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Sample records for acquired developmental brain

  1. Acquired Brain Injury Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

    This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

  2. Support Network Responses to Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chleboun, Steffany; Hux, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) affects social relationships; however, the ways social and support networks change and evolve as a result of brain injury is not well understood. This study explored ways in which survivors of ABI and members of their support networks perceive relationship changes as recovery extends into the long-term stage. Two…

  3. MRI of fetal acquired brain lesions.

    PubMed

    Prayer, Daniela; Brugger, Peter C; Kasprian, Gregor; Witzani, Linde; Helmer, Hanns; Dietrich, Wolfgang; Eppel, Wolfgang; Langer, Martin

    2006-02-01

    Acquired fetal brain damage is suspected in cases of destruction of previously normally formed tissue, the primary cause of which is hypoxia. Fetal brain damage may occur as a consequence of acute or chronic maternal diseases, with acute diseases causing impairment of oxygen delivery to the fetal brain, and chronic diseases interfering with normal, placental development. Infections, metabolic diseases, feto-fetal transfusion syndrome, toxic agents, mechanical traumatic events, iatrogenic accidents, and space-occupying lesions may also qualify as pathologic conditions that initiate intrauterine brain damage. MR manifestations of acute fetal brain injury (such as hemorrhage or acute ischemic lesions) can easily be recognized, as they are hardly different from postnatal lesions. The availability of diffusion-weighted sequences enhances the sensitivity in recognizing acute ischemic lesions. Recent hemorrhages are usually readily depicted on T2 (*) sequences, where they display hypointense signals. Chronic fetal brain injury may be characterized by nonspecific changes that must be attributable to the presence of an acquired cerebral pathology. The workup in suspected acquired fetal brain injury also includes the assessment of extra-CNS organs that may be affected by an underlying pathology. Finally, the placenta, as the organ that mediates oxygen delivery from the maternal circulation to the fetus, must be examined on MR images.

  4. Serotonergic hyperactivity as a potential factor in developmental, acquired and drug-induced synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Berit

    2013-01-01

    Though synesthesia research has seen a huge growth in recent decades, and tremendous progress has been made in terms of understanding the mechanism and cause of synesthesia, we are still left mostly in the dark when it comes to the mechanistic commonalities (if any) among developmental, acquired and drug-induced synesthesia. We know that many forms of synesthesia involve aberrant structural or functional brain connectivity. Proposed mechanisms include direct projection and disinhibited feedback mechanisms, in which information from two otherwise structurally or functionally separate brain regions mix. We also know that synesthesia sometimes runs in families. However, it is unclear what causes its onset. Studies of psychedelic drugs, such as psilocybin, LSD and mescaline, reveal that exposure to these drugs can induce synesthesia. One neurotransmitter suspected to be central to the perceptual changes is serotonin. Excessive serotonin in the brain may cause many of the characteristics of psychedelic intoxication. Excessive serotonin levels may also play a role in synesthesia acquired after brain injury. In brain injury sudden cell death floods local brain regions with serotonin and glutamate. This neurotransmitter flooding could perhaps result in unusual feature binding. Finally, developmental synesthesia that occurs in individuals with autism may be a result of alterations in the serotonergic system, leading to a blockage of regular gating mechanisms. I conclude on these grounds that one commonality among at least some cases of acquired, developmental and drug-induced synesthesia may be the presence of excessive levels of serotonin, which increases the excitability and connectedness of sensory brain regions.

  5. Group Treatment in Acquired Brain Injury Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertisch, Hilary; Rath, Joseph F.; Langenbahn, Donna M.; Sherr, Rose Lynn; Diller, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    The current article describes critical issues in adapting traditional group-treatment methods for working with individuals with reduced cognitive capacity secondary to acquired brain injury. Using the classification system based on functional ability developed at the NYU Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (RIRM), we delineate the cognitive…

  6. Group Treatment in Acquired Brain Injury Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertisch, Hilary; Rath, Joseph F.; Langenbahn, Donna M.; Sherr, Rose Lynn; Diller, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    The current article describes critical issues in adapting traditional group-treatment methods for working with individuals with reduced cognitive capacity secondary to acquired brain injury. Using the classification system based on functional ability developed at the NYU Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (RIRM), we delineate the cognitive…

  7. Interviewing Children with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Anne-Marie; Linden, Mark; Alderdice, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Research into the lives of children with acquired brain injury (ABI) often neglects to incorporate children as participants, preferring to obtain the opinions of the adult carer (e.g. McKinlay et al., 2002). There has been a concerted attempt to move away from this position by those working in children's research with current etiquette…

  8. GETTING LOST: TOPOGRAPHIC SKILLS IN ACQUIRED AND DEVELOPMENTAL PROSOPAGNOSIA

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Edison; Pancaroglu, Raika; Burles, Ford; Duchaine, Brad; Iaria, Giuseppe; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies report that acquired prosopagnosia is frequently associated with topographic disorientation. Whether this is associated with a specific anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, how frequently it is seen with the developmental variant, and what specific topographic function is impaired to account for this problem are not known. We studied ten subjects with acquired prosopagnosia from either occipitotemporal or anterior temporal lesions and seven with developmental prosopagnosia. Subjects were given a battery of topographic tests, including house and scene recognition, the road map test, a test of cognitive map formation, and a standardized self-report questionnaire. House and/or scene recognition were frequently impaired after either occipitotemporal or anterior temporal lesions in acquired prosopagnosia. Subjects with occipitotemporal lesions were also impaired in cognitive map formation: an overlap analysis identified right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri as a likely correlate. Only one subject with acquired prosopagnosia had mild difficulty with directional orientation on the road map test. Only one subject with developmental prosopagnosia had difficulty with cognitive map formation, and none were impaired on the other tests. Scores for house and scene recognition correlated most strongly with the results of the questionnaire. We conclude that topographic disorientation in acquired prosopagnosia reflects impaired place recognition, with a contribution from poor cognitive map formation when there is occipitotemporal damage. Topographic impairments are less frequent in developmental prosopagnosia. PMID:26874939

  9. Getting lost: Topographic skills in acquired and developmental prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Corrow, Jeffrey C; Corrow, Sherryse L; Lee, Edison; Pancaroglu, Raika; Burles, Ford; Duchaine, Brad; Iaria, Giuseppe; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies report that acquired prosopagnosia is frequently associated with topographic disorientation. Whether this is associated with a specific anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, how frequently it is seen with the developmental variant, and what specific topographic function is impaired to account for this problem are not known. We studied ten subjects with acquired prosopagnosia from either occipitotemporal or anterior temporal (AT) lesions and seven with developmental prosopagnosia. Subjects were given a battery of topographic tests, including house and scene recognition, the road map test, a test of cognitive map formation, and a standardized self-report questionnaire. House and/or scene recognition were frequently impaired after either occipitotemporal or AT lesions in acquired prosopagnosia. Subjects with occipitotemporal lesions were also impaired in cognitive map formation: an overlap analysis identified right fusiform and parahippocampal gyri as a likely correlate. Only one subject with acquired prosopagnosia had mild difficulty with directional orientation on the road map test. Only one subject with developmental prosopagnosia had difficulty with cognitive map formation, and none were impaired on the other tests. Scores for house and scene recognition correlated most strongly with the results of the questionnaire. We conclude that topographic disorientation in acquired prosopagnosia reflects impaired place recognition, with a contribution from poor cognitive map formation when there is occipitotemporal damage. Topographic impairments are less frequent in developmental prosopagnosia.

  10. Stereotypic movement disorder after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Cynthia M; Kennedy, Richard E; Hoye, Wayne; Yablon, Stuart A

    2002-05-01

    Stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) consists of repetitive, non-functional motor behaviour that interferes with daily living or causes injury to the person. It is most often described in patients with mental retardation. However, recent evidence indicates that this condition is common among otherwise normal individuals. This case study describes a patient with new-onset SMD occurring after subdural haematoma and brain injury. SMD has rarely been reported after acquired brain injury, and none have documented successful treatment. The current psychiatric literature regarding neurochemistry, neuroanatomy, and treatment of SMD are reviewed with particular application to one patient. Treatment options include serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, opioid antagonists and dopamine antagonists. SMD has been under-appreciated in intellectually normal individuals, and may also be unrecognized after brain injury. Further investigation is needed in this area, which may benefit other individuals with SMD as well.

  11. Efficacy of Interdisciplinary Assessment and Treatment for Infants and Preschoolers with Congenital and Acquired Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagnato, Stephen J.; Neisworth, John T.

    1985-01-01

    The study examined effectiveness of a team approach for two etiologically distinct groups of children (acquired brain injury, N=7; congenital brain injury, N=10). Results revealed significant pre-post gains for both groups. Significant team therapy effects were evident across four developmental domains and five behavioral processes. Progress was…

  12. Functionality predictors in acquired brain damage.

    PubMed

    Huertas Hoyas, E; Pedrero Pérez, E J; Águila Maturana, A M; García López-Alberca, S; González Alted, C

    2015-01-01

    Most individuals who have survived an acquired brain injury present consequences affecting the sensorimotor, cognitive, affective or behavioural components. These deficits affect the proper performance of daily living activities. The aim of this study is to identify functional differences between individuals with unilateral acquired brain injury using functional independence, capacity, and performance of daily activities. Descriptive cross-sectional design with a sample of 58 people, with right-sided injury (n=14 TBI; n=15 stroke) or left-sided injury (n = 14 TBI, n = 15 stroke), right handed, and with a mean age of 47 years and time since onset of 4 ± 3.65 years. The functional assessment/functional independence measure (FIM/FAM) and the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) were used for the study. The data showed significant differences (P<.000), and a large size effect (dr=0.78) in the cross-sectional estimates, and point to fewer restrictions for patients with a lesion on their right side. The major differences were in the variables 'speaking' and 'receiving spoken messages' (ICF variables), and 'Expression', 'Writing' and 'intelligible speech' (FIM/FAM variables). In the linear regression analysis, the results showed that only 4 FIM/FAM variables, taken together, predict 44% of the ICF variance, which measures the ability of the individual, and up to 52% of the ICF, which measures the individual's performance. Gait alone predicts a 28% of the variance. It seems that individuals with acquired brain injury in the left hemisphere display important differences regarding functional and communication variables. The motor aspects are an important prognostic factor in functional rehabilitation. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  13. Serotonergic Hyperactivity as a Potential Factor in Developmental, Acquired and Drug-Induced Synesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Brogaard, Berit

    2013-01-01

    Though synesthesia research has seen a huge growth in recent decades, and tremendous progress has been made in terms of understanding the mechanism and cause of synesthesia, we are still left mostly in the dark when it comes to the mechanistic commonalities (if any) among developmental, acquired and drug-induced synesthesia. We know that many forms of synesthesia involve aberrant structural or functional brain connectivity. Proposed mechanisms include direct projection and disinhibited feedback mechanisms, in which information from two otherwise structurally or functionally separate brain regions mix. We also know that synesthesia sometimes runs in families. However, it is unclear what causes its onset. Studies of psychedelic drugs, such as psilocybin, LSD and mescaline, reveal that exposure to these drugs can induce synesthesia. One neurotransmitter suspected to be central to the perceptual changes is serotonin. Excessive serotonin in the brain may cause many of the characteristics of psychedelic intoxication. Excessive serotonin levels may also play a role in synesthesia acquired after brain injury. In brain injury sudden cell death floods local brain regions with serotonin and glutamate. This neurotransmitter flooding could perhaps result in unusual feature binding. Finally, developmental synesthesia that occurs in individuals with autism may be a result of alterations in the serotonergic system, leading to a blockage of regular gating mechanisms. I conclude on these grounds that one commonality among at least some cases of acquired, developmental and drug-induced synesthesia may be the presence of excessive levels of serotonin, which increases the excitability and connectedness of sensory brain regions. PMID:24155703

  14. Developmental disruptions underlying brain abnormalities in ciliopathies

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Jiami; Higginbotham, Holden; Li, Jingjun; Nichols, Jackie; Hirt, Josua; Ghukasyan, Vladimir; Anton, E.S.

    2015-01-01

    Primary cilia are essential conveyors of signals underlying major cell functions. Cerebral cortical progenitors and neurons have a primary cilium. The significance of cilia function for brain development and function is evident in the plethora of developmental brain disorders associated with human ciliopathies. Nevertheless, the role of primary cilia function in corticogenesis remains largely unknown. Here we delineate the functions of primary cilia in the construction of cerebral cortex and their relevance to ciliopathies, using an shRNA library targeting ciliopathy genes known to cause brain disorders, but whose roles in brain development are unclear. We used the library to query how ciliopathy genes affect distinct stages of mouse cortical development, in particular neural progenitor development, neuronal migration, neuronal differentiation and early neuronal connectivity. Our results define the developmental functions of ciliopathy genes and delineate disrupted developmental events that are integrally related to the emergence of brain abnormalities in ciliopathies. PMID:26206566

  15. Male body image following acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Howes, Hannah; Edwards, Stephen; Benton, David

    2005-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate body image concerns and psycho-emotional health in males with acquired brain injury (ABI). Using a between subjects study of 25 males with ABI and 25 matched controls, variables were analysed using correlations and 2 x 2 analyses of variance (ANOVAs) with head injury and injury type as independent variables. Body image and psycho-emotional health were evaluated using self-report questionnaires. Disability and cognitive impairment were measured using a mixture of self-report, cognitive testing and clinical notes. Results indicated that males with ABI had significantly lower self-esteem and body dissatisfaction on a number of items relating to physical and sexual functioning. There were significant differences in body image between stroke and TBI, but there was no corresponding relationship with psycho-emotional health. These body image differences might be explained by age. The finding that ABI has a negative effect on body image and that this relates to psycho-emotional health should be investigated further, perhaps being included in future rehabilitation strategies.

  16. Hypothyroidism and brain developmental players.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, R G

    2015-01-01

    Most of our knowledge on the mechanisms of thyroid hormone (TH) dependent brain development is based on clinical observations and animal studies of maternal/fetal hypothyroidism. THs play an essential role in brain development and hormone deficiency during critical phases in fetal life may lead to severe and permanent brain damage. Maternal hypothyroidism is considered the most common cause of fetal TH deficiency, but the problem may also arise in the fetus. In the case of congenital hypothyroidism due to defects in fetal thyroid gland development or hormone synthesis, clinical symptoms at birth are often mild as a result of compensatory maternal TH supply. TH transporters (THTs) and deiodinases (Ds) are important regulators of intracellular triiodothyronine (T3) availability and therefore contribute to the control of thyroid receptors (TRs)-dependent CNS development and early embryonic life. Defects in fetal THTs or Ds may have more impact on fetal brain since they can result in intracellular T3 deficiency despite sufficient maternal TH supply. One clear example is the recent discovery of mutations in the TH transporter (monocarboxylate transporter 8; MCT8) that could be linked to a syndrome of severe and non reversible psychomotor retardation. Even mild and transient changes in maternal TH levels can directly affect and alter the gene expression profile, and thus disturb fetal brain development. Animal studies are needed to increase our understanding of the exact role of THTs and Ds in prenatal brain development.

  17. Music interventions for acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Magee, Wendy L; Clark, Imogen; Tamplin, Jeanette; Bradt, Joke

    2017-01-20

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) can result in impairments in motor function, language, cognition, and sensory processing, and in emotional disturbances, which can severely reduce a survivor's quality of life. Music interventions have been used in rehabilitation to stimulate brain functions involved in movement, cognition, speech, emotions, and sensory perceptions. An update of the systematic review published in 2010 was needed to gauge the efficacy of music interventions in rehabilitation for people with ABI. To assess the effects of music interventions for functional outcomes in people with ABI. We expanded the criteria of our existing review to: 1) examine the efficacy of music interventions in addressing recovery in people with ABI including gait, upper extremity function, communication, mood and emotions, cognitive functioning, social skills, pain, behavioural outcomes, activities of daily living, and adverse events; 2) compare the efficacy of music interventions and standard care with a) standard care alone, b) standard care and placebo treatments, or c) standard care and other therapies; 3) compare the efficacy of different types of music interventions (music therapy delivered by trained music therapists versus music interventions delivered by other professionals). We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (January 2016), the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) (2015, Issue 6), MEDLINE (1946 to June 2015), Embase (1980 to June 2015), CINAHL (1982 to June 2015), PsycINFO (1806 to June 2015), LILACS (1982 to January 2016), and AMED (1985 to June 2015). We handsearched music therapy journals and conference proceedings, searched dissertation and specialist music databases, trials and research registers, reference lists, and contacted relevant experts and music therapy associations to identify unpublished research. We imposed no language restriction. We performed the original search in 2009. We included all randomised controlled trials

  18. Brain Hemisphericity and Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachos, Filippos; Andreou, Eleni; Delliou, Afroditi

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the link between brain hemisphericity and dyslexia in secondary school students, using the Preference Test (PT), a widely used self-report index of preferred hemisphere thinking styles. The hypothesis was that differences would be revealed between the dyslexic group and their peers in hemispheric preference. A total of…

  19. Brain Hemisphericity and Developmental Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vlachos, Filippos; Andreou, Eleni; Delliou, Afroditi

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the link between brain hemisphericity and dyslexia in secondary school students, using the Preference Test (PT), a widely used self-report index of preferred hemisphere thinking styles. The hypothesis was that differences would be revealed between the dyslexic group and their peers in hemispheric preference. A total of…

  20. Telerehabilitation needs: a survey of persons with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ricker, Joseph H; Rosenthal, Mitchell; Garay, Edward; DeLuca, John; Germain, Anneliese; Abraham-Fuchs, Klaus; Schmidt, Kai-Uwe

    2002-06-01

    To survey individuals with acquired brain injury to assess multiple facets of interest, access, and familiarity necessary to implement new telerehabilitation technologies. Anonymous mail survey. Community. Seventy-one respondents to a survey. These individuals had experienced acquired brain injury (predominantly severe traumatic brain injury [TBI]) and were living in the community. Surveys were mailed by a state chapter of the Brain Injury Association to a random selection of members with acquired brain injury. Survey designed specifically for this investigation. The survey responses indicate that there is great interest in the possibility of accessing telerehabilitative services among individuals with acquired brain injury. In particular, there was strong interest expressed in services that could be used to assist with problems in memory, attention, problem-solving, and activities of daily living. Telemedicine, and more specifically telerehabilitation, holds great promise as an adjunct to traditional clinical service delivery. Little research in this area has been applied, however, to individuals with acquired brain injuries. Although on the surface, telerehabilitation seems to be an appropriate assessment and treatment modality for individuals with brain injury, it will only succeed if those individuals have the interest-and the access-necessary to use new and evolving technologies.

  1. Learning: How the Brain Acquires Information.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Beth R.

    Developed to explore how individuals receive and process sensory information, this paper describes a curriculum designed for elementary students concerning the brain and information processing. The course is entitled "Mind Adventuring: Learning about How We Learn" and is structured into eight units of study. Descriptive accounts are…

  2. Behavior Management for Children and Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slifer, Keith J.; Amari, Adrianna

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems such as disinhibition, irritability, restlessness, distractibility, and aggression are common after acquired brain injury (ABI). The persistence and severity of these problems impair the brain-injured individual's reintegration into family, school, and community life. Since the early 1980s, behavior analysis and therapy have…

  3. Students with Acquired Brain Injury. The School's Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glang, Ann, Ed.; Singer, George H. S., Ed.; Todis, Bonnie, Ed.

    Designed for educators, this book focuses on educational issues relating to students with acquired brain injury (ABI), and describes approaches that have been effective in improving the school experiences of students with brain injury. Section 1 provides an introduction to issues related to ABI in children and youth and includes: "An Overview of…

  4. Organic Brain Syndromes: Conditions of Acquired Intellectual Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Roy, John R.

    1979-01-01

    The term 'organic brain syndrome' covers a multitude of ills, many of which are treatable conditions. Diagnosis must concentrate on defining which syndrome is involved; this article presents a diagnostic schema with illustrative case histories. Clinical aspects of acquired mental deficit are also outlined. The approach to organic brain syndromes is the classic medical observation of signs and symptoms. PMID:21297811

  5. Behavior Management for Children and Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slifer, Keith J.; Amari, Adrianna

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems such as disinhibition, irritability, restlessness, distractibility, and aggression are common after acquired brain injury (ABI). The persistence and severity of these problems impair the brain-injured individual's reintegration into family, school, and community life. Since the early 1980s, behavior analysis and therapy have…

  6. Students with Acquired Brain Injury. The School's Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glang, Ann, Ed.; Singer, George H. S., Ed.; Todis, Bonnie, Ed.

    Designed for educators, this book focuses on educational issues relating to students with acquired brain injury (ABI), and describes approaches that have been effective in improving the school experiences of students with brain injury. Section 1 provides an introduction to issues related to ABI in children and youth and includes: "An Overview of…

  7. What environmental factors irritate people with acquired brain injury?

    PubMed

    Pryor, Julie

    2004-08-19

    This study aims to determine the environmental factors nurses identify as being irritating to people with acquired brain injury. This was a qualitative study. An experienced interviewer used the Critical Decision Method to interview 28 nurses working in 10 inpatient brain injury rehabilitation units in Australia on a one to one basis for 1-1.5 h on two consecutive days. Transcripts of interviews were analysed using thematic analysis. Nurses identified five groups of irritants that acted as triggers for aggression: The nurses in this study identified many environmental factors that irritate people with acquired brain injury. Some irritants appeared unavoidable but others could be addressed by staff expertise.

  8. Developmental Toxicity of Nanoparticles on the Brain.

    PubMed

    Umezawa, Masakazu; Onoda, Atsuto; Takeda, Ken

    2017-01-01

     The toxicity of nanoparticles (nanotoxicology) is being investigated to understand both the health impacts of atmospheric ultrafine particles-the size of which is a fraction (<0.1 μm aerodynamic diameter) of that of PM2.5 (<2.5 μm diameter)-and the safer use of engineered nanomaterials. Developmental toxicity of nanoparticles has been studied since their transfer from pregnant body to fetal circulation and offspring body was first reported. Here we reviewed the developmental toxicity of nanoparticles on the brain, one of the most important organs in maintenance of mental health and high quality of life. Recently the dose- and size-dependency of transplacental nanoparticle transfer to the fetus was reported. It is important to understand both the mechanism of direct effect of nanoparticles transferred to the fetus and offspring and the indirect effect mediated by induction of oxidative stress and inflammation in the pregnant body. Locomotor activity, learning and memory, motor coordination, and social behavior were reported as potential neurobehavioral targets of maternal nanoparticle exposure. Histopathologically, brain perivascular cells, including perivascular macrophages and surrounding astrocytes, have an important role in waste clearance from the brain parenchyma. They are potentially the most sensitive target of maternal exposure to low-dose nanoparticles. Further investigations will show the detailed mechanism of developmental toxicity of nanoparticles and preventive strategies against intended and unintended nanoparticle exposure. This knowledge will contribute to the safer design of nanoparticles through the development of sensitive and quantitative endpoints for prediction of their developmental toxicity.

  9. Family Forward: Promoting Family Adaptation Following Pediatric Acquired Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Hickey, Lyndal; Anderson, Vicki; Jordan, Brigid

    2016-08-15

    This article describes a new and innovative social work intervention, Family Forward, designed to promote early adaptation of the family system after the onset of a child's acquired brain injury. Family Forward is integrated into inpatient rehabilitation services provided to the injured child and recognizes the important role of family in child rehabilitation outcomes and the parallel process of recovery for the child and family following an injury. Family Forward is informed by clinical practice, existing research in family adaptation after pediatric acquired brain injury, the resiliency model of family adjustment and adaptation, and family therapy theories and approaches.

  10. A Common Left Occipito-Temporal Dysfunction in Developmental Dyslexia and Acquired Letter-By-Letter Reading?

    PubMed Central

    Richlan, Fabio; Sturm, Denise; Schurz, Matthias; Kronbichler, Martin; Ladurner, Gunther; Wimmer, Heinz

    2010-01-01

    Background We used fMRI to examine functional brain abnormalities of German-speaking dyslexics who suffer from slow effortful reading but not from a reading accuracy problem. Similar to acquired cases of letter-by-letter reading, the developmental cases exhibited an abnormal strong effect of length (i.e., number of letters) on response time for words and pseudowords. Results Corresponding to lesions of left occipito-temporal (OT) regions in acquired cases, we found a dysfunction of this region in our developmental cases who failed to exhibit responsiveness of left OT regions to the length of words and pseudowords. This abnormality in the left OT cortex was accompanied by absent responsiveness to increased sublexical reading demands in phonological inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) regions. Interestingly, there was no abnormality in the left superior temporal cortex which—corresponding to the onological deficit explanation—is considered to be the prime locus of the reading difficulties of developmental dyslexia cases. Conclusions The present functional imaging results suggest that developmental dyslexia similar to acquired letter-by-letter reading is due to a primary dysfunction of left OT regions. PMID:20711448

  11. Stuttering Following Acquired Brain Damage: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Lundgren, Kristine; Helm-Estabrooks, Nancy; Klein, Reva

    2009-01-01

    Communication problems resulting from acquired brain damage are most frequently manifested as motor speech disorders such as dysarthria, syndromes of aphasia, and impairments of pragmatics. A much less common phenomenon is the onset of stuttering in adults who sustain a stroke, traumatic brain injury, or other neurologic events. When stuttering occurs in association with neuropathology, precise characterization and explanation of observed behaviors is often difficult. Among the clinical challenges presented by acquired stuttering are the problem of distinguishing this form of dysfluency from those associated with dysarthria and aphasia, and identifying the neuropathological condition(s) and brain lesion site(s) giving rise to this speech disorder. Another challenge to the precise characterization of acquired stuttering is the fact that some cases of acquired stuttering apparently have a psychological or neuropsychiatric genesis rather than a neuropathological one. In this paper we provide a review of the literature pertaining to the complicated phenomenon of acquired stuttering in adults and draw some tentative explanatory conclusions regarding this disorder. PMID:20628582

  12. Predictors of Outcome following Acquired Brain Injury in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Abigail R.; DeMatt, Ellen; Salorio, Cynthia F.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) in children and adolescents can result from multiple causes, including trauma, central nervous system infections, noninfectious disorders (epilepsy, hypoxia/ischemia, genetic/metabolic disorders), tumors, and vascular abnormalities. Prediction of outcomes is important, to target interventions, allocate resources,…

  13. Predictors of Outcome following Acquired Brain Injury in Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Abigail R.; DeMatt, Ellen; Salorio, Cynthia F.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) in children and adolescents can result from multiple causes, including trauma, central nervous system infections, noninfectious disorders (epilepsy, hypoxia/ischemia, genetic/metabolic disorders), tumors, and vascular abnormalities. Prediction of outcomes is important, to target interventions, allocate resources,…

  14. Practitioner Review: Cognitive Rehabilitation for Children with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Limond, Jenny; Leeke, Rachel

    2005-01-01

    Background: The need to address acquired cognitive impairments is increasing in child populations seen across a range of settings. However, current clinical practice following brain injury in children does not necessarily incorporate the use of cognitive rehabilitation models or techniques. The aim of this paper is to review the literature in this…

  15. Cognitive Rehabilitation for Children with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slomine, Beth; Locascio, Gianna

    2009-01-01

    Cognitive deficits are frequent consequences of acquired brain injury (ABI) and often require intervention. We review the theoretical and empirical literature on cognitive rehabilitation in a variety of treatment domains including attention, memory, unilateral neglect, speech and language, executive functioning, and family involvement/education.…

  16. Spoken Persuasive Discourse Abilities of Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Catherine; Kirk, Cecilia; Powell, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the performance of adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) during a spoken persuasive discourse task. Persuasive discourse is frequently used in social and academic settings and is of importance in the study of adolescent language. Method: Participants included 8 adolescents with ABI and 8 peers…

  17. Embryonal brain tumors and developmental control genes

    SciTech Connect

    Aguzzi, A.

    1995-12-31

    Cell proliferation in embryogenesis and neoplastic transformation is thought to be controlled by similar sets of regulatory genes. This is certainly true for tumors of embryonic origin, such as Ewing sarcoma, Wilms` tumor and retinoblastoma, in which developmental control genes are either activated as oncogenes to promote proliferation, or are inactivated to eliminate their growth suppressing function. However, to date little is known about the genetic events underlying the pathogenesis of medulloblastoma, the most common brain tumor in children, which still carries an unfavourable prognosis. None of the common genetic alterations identified in other neuroectodermal tumors, such as mutation of the p53 gene or amplification of tyrosine kinase receptor genes, could be uncovered as key events in the formation of medulloblastoma. The identification of regulatory genes which are expressed in this pediatric brain tumor may provide an alternative approach to gain insight into the molecular aspects of tumor formation.

  18. BRAIN MYELINATION IN PREVALENT NEUROPSYCHIATRIC DEVELOPMENTAL DISORDERS

    PubMed Central

    BARTZOKIS, GEORGE

    2008-01-01

    Current concepts of addiction focus on neuronal neurocircuitry and neurotransmitters and are largely based on animal model data, but the human brain is unique in its high myelin content and extended developmental (myelination) phase that continues until middle age. The biology of our exceptional myelination process and factors that influence it have been synthesized into a recently published myelin model of human brain evolution and normal development that cuts across the current symptom-based classification of neuropsychiatric disorders. The developmental perspective of the model suggests that dysregulations in the myelination process contribute to prevalent early-life neuropsychiatric disorders, as well as to addictions. These disorders share deficits in inhibitory control functions that likely contribute to their high rates of comorbidity with addiction and other impulsive behaviors. The model posits that substances such as alcohol and psychostimulants are toxic to the extremely vulnerable myelination process and contribute to the poor outcomes of primary and comorbid addictive disorders in susceptible individuals. By increasing the scientific focus on myelination, the model provides a rational biological framework for the development of novel, myelin-centered treatments that may have widespread efficacy across multiple disease states and could potentially be used in treating, delaying, or even preventing some of the most prevalent and devastating neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:18668184

  19. Visual dysfunction is underestimated in patients with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Berthold-Lindstedt, Märta; Ygge, Jan; Borg, Kristian

    2017-04-06

    More than 50% of human cerebral activity is related to vision. Visual impairments are therefore common after acquired brain injury, although they are often overlooked. In order to evaluate the prevalence of visual deficits in our Out-patient Brain Injury Program, a structured screening questionnaire, the Visual Interview, was administered. A total of 170 patients with acquired brain injury, mean age 47 years, who were enrolled in the programme during 2010-12, underwent the Visual Interview. The interview consists of 18 questions concerning visual impairment and was performed on admission. The different types of visual impairment were compared with regard to sex and diagnosis. Fifty-four percent of the patients reported visual changes, mainly reading difficulties, photosensitivity, blurred vision and disorders of the visual field. Sixteen patients who did not experience visual changes also reported visual symptoms in 4-9 questions. Only slight differences were noted in the occurrence of visual symptoms when correlated with sex or diagnosis. Visual impairments are common after acquired brain injury, but some patients do not define their problems as vision-related. A structured questionnaire, covering the most common visual symptoms, is helpful for the rehabilitation team to facilitate assessment of visual changes.

  20. When words fail us: insights into language processing from developmental and acquired disorders.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Dorothy V M; Nation, Kate; Patterson, Karalyn

    2014-01-01

    Acquired disorders of language represent loss of previously acquired skills, usually with relatively specific impairments. In children with developmental disorders of language, we may also see selective impairment in some skills; but in this case, the acquisition of language or literacy is affected from the outset. Because systems for processing spoken and written language change as they develop, we should beware of drawing too close a parallel between developmental and acquired disorders. Nevertheless, comparisons between the two may yield new insights. A key feature of connectionist models simulating acquired disorders is the interaction of components of language processing with each other and with other cognitive domains. This kind of model might help make sense of patterns of comorbidity in developmental disorders. Meanwhile, the study of developmental disorders emphasizes learning and change in underlying representations, allowing us to study how heterogeneity in cognitive profile may relate not just to neurobiology but also to experience. Children with persistent language difficulties pose challenges both to our efforts at intervention and to theories of learning of written and spoken language. Future attention to learning in individuals with developmental and acquired disorders could be of both theoretical and applied value.

  1. Interventions based on the multiple connections model of reading for developmental dyslexia and acquired deep dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Berninger, V W; Lester, K; Sohlberg, M M; Mateer, C

    1991-01-01

    This paper deals with intervention strategies for developmental and acquired dyslexia. In Study 1 two alternative strategies for developmental surface dyslexia (dysfunctional connection between the whole word orthographic code and the phonetic or name code) were compared. In both the initial study and replication study, a modification of the selective reminding technique was superior to a traditional multisensory technique in beginning readers, presumably because it facilitated word finding or prelexical access to a phonetic code. In Study 2 an adolescent with acquired deep dyslexia (dysfunctional connection between letter and phonemic codes) who had had his angular gyrus (site of grapheme-phoneme correspondence) surgically removed, recovered reading function after a four-month phonemic analysis training program. Further research is needed to evaluate the efficacy of theory-based intervention strategies in children with developmental reading disorders unrelated to focal lesions and in adults with acquired reading disorders related to focal lesions.

  2. Developmental venous anomaly in the newborn brain.

    PubMed

    Horsch, S; Govaert, P; Cowan, F M; Benders, M J N L; Groenendaal, F; Lequin, M H; Saliou, G; de Vries, L S

    2014-07-01

    Cerebral developmental venous anomaly (DVA) is considered a benign anatomical variant of parenchymal venous drainage; it is the most common vascular malformation seen in the adult brain. Despite its assumed congenital origin, little is known about DVA in the neonatal brain. We report here the first cohort study of 14 neonates with DVA. Fourteen infants (seven preterm) with DVA diagnosed neonatally using cranial ultrasound (cUS) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) from three tertiary neonatal units over 14 years are reviewed. DVA was first detected on cUS in 6 and on MRI in 8 of the 14 infants. The cUS appearances of DVA showed a focal fairly uniform area of increased echogenicity, often (86 %) adjacent to the lateral ventricle and located in the frontal lobe (58 %). Blood flow in the dilated collector vein detected by Doppler ultrasound (US) varied between cases (venous flow pattern in ten and arterialized in four). The appearance on conventional MRI was similar to findings in adults. Serial imaging showed a fairly constant appearance to the DVAs in some cases while others varied considerably regarding anatomical extent and flow velocity. This case series underlines that a neonatal diagnosis of DVA is possible with carefully performed cUS and MRI and that DVA tends to be an incidental finding with a diverse spectrum of imaging appearances. Serial imaging suggests that some DVAs undergo dynamic changes during the neonatal period and early infancy; this may contribute to why diagnosis is rare at this age.

  3. Ecological prospective memory assessment in children with acquired brain injury using the Children's Cooking Task.

    PubMed

    Krasny-Pacini, Agata; Servant, Violette; Alzieu, Christine; Chevignard, Mathilde

    2017-01-01

    Prospective memory (PM) has been shown to be impaired in children with acquired brain injuries (ABI) and is a major concern for parents. Few studies have addressed this issue and most used tasks that are not ecologically valid. The aims of this study were (1) to explore if children who have sustained an ABI suffer PM impairment, measured both by the Children's Cooking task (CCT) PM score and using the 2 PM subtests of the Rivermead Behavioral Memory Test (RBMT), and (2) to explore if the CCT PM score is sensitive to developmental changes in PM in typically developing children and in children with ABI. Fifty-four children with ABI and 33 typically developing controls participated in the study. Children with ABI had significantly lower PM scores and poorer performance in the CCT than their typically developing peers. PM scores increased significantly with age, indicating developmental progress of PM performance.

  4. Microglia and Inflammation: Impact on Developmental Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Li-Jin; Takanohashi, Asako; Bell, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Inflammation during the perinatal period has become a recognized risk factor for developmental brain injuries over the past decade or more. To fully understand the relationship between inflammation and brain development, a comprehensive knowledge about the immune system within the brain is essential. Microglia are resident immune cells within the…

  5. Microglia and Inflammation: Impact on Developmental Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chew, Li-Jin; Takanohashi, Asako; Bell, Michael

    2006-01-01

    Inflammation during the perinatal period has become a recognized risk factor for developmental brain injuries over the past decade or more. To fully understand the relationship between inflammation and brain development, a comprehensive knowledge about the immune system within the brain is essential. Microglia are resident immune cells within the…

  6. Image Findings in Brain Developmental Venous Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Mong

    2012-01-01

    Objective Developmental venous anomalies (DVAs) are benign anatomic variations; therefore, they are usually discovered incidentally. The aim of this article was to describe radiological findings of DVAs. Methods A retrospective search for DVAs of the brain was performed in 1899 patients who had undergone magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with contrast enhancement between January 1, 2005 and April 25, 2011. We also reviewed the results of computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), CT angiography, and transfemoral cerebral angiography (TFCA) studies performed in patients with DVAs. Results Thirty-two DVAs were identified in 31 of the 1899 patients (1.63%). These 31 patients underwent five enhanced CTs, three MRAs, two CT angiographies, and two TFCAs. Thirty of the 32 DVAs were supratentorial (ST) and two were infratentorial (IT). All enhanced MRI studies exhibited excellent resolution of DVAs. All DVAs had only one draining vein. The venous drainage system was an IT vein in three DVAs and an ST vein in 29 DVAs. Two out of five enhanced CTs presented good visualization of the draining vein. None of the MRAs, including the source image, revealed the presence of DVAs. The two CT angiographies exhibited good resolution of DVAs. One of the two TFCAs yielded an excellent illustration of the DVA. Conclusion CT angiography and MRI with contrast enhancement yielded detailed findings of DVAs. In contrast, MRA did not identify the DVAs. Enhanced CT presented only the draining vein of DVAs. PMID:23210028

  7. Brain representations for acquiring and recalling visual-motor adaptations.

    PubMed

    Bédard, Patrick; Sanes, Jerome N

    2014-11-01

    Humans readily learn and remember new motor skills, a process that likely underlies adaptation to changing environments. During adaptation, the brain develops new sensory-motor relationships, and if consolidation occurs, a memory of the adaptation can be retained for extended periods. Considerable evidence exists that multiple brain circuits participate in acquiring new sensory-motor memories, though the networks engaged in recalling these and whether the same brain circuits participate in their formation and recall have less clarity. To address these issues, we assessed brain activation with functional MRI while young healthy adults learned and recalled new sensory-motor skills by adapting to world-view rotations of visual feedback that guided hand movements. We found cerebellar activation related to adaptation rate, likely reflecting changes related to overall adjustments to the visual rotation. A set of parietal and frontal regions, including inferior and superior parietal lobules, premotor area, supplementary motor area and primary somatosensory cortex, exhibited non-linear learning-related activation that peaked in the middle of the adaptation phase. Activation in some of these areas, including the inferior parietal lobule, intra-parietal sulcus and somatosensory cortex, likely reflected actual learning, since the activation correlated with learning after-effects. Lastly, we identified several structures having recall-related activation, including the anterior cingulate and the posterior putamen, since the activation correlated with recall efficacy. These findings demonstrate dynamic aspects of brain activation patterns related to formation and recall of a sensory-motor skill, such that non-overlapping brain regions participate in distinctive behavioral events. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Assessment of family needs following acquired brain injury in Saskatchewan.

    PubMed

    Murray, Heather M; Maslany, George W; Jeffery, Bonnie

    2006-06-01

    The objective was to learn what the family members of individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) perceived as important needs and to what extent these needs are being met. Sixty-six individuals who care for someone with an ABI and who receive service from the Saskatchewan South ABI Outreach Team completed the Family Needs Questionnaire (FNQ). An analysis of the importance ratings found that the most important needs were related to health information. Most needs perceived as unmet were related to emotional support. Caregivers indicated that having honest, accurate comprehensive information regarding the ABI survivor is important. Respondents also indicated that approximately one-half of the needs have gone unmet or only partly met. This study highlights the importance for service providers to assess family needs in order to minimize distress in caregivers, maintenance of the well being of whom is integral in the support of the person with ABI.

  9. Acquired brain injury and dementia: a comparison of carer experiences.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Diana; Turner-Stokes, Lynne; Murray, Joanna; Leese, Morven; McPherson, Kathryn M

    2009-05-01

    As their differential needs are unknown and to inform service planning, this study (a) examined experiences of caring for adults with acquired brain injury (ABI) and (b) compared these with carers of adults with dementia. Cross-sectional postal survey. ABI carer experiences were compared with those of a previously studied group of dementia carers using equivalent instruments. Family carers (n = 222) of adults with ABI: TBI (49%), strokes (26%), brain infections (18%) and other (7%) completed validated questionnaires assessing physical dependency and psychological problems of those cared for and carers' own perceived burden, quality-of-life and mental health. Carer burden, quality-of-life and mental health were worse for ABI carers, but were not predicted by gender, relationship, injury type, physical dependency or cognitive problems in either ABI or dementia carers. Behavioural problems of those cared for varied between the two groups and affected carers differently. Aggressive problems significantly predicted greater burden, poor quality-of-life and mental health in ABI carers, whereas passivity/low mood significantly predicted greater burden and worse quality-of-life in dementia carers. This study revealed different experiences of caring for younger adults with ABI vs. older adults with dementia, thereby supporting targeted development of services to sustain families affected by these conditions.

  10. Evolution of the brain developmental plan: Insights from agnathans.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Yasunori; Uchida, Katsuhisa; Rijli, Filippo M; Kuratani, Shigeru

    2005-04-15

    In vertebrate evolution, the brain exhibits both conserved and unique morphological features in each animal group. Thus, the molecular program of nervous system development is expected to have experienced various changes through evolution. In this review, we discuss recent data from the agnathan lamprey (jawless vertebrate) together with available information from amphioxus and speculate the sequence of changes during chordate evolution that have been brought into the brain developmental plan to yield the current variety of the gnathostome (jawed vertebrate) brains.

  11. Developmental Drama for Brain-Damaged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sue

    1977-01-01

    Offers recommendations for using developmental drama including: discussion of organization of the play environment, leaders, and play groups; sensory-awareness games, movement-mime projects, and story dramatizations; and video tape utilization for play evaluation. (MH)

  12. Developmental Drama for Brain-Damaged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sue

    1977-01-01

    Offers recommendations for using developmental drama including: discussion of organization of the play environment, leaders, and play groups; sensory-awareness games, movement-mime projects, and story dramatizations; and video tape utilization for play evaluation. (MH)

  13. Fetal brain disruption sequence versus fetal brain arrest: A distinct autosomal recessive developmental brain malformation phenotype.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed S; El-Khayat, Hamed A; Eid, Ola M; Saba, Soliman; Farag, Mona K; Saleem, Sahar N; Gaber, Khaled R

    2015-05-01

    The term fetal brain disruption sequence (FBDS) was coined to describe a number of sporadic conditions caused by numerous external disruptive events presenting with variable imaging findings. However, rare familial occurrences have been reported. We describe five patients (two sib pairs and one sporadic) with congenital severe microcephaly, seizures, and profound intellectual disability. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed unique and uniform picture of underdeveloped cerebral hemispheres with increased extraxial CSF, abnormal gyral pattern (polymicrogyria-like lesions in two sibs and lissencephaly in the others), loss of white matter, dysplastic ventricles, hypogenesis of corpus callosum, and hypoplasia of the brainstem, but hypoplastic cerebellum in one. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (FMRI) of two patients showed the same developmental brain malformations in utero. These imaging findings are in accordance with arrested brain development rather than disruption. Molecular analysis excluded mutations in potentially related genes such as NDE1, MKL2, OCLN, and JAM3. These unique clinical and imaging findings were described before among familial reports with FBDS. However, our patients represent a recognizable phenotype of developmental brain malformations, that is, apparently distinguishable from either familial microhydranencephaly or microlissencephaly that were collectively termed FBDS. Thus, the use of the umbrella term FBDS is no longer helpful. Accordingly, we propose the term fetal brain arrest to distinguish them from other familial patients diagnosed as FBDS. The presence of five affected patients from three unrelated consanguineous families suggests an autosomal-recessive mode of inheritance. The spectrum of fetal brain disruption sequence is reviewed.

  14. Binge consumption of ethanol during pregnancy leads to significant developmental delay of mouse embryonic brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudheendran, Narendran; Bake, Shameena; Miranda, Rajesh C.; Larin, Kirill V.

    2014-03-01

    Consumption of alcohol during pregnancy can be severely detrimental to the development of the brain in fetuses. This study explores the usage of optical coherence tomography (OCT) to the study the effects of maternal consumption of ethanol on brain development in mouse fetuses. On gestational day 14.5, fetuses were collected and fixed in 4% paraformaldehyde. A swept-source OCT (SSOCT) system was used to acquire 3D images of the brain of ethanol-exposed and control fetuses. The volume of right and left brain ventricles were measured and used to compare between ethanol-exposed and control fetuses. A total of 5 fetuses were used for each of the two groups. The average volumes of the right and left ventricles were measured to be 0.35 and 0.15 mm3 for ethanol-exposed and control fetuses, respectively. The results demonstrated that there is an alcohol-induced developmental delay in mouse fetal brains.

  15. Early developmental exposures shape trade-offs between acquired and innate immunity in humans

    PubMed Central

    Georgiev, Alexander V.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; McDade, Thomas W.

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Life history theory predicts resource allocation trade-offs between competing functions and processes. We test the hypothesis that relative investment towards innate versus acquired immunity in humans is subject to such trade-offs and that three types of early developmental exposures are particularly salient in shaping adult immunophenotype: (i) pathogen exposure, (ii) nutritional resources; and (iii) extrinsic mortality cues. Methodology We quantified one aspect each of innate and acquired immune function, via C-reactive protein and Epstein–Barr virus antibodies, respectively, in a sample of 1248 men and women from the Philippines (ca. 21.5 years old). Early developmental exposures were assessed via long-term data collected prospectively since participants’ birth (1983–4). We calculated a standardized ratio to assess relative bias towards acquired versus innate immune function and examined its relationship to a suite of predictors via multiple regression. Results In partial support of our predictions, some of the measures of higher pathogen exposure, greater availability of nutritional resources, and lower extrinsic mortality cues in early life were associated with a bias toward acquired immunity in both men and women. The immune profile of women, in particular, appeared to be more sensitive to early life pathogen exposures than those of men. Finally, contrary to prediction, women exhibited a greater relative investment toward innate, not acquired, immunity. Conclusions and implications Early environments can exert considerable influence on the development of immunity. They affect trade-offs between innate and acquired immunity, which show adaptive plasticity and may differ in their influence in men and women. PMID:27530543

  16. Older adults with acquired brain injury: a population based study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acquired brain injury (ABI), which includes traumatic (TBI) and non-traumatic brain injury (nTBI), is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. The objective of this study was to examine the trends, characteristics, cause of brain injury, and discharge destination of hospitalized older adults aged 65 years and older with an ABI diagnosis in a population with universal access to hospital care. The profile of characteristics of patients with TBI and nTBI causes of injury was also compared. Methods A population based retrospective cohort study design with healthcare administrative databases was used. Data on acute care admissions were obtained from the Discharge Abstract Database and patients were identified using the International Classification of Diseases – Version 10 codes for Ontario, Canada from April 1, 2003 to March 31, 2010. Older adults were examined in three age groups – 65 to 74, 75 to 84, and 85+ years. Results From 2003/04 to 2009/10, there were 14,518 episodes of acute care associated with a TBI code and 51, 233 episodes with a nTBI code. Overall, the rate of hospitalized TBI and nTBI episodes increased with older age groups. From 2007/08 to 2009/10, the percentage of patients that stayed in acute care for 12 days or more and the percentage of patients with delayed discharge from acute care increased with age. The most common cause of TBI was falls while the most common type of nTBI was brain tumours. The percentage of patients discharged to long term care and complex continuing care increased with age and the percentage discharged home decreased with age. In-hospital mortality also increased with age. Older adults with TBI and nTBI differed significantly in demographic and clinical characteristics and discharge destination from acute care. Conclusions This study showed an increased rate of acute care admissions for both TBI and nTBI with age. It also provided additional support for falls prevention strategies to prevent injury

  17. Behavior management for children and adolescents with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Slifer, Keith J; Amari, Adrianna

    2009-01-01

    Behavioral problems such as disinhibition, irritability, restlessness, distractibility, and aggression are common after acquired brain injury (ABI). The persistence and severity of these problems impair the brain-injured individual's reintegration into family, school, and community life. Since the early 1980s, behavior analysis and therapy have been used to address the behavioral sequelae of ABI. These interventions are based on principles of learning and behavior that have been robustly successful when applied across a broad range of other clinical populations. Most of the research on behavioral treatment after ABI has involved clinical case studies or studies employing single-subject experimental designs across a series of cases. The literature supports the effectiveness of these interventions across ages, injury severities, and stages of recovery after ABI. Recommended guidelines for behavior management include: direct behavioral observations, systematic assessment of environmental and within-patient variables associated with aberrant behavior, antecedent management to minimize the probability of aberrant behavior, provision of functionally equivalent alternative means of controlling the environment, and differential reinforcement to shape positive behavior and coping strategies while not inadvertently shaping emergent, disruptive sequelae. This package of interventions requires direction by a highly skilled behavioral psychologist or therapist who systematically monitors target behavior to evaluate progress and guide treatment decisions. A coordinated multisite effort is needed to design intervention protocols that can be studied prospectively in randomized controlled trials. However, there will continue to be an important role for single subject experimental design for studying the results of individualized interventions and obtaining pilot data to guide subsequent randomized controlled trails.

  18. Factors related to fatigue after paediatric acquired brain injury (ABI).

    PubMed

    van Markus-Doornbosch, F; de Kloet, A J; Berger, M A M; Lambregts, S A M; Wolterbeek, R; Vliet Vlieland, T P M

    2016-01-01

    To assess the degree of fatigue in children and youth after traumatic and non-traumatic brain injury (TBI and NTBI) and related factors. Follow-up study including patients with a hospital-based diagnosis of acquired brain injury (ABI), aged 4-20 years at onset and their parents. Parents and children (dependent on age) completed the Paediatric Quality of Life Inventory™ Multidimensional Fatigue Scale (PedsQL™ MFS), which measures general fatigue (GF), sleep/rest fatigue (SRF) and cognitive fatigue (CF). Additional assessments included the Child & Family Follow-up Survey (CFFS) and PedsQL™ 4.0 General Core Scales and sociodemographic and disease characteristics. Eighty-eight parents completed the PedsQL™ MFS 24-30 months after diagnosis, with 49/88 patients (56%) completing the child version. The median age of the patients was 11 years (interquartile range [IQR] = 7). There were 69 patients with TBI (16% moderate/severe TBI) and 19 patients with NTBI (16% moderate/severe NTBI). The median parent-reported and child-reported PedsQL™ MFS Total Scale Scores were 76.5 (SD = 16.4) and 78.5 (12.9), respectively (Spearman r = 0.450, p = 0.001). Apart from NTBI, increasing age and a single-parent household were significantly associated with more fatigue according to the parent-reported PedsQL™ MFS Total Score (and/or one or more sub-scale scores). Two years after onset, in particular, the parent-reported fatigue after NTBI was considerable. Moreover, older children and children from a single-parent household were found to have higher fatigue levels.

  19. Technological memory aid use by people with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Matthew; Cullen, Breda; McGee-Lennon, Marilyn; Brewster, Stephen; Evans, Jonathan

    2017-09-01

    Evans, Wilson, Needham, and Brentnall ( 2003 ) investigated memory aid use by people with acquired brain injury (ABI) and found little use of technological memory aids. The present study aims to investigate use of technological and other memory aids and strategies 10 years on, and investigate what predicts use. People with ABI and self-reported memory impairments (n = 81) completed a survey containing a memory aid checklist, demographic questions and memory questionnaires. Chi-square analysis showed that 10 of 18 memory aids and strategies were used by significantly more people in the current sample than in Evans et al. ( 2003 ). The most commonly used strategies were leaving things in noticeable places (86%) and mental retracing of steps (77%). The most commonly used memory aids were asking someone to remind you (78%), diaries (77%), lists (78%), and calendars (79%) and the most common technologies used were mobile phone reminders (38%) and alarms/timers (38%). Younger people who used more technology prior to their injury and who use more non-technological memory aids currently were more likely to use technology. Younger people who used more memory aids and strategies prior to their injury and who rated their memory as poorer were more likely to use all types of memory aids and strategies.

  20. Acquired Brain Injury, Social Work and the Challenges of Personalisation

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Mark; Fyson, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adults in the UK are living with acquired brain injury (ABI), with those affected requiring immediate medical care and longer-term rehabilitative and social care. Despite their social needs, limited attention has been paid to people with ABI within the social work literature and their needs are also often overlooked in policy and guidance. As a means of highlighting the challenge that ABI presents to statutory social work, this paper will start by outlining the common characteristics of ABI and consider the (limited) relevant policy guidance. The particular difficulties of reconciling the needs of people with ABI with the prevailing orthodoxies of personalisation will then be explored, with a particular focus on the mismatch between systems which rest on presumptions autonomy and the circumstances of individuals with ABI—typified by executive dysfunction and lack of insight into their own condition. Composite case studies, drawn from the first author's experiences as a case manager for individuals with ABI, will be used to illustrate the arguments being made. The paper will conclude by considering the knowledge and skills which social workers need in order to better support people with ABI. PMID:27559229

  1. Reorganization of Functional Connectivity as a Correlate of Cognitive Recovery in Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Paul, Nuria; Ordonez, Victoria E.; Demuynck, Olivier; Bajo, Ricardo; Campo, Pablo; Bilbao, Alvaro; Ortiz, Tomas; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestu, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive processes require a functional interaction between specialized multiple, local and remote brain regions. Although these interactions can be strongly altered by an acquired brain injury, brain plasticity allows network reorganization to be principally responsible for recovery. The present work evaluates the impact of brain injury on…

  2. Reorganization of Functional Connectivity as a Correlate of Cognitive Recovery in Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Castellanos, Nazareth P.; Paul, Nuria; Ordonez, Victoria E.; Demuynck, Olivier; Bajo, Ricardo; Campo, Pablo; Bilbao, Alvaro; Ortiz, Tomas; del-Pozo, Francisco; Maestu, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    Cognitive processes require a functional interaction between specialized multiple, local and remote brain regions. Although these interactions can be strongly altered by an acquired brain injury, brain plasticity allows network reorganization to be principally responsible for recovery. The present work evaluates the impact of brain injury on…

  3. Neurobehavioral manifestations of developmental impairment of the brain

    PubMed Central

    Dubovický, Michal

    2010-01-01

    Individual characteristics of human nature (e.g. introversion, extroversion, mood, activity, adaptability, aggressiveness, social ability, anxiety) do not need to be primarily innate. They can be determined by the action of various influences and their interactions on functional development of the brain. There is ample epidemiological and experimental evidence that chemical and/or physical factors acting during sensitive time windows of the brain development can cause mental, behavioral, emotional and/or cognitive disorders. Environmental pollutants, addictive substances, drugs, malnutrition, excessive stress and/or hypoxia-ischemia were reported to induce functional maldevelopment of the brain with consequent neurobehavioral disorders. The article provides review on most significant neurobehavioral manifestations of developmental impairment of the brain during prenatal, perinatal and early postnatal period. The most known adverse factors causing developmental neurobehavioral dysfunctions in humans as well as in experimental animals are discussed. PMID:21217874

  4. Children with Acquired Brain Injury: A Silent Voice in the Ontario School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Sheila; Good, Dawn; Zinga, Dawn; Kumpf, John

    2004-01-01

    The leading cause of death and injuries in school age children is acquired brain injury (Savage & Wolcott, 1994). Each year approximately 1 in 450 school age children and 1 in 200 adolescents/young adults suffer an injury as a result of some form of acquired brain injury. Approximately 27,000 students in the Ontario school system have acquired…

  5. Acquired Brain Injury Club at a Community College: Opportunities for Support, Involvement, and Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chinn, Nancy Resendes

    2009-01-01

    College students with acquired brain injuries face unique challenges. The likelihood of individuals with acquired brain injury experiencing isolation, lack of social support, and diminished self-esteem, along with cognitive impairments, is well documented in the literature. This article presents an overview of a community college's club for…

  6. Children with Acquired Brain Injury: A Silent Voice in the Ontario School System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Sheila; Good, Dawn; Zinga, Dawn; Kumpf, John

    2004-01-01

    The leading cause of death and injuries in school age children is acquired brain injury (Savage & Wolcott, 1994). Each year approximately 1 in 450 school age children and 1 in 200 adolescents/young adults suffer an injury as a result of some form of acquired brain injury. Approximately 27,000 students in the Ontario school system have acquired…

  7. Childcare Workers' Knowledge about the Brain and Developmentally Appropriate Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zambo, Debby

    2008-01-01

    Advances in neuroscience are providing information about the brain and its development. Some researchers propose that childcare workers need to understand this information because it confirms their importance and their use of developmentally appropriate practice (DAP). Given the fact that childcare workers could benefit from this insight, it seems…

  8. Developmental Changes in Organization of Structural Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S.; Reid, Andrew; Brauer, Jens; Carbonell, Felix; Lewis, John; Ameis, Stephanie; Karama, Sherif; Lee, Junki; Chen, Zhang; Das, Samir; Evans, Alan C.; Ball, William S.; Byars, Anna Weber; Schapiro, Mark; Bommer, Wendy; Carr, April; German, April; Dunn, Scott; Rivkin, Michael J.; Waber, Deborah; Mulkern, Robert; Vajapeyam, Sridhar; Chiverton, Abigail; Davis, Peter; Koo, Julie; Marmor, Jacki; Mrakotsky, Christine; Robertson, Richard; McAnulty, Gloria; Brandt, Michael E.; Fletcher, Jack M.; Kramer, Larry A.; Yang, Grace; McCormack, Cara; Hebert, Kathleen M.; Volero, Hilda; Botteron, Kelly; McKinstry, Robert C.; Warren, William; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Robert Almli, C.; Todd, Richard; Constantino, John; McCracken, James T.; Levitt, Jennifer; Alger, Jeffrey; O'Neil, Joseph; Toga, Arthur; Asarnow, Robert; Fadale, David; Heinichen, Laura; Ireland, Cedric; Wang, Dah-Jyuu; Moss, Edward; Zimmerman, Robert A.; Bintliff, Brooke; Bradford, Ruth; Newman, Janice; Evans, Alan C.; Arnaoutelis, Rozalia; Bruce Pike, G.; Louis Collins, D.; Leonard, Gabriel; Paus, Tomas; Zijdenbos, Alex; Das, Samir; Fonov, Vladimir; Fu, Luke; Harlap, Jonathan; Leppert, Ilana; Milovan, Denise; Vins, Dario; Zeffiro, Thomas; Van Meter, John; Lange, Nicholas; Froimowitz, Michael P.; Botteron, Kelly; Robert Almli, C.; Rainey, Cheryl; Henderson, Stan; Nishino, Tomoyuki; Warren, William; Edwards, Jennifer L.; Dubois, Diane; Smith, Karla; Singer, Tish; Wilber, Aaron A.; Pierpaoli, Carlo; Basser, Peter J.; Chang, Lin-Ching; Koay, Chen Guan; Walker, Lindsay; Freund, Lisa; Rumsey, Judith; Baskir, Lauren; Stanford, Laurence; Sirocco, Karen; Gwinn-Hardy, Katrina; Spinella, Giovanna; McCracken, James T.; Alger, Jeffry R.; Levitt, Jennifer; O'Neill, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    Recent findings from developmental neuroimaging studies suggest that the enhancement of cognitive processes during development may be the result of a fine-tuning of the structural and functional organization of brain with maturation. However, the details regarding the developmental trajectory of large-scale structural brain networks are not yet understood. Here, we used graph theory to examine developmental changes in the organization of structural brain networks in 203 normally growing children and adolescents. Structural brain networks were constructed using interregional correlations in cortical thickness for 4 age groups (early childhood: 4.8–8.4 year; late childhood: 8.5–11.3 year; early adolescence: 11.4–14.7 year; late adolescence: 14.8–18.3 year). Late childhood showed prominent changes in topological properties, specifically a significant reduction in local efficiency, modularity, and increased global efficiency, suggesting a shift of topological organization toward a more random configuration. An increase in number and span of distribution of connector hubs was found in this age group. Finally, inter-regional connectivity analysis and graph-theoretic measures indicated early maturation of primary sensorimotor regions and protracted development of higher order association and paralimbic regions. Our finding reveals a time window of plasticity occurring during late childhood which may accommodate crucial changes during puberty and the new developmental tasks that an adolescent faces. PMID:22784607

  9. Developmental changes in organization of structural brain networks.

    PubMed

    Khundrakpam, Budhachandra S; Reid, Andrew; Brauer, Jens; Carbonell, Felix; Lewis, John; Ameis, Stephanie; Karama, Sherif; Lee, Junki; Chen, Zhang; Das, Samir; Evans, Alan C

    2013-09-01

    Recent findings from developmental neuroimaging studies suggest that the enhancement of cognitive processes during development may be the result of a fine-tuning of the structural and functional organization of brain with maturation. However, the details regarding the developmental trajectory of large-scale structural brain networks are not yet understood. Here, we used graph theory to examine developmental changes in the organization of structural brain networks in 203 normally growing children and adolescents. Structural brain networks were constructed using interregional correlations in cortical thickness for 4 age groups (early childhood: 4.8-8.4 year; late childhood: 8.5-11.3 year; early adolescence: 11.4-14.7 year; late adolescence: 14.8-18.3 year). Late childhood showed prominent changes in topological properties, specifically a significant reduction in local efficiency, modularity, and increased global efficiency, suggesting a shift of topological organization toward a more random configuration. An increase in number and span of distribution of connector hubs was found in this age group. Finally, inter-regional connectivity analysis and graph-theoretic measures indicated early maturation of primary sensorimotor regions and protracted development of higher order association and paralimbic regions. Our finding reveals a time window of plasticity occurring during late childhood which may accommodate crucial changes during puberty and the new developmental tasks that an adolescent faces.

  10. On Expression Patterns and Developmental Origin of Human Brain Regions.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Lior; Chechik, Gal

    2016-08-01

    Anatomical substructures of the human brain have characteristic cell-types, connectivity and local circuitry, which are reflected in area-specific transcriptome signatures, but the principles governing area-specific transcription and their relation to brain development are still being studied. In adult rodents, areal transcriptome patterns agree with the embryonic origin of brain regions, but the processes and genes that preserve an embryonic signature in regional expression profiles were not quantified. Furthermore, it is not clear how embryonic-origin signatures of adult-brain expression interplay with changes in expression patterns during development. Here we first quantify which genes have regional expression-patterns related to the developmental origin of brain regions, using genome-wide mRNA expression from post-mortem adult human brains. We find that almost all human genes (92%) exhibit an expression pattern that agrees with developmental brain-region ontology, but that this agreement changes at multiple phases during development. Agreement is particularly strong in neuron-specific genes, but also in genes that are not spatially correlated with neuron-specific or glia-specific markers. Surprisingly, agreement is also stronger in early-evolved genes. We further find that pairs of similar genes having high agreement to developmental region ontology tend to be more strongly correlated or anti-correlated, and that the strength of spatial correlation changes more strongly in gene pairs with stronger embryonic signatures. These results suggest that transcription regulation of most genes in the adult human brain is spatially tuned in a way that changes through life, but in agreement with development-determined brain regions.

  11. On Expression Patterns and Developmental Origin of Human Brain Regions

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Lior; Chechik, Gal

    2016-01-01

    Anatomical substructures of the human brain have characteristic cell-types, connectivity and local circuitry, which are reflected in area-specific transcriptome signatures, but the principles governing area-specific transcription and their relation to brain development are still being studied. In adult rodents, areal transcriptome patterns agree with the embryonic origin of brain regions, but the processes and genes that preserve an embryonic signature in regional expression profiles were not quantified. Furthermore, it is not clear how embryonic-origin signatures of adult-brain expression interplay with changes in expression patterns during development. Here we first quantify which genes have regional expression-patterns related to the developmental origin of brain regions, using genome-wide mRNA expression from post-mortem adult human brains. We find that almost all human genes (92%) exhibit an expression pattern that agrees with developmental brain-region ontology, but that this agreement changes at multiple phases during development. Agreement is particularly strong in neuron-specific genes, but also in genes that are not spatially correlated with neuron-specific or glia-specific markers. Surprisingly, agreement is also stronger in early-evolved genes. We further find that pairs of similar genes having high agreement to developmental region ontology tend to be more strongly correlated or anti-correlated, and that the strength of spatial correlation changes more strongly in gene pairs with stronger embryonic signatures. These results suggest that transcription regulation of most genes in the adult human brain is spatially tuned in a way that changes through life, but in agreement with development-determined brain regions. PMID:27564987

  12. Nonoral feeding for children and youth with developmental or acquired disabilities.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard C; Elias, Ellen Roy

    2014-12-01

    The decision to initiate enteral feedings is multifaceted, involving medical, financial, cultural, and emotional considerations. Children who have developmental or acquired disabilities are at risk for having primary and secondary conditions that affect growth and nutritional well-being. This clinical report provides (1) an overview of clinical issues in children who have developmental or acquired disabilities that may prompt a need to consider nonoral feedings, (2) a systematic way to support the child and family in clinical decisions related to initiating nonoral feeding, (3) information on surgical options that the family may need to consider in that decision-making process, and (4) pediatric guidance for ongoing care after initiation of nonoral feeding intervention, including care of the gastrostomy tube and skin site. Ongoing medical and psychosocial support is needed after initiation of nonoral feedings and is best provided through the collaborative efforts of the family and a team of professionals that may include the pediatrician, dietitian, social worker, and/or therapists. Copyright © 2014 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  13. Developmental changes in NMDA receptor expression in the platyfish brain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flynn, K. M.; Schreibman, M. P.; Magliulo-Cepriano, L.

