transcriptional underpinnings of brain development remain poorly understood, particularly in humans and closely related non-human primates. We describe a high-resolution transcriptional atlas of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) brain development that combines dense temporal sampling of prenatal and postnatal periods with fine anatomical division of cortical and subcortical regions associated with human neuropsychiatric disease. Gene expression changes more rapidly before birth, both in progenitor cells and maturing neurons. Cortical layers and areas acquire adult-like molecular profiles surprisingly late in postnatal development. Disparate cell populations exhibit distinct developmental timing of gene expression, but also unexpected synchrony of processes underlying neural circuit construction including cell projection and adhesion. Candidate risk genes for neurodevelopmental disorders including primary microcephaly, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia show disease-specific spatiotemporal enrichment within developing neocortex. Human developmental expression trajectories are more similar to monkey than rodent, although approximately 9% of genes show human-specific regulation with evidence for prolonged maturation or neoteny compared to monkey. PMID:27409810

  13. A comprehensive transcriptional map of primate brain development.

    PubMed

    Bakken, Trygve E; Miller, Jeremy A; Ding, Song-Lin; Sunkin, Susan M; Smith, Kimberly A; Ng, Lydia; Szafer, Aaron; Dalley, Rachel A; Royall, Joshua J; Lemon, Tracy; Shapouri, Sheila; Aiona, Kaylynn; Arnold, James; Bennett, Jeffrey L; Bertagnolli, Darren; Bickley, Kristopher; Boe, Andrew; Brouner, Krissy; Butler, Stephanie; Byrnes, Emi; Caldejon, Shiella; Carey, Anita; Cate, Shelby; Chapin, Mike; Chen, Jefferey; Dee, Nick; Desta, Tsega; Dolbeare, Tim A; Dotson, Nadia; Ebbert, Amanda; Fulfs, Erich; Gee, Garrett; Gilbert, Terri L; Goldy, Jeff; Gourley, Lindsey; Gregor, Ben; Gu, Guangyu; Hall, Jon; Haradon, Zeb; Haynor, David R; Hejazinia, Nika; Hoerder-Suabedissen, Anna; Howard, Robert; Jochim, Jay; Kinnunen, Marty; Kriedberg, Ali; Kuan, Chihchau L; Lau, Christopher; Lee, Chang-Kyu; Lee, Felix; Luong, Lon; Mastan, Naveed; May, Ryan; Melchor, Jose; Mosqueda, Nerick; Mott, Erika; Ngo, Kiet; Nyhus, Julie; Oldre, Aaron; Olson, Eric; Parente, Jody; Parker, Patrick D; Parry, Sheana; Pendergraft, Julie; Potekhina, Lydia; Reding, Melissa; Riley, Zackery L; Roberts, Tyson; Rogers, Brandon; Roll, Kate; Rosen, David; Sandman, David; Sarreal, Melaine; Shapovalova, Nadiya; Shi, Shu; Sjoquist, Nathan; Sodt, Andy J; Townsend, Robbie; Velasquez, Lissette; Wagley, Udi; Wakeman, Wayne B; White, Cassandra; Bennett, Crissa; Wu, Jennifer; Young, Rob; Youngstrom, Brian L; Wohnoutka, Paul; Gibbs, Richard A; Rogers, Jeffrey; Hohmann, John G; Hawrylycz, Michael J; Hevner, Robert F; Molnár, Zoltán; Phillips, John W; Dang, Chinh; Jones, Allan R; Amaral, David G; Bernard, Amy; Lein, Ed S

