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Sample records for acquired flatfoot deformity

  1. Office-based management of adult-acquired flatfoot deformity.

    PubMed

    Miniaci-Coxhead, Sara Lyn; Flemister, Adolph Samuel

    2014-03-01

    Adult-acquired flatfoot deformity is associated with dysfunction of the posterior tibial tendon, leading to loss of the medial arch. Patients tend to present with medial pain and swelling, but later in the disease process can also present with lateral-sided pain. The mainstay of nonoperative treatment is nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, weight loss, and orthotic insoles or brace use. The goals of therapy are to provide relief of symptoms and prevent progression of the deformity. If nonoperative management fails, a variety of surgical procedures are available; however, these require a lengthy recovery, and therefore patients should be advised accordingly. PMID:24559875

  2. Spring Ligament Complex and Posterior Tibial Tendon: MR Anatomy and Findings in Acquired Adult Flatfoot Deformity.

    PubMed

    Mengiardi, Bernard; Pinto, Clinton; Zanetti, Marco

    2016-02-01

    The spring ligament complex is an important stabilizer of the medial ankle, together with the posterior tibial tendon (PTT) and the deltoid ligament complex. Lesions in these stabilizers result in acquired adult flatfoot deformity. The spring ligament complex includes three ligaments: the superomedial calcaneonavicular ligament, the medioplantar oblique calcaneonavicular ligament, and the inferoplantar longitudinal calcaneonavicular ligament. Normal MR imaging anatomy of the spring ligament complex and the PTT are described and illustrated in detail. Isolated lesions of the spring ligament complex are rare. In most cases, spring ligament complex lesions are secondary to PTT dysfunction. The best criteria for an injury of the clinically relevant superomedial calcaneonavicular ligament are increased signal on proton-density or T2-weighted sequences with thickening (> 5 mm), thinning (< 2 mm), or partial or complete discontinuity. A thickened ligament can be simulated by the gliding layer between the PTT and the superomedial calcaneonavicular ligament (thickness: 1-3 mm). The most common location of injury is the superior and distal portion of the superomedial calcaneonavicular ligament. A lesion seen by the orthopedic foot surgeon at the junction between the tibiospring ligament and the superomedial portion of the calcaneonavicular ligament is commonly classified as a spring ligament injury. In addition, an overview of MR imaging findings in different stages of the acquired adult flatfoot deformity is provided. PMID:27077591

  3. Deltoid ligament strain after correction of acquired flatfoot deformity by triple arthrodesis.

    PubMed

    Song, S J; Lee, S; O'Malley, M J; Otis, J C; Sung, I H; Deland, J T

    2000-07-01

    Deltoid insufficiency represents a difficult surgical challenge. We have witnessed patients who have developed a valgus tibiotalar deformity following a properly positioned triple arthrodesis. To investigate whether the triple arthrodesis itself, by creating a rigid triple joint complex below the ankle, leads to increased strain of the deltoid complex, a flatfoot model was created in 8 fresh-frozen below-knee amputation specimens. Each specimen was loaded in three gait cycle (GC) positions: Heel strike (0% GC), midstance (10% GC), and heel rise (40% GC). The three components of the ground reaction force (GRF) and the tendon forces consistent with those respective positions were applied. To simulate a posterior tibial tendon insufficient state the posterior tibial tendon was not loaded. Strain at the tibiocalcaneal fibers of the superficial deltoid ligament complex was determined at each of the three foot positions. A triple arthrodesis was performed and the deltoid strains were again recorded for each position. A significant increase in the strain of the deltoid ligament was observed for only the heel rise position (p=0.007) in our cadaver model following triple arthrodesis. The results favor medializing the calcaneus following arthrodesis to protect the deltoid complex. PMID:10919623

  4. Current treatment options of acquired flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Lesić, Aleksandar R; Atkinson, Henry Dushan E; Zagorac, Slavisa G; Bumbasirević, Marko

    2013-01-01

    Symptomatic acquired flatfoot is an important orthopaedic problem, due to progressive loss of whole foot function and the increasing problem of patient disability. It is a complex entity, involving the tibialis posterior tendon, ankle joint, hindfoot and midfoot. In most cases the posterior tibial tendon (PTT) is the root cause of acquired flat foot, but there are other contributors and many different factors have an influence. The clinical picture varies depending on the stage of the deformity, as well as the treatment approach. Initially soft tissue procedures, synoviectomy and augmentation of the PTT are advised. In stage 2, lateral column lengthening and calcaneal osteotomy, with soft tissue - tendon transfers (TA, FHL, FDL) are recommended. In stage 3 subtalar, double or triplearthodesis is preferable, while in stage 4 pantalar fusion is indicated. This article elaborates on the etiology, the clinical picture, diagnosis and treatment modalities. PMID:24669559

  5. Adult acquired flatfoot deformity at the talonavicular joint: reconstruction of the spring ligament in an in vitro model.

    PubMed

    Deland, J T; Arnoczky, S P; Thompson, F M

    1992-01-01

    The mobile unilateral flatfoot deformity of chronic posterior tibial tendon insufficiency has been difficult to correct by soft tissue procedures. The procedures can decrease pain, but they do not always correct the longitudinal arch or relieve all the symptoms. Using 10 fresh frozen cadaveric specimens and a rig for stimulation of weightbearing, the deformity associated with chronic posterior tibial tendon insufficiency was produced by multiple ligamentous release and documented by AP and lateral radiographs. Reconstruction of the spring ligament using a ligament bone autograft from the superficial deltoid ligament was then performed and tested under load. The mean correction was within 2.5 degrees of normal (over or undercorrection) on both the AP and lateral radiographs with the specimens under load. Clinical Relevance. In posterior tibial tendon insufficiency, it may be possible to address the ligament as well as tendon insufficiency to gain a corrected arch. The success of such a procedure will depend upon adequate tendon and ligament reconstruction in a fully mobile deformity. Questions remain as to the adequacy of this ligament graft, and a stronger free ligament graft, as well as correction of any bony malalignment, may be required. PMID:1398361

  6. Demographic, physical, and radiographic factors associated with functional flatfoot deformity.

    PubMed

    Shibuya, Naohiro; Kitterman, Ryan T; LaFontaine, Javier; Jupiter, Daniel C

    2014-01-01

    In 1 of our previous studies, the occurrence of self-reported flatfoot was associated with self-reported increased age, male gender, Asian and African American races, veteran status, poor health, increased body mass index, callus, bunion, hammertoe, and arthritis. However, we had to rely on survey data to identify these risk factors, and the accuracy of the survey results was unknown. Therefore, we decided to identify the risk factors associated with flatfeet using objectively and more accurately measured data. A total of 94 patients were enrolled in the present study. The demographic data and physical and radiographic examination results were recorded by the investigators in the clinic. The data were then analyzed to identify the factors unique to flatfoot, measured and defined using a plantar pressure measurement system during natural gait. We learned that a painful tibialis posterior tendon was associated with flatfoot. The calcaneal inclination angle was also decreased in the flatfoot group. The talar declination, intermetatarsal, hallux abductus, and calcaneal cuboid angles, and static calcaneal stance eversion were elevated in the flatfoot group compared with the non-flatfoot group. Systematic evaluation of these associated factors will help in the understanding of the functional status of the flatfoot deformity. PMID:24418401

  7. Effects of Degree of Surgical Correction for Flatfoot Deformity in Patient-Specific Computational Models.

    PubMed

    Spratley, E M; Matheis, E A; Hayes, C W; Adelaar, R S; Wayne, J S

    2015-08-01

    A cohort of adult acquired flatfoot deformity rigid-body models was developed to investigate the effects of isolated tendon transfer with successive levels of medializing calcaneal osteotomy (MCO). Following IRB approval, six diagnosed flatfoot sufferers were subjected to magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and their scans used to derive patient-specific models. Single-leg stance was modeled, constrained solely through physiologic joint contact, passive soft-tissue tension, extrinsic muscle force, body weight, and without assumptions of idealized mechanical joints. Surgical effect was quantified using simulated mediolateral (ML) and anteroposterior (AP) X-rays, pedobarography, soft-tissue strains, and joint contact force. Radiographic changes varied across states with the largest average improvements for the tendon transfer (TT) + 10 mm MCO state evidenced through ML and AP talo-1st metatarsal angles. Interestingly, 12 of 14 measures showed increased deformity following TT-only, though all increases disappeared with inclusion of MCO. Plantar force distributions showed medial forefoot offloading concomitant with increases laterally such that the most corrected state had 9.0% greater lateral load. Predicted alterations in spring, deltoid, and plantar fascia soft-tissue strain agreed with prior cadaveric and computational works suggesting decreased strain medially with successive surgical repair. Finally, joint contact force demonstrated consistent medial offloading concomitant with variable increases laterally. Rigid-body modeling thus offers novel advantages for the investigation of foot/ankle biomechanics not easily measured in vivo. PMID:25465617

  8. Radiologic Patterning of Hallux Deformity in Rheumatoid Arthritis and Its Relationship to Flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Takumi; Nakada, Izumi; Juji, Takuo; Nakamura, Ichiro; Ito, Katsumi

    2016-01-01

    Hallux deformities other than hallux valgus, especially those in the sagittal plane, have not yet been elucidated in the feet of patients with rheumatoid arthritis. The objectives of the present study were to classify rheumatoid arthritis hallux deformity in both the horizontal and the sagittal planes and investigate its relationship with flatfoot. Using a cross-sectional study design, we assessed patients with rheumatoid arthritis (527 feet in 274 patients) using radiographs and classified the deformity patterns of the great toes using cluster analysis. Of the 274 patients, the range of motion in the metatarsophalangeal joint was clinically investigated in 44 (16.1%) patients. The great toes could be divided into 5 clusters according to the characteristic configuration as follows: cluster I (normal type), cluster II (hallux valgus type), cluster III (boutonniere type), cluster IV (boutonniere with hallux valgus type), and cluster V (swan-neck type). Radiographic measurements revealed the characteristic deformities of each cluster, including splayed foot for cluster II; flat foot, metatarsal primus elevatus, and plantar displacement of the proximal phalanx for cluster III; and a mixture of these characteristics for cluster IV. Plantar displacement of the proximal phalanx, which was a specific characteristic of the boutonniere deformity, correlated significantly with the decreased dorsiflexion in the metatarsophalangeal joint. Our classification method revealed the relationship of hallux deformity in the sagittal plane to flatfoot and also demonstrated the usefulness of measuring basal phalanx displacement in predicting the range of motion of the metatarsophalangeal joint. PMID:27289217

  9. Flexible Flatfoot

    MedlinePlus

    ... therapy modalities may be used to provide temporary relief. Shoe modifications. Wearing shoes that support the arches is important for anyone who has flatfoot. Ankle Foot Orthoses (AFO) devices. Your foot and ankle surgeon may recommend advanced ...

  10. How to approach the pediatric flatfoot

    PubMed Central

    Vulcano, Ettore; Maccario, Camilla; Myerson, Mark S

    2016-01-01

    The most difficult aspect regarding treatment of the pediatric flatfoot is understanding who needs surgery, when it is necessary, and what procedure to be done. A thorough history, clinical examination, and imaging should be performed to guide the surgeon through an often complex treatment path. Surgical technique can be divided in three categories: Soft tissue, bony, and arthroereisis. This paper will describe the joint preserving techniques and their application to treat the pediatric flatfoot deformity. PMID:26807350

  11. Tear of the plantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament causing flatfoot. A case report.

    PubMed

    Borton, D C; Saxby, T S

    1997-07-01

    Acquired flatfoot deformity after injury is usually due to partial or complete tearing of the tendon of tibialis posterior, with secondary failure of the other structures which maintain the medial longitudinal arch. We describe a patient in whom the rupture of the plantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament resulted in a clinical picture similar to that of rupture of the tendon of tibialis posterior. Operative repair of the ligament and transfer of the tendon of flexor digitorum gave an excellent result at four years with the patient returning to full sporting activities. PMID:9250756

  12. Could failure of the spring ligament complex be the driving force behind the development of the adult flatfoot deformity?

    PubMed

    Williams, Geraint; Widnall, James; Evans, Paul; Platt, Simon

    2014-01-01

    We conducted an investigation into the relative associations of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-defined pathologic features of the spring ligament and/or tibialis posterior tendon with radiographic evidence of a planovalgus foot position. A total of 161 patient images (MRI and plain radiographs) obtained from the foot and ankle clinic (2008 to 2011) were retrospectively reviewed. All 161 patients (64 male and 97 female; mean age 45.9 years, range 18 to 86) were included in the analysis. Lateral weightbearing radiographs were analyzed for the talo-first metatarsal angle ≥ 5°, calcaneal pitch ≤ 20°, and talocalcaneal angle ≥ 45°. A positive finding for ≥ 1 measurements identified a radiographic planovalgus position of the foot. The radiographic deformity was analyzed against the MRI evidence of either spring ligament or tibialis posterior tendon pathologic features for significance (p < .05). Evidence of a spring ligament abnormality was strongly associated with a planovalgus foot position, reaching high levels of statistical significance in all 3 categories of radiographic deformity (odds ratio 9.2, p < .0001). Abnormalities of the tibialis posterior tendon failed to demonstrate significance, unless grade I changes were excluded, and grade II and III appearances were analyzed in isolation (odds ratio 2.9, p = .04). Although absolute causal relationships were not tested, this investigation has clearly demonstrated that MRI-defined abnormalities of the spring ligament complex are possibly of at least equal importance to tibialis posterior dysfunction for the presence of a moderate to severe radiographic planovalgus foot position. PMID:24556481

  13. Ankle Deformity Secondary to Acquired Fibular Segmental Defect in Children

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Soo Hwan; Song, Seok Whan; Chung, Jin Wha; Kim, Yoon Chung; Suhl, Kyung Hwan

    2010-01-01

    Background The authors report the long-term effect of acquired pseudoarthrosis of the fibula on ankle development in children during skeletal growth, and the results of a long-term follow-up of Langenskiold's supramalleolar synostosis to correct an ankle deformity induced by an acquired fibular segmental defect in children. Methods Since 1980, 19 children with acquired pseudoarthrosis of the fibula were treated and followed up for an average of 11 years. Pseudoarthrosis was the result of a fibulectomy for tumor surgery, osteomyelitis of the fibula and traumatic segmental loss of the fibula in 10, 6, and 3 cases, respectively. Initially, a Langenskiold's operation (in 4 cases) and fusion of the lateral malleolus to the distal tibial epiphysis (in 1 case) were performed, whereas only skeletal growth was monitored in the other 14 cases. After a mean follow-up of 11 years, the valgus deformity and external tibial torsion of the ankle joint associated with proximal migration of the lateral malleolus needed to be treated with a supramallolar osteotomy in 12 cases (63%). These ankle deformities were evaluated using the serial radiographs and limb length scintigraphs. Results In all cases, early closure of the lateral part of the distal tibial physis, upward migration of the lateral malleolus, unstable valgus deformity and external tibial torsion of the ankle joint developed during a mean follow-up of 11 years (range, 5 to 21 years). The mean valgus deformity and external tibial torsion of the ankle at the final follow-up were 15.2° (range, 5° to 35°) and 10° (range, 5° to 12°), respectively. In 12 cases (12/19, 63%), a supramalleolar corrective osteotomy was performed but three children had a recurrence requiring an additional supramalleolar corrective osteotomy 2-4 times. Conclusions A valgus deformity and external tibial torsion are inevitable after acquired pseudoarthrosis of the fibula in children. Both Langenskiöld supramalleolar synostosis to prevent these

  14. The etiology of primary femoroacetabular impingement: genetics or acquired deformity?

    PubMed Central

    Packer, Jonathan D.; Safran, Marc R.

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of primary femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) remains controversial. Both genetic and acquired causes have been postulated and studied. While recent studies suggest that genetic factors may have a role in the development of FAI, there is no conclusive evidence that FAI is transmitted genetically. Currently, the most popular theory for the development of cam-type deformities is that a repetitive injury to the proximal femoral physis occurs during a critical period of development. There is a correlation between a high volume of impact activities during adolescence and the development of cam-type deformities. Multiple studies have found a high prevalence of FAI in elite football, ice hockey, basketball and soccer players. In this article, we review the current literature relating to the etiology of primary FAI. PMID:27011846

  15. The etiology of primary femoroacetabular impingement: genetics or acquired deformity?

    PubMed

    Packer, Jonathan D; Safran, Marc R

    2015-10-01

    The etiology of primary femoroacetabular impingement (FAI) remains controversial. Both genetic and acquired causes have been postulated and studied. While recent studies suggest that genetic factors may have a role in the development of FAI, there is no conclusive evidence that FAI is transmitted genetically. Currently, the most popular theory for the development of cam-type deformities is that a repetitive injury to the proximal femoral physis occurs during a critical period of development. There is a correlation between a high volume of impact activities during adolescence and the development of cam-type deformities. Multiple studies have found a high prevalence of FAI in elite football, ice hockey, basketball and soccer players. In this article, we review the current literature relating to the etiology of primary FAI. PMID:27011846

  16. Radiographic and clinical classification of acquired midtarsus deformities.

    PubMed

    Schon, L C; Weinfeld, S B; Horton, G A; Resch, S

    1998-06-01

    To develop a classification of midtarsus deformities, clinical examination and weightbearing radiographs were used to evaluate 131 feet in 109 patients (average age, 59+/-11 years) with those deformities. Patients were classified into four types based on anatomic location of the maximum deformity. Type I (N=43) showed deformity at the metatarsocuneiform joints medially and the fourth and fifth metatarsocuboid joints laterally, with plantarmedial and/or medial prominence. Type II (N= 60) had deformity at the naviculocuneiform joint medially and the fourth and fifth metatarsocuboid joints laterally; plantarlateral prominence was characteristic, although one-third had isolated or additional medial prominences. Type III (N=17) had major deformity in the perinavicular region, with a prominence plantarcentrally or plantarlaterally. Type IV (N=11) had deformity at the transverse tarsal joints with variable prominences. Each type was further subdivided into stages A, B, and C based on the severity of the deformity. In stage B, the midtarsus was coplanar with the metatarsocalcaneal plane. In stage A, the midtarsus was above this plane. In stage C, the midtarsus was below this plane. We concluded that midtarsus deformities can be classified as one of four types and one of three stages. Additional study is warranted to correlate this system with prognosis and treatment for this pathologic process. PMID:9677084

  17. Flatfoot and obesity in school-age children: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Sadeghi-Demneh, E; Azadinia, F; Jafarian, F; Shamsi, F; Melvin, J M A; Jafarpishe, M; Rezaeian, Z

    2016-02-01

    Childhood obesity exerts abnormally high stresses on developing foot structures which can lead to structural deformity of the foot. Screening for foot problems in children with overweight helps detect interior risks restricting normal lifestyle in these individuals. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of excess weight on the structure and function of the developing foot in students aged 7-14 years. A total of 667 participants were recruited for this cross-sectional study via a multi-level cluster sampling method (randomization was used within each cluster). All subjects (340 boys and 327 girls) attended primary and secondary schools in Isfahan City, Iran. The children's feet were evaluated using clinical assessments and footprint-based measures whilst fully weight bearing. Significant differences were observed in the frequency of flatfoot between normal weight, overweight and obese groups (P < 0.001); participants who were more overweight had flatter feet. Children with higher weight also had a more pronated heel, less dorsiflexion range and higher reported pain within physical activity. This study indicated that childhood obesity is associated with structural foot and ankle deformities and activity-related foot pain. PMID:26639935

  18. Correlation of Foot Posture Index With Plantar Pressure and Radiographic Measurements in Pediatric Flatfoot

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jung Su; Jeong, Jin Ook; Kwon, Na Yeon; Jeong, Sang Mi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the correlation between the Foot Posture Index (FPI) (including talar head palpation, curvature at the lateral malleoli, inversion/eversion of the calcaneus, talonavicular bulging, congruence of the medical longitudinal arch, and abduction/adduction of the forefoot on the rare foot), plantar pressure distribution, and pediatric flatfoot radiographic findings. Methods Nineteen children with flatfoot (age, 9.32±2.67 years) were included as the study group. Eight segments of plantar pressure were measured with the GaitView platform pressure pad and the FPI was measured in children. The four angles were measured on foot radiographs. We analyzed the correlation between the FPI, plantar pressure characteristics, and the radiographic angles in children with flatfoot. Results The ratio of hallux segment pressure and the second through fifth toe segment pressure was correlated with the FPI (r=0.385, p=0.017). The FPI was correlated with the lateral talo-first metatarsal angle (r=0.422, p=0.008) and calcaneal pitch (r=-0.411, p=0.01). Conclusion Our results show a correlation between the FPI and plantar pressure. The FPI and pediatric flatfoot radiography are useful tools to evaluate pediatric flatfoot. PMID:25750866

  19. Comparative Analysis of Continuous Acoustic Emission (AE) Data, Acquired from 12 and 16 Bit Streaming Systems during Rock Deformation Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flynn, J.; Goodfellow, S. D.; Nasseri, M. H.; Reyes-Montes, J. M.; Young, R.

    2013-12-01

    A comparative analysis of continuous acoustic emission (AE) data acquired during a triaxial compression test, using a 12-bit and a 16-bit acquisition system, is presented. A cylindrical sample (diameter 50.1 mm and length 125 mm) of Berea sandstone was triaxally deformed at a confining pressure of 15 MPa and a strain rate of 1.6E-06 s-1. The sample was loaded differentially until failure occurred at approximately σ1 = 160 MPa. AE activity was monitored for the duration of the experiment by an array of 8 broadband piezoelectric transducers coupled to the rock sample. Raw signals were amplified by 40 dB using pre-amplifiers equipped with filter modules with a frequency passband of 100 kHz to 1 MHz. The amplifiers had a split output enabling the measured signal to be fed into a 12-bit and a 16-bit acquisition system. AE waveforms were continuously recorded at 10 MS/s on 8 data acquisition channels per system. Approximately 4,500 events were harvested and source located from the continuous data for each system. P-wave arrivals were automatically picked and event locations calculated using the downhill Simplex method and a time-varying transverse isotropic velocity model based on periodical surveys across the sample. Events detected on the 12-bit and 16-bit systems were compared both in terms of their P-wave picks and their source locations. In the early stages of AE activity, there appeared to be little difference between P-wave picks and hypocenter locations from both data sets. As the experiment progressed into the post-peak stress regime, which was accompanied by an increase in AE rate and amplitude, fewer events could be harvested from the 12-bit data compared to the 16-bit data. This is linked to the observation of a higher signal-to-noise ratio on AE waveforms harvested from the 16-bit stream compared to those from the 12-bit stream, which results in an easier identification of P-wave onsets. Similarly a higher confidence in source location is expected. Analysis

  20. Ground Deformation Associated With Post-Mining Activity at the French-German Border Revealed by Multidimensional Time Series Analysis of SAR Data Acquired in Various Orbital Geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smets, B.; Samsonov, S. V.; d'Oreye, N.

    2012-12-01

    We present the application of an innovative methodology for producing multidimensional time series of ground deformation from satellite radar data acquired by sensors with various acquisition geometry, ground resolution, and wave band (Samsonov and d'Oreye, Resubmitted). This technique is based on the Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) method that is modified to produce horizontal and vertical time series of ground deformation. Produced time series have combined coverage, improved temporal resolution and lower noise level. We apply this methodology for mapping coal mining related ground subsidence and heave in the Greater Region of Luxembourg along the French-German border. For this we processed 167 Synthetic Aperture Radar ERS-1/2 and ENVISAT images acquired between 1995 and 2009 from one ascending (track 29) and one descending (track 337) tracks and created over five hundred interferograms that were used for time series analysis. Produced vertical and east-west linear deformation rates show with remarkable precision region of localized ground deformation located above and caused by mining and post-mining activities. Time series of ground de- formation display temporal variability: reversal from subsidence to uplift and acceleration of subsidence on the vertical component and horizontal motion towards the center of the subsidence on the east-west component. InSAR results are successfully validated by leveling measurements performed by the French Geological Survey (BRGM) during 2006-2008. We determined that deformation rate changes are mainly caused by water level variations in the mines. Due to higher temporal and spatial resolution the proposed space-born method detected a larger number of subsidence and uplift areas in comparison to leveling measurements restricted to annual monitoring of benchmark points along roads. We also identified deformation regions that are not precisely located above the mining sites. Comparison of InSAR measurements with the water levels

  1. Validity of Footprint Analysis to Determine Flatfoot Using Clinical Diagnosis as the Gold Standard in a Random Sample Aged 40 Years and Older

    PubMed Central

    Pita-Fernández, Salvador; González-Martín, Cristina; Seoane-Pillado, Teresa; López-Calviño, Beatriz; Pértega-Díaz, Sonia; Gil-Guillén, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Background Research is needed to determine the prevalence and variables associated with the diagnosis of flatfoot, and to evaluate the validity of three footprint analysis methods for diagnosing flatfoot, using clinical diagnosis as a benchmark. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study of a population-based random sample ≥40 years old (n = 1002) in A Coruña, Spain. Anthropometric variables, Charlson’s comorbidity score, and podiatric examination (including measurement of Clarke’s angle, the Chippaux-Smirak index, and the Staheli index) were used for comparison with a clinical diagnosis method using a podoscope. Multivariate regression was performed. Informed patient consent and ethical review approval were obtained. Results Prevalence of flatfoot in the left and right footprint, measured using the podoscope, was 19.0% and 18.9%, respectively. Variables independently associated with flatfoot diagnosis were age (OR 1.07), female gender (OR 3.55) and BMI (OR 1.39). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) showed that Clarke’s angle is highly accurate in predicting flatfoot (AUC 0.94), followed by the Chippaux-Smirak (AUC 0.83) and Staheli (AUC 0.80) indices. Sensitivity values were 89.8% for Clarke’s angle, 94.2% for the Chippaux-Smirak index, and 81.8% for the Staheli index, with respective positive likelihood ratios or 9.7, 2.1, and 2.0. Conclusions Age, gender, and BMI were associated with a flatfoot diagnosis. The indices studied are suitable for diagnosing flatfoot in adults, especially Clarke’s angle, which is highly accurate for flatfoot diagnosis in this population. PMID:25382154

  2. Flexible Flatfoot

    MedlinePlus

    ... Search by GPS Please enter a city or last name. Use your current position? {{ps.position.alert.message}} ... digit zip code. Please enter a city or last name. Search Where do you hurt? Interactive Foot Diagram ...

  3. Effects of a functional foot orthosis on the knee angle in the sagittal plane of college students in their 20s with flatfoot

    PubMed Central

    Park, KwangYong; Seo, KyoChul

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a functional foot orthosis on the knee angle in the sagittal plane of college students in their 20s who had flatfoot. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 20 college students diagnosed as having flatfoot. The variations of their knee angle (Q-angle) in the sagittal plane during the stance phase were measured using the VICON Motion System (Vicon, Hansung, Korea) before and while wearing a foot orthosis. The experimental data were analyzed using SPSS 12.0 for Windows. [Results] The Q-angle in the test group during the stance phase showed statistically significant declines on the right and left sides while wearing the foot orthosis during the gait-phases of loading response and midstance. During initial contact, terminal stance, and preswing, the Q-angle also decreased on the right and left sides after wearing the foot orthosis, but the changes were not statistically significant. [Conclusion] The college students with flatfoot exhibited declines in the Q-angle in the sagittal plane while wearing a foot orthosis. In this regard, the application of active gait training using orthotic shoes for long hours is likely to help individuals with flatfoot to achieve normal gait. PMID:25995591

  4. The effects of total contact insole with forefoot medial posting on rearfoot movement and foot pressure distributions in patients with flexible flatfoot.

    PubMed

    Tang, Simon Fuk-Tan; Chen, Chien-Hung; Wu, Chih-Kuan; Hong, Wei-Hsien; Chen, Kuan-Jung; Chen, Chih-Kuang

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the therapeutic effect of total contact insole with forefoot medial posting (TCIFMP) orthosis in patients with flexible flatfoot. The TCIFMP insole was custom- mode, made from semi-rigid plastazote and PPT. Using the gait analysis and the plantar-pressure measure systems, we investigate rearfoot motion and plantar pressure redistribution in these patients. The results of this study showed that the excessive valgus movement of the rearfoot can be reduced significantly by the TCIFMP insole in these patients. Besides, there were significant decreases in the peak pressure under the toe, lateral metatarsal, lateral foot and heel areas. Therefore, we suggested that the TCIFMP insole is an effective orthotic device for rearfoot motion control, plantar pressure reduction and re-distribution in patients with flexible flatfoot. PMID:25683316

  5. Effect of Pedal Deformity on Gait in a Patient With Total Knee Arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Wynes, Jacob; Lamm, Bradley M; Bhave, Anil; Elmallah, Randa K; Mont, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    The authors present the case of an 81-year-old man who, despite an anatomically aligned total knee arthroplasty, continued to have knee pain. The patient's ipsilateral rigid flatfoot caused by an earlier partial pedal amputation resulted in a valgus moment during gait, thus creating clinical symptoms in the total knee arthroplasty. Because of the deformity and scarring within the flatfoot, this valgus deformity was corrected through a varus distal femoral osteotomy. The result was normalization of the mechanical axis of the lower limb and a pain-free total knee arthroplasty with an excellent clinical outcome. This case shows the importance of comprehensive lower-extremity clinical and radiographic examination as well as gait analysis to understand the biomechanical effect on total knee arthroplasty. Recognition of pedal deformities and lower limb malalignment is paramount for achieving optimal outcomes and long-term success of total knee arthroplasty. The authors show that a rigid or nonflexible pedal deformity can have negative biomechanical effects on total knee arthroplasty. PMID:26709556

  6. Flowers of Cypripedium fargesii (Orchidaceae) fool flat-footed flies (Platypezidae) by faking fungus-infected foliage.

    PubMed

    Ren, Zong-Xin; Li, De-Zhu; Bernhardt, Peter; Wang, Hong

    2011-05-01

    Charles Darwin was fascinated by the orchid-pollinator interactions, but he did not realize that many orchid species are pollinated by deceit. Cypripedium, a model lineage of nonrewarding orchid flowers, is pollinated primarily by bees. Here we present both an example of floral mimesis of fungus-infected foliage in orchids and an example of flat-footed flies (Agathomyia sp.; Platypezidae) as pollen vectors for angiosperms. Cypripedium fargesii is a nectarless, terrestrial, endangered orchid from southwestern China that requires cross-pollination to produce the maximum number of viable embryos. All insects caught entering or leaving the labellum sac were Agathomyia sp. carrying conidia of Cladosporium sp. on their mouthparts and legs, suggesting mycophagy. Blackish hairy spots on the upper surface of foliage may imitate black mold spots, serving as short-term visual lures. Some odor molecules also associated with Cladosporium cultures were isolated in the floral scent. Mimesis of fungus-infected foliage probably represents an overlooked but important option in angiosperm diversification, because there are three to five more Cypripedium spp. in southwestern China with the same mode of floral presentation and black-spotted hairy leaves. PMID:21502502

  7. Biodegradable device applied in flatfoot surgery: comparative studies between clinical and technological aspects of removed screws.

    PubMed

    Ruozi, Barbara; Belletti, Daniela; Manfredini, Giuseppe; Tonelli, Massimo; Sena, Paola; Vandelli, Maria Angela; Forni, Flavio; Tosi, Giovanni

    2013-04-01

    Poly-L-lactide (PLLA) is one of the most used polymers for biomedical application; its use in sutures and other implants has been widely investigated. Although the knowledge of PLLA biodegradation and biocompatibility features is deep, PLLA screws used to correct the flat foot deformity have deserved attention since they are not degraded in most of cases after a long period of years (3-7) from the implantation. In this article, a clinical and radiological evaluation (NMR, histological and clinical outcomes) on patients was correlated with physico-chemical characterization (by SEM, DSC, GPC and XRD analysis at different temperatures) on both native and patient-recovered screws together with the theoretical degradation processes of PLLA-based implants. The data demonstrated the need for crossing the biodegradation and bioabsorption of the polymer with the characteristics of both the device (geometry, structure and fabrication process) and the implantation site. PMID:23827635

  8. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  9. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000146.htm Hospital-acquired pneumonia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is an infection of the lungs ...