    1997-01-01

    We have examined the distribution of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor in the brain of a freshwater teleost using an antibody against the R1 subunit of the receptor (NMDAR1). The primary site of localization was the nucleus olfactoretinalis (NOR), a significant gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH)-containing brain nucleus. The number of cells expressing NMDAR1 in this nucleus was dependent upon developmental stage, with pubescent and mature animals displaying significantly more stained cells than immature and senescent animals. This is the first reported observation of age- and maturity-related NMDA receptor association with GnRH-containing brain areas.

  14. Developmental changes in infant brain activity during naturalistic social experiences.

    PubMed

    Jones, Emily J H; Venema, Kaitlin; Lowy, Rachel; Earl, Rachel K; Webb, Sara Jane

    2015-11-01

    Between 6 and 12 months, typically developing infants undergo a socio-cognitive "revolution." The Interactive Specialization (IS) theory of brain development predicts that these behavioral changes will be underpinned by developmental increases in the power and topographic extent of socially selective cortical responses. To test this hypothesis, we used EEG to examine developmental changes in cortical selectivity for ecologically valid dynamic social versus non-social stimuli in a large cohort of 6- and 12-month-old infants. Consistent with the Interactive Specialization model, results showed that differences in EEG Θ activity between social and non-social stimuli became more pronounced and widespread with age. Differences in EEG activity were most clearly elicited by a live naturalistic interaction, suggesting that measuring brain activity in ecologically valid contexts is central to mapping social brain development in infancy.

  15. Face and Word Recognition Can Be Selectively Affected by Brain Injury or Developmental Disorders.

    PubMed

    Robotham, Ro J; Starrfelt, Randi

    2017-01-01

    Face and word recognition have traditionally been thought to rely on highly specialised and relatively independent cognitive processes. Some of the strongest evidence for this has come from patients with seemingly category-specific visual perceptual deficits such as pure prosopagnosia, a selective face recognition deficit, and pure alexia, a selective word recognition deficit. Together, the patterns of impaired reading with preserved face recognition and impaired face recognition with preserved reading constitute a double dissociation. The existence of these selective deficits has been questioned over the past decade. It has been suggested that studies describing patients with these pure deficits have failed to measure the supposedly preserved functions using sensitive enough measures, and that if tested using sensitive measurements, all patients with deficits in one visual category would also have deficits in the other. The implications of this would be immense, with most textbooks in cognitive neuropsychology requiring drastic revisions. In order to evaluate the evidence for dissociations, we review studies that specifically investigate whether face or word recognition can be selectively affected by acquired brain injury or developmental disorders. We only include studies published since 2004, as comprehensive reviews of earlier studies are available. Most of the studies assess the supposedly preserved functions using sensitive measurements. We found convincing evidence that reading can be preserved in acquired and developmental prosopagnosia and also evidence (though weaker) that face recognition can be preserved in acquired or developmental dyslexia, suggesting that face and word recognition are at least in part supported by independent processes.

  16. Community-Acquired Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus in Institutionalized Adults with Developmental Disabilities1

    PubMed Central

    Borer, Abraham; Gilad, Jacob; Yagupsky, Pablo; Peled, Nechama; Porat, Nurith; Trefler, Ronit; Shprecher-Levy, Hannah; Riesenberg, Klaris; Shipman, Miriam

    2002-01-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has recently been reported to emerge in the community setting. We describe the investigation and control of a community-acquired outbreak of MRSA skin infections in a closed community of institutionalized adults with developmental disabilities. In a 9-month period in 1997, 20 (71%) of 28 residents had 73 infectious episodes. Of the cultures, 60% and 32% obtained from residents and personnel, respectively, grew S. aureus; 96% and 27% were MRSA. All isolates were genetically related by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis and belonged to a phage type not previously described in the region. No known risk factors for MRSA acquisition were found. However, 58 antibiotic courses had been administered to 16 residents during the preceding 9 months. Infection control measures, antibiotic restriction, and appropriate therapy resulted in successful termination of this outbreak. Selective antibiotic pressure may result in the emergence, persistence, and dissemination of MRSA strains, causing prolonged disease. PMID:12194775

  17. Social cognition and brain morphology: implications for developmental brain dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Evans, David W; Lazar, Steven M; Boomer, K B; Mitchel, Aaron D; Michael, Andrew M; Moore, Gregory J

    2015-06-01

    The social-cognitive deficits associated with several neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders have been linked to structural and functional brain anomalies. Given the recent appreciation for quantitative approaches to behavior, in this study we examined the brain-behavior links in social cognition in healthy young adults from a quantitative approach. Twenty-two participants were administered quantitative measures of social cognition, including the social responsiveness scale (SRS), the empathizing questionnaire (EQ) and the systemizing questionnaire (SQ). Participants underwent a structural, 3-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) procedure that yielded both volumetric (voxel count) and asymmetry indices. Model fitting with backward elimination revealed that a combination of cortical, limbic and striatal regions accounted for significant variance in social behavior and cognitive styles that are typically associated with neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders. Specifically, as caudate and amygdala volumes deviate from the typical R > L asymmetry, and cortical gray matter becomes more R > L asymmetrical, overall SRS and Emotion Recognition scores increase. Social Avoidance was explained by a combination of cortical gray matter, pallidum (rightward asymmetry) and caudate (deviation from rightward asymmetry). Rightward asymmetry of the pallidum was the sole predictor of Interpersonal Relationships and Repetitive Mannerisms. Increased D-scores on the EQ-SQ, an indication of greater systemizing relative to empathizing, was also explained by deviation from the typical R > L asymmetry of the caudate.These findings extend the brain-behavior links observed in neurodevelopmental disorders to the normal distribution of traits in a healthy sample.

  18. Policy and Practice: Acquired Brain Injury in Canadian Educational Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinga, Dawn; Bennett, Sheila; Good, Dawn; Kumpf, John

    2005-01-01

    Within Canada, the needs of students with exceptionalities are addressed through a variety of policies and procedures that allow those students to receive effective and meaningful education. However, in most provinces and territories these policies are serving more as barriers than supports in addressing the needs of students with acquired brain…

  19. Optical Coherence Tomography for Brain Imaging and Developmental Biology

    PubMed Central

    Men, Jing; Huang, Yongyang; Solanki, Jitendra; Zeng, Xianxu; Alex, Aneesh; Jerwick, Jason; Zhang, Zhan; Tanzi, Rudolph E.; Li, Airong; Zhou, Chao

    2016-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a promising research tool for brain imaging and developmental biology. Serving as a three-dimensional optical biopsy technique, OCT provides volumetric reconstruction of brain tissues and embryonic structures with micrometer resolution and video rate imaging speed. Functional OCT enables label-free monitoring of hemodynamic and metabolic changes in the brain in vitro and in vivo in animal models. Due to its non-invasiveness nature, OCT enables longitudinal imaging of developing specimens in vivo without potential damage from surgical operation, tissue fixation and processing, and staining with exogenous contrast agents. In this paper, various OCT applications in brain imaging and developmental biology are reviewed, with a particular focus on imaging heart development. In addition, we report findings on the effects of a circadian gene (Clock) and high-fat-diet on heart development in Drosophila melanogaster. These findings contribute to our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms connecting circadian genes and obesity to heart development and cardiac diseases. PMID:27721647

  20. The developmental mismatch in structural brain maturation during adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mills, Kathryn L; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Clasen, Liv S; Giedd, Jay N; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Regions of the human brain develop at different rates across the first two decades of life, with some maturing before others. It has been hypothesized that a mismatch in the timing of maturation between subcortical regions (involved in affect and reward processing) and prefrontal regions (involved in cognitive control) underlies the increase in risk-taking and sensation-seeking behaviors observed during adolescence. Most support for this 'dual systems' hypothesis relies on cross-sectional data, and it is not known whether this pattern is present at an individual level. The current study utilizes longitudinal structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data to describe the developmental trajectories of regions associated with risk-taking and sensation-seeking behaviors, namely, the amygdala, nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and prefrontal cortex (PFC). Structural trajectories of gray matter volumes were analyzed using FreeSurfer in 33 participants aged 7-30 years, each of whom had at least three high-quality MRI scans spanning three developmental periods: late childhood, adolescence and early adulthood (total 152 scans). The majority of individuals in our sample showed relatively earlier maturation in the amygdala and/or NAcc compared to the PFC, providing evidence for a mismatch in the timing of structural maturation between these structures. We then related individual developmental trajectories to retrospectively assessed self-reported risk-taking and sensation-seeking behaviors during adolescence in a subsample of 24 participants. Analysis of this smaller sample failed to find a relationship between the presence of a mismatch in brain maturation and risk-taking and sensation-seeking behaviors during adolescence. Taken together, it appears that the developmental mismatch in structural brain maturation is present in neurotypically developing individuals. This pattern of development did not directly relate to self-reported behaviors at an individual level in our sample

  1. Students with Acquired Brain Injury: A Legal Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2011-01-01

    This article provides a comprehensive and current synthesis of the legislation, regulations, policy interpretations, and case law concerning students with traumatic and nontraumatic brain injury from pre-K to grade 12. The primary focus is the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, but the scope extends to other applicable legal bases. The…

  2. Issues of cultural diversity in acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Lequerica, Anthony; Krch, Denise

    2014-01-01

    With the general population in the United States becoming increasingly diverse, it is important for rehabilitation professionals to develop the capacity to provide culturally sensitive treatment. This is especially relevant when working with minority populations who have a higher risk for brain injury and poorer rehabilitation outcomes. This article presents a number of clinical vignettes to illustrate how cultural factors can influence behavior in patients recovering from brain injury, as well as rehabilitation staff. The main objectives are to raise awareness among clinicians and stimulate research ideas by highlighting some real world examples of situations where a specialized, patient-centered approach needs to consider factors of cultural diversity. Because one's own world view impacts the way we see the world and interpret behavior, it is important to understand one's own ethnocentrism when dealing with a diverse population of patients with brain injury where behavioral sequelae are often expected. Being able to see behavior after brain injury with an open mind and taking into account cultural and contextual factors is an important step in developing culturally competent rehabilitation practices.

  3. Computer-Aided Relearning Activity Patterns for People with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montero, Francisco; Lopez-Jaquero, Victor; Navarro, Elena; Sanchez, Enriqueta

    2011-01-01

    People with disabilities constitute a collective that requires continuous and customized attention, since their conditions or abilities are affected with respect to specific standards. People with "Acquired Brain Injury" (ABI), or those who have suffered brain injury at some stage after birth, belong to this collective. The treatment these people…

  4. Acquired Focal Brain Lesions in Childhood: Effects on Development and Reorganization of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilosi, A. M.; Cipriani, P.; Pecini, C.; Brizzolara, D.; Biagi, L.; Montanaro, D.; Tosetti, M.; Cioni, G.

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper, we address brain-behaviour relationships in children with acquired aphasia, by reviewing some recent studies on the effects of focal brain lesions on language development. Timing of the lesion, in terms of its occurrence, before or after the onset of speech and language acquisition, may be a major factor determining language…

  5. Acquired Focal Brain Lesions in Childhood: Effects on Development and Reorganization of Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chilosi, A. M.; Cipriani, P.; Pecini, C.; Brizzolara, D.; Biagi, L.; Montanaro, D.; Tosetti, M.; Cioni, G.

    2008-01-01

    In the present paper, we address brain-behaviour relationships in children with acquired aphasia, by reviewing some recent studies on the effects of focal brain lesions on language development. Timing of the lesion, in terms of its occurrence, before or after the onset of speech and language acquisition, may be a major factor determining language…

  6. Computer-Aided Relearning Activity Patterns for People with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montero, Francisco; Lopez-Jaquero, Victor; Navarro, Elena; Sanchez, Enriqueta

    2011-01-01

    People with disabilities constitute a collective that requires continuous and customized attention, since their conditions or abilities are affected with respect to specific standards. People with "Acquired Brain Injury" (ABI), or those who have suffered brain injury at some stage after birth, belong to this collective. The treatment these people…

  7. Management of developmental speech and language disorders. Part 2: acquired conditions.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, Anne

    2016-03-01

    Many children who present with these acquired impairments of communication have a clear preceding event such as an acquired brain injury from a road traffic accident. Children often respond differently in this situation to adult presentations. They may have a period of mutism when the prognosis might look poor and yet they subsequently make rapid progress and recover speech. They have greater potential for neural plasticity and language recovery, although they often have persisting difficulties in oral and written language. Alternatively, there may be a presentation with a paroxysmal event such as a seizure or a period of depressed consciousness, and the unusual behaviour that may accompany dysphasia and dysarthria may be misinterpreted in the child, whereas for the adult with the more common 'stroke-like' presentation, it would be immediately considered. Rarely the aphasia/dysphasia may itself be the paroxysmal event where actually recognising that the child's disrupted communication is the basis of any observed behaviours can be the greater challenge. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  8. Psychological and adjustment problems due to acquired brain lesions in pre-school-aged patients.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Valentina; Colombo, Katia; Villa, Federica; Galbiati, Susanna; Adduci, Annarita; Poggi, Geraldina; Massimino, Maura; Recla, Monica; Liscio, Mariarosaria; Strazzer, Sandra

    2013-06-01

    To describe and compare psychological, behavioural and adjustment problems in pre-school patients with acquired brain lesions of different aetiology. Three groups of patients with acquired brain lesions (14 patients post-TBI, 18 brain tumour survivors and 23 patients with vascular or infectious brain lesions), ranging in age between 24-47 months, received a psychological evaluation, including the Child Behavior Checklist for Ages 2-3 (CBCL) and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS). About half of the total sample (47.2%) showed psychological and behavioural problems. Difficulties vary according to the aetiology of the brain lesions. Brain tumour survivors showed more marked internalizing problems, whereas children with vascular or infectious brain lesions scored higher on the CBCL externalizing scales. Children with traumatic brain injury reported intermediate scores on most of the CBCL scales. Psychological and behavioural difficulties are very common, not only among school-aged children and adolescents, but also among pre-schoolers with acquired brain lesions. The relevance and the impact of these difficulties must necessarily be considered when developing psychological treatment and rehabilitation plans and planning for social re-entry.

  9. Somatic Activation of AKT3 Causes Hemispheric Developmental Brain Malformations

    PubMed Central

    Poduri, Annapurna; Evrony, Gilad D.; Cai, Xuyu; Elhosary, Princess Christina; Beroukhim, Rameen; Lehtinen, Maria K.; Hills, L. Benjamin; Heinzen, Erin L.; Hill, Anthony; Hill, R. Sean; Barry, Brenda J.; Bourgeois, Blaise F.D.; Riviello, James J.; Barkovich, A. James; Black, Peter M.; Ligon, Keith L.; Walsh, Christopher A.

    2012-01-01

    Summary Hemimegalencephaly (HMG) is a developmental brain disorder characterized by an enlarged, malformed cerebral hemisphere, typically causing epilepsy that requires surgical resection. We studied resected HMG tissue to test whether the condition might reflect somatic mutations affecting genes critical to brain development. We found that 2/8 HMG samples showed trisomy of chromosome 1q, encompassing many genes, including AKT3, which is known to regulate brain size. A third case showed a known activating mutation in AKT3 (c.49G→A, creating p.E17K) that was not present in the patient’s blood cells. Remarkably, the E17K mutation in AKT3 is exactly paralogous to E17K mutations in AKT1 and AKT2 recently discovered in somatic overgrowth syndromes. We show that AKT3 is the most abundant AKT paralogue in brain during neurogenesis and that phosphorylated AKT is abundant in cortical progenitor cells. Our data suggest that somatic mutations limited to brain could represent an important cause of complex neurogenetic disease. PMID:22500628

  10. Seeing mathematics: perceptual experience and brain activity in acquired synesthesia.

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Berit; Vanni, Simo; Silvanto, Juha

    2013-01-01

    We studied the patient JP who has exceptional abilities to draw complex geometrical images by hand and a form of acquired synesthesia for mathematical formulas and objects, which he perceives as geometrical figures. JP sees all smooth curvatures as discrete lines, similarly regardless of scale. We carried out two preliminary investigations to establish the perceptual nature of synesthetic experience and to investigate the neural basis of this phenomenon. In a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, image-inducing formulas produced larger fMRI responses than non-image inducing formulas in the left temporal, parietal and frontal lobes. Thus our main finding is that the activation associated with his experience of complex geometrical images emerging from mathematical formulas is restricted to the left hemisphere.

  11. Pharmacological Stimulation of Neuronal Plasticity in Acquired Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Mora, Paul; Alcantar-Shramm, Juan Manuel; Almaguer-Benavides, Kievka M; Macías-Gallardo, Julio José; Fuentes-Bello, Alim; Rodríguez-Barragán, Marlene A

    Brain injuries are one of the leading causes of disability worldwide. It is estimated that nearly half of patients who develop severe sequelae will continue with a chronic severe disability despite having received an appropriate rehabilitation program. For more than 3 decades, there has been a worldwide effort to investigate the possibility of pharmacologically stimulating the neuroplasticity process for enhancing the recovery of these patients. The objective of this article is to make a critical and updated review of the available evidence that supports the positive effect of different drugs on the recovery from brain injury. To date, there have been several clinical trials that tested different drugs that act on different neurotransmitter systems: catecholaminergic, cholinergic, serotonergic, and glutamatergic. There is both basic and clinical evidence that may support some positive effect of these drugs on motor, cognitive, and language skills; however, only few of the available studies are of sufficient methodological quality (placebo controlled, randomized, blinded, multicenter, etc) to make solid conclusions about their beneficial effects. Currently, the pharmacological stimulation of neuroplasticity still does not have enough scientific evidence to make a systematic therapeutic recommendation for all patients, but it certainly is a feasible and very promising field for future research.

  12. Developmental Changes in Topological Asymmetry Between Hemispheric Brain White Matter Networks from Adolescence to Young Adulthood.

    PubMed

    Zhong, Suyu; He, Yong; Shu, Hua; Gong, Gaolang

    2016-04-24

    Human brain asymmetries have been well described. Intriguingly, a number of asymmetries in brain phenotypes have been shown to change throughout the lifespan. Recent studies have revealed topological asymmetries between hemispheric white matter networks in the human brain. However, it remains unknown whether and how these topological asymmetries evolve from adolescence to young adulthood, a critical period that constitutes the second peak of human brain and cognitive development. To address this question, the present study included a large cohort of healthy adolescents and young adults. Diffusion and structural magnetic resonance imaging were acquired to construct hemispheric white matter networks, and graph-theory was applied to quantify topological parameters of the hemispheric networks. In both adolescents and young adults, rightward asymmetry in both global and local network efficiencies was consistently observed between the 2 hemispheres, but the degree of the asymmetry was significantly decreased in young adults. At the nodal level, the young adults exhibited less rightward asymmetry of nodal efficiency mainly around the parasylvian area, posterior tempo-parietal cortex, and fusiform gyrus. These developmental patterns of network asymmetry provide novel insight into the human brain structural development from adolescence to young adulthood and also likely relate to the maturation of language and social cognition that takes place during this period.

  13. Developmental origins of brain disorders: roles for dopamine

    PubMed Central

    Money, Kelli M.; Stanwood, Gregg D.

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitters and neuromodulators, such as dopamine, participate in a wide range of behavioral and cognitive functions in the adult brain, including movement, cognition, and reward. Dopamine-mediated signaling plays a fundamental neurodevelopmental role in forebrain differentiation and circuit formation. These developmental effects, such as modulation of neuronal migration and dendritic growth, occur before synaptogenesis and demonstrate novel roles for dopaminergic signaling beyond neuromodulation at the synapse. Pharmacologic and genetic disruptions demonstrate that these effects are brain region- and receptor subtype-specific. For example, the striatum and frontal cortex exhibit abnormal neuronal structure and function following prenatal disruption of dopamine receptor signaling. Alterations in these processes are implicated in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders, and emerging studies of neurodevelopmental disruptions may shed light on the pathophysiology of abnormal neuronal circuitry in neuropsychiatric disorders. PMID:24391541

  14. Adding insult to brain injury: young adults' experiences of residing in nursing homes following acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Aoife; Heary, Caroline; Ward, Marcia; MacNeela, Pádraig

    2017-08-28

    There is general consensus that adults under age 65 with acquired brain injury residing in nursing homes is inappropriate, however there is a limited evidence base on the issue. Previous research has relied heavily on third-party informants and qualitative studies have been of questionable methodological quality, with no known study adopting a phenomenological approach. This study explored the lived experiences of young adults with brain injury residing in aged care facilities. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was employed to collect and analyze data from six semi-structured interviews with participants regarding their experiences of living in nursing homes. Two themes were identified, including "Corporeal prison of acquired brain injury: broken selves" and "Existential prison of the nursing home: stagnated lives". Results illustrated that young adults with acquired brain injury can experience aged care as an existential prison in which their lives feel at a standstill. This experience was characterized by feelings of not belonging in a terminal environment, confinement, disempowerment, emptiness and hope for greater autonomy through rehabilitation. It is hoped that this study will provide relevant professionals, services and policy-makers with insight into the challenges and needs of young adults with brain injury facing these circumstances. Implications for rehabilitation This study supports the contention that more home-like and age-appropriate residential rehabilitation services for young adults with acquired brain injury are needed. As development of alternative accommodation is a lengthy process, the study findings suggest that the interim implementation of rehabilitative care in nursing homes should be considered. Taken together with existing research, it is proposed that nursing home staff may require training to deliver evidence-based rehabilitative interventions to those with brain injury. The present findings add support to the call for systemic

  15. Rehabilitative optometric services for survivors of acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Gianutsos, R; Ramsey, G; Perlin, R R

    1988-08-01

    In a retrospective study of clinical management practices, we assessed the impact of offering rehabilitative optometric services to a group of severely head-injured residents of a long-term rehabilitation facility. Each testable patient admitted (n = 55) was screened for visual function, and more than half were identified as having visual problems in need of treatment. A few were sent to local practitioners, but most (n = 26) were referred to a rehabilitative optometrist (with a specialty in low vision). For all but two patients, optometric treatment recommendations were implemented. All of those who received treatment benefited; indeed, in most cases the impact on participation in the overall rehabilitation program was significant. For the severely brain-injured, the study emphasized the need for (1) careful screening of visual-sensory function, (2) referral for rehabilitative optometric evaluation and treatment, (3) taking the necessary time for evaluations, and (4) the value of having a cognitive rehabilitation therapist assist the rehabilitative optometrist.

  16. Evaluation of outliers in acquired brain MR images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moldovanu, S.; (Vişan Pungǎ, M.; Moraru, L.

    2015-01-01

    Pre-processing is an important stage in the analysis of magnetic resonance images (MRI), because the effect of specific image artefacts, such as intensity inhomogeneity, noise and low contrast can adversely affect the quantitative image analysis. The image histogram is a useful tool in the analysis of MR images given that it allows a close relationship with important image features such as contrast and noise. The noise and variable contrast are elements that locally modify the quality of images. The key issue of this study derives from the fact that the spatial histogram can contain outliers indicating corrupted image information through the disorder of the bins. These aberrant errors should be excluded from the studied data sets. Here, the outliers are evaluated by using rigorous methods based on the probability theory and Chauvenet (CC), Grubbs (GC) and Peirce's (PC) criteria. In order to check the quality of the MR images, the Minkowsky (MD), Euclidean (ED) and cosine (CD) distance functions were used. They act as similarity scores between the histogram of the acquired MRI and the processed image. This analysis is necessary because, sometimes, the distance function exceeds the co-domain because of the outliers. In this paper, 32 MRIs are tested and the outliers are removed so that the distance functions generate uncorrupted and real values.

  17. Therapy-induced developmental reprogramming of prostate cancer cells and acquired therapy resistance.

    PubMed

    Nouri, Mannan; Caradec, Josselin; Lubik, Amy Anne; Li, Na; Hollier, Brett G; Takhar, Mandeep; Altimirano-Dimas, Manuel; Chen, Mengqian; Roshan-Moniri, Mani; Butler, Miriam; Lehman, Melanie; Bishop, Jennifer; Truong, Sarah; Huang, Shih-Chieh; Cochrane, Dawn; Cox, Michael; Collins, Colin; Gleave, Martin; Erho, Nicholas; Alshalafa, Mohamed; Davicioni, Elai; Nelson, Colleen; Gregory-Evans, Sheryl; Karnes, R Jeffrey; Jenkins, Robert B; Klein, Eric A; Buttyan, Ralph

    2017-01-27

    Treatment-induced neuroendocrine transdifferentiation (NEtD) complicates therapies for metastatic prostate cancer (PCa). Based on evidence that PCa cells can transdifferentiate to other neuroectodermally-derived cell lineages in vitro, we proposed that NEtD requires first an intermediary reprogramming to metastable cancer stem-like cells (CSCs) of a neural class and we demonstrate that several different AR+/PSA+ PCa cell lines were efficiently reprogrammed to, maintained and propagated as CSCs by growth in androgen-free neural/neural crest (N/NC) stem medium. Such reprogrammed cells lost features of prostate differentiation; gained features of N/NC stem cells and tumor-initiating potential; were resistant to androgen signaling inhibition; and acquired an invasive phenotype in vitro and in vivo. When placed back into serum-containing mediums, reprogrammed cells could be re-differentiated to N-/NC-derived cell lineages or return back to an AR+ prostate-like state. Once returned, the AR+ cells were resistant to androgen signaling inhibition. Acute androgen deprivation or anti-androgen treatment in serum-containing medium led to the transient appearance of a sub-population of cells with similar characteristics. Finally, a 132 gene signature derived from reprogrammed PCa cell lines distinguished tumors from PCa patients with adverse outcomes. This model may explain neural manifestations of PCa associated with lethal disease. The metastable nature of the reprogrammed stem-like PCa cells suggests that cycles of PCa cell reprogramming followed by re-differentiation may support disease progression and therapeutic resistance. The ability of a gene signature from reprogrammed PCa cells to identify tumors from patients with metastasis or PCa-specific mortality implies that developmental reprogramming is linked to aggressive tumor behaviors.

  18. Cdx ParaHox genes acquired distinct developmental roles after gene duplication in vertebrate evolution.

    PubMed

    Marlétaz, Ferdinand; Maeso, Ignacio; Faas, Laura; Isaacs, Harry V; Holland, Peter W H

    2015-08-01

    The functional consequences of whole genome duplications in vertebrate evolution are not fully understood. It remains unclear, for instance, why paralogues were retained in some gene families but extensively lost in others. Cdx homeobox genes encode conserved transcription factors controlling posterior development across diverse bilaterians. These genes are part of the ParaHox gene cluster. Multiple Cdx copies were retained after genome duplication, raising questions about how functional divergence, overlap, and redundancy respectively contributed to their retention and evolutionary fate. We examined the degree of regulatory and functional overlap between the three vertebrate Cdx genes using single and triple morpholino knock-down in Xenopus tropicalis followed by RNA-seq. We found that one paralogue, Cdx4, has a much stronger effect on gene expression than the others, including a strong regulatory effect on FGF and Wnt genes. Functional annotation revealed distinct and overlapping roles and subtly different temporal windows of action for each gene. The data also reveal a colinear-like effect of Cdx genes on Hox genes, with repression of Hox paralogy groups 1 and 2, and activation increasing from Hox group 5 to 11. We also highlight cases in which duplicated genes regulate distinct paralogous targets revealing pathway elaboration after whole genome duplication. Despite shared core pathways, Cdx paralogues have acquired distinct regulatory roles during development. This implies that the degree of functional overlap between paralogues is relatively low and that gene expression pattern alone should be used with caution when investigating the functional evolution of duplicated genes. We therefore suggest that developmental programmes were extensively rewired after whole genome duplication in the early evolution of vertebrates.

  19. Evidence for peer support in rehabilitation for individuals with acquired brain injury: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Wobma, Ruth; Nijland, Rinske H M; Ket, Johannes C F; Kwakkel, Gert

    2016-11-11

    To systematically review the literature on evidence for the application of peer support in the rehabilitation of persons with acquired brain injury. PubMed, Embase.com, Ebsco/Cinahl, Ebsco/PsycInfo and Wiley/Cochrane Library were searched from inception up to 19 June 2015. Randomized controlled trials were included describing participants with acquired brain injury in a rehabilitation setting and peer supporters who were specifically assigned to this role. Two independent reviewers assessed metho-dological quality using the PEDro scale. Cohen's kappa was calculated to assess agreement between the reviewers. Two randomized controlled trials could be included, both focussing on patients with traumatic brain injury. The randomized controlled trials included a total of 126 participants with traumatic brain injury and 62 care-givers and suggest a positive influence of peer support for traumatic brain injury survivors and their caregivers in areas of social support, coping, behavioural control and physical quality of life. The evidence for peer support is limited and restricted to traumatic brain injury. Randomized controlled trials on peer support for patients with other causes of acquired brain injury are lacking. It is important to gain more insight into the effects of peer support and the influence of patient and peer characteristics and the intervention protocol.

  20. Boredom in patients with acquired brain injuries during inpatient rehabilitation: a scoping review.

    PubMed

    Kenah, Katrina; Bernhardt, Julie; Cumming, Toby; Spratt, Neil; Luker, Julie; Janssen, Heidi

    2017-08-01

    Boredom may impede engagement in inpatient rehabilitation following an acquired brain injury. This review aimed to: (1) describe the experience and (2) quantify the incidence of boredom; (3) identify measurement tools used to quantify boredom; (4) summarize factors contributing to boredom, and (5) outline evidence-based interventions shown to reduce boredom during inpatient rehabilitation. Two researchers independently screened publications retrieved from electronic database searches. Publications presenting patient, carer or staff data relating to boredom in inpatients with acquired brain injuries were included. Two thousand four hundred and ninety-nine references were retrieved, 88 full texts were reviewed, with 24 studies included. The majority of studies reported qualitative data indicating boredom to be a common experience of patients with acquired brain injuries (n = 14 studies +1 review). The incidence of boredom post acquired brain injury is unknown. Personal and organizational factors and the physical environment may contribute to boredom (n = 11 studies +2 reviews). Qualitative work (n = 9 studies) indicates that use of the creative-arts or exposure to environmental enrichment may help alleviate boredom in patients with acquired brain injuries during inpatient rehabilitation. Further mixed-methods research is required to establish the incidence of and contributing factors to boredom in patients with acquired brain injuries undergoing rehabilitation. Understanding this will help inform future research aimed at improving patient engagement in inpatient rehabilitation. Implications for rehabilitation Boredom is commonly reported by hospitalised patients with ABI to negatively affect their rehabilitation yet the scope of the problem has not been measured. Boredom is a complex phenomenon, likely influenced by a number of personal and environmental factors that are not fully understood in this population. Through a better understanding of boredom

  1. In Vivo NMR Studies of the Brain with Hereditary or Acquired Metabolic Disorders.

    PubMed

    Sherry, Erica B; Lee, Phil; Choi, In-Young

    2015-12-01

    Metabolic disorders, whether hereditary or acquired, affect the brain, and abnormalities of the brain are related to cellular integrity; particularly in regard to neurons and astrocytes as well as interactions between them. Metabolic disturbances lead to alterations in cellular function as well as microscopic and macroscopic structural changes in the brain with diabetes, the most typical example of metabolic disorders, and a number of hereditary metabolic disorders. Alternatively, cellular dysfunction and degeneration of the brain lead to metabolic disturbances in hereditary neurological disorders with neurodegeneration. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques allow us to assess a range of pathophysiological changes of the brain in vivo. For example, magnetic resonance spectroscopy detects alterations in brain metabolism and energetics. Physiological magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detects accompanying changes in cerebral blood flow related to neurovascular coupling. Diffusion and T1/T2-weighted MRI detect microscopic and macroscopic changes of the brain structure. This review summarizes current NMR findings of functional, physiological and biochemical alterations within a number of hereditary and acquired metabolic disorders in both animal models and humans. The global view of the impact of these metabolic disorders on the brain may be useful in identifying the unique and/or general patterns of abnormalities in the living brain related to the pathophysiology of the diseases, and identifying future fields of inquiry.

  2. Developmental changes in brain connectivity assessed using the sleep EEG.

    PubMed

    Tarokh, L; Carskadon, M A; Achermann, P

    2010-12-01

    Adolescence represents a time of significant cortical restructuring. Current theories posit that during this period connections between frequently utilized neural networks are strengthened while underutilized synaptic connections are discarded. The aim of the present study was to examine the developmental evolution of connectivity between brain regions using the sleep EEG. All-night sleep EEG recordings in two longitudinal cohorts (children and teens) followed at 1.5-3 year intervals and one cross-sectional cohort (adults) were analyzed. The children and teen cohorts were 9/10 and 15/16 years at the initial assessment; ages of the adults were 20 to 23 years. Intrahemispheric, interhemispheric, and diagonal coherence was measured between all six possible pairings of two central (C3/A2 and C4/A1) and two occipital (O2/A1 and O1/A2) derivations during slow wave, stage 2, and, REM sleep. Within-subjects analyses were performed for the children and teen cohorts, and a linear regression analysis was performed across every assessment of all cohorts. Within-subject analyses revealed a maturational increase in coherence for both age cohorts, though the frequencies, sleep states, and regions differed between cohorts. Regression analysis across all age cohorts showed an overall linear increase in left and right intrahemispheric coherence for all sleep states across frequencies. Furthermore, coherence between diagonal electrode pairs also increased in a linear manner for stage 2 and REM sleep. No age-related trend was found in interhemispheric coherence. Our results indicate that sleep EEG coherence increases with age and that these increases are confined to specific brain regions. This analysis highlights the utility of the sleep EEG to measure developmental changes in brain maturation.

  3. Developmental dyslexia: an update on genes, brains, and environments.

    PubMed

    Grigorenko, E L

    2001-01-01

    .e., any single act of reading as well as reading as a holistic process) is "cooked" by the brain. Although no unified brain map of reading has been developed, some specific areas of the brain have been implicated in different reading-related cognitive processes by different laboratories and on different samples. (4) Indisputable evidence has been accumulated suggesting the involvement of the genome in developmental dyslexia. As of now, specific regions of the genome have been identified as being intimately involved with a number of different reading-related processes. Today the field of developmental dyslexia is the only area of genetic studies of human abilities and disabilities in which linkages to the genome have been robustly replicated in independent laboratories. (5) Finally, evidence suggests that developmental dyslexia might be only one of the manifestations of a deep, underlying, anatomical syndrome. The comorbidity of developmental dyslexia with both internalizing and externalizing behavioral disturbances, as well as with other learning disabilities, underscores the need for wide-ranging cognitive and behavioral approaches in the remediation programs offered to dyslexic children.

  4. The association between cardiac physiology, acquired brain injury, and postnatal brain growth in critical congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Peyvandi, Shabnam; Kim, Hosung; Lau, Joanne; Barkovich, A James; Campbell, Andrew; Miller, Steven; Xu, Duan; McQuillen, Patrick

    2017-08-24

    To assess the trajectory of perioperative brain growth in relationship to cardiac diagnosis and acquired brain injuries. This was a cohort study of term neonates with hypoplastic left heart syndrome (HLHS) and transposition of the great arteries (TGA). Subjects underwent magnetic resonance imaging of the brain pre- and postoperatively to determine the severity of brain injury and total and regional brain volumes by the use of automated morphometry. Comparisons were made by cardiac lesion and injury status. A total of 79 subjects were included (49, TGA; 30, HLHS). Subjects with HLHS had more postoperative brain injury (55.6% vs 30.4%, P = .03) and more severe brain injury (moderate-to-severe white matter [WM] injury, P = .01). Total and regional perioperative brain growth was not different by brain injury status (either pre- or postoperative). However, subjects with moderate-to-severe WM injury had a slower rate of brain growth in WM and gray matter compared with those with no injury. Subjects with HLHS had a slower rate of growth globally and in WM and deep gray matter as compared with TGA (total brain volume: 12 cm(3)/wk vs 7 cm(3); WM: 2.1 cm(3)/wk vs 0.6 cm(3); deep gray matter: 1.5 cm(3)/wk vs 0.7 cm(3); P < .001), after we adjusted for gestational age at scan and the presence of brain injury. This difference remained after excluding subjects with moderate-to-severe WM injury. Neonates with HLHS have a slower rate of global and regional brain growth compared with TGA, likely related to inherent physiologic differences postoperatively. These findings demonstrate the complex interplay between cardiac lesion, brain injury, and brain growth. Copyright © 2017 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Capitalizing on Basic Brain Processes in Developmental Algebra--Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughbaum, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    Basic brain function is not a mystery. Given that neuroscientists understand its basic functioning processes, one wonders what their research suggests to teachers of developmental algebra. What if we knew how to teach so as to improve understanding of the algebra taught to developmental algebra students? What if we knew how the brain processes…

  6. Capitalizing on Basic Brain Processes in Developmental Algebra--Part One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughbaum, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    Basic brain function is not a mystery. Given that neuroscientists understand the brain's basic functioning processes, one wonders what their research suggests to teachers of developmental algebra. What if we knew how to teach so as to improve understanding of the algebra taught to developmental algebra students? What if we knew how the brain…

  7. Capitalizing on Basic Brain Processes in Developmental Algebra--Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughbaum, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    Basic brain function is not a mystery. Given that neuroscientists understand its basic functioning processes, one wonders what their research suggests to teachers of developmental algebra. What if we knew how to teach so as to improve understanding of the algebra taught to developmental algebra students? What if we knew how the brain processes…

  8. Capitalizing on Basic Brain Processes in Developmental Algebra--Part One

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughbaum, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    Basic brain function is not a mystery. Given that neuroscientists understand the brain's basic functioning processes, one wonders what their research suggests to teachers of developmental algebra. What if we knew how to teach so as to improve understanding of the algebra taught to developmental algebra students? What if we knew how the brain…

  9. Behavioral Treatment for Pathological Gambling in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guercio, John M.; Johnson, Taylor; Dixon, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior. Using an 8-week…

  10. Reliability of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamath, Trishna; Pfeifer, Megan; Banerjee-Guenette, Priyanka; Hunter, Theresa; Ito, Julia; Salbach, Nancy M.; Wright, Virginia; Levac, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate reliability and feasibility of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument (MLSRI) in children with acquired brain injury (ABI). The MLSRI quantifies the extent to which motor learning strategies (MLS) are used within physiotherapy (PT) interventions. Methods: PT sessions conducted by ABI team physiotherapists with a…

  11. Behavioral Treatment for Pathological Gambling in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guercio, John M.; Johnson, Taylor; Dixon, Mark R.

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior. Using an 8-week…

  12. Exploring the Use of Cognitive Intervention for Children with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missiuna, Cheryl; DeMatteo, Carol; Hanna, Steven; Mandich, Angela; Law, Mary; Mahoney, William; Scott, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Children with acquired brain injury (ABI) often experience cognitive, motor, and psychosocial deficits that affect participation in everyday activities. Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) is an individualized treatment that teaches cognitive strategies necessary to support successful performance.…

  13. Where Have They All Gone?: Classroom Attention Patterns after Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Siân A.

    2016-01-01

    Certain groups of pupils who have sustained an Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) have a different pattern of attention within the classroom which interferes with learning and social interactions. The delineation of these groups is suggested. By looking in detail at the classroom behaviour of eight pupils, a common account for classroom behaviour…

  14. Exploring the Use of Cognitive Intervention for Children with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missiuna, Cheryl; DeMatteo, Carol; Hanna, Steven; Mandich, Angela; Law, Mary; Mahoney, William; Scott, Louise

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Children with acquired brain injury (ABI) often experience cognitive, motor, and psychosocial deficits that affect participation in everyday activities. Cognitive Orientation to Daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) is an individualized treatment that teaches cognitive strategies necessary to support successful performance.…

  15. Expressive Electronic Journal Writing: Freedom of Communication for Survivors of Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraas, Michael; Balz, Magdalen A.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to the impaired ability to effectively communicate, adults with acquired brain injury (ABI) also experience high incidences of depression, social isolation, and decreased quality of life. Expressive writing programs have been shown to be effective in alleviating these concomitant impairments in other populations including incarcerated…

  16. Where Have They All Gone?: Classroom Attention Patterns after Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Siân A.

    2016-01-01

    Certain groups of pupils who have sustained an Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) have a different pattern of attention within the classroom which interferes with learning and social interactions. The delineation of these groups is suggested. By looking in detail at the classroom behaviour of eight pupils, a common account for classroom behaviour…

  17. Redesigning the Scaffolding Metaphor to Suit Pupils with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Sian A.; Skidmore, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper extends and develops the metaphor of scaffolding to take account of the specific needs of pupils with an Acquired Brain Injury (ABI), drawing on observational evidence gathered for an empirical enquiry into the learning of pupils with ABI in mainstream classroom conditions. This is an area in which there are few published studies to…

  18. The Use of Narratives to Identify Characteristics Leading to a Productive Life following Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraas, Michael R.; Calvert, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the factors leading to successful recovery and productive lifestyles after acquired brain injury (ABI). Method: Qualitative investigation examined semistructured interviews of 31 survivors of ABI. Thematic analysis followed a phenomenological approach and revealed 4 major themes and 28 subthemes in the interviews. Four…

  19. Redesigning the Scaffolding Metaphor to Suit Pupils with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Sian A.; Skidmore, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper extends and develops the metaphor of scaffolding to take account of the specific needs of pupils with an Acquired Brain Injury (ABI), drawing on observational evidence gathered for an empirical enquiry into the learning of pupils with ABI in mainstream classroom conditions. This is an area in which there are few published studies to…

  20. Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (Lisat-9): Reliability and Validity for Patients with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boonstra, Anne M.; Reneman, Michiel F.; Stewart, Roy E.; Balk, Gerlof A.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the reliability and discriminant validity of the Dutch version of the life satisfaction questionnaire (Lisat-9 DV) to assess patients with an acquired brain injury. The reliability study used a test-retest design, and the validity study used a cross-sectional design. The setting was the general rehabilitation…

  1. Acquired Brain Injury and Return to Work in Australia and New Zealand.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Athanasou, James A.

    2003-01-01

    A research review of 9 Australian-New Zealand (n=1,010) and 23 international (n=2,182) studies found the overall return-to-work rates after head injury were 44% and 45% respectively. Methodological issues might have inflated these numbers. Only an estimated 7-10% of persons with acquired brain injury returned to the same job. (Contains 46…

  2. Framework for describing community integration for people with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Parvaneh, Shahriar; Cocks, Errol

    2012-04-01

    Community integration is the ultimate goal of rehabilitation of adults with acquired brain injury which has a high incidence in the Australian population. The literature shows a need for a more comprehensive framework for community integration. This study developed a descriptive community integration framework drawn from views of five stakeholder groups and was compared with four similar frameworks. Thirty-seven experts in acquired brain injury, including practitioners, researchers, policy makers, people with acquired brain injury and family members participated. Using a Delphi method, an iterative process of surveys, interviews, and focus groups sought their views on community integration. Responses were analysed in three stages systematically to reduce a large quantity of raw data into a core set of descriptive themes. A final member checking process rated participants' agreement with the importance of each theme. Seven themes were identified and described: Relationships, Community Access, Acceptance, Occupation, Being at Home, Picking up Life Again, and Heightened Risks and Vulnerability. Themes were congruent with elements of the frameworks from the literature. Rich data came from the diverse stakeholders in the participant groups. Two unique themes reflected the importance of re-integration and recovering important aspects of previous lives, and identifying risks and vulnerabilities and providing safeguards. The framework reflected emphases that may be specific to acquired brain injury. It can be used as a basis for development of community integration programmes and outcome measures. © 2012 The Authors Australian Occupational Therapy Journal © 2012 Occupational Therapy Australia.

  3. Thinking Allowed: Use of Egocentric Speech after Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Sian A.; Skidmore, David

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the use of thinking aloud made by young people who have sustained a severe acquired brain injury (ABI). The phenomenon is compared with the concepts of egocentric speech and inner speech before the form of thinking aloud by pupils with ABI is examined. It is suggested that by using thinking aloud, this group of pupils is able…

  4. A Review of Family Intervention Guidelines for Pediatric Acquired Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Wesley R.; Paulos, Stephanie K.; Cole, Carolyn A. S.; Tankard, Carol

    2009-01-01

    Pediatric acquired brain injury (BI) not only affects the child with the injury, but also greatly impacts their family. Studies suggest there are higher rates of caregiver and sibling psychological distress after a child in the family has sustained a BI. Also, family functioning after BI impacts the child's recovery. In reviewing the literature,…

  5. Using Differential Reinforcement to Decrease Academic Response Latencies of an Adolescent with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinicke, Megan R.; Carr, James E.; Mozzoni, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of contingency-specifying rules and a token economy to decrease the latency to comply with academic instructions by a 16-year-old girl with acquired brain injury. Results showed that treatment was successful in reducing academic response latencies. These results replicate previous research in which…

  6. Using differential reinforcement to decrease academic response latencies of an adolescent with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Heinicke, Megan R; Carr, James E; Mozzoni, Michael P

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of contingency-specifying rules and a token economy to decrease the latency to comply with academic instructions by a 16-year-old girl with acquired brain injury. Results showed that treatment was successful in reducing academic response latencies. These results replicate previous research in which differential reinforcement was used to decrease slow responding to academic tasks.

  7. Reliability of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamath, Trishna; Pfeifer, Megan; Banerjee-Guenette, Priyanka; Hunter, Theresa; Ito, Julia; Salbach, Nancy M.; Wright, Virginia; Levac, Danielle

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate reliability and feasibility of the Motor Learning Strategy Rating Instrument (MLSRI) in children with acquired brain injury (ABI). The MLSRI quantifies the extent to which motor learning strategies (MLS) are used within physiotherapy (PT) interventions. Methods: PT sessions conducted by ABI team physiotherapists with a…

  8. The Use of Narratives to Identify Characteristics Leading to a Productive Life following Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraas, Michael R.; Calvert, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To determine the factors leading to successful recovery and productive lifestyles after acquired brain injury (ABI). Method: Qualitative investigation examined semistructured interviews of 31 survivors of ABI. Thematic analysis followed a phenomenological approach and revealed 4 major themes and 28 subthemes in the interviews. Four…

  9. Expressive Electronic Journal Writing: Freedom of Communication for Survivors of Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraas, Michael; Balz, Magdalen A.

    2008-01-01

    In addition to the impaired ability to effectively communicate, adults with acquired brain injury (ABI) also experience high incidences of depression, social isolation, and decreased quality of life. Expressive writing programs have been shown to be effective in alleviating these concomitant impairments in other populations including incarcerated…

  10. The Classical Classroom: Enhancing Learning for Pupils with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rees, Sian A.; Skidmore, David

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to draw parallels between different approaches to classroom instruction and two contrasting musical styles and to examine how pupils with Acquired Brain Injuries (ABI) might fare in each. A polyphonic classroom is defined as one where an awareness of multiple layers of meaning are encouraged to enhance the learning opportunities,…

  11. Outcomes of intrathecal baclofen therapy in patients with cerebral palsy and acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Young Kwon; Lee, Kil Chan; Cho, Han Eol; Chae, Minji; Chang, Jin Woo; Chang, Won Seok; Cho, Sung-Rae

    2017-08-01

    Intrathecal baclofen (ITB) has been known to reduce spasticity which did not respond to oral medications and botulinum toxin treatment. However, few results have been reported comparing the effects of ITB therapy in patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and acquired brain injury. This study aimed to investigate beneficial and adverse effects of ITB bolus injection and pump therapy in patients with CP and to compare outcomes to patients with acquired brain injury such as traumatic brain injury and hypoxic brain injury. ITB test trials were performed in 37 patients (19 CP and 18 acquired brain injury). Based on ambulatory function, CP patients were divided into 2 groups: 11 patients with nonambulatory CP and 8 patients with ambulatory CP. Change of spasticity was evaluated using the Modified Ashworth Scale. Additional positive or negative effects were also evaluated after ITB bolus injection. In patients who received ITB pump implantation, outcomes of spasticity, subjective satisfaction and adverse events were evaluated until 12 months post-treatment. After ITB bolus injection, 32 patients (86.5%) (CP 84.2% versus acquired brain injury 88.9%) showed a positive response of reducing spasticity. However, 8 patients with CP had negative adverse effects. Particularly, 3 ambulatory CP patients showed standing impairment and 1 ambulatory CP patient showed impaired gait pattern such as foot drop because of excessive reduction of lower extremity muscle tone. Ambulatory CP patients received ITB pump implantation less than patients with acquired brain injury after ITB test trials (P = .003 by a chi-squared test). After the pump implantation, spasticity was significantly reduced within 1 month and the effect maintained for 12 months. Seventeen patients or their caregivers (73.9%) were very satisfied, whereas 5 patients (21.7%) suffered from adverse events showed no subjective satisfaction. In conclusion, ITB therapy was effective in reducing spasticity in patients with CP and

  12. Apathy after acquired brain impairment: a systematic review of non-pharmacological interventions.

    PubMed

    Lane-Brown, A T; Tate, R L

    2009-08-01

    Apathy commonly occurs after acquired brain impairment. It is characterised by impaired initiative, diminished activity, and lack of concern; formally delineated as a decrease in cognitive, behavioural and emotional components of goal-directed activity. The impact is widespread, hampering rehabilitation and outcome. This systematic review identifies and assesses the efficacy of non-pharmacological treatments for apathy following four types of acquired brain impairment (traumatic brain injury, dementia, cerebrovascular accident, encephalitis). Nine databases were searched. Studies were reviewed according to the following criteria: age over 16 years, acquired brain impairment, non-pharmacological intervention for apathy, and data reported on treatment efficacy. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed. Searches yielded 1754 articles, with 28 meeting criteria. Methodological quality ranged greatly. The majority of trials involved the dementia population. Cognitive interventions were the most frequent mode of treatment. For those with severe impairments, the strongest evidence suggested music therapy and for milder impairment, the strongest evidence was for cognitive rehabilitation. This review reveals a need for more high quality, methodologically rigorous treatment studies for apathy, particularly within the milder ranges of impairment. Initially, however, a uniform operational definition needs to be utilised in all research studies to minimise variability. Additionally, employing a standardised outcome measure specific to apathy would greatly enhance comparison among treatments.

  13. Challenges in understanding the epidemiology of acquired brain injury in India

    PubMed Central

    Kamalakannan, Suresh Kumar; Gudlavalleti, Aashrai S.V.; Murthy Gudlavalleti, Venkata S.; Goenka, Shifalika; Kuper, Hannah

    2015-01-01

    An acquired brain injury (ABI) is an injury to the brain, which is not hereditary, congenital, degenerative, or induced by birth trauma. In India, rapid urbanization, economic growth and changes in lifestyle have led to a tremendous increase in the incidence of ABI, so much so that it is being referred to as a ‘silent epidemic’. Unlike developed countries, there is no well-established system for collecting and managing information on various diseases in India. Thus it is a daunting task to obtain reliable information about acquired brain injury. In the course of conducting a systematic review on the epidemiology of ABI in India, we recognized several challenges which hampered our effort. Inadequate case definition, lack of centralized reporting mechanisms, lack of population based studies, absence of standardized survey protocols and inadequate mortality statistics are some of the major obstacles. Following a standard case definition, linking multiple hospital-based registries, initiating a state or nationwide population-based registry, conducting population-based studies that are methodologically robust and introducing centralized, standard reporting mechanisms for ABI, are some of the strategies that could help facilitate a thorough investigation into the epidemiology and understanding of ABI. This may help improve policies on prevention and management of acquired brain injury in India. PMID:25745314

  14. Perceived factors in return to work after acquired brain injury: A qualitative meta-synthesis.

    PubMed

    Frostad Liaset, Ingeborg; Lorås, Håvard

    2016-11-01

    A substantial proportion of survivors after brain injuries originating from trauma, tumour, or stroke may experience reduced ability to work due to a number of challenges. The purpose of this review is to summarize and highlight factors that have been perceived and reported as important in order to return to work after an acquired brain injury. A qualitative ethnographic meta-synthesis is used to interpret and develop concepts from studies retrieved from systematic searches in the electronic databases PubMed, PsycINFO, and ISI Web of Science. A total of 16 studies were included in the meta-synthesis. Four key concepts were identified as important for return to work after an acquired brain injury: empowerment, self-awareness, motivation, and facilitation. The results of the meta-synthesis indicate that personal development is experienced as essential in order to return to work after an acquired brain injury, involving identification of each individual's strengths and weaknesses. These personal factors intersect with an emphasis of the employer providing a certain degree of facilitation in the workplace. All of these aspects will affect one's motivation to return to work and can therefore be crucial to succeed.

  15. [The 'awareness climbing': an educational board game for improving self-awareness following acquired brain injury].

    PubMed

    Caballero-Coulon, M C; Ferri-Campos, J; Garcia-Blazquez, M C; Chirivella-Garrido, J; Renau-Hernandez, O; Ferri-Salvador, N; Noe-Sebastian, E

    To establish the effectiveness of an educational board game for improving self-awareness following acquired brain injury. The 'awareness climbing' is a board game format intervention for improving awareness of patients with acquired brain injury (ABI) and for facilitating the use of anticipatory and compensatory strategies. 17 patients with ABI (traumatic brain injury, 10; stroke, 5; others, 2) were included in a self-awareness rehabilitation program using the 'awareness climbing'. Self-awareness was assessed with the Self-Awareness of Deficit Interview (SADI) before and after game intervention. According to the SADI self-awareness consists of three-interdependent levels: intellectual awareness (impairments), emergent awareness (disability) and anticipatory awareness, which involve the client predicting when impairments will affect his or her performance. Initially five patients showed impaired intellectual awareness, four patients had difficulties on emergent awareness and nine patients showed deficits on anticipatory awareness. Intellectual awareness improved in 10 patients, while six patients experienced improvements in emergent awareness over the intervention period. The most striking change was an improvement in 70% of the sample (n = 11) in anticipatory awareness after game sessions. According to SADI scores we suggest that the 'awareness climbing' may be a useful tool for improving self-awareness after acquired brain injury.

  16. Expressive electronic journal writing: freedom of communication for survivors of acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Fraas, Michael; Balz, Magdalen A

    2008-03-01

    In addition to the impaired ability to effectively communicate, adults with acquired brain injury (ABI) also experience high incidences of depression, social isolation, and decreased quality of life. Expressive writing programs have been shown to be effective in alleviating these concomitant impairments in other populations including incarcerated inmates (Lane, Writing as a road to self-discovery, F & W, Cincinnati 1993). In addition, computer applications such as email have been suggested as an effective means of improving communication and social isolation in adults with brain injury (Sohlberg et al. [2003]. Brain Injury, 17(7), 609-629). This investigation examines the effects of on-line expressive journal writing on the communication, emotional status, social integration and quality of life of individuals with brain injury.

  17. Larger Brains in Medication Naive High-Functioning Subjects with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmen, Saskia J. M. C.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Kemner, Chantal; Schnack, Hugo G.; Janssen, Joost; Kahn, Rene S.; van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Background: Are brain volumes of individuals with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) still enlarged in adolescence and adulthood, and if so, is this enlargement confined to the gray and/or the white matter and is it global or more prominent in specific brain regions. Methods: Brain MRI scans were made of 21 adolescents with PDD and 21 closely…

  18. Larger Brains in Medication Naive High-Functioning Subjects with Pervasive Developmental Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmen, Saskia J. M. C.; Pol, Hilleke E. Hulshoff; Kemner, Chantal; Schnack, Hugo G.; Janssen, Joost; Kahn, Rene S.; van Engeland, Herman

    2004-01-01

    Background: Are brain volumes of individuals with Pervasive Developmental Disorder (PDD) still enlarged in adolescence and adulthood, and if so, is this enlargement confined to the gray and/or the white matter and is it global or more prominent in specific brain regions. Methods: Brain MRI scans were made of 21 adolescents with PDD and 21 closely…

  19. Extensive brain masses and cavitary lung lesions associated with toxoplasmosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ayoade, Folusakin; Todd, John; Al-Delfi, Firas; King, John

    2017-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of enhancing brain lesions in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and it is typically associated with low CD4-lymphocyte counts. Extensive toxoplasma encephalitis when the CD4-lymphocyte count is above 100 cells/µl is unusual. Cavitary lung lesions are also not typically associated with toxoplasmosis. Here, we present a case of toxoplasmosis associated with extensive brain masses and cavitary lung lesions, both of which improved with directed toxoplasmosis therapy, in an AIDS patient with a CD4 cell count of 120 cells/µl.

  20. Beyond Utterances: Distributed Cognition as a Framework for Studying Discourse in Adults with Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Duff, Melissa C.; Mutlu, Bilge; Byom, Lindsey; Turkstra, Lyn S.

    2014-01-01

    Considerable effort has been directed at understanding the nature of the communicative deficits observed in individuals with acquired brain injuries. Yet several theoretical, methodological, and clinical challenges remain. In this article, we examine distributed cognition as a framework for understanding interaction among communication partners, interaction of communication and cognition, and interaction with the environments and contexts of everyday language use. We review the basic principles of distributed cognition and the implications for applying this approach to the study of discourse in individuals with cognitive-communication disorders. We also review a range of protocols and findings from our research that highlight how the distributed cognition approach might offer a deeper understanding of communicative mechanisms and deficits in individuals with cognitive communication impairments. The advantages and implications of distributed cognition as a framework for studying discourse in adults with acquired brain injury are discussed. PMID:22362323

  1. Predictors of Change in Participation Rates Following Acquired Brain Injury: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anaby, Dana; Law, Mary; Hanna, Steven; DeMatteo, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was (1) to examine the changes in participation rates over 1 year among children and adolescents after acquired brain injury and (2) to explore the effect of child and family factors on these changes. Method: The participation levels of 136 children and young people (88 males; 48 females; age range 4y 11mo-17y 6mo;…

  2. Predictors of Change in Participation Rates Following Acquired Brain Injury: Results of a Longitudinal Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anaby, Dana; Law, Mary; Hanna, Steven; DeMatteo, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Aim: The purpose of this study was (1) to examine the changes in participation rates over 1 year among children and adolescents after acquired brain injury and (2) to explore the effect of child and family factors on these changes. Method: The participation levels of 136 children and young people (88 males; 48 females; age range 4y 11mo-17y 6mo;…

  3. Perceptions of physical activity and walking in an early stage after stroke or acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Törnbom, Karin; Sunnerhagen, Katharina S; Danielsson, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Physical activity has been established as being highly beneficial for health after stroke. There are considerable global efforts to find rehabilitation programs that encourage increased physical activity for persons with stroke. However, many persons with stroke or acquired brain injury do not reach recommended levels of physical activity and increased knowledge about why is needed. We aimed to explore views and experiences of physical activity and walking among persons with stroke or acquired brain injury. A qualitative study was conducted, among persons with stroke (n = 8) or acquired brain injury (n = 2) from a rehabilitation unit at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Sweden. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were held about perceptions and experiences of walking and physical activity in general. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, with categories that were determined inductively. Physical activity in general and walking ability more specifically were considered very important by the participants. However, physical activity was, regardless of exercising habits pre-injury, associated with different kinds of negative feelings and experiences. Commonly reported internal barriers in the current study were; fatigue, fear of falling or getting hurt in traffic, lack of motivation and depression. Reported external barriers were mostly related to walking, for example; bad weather, uneven ground, lack of company or noisy or too busy surroundings. Persons with stroke or acquired brain injury found it difficult to engage in and sustain an eligible level of physical activity. Understanding individual concerns about motivators and barriers surrounding physical activity may facilitate the work of forming tailor-made rehabilitation for these groups, so that the levels of physical activity and walking can increase.

  4. Coping styles of parents of children and adolescents with acquired brain injury in the chronic phase.

    PubMed

    Prihadi, Eunice J; Dings, Femke; van Heugten, Caroline M

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the types of coping strategies used by parents of children with acquired brain injury in the chronic phase and the relationship between their coping styles and psychosocial functioning. Cross-sectional study (April-May 2013). Parents (n = 42) of 28 children with acquired brain injury (> 6 months post-injury). Parents completed the Utrecht Coping List, Life Satisfaction Questionnaire 9, Caregiver Strain Index, and Family Assessment Device. The use of coping strategies among fathers did not differ from that among men from the standardization population (t14 = 0.96, p = 0.35 and t14 = 0.61, p = 0.55, respectively). However, mothers used more emotion-focused coping strategies than women in the standardization population (t26 = 3.27, p = 0.00), while there was no difference on the problem-focused coping strategies (t26 = -1.75, p = 0.09). Parents who used emotion-focused coping styles exhibited lower family functioning, higher strain and lower quality of life, while those who used problem-focused coping styles exhibited higher strain. Parents of children with acquired brain injury need proper treatment to improve their psychosocial functioning. In particular, treatments should be developed that aim at changing the parents' maladaptive coping styles into less maladaptive ones. Thus, more attention should be focused on the psychological well-being of parents of children with acquired brain injury in the chronic phase.

  5. Perceptions of physical activity and walking in an early stage after stroke or acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background Physical activity has been established as being highly beneficial for health after stroke. There are considerable global efforts to find rehabilitation programs that encourage increased physical activity for persons with stroke. However, many persons with stroke or acquired brain injury do not reach recommended levels of physical activity and increased knowledge about why is needed. We aimed to explore views and experiences of physical activity and walking among persons with stroke or acquired brain injury. Method A qualitative study was conducted, among persons with stroke (n = 8) or acquired brain injury (n = 2) from a rehabilitation unit at Sahlgrenska University Hospital in Sweden. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were held about perceptions and experiences of walking and physical activity in general. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis, with categories that were determined inductively. Results Physical activity in general and walking ability more specifically were considered very important by the participants. However, physical activity was, regardless of exercising habits pre-injury, associated with different kinds of negative feelings and experiences. Commonly reported internal barriers in the current study were; fatigue, fear of falling or getting hurt in traffic, lack of motivation and depression. Reported external barriers were mostly related to walking, for example; bad weather, uneven ground, lack of company or noisy or too busy surroundings. Conclusion Persons with stroke or acquired brain injury found it difficult to engage in and sustain an eligible level of physical activity. Understanding individual concerns about motivators and barriers surrounding physical activity may facilitate the work of forming tailor-made rehabilitation for these groups, so that the levels of physical activity and walking can increase. PMID:28273158

  6. Acquired focal brain lesions in childhood: effects on development and reorganization of language.

    PubMed

    Chilosi, A M; Cipriani, P; Pecini, C; Brizzolara, D; Biagi, L; Montanaro, D; Tosetti, M; Cioni, G

    2008-09-01

    In the present paper, we address brain-behaviour relationships in children with acquired aphasia, by reviewing some recent studies on the effects of focal brain lesions on language development. Timing of the lesion, in terms of its occurrence, before or after the onset of speech and language acquisition, may be a major factor determining language outcome. However, it is still unclear which are the effects of aphasia occurring between 2 and 5 years of age, a time window which is crucial for acquiring and automatizing the basic rules of native language. A comprehensive review of the literature on acquired childhood aphasia precedes the description of long-term follow-up (20 years) of two identical twins, one of whom became aphasic at 3 years and 4 months after infarction of the left sylvian artery. Psycholinguistic analysis and fMRI data show a slow and incomplete recovery from non-fluent aphasia associated to an intra-hemispheric organization of language. These data, which support the potential but also the limits of neural plasticity during language development, are discussed in the light of the literature on the time-course and neural bases of acquired childhood aphasia.

  7. Effects of amantadine in children with impaired consciousness caused by acquired brain injury: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Mary A; Vargus-Adams, Jilda N; Michaud, Linda J; Bean, Judy

    2009-07-01

    To conduct a pilot study of amantadine in children with impaired consciousness caused by acquired brain injury, to establish design feasibility, and to assess the effect on level of arousal and consciousness. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover trial. Seven subjects (mean age, 12.7 yrs) with an acquired brain injury (mean duration, 6 wks) were randomized to receive either 3 wks of placebo or amantadine, followed by a 1-wk washout period and then 3 wks of the other agent. Main outcome measures were the Coma/Near-Coma Scale and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised, each done three times per week. Subjective evaluations of change in arousal and consciousness by the parent and physician were done weekly. Five subjects completed the study. There was no significant difference in the slopes of recovery during either arm for the Coma/Near-Coma Scale (P = 0.24) or the Coma Recovery Scale-Revised (P = 0.28), although improvements in consciousness were noted by the physician during weeks when amantadine was given (P = 0.02). This study suggests that amantadine facilitates recovery of consciousness in pediatric acquired brain injury and provides important information necessary to design future more definitive studies.

  8. A validation study of the Caregiver Mastery Scale for partners of patients with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Cox, Vincent Cm; Schepers, Vera Pm; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Kruithof, Willeke J; van Heugten, Caroline M; Visser-Meily, Johanna Ma

    2017-09-01

    To validate the Caregiver Mastery Scale for partners of patients with acquired brain injury. The score distributions, internal consistency and convergent validity of the Caregiver Mastery Scale were determined. A total of 92 partners (53% male, age 62 years) of patients with acquired brain injury (91% stroke) discharged from inpatient rehabilitation (time since injury 32 months). Outcome measure: Caregiver Mastery Scale. Reference measures: Caregiver Strain Index, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and CarerQoL. The Caregiver Mastery Scale has a normal distribution, with no floor or ceiling effects. Its internal consistency is acceptable (Cronbach's alpha: 0.75). The convergent validity analyses confirmed our hypothesis that higher scores on the Caregiver Mastery Scale correlate with less burden, lower levels of anxiety and depression and greater well-being. Furthermore, partners scoring high on the Caregiver Mastery Scale mostly scored below the clinical cut-off scores on the Caregiver Strain Index and the anxiety and depression subscales of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, whereas partners scoring low on the Caregiver Mastery Scale were more likely to score above the cut-off points. The Caregiver Mastery Scale is a valid instrument to assess the caregiver mastery of partners of patients with acquired brain injury.

  9. Validity of caregiver information on the developmental status of severely brain-damaged young children.

    PubMed

    Stancin, T; Reuter, J; Dunn, V; Bickett, L

    1984-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to examine the validity of caregiver information on the developmental status of severely brain-damaged young children. First, developmental information on 106 severely brain-damaged young children, obtained from a caregiver-completed behavior inventory--the Kent Infant Development Scale, was compared to that obtained from the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (the Bayley Scales). Developmental age estimates from both tests were highly correlated and similar. Results suggest that it is possible to substitute the Kent Infant Development Scale for the Bayley Scales when measuring the developmental status of severely brain-damaged young children. In a second study examining the differential validity of caregivers' reports, we found that mothers' Kent Infant Development Scales yielded higher developmental age estimates than did teachers' Kent Infant Development Scales.