    2016-07-13

    The transcriptional underpinnings of brain development remain poorly understood, particularly in humans and closely related non-human primates. We describe a high-resolution transcriptional atlas of rhesus monkey (Macaca mulatta) brain development that combines dense temporal sampling of prenatal and postnatal periods with fine anatomical division of cortical and subcortical regions associated with human neuropsychiatric disease. Gene expression changes more rapidly before birth, both in progenitor cells and maturing neurons. Cortical layers and areas acquire adult-like molecular profiles surprisingly late in postnatal development. Disparate cell populations exhibit distinct developmental timing of gene expression, but also unexpected synchrony of processes underlying neural circuit construction including cell projection and adhesion. Candidate risk genes for neurodevelopmental disorders including primary microcephaly, autism spectrum disorder, intellectual disability, and schizophrenia show disease-specific spatiotemporal enrichment within developing neocortex. Human developmental expression trajectories are more similar to monkey than rodent, although approximately 9% of genes show human-specific regulation with evidence for prolonged maturation or neoteny compared to monkey.

  14. Number development and developmental dyscalculia.

    PubMed

    von Aster, Michael G; Shalev, Ruth S

    2007-11-01

    There is a growing consensus that the neuropsychological underpinnings of developmental dyscalculia (DD) are a genetically determined disorder of 'number sense', a term denoting the ability to represent and manipulate numerical magnitude nonverbally on an internal number line. However, this spatially-oriented number line develops during elementary school and requires additional cognitive components including working memory and number symbolization (language). Thus, there may be children with familial-genetic DD with deficits limited to number sense and others with DD and comorbidities such as language delay, dyslexia, or attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. This duality is supported by epidemiological data indicating that two-thirds of children with DD have comorbid conditions while one-third have pure DD. Clinically, they differ according to their profile of arithmetic difficulties. fMRI studies indicate that parietal areas (important for number functions), and frontal regions (dominant for executive working memory and attention functions), are under-activated in children with DD. A four-step developmental model that allows prediction of different pathways for DD is presented. The core-system representation of numerical magnitude (cardinality; step 1) provides the meaning of 'number', a precondition to acquiring linguistic (step 2), and Arabic (step 3) number symbols, while a growing working memory enables neuroplastic development of an expanding mental number line during school years (step 4). Therapeutic and educational interventions can be drawn from this model. PMID:17979867

  15. School reentry for children with acquired central nervous systems injuries.

    PubMed

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special education is not necessarily a special classroom, but an individualized set of educational needs, determined by a multidisciplinary school team, to promote educational success. The purpose of this article is to inform those pediatricians and pediatric allied health professionals treating children with CNS injury of the systems in place to support successful school reentry and their role in contributing to developing an appropriate educational plan. PMID:19489086

  16. Functional neuroanatomy of developmental dyslexia: the role of orthographic depth

    PubMed Central

    Richlan, Fabio

    2014-01-01

    Orthographic depth (OD) (i.e., the complexity, consistency, or transparency of grapheme-phoneme correspondences in written alphabetic language) plays an important role in the acquisition of reading skills. Correspondingly, developmental dyslexia is characterized by different behavioral manifestations across languages varying in OD. This review focuses on the question of whether these different behavioral manifestations are associated with different functional neuroanatomical manifestations. It provides a review and critique of cross-linguistic brain imaging studies of developmental dyslexia. In addition, it includes an analysis of state-of-the-art functional neuroanatomical models of developmental dyslexia together with orthography-specific predictions derived from these models. These predictions should be tested in future brain imaging studies of typical and atypical reading in order to refine the current neurobiological understanding of developmental dyslexia, especially with respect to orthography-specific and universal aspects. PMID:24904383

  17. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy occurring with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    England, J D; Hsu, C Y; Garen, P D; Goust, J M; Biggs, P J

    1984-08-01

    A 33-year-old homosexual man with symptoms and signs of a focal brain process was subsequently found to have an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) with biopsy-proven progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. This report reemphasizes the association of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with AIDS and probably is best viewed as another example of an opportunistic CNS infection complicating deficient cell-mediated immunity. PMID:6540476

  18. Genetics and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plomin, Robert

    2004-01-01

    One of the major changes in developmental psychology during the past 50 years has been the acceptance of the important role of nature (genetics) as well as nurture (environment). Past research consisting of twin and adoption studies has shown that genetic influence is substantial for most domains of developmental psychology. Present research…