  10. Haglund's Deformity

    MedlinePlus

    ... Is Haglund’s Deformity? Haglund’s deformity is a bony enlargement on the back of the heel. The soft ... the Achilles tendon becomes irritated when the bony enlargement rubs against shoes. This often leads to painful ...

  11. Madelung Deformity.

    PubMed

    Kozin, Scott H; Zlotolow, Dan A

    2015-10-01

    Madelung deformity of the wrist is more common in females and is often associated with Leri Weill dyschondrosteosis, a mesomelic form of dwarfism. Patients with Madelung deformity often report wrist deformity resulting from the prominence of the relatively long ulna. The typical Madelung deformity is associated with a Vickers ligament that creates a tether across the volar-ulnar radial physis that restricts growth across this segment. The distal radius deforms in the coronal (increasing radial inclination) and the sagittal (increasing volar tilt) planes. There is lunate subsidence and the proximal carpal row adapts to the deformity by forming an upside-down pyramid shape or triangle. Treatment depends on the age at presentation, degree of deformity, and magnitude of symptoms. Mild asymptomatic deformity warrants a period of nonsurgical management with serial x-ray examinations because the natural history is unpredictable. Many patients never require surgical intervention. Progressive deformity in the young child with considerable growth potential remaining requires release of Vickers ligament and radial physiolysis to prevent ongoing deterioration Concomitant ulnar epiphysiodesis may be necessary. Advanced asymptomatic deformity in older children with an unacceptable-appearing wrist or symptomatic deformity are indications for surgery. A dome osteotomy of the radius allows 3-dimensional correction of the deformity. Positive radiographic and clinical results after dome osteotomy have been reported. PMID:26341718

  12. Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis.

    PubMed

    Basak, P Y; Turkmen, C

    2001-01-01

    Acquired perforating disorder has been recognized as an uncommon distinct dermatosis in which altered collagen is eliminated through the epidermis. Several disorders accompanied by itching and scratching were reported to be associated with reactive perforating collagenosis. A 67-year-old white woman diagnosed as acquired reactive perforating collagenosis with poorly controlled diabetes mellitus and congestive cardiac failure is presented. PMID:11525959

  13. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... a kidney transplant or blood-filtering treatments called dialysis. The cysts are more likely to develop in people who are on kidney dialysis. The chance of developing acquired cystic kidney disease ...

  14. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... tends to be more serious than other lung infections because: People in the hospital are often very sick and cannot fight off ... prevent pneumonia. Most hospitals have programs to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  15. Deformation-Induced Anisotropy of Polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, S. T. J.; Landel, R. F.

    1982-01-01

    New theory calculates anisotropies induced by large deformations in polymers. Theory was developed primarily for calculating anistropy of thermal expansivity, but is also applicable to thermal conductivity, elastic moduli and other properties. Theory assumes that in isotropic state, long polymer chains are randomly coiled and not oriented in particular direction. They acquire an orientation when material is deformed. As average molecular orientation increases with deformation, properties of bulk material exhibit averaging of the microscopic anistropies of the oriented molecular segments.

  16. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach. PMID:26186969

  17. Spinal deformity.

    PubMed

    Bunnell, W P

    1986-12-01

    Spinal deformity is a relatively common disorder, particularly in teenage girls. Early detection is possible by a simple, quick visual inspection that should be a standard part of the routine examination of all preteen and teenage patients. Follow-up observation will reveal those curvatures that are progressive and permit orthotic treatment to prevent further increase in the deformity. Spinal fusion offers correction and stabilization of more severe degrees of scoliosis. PMID:3786010

  18. Acquired Brain Injury Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

    This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

  19. Acquired von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Petrini, P

    1999-05-01

    Acquired von Willebrand disease (AvWD) is a syndrome that has clinical and laboratory features similar to hereditary vWD. In contrast to the latter it occurs in patients without a family history of previous bleeding tendency. PMID:23401904

  20. Acquired von Willebrand disease.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shaji; Pruthi, Rajiv K; Nichols, William L

    2002-02-01

    Acquired von Willebrand disease (AvWD) is a relatively rare acquired bleeding disorder that usually occurs in elderly patients, in whom its recognition may be delayed. Patients usually present predominantly with mucocutaneous bleeding, with no previous history of bleeding abnormalities and no clinically meaningful family history. Various underlying diseases have been associated with AvWD, most commonly hematoproliferative disorders, including monoclonal gammopathies, lymphoproliferative disorders, and myeloproliferative disorders. The pathogenesis of AvWD remains incompletely understood but includes autoantibodies directed against the von Willebrand factor (vWF), leading to a more rapid clearance from the circulation or interference with its function, adsorption of vWF by tumor cells, and nonimmunologic mechanisms of destruction. Laboratory evaluation usually reveals a pattern of prolonged bleeding time and decreased levels of vWF antigen, ristocetin cofactor activity, and factor VIII coagulant activity consistent with a diagnosis of vWD. Acquired vWD is distinguished from the congenital form by age at presentation, absence of a personal and family history of bleeding disorders, and, often, presence of a hematoproliferative or autoimmune disorder. The severity of the bleeding varies considerably among patients. Therapeutic options include desmopressin and certain factor VIII concentrates that also contain vWF. Successful treatment of the associated illness can reverse the clinical and laboratory manifestations. Intravenous immunoglobulins have also shown some efficacy in the management of AvWD, especially cases associated with monoclonal gammopathies. Awareness of AvWD is essential for diagnosis and appropriate management. PMID:11838652

  1. Quaternary deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, R.D. Jr.

    1990-01-01

    Displaced or deformed rock units and landforms record the past 2 m.y. of faulting, folding, uplift, and subsidence in California. Properly interpreted, such evidence provides a quantitative basis for predicting future earthquake activity and for relating many diverse structures and landforms to the 5 cm/yr of horizontal motion at the boundary between the North American and Pacific plates. Modern techniques of geologic dating and expanded research on earthquake hazards have greatly improved our knowledge of the San Andreas fault system. Much of this new knowledge has been gained since 1965, and that part which concerns crustal deformation during the past 2 m.y. is briefly summarized here.

  2. Madelung deformity.

    PubMed

    Ghatan, Andrew C; Hanel, Douglas P

    2013-06-01

    Madelung deformity is a rare congenital anomaly of the wrist caused by asymmetric growth at the distal radial physis secondary to a partial ulnar-sided arrest. The deformity is characterized by ulnar and palmar curvature of the distal radius, positive ulnar variance, and proximal subsidence of the lunate. It more commonly occurs in females than males and typically affects both wrists. The deformity can occur in isolation or as part of a genetic syndrome. The pattern of inheritance varies, with some cases following a pseudoautosomal pattern and many others lacking a clear family history. Nonsurgical management is typically advocated in asymptomatic patients. Few studies exist on the natural history of the condition; however, extensor tendon ruptures have been reported in severe and chronic cases. Stiffness, pain, and patient concerns regarding wrist cosmesis have been cited as indications for surgery. Various techniques for surgical management of Madelung deformity have been described, but clear evidence to support the use of any single approach is lacking. PMID:23728962

  3. Microwave Tomography Using Deformable Mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arunachalam, Kavitha; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish S.

    2008-09-01

    Microwave tomography aims to reconstruct the spatial distribution of the electrical property of penetrable objects using field measurements acquired from multiple views at single or multiple frequencies. This paper presents a novel microwave tomography technique to image penetrable scatterers using deformable mirrors. The deformable mirror consists of a continuum of radiating elements that yields multi-view field measurements for noninvasive characterization of the spatial dielectric property of the scatterer in the microwave regime. Computational feasibility of the proposed technique is presented for heterogeneous two dimensional dielectric scatterers.

  4. [Acquired von Willebrand syndrome].

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo

    2006-01-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (aVWS) is a rare, but probably underestimated, bleeding disorder that mimics the congenital form of von Willebrand disease (VWD) in terms of laboratory findings and clinical presentation. However, unlike congenital VWD, it arises in individuals with no personal or family history of bleeding. AVWS occurs in association with a variety of underlying disorders, including lymphoproliferative disorders, myeloproliferative disorders and cardiovascular diseases. The main pathogenic, clinical, laboratory and therapeutic aspects of this syndrome are concisely reported in this review. PMID:16913181

  5. A two-dimensional deformable phantom for quantitatively verifying deformation algorithms

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Neil; Chuang, Cynthia; Pouliot, Jean

    2011-08-15

    Purpose: The incorporation of deformable image registration into the treatment planning process is rapidly advancing. For this reason, the methods used to verify the underlying deformation algorithms must evolve equally fast. This manuscript proposes a two-dimensional deformable phantom, which can objectively verify the accuracy of deformation algorithms, as the next step for improving these techniques. Methods: The phantom represents a single plane of the anatomy for a head and neck patient. Inflation of a balloon catheter inside the phantom simulates tumor growth. CT and camera images of the phantom are acquired before and after its deformation. Nonradiopaque markers reside on the surface of the deformable anatomy and are visible through an acrylic plate, which enables an optical camera to measure their positions; thus, establishing the ground-truth deformation. This measured deformation is directly compared to the predictions of deformation algorithms, using several similarity metrics. The ratio of the number of points with more than a 3 mm deformation error over the number that are deformed by more than 3 mm is used for an error metric to evaluate algorithm accuracy. Results: An optical method of characterizing deformation has been successfully demonstrated. For the tests of this method, the balloon catheter deforms 32 out of the 54 surface markers by more than 3 mm. Different deformation errors result from the different similarity metrics. The most accurate deformation predictions had an error of 75%. Conclusions: The results presented here demonstrate the utility of the phantom for objectively verifying deformation algorithms and determining which is the most accurate. They also indicate that the phantom would benefit from more electron density heterogeneity. The reduction of the deformable anatomy to a two-dimensional system allows for the use of nonradiopaque markers, which do not influence deformation algorithms. This is the fundamental advantage of this

  6. Surface Sampler Arm Acquiring Sample

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    Operation of the surface sampler in obtaining Martian soil for Viking 2's molecular analysis experiment last Saturday (September 25) was closely monitored by one of the Lander cameras because of the precision required in trenching the small area--8 by 9 inches-surrounded by rocks. Dubbed 'Bonneville Salt Flats,' the exposure of thin crust appeared unique in contrast with surrounding materials and became a prime target for organic analysis in spite of potential hazards. Large rock in foreground is 8 inches high. At left, the sampler scoop has touched the surface, missing the rock at upper left by a comfortable 6 inches, and the backhoe has penetrated the surface about one-half inch. The scoop was then pulled back to sample the desired point and (second photo) the backhoe furrowed the surface pulling a piece of thin crust toward the spacecraft. The initial touchdown and retraction sequence was used to avoid a collision between a rock in the shadow of the arm and a plate joining the arm and scoop. The rock was cleared by 2 to 3 inches. The third picture was taken 8 minutes after the scoop touched the surface and shows that the collector head has acquired a quantity of soil. With surface sampler withdrawn (right), the foot-long trench is seen between the rocks. The trench is three inches wide and about 1 1/2 to 2 inches deep. The scoop reached to within 3 inches of the rock at far end of trench. Penetration appears to have left a cavernous opening roofed by the crust and only about one inch of undisturbed crust separates the deformed surface and the rock.

  7. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  8. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Polverino, E; Torres Marti, A

    2011-02-01

    Despite the remarkable advances in antibiotic therapies, diagnostic tools, prevention campaigns and intensive care, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still among the primary causes of death worldwide, and there have been no significant changes in mortality in the last decades. The clinical and economic burden of CAP makes it a major public health problem, particularly for children and the elderly. This issue provides a clinical overview of CAP, focusing on epidemiology, economic burden, diagnosis, risk stratification, treatment, clinical management, and prevention. Particular attention is given to some aspects related to the clinical management of CAP, such as the microbial etiology and the available tools to achieve it, the usefulness of new and old biomarkers, and antimicrobial and other non-antibiotic adjunctive therapies. Possible scenarios in which pneumonia does not respond to treatment are also analyzed to improve clinical outcomes of CAP. PMID:21242952

  9. Acquired Porphyria Cutanea Tarda

    PubMed Central

    Koval, Andrew; Danby, C. W. E.; Petermann, H.

    1965-01-01

    Currently, the porphyrias are classified in four main groups: congenital porphyria, acute intermittent porphyria, porphyria cutanea tarda hereditaria, and porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica. The acquired form of porphyria (porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica) occurs in older males and is nearly always associated with chronic alcoholism and hepatic cirrhosis. The main clinical changes are dermatological, with excessive skin fragility and photosensitivity resulting in erosions and bullae. Biochemically, high levels of uroporphyrin are found in the urine and stools. Treatment to date has been symptomatic and usually unsuccessful. A case of porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica is presented showing dramatic improvement of both the skin lesions and porphyrin levels in urine and blood following repeated phlebotomy. Possible mechanisms of action of phlebotomy on porphyria cutanea tarda symptomatica are discussed. ImagesFig. 1Fig. 2 PMID:14341652

  10. [ICU acquired neuromyopathy].

    PubMed

    Gueret, G; Guillouet, M; Vermeersch, V; Guillard, E; Talarmin, H; Nguyen, B-V; Rannou, F; Giroux-Metges, M-A; Pennec, J-P; Ozier, Y

    2013-09-01

    ICU acquired neuromyopathy (IANM) is the most frequent neurological pathology observed in ICU. Nerve and muscle defects are merged with neuromuscular junction abnormalities. Its physiopathology is complex. The aim is probably the redistribution of nutriments and metabolism towards defense against sepsis. The main risk factors are sepsis, its severity and its duration of evolution. IANM is usually diagnosed in view of difficulties in weaning from mechanical ventilation, but electrophysiology may allow an earlier diagnosis. There is no curative therapy, but early treatment of sepsis, glycemic control as well as early physiotherapy may decrease its incidence. The outcomes of IANM are an increase in morbi-mortality and possibly long-lasting neuromuscular abnormalities as far as tetraplegia. PMID:23958176

  11. Acute Acquired Concomitant Esotropia

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingchang; Deng, Daming; Sun, Yuan; Shen, Tao; Cao, Guobin; Yan, Jianhua; Chen, Qiwen; Ye, Xuelian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Acute acquired concomitant esotropia (AACE) is a rare, distinct subtype of esotropia. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe the clinical characteristics and discuss the classification and etiology of AACE. Charts from 47 patients with AACE referred to our institute between October 2010 and November 2014 were reviewed. All participants underwent a complete medical history, ophthalmologic and orthoptic examinations, and brain and orbital imaging. Mean age at onset was 26.6 ± 12.2 years. Of the 18 cases with deviations ≤ 20 PD, 16 presented with diplopia at distance and fusion at near vision at the onset of deviation; differences between distance and near deviations were < 8 PD; all cases except one were treated with prism and diplopia resolved. Of the 29 cases with deviations > 20 PD, 5 were mild hypermetropic with age at onset between 5 and 19 years, 16 were myopic, and 8 were emmetropic with age at onset > 12 years; 24 were surgically treated and 5 cases remained under observation; all 24 cases achieved normal retinal correspondence or fusion or stereopsis on postoperative day 1 in synoptophore; in 23 cases diplopia or visual confusion resolved postoperatively. Of the 47 cases, brain and orbital imaging in 2 cases revealed a tumor in the cerebellopontine angle and 1 case involved spinocerebellar ataxia as revealed by genetic testing. AACE in this study was characterized by a sudden onset of concomitant nonaccommodative esotropia with diplopia or visual confusion at 5 years of age or older and the potential for normal binocular vision. We suggest that AACE can be divided into 2 subgroups consisting of patients with relatively small versus large angle deviations. Coexisting or underlying neurological diseases were infrequent in AACE. PMID:26705210

  12. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... confer control of X and therefore will file as an acquiring person. Because A held the plant prior to the... within two persons, “A” and “B.” Under this section, if V is to acquire corporation X, both “A” and “B... person. Examples: 1. Assume that person “Q” will acquire voting securities of corporation X held by...

  13. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... confer control of X and therefore will file as an acquiring person. Because A held the plant prior to the... within two persons, “A” and “B.” Under this section, if V is to acquire corporation X, both “A” and “B... person. Examples: 1. Assume that person “Q” will acquire voting securities of corporation X held by...

  14. ACQUIRED PES CAVUS IN CHARCOT-MARIE-TOOTH DISEASE

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho Maranho, Daniel Augusto; Volpon, José Batista

    2015-01-01

    Hereditary motor and sensory neuropathies, especially Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, are frequently expressed with an acquired cavusvarus foot which is characterized by a fixed increase of the plantar arch and hindfoot inversion. Diagnosis of the underlying condition achieved through careful patient assessment and local evaluations is the keystone for decision-making about the adequate treatment. The cavus may present as an isolated deformity of the forefoot, hindfoot or it may be a combination of both locations. Related deformities, mainly the varus and toe clawing require appropriate evaluation; clinical characteristics such as severity of the deformity, impairment of the muscular power, flexibility and patient's age are important characteristics in the treatment decision. Conservative treatment of the cavusvarus foot with physiotherapy, insoles and shoe modifications are reserved to young patients and mild deformities. However, there is a tendency of the deformity to become more severe over time because of the progressive feature of the underlying neurological condition. So, the surgical treatment by using classical techniques is performed in early stages. Most importantly is the identification of the primary and main components of each deformity to properly correct them, if possible. Muscular transfers are used to treat the dynamic unbalance, retracted structures should be either divided or lengthened and localized osteotomies should be preferred over arthrodeses, which are reserved for stiff and severely deformed feet in adults. PMID:27077056

  15. Deformation Measurements of Smart Aerodynamic Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Burner, Alpheus

    2005-01-01

    Video Model Deformation (VMD) and Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) were used to acquire wind tunnel model deformation measurements of the Northrop Grumman-built Smart Wing tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The F18-E/F planform Smart Wing was outfitted with embedded shape memory alloys to actuate a seamless trailing edge aileron and flap, and an embedded torque tube to generate wing twist. The VMD system was used to obtain highly accurate deformation measurements at three spanwise locations along the main body of the wing, and at spanwise locations on the flap and aileron. The PMI system was used to obtain full-field wing shape and deformation measurements over the entire wing lower surface. Although less accurate than the VMD system, the PMI system revealed deformations occurring between VMD target rows indistinguishable by VMD. This paper presents the VMD and PMI techniques and discusses their application in the Smart Wing test.

  16. Deformation measurements of smart aerodynamic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Burner, Alpheus W.

    1999-10-01

    Video Model Deformation (VMD) and Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) were used to acquire wind tunnel model deformation measurements of the Northrop Grumman-built Smart Wing tested in the NASA Langley Transonic Dynamics Tunnel. The F18-E/F platform Smart Wing was outfitted with embedded shape memory alloys to actuate a seamless trailing edge aileron and flat, and an embedded torque tube to generate wing twist. The VMD system was used to obtain highly accurate deformation measurements at three spanwise locations along the main body of the wing, and at spanwise locations on the flap and aileron. The PMI system was used to obtain full-field wing shape and deformation measurements over the entire wing lower surface. Although less accurate than the VMD system, the PMI system revealed deformations occurring between VMD target rows indistinguishable by VMD. This paper presents the VMD and PMI techniques and discusses their application in the Smart Wing test.

  17. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... acquired person is the pre-acquisition ultimate parent entity of the entity. (ii) The value of an... directors of B. A is deemed to be acquiring all of the assets of B as a result. (g) Transfers of patent... transfer of patent rights covered by this paragraph constitutes an asset acquisition; and (3) Patent...

  18. Children Acquire Emotion Categories Gradually

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Widen, Sherri C.; Russell, James A.

    2008-01-01

    Some accounts imply that basic-level emotion categories are acquired early and quickly, whereas others imply that they are acquired later and more gradually. Our study examined this question for fear, happiness, sadness, and anger in the context of children's categorization of emotional facial expressions. Children (N=168, 2-5 years) first labeled…

  19. Deformation mechanisms of antigorite serpentinite at subduction zone conditions determined from experimentally and naturally deformed rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzende, Anne-Line; Escartin, Javier; Walte, Nicolas P.; Guillot, Stéphane; Hirth, Greg; Frost, Daniel J.

    2015-02-01

    We performed deformation-DIA experiments on antigorite serpentinite at pressures of 1-3.5 GPa and temperatures of between 400 and 650 °C, bracketing the stability of antigorite under subduction zone conditions. For each set of pressure-temperature (P-T) conditions, we conducted two runs at strain rates of 5 ×10-5 and 1 ×10-4 s-1. We complemented our study with a sample deformed in a Griggs-type apparatus at 1 GPa and 400 °C (Chernak and Hirth, 2010), and with natural samples from Cuba and the Alps deformed under blueschist/eclogitic conditions. Optical and transmission electron microscopies were used for microstructural characterization and determination of deformation mechanisms. Our observations on experimentally deformed antigorite prior to breakdown show that deformation is dominated by cataclastic flow with observable but minor contribution of plastic deformation (microkinking and (001) gliding mainly expressed by stacking disorder mainly). In contrast, in naturally deformed samples, plastic deformation structures are dominant (stacking disorder, kinking, pressure solution), with minor but also perceptible contribution of brittle deformation. When dehydration occurs in experiments, plasticity increases and is coupled to local embrittlement that we attribute to antigorite dehydration. In dehydrating samples collected in the Alps, embrittlement is also observed suggesting that dehydration may contribute to intermediate-depth seismicity. Our results thus show that semibrittle deformation operates within and above the stability field of antigorite. However, the plastic deformation recorded by naturally deformed samples was likely acquired at low strain rates. We also document that the corrugated structure of antigorite controls the strain accommodation mechanisms under subduction conditions, with preferred inter- and intra-grain cracking along (001) and gliding along both a and b. We also show that antigorite rheology in subduction zones is partly controlled

  20. Congenital and acquired orthopedic abnormalities in patients with myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Westcott, M A; Dynes, M C; Remer, E M; Donaldson, J S; Dias, L S

    1992-11-01

    This article presents a radiologic review of the spectrum of acquired and congenital orthopedic abnormalities found in patients with myelomeningocele. These abnormalities are caused predominantly by muscle imbalance, paralysis, and decreased sensation in the lower extremity. Iatrogenic injury, such as a postoperative tethered cord, may also cause bone abnormalities. Selected images were obtained from more than 800 children. Important entities presented include spinal curvatures such as kyphosis, scoliosis, and lordosis; subluxation and dislocation of the hip, coxa valga, contractures of the hip, and femoral torsion; knee deformities; rotational abnormalities of the lower extremity and external and internal torsion; ankle and foot abnormalities such as ankle valgus, calcaneus foot, congenital vertical talus (rocker-bottom deformity), and talipes equinovarus; and metaphyseal, diaphyseal, and physeal fractures. Familiarity with congenital abnormalities and an understanding of the pathogenesis of acquired disorders in patients with myelomeningocele are essential for proper radiologic interpretation and timely therapy. PMID:1439018

  1. Deformed Palmprint Matching Based on Stable Regions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiangqian; Zhao, Qiushi

    2015-12-01

    Palmprint recognition (PR) is an effective technology for personal recognition. A main problem, which deteriorates the performance of PR, is the deformations of palmprint images. This problem becomes more severe on contactless occasions, in which images are acquired without any guiding mechanisms, and hence critically limits the applications of PR. To solve the deformation problems, in this paper, a model for non-linearly deformed palmprint matching is derived by approximating non-linear deformed palmprint images with piecewise-linear deformed stable regions. Based on this model, a novel approach for deformed palmprint matching, named key point-based block growing (KPBG), is proposed. In KPBG, an iterative M-estimator sample consensus algorithm based on scale invariant feature transform features is devised to compute piecewise-linear transformations to approximate the non-linear deformations of palmprints, and then, the stable regions complying with the linear transformations are decided using a block growing algorithm. Palmprint feature extraction and matching are performed over these stable regions to compute matching scores for decision. Experiments on several public palmprint databases show that the proposed models and the KPBG approach can effectively solve the deformation problem in palmprint verification and outperform the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:26390453

  2. Deformation measurement for satellite antenna by close-range photogrammetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shanping; Yang, Linhua; Xu, Jie; Yu, Jiang

    2013-10-01

    The photogrammetric system in vacuum cryogenic environment is designed to measure the sharp deformation of the satellite antenna due to the thermal deformation. The method of the measurement is based on the close-range photogrammetric techniques. This system includes CCD photography assembly, scale bars, support structures and the software. A test was performed by using this system, and the sharp deformation of a reflecting antenna was measured. In the test, a plenty of data was acquired, then the measurement method was proved feasible. According to analysis, we can acquire that the relatively measurement precision by this system can reach to 1:20000.

  3. Acquired Equivalence Changes Stimulus Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meeter, M.; Shohamy, D.; Myers, C. E.

    2009-01-01

    Acquired equivalence is a paradigm in which generalization is increased between two superficially dissimilar stimuli (or antecedents) that have previously been associated with similar outcomes (or consequents). Several possible mechanisms have been proposed, including changes in stimulus representations, either in the form of added associations or…

  4. SU-E-J-104: Evaluation of Accuracy for Various Deformable Image Registrations with Virtual Deformation QA Software

    SciTech Connect

    Han, S; Kim, K; Kim, M; Jung, H; Ji, Y; Choi, S; Park, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The accuracy of deformable image registration (DIR) has a significant dosimetric impact in radiation treatment planning. We evaluated accuracy of various DIR algorithms using virtual deformation QA software (ImSimQA, Oncology System Limited, UK). Methods: The reference image (Iref) and volume (Vref) was first generated with IMSIMQA software. We deformed Iref with axial movement of deformation point and Vref depending on the type of deformation that are the deformation1 is to increase the Vref (relaxation) and the deformation 2 is to decrease the Vref (contraction) .The deformed image (Idef) and volume (Vdef) were inversely deformed to Iref and Vref using DIR algorithms. As a Result, we acquired deformed image (Iid) and volume (Vid). The DIR algorithms were optical flow (HS, IOF) and demons (MD, FD) of the DIRART. The image similarity evaluation between Iref and Iid was calculated by Normalized Mutual Information (NMI) and Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC). The value of Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) was used for evaluation of volume similarity. Results: When moving distance of deformation point was 4 mm, the value of NMI was above 1.81 and NCC was above 0.99 in all DIR algorithms. Since the degree of deformation was increased, the degree of image similarity was decreased. When the Vref increased or decreased about 12%, the difference between Vref and Vid was within ±5% regardless of the type of deformation. The value of DSC was above 0.95 in deformation1 except for the MD algorithm. In case of deformation 2, that of DSC was above 0.95 in all DIR algorithms. Conclusion: The Idef and Vdef have not been completely restored to Iref and Vref and the accuracy of DIR algorithms was different depending on the degree of deformation. Hence, the performance of DIR algorithms should be verified for the desired applications.

  5. Deformations in VLBI antennas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, T. A.; Thomsen, P.

    1988-01-01

    A study is presented of deformations in antennas with the emphasis on their influence on VLBI measurements. The GIFTS structural analysis program has been used to model the VLBI antenna in Fairbanks (Alaska). The report identifies key deformations and studies the effect of gravity, wind, and temperature. Estimates of expected deformations are given.

  6. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, F

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane transport systems, and the epithelial absorptive enzymes. Acquired causes of malabsorption are classified by focussing on the three phases of digestion and absorption: 1) luminal/digestive phase, 2) mucosal/absorptive phase, and 3) transport phase. Most acquired diseases affect the luminal/digestive phase. These include short bowel syndrome, extensive small bowel inflammation, motility disorders, and deficiencies of digestive enzymes or bile salts. Diagnosis depends on symptoms, physical examination, and blood and stool tests. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of malabsorption. Further testing should be based on the specific clinical context and the suspected underlying disease. Therapy is directed at nutritional support by enteral or parenteral feeding and screening for and supplementation of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. Early enteral feeding is important for intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. Medicinal treatment options for diarrhoea in malabsorption include loperamide, codeine, cholestyramine, or antibiotics. PMID:27086886

  7. Deformable Nanolaminate Optics

    SciTech Connect

    Olivier, S S; Papavasiliou, A P; Barbee, T W; Miles, R R; Walton, C C; Cohn, M B; Chang, K

    2006-05-12

    We are developing a new class of deformable optic based on electrostatic actuation of nanolaminate foils. These foils are engineered at the atomic level to provide optimal opto-mechanical properties, including surface quality, strength and stiffness, for a wide range of deformable optics. We are combining these foils, developed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), with commercial metal processing techniques to produce prototype deformable optics with aperture sizes up to 10 cm and actuator spacing from 1 mm to 1 cm and with a range of surface deformation designed to be as much as 10 microns. The existing capability for producing nanolaminate foils at LLNL, coupled with the commercial metal processing techniques being used, enable the potential production of these deformable optics with aperture sizes of over 1 m, and much larger deformable optics could potentially be produced by tiling multiple deformable segments. In addition, based on the fabrication processes being used, deformable nanolaminate optics could potentially be produced with areal densities of less than 1 kg per square m for applications in which lightweight deformable optics are desirable, and deformable nanolaminate optics could potentially be fabricated with intrinsically curved surfaces, including aspheric shapes. We will describe the basic principles of these devices, and we will present details of the design, fabrication and characterization of the prototype deformable nanolaminate optics that have been developed to date. We will also discuss the possibilities for future work on scaling these devices to larger sizes and developing both devices with lower areal densities and devices with curved surfaces.

  8. Perioperatively acquired disorders of coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Grottke, Oliver; Fries, Dietmar; Nascimento, Bartolomeu

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an overview of acquired coagulopathies that can occur in various perioperative clinical settings. Also described are coagulation disturbances linked to antithrombotic medications and currently available strategies to reverse their antithrombotic effects in situations of severe hemorrhage. Recent findings Recent studies highlight the link between low fibrinogen and decreased fibrin polymerization in the development of acquired coagulopathy. Particularly, fibrin(ogen) deficits are observable after cardiopulmonary bypass in cardiac surgery, on arrival at the emergency room in trauma patients, and with ongoing bleeding after child birth. Regarding antithrombotic therapy, although new oral anticoagulants offer the possibility of efficacy and relative safety compared with vitamin K antagonists, reversal of their anticoagulant effect with nonspecific agents, including prothrombin complex concentrate, has provided conflicting results. Specific antidotes, currently being developed, are not yet licensed for clinical use, but initial results are promising. Summary Targeted hemostatic therapy aims to correct coagulopathies in specific clinical settings, and reduce the need for allogeneic transfusions, thus preventing massive transfusion and its deleterious outcomes. Although there are specific guidelines for reversing anticoagulation in patients treated with antiplatelet agents or warfarin, there is currently little evidence to advocate comprehensive recommendations to treat drug-induced coagulopathy associated with new oral anticoagulants. PMID:25734869

  9. Foodborne listeriosis acquired in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Silk, Benjamin J; McCoy, Morgan H; Iwamoto, Martha; Griffin, Patricia M

    2014-08-15

    Listeriosis is characterized by bacteremia or meningitis. We searched for listeriosis case series and outbreak investigations published in English by 2013, and assessed the strength of evidence for foodborne acquisition among patients who ate hospital food. We identified 30 reports from 13 countries. Among the case series, the median proportion of cases considered to be hospital-acquired was 25% (range, 9%-67%). The median number of outbreak-related illnesses considered to be hospital-acquired was 4.0 (range, 2-16). All patients were immunosuppressed in 18 of 24 (75%) reports with available data. Eight outbreak reports with strong evidence for foodborne acquisition in a hospital implicated sandwiches (3 reports), butter, precut celery, Camembert cheese, sausage, and tuna salad (1 report each). Foodborne acquisition of listeriosis among hospitalized patients is well documented internationally. The number of listeriosis cases could be reduced substantially by establishing hospital policies for safe food preparation for immunocompromised patients and by not serving them higher-risk foods. PMID:24846635

  10. Deformable bearing seat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moreman, O. S., III (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A deformable bearing seat is described for seating a bearing assembly in a housing. The seat includes a seating surface in the housing having a first predetermined spheroidal contour when the housing is in an undeformed mode. The seating surface is deformable to a second predetermined spherically contoured surface when the housing is in a deformed mode. The seat is particularly adaptable for application to a rotating blade and mounting ring assembly in a gas turbine engine.