  10. Tackling the ‘dyslexia paradox’: reading brain and behavior for early markers of developmental dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Gaab, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is an unexplained inability to acquire accurate or fluent reading that affects approximately 5–17% of children. Dyslexia is associated with structural and functional alterations in various brain regions that support reading. Neuroimaging studies in infants and pre-reading children suggest that these alterations predate reading instruction and reading failure, supporting the hypothesis that variant function in dyslexia susceptibility genes lead to atypical neural migration and/or axonal growth during early, most likely in utero, brain development. Yet, dyslexia is typically not diagnosed until a child has failed to learn to read as expected (usually in second grade or later). There is emerging evidence that neuroimaging measures, when combined with key behavioral measures, can enhance the accuracy of identification of dyslexia risk in prereading children but its sensitivity, specificity, and cost-efficiency is still unclear. Early identification of dyslexia risk carries important implications for dyslexia remediation and the amelioration of the psychosocial consequences commonly associated with reading failure. PMID:26836227

  11. Tackling the 'dyslexia paradox': reading brain and behavior for early markers of developmental dyslexiax.

    PubMed

    Ozernov-Palchik, Ola; Gaab, Nadine

    2016-01-01

    Developmental dyslexia is an unexplained inability to acquire accurate or fluent reading that affects approximately 5-17% of children. Dyslexia is associated with structural and functional alterations in various brain regions that support reading. Neuroimaging studies in infants and pre-reading children suggest that these alterations predate reading instruction and reading failure, supporting the hypothesis that variant function in dyslexia susceptibility genes lead to atypical neural migration and/or axonal growth during early, most likely in utero, brain development. Yet, dyslexia is typically not diagnosed until a child has failed to learn to read as expected (usually in second grade or later). There is emerging evidence that neuroimaging measures, when combined with key behavioral measures, can enhance the accuracy of identification of dyslexia risk in pre-reading children but its sensitivity, specificity, and cost-efficiency is still unclear. Early identification of dyslexia risk carries important implications for dyslexia remediation and the amelioration of the psychosocial consequences commonly associated with reading failure.

  12. Developmental Hypothyroidism Alters Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Expression in Adulthood.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Severe developmental thyroid hormone (TH) insufficiency results in alterations in brain structure/function and lasting behavioral impairments. Environmental toxicants reduce circulating levels of TH, but the disruption is modest and the doseresponse relationships of TH and neuro...

  13. Developmental Hypothyroidism Alters Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) Expression in Adulthood.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Severe developmental thyroid hormone (TH) insufficiency results in alterations in brain structure/function and lasting behavioral impairments. Environmental toxicants reduce circulating levels of TH, but the disruption is modest and the doseresponse relationships of TH and neuro...

  14. Cognitive rehabilitation after severe acquired brain injury: current evidence and future directions.

    PubMed

    De Luca, Rosaria; Calabrò, Rocco Salvatore; Bramanti, Placido

    2016-07-25

    Severe acquired brain injury (SABI) is damage to the brain, occurring after birth from traumatic or non-traumatic causes, and often resulting in deterioration of physical, cognitive, and emotional functions. Cognitive rehabilitation (CR) is aimed to help brain-injured or otherwise cognitively impaired individuals to restore normal functioning, or to compensate for cognitive deficits. Over the last years, the development of new technologies in the field of CR has led to a growing use of computer-based cognitive tools in patients with SABI. This review aims to investigate the efficacy of CR in individuals suffering from SABI, and evaluates the role of virtual reality and other innovative technologies in improving behavioural and functional outcomes. The current evidence for CR in the treatment of SABI-related deficits does not allow conclusive results to be achieved and further research is needed to identity the patient and treatment factors that contribute to successful outcomes.

  15. MR imaging of congenital/developmental and acquired disorders of the pediatric hip and pelvis.

    PubMed

    Dillon, Johanne E; Connolly, Susan A; Connolly, Leonard P; Kim, Young-Jo; Jaramillo, Diego

    2005-11-01

    This article reviews the MR imaging findings of some of the more common congenital and acquired disorders of the pediatric hip and pelvis,with the intent of increasing the awareness of radiologists and facilitating early and accurate diagnosis and treatment. The importance of MR imaging in the pediatric population is underscored by its ability to evaluate these disorders well and without the use of ionizing radiation.

  16. [Professional career, disability and dependence after acquired brain injury: a prospective study in the two years following the brain injury].

    PubMed

    Luna-Lario, Pilar; Blanco-Beregaña, Miriam; Tirapu-Ustárroz, Javier; Ojeda, Natalia; Mata-Pastor, Ignacio

    2013-09-16

    The purpose of the current study is to analyze the labor trajectory, grade of disability and degree of dependence ecognized in a group of people with acquired brain injury with difference types and severity of injuries and with memory deficit as the main cognitive sequel, over a period of two years after the injury and to explore which premorbid clinical and demographic variables related to the brain injury are predictors of the return to work. 129 subjects (aged 18-80 years), who were attended by the Neuropsychology and Neuropsychiatry Department of Navarra's Hospital. Qualitative variables were compared using the Chi square test and means were compared using Student t test and to determine the correlation between continuing variables we used Pearson's correlation coefficient. 17.7% returned to work one year after and 25% two years after. The return to work was related to high levels of education. Disability was recognized by 85% of applicants, to psychological factors or physical and psychological in 89% of them. In 77% of applicants was recognized the level of dependence. Results confirm the big impact of acquired brain injury on the career path two years later, in their interaction with their environment and in their level of independence. One of the factors that explain this impact is the memory deficits.

  17. Psychological and adjustment problems due to acquired brain lesions in pediatric patients: a comparison of vascular, infectious, and other origins.

    PubMed

    Pastore, Valentina; Galbiati, Susanna; Villa, Federica; Colombo, Katia; Recla, Monica; Adduci, Annarita; Avantaggiato, Paolo; Bardoni, Alessandra; Strazzer, Sandra

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to describe psychological, behavioral, and adjustment problems in children and adolescents with acquired brain lesions of different origins. Three groups of patients with acquired brain lesions (15 patients with infectious origin, 37 with vascular origin, and 15 with other origin), ranging in age from 4 to 18 years, received a psychological evaluation, including the Child Behavior Checklist for ages 4 to 18 and the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale. About half of the total sample (47.8%) showed psychological problems. Difficulties varied according to the cause of the brain lesions. The most problematic patients were children with brain lesions of infectious origin, whereas children with brain lesions of vascular origin scored lower on most of the Child Behavior Checklist scales. The authors conclude that psychological and behavioral difficulties are very common among school-aged children with acquired brain lesions, and their relevance and impact must necessarily be considered. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. A primer on brain imaging in developmental psychopathology: what is it good for?

    PubMed

    Pine, Daniel S

    2006-10-01

    This primer introduces a Special Section on brain imaging, which includes a commentary and 10 data papers presenting applications of brain imaging to questions on developmental psychopathology. This primer serves two purposes. First, the article summarizes the strength and weaknesses of various brain-imaging techniques typically employed in research on developmental psychopathology. Second, the article places research on brain imaging in a broader context by discussing particular limitations and utilities of imaging. Specifically, while brain imaging is currently of limited clinical utility, work in this area is beginning to shape clinical thinking. Brain-imaging research offers a unique opportunity to constrain theories of pathophysiology based on understandings of brain function. This effect promises to open avenues for novel treatments.

  19. [Acquired brain injury: a proposal for its definition, diagnostic criteria and classification].

    PubMed

    Castellanos-Pinedo, Fernando; Cid-Gala, Manuel; Duque, Pablo; Ramirez-Moreno, José M; Zurdo-Hernández, José M

    2012-03-16

    Acquired brain injury is a heterogeneous clinical concept that goes beyond the limits of the classical medical view, which tends to define processes and diseases on the grounds of a single causation. Although in the medical literature it appears fundamentally associated to traumatic brain injury, there are many other causes and management is similar in all of them, during the post-acute and chronic phases, as regards the measures to be taken concerning rehabilitation and attention to dependence. Yet, despite being an important health issue, today we do not have a set of diagnostic criteria or a classification for this condition. This is a serious handicap when it comes to carrying out epidemiological studies, designing specific care programmes and comparing results among different programmes and centres. Accordingly, the Extremadura Acquired Brain Injury Health Care Plan working group has drawn up these proposed diagnostic criteria, definition and classification. The proposal is intended to be essentially practical, its main purpose being to allow correct identification of the cases that must be attended to and to optimise the use of neurorehabilitation and attention to dependence resources, thereby ensuring attention is provided on a fair basis.

  20. Computerized Cognitive Rehabilitation of Attention and Executive Function in Acquired Brain Injury: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Bogdanova, Yelena; Yee, Megan K; Ho, Vivian T; Cicerone, Keith D

    Comprehensive review of the use of computerized treatment as a rehabilitation tool for attention and executive function in adults (aged 18 years or older) who suffered an acquired brain injury. Systematic review of empirical research. Two reviewers independently assessed articles using the methodological quality criteria of Cicerone et al. Data extracted included sample size, diagnosis, intervention information, treatment schedule, assessment methods, and outcome measures. A literature review (PubMed, EMBASE, Ovid, Cochrane, PsychINFO, CINAHL) generated a total of 4931 publications. Twenty-eight studies using computerized cognitive interventions targeting attention and executive functions were included in this review. In 23 studies, significant improvements in attention and executive function subsequent to training were reported; in the remaining 5, promising trends were observed. Preliminary evidence suggests improvements in cognitive function following computerized rehabilitation for acquired brain injury populations including traumatic brain injury and stroke. Further studies are needed to address methodological issues (eg, small sample size, inadequate control groups) and to inform development of guidelines and standardized protocols.

  1. Glioblastoma multiforme of the brain stem in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wolff, R; Zimmermann, M; Marquardt, Gerhard; Lanfermann, H; Nafe, R; Seifert, V

    2002-09-01

    Glioblastoma of the brain stem is rare and there is no description of such a lesion in patients suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The majority of intracerebral mass lesions are due either to toxoplasmosis or primary central nervous system lymphomas so that it is usually not included in the differential diagnosis of enhancing lesions of the central nervous system in these patients. A 31-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected man presented with a four months history of slowly progressive deterioration of brainstem associated symptoms despite antitoxoplasmic therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large ring enhancing lesion in the brainstem. Clinical and neuroradiological data could not establish a proper diagnosis and a stereotactic serial biopsy was undertaken. Histological examination of the specimen showed a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) as the first reported case of GBM located in the brainstem in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient. Patient management and effectiveness of stereotactic serial biopsy are discussed.

  2. Improving structural brain images acquired with the 3D FLASH sequence.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinghua; He, Lili; Zheng, Hairong; Lu, Zhong-Lin

    2017-05-01

    The three-dimension Fast Low Angle SHot Magnetic Resonance Imaging (3D FLASH) sequence has been widely adopted in medical diagnostic imaging because of its availability, simplicity, and high spatial resolution. To improve the quality of structural brain images acquired with the 3D FLASH sequence, we developed a parameter optimization scheme and image inhomogeneity correction methods. The optimal imaging parameters were determined by maximizing gray-matter and white-matter CNR efficiency. Compared to protocols based on published parameters, applying the proposed optimal imaging parameters increased CNR efficiency by >10%. Image inhomogeneity, including signal and CNR inhomogeneity, was corrected by the choice of an optimal flip angle, estimated transmit function, and estimated receive sensitivity. As a result, our optimization and image inhomogeneity correction greatly improved the quality of images acquired with the 3D FLASH sequence. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Developmentally-Dynamic Murine Brain Proteomes and Phosphoproteomes Revealed by Quantitative Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Doubleday, Peter F.; Ballif, Bryan A.

    2014-01-01

    Developmental processes are governed by a diverse suite of signaling pathways employing reversible phosphorylation. Recent advances in large-scale phosphoproteomic methodologies have made possible the identification and quantification of hundreds to thousands of phosphorylation sites from primary tissues. Towards a global characterization of proteomic changes across brain development, we present the results of a large-scale quantitative mass spectrometry study comparing embryonic, newborn and adult murine brain. Using anti-phosphotyrosine immuno-affinity chromatography and strong cation exchange (SCX) chromatography, coupled to immobilized metal affinity chromatography (IMAC), we identified and quantified over 1,750 phosphorylation sites and over 1,300 proteins between three developmental states. Bioinformatic analyses highlight functions associated with the identified proteins and phosphoproteins and their enrichment at distinct developmental stages. These results serve as a primary reference resource and reveal dynamic developmental profiles of proteins and phosphoproteins from the developing murine brain. PMID:25177544

  4. Employment Outcomes for Persons with Acquired Brain Injury. Report from the Institute on Rehabilitation Issues Study Group (20th, New Orleans, Louisiana, November 1993).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corthell, David W., Ed.

    This document provides a resource and problem-solving guide for vocational rehabilitation counselors serving people with brain injuries acquired through trauma or other circumstances. An introduction defines acquired brain injury, characterizes the uniqueness of people with acquired brain injury, and describes community resources. Chapter 2,…

  5. Efficacy of leisure intervention groups in rehabilitation of people with an acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Elizabeth J; Veitch, Craig; Passey, Megan

    2014-01-01

    To determine whether participation in a week-long residential leisure intervention program targeting individuals with an acquired brain injury (ABI) improved the leisure satisfaction, self-esteem and quality of life (QOL) of participants. The program included leisure awareness, leisure resources, social interaction skills and leisure activity skills. Using a pre- and post-intervention design leisure satisfaction, self-esteem and QOL were assessed prior to, immediately following and at three months post program. Data were analyzed using Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Participants were eight men and four women aged between 19 and 49 years who were recent clients of a rural Brain Injury Rehabilitation Service. The majority (7/12) had acquired their ABI more than two years previously, and for most (10/12) the cause was trauma. Program participants showed clinically important and statistically significant improvements in leisure satisfaction (p = 0.002), self-esteem (p = 0.03) and QOL (p = 0.02 to 0.008 for four domains of the World Health Organisation Quality of Life - Bref scale) three months post program. Adults with an ABI participating in leisure education programs can experience improvements in leisure satisfaction, self-esteem and QOL following the program. The findings suggest that active leisure intervention programs should be included in the ongoing rehabilitative care of adults with an ABI. Implications for Rehabilitation Leisure participation, leisure satisfaction and social integration can be seriously compromised following an acquired brain injury (ABI). Engagement in leisure activities has positive effects on physical and mental health and is increasingly recognised as an important determinant of quality of life (QOL) for people with ABI. Participation in a short-term intensive leisure intervention program can improve leisure satisfaction, self-esteem and QOL. Active leisure intervention programs should be included in the ongoing rehabilitation

  6. STATISTICAL APPROACH TO BRAIN MORPHOMETRY DATA REQUIRED IN DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY (DNT) TESTING GUIDELINES: PROFILE ANALYSIS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brain morphometry measurements are required in test guidelines proposed by the USEPA to screen chemicals for developmental neurotoxicity. Because the DNT is a screening battery, the analysis of this data should be sensitive to dose-related changes in the pattern of brain growt...

  7. In search of the hidden: an fMRI study with implications for the study of patients with autism and with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Manjaly, Zina M; Marshall, John C; Stephan, Klaas E; Gurd, Jennifer M; Zilles, Karl; Fink, Gereon R

    2003-07-01

    The Embedded Figures Task involves a search for a target hidden in a more complex visual pattern. The task has been used to study local perception and visual search in a range of normal and pathological populations. After acquired brain damage, impairment on embedded figures is strongly associated with aphasia; in the context of developmental disorder, people with autism or with Asperger's syndrome are reliably found to be better than normal controls on the task. The current study employed functional MRI with healthy volunteers to elucidate the brain regions that are specifically involved in the local search aspects of the Embedded Figures Task. We did so by analyzing the neural activations that are implicated in the task over and above those involved in an easier visual search task and in a straightforward shape recognition task. Significant activations (P < 0.05, corrected) specific in the above sense to the Embedded Figures Task were found in left inferior and left superior parietal cortex and in left ventral premotor cortex (inferior frontal gyrus). By contrast, comparing the overall effect of visual search within geometric figures to pure recognition of geometric shapes revealed more widespread activations in parietal, occipital, cerebellar, and frontal areas bilaterally. The implications of these findings for some developmental and acquired pathologies of perceptual functioning are outlined. We also relate our results to studies of local/global processing in other tasks.

  8. Neurobehavioral Consequences of HTLV-III Brain Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Encephalopathy: A Prospective Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-02-15

    AD-A220 180 +++AAD-A22 0t Available Copy FUNDING NO.: 87PP7856 TITLE: Neurobehavioral Consequences of HTLV -III Brain Infection and Acquired Immune...TITLE (Include Securty Classifiat:on) Neurobehavioral Consequences of HTLV -1II Brain Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS...abnormalities in CSF & specific cognitive tasks of atten- tion & information processing. This latter occurs in a subgroup of HIV+ patients, but not in

  9. Vertically acquired neonatal citrobacter brain abscess - case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Deepak; Mahapatra, Ashok Kumar

    2005-02-01

    Vertically acquired citrobacter meningitis in the neonate is very rare and carries a very high mortality and morbidity. Overall, approximately 30% of neonates with Citrobacter meningitis die and 50% sustain some damage to the CNS. The authors describe a case of a newborn with Citrobacter koseri meningitis with multiple brain abscesses, with a successful outcome following multiple burr-hole aspirations and prolonged antibiotic therapy. An aggressive surgical approach combined with intravenous antibiotics (including imipenems, to which the organism is very sensitive) for a minimum of 4 weeks appears to improve the outcome of infection with this virulent organism.

  10. BEHAVIORAL TREATMENT FOR PATHOLOGICAL GAMBLING IN PERSONS WITH ACQUIRED BRAIN INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Guercio, John M; Johnson, Taylor; Dixon, Mark R

    2012-01-01

    The present investigation examined a behavior-analytic clinical treatment package designed to reduce the pathological gambling of 3 individuals with acquired brain injury. A prior history of pathological gambling of each patient was assessed via caregiver report, psychological testing, and direct observation of gambling behavior. Using an 8-week one-on-one client–patient format, a treatment program was developed in which the patient learned about the antecedents, consequences, and motivating operations that controlled the emission of gambling behavior. Data were collected on both self-report of gambling urges and behavior following therapy and during in situ gambling opportunities. The therapy program reduced urges to gamble and actual gambling for all patients. The potential of behavior-analytic therapy for reducing the pathological gambling of patients with and without brain injury is discussed. PMID:23060663

  11. Educational action in the rehabilitation of severe acquired brain injuries: the role of self-awareness.

    PubMed

    Silvestro, Daniela; Mazzetti, Maria; Melia, Chiara; Stagno, Maria Teresa; Carlesimo, Giovanni Augusto; Bivona, Umberto; Formisano, Rita

    2017-01-01

    Severe acquired brain injuries (ABI) cause a range of short-or long-term limitations in physical and neuropsychological abilities. The aim of rehabilitation is to promote the harmonious development of the individual through collaboration between medical and educational sciences, involved in the educability of the whole person, in which the aim is not only functional recovery but also social-reintegration. This "functional synergy" permits the development of the person, and establishes an indissoluble link between functions and attitudes, thus allowing the achievement of the greater possible autonomy. In this way classical and pedagogical rehabilitation may be combined in a single concept of educational action. To realize this integrated educational process it is important to evaluate and promote awareness development, based on the possibilities of brain plasticity and on the presence of multiple intelligences skillfully intertwined each other. Therefore, self-awareness plays a prime role in educational actions for the rehabilitation of persons with severe ABI.

  12. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Patterns Predict Consciousness Level and Recovery Outcome in Acquired Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xuehai; Zou, Qihong; Hu, Jin; Tang, Weijun; Mao, Ying; Gao, Liang; Zhu, Jianhong; Jin, Yi; Wu, Xin; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Yaojun; Zhang, Yao; Dai, Zhengjia; Gao, Jia-Hong; Weng, Xuchu; Zhou, Liangfu; Northoff, Georg; Giacino, Joseph T; He, Yong; Yang, Yihong

    2015-09-16

    For accurate diagnosis and prognostic prediction of acquired brain injury (ABI), it is crucial to understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying loss of consciousness. However, there is no consensus on which regions and networks act as biomarkers for consciousness level and recovery outcome in ABI. Using resting-state fMRI, we assessed intrinsic functional connectivity strength (FCS) of whole-brain networks in a large sample of 99 ABI patients with varying degrees of consciousness loss (including fully preserved consciousness state, minimally conscious state, unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state, and coma) and 34 healthy control subjects. Consciousness level was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Scale and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised on the day of fMRI scanning; recovery outcome was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale 3 months after the fMRI scanning. One-way ANOVA of FCS, Spearman correlation analyses between FCS and the consciousness level and recovery outcome, and FCS-based multivariate pattern analysis were performed. We found decreased FCS with loss of consciousness primarily distributed in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCU), medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral parietal cortex. The FCS values of these regions were significantly correlated with consciousness level and recovery outcome. Multivariate support vector machine discrimination analysis revealed that the FCS patterns predicted whether patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state and coma would regain consciousness with an accuracy of 81.25%, and the most discriminative region was the PCC/PCU. These findings suggest that intrinsic functional connectivity patterns of the human posteromedial cortex could serve as a potential indicator for consciousness level and recovery outcome in individuals with ABI. Varying degrees of consciousness loss and recovery are commonly observed in acquired brain injury patients, yet the underlying neurobiological

  13. Intrinsic Functional Connectivity Patterns Predict Consciousness Level and Recovery Outcome in Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xuehai; Zou, Qihong; Hu, Jin; Tang, Weijun; Mao, Ying; Gao, Liang; Zhu, Jianhong; Jin, Yi; Wu, Xin; Lu, Lu; Zhang, Yaojun; Zhang, Yao; Dai, Zhengjia; Gao, Jia-Hong; Weng, Xuchu; Northoff, Georg; Giacino, Joseph T.; He, Yong

    2015-01-01

    For accurate diagnosis and prognostic prediction of acquired brain injury (ABI), it is crucial to understand the neurobiological mechanisms underlying loss of consciousness. However, there is no consensus on which regions and networks act as biomarkers for consciousness level and recovery outcome in ABI. Using resting-state fMRI, we assessed intrinsic functional connectivity strength (FCS) of whole-brain networks in a large sample of 99 ABI patients with varying degrees of consciousness loss (including fully preserved consciousness state, minimally conscious state, unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state, and coma) and 34 healthy control subjects. Consciousness level was evaluated using the Glasgow Coma Scale and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised on the day of fMRI scanning; recovery outcome was assessed using the Glasgow Outcome Scale 3 months after the fMRI scanning. One-way ANOVA of FCS, Spearman correlation analyses between FCS and the consciousness level and recovery outcome, and FCS-based multivariate pattern analysis were performed. We found decreased FCS with loss of consciousness primarily distributed in the posterior cingulate cortex/precuneus (PCC/PCU), medial prefrontal cortex, and lateral parietal cortex. The FCS values of these regions were significantly correlated with consciousness level and recovery outcome. Multivariate support vector machine discrimination analysis revealed that the FCS patterns predicted whether patients with unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state and coma would regain consciousness with an accuracy of 81.25%, and the most discriminative region was the PCC/PCU. These findings suggest that intrinsic functional connectivity patterns of the human posteromedial cortex could serve as a potential indicator for consciousness level and recovery outcome in individuals with ABI. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Varying degrees of consciousness loss and recovery are commonly observed in acquired brain injury patients, yet the

  14. Postinjury personality and outcome in acquired brain injury: the Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kelley D; Franks, Susan F; Hall, James R

    2010-03-01

    To examine the relationship between postinjury personality and outcome in individuals with acquired brain injury. It was hypothesized that patients with differing levels of Introversive, Dejected, and Oppositional coping styles as described by Millon's Theory of Personality would show different outcomes after completion of a rehabilitation program. A retrospective chart review and completion of an outcome assessment was undertaken to examine study hypotheses. A postacute brain injury rehabilitation program. Fifty patients who completed the rehabilitation program between 2005 and 2008, who were 18 years of age or older, who possessed at least a sixth-grade reading level, and who completed a valid Millon Behavioral Medicine Diagnostic (MBMD) were selected. Rehabilitation therapists who worked with these patients were also recruited to assess patient outcomes. Charts of patients that met inclusion criteria were reviewed. Rehabilitation therapists completed the outcome measure retrospectively. The MBMD was used to predict outcome. The MBMD is a self-report questionnaire designed to assess psychosocial factors that relate to the course of medical treatment in chronic illness. The Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4) was used to assess patient outcome. It is a 29-item assessment designed to evaluate the common physical, cognitive, emotional, behavioral, and social issues after acquired brain injury. Findings supported our hypotheses that patients with differing levels of Introversive and Oppositional Coping Styles would have significantly different outcomes after rehabilitation. Thus, individuals with mild/moderate to moderate/severe limitations had significantly greater scores on the Introversive and Oppositional coping compared with individuals with more successful outcomes. The results of this study support the idea that postinjury personality is an important factor in understanding outcome after completion of a brain-injury rehabilitation program

  15. Outcomes of a multicomponent intervention on occupational performance in persons with unilateral acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Hoyas, Elisabet Huertas; Pérez, Eduardo José Pedrero; Águila Maturana, Ana M.; Mota, Gloria Rojo; Piédrola, Rosa Martínez; de Heredia Torres, Marta Pérez

    2016-01-01

    Summary Complications after unilateral acquired brain injury (ABI) can affect various areas of expertise causing (depending on the location of the lesion) impairment in occupational performance. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the concepts of occupational performance and functional independence, both before and after a multicomponent intervention including occupational therapy, in persons with unilateral brain damage. This was a longitudinal quasi-experimental pretest post-test study in a sample of 58 patients with unilateral brain injury (28 with traumatic brain injury and 30 with ischemic stroke). The patients’ level of independence was measured using the short version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. We also measured quality of performance using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. The findings of this study showed that patients with injury in the right hemisphere improved more than those with left hemisphere damage (p<0.001). All the patients with ABI, especially those with right-sided injury, derived benefit from the multicomponent intervention, except in the area of motor skills. More research is needed on the specific techniques that might address such skills. PMID:27358224

  16. Cortical Enhanced Tissue Segmentation of Neonatal Brain MR Images Acquired by a Dedicated Phased Array Coil.

    PubMed

    Shi, Feng; Yap, Pew-Thian; Fan, Yong; Cheng, Jie-Zhi; Wald, Lawrence L; Gerig, Guido; Lin, Weili; Shen, Dinggang

    2009-01-01

    The acquisition of high quality MR images of neonatal brains is largely hampered by their characteristically small head size and low tissue contrast. As a result, subsequent image processing and analysis, especially for brain tissue segmentation, are often hindered. To overcome this problem, a dedicated phased array neonatal head coil is utilized to improve MR image quality by effectively combing images obtained from 8 coil elements without lengthening data acquisition time. In addition, a subject-specific atlas based tissue segmentation algorithm is specifically developed for the delineation of fine structures in the acquired neonatal brain MR images. The proposed tissue segmentation method first enhances the sheet-like cortical gray matter (GM) structures in neonatal images with a Hessian filter for generation of cortical GM prior. Then, the prior is combined with our neonatal population atlas to form a cortical enhanced hybrid atlas, which we refer to as the subject-specific atlas. Various experiments are conducted to compare the proposed method with manual segmentation results, as well as with additional two population atlas based segmentation methods. Results show that the proposed method is capable of segmenting the neonatal brain with the highest accuracy, compared to other two methods.

  17. The social consequences of stigma-related self-concealment after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hagger, Barbara F; Riley, Gerard A

    2017-09-18

    Social relationships often decline after brain injury. Although much of this is due to psychosocial impairments caused by the injury, the reactions to the injury of others in the person's wider social network, along with the response of the person with the injury to those reactions, also need to be considered. Anxiety about stigmatising reactions from others may lead some to conceal information about their brain injury. This study investigated some of the social consequences of such concealment. Sixty-five participants with acquired brain injury completed the Anticipated Stigma and Concealment Questionnaire, the Social Avoidance and Distress Scale, the UCLA Loneliness Scale, the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale, the Social Integration subscale of the Community Integration Questionnaire, and the Enacted Social Support Questionnaire. As hypothesised, concealment was associated with social anxiety, social avoidance, loneliness and lower self-esteem; and anxiety mediated the impact that concealment had on avoidance, loneliness and reduced community activity. However, contrary to expectation, concealment was not associated with reduced use of social support. Concealment may have negative consequences, but inappropriate disclosure can also be harmful. Services should support individuals to make optimal decisions about disclosing information about the brain injury and also help them address psychological barriers to disclosure.

  18. Outcomes of a multicomponent intervention on occupational performance in persons with unilateral acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Huertas Hoyas, E; Pedrero Pérez, E J; Águila Maturana, A M; Rojo Mota, G; Martínez Piédrola, R; Pérez de Heredia Torres, M

    2016-01-01

    Complications after unilateral acquired brain injury (ABI) can affect various areas of expertise causing (depending on the location of the lesion) impairment in occupational performance. The aim of this study was to analyze and compare the concepts of occupational performance and functional independence, both before and after a multicomponent intervention including occupational therapy, in persons with unilateral brain damage. This was a longitudinal quasi-experimental pretest post-test study in a sample of 58 patients with unilateral brain injury (28 with traumatic brain injury and 30 with ischemic stroke). The patients' level of independence was measured using the short version of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. We also measured quality of performance using the Assessment of Motor and Process Skills. The findings of this study showed that patients with injury in the right hemisphere improved more than those with left hemisphere damage (p<0.001). All the patients with ABI, especially those with right-sided injury, derived benefit from the multicomponent intervention, except in the area of motor skills. More research is needed on the specific techniques that might address such skills.

  19. Are metacognitive processes associated with posttraumatic stress symptom severity following acquired brain injury?

    PubMed

    Gill, Ian J; Mullin, Stephen; Simpson, Jane

    2015-01-01

    Although posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after acquired brain injury (ABI) is relatively common, its causal mechanisms remain speculative and little research has considered psychological perspectives. The current study aimed to examine whether metacognitive variables were associated with posttraumatic stress symptom (PTSS) severity in individuals with an ABI. Participants who had a traumatic brain injury (n = 47) or subarachnoid haemorrhage (n = 93) completed questionnaires related to demographic, clinical, social support and metacognitive variables. Correlation analyses and a hierarchical multiple regression analysis, with total PTSS severity used as the outcome variable, were conducted. Results demonstrated that metacognitive factors were correlated with PTSS severity and were able to explain an additional and significant amount of variance in PTSS severity within the regression analysis. The results provide preliminary support that metacognitive variables are associated with PTSS after ABI. Clinical implications within rehabilitative settings are discussed, as well as theoretical and research implications in the context of the study's limitations. Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) can impede quality of life after brain injury. Clinical, social and metacognitive processes all influence the development of PTSD after brain injury and should be considered within rehabilitative care plans. Rehabilitative care plans should incorporate interventions for PTSD when appropriate, and metacognitive interventions could prove beneficial.

  20. Developmental process emerges from extended brain-body-behavior networks.

    PubMed

    Byrge, Lisa; Sporns, Olaf; Smith, Linda B

    2014-08-01

    Studies of brain connectivity have focused on two modes of networks: structural networks describing neuroanatomy and the intrinsic and evoked dependencies of functional networks at rest and during tasks. Each mode constrains and shapes the other across multiple timescales and each also shows age-related changes. Here we argue that understanding how brains change across development requires understanding the interplay between behavior and brain networks: changing bodies and activities modify the statistics of inputs to the brain; these changing inputs mold brain networks; and these networks, in turn, promote further change in behavior and input. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Developmental process emerges from extended brain-body-behavior networks

    PubMed Central

    Byrge, Lisa; Sporns, Olaf; Smith, Linda B.

    2014-01-01

    Studies of brain connectivity have focused on two modes of networks: structural networks describing neuroanatomy and the intrinsic and evoked dependencies of functional networks at rest and during tasks. Each mode constrains and shapes the other across multiple time scales, and each also shows age-related changes. Here we argue that understanding how brains change across development requires understanding the interplay between behavior and brain networks: changing bodies and activities modify the statistics of inputs to the brain; these changing inputs mold brain networks; these networks, in turn, promote further change in behavior and input. PMID:24862251

  2. [Acquired and developmental Gerstmann syndrome. Illustration from a patient with multiple sclerosis].

    PubMed

    Ehrlé, N; Maarouf, A; Chaunu, M-P; Sabbagh-Peignot, S; Bakchine, S

    2012-11-01

    Gerstmann's syndrome (GS) is defined by a clinical tetrad including acalculia, finger anomia, left-right disorientation and agraphia. In this article, we describe the case of a 42-year-old woman suffering from an aggressive relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis in which a systematic neuropsychological assessment revealed Gertsmann's syndrome amongst other cognitive disturbances. Brain MRI showed a high concentration of plaques within a left subcortical parietal region that has recently been considered as a crucial node for GS appearance. However, history, taking provided information suggesting that an important part of the GS, may have been present since childhood, evoking a possible neurodevelopmental origin in this patient. This article reviews the role of the GS concept in contemporary literature, with a special attention to pathophysiological hypotheses and to precautions necessary to study such cases.

  3. Systematic instruction for individuals with acquired brain injury: Results of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Laurie Ehlhardt; Glang, Ann; Ettel, Deborah; Todis, Bonnie; Sohlberg, McKay; Albin, Richard

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to experimentally evaluate systematic instruction compared with trial-and-error learning (conventional instruction) applied to assistive technology for cognition (ATC), in a double blind, pretest-posttest, randomized controlled trial. Twenty-nine persons with moderate-severe cognitive impairments due to acquired brain injury (15 in systematic instruction group; 14 in conventional instruction) completed the study. Both groups received 12, 45-minute individual training sessions targeting selected skills on the Palm Tungsten E2 personal digital assistant (PDA). A criterion-based assessment of PDA skills was used to evaluate accuracy, fluency/efficiency, maintenance, and generalization of skills. There were no significant differences between groups at immediate posttest with regard to accuracy and fluency. However, significant differences emerged at 30-day follow-up in favor of systematic instruction. Furthermore, systematic instruction participants performed significantly better at immediate posttest generalizing trained PDA skills when interacting with people other than the instructor. These results demonstrate that systematic instruction applied to ATC results in better skill maintenance and generalization than trial-and-error learning for individuals with moderate-severe cognitive impairments due to acquired brain injury. Implications, study limitations, and directions for future research are discussed. PMID:22264146

  4. Use of yoked prisms in patients with acquired brain injury: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Surbhi; Han, Esther; Ciuffreda, Kenneth J

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine the clinical practices for prescribing yoked prisms, as well as to assess related patient responses, in a sample of visually-symptomatic patients having acquired brain injury (ABI). The clinical records of individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) that were assessed for yoked prisms were reviewed retrospectively. This query resulted in 60 patient records for analysis between January 2011 and December 2012. The following diagnostic groups were analysed: homonymous hemianopsia (HH)/homonymous quadranopsia, abnormal egocentric localization (AEL) and visual neglect. HH/homonymous quadranopsia (58.3%) was the primary indication to prescribe yoked prisms, followed by visual neglect/unilateral spatial inattention (USI) (40.0%) and AEL (11.7%). The most common favourable patient responses were increased awareness of their blind visual field and improved gait, mobility and balance. The magnitude and direction of prisms prescribed were dependent upon the subjective responses in patients manifesting AEL. In contrast, base direction was dependent upon the direction of visual field loss in patients with HH/homonymous quadranopsia and visual neglect. Two-thirds of the present sample population responded favourably to the yoked prisms. The results of the present study should prove useful to clinicians for the successful prescription of yoked prisms as a treatment modality in patients presenting with the above three diagnoses.

  5. Frontal acquired brain injury, substance abuse and their common psychological symptoms in the Iranian population.

    PubMed

    Banihashemian, Kourosh; Pour, Razieh Etesami; Moazzen, Mansour

    2011-01-01

    To compare the scores from the Iranian version of the Frontal Systems Behavioral Scale (FSBS) with the norms collected for the American, English-speaking population and to examine the ability of the FSBS to discriminate between acquired brain injury and addiction. Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and post hoc Bonferroni tests. 120 subjects (41 patients with frontal acquired brain injury [FABI], 47 abstinent Substance Abusers (SA), and 32 healthy controls from the Iranian population) were selected. An Iranian version of the FSBS was administered to all participants. Patients with FABI and SA had higher scores than the control group on the FSBS total score; patients with FABI scored significantly higher than SA, and SA significantly higher than controls. While SA had greater subscales of executive dysfunction than controls, patients with FABI had higher scores than SA and the control group in the subscales of disinhibition, apathy, and executive dysfunction. Two clinical samples of Iranian participants had detective behavioral problems associated with frontal systems dysfunction based on Iranian version of the FSBS, which makes this scale a useful instrument for the detection of behavioral problems.

  6. Investigation of the best model to characterize diffuse correlation spectroscopy measurements acquired directly on the brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verdecchia, K.; Diop, M.; St. Lawrence, K.

    2015-03-01

    Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is a non-invasive optical technique capable of monitoring tissue perfusion changes, particularly in the brain. The normalized temporal intensity autocorrelation function generated by DCS is typically characterized by assuming that the movement of erythrocytes can be modeled as a Brownian diffusion-like process instead of the expected random flow model. Carp et al. [Biomedical Optics Express, 2011] proposed a hybrid model, referred to as the hydrodynamic diffusion model, to capture both the random ballistic and diffusive nature of erythrocyte motion. The purpose of this study was to compare how well the Brownian diffusion and the hydrodynamic diffusion models characterized DCS data acquired directly on the brain, avoiding the confounding effects of scalp and skull. Data were acquired from seven pigs during normocapnia (39.9 +/- 0.7 mmHg) and hypocapnia (22.1 +/- 1.6 mmHg) with the DCS fibers placed 7 mm apart, directly on the cerebral cortex. The hydrodynamic diffusion model was found to provide a consistently better fit to the autocorrelation functions compared to the Brownian diffusion model and was less sensitive to the chosen start and end time points used in the fitting. However, the decrease in cerebral blood flow from normocapnia to hypocapnia determined was similar for the two models (-42.6 +/- 8.6 % for the Brownian model and -42.2 +/- 10.2 % for the hydrodynamic model), suggesting that the latter is reasonable for monitoring flow changes.

  7. Validity of Accelerometry to Measure Physical Activity Intensity in Children With an Acquired Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Baque, Emmah; Sakzewski, Leanne; Trost, Stewart G; Boyd, Roslyn N; Barber, Lee

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the validity of the ActiGraph accelerometer (AG) to differentiate between standardized, physical activity tasks using oxygen consumption ((Equation is included in full-text article.)O2) as the criterion measure in children and adolescents with an acquired brain injury; to determine vector magnitude activity intensity cut-points; to compare performance of cut-points to previously published cut-points. Twenty-seven children performed standardized walking and stepping activities wearing a portable indirect calorimeter, AG, and heart rate monitor. Differences in (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 and AG vector magnitude activity counts were measured during activities. Receiver operating characteristic curves were determined for intensity cut-points. (Equation is included in full-text article.)O2 and AG activity counts significantly increased as walking speed increased. Discrimination of the newly derived cut-points was excellent and demonstrated greater agreement compared with the previously published cut-points. Output from accelerometers can differentiate physical activity intensity in children with an acquired brain injury. Future studies can apply these cut-points to evaluate physical activity performance.

  8. Fast attainment of computer cursor control with noninvasively acquired brain signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradberry, Trent J.; Gentili, Rodolphe J.; Contreras-Vidal, José L.

    2011-06-01

    Brain-computer interface (BCI) systems are allowing humans and non-human primates to drive prosthetic devices such as computer cursors and artificial arms with just their thoughts. Invasive BCI systems acquire neural signals with intracranial or subdural electrodes, while noninvasive BCI systems typically acquire neural signals with scalp electroencephalography (EEG). Some drawbacks of invasive BCI systems are the inherent risks of surgery and gradual degradation of signal integrity. A limitation of noninvasive BCI systems for two-dimensional control of a cursor, in particular those based on sensorimotor rhythms, is the lengthy training time required by users to achieve satisfactory performance. Here we describe a novel approach to continuously decoding imagined movements from EEG signals in a BCI experiment with reduced training time. We demonstrate that, using our noninvasive BCI system and observational learning, subjects were able to accomplish two-dimensional control of a cursor with performance levels comparable to those of invasive BCI systems. Compared to other studies of noninvasive BCI systems, training time was substantially reduced, requiring only a single session of decoder calibration (~20 min) and subject practice (~20 min). In addition, we used standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography to reveal that the neural sources that encoded observed cursor movement may implicate a human mirror neuron system. These findings offer the potential to continuously control complex devices such as robotic arms with one's mind without lengthy training or surgery.

  9. Factors influencing return to work experienced by people with acquired brain injury: a qualitative research study.

    PubMed

    van Velzen, Judith M; van Bennekom, Coen A M; van Dormolen, Max; Sluiter, Judith K; Frings-Dresen, Monique H W

    2011-01-01

    To describe the factors experienced by adults with moderate-to-severe acquired brain injury (ABI) as either limiting or facilitating during the process of return to work (RTW) in order to give an advice about the vocational rehabilitation process. A qualitative study was performed. Twelve adults who were working before acquiring traumatic or non-traumatic brain injury (2-3 years earlier) participated. The experiences were gathered by semi-structured interviews. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health was used as a theoretical framework for the interviews and the analysis. The most common limiting factor was tiredness. The most common facilitating factors were the will to RTW, the ongoing recovery and the knowledge and support of the employer, colleagues, occupational physician and occupational specialist. Different aspects were experienced as being important during the process of RTW after ABI. These aspects should be kept in mind during the process of RTW to make the outcome as successful as possible. It is advised to pay special attention to the recovery opportunities of an individual, to inform the employer, colleagues, occupation physician and the occupational specialist about ABI, and to support people with ABI for long time periods. An important role can be played by the rehabilitation centre.

  10. Paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity after acquired brain injury: consensus on conceptual definition, nomenclature, and diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Baguley, Ian J; Perkes, Iain E; Fernandez-Ortega, Juan-Francisco; Rabinstein, Alejandro A; Dolce, Giuliano; Hendricks, Henk T

    2014-09-01

    A syndrome of paroxysmal, episodic sympathetic hyperactivity after acquired brain injury has been recognized for almost 60 years. This project sought to simplify the confused nomenclature for the condition (>31 eponyms) and simplify the nine overlapping sets of diagnostic criteria. A consensus-developed questionnaire based on a systematic review of the literature was circulated to a widely representative, international expert group utilizing a Delphi approach. Diagnostic criteria were dropped if group consensus failed to agree on their relative importance, with a goal of reaching a Cronbach α of 0.8 (suitable for research purposes). The resulting criteria were combined into an assessment measure for clinical and research settings. The consensus group recommend that the term "paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity" replace previous terms to describe the "syndrome, recognised in a subgroup of survivors of severe acquired brain injury, of simultaneous, paroxysmal transient increases in sympathetic [elevated heart rate, blood pressure, respiratory rate, temperature, sweating] and motor [posturing] activity." An 11 point probabilistic diagnostic scale was developed with reference to published criteria, yielding an acceptable Cronbach α of 0.8. These 11 items were proceduralized and combined with a symptom severity index to produce a diagnostic tool for use with adults (the paroxysmal sympathetic hyperactivity assessment measure [PSH-AM]). Development of a pediatric version of the scale and further research into the validity of the PSH-AM is recommended. The consensus position builds on previous literature to establish diagnostic definitions and criteria, an important move to standardize research and management of this condition.

  11. Exploring predictors of treatment outcome in cognitive behavior therapy for sleep disturbance following acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Sylvia; McKenzie, Dean; McKay, Adam; Wong, Dana; Rajaratnam, Shantha M W; Spitz, Gershon; Williams, Gavin; Mansfield, Darren; Ponsford, Jennie

    2017-04-19

    To identify predictors of treatment response to cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) for sleep disturbance following acquired brain injury (ABI). Classification and regression tree (CART) analysis was conducted on individual patient data from two pilot randomized controlled trials (RCTs): one in traumatic brain injury (TBI), the other in stroke. The combined sample comprised 32 participants; 15 receiving CBT and 17 allocated to treatment as usual (TAU). The outcome was reliable improvement on the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). Study group was a statistically significant predictor of outcome, with CBT participants more likely to achieve reliable improvements than TAU (OR = 4.88, p = 0.042). Study group (CBT vs. TAU) exhibited an area under the ROC curve (AUROC) of 69%. In separate CART analyzes, verbal memory (CVLT-II >45.5), age (<47.5) and baseline depression (HADS-D > 6) predicted positive outcomes in CBT recipients. Each of these variables added a small (∼5%) but not statistically significant amount to AUROC over study group. In this ABI sample, better memory, younger age, and higher baseline depression were associated with positive treatment response to CBT although individually these variables were not better than group alone in predicting outcomes. The present findings generate hypotheses for further investigation in future studies. Implications for rehabilitation Cognitive behavior therapy improves sleep quality over treatment as usual in persons with acquired brain injury. Individuals who are younger in age with better memory and co-morbid symptoms of depression are more likely to respond to the treatment. These findings are based on a small sample and can be considered hypothesis generating for future clinical studies.

  12. A developmental ontology for the mammalian brain based on the prosomeric model.

    PubMed

    Puelles, Luis; Harrison, Megan; Paxinos, George; Watson, Charles

    2013-10-01

    In the past, attempts to create a hierarchical classification of brain structures (an ontology) have been limited by the lack of adequate data on developmental processes. Recent studies on gene expression during brain development have demonstrated the true morphologic interrelations of different parts of the brain. A developmental ontology takes into account the progressive rostrocaudal and dorsoventral differentiation of the neural tube, and the radial migration of derivatives from progenitor areas, using fate mapping and other experimental techniques. In this review, we used the prosomeric model of brain development to build a hierarchical classification of brain structures based chiefly on gene expression. Because genomic control of neural morphogenesis is remarkably conservative, this ontology should prove essentially valid for all vertebrates, aiding terminological unification.

  13. Through children's eyes: children's experience of living with a parent with an acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Butera-Prinzi, Franca; Perlesz, Amaryll

    2004-01-01

    While previous literature on brain injury reports high levels of stress and burden in primary caregivers, the impact on children has been overlooked. This paper reports on an in-depth, qualitative research project exploring the experiences of four children living with fathers with an acquired brain injury (ABI). The findings indicate that these children were negatively impacted and at risk of emotional and behavioural difficulties. The children reported a complexity of feelings associated with the trauma and multiple losses, including profound grief, social isolation and fear of family disintegration and violence. Despite the difficulties they faced, the children also demonstrated resilience and reported positive outcomes such as having greater independence. Although only a small pilot study, the current findings highlight the need for both clinicians and researchers to be more proactive in questioning their clients and families about the level of violence following ABI and that disclosure may be more likely to occur with on-going involvement and support. The study concludes that early intervention and systemic support is required to minimize the trauma for these children. Further research is recommended, not only to replicate these findings in a larger sample, but also to explore in-depth children's experience of living with a parent with a brain injury.

  14. Two brief measures of executive function in the prediction of driving ability after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hargrave, David D; Nupp, Jason M; Erickson, Rey J

    2012-01-01

    The question of fitness to drive following acquired brain injury is commonly encountered in rehabilitation settings. Pre-driving assessments are usually performed prior to on-road assessments, but there is no uniformity as to the instruments employed. Neuropsychological tests are often employed to assess different functional domains. One domain that has been suggested to be critical to driving is executive functioning. The present study examined the utility of the Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and the Trail Making Test Part B (TMTB) in predicting on-road driving performance after stroke or traumatic brain injury. While the TMTB has previously been demonstrated to be useful in this regard, the FAB has never been examined for this purpose. Participants were 76 patients referred for driving assessment after diagnosis of stroke or traumatic brain injury. Results indicated that scores on the TMTB, but not the FAB, were significantly predictive of on-road driving performance (p < .05). A cutoff score of 90 seconds or greater on the TMTB correctly identified 77% of those failing on-road evaluation. Implications and limitations are discussed.

  15. After a child's acquired brain injury (ABI): An ethnographic study of being a parent.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Marghalara; Goez, Helly R; Caine, Vera; Yager, Jerome Y; Joyce, Anthony S; Newton, Amanda S

    2016-11-30

    To explore the meanings associated with being a parent of a child with an aquired brain injury (ABI). An ethnographic study was conducted with parents of children aged 3 to 10 years who had acquired a severe brain injury. Purposeful sampling was used to recruit parents from the Glenrose Rehabilitation Hospital in Edmonton, Alberta. Data collection involved participant observation, fieldwork and semi-structured interviews. Field notes and interviews transcriptions were analysed using a thematic analysis framework and informed by symbolic interactionism theory. Six parent dyads (mothers and fathers) and 4 mothers participated in the study.Parents' meanings of `parenting' a child with severe brain injury were shaped by the injury, wide range of familial dynamics, and interactions. Six main themes related to parental meanings emerged from our data: (1) Getting `back to normal'; (2) Relying on a support system; (3) Worrying something bad may happen after the injury; (4) Going through a range of emotions following the injury; (5) Changing family dynamics after the injury; and (6) Ongoing performativity. Parents' meanings of `parenting' a child are extensively impacted by their child's functioning after the ABI. Having a greater appreciation of these experiences may be beneficial for medical professionals.

  16. Psychopharmacologic treatment of acquired attention disorders in children with brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mahalick, D M; Carmel, P W; Greenberg, J P; Molofsky, W; Brown, J A; Heary, R F; Marks, D; Zampella, E; Hodosh, R; von der Schmidt, E

    1998-09-01

    This investigation examined the efficacy of psychostimulant therapy in alleviating neurobehavioral dysfunction attendant to pediatric brain injury. The most commonly reported neurobehavioral sequelae associated with head injury in the pediatric population involve deficits along the attentional matrix. This is also the most common objectively documented neurobehavioral finding among children as well as adults. There are several investigations in the adult literature which have employed the use of psychostimulants in treating both psychiatric and neuropsychological residua associated with head injury. Overall, the results of these studies are equivocal, but suggest a beneficial impact on general functioning. The present prospective investigation utilized a double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over experimental design to examine the efficacy of methylphenidate in treating children with acquired attentional disorders secondary to brain injury. A cohort of 14 children with varying degrees of head injury were recruited for participation. As expected, differences between drug and placebo conditions uniformly achieved statistical significance. Additionally, there were no differences in performance between baseline and placebo conditions on neurobehavioral tasks of attention and concentration. Current findings suggest that methylphenidate (and probably other psychostimulants such as Cylert, Adderal, Wellbutrin and dextroamphetamine sulfate) is an extremely effective agent in treating attentional disorders secondary to brain injury in children.

  17. The "Globularization Hypothesis" of the Language-ready Brain as a Developmental Frame for Prosodic Bootstrapping Theories of Language Acquisition.

    PubMed

    Irurtzun, Aritz

    2015-01-01

    In recent research (Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco, 2014a,b) have advanced the hypothesis that our species-specific language-ready brain should be understood as the outcome of developmental changes that occurred in our species after the split from Neanderthals-Denisovans, which resulted in a more globular braincase configuration in comparison to our closest relatives, who had elongated endocasts. According to these authors, the development of a globular brain is an essential ingredient for the language faculty and in particular, it is the centrality occupied by the thalamus in a globular brain that allows its modulatory or regulatory role, essential for syntactico-semantic computations. Their hypothesis is that the syntactico-semantic capacities arise in humans as a consequence of a process of globularization, which significantly takes place postnatally (cf. Neubauer et al., 2010). In this paper, I show that Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco's hypothesis makes an interesting developmental prediction regarding the path of language acquisition: it teases apart the onset of phonological acquisition and the onset of syntactic acquisition (the latter starting significantly later, after globularization). I argue that this hypothesis provides a developmental rationale for the prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis of language acquisition (cf. i.a. Gleitman and Wanner, 1982; Mehler et al., 1988, et seq.; Gervain and Werker, 2013), which claim that prosodic cues are employed for syntactic parsing. The literature converges in the observation that a large amount of such prosodic cues (in particular, rhythmic cues) are already acquired before the completion of the globularization phase, which paves the way for the premises of the prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis, allowing babies to have a rich knowledge of the prosody of their target language before they can start parsing the primary linguistic data syntactically.

  18. Plasticity of Nonneuronal Brain Tissue: Roles in Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Willie K.; Greenough, William T.

    2004-01-01

    Neuronal and nonneuronal plasticity are both affected by environmental and experiential factors. Remodeling of existing neurons induced by such factors has been observed throughout the brain, and includes alterations in dendritic field dimensions, synaptogenesis, and synaptic morphology. The brain loci affected by these plastic neuronal changes…

  19. Plasticity of Nonneuronal Brain Tissue: Roles in Developmental Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dong, Willie K.; Greenough, William T.

    2004-01-01

    Neuronal and nonneuronal plasticity are both affected by environmental and experiential factors. Remodeling of existing neurons induced by such factors has been observed throughout the brain, and includes alterations in dendritic field dimensions, synaptogenesis, and synaptic morphology. The brain loci affected by these plastic neuronal changes…

  20. Developmental traumatic brain injury decreased brain derived neurotrophic factor expression late after injury.

    PubMed

    Schober, Michelle Elena; Block, Benjamin; Requena, Daniela F; Hale, Merica A; Lane, Robert H

    2012-06-01

    Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of acquired cognitive dysfunction in children. Hippocampal Brain Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) is important for normal cognition. Little is known about the effects of TBI on BDNF levels in the developing hippocampus. We used controlled cortical impact (CCI) in the 17 day old rat pup to test the hypothesis that CCI would first increase rat hippocampal BDNF mRNA/protein levels relative to SHAM and Naïve rats by post injury day (PID) 2 and then decrease BDNF mRNA/protein by PID14. Relative to SHAM, CCI did not change BDNF mRNA/protein levels in the injured hippocampus in the first 2 days after injury but did decrease BDNF protein at PID14. Surprisingly, BDNF mRNA decreased at PID 1, 3, 7 and 14, and BDNF protein decreased at PID 2, in SHAM and CCI hippocampi relative to Naïve. In conclusion, TBI decreased BDNF protein in the injured rat pup hippocampus 14 days after injury. BDNF mRNA levels decreased in both CCI and SHAM hippocampi relative to Naïve, suggesting that certain aspects of the experimental paradigm (such as craniotomy, anesthesia, and/or maternal separation) may decrease the expression of BDNF in the developing hippocampus. While BDNF is important for normal cognition, no inferences can be made regarding the cognitive impact of any of these factors. Such findings, however, suggest that meticulous attention to the experimental paradigm, and possible inclusion of a Naïve group, is warranted in studies of BDNF expression in the developing brain after TBI.

  1. A Principled Relation between Reading and Naming in Acquired and Developmental Anomia: Surface Dyslexia Following Impairment in the Phonological Output Lexicon

    PubMed Central

    Gvion, Aviah; Friedmann, Naama

    2016-01-01

    Lexical retrieval and reading aloud are often viewed as two separate processes. However, they are not completely separate—they share components. This study assessed the effect of an impairment in a shared component, the phonological output lexicon, on lexical retrieval and on reading aloud. Because the phonological output lexicon is part of the lexical route for reading, individuals with an impairment in this lexicon may be forced to read aloud via the sublexical route and therefore show a reading pattern that is typical of surface dyslexia. To examine the effect of phonological output lexicon deficit on reading, we tested the reading of 16 Hebrew-speaking individuals with phonological output lexicon anomia, eight with acquired anomia following brain damage and eight with developmental anomia. We established that they had a phonological output lexicon deficit according to the types of errors and the effects on their naming in a picture naming task, and excluded other deficit loci in the lexical retrieval process according to a line of tests assessing their picture and word comprehension, word and non-word repetition, and phonological working memory. After we have established that the participants have a phonological output lexicon deficit, we tested their reading. To assess their reading and type of reading impairment, we tested their reading aloud, lexical decision, and written word comprehension. We found that all of the participants with phonological output lexicon impairment showed, in addition to anomia, also the typical surface dyslexia errors in reading aloud of irregular words, words with ambiguous conversion to phonemes, and potentiophones (words like “now” that, when read via the sublexical route, can be sounded out as another word, “know”). Importantly, the participants performed normally on pseudohomophone lexical decision and on homophone/potentiophone reading comprehension, indicating spared orthographic input lexicon and spared access to it

  2. A Principled Relation between Reading and Naming in Acquired and Developmental Anomia: Surface Dyslexia Following Impairment in the Phonological Output Lexicon.

    PubMed

    Gvion, Aviah; Friedmann, Naama

    2016-01-01

    Lexical retrieval and reading aloud are often viewed as two separate processes. However, they are not completely separate-they share components. This study assessed the effect of an impairment in a shared component, the phonological output lexicon, on lexical retrieval and on reading aloud. Because the phonological output lexicon is part of the lexical route for reading, individuals with an impairment in this lexicon may be forced to read aloud via the sublexical route and therefore show a reading pattern that is typical of surface dyslexia. To examine the effect of phonological output lexicon deficit on reading, we tested the reading of 16 Hebrew-speaking individuals with phonological output lexicon anomia, eight with acquired anomia following brain damage and eight with developmental anomia. We established that they had a phonological output lexicon deficit according to the types of errors and the effects on their naming in a picture naming task, and excluded other deficit loci in the lexical retrieval process according to a line of tests assessing their picture and word comprehension, word and non-word repetition, and phonological working memory. After we have established that the participants have a phonological output lexicon deficit, we tested their reading. To assess their reading and type of reading impairment, we tested their reading aloud, lexical decision, and written word comprehension. We found that all of the participants with phonological output lexicon impairment showed, in addition to anomia, also the typical surface dyslexia errors in reading aloud of irregular words, words with ambiguous conversion to phonemes, and potentiophones (words like "now" that, when read via the sublexical route, can be sounded out as another word, "know"). Importantly, the participants performed normally on pseudohomophone lexical decision and on homophone/potentiophone reading comprehension, indicating spared orthographic input lexicon and spared access to it and from

  3. Immune endocrinological evaluation in patients with severe vascular acquired brain injuries: therapeutical approaches.

    PubMed

    Amico, Angelo Paolo; Terlizzi, Annamaria; Annamaria, Terlizzi; Megna, Marisa; Marisa, Megna; Megna, Gianfranco; Gianfranco, Megna; Damiani, Sabino; Sabino, Damiani

    2013-06-01

    It is known that in severe acquired brain injuries there is process of neuroinflammation, with the activation of a local and general stress response. In our study we considered six patients with disorders of consciousness (five in vegetative state and one in minimal consciousness state) in subacute phase, which had both a clinical assessment and a functional imaging (fMRI): in all these patients we analised blood levels of osteopontin (OPN), a cytokin involved in neuroinflammation but also in neurorepair with a still discussed role. Besides we studied the lymphocyte subsets and blood levels of some hormones (ADH, ACTH, PRL, GH, TSH, fT3, fT4). We found a positive correlation between the levels of serum osteopontin (higher than normal in all subjects) and the severity of the brain injury, especially for prognosis: actually, the patient with the lowest level has emerged from minimal consciousness state, while the one with the highest level has died a few days after the evaluation. The lymphocyte subset was altered, with a general increase of CD4+/CD3+ ratio, but without a so strict correlation with clinical severity; the only hormone with a significant increase in the worse patients was prolactin. In fMRI we detected some responses to visual and acoustic stimuli also in vegetative states, which had no clinical response to this kind of stimulation but generally have had a better prognosis. So we conclude that osteopontin could be a good marker of neuroinflammation and relate to a worse prognosis of brain injuries; the lymphocyte alterations in these disorders are not clear, but we suspect an unbalance of CD4 towards Th2; PRL is the best endocrinological marker of brain injury severity; fMRI surely plays an important role in the detection of subclinical responses and in prognostic stratification, that is still to define with more studies and statistical analysis.

  4. Measuring Oxygen Cost During Level Walking in Individuals with Acquired Brain Injury in the Clinical Setting

    PubMed Central

    Dawes, Helen; Collett, Johnathen; Ramsbottom, Roger; Howells, Ken; Sackley, Cath; Wade, Derick

    2004-01-01

    This study examined the test-retest reliability of oxygen cost (ml·kg-1·min-1) during level walking in individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI). Ten individuals with ABI (5 men, 5 women) (Traumatic brain injury, 1, central pontine myelinolysis, 1, stroke 8) and 21 healthy controls (11 men, 10 women). Measurements of gross and net (walking minus resting) oxygen consumption (ml·kg-1·min-1), and oxygen cost (ml·kg-1·min-1) during level walking at self-selected speeds. Measurements were taken on two occasions within one week. Oxygen cost was significantly lower (p < 0.05) in individuals with ABI on the second test versus the first test. Percentage variability in oxygen cost from test to re-test ranged from 14.7 to 17.3% in the control group and from 17.4 to 20.8% in the brain injury group. Clinical populations may demonstrate a significant decrease in oxygen cost between testing occasions. Individuals require at least one period of familiarisation if oxygen cost is used as an outcome measure during level walking in clinical groups. The amount of familiarisation has yet to be investigated in individuals with ABI. Key Points Individuals with brain injury during level walking May demonstrate a significant decrease in oxygen cost between testing occasions. May require at least one period of familiarisation if oxygen cost is used as an outcome measure The degree of familiarisation required in this clinical group needs further investigation PMID:24482582

  5. Role of magnetic resonance spectroscopy in evaluation of congenital/developmental brain abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Shekdar, Karuna; Wang, Dah-Jyuu

    2011-12-01

    Magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) is an invaluable tool to study brain development and in vivo metabolism of brain. MRS is a noninvasive method and also does not involve ionizing radiation. The spectral patterns obtained from MRS evaluation provide unique information about the neonatal brain in several disease processes including hypoxic-ischemic injury, white matter and metabolic disorders, seizure disorders, and brain tumors. MRS also provides quantitative information about specific metabolites that is useful in the diagnosis and in evaluating treatment response of the disease. This discussion is limited to the use of MRS in evaluation of congenital or developmental brain abnormalities. The discussion of clinical utility of MRS is preceded by a brief overview of the technical aspects of MRS, followed by description of normal brain spectra in the neonates and the changes with normal brain development.

  6. Outcomes of tongue-pressure strength and accuracy training for dysphagia following acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to measure treatment outcomes in a group of six adults with chronic dysphagia following acquired brain injury, who each completed 24 sessions of tongue-pressure resistance training, over a total of 11–12 weeks. The treatment protocol emphasized both strength and accuracy. Biofeedback was provided using the Iowa Oral Performance Instrument. Amplitude accuracy targets were set between 20–90% of the patient's maximum isometric pressure capacity. Single subject methods were used to track changes in tongue strength (maximum isometric pressures), with functional swallowing outcomes measured using blinded ratings of a standard pre- and post-treatment videofluoroscopy protocol. Improvements were seen in post-treatment measures of tongue pressure and penetration–aspiration. No improvements were seen in pharyngeal residues, indeed worsening residue was seen in some patients. PMID:23336825

  7. Role of resilience in the rehabilitation of adults with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Neils-Strunjas, Jean; Paul, Diane; Clark, Allison N; Mudar, Raksha; Duff, Melissa C; Waldron-Perrine, Brigid; Bechtold, Kathleen T

    2017-01-01

    The goals of this review paper are to present an overview of the literature on resilience in adults with ABI, to describe approaches to measuring resilience in clinical practice and to discuss practical suggestions for promoting resilience in rehabilitation of adults with ABI. We employed systematic review of journal articles, books, and websites related to resilience in adults with acquired brain injury (ABI). Resilience was associated with adaptation and adjustment for individuals faced with serious injury such as ABI. However, research examining the construct of resilience is limited. While rehabilitation typically focuses on the identification and reduction of impairments for improving functioning, a focus on resilience may allow for recovery in a broader sense that exceeds expected outcomes.

  8. Technology-Based Rehabilitation to Improve Communication after Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Des Roches, Carrie A.; Kiran, Swathi

    2017-01-01

    The utilization of technology has allowed for several advances in aphasia rehabilitation for individuals with acquired brain injury. Thirty-one previous studies that provide technology-based language or language and cognitive rehabilitation are examined in terms of the domains addressed, the types of treatments that were provided, details about the methods and the results, including which types of outcomes are reported. From this, we address questions about how different aspects of the delivery of treatment can influence rehabilitation outcomes, such as whether the treatment was standardized or tailored, whether the participants were prescribed homework or not, and whether intensity was varied. Results differed by these aspects of treatment delivery but ultimately the studies demonstrated consistent improvement on various outcome measures. With these aspects of technology-based treatment in mind, the ultimate goal of personalized rehabilitation is discussed. PMID:28804443

  9. Remediating deficits of switching attention in patients with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Amos, Andrew

    2002-05-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the remediating effects of two types of aid on a test of switching attention administered to patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). Based on the separation of cognitive functions suggested by a neural network model, it was hypothesized that external inhibition of obsolete rules, and increased salience of stimuli, would differentially improve the WCST performance of participants with ABI. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) performance of 24 patients with ABI assigned to three treatment groups (no treatment, external inhibition, increased stimulus salience) was compared to normal controls. External inhibition of learned rules reduced perseverative errors, while increased stimuli salience reduced random errors, committed by patients with ABI. The pattern of results supports the separation of functions in switching attention suggested by a neural network model, and establishes minimal aids necessary for remediating deficits associated with ABI.