  19. Acquired Aplastic Anemia in Children

    PubMed Central

    Hartung, Helge D.; Olson, Timothy S.; Bessler, Monica

    2013-01-01

    SYNOPSIS This article provides a practice-based and concise review of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of acquired aplastic anemia in children. Bone marrow transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, and supportive care are discussed in detail. The aim is to provide the clinician with a better understanding of the disease and to offer guidelines for the management of children with this uncommon yet serious disorder. PMID:24237973

  20. DEVELOPMENTAL DIVERSITY OF AMPHIBIANS

    PubMed Central

    Elinson, Richard P.; del Pino, Eugenia M.

    2011-01-01

    The current model amphibian, Xenopus laevis, develops rapidly in water to a tadpole which metamorphoses into a frog. Many amphibians deviate from the X. laevis developmental pattern. Among other adaptations, their embryos develop in foam nests on land or in pouches on their mother’s back or on a leaf guarded by a parent. The diversity of developmental patterns includes multinucleated oogenesis, lack of RNA localization, huge non-pigmented eggs, and asynchronous, irregular early cleavages. Variations in patterns of gastrulation highlight the modularity of this critical developmental period. Many species have eliminated the larva or tadpole and directly develop to the adult. The wealth of developmental diversity among amphibians coupled with the wealth of mechanistic information from X. laevis permit comparisons that provide deeper insights into developmental processes. PMID:22662314

  1. Relations between Brain and Cognitive Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Kurt W.

    1987-01-01

    The developmental pattern of concurrent synaptogenesis in rhesus monkeys is consistent with a straightforward model of relations between brain and cognitive development. Concurrent synaptogenesis is hypothesized to lay the primary cortical foundation for a series of developmental levels in middle infancy that have been empirically documented in…

  2. Emotional attention in acquired prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Peelen, Marius V; Lucas, Nadia; Mayer, Eugene; Vuilleumier, Patrik

    2009-09-01

    The present study investigated whether emotionally expressive faces guide attention and modulate fMRI activity in fusiform gyrus in acquired prosopagnosia. Patient PS, a pure case of acquired prosopagnosia with intact right middle fusiform gyrus, performed two behavioral experiments and a functional imaging experiment to address these questions. In a visual search task involving face stimuli, PS was faster to select the target face when it was expressing fear or happiness as compared to when it was emotionally neutral. In a change detection task, PS detected significantly more changes when the changed face was fearful as compared to when it was neutral. Finally, an fMRI experiment showed enhanced activation to emotionally expressive faces and bodies in right fusiform gyrus. In addition, PS showed normal body-selective activation in right fusiform gyrus, partially overlapping the fusiform face area. Together these behavioral and neuroimaging results show that attention was preferentially allocated to emotional faces in patient PS, as observed in healthy subjects. We conclude that systems involved in the emotional guidance of attention by facial expression can function normally in acquired prosopagnosia, and can thus be dissociated from systems involved in face identification.

  3. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, F

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane transport systems, and the epithelial absorptive enzymes. Acquired causes of malabsorption are classified by focussing on the three phases of digestion and absorption: 1) luminal/digestive phase, 2) mucosal/absorptive phase, and 3) transport phase. Most acquired diseases affect the luminal/digestive phase. These include short bowel syndrome, extensive small bowel inflammation, motility disorders, and deficiencies of digestive enzymes or bile salts. Diagnosis depends on symptoms, physical examination, and blood and stool tests. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of malabsorption. Further testing should be based on the specific clinical context and the suspected underlying disease. Therapy is directed at nutritional support by enteral or parenteral feeding and screening for and supplementation of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. Early enteral feeding is important for intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. Medicinal treatment options for diarrhoea in malabsorption include loperamide, codeine, cholestyramine, or antibiotics. PMID:27086886