  11. Deformed discrete symmetries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arzano, Michele; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2016-09-01

    We construct discrete symmetry transformations for deformed relativistic kinematics based on group valued momenta. We focus on the specific example of κ-deformations of the Poincaré algebra with associated momenta living on (a sub-manifold of) de Sitter space. Our approach relies on the description of quantum states constructed from deformed kinematics and the observable charges associated with them. The results we present provide the first step towards the analysis of experimental bounds on the deformation parameter κ to be derived via precision measurements of discrete symmetries and CPT.

  12. Fluctuations as stochastic deformation.

    PubMed

    Kazinski, P O

    2008-04-01

    A notion of stochastic deformation is introduced and the corresponding algebraic deformation procedure is developed. This procedure is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables like deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). This method is demonstrated on diverse relativistic and nonrelativistic models with finite and infinite degrees of freedom. It is shown that under stochastic deformation the model of a nonrelativistic particle interacting with the electromagnetic field on a curved background passes into the stochastic model described by the Fokker-Planck equation with the diffusion tensor being the inverse metric tensor. The first stochastic correction to the Newton equations for this system is found. The Klein-Kramers equation is also derived as the stochastic deformation of a certain classical model. Relativistic generalizations of the Fokker-Planck and Klein-Kramers equations are obtained by applying the procedure of stochastic deformation to appropriate relativistic classical models. The analog of the Fokker-Planck equation associated with the stochastic Lorentz-Dirac equation is derived too. The stochastic deformation of the models of a free scalar field and an electromagnetic field is investigated. It turns out that in the latter case the obtained stochastic model describes a fluctuating electromagnetic field in a transparent medium. PMID:18517590

  13. Fluctuations as stochastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazinski, P. O.

    2008-04-01

    A notion of stochastic deformation is introduced and the corresponding algebraic deformation procedure is developed. This procedure is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables like deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). This method is demonstrated on diverse relativistic and nonrelativistic models with finite and infinite degrees of freedom. It is shown that under stochastic deformation the model of a nonrelativistic particle interacting with the electromagnetic field on a curved background passes into the stochastic model described by the Fokker-Planck equation with the diffusion tensor being the inverse metric tensor. The first stochastic correction to the Newton equations for this system is found. The Klein-Kramers equation is also derived as the stochastic deformation of a certain classical model. Relativistic generalizations of the Fokker-Planck and Klein-Kramers equations are obtained by applying the procedure of stochastic deformation to appropriate relativistic classical models. The analog of the Fokker-Planck equation associated with the stochastic Lorentz-Dirac equation is derived too. The stochastic deformation of the models of a free scalar field and an electromagnetic field is investigated. It turns out that in the latter case the obtained stochastic model describes a fluctuating electromagnetic field in a transparent medium.

  14. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: neuroradiologic findings.

    PubMed

    Kelly, W M; Brant-Zawadzki, M

    1983-11-01

    Central nervous system complications depicted by CT in ten patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are described. Three patients had multifocal intra-axial enhancing lesions representing atypical brain abscesses (two with toxoplasmosis, one with candidiasis). A fourth patient with multifocal "ring" lesions whose biopsy was interpreted as suggestive of toxoplasmosis responded poorly to treatment. Following his death three months later of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, autopsy revealed primary intracerebral immunoblastic lymphoma. One patient had Kaposi sarcoma involving the right frontal lobe (seen as an enhancing mass on the CT scan). CT findings in the remaining five patients revealed mild to moderate enlargement of cerebrospinal fluid spaces (including ventricles and basal cisternae) as a result of cryptococcal meningitis in three patients and "aseptic" meningitis in two. The two patients in whom early biopsy confirmed toxoplasmosis responded well to anti-infective therapy, resulting in dramatic clinical recoveries. PMID:6622693

  15. Bejel: acquirable only in childhood?

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Bruce M; Rothschild, Christine; Naples, Virginia; Billard, Michel; Panero, Barbara

    2006-10-01

    Bejel clearly has a long history in the Middle East and the Sudan, but was it transmitted to Europe? As the major manifestation of bejel is presence of periosteal reaction in 20-40% of afflicted populations, absence of significant population frequency of periosteal reaction in Europe would exclude that diagnosis. Examination of skeletal populations from continental Europe revealed no significant periosteal reaction at the time of and immediately subsequent to the Crusades. Thus, there is no evidence for bejel in Europe, in spite of clear contact (the mechanism of bejel transmission in children) between warring groups, at least during the Crusades. This supports the hypothesis that bejel is a childhood-acquired disease and apparently cannot be contracted in adulthood. PMID:17049474

  16. Lymphoma in acquired generalized lipodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Brown, Rebecca J; Chan, Jean L; Jaffe, Elaine S; Cochran, Elaine; DePaoli, Alex M; Gautier, Jean-Francois; Goujard, Cecile; Vigouroux, Corinne; Gorden, Phillip

    2016-01-01

    Acquired generalized lipodystrophy (AGL) is a rare disease thought to result from autoimmune destruction of adipose tissue. Peripheral T-cell lymphoma (PTCL) has been reported in two AGL patients. We report five additional cases of lymphoma in AGL, and analyze the role of underlying autoimmunity and recombinant human leptin (metreleptin) replacement in lymphoma development. Three patients developed lymphoma during metreleptin treatment (two PTCL and one ALK-positive anaplastic large cell lymphoma), and two developed lymphomas (mycosis fungoides and Burkitt lymphoma) without metreleptin. AGL is associated with high risk for lymphoma, especially PTCL. Autoimmunity likely contributes to this risk. Lymphoma developed with or without metreleptin, suggesting metreleptin does not directly cause lymphoma development; a theoretical role of metreleptin in lymphoma progression remains possible. For most patients with AGL and severe metabolic complications, the proven benefits of metreleptin on metabolic disease will likely outweigh theoretical risks of metreleptin in lymphoma development or progression. PMID:25864863

  17. Measurement of Rotorcraft Blade Deformation using Projection Moire Interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleming, Gary A.; Gorton, Susan Althoff

    1998-01-01

    Projection Moire Interferometry (PMI) has been used to obtain near instantaneous, quantitative blade deformation measurements of a generic rotorcraft model at several test conditions. These laser-based measurements provide quantitative, whole field, dynamic blade deformation profiles conditionally sampled as a function of rotor azimuth. The instantaneous nature of the measurements permits computation of the mean and unsteady blade deformation, blade bending, and twist. The PMI method is presented, and the image processing steps required to obtain quantitative deformation profiles from PMI interferograms are described. Experimental results are provided which show blade bending, twist, and unsteady motion. This initial proof-of-concept test has demonstrated the capability of PMI to acquire accurate, full field rotorcraft blade deformation data.

  18. Resurgent deformation quantisation

    SciTech Connect

    Garay, Mauricio; Goursac, Axel de; Straten, Duco van

    2014-03-15

    We construct a version of the complex Heisenberg algebra based on the idea of endless analytic continuation. The algebra would be large enough to capture quantum effects that escape ordinary formal deformation quantisation. -- Highlights: •We construct resurgent deformation quantisation. •We give integral formulæ. •We compute examples which show that hypergeometric functions appear naturally in quantum computations.

  19. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  20. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  1. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  2. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  3. Deformation mechanisms in experimentally deformed Boom Clay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desbois, Guillaume; Schuck, Bernhard; Urai, Janos

    2016-04-01

    Bulk mechanical and transport properties of reference claystones for deep disposal of radioactive waste have been investigated since many years but little is known about microscale deformation mechanisms because accessing the relevant microstructure in these soft, very fine-grained, low permeable and low porous materials remains difficult. Recent development of ion beam polishing methods to prepare high quality damage free surfaces for scanning electron microscope (SEM) is opening new fields of microstructural investigation in claystones towards a better understanding of the deformation behavior transitional between rocks and soils. We present results of Boom Clay deformed in a triaxial cell in a consolidated - undrained test at a confining pressure of 0.375 MPa (i.e. close to natural value), with σ1 perpendicular to the bedding. Experiments stopped at 20 % strain. As a first approximation, the plasticity of the sample can be described by a Mohr-Coulomb type failure envelope with a coefficient of cohesion C = 0.117 MPa and an internal friction angle ϕ = 18.7°. After deformation test, the bulk sample shows a shear zone at an angle of about 35° from the vertical with an offset of about 5 mm. We used the "Lamipeel" method that allows producing a permanent absolutely plane and large size etched micro relief-replica in order to localize and to document the shear zone at the scale of the deformed core. High-resolution imaging of microstructures was mostly done by using the BIB-SEM method on key-regions identified after the "Lamipeel" method. Detailed BIB-SEM investigations of shear zones show the following: the boundaries between the shear zone and the host rock are sharp, clay aggregates and clastic grains are strongly reoriented parallel to the shear direction, and the porosity is significantly reduced in the shear zone and the grain size is smaller in the shear zone than in the host rock but there is no evidence for broken grains. Comparison of microstructures

  4. MaterialCloning: Acquiring Elasticity Parameters from Images for Medical Applications.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shan; Lin, Ming C

    2016-09-01

    We present a practical approach for automatically estimating the material properties of soft bodies from two sets of images, taken before and after deformation. We reconstruct 3D geometry from the given sets of multiple-view images; we use a coupled simulation-optimization-identification framework to deform one soft body at its original, non-deformed state to match the deformed geometry of the same object in its deformed state. For shape correspondence, we use a distance-based error metric to compare the estimated deformation fields against the actual deformation field from the reconstructed geometry. The optimal set of material parameters is thereby determined by minimizing the error metric function. This method can simultaneously recover the elasticity parameters of multiple types of soft bodies using Finite Element Method-based simulation (of either linear or nonlinear materials undergoing large deformation) and particle-swarm optimization methods. We demonstrate this approach on real-time interaction with virtual organs in patient-specific surgical simulation, using parameters acquired from low-resolution medical images. We also highlight the results on physics-based animation of virtual objects using sketches from an artist's conception. PMID:26661471

  5. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    1987-02-01

    The International Planned Parenthood Medical Advisory Panel has developed recommendations to assist family planning associations in playing a more active role in the prevention and control of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Of primary importance is an effective program of information and education aimed at communicating the following facts: AIDS is a fatal disease for which there is no cure; AIDS is spread by sexual intercourse, contaminated blood, and contaminated needles; an infected woman can transmit AIDS to her fetus during pregnancy; a monogamous sexual relationship is the surest way to avoid AIDS infection; condom use is good protection; an infected person can look and feel well, yet still be able to transmit the AIDS virus; and AIDS is not spread by ordinary contact with an infected person. Family planning associations should include information on AIDS in all existing IEC projects, as well as develop new materials. Among the target audiences for IEC activities are family planning workers, family planning clients, and the general public including youth, teachers, parents, employers, and national leaders. Special attention should be given to high-risk groups such as homosexual and bisexual men, hemophiliacs, male and female prostitutes, clients of sexually transmitted disease clinics, people with many sexual partners, illegal users of intravenous drugs, and the sexual partners of those in any of these groups. Wide promotion of condom use is a priority activity for family planning organizations. PMID:12340977

  6. Infections Acquired in the Garden.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Cheston B; Cunha, Burke A

    2015-10-01

    Gardening is a wonderful pastime, and the garden is a very peaceful place to enjoy one's vacation. However, the garden may be a treacherous place for very young or compromised hosts when one takes into account the infectious potential residing in the soil, as well as the insect vectors on plants and animals. Even normal hosts may acquire a variety of infections from the soil, animals, or animal-related insect bites. The location of the garden, its natural animal and insect inhabitants, and the characteristics of the soil play a part in determining its infectious potential. The most important factor making the garden an infectious and dangerous place is the number and interaction of animals, whether they are pets or wild, that temporarily use the garden for part of their daily activities. The clinician should always ask about garden exposure, which will help in eliminating the diagnostic possibilities for the patient. The diagnostic approach is to use epidemiological principles in concert with clinical clues, which together should suggest a reasonable list of diagnostic possibilities. Organ involvement and specific laboratory tests help further narrow the differential diagnosis and determine the specific tests necessary to make a definitive diagnosis. PMID:26542044

  7. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction. PMID:26793078

  8. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience.

    PubMed

    Treviño, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction. PMID:26793078

  9. Clinicopathological associations of acquired erythroblastopenia

    PubMed Central

    Gunes, Gursel; Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Yasar, Hatime Arzu; Eliacik, Eylem; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Demiroglu, Haluk; Sayinalp, Nilgun; Aksu, Salih; Etgul, Sezgin; Aslan, Tuncay; Goker, Hakan; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Buyukasik, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acquired erythroblastopenia (AE) is a rare clinical situation. It is characterized by the reduction of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow together with the low reticulocyte counts in the peripheral blood. Background: Main secondary causes of AE are drugs, Parvovirus B19 and other infectious reasons, lymphoid and myeloid neoplasia, autoimmune diseases, thymoma and pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the frequencies and clinical associations of AE via analyzing 12340 bone marrow samples in a retrospective manner. Material and method: Bone marrow aspirations which were obtained from patients who applied to Hacettepe University Hematology Clinic between 2002 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Thirty four erythroblastopenia cases were found. Patients ranged in age from 16 to 80 years with a median of 38 years. Fifteen patients were men (44%) and nineteen were women (56%). In these patients, detected causes of erythroblastopenia were MDS, idiopathic pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), parvovirus infection, post chemotherapy aplasia, plasma proliferative diseases, copper deficiency due to secondary amyloidosis, fever of unknown origin, hemophagocytic syndrome, enteric fever and legionella pneumonia. We found that between those reasons the most common causes of erythroblastopenia are MDS (17.7%) and idiopathic PRCA (17.7%). Discussion: As a result, erythroblastopenia in the bone marrow may be an early sign of MDS. In those AE cases possibility of being MDS must be kept in mind as it can be mistaken for PRCA. Conclusion: To conclude, in adults MDS without excess blast is one of the most common causes of erythroblastopenia in clinical practice and in case of erythroblastopenia the presence of MDS should be investigated. PMID:26885236

  10. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Statements of Smaller Reporting Companies § 210.8-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired....

  11. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. If, during the period for which...

  12. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. If, during the period for which...

  13. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND...-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. If, during the period for which...

  14. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Statements of Smaller Reporting Companies § 210.8-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired....

  15. Principles of rock deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Nicolas, A.

    1987-01-01

    This text focuses on the recent achievements in the analysis of rock deformation. It gives an analytical presentation of the essential structures in terms of kinetic and dynamic interpretation. The physical properties underlying the interpretation of rock structures are exposed in simple terms. Emphasized in the book are: the role of fluids in rock fracturing; the kinematic analysis of magnetic flow structures; the application of crystalline plasticity to the kinematic and dynamic analysis of the large deformation imprinted in many metamorphic rocks.

  16. Deformations of 3-algebras

    SciTech Connect

    Figueroa-O'Farrill, Jose Miguel

    2009-11-15

    We phrase deformations of n-Leibniz algebras in terms of the cohomology theory of the associated Leibniz algebra. We do the same for n-Lie algebras and for the metric versions of n-Leibniz and n-Lie algebras. We place particular emphasis on the case of n=3 and explore the deformations of 3-algebras of relevance to three-dimensional superconformal Chern-Simons theories with matter.

  17. Tidal deformations of a spinning compact object

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pani, Paolo; Gualtieri, Leonardo; Maselli, Andrea; Ferrari, Valeria

    2015-07-01

    The deformability of a compact object induced by a perturbing tidal field is encoded in the tidal Love numbers, which depend sensibly on the object's internal structure. These numbers are known only for static, spherically-symmetric objects. As a first step to compute the tidal Love numbers of a spinning compact star, here we extend powerful perturbative techniques to compute the exterior geometry of a spinning object distorted by an axisymmetric tidal field to second order in the angular momentum. The spin of the object introduces couplings between electric and magnetic deformations and new classes of induced Love numbers emerge. For example, a spinning object immersed in a quadrupolar, electric tidal field can acquire some induced mass, spin, quadrupole, octupole and hexadecapole moments to second order in the spin. The deformations are encoded in a set of inhomogeneous differential equations which, remarkably, can be solved analytically in vacuum. We discuss certain subtleties in defining the tidal Love numbers in general relativity, which are due to the difficulty in separating the tidal field from the linear response of the object in the solution, even in the static case. By extending the standard procedure to identify the linear response in the static case, we prove analytically that the Love numbers of a Kerr black hole remain zero to second order in the spin. As a by-product, we provide the explicit form for a slowly-rotating, tidally-deformed Kerr black hole to quadratic order in the spin, and discuss its geodesic and geometrical properties.

  18. Deformable Medical Image Registration: A Survey

    PubMed Central

    Sotiras, Aristeidis; Davatzikos, Christos; Paragios, Nikos

    2013-01-01

    Deformable image registration is a fundamental task in medical image processing. Among its most important applications, one may cite: i) multi-modality fusion, where information acquired by different imaging devices or protocols is fused to facilitate diagnosis and treatment planning; ii) longitudinal studies, where temporal structural or anatomical changes are investigated; and iii) population modeling and statistical atlases used to study normal anatomical variability. In this paper, we attempt to give an overview of deformable registration methods, putting emphasis on the most recent advances in the domain. Additional emphasis has been given to techniques applied to medical images. In order to study image registration methods in depth, their main components are identified and studied independently. The most recent techniques are presented in a systematic fashion. The contribution of this paper is to provide an extensive account of registration techniques in a systematic manner. PMID:23739795

  19. Polygonal deformation bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonellini, Marco; Mollema, Pauline Nella

    2015-12-01

    We report for the first time the occurrence of polygonal faults in sandstone, which is compelling given that layer-bound polygonal fault systems have been observed so far only in fine-grained sediments such as clay and chalk. The polygonal faults are shear deformation bands that developed under shallow burial conditions via strain hardening in dm-wide zones. The edges of the polygons are 1-5 m long. The shear deformation bands are organized as conjugate faults along each edge of the polygon and form characteristic horst-like structures. The individual deformation bands have slip magnitudes ranging from a few mm to 1.5 cm; the cumulative average slip magnitude in a zone is up to 10 cm. The deformation bands heaves, in aggregate form, accommodate a small isotropic horizontal extension (strain <0.005). The individual shear deformation bands show abutting T-junctions, veering, curving, and merging where they mechanically interact. Crosscutting relationships are rare. The interactions of the deformation bands are similar to those of mode I opening fractures. The documented fault networks have important implications for evaluating the geometry of km-scale polygonal fault systems in the subsurface, top seal integrity, as well as constraining paleo-tectonic stress regimes.

  20. Acquired tracheoesophageal fistula in infancy and childhood.

    PubMed

    Szold, A; Udassin, R; Seror, D; Mogle, P; Godfrey, S

    1991-06-01

    Acquired tracheoesophageal fistula (TEF) is a rare entity in the pediatric age group. We report two pediatric patients with acquired TEF caused by shells of pistachio nuts. In both patients the primary operation did not resolve the problem and a second intervention for recurrent fistula was needed. The special nature of acquired TEF, particularly the one described herein, requires delayed surgical intervention and meticulous separation of the respiratory and alimentary tracts by an intercostal muscle flap. PMID:1941455

  1. Acquired stuttering due to recurrent anaplastic astrocytoma

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Katherine B; Turner, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Acquired (neurogenic) stuttering is a rare phenomenon seen after cerebral infarction or brain injury. Aetiology of this symptom is unclear, but recent evidence supports that it is a disturbance in the left hemispheric neural network involving the interplay between the cortex and basal ganglia. We present the case of a patient who develops acquired stuttering after a recurrence of a right temporoparietal anaplastic astrocytoma (WHO grade III). We also review other cases of acquired stuttering and known anatomical correlates. PMID:24252834

  2. Experimental Deformation of Magnetite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Till, J. L.; Rybacki, E.; Morales, L. F. G.

    2015-12-01

    Magnetite is an important iron ore mineral and the most prominent Fe-oxide phase in the Earth's crust. The systematic occurrence of magnetite in zones of intense deformation in oceanic core complexes suggests that it may play a role in strain localization in some silicate rocks. We performed a series of high-temperature deformation experiments on synthetic magnetite aggregates and natural single crystals to characterize the rheological behavior of magnetite. As starting material, we used fine-grained magnetite powder that was hot isostatically pressed at 1100°C for several hours, resulting in polycrystalline material with a mean grain size of around 40 μm and containing 3-5% porosity. Samples were deformed to 15-20% axial strain under constant load (approximating constant stress) conditions in a Paterson-type gas apparatus for triaxial deformation at temperatures between 900 and 1100°C and 300 MPa confining pressure. The aggregates exhibit typical power-law creep behavior. At high stresses, samples deformed by dislocation creep exhibit stress exponents close to 3, revealing a transition to near-Newtonian creep with stress exponents around 1.3 at lower stresses. Natural magnetite single crystals deformed at 1 atm pressure and temperatures between 950°C and 1150 °C also exhibit stress exponents close to 3, but with lower flow stresses and a lower apparent activation energy than the aggregates. Such behavior may result from the different oxygen fugacity buffers used. Crystallographic-preferred orientations in all polycrystalline samples are very weak and corroborate numerical models of CPO development, suggesting that texture development in magnetite may be inherently slow compared with lower symmetry phases. Comparison of our results with experimental deformation data for various silicate minerals suggests that magnetite should be weaker than most silicates during ductile creep in dry igneous rocks.

  3. Crustal deformation and earthquakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, S. C.

    1984-01-01

    The manner in which the Earth's surface deforms during the cycle of stress accumulation and release along major faults is investigated. In an investigation of the crustal deformation associated with a thin channel asthenosphere displacements are reduced from those computed for a half space asthenosphere. A previous finding by other workers that displacements are enhanced when flow is confined to a thin channel is based on several invalid approximations. The major predictions of the finite element model are that the near field postseismic displacements and strain rates are less than those for a half space asthenosphere and that the postseismic strain rates at intermediate distances are greater (in magnitude). The finite width of the asthenosphere ceases to have a significant impact on the crustal deformation pattern when its magnitude exceeds about three lithosphere thicknesses.

  4. Interfacial Bubble Deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seymour, Brian; Shabane, Parvis; Cypull, Olivia; Cheng, Shengfeng; Feitosa, Klebert

    Soap bubbles floating at an air-water experience deformations as a result of surface tension and hydrostatic forces. In this experiment, we investigate the nature of such deformations by taking cross-sectional images of bubbles of different volumes. The results show that as their volume increases, bubbles transition from spherical to hemispherical shape. The deformation of the interface also changes with bubble volume with the capillary rise converging to the capillary length as volume increases. The profile of the top and bottom of the bubble and the capillary rise are completely determined by the volume and pressure differences. James Madison University Department of Physics and Astronomy, 4VA Consortium, Research Corporation for Advancement of Science.

  5. Vaporization of Deforming Droplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanxing; Chen, Xiaodong; Ma, Dongjun; Yang, Vigor

    2012-11-01

    Droplet deformation is one of the most important factors influencing the evaporation rate. In the present study, high-fidelity numerical simulations of single evaporating droplets with deformation are carried out over a wide range of the Reynolds and Weber numbers. The formulation is based on a complete set of conservation equations for both the liquid and surrounding gas phases. A modified volume-of-fluid (VOF) technique that takes into account heat and mass transfer is used to track the behavior of the liquid/gas interface. Special attention is given to the property conservation, which can be realized by using an iterative algorithm that enforces a divergence constraint in cells containing the interface. The effect of the ambient flow on droplet dynamics and evaporation are investigated systematically. Various underlying mechanisms dictating the droplet characteristics in different deformation regimes are identified. Correlations for the droplet evaporation rate are established in terms of the Reynolds and Weber numbers.

  6. Acquired Surface Dyslexia: The Evidence from Hebrew.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Birnboim, Smadar

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the symptoms of acquired surface dyslexia in Hebrew. Four acquired surface dyslexic adults were compared with eight normal second graders in terms of reading strategy. Homophones and homographs were a major source of difficulty for native Hebrew surface dyslexic readers; the normal second graders used a non-lexical strategy. (45…

  7. Acquiring and Managing Electronic Journals. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Donnelyn; Yue, Paoshan

    Electronic journals are both a blessing and a curse for libraries. To be meaningful in the current information environment--to meet users' ever-increasing demands--libraries must acquire as many appropriate full text resources as possible, as quickly as possible, and make them easy to use. This Digest provides tips for acquiring and providing…

  8. Acquired Zinc Deficiency in an Adult Female

    PubMed Central

    Saritha, Mohanan; Gupta, Divya; Chandrashekar, Laxmisha; Thappa, Devinder M; Rajesh, Nachiappa G

    2012-01-01

    Acrodermatitis enteropathica is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of zinc absorption. Acquired cases are reported occasionally in patients with eating disorders or Crohn's disease. We report a 24-year-old housewife with acquired isolated severe zinc deficiency with no other comorbidities to highlight the rare occurrence of isolated nutritional zinc deficiency in an otherwise normal patient. PMID:23248371

  9. Plate motion and deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Minster, B.; Prescott, W.; Royden, L.

    1991-02-01

    Our goal is to understand the motions of the plates, the deformation along their boundaries and within their interiors, and the processes that control these tectonic phenomena. In the broadest terms, we must strive to understand the relationships of regional and local deformation to flow in the upper mantle and the rheological, thermal and density structure of the lithosphere. The essential data sets which we require to reach our goal consist of maps of current strain rates at the earth's surface and the distribution of integrated deformation through time as recorded in the geologic record. Our success will depend on the effective synthesis of crustal kinematics with a variety of other geological and geophysical data, within a quantitative theoretical framework describing processes in the earth's interior. Only in this way can we relate the snapshot of current motions and earth structure provided by geodetic and geophysical data with long-term processes operating on the time scales relevant to most geological processes. The wide-spread use of space-based techniques, coupled with traditional geological and geophysical data, promises a revolution in our understanding of the kinematics and dynamics of plate motions over a broad range of spatial and temporal scales and in a variety of geologic settings. The space-based techniques that best address problems in plate motion and deformation are precise space-geodetic positioning -- on land and on the seafloor -- and satellite acquisition of detailed altimetric and remote sensing data in oceanic and continental areas. The overall science objectives for the NASA Solid Earth Science plan for the 1990's, are to Understand the motion and deformation of the lithosphere within and across plate boundaries'', and to understand the dynamics of the mantle, the structure and evolution of the lithosphere, and the landforms that result from local and regional deformation. 57 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  10. Acquired hemophilia masked by warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Kantor, R; Mayan, H; Puritz, L; Varon, D; Farfel, Z

    2000-03-01

    People without hemophilia but with autoantibodies specifically directed against the procoagulant activity of factor VIII are known to have acquired hemophilia. The bleeding diathesis in these patients is often severe and life-threatening. The definite laboratory diagnosis of this disorder includes demonstration of low factor VIII levels in plasma with a high titer of factor VIII inhibitors, but the initial suspicion for its presence should rise in view of a prolonged partial thromboblastin time (PTT) and a normal prothrombin time associated with an acquired bleeding disorder. Oral anticoagulant treatment is known to prolong PTT as well, and the merger of these 2 situations may cause delayed diagnosis of acquired hemophilia with devastating consequences. We describe here the first reported case of acquired hemophilia diagnosed in a patient treated with warfarin. In such patients prolonged PTT may be ascribed to warfarin therapy rather than to acquired hemophilia, thus causing a dangerous delay in diagnosis. PMID:10746834

  11. Lobster claw deformity.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Ashish; Agrawal, Rahul; Singh, Rajat; Agrawal, Romi; Agrawal, Seema

    2014-01-01

    Endogenous erythroid colony (EEC) syndrome comprise of three cardinal features, i.e. ectrodactyly, ectodermal dysplasia and cleft lip. EEC itself has three different forms. Ectrodactyly (absence of one or more digits) can be present with clefting in the proximal portion of hand or foot known as split hand foot malformation (SHFM) or lobster claw deformity. SHFM can be of four types depending upon the different responsible chromosomal loci. SHFM-4 can be present as pure limb malformation (non-syndromic form). In this article, describes a rare case report of lobster claw deformity patient. PMID:24992861

  12. Nanolaminate deformable mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.; Olivier, Scot S.

    2009-04-14

    A deformable mirror formed out of two layers of a nanolaminate foil attached to a stiff substrate is introduced. Deformation is provided by an electrostatic force between two of the layers. The internal stiffness of the structure allows for high-spatial-frequency shapes. The nanolaminate foil of the present invention allows for a high-quality mirror surface. The device achieves high precision in the vertical direction by using foils with accurately controlled thicknesses, but does not require high precision in the lateral dimensions, allowing such mirrors to be fabricated using crude lithography techniques. Such techniques allow structures up to about the meter scale to be fabricated.

  13. Nanolaminate deformable mirrors

    DOEpatents

    Papavasiliou, Alexandros P.; Olivier, Scot S.

    2010-04-06

    A deformable mirror formed out of two layers of a nanolaminate foil attached to a stiff substrate is introduced. Deformation is provided by an electrostatic force between two of the layers. The internal stiffness of the structure allows for high-spatial-frequency shapes. The nanolaminate foil of the present invention allows for a high-quality mirror surface. The device achieves high precision in the vertical direction by using foils with accurately controlled thicknesses, but does not require high precision in the lateral dimensions, allowing such mirrors to be fabricated using crude lithography techniques. Such techniques allow structures up to about the meter scale to be fabricated.

  14. Nail Deformities and Injuries.

    PubMed

    Tucker, James Rory J

    2015-12-01

    A variety of nail deformities commonly presents in the primary care office. An understanding of nail anatomy coupled with inspection of the nails at routine office visits can reveal undetected disorders. Some problems are benign, and treatment should be attempted by the primary care provider, such as onychomycosis, paronychia, or ingrown toenails. For conditions such as benign melanonychia, longitudinal ridges, isolated Beau lines, and onycholysis, clinicians may offer reassurance to patients who are concerned about the change in their nails. For deformities such as early pterygium or clubbing, a thorough evaluation and referral to an appropriate specialist may be warranted. PMID:26612379

  15. Deformation twins in Hornblende

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rooney, T.P.; Riecker, R.E.; Ross, M.

    1970-01-01

    Hornblende deformation twins with twin planes parallel to (101) are produced experimentally in single crystals by compression parallel to the c axis. Twinning occurs at confining pressures from 5 to 15 kilobars and temperatures from 400?? to 600??C (strain rate, 10-5 per second).

  16. Transfer involving deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Rasmussen, J.O.; Guidry, M.W.; Canto, L.F.

    1985-03-01

    Results are reviewed of 1- and 2-neutron transfer reactions at near-barrier energies for deformed nuclei. Rotational angular momentum and excitation patterns are examined. A strong tendency to populating high spin states within a few MeV of the yrast line is noted, and it is interpreted as preferential transfer to rotation-aligned states. 16 refs., 12 figs.