  10. Interventions for managing weight change following paediatric acquired brain injury: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Shah, Emily; Lodh, Rajib; Siddell, Poppy; Morrall, Matthew C H J

    2016-10-01

    To systematically review literature reporting interventions for weight change following paediatric acquired brain injury (ABI). A systematic search of the literature was conducted using advanced search techniques. The retrieval identified 1562 papers, of which 30 were relevant. The total number of paediatric participants was 759. There is a paucity of higher quality evidence to support the use of weight change interventions following paediatric ABI. Substantial variation in screening, outcome measures, intervention, and reporting were demonstrated. Some support was found for the use of hypothalamic-sparing surgery as a method to prevent obesity following craniopharyngioma resection. There is a need for further study in this area to inform clinical and research practice; recommendations are given. © 2016 Mac Keith Press.

  11. The promotion of recovery through rehabilitation after acquired brain injury in children.

    PubMed

    Forsyth, Rob; Basu, Anna

    2015-01-01

    A degree of motor recovery is typically seen after acquired brain injury in children. The extent to which rehabilitation efforts can claim credit for this is disputed. Strong correlations between late impairment outcomes and early severity and impairment indices are seen both in adults and children. These correlations have been interpreted by some as evidence that recovery is largely intrinsic and that any additional rehabilitation effects are small. Such views are belied by published animal studies demonstrating the possibility of large rehabilitation effects. Animal models suggest that to achieve similar rehabilitation treatment effect sizes in clinical practice, rehabilitation 'doses' should be greater, rehabilitation efforts should start sooner, and premature accommodation of impairment should be avoided. © 2014 Mac Keith Press.

  12. Effectiveness of melatonin for sleep impairment post paediatric acquired brain injury: evidence from a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Keegan, Lisa-Jane; Reed-Berendt, Rosa; Neilly, Elizabeth; Morrall, Matthew C H J; Murdoch-Eaton, Deborah

    2014-10-01

    To retrieve and review all the relevant literature describing the administration of melatonin to treat impaired sleep in children following acquired brain injury (ABI). A systematic search and retrieval of the literature was conducted using advanced search techniques. The retrieval identified 589 papers, seven of which were relevant. Review/outcomes criteria were developed and study quality was determined. There is paucity of high-quality evidence to support use of melatonin for sleep impairment post paediatric ABI. Variation in dosage, screening and outcome measures, data reporting and a lack of impairment delineation and treatment stratification were recurrent themes. Retrieved evidence for the effectiveness of melatonin for post paediatric ABI sleep impairment appears promising. There is a clear need for further study in this area to inform clinical and research practices. Recommendations are given.

  13. Reliability and validity of the acquired brain injury challenge assessment (ABI-CA) in children.

    PubMed

    Wong, R K Y; McEwan, J; Finlayson, D; Chung, S; Wan, L; Salbach, N M; Kirkwood, G; Meschino, C; Wright, F V

    2014-01-01

    The Acquired Brain Injury Challenge Assessment (ABI-CA) was created to fill a measurement gap and evaluate deficits in advanced motor skills in children with acquired brain injury (ABI). Study objectives were to refine ABI-CA response options and evaluate (i) inter-/intra-rater reliability, (ii) concurrent validity and difficulty level in relation to the Community Balance & Mobility Scale (CB&M) and (iii) administration efficiency of the refined ABI-CA. Measurement study. Phase I involved ABI-CA revisions. Phase 2 consisted of live-/video-scoring of the ABI-CA with 15 typically-developing (TD) children and 15 with ABI (7-17 years) to assess reliability/validity. The revised 20-item ABI-CA displayed excellent reliability for the entire sample (ICCs > 0.90; 95% CI = 0.92-1.00; SEM ≤ 3.60) and within ABI and TD sub-groups. The ABI-CA and CB&M correlated strongly (r = 0.75, p < 0.0001). The ABI-CA mean score (/100) was 11.3 points lower (p < 0.0001) than the CB&M's mean score (/100). The ABI-CA demonstrated excellent reliability and initial evidence of validity. ABI-CA scores were lower overall than the CB&M, indicating the ABI-CA may have greater capacity to evaluate improvements in advanced motor skills in children with ABI. Multi-centre research is needed to confirm the ABI-CA's test-retest reliability and, assuming acceptability, assess responsiveness to change.

  14. Advanced fiber tracking in early acquired brain injury causing cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Lennartsson, F; Holmström, L; Eliasson, A-C; Flodmark, O; Forssberg, H; Tournier, J-D; Vollmer, B

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging and fiber tractography can be used to investigate alterations in white matter tracts in patients with early acquired brain lesions and cerebral palsy. Most existing studies have used diffusion tensor tractography, which is limited in areas of complex fiber structures or pathologic processes. We explored a combined normalization and probabilistic fiber-tracking method for more realistic fiber tractography in this patient group. This cross-sectional study included 17 children with unilateral cerebral palsy and 24 typically developing controls. DWI data were collected at 1.5T (45 directions, b=1000 s/mm(2)). Regions of interest were defined on a study-specific fractional anisotropy template and mapped onto subjects for fiber tracking. Probabilistic fiber tracking of the corticospinal tract and thalamic projections to the somatosensory cortex was performed by using constrained spherical deconvolution. Tracts were qualitatively assessed, and DTI parameters were extracted close to and distant from lesions and compared between groups. The corticospinal tract and thalamic projections to the somatosensory cortex were realistically reconstructed in both groups. Structural changes to tracts were seen in the cerebral palsy group and included splits, dislocations, compaction of the tracts, or failure to delineate the tract and were associated with underlying pathology seen on conventional MR imaging. Comparisons of DTI parameters indicated primary and secondary neurodegeneration along the corticospinal tract. Corticospinal tract and thalamic projections to the somatosensory cortex showed dissimilarities in both structural changes and DTI parameters. Our proposed method offers a sensitive means to explore alterations in WM tracts to further understand pathophysiologic changes following early acquired brain injury. © 2015 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  15. Further validation of the Motivation for Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation Questionnaire (MOT-Q) in patients with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Boosman, Hileen; van Heugten, Caroline M; Winkens, Ieke; Smeets, Sanne M J; Visser-Meily, Johanna M A

    2016-01-01

    The Motivation for Traumatic Brain Injury Rehabilitation Questionnaire (MOT-Q) evaluates motivation for rehabilitation in four subscales: Interest in rehabilitation, Lack of anger, Lack of denial, and Reliance on professional help. The objective of this study was to further validate the MOT-Q in 122 inpatients and 92 outpatients with acquired brain injury (ABI). The main measures were motivation for rehabilitation (MOT-Q), self-awareness (Patient Competency Rating Scale), and treatment motivation (Visual Analogue Scale). The MOT-Q showed adequate feasibility in terms of few items with missing responses and few undecided responses. We found no floor or ceiling effects, and significant item-total MOT-Q correlations for 29 of 31 items. Internal consistency was good for the MOT-Q total and acceptable to good for the subscales. The MOT-Q scores were significantly intercorrelated except for the subscales Lack of denial and Reliance on professional help in the inpatient group. The MOT-Q total and subscales were significantly associated with treatment motivation. The Lack of denial subscale showed no significant association with treatment motivation and no to moderate significant associations with self-awareness. In conclusion, the overall MOT-Q is a valid instrument to assess motivation for rehabilitation in patients with ABI. Further research is needed to examine the validity of the subscales.

  16. Clinical assessment of decision-making capacity in acquired brain injury with personality change.

    PubMed

    Owen, Gareth S; Freyenhagen, Fabian; Martin, Wayne; David, Anthony S

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of decision-making capacity (DMC) can be difficult in acquired brain injury (ABI) particularly with the syndrome of organic personality disorder (OPD) (the "frontal lobe syndrome"). Clinical neuroscience may help but there are challenges translating its constructs to the decision-making abilities considered relevant by law and ethics. An in-depth interview study of DMC in OPD was undertaken. Six patients were purposefully sampled and rich interview data were acquired for scrutiny using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Interview data revealed that awareness of deficit and thinking about psychological states can be present. However, the awareness of deficit may not be "online" and effectively integrated into decision-making. Without this online awareness of deficit the ability to appreciate or use and weigh information in the process of deciding some matters appeared absent. We argue that the decision-making abilities discussed are: (1) necessary for DMC, (2) threatened by ABI , and (3) assessable at interview. Some advice for practically incorporating these abilities within assessments of DMC in patients with OPD is outlined.

  17. Clinical assessment of decision-making capacity in acquired brain injury with personality change

    PubMed Central

    Owen, Gareth S.; Freyenhagen, Fabian; Martin, Wayne; David, Anthony S.

    2017-01-01

    Assessment of decision-making capacity (DMC) can be difficult in acquired brain injury (ABI) particularly with the syndrome of organic personality disorder (OPD) (the “frontal lobe syndrome”). Clinical neuroscience may help but there are challenges translating its constructs to the decision-making abilities considered relevant by law and ethics. An in-depth interview study of DMC in OPD was undertaken. Six patients were purposefully sampled and rich interview data were acquired for scrutiny using interpretative phenomenological analysis. Interview data revealed that awareness of deficit and thinking about psychological states can be present. However, the awareness of deficit may not be “online” and effectively integrated into decision-making. Without this online awareness of deficit the ability to appreciate or use and weigh information in the process of deciding some matters appeared absent. We argue that the decision-making abilities discussed are: (1) necessary for DMC, (2) threatened by ABI , and (3) assessable at interview. Some advice for practically incorporating these abilities within assessments of DMC in patients with OPD is outlined. PMID:26088818

  18. Global and regional cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI) of developmental human brain with quantification of short-range association tracts

    PubMed Central

    Ouyang, Minhui; Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Du, Haixiao; Wang, Yu; Peng, Yun; Huang, Hao

    2016-01-01

    From early childhood to adulthood, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning continuously reshape the structural architecture and neural connection in developmental human brains. Disturbance of the precisely balanced strengthening of certain axons and pruning of others may cause mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. To characterize this balance, we proposed a novel measurement based on cortical parcellation and diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography, a cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI). To evaluate the spatiotemporal sensitivity of CCMI as a potential biomarker, dMRI and T1 weighted datasets of 21 healthy subjects 2–25 years were acquired. Brain cortex was parcellated into 68 gyral labels using T1 weighted images, then transformed into dMRI space to serve as the seed region of interest for dMRI-based tractography. Cortico-cortical association fibers initiated from each gyrus were categorized into long- and short-range ones, based on the other end of fiber terminating in non-adjacent or adjacent gyri of the seed gyrus, respectively. The regional CCMI was defined as the ratio between number of short-range association tracts and that of all association tracts traced from one of 68 parcellated gyri. The developmental trajectory of the whole brain CCMI follows a quadratic model with initial decreases from 2 to 16 years followed by later increases after 16 years. Regional CCMI is heterogeneous among different cortical gyri with CCMI dropping to the lowest value earlier in primary somatosensory cortex and visual cortex while later in the prefrontal cortex. The proposed CCMI may serve as sensitive biomarker for brain development under normal or pathological conditions. PMID:27076697

  19. Global and regional cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI) of developmental human brain with quantification of short-range association tracts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Minhui; Jeon, Tina; Mishra, Virendra; Du, Haixiao; Wang, Yu; Peng, Yun; Huang, Hao

    2016-03-01

    From early childhood to adulthood, synaptogenesis and synaptic pruning continuously reshape the structural architecture and neural connection in developmental human brains. Disturbance of the precisely balanced strengthening of certain axons and pruning of others may cause mental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. To characterize this balance, we proposed a novel measurement based on cortical parcellation and diffusion MRI (dMRI) tractography, a cortical connectivity maturation index (CCMI). To evaluate the spatiotemporal sensitivity of CCMI as a potential biomarker, dMRI and T1 weighted datasets of 21 healthy subjects 2-25 years were acquired. Brain cortex was parcellated into 68 gyral labels using T1 weighted images, then transformed into dMRI space to serve as the seed region of interest for dMRI-based tractography. Cortico-cortical association fibers initiated from each gyrus were categorized into long- and short-range ones, based on the other end of fiber terminating in non-adjacent or adjacent gyri of the seed gyrus, respectively. The regional CCMI was defined as the ratio between number of short-range association tracts and that of all association tracts traced from one of 68 parcellated gyri. The developmental trajectory of the whole brain CCMI follows a quadratic model with initial decreases from 2 to 16 years followed by later increases after 16 years. Regional CCMI is heterogeneous among different cortical gyri with CCMI dropping to the lowest value earlier in primary somatosensory cortex and visual cortex while later in the prefrontal cortex. The proposed CCMI may serve as sensitive biomarker for brain development under normal or pathological conditions.

  20. An Exploratory Study of Reading Comprehension in College Students After Acquired Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Griffiths, Gina G; Fickas, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    This exploratory study builds on the small body of existing research investigating reading comprehension deficits in college students with acquired brain injury (ABI). Twenty-four community college students with ABI completed a battery of questionnaires and standardized tests to characterize self-perceptions of academic reading ability, performance on a standardized reading comprehension measure, and a variety of cognitive functions of this population. Half of the participants in the sample reported traumatic brain injury (n = 12) and half reported nontraumatic ABI (n = 12). College students with both traumatic and nontraumatic ABI cite problems with reading comprehension and academic performance postinjury. Mean performance on a standardized reading measure, the Nelson-Denny Reading Test (Brown, Fischo, & Hanna, 1993), was low to below average and was significantly correlated with performance on the Speed and Capacity of Language Processing Test (Baddeley, Emslie, & Nimmo-Smith, 1992). Injury status of traumatic versus nontraumatic ABI did not differentiate results. Regression analysis showed that measures of verbal attention and suppression obtained from the California Verbal Language Test-II (Delis, Kramer, Kaplan, & Ober, 2000) predicted total scores on the Nelson-Denny Reading Test. College students with ABI are vulnerable to reading comprehension problems. Results align with other research suggesting that verbal attention and suppression problems may be contributing factors.

  1. Evidence of Big-Five personality changes following acquired brain injury from a prospective longitudinal investigation.

    PubMed

    Leonhardt, Anne; Schmukle, Stefan C; Exner, Cornelia

    2016-03-01

    Many studies using different assessment methods have reported personality changes after acquired brain injury (ABI). However, to our knowledge, no prospective study has yet been conducted to examine whether previous cross-sectional and retrospective results can be replicated in a longitudinal prospective design. Further, because clinical control groups were only rarely used, it remains debatable if the personality changes found are unique to patients with ABI or if they also affect patients with other disabilities. This study examined personality change in 114 participants with different kinds of ABI, 1321 matched controls (general control, GC), and 746 matched participants with restrictive impairments other than brain injury (clinical control, CC) in a prospective longitudinal design using data from the panel survey Household, Income and Labour Dynamics in Australia (HILDA). Participants with ABI showed significantly larger declines in Extraversion and Conscientiousness compared with the GC group. When the ABI participants were compared with the CC group, only the difference in Conscientiousness remained significant. Our prospective data corroborate evidence from previous cross-sectional studies that patients with ABI experience larger declines in Extraversion and Conscientiousness than the general population. Whereas the effect on Conscientiousness was unique to patients with ABI, the decline in Extraversion was also observed in participants with other impairments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Post-stroke acquired amusia: A comparison between right- and left-brain hemispheric damages.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Zahra; Esmaili, Mahdiye; Delbari, Ahmad; Mehrpour, Masoud; Mohajerani, Majid H

    2017-01-01

    Although extensive research has been published about the emotional consequences of stroke, most studies have focused on emotional words, speech prosody, voices, or facial expressions. The emotional processing of musical excerpts following stroke has been relatively unexplored. The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of chronic stroke on the recognition of basic emotions in music. Seventy persons, including 25 normal controls (NC), 25 persons with right brain damage (RBD) from stroke, and 20 persons with left brain damage (LBD) from stroke between the ages of 31-71 years were studied. The Musical Emotional Bursts (MEB) test, which consists of a set of short musical pieces expressing basic emotional states (happiness, sadness, and fear) and neutrality, was used to test musical emotional perception. Both stroke groups were significantly poorer than normal controls for the MEB total score and its subtests (p < 0.001). The RBD group was significantly less able than the LBD group to recognize sadness (p = 0.047) and neutrality (p = 0.015). Negative correlations were found between age and MEB scores for all groups, particularly the NC and RBD groups. Our findings indicated that stroke affecting the auditory cerebrum can cause acquired amusia with greater severity in RBD than LBD. These results supported the "valence hypothesis" of right hemisphere dominance in processing negative emotions.

  3. A natural setting behavior management program for persons with acquired brain injury: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Carnevale, George J; Anselmi, Vera; Johnston, Mark V; Busichio, Kim; Walsh, Vanessa

    2006-10-01

    To investigate the efficacy of a behavior management program delivered in the natural community setting for persons with brain injury and their caregivers. Three-group randomized controlled trial. Homes and other community settings. Thirty-seven persons with traumatic and other acquired brain injury and their caregivers. Natural Setting Behavior Management (NSBM) involving education and individualized behavior modification program versus education only versus control group. Changes in frequency of targeted problematic behaviors. Subscale in Questionnaire on Resources and Stress, Maslach Burnout Inventory, and the Neurobehavioral Functioning Inventory. While no significant effects were detected at termination of education only (P<.075) or of NSBM (P<.56), significant treatment effects were found at the main outcome point 3 months after termination of services (P<.002). Rates of disruptive or aggressive behaviors declined significantly in the NSBM group. Differences in caregiver-rated stress, burden, and aggression were not statistically significant. A program of caregiver education and individualized behavior management in natural settings can decrease the frequency of disruptive behavioral challenges. Larger studies are needed to clarify the duration and intensity of education and individualized treatment required to diminish behavioral challenges and to understand relationships with general stress and burden experienced by caregivers.

  4. Early Psychosocial Neglect Adversely Impacts Developmental Trajectories of Brain Oscillations and Their Interactions.

    PubMed

    Stamoulis, Catherine; Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2015-12-01

    Rhythmicity is a fundamental property of neural activity at multiple spatiotemporal scales, and associated oscillations represent a critical mechanism for communication and transmission of information across brain regions. During development, these oscillations evolve dynamically as a function of neural maturation and may be modulated by early experiences, positive and/or negative. This study investigated the impact of psychosocial deprivation associated with institutional rearing in early life and the effects of subsequent foster care intervention on developmental trajectories of neural oscillations and their cross-frequency correlations. Longitudinally acquired nontask EEGs from three cohorts of children from the Bucharest Early Intervention Project were analyzed. These included abandoned children initially reared in institutions and subsequently randomized to be placed in foster care or receive care as usual (prolonged institutional rearing) and a group of never-institutionalized children. Oscillation trajectories were estimated from 42 to 96 months, that is, 1-3 years after all children in the intervention arm of the study had been placed in foster care. Significant differences between groups were estimated for the amplitude trajectories of cognitive-related gamma, beta, alpha, and theta oscillations. Similar differences were identified as a function of time spent in institutions, suggesting that increased time spent in psychosocial neglect may have profound and widespread effects on brain activity. Significant group differences in cross-frequency coupling were estimated longitudinally between gamma and lower frequencies as well as alpha and lower frequencies. Lower cross-gamma coupling was estimated at 96 months in the group of children that remained in institutions at that age compared to the other two groups, suggesting potentially impaired communication between local and long-distance brain networks in these children. In contrast, higher cross

  5. Sex Biased Gene Expression Profiling of Human Brains at Major Developmental Stages.

    PubMed

    Shi, Lei; Zhang, Zhe; Su, Bing

    2016-02-16

    There are many differences in brain structure and function between males and females. However, how these differences were manifested during development and maintained through adulthood are still unclear. Here we present a time series analyses of genome-wide transcription profiles of the human brain, and we identified genes showing sex biased expression at major developmental stages (prenatal time, early childhood, puberty time and adulthood). We observed a great number of genes (>2,000 genes) showing between-sex expression divergence at all developmental stages with the greatest number (4,164 genes) at puberty time. However, there are little overlap of sex-biased genes among the major developmental stages, an indication of dynamic expression regulation of the sex-biased genes in the brain during development. Notably, the male biased genes are highly enriched for genes involved in neurological and psychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, Alzheimer's disease and autism, while no such pattern was seen for the female-biased genes, suggesting that the differences in brain disorder susceptibility between males and females are likely rooted from the sex-biased gene expression regulation during brain development. Collectively, these analyses reveal an important role of sex biased genes in brain development and neurodevelopmental disorders.

  6. Novel insights into the rehabilitation of memory post acquired brain injury: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Spreij, Lauriane A.; Visser-Meily, Johanna M. A.; van Heugten, Caroline M.; Nijboer, Tanja C. W.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) frequently results in memory impairment causing significant disabilities in daily life and is therefore a critical target for cognitive rehabilitation. Current understanding of brain plasticity has led to novel insights in remediation-oriented approaches for the rehabilitation of memory deficits. We will describe 3 of these approaches that have emerged in the last decade: Virtual Reality (VR) training, Computer-Based Cognitive Retraining (CBCR) and Non-Invasive Brain Stimulation (NBS) and evaluate its effectiveness. Methods: A systematic literature search was completed in regard to studies evaluating interventions aiming to improve the memory function after ABI. Information concerning study content and reported effectiveness were extracted. Quality of the studies and methods were evaluated. Results: A total of 786 studies were identified, 15 studies met the inclusion criteria. Three of those studies represent the VR technique, 7 studies represent CBCR and 5 studies NBS. All 3 studies found a significant improvement of the memory function after VR-based training, however these studies are considered preliminary. All 7 studies have shown that CBCR can be effective in improving memory function in patients suffering from ABI. Four studies of the 5 did not find significant improvement of the memory function after the use of NBS in ABI patients. Conclusion: On the basis of this review, CBCR is considered the most promising novel approach of the last decade because of the positive results in improving memory function post ABI. The number of studies representing VR were limited and the methodological quality low, therefore the results should be considered preliminary. The studies representing NBS did not detect evidence for the use of NBS in improving memory function. PMID:25566021

  7. The immune system and developmental programming of brain and behavior.

    PubMed

    Bilbo, Staci D; Schwarz, Jaclyn M

    2012-08-01

    The brain, endocrine, and immune systems are inextricably linked. Immune molecules have a powerful impact on neuroendocrine function, including hormone-behavior interactions, during health as well as sickness. Similarly, alterations in hormones, such as during stress, can powerfully impact immune function or reactivity. These functional shifts are evolved, adaptive responses that organize changes in behavior and mobilize immune resources, but can also lead to pathology or exacerbate disease if prolonged or exaggerated. The developing brain in particular is exquisitely sensitive to both endogenous and exogenous signals, and increasing evidence suggests the immune system has a critical role in brain development and associated behavioral outcomes for the life of the individual. Indeed, there are associations between many neuropsychiatric disorders and immune dysfunction, with a distinct etiology in neurodevelopment. The goal of this review is to describe the important role of the immune system during brain development, and to discuss some of the many ways in which immune activation during early brain development can affect the later-life outcomes of neural function, immune function, mood and cognition.

  8. The Immune System and Developmental Programming of Brain and Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Bilbo, Staci D.; Schwarz, Jaclyn M.

    2012-01-01

    The brain, endocrine, and immune systems are inextricably linked. Immune molecules have a powerful impact on neuroendocrine function, including hormone-behavior interactions, during health as well as sickness. Similarly, alterations in hormones, such as during stress, can powerfully impact immune function or reactivity. These functional shifts are evolved, adaptive responses that organize changes in behavior and mobilize immune resources, but can also lead to pathology or exacerbate disease if prolonged or exaggerated. The developing brain in particular is exquisitely sensitive to both endogenous and exogenous signals, and increasing evidence suggests the immune system has a critical role in brain development and associated behavioral outcomes for the life of the individual. Indeed, there are associations between many neuropsychiatric disorders and immune dysfunction, with a distinct etiology in neurodevelopment. The goal of this review is to describe the important role of the immune system during brain development, and to discuss some of the many ways in which immune activation during early brain development can affect the later-life outcomes of neural function, immune function, mood and cognition. PMID:22982535

  9. Cognitive Impairment in Acquired Brain Injury: A Predictor of Rehabilitation Outcomes and an Opportunity for Novel Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Whyte, Ellen; Skidmore, Elizabeth; Aizenstein, Howard; Ricker, Joseph; Butters, Meryl

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment is a common sequela in acquired brain injury and one that predicts rehabilitation outcomes. There is emerging evidence that impairments in cognitive functions can be manipulated by both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic interventions to improve rehabilitation outcomes. By using stroke as a model for acquired brain injury, we review the evidence that links cognitive impairment to poor rehabilitation outcomes and discuss possible mechanisms to explain this association. Furthermore, we examine nascent promising research that suggests that interventions that target cognitive impairments can lead to better rehabilitation outcomes. PMID:21703580

  10. Developmental genetic evidence for a monophyletic origin of the bilaterian brain.

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, H; Simeone, A

    2001-01-01

    The widely held notion of an independent evolutionary origin of invertebrate and vertebrate brains is based on classical phylogenetic, neuroanatomical and embryological data. The interpretation of these data in favour of a polyphyletic origin of animals brains is currently being challenged by three fundamental findings that derive from comparative molecular, genetic and developmental analyses. First, modern molecular systematics indicates that none of the extant animals correspond to evolutionary intermediates between the protostomes and the deuterostomes, thus making it impossible to deduce the morphological organization of the ancestral bilaterian or its brain from living species. Second, recent molecular genetic evidence for the body axis inversion hypothesis now supports the idea that the basic body plan of vertebrates and invertebrates is similar but inverted, suggesting that the ventral nerve chord of protostome invertebrates is homologous to the dorsal nerve cord of deuterostome chordates. Third, a developmental genetic analysis of the molecular control elements involved in early embryonic brain patterning is uncovering the existence of structurally and functionally homologous genes that have comparable and interchangeable functions in key aspects of brain development in invertebrate and vertebrate model systems. All three of these findings are compatible with the hypothesis of a monophyletic origin of the bilaterian brain. Here we review these findings and consider their significance and implications for current thinking on the evolutionary origin of bilaterian brains. We also preview the impact of comparative functional genomic analyses on our understanding of brain evolution. PMID:11604121

  11. Brain Blood Flow Related to Acoustic Laryngeal Reaction Time in Adult Developmental Stutterers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Ben C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    This study sought to identify patterns of impaired acoustic laryngeal reaction time as a function of response complexity parallel to metabolic measures of brain function. Findings indicated that the disruption in speech motor control for 16 adult male developmental stutterers was systematically related to metabolic asymmetry in left superior and…

  12. The Developmental Brain Disorders Database (DBDB): a curated neurogenetics knowledge base with clinical and research applications.

    PubMed

    Mirzaa, Ghayda M; Millen, Kathleen J; Barkovich, A James; Dobyns, William B; Paciorkowski, Alex R

    2014-06-01

    The number of single genes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders has increased dramatically over the past decade. The identification of causative genes for these disorders is important to clinical outcome as it allows for accurate assessment of prognosis, genetic counseling, delineation of natural history, inclusion in clinical trials, and in some cases determines therapy. Clinicians face the challenge of correctly identifying neurodevelopmental phenotypes, recognizing syndromes, and prioritizing the best candidate genes for testing. However, there is no central repository of definitions for many phenotypes, leading to errors of diagnosis. Additionally, there is no system of levels of evidence linking genes to phenotypes, making it difficult for clinicians to know which genes are most strongly associated with a given condition. We have developed the Developmental Brain Disorders Database (DBDB: https://www.dbdb.urmc.rochester.edu/home), a publicly available, online-curated repository of genes, phenotypes, and syndromes associated with neurodevelopmental disorders. DBDB contains the first referenced ontology of developmental brain phenotypes, and uses a novel system of levels of evidence for gene-phenotype associations. It is intended to assist clinicians in arriving at the correct diagnosis, select the most appropriate genetic test for that phenotype, and improve the care of patients with developmental brain disorders. For researchers interested in the discovery of novel genes for developmental brain disorders, DBDB provides a well-curated source of important genes against which research sequencing results can be compared. Finally, DBDB allows novel observations about the landscape of the neurogenetics knowledge base. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Social Outcomes in Childhood Brain Disorder: A Heuristic Integration of Social Neuroscience and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer…

  14. Social Outcomes in Childhood Brain Disorder: A Heuristic Integration of Social Neuroscience and Developmental Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2007-01-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer…

  15. Timing of developmental sequences in different brain structures: physiological and pathological implications.

    PubMed

    Dehorter, N; Vinay, L; Hammond, C; Ben-Ari, Y

    2012-06-01

    The developing brain is not a small adult brain. Voltage- and transmitter-gated currents, like network-driven patterns, follow a developmental sequence. Studies initially performed in cortical structures and subsequently in subcortical structures have unravelled a developmental sequence of events in which intrinsic voltage-gated calcium currents are followed by nonsynaptic calcium plateaux and synapse-driven giant depolarising potentials, orchestrated by depolarizing actions of GABA and long-lasting NMDA receptor-mediated currents. The function of these early patterns is to enable heterogeneous neurons to fire and wire together rather than to code specific modalities. However, at some stage, behaviourally relevant activities must replace these immature patterns, implying the presence of programmed stop signals. Here, we show that the developing striatum follows a developmental sequence in which immature patterns are silenced precisely when the pup starts locomotion. This is mediated by a loss of the long-lasting NMDA-NR2C/D receptor-mediated current and the expression of a voltage-gated K(+) current. At the same time, the descending inputs to the spinal cord become fully functional, accompanying a GABA/glycine polarity shift and ending the expression of developmental patterns. Therefore, although the timetable of development differs in different brain structures, the g sequence is quite similar, relying first on nonsynaptic events and then on synaptic oscillations that entrain large neuronal populations. In keeping with the 'neuroarcheology' theory, genetic mutations or environmental insults that perturb these developmental sequences constitute early signatures of developmental disorders. Birth dating developmental disorders thus provides important indicators of the event that triggers the pathological cascade leading ultimately to disease.

  16. Sexual dimorphism of brain developmental trajectories during childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Lenroot, Rhoshel K; Gogtay, Nitin; Greenstein, Deanna K; Wells, Elizabeth Molloy; Wallace, Gregory L; Clasen, Liv S; Blumenthal, Jonathan D; Lerch, Jason; Zijdenbos, Alex P; Evans, Alan C; Thompson, Paul M; Giedd, Jay N

    2007-07-15

    Human total brain size is consistently reported to be approximately 8-10% larger in males, although consensus on regionally specific differences is weak. Here, in the largest longitudinal pediatric neuroimaging study reported to date (829 scans from 387 subjects, ages 3 to 27 years), we demonstrate the importance of examining size-by-age trajectories of brain development rather than group averages across broad age ranges when assessing sexual dimorphism. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) we found robust male/female differences in the shapes of trajectories with total cerebral volume peaking at age 10.5 in females and 14.5 in males. White matter increases throughout this 24-year period with males having a steeper rate of increase during adolescence. Both cortical and subcortical gray matter trajectories follow an inverted U shaped path with peak sizes 1 to 2 years earlier in females. These sexually dimorphic trajectories confirm the importance of longitudinal data in studies of brain development and underline the need to consider sex matching in studies of brain development.

  17. Traumatic Brain Injury in Early Childhood: Developmental Effects and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara; Lowenthal, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Describes the unique effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on development in early childhood and offers suggestions for interventions in the cognitive, language, social-emotional, motor, and adaptive domains. Urges more intensive, long-term studies on the immediate and long-term effects of TBI. (Author/DB)

  18. Ordinary and Extraordinary Brain Development: Anatomical Variation in Developmental Dyslexia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galaburda, Albert M.

    1989-01-01

    Autopsy analysis of eight dyslexic brains found that the ordinary asymmetry in a language-relevant area of the temporal lobe was missing. The greater development of the right side may reflect an increase in the total number of neurons involved in language processing, resulting in changes in interhemispheric interactions. (JDD)

  19. Traumatic Brain Injury in Early Childhood: Developmental Effects and Interventions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowenthal, Barbara; Lowenthal, Barbara

    1998-01-01

    Describes the unique effects of traumatic brain injury (TBI) on development in early childhood and offers suggestions for interventions in the cognitive, language, social-emotional, motor, and adaptive domains. Urges more intensive, long-term studies on the immediate and long-term effects of TBI. (Author/DB)

  20. Atypical developmental trajectory of local spontaneous brain activity in autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xiaonan; Chen, Heng; Long, Zhiliang; Duan, Xujun; Zhang, Youxue; Chen, Huafu

    2017-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is marked by atypical trajectory of brain maturation, yet the developmental abnormalities in brain function remain unclear. The current study examined the effect of age on amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in ASD and typical controls (TC) using a cross-sectional design. We classified all the participants into three age cohorts: child (<11 years, 18ASD/20TC), adolescent (11–18 years, 28ASD/26TC) and adult (≥18 years, 18ASD/18TC). Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed to ascertain main effects and interaction effects on whole brain ALFF maps. Results exhibited significant main effect of diagnosis in ASD with decreased ALFF in the right precuneus and left middle occipital gyrus during all developmental stages. Significant diagnosis-by-age interaction was observed in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) with ALFF lowered in autistic children but highered in autistic adolescents and adults. Specifically, remarkable quadratic change of ALFF with increasing age in mPFC presented in TC group was absent in ASD. Additionally, abnormal ALFF values in diagnosis-related brain regions predicted the social deficits in ASD. Our findings indicated aberrant developmental patterns of spontaneous brain activity associated with social deficits in ASD and highlight the crucial role of the default mode network in the development of disease. PMID:28057930

  1. Early rehabilitation for severe acquired brain injury in intensive care unit: multicenter observational study.

    PubMed

    Bartolo, Michelangelo; Bargellesi, Stefano; Castioni, Carlo A; Bonaiuti, Donatella; Antenucci, Roberto; Benedetti, Angelo; Capuzzo, Valeria; Gamna, Federica; Radeschi, Giulio; Citerio, Giuseppe; Colombo, Carolina; Del Casale, Laura; Recubini, Elena; Toska, Saimir; Zanello, Marco; D'Aurizio, Carlo; Spina, Tullio; Del Gaudio, Alredo; Di Rienzo, Filomena; Intiso, Domenico; Dallocchio, Giulia; Felisatti, Giovanna; Lavezzi, Susanna; Zoppellari, Roberto; Gariboldi, Valentina; Lorini, Luca; Melizza, Giovanni; Molinero, Guido; Mandalà, Giorgio; Pignataro, Amedeo; Montis, Andrea; Napoleone, Alessandro; Pilia, Felicita; Pisu, Marina; Semerjian, Monica; Pagliaro, Giuseppina; Nardin, Lorella; Scarponi, Federico; Zampolini, Mauro; Zava, Raffaele; Massetti, Maria A; Piccolini, Carlo; Aloj, Fulvio; Antonelli, Sergio; Zucchella, Chiara

    2016-02-01

    The increased survival after a severe acquired brain injury (sABI) raise the problem of making most effective the treatments in Intensive Care Unit (ICU)/Neurointensive Care Unit (NICU), also integrating rehabilitation care. Despite previous studies reported that early mobilization in ICU was effective in preventing complications and reducing hospital stay, few studies addressed the rehabilitative management of sABI patients in ICU/NICU. To collect clinical and functional data about the early rehabilitative management of sABI patients during ICU/NICU stay. Prospective, observational, multicenter study. Fourteen facilities supplied by intensive neurorehabilitation units and ICU/NICUs. Consecutive sABI patients admitted to ICU/NICU. Patients were evaluated at admission and then every 3-5 days. Clinical, functional and rehabilitative data, including Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS), Disability Rating Scale (DRS), The Rancho Los Amigos Levels of Cognitive Functioning Scale (LCF), Early Rehabilitation Barthel Index (ERBI), Glasgow Outcome scale (GOS) and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) were collected. One hundred and two patients (F/M 44/58) were enrolled. The mean duration of ICU stay was 24.7±13.9 days and the first rehabilitative evaluation occurred after 8.7±8.8 days. Regular postural changes and multijoint mobilization were prescribed in 63.7% and 64.7% cases, respectively. The mean session duration was 38±11.5 minutes. Swallowing evaluation was performed in 14.7% patients, psychological support was provided to 12.7% of patients' caregivers, while 17.6% received a psycho-educational intervention, and 28.4% were involved in interdisciplinary team meetings. The main discharge destinations were Severe Acquired Brain Injury rehabilitation units for 43.7%, intensive neurorehabilitation units for 20.7%. Data showed that early rehabilitation was not diffusely performed in sABI subjects in ICU/NICU and rehabilitative interventions were variable; one-third of subjects were

  2. Lower total and regional grey matter brain volumes in youth with perinatally-acquired HIV infection: Associations with HIV disease severity, substance use, and cognition.

    PubMed

    Lewis-de Los Angeles, C Paula; Williams, Paige L; Huo, Yanling; Wang, Shirlene D; Uban, Kristina A; Herting, Megan M; Malee, Kathleen; Yogev, Ram; Csernansky, John G; Nichols, Sharon; Van Dyke, Russell B; Sowell, Elizabeth R; Wang, Lei

    2017-05-01

    Despite improved survival due to combination antiretroviral therapy (cART), youth with perinatally-acquired HIV (PHIV) show cognitive deficits and developmental delay at increased rates. HIV affects the brain during critical periods of development, and the brain may be a persistent reservoir for HIV due to suboptimal blood brain barrier penetration of cART. We conducted structural magnetic resonance imaging (sMRI) and cognitive testing in 40 PHIV youth (mean age=16.7years) recruited from the NIH Pediatric HIV/AIDS Cohort Study (PHACS) who are part of the first generation of PHIV youth surviving into adulthood. Historical and current HIV disease severity and substance use measures were also collected. Total and regional cortical grey matter brain volumes were compared to a group of 334 typically-developing, HIV-unexposed and uninfected youth (frequency-matched for age and sex) from the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics (PING) study (mean age=16.1years). PHIV youth had smaller (2.8-5.1%) total and regional grey matter volumes than HIV-unexposed and uninfected youth, with smallest volumes seen among PHIV youth with higher past peak viral load (VL) and recent unsuppressed VL. In PHIV youth, worse cognitive performance correlated with smaller volumes. This pattern of smaller grey matter volumes suggests that PHIV infection may influence brain development and underlie cognitive dysfunction seen in this population. Among PHIV youth, smaller volumes were also linked to substance use (alcohol use: 9.0-13.4%; marijuana use: 10.1-16.0%). In this study, collection of substance use information was limited to the PHIV cohort; future studies should also collect substance use information in controls to further address interactions between HIV and substance use on brain volume.

  3. Haemodynamics-Driven Developmental Pruning of Brain Vasculature in Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chun; Hu, Dan; Bu, Ji-wen; Cai, David; Du, Jiu-lin

    2012-01-01

    The brain blood vasculature consists of a highly ramified vessel network that is tailored to meet its physiological functions. How the brain vasculature is formed has long been fascinating biologists. Here we report that the developing vasculature in the zebrafish midbrain undergoes not only angiogenesis but also extensive vessel pruning, which is driven by changes in blood flow. This pruning process shapes the initial exuberant interconnected meshwork into a simplified architecture. Using in vivo long-term serial confocal imaging of the same zebrafish larvae during 1.5–7.5 d post-fertilization, we found that the early formed midbrain vasculature consisted of many vessel loops and higher order segments. Vessel pruning occurred preferentially at loop-forming segments via a process mainly involving lateral migration of endothelial cells (ECs) from pruned to unpruned segments rather than EC apoptosis, leading to gradual reduction in the vasculature complexity with development. Compared to unpruned ones, pruned segments exhibited a low and variable blood flow, which further decreased irreversibly prior to the onset of pruning. Local blockade of blood flow with micro-bead obstruction led to vessel pruning, whereas increasing blood flow by noradrenergic elevation of heartbeat impeded the pruning process. Furthermore, the occurrence of vessel pruning could be largely predicted by haemodynamics-based numerical simulation of vasculature refinement. Thus, changes of blood flow drive vessel pruning via lateral migration of ECs, leading to the simplification of the vasculature and possibly efficient routing of blood flow in the developing brain. PMID:22904685

  4. The Intersection between Ocular and Manual Motor Control: Eye-Hand Coordination in Acquired Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, John-Ross; Hosseini, Maryam; Wong, Eric A; Mackey, Wayne E; Fung, James K; Ahdoot, Edmond; Rucker, Janet C; Raghavan, Preeti; Landy, Michael S; Hudson, Todd E

    2017-01-01

    Acute and chronic disease processes that lead to cerebral injury can often be clinically challenging diagnostically, prognostically, and therapeutically. Neurodegenerative processes are one such elusive diagnostic group, given their often diffuse and indolent nature, creating difficulties in pinpointing specific structural abnormalities that relate to functional limitations. A number of studies in recent years have focused on eye-hand coordination (EHC) in the setting of acquired brain injury (ABI), highlighting the important set of interconnected functions of the eye and hand and their relevance in neurological conditions. These experiments, which have concentrated on focal lesion-based models, have significantly improved our understanding of neurophysiology and underscored the sensitivity of biomarkers in acute and chronic neurological disease processes, especially when such biomarkers are combined synergistically. To better understand EHC and its connection with ABI, there is a need to clarify its definition and to delineate its neuroanatomical and computational underpinnings. Successful EHC relies on the complex feedback- and prediction-mediated relationship between the visual, ocular motor, and manual motor systems and takes advantage of finely orchestrated synergies between these systems in both the spatial and temporal domains. Interactions of this type are representative of functional sensorimotor control, and their disruption constitutes one of the most frequent deficits secondary to brain injury. The present review describes the visually mediated planning and control of eye movements, hand movements, and their coordination, with a particular focus on deficits that occur following neurovascular, neurotraumatic, and neurodegenerative conditions. Following this review, we also discuss potential future research directions, highlighting objective EHC as a sensitive biomarker complement within acute and chronic neurological disease processes.

  5. The Intersection between Ocular and Manual Motor Control: Eye–Hand Coordination in Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Rizzo, John-Ross; Hosseini, Maryam; Wong, Eric A.; Mackey, Wayne E.; Fung, James K.; Ahdoot, Edmond; Rucker, Janet C.; Raghavan, Preeti; Landy, Michael S.; Hudson, Todd E.

    2017-01-01

    Acute and chronic disease processes that lead to cerebral injury can often be clinically challenging diagnostically, prognostically, and therapeutically. Neurodegenerative processes are one such elusive diagnostic group, given their often diffuse and indolent nature, creating difficulties in pinpointing specific structural abnormalities that relate to functional limitations. A number of studies in recent years have focused on eye–hand coordination (EHC) in the setting of acquired brain injury (ABI), highlighting the important set of interconnected functions of the eye and hand and their relevance in neurological conditions. These experiments, which have concentrated on focal lesion-based models, have significantly improved our understanding of neurophysiology and underscored the sensitivity of biomarkers in acute and chronic neurological disease processes, especially when such biomarkers are combined synergistically. To better understand EHC and its connection with ABI, there is a need to clarify its definition and to delineate its neuroanatomical and computational underpinnings. Successful EHC relies on the complex feedback- and prediction-mediated relationship between the visual, ocular motor, and manual motor systems and takes advantage of finely orchestrated synergies between these systems in both the spatial and temporal domains. Interactions of this type are representative of functional sensorimotor control, and their disruption constitutes one of the most frequent deficits secondary to brain injury. The present review describes the visually mediated planning and control of eye movements, hand movements, and their coordination, with a particular focus on deficits that occur following neurovascular, neurotraumatic, and neurodegenerative conditions. Following this review, we also discuss potential future research directions, highlighting objective EHC as a sensitive biomarker complement within acute and chronic neurological disease processes. PMID:28620341

  6. Promoting Adaptive Behavior in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury, Extensive Motor and Communication Disabilities, and Consciousness Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Badagliacca, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    These two studies extended the evidence on the use of technology-based intervention packages to promote adaptive behavior in persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities. Study I involved five participants in a minimally conscious state who were provided with intervention packages based on specific arrangements of optic, tilt, or…

  7. A Systematic Review of Psychological Interventions to Alleviate Cognitive and Psychosocial Problems in Children with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Kimberley A.; Dorris, Liam; McMillan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Aim: It is now generally accepted that paediatric acquired brain injury (ABI) can have an impact on a child's cognitive, social, and behavioural functioning. However, the lack of guidelines on effective interventions for the affected children and their families, particularly beyond the acute recovery phase, can limit access to effective support.…

  8. Usual and Virtual Reality Video Game-Based Physiotherapy for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levac, Danielle; Miller, Patricia; Missiuna, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how therapists promote learning of functional motor skills for children with acquired brain injuries. This study explores physiotherapists' description of these interventions in comparison to virtual reality (VR) video game-based therapy. Six physiotherapists employed at a children's rehabilitation center participated in…

  9. Social communication features in children following moderate to severe acquired brain injury: a cross-sectional pilot study.

    PubMed

    Breau, Lynn M; Clark, Brenda; Scott, Ori; Wilkes, Courtney; Reynolds, Shawn; Ricci, Florencia; Sonnenberg, Lyn; Zwaigenbaum, Lonnie; Rashid, Marghalara; Goez, Helly R

    2015-04-01

    We compared the social communication deficits of children with moderate to severe acquired brain injury or autism spectrum disorder, while accounting for the role of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Parents of 20 children aged 6 to 10 years (10 acquired brain injury; 10 autism spectrum disorder) completed the Social Communication Questionnaire, and Conners 3 Parent Short. A multivariate analysis of covariance revealed significant differences between groups in Social Communication Questionnaire restricted repetitive behavior scores, but not reciprocal social interaction or social communication. Multiple linear regressions indicated diagnosis did not predict reciprocal social interaction or social communication scores and that Conners 3 Parent Short Form hyperactivity scores were the strongest predictor of Social Communication Questionnaire reciprocal social interaction scores after accounting for age and Intelligence Quotient. The lack of difference in social communication deficits between groups may help in understanding the pathophysiology underlying the behavioral consequences of acquired brain injury. The link between hyperactivity and reciprocal interaction suggests that targeting hyperactivity may improve social outcomes in children following acquired brain injury.

  10. Expressive Art for the Social and Community Integration of Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injuries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, Anita; Keightley, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents with acquired brain injuries suffer from social and community withdrawal that result in isolation from their peer groups. The review highlights the evidence of effectiveness of expressive art interventions in the form of theatre for populations with difficulties in physical, emotional, cognitive, or social functioning. A systematic…

  11. Evaluation of a Reading Comprehension Strategy Package to Improve Reading Comprehension of Adult College Students with Acquired Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Gina G.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI.…

  12. Usual and Virtual Reality Video Game-Based Physiotherapy for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levac, Danielle; Miller, Patricia; Missiuna, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Little is known about how therapists promote learning of functional motor skills for children with acquired brain injuries. This study explores physiotherapists' description of these interventions in comparison to virtual reality (VR) video game-based therapy. Six physiotherapists employed at a children's rehabilitation center participated in…

  13. How Can Educational Psychologists Support the Reintegration of Children with an Acquired Brain Injury upon Their Return to School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Heather; Howe, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the process of reintegration into school for children with an acquired brain injury (ABI) and considers the role of the educational psychologist (EP) in supporting these children. Interviews were conducted with a range of professionals in two specialist settings: a specialist rehabilitation centre and a children's hospital with…

  14. A Systematic Review of Psychological Interventions to Alleviate Cognitive and Psychosocial Problems in Children with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Kimberley A.; Dorris, Liam; McMillan, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Aim: It is now generally accepted that paediatric acquired brain injury (ABI) can have an impact on a child's cognitive, social, and behavioural functioning. However, the lack of guidelines on effective interventions for the affected children and their families, particularly beyond the acute recovery phase, can limit access to effective support.…

  15. Evaluation of a Reading Comprehension Strategy Package to Improve Reading Comprehension of Adult College Students with Acquired Brain Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Gina G.

    2013-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI.…

  16. How Can Educational Psychologists Support the Reintegration of Children with an Acquired Brain Injury upon Their Return to School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Heather; Howe, Julia

    2013-01-01

    This study explores the process of reintegration into school for children with an acquired brain injury (ABI) and considers the role of the educational psychologist (EP) in supporting these children. Interviews were conducted with a range of professionals in two specialist settings: a specialist rehabilitation centre and a children's hospital with…

  17. Promoting Adaptive Behavior in Persons with Acquired Brain Injury, Extensive Motor and Communication Disabilities, and Consciousness Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lancioni, Giulio E.; Singh, Nirbhay N.; O'Reilly, Mark F.; Sigafoos, Jeff; Belardinelli, Marta Olivetti; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina; Navarro, Jorge; Lanzilotti, Crocifissa; De Tommaso, Marina; Megna, Marisa; Badagliacca, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    These two studies extended the evidence on the use of technology-based intervention packages to promote adaptive behavior in persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities. Study I involved five participants in a minimally conscious state who were provided with intervention packages based on specific arrangements of optic, tilt, or…

  18. Expressive Art for the Social and Community Integration of Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injuries: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goyal, Anita; Keightley, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents with acquired brain injuries suffer from social and community withdrawal that result in isolation from their peer groups. The review highlights the evidence of effectiveness of expressive art interventions in the form of theatre for populations with difficulties in physical, emotional, cognitive, or social functioning. A systematic…

  19. Developmental programming of early brain and behaviour development and mental health: a conceptual framework.

    PubMed

    Van den Bergh, Bea R H

    2011-09-01

    The Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis studies the short- and long-term consequences of the conditions of the developmental environment for phenotypic variations in health and disease. Central to this hypothesis is the idea of interdependence of developmental influences, genes, and environment. Developmental programming effects are mediated by alterations in fundamental life functions, and the most enduring effects seem to occur if the main regulatory instances of the organ - the (epi)genome and the brain - are affected. Some new insights in the role of chromatin, in cellular development and differentiation, and neural plasticity from the field of epigenetics are introduced, followed by a section on epigenetics and brain development. It is proposed to extend the DOHaD hypothesis into the 'Developmental Origins of Behaviour, Health, and Disease' (DOBHaD) concept. Pregnancy and the early postnatal period are times of both great opportunity and considerable risk, and their influence can extend over a lifetime. The DOBHaD hypothesis opens fundamental new perspectives on preventing diseases and disorders.

  20. Developmental disorders of speech and language: from genes to brain structure and function.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Kate

    2011-01-01

    Functional and structural brain imaging studies of developmental disorders provide insights into their neural correlates and have potential to bridge the gap between genotype and phenotype. We have used such techniques to investigate the neural correlates of two developmental disorders of speech and language, in which a genetic etiology is either known or strongly suspected. The first disorder is one shared by the affected members of the KE family who have a mutation in the FOXP2 gene. The brain structural and functional correlates of this disorder help clarify the nature of the behavioral impairment. They confirm that a deficit in auditory-motor learning of articulation patterns is core to the behavioral phenotype. In the second disorder, developmental stuttering, brain imaging data reveal functional abnormalities consistent with theories that it is caused by a basal ganglia deficit and structural differences consistent with an impairment in auditory-motor integration necessary for fluent speech. The common finding of basal ganglia abnormality in two developmental disorders of speech and language is discussed. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The Developmental Trajectory of Brain-Scalp Distance from Birth through Childhood: Implications for Functional Neuroimaging

    PubMed Central

    Beauchamp, Michael S.; Beurlot, Michelle R.; Fava, Eswen; Nath, Audrey R.; Parikh, Nehal A.; Saad, Ziad S.; Bortfeld, Heather; Oghalai, John S.

    2011-01-01

    Measurements of human brain function in children are of increasing interest in cognitive neuroscience. Many techniques for brain mapping used in children, including functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), electroencephalography (EEG), magnetoencephalography (MEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), use probes placed on or near the scalp. The distance between the scalp and the brain is a key variable for these techniques because optical, electrical and magnetic signals are attenuated by distance. However, little is known about how scalp-brain distance differs between different cortical regions in children or how it changes with development. We investigated scalp-brain distance in 71 children, from newborn to age 12 years, using structural T1-weighted MRI scans of the whole head. Three-dimensional reconstructions were created from the scalp surface to allow for accurate calculation of brain-scalp distance. Nine brain landmarks in different cortical regions were manually selected in each subject based on the published fNIRS literature. Significant effects were found for age, cortical region and hemisphere. Brain-scalp distances were lowest in young children, and increased with age to up to double the newborn distance. There were also dramatic differences between brain regions, with up to 50% differences between landmarks. In frontal and temporal regions, scalp-brain distances were significantly greater in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. The largest contributors to developmental changes in brain-scalp distance were increases in the corticospinal fluid (CSF) and inner table of the cranium. These results have important implications for functional imaging studies of children: age and brain-region related differences in fNIRS signals could be due to the confounding factor of brain-scalp distance and not true differences in brain activity. PMID:21957470

  2. Changes in impaired self-awareness after acquired brain injury in patients following intensive neuropsychological rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Sanne M J; Vink, Martie; Ponds, Rudolf W H M; Winkens, Ieke; van Heugten, Caroline M

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate changes in self-awareness impairments in outpatients with acquired brain injury (ABI) and the effects these changes have on rehabilitation. Participants were 78 patients with ABI (8.3 years post-injury) who followed an intensive outpatient neuropsychological rehabilitation programme. This longitudinal study comprised pre (T1) and post (T2) measurements and a one-year follow-up (T3). Thirty-eight patients completed the study. The main outcome domains were self-awareness, depressive symptoms, psychological and physical dysfunction, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL). Patients were divided into three awareness groups: underestimation, accurate estimation, and overestimation of competencies. Most patients who underestimated their competencies at the start of treatment accurately estimated their competencies directly after treatment (9 out of 11 patients). These patients also exhibited the largest treatment effects regarding depressive symptoms, psychological and physical dysfunction, and HRQoL. Most patients with impaired self-awareness (i.e., overestimation of competencies) at the start of treatment continued to overestimate their competencies after treatment (10 out of 14 patients). These patients exhibited a significant decrease in depressive symptoms but no other treatment effects. The results indicate that changes in outcome are related to changes in awareness, which underline the importance of taking into account different awareness groups with respect to treatment effects.

  3. Perceived difficulties using everyday technology after acquired brain injury: influence on activity and participation.

    PubMed

    Lindén, Anita; Lexell, Jan; Lund, Maria Larsson

    2010-12-01

    Using everyday technology (ET) is a prerequisite for activities and participation at home and in the community. It is well known that persons with an acquired brain injury (ABI) can have limitations in activities of daily living but our knowledge of their difficulties using ET is not known. Thirty-six persons (27 men and 9 women, mean age 44 years, age range 26-60) with an ABI (2-10 years post injury) were interviewed, using the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire (ETUQ), about their perceived difficulties using ET and how these difficulties influenced their everyday activities and their possibilities to participate at home and in the community. A majority (78%) of the persons reported difficulties using ET. The most common difficulties were related to the use of telecommunication and computers. Despite these difficulties, a majority still used most objects and services independently. Twenty-six participants (72%) perceived that their difficulties using ET influenced their everyday activities and their possibility to participate at home and in the community. The results indicate that rehabilitation following an ABI should consider whether clients' use of ET influences their activity and participation and adopt interventions accordingly. The results also indicate that difficulties using ET need to be considered in the design of community services to prevent societal barriers.

  4. Factors associated with self-esteem following acquired brain injury in adults: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Curvis, William; Simpson, Jane; Hampson, Natalie

    2016-03-03

    Self-esteem is potentially a key factor in psychological and psychosocial well-being following acquired brain injury (ABI). The current review aimed to identify, synthesise and appraise all existing quantitative empirical studies on predictors or correlates of self-esteem following ABI in adulthood. In total, 27 papers met the inclusion criteria. A range of clinical factors were related to self-esteem after ABI, including the degree of physical and functional impairment. It is unclear if cognitive impairment is related to high or low self-esteem. Additionally, psychological variables such as coping styles, adjustment and perception of problems or rehabilitation are related to self-esteem following ABI. Depression is strongly associated with low self-esteem, alongside anxiety, psychological distress and quality of life. Limitations of the available research and recommendations for clinical practice and further research are discussed. In particular, there is a need to engage with contemporary theoretical understandings of self-esteem, integrated with and supported by developments in how self-esteem is conceptualised and measured over time in an ABI population. The findings of the review suggest that self-esteem is an important factor to consider following ABI, particularly in the context of developing individualised, formulation-driven rehabilitation interventions that take into account biological, social and psychological factors.

  5. Theory of mind deficits in patients with acquired brain injury: a quantitative review.

    PubMed

    Martín-Rodríguez, Juan Francisco; León-Carrión, José

    2010-04-01

    Impaired theory of mind (ToM) reasoning is considered an underlying cause of social cognition deficits in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). However, the literature does not agree on the severity of ToM impairment in this clinical population, nor does it coincide on the proper tools for its assessment. In this paper, we use a meta-analytic approach to review 26 studies which compare the performance of ABI patients and healthy controls in four widely-used ToM tasks: first-order belief task, second order belief task, understanding indirect speech (IS) and social faux pas. Overall, patients show moderate to severe ToM impairment. The latter appears in faux pas (effect size=0.70) and understanding IS tasks (ES=0.87), while moderate impairment can be seen in second-order (ES=0.60) and first-order belief tasks (ES=0.52). The severity of ToM impairment was influenced by ratio of patients with frontal lobe lesion, ratio of patients with right hemisphere injury, type of belief task, and heterogeneity of the sample's etiology. Our results provide important quantitative evidence on the severity of ToM deficits in the ABI population, while identifying variables that influence these deficits. Implications for basic and clinical neuropsychology are discussed. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Music evoked autobiographical memory after severe acquired brain injury: preliminary findings from a case series.

    PubMed

    Baird, A; Samson, S

    2014-01-01

    Music evoked autobiographical memories (MEAMs) have been characterised in the healthy population, but not, to date, in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). Our aim was to investigate music compared with verbal evoked autobiographical memories. Five patients with severe ABI and matched controls completed the experimental music (MEAM) task (a written questionnaire) while listening to 50 "Number 1 Songs of the Year" (from 1960 to 2010). Patients also completed the Autobiographical Memory Interview (AMI) and a standard neuropsychological assessment. With the exception of Case 5, who reported no MEAMs and no autobiographical incidents on the AMI and who also had impaired pitch perception, the range of frequency and type of MEAMs in patients was broadly in keeping with their matched controls. The relative preservation of MEAMs in four cases was particularly noteworthy given their impaired verbal and/or visual anterograde memory, and in three cases, autobiographical memory impairment. The majority of MEAMs in both cases and matched controls were of a person/people or a period of life. In three patients music was more efficient at evoking autobiographical memories than the AMI verbal prompts. This is the first study of MEAMs after ABI. The findings suggest that music is an effective stimulus for eliciting autobiographical memories, and may be beneficial in the rehabilitation of autobiographical amnesia, but only in patients without a fundamental deficit in autobiographical recall memory and intact pitch perception.

  7. Cognitive behavior therapy after acquired brain injury: maintenance of therapeutic benefits at 6 months posttreatment.

    PubMed

    Arundine, April; Bradbury, Cheryl L; Dupuis, Kate; Dawson, Deirdre R; Ruttan, Lesley A; Green, Robin E A

    2012-01-01

    To examine whether 6-month posttreatment acquired brain injury (ABI) patients receiving cognitive behavior therapy (CBT) adapted for ABI would demonstrate (1) maintenance of psychological benefits, (2) better community integration, and (3) commensurate benefits for both teletherapy and face-to-face group therapy. A secondary objective was to examine the relationship between coping strategies and mood and community integration. Seventeen chronic ABI patients with elevated psychological distress. Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R), Depression Anxiety Stress Scales-21 (DASS-21), Community Integration Questionnaire, and the Ways of Coping questionnaire, revised. Eleven CBT sessions provided either in a face-to-face group format or individually by telephone with outcomes measured pretreatment, posttreatment, and at 6-month follow-up. At 6-month follow-up, full-group scores were significantly better than pretreatment for psychological distress (t(16) = 6.22, P < .01, SCL-90-R; t(16) = 7.32, P < .01, DASS-21) and for community integration (t(16) = -6.15, P < .01), with negligible decrements from immediately posttreatment. Subgroup scores were comparable. Coping also improved but was uncorrelated with mood or community integration. The CBT adapted for ABI shows enduring benefits for mood and community integration. The efficacy of teletherapy obviates service access problems related to geographical remoteness and mobility restrictions. A larger, randomized, control trial that examines underlying mechanisms of efficacy is needed.

  8. Awareness typologies, long-term emotional adjustment and psychosocial outcomes following acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ownsworth, Tamara; Fleming, Jenny; Strong, Jenny; Radel, Michael; Chan, Wilbur; Clare, Linda

    2007-04-01

    Previous research suggests considerable heterogeneity within groups of individuals identified as having low self-awareness or good self-awareness following acquired brain injury (ABI). The present study aimed to identify typologies of individuals according to neuropsychological and psychological factors related to awareness deficits and compare emotional adjustment and psychosocial outcomes at the initial assessment and 12-month follow-up. Eighty-four participants with ABI (mean time since injury = 3.9 years) were assessed on the Self-Awareness of Deficits Interview, Awareness Questionnaire, Symptom Expectancy Checklist, Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale, Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, Sydney Psychosocial Reintegration Scale, and an error self-regulation index. A 12-month follow-up assessment of emotional adjustment and psychosocial outcomes was conducted. A hierarchical cluster analysis distinguished four awareness typologies, namely, "poor self-awareness" (n = 12), "high defensiveness" (n = 13), "high symptom reporting" (n = 15), and "good self-awareness" (n = 44). An overall comparison of outcomes indicated that the poor self-awareness and high symptom reporting typologies experienced poorer outcomes than the high defensiveness and good self-awareness typologies. The findings confirm that there are different awareness typologies and highlight the need to tailor interventions according to the nature of awareness deficits.

  9. Google Calendar: a new memory aid to compensate for prospective memory deficits following acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    McDonald, A; Haslam, C; Yates, P; Gurr, B; Leeder, G; Sayers, A

    2011-12-01

    Prospective memory impairment is common following acquired brain injury (ABI) and intervention has proved challenging. The current treatment of choice involves using external memory aids as a method of compensation, with those incorporating active reminders proving most successful. In this paper we report findings of an investigation into the effectiveness of a novel external memory aid, Google Calendar. This aid incorporates active reminders and overcomes some of the limitations associated with existing aids. Twelve participants with ABI took part in the study incorporating a randomised control crossover within-subjects design, consisting of a 5-week baseline phase, followed by two 5-week intervention phases where either Google Calendar or a standard diary were used. Participants identified activities to target during the study and a family member monitored their success. Google Calendar was more effective than the diary in enhancing prospective memory performance. It also proved more popular, on account of its active reminders which helped trigger the retrieval of intentions, whilst reducing the need for monitoring. While further research is required to substantiate these initial findings, it is recommended that clinicians familiarise themselves with using Google Calendar, as it appears to offer additional potential in the management of prospective memory deficits following ABI.

  10. Brain structural changes as vulnerability factors and acquired signs of post-earthquake stress.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, A; Sugiura, M; Taki, Y; Kotozaki, Y; Nouchi, R; Takeuchi, H; Araki, T; Hanawa, S; Nakagawa, S; Miyauchi, C M; Sakuma, A; Kawashima, R

    2013-05-01

    Many survivors of severe disasters, even those without posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), need psychological support. To understand the pathogenesis of PTSD symptoms and prevent the development of PTSD, the critical issue is to distinguish neurological abnormalities as vulnerability factors from acquired signs of PTSD symptoms in the early stage of adaptation to the trauma in the normal population. The neurological underpinnings of PTSD have been well characterized, but the causal relationships with the traumatic event are still unclear. We examined 42 non-PTSD subjects to find brain morphometric changes related to the severity of PTSD symptoms in a longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging study extending through the Great East Japan Earthquake. We found that regional grey matter volume (rGMV) in the right ventral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) before the earthquake, and decreased rGMV in the left orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) through the earthquake were negatively associated with PTSD symptoms. Our results indicate that subjects with smaller GMV in the ACC before the earthquake, and subjects with decreased GMV in the OFC through the earthquake were likely to have PTSD symptoms. As the ACC is involved in processing of fear and anxiety, our results indicate that these processing are related to vulnerability for PTSD symptoms. In addition, decreased OFC volume was induced by failing to extinct conditioned fear soon after the traumatic event. These findings provide a better understanding of posttraumatic responses in early stage of adaptation to the trauma and may contribute to the development of effective methods to prevent PTSD.

  11. Participation after acquired brain injury: Associations with everyday technology and activities in daily life.

    PubMed

    Fallahpour, Mandana; Kottorp, Anders; Nygård, Louise; Lund, Maria Larsson

    2015-01-01

    The development of the information society has led to increased use of everyday technology and changed the conditions for participation. Enabling participation in everyday life situations is an important rehabilitation goal after acquired brain injury (ABI). Identifying factors associated with individuals' experienced participation and problems therein is therefore essential. This study aimed at exploring the relationship between perceived difficulty in everyday technology use, perceived ability in the activities of daily living (ADL), and perceived participation, and participation problems in persons with ABI. Eighty-one persons with ABI participated in the study and were assessed by the Impact on Participation and Autonomy questionnaire, the Everyday Technology Use Questionnaire, and the ADL taxonomy. Findings showed that the combined model of difficulty in everyday technology (ET) use, ADL ability, and the interaction between them explained both participation in various domains of everyday life, and also overall level of perceived participation and the perceived problems. The findings underscore the importance of evaluating individuals' ability in both ET use and ADL after ABI to increase the probability of explaining these persons' participation in desired everyday life situations and, also, for rehabilitation design.