  4. Developmental Specification of Metabolic Circuitry

    PubMed Central

    Elson, Amanda E.T.; Simerly, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    The hypothalamus contains a core circuitry that communicates with the brainstem and spinal cord to regulate energy balance. Because metabolic phenotype is influenced by environmental variables during perinatal development, it is important to understand how these neural pathways form in order to identify key signaling pathways that are responsible for metabolic programming. Recent progress in defining gene expression events that direct early patterning and cellular specification of the hypothalamus, as well as advances in our understanding of hormonal control of central neuroendocrine pathways, suggest several key regulatory nodes that may represent targets for metabolic programming of brain structure and function. This review focuses on components of central circuitry known to regulate various aspects of energy balance and summarizes what is known about their developmental neurobiology within the context of metabolic programming. PMID:26407637

  5. Bridging the Gap: An Impact Study of Eight Developmental Summer Bridge Programs in Texas. Executive Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Elisabeth A.; Bork, Rachel Hare; Mayer, Alexander K.; Pretlow, Joshua; Wathington, Heather D.; Weiss, Madeline Joy

    2012-01-01

    Developmental summer bridge programs are a popular strategy for increasing college readiness among recent high school graduates. Aimed at providing an alternative to traditional developmental education, these programs provide accelerated and focused learning opportunities in order to help students acquire the knowledge and skills needed for…

  6. A review of brain circuitries involved in stuttering

    PubMed Central

    Craig-McQuaide, Anna; Akram, Harith; Zrinzo, Ludvic; Tripoliti, Elina

    2014-01-01

    Stuttering has been the subject of much research, nevertheless its etiology remains incompletely understood. This article presents a critical review of the literature on stuttering, with particular reference to the role of the basal ganglia (BG). Neuroimaging and lesion studies of developmental and acquired stuttering, as well as pharmacological and genetic studies are discussed. Evidence of structural and functional changes in the BG in those who stutter indicates that this motor speech disorder is due, at least in part, to abnormal BG cues for the initiation and termination of articulatory movements. Studies discussed provide evidence of a dysfunctional hyperdopaminergic state of the thalamocortical pathways underlying speech motor control in stuttering. Evidence that stuttering can improve, worsen or recur following deep brain stimulation for other indications is presented in order to emphasize the role of BG in stuttering. Further research is needed to fully elucidate the pathophysiology of this speech disorder, which is associated with significant social isolation. PMID:25452719

  7. Developmental cholinotoxicants: nicotine and chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed

    Slotkin, T A

    1999-02-01

    The stimulation of cholinergic receptors in target cells during a critical developmental period provides signals that influence cell replication and differentiation. Accordingly, environmental agents that promote cholinergic activity evoke neurodevelopmental damage because of the inappropriate timing or intensity of stimulation. Nicotine evokes mitotic arrest in brain cells possessing high concentrations of nicotinic cholinergic receptors. In addition, the cholinergic overstimulation programs the expression of genes that evoke apoptosis and delayed cell loss. Effects of cholinesterase inhibitors exhibit many similarities to those of nicotine. Chlorpyrifos administered to developing rats in doses that do not evoke signs of overt toxicity decreased DNA synthesis and caused shortfalls in cell numbers in brain regions enriched in cholinergic innervation. In embryo cultures, chlorpyrifos also evoked apoptosis during neurulation. However, chlorpyrifos also evokes noncholinergic disruption of cell development by interfering with cell signaling via adenylyl cyclase, leading to widespread disruption that is not limited to cholinergic systems. We have tested this hypothesis in vitro with PC12 cells, which lack the enzymes necessary to produce chlorpyrifos oxon, the metabolite that inhibits cholinesterase. Chlorpyrifos inhibited DNA synthesis in undifferentiated PC12 cells, which have relatively few cholinergic receptors. Furthermore, chlorpyrifos was more effective than nicotine and its effects were not blocked by cholinergic antagonists. When cells were allowed to differentiate in the presence of chlorpyrifos, cell replication was inhibited even more profoundly and cell acquisition was arrested. At higher concentrations, chlorpyrifos also inhibited neuritic outgrowth. Thus, chlorpyrifos elicits damage by both noncholinergic and cholinergic mechanisms extending from early stages of neural cell replication through late stages of axonogenesis and terminal differentiation