  17. MEMS Actuated Deformable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Papavasiliou, A; Olivier, S; Barbee, T; Walton, C; Cohn, M

    2005-11-10

    This ongoing work concerns the creation of a deformable mirror by the integration of MEMS actuators with Nanolaminate foils through metal compression boning. These mirrors will use the advantages of these disparate technologies to achieve dense actuation of a high-quality, continuous mirror surface. They will enable advanced adaptive optics systems in large terrestrial telescopes. While MEMS actuators provide very dense actuation with high precision they can not provide large forces typically necessary to deform conventional mirror surfaces. Nanolaminate foils can be fabricated with very high surface quality while their extraordinary mechanical properties enable very thin, flexible foils to survive the rigors of fabrication. Precise metal compression bonding allows the attachment of the fragile MEMS actuators to the thin nanolaminate foils without creating distortions at the bond sites. This paper will describe work in four major areas: (1) modeling and design, (2) bonding development, (3) nanolaminate foil development, (4) producing a prototype. A first-principles analytical model was created and used to determine the design parameters. A method of bonding was determined that is both strong, and minimizes the localized deformation or print through. Work has also been done to produce nanolaminate foils that are sufficiently thin, flexible and flat to be deformed by the MEMS actuators. Finally a prototype was produced by bonding thin, flexible nanolaminate foils to commercially available MEMS actuators.

  18. Degenerative Spinal Deformity.

    PubMed

    Ailon, Tamir; Smith, Justin S; Shaffrey, Christopher I; Lenke, Lawrence G; Brodke, Darrel; Harrop, James S; Fehlings, Michael; Ames, Christopher P

    2015-10-01

    Degenerative spinal deformity afflicts a significant portion of the elderly and is increasing in prevalence. Recent evidence has revealed sagittal plane malalignment to be a key driver of pain and disability in this population and has led to a significant shift toward a more evidence-based management paradigm. In this narrative review, we review the recent literature on the epidemiology, evaluation, management, and outcomes of degenerative adult spinal deformity (ASD). ASD is increasing in prevalence in North America due to an aging population and demographic shifts. It results from cumulative degenerative changes focused in the intervertebral discs and facet joints that occur asymmetrically to produce deformity. Deformity correction focuses on restoration of global alignment, especially in the sagittal plane, and decompression of the neural elements. General realignment goals have been established, including sagittal vertical axis <50 mm, pelvic tilt <22°, and lumbopelvic mismatch <±9°; however, these should be tailored to the patient. Operative management, in carefully selected patients, yields satisfactory outcomes that appear to be superior to nonoperative strategies. ASD is characterized by malalignment in the sagittal and/or coronal plane and, in adults, presents with pain and disability. Nonoperative management is recommended for patients with mild, nonprogressive symptoms; however, evidence of its efficacy is limited. Surgery aims to restore global spinal alignment, decompress neural elements, and achieve fusion with minimal complications. The surgical approach should balance the desired correction with the increased risk of more aggressive maneuvers. In well-selected patients, surgery yields excellent outcomes. PMID:26378361

  19. Potential disadvantages of using socially acquired information.

    PubMed Central

    Giraldeau, Luc-Alain; Valone, Thomas J; Templeton, Jennifer J

    2002-01-01

    The acquisition and use of socially acquired information is commonly assumed to be profitable. We challenge this assumption by exploring hypothetical scenarios where the use of such information either provides no benefit or can actually be costly. First, we show that the level of incompatibility between the acquisition of personal and socially acquired information will directly affect the extent to which the use of socially acquired information can be profitable. When these two sources of information cannot be acquired simultaneously, there may be no benefit to socially acquired information. Second, we assume that a solitary individual's behavioural decisions will be based on cues revealed by its own interactions with the environment. However, in many cases, for social animals the only socially acquired information available to individuals is the behavioural actions of others that expose their decisions, rather than the cues on which these decisions were based. We argue that in such a situation the use of socially acquired information can lead to informational cascades that sometimes result in sub-optimal behaviour. From this theory of informational cascades, we predict that when erroneous cascades are costly, individuals should pay attention only to socially generated cues and not behavioural decisions. We suggest three scenarios that might be examples of informational cascades in nature. PMID:12495513

  20. Arthroscopic Posterior Subtalar Arthrodesis: Surgical Technique

    PubMed Central

    Vilá y Rico, Jesús; Ojeda Thies, Cristina; Parra Sanchez, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Surgical fusion of the subtalar joint is a procedure indicated to alleviate pain of subtalar origin, such as in post-traumatic osteoarthritis, adult-acquired flatfoot deformity, and other disorders. Open subtalar arthrodesis has been performed with predictable results, but concerns exist regarding injury to proprioception and local vascularity due to wide surgical dissection. Minimally invasive techniques try to improve results by avoiding these issues but have a reputation for being technically demanding. We describe the surgical technique for arthroscopic subtalar arthrodesis, which has proved to be a safe and reliable technique in our experience, with consistent improvements in American Orthopaedic Foot & Ankle Society scores. PMID:27073783

  1. One-stage treatment of acquired facial deformity caused by severe unilateral condylar hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Butt, Fawzia M A; Guthua, Simon Wangombe; Nganga, Peter; Edalia, Michael; Dimba, Elizabeth A O

    2011-09-01

    Condylar hyperplasia (CH) is a rare and self-limiting process manifesting between the first and third decades of life. It causes facial asymmetry and derangement of occlusion. The management involves resection of the condylar head and orthognathic surgery followed by orthodontic treatment. We present a 33-year-old man with spontaneous onset of CH during a span of 10 years. This was managed with resection of the condyle alone, which dramatically improved facial asymmetry in addition to restoration of the occlusion within a few months of follow-up. Therefore, orthognathic surgery or orthodontic treatment was not needed. PMID:21959484

  2. [Babies with cranial deformity].

    PubMed

    Feijen, Michelle M W; Claessens, Edith A W M Habets; Dovens, Anke J Leenders; Vles, Johannes S; van der Hulst, Rene R W J

    2009-01-01

    Plagiocephaly was diagnosed in a baby aged 4 months and brachycephaly in a baby aged 5 months. Positional or deformational plagio- or brachycephaly is characterized by changes in shape and symmetry of the cranial vault. Treatment options are conservative and may include physiotherapy and helmet therapy. During the last two decades the incidence of positional plagiocephaly has increased in the Netherlands. This increase is due to the recommendation that babies be laid on their backs in order to reduce the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. We suggest the following: in cases of positional preference of the infant, referral to a physiotherapist is indicated. In cases of unacceptable deformity of the cranium at the age 5 months, moulding helmet therapy is a possible treatment option. PMID:19857299

  3. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, Erlan S.; Smith, James R.; Salmon, J. Thaddeus; Monjes, Julio A.

    1991-01-01

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp.

  4. Partially segmented deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Bliss, E.S.; Smith, J.R.; Salmon, J.T.; Monjes, J.A.

    1991-05-21

    A partially segmented deformable mirror is formed with a mirror plate having a smooth and continuous front surface and a plurality of actuators to its back surface. The back surface is divided into triangular areas which are mutually separated by grooves. The grooves are deep enough to make the plate deformable and the actuators for displacing the mirror plate in the direction normal to its surface are inserted in the grooves at the vertices of the triangular areas. Each actuator includes a transducer supported by a receptacle with outer shells having outer surfaces. The vertices have inner walls which are approximately perpendicular to the mirror surface and make planar contacts with the outer surfaces of the outer shells. The adhesive which is used on these contact surfaces tends to contract when it dries but the outer shells can bend and serve to minimize the tendency of the mirror to warp. 5 figures.

  5. Probing deformed quantum commutators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossi, Matteo A. C.; Giani, Tommaso; Paris, Matteo G. A.

    2016-07-01

    Several quantum gravity theories predict a minimal length at the order of magnitude of the Planck length, under which the concepts of space and time lose their physical meaning. In quantum mechanics, the insurgence of such a minimal length can be described by introducing a modified position-momentum commutator, which in turn yields a generalized uncertainty principle, where the uncertainty on position measurements has a lower bound. The value of the minimal length is not predicted by theories and must be estimated experimentally. In this paper, we address the quantum bound to the estimability of the minimal uncertainty length by performing measurements on a harmonic oscillator, which is analytically solvable in the deformed algebra induced by the deformed commutation relations.

  6. Toward the development of intrafraction tumor deformation tracking using a dynamic multi-leaf collimator

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Yuanyuan; O’Brien, Ricky T.; Shieh, Chun-Chien; Keall, Paul J.; Booth, Jeremy T.

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Intrafraction deformation limits targeting accuracy in radiotherapy. Studies show tumor deformation of over 10 mm for both single tumor deformation and system deformation (due to differential motion between primary tumors and involved lymph nodes). Such deformation cannot be adapted to with current radiotherapy methods. The objective of this study was to develop and experimentally investigate the ability of a dynamic multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) tracking system to account for tumor deformation. Methods: To compensate for tumor deformation, the DMLC tracking strategy is to warp the planned beam aperture directly to conform to the new tumor shape based on real time tumor deformation input. Two deformable phantoms that correspond to a single tumor and a tumor system were developed. The planar deformations derived from the phantom images in beam's eye view were used to guide the aperture warping. An in-house deformable image registration software was developed to automatically trigger the registration once new target image was acquired and send the computed deformation to the DMLC tracking software. Because the registration speed is not fast enough to implement the experiment in real-time manner, the phantom deformation only proceeded to the next position until registration of the current deformation position was completed. The deformation tracking accuracy was evaluated by a geometric target coverage metric defined as the sum of the area incorrectly outside and inside the ideal aperture. The individual contributions from the deformable registration algorithm and the finite leaf width to the tracking uncertainty were analyzed. Clinical proof-of-principle experiment of deformation tracking using previously acquired MR images of a lung cancer patient was implemented to represent the MRI-Linac environment. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment delivered with enabled deformation tracking was simulated and demonstrated. Results: The first

  7. Toward the development of intrafraction tumor deformation tracking using a dynamic multi-leaf collimator

    PubMed Central

    Ge, Yuanyuan; O’Brien, Ricky T.; Shieh, Chun-Chien; Booth, Jeremy T.; Keall, Paul J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Intrafraction deformation limits targeting accuracy in radiotherapy. Studies show tumor deformation of over 10 mm for both single tumor deformation and system deformation (due to differential motion between primary tumors and involved lymph nodes). Such deformation cannot be adapted to with current radiotherapy methods. The objective of this study was to develop and experimentally investigate the ability of a dynamic multi-leaf collimator (DMLC) tracking system to account for tumor deformation. Methods: To compensate for tumor deformation, the DMLC tracking strategy is to warp the planned beam aperture directly to conform to the new tumor shape based on real time tumor deformation input. Two deformable phantoms that correspond to a single tumor and a tumor system were developed. The planar deformations derived from the phantom images in beam's eye view were used to guide the aperture warping. An in-house deformable image registration software was developed to automatically trigger the registration once new target image was acquired and send the computed deformation to the DMLC tracking software. Because the registration speed is not fast enough to implement the experiment in real-time manner, the phantom deformation only proceeded to the next position until registration of the current deformation position was completed. The deformation tracking accuracy was evaluated by a geometric target coverage metric defined as the sum of the area incorrectly outside and inside the ideal aperture. The individual contributions from the deformable registration algorithm and the finite leaf width to the tracking uncertainty were analyzed. Clinical proof-of-principle experiment of deformation tracking using previously acquired MR images of a lung cancer patient was implemented to represent the MRI-Linac environment. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment delivered with enabled deformation tracking was simulated and demonstrated. Results: The first

  8. Ice deformation near SHEBA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindsay, R. W.

    2002-10-01

    The deformation rate of sea ice is a key parameter for determining the evolution of the ice thickness distribution. It determines the rate of new ice formation through opening and the rate of ridging through closing and shear. An extensive suite of ground-based and satellite-based measurements of ice motion is used to construct a daily time series of the ice velocity and deformation in the vicinity of the Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean (SHEBA) ice camp that is suitable for forcing a model of the ice thickness distribution. The velocity is interpolated to a square grid that remains centered on the camp, has a spacing of 25 km, is 400 km on a side, and is determined for a 371-day period from 2 October 1997 to 7 October 1998. Velocity measurements from buoys, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSMI), and Radarsat Geophysical Processing System (RGPS) are merged using optimal interpolation and a Kalman filter approach. The deformation rate is taken directly from the RGPS measurements when available. The daily total deformation rate measured on a scale of 100 km near the camp averaged 2.21% d-1, and the standard deviation was 1.78% d-1. The divergence was positive in the early winter and negative through most of the spring and summer. There were two major opening/closing events, one in January and one at the end of July. The net divergence over the year was very near zero. The vorticity indicated a net rotation of 87° over the year, with the winter showing strong anticyclonic turning and the summer showing strong cyclonic turning.

  9. Covariant deformed oscillator algebras

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quesne, Christiane

    1995-01-01

    The general form and associativity conditions of deformed oscillator algebras are reviewed. It is shown how the latter can be fulfilled in terms of a solution of the Yang-Baxter equation when this solution has three distinct eigenvalues and satisfies a Birman-Wenzl-Murakami condition. As an example, an SU(sub q)(n) x SU(sub q)(m)-covariant q-bosonic algebra is discussed in some detail.

  10. Deformation of Wrinkled Graphene

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The deformation of monolayer graphene, produced by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), on a polyester film substrate has been investigated through the use of Raman spectroscopy. It has been found that the microstructure of the CVD graphene consists of a hexagonal array of islands of flat monolayer graphene separated by wrinkled material. During deformation, it was found that the rate of shift of the Raman 2D band wavenumber per unit strain was less than 25% of that of flat flakes of mechanically exfoliated graphene, whereas the rate of band broadening per unit strain was about 75% of that of the exfoliated material. This unusual deformation behavior has been modeled in terms of mechanically isolated graphene islands separated by the graphene wrinkles, with the strain distribution in each graphene island determined using shear lag analysis. The effect of the size and position of the Raman laser beam spot has also been incorporated in the model. The predictions fit well with the behavior observed experimentally for the Raman band shifts and broadening of the wrinkled CVD graphene. The effect of wrinkles upon the efficiency of graphene to reinforce nanocomposites is also discussed. PMID:25765609

  11. Treatment of Madelung's deformity.

    PubMed

    Saffar, P; Badina, A

    2015-12-01

    Treatment of Madelung's deformity is still controversial. We reviewed retrospectively 19 patients with Madelung's deformity (two bilateral, 21 cases) who underwent surgery to the radius and ulna to improve range of motion, decrease pain and improve appearance of the wrist. Nineteen patients underwent 21 distal radial osteotomy procedures using three different techniques: subtraction, addition or dome osteotomy. Ulnar shortening and redirection of the distal ulna was performed in 12 cases; a long oblique osteotomy was used in 10 of these cases. The Sauvé-Kapandji technique was performed in five cases, an ulnar distal epiphysiodesis in two cases and a combination of osteotomy and epiphysiodesis in one case. The aim was to reduce the distal radial slope and to restore the orientation and congruity of the distal radio-ulnar joint and to improve its function. Pain was reduced as a result of the procedure: more than 75% of the cases had no or intermittent pain at the review. Pronation improved from 63° to 68° (P=0.467, not significant) and supination improved from 48° to 72° on average (P=0.034, significant). Grip strength increased from 11 to 18 kgf (P=0.013, significant). Madelung's deformity is not always a benign condition and it responds well to corrective osteotomies. PMID:26525609

  12. Deformable micro torque swimmer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Takuji; Tanaka, Tomoyuki; Omori, Toshihiro; Imai, Yohsuke

    2015-11-01

    We investigated the deformation of a ciliate swimming freely in a fluid otherwise at rest. The cell body was modeled as a capsule with a hyper elastic membrane enclosing Newtonian fluid. Thrust forces due to the ciliary beat were modeled as torques distributed above the cell body. Effects of the membrane elasticity, the aspect ratio of cell's reference shape and the density difference between the cell and the surrounding fluid were investigated. The results showed that the cell deformed like heart shape when Capillary number (Ca) was sufficiently large, and the swimming velocity decreased as Ca was increased. The gravity effect on the membrane tension suggested that the upwards and downwards swimming velocities of Paramecium might be reglated by the calcium ion channels distributed locally around the anterior end. Moreover, the gravity induced deformation made a cell directed vertically downwards, which resulted in a positive geotaxis like behavior with physical origin. These results are important to understand physiology of ciliate's biological responses to mechanical stimuli.

  13. Supertransvectants, cohomology, and deformations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Fraj, Nizar; Laraiedh, Ismail; Omri, Salem

    2013-02-01

    Over the (1, N)-dimensional real superspace, N = 2, 3, we classify {osp}(N|2)-invariant binary differential operators acting on the superspaces of weighted densities, where {osp}(N|2) is the orthosymplectic Lie superalgebra. This result allows us to compute the first differential {osp}(N|2)-relative cohomology of the Lie superalgebra K(N) of contact vector fields with coefficients in the superspace of linear differential operators acting on the superspaces of weighted densities. We classify generic formal {osp}(3|2)-trivial deformations of the K(3)-module structure on the superspaces of symbols of differential operators. We prove that any generic formal {osp}(3|2)-trivial deformation of this K(3)-module is equivalent to its infinitesimal part. This work is the simplest generalization of a result by the first author et al. [Basdouri, I., Ben Ammar, M., Ben Fraj, N., Boujelbene, M., and Kammoun, K., "Cohomology of the Lie superalgebra of contact vector fields on {K}^{1|1} and deformations of the superspace of symbols," J. Nonlinear Math. Phys. 16, 373 (2009), 10.1142/S1402925109000431].

  14. Orthopedic management of spina bifida. Part I: hip, knee, and rotational deformities.

    PubMed

    Swaroop, Vineeta T; Dias, Luciano

    2009-12-01

    Children with spina bifida develop a wide variety of congenital and acquired orthopedic deformities. Among these are hip deformities such as contracture, subluxation, or dislocation. Patients may also have problems with the knee joint, such as knee flexion or extension contracture, knee valgus deformity, or late knee instability and pain. In addition, rotational deformities of the lower extremities, either internal or external torsion, are common as well. This paper will review both the overall orthopedic care of a patient with spina bifida and provide a focused review of the diagnosis and management of the above deformities. In addition, this paper will review the incidence, etiology, classification, and prognosis of spina bifida. The use of gait analysis and orthoses will be covered as well. The forthcoming Part II will cover foot and ankle deformities in spina bifida. PMID:19856195

  15. Nanoscale Deformable Optics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Karl F.; Sheldon, Douglas J.

    2011-01-01

    Several missions and instruments in the conceptual design phase rely on the technique of interferometry to create detectable fringe patterns. The intimate emplacement of reflective material upon electron device cells based upon chalcogenide material technology permits high-speed, predictable deformation of the reflective surface to a subnanometer or finer resolution with a very high degree of accuracy. In this innovation, a layer of reflective material is deposited upon a wafer containing (perhaps in the millions) chalcogenic memory cells with the reflective material becoming the front surface of a mirror and the chalcogenic material becoming a means of selectively deforming the mirror by the application of heat to the chalcogenic material. By doing so, the mirror surface can deform anywhere from nil to nanometers in spots the size of a modern day memory cell, thereby permitting realtime tuning of mirror focus and reflectivity to mitigate aberrations caused elsewhere in the optical system. Modern foundry methods permit the design and manufacture of individual memory cells having an area of or equal to the Feature (F) size of the design (assume 65 nm). Fabrication rules and restraints generally require the instantiation of one memory cell to another no closer than 1.5 F, or, for this innovation, 90 nm from its neighbor in any direction. Chalcogenide is a semiconducting glass compound consisting of a combination of chalcogen ions, the ratios of which vary according to properties desired. It has been shown that the application of heat to cells of chalcogenic material cause a large alteration in resistance to the range of 4 orders of magnitude. It is this effect upon which chalcogenidebased commercial memories rely. Upon removal of the heat source, the chalcogenide rapidly cools and remains frozen in the excited state. It has also been shown that the chalcogenide expands in volume because of the applied heat, meaning that the coefficient of expansion of chalcogenic

  16. Model Deformation Measurements at a Cryogenic Wind Tunnel Using Photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Goad, W. K.

    1982-01-01

    A photogrammetric closed circuit television system to measure model deformation at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) is described. The photogrammetric approach was chosen because of its inherent rapid data recording of the entire object field. Video cameras are used to acquire data instead of film cameras due to the inaccessibility of cameras which must be housed within the cryogenic, high pressure plenum of this facility. Data reduction procedures and the results of tunnel tests at the NTF are presented.

  17. Model deformation measurements at a cryogenic wind tunnel using photogrammetry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Goad, W. K.

    1985-01-01

    A photogrammetric closed circuit television system to measure model deformation at the National Transonic Facility (NTF) is described. The photogrammetric approach was chosen because of its inherent rapid data recording of the entire object field. Video cameras are used to acquire data instead of film cameras due to the inaccessibility of cameras which must be housed within the cryogenic, high pressure plenum of this facility. Data reduction procedures and the results of tunnel tests at the NTF are presented.

  18. Polarization of the nuclear surface in deformed nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scamps, Guillaume; Lacroix, Denis; Adamian, G. G.; Antonenko, N. V.

    2013-12-01

    The density profiles of around 750 nuclei are analyzed using the Skyrme energy density functional theory. Among them, more than 350 nuclei are found to be deformed. In addition to rather standard properties of the density, we report a nontrivial behavior of the nuclear diffuseness as the system becomes more and more deformed. Besides the geometric effects expected in a rigid body, the diffuseness acquires a rather complex behavior leading to a reduction of the diffuseness along the main axis of deformation simultaneously with an increase of the diffuseness along the other axis. The possible isospin dependence of this polarization is studied. This effect, which is systematically seen in medium and heavy nuclei, can affect the nuclear dynamical properties. A quantitative example is given with the fusion barrier in the 40Ca+238U reaction.

  19. Acquired cutis laxa associated with cutaneous mastocytosis.

    PubMed

    Hoang, Minh Van; Dang, Phuoc Van; Bui, Duc Van; Mejbel, Haider; Mani, Divya Thomas; Smoller, Bruce Robert; Phung, Thuy Linh

    2015-07-01

    Cutis laxa is characterized by dramatic wrinkling of skin that is lacking in elasticity due to inherent defects in dermal elastic fibers. Cutis laxa can be caused by genetic and metabolic disorders. It can also be acquired, possibly resulting from inflammatory processes with destruction of elastic fibers. This report describes a 26-year old woman who developed acquired cutis laxa and cutaneous mastocytosis leading to premature aging. She represents a unique co-occurrence of these two separate disease entities. To our knowledge, there has been only one published case report of acquired cutis laxa occurring in association with urticaria pigmentosa in a 4-year old girl. Our case would be a second case that exhibits the coexistence of these two disorders in an adult female. PMID:26436968

  20. Magnetic resonance imaging of acquired cardiac disease.

    PubMed Central

    Carrol, C L; Higgins, C B; Caputo, G R

    1996-01-01

    Over the last 15 years, advances in magnetic resonance imaging techniques have increased the accuracy and applicability of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging. These advances have improved the utility of magnetic resonance imaging in evaluating cardiac morphology, blood flow, and myocardial contractility, all significant diagnostic features in the evaluation of the patient with acquired heart disease. Utilization of cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging has been limited, primarily due to clinical reliance upon nuclear scintigraphy and echocardiography. Recent developments in fast and ultrafast imaging should continue to enhance the significance of magnetic resonance imaging in this field. Widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging in the evaluation of the cardiovascular system will ultimately depend upon its maturation into a comprehensive, noninvasive imaging technique for the varying manifestations of acquired heart disease, including cardiomyopathy, ischemic heart disease, and acquired valvular disease. Images PMID:8792545

  1. Cataloging Common Sedimentary and Deformation Features in Valles Marineris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urso, A.; Okubo, C. H.

    2015-12-01

    The sedimentary deposits in the Valles Marineris region of Mars are investigated to build a catalog of sedimentary and deformational features. The occurrence of these features provides new and important constraints on the origins of these sedimentary deposits and of their broader geologic histories. Regional surveys and mapping of these features is warranted given the plethora of recently acquired observations by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Select sedimentary and deformational features were identified using High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) observations and stereo pairs, along with Context camera images. Feature locations were cataloged using Java Mission-planning and Analysis for Remote Sensing (JMARS) the geospatial information system. Images acquired in and around Hebes, Ophir, Tithonium, Candor, Ius, Melas and Coprates Chasmata were the focus of this investigation. Mass wasting processes, soft-sediment deformation structures, and fan-like deposits are known to occur in abundance across the Valles Marineris region. For this reason, the features recorded in this investigation were landslides, contorted bedding, injectites, putative mud volcanoes, faults, folds, and fan-shaped deposits. Landslides, faults, and fan-shaped deposits were found to be common occurrences, while contorted bedding, injectites, putative mud volcanoes, and folds occur less frequently and in clusters. The placement and frequency of these features hint at past tectonic and depositional processes at work in Valles Marineris. This catalogue of sedimentary and deformational features in the Valles Marineris region of Mars is being used to define targets for future HiRISE observations.

  2. Patient-specific Deformation Modelling via Elastography: Application to Image-guided Prostate Interventions.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi; Ni, Dong; Qin, Jing; Xu, Ming; Xie, Xiaoyan; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Image-guided prostate interventions often require the registration of preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images to real-time transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images to provide high-quality guidance. One of the main challenges for registering MR images to TRUS images is how to estimate the TRUS-probe-induced prostate deformation that occurs during TRUS imaging. The combined statistical and biomechanical modeling approach shows promise for the adequate estimation of prostate deformation. However, the right setting of the biomechanical parameters is very crucial for realistic deformation modeling. We propose a patient-specific deformation model equipped with personalized biomechanical parameters obtained from shear wave elastography to reliably predict the prostate deformation during image-guided interventions. Using data acquired from a prostate phantom and twelve patients with suspected prostate cancer, we compared the prostate deformation model with and without patient-specific biomechanical parameters in terms of deformation estimation accuracy. The results show that the patient-specific deformation model possesses favorable model ability, and outperforms the model without patient-specific biomechanical parameters. The employment of the patient-specific biomechanical parameters obtained from elastography for deformation modeling shows promise for providing more precise deformation estimation in applications that use computer-assisted image-guided intervention systems. PMID:27272239

  3. Patient-specific Deformation Modelling via Elastography: Application to Image-guided Prostate Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yi; Ni, Dong; Qin, Jing; Xu, Ming; Xie, Xiaoyan; Heng, Pheng-Ann

    2016-01-01

    Image-guided prostate interventions often require the registration of preoperative magnetic resonance (MR) images to real-time transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) images to provide high-quality guidance. One of the main challenges for registering MR images to TRUS images is how to estimate the TRUS-probe-induced prostate deformation that occurs during TRUS imaging. The combined statistical and biomechanical modeling approach shows promise for the adequate estimation of prostate deformation. However, the right setting of the biomechanical parameters is very crucial for realistic deformation modeling. We propose a patient-specific deformation model equipped with personalized biomechanical parameters obtained from shear wave elastography to reliably predict the prostate deformation during image-guided interventions. Using data acquired from a prostate phantom and twelve patients with suspected prostate cancer, we compared the prostate deformation model with and without patient-specific biomechanical parameters in terms of deformation estimation accuracy. The results show that the patient-specific deformation model possesses favorable model ability, and outperforms the model without patient-specific biomechanical parameters. The employment of the patient-specific biomechanical parameters obtained from elastography for deformation modeling shows promise for providing more precise deformation estimation in applications that use computer-assisted image-guided intervention systems. PMID:27272239

  4. Formation and subdivision of deformation structures during plastic deformation.

    PubMed

    Jakobsen, Bo; Poulsen, Henning F; Lienert, Ulrich; Almer, Jonathan; Shastri, Sarvjit D; Sørensen, Henning O; Gundlach, Carsten; Pantleon, Wolfgang

    2006-05-12

    During plastic deformation of metals and alloys, dislocations arrange in ordered patterns. How and when these self-organization processes take place have remained elusive, because in situ observations have not been feasible. We present an x-ray diffraction method that provided data on the dynamics of individual, deeply embedded dislocation structures. During tensile deformation of pure copper, dislocation-free regions were identified. They showed an unexpected intermittent dynamics, for example, appearing and disappearing with proceeding deformation and even displaying transient splitting behavior. Insight into these processes is relevant for an understanding of the strength and work-hardening of deformed materials. PMID:16690859

  5. Evaluation of various deformable image registrations for point and volume variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Su Chul; Lee, Soon Sung; Kim, Mi-Sook; Ji, Young Hoon; Kim, Kum Bae; Choi, Sang Hyun; Park, Seungwoo; Jung, Haijo; Yoo, Hyung Jun; Yi, Chul Young

    2015-07-01

    The accuracy of deformable image registration (DIR) has a significant dosimetric impact in radiationtreatment planning. Many groups have studied the accuracy of DIR. In this study, we evaluatedthe accuracy of various DIR algorithms by using variations of the deformation point and volume.The reference image (I ref ) and volume (V ref ) were first generated by using virtual deformation QAsoftware (ImSimQA, Oncology System Limited, UK). We deformed I ref with axial movement of thedeformation point and V ref , depending on the type of deformation (relaxation and contraction) inImSimQA software. The deformed image (I def ) and volume (V def ) acquired by using the ImSimQAsoftware were inversely deformed relative to I ref and V ref by using DIR algorithms. As a result,we acquired a deformed image (I id ) from I def and volume (V id ) from V ref . Four intensity-basedalgorithms were tested by following the horn-schunk optical flow (HS), iterative optical flow (IOF),modified demons (MD) and fast demons (FD) with the Deformable Image Registration and AdaptiveRadiotherapy Toolkit (DIRART) of MATLAB. The image similarity between I ref and I id wascalculated to evaluate the accuracy of DIR algorithms using by Normalized Mutual Information(NMI) and Normalized Cross Correlation (NCC) metrics, when the distance of point deformationwas moved 4 mm, the value of NMI was above 1.81 and that of NCC was above 0.99 in all DIRalgorithms. As the degree of deformation was increased, the degree of image similarity decreased.When the V ref was increased or decreased by about 12%, the difference between V ref and V id waswithin ±5% regardless of the type of deformation, the deformation was classified into two types:deformation 1 increased the V ref (relaxation) and deformation 2 decreased the V ref (contraction).The value of the Dice Similarity Coefficient (DSC) was above 0.95 in deformation 1 except for theMD algorithm. In the case of deformation 2, the value of the DSC was above 0.95 in

  6. Ultrasoft, highly deformable microgels.

    PubMed

    Bachman, Haylee; Brown, Ashley C; Clarke, Kimberly C; Dhada, Kabir S; Douglas, Alison; Hansen, Caroline E; Herman, Emily; Hyatt, John S; Kodlekere, Purva; Meng, Zhiyong; Saxena, Shalini; Spears, Mark W; Welsch, Nicole; Lyon, L Andrew

    2015-03-14

    Microgels are colloidally stable, hydrogel microparticles that have previously been used in a range of (soft) material applications due to their tunable mechanical and chemical properties. Most commonly, thermo and pH-responsive poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAm) microgels can be fabricated by precipitation polymerization in the presence of the co-monomer acrylic acid (AAc). Traditionally pNIPAm microgels are synthesized in the presence of a crosslinking agent, such as N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS), however, microgels can also be synthesized under 'crosslinker free' conditions. The resulting particles have extremely low (<0.5%), core-localized crosslinking resulting from rare chain transfer reactions. AFM nanoindentation of these ultralow crosslinked (ULC) particles indicate that they are soft relative to crosslinked microgels, with a Young's modulus of ∼10 kPa. Furthermore, ULC microgels are highly deformable as indicated by a high degree of spreading on glass surfaces and the ability to translocate through nanopores significantly smaller than the hydrodynamic diameter of the particles. The size and charge of ULCs can be easily modulated by altering reaction conditions, such as temperature, monomer, surfactant and initiator concentrations, and through the addition of co-monomers. Microgels based on the widely utilized, biocompatible polymer polyethylene glycol (PEG) can also be synthesized under crosslinker free conditions. Due to their softness and deformability, ULC microgels are a unique base material for a wide variety of biomedical applications including biomaterials for drug delivery and regenerative medicine. PMID:25648590

  7. Deformable spanners and applications

    PubMed Central

    Guibas, Leonidas J.; Nguyen, An

    2010-01-01

    For a set S of points in ℝd, an s-spanner is a subgraph of the complete graph with node set S such that any pair of points is connected via some path in the spanner whose total length is at most s times the Euclidean distance between the points. In this paper we propose a new sparse (1 + ε)-spanner with O(n/εd) edges, where ε is a specified parameter. The key property of this spanner is that it can be efficiently maintained under dynamic insertion or deletion of points, as well as under continuous motion of the points in both the kinetic data structures setting and in the more realistic blackbox displacement model we introduce. Our deformable spanner succinctly encodes all proximity information in a deforming point cloud, giving us efficient kinetic algorithms for problems such as the closest pair, the near neighbors of all points, approximate nearest neighbor search (aka approximate Voronoi diagram), well-separated pair decompositions, and approximate k-centers. PMID:21165161

  8. Deformable spanners and applications.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jie; Guibas, Leonidas J; Nguyen, An

    2006-08-01

    For a set S of points in ℝ(d), an s-spanner is a subgraph of the complete graph with node set S such that any pair of points is connected via some path in the spanner whose total length is at most s times the Euclidean distance between the points. In this paper we propose a new sparse (1 + ε)-spanner with O(n/ε(d)) edges, where ε is a specified parameter. The key property of this spanner is that it can be efficiently maintained under dynamic insertion or deletion of points, as well as under continuous motion of the points in both the kinetic data structures setting and in the more realistic blackbox displacement model we introduce. Our deformable spanner succinctly encodes all proximity information in a deforming point cloud, giving us efficient kinetic algorithms for problems such as the closest pair, the near neighbors of all points, approximate nearest neighbor search (aka approximate Voronoi diagram), well-separated pair decompositions, and approximate k-centers. PMID:21165161

  9. Measuring deformations with deflectometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Wansong; Huke, Philipp; Burke, Jan; von Kopylow, Christoph; Bergmann, Ralf B.