  12. Functional assessment of immediate task planning and execution by adults with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Brown, Jessica A; Hux, Karen

    2016-06-27

    Individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI) often struggle planning and executing tasks outside daily routines. Given the pervasive effects executive functioning challenges have on independent living, professionals need methods of assessing these skills. This study's purpose was to evaluate an ecologically-valid procedure to assess novel task planning and execution by adults with ABI. The researchers implemented a single group design across two phases. Participants included nine adults with severe ABI. In the first experimental phase, participants created a plan for executing tasks that required adherence to pre-determined rules; in the second phase, participants executed the tasks. The researchers tallied information units recorded during the planning phase, performed momentary time-sampling to document observations about participant behaviors, and collected speed, accuracy, and rule violation data about task completion. Planning strategies implemented by most participants were limited to word-for-word copying of some or all of the specified tasks. On average, participants attempted and accurately performed less than half the required tasks and exhibited high rule violation rates. Given further development and refinement, the implemented procedures may serve as a basis for developing an ecologically-valid tool for evaluating executive functioning in adults with ABI.

  13. Selection and visualisation of outcome measures for complex post-acute acquired brain injury rehabilitation interventions

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Catherine Elaine Longworth; Malley, Donna; Bateman, Andrew; Clare, Isabel C.H.; Wagner, Adam P.; Gracey, Fergus

    2016-01-01

    Background Outcome measurement challenges rehabilitation services to select tools that promote stakeholder engagement in measuring complex interventions. Objectives To examine the suitability of outcome measures for complex post-acute acquired brain injury (ABI) rehabilitation interventions, report outcomes of a holistic, neuropsychological ABI rehabilitation program and propose a simple way of visualizing complex outcomes. Methods Patient/carer reported outcome measures (PROMS), experience measures (PREMS) and staff-rated measures were collected for consecutive admissions over 1 year to an 18-week holistic, neuropsychological rehabilitation programme at baseline, 18 weeks and 3- and 6-month follow-up. Results Engagement with outcome measurement was poorest for carers and at follow-up for all stakeholders. Dependence, abilities, adjustment, unmet needs, symptomatology including executive dysfunction, and self-reassurance showed improvements at 18 weeks. Adjustment, social participation, perceived health, symptomatology including dysexecutive difficulties, and anxiety were worse at baseline for those who did not complete rehabilitation, than those who did. A radar plot facilitated outcome visualization. Conclusions Engagement with outcome measurement was best when time and support were provided. Supplementing patient- with staff-rated and attendance measures may explain missing data and help quantify healthcare needs. The MPAI4, EBIQ and DEX-R appeared suitable measures to evaluate outcomes and distinguish those completing and not completing neuropsychological rehabilitation. PMID:27341362

  14. Certification standards of professionals coordinating life care plans for individuals who have acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Cloie B; Lacerte, Michel; Fountaine, John D

    2015-01-01

    This article will discuss the history and evolution of what is now known as a life care plan. The objectives will be to understand that a life care plan is a tool of case management. A life care plan is based on a proper medical, psychological, case management, and/or rehabilitation foundation. The development of a life care plan requires following generally accepted and peer-reviewed methodology and standards of practice. Life care planning is a trans-disciplinary specialty practice. A life care plan is a dynamic document based upon published standards of practice, comprehensive assessment, data analysis and research that provides an organized, concise plan for current and future needs with associated costs for individuals who have experienced catastrophic injury or have chronic health care needs. The reader will also learn there are Standards of Practice for life care planning that have been a long-standing guide for the practitioner and its core components will be discussed. There are qualifications of professionals who perform the specialty practice of life care planning which will be reviewed, and in conclusion there are special considerations for individuals coordinating life care plans with individuals who have sustained an acquired brain injury will also be discussed.

  15. Validation of the Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist-1990R for use in acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Diana; Turner-Stokes, Lynne; Murray, Joanna; Leese, Morven

    2007-07-01

    The Memory and Behavior Problems Checklist-1990R (MBPC-1990R) is a carer-rated measure of (a) problem behaviours and (b) corresponding carer reaction. Although originally developed and validated for dementia, its items are relevant to acquired brain injury (ABI). This study evaluated its validity in this population. Cross-sectional study. In a national postal survey carried out to inform service planning, 222 family carers of adults with TBI (49%), strokes (26%), infections (18%), other (7%) completed the MBPC-1990R, Head Injury Behaviour Scale (HIBS), Barthel Index (BI), Northwick Park Dependency Score (NPDS), Carer Burden Interview (CBI), WHOQOL-BREF and GHQ-28. MBPC-1990R problems correlated well with HIBS problems (r = 0.70), as did MBPC-1990R carer reaction with HIBS distress (r = 0.78) and CBI (r = 0.73) scores, indicating good convergent validity. Discriminant validity was inferred from absent/weak correlations between MBPC-1990R problems and both BI (r = -0.02) and NPDS (r = 0.24); likewise between MBPC-1990R carer reaction and WHOQOL-BREF physical, psychological, social, environmental sub-scales (r = -0.32 to -0.41) and GHQ-28 scores (r = 0.35). Factor analysis revealed excessive, cognitive, aggressive and passive/low mood sub-scales, which showed good internal consistency and varied across ABI groups. The MBPC-1990R is supported as a measure of problem behaviours and carer reaction in ABI. Further validation in ABI groups is recommended.

  16. Opportunities and barriers for successful return to work after acquired brain injury: A patient perspective.

    PubMed

    Matérne, Marie; Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Strandberg, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Many people who suffer an acquired brain injury (ABI) are of working age. There are benefits, for the patient, the workplace, and society, to finding factors that facilitate successful return to work (RTW). The aim was to increase knowledge of opportunities and barriers for a successful RTW in patients with ABI. Five men and five women with ABI participated. All had successfully returned to work at least 20 hours a week. Their experiences were gathered by semi-structured interviews, which were subsequently subjected to qualitative content analysis. Three themes that influenced RTW were identified: individually adapted rehabilitation; motivation for RTW; and cognitive and social abilities. An individually adapted rehabilitation was judged important because the patients were involved in their own rehabilitation and required individually adapted support from rehabilitation specialists, employers, and colleagues. A moderate level of motivation for RTW was needed. Awareness of the person's cognitive and social abilities is essential, in finding compensatory strategies and adaptations. It seems that the vocational rehabilitation process is a balancing act in individualized planning and support, as a partnership with the employer needs to be developed, motivation needs to be generated, and awareness built of abilities that facilitate or hinder RTW.

  17. Initial validation of personal self-advocacy measures for individuals with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Lenore; Gerber, Donald; Pretz, Christopher; Morey, Clare; Whiteneck, Gale

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of 2 novel measures assessing personal advocacy, self-efficacy and personal advocacy activities in individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI). This was an instrument development study using (a) expert panel review with a content validity index, (b) consumer survey, and (c) Rasch analysis. Participants were adults (N = 162) with ABI recruited through a community survey. Participants completed the Self-Advocacy Scale (SAS) and the Personal Advocacy Activity Scale (PAAS). Using Rasch analysis to inform instrument development, after modification on the basis of item response theory analysis, the SAS, a measure of advocacy self-efficacy, was found to be unidimensional with an eigenvalue of 1.6, exhibited monotonicity, and had an item reliability of 0.97. Similarly, the PAAS, a measure of advocacy activity, was found to exhibit monotonicity, is unidimensional (eigenvalue of 1.7) and had an item reliability of 0.97. Both measures demonstrated concurrent validity, because they were significantly correlated with other established measures of related constructs and with each other. A separation reliability of 0.97 (real not model) for both the SAS and PAAS suggests that items will likely hold their relative positions in a similar sample. This study supported the PAAS and the SAS as reliable and valid measures of personal advocacy activity and associated self-efficacy in individuals post-ABI. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. Development of a fidelity measure for community integration programmes for people with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Parvaneh, Shahriar; Cocks, Errol; Buchanan, Angus; Ghahari, Setareh

    2015-01-01

    The paper describes development of the Assessment of Community Integration Programme Attributes (ACIPA) measure based on a descriptive community integration framework. The purpose of this measure is to allow evaluation of community integration programmes for adults with acquired brain injury (ABI). The Community Integration Framework (CIF) was used to design a fidelity evaluation measure through consultation with 37 participants from five stakeholder groups (practitioners, researchers, policy-makers, people with ABI and family members of people with ABI) using semi-structured interviews, focus groups, iterative surveys and a multi-attribute utility (MAU) method. The resultant measure included seven themes and 21 attributes. Each attribute included indicators and probing questions. Weights were assigned to each theme and constituent attributes. Programme evaluation commonly focuses on outcomes, often overlooking analysis of programme processes. Although it requires further psychometric (reliability and validity) development, the Assessment of Community Integration Programme Attributes may be used to assess the relationship between programme processes and specific outcomes and also to inform the development of programmes aiming to enhance community integration for adults with ABI.

  19. Opportunities and barriers for successful return to work after acquired brain injury: A patient perspective

    PubMed Central

    Matérne, Marie; Lundqvist, Lars-Olov; Strandberg, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many people who suffer an acquired brain injury (ABI) are of working age. There are benefits, for the patient, the workplace, and society, to finding factors that facilitate successful return to work (RTW). OBJECTIVE: The aim was to increase knowledge of opportunities and barriers for a successful RTW in patients with ABI. METHOD: Five men and five women with ABI participated. All had successfully returned to work at least 20 hours a week. Their experiences were gathered by semi-structured interviews, which were subsequently subjected to qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Three themes that influenced RTW were identified: individually adapted rehabilitation; motivation for RTW; and cognitive and social abilities. An individually adapted rehabilitation was judged important because the patients were involved in their own rehabilitation and required individually adapted support from rehabilitation specialists, employers, and colleagues. A moderate level of motivation for RTW was needed. Awareness of the person’s cognitive and social abilities is essential, in finding compensatory strategies and adaptations. CONCLUSIONS: It seems that the vocational rehabilitation process is a balancing act in individualized planning and support, as a partnership with the employer needs to be developed, motivation needs to be generated, and awareness built of abilities that facilitate or hinder RTW. PMID:28035941

  20. Further development of the response scales of the Acquired Brain Injury Challenge Assessment (ABI-CA).

    PubMed

    McArthur, Caitlin; Venkatesh, Surabhi; Warren, Danielle; Pringle, Daniel; Doerr, Tanya; Salbach, Nancy Margaret; Kirkwood, Gail; Wright, Virginia

    2013-01-01

    To revise the scaling of the response sets of the Acquired Brain Injury Challenge Assessment (ABI-CA) through expert input and determination of empirically based cut-points. A measurement development study with a content validity focus. Response option wording was revised through consultation with six physiotherapists with paediatric ABI expertise. Twenty-nine typically-developing children performed the ABI-CA and empirically-based cut-points for item-specific response options were derived from their time/distance/repetition results (SD values) as benchmark values. Movement quality considerations (compensatory movements) were identified from expert consultation/ABI-CA video observation and built into revised response options. The revised ABI-CA was pilot-tested with four children with ABI, aged 7-15 years, for a feasibility check. Nineteen of the 23 items' response scales were revised based on experts' feedback and empirically-based cut-points replaced the previous arbitrarily-determined cut-points. Compensatory movement considerations were re-defined in nine items. The mean score of the refined ABI-CA was 70.0% (SD = 18.5) with four children with ABI. The new response options in the ABI-CA appeared suitable for testing high-functioning children with ABI and the mid-range mean score in this pilot sample indicates its potential to measure change. Recommendations are outlined for final ABI-CA amendments before large-scale validation.

  1. Living with acquired brain injury: self-concept as mediating variable in the adjustment process.

    PubMed

    Doering, Bettina K; Conrad, Nico; Rief, Winfried; Exner, Cornelia

    2011-01-01

    Sequelae of acquired brain injury (ABI) require adjustment processes in which survivors must strive to regain subjective well-being (SWB) in the face of chronic impairment. The current study investigates whether the self-concept of achievement mediates this process. Thirty-five post-acute patients with ABI were assessed neuropsychologically for performance in memory, attention, concept formation and reasoning. Data concerning subjective complaints in applied cognition, self-concept, and SWB were collected. Patients rated their self-concept more negatively compared to a normative sample. Effects of subjective complaints in applied cognition on SWB were mediated by the self-concept of achievement. Contrary to expectations, objective cognitive deficits demonstrated no independent significant relationship to self-concept of achievement or SWB in multiple regression modelling when subjective complaints in applied cognition were considered simultaneously. The findings highlight the necessity of considering patients' subjective complaints and self-concepts to improve rehabilitative progress. Potential implications for neuropsychological rehabilitation are discussed.

  2. Planarian brain regeneration as a model system for developmental neurotoxicology

    PubMed Central

    Hagstrom, Danielle; Cochet‐Escartin, Olivier

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Freshwater planarians, famous for their regenerative prowess, have long been recognized as a valuable in vivo animal model to study the effects of chemical exposure. In this review, we summarize the current techniques and tools used in the literature to assess toxicity in the planarian system. We focus on the planarian's particular amenability for neurotoxicology and neuroregeneration studies, owing to the planarian's unique ability to regenerate a centralized nervous system. Zooming in from the organismal to the molecular level, we show that planarians offer a repertoire of morphological and behavioral readouts while also being amenable to mechanistic studies of compound toxicity. Finally, we discuss the open challenges and opportunities for planarian brain regeneration to become an important model system for modern toxicology. PMID:27499880

  3. Developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency and brain development: A role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)?*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for normal brain development. Even subclinical hypothyroidism experienced in utero can result in neuropsychological deficits in children despite normal thyroid status at birth. Neurotrophins have been implicated in a host of brain cellular func...

  4. Developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency and brain development: A role for brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)?*

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid hormones (TH) are essential for normal brain development. Even subclinical hypothyroidism experienced in utero can result in neuropsychological deficits in children despite normal thyroid status at birth. Neurotrophins have been implicated in a host of brain cellular func...

  5. Social Outcomes in Childhood Brain Disorder: A Heuristic Integration of Social Neuroscience and Developmental Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Yeates, Keith Owen; Bigler, Erin D.; Dennis, Maureen; Gerhardt, Cynthia A.; Rubin, Kenneth H.; Stancin, Terry; Taylor, H. Gerry; Vannatta, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    The authors propose a heuristic model of the social outcomes of childhood brain disorder that draws on models and methods from both the emerging field of social cognitive neuroscience and the study of social competence in developmental psychology/psychopathology. The heuristic model characterizes the relationships between social adjustment, peer interactions and relationships, social problem solving and communication, social-affective and cognitive-executive processes, and their neural substrates. The model is illustrated by research on a specific form of childhood brain disorder, traumatic brain injury. The heuristic model may promote research regarding the neural and cognitive-affective substrates of children’s social development. It also may engender more precise methods of measuring impairments and disabilities in children with brain disorder and suggest ways to promote their social adaptation. PMID:17469991

  6. Treatment of developmental stress disorder: mind, body and brain - analysis and pharmacology coupled.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Joseph

    2017-11-01

    The schism between psychiatry, psychology and analysis, while long present, has widened even more in the past half-century with the advances in psychopharmacology. With the advances in electronic brain imaging, particularly in developmental and post-traumatic stress disorders, there has emerged both an understanding of brain changes resulting from severe, chronic stress and an ability to target brain chemistry in ways that can relieve clinical symptomatology. The use of alpha-1 adrenergic brain receptor antagonists decreases many of the manifestations of PTSD. Additionally, this paper discusses the ways in which dreaming, thinking and the analytic process are facilitated with this concomitant treatment and hypervigilence and hyper-arousal states are signficiantly decreased. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  7. Differential developmental trajectories of magnetic susceptibility in human brain gray and white matter over the lifespan.

    PubMed

    Li, Wei; Wu, Bing; Batrachenko, Anastasia; Bancroft-Wu, Vivian; Morey, Rajendra A; Shashi, Vandana; Langkammer, Christian; De Bellis, Michael D; Ropele, Stefan; Song, Allen W; Liu, Chunlei

    2014-06-01

    As indicated by several recent studies, magnetic susceptibility of the brain is influenced mainly by myelin in the white matter and by iron deposits in the deep nuclei. Myelination and iron deposition in the brain evolve both spatially and temporally. This evolution reflects an important characteristic of normal brain development and ageing. In this study, we assessed the changes of regional susceptibility in the human brain in vivo by examining the developmental and ageing process from 1 to 83 years of age. The evolution of magnetic susceptibility over this lifespan was found to display differential trajectories between the gray and the white matter. In both cortical and subcortical white matter, an initial decrease followed by a subsequent increase in magnetic susceptibility was observed, which could be fitted by a Poisson curve. In the gray matter, including the cortical gray matter and the iron-rich deep nuclei, magnetic susceptibility displayed a monotonic increase that can be described by an exponential growth. The rate of change varied according to functional and anatomical regions of the brain. For the brain nuclei, the age-related changes of susceptibility were in good agreement with the findings from R2* measurement. Our results suggest that magnetic susceptibility may provide valuable information regarding the spatial and temporal patterns of brain myelination and iron deposition during brain maturation and ageing. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Multi-disciplinary rehabilitation for acquired brain injury in adults of working age.

    PubMed

    Turner-Stokes, Lynne; Pick, Anton; Nair, Ajoy; Disler, Peter B; Wade, Derick T

    2015-12-22

    Evidence from systematic reviews demonstrates that multi-disciplinary rehabilitation is effective in the stroke population, in which older adults predominate. However, the evidence base for the effectiveness of rehabilitation following acquired brain injury (ABI) in younger adults has not been established, perhaps because this scenario presents different methodological challenges in research. To assess the effects of multi-disciplinary rehabilitation following ABI in adults 16 to 65 years of age. We ran the most recent search on 14 September 2015. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, The Cochrane Library, Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R), Embase Classic+Embase (OvidSP), Web of Science (ISI WOS) databases, clinical trials registers, and we screened reference lists. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing multi-disciplinary rehabilitation versus routinely available local services or lower levels of intervention; or trials comparing an intervention in different settings, of different intensities or of different timing of onset. Controlled clinical trials were included, provided they met pre-defined methodological criteria. Three review authors independently selected trials and rated their methodological quality. A fourth review author would have arbitrated if consensus could not be reached by discussion, but in fact, this did not occur. As in previous versions of this review, we used the method described by Van Tulder 1997 to rate the quality of trials and to perform a 'best evidence' synthesis by attributing levels of evidence on the basis of methodological quality. Risk of bias assessments were performed in parallel using standard Cochrane methodology. However, the Van Tulder system provided a more discriminative evaluation of rehabilitation trials, so we have continued to use it for our primary synthesis of evidence. We subdivided trials in terms of

  9. Participant and service provider perceptions of an outpatient rehabilitation program for people with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Poncet, Frédérique; Pradat-Diehl, Pascale; Lamontagne, Marie-Eve; Alifax, Anne; Fradelizi, Pascaline; Barette, Maude; Swaine, Bonnie

    2017-09-01

    A holistic, intensive and interdisciplinary rehabilitation program for people with acquired brain injury (ABI) was developed at the Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital, France (5 days/week for 7 weeks). This program, recently demonstrated effective, aimed to optimize the ability of people with ABI to perform activities and improve their participation by using individual and group interventions involving ecologically valid activities inside (e.g., in the gym and kitchen) and outside the hospital. However, the perception of the quality of the program by participants and service providers has not yet been reported. This study had 3 objectives: (1) report the perception of participants (adults with ABI) in terms of service quality of the program, (2) report the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats (SWOT analysis) of the program as perceived by service providers, and (3) triangulate findings to draw conclusions about the program's quality and provide recommendations for quality improvement. We used a mixed-methods design with a validated questionnaire (Perception of Quality of Rehabilitation Services [PQRS-Montreal]) and interviews (structured around a SWOT analysis) involving program participants and service providers. We included 33 program participants (mean age 43.6 years) and 12 service providers (mean years with program 7.6 years). In general, study participants showed a convergence of opinion about the high quality of the program, particularly regarding the team and its participant-focused approach. Specific aspects of the program were viewed more negatively by both participants and service providers (i.e., addressing sexuality, family involvement and return to work/volunteer work/school). Participant and service provider perceptions of the rehabilitation program under study were generally positive. A reliable and valid questionnaire and interviews helped identify aspects of the program that worked well and those that could be targeted for future quality

  10. Discourse level reading comprehension interventions following acquired brain injury: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Watter, Kerrin; Copley, Anna; Finch, Emma

    2017-02-01

    Purpose Reading comprehension can change following acquired brain injury (ABI), impacting independence and participation. This review aims to identify and evaluate the interventions used for rehabilitation of discourse level reading in adults with ABI. Methods A systematic review was conducted of published journal articles. Methodological quality of studies was reviewed using formal and informal rating scales. Inclusion criteria involved adults with non-progressive ABI who experienced discourse level reading deficits related to aphasia or cognitive-communication disorders. Results A total of 23 studies were identified; these included randomized controlled trials, cohort and case studies. Six different types of reading interventions were found, overall results of these interventions were mixed. Reading deficits were reportedly related to language (aphasia) and/or cognitive deficits, with assessment processes varying. Questions arose regarding comparability of assessment methods and diagnostic issues across the studies. Conclusions Interventions for discourse level reading comprehension can make positive changes to reading function. However, no intervention was identified as a gold standard. A trend toward strategy-based reading was found, with these offering a potential for (comparatively) cost-effective lower-dosage reading treatments with positive-trend results. Cognitive and language features should be considered for assessment and intervention planning for discourse reading in ABI. Implications for Rehabilitation Six different types of discourse reading comprehension interventions for people with ABI were identified, with mixed evidence for each intervention. Clinicians need to consider both the linguistic and cognitive features of reading for assessment and intervention planning for discourse level reading. There is a research trend toward strategy-based reading interventions, which use a lower treatment dosage.

  11. Intelligent Therapy Assistant (ITA) for cognitive rehabilitation in patients with acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This paper presents the design, development and first evaluation of an algorithm, named Intelligent Therapy Assistant (ITA), which automatically selects, configures and schedules rehabilitation tasks for patients with cognitive impairments after an episode of Acquired Brain Injury. The ITA is integrated in “Guttmann, Neuro Personal Trainer” (GNPT), a cognitive tele-rehabilitation platform that provides neuropsychological services. Methods The ITA selects those tasks that are more suitable for the specific needs of each patient, considering previous experiences, and improving the personalization of the treatment. The system applies data mining techniques to cluster the patients according their cognitive impairment profile. Then, the algorithm rates every rehabilitation task, based on its cognitive structure and the clinical impact of executions done by similar patients. Finally, it configures the most suitable degree of difficulty, depending on the impairment of the patient and his/her evolution during the treatment. Results The ITA has been evaluated during 18 months by 582 patients. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of the ITA, a comparison between the traditional manual planning procedure and the one presented in this paper has been done, taking into account: a) the selected tasks assigned to rehabilitation sessions; b) the difficulty level configured for the sessions; c) and the improvement of their cognitive capacities after completing treatment. Conclusions The obtained results reveal that the rehabilitation treatment proposed by the ITA is as effective as the one performed manually by therapists, arising as a new powerful support tool for therapists. The obtained results make us conclude that the proposal done by the ITA is very close to the one done by therapists, so it is suitable for real treatments. PMID:25038823

  12. Attention and dual-task conditions: physical therapy implications for individuals with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    McCulloch, Karen

    2007-09-01

    The aim of this article is to consider how impairments in attention may affect the performance of two tasks during balance or walking in individuals recovering from acquired brain injury (ABI). Guidelines from the experimental dual-task paradigm from cognitive psychology are reviewed. In this paper, dual-task conditions are described as the use of two tasks performed simultaneously, but not necessarily following all the experimental guidelines of the dual-task paradigm. How and why dual-task costs may emerge are discussed as well as considerations for task selection. Review of literature that describes dual-task performance problems in older adults is summarized briefly as a foundation for considering how similar conditions may affect individuals with ABI. Studies of individuals with ABI of dual-task performance in balance or walking are reviewed in detail. Examination approaches including observational measures of attention as well as clinical measures of dual-task performance during walking are reviewed. Intervention concepts and approaches are described by review of intervention designs used with older adults and individuals with ABI that describe task selection and use of instructional set for dual-task training. Two intervention strategies described in the literature for treating attention problems are contrasted: (1) an explicit focus on cognitive impairments with the expectation that function will improve as a result and (2) an implicit focus on functional tasks through errorless learning with the expectation that cognition (and attention) will improve. An illustration of the use of both of these strategies in a complementary fashion to improve attention in a patient with ABI is reviewed. Current literature is limited in clearly directing assessment and intervention to improve attention after ABI, but strategies are presented and areas for future research are identified.

  13. Young adults with acquired brain injury in nursing homes in Glasgow.

    PubMed

    McMillan, T M; Laurie, M

    2004-03-01

    To survey the characteristics, level of disability and services received by young adults with acquired brain injury (ABI) resident in nursing homes in Greater Glasgow. Telephone survey of 75 nursing homes followed by a questionnaire survey and review of medication cardexes. Included were all people under 65 years with ABI resident in nursing homes in Greater Glasgow between 1 February 2000 and 31 January 2001. Twenty-eight nursing homes in Greater Glasgow, Scotland (population 0.9 million). Young adults (16-64) with ABI. Structured questionnaire, Barthel Index, Office of Population Census Survey (OPCS) Disability Form, review of medication cardexes. Information was obtained on all cases identified in 75 nursing homes. There were 92 people with ABI in 28 nursing homes; 43/92 were in three homes. Only 42 had inpatient rehabilitation preadmission. Severe disability (OPCS categories 7-10) was found in 54 cases and minimal/minor disability (OPCS categories 1-2) in 18. Thirty-two exhibited challenging behaviour, nine of these were physically violent. Homes were staffed by unqualified assistants, supervised by nurses. No home itself offered rehabilitation, but some had accessed an NHS physical disability community team (28/92 cases) or other community teams (5/92). Proactive medical review was uncommon. Medication had been reviewed since admission in a minority (21/92). Most had regular visits from relatives. There is a wide range of disability in nursing home residents in Greater Glasgow. Proactive, routine review of medical, rehabilitation and medication needs is rare, as is rehabilitation pre and post discharge. This is serious given the likelihood of reduced intellectual and/or physical capacity in this population. Nursing homes should have hospital discharge reports that inform about immediate preadmission history, rationale for medication and placement. There is a need for regular and ongoing health service review of nursing home residents including potential for

  14. Profound microcephaly, primordial dwarfism with developmental brain malformations: a new syndrome.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, Ghada M H; Abdel-Hamid, Mohamed S; Saleem, Sahar N; Ahmed, Mahmoud K H; Issa, Mahmoud; Effat, Laila K; Kayed, Hisham F; Zaki, Maha S; Gaber, Khaled R

    2012-08-01

    We describe two sibs with a lethal form of profound congenital microcephaly, intrauterine and postnatal growth retardation, subtle skeletal changes, and poorly developed brain. The sibs had striking absent cranial vault with sloping of the forehead, large beaked nose, relatively large ears, and mandibular micro-retrognathia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed extremely simplified gyral pattern, large interhemispheric cyst and agenesis of corpus callosum, abnormally shaped hippocampus, and proportionately affected cerebellum and brainstem. In addition, fundus examination showed foveal hypoplasia with optic nerve atrophy. No abnormalities of the internal organs were found. This profound form of microcephaly was identified at 17 weeks gestation by ultrasound and fetal brain MRI helped in characterizing the developmental brain malformations in the second sib. Molecular analysis excluded mutations in potentially related genes such as RNU4ATAC, SLC25A19, and ASPM. These clinical and imaging findings are unlike that of any recognized severe forms of microcephaly which is believed to be a new microcephalic primordial dwarfism (MPD) with developmental brain malformations with most probably autosomal recessive inheritance based on consanguinity and similarly affected male and female sibs.

  15. Altered topological organization of brain structural network in Chinese children with developmental dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Shi, Lin; Chen, Feiyan; Waye, Mary M Y; Lim, Cadmon K P; Cheng, Pui-Wan; Luk, Sarah S H; Mok, Vincent C T; Chu, Winnie C W; Wang, Defeng

    2015-03-04

    Increasing evidence indicates that developmental dyslexia (DD) is a "disconnection syndrome", and new probes of connectome were applied to investigate the "disconnection" in DD. However, there is a lack of brain connectome studies of Chinese dyslexics, who may have a different neural impairment pattern due to the logographic nature of Chinese. The aim of this study was to investigate the topological organization characteristics of the DD brain using a structural network based analysis on the volumetric covariance, which is a method with the advantage of reflecting brain developmental changes. Twenty-five children diagnosed with DD and twenty-five typically developing controls were included. The structural networks based on the pair-wise correlation of gray matter volume from 90 brain regions were constructed for the two groups and compared. Compared to controls, the structural network of dyslexic children exhibited significantly increased local efficiency combined with a tendency of decreased global efficiency and prolonged characteristic path length, thus reflecting a more locally specialized topological organization. Two brain areas showed significantly altered local regional network properties: the left precentral gyrus with increased bi, and the right Heschl's gyrus with decreased bi and ki. Moreover, a series of hub regions (especially the right fronto-temporal regions) identified in the network of typically developing children were not presented in the brain of DD. To our knowledge, this is the first whole-brain structural network study on Chinese dyslexics. This study provides evidence of brain topological organization changes in Chinese children with DD, and thus may help shed light on its neurobiological basis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The Effects of Exercise on Cognitive Recovery after Acquired Brain Injury in Animal Models: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Wogensen, Elise; Malá, Hana; Mogensen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present paper is to review the current status of exercise as a tool to promote cognitive rehabilitation after acquired brain injury (ABI) in animal model-based research. Searches were conducted on the PubMed, Scopus, and psycINFO databases in February 2014. Search strings used were: exercise (and) animal model (or) rodent (or) rat (and) traumatic brain injury (or) cerebral ischemia (or) brain irradiation. Studies were selected if they were (1) in English, (2) used adult animals subjected to acquired brain injury, (3) used exercise as an intervention tool after inflicted injury, (4) used exercise paradigms demanding movement of all extremities, (5) had exercise intervention effects that could be distinguished from other potential intervention effects, and (6) contained at least one measure of cognitive and/or emotional function. Out of 2308 hits, 22 publications fulfilled the criteria. The studies were examined relative to cognitive effects associated with three themes: exercise type (forced or voluntary), timing of exercise (early or late), and dose-related factors (intensity, duration, etc.). The studies indicate that exercise in many cases can promote cognitive recovery after brain injury. However, the optimal parameters to ensure cognitive rehabilitation efficacy still elude us, due to considerable methodological variations between studies. PMID:26509085

  17. A Cross-Disorder Method to Identify Novel Candidate Genes for Developmental Brain Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Gonzalez-Mantilla, Andrea J.; Moreno-De-Luca, Andres; Ledbetter, David H.; Martin, Christa Lese

    2017-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Developmental brain disorders are a group of clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders characterized by high heritability. Specific highly penetrant genetic causes can often be shared by a subset of individuals with different phenotypic features, and recent advances in genome sequencing have allowed the rapid and cost-effective identification of many of these pathogenic variants. OBJECTIVES To identify novel candidate genes for developmental brain disorders and provide additional evidence of previously implicated genes. DATA SOURCES The PubMed database was searched for studies published from March 28,2003, through May 7,2015, with large cohorts of individuals with developmental brain disorders. DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS A tiered, multilevel data-integration approach was used, which intersects (1) whole-genome data from structural and sequence pathogenic loss-of-function (pLOF) variants, (2) phenotype data from 6 apparently distinct disorders (intellectual disability, autism, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and epilepsy), and (3) additional data from largescale studies, smaller cohorts, and case reports focusing on specific candidate genes. All candidate genes were ranked into 4 tiers based on the strength of evidence as follows: tier 1, genes with 3 or more de novo pathogenic loss-of-function variants; tier 2, genes with 2 de novo pathogenic loss-of-function variants; tier 3, genes with 1 de novo pathogenic loss-of-function variant; and tier 4, genes with only inherited (or unknown inheritance) pathogenic loss-of-function variants. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Development of a comprehensive knowledge base of candidate genes related to developmental brain disorders. Genes were prioritized based on the inheritance pattern and total number of pathogenic loss-of-function variants identified amongst unrelated individuals with any one of six developmental brain disorders. STUDY SELECTION A combination of

  18. Developmental Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency Reduces Expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Adults But Not in Neonates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin critical for many developmental and physiological aspects of CNS function. Severe hypothyroidism in the early neonatal period results in developmental and cognitive impairments and reductions in mRNA and protein expressio...

  19. Developmental Thyroid Hormone Insufficiency Reduces Expression of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) in Adults But Not in Neonates

    EPA Science Inventory

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin critical for many developmental and physiological aspects of CNS function. Severe hypothyroidism in the early neonatal period results in developmental and cognitive impairments and reductions in mRNA and protein expressio...

  20. Cognitive Dysfunction and Psychoeducational Assessment in Individuals with Acquired Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obrzut, John E.; Hynd, George W.

    1987-01-01

    Issues and developmental considerations in outcome and treatment of head injury in children are considered. Focus is on appropriate assessment practices in the areas of psychoeducational development, motor and cognitive deficits, and neuropsychological deficits. (Author/DB)

  1. Interventions for dysarthria due to stroke and other adult-acquired, non-progressive brain injury.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Claire; Bowen, Audrey; Tyson, Sarah; Butterfint, Zoe; Conroy, Paul

    2017-01-25

    Dysarthria is an acquired speech disorder following neurological injury that reduces intelligibility of speech due to weak, imprecise, slow and/or unco-ordinated muscle control. The impact of dysarthria goes beyond communication and affects psychosocial functioning. This is an update of a review previously published in 2005. The scope has been broadened to include additional interventions, and the title amended accordingly. To assess the effects of interventions to improve dysarthric speech following stroke and other non-progressive adult-acquired brain injury such as trauma, infection, tumour and surgery. We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group Trials Register (May 2016), CENTRAL (Cochrane Library 2016, Issue 4), MEDLINE, Embase, and CINAHL on 6 May 2016. We also searched Linguistics and Language Behavioral Abstracts (LLBA) (1976 to November 2016) and PsycINFO (1800 to September 2016). To identify further published, unpublished and ongoing trials, we searched major trials registers: WHO ICTRP, the ISRCTN registry, and ClinicalTrials.gov. We also handsearched the reference lists of relevant articles and contacted academic institutions and other researchers regarding other published, unpublished or ongoing trials. We did not impose any language restrictions. We selected randomised controlled trials (RCTs) comparing dysarthria interventions with 1) no intervention, 2) another intervention for dysarthria (this intervention may differ in methodology, timing of delivery, duration, frequency or theory), or 3) an attention control. Three review authors selected trials for inclusion, extracted data, and assessed risk of bias. We attempted to contact study authors for clarification and missing data as required. We calculated standardised mean difference (SMD) and 95% confidence interval (CI), using a random-effects model, and performed sensitivity analyses to assess the influence of methodological quality. We planned to conduct subgroup analyses for underlying clinical

  2. Evolutionary and developmental implications of asymmetric brain folding in a large primate pedigree

    PubMed Central

    Atkinson, Elizabeth G.; Rogers, Jeffrey; Cheverud, James M.

    2016-01-01

    Bilateral symmetry is a fundamental property of the vertebrate central nervous system. Local deviations from symmetry provide various types of information about the development, evolution and function of elements within the CNS, especially the cerebral hemispheres. Here, we quantify the pattern and extent of asymmetry in cortical folding within the cerebrum of Papio baboons and assess the evolutionary and developmental implications of the findings. Analyses of directional asymmetry show a population-level trend in length measurements indicating that baboons are genetically predisposed to be asymmetrical, with the right side longer than the left in the anterior cerebrum while the left side is longer than the right posteriorly. We also find a corresponding bias to display a right frontal petalia (overgrowth of the anterior pole of the cerebral cortex on the right side). By quantifying fluctuating asymmetry, we assess canalization of brain features and the susceptibility of the baboon brain to developmental perturbations. We find that features are differentially canalized depending on their ontogenetic timing. We further deduce that development of the two hemispheres is to some degree independent. This independence has important implications for the evolution of cerebral hemispheres and their separate specialization. Asymmetry is a major feature of primate brains and is characteristic of both brain structure and function. PMID:26813679

  3. Developmental brain dysfunction: revival and expansion of old concepts based on new genetic evidence

    PubMed Central

    Moreno-De-Luca, Andres; Myers, Scott M.; Challman, Thomas D.; Moreno-De-Luca, Daniel; Evans, David W.; Ledbetter, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Neurodevelopmental disorders can be caused by many different genetic abnormalities that are individually rare but collectively common. Specific genetic causes, including certain copy number variants and single-gene mutations, are shared among disorders that are thought to be clinically distinct. This evidence of variability in the clinical manifestations of individual genetic variants and sharing of genetic causes among clinically distinct brain disorders is consistent with the concept of developmental brain dysfunction, a term we use to describe the abnormal brain function underlying a group of neurodevelopmental and neuropsychiatric disorders and to encompass a subset of various clinical diagnoses. Although many pathogenic genetic variants are currently thought to be variably penetrant, we hypothesise that when disorders encompassed by developmental brain dysfunction are considered as a group, the penetrance will approach 100%. The penetrance is also predicted to approach 100% when the phenotype being considered is a specific trait, such as intelligence or autistic-like social impairment, and the trait could be assessed using a continuous, quantitative measure to compare probands with non-carrier family members rather than a qualitative, dichotomous trait and comparing probands with the healthy population. PMID:23518333

  4. Developmental changes in the structure of the social brain in late childhood and adolescence.

    PubMed

    Mills, Kathryn L; Lalonde, François; Clasen, Liv S; Giedd, Jay N; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2014-01-01

    Social cognition provides humans with the necessary skills to understand and interact with one another. One aspect of social cognition, mentalizing, is associated with a network of brain regions often referred to as the 'social brain.' These consist of medial prefrontal cortex [medial Brodmann Area 10 (mBA10)], temporoparietal junction (TPJ), posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and anterior temporal cortex (ATC). How these specific regions develop structurally across late childhood and adolescence is not well established. This study examined the structural developmental trajectories of social brain regions in the longest ongoing longitudinal neuroimaging study of human brain maturation. Structural trajectories of grey matter volume, cortical thickness and surface area were analyzed using surface-based cortical reconstruction software and mixed modeling in a longitudinal sample of 288 participants (ages 7-30 years, 857 total scans). Grey matter volume and cortical thickness in mBA10, TPJ and pSTS decreased from childhood into the early twenties. The ATC increased in grey matter volume until adolescence and in cortical thickness until early adulthood. Surface area for each region followed a cubic trajectory, peaking in early or pre-adolescence before decreasing into the early twenties. These results are discussed in the context of developmental changes in social cognition across adolescence.

  5. Evolutionary and developmental implications of asymmetric brain folding in a large primate pedigree.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, Elizabeth G; Rogers, Jeffrey; Cheverud, James M

    2016-03-01

    Bilateral symmetry is a fundamental property of the vertebrate central nervous system. Local deviations from symmetry provide various types of information about the development, evolution, and function of elements within the CNS, especially the cerebral hemispheres. Here, we quantify the pattern and extent of asymmetry in cortical folding within the cerebrum of Papio baboons and assess the evolutionary and developmental implications of the findings. Analyses of directional asymmetry show a population-level trend in length measurements indicating that baboons are genetically predisposed to be asymmetrical, with the right side longer than the left in the anterior cerebrum while the left side is longer than the right posteriorly. We also find a corresponding bias to display a right frontal petalia (overgrowth of the anterior pole of the cerebral cortex on the right side). By quantifying fluctuating asymmetry, we assess canalization of brain features and the susceptibility of the baboon brain to developmental perturbations. We find that features are differentially canalized depending on their ontogenetic timing. We further deduce that development of the two hemispheres is to some degree independent. This independence has important implications for the evolution of cerebral hemispheres and their separate specialization. Asymmetry is a major feature of primate brains and is characteristic of both brain structure and function. © 2016 The Author(s). Evolution © 2016 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  6. An Immersive Virtual Reality Platform to Enhance Walking Ability of Children with Acquired Brain Injuries.

    PubMed

    Biffi, Emilia; Beretta, Elena; Cesareo, Ambra; Maghini, Cristina; Turconi, Anna C; Reni, Gianluigi; Strazzer, Sandra

    2017-03-23

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) may result in lifelong impairment of physical, cognitive, and psychosocial functions. Several rehabilitative treatments are often needed to support walking recovery, thus participants' engagement becomes a crucial aspect, especially when patients are children. In the last few years, traditional physiotherapy (PT) has been flanked by innovative technologies for rehabilitation in the fields of robotics and Virtual Reality (VR). Preliminary results have shown interesting perspectives in the use of a VR system, the GRAIL (Gait Real-time Analysis Interactive Lab), in improving walking abilities in a small group of children with ABI, although further insights are needed about its use as rehabilitative tool in the pediatric population. To evaluate the efficacy of a rehabilitation treatment on a GRAIL system for the improvement of walking abilities, in a group of children suffering from ABI. 12 children with ABI (study group - SG; mean age = 12.1 ± 3.8 years old) underwent a 10-session treatment with the GRAIL, an instrumented multi-sensor platform based on immersive VR for gait training and rehabilitation in engaging VR environments. Before (T0) and at the end of the treatment (T1), the participants were assessed by means of functional scales (Gross Motor Function Measure (GMFM), Functional Assessment Questionnaire (FAQ), 6-Minute Walk Test (6minWT) and the 3D-Gait Analysis, over ground (OGA) and on GRAIL (GGA). All the participants completed the rehabilitative treatment. The functional evaluations showed an improvement in Gross Motor abilities (GMFM-88, p = 0.008), especially in standing (GMFM-D, p = 0.007) and walking (GMFM-E, p = 0.005), an increase of the endurance (6minWT, p = 0.002), and enhanced autonomy in daily life activities (FAQ, p = 0.025). OGA identified a significant decrease of the Gillette Gait Index for the impaired side and a general increase of symmetry. GGA showed improvements in

  7. Fetal Functional Brain Age Assessed from Universal Developmental Indices Obtained from Neuro-Vegetative Activity Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Hoyer, Dirk; Tetschke, Florian; Jaekel, Susan; Nowack, Samuel; Witte, Otto W.; Schleußner, Ekkehard; Schneider, Uwe

    2013-01-01

    Fetal brain development involves the development of the neuro-vegetative (autonomic) control that is mediated by the autonomic nervous system (ANS). Disturbances of the fetal brain development have implications for diseases in later postnatal life. In that context, the fetal functional brain age can be altered. Universal principles of developmental biology applied to patterns of autonomic control may allow a functional age assessment. The work aims at the development of a fetal autonomic brain age score (fABAS) based on heart rate patterns. We analysed n = 113 recordings in quiet sleep, n = 286 in active sleep, and n = 29 in active awakeness from normals. We estimated fABAS from magnetocardiographic recordings (21.4–40.3 weeks of gestation) preclassified in quiet sleep (n = 113, 63 females) and active sleep (n = 286, 145 females) state by cross-validated multivariate linear regression models in a cross-sectional study. According to universal system developmental principles, we included indices that address increasing fluctuation range, increasing complexity, and pattern formation (skewness, power spectral ratio VLF/LF, pNN5). The resulting models constituted fABAS. fABAS explained 66/63% (coefficient of determination R2 of training and validation set) of the variance by age in quiet, while 51/50% in active sleep. By means of a logistic regression model using fluctuation range and fetal age, quiet and active sleep were automatically reclassified (94.3/93.1% correct classifications). We did not find relevant gender differences. We conclude that functional brain age can be assessed based on universal developmental indices obtained from autonomic control patterns. fABAS reflect normal complex functional brain maturation. The presented normative data are supplemented by an explorative study of 19 fetuses compromised by intrauterine growth restriction. We observed a shift in the state distribution towards active awakeness. The lower WGA dependent f

  8. Recommended Methods for Brain Processing and Quantitative Analysis in Rodent Developmental Neurotoxicity Studies.

    PubMed

    Garman, Robert H; Li, Abby A; Kaufmann, Wolfgang; Auer, Roland N; Bolon, Brad

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathology methods in rodent developmental neurotoxicity (DNT) studies have evolved with experience and changing regulatory guidance. This article emphasizes principles and methods to promote more standardized DNT neuropathology evaluation, particularly procurement of highly homologous brain sections and collection of the most reproducible morphometric measurements. To minimize bias, brains from all animals at all dose levels should be processed from brain weighing through paraffin embedding at one time using a counterbalanced design. Morphometric measurements should be anchored by distinct neuroanatomic landmarks that can be identified reliably on the faced block or in unstained sections and which address the region-specific circuitry of the measured area. Common test article-related qualitative changes in the developing brain include abnormal cell numbers (yielding altered regional size), displaced cells (ectopia and heterotopia), and/or aberrant differentiation (indicated by defective myelination or synaptogenesis), but rarely glial or inflammatory reactions. Inclusion of digital images in the DNT pathology raw data provides confidence that the quantitative analysis was done on anatomically matched (i.e., highly homologous) sections. Interpreting DNT neuropathology data and their presumptive correlation with neurobehavioral data requires an integrative weight-of-evidence approach including consideration of maternal toxicity, body weight, brain weight, and the pattern of findings across brain regions, doses, sexes, and ages.

  9. Functional characteristics of developmental dyslexia in left-hemispheric posterior brain regions predate reading onset

    PubMed Central

    Raschle, Nora Maria; Zuk, Jennifer; Gaab, Nadine

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with developmental dyslexia (DD) show a disruption in posterior left-hemispheric neural networks during phonological processing. Additionally, compensatory mechanisms in children and adults with DD have been located within frontal brain areas. However, it remains unclear when and how differences in posterior left-hemispheric networks manifest and whether compensatory mechanisms have already started to develop in the prereading brain. Here we investigate functional networks during phonological processing in 36 prereading children with a familial risk for DD (n = 18, average age = 66.50 mo) compared with age and IQ-matched controls (n = 18; average age = 65.61 mo). Functional neuroimaging results reveal reduced activation in prereading children with a family-history of DD (FHD+), compared with those without (FHD−), in bilateral occipitotemporal and left temporoparietal brain regions. This finding corresponds to previously identified hypoactivations in left hemispheric posterior brain regions for school-aged children and adults with a diagnosis of DD. Furthermore, left occipitotemporal and temporoparietal brain activity correlates positively with prereading skills in both groups. Our results suggest that differences in neural correlates of phonological processing in individuals with DD are not a result of reading failure, but are present before literacy acquisition starts. Additionally, no hyperactivation in frontal brain regions was observed, suggesting that compensatory mechanisms for reading failure are not yet present. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether the identified differences may serve as neural premarkers for the early identification of children at risk for DD. PMID:22308323

  10. DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGES IN SEROTONIN SIGNALING: IMPLICATIONS FOR EARLY BRAIN FUNCTION, BEHAVIOR AND ADAPTATION

    PubMed Central

    BRUMMELTE, S.; GLANAGHY, E. MC; BONNIN, A.; OBERLANDER, T. F.

    2017-01-01

    The neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT) plays a central role in brain development, regulation of mood, stress reactivity and risk of psychiatric disorders, and thus alterations in 5-HT signaling early in life have critical implications for behavior and mental health across the life span. Drawing on preclinical and emerging human evidence this narrative review paper will examine three key aspects when considering the consequences of early life changes in 5-HT: (1) developmental origins of variations of 5-HT signaling; (2) influence of genetic and epigenetic factors; and (3) preclinical and clinical consequences of 5-HT-related changes associated with antidepressant exposure (SSRIs). The developmental consequences of altered prenatal 5-HT signaling varies greatly and outcomes depend on an ongoing interplay between biological (genetic/epigenetic variations) and environmental factors, both pre and postnatally. Emerging evidence suggests that variations in 5-HT signaling may increase sensitivity to risky home environments, but may also amplify a positive response to a nurturing environment. In this sense, factors that change central 5-HT levels may act as ‘plasticity’ rather than ‘risk’ factors associated with developmental vulnerability. Understanding the impact of early changes in 5-HT levels offers critical insights that might explain the variations in early typical brain development that underlies behavioral risk. PMID:26905950

  11. Incidence and mortality of acquired brain injury in young Danish adults between 1994 and 2013: a nationwide study.

    PubMed

    Tibæk, Maiken; Forchhammer, Hysse Birgitte; Dehlendorff, Christian; Johnsen, Søren Paaske; Kammersgaard, Lars Peter

    2017-09-28

    We estimated the annually incidence and mortality of acquired brain injury (ABI) in people aged 15-30 years during 1994-2013. All Danes with a first-ever hospital diagnosis of ABI, including traumatic brain injury (TBI), encephalopathy, CNS-infection or brain tumour, were identified in the Danish National Patient Register. Incidence rates (IRs) and estimated annual percentage changes (EAPC) were estimated by Poisson regression. Mortality was estimated by the Kaplan-Meier estimator and adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) were computed using Cox regression with 1994-1998. A total of 10,542 individuals were hospitalized with a first-time diagnosis of ABI. The IR for ABI decreased from 63.36 to 33.91/100,000 person-years from 1994 to 2013 [EAPC: -2.78% (95% CI: -3.26 to -2.28)] mainly driven by a decreasing IR of TBI [EAPC: -6.53% (95% CI: -9.57 to -3.39)] during 2007-2013. IRs of brain tumour and CNS infections also decreased significantly. The mortality after ABI tended to be higher during 1999-2013 compared to 1994-1998. For brain tumour, the 1-year mortality decreased significantly [2009-2013 aHR: 0.41 (95% CI: 0.23-0.72)]. Incidence of hospitalisations for ABI and in particular TBI has decreased significantly. Overall, the mortality after ABI has not improved, but the mortality after brain tumour has decreased significantly.

  12. Grammatical Complexity in Letters Written by People with Acquired Brain Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mortensen, Lynne

    2005-01-01

    This study investigated written language in the form of personal and formal letters written by 10 people who sustained a stroke and 10 people who sustained traumatic brain injury, and compared their performance with 15 non brain-damaged people. In order to explore the writing skills of these individuals from a sociocultural perspective, a…

  13. Standing between Two Worlds in Harlem: A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective of Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Ezer; Mellins, Claude Ann; Ng, Warren Yiu Kee; Robinson, Lisa-Gaye; Abrams, Elaine J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal HIV infection in the US continues to evolve from a fatal pediatric illness to a chronic medical condition of childhood and adolescence. Although navigating this period is influenced by multi-leveled deprivations commonly experienced by low-income minority families, HIV alters the timing and experience of developmental milestones for many…

  14. Standing between Two Worlds in Harlem: A Developmental Psychopathology Perspective of Perinatally Acquired Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Ezer; Mellins, Claude Ann; Ng, Warren Yiu Kee; Robinson, Lisa-Gaye; Abrams, Elaine J.

    2008-01-01

    Perinatal HIV infection in the US continues to evolve from a fatal pediatric illness to a chronic medical condition of childhood and adolescence. Although navigating this period is influenced by multi-leveled deprivations commonly experienced by low-income minority families, HIV alters the timing and experience of developmental milestones for many…

  15. Case against Diagnosing Developmental Language Disorder by Default: A Single Case Study of Acquired Aphasia Associated with Convulsive Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinac, Julie V.; Harper, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is to inform the diagnostic knowledge base for professionals working in the field of language disorders when classic symptoms, characteristics and sequences are not found. The information reveals the risk of diagnosis with a developmental language disorder (DLD) by default when no underlying cause can be readily identified.…

  16. Developmental changes in metabolism and transport properties of capillaries isolated from rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Betz, A L; Goldstein, G W

    1981-01-01

    1. Capillaries were isolated from the brains of 1- to 45-day-old rats in order to study the development of metabolic and transport aspects of the blood-brain barrier. 2. The hydroxyproline content of capillary hydrolysates increased nearly threefold between 5 and 45 days of age. This finding is consistent with histological studies showing thickening of capillary basement membrane during development. 3. The activities of L-DOPA decarboxylase and monoamine oxidase were greatest in capillaries from 10-day-old rat brain. Thus, the metabolic blood-brain barrier for amine precursors is present during early development. 4. Capillaries from all ages were able to metabolize glucose, beta-hydroxybutyrate and palmitate. The rate of glucose oxidation more than doubled between 21 and 30 days of age but subsequently decreased. In contrast, beta-hydroxybutyrate and palmitate oxidation increased throughout development. These data suggest a sparing effect by alternate fuels on glucose metabolism. 5. Capillary glucose uptake was similar at 10 and 30 days of age and activity of the ouabain-sensitive K+ pump (measured using 86Rb+) was relatively constant at all ages. In contrast, Na+-dependent neutral amino acid transport was not present until after 21 days of age. Since this transport system may be responsible for the active efflux of neutral amino acids from brain to blood, it is likely that this process does not occur at the immature blood-brain barrier. 6. We conclude that various aspects of brain capillary functions show distinct developmental patterns which may be related to changes in blood-brain barrier permeability during development. PMID:7264999

  17. [Clinical utility and psychometric properties of Prefrontal Symptoms Inventory (PSI) in acquired brain injury and degenerative dementias].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Sánchez de León, José M; Pedrero-Pérez, Eduardo J; Gálvez, S; Fernández-Méndez, Laura M; Lozoya-Delgado, Paz

    2015-11-01

    The cognitive, emotional and behavioural alterations secondary to acquired brain injury and degenerative dementias can be quantitatively and quantitatively appraised by administering self-reports that ask both patients and reliable informants about the difficulties patients have in their everyday life. The Prefrontal Symptoms Inventory (PSI) and the Modified Memory Failures in Everyday Life Questionnaire (MFE-30) were administered to 174 paired participants: 87 patients with brain damage or degenerative dementias and their 87 reliable informants. In addition to the psychometric goodness of the tests, the study also explored the clinical usefulness of applying these questionnaires to patients and their informants in order to obtain a rate of discrepancy in the scores as a measure of anosognosia. The results show how applying the PSI-20 (20 items) or the PSI (46 items), whether administered together with the MFE-30 (30 items) or not, is a very useful procedure for assessing the symptoms in individuals with acquired brain injury or degenerative dementias, since it yields a great deal of information about patients' difficulties in their daily life. We recommend that, in addition to the compulsory neuropsychological assessment, questionnaires or inventories of symptoms like those proposed here should be carried out, due to the fact that they offer a number of advantages from the clinical point of view, as well as being efficacious and effective in economic terms.

  18. The role of acceptance and values in quality of life in patients with an acquired brain injury: a questionnaire study.

    PubMed

    Van Bost, Gunther; Van Damme, Stefaan; Crombez, Geert

    2017-01-01

    An acquired brain injury (ABI) is a challenge for an individual's quality of life (QOL). In several chronic illnesses acceptance has been found to be associated with a better health-related quality of life. This study investigated whether this relationship is also found in patients with ABI. We also explored the impact of the perceived ability to live according to one's own values (life-values-match). A total of 68 individuals (18-65 years of age) with an acquired brain injury completed a battery of questionnaires. The relations between health-related QOL (SF-36) and disease specific QOL (EBIQ; European Brain Injury Questionnaire), and personal values (Schwartz Values Inventory) and acceptance (ICQ; Illness Cognitions Questionnaire) were investigated. An additional question measured the life-values-match. Rehabilitation professionals reported the extent of impairment involved. Acceptance was positively associated with mental aspects of health-related QOL and the EBIQ Core Scale, after demographic variables and the extent of impairment were introduced in the regression. In a post hoc analysis we found that the life-values-match mediated the relationship between acceptance and mental aspects of QOL. In patients with an ABI, promoting acceptance may be useful to protect QOL. Strengthening the life-values-match may be a way to accomplish this.

  19. Effectiveness of chin-down posture to prevent tracheal aspiration in dysphagia secondary to acquired brain injury. A videofluoroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Terré, R; Mearin, F

    2012-05-01

    The chin-down posture is generally recommended in patients with neurogenic dysphagia to prevent tracheal aspiration; however, its effectiveness has not been demonstrated. To videofluoroscopically (VDF) assess the effectiveness of chin-down posture to prevent aspiration in patients with neurogenic dysphagia secondary to acquired brain injury. Randomized, alternating, cross-over study (with and without the chin-down posture) in 47 patients with a VDF diagnosis of aspiration [31 stroke, 16 traumatic brain injury (TBI)] and 25 controls without aspiration (14 stroke, 11 TBI). During the chin-down posture, 55% of patients avoided aspiration (40% preswallow aspiration and 60% aspiration during swallow). The percentage was similar in both etiologies (58% stroke and 50% TBI). Fifty-one percent of patients had silent aspiration; of these, 48% persisted with aspiration while in the chin-down posture. A statistically significant relationship was found between the existence of pharyngeal residue, cricopharyngeal dysfunction, pharyngeal delay time and bolus volume with the persistence of aspiration. The chin-down posture did not change swallow biomechanics in patients without aspiration. Only half the patients with acquired brain injury avoided aspiration during cervical flexion; 48% of silent aspirators continued to aspire during the maneuver. Several videofluoroscopic parameters were related to inefficiency of the maneuver. Therefore, the indication for chin-down posture should be evaluated by videofluoroscopic examination. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  20. Quality-of-life for individuals with a vestibular impairment following an acquired brain injury (ABI); the clients' perspective.

    PubMed

    Killington, M J; Speck, K; Kahlbaum, J; Fabian, J; Edwards, D; Stobie, J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate how a vestibular deficit following an acquired brain injury (ABI) affects an individuals' quality-of-life. A qualitative exploratory design. Nine community dwelling individuals who experienced significant symptoms and limitations as a result of their vestibular deficits. The individuals participated in face-to-face interviews with open ended questions. Data was analysed initially using a case study research approach, exploring the experience for each individual and then cross-case analysis to determine common themes for the group with the assistance of nVivo 10 qualitative analysis software. Thematic analysis determined four main themes arising from the interviews; (1) validation, (2) definitive diagnosis is more difficult amongst an array of ABI symptoms, (3) vestibular adaptation is more difficult in the presence of an ABI and (4) emotional and social. Individuals who suffer a brain injury and experience vestibular symptoms as part of their overall presentation are not diagnosed in a timely manner, with individuals, their families, associates and even health professionals feeling uncertain of the legitimacy of their reported symptoms. It is important that all patients who experience an acquired brain injury are screened for vestibular impairment and, if necessary, receive vestibular rehabilitation including explanation and education.

  1. Left Brain/Right Brain Theory: Implications for Developmental Math Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitchens, Anita N.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Perhaps the most dramatic failure in postsecondary education has been in the teaching of mathematical skills. The different functions of the right and left hemispheres of the brain require different approaches to education. Due to their emphasis on language and verbal processing, schools have failed to give adequate stimulation to the right side…

  2. Assessment of the best flow model to characterize diffuse correlation spectroscopy data acquired directly on the brain

    PubMed Central

    Verdecchia, Kyle; Diop, Mamadou; Morrison, Laura B.; Lee, Ting-Yim; St. Lawrence, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) is a non-invasive optical technique capable of monitoring tissue perfusion. The normalized temporal intensity autocorrelation function generated by DCS is typically characterized by assuming that the movement of erythrocytes can be modeled as a Brownian diffusion-like process instead of by the expected random flow model. Recently, a hybrid model, referred to as the hydrodynamic diffusion model, was proposed, which combines the random and Brownian flow models. The purpose of this study was to investigate the best model to describe autocorrelation functions acquired directly on the brain in order to avoid confounding effects of extracerebral tissues. Data were acquired from 11 pigs during normocapnia and hypocapnia, and flow changes were verified by computed tomography perfusion (CTP). The hydrodynamic diffusion model was found to provide the best fit to the autocorrelation functions; however, no significant difference for relative flow changes measured by the Brownian and hydrodynamic diffusion models was observed. PMID:26600995

  3. Resting-State and Task-Based Functional Brain Connectivity in Developmental Dyslexia

    PubMed Central

    Schurz, Matthias; Wimmer, Heinz; Richlan, Fabio; Ludersdorfer, Philipp; Klackl, Johannes; Kronbichler, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Reading requires the interaction between multiple cognitive processes situated in distant brain areas. This makes the study of functional brain connectivity highly relevant for understanding developmental dyslexia. We used seed-voxel correlation mapping to analyse connectivity in a left-hemispheric network for task-based and resting-state fMRI data. Our main finding was reduced connectivity in dyslexic readers between left posterior temporal areas (fusiform, inferior temporal, middle temporal, superior temporal) and the left inferior frontal gyrus. Reduced connectivity in these networks was consistently present for 2 reading-related tasks and for the resting state, showing a permanent disruption which is also present in the absence of explicit task demands and potential group differences in performance. Furthermore, we found that connectivity between multiple reading-related areas and areas of the default mode network, in particular the precuneus, was stronger in dyslexic compared with nonimpaired readers. PMID:25169986

  4. Dichloroacetonitrile induces oxidative stress and developmental apoptotic imbalance in mouse fetal brain.

    PubMed

    Esmat, Ahmed; Ghoneim, Asser I; El-Demerdash, Ebtehal; Khalifa, Amani E; Abdel-Naim, Ashraf B

    2012-01-01

    Dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN) is one of the disinfection by-products of chlorination of drinking water. Limited mechanistic studies exist on the developmental toxicity of haloacetonitriles (HANs). The present study was designed to investigate the potential adverse effects of maternal exposure to DCAN on mouse fetal brain. Based on initial dose-response experiment, DCAN (14 mg/kg/day) was administered orally to pregnant mice at gestation day (GD) 6, till GD 15. Maternal exposure to DCAN resulted in redox imbalance in fetal cortex and cerebellum, characterized by significant decrease in reduced glutathione (GSH), and elevation of malondialdehyde (MDA) level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity. Further, DCAN induced apoptosis indicated by significant enhancement of DNA fragmentation and active caspase-3 level in fetal cortex and cerebellum. Neuronal degeneration was indicated by positive cupric silver staining. In conclusion, maternal exposure to DCAN adversely affects mouse fetal brain as evidenced by induction of oxidative stress, apoptotic imbalance and neurodegeneration.

  5. Benefits of Centralized Scheduling in a Postacute Residential Rehabilitation Program for People With Acquired Brain Lesions: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Vestri, Alec; Pizzighello, Silvia; Piccoli, Sara; Martinuzzi, Andrea

    2017-04-01

    To determine whether the use of a designated staff person to coordinate and schedule therapy services in a postacute residential rehabilitation program for people with acquired brain lesions results in (1) a higher-intensity treatment and a reduced length of stay; (2) reduced rehabilitation costs; and (3) increased patient and staff satisfaction. This nonrandomized retrospective study from 2009 through 2012 uses data collected relative to 2 different methods of scheduling: (1) self-planning, in which each single team member makes appointments that are then displayed on a shared board; and (2) managed planning, in which appointments are made by a designated staff person. A residential center for people with postacute acquired brain lesions. Patients (N=20) with acquired brain lesions who had similar clinical and demographic characteristics comprised the managed planning group (n=10) and the self-planning group (n=10). Not applicable. Organizational measures (length of stay in rehabilitation, number of treatment hours, total cost of rehabilitation), clinical outcome scales (Disability Rating Scale, FIM, and Barthel Index), perceived quality of treatment by patients (questionnaire), and perceived satisfaction of team members (Job Descriptive Index). All patients improved on all clinical rating scales at the time of discharge (all effect sizes are large). In the managed planning group, the number of treatment hours increased (Cohen's d=2.15), resulting in reduced length of stay (Cohen's d=.95) and cost of rehabilitation (Cohen's d=1.22). In addition, the quality of treatment perceived by the patients and their families increased, while team member satisfaction did not change. The use of a designated staff person to manage therapy services improves efficiency and efficacy of a patient-centered health care system. The proposed scheduling system results in a remarkable cost saving for the National Health System. Copyright © 2017 American Congress of Rehabilitation

  6. Left-Sided Brain Injury Associated With More Hospital-Acquired Infections During Inpatient Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Frisina, Pasquale G.; Kutlik, Ann M.; Barrett, Anna M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To test the hypothesis that a left-dominant brain immune network (LD-BIN) might affect the occurrence of infection during inpatient rehabilitation of stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI). Design A retrospective analysis was performed on electronic medical records between January 2009 and December 2010. All patients with left-or right-sided stroke or TBI were included into the study. The LD-BIN hypothesis was tested by comparing HAI rates depending on whether patients had left- or right-sided brain lesions. Setting A large inpatient rehabilitation hospital. Participants Among the patients (N=2236) with stroke or TBI who had either a left- or right-sided brain lesion, 163 patients were identified with HAIs. Intervention Not applicable. Main Outcome Measure Frequency of HAIs. Results In the 163 patients identified with HAIs with a diagnosis of stroke or TBI, chi-square analysis revealed a significantly higher proportion of HAIs among patients with left-sided (n=98; 60.1%) relative to right-sided (n=65; 39.9%) brain injuries (χ2=6.68, P<.01). These effects could not be attributed to either clinical or demographic factors. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with the hypothesis that an LD-BIN may mediate vulnerability to infection during rehabilitation of patients with stroke or TBI. Further translational research investigating novel means of managing patients based on brain lesion location, and modulating the LD-BIN via behavioral and physiologic interventions, may result in neuroscience-based methods to improve infection resistance in brain-injured patients. PMID:23123439

  7. An innovative approach to meeting the educational needs of children following acquired brain injury in the UK.

    PubMed

    Wicks, Beth

    2012-01-01

    Children with acquired brain injury encounter problems both in terms of academic attainment and in other aspects of their lives in relation to social, behavioural and independent life skills. Many previous rehabilitation programmes for these children have been inappropriately adapted versions of adult models but there has often not been a recognition that successful current adult models of vocational rehabilitation can translate to educational rehabilitation models for children and adolescents. This article considers the historical basis of provision for these children in the UK and describes the development of a new programme of education as rehabilitation.