  8. Developmental cholinotoxicants: nicotine and chlorpyrifos.

    PubMed Central

    Slotkin, T A

    1999-01-01

    The stimulation of cholinergic receptors in target cells during a critical developmental period provides signals that influence cell replication and differentiation. Accordingly, environmental agents that promote cholinergic activity evoke neurodevelopmental damage because of the inappropriate timing or intensity of stimulation. Nicotine evokes mitotic arrest in brain cells possessing high concentrations of nicotinic cholinergic receptors. In addition, the cholinergic overstimulation programs the expression of genes that evoke apoptosis and delayed cell loss. Effects of cholinesterase inhibitors exhibit many similarities to those of nicotine. Chlorpyrifos administered to developing rats in doses that do not evoke signs of overt toxicity decreased DNA synthesis and caused shortfalls in cell numbers in brain regions enriched in cholinergic innervation. In embryo cultures, chlorpyrifos also evoked apoptosis during neurulation. However, chlorpyrifos also evokes noncholinergic disruption of cell development by interfering with cell signaling via adenylyl cyclase, leading to widespread disruption that is not limited to cholinergic systems. We have tested this hypothesis in vitro with PC12 cells, which lack the enzymes necessary to produce chlorpyrifos oxon, the metabolite that inhibits cholinesterase. Chlorpyrifos inhibited DNA synthesis in undifferentiated PC12 cells, which have relatively few cholinergic receptors. Furthermore, chlorpyrifos was more effective than nicotine and its effects were not blocked by cholinergic antagonists. When cells were allowed to differentiate in the presence of chlorpyrifos, cell replication was inhibited even more profoundly and cell acquisition was arrested. At higher concentrations, chlorpyrifos also inhibited neuritic outgrowth. Thus, chlorpyrifos elicits damage by both noncholinergic and cholinergic mechanisms extending from early stages of neural cell replication through late stages of axonogenesis and terminal differentiation

  9. Sleep and developmental plasticity not just for kids.

    PubMed

    Frank, Marcos Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    In a variety of mammalian species, sleep amounts are highest during developmental periods of rapid brain development and synaptic plasticity than at any other time in life [Frank, M. G. & Heller, H. C. (1997a). Development of REM and slow wave sleep in the rat. American Journal of Physiology, 272, R1792-R1799; Jouvet-Mounier, D., Astic, L., & Lacote, D. (1970). Ontogenesis of the states of sleep in rat, cat and guinea pig during the first postnatal month. Developmental Psychobiology, 2, 216-239; Roffwarg, H. P., Muzio, J. N., & Dement, W. C. (1966). Ontogenetic development of the human sleep-dream cycle. Science, 604-619]. Many of the mechanisms governing developmental plasticity also mediate plasticity in the adult brain. Therefore, studying the role of sleep in developmental plasticity may provide insights more generally into sleep function across the lifespan. In this chapter, I review the evidence that supports a critical role for sleep in developmental brain plasticity. I begin with an overview of past studies that support a role for sleep in general brain maturation. This is followed by more recent findings in the developing visual cortex that more specifically address a possible role for sleep in cortical plasticity. PMID:21854965