    2014-07-01

    Phase-measuring deflectometry is a powerful method to measure reflective surfaces. It is relatively easy to extract slope and curvature information from the measured phase maps; however, retrieving shape information depends very sensitively on the calibration of the camera and the geometry of the measurement system. Whereas we have previously demonstrated shape uncertainties below 1 μm, the range below 100 nm is currently inaccessible to deflectometric shape measurement. On the other hand, the astounding sensitivity of deflectometry can be put to good use for deformation measurements. The evaluation of corresponding shape differences rather than absolute shapes is much less susceptible to system calibration errors and its resolution is given mostly by the measurement system's sensitivity. We give an overview of recent progress in difference deflectometry. Firstly we show results from solar mirror substrates under load to detect flaws with high sensitivity. Secondly we present a preliminary simulation study of achievable deformation-measurement uncertainties to assess the feasibility of deflectometric characterisation of actuator performance and gravity sag for the mirror segments of the European Extremely Large Telescope (E-ELT). Results for the relevant Zernike terms show reliable detection of Zernike coefficients at the 25 nm level. Random artefacts related to noise in the phase measurements are seen to translate into bogus Zernike terms, and we discuss possible mitigation techniques to enhance the sensitivity and accuracy further.

  10. Ultrasound of Inherited vs. Acquired Demyelinating Polyneuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Zaidman, Craig M.; Harms, Matthew B.; Pestronk, Alan

    2013-01-01

    Introduction We compared features of nerve enlargement in inherited and acquired demyelinating neuropathies using ultrasound. Methods We measured median and ulnar nerve cross-sectional areas in proximal and distal regions in 128 children and adults with inherited (Charcot-Marie Tooth-1 (CMT-1) (n=35)) and acquired (Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy (CIDP) (n=55), Guillaine-Barre Syndrome (GBS) (n=21) and Multifocal Motor Neuropathy (MMN) (n=17)) demyelinating neuropathies. We classified nerve enlargement by degree and number of regions affected. We defined patterns of nerve enlargement as: none- no enlargement; mild-nerves enlarged but never more than twice normal; regional- nerves normal at at least one region and enlarged more than twice normal at atleast one region; diffuse- nerves enlarged at all four regions with atleast one region more than twice normal size. Results Nerve enlargement was commonly diffuse (89%) and generally more than twice normal size in CMT-1, but not (p<0.001) in acquired disorders which mostly had either no, mild or regional nerve enlargement (CIDP (64%), GBS (95%), and MMN (100%)). In CIDP, subjects treated within three months of disease onset had less nerve enlargement than those treated later. Discussion Ultrasound identified patterns of diffuse nerve enlargement can be used to screen patients suspected of having CMT-1. Normal, mildly, or regionally enlarged nerves in demyelinating polyneuropathy suggests an acquired etiology. Early treatment in CIDP may impede nerve enlargement. PMID:24101129

  11. Acquiring a Second Language for School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Virginia P.

    1995-01-01

    This report offers a conceptual model for use with language minority children who are entering a new school when they must acquire the language of the majority student population. The model has four development components or processes: sociocultural, linguistic, academic, and cognitive. These four components are described in detail. Research is…

  12. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acquire. 989.17 Section 989.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  13. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acquire. 989.17 Section 989.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  14. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquire. 989.17 Section 989.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  15. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acquire. 989.17 Section 989.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  16. Eye Movement Correlates of Acquired Central Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schattka, Kerstin I.; Radach, Ralph; Huber, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent progress in theory and measurement techniques, the analysis of eye movements has become one of the major methodological tools in experimental reading research. Our work uses this approach to advance the understanding of impaired information processing in acquired central dyslexia of stroke patients with aphasia. Up to now there has…

  17. How Did Light Acquire a Velocity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauginie, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how light acquired a velocity through history, from the ancient Greeks to the early modern era. Combining abstract debates, models of light, practical needs, planned research and chance, this history illustrates several key points that should be brought out in science education.

  18. Group Treatment in Acquired Brain Injury Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertisch, Hilary; Rath, Joseph F.; Langenbahn, Donna M.; Sherr, Rose Lynn; Diller, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    The current article describes critical issues in adapting traditional group-treatment methods for working with individuals with reduced cognitive capacity secondary to acquired brain injury. Using the classification system based on functional ability developed at the NYU Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (RIRM), we delineate the cognitive…

  19. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN IN... possession of raisins by a handler at his packing or processing plant or at any other established receiving station operated by him: Provided, That a handler shall not be deemed to acquire any raisins...

  20. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquire. 926.10 Section 926.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DATA COLLECTION, REPORTING AND...

  1. Acquiring Financial Management Software: A Prototyping Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, John H.

    1990-01-01

    When the Smithsonian Institution recently acquired a new financial management system, the concept of prototyping was used throughout the process, but in a broader sense than in software development. It was used to refine requirements, establish software management techniques, test a logistical system, and implement and apply the package. (MSE)

  2. A Case Of Bilateral Acquired Localized Lipoatrophy

    PubMed Central

    Tanrıkulu, Osman; Yesilova, Yavuz; Aksoy, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Lipoatrophy is characterized by inflammation and tissue loss in fatty tissue. This disease may be congenital or acquired, primary or secondary. Secondary lipoatrophy develops with infections, collagen tissue diseases, tumors and drug injections. In this report, we present the case of a 14-year-old female patient who developed lipoatrophy following intramuscular steroid injection to both buttocks. PMID:27504088

  3. Neural Correlates of Acquired Color Category Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clifford, Alexandra; Franklin, Anna; Holmes, Amanda; Drivonikou, Vicky G.; Ozgen, Emre; Davies, Ian R. L.

    2012-01-01

    Category training can induce category effects, whereby color discrimination of stimuli spanning a newly learned category boundary is enhanced relative to equivalently spaced stimuli from within the newly learned category (e.g., categorical perception). However, the underlying mechanisms of these acquired category effects are not fully understood.…

  4. Acquired structural defects of the hair.

    PubMed

    Chetty, G N; Kamalam, A; Thambiah, A S

    1981-03-01

    Acquired hair shaft abnormalities resembling genetic trichorrhexis nodosa were seen in two patients. Selenium shampoo and bacterial infection with trichomycosis axillaris may have been the contributing factors. There is a possibility that strongyloides larvae caused trichonodosis in one patient. PMID:7216593

  5. Community-acquired Acinetobacter meningitis in adults.

    PubMed

    Chang, W N; Lu, C H; Huang, C R; Chuang, Y C

    2000-01-01

    Community-acquired Acinetobacter meningitis in adults is an extremely rare infection of the central nervous system (CNS). Here we report one adult case of this rare CNS infection and review the clinical data of another seven cases reported in the English language literature. In total, eight patients (six men and two women) aged between 19 and 63 years were studied. The causative pathogen in our patient was Acinetobacter baumannii; in the other reported cases they were most likely Acinetobacter Iwoffii, Acinetobacter johnsonii, Acinetobacter junii, a genomic species 3 or 6. No underlying disease was found in seven of the eight cases and six of the eight patients acquired the infections before the age of 30 years. Fever and consciousness disturbance were the most common clinical manifestations. Waterhouse-Friderichsen syndrome (WFS) was found in two cases. Unlike the Acinetobacter strains found in nosocomial infections, the strain of Acinetobacter meningitis in the community-acquired case did not show multiple antibiotic resistance. Most adult patients with community-acquired Acinetobacter meningitis can be saved by timely therapy with appropriate antibiotics before deterioration of the systemic condition and impairment of consciousness. PMID:11139162

  6. Interviewing Children with Acquired Brain Injury (ABI)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boylan, Anne-Marie; Linden, Mark; Alderdice, Fiona

    2009-01-01

    Research into the lives of children with acquired brain injury (ABI) often neglects to incorporate children as participants, preferring to obtain the opinions of the adult carer (e.g. McKinlay et al., 2002). There has been a concerted attempt to move away from this position by those working in children's research with current etiquette…

  7. Support Network Responses to Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chleboun, Steffany; Hux, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Acquired brain injury (ABI) affects social relationships; however, the ways social and support networks change and evolve as a result of brain injury is not well understood. This study explored ways in which survivors of ABI and members of their support networks perceive relationship changes as recovery extends into the long-term stage. Two…

  8. Learning Deformable Shape Manifolds

    PubMed Central

    Rivera, Samuel; Martinez, Aleix

    2011-01-01

    We propose an approach to shape detection of highly deformable shapes in images via manifold learning with regression. Our method does not require shape key points be defined at high contrast image regions, nor do we need an initial estimate of the shape. We only require sufficient representative training data and a rough initial estimate of the object position and scale. We demonstrate the method for face shape learning, and provide a comparison to nonlinear Active Appearance Model. Our method is extremely accurate, to nearly pixel precision and is capable of accurately detecting the shape of faces undergoing extreme expression changes. The technique is robust to occlusions such as glasses and gives reasonable results for extremely degraded image resolutions. PMID:22308002

  9. IBA in deformed nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Casten, R.F.; Warner, D.D.

    1982-01-01

    The structure and characteristic properties and predictions of the IBA in deformed nuclei are reviewed, and compared with experiment, in particular for /sup 168/Er. Overall, excellent agreement, with a minimum of free parameters (in effect, two, neglecting scale factors on energy differences), was obtained. A particularly surprising, and unavoidable, prediction is that of strong ..beta.. ..-->.. ..gamma.. transitions, a feature characteristically absent in the geometrical model, but manifest empirically. Some discrepancies were also noted, principally for the K=4 excitation, and the detailed magnitudes of some specific B(E2) values. Considerable attention is paid to analyzing the structure of the IBA states and their relation to geometric models. The bandmixing formalism was studied to interpret both the aforementioned discrepancies and the origin of the ..beta.. ..-->.. ..gamma.. transitions. The IBA states, extremely complex in the usual SU(5) basis, are transformed to the SU(3) basis, as is the interaction Hamiltonian. The IBA wave functions appear with much simplified structure in this way as does the structure of the associated B(E2) values. The nature of the symmetry breaking of SU(3) for actual deformed nuclei is seen to be predominantly ..delta..K=0 mixing. A modified, and more consistent, formalism for the IBA-1 is introduced which is simpler, has fewer free parameters (in effect, one, neglecting scale factors on energy differences), is in at least as good agreement with experiment as the earlier formalism, contains a special case of the 0(6) limit which corresponds to that known empirically, and appears to have a close relationship to the IBA-2. The new formalism facilitates the construction of contour plots of various observables (e.g., energy or B(E2) ratios) as functions of N and chi/sub Q/ which allow the parameter-free discussion of qualitative trajectories or systematics.

  10. Acquired Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Deficiency.

    PubMed

    Cho, Do-Yeon; Woodworth, Bradford A

    2016-01-01

    In the genetic airway disease cystic fibrosis (CF), deficiency or dysfunction of the cystic fibrosis membrane conductance regulator (CFTR) alters anion transport in respiratory epithelium and consequently disrupts mucociliary clearance. An enriched understanding of the role of CFTR in the maintenance of normal epithelial function has revealed that mild and variable CFTR mutations play a causative role in a number of diseases not classically associated with CF. Furthermore, recent evidence indicates that acquired defects in wild-type CFTR protein processing, endocytic recycling and function can contribute to the pathogenesis of airway diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In this chapter, we discuss emerging findings implicating acquired CFTR dysfunction in the pathogenesis of chronic rhinosinusitis and propose a new and leading edge approach to future CRS therapy using CFTR potentiators. PMID:27466849

  11. Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ride, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), an education activity, allows middle school students to program a digital camera on board the International Space Station to photograph a variety of geographical targets for study in the classroom. Photos are made available on the web for viewing and study by participating schools around the world. Educators use the images for projects involving Earth Science, geography, physics, and social science.

  12. Intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms in enterococcus

    PubMed Central

    Hollenbeck, Brian L.; Rice, Louis B.

    2012-01-01

    Enterococci have the potential for resistance to virtually all clinically useful antibiotics. Their emergence as important nosocomial pathogens has coincided with increased expression of antimicrobial resistance by members of the genus. The mechanisms underlying antibiotic resistance in enterococci may be intrinsic to the species or acquired through mutation of intrinsic genes or horizontal exchange of genetic material encoding resistance determinants. This paper reviews the antibiotic resistance mechanisms in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis and discusses treatment options. PMID:23076243

  13. [Pharmacogenetics of community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Suleĭmanov, S Sh; Molchanova, O V; Kirpichnikova, N V; Sukhotina, N V; Gorbach, A A

    2010-01-01

    The rate of acetylation of xenobiotics affects the course and prognosis of infectious diseases. The efficacy of antibiotic therapy of community-acquired pneumonia in RA-patients is lower than that in LA-ones. In order to ensure the best antimicrobial effect on the onset of the disease it is required to use regimens with the maximum permissible dose of antibacterial drugs in the regions where the rapid type prevails. PMID:21400754

  14. Domestically acquired fascioliasis in northern California.

    PubMed

    Weisenberg, Scott A; Perlada, David E

    2013-09-01

    Two cases of domestically acquired fascioliasis are reported. Patient One was a 63-year-old male who developed a febrile illness 2 months after eating watercress in Marin County. Patient Two was a 38-year-old male who had eaten watercress with Patient One, and also developed a febrile illness. Both patients had eosinophilia and liver lesions on imaging. Diagnosis was made by serology and treatment was with triclabendazole. PMID:23836562

  15. Domestically Acquired Fascioliasis in Northern California

    PubMed Central

    Weisenberg, Scott A.; Perlada, David E.

    2013-01-01

    Two cases of domestically acquired fascioliasis are reported. Patient One was a 63-year-old male who developed a febrile illness 2 months after eating watercress in Marin County. Patient Two was a 38-year-old male who had eaten watercress with Patient One, and also developed a febrile illness. Both patients had eosinophilia and liver lesions on imaging. Diagnosis was made by serology and treatment was with triclabendazole. PMID:23836562

  16. Acquired protein energy malnutrition in glutaric acidemia.

    PubMed

    Ma, Liqiao; Savory, Stephanie; Agim, Nnenna G

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of acquired protein energy malnutrition with associated zinc deficiency in an 18-month-old boy with type 1 glutaric acidemia. Physical examination findings included generalized nonpitting edema, widespread desquamative plaques, and sparse hair with a reddish tinge. Laboratory abnormalities included low levels of zinc, albumin, alkaline phosphatase, and iron. A review of skin manifestations of nutritional deficiencies, specifically kwashiorkor, is presented, as well as the relatively new entity called acrodermatitis dysmetabolica. PMID:23330977

  17. Acquired Antibiotic Resistance Genes: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    van Hoek, Angela H. A. M.; Mevius, Dik; Guerra, Beatriz; Mullany, Peter; Roberts, Adam Paul; Aarts, Henk J. M.

    2011-01-01

    In this review an overview is given on antibiotic resistance (AR) mechanisms with special attentions to the AR genes described so far preceded by a short introduction on the discovery and mode of action of the different classes of antibiotics. As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance, attention is also paid to mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons, which are associated with AR genes, and involved in the dispersal of antimicrobial determinants between different bacteria. PMID:22046172

  18. System Acquires Data On Reactivities Of Foams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walls, Joe T.

    1994-01-01

    Data-acquisition and -plotting system, called DAPS(TM), developed enabling accurate and objective determination of physical properties related to reactivities of polyurethane and polyisocyanurate foams. Automated, computer-controlled test apparatus that acquires data on rates of rise, rise profiles, exothermic temperatures, and internal pressures of foams prepared from both manual and machine-mixed batches. Data used to determine minute differences between reaction kinetics and exothermic profiles of foam formulations, properties of end products which are statistically undifferentiated.

  19. Acquired resistance to immunotherapy and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Restifo, Nicholas P; Smyth, Mark J; Snyder, Alexandra

    2016-02-01

    Advances in immunotherapy have resulted in remarkable clinical responses in some patients. However, one of the biggest challenges in cancer therapeutics is the development of resistant disease and disease progression on or after therapy. Given that many patients have now received various types of immunotherapy, we asked three scientists to give their views on the current evidence for whether acquired resistance to immunotherapy exists in patients and the future challenges posed by immunotherapy. PMID:26822578

  20. A persistent scatterer interpolation for retrieving accurate ground deformation over InSAR-decorrelated agricultural fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jingyi; Zebker, Howard A.; Knight, Rosemary

    2015-11-01

    Interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) is a radar remote sensing technique for measuring surface deformation to millimeter-level accuracy at meter-scale resolution. Obtaining accurate deformation measurements in agricultural regions is difficult because the signal is often decorrelated due to vegetation growth. We present here a new algorithm for retrieving InSAR deformation measurements over areas with severe vegetation decorrelation using adaptive phase interpolation between persistent scatterer (PS) pixels, those points at which surface scattering properties do not change much over time and thus decorrelation artifacts are minimal. We apply this algorithm to L-band ALOS interferograms acquired over the San Luis Valley, Colorado, and the Tulare Basin, California. In both areas, the pumping of groundwater for irrigation results in deformation of the land that can be detected using InSAR. We show that the PS-based algorithm can significantly reduce the artifacts due to vegetation decorrelation while preserving the deformation signature.

  1. Ground deformation of Tenerife volcano island revealed by 1992-2005 DInSAR time series:

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tizzani, P.

    2009-04-01

    We study the state of deformation of Tenerife Island using Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR). We apply the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) DInSAR algorithm to radar images acquired from 1992 to 2005 by ERS sensors to determine the deformation rate distribution and the time series for the coherent pixels identified in the island. Our analysis reveals that the summit area of the volcanic edifice is characterized by a continuous subsidence extending well beyond Las Cañadas caldera rim and corresponding to the intrusive core of the island. These results, coupled with GPS ones, structural and geological information and deformation modelling, suggest that the intrusive complex is subsiding into a weak lithosphere and that the volcanic edifice is in a state of compression. We also detect more localized deformation patterns correlated with water table changes and variations in the time deformation associated with the seismic crisis in 2004.

  2. Stroke amplifier for deformable mirrors

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Robert H.; Albanese, Marc J.; Zhou, Yaopeng; Bifano, Thomas; Burns, Stephen A.

    2010-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple optical configuration that amplifies the usable stroke of a deformable mirror. By arranging for the wavefront to traverse the deformable mirror more than once, we correct it more than once. The experimental implementation of the idea demonstrates a doubling of 2.0 and 2.04 by two different means. PMID:15495423

  3. Anatomic Reconstruction Technique for a Plantar Calcaneonavicular (Spring) Ligament Tear.

    PubMed

    Palmanovich, Ezequiel; Shabat, Shay; Brin, Yaron S; Feldman, Viktor; Kish, Benny; Nyska, Meir

    2015-01-01

    Acquired flatfoot deformity in adults is usually due to partial or complete tearing of the posterior tibial tendon, with secondary failure of other structures such as the plantar calcaneonavicular (spring) ligament (SL), which maintain the medial longitudinal arch. In flexible cases, the tibialis posterior can be replaced with the flexor digitorum longus. It is common practice to suture the SL directly in the case of a tear; however, if the tear is complete, suturing directly to the ligament alone will not be possible. Reconstruction of the ligament is needed; however, no validated methods are available to reconstruct this ligament. The operative technique of SL reconstruction described in this report as a part of acquired flatfoot deformity reconstruction consists of augmenting remnants of the spring from the navicularis to the sustentaculum tali and suspending it to the medial malleolus using 2-mm-wide, long-chain polyethylene suture tape. This technique results in the firm anatomic reconstruction of the SL, in addition to "classic" medial arch reconstruction. We recommend SL reconstruction for medial arch reconstruction when the SL is torn. PMID:26253476

  4. [Spectrum research on metamorphic and deformation of tectonically deformed coals].

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Shi; Ju, Yi-Wen; Hou, Quan-Lin; Lin, Hong

    2011-08-01

    The structural and compositive evolution of tectonically deformed coals (TDCs) and their influencing factors were investigated and analyzed in detail through Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and laser Raman spectra analysis. The TDC samples (0.7% < Ro,max <3.1%) were collected from Huaibei coalfield with different deformation mechanisms and intensity. The FTIR of TDCs shows that the metamorphism and the deformation affect the degradation and polycondensation process of macromolecular structure to different degree. The Raman spectra analysis indicates that secondary structure defects can be produced mainly by structural deformation, also the metamorphism influences the secondary structure defects and aromatic structure. Through comprehensive analysis, it was discussed that the ductile deformation could change to strain energy through the increase and accumulation of dislocation in molecular structure units of TDC, and it could make an obvious influence on degradation and polycondensation. While the brittle deformation could change to frictional heat energy and promote the metamorphism and degradation of TDC structure, but has less effect on polycondensation. Furthermore, degradation is the main reason for affecting the structural evolution of coal in lower metamorphic stage, and polycondensation is the most important controlling factor in higher metamorphic stage. Under metamorphism and deformation, the small molecules which break and fall off from the macromolecular tructure of TDC are preferentially replenished and embedded into the secondary structure defects or the residual aromatic rings were formed into aromatic structure by polycondensation. This process improved the stability of coal structure. It is easier for ductile deformation of coal to induce the secondary structure defects than brittle deformation. PMID:22007412

  5. Defense mechanisms in congenital and acquired facial disfigurement: a clinical-empirical study.

    PubMed

    van den Elzen, Marijke E P; Versnel, Sarah L; Perry, J Christopher; Mathijssen, Irene M J; Duivenvoorden, Hugo J

    2012-04-01

    It is of clinical interest to investigate the degree to which patients with facial disfigurement use defense styles. Therefore, 59 adults born with rare facial clefts, 59 patients with facial deformities acquired at an adult age, and a reference group of 141 adults without facial disfigurements completed standardized questionnaires. There was a significant difference between the group with and the group without disfigurements on immature defense styles, with the disfigured group using the immature style more frequently. There was a trend for the nondisfigured group to use more mature defense styles. No difference between congenital and acquired groups was seen on individual types of defense style. Self-esteem had the strength to differentiate mature and immature defense styles within our disfigured groups. The association of low self-esteem and the utilization of immature defense styles suggests that professional help may tailor treatment on discussing immature defense style and problems triggering or maintaining this style. PMID:22456586

  6. Perceptual transparency from image deformation.

    PubMed

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Maruya, Kazushi; Nishida, Shin'ya

    2015-08-18

    Human vision has a remarkable ability to perceive two layers at the same retinal locations, a transparent layer in front of a background surface. Critical image cues to perceptual transparency, studied extensively in the past, are changes in luminance or color that could be caused by light absorptions and reflections by the front layer, but such image changes may not be clearly visible when the front layer consists of a pure transparent material such as water. Our daily experiences with transparent materials of this kind suggest that an alternative potential cue of visual transparency is image deformations of a background pattern caused by light refraction. Although previous studies have indicated that these image deformations, at least static ones, play little role in perceptual transparency, here we show that dynamic image deformations of the background pattern, which could be produced by light refraction on a moving liquid's surface, can produce a vivid impression of a transparent liquid layer without the aid of any other visual cues as to the presence of a transparent layer. Furthermore, a transparent liquid layer perceptually emerges even from a randomly generated dynamic image deformation as long as it is similar to real liquid deformations in its spatiotemporal frequency profile. Our findings indicate that the brain can perceptually infer the presence of "invisible" transparent liquids by analyzing the spatiotemporal structure of dynamic image deformation, for which it uses a relatively simple computation that does not require high-level knowledge about the detailed physics of liquid deformation. PMID:26240313

  7. Perceptual transparency from image deformation

    PubMed Central

    Kawabe, Takahiro; Maruya, Kazushi; Nishida, Shin’ya

    2015-01-01

    Human vision has a remarkable ability to perceive two layers at the same retinal locations, a transparent layer in front of a background surface. Critical image cues to perceptual transparency, studied extensively in the past, are changes in luminance or color that could be caused by light absorptions and reflections by the front layer, but such image changes may not be clearly visible when the front layer consists of a pure transparent material such as water. Our daily experiences with transparent materials of this kind suggest that an alternative potential cue of visual transparency is image deformations of a background pattern caused by light refraction. Although previous studies have indicated that these image deformations, at least static ones, play little role in perceptual transparency, here we show that dynamic image deformations of the background pattern, which could be produced by light refraction on a moving liquid’s surface, can produce a vivid impression of a transparent liquid layer without the aid of any other visual cues as to the presence of a transparent layer. Furthermore, a transparent liquid layer perceptually emerges even from a randomly generated dynamic image deformation as long as it is similar to real liquid deformations in its spatiotemporal frequency profile. Our findings indicate that the brain can perceptually infer the presence of “invisible” transparent liquids by analyzing the spatiotemporal structure of dynamic image deformation, for which it uses a relatively simple computation that does not require high-level knowledge about the detailed physics of liquid deformation. PMID:26240313

  8. Opioids and rat erythrocyte deformability.

    PubMed

    Rhoads, D L; Wei, L X; Lin, E T; Rezvani, A; Way, E L

    1986-01-01

    In previous studies from this laboratory, it was noted that opioids in vitro reduced human red blood cell deformability. The effect was found to be dose-dependent, naloxone reversible and preferentially selective kappa ligands exhibited the highest potency. To extend these findings studies were carried out using rat erythrocytes. The time required for erythrocytes to pass through a 5.0 um pore membrane was determined and used as an index of deformability. Opioids added in vitro produced inhibition of deformability in a dose-dependent, naloxone reversible manner. Injecting naive animals with morphine or nalbuphine also produced dose related reductions in red cell deformability. The degree of inhibition produced by nalbuphine correlated well with its plasma concentrations as measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Chronic morphine treatment by pellet implantation resulted in the development of tolerance as evidenced by a loss in the ability of morphine in vitro to inhibit red cell deformability. Addition of naloxone resulted in a decrease in filtration time. Thus, the data confirm and extend previous findings on human red blood cells. In as much as previous data from this laboratory demonstrated that opioids inhibit calcium flux from erythrocytes by inhibiting calcium-ATPase and calcium efflux is necessary for normal deformability, it is concluded that opioids act to reduce red cell deformability by inhibition of the calcium pump. PMID:3123933

  9. Acquired prosopagnosia without word recognition deficits.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Tirta; Wright, Victoria; Tree, Jeremy J; Duchaine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suggested that face recognition relies on specialized mechanisms that are not involved in visual recognition of other object categories, including those that require expert, fine-grained discrimination at the exemplar level such as written words. But according to the recently proposed many-to-many theory of object recognition (MTMT), visual recognition of faces and words are carried out by common mechanisms [Behrmann, M., & Plaut, D. C. ( 2013 ). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219]. MTMT acknowledges that face and word recognition are lateralized, but posits that the mechanisms that predominantly carry out face recognition still contribute to word recognition and vice versa. MTMT makes a key prediction, namely that acquired prosopagnosics should exhibit some measure of word recognition deficits. We tested this prediction by assessing written word recognition in five acquired prosopagnosic patients. Four patients had lesions limited to the right hemisphere while one had bilateral lesions with more pronounced lesions in the right hemisphere. The patients completed a total of seven word recognition tasks: two lexical decision tasks and five reading aloud tasks totalling more than 1200 trials. The performances of the four older patients (3 female, age range 50-64 years) were compared to those of 12 older controls (8 female, age range 56-66 years), while the performances of the younger prosopagnosic (male, 31 years) were compared to those of 14 younger controls (9 female, age range 20-33 years). We analysed all results at the single-patient level using Crawford's t-test. Across seven tasks, four prosopagnosics performed as quickly and accurately as controls. Our results demonstrate that acquired prosopagnosia can exist without word recognition deficits. These findings are inconsistent with a key prediction of MTMT. They instead support the hypothesis that face

  10. Clinicopathological correlation of acquired hypopigmentary disorders.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anisha B; Kubba, Raj; Kubba, Asha

    2013-01-01

    Acquired hypopigmentary disorders comprise a significant group of disorders that affect Indians and Asians. The pigment disturbance in darker skin individuals can be very distressing to the patient and the family. These disorders cover a wide array of pathologies including infections, autoimmune processes, lymphoproliferative disorders, and sclerosing diseases. Histological diagnosis is particularly important because treatments for these diseases are varied and specific. This review will focus on histopathological diagnosis based on clinicopathological correlation for commonly encountered disorders such as leprosy, vitiligo, lichen sclerosus, pityriasis alba (PA), and pityriasis versicolor (PV). Atypical or uncommon clinical presentation of classic diseases such as hypopigmented mycosis fungoides (HMF) and hypopigmented sarcoidosis are also included. PMID:23619442

  11. [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in pediatric patients].