  8. Developmental Expression of Orphan G Protein-Coupled Receptor 50 in the Mouse Brain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Mental disorders have a complex etiology resulting from interactions between multiple genetic risk factors and stressful life events. Orphan G protein-coupled receptor 50 (GPR50) has been identified as a genetic risk factor for bipolar disorder and major depression in women, and there is additional genetic and functional evidence linking GPR50 to neurite outgrowth, lipid metabolism, and adaptive thermogenesis and torpor. However, in the absence of a ligand, a specific function has not been identified. Adult GPR50 expression has previously been reported in brain regions controlling the HPA axis, but its developmental expression is unknown. In this study, we performed extensive expression analysis of GPR50 and three protein interactors using rt-PCR and immunohistochemistry in the developing and adult mouse brain. Gpr50 is expressed at embryonic day 13 (E13), peaks at E18, and is predominantly expressed by neurons. Additionally we identified novel regions of Gpr50 expression, including brain stem nuclei involved in neurotransmitter signaling: the locus coeruleus, substantia nigra, and raphe nuclei, as well as nuclei involved in metabolic homeostasis. Gpr50 colocalizes with yeast-two-hybrid interactors Nogo-A, Abca2, and Cdh8 in the hypothalamus, amygdala, cortex, and selected brain stem nuclei at E18 and in the adult. With this study, we identify a link between GPR50 and neurotransmitter signaling and strengthen a likely role in stress response and energy homeostasis. PMID:22860215

  9. Brain Resting-State Functional Connectivity Is Preserved Under Sevoflurane Anesthesia in Patients with Pervasive Developmental Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Venkatraghavan, Lakshmikumar; Bharadwaj, Suparna; Wourms, Vincent; Tan, Audrey; Jurkiewicz, Michael T; Mikulis, David J; Crawley, Adrian P

    2017-05-01

    Functional connectivity studies play a huge role in understanding the relationship between the network connections and the behavioral phenotype of patients with pervasive developmental disorders (PDD). Some patients with PDD may not be able to tolerate the imaging procedure while they are awake, and, hence, they often need general anesthesia. General anesthesia is a confounding factor in functional imaging studies due to its effect on the functional connectivity. The objective of this study is to look at the resting-state functional connectivity (RS-FC) under sevoflurane anesthesia in patients with PDDs. Thirteen adults with PDD scheduled for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain under general anesthesia were recruited for the study. Resting-state functional MRI (fMRI) scans were acquired at 1 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of sevoflurane. Spontaneous blood oxygenation level-dependent fluctuations were measured, and a seed-voxel analysis was done to identify the resting-state networks. Subjects' data were compared with data from 16 nonanesthetized healthy controls. Six networks (default mode network [DMN], executive control network [ECN], salience network [SN], auditory, visual, and sensorimotor) were investigated. At 1 MAC sevoflurane anesthesia, RS-FC was preserved in all the networks. Secondary analysis of connectivity showed a decrease in connectivity within the thalamus and an increase in DMN-ECN and DMN-SN cross-network connectivity in the anesthetized patient group compared to healthy controls. Previous reports suggested that even mild levels of anesthesia could reduce overall fluctuation levels in the major brain. However, our results provide strong evidence that most networks can sustain detectable levels of activity in patients with PDDs even under deep levels of anesthesia.

  10. Current Evidence for Developmental, Structural, and Functional Brain Defects following Prenatal Radiation Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Verreet, Tine; Quintens, Roel; Baatout, Sarah; Benotmane, Mohammed A.

    2016-01-01

    Ionizing radiation is omnipresent. We are continuously exposed to natural (e.g., radon and cosmic) and man-made radiation sources, including those from industry but especially from the medical sector. The increasing use of medical radiation modalities, in particular those employing low-dose radiation such as CT scans, raises concerns regarding the effects of cumulative exposure doses and the inappropriate utilization of these imaging techniques. One of the major goals in the radioprotection field is to better understand the potential health risk posed to the unborn child after radiation exposure to the pregnant mother, of which the first convincing evidence came from epidemiological studies on in utero exposed atomic bomb survivors. In the following years, animal models have proven to be an essential tool to further characterize brain developmental defects and consequent functional deficits. However, the identification of a possible dose threshold is far from complete and a sound link between early defects and persistent anomalies has not yet been established. This review provides an overview of the current knowledge on brain developmental and persistent defects resulting from in utero radiation exposure and addresses the many questions that still remain to be answered. PMID:27382490

  11. Are orchids left and dandelions right? Frontal brain activation asymmetry and its sensitivity to developmental context.

    PubMed

    Fortier, Paz; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Waxman, Jordana A; Boyle, Michael H; Saigal, Saroj; Schmidt, Louis A

    2014-08-01

    To clarify long-standing conceptual and empirical inconsistencies in models describing the relation between frontal brain asymmetry and emotion, we tested a theory of biological sensitivity to context. We examined whether asymmetry of alpha activation in frontal brain regions, as measured by resting electroencephalography, is sensitive to early developmental contexts. Specifically, we investigated whether frontal asymmetry moderates the association between birth weight and adult outcomes. Adults with left frontal asymmetry (LFA) who were born at extremely low birth weight exhibited high levels of attention problems and withdrawn behaviors in their 30s, whereas normal-birth-weight adults with LFA had low levels of these problem behaviors. Adults with right frontal asymmetry (RFA) displayed a relatively moderate amount of problem behavior regardless of birth weight. Our findings suggest that LFA is associated with sensitivity to developmental context and may help explain why LFA is associated with both positive and negative outcomes, whereas RFA seems to be associated with a more canalized process in some contexts.

  12. Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration performance in children with traumatic brain injury and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Griffin P; Barchard, Kimberly A; Bello, Danielle T; Thaler, Nicholas S; Ringdahl, Erik; Mayfield, Joan; Allen, Daniel N

    2011-09-01

    Evaluation of visuoconstructional abilities is a common part of clinical neuropsychological assessment, and the Beery-Buktenica Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration (VMI; K. E. Beery & N. A. Beery, 2004) is often used for this purpose. However, few studies have examined its psychometric properties when used to assess children and adolescents with traumatic brain injury (TBI) or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), even though these are among the most common acquired and neurodevelopmental forms of brain dysfunction in children. This study examined the validity of VMI scores in 123 children with TBI and 65 with ADHD. The TBI and ADHD groups performed significantly worse than the standardization sample, obtaining VMI mean scores of 87.2 (SD = 13.7) and 93.5 (SD = 11.27). Previous research has noted decrements in visuoconstructional abilities in TBI but relative sparing in ADHD. To examine the criterion validity of VMI scores, the authors therefore compared these 2 groups. As anticipated, the TBI group performed significantly worse than the ADHD group, but receiver operator characteristic analysis indicated that VMI scores were poor at discriminating between groups. Nonetheless, convergent validity evidence supported interpretation of VMI scores as measuring perceptual organization in both groups. In particular, principal components analysis indicated that VMI total scores loaded with perceptual organization tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, 3rd ed. (WISC-III; D. Wechsler, 1997), and its highest correlation was with the WISC-III Perceptual Organization Index. Also, the VMI correlated significantly with the Grooved Pegboard test for the group with TBI. These findings suggest that VMI scores are sensitive to visuoconstructional and motor deficits in children with developmental and acquired brain dysfunction.

  13. Regional brain structural dysmorphology in human immunodeficiency virus infection: effects of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, alcoholism, and age.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Kemper, Carol A; Deresinski, Stanley; Rohlfing, Torsten; Sullivan, Edith V

    2012-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and alcoholism each carries liability for disruption of brain structure and function integrity. Despite considerable prevalence of HIV-alcoholism comorbidity, few studies examined the potentially heightened burden of disease comorbidity. Participants were 342 men and women: 110 alcoholics, 59 with HIV infection, 65 with HIV infection and alcoholism, and 108 healthy control subjects. This design enabled examination of independent and combined effects of HIV infection and alcoholism along with other factors (acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS]-defining events, hepatitis C infection, age) on regional brain volumes derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Brain volumes, expressed as Z scores corrected for intracranial volume and age, were measured in 20 tissue and 5 ventricular and sulcal regions. The most profound and consistent volume deficits occurred with alcohol use disorders, notable in the cortical mantle, insular and anterior cingulate cortices, thalamus, corpus callosum, and frontal sulci. The HIV-only group had smaller thalamic and larger frontal sulcal volumes than control subjects. HIV disease-related factors associated with greater volume abnormalities included CD4 cell count nadir, clinical staging, history of AIDS-defining events, infection age, and current age. Longer sobriety and less lifetime alcohol consumption were predictive of attenuated brain volume abnormalities in both alcohol groups. Having HIV infection with alcoholism and AIDS had an especially poor outcome on brain structures. That longer periods of sobriety and less lifetime alcohol consumption were predictive of attenuated brain volume abnormalities encourages the inclusion of alcohol recovery efforts in HIV/AIDS therapeutic settings. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Genetic Diversity Influences the Response of the Brain to Developmental Lead Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Jay S.; Talsania, Keyur; Mettil, William; Anderson, David W.

    2014-01-01

    Although extrinsic factors, such as nutritional status, and some intrinsic genetic factors may modify susceptibility to developmental lead (Pb) poisoning, no studies have specifically examined the influence of genetic background on outcomes from Pb exposure. In this study, we used gene microarray profiling to identify Pb-responsive genes in rats of different genetic backgrounds, including inbred (Fischer 344 (F344)) and outbred (Long Evans (LE), Sprague Dawley (SD)) strains, to investigate the role that genetic variation may play in influencing outcomes from developmental Pb exposure. Male and female animals received either perinatal (gestation through lactation) or postnatal (birth through weaning) exposure to Pb in food (0, 250, or 750 ppm). RNA was extracted from the hippocampus at day 55 and hybridized to Affymetrix Rat Gene 1.0 ST Arrays. There were significant strain-specific effects of Pb on the hippocampal transcriptome with 978 transcripts differentially expressed in LE rats across all experimental groups, 269 transcripts differentially expressed in F344 rats, and only 179 transcripts differentially expressed in SD rats. These results were not due to strain-related differences in brain accumulation of Pb. Further, no genes were consistently differentially regulated in all experimental conditions. There was no set of “Pb toxicity” genes that are a molecular signature for Pb neurotoxicity that transcended sex, exposure condition, and strain. These results demonstrate the influence that strain and genetic background play in modifying the brain's response to developmental Pb exposure and may have relevance for better understanding the molecular underpinnings of the lack of a neurobehavioral signature in childhood Pb poisoning. PMID:24913800

  15. Genetic diversity influences the response of the brain to developmental lead exposure.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Jay S; Talsania, Keyur; Mettil, William; Anderson, David W

    2014-09-01

    Although extrinsic factors, such as nutritional status, and some intrinsic genetic factors may modify susceptibility to developmental lead (Pb) poisoning, no studies have specifically examined the influence of genetic background on outcomes from Pb exposure. In this study, we used gene microarray profiling to identify Pb-responsive genes in rats of different genetic backgrounds, including inbred (Fischer 344 (F344)) and outbred (Long Evans (LE), Sprague Dawley (SD)) strains, to investigate the role that genetic variation may play in influencing outcomes from developmental Pb exposure. Male and female animals received either perinatal (gestation through lactation) or postnatal (birth through weaning) exposure to Pb in food (0, 250, or 750 ppm). RNA was extracted from the hippocampus at day 55 and hybridized to Affymetrix Rat Gene 1.0 ST Arrays. There were significant strain-specific effects of Pb on the hippocampal transcriptome with 978 transcripts differentially expressed in LE rats across all experimental groups, 269 transcripts differentially expressed in F344 rats, and only 179 transcripts differentially expressed in SD rats. These results were not due to strain-related differences in brain accumulation of Pb. Further, no genes were consistently differentially regulated in all experimental conditions. There was no set of "Pb toxicity" genes that are a molecular signature for Pb neurotoxicity that transcended sex, exposure condition, and strain. These results demonstrate the influence that strain and genetic background play in modifying the brain's response to developmental Pb exposure and may have relevance for better understanding the molecular underpinnings of the lack of a neurobehavioral signature in childhood Pb poisoning. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Toxicology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Improving the Quality of Staff and Participant Interaction in an Acquired Brain Injury Organization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guercio, John M.; Dixon, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    Weekly observations of direct-care staff in a facility for persons with brain injury yielded less than optimal interactional style with facility residents. Following an observational baseline, staff were asked to self-rate a 15-min video sample of their interaction behavior with participants on their unit. They were then asked to compare their…

  17. The “Globularization Hypothesis” of the Language-ready Brain as a Developmental Frame for Prosodic Bootstrapping Theories of Language Acquisition

    PubMed Central

    Irurtzun, Aritz

    2015-01-01

    In recent research (Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco, 2014a,b) have advanced the hypothesis that our species-specific language-ready brain should be understood as the outcome of developmental changes that occurred in our species after the split from Neanderthals-Denisovans, which resulted in a more globular braincase configuration in comparison to our closest relatives, who had elongated endocasts. According to these authors, the development of a globular brain is an essential ingredient for the language faculty and in particular, it is the centrality occupied by the thalamus in a globular brain that allows its modulatory or regulatory role, essential for syntactico-semantic computations. Their hypothesis is that the syntactico-semantic capacities arise in humans as a consequence of a process of globularization, which significantly takes place postnatally (cf. Neubauer et al., 2010). In this paper, I show that Boeckx and Benítez-Burraco's hypothesis makes an interesting developmental prediction regarding the path of language acquisition: it teases apart the onset of phonological acquisition and the onset of syntactic acquisition (the latter starting significantly later, after globularization). I argue that this hypothesis provides a developmental rationale for the prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis of language acquisition (cf. i.a. Gleitman and Wanner, 1982; Mehler et al., 1988, et seq.; Gervain and Werker, 2013), which claim that prosodic cues are employed for syntactic parsing. The literature converges in the observation that a large amount of such prosodic cues (in particular, rhythmic cues) are already acquired before the completion of the globularization phase, which paves the way for the premises of the prosodic bootstrapping hypothesis, allowing babies to have a rich knowledge of the prosody of their target language before they can start parsing the primary linguistic data syntactically. PMID:26696916

  18. Naming Test of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery: reliability and validity in a sample of patients with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Zgaljardic, Dennis J; Oden, Kathryn E; Dickson, Sid; Plenger, Patrick M; Lambert, Matthew E; Miller, Rebekah

    2013-12-01

    The current study assessed the internal consistency, alternate forms reliability, and convergent/divergent validity of the Naming Test of the Neuropsychological Assessment Battery (NAB) in patients with acquired brain injury. Fifty-nine patients were administered the NAB Naming Test (forms 1 and 2) and the Boston Naming Test (BNT), as well as other tests of neuropsychological functioning. Forms 1 and 2 of the NAB Naming Test demonstrated adequate internal consistency and alternate forms reliability. The NAB Naming Test was significantly associated with scores from the BNT, as well as scores from tests that assess visuospatial skills, semantic fluency, and verbal memory. The divergent validity of the NAB Naming Test was demonstrated by non-significant associations with tests of attention and processing speed. BNT scores correlated significantly with the educational level and estimated premorbid intelligence but not age, whereas the NAB Naming Test scores only correlated significantly with estimated premorbid intelligence. The current study provides independent validation supporting the utility of the NAB Naming Test for patients with acquired brain injury.

  19. Taking a developmental and systemic perspective on neuropsychological rehabilitation with children with brain injury and their families.

    PubMed

    Byard, Katie; Fine, Howard; Reed, Jonathan

    2011-04-01

    This paper reviews current approaches and models in the neuropsychological rehabilitation of children following Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) and cites a large evidence base for a developmental and family systems perspective to neuropsychological rehabilitation of children post-TBI. The paper describes the application and efficacy of a systemic and developmental perspective to rehabilitation of children with TBI, with a clinical case example of this approach. The paper describes the development of a community-based child neuropsychology rehabilitation service integrating applied developmental neuropsychology and systems ideas as a way of working effectively with children with TBI and their families.

  20. "You Can't Imagine Unless You've Been There Yourself": A Report on the Concerns of Parents of Children with Acquired Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singer, George H. S.; Nixon, Charles

    This report describes a qualitative study of the experiences and perceptions of parents of children with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) and summarizes the experiences of several parents during the first year following their child's traumatic brain injury. Twenty-five parents participated in a day-long focus group, in lengthy structured…

  1. Regional and developmental brain expression patterns of SNAP25 splice variants.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Gerald R; Chamberlain, Luke H

    2011-04-28

    SNAP25 is an essential SNARE protein for regulated exocytosis in neuronal cells. Differential splicing of the SNAP25 gene results in the expression of two transcripts, SNAP25a and SNAP25b. These splice variants differ by only 9 amino acids, and studies of their expression to date have been limited to analysis of the corresponding mRNAs. Although these studies have been highly informative, it is possible that factors such as differential turnover of the SNAP25 proteins could complicate interpretations based entirely on mRNA expression profiles. We report the generation and characterization of antibodies that distinguish between SNAP25a and SNAP25b isoforms, and their use to investigate the expression profile of these proteins in rat and human brain. In rat brain, SNAP25b protein expression increased dramatically during post-natal development, whereas the increase in SNAP25a expression was more modest and variable. The extent of this up-regulation in SNAP25b expression was similar across cortex, cerebellum and hippocampus. The SNAP25 isoforms also displayed distinct regional expression patterns, with SNAP25a very weakly expressed in both rat and human cerebellum. Quantitative analysis revealed that SNAP25b was the dominant isoform in all adult human brain regions examined. SNAP25a and SNAP25b display distinct developmental and regional expression profiles in rat and human brain. These differences might reflect distinct functions of these highly conserved isoforms in membrane fusion pathways in the brain. The antibodies generated and characterized in this study represent important tools for future analyses of these essential SNARE protein isoforms.

  2. Etiology of microglial nodules in brains of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nebuloni, M; Pellegrinelli, A; Ferri, A; Tosoni, A; Bonetto, S; Zerbi, P; Boldorini, R; Vago, L; Costanzi, G

    2000-02-01

    Microglial nodules associated with opportunistic and HIV-related lesions are frequently found in the brains of AIDS patients. However, in many cases, the causative agent is only presumptively suspected. We reviewed 199 brains of AIDS patients with micronodular lesions to clarify their etiology by immunohistochemistry (to Toxoplasma gondii, cytomegalovirus, herpes simplex virus I/II, varicella zoster virus and HIV-p24 core protein), PCR (for herpetic viruses and Mycobacterium tuberculosis) and electron microscopy. Productive HIV infection was observed in 110 cases (55.1%): 30 cases with Toxoplasma gondii encephalitis, 30 with cytomegalovirus encephalitis, eight with multiple cerebral diseases, while in the remaining 42 cases HIV was the only pathogenetic agent. Multinucleated giant cells (hallmark of HIV infection) were found in the MGNs of 85/110 cases with HIV-related lesions; the remaining 25 cases had only p24 positive cells but no multinucleated giant cells. In these latter cases the micronodular lesions had been initially attributed to the main opportunistic agent found in the brain, or defined as subacute encephalitis. Individual microglial nodules positive for an opportunistic pathogen were generally negative for HIV antigens. In 13 cases no opportunistic agent or HIV productive infection was found. In these cases, PCR and electron microscopy examination for HIV and other viral infections were negative. Our data suggest that HIV-immunohistochemistry should be used for the etiological diagnosis of micronodular lesions in AIDS brains, even in the presence of other pathogens. After extensive search, the etiology of the microglial nodules remains unknown in only a small percentage of cases.

  3. Acquired self-control of insula cortex modulates emotion recognition and brain network connectivity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Sergio; Lee, Sangkyun; Soekadar, Surjo R; Caria, Andrea; Veit, Ralf; Kircher, Tilo; Birbaumer, Niels; Sitaram, Ranganatha

    2013-01-01

    Real-time functional magnetic resonance imaging (rtfMRI) is a novel technique that has allowed subjects to achieve self-regulation of circumscribed brain regions. Despite its anticipated therapeutic benefits, there is no report on successful application of this technique in psychiatric populations. The objectives of the present study were to train schizophrenia patients to achieve volitional control of bilateral anterior insula cortex on multiple days, and to explore the effect of learned self-regulation on face emotion recognition (an extensively studied deficit in schizophrenia) and on brain network connectivity. Nine patients with schizophrenia were trained to regulate the hemodynamic response in bilateral anterior insula with contingent rtfMRI neurofeedback, through a 2-weeks training. At the end of the training stage, patients performed a face emotion recognition task to explore behavioral effects of learned self-regulation. A learning effect in self-regulation was found for bilateral anterior insula, which persisted through the training. Following successful self-regulation, patients recognized disgust faces more accurately and happy faces less accurately. Improvements in disgust recognition were correlated with levels of self-activation of right insula. RtfMRI training led to an increase in the number of the incoming and outgoing effective connections of the anterior insula. This study shows for the first time that patients with schizophrenia can learn volitional brain regulation by rtfMRI feedback training leading to changes in the perception of emotions and modulations of the brain network connectivity. These findings open the door for further studies of rtfMRI in severely ill psychiatric populations, and possible therapeutic applications.

  4. [Evaluation of the community integration of persons with lateralised post-acute acquired brain injury].

    PubMed

    Huertas-Hoyas, E; Pedrero-Perez, E J; Aguila-Maturana, A M; Gonzalez-Alted, C

    2013-08-16

    INTRODUCTION. Hemispheric specialization is a topic of interest that has motivated an enormous amount of research in recent decades. After a unilateral brain injury, the consequences can affect various areas of specialization, leading, depending on the location of the injury, impairment in quality of life and community integration. PATIENTS AND METHODS. Cross-sectional study with a sample of 58 patients, 28 traumatic brain injury (TBI) and 30 cerebrovascular accidents, both lateralized. The level of integration in the community is measured by the Community Integration Questionnaire. RESULTS. There were three groups analyzed by considering unilateral injury (full sample, stroke sample, and TBI sample). Results showed a significantly high community integration of people with right hemisphere injury. However, to measure the level of community integration between TBI and stroke, the results showed no significant differences. CONCLUSION. According to the results of the study people with brain injury in the right hemisphere have a better community integration than people with lesions in the left hemisphere regardless of the origin of the lesions (vascular or traumatic). We discussed the reasons that may motivate the differences and clinical implications.

  5. Molecular mechanism of brain impairment caused by drinking-acquired fluorosis and selenium intervention.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiangren; Sun, Yan; Ke, Lulu; Ouyang, Wei; Zhang, Zigui

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the molecular mechanism of brain impairment induced by drinking fluoridated water and selenium intervention. Results showed that the learning and memory of rats in NaF group significantly decreased. Moreover, the number of apoptotic cells, the expression levels of Cytc mRNA and protein, and the expression levels of Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 mRNA significantly increased; by contrast, Caspase-9 and Caspase-3 protein levels significantly decreased. Compared with the NaF group, the mRNA levels of Cytc and Caspase-9, as well as the protein levels of Cytc in NaF+Se group, significantly decreased. Conversely, the protein levels of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9, as well as the mRNA levels of Caspase-3, significantly increased. Thus, the mitochondrial CytC-Caspase-9-Caspase-3 apoptosis pathway in the hippocampus was one of the mechanisms leading to fluorosis-induced brain damage. Furthermore, the Cytc signaling molecules were possibly the key target molecules in fluorosis-induced apoptosis, and selenium could alleviate fluorosis-induced brain injury.

  6. Basic developmental rules and their implications for epilepsy in the immature brain.

    PubMed

    Ben-Ari, Yehezkel

    2006-06-01

    The construction of the human brain with its 10(15) synapses follows a set of complex developmentally and environmentally regulated steps. A series of sequences have been described that are instrumental, in the sense that a failure of any one of them leads to dramatic, life-long consequences. Hence the importance of determining the sequential maturation of neurons, synapses and cortical maps. It is also important to determine how network-driven events become installed, as neuronal activity intervenes in all of these steps and modulates, for better or worse, the outcome. A fundamental consequence of these sequential events is that any disruption will have very different consequences depending on when it occurs, indeed, "when is as important as what". An obvious aspect of these general features is related to seizures. In fact, the developing brain has both a higher incidence of seizures in human and animal models, and experiences seizures that can produce long-lasting consequences that are also stage-dependent. This seminar and the series of slides presented are an introduction to these issues, summing up several studies made notably by INMED researchers during the last two decades (http://www.inmednet.com). It concentrates on four basic developmental rules: i) the generation by very immature neurons, of very large currents mediated by the activation of receptors in neurons that bear no synapses. This is due to the release of GABA that diffuses to distal sites and acts as a paracrine factor; ii) the excitatory/inhibitory shift of the actions of GABA during development because of a progressive reduction in the intracellular chloride concentration; iii) the sequential formation of GABAergic synapses and networks before glutamatergic ones, implying that, at an early stage, all the excitatory drive will be GABAergic; iv) the presence, at an early stage, of a unique, primitive pattern in all developing structures, this pattern disappears when most GABAergic synapses have

  7. Dyrk1A Haploinsufficiency Affects Viability and Causes Developmental Delay and Abnormal Brain Morphology in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Fotaki, Vassiliki; Dierssen, Mara; Alcántara, Soledad; Martínez, Salvador; Martí, Eulàlia; Casas, Caty; Visa, Joana; Soriano, Eduardo; Estivill, Xavier; Arbonés, Maria L.

    2002-01-01

    DYRK1A is the human orthologue of the Drosophila minibrain (mnb) gene, which is involved in postembryonic neurogenesis in flies. Because of its mapping position on chromosome 21 and the neurobehavioral alterations shown by mice overexpressing this gene, involvement of DYRK1A in some of the neurological defects of Down syndrome patients has been suggested. To gain insight into its physiological role, we have generated mice deficient in Dyrk1A function by gene targeting. Dyrk1A−/− null mutants presented a general growth delay and died during midgestation. Mice heterozygous for the mutation (Dyrk1A+/−) showed decreased neonatal viability and a significant body size reduction from birth to adulthood. General neurobehavioral analysis revealed preweaning developmental delay of Dyrk1A+/− mice and specific alterations in adults. Brains of Dyrk1A+/− mice were decreased in size in a region-specific manner, although the cytoarchitecture and neuronal components in most areas were not altered. Cell counts showed increased neuronal densities in some brain regions and a specific decrease in the number of neurons in the superior colliculus, which exhibited a significant size reduction. These data provide evidence about the nonredundant, vital role of Dyrk1A and suggest a conserved mode of action that determines normal growth and brain size in both mice and flies. PMID:12192061

  8. Bovine Brain: An in vitro Translational Model in Developmental Neuroscience and Neurodegenerative Research

    PubMed Central

    Peruffo, Antonella; Cozzi, Bruno

    2014-01-01

    Animal models provide convenient and clinically relevant tools in the research on neurodegenerative diseases. Studies on developmental disorders extensively rely on the use of laboratory rodents. The present mini-review proposes an alternative translational model based on the use of fetal bovine brain tissue. The bovine (Bos taurus) possesses a large and highly gyrencephalic brain and the long gestation period (41 weeks) is comparable to human pregnancy (38–40 weeks). Primary cultures obtained from fetal bovine brain constitute a validated in vitro model that allows examinations of neurons and/or glial cells under controlled and reproducible conditions. Physiological processes can be also studied on cultured bovine neural cells incubated with specific substrates or by electrically coupled electrolyte-oxide-semiconductor capacitors that permit direct recording from neuronal cells. Bovine neural cells and specific in vitro cell culture could be an alternative in comparative neuroscience and in neurodegenerative research, useful for studying development of normal and altered circuitry in a long gestation mammalian species. Use of bovine tissues would promote a substantial reduction in the use of laboratory animals. PMID:25072040

  9. Timing versus duration: determinants of anesthesia-induced developmental apoptosis in the young mammalian brain.

    PubMed

    Rizzi, Sabina; Ori, Carlo; Jevtovic-Todorovic, Vesna

    2010-06-01

    Rapidly accumulating evidence indicates that clinically used general anesthesia causes massive, widespread neuroapoptotic degeneration in the developing mammalian brain. Susceptibility to anesthesia-induced neurotoxicity has been documented in rats, mice, guinea pigs, primates, and in this study, piglets; in short, anesthesia-induced developmental neuroapoptosis is not species-dependent. Our findings with piglets, like those in other immature mammals, demonstrate that relatively short exposure to anesthesia is just as detrimental to species with long periods of synaptogenesis as it is to those with short periods of synaptogenesis. However, the highly reproducible findings in different species also indicate that the timing of exposure to anesthesia is critically important; that is, brain regions that are at the peak of synaptogenesis are most vulnerable even when the exposure to anesthesia is relatively brief. Because the peak of synaptogenesis is characterized by intense, highly programmed neuronal communication that is vital for the survival and proper function of immature neurons, we conclude that anesthesia causes severe disturbances in the fine equilibrium between excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmission in the developing mammalian brain, ultimately leading to neuronal redundancy and death.

  10. Altered Recruitment of the Attention Network Is Associated with Disability and Cognitive Impairment in Pediatric Patients with Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Strazzer, Sandra; Rocca, Maria A.; Molteni, Erika; De Meo, Ermelinda; Recla, Monica; Valsasina, Paola; Arrigoni, Filippo; Galbiati, Susanna; Bardoni, Alessandra; Filippi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    We assessed abnormalities of brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity during a sustained attention task (Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CCPT)) in 20 right-handed pediatric acquired brain injury (ABI) patients versus 7 right-handed age-matched healthy controls, and we estimated the correlation of such abnormalities with clinical and cognitive deficits. Patients underwent the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) evaluations. During fMRI, patients and controls activated regions of the attention network. Compared to controls, ABI patients experienced a decreased average fMRI recruitment of the left cerebellum and a decreased deactivation of the left anterior cingulate cortex. With increasing task demand, compared to controls, ABI patients had an impaired ability to increase the recruitment of several posterior regions of the attention network. They also experienced a greater activation of frontal regions, which was correlated with worse performance on FIM, WISC, and fMRI CCPT. Such abnormal brain recruitment was significantly influenced by the type of lesion (focal versus diffuse axonal injury) and time elapsed from the event. Pediatric ABI patients experienced an inability to optimize attention network recruitment, especially when task difficulty was increased, which likely contributes to their clinical and cognitive deficits. PMID:26448878

  11. [Clinical profile in subjects with acquired brain injury in chronic phase in a social and health care center].

    PubMed

    Rubial-Álvarez, Sandra; Veiga-Suárez, María

    2012-10-01

    There are few resources for acquired brain injury (ABI) in post-hospitalary phase in our country. At this level of carefulness, Personal Autonomy Promotion Center in Bergondo contemplates like a social and health care resource in order to facilitate community integration in subjects with ABI. AIMS. To describe clinical profile in the subjects admitted in our unit, and to assess intervention possibilities with clinico-functional recovery goals in the chronic phases in ABI. . Sample of 105 subjects admitted in our center until December 2010. 86 men and 19 women, with a mean age of 32.16 years old and a most frequent evolution time of less than 5 years (64.76%). Variables collected were: sex, age, etiology, evolution time, personality changes diagnosis, admission FIM, previous participation in rehabilitation programmes and have recovery goals. The main etiology was traumatic brain injury (62.5%). The 54.28% of the subjects was taking physical rehabilitation at the moment of admission, while the 49.52% had participated in neuropsychological interventions. Physical recovery goals were identified in the 42.85% of the subjects and the 78.09% had goals in neuropsychology field. The clinical profile observed was young man with sequelae caused by a traumatic brain injury suffered in last five years, who has received poor neuropsychological care and that still takes physiotherapy treatment.

  12. Altered Recruitment of the Attention Network Is Associated with Disability and Cognitive Impairment in Pediatric Patients with Acquired Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Strazzer, Sandra; Rocca, Maria A; Molteni, Erika; De Meo, Ermelinda; Recla, Monica; Valsasina, Paola; Arrigoni, Filippo; Galbiati, Susanna; Bardoni, Alessandra; Filippi, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    We assessed abnormalities of brain functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) activity during a sustained attention task (Conners' Continuous Performance Test (CCPT)) in 20 right-handed pediatric acquired brain injury (ABI) patients versus 7 right-handed age-matched healthy controls, and we estimated the correlation of such abnormalities with clinical and cognitive deficits. Patients underwent the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC), Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, and Functional Independence Measure (FIM) evaluations. During fMRI, patients and controls activated regions of the attention network. Compared to controls, ABI patients experienced a decreased average fMRI recruitment of the left cerebellum and a decreased deactivation of the left anterior cingulate cortex. With increasing task demand, compared to controls, ABI patients had an impaired ability to increase the recruitment of several posterior regions of the attention network. They also experienced a greater activation of frontal regions, which was correlated with worse performance on FIM, WISC, and fMRI CCPT. Such abnormal brain recruitment was significantly influenced by the type of lesion (focal versus diffuse axonal injury) and time elapsed from the event. Pediatric ABI patients experienced an inability to optimize attention network recruitment, especially when task difficulty was increased, which likely contributes to their clinical and cognitive deficits.

  13. Clinical impact of RehaCom software for cognitive rehabilitation of patients with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Elízabeth; Bringas, María Luisa; Salazar, Sonia; Rodríguez, Daymí; García, María Eugenia; Torres, Maydané

    2012-10-01

    We describe the clinical impact of the RehaCom computerized cognitive training program instituted in the International Neurological Restoration Center for rehabilitation of brain injury patients. Fifty patients admitted from 2008 through 2010 were trained over 60 sessions. Attention and memory functions were assessed with a pre- and post-treatment design, using the Mini-Mental State Examination, Wechsler Memory Scale and Trail Making Test (Parts A and B). Negative effects were assessed, including mental fatigue, headache and eye irritation. The program's clinical usefulness was confirmed, with 100% of patients showing improved performance in trained functions.

  14. Neural correlates of apathy in patients with neurodegenerative disorders, acquired brain injury, and psychiatric disorders.

    PubMed

    Kos, Claire; van Tol, Marie-José; Marsman, Jan-Bernard C; Knegtering, Henderikus; Aleman, André

    2016-10-01

    Apathy can be described as a loss of goal-directed purposeful behavior and is common in a variety of neurological and psychiatric disorders. Although previous studies investigated associations between abnormal brain functioning and apathy, it is unclear whether the neural basis of apathy is similar across different pathological conditions. The purpose of this systematic review was to provide an extensive overview of the neuroimaging literature on apathy including studies of various patient populations, and evaluate whether the current state of affairs suggest disorder specific or shared neural correlates of apathy. Results suggest that abnormalities within fronto-striatal circuits are most consistently associated with apathy across the different pathological conditions. Of note, abnormalities within the inferior parietal cortex were also linked to apathy, a region previously not included in neuroanatomical models of apathy. The variance in brain regions implicated in apathy may suggest that different routes towards apathy are possible. Future research should investigate possible alterations in different processes underlying goal-directed behavior, ranging from intention and goal-selection to action planning and execution. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Developmental effects of irradiation on the brain of the embryo and fetus

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    This publication represents an evaluation of the data relating to radiation-induced effects on the central nervous system, especially radiation-induced mental retardation;assesses the gestational age at risk and the quantitative risk at low doses;analyses these effects in the light of what is known about cell survival, proliferation, repopulation and differentiation in the development of the fetal rain;and identifies the needs for future research. Contents: Preface;Introduction;Prenatal development of the primate brain and cerebral adnexa;Developmental disorders of the central nervous system;Ionizing radiation as a central nervous system teratogen;Periods of maximum sensitivity;Risk estimates in humans;Research needs;References.

  16. A heme oxygenase-1 transducer model of degenerative and developmental brain disorders.

    PubMed

    Schipper, Hyman M; Song, Wei

    2015-03-09

    Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) is a 32 kDa protein which catalyzes the breakdown of heme to free iron, carbon monoxide and biliverdin. The Hmox1 promoter contains numerous consensus sequences that render the gene exquisitely sensitive to induction by diverse pro-oxidant and inflammatory stimuli. In "stressed" astroglia, HO-1 hyperactivity promotes mitochondrial iron sequestration and macroautophagy and may thereby contribute to the pathological iron deposition and bioenergetic failure documented in Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease and certain neurodevelopmental conditions. Glial HO-1 expression may also impact neuroplasticity and cell survival by modulating brain sterol metabolism and the proteasomal degradation of neurotoxic proteins. The glial HO-1 response may represent a pivotal transducer of noxious environmental and endogenous stressors into patterns of neural damage and repair characteristic of many human degenerative and developmental CNS disorders.

  17. Developmental and regional patterns of GAP-43 immunoreactivity in a metamorphosing brain.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Andrea Megela; Tanyu, Leslie H; Horowitz, Seth S; Chapman, Judith A; Brown, Rebecca A

    2008-01-01

    Growth-associated protein-43 is typically expressed at high levels in the nervous system during development. In adult animals, its expression is lower, but still observable in brain areas showing structural or functional plasticity. We examined patterns of GAP-43 immunoreactivity in the brain of the bullfrog, an animal whose nervous system undergoes considerable reorganization across metamorphic development and retains a strong capacity for plasticity in adulthood. Immunolabeling was mostly diffuse in hatchling tadpoles, but became progressively more discrete as larval development proceeded. In many brain areas, intensity of immunolabel peaked at metamorphic climax, the time of final transition from aquatic to semi-terrestrial life. Changes in intensity of GAP-43 expression in the medial vestibular nucleus, superior olivary nucleus, and torus semicircularis appeared correlated with stage-dependent functional changes in processing auditory stimuli. Immunolabeling in the Purkinje cell layer of the cerebellum and in the cerebellar nucleus was detectable at most developmental time points. Heavy immunolabel was present from early larval stages through the end of climax in the thalamus (ventromedial, anterior, posterior, central nuclei). Immunolabel in the tadpole telencephalon was observed around the lateral ventricles, and in the medial septum and ventral striatum. In postmetamorphic animals, immunoreactivity was confined mainly to the ventricular zones and immediately adjacent cell layers. GAP-43 expression was present in olfactory, auditory and optic cranial nerves throughout larval and postmetamorphic life. The continued expression of GAP-43 in brain nuclei and in cranial nerves throughout development and into adulthood reflects the high regenerative potential of the bullfrog's central nervous system.

  18. Accentuate or repeat? Brain signatures of developmental periods in infant word recognition.

    PubMed

    Männel, Claudia; Friederici, Angela D

    2013-01-01

    Language acquisition has long been discussed as an interaction between biological preconditions and environmental input. This general interaction seems particularly salient in lexical acquisition, where infants are already able to detect unknown words in sentences at 7 months of age, guided by phonological and statistical information in the speech input. While this information results from the linguistic structure of a given language, infants also exploit situational information, such as speakers' additional word accentuation and word repetition. The current study investigated the developmental trajectory of infants' sensitivity to these two situational input cues in word recognition. Testing infants at 6, 9, and 12 months of age, we hypothesized that different age groups are differentially sensitive to accentuation and repetition. In a familiarization-test paradigm, event-related brain potentials (ERPs) revealed age-related differences in infants' word recognition as a function of situational input cues: at 6 months infants only recognized previously accentuated words, at 9 months both accentuation and repetition played a role, while at 12 months only repetition was effective. These developmental changes are suggested to result from infants' advancing linguistic experience and parallel auditory cortex maturation. Our data indicate very narrow and specific input-sensitive periods in infant word recognition, with accentuation being effective prior to repetition. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Examining the link between adolescent brain development and risk taking from a social-developmental perspective.

    PubMed

    Willoughby, Teena; Good, Marie; Adachi, Paul J C; Hamza, Chloe; Tavernier, Royette

    2013-12-01

    The adolescent age period is often characterized as a health paradox because it is a time of extensive increases in physical and mental capabilities, yet overall mortality/morbidity rates increase significantly from childhood to adolescence, often due to preventable causes such as risk taking. Asynchrony in developmental time courses between the affective/approach and cognitive control brain systems, as well as the ongoing maturation of neural connectivity are thought to lead to increased vulnerability for risk taking in adolescence. A critical analysis of the frequency of risk taking behaviors, as well as mortality and morbidity rates across the lifespan, however, challenges the hypothesis that the peak of risk taking occurs in middle adolescence when the asynchrony between the different developmental time courses of the affective/approach and cognitive control systems is the largest. In fact, the highest levels of risk taking behaviors, such as alcohol and drug use, often occur among emerging adults (e.g., university/college students), and highlight the role of the social context in predicting risk taking behavior. Moreover, risk taking is not always unregulated or impulsive. Future research should broaden the scope of risk taking to include risks that are relevant to older adults, such as risky financial investing, gambling, and marital infidelity. In addition, a lifespan perspective, with a focus on how associations between neural systems and behavior are moderated by context and trait-level characteristics, and which includes diverse samples (e.g., divorced individuals), will help to address some important limitations in the adolescent brain development and risk taking literature. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Rehabilitation goal setting with community dwelling adults with acquired brain injury: a theoretical framework derived from clinicians' reflections on practice.

    PubMed

    Prescott, Sarah; Fleming, Jennifer; Doig, Emmah

    2017-06-11

    The aim of this study was to explore clinicians' experiences of implementing goal setting with community dwelling clients with acquired brain injury, to develop a goal setting practice framework. Grounded theory methodology was employed. Clinicians, representing six disciplines across seven services, were recruited and interviewed until theoretical saturation was achieved. A total of 22 clinicians were interviewed. A theoretical framework was developed to explain how clinicians support clients to actively engage in goal setting in routine practice. The framework incorporates three phases: a needs identification phase, a goal operationalisation phase, and an intervention phase. Contextual factors, including personal and environmental influences, also affect how clinicians and clients engage in this process. Clinicians use additional strategies to support clients with impaired self-awareness. These include structured communication and metacognitive strategies to operationalise goals. For clients with emotional distress, clinicians provide additional time and intervention directed at new identity development. The goal setting practice framework may guide clinician's understanding of how to engage in client-centred goal setting in brain injury rehabilitation. There is a predilection towards a client-centred goal setting approach in the community setting, however, contextual factors can inhibit implementation of this approach. Implications for Rehabilitation The theoretical framework describes processes used to develop achievable client-centred goals with people with brain injury. Building rapport is a core strategy to engage clients with brain injury in goal setting. Clients with self-awareness impairment benefit from additional metacognitive strategies to participate in goal setting. Clients with emotional distress may need additional time for new identity development.

  1. The Contribution of Novel Brain Imaging Techniques to Understanding the Neurobiology of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Furfaro, Joyce A.; Penniman, Lauren C.; Glover, Gary H.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2005-01-01

    Studying the biological mechanisms underlying mental retardation and developmental disabilities (MR/DD) is a very complex task. This is due to the wide heterogeneity of etiologies and pathways that lead to MR/DD. Breakthroughs in genetics and molecular biology and the development of sophisticated brain imaging techniques during the last decades…

  2. Ecological Human Brain and Young Children's "Naturalist Intelligence" from the Perspective of Developmentally and Culturally Appropriate Practice (DCAP).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyun, Eunsook

    Based on the view that young children have a different intellectual culture from adults' in the way they know and understand nature, this paper explores ecological human brain development, children's intellectual culture of naturalist intelligence, and developmentally and culturally congruent curricula for young children. The paper discusses the…

  3. Brain Hyper-Connectivity and Operation-Specific Deficits during Arithmetic Problem Solving in Children with Developmental Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Chen, Tianwen; Young, Christina B.; Geary, David C.; Menon, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is marked by specific deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information despite normal intelligence (IQ) and reading ability. We examined how brain circuits used by young children with DD to solve simple addition and subtraction problems differ from those used by typically developing (TD) children who…

  4. The Contribution of Novel Brain Imaging Techniques to Understanding the Neurobiology of Mental Retardation and Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Furfaro, Joyce A.; Penniman, Lauren C.; Glover, Gary H.; Reiss, Allan L.

    2005-01-01

    Studying the biological mechanisms underlying mental retardation and developmental disabilities (MR/DD) is a very complex task. This is due to the wide heterogeneity of etiologies and pathways that lead to MR/DD. Breakthroughs in genetics and molecular biology and the development of sophisticated brain imaging techniques during the last decades…

  5. Brain Hyper-Connectivity and Operation-Specific Deficits during Arithmetic Problem Solving in Children with Developmental Dyscalculia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenberg-Lee, Miriam; Ashkenazi, Sarit; Chen, Tianwen; Young, Christina B.; Geary, David C.; Menon, Vinod

    2015-01-01

    Developmental dyscalculia (DD) is marked by specific deficits in processing numerical and mathematical information despite normal intelligence (IQ) and reading ability. We examined how brain circuits used by young children with DD to solve simple addition and subtraction problems differ from those used by typically developing (TD) children who…

  6. Adults with acquired traumatic brain injury: a theoretical analysis from a social recognition perspective.

    PubMed

    Strandberg, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illuminate the changeover process experienced by people with traumatic brain injury (TBI) and increase the understanding of social recognition occurring after injury. Fifteen persons, ages 28-56, with TBI have been in-depth interviewed. Data were first analyzed by latent-content analysis using a hermeneutic approach, and later re-contextualized within a matrix constructed from theories of social recognition. Results were initially structured into six themes and then re-described in terms of recognition, that is, the individual dimension, the legal dimension, and the value dimension. The conclusions suggest that people with TBI experience both recognition and non-recognition during the recovery process and later in life, living in society with the sequel of TBI. Such experiences are described on all dimensions.

  7. Reappraisal generation after acquired brain damage: The role of laterality and cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Salas, Christian E; Gross, James J; Turnbull, Oliver H

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been growing interest in the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal. Findings suggest that reappraisal activates a set of areas in the left hemisphere (LH), which are commonly associated with language abilities and verbally mediated cognitive control. The main goal of this study was to investigate whether individuals with focal damage to the LH (n = 8) were more markedly impaired on a reappraisal generation task than individuals with right hemisphere lesions (RH, n = 8), and healthy controls (HC, n = 14). The reappraisal generation task consisted of a set of ten pictures from the IAPS, depicting negative events of different sorts. Participants were asked to quickly generate as many positive reinterpretations as possible for each picture. Two scores were derived from this task, namely difficulty and productivity. A second goal of this study was to explore which cognitive control processes were associated with performance on the reappraisal task. For this purpose, participants were assessed on several measures of cognitive control. Findings indicated that reappraisal difficulty - defined as the time taken to generate a first reappraisal - did not differ between LH and RH groups. However, differences were found between patients with brain injury (LH + RH) and HC, suggesting that brain damage in either hemisphere influences reappraisal difficulty. No differences in reappraisal productivity were found across groups, suggesting that neurological groups and HC are equally productive when time constraints are not considered. Finally, only two cognitive control processes inhibition and verbal fluency- were inversely associated with reappraisal difficulty. Implications for the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal generation are discussed, and implications for neuro-rehabilitation are considered.

  8. Reappraisal generation after acquired brain damage: The role of laterality and cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Christian E.; Gross, James J.; Turnbull, Oliver H.

    2014-01-01

    In the past decade, there has been growing interest in the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal. Findings suggest that reappraisal activates a set of areas in the left hemisphere (LH), which are commonly associated with language abilities and verbally mediated cognitive control. The main goal of this study was to investigate whether individuals with focal damage to the LH (n = 8) were more markedly impaired on a reappraisal generation task than individuals with right hemisphere lesions (RH, n = 8), and healthy controls (HC, n = 14). The reappraisal generation task consisted of a set of ten pictures from the IAPS, depicting negative events of different sorts. Participants were asked to quickly generate as many positive reinterpretations as possible for each picture. Two scores were derived from this task, namely difficulty and productivity. A second goal of this study was to explore which cognitive control processes were associated with performance on the reappraisal task. For this purpose, participants were assessed on several measures of cognitive control. Findings indicated that reappraisal difficulty – defined as the time taken to generate a first reappraisal – did not differ between LH and RH groups. However, differences were found between patients with brain injury (LH + RH) and HC, suggesting that brain damage in either hemisphere influences reappraisal difficulty. No differences in reappraisal productivity were found across groups, suggesting that neurological groups and HC are equally productive when time constraints are not considered. Finally, only two cognitive control processes inhibition and verbal fluency- were inversely associated with reappraisal difficulty. Implications for the neuroanatomical and neuropsychological bases of reappraisal generation are discussed, and implications for neuro-rehabilitation are considered. PMID:24711799

  9. Usual and virtual reality video game-based physiotherapy for children and youth with acquired brain injuries.

    PubMed

    Levac, Danielle; Miller, Patricia; Missiuna, Cheryl

    2012-05-01

    Little is known about how therapists promote learning of functional motor skills for children with acquired brain injuries. This study explores physiotherapists' description of these interventions in comparison to virtual reality (VR) video game-based therapy. Six physiotherapists employed at a children's rehabilitation center participated in semi-structured interviews, which were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. Physiotherapists describe using interventions that motivate children to challenge performance quality and optimize real-life functioning. Intervention strategies are influenced by characteristics of the child, parent availability to practice skills outside therapy, and therapist experience. VR use motivates children to participate, but can influence therapist use of verbal strategies and complicate interventions. Physiotherapists consider unique characteristics of this population when providing interventions that promote learning of motor skills. The VR technology has advantageous features but its use with this population can be challenging; further research is recommended.

  10. Access to environmental stimulation via eyelid responses for persons with acquired brain injury and multiple disabilities: a new microswitch arrangement.

    PubMed

    Lancioni, Giulio E; Singh, Nirbhay N; O'Reilly, Mark F; Sigafoos, Jeff; Ricci, Irene; Buonocunto, Francesca; Sacco, Valentina

    2012-04-01

    This study assessed a new microswitch arrangement for eyelid responses using an optic sensor placed above the cheekbone and a small sticker on the person's eyelid. This new arrangement, which was designed to avoid interference of the microswitch with the person's visual functioning, was tested on three adults with acquired brain injury and multiple (consciousness, communication, and motor) disabilities. The study was carried out according to a non-concurrent multiple baseline design across participants. Data showed the new microswitch arrangement was suitable for all three participants, who increased their responding during the intervention phase of the study when their responses allowed them to access preferred stimulation. Practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  11. A Qualitative Synthesis of Families’ and Students’ Hospital-to-School Transition Experiences Following Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hartman, Laura R.; Tibbles, Alana; Paniccia, Alicia; Lindsay, Sally

    2015-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) is one of the greatest causes of death and disability among children in Canada. Following ABI, children are required to transition back to school and adapt to the physical, cognitive, behavioral, social, and emotional demands of the school environment. We conducted a qualitative systematic review of students’ and parents’ experiences of the transition back to school following ABI. We identified 20 articles that met our inclusion criteria. Six themes emerged: (a) lack of ABI-specific education for families and professionals, (b) communication-related factors as a facilitator and/or barrier to transition, (c) emotional focus, (d) peer relationships, (e) supports, and (f) ABI sequelae in the classroom. Students’ and families’ personal motivations and abilities and the support they receive in their environment affect their experiences of transitioning back to school and the disrupted occupations they face. PMID:28462322

  12. Acquired long QT syndrome and monomorphic ventricular tachycardia after alternative treatment with cesium chloride for brain cancer.

    PubMed

    Dalal, Anuj K; Harding, John D; Verdino, Ralph J

    2004-08-01

    Individuals searching for symptomatic relief or a potential cure are increasingly seeking and using nontraditional therapies for their various diseases. Little is known about the potential adverse effects that patients may encounter while undergoing these alternative treatments. Cesium chloride is an unregulated agent that has been reported to have antineoplastic properties. Cesium chloride is advertised as an alternative agent for many different types of cancers and can be purchased easily on the Internet. Recently, QT prolongation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia were reported in several patients taking cesium chloride as alternative treatment for cancer. We report acquired QT prolongation and sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia in a patient who self-initiated and completed a course of cesium chloride as adjunctive treatment for brain cancer.

  13. Comparing the WeeFIM and PEDI in neurorehabilitation for children with acquired brain injury: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Williams, Katie S; Young, David K; Burke, G A Amos; Fountain, Daniel M

    2017-10-01

    We sought to compare the suitability of the Functional Independence Measure for Children (WeeFIM) and the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory (PEDI) as outcome measures in rehabilitation of children with acquired brain injury (ABI). We performed a systematic review of the evidence base using five databases. PRISMA guidelines were adhered to and the review was registered with the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews (registration number CRD42015025370). Twenty-six retrospective studies were included. Twelve studies utilized the PEDI, thirteen studies the WeeFIM, and one study included both. Statistically significant responsiveness was demonstrated for both the WeeFIM and PEDI, although significant ceiling effects were detected. Evidence of clinically significant responsiveness was limited to one center utilizing the PEDI. Although requiring licensing to use, the WeeFIM is more suitable for the inpatient setting, is quicker to administer and showed minimal ceiling effects compared to the PEDI counterpart.

  14. Alcohol Use after Combat-Acquired Traumatic Brain Injury: What We Know and Don’t Know

    PubMed Central

    ADAMS, RACHEL SAYKO; CORRIGAN, JOHN D.; LARSON, MARY JO

    2012-01-01

    Military personnel engage in unhealthy alcohol use at rates higher than their same age, civilian peers, resulting in negative consequences for the individual and jeopardized force readiness for the armed services. Among those returning from combat deployment, unhealthy drinking may be exacerbated by acute stress reactions and injury, including traumatic brain injury (TBI). Combat-acquired TBI is common among personnel in the current conflicts. Although research suggests that impairments due to TBI leads to an increased risk for unhealthy drinking and consequences among civilians, there has been little research to examine whether TBI influences drinking behaviors among military personnel. This article examines TBI and drinking in both civilian and military populations and discusses implications for clinical care and policy. PMID:22485074

  15. Developmental differences in the brain response to unhealthy food cues: an fMRI study of children and adults.

    PubMed

    van Meer, Floor; van der Laan, Laura N; Charbonnier, Lisette; Viergever, Max A; Adan, Roger Ah; Smeets, Paul Am

    2016-12-01

    Food cues are omnipresent and may trigger overconsumption. In the past 2 decades, the prevalence of childhood obesity has increased dramatically. Because children's brains are still developing, especially in areas important for inhibition, children may be more susceptible than adults to tempting food cues. We examined potential developmental differences in children's and adults' responses to food cues to determine how these responses relate to weight status. We included 27 children aged 10-12 y and 32 adults aged 32-52 y. Functional magnetic resonance imaging data were acquired during a food-viewing task in which unhealthy and healthy food pictures were presented. Children had a stronger activation in the left precentral gyrus than did adults in response to unhealthy compared with healthy foods. In children, unhealthy foods elicited stronger activation in the right inferior temporal and middle occipital gyri, left precentral gyrus, bilateral opercular part of the inferior frontal gyrus, left hippocampus, and left middle frontal gyrus. Adults had stronger activation in the bilateral middle occipital gyrus and the right calcarine sulcus for unhealthy compared with healthy foods. Children with a higher body mass index (BMI) had lower activation in the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while viewing unhealthy compared with healthy foods. In adults there was no correlation between BMI and neural response to unhealthy compared with healthy foods. Unhealthy foods might elicit more attention both in children and in adults. Children had stronger activation while viewing unhealthy compared with healthy foods in areas involved in reward, motivation, and memory. Furthermore, children activated a motivation and reward area located in the motor cortex more strongly than did adults in response to unhealthy foods. Finally, children with a higher BMI had less activation in inhibitory areas in response to unhealthy foods, which may mean they are more susceptible to tempting

  16. Promoting social plasticity in developmental disorders with non-invasive brain stimulation techniques

    PubMed Central

    Boggio, Paulo S.; Asthana, Manish K.; Costa, Thiago L.; Valasek, Cláudia A.; Osório, Ana A. C.

    2015-01-01

    Being socially connected directly impacts our basic needs and survival. People with deficits in social cognition might exhibit abnormal behaviors and face many challenges in our highly social-dependent world. These challenges and limitations are associated with a substantial economical and subjective impact. As many conditions where social cognition is affected are highly prevalent, more treatments have to be developed. Based on recent research, we review studies where non-invasive neuromodulatory techniques have been used to promote Social Plasticity in developmental disorders. We focused on three populations where non-invasive brain stimulation seems to be a promising approach in inducing social plasticity: Schizophrenia, Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) and Williams Syndrome (WS). There are still very few studies directly evaluating the effects of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the social cognition of these populations. However, when considering the promising preliminary evidences presented in this review and the limited amount of clinical interventions available for treating social cognition deficits in these populations today, it is clear that the social neuroscientist arsenal may profit from non-invasive brain stimulation techniques for rehabilitation and promotion of social plasticity. PMID:26388712

  17. Increase in Evans blue dye extravasation into the brain in the late developmental stage.

    PubMed

    Chen, Kuen-Bao; Kuo, Eva Yuhua; Poon, Kin-Shing; Cheng, Ka-Shun; Chang, Chia-Sheng; Liu, Yu-Cheng; Lai, Ted Weita

    2012-08-22

    The development of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) against permeability to inert tracers, such as Evans blue dye (EBD), occurs quite early on at embryonic stages (before E13-E15), and the BBB remains resistant to EBD between E15 and early adulthood (P20-P30). Here, we aimed to examine the changes in EBD permeability at a later stage in development, specifically comparing young rats (P20) with adult rats (P86). We found markedly higher EBD extravasation into the forebrains of adult rats compared with those of the young rats (P=0.0132; Student's t-test). In contrast, there was no difference in EBD extravasation to the liver, suggesting no change in vascular permeability in peripheral tissues. Furthermore, EBD extravasation into the cerebellum was less prominent than that into the forebrain, suggesting that the disruption of the BBB was brain-region specific. In conclusion, we found a specific increase in EBD extravasation in the mature forebrain, and the protocol that we used may be a good template for studying developmental disruption of the BBB.

  18. Translational developmental studies of stress on brain and behavior: implications for adolescent mental health and illness?

    PubMed

    Malter Cohen, M; Tottenham, N; Casey, B J

    2013-09-26

    Adolescence is the transition from childhood to adulthood, with onset marked by puberty and the offset by relative independence from parents. Across species, it is a time of incredible change that carries increased risks and rewards. The ability of the individual to respond adequately to the mental, physical and emotional stresses of life during this time is a function of both their early environment and their present state. In this article, we focus on the effects that acute threat and chronic stress have on the brain and behavior in humans and rodents. First, we highlight developmental changes in frontolimbic function as healthy individuals transition into and out of adolescence. Second, we examine genetic factors that may enhance susceptibility to stress in one individual over another using translation from genetic mouse models to human neuroimaging. Third, we examine how the timing and nature of stress varies in its impact on brain and behavior. These findings are discussed in the context of implications for adolescent mental health and illness. Copyright © 2013 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dental management in dysphagia syndrome patients with previously acquired brain damages

    PubMed Central

    Bramanti, Ennio; Arcuri, Claudio; Cecchetti, Francesco; Cervino, Gabriele; Nucera, Riccardo; Cicciù, Marco

    2012-01-01

    Dysphagia is defined as difficulty in swallowing food (semi-solid or solid), liquid, or both. Difficulty in swallowing affects approximately 7% of population, with risk incidence increasing with age. There are many disorder conditions predisposing to dysphagia such as mechanical strokes or esophageal diseases even if neurological diseases represent the principal one. Cerebrovascular pathology is today the leading cause of death in developing countries, and it occurs most frequently in individuals who are at least 60 years old. Swallowing disorders related to a stroke event are common occurrences. The incidence ranging is estimated from 18% to 81% in the acute phase and with a prevalence of 12% among such patients. Cerebral, cerebellar, or brain stem strokes can influence swallowing physiology while cerebral lesions can interrupt voluntary control of mastication and bolus transport during the oral phase. Among the most frequent complications of dysphagia are increased mortality and pulmonary risks such as aspiration pneumonia, dehydration, malnutrition, and long-term hospitalization. This review article discusses the epidemiology of dysphagia, the normal swallowing process, pathophysiology, signs and symptoms, diagnostics, and dental management of patients affected. PMID:23162574

  20. Impact of a family-focused intervention on self-concept after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Amber; Ponsford, Jennie; Couchman, Grace

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of a family inclusive intervention on the multidimensional self-concept of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Forty one individuals with TBI and a matched control group completed the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale: Second Edition (TSCS: 2), the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSE), the Family Assessment Device (FAD), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) on two occasions: at immediate contact (pre-group, T1) and post-group (3 months after initial contact, T2). Controls did not attend the intervention. Total scores for the measures, as well as scores on subdomains of self-concept, taken pre- and post-intervention for the TBI sample and at the same time for matched controls were compared between groups using Multivariate Analysis of Variance (MANOVA); followed by a series of repeated measures analyses of variance (ANOVA) to determine whether significant changes occurred. Contrary to the main aim, the use of a family-focused intervention did not result in self-concept improvement, either globally or across self-concept domains. Nor did mood or family functioning improve for the TBI sample. Measures remained stable across time for the controls.

  1. Network analysis of human fMRI data suggests modular restructuring after simulated acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Ruiz Vargas, E; Mitchell, D G V; Greening, S G; Wahl, L M

    2016-01-01

    The pathophysiology underlying neurocognitive dysfunction following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI), or concussion, is poorly understood. In order to shed light on the effects of TBI at the functional network or modular level, our research groups are engaged in the acquisition and analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data from subjects post-TBI. Complementary to this effort, in this paper we use mathematical and computational techniques to determine how modular structure changes in response to specific mechanisms of injury. In particular, we examine in detail the potential effects of focal contusions, diffuse axonal degeneration and diffuse microlesions, illustrating the extent to which functional modules are preserved or degenerated by each type of injury. One striking prediction of our study is that the left and right hemispheres show a tendency to become functionally separated post-injury, but only in response to diffuse microlesions. We highlight other key differences among the effects of the three modelled injuries and discuss their clinical implications. These results may help delineate the functional mechanisms underlying several of the cognitive sequelae associated with TBI.

  2. Self-concept and self-esteem after acquired brain injury: a control group comparison.

    PubMed

    Ponsford, Jennie; Kelly, Amber; Couchman, Grace

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the multidimensional self-concept, global self-esteem and psychological adjustment of individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) as compared with healthy controls. Group comparison on self-report questionnaires. Forty-one individuals who had sustained a TBI were compared with an age- and gender-matched sample of 41 trauma-free control participants on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale, the Tennessee Self Concept Scale (second edition) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scales (HADS). Participants with TBI rated significantly lower mean levels of global self-esteem and self-concept on the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale and Tennessee Self Concept Scale than the control group. Survivors of TBI rated themselves more poorly on a range of self-dimensions, including social, family, academic/work and personal self-concept compared to controls. They also reported higher mean levels of depression and anxiety on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale. Overall self-concept was most strongly associated with depressive symptoms and anxiety. Self-concept may be lowered following TBI and is associated with negative emotional consequences. Clinicians may improve the emotional adjustment of survivors of TBI by considering particular dimensions of self-concept for intervention focus.

  3. Improvements of task performance in daily life after acquired brain injury using commonly available everyday technology.

    PubMed

    Lindén, Anita; Lexell, Jan; Larsson Lund, Maria

    2011-01-01

    To investigate how individualised occupation-based interventions with commonly available everyday technology (ET) can compensate for perceived difficulties with daily life tasks after an aquired brain injury (ABI) and improve satisfaction with occupational performance. This intervention study was designed as a multiple case study according to Yin. Ten men and women with an ABI (traumatic or non-traumatic) participated. Data were collected through interviews, observations and field notes before and after the intervention and at follow-up (on average 11 weeks afterwards). The interventions focused on enabling each participant's prioritised goals related to task performance in daily life. All participants achieved all their goals by learning to use both new functions in their own familiar ET and new ET. The participant's perceived difficulties in occupational performance decreased and their satisfaction with occupational performance increased with the use of ET. An individualised intervention process, involving the use of own familiar ET or ET off-the-shelf, has the potential to compensate for perceived difficulties following an ABI and improve satisfaction with occupational performance in daily life.

  4. Difficulties in using everyday technology after acquired brain injury: a qualitative analysis.

    PubMed

    Engström, Ann-Louice Lövgreen; Lexell, Jan; Lund, Maria Larsson

    2010-09-01

    The aim of this study was to identify and describe the characteristics of the difficulties using everyday technology in persons with an aquired brain injury (ABI), and their experiences of how these difficulties influenced their life. Thirteen persons with an ABI were interviewed about their difficulties in using everyday technology and were observed in their use of technology. Data were analysed qualitatively with a constant comparative method. The results showed that the persons' experiences formed two categories: “A variety of combinations of difficulties in the use of everyday technology” and “Restrictions in life”. The difficulties identified were related not only to everyday technology itself but also to the interaction between the technology, the task, the person, and the environment. These difficulties influenced their experiences of restrictions in occupational performance, personal identification, and participation in society. The results emphasize that occupational therapists who design interventions for people with an ABI need to accommodate both the technology and other interacting aspects in order to overcome difficulties in using everyday technology.

  5. Family involvement in behaviour management following acquired brain injury (ABI) in community settings: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Fisher, Alinka; Lennon, Sheila; Bellon, Michelle; Lawn, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    To examine family involvement in the management of behavioural problems following ABI in the community. Systematic literature review. Six electronic databases relevant to the field of brain injury were searched between 1980-2013. Citation indexes were used and references from articles hand searched for further literature. Studies that met the broad inclusion criteria were screened for relevance and articles selected for full-text review independently considered by two reviewers. Those found to be relevant were analysed using PEDro and McMasters critical appraisal tools. Three hundred and three studies were identified after duplicates were removed and 56 were assessed for relevance, yielding 10 studies for review. Although the majority of studies were weak in design, five revealed significant findings supportive of family involvement in the management of behavioural problems following ABI, especially where interventions consisted of both educational components and individualized behavioural plans. Findings revealed no significant changes in family burden following behavioural interventions. There is limited research and lack of high evidence studies evaluating family involvement in behaviour management following ABI; therefore, no conclusions can be drawn regarding its efficacy. More research is needed, with larger sample sizes and more rigorous design, including proper comparison groups.

  6. Virtual reality (VR)-based community living skills training for people with acquired brain injury: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Yip, Ben C B; Man, David W K

    2009-12-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test the usability and effectiveness of a newly-developed virtual reality (VR)-based community living skills training program for people with acquired brain injury (ABI). A small-sample, pre- and post-quasi experimental design was adopted to initially study the efficacy of the VR-based training program. Its usability was also investigated through interviewing subjects. Outcomes were documented in terms of subjects' skills acquisition, self-efficacy in applying the learnt skills and the transfer ratio of the learnt skills to the real environment. Global cognitive ability and the functional independence level were also assessed. Four subjects with ABI (one traumatic brain injury and three stroke subjects) were successfully recruited and received 10 sessions of VR-based community living skills training. All four subjects showed improvement in skills acquisition and memory performance, while three out of four also showed improvement in self-efficacy and demonstrated transfer of skills to the real environment. Usability was initially supported. Preliminary results suggested positive changes in ABI subjects. The proposed virtual reality (VR) community living skills training software will be further investigated in a randomized controlled trial.