  10. Sleep and developmental plasticity not just for kids.

    PubMed

    Frank, Marcos Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    In a variety of mammalian species, sleep amounts are highest during developmental periods of rapid brain development and synaptic plasticity than at any other time in life [Frank, M. G. & Heller, H. C. (1997a). Development of REM and slow wave sleep in the rat. American Journal of Physiology, 272, R1792-R1799; Jouvet-Mounier, D., Astic, L., & Lacote, D. (1970). Ontogenesis of the states of sleep in rat, cat and guinea pig during the first postnatal month. Developmental Psychobiology, 2, 216-239; Roffwarg, H. P., Muzio, J. N., & Dement, W. C. (1966). Ontogenetic development of the human sleep-dream cycle. Science, 604-619]. Many of the mechanisms governing developmental plasticity also mediate plasticity in the adult brain. Therefore, studying the role of sleep in developmental plasticity may provide insights more generally into sleep function across the lifespan. In this chapter, I review the evidence that supports a critical role for sleep in developmental brain plasticity. I begin with an overview of past studies that support a role for sleep in general brain maturation. This is followed by more recent findings in the developing visual cortex that more specifically address a possible role for sleep in cortical plasticity.

  11. A developmental study on the neural circuitry mediating response flexibility in bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Weathers, Judah; Brotman, Melissa A.; Deveney, Christen M.; Kim, Pilyoung; Zarate, Carlos; Fromm, Stephen; Pine, Daniel; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2013-01-01

    Cross-sectional neuroimaging studies are an important first step in examining developmental differences in brain function between adults and youth with bipolar disorder (BD). Impaired response flexibility may contribute to reduced ability to modify goal-directed behavior in BD appropriately. We compared neural circuitry mediating this process in child (CBD) vs. adult BD (ABD) and age-matched healthy subjects. fMRI data from 15 CBD, 23 ABD, 20 healthy children, 27 healthy adults were acquired during a response flexibility paradigm, a task where subjects inhibit a prepotent response and execute an alternative response. When successfully executing an alternate response, CBD showed frontal, parietal, and temporal hyperactivation relative to healthy children and ABD, while ABD hypoactivated these regions relative to healthy adults. Previous studies of response flexibility in healthy volunteers revealed frontal, temporal, and parietal cortex hyperactivation in children and hypoactivation in adults. Relative to age-matched healthy subjects, we found hyperactivation in these regions in CBD and hypoactivation in ABD. This suggests that our findings in patients may represent the extreme extension of the age-related response flexibility activation differences found in healthy subjects. Future studies should use longitudinal fMRI to examine the developmental trajectory of the neural circuitry mediating response flexibility in BD. PMID:23958598

  12. AIDS and Persons with Developmental Disabilities: The Legal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennert, Sharon; And Others

    This report provides lawyers and service providers with legal information and analysis about issues affecting persons with developmental disabilities and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The report reviews relevant medical facts, discusses federal and state laws which define the rights and responsibilities of disabled individuals and…

  13. Positive Approaches: A Sexuality Guide for Teaching Developmentally Disabled Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maurer, Lisa

    This guide is intended to assist caregivers of people with development disabilities in acquiring knowledge about sexuality and skill in expressing sexuality in a safe and appropriate manner. Section 1 provides an overview of the history of sexuality and developmentally disabled individuals. The second section provides exercises for the caregiver…

  14. Political Reflections on AIDS and Developmental Disabilities: Conference Keynote Address.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westmorland, Timothy M.

    1989-01-01

    The keynote address of a November, 1988, symposium on developmental disabilities and the HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) examines four basic areas of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) concern in Congress: research, education, testing and discrimination protection, and health care services. (DB)

  15. Developmental Differences in the Acquisition of Basic and Superordinate Categories.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Marjorie S.; Markman, Ellen M.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the relative utility of exemplar and linguistic information for acquiring basic and superordinate categories. Developmental differences were predicted in the ability to benefit from the linguistically specified information. Preschool, kindergarten, and first-grade children were tested. (Author/SS)

  16. Latent Classes in the Developmental Trajectories of Infant Handedness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michel, George F.; Babik, Iryna; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Campbell, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    Handedness for acquiring objects was assessed monthly from 6 to 14 months in 328 infants (182 males). A group based trajectory model identified 3 latent groups with different developmental trajectories: those with an identifiable right preference (38%) or left preference (14%) and those without an identifiable preference (48%) but with a…

  17. [DEVELOPMENTAL CARE IN THE NEONATAL INTENSIVE CARE UNIT ACCORDING TO NEWBORN INDIVIDUALIZED DEVELOPMENTAL CARE AND ASSESSMENT PROGRAM (NIDCAP)].