    PubMed

    Molina Moguel, J L; Ruiz Illezcas, R; Forsbach Sánchez, S; Carreño Alvarez, S; Picco Díaz, I

    1990-12-01

    The object of this study was to determine how many of the patients treated at the Pediatric Odontology Clinic, a branch of the Maxillo-Facial Surgery Service at the Veinte de Noviembre Regional Hospital, ISSSTE, are VIH-positive of show serious manifestations of Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). For such purpose, 100 pediatric patients suffering from different systemic or local diseases were evaluated, the most common being hematological alterations. Results evidenced the presence of VIH in the blood of five of the pediatric subjects, all suffering from Hemophilia. PMID:2132469

  12. Acquired scalp alopecia. Part II: A review.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J R; Kossard, S

    1999-05-01

    The neutrophil-associated and infiltrative scarring alopecias are reviewed including folliculitis decalvans, tufted folliculitis, dissecting cellulitis of the scalp, acne keloidalis and follicular degeneration syndrome. The management of acquired scalp alopecia is also reviewed including newer, promising therapies. More specific agents targeting components of the androgen system will make the treatment of androgenetic alopecia more rewarding. Similarly new immunomodulatory therapies show great promise for the lymphocyte-associated alopecias and include a new generation of macrolide immunosuppressives (tacrolimus, SDZ ASM 981, and SDZ 281-240), some of which appear to have good transcutaneous absorption. PMID:10333615

  13. Origins of species: acquired genomes and individuality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.

    1993-01-01

    Entire genomes with their accompanying protein synthetic systems are transferred throughout the biosphere primarily as bacteria and protists which become symbionts as they irreversibly integrate into pre-existing organisms to form more complex individuals. Individualization is stabilized by simultaneous transmission of once-separate heterologous genetic systems. The origin of new species is hypothesized to correlate with the acquisition, integration and subsequent inheritance of such acquired microbial genomes. These processes were recognized by Mereschkovsky ("Symbiogenesis" in Russian, 1909) and by Wallin ("Symbionticism", see p. 181, this issue).

  14. Acquired haemophilia masked by warfarin therapy.

    PubMed

    Vadikolia, C M; Riddell, A; Brooks, S; Yee, T T; Brown, S; Lee, C

    2007-02-01

    Acquired haemophilia is a rare phenomenon and prompt diagnosis is essential for successful treatment. Early laboratory detection could minimize its potentially devastating consequences and reduce mortality but when a masking element such as anticoagulant therapy is present, delay in diagnosis is not uncommon. A prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) may be falsely attributed to warfarin alone, particularly when it is associated with oral anticoagulant overdose. We describe two patients on treatment with warfarin who presented with a bleeding diathesis and disproportionately prolonged APTT, which led to the diagnosis of antibodies directed against factor VIII. PMID:17224010

  15. Acquired Congenital Malalignment of the Great Toenails

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Ashley; Scher, Richard K.; Avarbock, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Congenital malalignment is the lateral deviation of the nail plate along the longitudinal axis due to the lateral rotation of the nail matrix. The nail plate grows out in ridges caused by repeated microtrauma to the nail. Common complications include onychomycosis, Pseudomonas infection and acute or chronic paronychia. Treatment options range from conservative management to surgical options including realignment and nail matrixectomy. Congenital malalignment usually presents in infancy or childhood, but we present two cases of acquired malalignment occurring in the teenage years. PMID:27171597

  16. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome: an update.

    PubMed

    Franchini, Massimo; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2007-05-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (aVWS) is a rare bleeding disorder with laboratory findings similar to those for congenital von Willebrand disease (VWD). However, unlike congenital VWD, it arises in individuals with no personal or family history of bleeding. aVWS occurs in association with a variety of underlying disorders, most frequently in lymphoproliferative disorders, myeloproliferative disorders, and cardiovascular diseases. Through an analysis of the more recent literature data, the pathophysiology and the clinical, laboratory, and therapeutic aspects of this syndrome are concisely reported in this review. PMID:17133419

  17. Acquired Congenital Malalignment of the Great Toenails.

    PubMed

    Decker, Ashley; Scher, Richard K; Avarbock, Andrew

    2016-02-01

    Congenital malalignment is the lateral deviation of the nail plate along the longitudinal axis due to the lateral rotation of the nail matrix. The nail plate grows out in ridges caused by repeated microtrauma to the nail. Common complications include onychomycosis, Pseudomonas infection and acute or chronic paronychia. Treatment options range from conservative management to surgical options including realignment and nail matrixectomy. Congenital malalignment usually presents in infancy or childhood, but we present two cases of acquired malalignment occurring in the teenage years. PMID:27171597

  18. Videogrammetric Model Deformation Measurement Technique

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Liu, Tian-Shu

    2001-01-01

    The theory, methods, and applications of the videogrammetric model deformation (VMD) measurement technique used at NASA for wind tunnel testing are presented. The VMD technique, based on non-topographic photogrammetry, can determine static and dynamic aeroelastic deformation and attitude of a wind-tunnel model. Hardware of the system includes a video-rate CCD camera, a computer with an image acquisition frame grabber board, illumination lights, and retroreflective or painted targets on a wind tunnel model. Custom software includes routines for image acquisition, target-tracking/identification, target centroid calculation, camera calibration, and deformation calculations. Applications of the VMD technique at five large NASA wind tunnels are discussed.

  19. Metastable vacua and complex deformations

    SciTech Connect

    Tatar, Radu; Wetenhall, Ben

    2007-12-15

    We use the non-normalizable complex deformations to describe the stringy realizations of the metastable vacua in N=1, SU(N{sub c}) SUSY theories with N{sub f}>N{sub c} massive fundamental flavors. The consideration of the non-normalizable deformations requires a modified toric duality. The new approach considers the tachyon condensation between pairs of wrapped D5 branes and anti-D5 branes and the resulting mixing between some cycles in the geometry. We enlarge the class of metastable vacua to the case of branes-antibranes wrapped on cycles of deformed A{sub n} singularities.

  20. Asian elephants acquire inaccessible food by blowing.

    PubMed

    Mizuno, Kaori; Irie, Naoko; Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, Mariko; Kutsukake, Nobuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Many animals acquire otherwise inaccessible food with the aid of sticks and occasionally water. As an exception, some reports suggest that elephants manipulate breathing through their trunks to acquire inaccessible food. Here, we report on two female Asian elephants (Elephas maximus) in Kamine Zoo, Japan, who regularly blew to drive food within their reach. We experimentally investigated this behaviour by placing foods in inaccessible places. The elephants blew the food until it came within accessible range. Once the food was within range, the elephants were increasingly less likely to blow as the distance to the food became shorter. One subject manipulated her blowing duration based on food distance: longer when the food was distant. These results suggest that the elephants used their breath to achieve goals: that is, they used it not only to retrieve the food but also to fine-tune the food position for easy grasping. We also observed individual differences in the elephants' aptitude for this technique, which altered the efficiency of food acquisition. Thus, we added a new example of spontaneous behaviour for achieving a goal in animals. The use of breath to drive food is probably unique to elephants, with their dexterous trunks and familiarity with manipulating the act of blowing, which is commonly employed for self-comfort and acoustic communication. PMID:26541597

  1. Tetracycline resistance genes acquired at birth.

    PubMed

    Alicea-Serrano, Angela M; Contreras, Mónica; Magris, Magda; Hidalgo, Glida; Dominguez-Bello, Maria G

    2013-06-01

    Newborns acquire their first microbiota at birth. Maternal vaginal or skin bacteria colonize newborns delivered vaginally or by C-section, respectively (Dominguez-Bello et al. 2010 #884). We aimed to determine differences in the presence of four tetracycline (tet) resistance genes, in the microbes of ten newborns and in the mouth and vagina of their mothers, at the time of birth. DNA was amplified by PCR with primers specific for [tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), and tet(W)]. Maternal vaginas harbored all four tet resistance genes, but most commonly tet(M) and tet(O) (63 and 38 %, respectively). Genes coding for tet resistance differed by birth mode, with 50 % of vaginally delivered babies had tet(M) and tet(O) and 16 and 13 % of infants born by C-section had tet(O) and tet(W), respectively. Newborns acquire antibiotic resistance genes at birth, and the resistance gene profile varies by mode of delivery. PMID:23483141

  2. Surgery-associated acquired hemophilia A.

    PubMed

    Theodossiades, G; Tsevrenis, V; Nomikou, E; Dadiotis, L; Kontopoulou-Griva, I

    2001-11-01

    We present two patients who acquired factor VIII antibodies in the immediate postoperative period. One patient was receiving warfarin that was temporarily discontinued but reintroduced after the procedure. Preoperatively, none gave a history of bleeding, even with past surgeries, and both had normal coagulation tests. Within days of surgery, hemorrhage with prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time, low factor VIII levels, and demonstrable factor VIII antibodies were observed. For the patient who was receiving warfarin the severe bleeding was attributed, at the beginning, only to the high international normalized ratio (INR), which resulted in a fatal delay in diagnosis and appropriate treatment. We would like to raise awareness of surgery as a precipitating cause of acquired hemophilia, which is something to be considered with unusual postoperative bleeding. This syndrome is remarkable for its abrupt onset within days of surgery, severe bleeding but potential successful outcome with combined hemostatic control with recombinant activated FVII (rFVIIa) and elimination of the antibody by immunosuppression. PMID:11757731

  3. Therapeutic approaches to acquired von Willebrand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Federici, A B

    2000-02-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is a rare acquired bleeding disorder similar to the congenital von Willebrand disease (VWD) in terms of laboratory findings. Diagnosis of AVWS can be very difficult, with treatment normally taking an empirical form. Although more than 200 cases have been reported since 1968, no retrospective or prospective studies are available on AVWS. Recently, an International Registry on AVWS, gathering data directly from worldwide Departments of Haematology-Oncology and Haemophilia Centres, has been organised by a group working on behalf of the Subcommittee on VWF in the Scientific Standardisation Committee (SSC) of International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis (ISTH). Information about an additional 211 AVWS patients is now available, with more detailed data on demography, type of haemorrhage, diagnostic tests for AVWS and management of bleeding episodes. The additional 211 AVWS cases are associated with lymphoproliferative (47%) or myeloproliferative (19%) disorders, cardiovascular diseases, neoplasia (7%) and other miscellaneous diseases (14%). Bleeding episodes of AVWS patients were managed by different compounds including desmopressin (22%), FVIII/VWF concentrates (26%) and high-dose immunoglobulin (10%), plasmapheresis (2%), steroids (5%) and immunosuppressive drugs (20%). Based on complied data, we can conclude that none of the therapeutic approaches proposed are 100% effective in all AVWS cases. Therefore, treatment must be customized for each patient according to the underlying disorder, as well as to the type and the severity of bleeding episode and must be targeted to each specific case. PMID:11060681

  4. Surface deformation of Taipei basin detected by Differential SAR Interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Y.; Chang, C.; Yen, J.; Lin, M.

    2006-12-01

    Taiwan island is located between the southeastern periphery of the Eurasian plate and the Philippine Sea plate. The two converging plates produced very active tectonics, and can be seen by the high seismicity and deformation rate. Taipei, the highest populated area, center of politics, and economics in Taiwan, is in Taipei basin at the northern part of the island. There are several faults in and surrounding the basin, and the city is threatened with a high geological hazard potential that we should keep monitoring the crustal deformation to prevent and mitigate the disaster effect. The aims of our study is to apply the DInSAR technique to determine the surface deformation of Taipei basin area, and discussing the relation between the manifestation of deformation and the tectonically active region, Shanjiao fault. In the past few years, Differential SAR Interferometry (DInSAR) has been proved to be a powerful technique for monitoring the neotectonic activities and natural hazards. High spatial sampling rate of DInSAR technique allows studies of surface deformations with centimeter accuracy. In this area, we used ERS-1/2 SAR images acquired from 1993 to 2005 to generate 10 differential interferograms and processed the data using DIAPASON developed by CNES and SRTM global DEM.From our results, the deformation rate in Taipei is generally high in the western end of the basin along the Shanjiao fault and decrease eastward, while the subsidence center often appeared in the center of the Taipei basin. The neotectonic activity of the Shanjiao fault appeared to be insignificant by itself but it seemed to separate the subsiding basin from the surrounding areas. Further comparison between our DInSAR results and isopach of the Taipei basin revealed that the subsidence centers appeared in the interferograms did not coincide with the location where the sediments are thickest. Our results from differential interferometry will be compared to other geodetic measurements such as the

  5. WE-G-BRF-01: Adaptation to Intrafraction Tumor Deformation During Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy: First Proof-Of-Principle Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Ge, Y; OBrien, R; Shieh, C; Booth, J; Keall, P

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Intrafraction tumor deformation limits targeting accuracy in radiotherapy and cannot be adapted to by current motion management techniques. This study simulated intrafractional treatment adaptation to tumor deformations using a dynamic Multi-Leaf Collimator (DMLC) tracking system during Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatment for the first time. Methods: The DMLC tracking system was developed to adapt to the intrafraction tumor deformation by warping the planned beam aperture guided by the calculated deformation vector field (DVF) obtained from deformable image registration (DIR) at the time of treatment delivery. Seven single phantom deformation images up to 10.4 mm deformation and eight tumor system phantom deformation images up to 21.5 mm deformation were acquired and used in tracking simulation. The intrafraction adaptation was simulated at the DMLC tracking software platform, which was able to communicate with the image registration software, reshape the instantaneous IMRT field aperture and log the delivered MLC fields.The deformation adaptation accuracy was evaluated by a geometric target coverage metric defined as the sum of the area incorrectly outside and inside the reference aperture. The incremental deformations were arbitrarily determined to take place equally over the delivery interval. The geometric target coverage of delivery with deformation adaptation was compared against the delivery without adaptation. Results: Intrafraction deformation adaptation during dynamic IMRT plan delivery was simulated for single and system deformable phantoms. For the two particular delivery situations, over the treatment course, deformation adaptation improved the target coverage by 89% for single target deformation and 79% for tumor system deformation compared with no-tracking delivery. Conclusion: This work demonstrated the principle of real-time tumor deformation tracking using a DMLC. This is the first step towards the development of an

  6. ROCK DEFORMATION. Final Progress Report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-24

    The Gordon Research Conference (GRC) on ROCK DEFORMATION was held at II Ciocco from 5/19/02 thru 5/24/02. Emphasis was placed on current unpublished research and discussion of the future target areas in this field.

  7. M theory on deformed superspace

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, Mir

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we will analyze a noncommutative deformation of the Aharony-Bergman-Jafferis-Maldacena (ABJM) theory in N=1 superspace formalism. We will then analyze the Becchi-Rouet-Stora-Tyutin (BRST) and anti-BRST symmetries for this deformed ABJM theory, and its linear as well as nonlinear gauges. We will show that the sum of the gauge fixing term and the ghost term for this deformed ABJM theory can be expressed as a combination of the total BRST and the total anti-BRST variation, in Landau and nonlinear gauges. We will show that in Landau and Curci-Ferrari gauges deformed ABJM theory is invariant under an additional set of symmetry transformations. We will also discuss the effect that the addition of a bare mass term has on this theory.

  8. Carrier Deformability in Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Morilla, Maria Jose; Romero, Eder Lilia

    2016-01-01

    Deformability is a key property of drug carriers used to increase the mass penetration across the skin without disrupting the lipid barrier. Highly deformable vesicles proved to be more effective than conventional liposomes in delivering drugs into and across the mammalian skin upon topical non occlusive application. In the past five years, highly deformable vesicles have been used for local delivery of drugs on joint diseases, skin cancer, atopic dermatitis, would healing, psoriasis, scar treatment, fungal, bacteria and protozoa infections. Promising topical vaccination strategies rely also in this type of carriers. Here we provide an overview on the main structural and mechanical features of deformable vesicles, to finish with an extensive update on their latest preclinical applications. PMID:26675226

  9. Modelling magnetically deformed neutron stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haskell, B.; Samuelsson, L.; Glampedakis, K.; Andersson, N.

    2008-03-01

    Rotating deformed neutron stars are important potential sources for ground-based gravitational wave interferometers such as LIGO, GEO600 and VIRGO. One mechanism that may lead to significant non-asymmetries is the internal magnetic field. It is well known that a magnetic star will not be spherical and, if the magnetic axis is not aligned with the spin axis, the deformation will lead to the emission of gravitational waves. The aim of this paper is to develop a formalism that would allow us to model magnetically deformed stars, using both realistic equations of state and field configurations. As a first step, we consider a set of simplified model problems. Focusing on dipolar fields, we determine the internal magnetic field which is consistent with a given neutron star model and calculate the associated deformation. We discuss the relevance of our results for current gravitational wave detectors and future prospects.

  10. Promoting research in rock deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Steve

    In response to informal discussions at the 1988 AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore, Md., a dinner colloquium was held December 5, 1988, in San Francisco. Our purpose was to explore ways of promoting basic research in rock deformation, for which no professional organization exists that spans the full range of research interests. In spite of an informal distribution of announcements of the meeting, 54 people attended.Rock deformation is the materials science of the crystalline and amorphous materials that make up the solid Earth. As such, it includes not only the physical processes responsible for brittle and ductile deformation but also the important chemical processes that influence time-dependent inelastic deformation. Consequently, there is a continuing need to engage interest and collaboration from materials scientists, mineral physicists, metallurgists, surface chemists, and geochemists in the study of the inelastic mechanical behavior of these complex materials.

  11. Deformations in chiral liquid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibaev, Petr; Reddy, Kathryn; Bateman, Daniel; Iljin, Andrey

    2014-03-01

    Deformations and their relaxation in chiral liquid crystals are studied experimentally and theoretically in planar geometry for liquid crystalline mixtures of varying viscosities. It is shown by both methods that shear deformation in liquid crystals results in the inclination and extension of cholesteric helix in samples with high viscosity. Stretching deformation results in shrinking cholesteric helix. This leads to a possibility of detecting deformations on a nanometer scale by observing changes in selective reflection spectra. Theoretical model takes into account elastic strain of physical network formed by the entanglements between components of liquid crystalline mixture, viscosity of the matrix and elasticity of the liquid crystalline subsystem. This allows to model mechanical response of the matrix with different viscosities to stretching and shear of various amplitudes. It is shown that relaxation of the cholesteric helix takes much shorter time than mechanical relaxation of the mixtures. The model perfectly agrees with experimental data. The model is compared with theoretical model describing behavior of elastomers.

  12. Variable focal length deformable mirror

    DOEpatents

    Headley, Daniel; Ramsey, Marc; Schwarz, Jens

    2007-06-12

    A variable focal length deformable mirror has an inner ring and an outer ring that simply support and push axially on opposite sides of a mirror plate. The resulting variable clamping force deforms the mirror plate to provide a parabolic mirror shape. The rings are parallel planar sections of a single paraboloid and can provide an on-axis focus, if the rings are circular, or an off-axis focus, if the rings are elliptical. The focal length of the deformable mirror can be varied by changing the variable clamping force. The deformable mirror can generally be used in any application requiring the focusing or defocusing of light, including with both coherent and incoherent light sources.

  13. Shear deformation in granular materials

    SciTech Connect

    Bardenhagen, S.G.; Brackbill, J.U.; Sulsky, D.L.

    1998-12-31

    An investigation into the properties of granular materials is undertaken via numerical simulation. These simulations highlight that frictional contact, a defining characteristic of dry granular materials, and interfacial debonding, an expected deformation mode in plastic bonded explosives, must be properly modeled. Frictional contact and debonding algorithms have been implemented into FLIP, a particle in cell code, and are described. Frictionless and frictional contact are simulated, with attention paid to energy and momentum conservation. Debonding is simulated, with attention paid to the interfacial debonding speed. A first step toward calculations of shear deformation in plastic bonded explosives is made. Simulations are performed on the scale of the grains where experimental data is difficult to obtain. Two characteristics of deformation are found, namely the intermittent binding of grains when rotation and translation are insufficient to accommodate deformation, and the role of the binder as a lubricant in force chains.

  14. Anatomy of gravitationally deformed slopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chigira, Masahiro; Yamasaki, Shintaro; Hariyama, Takehiro

    2010-05-01

    Deep-seated gravitational slope deformation is the deformation of rocks as well as slope surfaces, but the internal structures have not been well observed and described before. This is mainly due to the difficulty in obtaining undisturbed samples from underground. We analyzed the internal deformational structures of gravitationally deformed slopes by using high quality drilled cores obtained by hybrid drilling technique, which has been recently developed and can recover very fragile materials that could not be taken by the conventional drilling techniques. Investigated slopes were gravitationally deformed out-facing slopes of pelitic schist and shale. The slope surfaces showed deformational features of small steps, depressions, knobs, and linear depressions, but had no major main scarp and landslide body with well-defined outline. This is indicative of slow, deep-seated gravitational deformation. Most of these small deformational features are hidden by vegetations, but they are detected by using airborne laser scanner. Drilled cores showed that the internal deformation is dominated by the slip and tearing off along foliations. Slippage along foliations is conspicuous in pelitic schist: Pelitic schist is sheared, particularly along black layers, which are rich in graphite and pyrite. Graphite is known to be a solid lubricant in material sciences, which seems to be why shearing occurs along the black layers. Rock mass between two slip layers is sheared, rotated, fractured, and pulverized; undulation of bedding or schistosity could be the nucleation points of fracturing. Tearing off along foliations is also the major deformation mode, which forms jagged morphology of rock fragments within shear zones. Rock fragments with jagged surface are commonly observed in "gouge", which is very different from tectonic gouge. This probably reflects the low confining pressures during their formation. Microscopic to mesoscopic openings along fractures are commonly observed with

  15. Measurement of deformations by NMR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bytchenkoff, Dimitri; Rodts, Stéphane

    2015-12-01

    Two NMR data acquisition protocols together with corresponding data processing algorithms for locating macroscopic objects, measuring distances between them or monitoring their displacements or deformations with microscopic precision are presented and discussed. The performance of the methods is demonstrated by applying them to the measurement of deformations of a freely supported beam under loading. We believe that our methods will find their applications in mechanics, civil engineering and medicine.

  16. Vision System for Remote Strain/Deformation Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Hovis, G.L.

    1999-01-26

    Machine vision metrology is ideally suited to the task of non-contact/non-intrusive deformation and strain measurement in a remote system. The objective of this work-in-progress is to develop a compact instrument for strain measurement consisting of a camera, image capture card, PC, software, and light source. The instrument is portable and useful in a variety of applications and environments. A digital camera with a microscopic lens is connected to an image capture card in a PC. Commercially available image processing software is used to control the image capture and image processing steps leading up to displacement/strain measurement. Image processing steps include filtering and edge/feature enhancement. Custom software is required to control/automate certain elements of the acquisition and processing. Images of a region on the surface of a specimen are acquired at hold points (during static tests) or at regular time intervals (during transients). Salient features in the image scene (microstructure, oxide deposits, etc.) are observed in subsequent images. The strain measurement algorithm characterizes relative motion of the salient features with individual displacement vectors yielding 2-D deformation equations. The set of deformation equations is solved simultaneously to yield unknown deformation gradient terms that are used to express 2-D strain. The overall concept, theory, and test results to date are presented herein.

  17. Moving and deforming a liquid drop by pulsed laser irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Alexander L.; Visser, Claas Willem; Lhuissier, Henri; Villermaux, Emmanuel; Sun, Chao; Lohse, Detlef; Gelderblom, Hanneke

    2014-11-01

    The impact of a focused laser pulse onto a liquid drop can be so violent that the drop strongly deforms and eventually explodes. We studied the drop dynamics that results from this laser impact experimentally, in order to understand the time evolution of the drop and find the underlying driving mechanism. The high reproducibility of the dynamics allowed us to use stroboscopic illumination with short, ns exposure times. Combining this technique with high-speed imaging we captured key details of the laser impact and drop deformation. The laser impact ablates the front the drop while the remainder of the drop acquires a velocity of several m/s. The drop expands radially into a disk-like shape with a velocity of the same order of magnitude, before instabilities develop and the drop fragments. A parameter study of the time-resolved drop shape and velocity as a function of the laser energy is presented.

  18. Microstructure-strength relationship of a deformation processed aluminum-titanium composite

    SciTech Connect

    Lund, T.

    1998-02-23

    The mechanical properties, electrical properties and microstructures have been evaluated for an Al-20 wt % Ti deformation processed metal metal matrix composite (DMMC). The strength of the swaged, extruded and wire drawn composite increases several-fold with increasing deformation up to a true strain of 12.1, the maximum investigated. At this point the Ti was elongated and SEM and TEM analysis of the transverse direction of the wire showed the ribbon-like filaments that are common for this type of material. Texture development was also characterized to explain the deformation characteristics of the composite materials. The Ti filaments acquired a <10{bar 1}0> fiber texture during deformation, and the Al filaments acquired a dual texture of (111) and (100). Resistivity measurements of the composite showed that for the highest deformed sample ({eta} = 12.1), the resistivity increased linearly with temperature up to the temperature where Al{sub 3}Ti formed. At this point the slope increased. Beyond this point, the resistivity of the sample never returned to its original value. The temperature where Al{sub 3}Ti forms was investigated using DTA and XRD analysis. The reaction temperature decreases with increasing deformation true strain ({eta}) and filament spacing.

  19. Mixing of discontinuously deforming media.

    PubMed

    Smith, L D; Rudman, M; Lester, D R; Metcalfe, G

    2016-02-01

    Mixing of materials is fundamental to many natural phenomena and engineering applications. The presence of discontinuous deformations-such as shear banding or wall slip-creates new mechanisms for mixing and transport beyond those predicted by classical dynamical systems theory. Here, we show how a novel mixing mechanism combining stretching with cutting and shuffling yields exponential mixing rates, quantified by a positive Lyapunov exponent, an impossibility for systems with cutting and shuffling alone or bounded systems with stretching alone, and demonstrate it in a fluid flow. While dynamical systems theory provides a framework for understanding mixing in smoothly deforming media, a theory of discontinuous mixing is yet to be fully developed. New methods are needed to systematize, explain, and extrapolate measurements on systems with discontinuous deformations. Here, we investigate "webs" of Lagrangian discontinuities and show that they provide a template for the overall transport dynamics. Considering slip deformations as the asymptotic limit of increasingly localised smooth shear, we also demonstrate exactly how some of the new structures introduced by discontinuous deformations are analogous to structures in smoothly deforming systems. PMID:26931594

  20. Microstructures and deformation mechanisms of experimentally deformed gabbro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Yongsheng; He, Changrong

    2015-04-01

    The natural gabbro samples were deformed at temperature ranging from 700 to 1150 °C with strain rate steps of 1 × 10-4, 2.5 × 10-5, 6.3 × 10-6 s-1. The mechanical data show that sample experiences gradual transition from semi-brittle flow to plastic flow, corresponding to a systematically decreasing stress exponent n with the increasing temperature ranging from 16.5 to 4.1 (He et al. Sci China (D) 46(7):730-742, 2003). We investigate microstructures and deformation mechanisms of experimentally deformed gabbro under transmission electron microscope in this study. For low temperature of 700 °C to 950 °C, the deformation is mainly accommodated with dislocation glide and mechanical twinning, corresponding to stress exponent lager than 5, which means semi-brittle deformation. Whereas with higher temperature up to 1000 °C-1150 °C, the deformation is accommodated mainly with dislocation glide and climb corresponding to stress exponent of 4.1, which means plastic deformation. Evidence of dislocation climb has been found as dislocation walls in plagioclase. The observed slip system in plagioclase is (001)1/2[110] and that in clinopyroxene are (100)[001] and (010)[001]. The (010)[001] slip system in clinopyroxene is newly found in this work. Melt was found at temperature of 950 °C-1050 °C. The melt glass distributed both in melt thin film between two grain boundaries and melt tubules of triangular along three grain boundaries at temperature of 950 °C-1000 °C. The melt triangular interconnected to the melt film at temperature of 1050 °C-1150 °C, where the melt chemical composition differentiated into iron-rich dark dots and silicate-rich matrix.

  1. Treatment of the acquired von Willebrand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Budde, Ulrich; Scheppenheim, Sonja; Dittmer, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (aVWS) accounts for 22% of patients with abnormal von Willebrand factor. Most patients with known pathophysiological mechanisms suffer from cardiovascular, myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders. Less frequent associations are of autoimmune origin, due to hyperfibrinolysis, adsorption to tumor cells, reduced synthesis and prolonged circulation. The mechanisms leading to aVWS is hitherto not known in patients with liver and kidney diseases, drug use, glycogen storage disease, virus infections and at least 18 other disease entities. Diagnosis is complicated by the battery of tests needed, and their inherent rather low sensitivity and specificity for aVWS. Thus, even in acute bleeding situations it may take days until a firm diagnosis is settled and specific therapies can be initiated. The main aim is to shed more light onto this, compared with inherited von Willebrand disease, rare disease which affects at least 2-3% of the older population. PMID:26577336

  2. Processed pseudogenes acquired somatically during cancer development.

    PubMed

    Cooke, Susanna L; Shlien, Adam; Marshall, John; Pipinikas, Christodoulos P; Martincorena, Inigo; Tubio, Jose M C; Li, Yilong; Menzies, Andrew; Mudie, Laura; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Yates, Lucy; Davies, Helen; Bolli, Niccolo; Bignell, Graham R; Tarpey, Patrick S; Behjati, Sam; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Teixeira, Vitor H; Raine, Keiran; O'Meara, Sarah; Dodoran, Maryam S; Teague, Jon W; Butler, Adam P; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Santarius, Thomas; Grundy, Richard G; Malkin, David; Greaves, Mel; Munshi, Nikhil; Flanagan, Adrienne M; Bowtell, David; Martin, Sancha; Larsimont, Denis; Reis-Filho, Jorge S; Boussioutas, Alex; Taylor, Jack A; Hayes, Neil D; Janes, Sam M; Futreal, P Andrew; Stratton, Michael R; McDermott, Ultan; Campbell, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    Cancer evolves by mutation, with somatic reactivation of retrotransposons being one such mutational process. Germline retrotransposition can cause processed pseudogenes, but whether this occurs somatically has not been evaluated. Here we screen sequencing data from 660 cancer samples for somatically acquired pseudogenes. We find 42 events in 17 samples, especially non-small cell lung cancer (5/27) and colorectal cancer (2/11). Genomic features mirror those of germline LINE element retrotranspositions, with frequent target-site duplications (67%), consensus TTTTAA sites at insertion points, inverted rearrangements (21%), 5' truncation (74%) and polyA tails (88%). Transcriptional consequences include expression of pseudogenes from UTRs or introns of target genes. In addition, a somatic pseudogene that integrated into the promoter and first exon of the tumour suppressor gene, MGA, abrogated expression from that allele. Thus, formation of processed pseudogenes represents a new class of mutation occurring during cancer development, with potentially diverse functional consequences depending on genomic context. PMID:24714652

  3. ACECARD. Acquire CoOmmodities Easily Card

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, E.E.

    1996-09-01

    Acquire Commodities Easily Card (AceCard) provides an automated end-user method to distribute company credit card charges to internal charge numbers. AceCard will allow cardholders to record card purchases in an on-line order log, enter multiple account distributions per order that can be posted to the General Ledger, track orders, and receipt information, and provide a variety of cardholder and administrative reports. Please note: Customers must contact Ed Soler (423)-576-6151, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, for help with the installation of the package. The fee for this installation help will be coordinated by the customer and Lockheed Martin and is in addition to cost of the package from ESTSC. Customers should contact Sandy Presley (423)-576-4708 for user help.