  7. Computerised cognitive training in acquired brain injury: A systematic review of outcomes using the International Classification of Functioning (ICF).

    PubMed

    Sigmundsdottir, Linda; Longley, Wendy A; Tate, Robyn L

    2016-10-01

    Computerised cognitive training (CCT) is an increasingly popular intervention for people experiencing cognitive symptoms. This systematic review evaluated the evidence for CCT in adults with acquired brain injury (ABI), focusing on how outcome measures used reflect efficacy across components of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Database searches were conducted of studies investigating CCT to treat cognitive symptoms in adult ABI. Scientific quality was rated using the PEDro-P and RoBiNT Scales. Ninety-six studies met the criteria. Most studies examined outcomes using measures of mental functions (93/96, 97%); fewer studies included measures of activities/participation (41/96, 43%) or body structures (8/96, 8%). Only 14 studies (15%) provided Level 1 evidence (randomised controlled trials with a PEDro-P score ≥ 6/10), with these studies suggesting strong evidence for CCT improving processing speed in multiple sclerosis (MS) and moderate evidence for improving memory in MS and brain tumour populations. There is a large body of research examining the efficacy of CCT, but relatively few Level 1 studies and evidence is largely limited to body function outcomes. The routine use of outcome measures of activities/participation would provide more meaningful evidence for the efficacy of CCT. The use of body structure outcome measures (e.g., neuroimaging) is a newly emerging area, with potential to increase understanding of mechanisms of action for CCT.

  8. Community integration and health-related quality-of-life following acquired brain injury for persons living at home.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Gary J; Gargaro, Judith; McMackin, Sally

    2016-01-01

    To study predictors of community integration (CI) and health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) in a sample of Canadian adult, urban, multi-ethnic persons with acquired brain injury (ABI) receiving publicly-funded community services. Hypothesis 1 examined the predictive utility of age, ratings of disability, functioning and cognition for CI and HRQoL. Hypothesis 2 examined the correlation between CI and HRQoL. Cohort study. A convenience sample of community-residing clients completed measures with their care co-ordinators: Resident Assessment Instrument-Home Care (RAI-HC), Disability Rating Scale (DRS), Community Integration Questionnaire (CIQ) and the Quality-of-Life after Brain Injury Instrument (QOLIBRI). Regression analysis showed DRS scores explained significant variance in CIQ and QOLIBRI. Correlations also showed that cognitive skill and ADL/IADL functioning are strongly related to CI and the Daily life and autonomy QOLIBRI sub-scale. The CIQ Total was not correlated with QOLIBRI Total, although there were some significant correlations between the CIQ social sub-scale and QOLIBRI. Lesser degree of disability is a key predictor of greater CI and QoL. The present findings suggest that rehabilitation efforts should focus on minimizing disability and promoting social integration and involvement to avoid adverse long-term effects of ABI for community-resident persons.

  9. Reliability of the Client-Centeredness of Goal Setting (C-COGS) Scale in Acquired Brain Injury Rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Doig, Emmah; Prescott, Sarah; Fleming, Jennifer; Cornwell, Petrea; Kuipers, Pim

    2016-01-01

    To examine the internal reliability and test-retest reliability of the Client-Centeredness of Goal Setting (C-COGS) scale. The C-COGS scale was administered to 42 participants with acquired brain injury after completion of multidisciplinary goal planning. Internal reliability of scale items was examined using item-partial total correlations and Cronbach's α coefficient. The scale was readministered within a 1-mo period to a subsample of 12 participants to examine test-retest reliability by calculating exact and close percentage agreement for each item. After examination of item-partial total correlations, test items were revised. The revised items demonstrated stronger internal consistency than the original items. Preliminary evaluation of test-retest reliability was fair, with an average exact percent agreement across all test items of 67%. Findings support the preliminary reliability of the C-COGS scale as a tool to evaluate and promote client-centered goal planning in brain injury rehabilitation. Copyright © 2016 by the American Occupational Therapy Association, Inc.

  10. Dysexecutive symptoms and carer strain following acquired brain injury: Changes measured before and after holistic neuropsychological rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Goodwin, Rachel A; Lincoln, Nadina B; Bateman, Andrew

    2016-06-18

    Following acquired brain injury (ABI), deficits in executive functioning (EF) are common. As a result many brain-injured patients encounter problems in every-day functioning, and their families experience significant strain. Previous research has documented the benefits of cognitive rehabilitation for executive dysfunction, and rehabilitation programmes designed to ameliorate functional problems associated with ABI. This study primarily aims to evaluate whether a neuropsychological rehabilitation programme reduces reported symptoms of everyday dysexecutive behaviour and carer strain. In this study 66 ABI outpatients attended comprehensive holistic neuropsychological rehabilitation programme. A repeated-measures design was employed to determine the effect of rehabilitation on EF and carer strain, as part of a service evaluation. Outcome measures comprised the dysexecutive questionnaire (DEX/DEX-I) and carer strain index (CSI), applied pre- and post-rehabilitation. Results indicate rehabilitation benefited clients and carers in 5 of 6 DEX/DEX-I subscales, and 2 of 3 CSI subscales, (p < 0.05). An effect of aetiology on rehabilitation was found on the metacognitive scale of the DEX-I. Therefore, this study supports a comprehensive holistic neuropsychological rehabilitation programme as effective in reducing reported symptoms of dysexecutive behaviour and carer strain following ABI.

  11. Developmentally Sensitive Interaction Effects of Genes and the Social Environment on Total and Subcortical Brain Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Arias Vásquez, Alejandro; Franke, Barbara; Hoekstra, Pieter J.; Heslenfeld, Dirk J.; Oosterlaan, Jaap; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2016-01-01

    Smaller total brain and subcortical volumes have been linked to psychopathology including attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Identifying mechanisms underlying these alterations, therefore, is of great importance. We investigated the role of gene-environment interactions (GxE) in interindividual variability of total gray matter (GM), caudate, and putamen volumes. Brain volumes were derived from structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in participants with (N = 312) and without ADHD (N = 437) from N = 402 families (age M = 17.00, SD = 3.60). GxE effects between DAT1, 5-HTT, and DRD4 and social environments (maternal expressed warmth and criticism; positive and deviant peer affiliation) as well as the possible moderating effect of age were examined using linear mixed modeling. We also tested whether findings depended on ADHD severity. Deviant peer affiliation was associated with lower caudate volume. Participants with low deviant peer affiliations had larger total GM volumes with increasing age. Likewise, developmentally sensitive GxE effects were found on total GM and putamen volume. For total GM, differential age effects were found for DAT1 9-repeat and HTTLPR L/L genotypes, depending on the amount of positive peer affiliation. For putamen volume, DRD4 7-repeat carriers and DAT1 10/10 homozygotes showed opposite age relations depending on positive peer affiliation and maternal criticism, respectively. All results were independent of ADHD severity. The presence of differential age-dependent GxE effects might explain the diverse and sometimes opposing results of environmental and genetic effects on brain volumes observed so far. PMID:27218681

  12. Emerging roles of Na+/H+ exchangers in epilepsy and developmental brain disorders

    PubMed Central

    Falgoust, Lindsay; Pan, Jullie W.; Sun, Dandan; Zhang, Zhongling

    2016-01-01

    Epilepsy is a common central nervous system (CNS) disease characterized by recurrent transient neurological events occurring due to abnormally excessive or synchronous neuronal activity in the brain. The CNS is affected by systemic acid–base disorders, and epileptic seizures are sensitive indicators of underlying imbalances in cellular pH regulation. Na+/H+ exchangers (NHEs) are a family of membrane transporter proteins actively involved in regulating intracellular and organellar pH by extruding H+ in exchange for Na+ influx. Altering NHE function significantly influences neuronal excitability and plays a role in epilepsy. This review gives an overview of pH regulatory mechanisms in the brain with a special focus on the NHE family and the relationship between epilepsy and dysfunction of NHE isoforms. We first discuss how cells translocate acids and bases across the membrane and establish pH homeostasis as a result of the concerted effort of enzymes and ion transporters. We focus on the specific roles of the NHE family by detailing how the loss of NHE1 in two NHE mutant mice results in enhanced neuronal excitability in these animals. Furthermore, we highlight new findings on the link between mutations of NHE6 and NHE9 and developmental brain disorders including epilepsy, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). These studies demonstrate the importance of NHE proteins in maintaining H+ homeostasis and their intricate roles in the regulation of neuronal function. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying NHE1, 6, and 9 dysfunctions in epilepsy formation may advance the development of new epilepsy treatment strategies. PMID:26965387

  13. Social cognition and executive functioning predictors of supervisors' appraisal of interpersonal behaviour in the workplace following acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yeates, Giles; Rowberry, Michelle; Dunne, Stephen; Goshawk, Michelle; Mahadevan, Mythreyi; Tyerman, Ruth; Salter, Mandy; Hillier, Martin; Berry, Alister; Tyerman, Andy

    2016-03-23

    Social cognition and executive functioning difficulties following acquired brain injury have been linked to negative employment outcomes, such as demotion and loss of vocational roles. These are very counter-intuitive and challenging difficulties for other employees and work supervisors who have little or no brain injury knowledge, whose perceptions of play a key role in their responses to these difficulties and the final outcome of such problems for vocational status. This study aimed to study the relationship between social cognition and executive functioning difficulties and the perceptions of work supervisors' appraisal of survivor interpersonal behaviour and social skills in the workplace. The performance of 73 survivors of acquired brain injury (47% TBI, 38% CVA, 15% other ABI type; 73% male; mean age 45.44 years, range 19-64 years; mean time since injury 6.36 years, range 10.5-31.33 years), currently in a vocational rehabilitation placement) on neuropsychological tests of executive functioning and social cognition was measured. Informant ratings on the Social Skills Factor subscale from the Work Personality Profile (WPP, Bolton & Roessler, 1986) were used as the primary outcome measure, a vocational functioning questionnaire assessing social and presentational aspects of workplace behaviour. The raters were non-clinical workplace informants acting in a supervisory role (supervisory placement providers and job coaches). Correlational analysis identified significant associations between the WPP and survivor goal-orientated planning and implementation, mentalising ability, recognition of positive and negative emotions, and recognition of simple sarcasm (all significant at p <  0.05). These correlates were entered into a stepwise multiple regression. The combination final of survivor mentalising ability and executive functioning explained 32 % of the variance in the WPP ratings (F (2, 52) =  12.15, p <  0.001). Certain limitations of the study

  14. Development and validation of the Paediatric Care and Needs Scale (PCANS) for assessing support needs of children and youth with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Soo, Cheryl; Tate, Robyn L; Williams, Lindy; Waddingham, Skye; Waugh, Mary-Clare

    2008-07-01

    The Paediatric Care and Needs Scale (PCANS) is a newly developed scale that assesses support needs following childhood acquired brain injury (ABI). It yields three measures of support: overall, extent and intensity. The developmental process of the PCANS is described and concurrent and construct validity examined. In the validation study, 32 parents/caregivers of children with ABI aged 5-18 years completed the PCANS and other validating measures: Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS), Functional Independence Measure for Children (Wee-FIM) and King's Outcome Scale of Childhood Head Injury (KOSCHI). VABS and Wee-FIM sub-scales examining similar and dissimilar domains to the PCANS were used to investigate convergent and divergent validity, respectively. Discriminant validity analysis used sub-groups dichotomized by VABS and KOSCHI data. Statistically significant correlation coefficients of moderate-to-strong magnitude were found between the PCANS support intensity score and most of the VABS, Wee-FIM and KOSCHI variables (r(s) = -0.46 to r(s) = -0.77, p < 0.01). Some evidence for convergent and divergent validity was also found. Correlation coefficients between similar domains of the PCANS and other scales were moderately high (e.g. VABS socialization vs PCANS psychosocial items, r(s) = -0.64, p < 0.01). Conversely, correlation coefficients between dissimilar domains were low (e.g. Wee-FIM self-care vs PCANS psychosocial items, r(s) = -0.29). In terms of discriminant group differences, PCANS support extent and intensity scores were able to distinguish between sub-groups dichotomized by VABS and KOSCHI scores. These findings provide preliminary evidence for the validity of the PCANS for assessing support needs after paediatric ABI.

  15. The Italian version of the Brain Injury Rehabilitation Trust (BIRT) personality questionnaires: five new measures of personality change after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Basagni, Benedetta; Navarrete, Eduardo; Bertoni, Debora; Cattran, Charlotte; Mapelli, Daniela; Oddy, Michael; De Tanti, Antonio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the translation and adaptation of the BIRT personality questionnaires for the Italian population. This included the replication of validity testing and the collection of normative data. Following translation and adaptation according to cross-cultural guidelines, the questionnaires were administered as a pre-test to a sample of 20 healthy subjects and then to 10 patients. The questionnaires were then administered to 120 healthy subjects equally distributed by sex, education, and age, to collect normative data from an Italian population. The questionnaires were easily administered to both healthy subjects and patients. Statistical analysis on normative data was conducted to find the mean value for each questionnaire. This study lays the foundations for using a new instrument to assess behavioral changes after acquired brain injury on the Italian population.

  16. Automatic regional analysis of DTI properties in the developmental macaque brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styner, Martin; Knickmeyer, Rebecca; Coe, Christopher; Short, Sarah J.; Gilmore, John

    2008-03-01

    Many neuroimaging studies are applied to monkeys as pathologies and environmental exposures can be studied in well-controlled settings and environment. In this work, we present a framework for the use of an atlas based, fully automatic segmentation of brain tissues, lobar parcellations, subcortical structures and the regional extraction of Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI) properties. We first built a structural atlas from training images by iterative, joint deformable registration into an unbiased average image. On this atlas, probabilistic tissue maps, a lobar parcellation and subcortical structures were determined. This information is applied to each subjects structural image via affine, followed by deformable registration. The affinely transformed atlas is employed for a joint T1 and T2 based tissue classification. The deformed parcellation regions mask the tissue segmentations to define the parcellation for white and gray matter separately. Each subjects structural image is then non-rigidly matched with its DTI image by normalized mutual information, b-spline based registration. The DTI property histograms were then computed using the probabilistic white matter information for each lobar parcellation. We successfully built an average atlas using a developmental training datasets of 18 cases aged 16-34 months. Our framework was successfully applied to over 50 additional subjects in the age range of 9 70 months. The probabilistically weighted FA average in the corpus callosum region showed the largest increase over time in the observed age range. Most cortical regions show modest FA increase, whereas the cerebellums FA values remained stable. The individual methods used in this segmentation framework have been applied before, but their combination is novel, as is their application to macaque MRI data. Furthermore, this is the first study to date looking at the DTI properties of the developing macaque brain.

  17. Neurogenetics of developmental dyslexia: from genes to behavior through brain neuroimaging and cognitive and sensorial mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mascheretti, S; De Luca, A; Trezzi, V; Peruzzo, D; Nordio, A; Marino, C; Arrigoni, F

    2017-01-03

    Developmental dyslexia (DD) is a complex neurodevelopmental deficit characterized by impaired reading acquisition, in spite of adequate neurological and sensorial conditions, educational opportunities and normal intelligence. Despite the successful characterization of DD-susceptibility genes, we are far from understanding the molecular etiological pathways underlying the development of reading (dis)ability. By focusing mainly on clinical phenotypes, the molecular genetics approach has yielded mixed results. More optimally reduced measures of functioning, that is, intermediate phenotypes (IPs), represent a target for researching disease-associated genetic variants and for elucidating the underlying mechanisms. Imaging data provide a viable IP for complex neurobehavioral disorders and have been extensively used to investigate both morphological, structural and functional brain abnormalities in DD. Performing joint genetic and neuroimaging studies in humans is an emerging strategy to link DD-candidate genes to the brain structure and function. A limited number of studies has already pursued the imaging-genetics integration in DD. However, the results are still not sufficient to unravel the complexity of the reading circuit due to heterogeneous study design and data processing. Here, we propose an interdisciplinary, multilevel, imaging-genetic approach to disentangle the pathways from genes to behavior. As the presence of putative functional genetic variants has been provided and as genetic associations with specific cognitive/sensorial mechanisms have been reported, new hypothesis-driven imaging-genetic studies must gain momentum. This approach would lead to the optimization of diagnostic criteria and to the early identification of 'biologically at-risk' children, supporting the definition of adequate and well-timed prevention strategies and the implementation of novel, specific remediation approach.

  18. Supporting Students with Invisible Disabilities: A Scoping Review of Postsecondary Education for Students with Mental Illness or an Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Annie; Mealings, Margaret; Ennals, Priscilla; Oates, Jennifer; Fossey, Ellie; Douglas, Jacinta; Bigby, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Students with invisible disabilities such as mental illness or acquired brain injury (ABI) experience multiple barriers that reduce their likelihood of postsecondary course completion. The present study conducted a systematic search of research reporting interventions for students experiencing mental illness or ABI to participate in postsecondary…

  19. Supporting Students with Invisible Disabilities: A Scoping Review of Postsecondary Education for Students with Mental Illness or an Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Venville, Annie; Mealings, Margaret; Ennals, Priscilla; Oates, Jennifer; Fossey, Ellie; Douglas, Jacinta; Bigby, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Students with invisible disabilities such as mental illness or acquired brain injury (ABI) experience multiple barriers that reduce their likelihood of postsecondary course completion. The present study conducted a systematic search of research reporting interventions for students experiencing mental illness or ABI to participate in postsecondary…

  20. Developmental aspects of the rat brain insulin receptor: loss of sialic acid and fluctuation in number characterize fetal development

    SciTech Connect

    Brennan, W.A. Jr.

    1988-06-01

    In this study, I have investigated the structure of the rat brain insulin receptor during fetal development. There is a progressive decrease in the apparent molecular size of the brain alpha-subunit during development: 130K on day 16 of gestation, 126K at birth, and 120K in the adult. Glycosylation was investigated as a possible reason for the observed differences in the alpha-subunit molecular size. The results show that the developmental decrease in the brain alpha-subunit apparent molecular size is due to a parallel decrease in sialic acid content. This was further confirmed by measuring the retention of autophosphorylated insulin receptors on wheat germ agglutinin (WGA)-Sepharose. An inverse correlation between developmental age and retention of /sup 32/P-labeled insulin receptors on the lectin column was observed. Insulin binding increases 6-fold between 16 and 20 days of gestation (61 +/- 25 (+/- SE) fmol/mg protein and 364 +/- 42 fmol/mg, respectively). Thereafter, binding in brain membranes decreases to 150 +/- 20 fmol/mg by 2 days after birth, then reaches the adult level of 63 +/- 15 fmol/mg. In addition, the degree of insulin-stimulated autophosphorylation closely parallels the developmental changes in insulin binding. Between 16 and 20 days of fetal life, insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of the beta-subunit increases 6-fold. Thereafter, the extent of phosphorylation decreases rapidly, reaching adult values identical with those in 16-day-old fetal brain. These results suggest that the embryonic brain possesses competent insulin receptors whose expression changes markedly during fetal development. This information should be important in defining the role of insulin in the developing nervous system.

  1. Down Syndrome Developmental Brain Transcriptome Reveals Defective Oligodendrocyte Differentiation and Myelination.

    PubMed

    Olmos-Serrano, Jose Luis; Kang, Hyo Jung; Tyler, William A; Silbereis, John C; Cheng, Feng; Zhu, Ying; Pletikos, Mihovil; Jankovic-Rapan, Lucija; Cramer, Nathan P; Galdzicki, Zygmunt; Goodliffe, Joseph; Peters, Alan; Sethares, Claire; Delalle, Ivana; Golden, Jeffrey A; Haydar, Tarik F; Sestan, Nenad

    2016-03-16

    Trisomy 21, or Down syndrome (DS), is the most common genetic cause of developmental delay and intellectual disability. To gain insight into the underlying molecular and cellular pathogenesis, we conducted a multi-region transcriptome analysis of DS and euploid control brains spanning from mid-fetal development to adulthood. We found genome-wide alterations in the expression of a large number of genes, many of which exhibited temporal and spatial specificity and were associated with distinct biological processes. In particular, we uncovered co-dysregulation of genes associated with oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination that were validated via cross-species comparison to Ts65Dn trisomy mice. Furthermore, we show that hypomyelination present in Ts65Dn mice is in part due to cell-autonomous effects of trisomy on oligodendrocyte differentiation and results in slower neocortical action potential transmission. Together, these results identify defects in white matter development and function in DS, and they provide a transcriptional framework for further investigating DS neuropathogenesis.

  2. Abnormal functional lateralization and activity of language brain areas in typical specific language impairment (developmental dysphasia)

    PubMed Central

    De Guibert, Clément; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Tréguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting structural language (n=21), to a matched group of typically-developing children using a panel of four language tasks neither requiring reading nor metalinguistic skills, including two auditory lexico-semantic tasks (category fluency and responsive naming) and two visual phonological tasks based on picture naming. Data processing involved normalizing the data with respect to a matched pairs pediatric template, groups and between-groups analysis, and laterality indexes assessment within regions of interest using single and combined task analysis. Children with specific language impairment exhibited a significant lack of left lateralization in all core language regions (inferior frontal gyrus-opercularis, inferior frontal gyrus-triangularis, supramarginal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus), across single or combined task analysis, but no difference of lateralization for the rest of the brain. Between-group comparisons revealed a left hypoactivation of Wernicke’s area at the posterior superior temporal/supramarginal junction during the responsive naming task, and a right hyperactivation encompassing the anterior insula with adjacent inferior frontal gyrus and the head of the caudate nucleus during the first phonological task. This study thus provides evidence that this specific subtype of specific language impairment is associated with atypical lateralization and functioning of core language areas. PMID:21719430

  3. Abnormal functional lateralization and activity of language brain areas in typical specific language impairment (developmental dysphasia).

    PubMed

    de Guibert, Clément; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferré, Jean-Christophe; Tréguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-10-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting structural language (n = 21), to a matched group of typically developing children using a panel of four language tasks neither requiring reading nor metalinguistic skills, including two auditory lexico-semantic tasks (category fluency and responsive naming) and two visual phonological tasks based on picture naming. Data processing involved normalizing the data with respect to a matched pairs paediatric template, groups and between-groups analysis, and laterality indices assessment within regions of interest using single and combined task analysis. Children with specific language impairment exhibited a significant lack of left lateralization in all core language regions (inferior frontal gyrus-opercularis, inferior frontal gyrus-triangularis, supramarginal gyrus and superior temporal gyrus), across single or combined task analysis, but no difference of lateralization for the rest of the brain. Between-group comparisons revealed a left hypoactivation of Wernicke's area at the posterior superior temporal/supramarginal junction during the responsive naming task, and a right hyperactivation encompassing the anterior insula with adjacent inferior frontal gyrus and the head of the caudate nucleus during the first phonological task. This study thus provides evidence that this subtype of specific language impairment is associated with atypical lateralization and functioning of core language areas.

  4. Developmentally Regulated Expression of the Nerve Growth Factor Receptor Gene in the Periphery and Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buck, C. R.; Martinez, Humberto J.; Black, Ira B.; Chao, Moses V.

    1987-05-01

    Nerve growth factor (NGF) regulates development and maintenance of function of peripheral sympathetic and sensory neurons. A potential role for the trophic factor in brain has been detected only recently. The ability of a cell to respond to NGF is due, in part, to expression of specific receptors on the cell surface. To study tissue-specific expression of the NGF receptor gene, we have used sensitive cRNA probes for detection of NGF receptor mRNA. Our studies indicate that the receptor gene is selectively and specifically expressed in sympathetic (superior cervical) and sensory (dorsal root) ganglia in the periphery, and by the septum-basal forebrain centrally, in the neonatal rat in vivo. Moreover, examination of tissues from neonatal and adult rats reveals a marked reduction in steady-state NGF receptor mRNA levels in sensory ganglia. In contrast, a 2- to 4-fold increase was observed in the basal forebrain and in the sympathetic ganglia over the same time period. Our observations suggest that NGF receptor mRNA expression is developmentally regulated in specific areas of the nervous system in a differential fashion.

  5. Social competence in pediatric brain tumor survivors: application of a model from social neuroscience and developmental psychology.

    PubMed

    Hocking, Matthew C; McCurdy, Mark; Turner, Elise; Kazak, Anne E; Noll, Robert B; Phillips, Peter; Barakat, Lamia P

    2015-03-01

    Pediatric brain tumor (BT) survivors are at risk for psychosocial late effects across many domains of functioning, including neurocognitive and social. The literature on the social competence of pediatric BT survivors is still developing and future research is needed that integrates developmental and cognitive neuroscience research methodologies to identify predictors of survivor social adjustment and interventions to ameliorate problems. This review discusses the current literature on survivor social functioning through a model of social competence in childhood brain disorder and suggests future directions based on this model. Interventions pursuing change in survivor social adjustment should consider targeting social ecological factors. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Social Competence in Pediatric Brain Tumor Survivors: Application of a Model from Social Neuroscience and Developmental Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Hocking, Matthew C.; McCurdy, Mark; Turner, Elise; Kazak, Anne E.; Noll, Robert B.; Phillips, Peter; Barakat, Lamia P.

    2014-01-01

    Pediatric brain tumor (BT) survivors are at risk for psychosocial late effects across many domains of functioning, including neurocognitive and social. The literature on the social competence of pediatric BT survivors is still developing and future research is needed that integrates developmental and cognitive neuroscience research methodologies to identify predictors of survivor social adjustment and interventions to ameliorate problems. This review discusses the current literature on survivor social functioning through a model of social competence in childhood brain disorder and suggests future directions based on this model. Interventions pursuing change in survivor social adjustment should consider targeting social ecological factors. PMID:25382825

  7. The impact of acquired brain damage in terms of epidemiology, economics and loss in quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with acquired brain damage (ABD) have suffered a brain lesion that interrupts vital development in the physical, psychological and social spheres. Stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) are the two main causes. The objectives of this study were to estimate the incidence and prevalence of ABD in the population of the Basque Country and Navarre in 2008, to calculate the associated cost of the care required and finally to assess the loss in health-related quality of life. Methods On the one hand, a cross-sectional survey was carried out, in order to estimate the incidence of ABD and its consequences in terms of costs and loss in quality of life from the evolution of a sample of patients diagnosed with stroke and TBI. On the other hand, a discrete event simulation model was built that enabled the prevalence of ABD to be estimated. Finally, a calculation was made of the formal and informal costs of ABD in the population of the Basque Country and Navarre (2,750,000 people). Results The cross-sectional study showed that the incidences of ABD caused by stroke and TBI were 61.8 and 12.5 cases per 100,000 per year respectively, while the overall prevalence was 657 cases per 100,000 people. The SF-36 physical and mental component scores were 28.9 and 44.5 respectively. The total economic burden was calculated to be 382.14 million euro per year, distributed between 215.27 and 166.87 of formal and informal burden respectively. The average cost per individual was 21,040 € per year. Conclusions The main conclusion of this study is that ABD has a high impact in both epidemiological and economic terms as well as loss in quality of life. The overall prevalence obtained is equivalent to 0.7% of the total population. The substantial economic burden is distributed nearly evenly between formal and informal costs. Specifically, it was found that the physical dimensions of quality of life are the most severely affected. The prevalence-based approach showed adequate

  8. Family function and its relationship to injury severity and psychiatric outcome in children with acquired brain injury: a systematized review.

    PubMed

    Lax Pericall, Maria Teresa; Taylor, Eric

    2014-01-01

    The psychological and psychiatric outcome of children with acquired brain injury is influenced by many variables. A review was undertaken to clarify the contribution of family function, how it relates to injury severity, and what particular aspects of family function influence psychological outcome in this group. A systematized review of the literature of studies published between 1970 and 2012 from OvidMedline, PsychoInfo, PsycARTICLES, and Cochrane was undertaken focusing on family function, injury severity, and psychiatric outcome. Thirty-six papers met the inclusion criteria. Injury severity was linked to the development of organic personality change. Family function before injury, measured by the Family Assessment Device or the Clinical Rating Scale, had a statistically significant effect on general psychological functioning in six out of eight studies. Family function had a significant effect for oppositional defiant disorder and secondary attention-deficit-hyperactivity disorder. The effects of family function may differ depending on the age of the child and the severity of the injury. Some styles of parenting moderated recovery. After injury, family function was related to the child's contemporaneous psychiatric symptoms. The level of evidence for these papers was 3 or 4 (Oxford Centre for Evidence-based Medicine criteria). Screening for some aspects of family functioning before injury and family function during the rehabilitation phase may identify children at risk of psychiatric disorders. © 2013 Mac Keith Press.

  9. Psychometric properties of the awareness questionnaire, patient competency rating scale and Dysexecutive Questionnaire in patients with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Hellebrekers, Danique; Winkens, Ieke; Kruiper, Suzanne; Van Heugten, Caroline

    2017-10-05

    Lack of self-awareness of impairments is common after acquired brain injury (ABI). We evaluated the psychometric properties of three commonly used instruments for measuring self-awareness: Awareness Questionnaire (AQ), Patient Competency Rating Scale (PCRS) and Dysexecutive questionnaire (DEX). We recruited 105 patients with ABI and their relatives. We determined feasibility, responsiveness, test- retest reliability, internal consistency, and construct validity of AQ, PCRS and DEX. No floor or ceiling effects were present. Total scale scores showed sufficient responsiveness: effect sizes were moderate to large (.57-.85); test-retest reliability was sufficient for patient forms (.75- .88) but mixed for relative forms (.60-.66). Internal consistency was good (.80-.89). Construct validity results confirmed a three-factor structured AQ and a four-factor structured PCRS. A two-facture structure was found for DEX patient forms; a three-factor structure was found for relative forms. Overall, the total scale scores of patient forms of all questionnaires demonstrated sufficient psychometric properties. Psychometric properties of subscales are questionable. We could not replicate the factor structures of AQ, PCRS and DEX: the items within subscales differed with previous findings. Additional research into the test-retest, inter-rater reliability and responsiveness of relative and clinician forms is required.

  10. Assessment and Treatment of Cognition and Communication Skills in Adults With Acquired Brain Injury via Telepractice: A Systematic Review.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Jaumeiko J; Frymark, Tobi; Franceschini, Nicole M; Theodoros, Deborah G

    2015-05-01

    This is a systematic review of assessment and treatment of cognitive and communicative abilities of individuals with acquired brain injury via telepractice versus in person. The a priori clinical questions were informed by previous research that highlights the importance of considering any functional implications of outcomes, determining disorder- and setting-specific concerns, and measuring the potential impact of diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficacy data on interpretation of findings. A literature search of multiple databases (e.g., PubMed) was conducted using key words and study inclusion criteria associated with the clinical questions. Ten group studies were accepted that addressed assessment of motor speech, language, and cognitive impairments; assessment of motor speech and language activity limitations/participation restrictions; and treatment of cognitive impairments and activity limitations/participation restrictions. In most cases, equivalence of outcomes was noted across service delivery methods. Limited findings, lack of diagnostic accuracy and treatment efficacy data, and heterogeneity of assessments and interventions precluded robust evaluation of clinical implications for telepractice equivalence and the broader area of telepractice efficacy. Future research is needed that will build upon current knowledge through replication. In addition, further evaluation at the impairment and activity limitation/participation restriction levels is needed.

  11. Gender and Transition From Pediatric to Adult Health Care Among Youth With Acquired Brain Injury: Experiences in a Transition Model.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Sally; Proulx, Meghann; Maxwell, Joanne; Hamdani, Yani; Bayley, Mark; Macarthur, Colin; Colantonio, Angela

    2016-02-01

    To explore gender and sex differences in experiences of transitioning to adult health care among young adults with acquired brain injury (ABI) who take part in a coordinated model of transitional care. Descriptive design using in-depth semistructured qualitative interviews. Interviews over the phone and in person. Participants (N=18) included 10 young adults with a diagnosis of ABI (4 women, 6 men; age range, 19-21y) and 9 parents (8 women, 1 man) from the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, Canada. Not applicable. Semistructured interviews with participants. Our findings highlight several commonalities and differences relative to sex and gender among young adults with ABI who are transitioning from pediatric to adult care. Both young adult men and women experienced a similar transition process and similar organization, continuity, and availability of care. Sex differences were found in relational factors (eg, communication, family involvement, social support). Young adult men, and parents of the men, differed in their transition regarding relational factors (eg, communication, family involvement). Our findings show that young adult men and women with ABI who have taken part in a transition preparation program experience similarities in organization, continuity, and availability of care, but they experience differences in relational factors (eg, communication, family involvement). Copyright © 2016 American Congress of Rehabilitation Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Physiotherapy does not prevent, or hasten recovery from, ventilator-associated pneumonia in patients with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Patman, Shane; Jenkins, Sue; Stiller, Kathy

    2009-02-01

    To investigate the effect of respiratory physiotherapy on the prevention and treatment of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) for adults in an intensive care unit (ICU) with an acquired brain injury (ABI). Two-part, prospective, randomised controlled trial. A total of 144 subjects with ABI admitted with a Glasgow Coma Scale 24 h; 33 subjects were subsequently diagnosed with VAP. Respiratory physiotherapy comprised six treatments (positioning, manual hyperinflation and suctioning) in each 24-h period whilst on MV. The Control Group received standard medical/nursing care but no respiratory physiotherapy. There were no significant differences between groups for incidence of VAP, duration of MV, length of ICU stay or clinical variables such as requirement for re-ventilation. In adults with ABI, regular respiratory physiotherapy in addition to routine medical/nursing care does not appear to prevent VAP, reduce length of MV or ICU stay. Due to small numbers, it is not possible to draw any conclusions as to whether or not respiratory physiotherapy hastens recovery from VAP.

  13. Identifying participation needs of people with acquired brain injury in the development of a collective community smart home.

    PubMed

    Levasseur, Mélanie; Pigot, Hélène; Couture, Mélanie; Bier, Nathalie; Swaine, Bonnie; Therriault, Pierre-Yves; Giroux, Sylvain

    2016-11-01

    This study explored the personalized and collective participation needs of people with acquired brain injury (ABI) living in a future shared community smart home. An action research study was conducted with 16 persons, seven with ABI, four caregivers and five rehabilitation or smart home healthcare providers. Twelve interviews and two focus groups were conducted, audiotaped, transcribed and analyzed for content. Seventy personalized and 18 collective participation needs were reported related to daily and social activities. Personalized needs concerned interpersonal relationships, general organization of activities, leisure, housing, fitness and nutrition. Collective needs related mainly to housing, general organization of activities and nutrition. Personalized and collective participation needs of people with ABI planning to live in a community smart home are diverse and concern daily as well as social activities. Implications for Rehabilitation To meet participation needs of people with ABI, the design of smart homes must consider all categories of daily and social activities. Considering personalized and collective needs allowed identifying exclusive examples of each. As some persons with ABI had difficulty identifying their needs as well as accepting their limitations and the assistance required, rehabilitation professionals must be involved in needs identification.

  14. Management of spasticity and dystonia in children with acquired brain injury with rehabilitation and botulinum toxin A.

    PubMed

    Guettard, Emilie; Roze, Emmanuel; Abada, Genevieve; Lemesle, Catherine; Vidailhet, Marie; Laurent-Vannier, Anne; Chevignard, Mathilde P

    2009-06-01

    To investigate the effect of a combination of botulinum toxin A (BTX-A) and rehabilitation on spasticity, pain and motor functioning in children with acquired brain injury (ABI). All children and adolescents with ABI, aged 2-20 years, consecutively treated in the department over a 22-month period, were prospectively followed-up and clinically assessed pre- and post-treatment. They had spasticity and/or dystonia leading to impairment in activities of daily living, orthopaedic deformations and/or pain. Injections were performed using electro-stimulation. Doses of BTX-A (Botox) were administered using recent recommendations. Twenty-five children (mean age 6.3 years) participated in the study (51 injection sessions). All patients received BTX-A injections, followed with physical and/or occupational therapy. Significant improvement was achieved for spasticity reduction (p < 0.0001), command on antagonist muscles (p = 0.03 for the tibialis anterior) and goniometry assessment (p < 0.05). Pain relief was achieved in patients in a minimally responsive state. Functional goals were achieved, such as improving transfers or gait, grasping and releasing abilities, with significant transfer in activities of daily living (p < 0.0001). A combination of BTX-A injection with rehabilitation is an interesting option for treatment of muscle tone disorders in children with ABI.

  15. The nature of self-esteem and its relationship to anxiety and depression in adult acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Longworth, Catherine; Deakins, Joseph; Rose, David; Gracey, Fergus

    2016-08-31

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) has a negative impact on self-esteem, which is in turn associated with mood disorders, maladaptive coping and reduced community participation. The aim of the current research was to explore self-esteem as a multi-dimensional construct and identify which factors are associated with symptoms of anxiety or depression. Eighty adults with ABI aged 17-56 years completed the Robson Self-Esteem Scale (RSES), of whom 65 also completed the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale; 57.5% of the sample had clinically low self-esteem. The RSES had good internal consistency (α =   .89), and factor analysis identified four factors, which differed from those found previously in other populations. Multiple regression analysis revealed anxiety was differentially predicted by "Self-Worth" and "Self-Efficacy", R(2) =   .44, F(4, 58) =   9, p <   .001, and depression by "Self-Regard", R(2) =   .38, F(4, 58) =   9, p <   .001. A fourth factor, "Confidence", did not predict depression or anxiety. In conclusion, the RSES is a reliable measure of self-esteem after ABI. Self-esteem after ABI is multidimensional and differs in structure from self-esteem in the general population. A multidimensional model of self-esteem may be helpful in development of transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural accounts of adjustment.

  16. Risk assessment and management for providers of community-based rehabilitation to people with acquired brain injury: health professionals' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mooney, Olivia; Doig, Emmah; Fleming, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed to explore health professionals' perspectives regarding the presence, assessment and management of risks when providing community-based rehabilitation (CBR) to clients with acquired brain injury (ABI). A qualitative approach using semi-structured interviews of health professionals working in CBR. The main themes were: (1) risk assessment in CBR settings is an informal, unstructured, complex, multi-phase and cyclical process extending over a period of time; (2) structured and standardised risk assessments were not considered ideal for use in CBR services catering for people with ABI; (3) CBR services face numerous challenges in providing effective risk assessment and management; (4) the risks encountered by health professionals in CBR settings are not always predictable or preventable; and (5) CBR risk management focuses on implementing a range of practical strategies. A flexible risk assessment process supported by a range of practical risk management strategies to minimise and manage potential risks is advocated by health professionals working in CBR services for people with ABI. There is a need for more research into the effectiveness of current risk assessment and management strategies for CBR services.

  17. An organizational approach to reducing and preventing restraint and seclusion use with people with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Huckshorn, Kevin Ann; LeBel, Janice; Jacobs, Harvey E

    2014-01-01

    Seclusion, restraint (S/R) and coercive practices are used across human service populations, settings, with people of all ages. Their use has been increasingly scrutinized by the public, federal government and the media. Alternatives, interventions, and organizational approaches to these forms of containment are now emerging and advancing practice. This article provides an overview of the work conducted to reduce the use of coercion restraint, seclusion and other invasive practices in behavioral health settings that often include the defacto admission of persons with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI). The article also examines treatment culture factors that can exacerbate behavior dysfunction and how to moderate such challenges to prevent the use of S/R procedures among people with ABI. Seclusion and restraint can be avoided and greatly reduced in settings serving people with ABI. When S/R use is recognized as an inadequate organizational response to harmful behavior that maintains patterns of aggression or harm, leadership-driven core strategies can be implemented to disrupt the behavioral sequence. The Six Core Strategies© provide a prevention based framework to anticipate challenge, intervene early, and analyze the factors that contribute to maintaining the cycle of violence if S/R is used.

  18. Meeting the long-term needs of adults with acquired brain injury through community-based programming.

    PubMed

    Fraas, Michael; Balz, Magdalen; Degrauw, William

    2007-11-01

    To determine the effectiveness of a community-based programme for meeting the long-term needs of survivors of acquired brain injury (ABI). Qualitative and quantitative methods were employed. Surveys were administered to practicing clinicians to validate the needs found in the literature that should be provided by such programmes. Surveys administered to participants in the programme assessed how effective they perceived it to be in meeting those needs. Focus group discussion provided support to the survey findings. Survey responses indicate differences among members, caregivers and student interns participating in the programme on issues of emotional support, social support, recreation and transportation. Focus group participants agree that emotional, social and cognitive needs are the most important needs of the members. Overall, these member needs were found to be met by the programme. The needs that participants found to remain unmet include social support for caregivers, transportation issues and community education. This community-based, posts-rehabilitation programme for survivors of ABI appears to effectively meet many long-term needs. Investigations that examine the role of similar programming to meet caregiver needs, educate the public and provide transportation for participants are required.

  19. The Dysexecutive Questionnaire Revised (DEX-R): An extended measure of everyday dysexecutive problems after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Simblett, Sara Katherine; Ring, Howard; Bateman, Andrew

    2016-01-19

    The Dysexecutive Questionnaire (DEX) is a tool for measuring everyday problems experienced with the dysexecutive syndrome. This study investigated the psychometric properties of a revised version of the measure (DEX-R), a comprehensive tool, grounded in current theoretical conceptualisations of frontal lobe function and dysexecutive problems. The aim was to improve measurement of dysexecutive problems following acquired brain injury (ABI). Responses to the DEX-R were collected from 136 men and women who had experienced an ABI (the majority of whom had experienced a stroke or subarachnoid haemorrhage) and where possible, one of their carers or family members (n = 71), who acted as an informant. Rasch analysis techniques were employed to explore the psychometric properties of four newly developed, theoretically distinct subscales based on Stuss model of frontal lobe function and to evaluate the comparative validity and reliability of self and informant ratings of these four subscales. The newly developed subscales were well targeted to the range of dysexecutive problems reported by the current sample and each displayed a good level of internal validity. Both self- and independent-ratings were found to be performing reliably as outcome measures for at least a group-level. This new version of the tool could help guide selection of interventions for different types of dysexecutive problems and provide accurate measurement in neurorehabilitation services.

  20. Training adults with acquired brain injury how to help-seek when wayfinding: an understudied critical life skill.

    PubMed

    Cho, Young Susan; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Albin, Richard; Diller, Leonard; Horner, Robert; Rath, Joseph; Bullis, Michael

    2017-07-11

    The objective of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a group treatment protocol called NICE (Noticing you have a problem, Identifying the information you need for help, Compensatory strategies, Evaluating progress) to train help-seeking when wayfinding for individuals with acquired brain injury (ABI). Seven participants completed the NICE group treatment in an outpatient rehabilitation department at a university medical centre. A single subject multiple baseline design was employed to evaluate the efficacy of the NICE group treatment. The Social Behaviour Rating Scale and the Executive Function Route-Finding Task- Revised were repeated measures used to evaluate potential changes in help-seeking and wayfinding. Secondary outcome measures included pre- and post-treatment evaluation of social problem solving and social cognition. Results revealed that all participants improved on measures of help-seeking and wayfinding. Patterns of improvement and implications for rehabilitation are discussed. This is the first experimental study to evaluate the treatment of help-seeking behaviours and discuss its application to wayfinding in adults with ABI. Preliminary evidence supports further investigation of the NICE group treatment protocol.

  1. Self-esteem as a predictor of psychological distress after severe acquired brain injury: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Cooper-Evans, Samantha; Alderman, Nick; Knight, Caroline; Oddy, Michael

    2008-01-01

    This study explored the effects of severe acquired brain injury (ABI) on self-esteem. A within-subjects design investigated 22 severe ABI survivors' self-reported responses on measures of self-esteem, mood and awareness of deficit. Data on cognitive ability and awareness of degree of executive impairment were included in the analysis. Self-esteem was measured using Rosenberg's Self-Esteem Scale (Rosenberg) and psychological distress by the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Self-esteem was found to be consistent over a two-week interval. Participants reported that their self-esteem had suffered following ABI when contrasting their current self-esteem with their retrospective perceptions. Self-esteem was highly correlated with psychological distress. More intact cognitive functioning and awareness of deficit were associated with lower self-esteem. The paradoxical finding that survivors who were more impaired cognitively and/or less aware of their deficits reported higher self-esteem poses an ethical dilemma for clinicians. It is hoped that this finding, along with the consistency of self-esteem ratings sparks further debate about how best to address issues of self-esteem among severe ABI survivors, particularly in the context of psychological distress, during rehabilitation.

  2. Is it time to act? The potential of acceptance and commitment therapy for psychological problems following acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kangas, Maria; McDonald, Skye

    2011-01-01

    Behaviour therapies have a well-established, useful tradition in psychological treatments and have undergone several major revisions. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT) and mindfulness-based approaches are considered a third wave of behavioural therapies. Emerging evidence for ACT has demonstrated that this paradigm has promising effectiveness in improving functionality and well-being in a variety of populations that have psychological disturbances and/or medical problems. In this review we first evaluate traditional cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) interventions used to manage psychological problems in distressed individuals who have sustained an acquired brain injury (ABI). We provide an overview of the ACT paradigm and the existent evidence base for this intervention. A rationale is outlined for why ACT-based interventions may have potential utility in assisting distressed individuals who have sustained a mild to moderate ABI to move forward with their lives. We also review emerging evidence that lends preliminary support to the implementation of acceptance and mindfulness-based interventions in the rehabilitation of ABI patient groups. On the basis of existent literature, we recommend that it is an opportune time for forthcoming research to rigorously test the efficacy of ACT-based interventions in facilitating ABI patient groups to re-engage in living a valued and meaningful life, in spite of their neurocognitive and physical limitations. The promising utility of testing the efficacy of the ACT paradigm in the context of multimodal rehabilitation programmes for ABI populations is also addressed. PMID:21246445

  3. Static and dynamic visuomotor task performance in children with acquired brain injury: predictive control deficits under increased temporal pressure.

    PubMed

    Caeyenberghs, Karen; van Roon, Dominique; van Aken, Katrijn; De Cock, Paul; Linden, Catharine Vander; Swinnen, Stephan P; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M

    2009-01-01

    To compare performance of children with acquired brain injury (ABI) on static versus dynamic visuomotor tasks with that of control children. Twenty-eight children with ABI and 28 normal age- and gender-matched controls (aged 6-16 years). Two visuomotor tasks on a digitizing tablet: (1) a static motor task requiring tracing of a flower figure and (2) a dynamic task consisting of tracking an accelerating dot presented on a monitor. Children with ABI performed worse than the control group only during the dynamic tracking task; the duration within the target was shorter, the distance between the centers of cursor and target was larger, and the number of velocity peaks per centimeter and the number of stops (ie, the number of submovements) were higher than those of the control group. Rather than resulting from movement execution problems, this might be due to less adequate processing of fast incoming sensory information, resulting in a decreased ability to anticipate the movement of the target (predictive control). Deficits in eye-hand coordination require careful attention, even in the postinjury chronic phase.

  4. The course and impact of family optimism in the post-acute period after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Riley, Gerard A; Hough, Andrea; Meader, Laura M; Brennan, Andrew J

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the course and impact of family optimism in the post-acute stage of acquired brain injury. At Time 1, 30 family relatives of in-patients in rehabilitation units and 30 relatives of patients recently discharged from such units completed questionnaires relating to their emotional health, engagement in the rehabilitation process and expectations about the future consequences and controllability of the injury. At Time 2 (12-18 months later), 23 of the original sample completed questionnaires about their emotional health and actual consequences and controllability of the injury. At Time 1, optimism about future consequences and controllability was associated with greater engagement in the rehabilitation process and better emotional health. The two groups did not differ on any of the measures, which did not support the expectation that the patient's discharge home would trigger a loss of optimism and emotional upset for the family. At Time 2, the actual consequences were worse than had been expected at Time 1 and greater disappointment was associated with a greater decline in emotional wellbeing. Family expectations about recovery are linked with important variables such as emotional wellbeing and engagement in the rehabilitation process and need careful management by clinicians.

  5. Long-term health-related quality-of-life in patients with acquired brain injury and their caregivers.

    PubMed

    Vogler, Jana; Klein, Anke-Maria; Bender, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to assess long-term health-related quality-of-life (HRQoL) and potential predictors as well as burden in caregivers of patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). Furthermore, depressive symptoms, well-being, HRQoL and happiness were evaluated in caregivers and patients who had regained communication skills. Prospective cross-sectional survey. Data of 104 caregivers and 30 patients were analysed. A multiple linear regression model was calculated to identify independent predictors for HRQoL in caregivers. Additionally, correlation analysis was conducted to evaluate associations between patient questionnaire results and caregiver HRQoL. After a mean time post-injury of 18 years, HRQoL and perceived health status in caregivers remained below normative scores of age-matched controls. Although HRQoL and perceived health status were lower in patients than in caregivers, there was no difference in happiness, perceived QoL or enjoyment of life. Reduced perception in well-being (WHO-5 score < 13) was found in 52% of the caregivers and 36% of the patients. HRQoL in caregivers was predicted by well-being, caregiver strain, depressive symptoms and caregiver age. Furthermore, HRQoL of caregivers was correlated with depressive symptoms and happiness in patients. This study under-scores the importance of long-term support for caregivers.

  6. Association of medial prefrontal cortex connectivity with consciousness level and its outcome in patients with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaoyan; Li, Jingqi; Gao, Jian; Zhou, Zhen; Meng, Fanxia; Pan, Gang; Luo, Benyan

    2017-08-01

    Medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is usually known for participating in virtually all self related processing. However, few have investigated the role of mPFC in modulating conscious awareness. This study aimed to depict the relationship between the mPFC connectivity and the severity and outcome of the disorders of consciousness (DOC) among patients with acquired brain injury. Thirty-four patients with DOC (17 in a minimally conscious state and 17 in an unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state) and 11 healthy controls were recruited, underwent clinical assessment and resting-state functional MRI scan, and were further followed up to evaluate recovery outcome using the Glasgow Outcome Scale. The mPFC connectivity was then analyzed, by comparing DOC patients to healthy controls at baseline, and by comparing "recovered consciousness" and "non-recovered consciousness" patients at follow-up, as identified by graph theory. As a result, enhanced mPFC connectivity against weakened posteromedial cortex connectivity was observed in a minimally conscious state, not in an unresponsive wakefulness syndrome/vegetative state. Besides, increased mPFC connectivity was significantly associated with consciousness recovery. In conclusion, the mPFC connectivity could possibly serve as a mark to track the severity and outcome of DOC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Profiles of emotional and behavioral sequelae following acquired brain injury: cluster analysis of the Personality Assessment Inventory.

    PubMed

    Velikonja, Diana; Warriner, Erin; Brum, Christine

    2010-07-01

    Due to the multidimensional nature of symptom complaints within the acquired brain injury (ABI) population, emotional and behavioral profiles obtained from using comprehensive validated measures often yield more relevant information than tools that assess for symptoms of a single diagnostic disorder. The current study used the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI) to detect emotional and behavioral profiles in a sample of 440 adult ABI patients. Using a rigorous three-step cluster analytic approach, seven clusters were identified, indicating that half of the sample (50%) showed clinically significant affective and behavioral symptoms typified by multiple Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) Axis I and/or II features. Two of the subtypes showed severe and diverse affective symptoms but were distinguished from each other by antisocial features and substance use. Two other subtypes, with predominantly internalized presentations, were characterized by mainly depressive and somatic features, and the second by mild anxiety and cognitive disturbance. One group, predominantly externalized presentation, showed high substance use and antisocial features. The other part of the sample (50%) had no significant affective or behavioral complaints but were characterized by two profile types classified as essentially normal, but distinguishable by one having an increased tendency to minimize symptoms. Sex, age, marital status, education/preinjury, and vocation typified various subtypes. The identified profiles taken in the context of important demographic information can provide descriptive insight into the nature of postinjury affective and behavioral symptoms, facilitating more comprehensive conceptualization of the client's needs that can be addressed through more tailored interventions.

  8. Can, Want and Try: Parents’ Viewpoints Regarding the Participation of Their Child with an Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Melanie; Elliott, Catherine; Willis, Claire; Ward, Roslyn; Falkmer, Marita; Falkmer, Torbjӧrn; Gubbay, Anna; Girdler, Sonya

    2016-01-01

    Background Acquired brain injury (ABI) is a leading cause of permanent disability, currently affecting 20,000 Australian children. Community participation is essential for childhood development and enjoyment, yet children with ABI can often experience barriers to participation. The factors which act as barriers and facilitators to community participation for children with an ABI are not well understood. Aim To identify the viewpoints of parents of children with an ABI, regarding the barriers and facilitators most pertinent to community participation for their child. Methods Using Q-method, 41 parents of children with moderate/severe ABI sorted 37 statements regarding barriers and facilitators to community participation. Factor analysis identified three viewpoints. Results This study identified three distinct viewpoints, with the perceived ability to participate decreasing with a stepwise trend from parents who felt their child and family “can” participate in viewpoint one, to “want” in viewpoint two and “try” in viewpoint three. Conclusions Findings indicated good participation outcomes for most children and families, however some families who were motivated to participate experienced significant barriers. The most significant facilitators included child motivation, supportive relationships from immediate family and friends, and supportive community attitudes. The lack of supportive relationships and attitudes was perceived as a fundamental barrier to community participation. Significance This research begins to address the paucity of information regarding those factors that impact upon the participation of children with an ABI in Australia. Findings have implications for therapists, service providers and community organisations. PMID:27367231

  9. The role of virtual motor rehabilitation: a quantitative analysis between acute and chronic patients with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Albiol-Pérez, Sergio; Gil-Gómez, José-Antonio; Llorens, Roberto; Alcañiz, Mariano; Font, Carolina Colomer

    2014-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) is one of the main problems of disability and death in the world. Its incidence and survival rate are increasing annually. Thus, the number of chronic ABI patients is gradually growing. Traditionally, rehabilitation programs are applied to postacute and acute patients, but recent publications determine that chronic patients may benefit from rehabilitation. Also, in the last few years, the potential of virtual rehabilitation (VR) systems has been demonstrated. However, until now, no previous studies have been carried out to compare the evolution of chronic patients with acute patients in a VR program. To perform this study, we developed a VR system for ABI patients. The system, vestibular virtual rehabilitation (V2R), was designed with clinical specialists. V2R has been tested with 21 people ranging in age from 18 to 80 years old that were classified in two groups: chronic patients and acute patients. The results demonstrate a similar recovery for chronic and acute patients during the intervention period. Also, the results showed that chronic patients stop their improvement when they finish their training. This conclusion encourages us to direct our developments toward VR systems that can be easily integrated at home, allowing chronic patients to have a permanent VR training program.

  10. Developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency reduces expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in adults but not in neonates.

    PubMed

    Lasley, S M; Gilbert, M E

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neurotrophin critical for many developmental and physiological aspects of CNS function. Severe hypothyroidism in the early neonatal period results in developmental and cognitive impairments and reductions in mRNA and protein expression of BDNF in a number of brain regions. The present study examined the impact of modest levels of developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency on BDNF protein expression in the hippocampus, cortex and cerebellum in the neonatal and adult offspring of rat dams treated throughout pregnancy and lactation. Graded levels of hormone insufficiency were induced by adding propylthiouracil (PTU, 0, 1, 2, 3 and 10 ppm) to the drinking water of pregnant dams from early gestation (gestational day 6) until weaning of the pups. Pups were sacrificed on postnatal days (PN) 14 and 21, and -PN100, and trunk blood collected for thyroid hormone analysis. Hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum were separated from dissected brains and assessed for BDNF protein. Dose-dependent reductions in serum hormones in dams and pups were produced by PTU. Consistent with previous findings, age and regional differences in BDNF concentrations were observed. However, no differences in BDNF expression were detected in the preweanling animals as a function of PTU exposure; yet dose-dependent alterations emerged in adulthood despite the return of thyroid hormone levels to control values. Males were more affected by PTU than females, BDNF levels in hippocampus and cortex were altered but not those in cerebellum, and biphasic dose-response functions were detected in both sexes. These findings indicate that BDNF may mediate some of the adverse effects accompanying developmental thyroid hormone insufficiency, and reflect the potential for delayed impact of modest reductions in thyroid hormones during critical periods of brain development on a protein important for normal synaptic function.

  11. Advances in functional brain imaging technology and developmental neuro-psychology: their applications in the Jungian analytic domain.

    PubMed

    Petchkovsky, Leon

    2017-06-01

    Analytical psychology shares with many other psychotherapies the important task of repairing the consequences of developmental trauma. The majority of analytic patients come from compromised early developmental backgrounds: they may have experienced neglect, abuse, or failures of empathic resonance from their carers. Functional brain imagery techniques including Quantitative Electroencephalogram (QEEG), and functional Magnetic Resonance Imagery (fMRI), allow us to track mental processes in ways beyond verbal reportage and introspection. This independent perspective is useful for developing new psychodynamic hypotheses, testing current ones, providing diagnostic markers, and monitoring treatment progress. Jung, with the Word Association Test, grasped these principles 100 years ago. Brain imaging techniques have contributed to powerful recent advances in our understanding of neurodevelopmental processes in the first three years of life. If adequate nurturance is compromised, a range of difficulties may emerge. This has important implications for how we understand and treat our psychotherapy clients. The paper provides an overview of functional brain imaging and advances in developmental neuropsychology, and looks at applications of some of these findings (including neurofeedback) in the Jungian psychotherapy domain. © 2017, The Society of Analytical Psychology.

  12. Commentary: Developmental connectomics to advance our understanding of typical and atypical brain development – Commentary on Vertes & Bullmore (2015)

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Alice M.; Fair, Damien A.

    2015-01-01

    Vértes and Bullmore's article lays a framework for applying connectomics, the study of brain function from the perspective of underlying network organization, to advance understanding of healthy and maladaptive brain development. They elucidate the power of connectomics for bridging both different levels of analysis (e.g. from synapses to brain regions) and multiple academic fields. In this commentary, we highlight important themes and remaining questions stemming from Vértes and Bullmore's work, including: (1) the application of connectomics in the context of integrating analyses across multiple spatial and temporal dimensions, (2) the extent to which connectomics might be applied in translational and clinical studies of development, (3) growth connectomics and the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD) hypothesis, and (4) the importance and complexity of sound methodological practices in applying connectomics to developmental and clinical science. Ongoing work in these areas will be important for fulfilling the promise of connectomics as a bridge between neuroscience, developmental science, and translational and clinical research. PMID:25714740

  13. Training the brain: practical applications of neural plasticity from the intersection of cognitive neuroscience, developmental psychology, and prevention science.

    PubMed

    Bryck, Richard L; Fisher, Philip A

    2012-01-01

    Prior researchers have shown that the brain has a remarkable ability for adapting to environmental changes. The positive effects of such neural plasticity include enhanced functioning in specific cognitive domains and shifts in cortical representation following naturally occurring cases of sensory deprivation; however, maladaptive changes in brain function and development owing to early developmental adversity and stress have also been well documented. Researchers examining enriched rearing environments in animals have revealed the potential for inducing positive brain plasticity effects and have helped to popularize methods for training the brain to reverse early brain deficits or to boost normal cognitive functioning. In this article, two classes of empirically based methods of brain training in children are reviewed and critiqued: laboratory-based, mental process training paradigms and ecological interventions based upon neurocognitive conceptual models. Given the susceptibility of executive function disruption, special attention is paid to training programs that emphasize executive function enhancement. In addition, a third approach to brain training, aimed at tapping into compensatory processes, is postulated. Study results showing the effectiveness of this strategy in the field of neurorehabilitation and in terms of naturally occurring compensatory processing in human aging lend credence to the potential of this approach. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  14. Proton Chemical Shift Imaging of the Brain in Pediatric and Adult Developmental Stuttering.

    PubMed

    O'Neill, Joseph; Dong, Zhengchao; Bansal, Ravi; Ivanov, Iliyan; Hao, Xuejun; Desai, Jay; Pozzi, Elena; Peterson, Bradley S

    2017-01-01

    Developmental stuttering is a neuropsychiatric condition of incompletely understood brain origin. Our recent functional magnetic resonance imaging study indicates a possible partial basis of stuttering in circuits enacting self-regulation of motor activity, attention, and emotion. To further characterize the neurophysiology of stuttering through in vivo assay of neurometabolites in suspect brain regions. Proton chemical shift imaging of the brain was performed in a case-control study of children and adults with and without stuttering. Recruitment, assessment, and magnetic resonance imaging were performed in an academic research setting. Ratios of N-acetyl-aspartate plus N-acetyl-aspartyl-glutamate (NAA) to creatine (Cr) and choline compounds (Cho) to Cr in widespread cerebral cortical, white matter, and subcortical regions were analyzed using region of interest and data-driven voxel-based approaches. Forty-seven children and adolescents aged 5 to 17 years (22 with stuttering and 25 without) and 47 adults aged 21 to 51 years (20 with stuttering and 27 without) were recruited between June 2008 and March 2013. The mean (SD) ages of those in the stuttering and control groups were 12.2 (4.2) years and 13.4 (3.2) years, respectively, for the pediatric cohort and 31.4 (7.5) years and 30.5 (9.9) years, respectively, for the adult cohort. Region of interest-based findings included lower group mean NAA:Cr ratio in stuttering than nonstuttering participants in the right inferior frontal cortex (-7.3%; P = .02), inferior frontal white matter (-11.4%; P < .001), and caudate (-10.6%; P = .04), while the Cho:Cr ratio was higher in the bilateral superior temporal cortex (left: +10.0%; P = .03 and right: +10.8%; P = .01), superior temporal white matter (left: +14.6%; P = .003 and right: +9.5%; P = .02), and thalamus (left: +11.6%; P = .002 and right: +11.1%; P = .001). False discovery rate-corrected voxel-based findings were highly consistent

  15. RNA Sequence Analysis of Human Huntington Disease Brain Reveals an Extensive Increase in Inflammatory and Developmental Gene Expression.

    PubMed

    Labadorf, Adam; Hoss, Andrew G; Lagomarsino, Valentina; Latourelle, Jeanne C; Hadzi, Tiffany C; Bregu, Joli; MacDonald, Marcy E; Gusella, James F; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Akbarian, Schahram; Weng, Zhiping; Myers, Richard H

    2015-01-01

    Huntington's Disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Transcriptional dysregulation in the human HD brain has been documented but is incompletely understood. Here we present a genome-wide analysis of mRNA expression in human prefrontal cortex from 20 HD and 49 neuropathologically normal controls using next generation high-throughput sequencing. Surprisingly, 19% (5,480) of the 28,087 confidently detected genes are differentially expressed (FDR<0.05) and are predominantly up-regulated. A novel hypothesis-free geneset enrichment method that dissects large gene lists into functionally and transcriptionally related groups discovers that the differentially expressed genes are enriched for immune response, neuroinflammation, and developmental genes. Markers for all major brain cell types are observed, suggesting that HD invokes a systemic response in the brain area studied. Unexpectedly, the most strongly differentially expressed genes are a homeotic gene set (represented by Hox and other homeobox genes), that are almost exclusively expressed in HD, a profile not widely implicated in HD pathogenesis. The significance of transcriptional changes of developmental processes in the HD brain is poorly understood and warrants further investigation. The role of inflammation and the significance of non-neuronal involvement in HD pathogenesis suggest anti-inflammatory therapeutics may offer important opportunities in treating HD.

  16. RNA Sequence Analysis of Human Huntington Disease Brain Reveals an Extensive Increase in Inflammatory and Developmental Gene Expression

    PubMed Central

    Labadorf, Adam; Hoss, Andrew G.; Lagomarsino, Valentina; Latourelle, Jeanne C.; Hadzi, Tiffany C.; Bregu, Joli; MacDonald, Marcy E.; Gusella, James F.; Chen, Jiang-Fan; Akbarian, Schahram; Weng, Zhiping; Myers, Richard H.