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Dalia; Litmanovitz, Ita

    2016-01-01

    During hospitalization in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU), the brain of the preterm infant undergoes a particularly vulnerable and sensitive period of development. Brain development might be negatively influenced by direct injury as well as by complications of prematurity. Over the past few years, stress has come to be increasingly recognized as a potential risk factor. The NICU environment contains numerous stress factors due to maternal deprivation and over-stimulation, such as light, sound and pain, which conflict with the brain's developmental requirements. Developmental care is a caregiving approach that addresses the early developmental needs of the preterm infant as an integral component of quality neonatal care. NIDCAP (Newborn Individualized Developmental Care and Assessment Program) is a comprehensive program that aims to reduce environmental stress, to support the infant's neuro-behavioral maturation and organization, and to promote early parent-infant relationships. The implementation of developmental care based on NIDCAP principles is a gradual, in-depth systems change process, which affects all aspects of care in the NICU. This review describes the theoretical basis of the NIDCAP approach, summarizes the scientific evidence and addresses some of the implications of the transition from a traditional to a developmental care NICU.

  18. What Do We Know from Brain Research?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Pat; Brandt, Ron

    1998-01-01

    Discusses recent brain-research findings relevant for educators: the brain changes physiologically as a result of experience; IQ is not fixed at birth; some abilities are acquired more easily during certain windows of opportunity; and learning is strongly influenced by emotion. Environmental enrichment unmistakably influences the brain's growth…

  19. Acquired Hearing Loss in Children.

    PubMed

    Kenna, Margaret A

    2015-12-01

    Hearing loss is the most common congenital sensory impairment. According to National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data from 2001 to 2008, 20.3% of subjects aged greater than or equal to 12 had unilateral or bilateral hearing loss. The World Health Organization notes that, worldwide, there are 360 million people with disabling hearing loss, with 50% preventable. Although many hearing losses are acquired, many others are manifestations of preexisting conditions. The purpose of a pediatric hearing evaluation is to identify the degree and type of hearing loss and etiology and to outline a comprehensive strategy that supports language and social development and communication.

  20. The inhibition of acquired fear.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín; Vianna, Mónica M R; Bevilaqua, Lía R M

    2004-01-01

    A conditioned stimulus (CS) associated with a fearsome unconditioned stimulus (US) generates learned fear. Acquired fear is at the root of a variety of mental disorders, among which phobias, generalized anxiety, the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and some forms of depression. The simplest way to inhibit learned fear is to extinguish it, which is usually done by repeatedly presenting the CS alone, so that a new association, CS-"no US", will eventually overcome the previously acquired CS-US association. Extinction was first described by Pavlov as a form of "internal inhibition" and was recommended by Freud and Ferenczi in the 1920s (who called it "habituation") as the treatment of choice for phobic disorders. It is used with success till this day, often in association with anxiolytic drugs. Extinction has since then been applied, also successfully and also often in association with anxiolytics, to the treatment of panic, generalized anxiety disorders and, more recently, PTSD. Extinction of learned fear involves gene expression, protein synthesis, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and signaling pathways in the hippocampus and the amygdala at the time of the first CS-no US association. It can be enhanced by increasing the exposure to the "no US" component at the time of behavioral testing, to the point of causing the complete uninstallment of the original fear response. Some theorists have recently proposed that reiteration of the CS alone may induce a reconsolidation of the learned behavior instead of its extinction. Reconsolidation would preserve the original memory from the labilization induced by its retrieval. If true, this would of course be disastrous for the psychotherapy of fear-motivated disorders. Here we show that neither the CS nor retrieval cause anything remotely like reconsolidation, but just extinction. In fact, our findings indicate that the reconsolidation hypothesis is essentially incorrect, at least for the form of contextual fear most