  4. Acquire CoOmmodities Easily Card

    1998-05-29

    Acquire Commodities Easily Card (AceCard) provides an automated end-user method to distribute company credit card charges to internal charge numbers. AceCard will allow cardholders to record card purchases in an on-line order log, enter multiple account distributions per order that can be posted to the General Ledger, track orders, and receipt information, and provide a variety of cardholder and administrative reports. Please note: Customers must contact Ed Soler (423)-576-6151, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, for helpmore » with the installation of the package. The fee for this installation help will be coordinated by the customer and Lockheed Martin and is in addition to cost of the package from ESTSC. Customers should contact Sandy Presley (423)-576-4708 for user help.« less

  5. Acquired Localized Hypertrichosis Induced by Rivastigmine

    PubMed Central

    Imbernón-Moya, Adrian; Podlipnik, Sebastian; Burgos, Fernando; Vargas-Laguna, Elena; Aguilar-Martínez, Antonio; Fernández-Cogolludo, Eva; Gallego-Valdes, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrichosis is the excessive hair growth in any area of the skin surface. Acquired localized hypertrichosis may be secondary to multiple causes and there is a secondary form due to several drugs, which is usually reversible with discontinuation of the causative agent. Rivastigmine is a reversible and competitive inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase used for symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer dementia and Parkinson's disease. It has an adequate safety profile and cutaneous side effects are unusual. Irritant contact dermatitis, allergic dermatitis, baboon syndrome, and cutaneous rash due to rivastigmine have been reported. We report on a Caucasian 80-year-old male with personal history of Alzheimer's disease. The patient started therapy with oral rivastigmine one month prior to clinical presentation of localized hypertrichosis on both forearms. Norgalanthamine has been shown to promote hair growth activity via the proliferation of dermal papilla. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can induce hair growth. PMID:27073702

  6. How to divest acquired physician practices.

    PubMed

    O'Hare, P K

    1999-02-01

    When an integrated delivery system (IDS) determines it must divest itself of a previously acquired physician practice, it must manage the transaction with care. The IDS most likely will want to maintain a positive ongoing relationship with the physician practice, while avoiding concessions to the practice that could be construed as violations of state and Federal laws. Before proceeding, the IDS should evaluate the reasons for divesting the practice, assess legal issues involved in terminating contracts with the practice, decide how to deal with the practice's assets and office facilities, consider whether covenants not to compete should be enforced, ensure continued access to essential medical records, consider whether to incorporate a "non-disparagement" clause in the termination agreement, and determine what mutual general releases may be necessary. PMID:10345614

  7. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in gay men.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, H W; Hardy, A M; Morgan, W M; Darrow, W W

    1985-11-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major health problem for gay men in the United States. About three fourths of all reported cases have occurred in this population, and the number is projected to double in the next year. In Manhattan and San Francisco, AIDS is now the leading cause of premature mortality in men aged 25 to 44 years who have never married. In a sample of a cohort of gay men enrolled in a San Francisco clinic, 2.7% of the men had the syndrome and 26% had related conditions in 1984. Antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus, type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus was found in sera from 67% of the men, including 58% of asymptomatic men. Behavioral factors associated with an increased risk of AIDS include large numbers of sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse, and "fisting." The adoption of safer lifestyles is currently the basis of attempts to control the syndrome in gay men. PMID:2996396

  8. Human temporal bone findings in acquired hypothyroidism.

    PubMed

    Hald, J; Milroy, C M; Jensen, K D; Parving, A

    1991-11-01

    Histological studies of the auditory organ in patients with acquired hypothyroidism are scarce. Thus the aim of the present study was to examine the temporal bones and the brain in subjects with hypothyroidism. Four temporal bones and two brains from clinically and biochemically hypothyroid subjects were removed and evaluated by light microscopy determine to the morphological changes and deposition of neutral and acid glycosaminoglycans. An audiogram from one of the patients showed a sensorineural hearing loss, which could be ascribed to occupational noise exposure. The study revealed histological changes compatible with age and infectious disease. No accumulation of neutral or acid glycosaminoglycans could be demonstrated in the temporal bones, or in the brains. PMID:1761939

  9. [Merits of acquiring ISO15189 accreditation].

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Masami

    2010-01-01

    In Japan, an ISO15189 accreditation system was started in 2005. To date, 47 hospitals have been accredited. In this session, I will present the merits of acquiring accreditation regarding ISO15189 based on our experience. Our hospital has 263 beds. The Clinical Examination Section consists of 12 staff (including 5 part-time workers): 7 in change of sample examination and 5 in charge of physiological examination. The annual number of samples is approximately 150,000. Samples collected on health checkups account for 90%. To improve the quality and service, assessment by third persons has been positively utilized in our hospital. Accreditation regarding ISO9001, ISO14001, ISO27001, privacy mark, hospital function assessment, the functional assessment of "ningen-dock"/health checkup hospitals, labor/hygiene service function assessment, and ISO15189 has been acquired. Patients may not recognize ISO. So, it must be utilized, considering that the acquisition of accreditation is not a goal but a starting point. Furthermore, cost-performance should be improved to achieve utilization-related merits. It is important to not only acquire accreditation but also help clinical staff and patients become aware of some changes/merits. Patients may consult a hospital for the following reasons: confidence in the hospital, and the staffs kind/polite attitudes. Long-term management strategies should be established without pursuing only short-term profits. I will introduce several merits of acquiring accreditation regarding ISO15189. Initially, incidental conditions for bids and appeal points include accreditation regarding ISO15189. Our corporation has participated in some competitive bids regarding health checkup business. In some companies, the bid conditions included ISO acquisition. In our hospital, clinical trials have been positively carried out. For participation in trials, hospitals must pass an institutional examination. However, ISO acquisition facilitates the preparation of

  10. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Simmons, J.T.; Masur, H.; Smith, P.D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Ognibene, F.P.

    1987-02-01

    All gallium-67 citrate scans obtained in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the results of bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and endoscopy. There were 164 scans of 95 patients. Twenty scans were from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 19 were abnormal, for a sensitivity of 95%. Ga-67 uptake tended to be less in patients receiving therapy for P. carinii pneumonia. Chest radiographs were normal at least initially in three patients with abnormal scans and P. carinii pneumonia. Unusually prominent colonic activity was associated with infection in some patients. No lesions of Kaposi sarcoma showed tracer uptake. Gallium scanning is useful for detecting P. carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS, but it is not useful for localizing Kaposi sarcoma.

  11. Acquiring ownership and the attribution of responsibility.

    PubMed

    Palamar, Max; Le, Doan T; Friedman, Ori

    2012-08-01

    How is ownership established over non-owned things? We suggest that people may view ownership as a kind of credit given to agents responsible for making possession of a non-owned object possible. On this view, judgments about the establishment of ownership depend on attributions of responsibility. We report three experiments showing that people's judgments about the establishment of ownership are influenced by an agent's intent and control in bringing about an outcome, factors that also affect attributions of responsibility. These findings demonstrate that people do not just consider who was first to possess an object in judging who owns it, and are broadly consistent with the view that ownership is acquired through labor. The findings also suggest that rather than exclusively being the product of social conventions, judgments about the establishment of ownership over non-owned things also depend on the psychological processes underlying the attribution of responsibility. PMID:22591710

  12. Covalent targeting of acquired cysteines in cancer.

    PubMed

    Visscher, Marieke; Arkin, Michelle R; Dansen, Tobias B

    2016-02-01

    The thiolate side chain of cysteine has a unique functionality that drug hunters and chemical biologists have begun to exploit. For example, targeting cysteine residues in the ATP-binding pockets of kinases with thiol-reactive molecules has afforded increased selectivity and potency to drugs like imbrutinib, which inhibits the oncogene BTK, and CO-1686 and AZD9291 that target oncogenic mutant EGFR. Recently, disulfide libraries and targeted GDP-mimetics have been used to selectively label the G12C oncogenic mutation in KRAS. We reasoned that other oncogenes contain mutations to cysteine, and thus screened the Catalog of Somatic Mutations in Cancer for frequently acquired cysteines. Here, we describe the most common mutations and discuss how these mutations could be potential targets for cysteine-directed personalized therapeutics. PMID:26629855

  13. Processed pseudogenes acquired somatically during cancer development

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Susanna L.; Shlien, Adam; Marshall, John; Pipinikas, Christodoulos P.; Martincorena, Inigo; Tubio, Jose M.C.; Li, Yilong; Menzies, Andrew; Mudie, Laura; Ramakrishna, Manasa; Yates, Lucy; Davies, Helen; Bolli, Niccolo; Bignell, Graham R.; Tarpey, Patrick S.; Behjati, Sam; Nik-Zainal, Serena; Papaemmanuil, Elli; Teixeira, Vitor H.; Raine, Keiran; O’Meara, Sarah; Dodoran, Maryam S.; Teague, Jon W.; Butler, Adam P.; Iacobuzio-Donahue, Christine; Santarius, Thomas; Grundy, Richard G.; Malkin, David; Greaves, Mel; Munshi, Nikhil; Flanagan, Adrienne M.; Bowtell, David; Martin, Sancha; Larsimont, Denis; Reis-Filho, Jorge S.; Boussioutas, Alex; Taylor, Jack A.; Hayes, Neil D.; Janes, Sam M.; Futreal, P. Andrew; Stratton, Michael R.; McDermott, Ultan; Campbell, Peter J.; Provenzano, Elena; van de Vijver, Marc; Richardson, Andrea L.; Purdie, Colin; Pinder, Sarah; Mac Grogan, Gaetan; Vincent-Salomon, Anne; Larsimont, Denis; Grabau, Dorthe; Sauer, Torill; Garred, Øystein; Ehinger, Anna; Van den Eynden, Gert G.; van Deurzen, C.H.M; Salgado, Roberto; Brock, Jane E.; Lakhani, Sunil R.; Giri, Dilip D.; Arnould, Laurent; Jacquemier, Jocelyne; Treilleux, Isabelle; Caldas, Carlos; Chin, Suet-Feung; Fatima, Aquila; Thompson, Alastair M.; Stenhouse, Alasdair; Foekens, John; Martens, John; Sieuwerts, Anieta; Brinkman, Arjen; Stunnenberg, Henk; Span, Paul N.; Sweep, Fred; Desmedt, Christine; Sotiriou, Christos; Thomas, Gilles; Broeks, Annegein; Langerod, Anita; Aparicio, Samuel; Simpson, Peter T.; van ’t Veer, Laura; Erla Eyfjörd, Jórunn; Hilmarsdottir, Holmfridur; Jonasson, Jon G.; Børresen-Dale, Anne-Lise; Lee, Ming Ta Michael; Wong, Bernice Huimin; Tan, Benita Kiat Tee; Hooijer, Gerrit K.J.

    2014-01-01

    Cancer evolves by mutation, with somatic reactivation of retrotransposons being one such mutational process. Germline retrotransposition can cause processed pseudogenes, but whether this occurs somatically has not been evaluated. Here we screen sequencing data from 660 cancer samples for somatically acquired pseudogenes. We find 42 events in 17 samples, especially non-small cell lung cancer (5/27) and colorectal cancer (2/11). Genomic features mirror those of germline LINE element retrotranspositions, with frequent target-site duplications (67%), consensus TTTTAA sites at insertion points, inverted rearrangements (21%), 5′ truncation (74%) and polyA tails (88%). Transcriptional consequences include expression of pseudogenes from UTRs or introns of target genes. In addition, a somatic pseudogene that integrated into the promoter and first exon of the tumour suppressor gene, MGA, abrogated expression from that allele. Thus, formation of processed pseudogenes represents a new class of mutation occurring during cancer development, with potentially diverse functional consequences depending on genomic context. PMID:24714652

  14. Acquire CoOmmodities Easily Card

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, E. E.

    1998-05-29

    Acquire Commodities Easily Card (AceCard) provides an automated end-user method to distribute company credit card charges to internal charge numbers. AceCard will allow cardholders to record card purchases in an on-line order log, enter multiple account distributions per order that can be posted to the General Ledger, track orders, and receipt information, and provide a variety of cardholder and administrative reports. Please note: Customers must contact Ed Soler (423)-576-6151, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, for help with the installation of the package. The fee for this installation help will be coordinated by the customer and Lockheed Martin and is in addition to cost of the package from ESTSC. Customers should contact Sandy Presley (423)-576-4708 for user help.

  15. Acquired methaemoglobinaemia related to phenazopyridine ingestion.

    PubMed

    Shahani, Lokesh; Sattovia, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    Methaemoglobin is an altered state of haemoglobin in which the ferrous ions of haeme are oxidised to the ferric state. This results in increased affinity to the bound oxygen and decreasing its availability to tissues. Most cases of methaemoglobinaemia are acquired, resulting from an increased methaemoglobin formation by various exogenous agents. The authors report an elderly patient presenting to the emergency department with a 1-month history of shortness of breath. Around the same time she had started using over-the-counter (OTC) phenazopyridine tablets for urinary symptoms. The patient was hypoxic and cyanotic; however, lacked evidence of hypoxaemia on the arterial blood gas. The presence of abnormal haemoglobin was suspected and confirmed by elevated levels of methaemoglobin. Phenazopyridine was proposed to be the likely aetiology of the methaemoglobinaemia, which the patient was not aware of. This case highlights the importance of always inquiring the OTC drug use especially in geriatric population. PMID:22987905

  16. Acquired methaemoglobinaemia related to phenazopyridine ingestion

    PubMed Central

    Shahani, Lokesh; Sattovia, Stacy

    2012-01-01

    Methaemoglobin is an altered state of haemoglobin in which the ferrous ions of haeme are oxidised to the ferric state. This results in increased affinity to the bound oxygen and decreasing its availability to tissues. Most cases of methaemoglobinaemia are acquired, resulting from an increased methaemoglobin formation by various exogenous agents. The authors report an elderly patient presenting to the emergency department with a 1-month history of shortness of breath. Around the same time she had started using over-the-counter (OTC) phenazopyridine tablets for urinary symptoms. The patient was hypoxic and cyanotic; however, lacked evidence of hypoxaemia on the arterial blood gas. The presence of abnormal haemoglobin was suspected and confirmed by elevated levels of methaemoglobin. Phenazopyridine was proposed to be the likely aetiology of the methaemoglobinaemia, which the patient was not aware of. This case highlights the importance of always inquiring the OTC drug use especially in geriatric population. PMID:22987905

  17. Signal regulators of systemic acquired resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qing-Ming; Zhu, Shifeng; Kachroo, Pradeep; Kachroo, Aardra

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important phytohormone that plays a vital role in a number of physiological responses, including plant defense. The last two decades have witnessed a number of breakthroughs related to biosynthesis, transport, perception and signaling mediated by SA. These findings demonstrate that SA plays a crictical role in both local and systemic defense responses. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is one such SA-dependent response. SAR is a long distance signaling mechanism that provides broad spectrum and long-lasting resistance to secondary infections throughout the plant. This unique feature makes SAR a highly desirable trait in crop production. This review summarizes the recent advances in the role of SA in SAR and discusses its relationship to other SAR inducers. PMID:25918514

  18. Acquiring case adaptation knowledge: A hybrid approach

    SciTech Connect

    Leake, D.B.; Kinley, A.; Wilson, D.

    1996-12-31

    The ability of case-based reasoning (CBR) systems to apply cases to novel situations depends on their case adaptation knowledge. However, endowing CBR systems with adequate adaptation knowledge has proven to be a very difficult task. This paper describes a hybrid method for performing case adaptation, using a combination of rule-based and case-based reasoning. It shows how this approach provides a framework for acquiring flexible adaptation knowledge from experiences with autonomous adaptation and suggests its potential as a basis for acquisition of adaptation knowledge from interactive user guidance. It also presents initial experimental results examining the benefits of the approach and comparing the relative contributions of case learning and adaptation learning to reasoning performance.

  19. Identification of acquired antimicrobial resistance genes

    PubMed Central

    Zankari, Ea; Hasman, Henrik; Cosentino, Salvatore; Vestergaard, Martin; Rasmussen, Simon; Lund, Ole; Aarestrup, Frank M.; Larsen, Mette Voldby

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Identification of antimicrobial resistance genes is important for understanding the underlying mechanisms and the epidemiology of antimicrobial resistance. As the costs of whole-genome sequencing (WGS) continue to decline, it becomes increasingly available in routine diagnostic laboratories and is anticipated to substitute traditional methods for resistance gene identification. Thus, the current challenge is to extract the relevant information from the large amount of generated data. Methods We developed a web-based method, ResFinder that uses BLAST for identification of acquired antimicrobial resistance genes in whole-genome data. As input, the method can use both pre-assembled, complete or partial genomes, and short sequence reads from four different sequencing platforms. The method was evaluated on 1862 GenBank files containing 1411 different resistance genes, as well as on 23 de-novo-sequenced isolates. Results When testing the 1862 GenBank files, the method identified the resistance genes with an ID = 100% (100% identity) to the genes in ResFinder. Agreement between in silico predictions and phenotypic testing was found when the method was further tested on 23 isolates of five different bacterial species, with available phenotypes. Furthermore, ResFinder was evaluated on WGS chromosomes and plasmids of 30 isolates. Seven of these isolates were annotated to have antimicrobial resistance, and in all cases, annotations were compatible with the ResFinder results. Conclusions A web server providing a convenient way of identifying acquired antimicrobial resistance genes in completely sequenced isolates was created. ResFinder can be accessed at www.genomicepidemiology.org. ResFinder will continuously be updated as new resistance genes are identified. PMID:22782487

  20. Guidelines for prevention of hospital acquired infections

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Yatin; Gupta, Abhinav; Todi, Subhash; Myatra, SN; Samaddar, D. P.; Patil, Vijaya; Bhattacharya, Pradip Kumar; Ramasubban, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    These guidelines, written for clinicians, contains evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of hospital acquired infections Hospital acquired infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity and provide challenge to clinicians. Measures of infection control include identifying patients at risk of nosocomial infections, observing hand hygiene, following standard precautions to reduce transmission and strategies to reduce VAP, CR-BSI, CAUTI. Environmental factors and architectural lay out also need to be emphasized upon. Infection prevention in special subsets of patients - burns patients, include identifying sources of organism, identification of organisms, isolation if required, antibiotic prophylaxis to be used selectively, early removal of necrotic tissue, prevention of tetanus, early nutrition and surveillance. Immunodeficient and Transplant recipients are at a higher risk of opportunistic infections. The post tranplant timetable is divided into three time periods for determining risk of infections. Room ventilation, cleaning and decontamination, protective clothing with care regarding food requires special consideration. Monitoring and Surveillance are prioritized depending upon the needs. Designated infection control teams should supervise the process and help in collection and compilation of data. Antibiotic Stewardship Recommendations include constituting a team, close coordination between teams, audit, formulary restriction, de-escalation, optimizing dosing, active use of information technology among other measure. The recommendations in these guidelines are intended to support, and not replace, good clinical judgment. The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of evidence supporting the recommendation, so that readers can ascertain how best to apply the recommendations in their practice environments. PMID:24701065

  1. Infantile and acquired nystagmus in childhood.

    PubMed

    Ehrt, Oliver

    2012-11-01

    Nystagmus is an involuntary, periodic eye movement caused by a slow drift of fixation which is followed by a fast refixation saccade (jerk nystagmus) or a slow movement back to fixation (pendular nystagmus). In childhood most cases are benign forms of nystagmus: idiopathic infantile, ocular or latent nystagmus. They arise at the age of 3 months, without oscillopsia and show the absence of the physiologic opto-kinetic nystagmus. A full ophthalmologic evaluation is all that is needed in most cases: albinism, macular or optic nerve hypoplasia and congenital retinal dystrophies are the most common forms of ocular nystagmus. Idiopathic infantile nystagmus can be hereditary, the most common and best analyzed form being a mutation of the FRMD7 gene on chromosome Xq26.2. The mutation shows a mild genotype-phenotype correlation. In all female carriers the opto-kinetic nystagmus is absent and half had mild nystagmus. Latent nystagmus is part of the infantile esotropia syndrome and shows the unique feature of change of direction when the fixing eye changes: it is always beating to the side of the fixing eye. There is no cure for infantile nystagmus but therapeutic options include magnifying visual aids or eye muscle surgery at the age of 6-8 y in patients with head turn. Less than 20% of childhood nystagmus are acquired and need further neurological and imaging work-up. Alarming signs and symptoms are: onset after the age of 4 months, oscillopsia, dissociated (asymmetric) nystagmus, preserved opto-kinetic nystagmus, afferent pupillary defect, papilloedema and neurological symptoms like vertigo and nausea. The most common cause is due to pathology of the anterior optic pathway (e.g. optic nerve gliomas). It shows the same clinical feature of dissociated nystagmus as spasmus nutans but has a higher frequency as in INO. Other forms of acquired nystagmus are due to brainstem, cerebellar or metabolic diseases. PMID:22459007

  2. Perioperative Assessment of Myocardial Deformation

    PubMed Central

    Duncan, Andra E.; Alfirevic, Andrej; Sessler, Daniel I.; Popovic, Zoran B.; Thomas, James D.

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of left ventricular performance improves risk assessment and guides anesthetic decisions. However, the most common echocardiographic measure of myocardial function, the left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF), has important limitations. LVEF is limited by subjective interpretation which reduces accuracy and reproducibility, and LVEF assesses global function without characterizing regional myocardial abnormalities. An alternative objective echocardiographic measure of myocardial function is thus needed. Myocardial deformation analysis, which performs quantitative assessment of global and regional myocardial function, may be useful for perioperative care of surgical patients. Myocardial deformation analysis evaluates left ventricular mechanics by quantifying strain and strain rate. Strain describes percent change in myocardial length in the longitudinal (from base to apex) and circumferential (encircling the short-axis of the ventricle) direction and change in thickness in the radial direction. Segmental strain describes regional myocardial function. Strain is a negative number when the ventricle shortens longitudinally or circumferentially and is positive with radial thickening. Reference values for normal longitudinal strain from a recent meta-analysis using transthoracic echocardiography are (mean ± SD) −19.7 ± 0.4%, while radial and circumferential strain are 47.3 ± 1.9 and −23.3 ± 0.7%, respectively. The speed of myocardial deformation is also important and is characterized by strain rate. Longitudinal systolic strain rate in healthy subjects averages −1.10 ± 0.16 sec−1. Assessment of myocardial deformation requires consideration of both strain (change in deformation), which correlates with LVEF, and strain rate (speed of deformation), which correlates with rate of rise of left ventricular pressure (dP/dt). Myocardial deformation analysis also evaluates ventricular relaxation, twist, and untwist, providing new and noninvasive methods to

  3. Bimaxillary Osteotomy for Jaw Deformity With Facioscapulohumeral Muscular Dystrophy.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Takako; Ohba, Seigo; Fujimura, Yuji; Asahina, Izumi

    2016-05-01

    Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a subtype of muscular dystrophies which reduces the muscle strength, especially the regions of scapular, shoulder, and upper arms, progressively. According to progressive muscle weakness in FSHD, postoperative stability of patient with FSHD after orthognathic surgery is not reliably acquired same as healthy subjects. A 32-year-old woman with FSHD underwent orthodontic and orthognathic surgical treatment due to jaw deformity. She has been followed up more than 3 years after surgery and acquired skeletal stability. This patient is the first report that showed long-term skeletal stability after orthognathic surgery in patient with FSHD. This patient report suggests that it is possible to apply orthognathic surgical treatment to patients with FSHD. PMID:27054436

  4. Analysis of Mining Terrain Deformation Characteristics with Deformation Information System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blachowski, Jan; Milczarek, Wojciech; Grzempowski, Piotr

    2014-05-01

    Mapping and prediction of mining related deformations of the earth surface is an important measure for minimising threat to surface infrastructure, human population, the environment and safety of the mining operation itself arising from underground extraction of useful minerals. The number of methods and techniques used for monitoring and analysis of mining terrain deformations is wide and increasing with the development of geographical information technologies. These include for example: terrestrial geodetic measurements, global positioning systems, remote sensing, spatial interpolation, finite element method modelling, GIS based modelling, geological modelling, empirical modelling using the Knothe theory, artificial neural networks, fuzzy logic calculations and other. The aim of this paper is to introduce the concept of an integrated Deformation Information System (DIS) developed in geographic information systems environment for analysis and modelling of various spatial data related to mining activity and demonstrate its applications for mapping and visualising, as well as identifying possible mining terrain deformation areas with various spatial modelling methods. The DIS concept is based on connected modules that include: the spatial database - the core of the system, the spatial data collection module formed by: terrestrial, satellite and remote sensing measurements of the ground changes, the spatial data mining module for data discovery and extraction, the geological modelling module, the spatial data modeling module with data processing algorithms for spatio-temporal analysis and mapping of mining deformations and their characteristics (e.g. deformation parameters: tilt, curvature and horizontal strain), the multivariate spatial data classification module and the visualization module allowing two-dimensional interactive and static mapping and three-dimensional visualizations of mining ground characteristics. The Systems's functionality has been presented on

  5. Preferred orientation in experimentally deformed stishovite: implications for deformation mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaercher, P. M.; Zepeda-Alarcon, E.; Prakapenka, V.; Kanitpanyacharoen, W.; Smith, J.; Sinogeikin, S. V.; Wenk, H. R.

    2014-12-01

    The crystal structure of the high pressure SiO2 polymorph stishovite has been studied in detail, yet little is known about its deformation mechanisms. Information about how stishovite deforms under stress is important for understanding subduction of quartz-bearing crustal rocks into the mantle. Particularly, stishovite is elastically anisotropic and thus development of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) during deformation may contribute to seismic anomalies in the mantle. We converted a natural sample of flint to stishovite in a laser heated diamond anvil cell and compressed the stishovite aggregate up to 38 GPa. Diffraction patterns were collected in situ in radial geometry at the Advanced Light Source (ALS) and the Advanced Photon Source (APS) to examine development of CPO during deformation. We find that (001) poles preferentially align with the compression direction and infer deformation mechanisms leading to the observed CPO with visco-plastic self consistent (VPSC) polycrystal plasticity models. Our results show pyramidal and basal slip are most likely active at high pressure and ambient temperature, in agreement with transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of rutile (TiO2) and paratellurite (TeO2), which are isostructural to stishovite. Conversely other TEM studies of stishovite done at higher temperature suggest dominant prismatic slip. This indicates that a variety of slip systems may be active in stishovite, depending on conditions. As a result, stishovite's contribution to the seismic signature in the mantle may vary as a function of pressure and temperature and thus depth.

  6. Residual deformations in ocular tissues

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ruoya; Raykin, Julia; Gleason, Rudolph L.; Ethier, C. Ross

    2015-01-01

    Residual deformations strongly influence the local biomechanical environment in a number of connective tissues. The sclera is known to be biomechanically important in healthy and diseased eyes, such as in glaucoma. Here, we study the residual deformations of the sclera, as well as the adjacent choroid and retina. Using freshly harvested porcine eyes, we developed two approaches of quantifying residual deformations in the spherically shaped tissues of interest. The first consisted of punching discs from the posterior wall of the eye and quantifying the changes in the area and eccentricity of these samples. The second consisted of cutting a ring from the equatorial sclera and making stress-relieving cuts in it. Measurements of curvature were made before and after the stress-relieving cuts. Using the first approach, we observed a 42% areal contraction of the choroid, but only modest contractions of the sclera and retina. The observed contractions were asymmetric. In the second approach, we observed an opening of the scleral rings (approx. 10% decrease in curvature). We conclude that residual bending deformations are present in the sclera, which we speculate may be due to radially heterogeneous growth and remodelling of the tissue during normal development. Further, residual areal deformations present in the choroid may be due to the network of elastic fibres in this tissue and residual deformations in the constituent vascular bed. Future studies of ocular biomechanics should attempt to include effects of these residual deformations into mechanical models in order to gain a better understanding of the biomechanics of the ocular wall. PMID:25740853

  7. Deformation of second and third quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faizal, Mir

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we will deform the second and third quantized theories by deforming the canonical commutation relations in such a way that they become consistent with the generalized uncertainty principle. Thus, we will first deform the second quantized commutator and obtain a deformed version of the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. Then we will further deform the third quantized theory by deforming the third quantized canonical commutation relation. This way we will obtain a deformed version of the third quantized theory for the multiverse.

  8. Surface Deformation in Quetta Valley, Balochistan, Pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, J.; Shuhab, K.; Wulamu, A.; Crupa, W.; Khan, A. S.; Kakar, D. M.; Kasi, A.

    2015-12-01

    In February 2011, several ground fissures up to ~1.8 km in length appeared in the Quetta Valley, Balochsitan, Pakistan. It is not clear what caused the sudden occurrence of these fissures. The region is tectonically active and bounded to the west by several regional strike-slip faults including the north-south striking left-lateral Chaman fault system that slips at ~10 mm per year. Several large earthquakes have occurred recently in this area, one fatal 6.4 magnitude (Mw) earthquake occurred on October 28th, 2008. Some parts of Quetta Valley are subsiding; GPS data from two stations in Quetta that span mid-2006 - 2009 recorded subsidence rates of ~10 cm per year. Although subsidence in urban areas is generally attributed to groundwater depletion, it is not clear whether ground fissures are caused by water withdrawal or related to tectonics of the region. This study is designed to quantify and assess the source of surface deformation in Quetta Valley using InSAR, GPS, seismic and earthquake centroid moment tensor data. To detect and map the spatial-temporal features of the processes that led to the surface deformation, we used two time series, i.e., 15 European Remote Sensing (ERS-1/2) satellite images from 1992 - 1999 and 27 ENVISAT images spanning 2003 - 2010. A Differential Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (DInSAR) Small Baseline Subset (SBAS) technique was used to investigate surface deformation. Eleven continuous-GPS stations within the InSAR antenna footprint were compared with the InSAR time series for quality control. Preliminary InSAR results revealed that the areas in and around the fissures are subsiding at 5 cm per year. Five seismic lines totaling ~60 km, acquired in 2003, were used to interpret faults beneath Holocene alluvium in the Quetta Valley. One of the blind faults is a north-south striking thrust fault mapped north into the Takatu range. However, a focal mechanism for the 2008 earthquake in this region indicated northwest

  9. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disposition of acquired property. 1779.90 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.90 Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the...

  10. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disposition of acquired property. 1779.90 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.90 Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the...

  11. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Disposition of acquired property. 1779.90 Section 1779..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.90 Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the...

  12. Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

  13. 19 CFR 148.38 - Sale of articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sale of articles acquired abroad. 148.38 Section... § 148.38 Sale of articles acquired abroad. An article brought in under the $800 or $1,600 exemption for articles acquired abroad for personal or household use and subsequently sold is not dutiable or subject...

  14. 19 CFR 148.38 - Sale of articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sale of articles acquired abroad. 148.38 Section... § 148.38 Sale of articles acquired abroad. An article brought in under the $800 or $1,600 exemption for articles acquired abroad for personal or household use and subsequently sold is not dutiable or subject...

  15. 7 CFR 770.8 - Use of acquired land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of acquired land. 770.8 Section 770.8 Agriculture... SPECIAL PROGRAMS INDIAN TRIBAL LAND ACQUISITION LOANS § 770.8 Use of acquired land. (a) General. Subject to § 770.5(d) land acquired with loan funds, or other property serving as the security for a...

  16. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Disposition of acquired property. 1779.90 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.90 Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the...

  17. 7 CFR 1779.90 - Disposition of acquired property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disposition of acquired property. 1779.90 Section..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) WATER AND WASTE DISPOSAL PROGRAMS GUARANTEED LOANS § 1779.90 Disposition of acquired property. (a) General. When the lender acquires title to the collateral and the...

  18. 43 CFR 4110.1-1 - Acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Acquired lands. 4110.1-1 Section 4110.1-1... and Preference § 4110.1-1 Acquired lands. Where lands have been acquired by the Bureau of Land... of acquisition by the Bureau of Land Management, and are not subject to the requirements of § 4110.1....

  19. 19 CFR 148.38 - Sale of articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sale of articles acquired abroad. 148.38 Section... § 148.38 Sale of articles acquired abroad. An article brought in under the $800 or $1,600 exemption for articles acquired abroad for personal or household use and subsequently sold is not dutiable or subject...

  20. 19 CFR 148.38 - Sale of articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale of articles acquired abroad. 148.38 Section... § 148.38 Sale of articles acquired abroad. An article brought in under the $800 or $1,600 exemption for articles acquired abroad for personal or household use and subsequently sold is not dutiable or subject...

  1. Mixing of discontinuously deforming media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, L. D.; Rudman, M.; Lester, D. R.; Metcalfe, G.