    2015-01-01

    Huntington’s Disease (HD) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by an expanded CAG trinucleotide repeat in the Huntingtin (HTT) gene. Transcriptional dysregulation in the human HD brain has been documented but is incompletely understood. Here we present a genome-wide analysis of mRNA expression in human prefrontal cortex from 20 HD and 49 neuropathologically normal controls using next generation high-throughput sequencing. Surprisingly, 19% (5,480) of the 28,087 confidently detected genes are differentially expressed (FDR<0.05) and are predominantly up-regulated. A novel hypothesis-free geneset enrichment method that dissects large gene lists into functionally and transcriptionally related groups discovers that the differentially expressed genes are enriched for immune response, neuroinflammation, and developmental genes. Markers for all major brain cell types are observed, suggesting that HD invokes a systemic response in the brain area studied. Unexpectedly, the most strongly differentially expressed genes are a homeotic gene set (represented by Hox and other homeobox genes), that are almost exclusively expressed in HD, a profile not widely implicated in HD pathogenesis. The significance of transcriptional changes of developmental processes in the HD brain is poorly understood and warrants further investigation. The role of inflammation and the significance of non-neuronal involvement in HD pathogenesis suggest anti-inflammatory therapeutics may offer important opportunities in treating HD. PMID:26636579

  17. Developmental patterns of chimpanzee cerebral tissues provide important clues for understanding the remarkable enlargement of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Sakai, Tomoko; Matsui, Mie; Mikami, Akichika; Malkova, Ludise; Hamada, Yuzuru; Tomonaga, Masaki; Suzuki, Juri; Tanaka, Masayuki; Miyabe-Nishiwaki, Takako; Makishima, Haruyuki; Nakatsukasa, Masato; Matsuzawa, Tetsuro

    2013-01-01

    Developmental prolongation is thought to contribute to the remarkable brain enlargement observed in modern humans (Homo sapiens). However, the developmental trajectories of cerebral tissues have not been explored in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes), even though they are our closest living relatives. To address this lack of information, the development of cerebral tissues was tracked in growing chimpanzees during infancy and the juvenile stage, using three-dimensional magnetic resonance imaging and compared with that of humans and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta). Overall, cerebral development in chimpanzees demonstrated less maturity and a more protracted course during prepuberty, as observed in humans but not in macaques. However, the rapid increase in cerebral total volume and proportional dynamic change in the cerebral tissue in humans during early infancy, when white matter volume increases dramatically, did not occur in chimpanzees. A dynamic reorganization of cerebral tissues of the brain during early infancy, driven mainly by enhancement of neuronal connectivity, is likely to have emerged in the human lineage after the split between humans and chimpanzees and to have promoted the increase in brain volume in humans. Our findings may lead to powerful insights into the ontogenetic mechanism underlying human brain enlargement. PMID:23256194

  18. Organising health care services for people with an acquired brain injury: an overview of systematic reviews and randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Laver, Kate; Lannin, Natasha A; Bragge, Peter; Hunter, Peter; Holland, Anne E; Tavender, Emma; O'Connor, Denise; Khan, Fary; Teasell, Robert; Gruen, Russell

    2014-09-17

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) is the leading cause of disability worldwide yet there is little information regarding the most effective way to organise ABI health care services. The aim of this review was to identify the most up-to-date high quality evidence to answer specific questions regarding the organisation of health care services for people with an ABI. We conducted a systematic review of English papers using MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL and the Cochrane Library. We included the most recently published high quality systematic reviews and any randomised controlled trials, non-randomised controlled trials, controlled before after studies or interrupted time series studies published subsequent to the systematic review. We searched for papers that evaluated pre-defined organisational interventions for adults with an ABI. Organisational interventions of interest included fee-for-service care, integrated care, integrated care pathways, continuity of care, consumer engagement in governance and quality monitoring interventions. Data extraction and appraisal of included reviews and studies was completed independently by two reviewers. A total of five systematic reviews and 21 studies were included in the review; eight of the papers (31%) included people with a traumatic brain injury (TBI) or ABI and the remaining papers (69%) included only participants with a diagnosis of stroke. We found evidence supporting the use of integrated care to improve functional outcome and reduce length of stay and evidence supporting early supported discharge teams for reducing morbidity and mortality and reducing length of stay for stroke survivors. There was little evidence to support case management or the use of integrated care pathways for people with ABI. We found evidence that a quality monitoring intervention can lead to improvements in process outcomes in acute and rehabilitation settings. We were unable to find any studies meeting our inclusion criteria regarding fee

  19. Quantitative Analysis of Metabolic Abnormality Associated with Brain Developmental Venous Anomalies

    PubMed Central

    Timerman, Dmitriy; Thum, Jasmine A

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Abnormal hypometabolism is common in the brain parenchyma surrounding developmental venous anomalies (DVAs), although the degree of DVA-associated hypometabolism (DVAAh) has not been quantitatively analyzed. In this study, we demonstrate a simple method for the measurement of DVAAh and test the hypothesis that DVAs are associated with a quantifiable decrement in metabolic activity. Materials and Methods: Measurements of DVAAh using ratios of standardized uptake values (SUVs) and comparison to a normal database were performed on a cohort of 25 patients (12 male, 13 female), 14 to 76 years old, with a total of 28 DVAs (20 with DVAAh, seven with isometabolic activity, and one with hypermetabolic activity). Results: Qualitative classification of none, mild, moderate, and severe DVAAh corresponded to quantitative measurements of DVAAh of 1 ± 3%, 12 ± 7%, 18 ± 6%, and 37 ± 6%, respectively. A statistically significant linear correlation between DVAAh and age was observed (P = 0.003), with a 3% reduction in metabolic activity per decade. A statistically significant linear correlation between DVAAh and DVA size was observed (P = 0.01), with a 4% reduction in metabolic activity per each 1 cm in the longest dimension. The SUVDVA-based measures of DVAAh correlated (P = 0.001) with measures derived from comparison with a standardized database. Conclusion: We present a simple method for the quantitative measurement of DVAAh using ratios of SUVs, and find that this quantitative analysis is consistent with a qualitative classification. We find that 54% (15 of 28) of DVAs are associated with a greater than 10% decrease in metabolic activity. PMID:27774365

  20. Pharmacokinetics of amantadine in children with impaired consciousness due to acquired brain injury: preliminary findings using a sparse-sampling technique.

    PubMed

    Vargus-Adams, Jilda N; McMahon, Mary A; Michaud, Linda J; Bean, Judy; Vinks, Alexander A

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the pharmacokinetics of amantadine in children with impaired consciousness from acquired brain injury. Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study with sparse sampling for pharmacokinetics. Tertiary care pediatric hospital. Children, ages 6-18 years, with impaired consciousness 5-10 weeks after acquired brain injury. Subjects received amantadine for 3 weeks. Subjects were randomized to placebo or amantadine 4 mg/kg/day for 7 days followed by 6 mg/kg/day for 14 days. Crossover was after a 7-day washout period. The Coma/Near-Coma Scale and Coma Recovery Scale-Revised were done 3 times per week to evaluate arousal and consciousness. Plasma concentrations of amantadine were determined for pharmacokinetic parameter estimation and evaluation of the exposure-response relationship. Adverse events were monitored. Nine subjects met the final inclusion and exclusion criteria, 7 of whom agreed to participate. Five subjects completed both arms of the study. Amantadine total body clearance was 0.17 L/h/kg with a half-life of 13.9 hours. Higher exposure of amantadine (average concentration of amantadine during 6 mg/kg/day > 1.5 mg/L) may be associated with better recovery of consciousness. Amantadine was well-tolerated in children with acquired brain injury and demonstrates pharmacokinetics similar to those reported for healthy young adults. Based on the preliminary data, higher dosing may be considered in the setting of brain injury.

  1. Usability of a virtual reality environment simulating an automated teller machine for assessing and training persons with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Fong, Kenneth N K; Chow, Kathy Y Y; Chan, Bianca C H; Lam, Kino C K; Lee, Jeff C K; Li, Teresa H Y; Yan, Elaine W H; Wong, Asta T Y

    2010-04-30

    This study aimed to examine the usability of a newly designed virtual reality (VR) environment simulating the operation of an automated teller machine (ATM) for assessment and training. Part I involved evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of a non-immersive VR program simulating an ATM (VR-ATM). Part II consisted of a clinical trial providing baseline and post-intervention outcome assessments. A rehabilitation hospital and university-based teaching facilities were used as the setting. A total of 24 persons in the community with acquired brain injury (ABI)--14 in Part I and 10 in Part II--made up the participants in the study. In Part I, participants were randomized to receive instruction in either an "early" or a "late" VR-ATM program and were assessed using both the VR program and a real ATM. In Part II, participants were assigned in matched pairs to either VR training or computer-assisted instruction (CAI) teaching programs for six 1-hour sessions over a three-week period. Two behavioral checklists based on activity analysis of cash withdrawals and money transfers using a real ATM were used to measure average reaction time, percentage of incorrect responses, level of cues required, and time spent as generated by the VR system; also used was the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination. The sensitivity of the VR-ATM was 100% for cash withdrawals and 83.3% for money transfers, and the specificity was 83% and 75%, respectively. For cash withdrawals, the average reaction time of the VR group was significantly shorter than that of the CAI group (p = 0.021). We found no significant differences in average reaction time or accuracy between groups for money transfers, although we did note positive improvement for the VR-ATM group. We found the VR-ATM to be usable as a valid assessment and training tool for relearning the use of ATMs prior to real-life practice in persons with ABI.

  2. Evaluation of use of reading comprehension strategies to improve reading comprehension of adult college students with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Gina G; Sohlberg, McKay Moore; Kirk, Cecilia; Fickas, Stephen; Biancarosa, Gina

    2016-01-01

    Adults with mild to moderate acquired brain injury (ABI) often pursue post-secondary or professional education after their injuries in order to enter or re-enter the job market. An increasing number of these adults report problems with reading-to-learn. The problem is particularly concerning given the growing population of adult survivors of ABI. Despite the rising need, empirical evaluation of reading comprehension interventions for adults with ABI is scarce. This study used a within-subject design to evaluate whether adult college students with ABI with no more than moderate cognitive impairments benefited from using reading comprehension strategies to improve comprehension of expository text. Integrating empirical support from the cognitive rehabilitation and special education literature, the researchers designed a multi-component reading comprehension strategy package. Participants read chapters from an introductory-level college anthropology textbook in two different conditions: strategy and no-strategy. The results indicated that reading comprehension strategy use was associated with recall of more correct information units in immediate and delayed free recall tasks; more efficient recall in the delayed free recall task; and increased accuracy recognising statements from a sentence verification task designed to reflect the local and global coherence of the text. The findings support further research into using reading comprehension strategies as an intervention approach for the adult ABI population. Future research needs include identifying how to match particular reading comprehension strategies to individuals, examining whether reading comprehension performance improves further through the incorporation of systematic training, and evaluating texts from a range of disciplines and genres.

  3. A Systematic Review of Hospital-to-School Reintegration Interventions for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Sally; Hartman, Laura R; Reed, Nick; Gan, Caron; Thomson, Nicole; Solomon, Beverely

    2015-01-01

    We reviewed the literature on interventions that aimed to improve hospital-to-school reintegration for children and youth with acquired brain injury (ABI). ABI is the leading cause of disability among children and youth. A successful hospital-to-school reintegration process is essential to the rehabilitative process. However, little is known about the effective components of of such interventions. Our research team conducted a systematic review, completing comprehensive searches of seven databases and selected reference lists for relevant articles published in a peer-reviewed journal between 1989 and June 2014. We selected articles for inclusion that report on studies involving: a clinical population with ABI; sample had an average age of 20 years or younger; an intentional structured intervention affecting hospital-to-school transitions or related components; an experimental design; and a statistically evaluated health outcome. Two independent reviewers applied our inclusion criteria, extracted data, and rated study quality. A meta-analysis was not feasible due to the heterogeneity of the studies reported. Of the 6933 articles identified in our initial search, 17 articles (reporting on 350 preadolescents and adolescents, aged 4-19, (average age 11.5 years, SD: 2.21) met our inclusion criteria. They reported on interventions varying in number of sessions (one to 119) and session length (20 minutes to 4 hours). The majority of interventions involved multiple one-to-one sessions conducted by a trained clinician or educator, homework activities, and parental involvement. The interventions were delivered through different settings and media, including hospitals, schools, and online. Although outcomes varied (with effect sizes ranging from small to large), 14 of the articles reported at least one significant improvement in cognitive, social, psychological, or behavioral functioning or knowledge of ABI. Cognitive, behavioral, and problem-solving interventions have the

  4. A Systematic Review of Hospital-to-School Reintegration Interventions for Children and Youth with Acquired Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lindsay, Sally; Hartman, Laura R.; Reed, Nick; Gan, Caron; Thomson, Nicole; Solomon, Beverely

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We reviewed the literature on interventions that aimed to improve hospital-to-school reintegration for children and youth with acquired brain injury (ABI). ABI is the leading cause of disability among children and youth. A successful hospital-to-school reintegration process is essential to the rehabilitative process. However, little is known about the effective components of of such interventions. Methods and findings Our research team conducted a systematic review, completing comprehensive searches of seven databases and selected reference lists for relevant articles published in a peer-reviewed journal between 1989 and June 2014. We selected articles for inclusion that report on studies involving: a clinical population with ABI; sample had an average age of 20 years or younger; an intentional structured intervention affecting hospital-to-school transitions or related components; an experimental design; and a statistically evaluated health outcome. Two independent reviewers applied our inclusion criteria, extracted data, and rated study quality. A meta-analysis was not feasible due to the heterogeneity of the studies reported. Of the 6933 articles identified in our initial search, 17 articles (reporting on 350 preadolescents and adolescents, aged 4–19, (average age 11.5 years, SD: 2.21) met our inclusion criteria. They reported on interventions varying in number of sessions (one to 119) and session length (20 minutes to 4 hours). The majority of interventions involved multiple one-to-one sessions conducted by a trained clinician or educator, homework activities, and parental involvement. The interventions were delivered through different settings and media, including hospitals, schools, and online. Although outcomes varied (with effect sizes ranging from small to large), 14 of the articles reported at least one significant improvement in cognitive, social, psychological, or behavioral functioning or knowledge of ABI. Conclusions Cognitive, behavioral

  5. Measuring coping style following acquired brain injury: a modification of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations Using Rasch analysis.

    PubMed

    Simblett, Sara K; Gracey, Fergus; Ring, Howard; Bateman, Andrew

    2015-09-01

    The importance of coping style factors in the process of emotional adjustment following acquired brain injury (ABI) has been gaining increased attention. To assess ways of coping with distress accurately, clear conceptual definitions and measurement precision is vital. The purpose of this study was to investigate the psychometric properties of a well-known measure of coping, the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS), for people who have experienced an ABI; and to modify the CISS, where necessary, to create a more reliable and valid measurement tool for this clinical group. Psychometric properties were investigated using Rasch analysis of responses from a sample of adults with ABI (n = 207). The internal consistency reliability and construct validity of the scale were examined. All originally proposed subscales were not valid or reliable and, as such, were incapable of interval-level measurement within this sample - Task: χ(2) (32, N = 207) = 105.1, p < .001; Emotion: χ(2) (32, N = 204) = 121.9, p < .001; Avoidance: χ(2) (32, N = 207) = 66.7, p < .001. Three valid and reliable subscales were derived measuring emotion-, task-, and avoidance-oriented coping styles by removing items that provided the most unreliable information and exploring fit to the Rasch model. The original version of the CISS may not be a valid and reliable measure of coping style following ABI. Modified subscales of the three distinct coping domains have been proposed that would help to improve measurement of coping style following ABI in future research and clinical practice. How people cope with difficulties following an ABI has been shown to impact upon emotional outcomes and functional recovery. The original version of the CISS was found to be an imprecise measure of coping following ABI. A modified version of the CISS was found to be a valid and reliable measure of three styles of coping (task-focused, emotion-focused, and avoidance-focused) that conforms to the properties of

  6. Microstructural callosal abnormalities in normal-appearing brain of children with developmental delay detected with diffusion tensor imaging.

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiao-Qi; Sun, Yimeng; Kruse, Bernd; Illies, Till; Zeumer, Hermann; Fiehler, Jens; Lanfermann, Heinrich

    2009-06-01

    Callosal fibres play an important role in psychomotor and cognitive functions. The purpose of this study was to investigate possible microstructural abnormalities of the corpus callosum in children with developmental delay, who have normal conventional brain MR imaging results. Seventeen pediatric patients (aged 1-9 years) with developmental delay were studied. Quantitative T2 and fractional anisotropy (FA) values were measured at the genu and splenium of the corpus callosum (CC). Fibre tracking, volumetric determination, as well as fibre density calculations of the CC were also carried out. The results were compared with those of the age-matched healthy subjects. A general elevation of T2 relaxation times (105 ms in patients vs. 95 ms in controls) and reduction of the FA values (0.66 in patients vs. 0.74 in controls) at the genu of the CC were found in patients. Reductions of the fibre numbers (5,464 in patients vs. 8,886 in controls) and volumes (3,415 ml in patients vs. 5,235 ml in controls) of the CC were found only in patients older than 5 years. The study indicates that despite their inconspicuous findings in conventional MRI microstructural brain abnormalities are evident in these pediatric patients suffering from developmental delay.

  7. Capitalizing on Basic Brain Processes in Developmental Algebra--Part 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughbaum, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    In Part Three, the author reviews the basic ideas presented in Parts One and Two while arguing why the traditional equation-solving developmental algebra curricula is not a good choice for implementing neural response strategies presented in the first two parts. He continues by showing that the developmental algebra student audience is simply…

  8. Capitalizing on Basic Brain Processes in Developmental Algebra--Part 3

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Laughbaum, Edward D.

    2011-01-01

    In Part Three, the author reviews the basic ideas presented in Parts One and Two while arguing why the traditional equation-solving developmental algebra curricula is not a good choice for implementing neural response strategies presented in the first two parts. He continues by showing that the developmental algebra student audience is simply…

  9. BRAIN AND BLOOD TIN LEVELS IN A DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROTOXICITY STUDY OF DIBUTYLTIN.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dibutyltin (DBT), a widely used plastic stabilizer, is detected in the environment and human tissues. While teratological and developmental effects are known, we could find no published report of DBT effects on the developing nervous system. As part of a developmental neurotoxi...

  10. Regional Brain Biometrics at Term-Equivalent Age and Developmental Outcome in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants.

    PubMed

    Melbourne, Launice; Murnick, Jonathan; Chang, Taeun; Glass, Penny; Massaro, An N

    2015-10-01

    This study aims to evaluate individual regional brain biometrics and their association with developmental outcome in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants. This is a retrospective study evaluating term-equivalent magnetic resonance imaging (TE-MRI) from 27 ELBW infants with known developmental outcomes beyond 12 months corrected age. Regional biometric measurements were performed by a pediatric neuroradiologist blinded to outcome data. Measures included biparietal width, transcerebellar diameter (TCD), deep gray matter area (DGMA), ventricular dilatation, corpus callosum, and interhemispheric distance. The relationship between regional biometrics and Bayley-II developmental scores were evaluated with linear regression models. The study cohort had an average±standard deviation birth weight of 684±150 g, gestational age of 24.6±2 weeks and 48% males. DGMA was significantly associated with both cognitive and motor outcomes. Significant associations were also observed between TCD and corpus callosum splenium with cognitive and motor outcomes, respectively. Other biometric measures were not associated with outcome (p>0.05). DGMA<10.26 cm2 was highly specific for poor motor and cognitive outcome. TE-MRI biometrics reflecting impaired deep gray matter, callosal, and cerebellar size is associated with worse early childhood cognitive and motor outcomes. DGMA may be the most robust single biometric measure to predict adverse developmental outcome in preterm survivors. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  11. Technological aids for the rehabilitation of memory and executive functioning in children and adolescents with acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Linden, Mark; Hawley, Carol; Blackwood, Bronagh; Evans, Jonathan; Anderson, Vicki; O'Rourke, Conall

    2016-07-01

    The use of technology in healthcare settings is on the increase and may represent a cost-effective means of delivering rehabilitation. Reductions in treatment time, and delivery in the home, are also thought to be benefits of this approach. Children and adolescents with brain injury often experience deficits in memory and executive functioning that can negatively affect their school work, social lives, and future occupations. Effective interventions that can be delivered at home, without the need for high-cost clinical involvement, could provide a means to address a current lack of provision.We have systematically reviewed studies examining the effects of technology-based interventions for the rehabilitation of deficits in memory and executive functioning in children and adolescents with acquired brain injury. To assess the effects of technology-based interventions compared to placebo intervention, no treatment, or other types of intervention, on the executive functioning and memory of children and adolescents with acquired brain injury. We ran the search on the 30 September 2015. We searched the Cochrane Injuries Group Specialised Register, the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid MEDLINE(R), Ovid MEDLINE(R) In-Process & Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE(R) Daily and Ovid OLDMEDLINE(R), EMBASE Classic + EMBASE (OvidSP), ISI Web of Science (SCI-EXPANDED, SSCI, CPCI-S, and CPSI-SSH), CINAHL Plus (EBSCO), two other databases, and clinical trials registers. We also searched the internet, screened reference lists, and contacted authors of included studies. Randomised controlled trials comparing the use of a technological aid for the rehabilitation of children and adolescents with memory or executive-functioning deficits with placebo, no treatment, or another intervention. Two review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts identified by the search strategy. Following retrieval of full-text manuscripts, two review authors

  12. Fetal Liver Blood Flow Distribution: Role in Human Developmental Strategy to Prioritize Fat Deposition versus Brain Development

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Keith M.; Haugen, Guttorm; Kiserud, Torvid; Inskip, Hazel M.; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C. W.; Crozier, Sarah R.; Robinson, Sian M.; Davies, Lucy; Hanson, Mark A.

    2012-01-01

    Among primates, human neonates have the largest brains but also the highest proportion of body fat. If placental nutrient supply is limited, the fetus faces a dilemma: should resources be allocated to brain growth, or to fat deposition for use as a potential postnatal energy reserve? We hypothesised that resolving this dilemma operates at the level of umbilical blood distribution entering the fetal liver. In 381 uncomplicated pregnancies in third trimester, we measured blood flow perfusing the fetal liver, or bypassing it via the ductus venosus to supply the brain and heart using ultrasound techniques. Across the range of fetal growth and independent of the mother's adiposity and parity, greater liver blood flow was associated with greater offspring fat mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, both in the infant at birth (r = 0.43, P<0.001) and at age 4 years (r = 0.16, P = 0.02). In contrast, smaller placentas less able to meet fetal demand for essential nutrients were associated with a brain-sparing flow pattern (r = 0.17, p = 0.02). This flow pattern was also associated with a higher degree of shunting through ductus venosus (P = 0.04). We propose that humans evolved a developmental strategy to prioritize nutrient allocation for prenatal fat deposition when the supply of conditionally essential nutrients requiring hepatic inter-conversion is limited, switching resource allocation to favour the brain if the supply of essential nutrients is limited. Facilitated placental transfer mechanisms for glucose and other nutrients evolved in environments less affluent than those now prevalent in developed populations, and we propose that in circumstances of maternal adiposity and nutrient excess these mechanisms now also lead to prenatal fat deposition. Prenatal developmental influences play important roles in the human propensity to deposit fat. PMID:22927915

  13. Fetal liver blood flow distribution: role in human developmental strategy to prioritize fat deposition versus brain development.

    PubMed

    Godfrey, Keith M; Haugen, Guttorm; Kiserud, Torvid; Inskip, Hazel M; Cooper, Cyrus; Harvey, Nicholas C W; Crozier, Sarah R; Robinson, Sian M; Davies, Lucy; Hanson, Mark A

    2012-01-01

    Among primates, human neonates have the largest brains but also the highest proportion of body fat. If placental nutrient supply is limited, the fetus faces a dilemma: should resources be allocated to brain growth, or to fat deposition for use as a potential postnatal energy reserve? We hypothesised that resolving this dilemma operates at the level of umbilical blood distribution entering the fetal liver. In 381 uncomplicated pregnancies in third trimester, we measured blood flow perfusing the fetal liver, or bypassing it via the ductus venosus to supply the brain and heart using ultrasound techniques. Across the range of fetal growth and independent of the mother's adiposity and parity, greater liver blood flow was associated with greater offspring fat mass measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, both in the infant at birth (r = 0.43, P<0.001) and at age 4 years (r = 0.16, P = 0.02). In contrast, smaller placentas less able to meet fetal demand for essential nutrients were associated with a brain-sparing flow pattern (r = 0.17, p = 0.02). This flow pattern was also associated with a higher degree of shunting through ductus venosus (P = 0.04). We propose that humans evolved a developmental strategy to prioritize nutrient allocation for prenatal fat deposition when the supply of conditionally essential nutrients requiring hepatic inter-conversion is limited, switching resource allocation to favour the brain if the supply of essential nutrients is limited. Facilitated placental transfer mechanisms for glucose and other nutrients evolved in environments less affluent than those now prevalent in developed populations, and we propose that in circumstances of maternal adiposity and nutrient excess these mechanisms now also lead to prenatal fat deposition. Prenatal developmental influences play important roles in the human propensity to deposit fat.

  14. How flexible is coping after acquired brain injury? A 1-year prospective study investigating coping patterns and influence of self-efficacy, executive functioning and self-awareness.

    PubMed

    Brands, Ingrid; Köhler, Sebastian; Stapert, Sven; Wade, Derick; van Heugten, Caroline

    2014-10-01

    To investigate coping flexibility in patients with newly acquired brain injury and to investigate the influence of problem type, self-efficacy, self-awareness and self-reported executive functions on coping flexibility. Data were collected from a prospective clinical cohort study of 136 patients assessed after discharge home (mean time since injury = 15 weeks) and 1 year later. Situation-specific coping was measured by asking patients to complete the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) for 3 acquired brain injury (ABI)-related situations, which were then categorized into problem types (physical, cognitive, emotional, behavioural, communication, other). Coping consistency (number of strategies used throughout every situation) and variability (range in frequency of use of strategies over situations) were measured. Random effects regression analyses were used. Patients used more task-oriented coping for cognitive compared with physical problems. Coping variability was limited. Reliance on emotion-oriented coping decreased over time. Higher self-efficacy correlated with increased task-oriented and avoidance coping and decreased emotion-oriented coping. Greater self-reported problems in executive function correlated with greater consistency in task-oriented and emotion-oriented strategies. Patients with acquired brain injury rely on a defined set of coping options across situations and time. High self-efficacy increases active coping. Subjective executive dysfunction might hamper effective strategy selection.

  15. The International Society for Developmental Psychobiology annual meeting symposium: Impact of early life experiences on brain and behavioral development.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Regina; Wilson, Donald A; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K; Meyer, Urs; Richter-Levin, Gal; Avi, Avital; Michael, Tsoory; Gruss, Michael; Bock, Jörg; Helmeke, Carina; Braun, Katharina

    2006-11-01

    Decades of research in the area of developmental psychobiology have shown that early life experience alters behavioral and brain development, which canalizes development to suit different environments. Recent methodological advances have begun to identify the mechanisms by which early life experiences cause these diverse adult outcomes. Here we present four different research programs that demonstrate the intricacies of early environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in both pathological and normal development. First, an animal model of schizophrenia is presented that suggests prenatal immune stimulation influences the postpubertal emergence of psychosis-related behavior in mice. Second, we describe a research program on infant rats that demonstrates how early odor learning has unique characteristics due to the unique functioning of the infant limbic system. Third, we present work on the rodent Octodon degus, which shows that early paternal and/or maternal deprivation alters development of limbic system synaptic density that corresponds to heightened emotionality. Fourth, a juvenile model of stress is presented that suggests this developmental period is important in determining adulthood emotional well being. The approach of each research program is strikingly different, yet all succeed in delineating a specific aspect of early development and its effects on infant and adult outcome that expands our understanding of the developmental impact of infant experiences on emotional and limbic system development. Together, these research programs suggest that the developing organism's developmental trajectory is influenced by environmental factors beginning in the fetus and extending through adolescence, although the specific timing and nature of the environmental influence has unique impact on adult mental health.

  16. The International Society for Developmental Psychobiology Annual Meeting Symposium: Impact of Early Life Experiences on Brain and Behavioral Development

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Regina; Wilson, Donald A.; Feldon, Joram; Yee, Benjamin K.; Meyer, Urs; Richter-Levin, Gal; Avi, Avital; Michael, Tsoory; Gruss, Michael; Bock, Jörg; Helmeke, Carina; Braun, Katharina

    2007-01-01

    Decades of research in the area of developmental psychobiology have shown that early life experience alters behavioral and brain development, which canalizes development to suit different environments. Recent methodological advances have begun to identify the mechanisms by which early life experiences cause these diverse adult outcomes. Here we present four different research programs that demonstrate the intricacies of early environmental influences on behavioral and brain development in both pathological and normal development. First, an animal model of schizophrenia is presented that suggests prenatal immune stimulation influences the postpubertal emergence of psychosis-related behavior in mice. Second, we describe a research program on infant rats that demonstrates how early odor learning has unique characteristics due to the unique functioning of the infant limbic system. Third, we present work on the rodent Octodon degus, which shows that early paternal and/or maternal deprivation alters development of limbic system synaptic density that corresponds to heightened emotionality. Fourth, ajuvenile model of stress is presented that suggests this developmental period is important in determining adulthood emotional well being. The approach of each research program is strikingly different, yet all succeed in delineating a specific aspect of early development and its effects on infant and adult outcome that expands our understanding of the developmental impact of infant experiences on emotional and limbic system development. Together, these research programs suggest that the developing organism’s developmental trajectory is influenced by environmental factors beginning in the fetus and extending through adolescence, although the specific timing and nature of the environmental influence has unique impact on adult mental health. PMID:17016842

  17. Usability of a virtual reality environment simulating an automated teller machine for assessing and training persons with acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to examine the usability of a newly designed virtual reality (VR) environment simulating the operation of an automated teller machine (ATM) for assessment and training. Design Part I involved evaluation of the sensitivity and specificity of a non-immersive VR program simulating an ATM (VR-ATM). Part II consisted of a clinical trial providing baseline and post-intervention outcome assessments. Setting A rehabilitation hospital and university-based teaching facilities were used as the setting. Participants A total of 24 persons in the community with acquired brain injury (ABI) - 14 in Part I and 10 in Part II - made up the participants in the study. Interventions In Part I, participants were randomized to receive instruction in either an "early" or a "late" VR-ATM program and were assessed using both the VR program and a real ATM. In Part II, participants were assigned in matched pairs to either VR training or computer-assisted instruction (CAI) teaching programs for six 1-hour sessions over a three-week period. Outcome Measures Two behavioral checklists based on activity analysis of cash withdrawals and money transfers using a real ATM were used to measure average reaction time, percentage of incorrect responses, level of cues required, and time spent as generated by the VR system; also used was the Neurobehavioral Cognitive Status Examination. Results The sensitivity of the VR-ATM was 100% for cash withdrawals and 83.3% for money transfers, and the specificity was 83% and 75%, respectively. For cash withdrawals, the average reaction time of the VR group was significantly shorter than that of the CAI group (p = 0.021). We found no significant differences in average reaction time or accuracy between groups for money transfers, although we did note positive improvement for the VR-ATM group. Conclusion We found the VR-ATM to be usable as a valid assessment and training tool for relearning the use of ATMs prior to real-life practice in persons

  18. Intelligent speed adaptation as an assistive device for drivers with acquired brain injury: a single-case field experiment.

    PubMed

    Klarborg, Brith; Lahrmann, Harry; NielsAgerholm; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Harms, Lisbeth

    2012-09-01

    Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) was tested as an assistive device for drivers with an acquired brain injury (ABI). The study was part of the "Pay as You Speed" project (PAYS) and used the same equipment and technology as the main study (Lahrmann et al., in press-a, in press-b). Two drivers with ABI were recruited as subjects and had ISA equipment installed in their private vehicle. Their speed was logged with ISA equipment for a total of 30 weeks of which 12 weeks were with an active ISA user interface (6 weeks=Baseline 1; 12 weeks=ISA period; 12 weeks=Baseline 2). The subjects participated in two semi-structured interviews concerning their strategies for driving with ABI and for driving with ISA. Furthermore, they gave consent to have data from their clinical journals and be a part of the study. The two subjects did not report any instances of being distracted or confused by ISA, and in general they described driving with ISA as relaxed. ISA reduced the percentage of the total distance that was driven with a speed above the speed limit (PDA), but the subjects relapsed to their previous PDA level in Baseline 2. This suggests that ISA is more suited as a permanent assistive device (i.e. cognitive prosthesis) than as a temporary training device. As ABI is associated with a multitude of cognitive deficits, we developed a conceptual framework, which focused on the cognitive parameters that have been shown to relate to speeding behaviour, namely "intention to speed" and "inattention to speeding". The subjects' combined status on the two independent parameters made up their "speeding profile". A comparison of the speeding profiles and the speed logs indicated that ISA in the present study was more efficient in reducing inattention to speeding than affecting intention to speed. This finding suggests that ISA might be more suited for some neuropsychological profiles than for others, and that customisation of ISA for different neuropsychological profiles may be required

  19. Cognitive and Functional Outcomes following Inpatient Rehabilitation in Patients with Acquired Brain Injury: A Prospective Follow-up Study

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Maitreyi; Gupta, Anupam; Khanna, Meeka; Taly, Arun B.; Soni, Amit; Kumar, J. Keshav; Thennarasu, K.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To study the effects of cognitive retraining and inpatient rehabilitation to study the effects of cognitive retraining and inpatient rehabilitation in patients with acquired brain injury (ABI). Design and Setting: This was a prospective follow-up study in a neurological rehabilitation department of quaternary research hospital. Patients and Methods: Thirty patients with ABI, mean age 36.43 years (standard deviation [SD] 12.6, range 18–60), mean duration of illness 77.87 days (SD 91.78, range 21–300 days) with cognitive, physical, and motor-sensory deficits underwent inpatient rehabilitation for minimum of 14 sessions over a period of 3 weeks. Nineteen patients (63%) reported in the follow-up of minimum 3 months after discharge. Type of ABI, cognitive status (using Montreal Cognitive assessment scale [MoCA] and cognitive Functional Independence Measure [Cog FIM]®), and functional status (motor FIM®) were noted at admission, discharge, and follow-up and scores were compared. Results: Patients received inpatient rehabilitation addressing cognitive and functional impairments. Baseline MoCA, motor FIM, and Cog FIM scores were 15.27 (SD = 7.2, range 3–30), 31.57 (SD = 15.6, range 12–63), and 23.47 (SD = 9.7, range 5–35), respectively. All the parameters improved significantly at the time of discharge (MoCA = 19.6 ± 7.4 range 3–30, motor FIM® = 61.33 ± 18.7 range 12–89, Cog FIM® =27.23 ± 8.10 range 9–35). Patients were discharged with home-based programs. Nineteen patients reported in follow-up and observed to have maintained cognition on MoCA (18.8 ± 6.8 range 6–27), significantly improved (P < 0.01) on Cog FIM® (28.0 ± 7.7 range 14–35) and motor FIM® =72.89 ± 16.2 range 40–96) as compare to discharge scores. Conclusions: Cognitive and functional outcomes improve significantly with dedicated and specialized inpatient rehabilitation in ABI patients, which is sustainable over a period. PMID:28694613

  20. Effectiveness of a Very Early Stepping Verticalization Protocol in Severe Acquired Brain Injured Patients: A Randomized Pilot Study in ICU

    PubMed Central

    Bonini, Sara; Maffia, Sara; Molatore, Katia; Sebastianelli, Luca; Zarucchi, Alessio; Matteri, Diana; Ercoli, Giuseppe; Maestri, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective Verticalization was reported to improve the level of arousal and awareness in patients with severe acquired brain injury (ABI) and to be safe in ICU. We evaluated the effectiveness of a very early stepping verticalization protocol on their functional and neurological outcome. Methods Consecutive patients with Vegetative State or Minimally Conscious State were enrolled in ICU on the third day after an ABI. They were randomized to undergo conventional physiotherapy alone or associated to fifteen 30-minute sessions of verticalization, using a tilt table with robotic stepping device. Once stabilized, patients were transferred to our Neurorehabilitation unit for an individualized treatment. Outcome measures (Glasgow Coma Scale, Coma Recovery Scale revised -CRSr-, Disability Rating Scale–DRS- and Levels of Cognitive Functioning) were assessed on the third day from the injury (T0), at ICU discharge (T1) and at Rehab discharge (T2). Between- and within-group comparisons were performed by the Mann-Whitney U test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test, respectively. Results Of the 40 patients enrolled, 31 completed the study without adverse events (15 in the verticalization group and 16 in the conventional physiotherapy). Early verticalization started 12.4±7.3 (mean±SD) days after ABI. The length of stay in ICU was longer for the verticalization group (38.8 ± 15.7 vs 25.1 ± 11.2 days, p = 0.01), while the total length of stay (ICU+Neurorehabilitation) was not significantly different (153.2 ± 59.6 vs 134.0 ± 61.0 days, p = 0.41). All outcome measures significantly improved in both groups after the overall period (T2 vs T0, p<0.001 all), as well as after ICU stay (T1 vs T0, p<0.004 all) and after Neurorehabilitation (T2 vs T1, p<0.004 all). The improvement was significantly better in the experimental group for CRSr (T2-T0 p = 0.033, T1-T0 p = 0.006) and (borderline) for DRS (T2-T0 p = 0.040, T1-T0 p = 0.058). Conclusions A stepping verticalization

  1. Screening for Developmental Neurotoxicants using In Vitro "Brain on a Chip" Cultures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently there are thousands of chemicals in the environment that have not been screened for their potential to cause developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). The use of microelectrode array (MEA) technology allows for simultaneous extracellular measurement of action potential (spike)...

  2. Screening for Developmental Neurotoxicants using In Vitro "Brain on a Chip" Cultures

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently there are thousands of chemicals in the environment that have not been screened for their potential to cause developmental neurotoxicity (DNT). The use of microelectrode array (MEA) technology allows for simultaneous extracellular measurement of action potential (spike)...

  3. A systematic review of the efficacy of self-management programs for increasing physical activity in community-dwelling adults with acquired brain injury (ABI).

    PubMed

    Jones, Taryn M; Dean, Catherine M; Hush, Julia M; Dear, Blake F; Titov, Nickolai

    2015-04-19

    Individuals living with acquired brain injury, typically caused by stroke or trauma, are far less likely to achieve recommended levels of physical activity for optimal health and well-being. With a growing number of people living with chronic disease and disability globally, self-management programs are seen as integral to the management of these conditions and the prevention of secondary health conditions. However, to date, there has been no systematic review of the literature examining the efficacy of self-management programs specifically on physical activity in individuals with acquired brain injury, whether delivered face-to-face or remotely. Therefore, the purpose of this review is to evaluate the efficacy of self-management programs in increasing physical activity levels in adults living in the community following acquired brain injury. The efficacy of remote versus face-to-face delivery was also examined. A systematic review of the literature was conducted. Electronic databases were searched. Two independent reviewers screened all studies for eligibility, assessed risk of bias, and extracted relevant data. Five studies met the inclusion criteria for this review. Studies were widely heterogeneous with respect to program content and delivery characteristics and outcomes, although all programs utilized behavioral change principles. Four of the five studies examined interventions in which physical activity was a component of a multifaceted intervention, where the depth to which physical activity specific content was covered, and the extent to which skills were taught and practiced, could not be clearly established. Three studies showed favorable physical activity outcomes following self-management interventions for stroke; however, risk of bias was high, and overall efficacy remains unclear. Although not used in isolation from face-to-face delivery, remote delivery via telephone was the predominant form of delivery in two studies with support for its inclusion

  4. Professionals' views on the use of smartphone technology to support children and adolescents with memory impairment due to acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Plackett, Ruth; Thomas, Sophie; Thomas, Shirley

    2017-04-01

    Purpose To identify from a health-care professionals' perspective whether smartphones are used by children and adolescents with acquired brain injury as memory aids; what factors predict smartphone use and what barriers prevent the use of smartphones as memory aids by children and adolescents. Method A cross-sectional online survey was undertaken with 88 health-care professionals working with children and adolescents with brain injury. Results Children and adolescents with brain injury were reported to use smartphones as memory aids by 75% of professionals. However, only 42% of professionals helped their clients to use smartphones. The only factor that significantly predicted reported smartphone use was the professionals' positive attitudes toward assistive technology. Several barriers to using smartphones as memory aids were identified, including the poor accessibility of devices and cost of devices. Conclusion Many children and adolescents with brain injury are already using smartphones as memory aids but this is often not facilitated by professionals. Improving the attitudes of professionals toward using smartphones as assistive technology could help to increase smartphone use in rehabilitation. Implications for Rehabilitation Smartphones could be incorporated into rehabilitation programs for young people with brain injury as socially acceptable compensatory aids. Further training and support for professionals on smartphones as compensatory aids could increase professionals' confidence and attitudes in facilitating the use of smartphones as memory aids. Accessibility could be enhanced by the development of a smartphone application specifically designed to be used by young people with brain injury.

  5. Acquired Cerebral Trauma: Epilogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    The article summarizes a series of articles concerning acquired cerebral trauma. Reviewed are technological advances, treatment, assessment, potential innovative therapies, long-term outcome, family impact of chronic brain injury, and prevention. (DB)

  6. Play-based interventions improve physical function for people with adult-acquired brain injury: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Saywell, Nicola; Taylor, Nick; Rodgers, Emma; Skinner, Luke; Boocock, Mark

    2017-02-01

    To undertake a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effectiveness of play-based interventions compared to traditional therapy in rehabilitation of adults with adult-acquired brain injury. The search was performed using Medline; Cinahl Plus; Health Source (Nursing/Academic Edition); Psychology and behavioural sciences collection; Biomedical reference collection (basic). Studies included were randomised controlled trials that investigated the effect of play-based interventions on physical function of adults with adult acquired brain injury. Two independent reviewers identified eligible studies and assessed methodological quality using a modified Downs and Black. Meta-analysis compared standardised differences in means, to determine effect sizes for grouped functional outcome measures. The GRADE scoring system was used to determine the level of clinical evidence. Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria, 13 were considered high quality and 17 moderate quality. Studies predominantly involved post-stroke participants, with only three studies including participants with traumatic brain injury. When compared to traditional therapy, dose-matched studies of play-based interventions showed a significant effect on independence (Effect size (ES) = 0.6) and physical performance (ES = 0.43), as measured using the Fugl -Meyer. For non-dose matched studies, play-based interventions showed a significant improvement for balance (ES = 0.76) compared with traditional therapy. In all studies that measured participant enjoyment, play-based therapy was rated as more enjoyable than traditional therapy. Play-based interventions for people with adult acquired brain injury are more effective in improving balance and independence, which may be due to them being more enjoyable than traditional therapy.

  7. Margaret Kennard (1899–1975): Not a ‘Principle’ of Brain Plasticity But a Founding Mother of Developmental Neuropsychology

    PubMed Central

    Dennis, Maureen

    2009-01-01

    According to the ‘Kennard Principle’, there is a negative linear relation between age at brain injury and functional outcome. Other things being equal, the younger the lesioned organism, the better the outcome. But the ‘Kennard Principle’ is neither Kennard’s nor a principle. In her work, Kennard sought to explain the factors that predicted functional outcome (age, to be sure, but also staging, laterality, location, and number of brain lesions, and outcome domain) and the neural mechanisms that altered the lesioned brain’s functionality. This paper discusses Kennard’s life and years at Yale (1931–1943); considers the genesis and scope of her work on early-onset brain lesions, which represents an empirical and theoretical foundation for current developmental neuropsychology; offers an historical explanation of why the ‘Kennard Principle’ emerged in the context of early 1970s work on brain plasticity; shows why uncritical belief in the ‘Kennard Principle’ continues to shape current research and practice; and reviews the continuing importance of her work. PMID:20079891

  8. Contributions of developmental studies in the dogfish Scyliorhinus canicula to the brain anatomy of elasmobranchs: insights on the basal ganglia.

    PubMed

    Quintana-Urzainqui, Idoia; Sueiro, Catalina; Carrera, Ivan; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Santos-Durán, Gabriel; Pose-Méndez, Sol; Mazan, Sylvie; Candal, Eva; Rodríguez-Moldes, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    The basic anatomy of the elasmobranch brain has been previously established after studying the organization of the different subdivisions in the adult brain. However, despite the relatively abundant immunohistochemical and hodologic studies performed in different species of sharks and skates, the organization of some brain subdivisions remains unclear. The present study focuses on some brain regions in which subdivisions established on the basis of anatomical data in adults remain controversial, such as the subpallium, mainly the striatal subdivision. Taking advantage of the great potential of the lesser spotted dogfish, Scyliorhinus canicula, as a model for developmental studies, we have characterized the subpallium throughout development and postembryonic stages by analyzing the distribution of immunomarkers for GABA, catecholamines, and neuropeptides, such as substance P. Moreover, we have analyzed the expression pattern of regulatory genes involved in the regionalization of the telencephalon, such as Dlx2, Nkx2.1, and Shh, and followed their derivatives throughout development in relation to the distribution of such neurochemical markers. For further characterization, we have also analyzed the patterns of innervation of the subpallium after applying tract-tracing techniques. Our observations may shed light on postulate equivalences of regions and nuclei among elasmobranchs and support homologies with other vertebrates. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Early developmental exposure to benzodiazepine ligands alters brain levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive products in young adult rats.

    PubMed

    Miranda, R C; Wagner, J P; Kellogg, C K

    1989-11-01

    Levels of thiobarbituric acid (TBA)-reactive material were measured in brain regions of 3-4 month-old rats following prenatal exposure to several benzodiazepine (BDZ) receptor ligands over gestational days 14-20. Prenatal exposure to diazepam (DZ) at 1.0 mg/kg/day markedly elevated levels of brain TBA-reactive material while exposure to a higher dose (2.5 mg/kg) induced a significant increase only in the hippocampus. Early exposure to the central-type BDZ agonist clonazepam as well as to the central-type antagonist Ro 15-1788 also increased brain levels of TBA-reactive material. Concurrent exposure to the higher dose of DZ partially attenuated the effect of Ro 15-1788. Prenatal exposure to the peripheral-type BDZ ligand PK11195 produced a profound increase in TBA-reactive products in all regions, and concurrent DZ exposure did not attenuate this effect, except in the basal ganglia. Measurement of TBA-reactive material from birth to 3 months indicated that the effect of prenatal exposure to DZ was not apparent until after 8 weeks of age. Acute in vitro exposure of adult and fetal tissue to DZ had no effect on TBA-reactive material. The results suggest an interference in the organization of cellular metabolism in the brain by developmental exposure to BDZ ligands.

  10. Developmental features of the neonatal brain: MR imaging. Part I. Gray-white matter differentiation and myelination.

    PubMed

    McArdle, C B; Richardson, C J; Nicholas, D A; Mirfakhraee, M; Hayden, C K; Amparo, E G

    1987-01-01

    To establish the normal appearance of the neonatal brain, 51 neonates, 29-42 weeks postconception, underwent magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with a 0.6-T magnet in a prospective study. T1-weighted images were used to devise stages for the appearance of gray-white matter differentiation and extent of myelination. The results show that from 29 to 42 weeks postconception, changes in gray-white matter differentiation and myelination follow the stages in an orderly and predictable fashion. Changes in white matter intensity appear related to progressive decrease in brain water content. Myelination progresses cephalad from the brain stem at 29 weeks to reach the centrum semiovale by 42 weeks. Delayed myelination, defined as the absence of myelin in the corona radiata by 37 weeks, was seen in nine infants with complicated perinatal courses. Awareness of these developmental features should help to minimize misinterpretation of normal changes in the neonatal brain and lead to earlier detection of pathologic conditions, both with MR imaging and computed tomography.

  11. Brain Responses to Words in 2-Year-Olds with Autism Predict Developmental Outcomes at Age 6

    PubMed Central

    Kuhl, Patricia K.; Coffey-Corina, Sharon; Padden, Denise; Munson, Jeffrey; Estes, Annette; Dawson, Geraldine

    2013-01-01

    Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability that affects social behavior and language acquisition. ASD exhibits great variability in outcomes, with some individuals remaining nonverbal and others exhibiting average or above average function. Cognitive ability contributes to heterogeneity in autism and serves as a modest predictor of later function. We show that a brain measure (event-related potentials, ERPs) of word processing in children with ASD, assessed at the age of 2 years (N = 24), is a broad and robust predictor of receptive language, cognitive ability, and adaptive behavior at ages 4 and 6 years, regardless of the form of intensive clinical treatment during the intervening years. The predictive strength of this brain measure increases over time, and exceeds the predictive strength of a measure of cognitive ability, used here for comparison. These findings have theoretical implications and may eventually lead to neural measures that allow early prediction of developmental outcomes as well as more individually tailored clinical interventions, with the potential for greater effectiveness in treating children with ASD. PMID:23734230

  12. The protocol and design of a randomised controlled study on training of attention within the first year after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    Bartfai, Aniko; Markovic, Gabriela; Sargenius Landahl, Kristina; Schult, Marie-Louise

    2014-05-08

    To describe the design of the study aiming to examine intensive targeted cognitive rehabilitation of attention in the acute (<4 months) and subacute rehabilitation phases (4-12 months) after acquired brain injury and to evaluate the effects on function, activity and participation (return to work). Within a prospective, randomised, controlled study 120 consecutive patients with stroke or traumatic brain injury were randomised to 20 hours of intensive attention training by Attention Process Training or by standard, activity based training. Progress was evaluated by Statistical Process Control and by pre and post measurement of functional and activity levels. Return to work was also evaluated in the post-acute phase. Primary endpoints were the changes in the attention measure, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and changes in work ability. Secondary endpoints included measurement of cognitive functions, activity and work return. There were 3, 6 and 12-month follow ups focussing on health economics. The study will provide information on rehabilitation of attention in the early phases after ABI; effects on function, activity and return to work. Further, the application of Statistical Process Control might enable closer investigation of the cognitive changes after acquired brain injury and demonstrate the usefulness of process measures in rehabilitation. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol. NCT02091453, registered: 19 March 2014.

  13. The protocol and design of a randomised controlled study on training of attention within the first year after acquired brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To describe the design of the study aiming to examine intensive targeted cognitive rehabilitation of attention in the acute (<4 months) and subacute rehabilitation phases (4–12 months) after acquired brain injury and to evaluate the effects on function, activity and participation (return to work). Methods/Design Within a prospective, randomised, controlled study 120 consecutive patients with stroke or traumatic brain injury were randomised to 20 hours of intensive attention training by Attention Process Training or by standard, activity based training. Progress was evaluated by Statistical Process Control and by pre and post measurement of functional and activity levels. Return to work was also evaluated in the post-acute phase. Primary endpoints were the changes in the attention measure, Paced Auditory Serial Addition Test and changes in work ability. Secondary endpoints included measurement of cognitive functions, activity and work return. There were 3, 6 and 12-month follow ups focussing on health economics. Discussion The study will provide information on rehabilitation of attention in the early phases after ABI; effects on function, activity and return to work. Further, the application of Statistical Process Control might enable closer investigation of the cognitive changes after acquired brain injury and demonstrate the usefulness of process measures in rehabilitation. The study was registered at ClinicalTrials.gov Protocol. Trial registration NCT02091453, registered: 19 March 2014. PMID:24885585

  14. A French adaptation of the Overt Behaviour Scale (OBS) measuring challenging behaviours following acquired brain injury: The Échelle des comportements observables (ÉCO).

    PubMed

    Gagnon, Jean; Simpson, Grahame Kenneth; Kelly, Glenn; Godbout, Denis; Ouellette, Michel; Drolet, Jacques

    2016-01-01

    To develop a French version of the Overt Behaviour Scale (OBS) and examine some of its psychometric properties. The scale was adapted and validated according to standard guidelines for cross-cultural adaptation of questionnaires (Échelle des comportements observables; ÉCO). The reliability and construct validity of the ÉCO were studied among 29 inpatients and outpatients who sustained an acquired brain injury. The instruments were administered by 12 clinicians located at eight rehabilitation centres and the local brain injury association. The ÉCO provided behaviour profile descriptives much like the original scale. It showed excellent reliability and good convergent and divergent validity, as reflected by significant associations with other measures that contained similar behavioural items and by the absence of signification correlations with broader constructs such as physical and cognitive abilities. This study provides evidence that the ÉCO behaves much like the original OBS, has promising initial findings with respect to reliability and validity and is a valuable research and clinical instrument to assess the severity and typology of challenging behaviour after an acquired brain injury and to monitor the evolution of behaviours after intervention in French and bilingual communities.

  15. Review: Role of developmental inflammation and blood-brain barrier dysfunction in neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Stolp, H B; Dziegielewska, K M

    2009-04-01

    The causes of most neurological disorders are not fully understood. Inflammation and blood-brain barrier dysfunction appear to play major roles in the pathology of these diseases. Inflammatory insults that occur during brain development may have widespread effects later in life for a spectrum of neurological disorders. In this review, a new hypothesis suggesting a mechanistic link between inflammation and blood-brain barrier function (integrity), which is universally important in both neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative diseases, is proposed. The role of inflammation and the blood-brain barrier will be discussed in cerebral palsy, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis, conditions where both inflammation and blood-brain barrier dysfunction occur either during initiation and/or progression of the disease. We suggest that breakdown of normal blood-brain barrier function resulting in a short-lasting influx of blood-born molecules, in particular plasma proteins, may cause local damage, such as reduction of brain white matter observed in some newborn babies, but may also be the mechanism behind some neurodegenerative diseases related to underlying brain damage and long-term changes in barrier properties.

  16. Integrating Functional Brain Neuroimaging and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience in Child Psychiatry Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of cognitive neuroscience and functional brain neuroimaging to understand brain dysfunction in pediatric psychiatric disorders is discussed. Results show that bipolar youths demonstrate impairment in affective and cognitive neural systems and in these two circuits' interface. Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric…

  17. Integrating Functional Brain Neuroimaging and Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience in Child Psychiatry Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavuluri, Mani N.; Sweeney, John A.

    2008-01-01

    The use of cognitive neuroscience and functional brain neuroimaging to understand brain dysfunction in pediatric psychiatric disorders is discussed. Results show that bipolar youths demonstrate impairment in affective and cognitive neural systems and in these two circuits' interface. Implications for the diagnosis and treatment of psychiatric…

  18. Early Relationships for Healthy Brains. An interview with Developmental Psychologist Ross Thompson. Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Scientific Council on the Developing Child, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Healthy brain development relies on the quality of early relationships. Supportive relationships and parent-child conversations buffer stress; they contribute to the cognitive and emotional stimulation that developing brains need; and the quality of parent-child conversation is important even before young children are good conversational partners.…

  19. Developmental Changes in Narrative and Non-Narrative Discourse in Children with and without Brain Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hemphill, Lowry; And Others

    1994-01-01

    This study found that three oral discourse genres (script, picture description, and replica play narration) were able to characterize development in discourse abilities in 6 children (ages 5-7) with brain injury and 43 nondisabled children. Brain-injured children produced shorter discourse performances with more off-task talk but showed…

  20. ALTERATIONS IN BRAIN PROTEIN KINASE C ISOFORMS FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL MIXTURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    PCBs have been shown to alter several neurochemical end-points and are implicated in the etiology of some neurological diseases. Recent in vivo studies from our laboratory indicated that developmental exposure to a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254, caused perturbations in cal...

  1. Brief Report: Neuroanatomic Observations of the Brain in Pervasive Developmental Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauman, Margaret L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reviews neuroanatomic studies on syndromes classified as Pervasive Developmental Disorders. Findings in autism and Asperger's syndrome suggest that these two disorders may represent a continuum along a neurobiological spectrum with a common neuroanatomic substrate, while Rett syndrome appears to be clinically and anatomically distinct…

  2. Abnormal Functional Lateralization and Activity of Language Brain Areas in Typical Specific Language Impairment (Developmental Dysphasia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guibert, Clement; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Treguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting…

  3. ALTERATIONS IN BRAIN PROTEIN KINASE C ISOFORMS FOLLOWING DEVELOPMENTAL EXPOSURE TO POLYCHLORINATED BIPHENYL MIXTURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    PCBs have been shown to alter several neurochemical end-points and are implicated in the etiology of some neurological diseases. Recent in vivo studies from our laboratory indicated that developmental exposure to a commercial PCB mixture, Aroclor 1254, caused perturbations in cal...

  4. Abnormal Functional Lateralization and Activity of Language Brain Areas in Typical Specific Language Impairment (Developmental Dysphasia)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Guibert, Clement; Maumet, Camille; Jannin, Pierre; Ferre, Jean-Christophe; Treguier, Catherine; Barillot, Christian; Le Rumeur, Elisabeth; Allaire, Catherine; Biraben, Arnaud

    2011-01-01

    Atypical functional lateralization and specialization for language have been proposed to account for developmental language disorders, yet results from functional neuroimaging studies are sparse and inconsistent. This functional magnetic resonance imaging study compared children with a specific subtype of specific language impairment affecting…

  5. Developmental lead exposure impairs contextual fear conditioning and reduces adult hippocampal neurogenesis in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Jaako-Movits, Külli; Zharkovsky, Tamara; Romantchik, Olga; Jurgenson, Monika; Merisalu, Eda; Heidmets, Lenne-Triin; Zharkovsky, Alexander

    2005-11-01

    The effects of developmental lead exposure on the emotional reactivity, contextual fear conditioning and neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of 60-80 days-old rats were studied. Wistar rat pups were exposed to 0.2% lead acetate via their dams' drinking water from postnatal day (PND) 1 to PND 21 and directly via drinking water from weaning until PND 30. At PND 60 and 80 the level of anxiety and contextual fear conditioning were studied, respectively. At PND 80 all animals received injections of BrdU to determine the effects of Pb on the generation of new cells in the dentate gyrus of hippocampus and on their survival and differentiation patterns. The results of the present study demonstrate that developmental lead exposure induces persistent increase in the level of anxiety and inhibition of contextual fear conditioning. Developmental lead exposure reduced generation of new cells in the dentate gyrus and altered the pattern of differentiation of BrdU-positive cells into mature neurons. A lower proportion of BrdU-positive cells co-expressed with the marker for mature neurons, calbindin. In contrast, the proportions of young not fully differentiated neurons and proportions of astroglial cells, generated from newly born cells, were increased in lead-exposed animals. Our results demonstrate that developmental lead exposure induces persistent inhibition of neurogenesis and alters the pattern of differentiation of newly born cells in the dentate gyrus of rat hippocampus, which could, at least partly, contribute to behavioral and cognitive impairments observed in adulthood.

  6. Transcriptomic alterations in the brain of painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) developmentally exposed to bisphenol A or ethinyl estradiol.

    PubMed

    Manshack, Lindsey K; Conard, Caroline M; Bryan, Sara J; Deem, Sharon L; Holliday, Dawn K; Bivens, Nathan J; Givan, Scott A; Rosenfeld, Cheryl S

    2017-04-01

    Developmental exposure of turtles and other reptiles to endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including bisphenol A (BPA) and ethinyl estradiol (EE), can stimulate partial to full gonadal sex-reversal in males. We have also recently shown that in ovo exposure to either EDC can induce similar sex-dependent behavioral changes typified by improved spatial learning and memory or possibly feminized brain responses. Observed behavioral changes are presumed to be due to BPA- and EE-induced brain transcriptomic alterations during development. To test this hypothesis, we treated painted turtles (Chrysemys picta) at developmental stage 17, incubated at 26°C (male-inducing temperature), with 1) BPA (1 ng/µl), 2) EE (4 ng/µl), or 3) vehicle ethanol (control group). Ten months after hatching and completion of the behavioral tests, juvenile turtles were euthanized, brains were collected and frozen in liquid nitrogen, and RNA was isolated for RNA-Seq analysis. Turtles exposed to BPA clustered separately from EE-exposed and control individuals. More transcripts and gene pathways were altered in BPA vs. EE individuals. The one transcript upregulated in both BPA- and EE-exposed individuals was the mitochondrial-associated gene, ND5, which is involved in oxidative phosphorylation. Early exposure of turtles to BPA increases transcripts linked with ribosomal and mitochondrial functions, especially bioenergetics, which has been previously linked with improved cognitive performance. In summary, even though both BPA and EE resulted in similar behavioral alterations, they diverge in the pattern of neural transcript alterations with early BPA significantly upregulating several genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial activity, and ribosomal function, which could enhance cognitive performance.

  7. Managing executive dysfunction following acquired brain injury and stroke using an ecologically valid rehabilitation approach: a study protocol for a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Deirdre R; Anderson, Nicole D; Binns, Malcolm A; Bottari, Carolina; Damianakis, Thecla; Hunt, Anne; Polatajko, Helene J; Zwarenstein, Merrick

    2013-09-22

    We have been investigating an ecologically valid strategy-training approach to enable adults with executive dysfunction to attain everyday life goals. Here, we report the protocol of a randomized controlled trial of the effects of this training compared to conventional therapy in a sample of community-dwelling adults with acquired brain injury and/or stroke. We will recruit 100 community-dwelling survivors at least six months post-acquired brain injury or stroke who report executive dysfunction during a telephone interview, confirmed in pre-training testing. Following pre-training testing, participants will be randomized to the ecologically valid strategy training or conventional therapy and receive two one-hour sessions for eight weeks (maximum of 15 hours of therapy). Post-testing will occur immediately following the training and three months later. The primary outcome is self-reported change in performance on everyday life activities measured using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, a standardized, semi-structured interview. Secondary outcomes are objective measurement of performance change from videotapes of treatment session, Performance Quality Rating Scale; executive dysfunction symptoms, Behavioural Rating Inventory of Executive Function - Adult; participation in everyday life, Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory Participation Index; and ability to solve novel problems, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Profile. This study is of a novel approach to promoting improvements in attainment of everyday life goals through managing executive dysfunction using an ecologically valid strategy training approach, the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance. This study compares the efficacy of this approach with that of conventional therapy. The approach has the potential to be a valuable treatment for people with chronic acquired brain injury and/or stroke. clinicaltrials.gov, Trial Identification Number: NCT01414348.

  8. Managing executive dysfunction following acquired brain injury and stroke using an ecologically valid rehabilitation approach: a study protocol for a randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We have been investigating an ecologically valid strategy-training approach to enable adults with executive dysfunction to attain everyday life goals. Here, we report the protocol of a randomized controlled trial of the effects of this training compared to conventional therapy in a sample of community-dwelling adults with acquired brain injury and/or stroke. Methods/design We will recruit 100 community-dwelling survivors at least six months post-acquired brain injury or stroke who report executive dysfunction during a telephone interview, confirmed in pre-training testing. Following pre-training testing, participants will be randomized to the ecologically valid strategy training or conventional therapy and receive two one-hour sessions for eight weeks (maximum of 15 hours of therapy). Post-testing will occur immediately following the training and three months later. The primary outcome is self-reported change in performance on everyday life activities measured using the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, a standardized, semi-structured interview. Secondary outcomes are objective measurement of performance change from videotapes of treatment session, Performance Quality Rating Scale; executive dysfunction symptoms, Behavioural Rating Inventory of Executive Function – Adult; participation in everyday life, Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory Participation Index; and ability to solve novel problems, Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Profile. Discussion This study is of a novel approach to promoting improvements in attainment of everyday life goals through managing executive dysfunction using an ecologically valid strategy training approach, the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance. This study compares the efficacy of this approach with that of conventional therapy. The approach has the potential to be a valuable treatment for people with chronic acquired brain injury and/or stroke. Trial registration clinicaltrials

  9. Is the effect of coping styles disease specific? Relationships with emotional distress and quality of life in acquired brain injury and multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Brands, Ingrid; Bol, Yvonne; Stapert, Sven; Köhler, Sebastian; van Heugten, Caroline

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the use of coping styles and the relationships linking coping to emotional distress and quality of life in patients with acquired brain injury and multiple sclerosis. Cross-sectional cohort study of 143 patients with acquired brain injury and 310 patients with multiple sclerosis in the chronic stage. Quality of life was measured with the Life Satisfaction Questionnaire (LiSat-9), coping styles with the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS-T, task-oriented; CISS-E, emotion-oriented; CISS-A, avoidance), emotional distress with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). Coping styles did not differ between types of multiple sclerosis and varied only little with regard to severity of disease. In both patient groups, task-oriented coping was most used followed by avoidance and emotion-oriented coping. Patients with multiple sclerosis used all styles to a greater extent. In acquired brain injury, lower CISS-E and lower HADS scores were associated with higher LiSat-9 scores. CISS-E had a direct effect on LiSat-9 and an indirect effect via HADS. In multiple sclerosis, next to lower CISS-E and lower HADS scores, higher CISS-A scores were also associated with higher LiSat-9 scores. CISS-E had an indirect effect and CISS-A had a direct and indirect effect on LiSat-9. In both patient groups, coping patterns are similar, and emotion-oriented coping negatively influences quality of life. Additionally, in multiple sclerosis, seeking emotional support and distraction (CISS-A) was positively associated with quality of life. Interventions to improve adaptive coping could be organized within a neurorehabilitation setting for both patient groups together.

  10. Gene Coexpression Networks in Human Brain Developmental Transcriptomes Implicate the Association of Long Noncoding RNAs with Intellectual Disability

    PubMed Central

    Gudenas, Brian L.; Wang, Liangjiang

    2015-01-01

    The advent of next-generation sequencing for genetic diagnoses of complex developmental disorders, such as intellectual disability (ID), has facilitated the identification of hundreds of predisposing genetic variants. However, there still exists a vast gap in our knowledge of causal genetic factors for ID as evidenced by low diagnostic yield of genetic screening, in which identifiable genetic causes are not found for the majority of ID cases. Most methods of genetic screening focus on protein-coding genes; however, noncoding RNAs may outnumber protein-coding genes and play important roles in brain development. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) specifically have been shown to be enriched in the brain and have diverse roles in gene regulation at the transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. LncRNAs are a vastly uncharacterized group of noncoding genes, which could function in brain development and harbor ID-predisposing genetic variants. We analyzed lncRNAs for coexpression with known ID genes and affected biological pathways within a weighted gene coexpression network derived from RNA-sequencing data spanning human brain development. Several ID-associated gene modules were found to be enriched for lncRNAs, known ID genes, and affected biological pathways. Utilizing a list of de novo and pathogenic copy number variants detected in ID probands, we identified lncRNAs overlapping these genetic structural variants. By integrating our results, we have made a prioritized list of potential ID-associated lncRNAs based on the developing brain gene coexpression network and genetic structural variants found in ID probands. PMID:26523118

  11. Schizophrenia-risk variant rs6994992 in the neuregulin-1 gene on brain developmental trajectories in typically developing children.

    PubMed

    Douet, V; Chang, L; Pritchett, A; Lee, K; Keating, B; Bartsch, H; Jernigan, T L; Dale, A; Akshoomoff, N; Murray, S; Bloss, C; Kennedy, D N; Amaral, D; Gruen, J; Kaufmann, W E; Casey, B J; Sowell, E; Ernst, T

    2014-05-27

    The neuregulin-1 (NRG1) gene is one of the best-validated risk genes for schizophrenia, and psychotic and bipolar disorders. The rs6994992 variant in the NRG1 promoter (SNP8NRG243177) is associated with altered frontal and temporal brain macrostructures and/or altered white matter density and integrity in schizophrenic adults, as well as healthy adults and neonates. However, the ages when these changes begin and whether neuroimaging phenotypes are associated with cognitive performance are not fully understood. Therefore, we investigated the association of the rs6994992 variant on developmental trajectories of brain macro- and microstructures, and their relationship with cognitive performance. A total of 972 healthy children aged 3-20 years had the genotype available for the NRG1-rs6994992 variant, and were evaluated with magnetic resonance im