    2016-02-01

    Mixing of materials is fundamental to many natural phenomena and engineering applications. The presence of discontinuous deformations—such as shear banding or wall slip—creates new mechanisms for mixing and transport beyond those predicted by classical dynamical systems theory. Here, we show how a novel mixing mechanism combining stretching with cutting and shuffling yields exponential mixing rates, quantified by a positive Lyapunov exponent, an impossibility for systems with cutting and shuffling alone or bounded systems with stretching alone, and demonstrate it in a fluid flow. While dynamical systems theory provides a framework for understanding mixing in smoothly deforming media, a theory of discontinuous mixing is yet to be fully developed. New methods are needed to systematize, explain, and extrapolate measurements on systems with discontinuous deformations. Here, we investigate "webs" of Lagrangian discontinuities and show that they provide a template for the overall transport dynamics. Considering slip deformations as the asymptotic limit of increasingly localised smooth shear, we also demonstrate exactly how some of the new structures introduced by discontinuous deformations are analogous to structures in smoothly deforming systems.

  2. Transverse deformations of extreme horizons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Carmen; Lucietti, James

    2016-04-01

    We consider the inverse problem of determining all extreme black hole solutions to the Einstein equations with a prescribed near-horizon geometry. We investigate this problem by considering infinitesimal deformations of the near-horizon geometry along transverse null geodesics. We show that, up to a gauge transformation, the linearised Einstein equations reduce to an elliptic PDE for the extrinsic curvature of a cross-section of the horizon. We deduce that for a given near-horizon geometry there exists a finite dimensional moduli space of infinitesimal transverse deformations. We then establish a uniqueness theorem for transverse deformations of the extreme Kerr horizon. In particular, we prove that the only smooth axisymmetric transverse deformation of the near-horizon geometry of extreme Kerr, such that cross-sections of the horizon are marginally trapped surfaces, corresponds to that of the extreme Kerr black hole. Furthermore, we determine all smooth and biaxisymmetric transverse deformations of the near-horizon geometry of the five-dimensional extreme Myers-Perry black hole with equal angular momenta. We find a three parameter family of solutions such that cross-sections of the horizon are marginally trapped, which is more general than the known black hole solutions. We discuss the possibility that they correspond to new five-dimensional vacuum black holes.

  3. Quantifying torso deformity in scoliosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajemba, Peter O.; Kumar, Anish; Durdle, Nelson G.; Raso, V. James

    2006-03-01

    Scoliosis affects the alignment of the spine and the shape of the torso. Most scoliosis patients and their families are more concerned about the effect of scoliosis on the torso than its effect on the spine. There is a need to develop robust techniques for quantifying torso deformity based on full torso scans. In this paper, deformation indices obtained from orthogonal maps of full torso scans are used to quantify torso deformity in scoliosis. 'Orthogonal maps' are obtained by applying orthogonal transforms to 3D surface maps. (An 'orthogonal transform' maps a cylindrical coordinate system to a Cartesian coordinate system.) The technique was tested on 361 deformed computer models of the human torso and on 22 scans of volunteers (8 normal and 14 scoliosis). Deformation indices from the orthogonal maps correctly classified up to 95% of the volunteers with a specificity of 1.00 and a sensitivity of 0.91. In addition to classifying scoliosis, the system gives a visual representation of the entire torso in one view and is viable for use in a clinical environment for managing scoliosis.

  4. Breast Cancer as an Acquired Thrombophilic State

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Cancer is an acquired thrombophilic condition manifested by increased incidence of venous and arterial thromboembolic complications. Despite progress that has been achieved in treatments over the recent years, thromboembolism remains a major complication in patients with breast cancer; it is accompanied by significant morbidity and mortality. Approximately, 1% of breast cancer patients develop venous thromboembolism within 2 years with the highest incidence occurring in the 6 months post diagnosis. Metastatic disease and their comorbidities are the strongest predictors of the development of thrombotic event. The diagnosis of venous thromboembolism is associated with a higher risk of death within 2 years of diagnosis. Thromboembolic events in cancer patients range from abnormal laboratory coagulation tests without specific symptoms to massive thomboembolism and disseminated intravascular coagulation. The underlying pathophysiology is complex and includes the prothrombotic properties of cancer cells, which can be enhanced by anticancer treatment modalities, such as surgery, hormonal agents, and chemotherapy. Primary thromboprophylaxis in cancer patients should be individualized according to risk. For secondary prevention, several clinical studies have shown that low molecular weight heparin has improved patients' compliance, cancer outcomes and overall survival. This review summarizes the available data on the pathogenesis and clinical approach of hemostatic changes in breast cancer. PMID:22807931

  5. Community-acquired Pneumonia and its Complications.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qiang; Shen, Kun-ling

    2015-08-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide in developing and developed countries, and its incidence is highest among children less than 5-y-old. Over the last five years, several international and local guidelines have been updated with new evidence concerning the epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, treatment and prevention of pediatric CAP, but there are still several major problems that need to be standardised. The aim of this review is to consider the available data concerning the termination, epidemiology, microbiology and pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, treatment, and complications of pediatric CAP. There still are many unanswered questions concerning the management of CAP, including its definition, the difficulty to identify its etiological agents, the emergence of drug, and the lack of introduction of vaccines against respiratory pathogens in developing countries. More research is required in various areas (including therapy of atypical agents), and further efforts are needed to increase vaccination in order to reduce the incidence of the disease. PMID:25976616

  6. Natural and acquired macrolide resistance in mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Doucet-Populaire, F; Buriánková, K; Weiser, J; Pernodet, J-L

    2002-12-01

    The genus Mycobacterium contains two of the most important human pathogens, Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Mycobacterium leprae, the etiologic agents of tuberculosis and leprosy, respectively. Other mycobacteria are mostly saprophytic organisms, living in soil and water, but some of them can cause opportunistic infections. The increasing incidence of tuberculosis as well as infections with non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in AIDS patients has renewed interest in molecular mechanisms of drug resistance in these pathogens. Mycobacteria show a high degree of intrinsic resistance to most common antibiotics. For instance, species from the M. tuberculosis complex (MTC) are intrinsically resistant to macrolides. Nevertheless, some semi-synthetic macrolides as the erythromycin derivatives clarithromycin, azithromycin and most recently the ketolides, are active against NTM, particularly Mycobacterium avium, and some of them are widely used for infection treatment. However, shortly after the introduction of these new drugs, resistant strains appeared due to mutations in the macrolide target, the ribosome. The mycobacterial cell wall with its specific composition and structure is considered to be a major factor in promoting the natural resistance of mycobacteria to various antibiotics. However, to explain the difference in macrolide sensitivity between the MTC and NTM, the synergistic contribution of a specific resistance mechanism might be required, in addition to possible differences in cell wall permeability. This mini-review summarizes the current knowledge on the natural and acquired macrolide resistance in mycobacteria, gives an overview of potential mechanisms implicated in the intrinsic resistance and brings recent data concerning a macrolide resistance determinant in the MTC. PMID:12570741

  7. Acquired prosopagnosia: structural basis and processing impairments.

    PubMed

    Davies-Thompson, Jodie; Pancaroglu, Raika; Barton, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive models propose a hierarchy of parallel processing stages in face perception, and functional neuroimaging shows a network of regions involved in face processing. Reflecting this, acquired prosopagnosia is not a single entity but a family of disorders with different anatomic lesions and different functional deficits. One classic distinction is between an apperceptive variant, in which there is impaired perception of facial structure, and an associative/amnestic variant, in which perception is relatively intact, with subsequent problems matching perception to facial memories, because of either disconnection or loss of those memories. These disorders also have to be distinguished from people-specific amnesia, a multimodal impairment, and prosop-anomia, in which familiarity with faces is preserved but access to names is disrupted. These different disorders can be conceived as specific deficits at different processing stages in cognitive models, and suggests that these functional stages may have distinct neuroanatomic substrates. It remains to be seen whether a similar anatomic and functional variability is present in developmental prosopagnosia. PMID:24389150

  8. Acquired Hemophilia A Successfully Treated with Rituximab

    PubMed Central

    D’Arena, Giovanni; Grandone, Elvira; Di Minno, Matteo Nicola Dario; Musto, Pellegrino; Di Minno, Giovanni

    2015-01-01

    Acquired hemophilia A (AHA) is a rare bleeding disorder due to the development of specific autoantibodies against factor VIII. The anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody Rituximab has been proven to be effective in obtaining a long-term suppression of inhibitors of AHA, besides other immunosuppressive standard treatments. Here we describe a case of idiopathic AHA in a 60-year old man successfully treated with rituximab. He showed a complete clinical response with a normalization of clotting parameters after 5 weekly courses of rituximab given at a dose of 375 mg/sqm., but after stopping rituximab, an initial worsening of coagulation parameters induced the addition of 3 further courses. At present, the patient is in complete clinical and hematological remission after 200 days. This case confirms that Rituximab may be a safe and useful tool to treat AHA and, a prolonged administration can overcome the initial resistance. However, the precise position of this drug in the therapeutic strategy (first or second-line, alone or in combination with other drugs) remains to be established and warrants further investigation. PMID:25745551

  9. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    PubMed

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities. PMID:24387877

  10. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Sidhu, G S; Stahl, R E; el-Sadr, W; Cassai, N D; Forrester, E M; Zolla-Pazner, S

    1985-04-01

    Blood and a variety of tissues from 97 patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and 25 with the AIDS prodrome were studied ultrastructurally. Tubuloreticular structures (TRS) were found in 85 per cent of the patients with AIDS and in 92 per cent of those with the prodrome. Test tube and ring-shaped forms (TRF), found in 41 per cent of the patients with AIDS and in 8 per cent of those with the prodrome, increased with disease progression. Among the patients with AIDS, as the number of sites examined per case increased, the incidence of TRS and TRF tended to approach 100 per cent, suggesting that they are present in all patients with AIDS. Other changes seen frequently were immunologic capping of blood lymphocytes, intramitochondrial iron in blood reticulocytes and marrow normoblasts, megakaryocytic immaturity and platelet phagocytosis, collections of membranous rings in hepatocytic cytoplasm, suggestive of non-A, non-B hepatitis, and proliferations and engorgement of hepatic Ito cells with lipid. The data suggest that TRS and TRF can be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers. PMID:3872253

  11. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Vance D.; Kagnoff, Martin F.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to abnormalities in systemic immune function, patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the pre-AIDS syndromes have significant abnormalities in the distribution of T-cell subsets in the intestinal tract. Such immune deficits predispose such patients to opportunistic infections and tumors, many of which involve the gastrointestinal tract. For example, Candida albicans often causes stomatitis and esophagitis. Intestinal infections with parasites (Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Microsporidia) or bacteria (Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare) are associated with severe diarrhea and malabsorption, whereas viruses like cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus cause mucosal ulcerations. Clinically debilitating chronic diarrhea develops in many AIDS patients for which no clear cause can be identified. Enteric pathogens like Salmonella and Campylobacter can be associated with bacteremias. Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma involving the intestinal tract are now well-recognized complications of AIDS. Although AIDS is not associated with a pathognomonic liver lesion, opportunistic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma or lymphoma may involve the liver. ImagesFigure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:3825111

  12. Acquiring synaesthesia: insights from training studies

    PubMed Central

    Rothen, Nicolas; Meier, Beat

    2014-01-01

    Synaesthesia denotes a condition of remarkable individual differences in experience characterized by specific additional experiences in response to normal sensory input. Synaesthesia seems to (i) run in families which suggests a genetic component, (ii) is associated with marked structural and functional neural differences, and (iii) is usually reported to exist from early childhood. Hence, synaesthesia is generally regarded as a congenital phenomenon. However, most synaesthetic experiences are triggered by cultural artifacts (e.g., letters, musical sounds). Evidence exists to suggest that synaesthetic experiences are triggered by the conceptual representation of their inducer stimuli. Cases were identified for which the specific synaesthetic associations are related to prior experiences and large scale studies show that grapheme-color associations in synaesthesia are not completely random. Hence, a learning component is inherently involved in the development of specific synaesthetic associations. Researchers have hypothesized that associative learning is the critical mechanism. Recently, it has become of scientific and public interest if synaesthetic experiences may be acquired by means of associative training procedures and whether the gains of these trainings are associated with similar cognitive benefits as genuine synaesthetic experiences. In order to shed light on these issues and inform synaesthesia researchers and the general interested public alike, we provide a comprehensive literature review on developmental aspects of synaesthesia and specific training procedures in non-synaesthetes. Under the light of a clear working definition of synaesthesia, we come to the conclusion that synaesthesia can potentially be learned by the appropriate training. PMID:24624072

  13. Urgent operation for acquired ventricular septal defect.

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, C S; Alford, W C; Burrus, G R; Glassford, D M; Stoney, W S

    1982-01-01

    Recent experience suggests that ventricular septal defect (VSD) secondary to myocardial infarction constitutes an indication for urgent operation. Acquired VSD at St. Thomas Hospital, Nashville, was reviewed to substantiate the obsolescence of protracted medical therapy designed to allow a late, technically less demanding, repair. Twenty-two acute VSDs (less than four weeks following onset of murmur) have been treated since 1970. Five patients died during medical therapy. Two patients survived for more than four weeks without operation. One never manifested significant cardiac decompensation. The other was operated on at 33 days, after progressive deterioration. No technical advantage from the delay was apparent, although survival was achieved. Ten of 15 patients (67%) operated on during the first four weeks survived. Fourteen had reached a level of marked instability prior to operation. Of the five deaths, four were technical and were the product of an initial lack of recognition of the necessity for patch replacement of the interventricular septum. The prosthetic patch is now considered essential to minimize suture-line stress in necrotic muscle. Potentially, only one of 15 patients operated on early using current methods would have expired. This experience supports an aggressive surgical approach to any unstable patient with postinfarction VSD. Early repair requires specific techniques. Results of early operation using these techniques are dramatically superior to past efforts designed to delay definitive repair. PMID:7082062

  14. Deformation processes in forging ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. M.; Rhodes, W. H.

    1973-01-01

    The deformation processes involved in the forging of refractory ceramic oxides were investigated. A combination of mechanical testing and forging was utilized to investigate both the flow and fracture processes involved. Deformation studies of very fine grain Al203 revealed an apparent transition in behavior, characterized by a shift in the strain rate sensitivity from 0.5 at low stresses to near unity at higher stresses. The behavior is indicative of a shift in control between two dependent mechanisms, one of which is indicated to be cation limited diffusional creep with significant boundary enhancement. The possible contributions of slip, indicated by crystallographic texture, interface control of the diffusional creep and inhomogeneous boundary sliding are also discussed. Additional experiments indicated an independence of deformation behavior on MgO doping and retained hot pressing impurities, at least for ultrafine grained material, and also an independence of test atmosphere.

  15. Shock metamorphism of deformed quartz

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gratz, Andrew J.; Christie, John; Tyburczy, James; Ahrens, Thomas; Pongratz, Peter

    1988-01-01

    The effect produced by shock loading (to peak pressures of 12 and 24) on deformed synthetic quartz containing a dislocation and abundant bubbles and small inclusions was investigated, and the relationships between preexisting dislocation density shock lamellae in the target material were examined. The resultant material was found to be inhomogeneously deformed and extremely fractured. Results of TEM examinations indicate that no change in dislocation density was caused by shock loading except in regions containing shock lamellae, where the dislocation density was lowered. The shock-induced defects tend to nucleate on and be controlled by preexisting stress concentrators; shock lamellae, glassy veins, and most curviplanar defects form in tension, presumably during release. An extremely mobile silica fluid is formed and injected into fractures during release, which forcibly removes crystalline fragments from vein walls. It is concluded that shock deformation in quartz is dominated by fracture and melting.

  16. Chaetal deformities in aquatic oligochaeta

    SciTech Connect

    Brinkhurst, R.O.; Wetzel, M.J.

    1994-12-31

    Gross deformities in the chaetae of specimens of the tubificid Potamothrix hammoniensis were described by Milbrink from Lake Vaenern, Sweden. This lake is one of the most mercury-polluted major lakes of the world. Statistical tests showed a highly significant correlation between the incidence of deformities and the mercury concentration in the sediments. Changes in the pulp and paper mill process led to marked reduction in specimens with deformities. Similarly modified specimens of various species have been observed at a number of sites contaminated with heavy metals or oil residues in North America. Experimental work on chaetal form has demonstrated changes due to conductivity which have also been observed in saline inland waters. These experiments suggest that chaetae may be shed and replaced by worms every few days. EDX observation of chaetae indicated that metals may accumulate in them, and so provide a potential depuration mechanism. Independent physiological studies suggest that worms may be capable of regulating their metal levels.

  17. Finite Deformation of Magnetoelastic Film

    SciTech Connect

    Barham, Matthew Ian

    2011-05-31

    A nonlinear two-dimensional theory is developed for thin magnetoelastic lms capable of large deformations. This is derived directly from three-dimensional theory. Signi cant simpli cations emerge in the descent from three dimensions to two, permitting the self eld generated by the body to be computed a posteriori. The model is specialized to isotropic elastomers with two material models. First weak magnetization is investigated leading to a free energy where magnetization and deformation are un-coupled. The second closely couples the magnetization and deformation. Numerical solutions are obtained to equilibrium boundary-value problems in which the membrane is subjected to lateral pressure and an applied magnetic eld. An instability is inferred and investigated for the weak magnetization material model.

  18. SU-E-J-111: Finite Element-Based Deformable Image Registration of Pleural Cavity for Photodynamic Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Penjweini, R; Zhu, T

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The pleural volumes will deform during surgery portion of the pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) of lung cancer when the pleural cavity is opened. This impact the delivered dose when using highly conformal treatment techniques. In this study, a finite element-based (FEM) deformable image registration is used to quantify the anatomical variation between the contours for the pleural cavities obtained in the operating room and those determined from pre-surgery computed tomography (CT) scans. Methods: An infrared camera-based navigation system (NDI) is used during PDT to track the anatomical changes and contour the lung and chest cavity. A series of CTs of the lungs, in the same patient, are also acquired before the surgery. The structure contour of lung and the CTs are processed and contoured in Matlab and MeshLab. Then, the contours are imported into COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0, where the FEM-based deformable image registration is obtained using the deformed mesh - moving mesh (ALE) model. The NDI acquired lung contour is considered as the reference contour, and the CT contour is used as the target one, which will be deformed. Results: The reconstructed three-dimensional contours from both NDI and CT can be converted to COMSOL so that a three-dimensional ALE model can be developed. The contours can be registered using COMSOL ALE moving mesh model, which takes into account the deformation along x, y and z-axes. The deformed contour has good matches to the reference contour after the dynamic matching process. The resulting 3D deformation map can be used to obtain the locations of other critical anatomic structures, e.g., heart, during surgery. Conclusion: Deformable image registration can fuse images acquired by different modalities. It provides insights into the development of phenomenon and variation in normal anatomical structures over time. The initial assessments of three-dimensional registration show good agreement.

  19. Prostate biopsy tracking with deformation estimation.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Michael; Mozer, Pierre; Daanen, Vincent; Troccaz, Jocelyne

    2012-04-01

    Transrectal biopsies under 2D ultrasound (US) control are the current clinical standard for prostate cancer diagnosis. The isoechogenic nature of prostate carcinoma makes it necessary to sample the gland systematically, resulting in a low sensitivity. Also, it is difficult for the clinician to follow the sampling protocol accurately under 2D US control and the exact anatomical location of the biopsy cores is unknown after the intervention. Tracking systems for prostate biopsies make it possible to generate biopsy distribution maps for intra- and post-interventional quality control and 3D visualisation of histological results for diagnosis and treatment planning. They can also guide the clinician toward non-ultrasound targets. In this paper, a volume-swept 3D US based tracking system for fast and accurate estimation of prostate tissue motion is proposed. The entirely image-based system solves the patient motion problem with an a priori model of rectal probe kinematics. Prostate deformations are estimated with elastic registration to maximize accuracy. The system is robust with only 17 registration failures out of 786 (2%) biopsy volumes acquired from 47 patients during biopsy sessions. Accuracy was evaluated to 0.76±0.52 mm using manually segmented fiducials on 687 registered volumes stemming from 40 patients. A clinical protocol for assisted biopsy acquisition was designed and implemented as a biopsy assistance system, which allows to overcome the draw-backs of the standard biopsy procedure. PMID:21705263

  20. UAV for landslide mapping and deformation analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Beiqi; Liu, Chun

    2015-12-01

    Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) can be a flexible, cost-effective, and accurate method to monitor landslides with high resolution aerial images. Images acquired on 05 May 2013 and 13 December 2014 of the Xishan landslide, China, have been used to produce a high-resolution ortho-mosaic of the entire landslide and digital elevation model (DEM). The UAV capability for imaging detection and displacements on the landslide surface has been evaluated, and the subsequent image processing approaches for suitably georectifying the data have been assessed. Objects derived from the segmentation of a multispectral image were used as classifying units for landslide object-oriented analysis. Spectral information together with various morphometric characteristics was applied for recognizing landslides from false positives. Digital image correlation technique was evaluated to quantify and map terrain displacements. The magnitude and direction of the displacement vectors derived from correlating two temporal UAV images corresponded to a visual interpretation of landslide change. Therefore, the UAV can demonstrate its capability for producing valuable landslide mapping data and deformation information.

  1. Microstructure of deformed graywacke sandstones

    SciTech Connect

    Dengler, L.A.

    1980-03-05

    Microsctures in low-permeability graywacke sandstones were studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM specimens were prepared by ion-bombardment of thick polished samples. The undeformed rock contains grains in a matrix composed primarily of authigenic chlorite and kaolinite. Chlorite platelets are randomly arranged in face-to-edge relation to one another. Kaolinite occurs as pseudohexagonal crystals stacked face-to-face in pore filling books. Uniaxial-stress experiments covered a range of confining pressures from .1 to 600 MPa. Below 50 MPa confining pressure, intergranular fracturing occurs within the fault zone and near the sample's cylindrical surface. Between 100 and 300 MPa confining pressure, fault zones contain highly fractured grains, gauge and slickensides on grain surfaces. At 600 MPa, the sample contains a diffuse shear zone of highly fractured grains and no well-defined fault. In all samples, the distribution of microcracks is heterogeneous. Different clay minerals exhibit different modes of deformation. Chlorite structure responds to applied stress by compaction, reducing both pore size and volume. Chlorite platelets are plastically deformed in even the least strained samples. Kaolinite does not deform plastically in any of the samples examined. Deformation of kaolinite is restricted to toppling of the book structure. Dilatant crack growth was studied in two samples unloaded prior to failure. Uniaxially-strained samples deform primarily along grain boundaries, producing intergranular cracks and realignment of chlorite platelets. Intragranular crack density is linearly related to axial-strain, although grains are less fractured than in uniaxially-stressed samples tested at equivalent mean pressures. Cracks are rarely longer than a grain diameter. Nuclear-explosively deformed samples were recovered after the Rio Blanco gas stimulation experiment. (JGB)

  2. Fourth order deformed general relativity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuttell, Peter D.; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2014-11-01

    Whenever the condition of anomaly freedom is imposed within the framework of effective approaches to loop quantum cosmology, one seems to conclude that a deformation of general covariance is required. Here, starting from a general deformation we regain an effective gravitational Lagrangian including terms up to fourth order in extrinsic curvature. We subsequently constrain the form of the corrections for the homogeneous case, and then investigate the conditions for the occurrence of a big bounce and the realization of an inflationary era, in the presence of a perfect fluid or scalar field.

  3. Deformation properties of lead isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolokonnikov, S. V.; Borzov, I. N.; Lutostansky, Yu. S.; Saperstein, E. E.

    2016-01-01

    The deformation properties of a long lead isotopic chain up to the neutron drip line are analyzed on the basis of the energy density functional (EDF) in the FaNDF0 Fayans form. The question of whether the ground state of neutron-deficient lead isotopes can have a stable deformation is studied in detail. The prediction of this deformation is contained in the results obtained on the basis of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 Skyrme EDF versions and reported on Internet. The present analysis reveals that this is at odds with experimental data on charge radii and magnetic moments of odd lead isotopes. The Fayans EDF version predicts a spherical ground state for all light lead isotopes, but some of them (for example, 180Pb and 184Pb) prove to be very soft—that is, close to the point of a phase transition to a deformed state. Also, the results obtained in our present study are compared with the predictions of some other Skyrme EDF versions, including SKM*, SLy4, SLy6, and UNE1. By and large, their predictions are closer to the results arising upon the application of the Fayans functional. For example, the SLy4 functional predicts, in just the same way as the FaNDF0 functional, a spherical shape for all nuclei of this region. The remaining three Skyrme EDF versions lead to a deformation of some light lead isotopes, but their number is substantially smaller than that in the case of the HFB-17 and HFB-27 functionals. Moreover, the respective deformation energy is substantially lower, which gives grounds to hope for the restoration of a spherical shape upon going beyond the mean-field approximation, which we use here. Also, the deformation properties of neutron-rich lead isotopes are studied up to the neutron drip line. Here, the results obtained with the FaNDF0 functional are compared with the predictions of the HFB-17, HFB-27, SKM*, and SLy4 Skyrme EDF versions. All of the EDF versions considered here predict the existence of a region where neutron-rich lead isotopes undergo

  4. Deforming baryons into confining strings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartnoll, Sean A.; Portugues, Rubén

    2004-09-01

    We find explicit probe D3-brane solutions in the infrared of the Maldacena-Nuñez background. The solutions describe deformed baryon vertices: q external quarks are separated in spacetime from the remaining N-q. As the separation is taken to infinity we recover known solutions describing infinite confining strings in N=1 gauge theory. We present results for the mass of finite confining strings as a function of length. We also find probe D2-brane solutions in a confining type IIA geometry, the reduction of a G2 holonomy M theory background. The relation between these deformed baryons and confining strings is not as straightforward.

  5. Controllable objective with deformable mirrors

    SciTech Connect

    Agafonov, V V; Safronov, A G

    2004-03-31

    A new optical device - an objective with deformable mirrors and parameters controlled in the dynamic regime is proposed. The computer simulation of the objective is performed. The dependences of some parameters of the objective on the control voltage are determined. The simulation showed that the ranges of control of the rear focal segment and the focal distance for the objective with the focal distance 602 mm were 1057 and 340 mm, respectively, which is substantially greater than in the control of an equivalent deformable mirror. (laser applications and other topics in quantum electronics)

  6. Analytical volcano deformation source models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lisowski, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Primary volcanic landforms are created by the ascent and eruption of magma. The ascending magma displaces and interacts with surrounding rock and fluids as it creates new pathways, flows through cracks or conduits, vesiculates, and accumulates in underground reservoirs. The formation of new pathways and pressure changes within existing conduits and reservoirs stress and deform the surrounding rock. Eruption products load the crust. The pattern and rate of surface deformation around volcanoes reflect the tectonic and volcanic processes transmitted to the surface through the mechanical properties of the crust.

  7. Cavity coalescence in superplastic deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Stowell, M.J.; Livesey, D.W.; Ridley, N.

    1984-01-01

    An analysis of the probability distribution function of particles randomly dispersed in a solid has been applied to cavitation during superplastic deformation and a method of predicting cavity coalescence developed. Cavity size distribution data were obtained from two microduplex nickel-silver alloys deformed superplastically to various extents at elevated temperature, and compared to theoretical predictions. Excellent agreement occurred for small void sizes but the model underestimated the number of voids in the largest size groups. It is argued that the discrepancy results from a combination of effects due to non-random cavity distributions and to enhanced growth rates and incomplete spheroidization of the largest cavities.

  8. Neutron scattering on deformed nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, L. F.; Haight, R. C.; Pohl, B. A.; Wong, C.; Lagrange, Ch.

    1985-01-01

    Measurements of neutron elastic and inelastic differential cross sections around 14 MeV for 9Be, C, 181Ta, 232Th, 238U, and 239Pu have been analyzed using a coupled channel (CC) formalism for deformed nuclei and phenomenological global optical model potentials (OMP). For the actinide targets these results are compared with the predictions of a semi-microscopic calculation using Jeukenne, Lejeune, and Mahaux (JLM) microscopic OMP and a deformed ground state nuclear density. The overall agreement between calculations and the measurements is reasonably good even for the very light nuclei, where the quality of the fits is better than those obtained with spherical OMP.

  9. Learning deformation and structure simultaneously: in situ endograft deformation analysis.

    PubMed

    Langs, Georg; Paragios, Nikos; Desgranges, Pascal; Rahmouni, Alain; Kobeiter, Hicham

    2011-02-01

    The learning of the shape and appearance behavior of complex anatomical structures is of growing importance in the successful use of medical imaging data. We propose a method to simultaneously learn a model of shape variation and the behavioral structure of objects in volumetric data sets. The algorithm performs a group-wise registration of a set of examples, and accounts for the heterogeneous deformation or variability properties of the data. We use the method for the in situ analysis of endograft deformation in the thoracic aorta during the cardiac cycle. The method is based on an emerging model of the shape variation, which is learned autonomously from a gated computed tomography sequence. It automatically adapts to the highly non-uniform elasticity properties of the structure during learning. The resulting deformation model is used for the measurement of global and local characteristics of the endograft movement. The method allows for the in situ localization of the stent during the cardiac cycle, and the measurement of its deformation. Furthermore, it makes the comparison of different endograft designs possible, and can serve as a basis for fitting a physical model of the endograft- and vessel surface to individual patients. The latter is essential for long-term risk assessment of the impact of endografts in highly mobile areas. We evaluate the approach on 10 data sets from patients that underwent endograft placement after traumatic ruptures of the thoracic aorta. PMID:20675181

  10. Volume Preserved Mass-Spring Model with Novel Constraints for Soft Tissue Deformation.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yuping; Huang, Weimin; Chang, Huibin; Chen, Wenyu; Zhou, Jiayin; Teo, Soo Kng; Su, Yi; Chui, Chee Kong; Chang, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    An interactive surgical simulation system needs to meet three main requirements, speed, accuracy, and stability. In this paper, we present a stable and accurate method for animating mass-spring systems in real time. An integration scheme derived from explicit integration is used to obtain interactive realistic animation for a multiobject environment. We explore a predictor-corrector approach by correcting the estimation of the explicit integration in a poststep process. We introduce novel constraints on positions into the mass-spring model (MSM) to model the nonlinearity and preserve volume for the realistic simulation of the incompressibility. We verify the proposed MSM by comparing its deformations with the reference deformations of the nonlinear finite-element method. Moreover, experiments on porcine organs are designed for the evaluation of the multiobject deformation. Using a pair of freshly harvested porcine liver and gallbladder, the real organ deformations are acquired by computed tomography and used as the reference ground truth. Compared to the porcine model, our model achieves a 1.502 mm mean absolute error measured at landmark locations for cases with small deformation (the largest deformation is 49.109 mm) and a 3.639 mm mean absolute error for cases with large deformation (the largest deformation is 83.137 mm). The changes of volume for the two deformations are limited to 0.030% and 0.057%, respectively. Finally, an implementation in a virtual reality environment for laparoscopic cholecystectomy demonstrates that our model is capable to simulate large deformation and preserve volume in real-time calculations. PMID:25398184

  11. Validation of an accelerated 'demons' algorithm for deformable image registration in radiation therapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, He; Dong, Lei; O'Daniel, Jennifer; Mohan, Radhe; Garden, Adam S.; Kian Ang, K.; Kuban, Deborah A.; Bonnen, Mark; Chang, Joe Y.; Cheung, Rex

    2005-06-01

    A greyscale-based fully automatic deformable image registration algorithm, originally known as the 'demons' algorithm, was implemented for CT image-guided radiotherapy. We accelerated the algorithm by introducing an 'active force' along with an adaptive force strength adjustment during the iterative process. These improvements led to a 40% speed improvement over the original algorithm and a high tolerance of large organ deformations. We used three methods to evaluate the accuracy of the algorithm. First, we created a set of mathematical transformations for a series of patient's CT images. This provides a 'ground truth' solution for quantitatively validating the deformable image registration algorithm. Second, we used a physically deformable pelvic phantom, which can measure deformed objects under different conditions. The results of these two tests allowed us to quantify the accuracy of the deformable registration. Validation results showed that more than 96% of the voxels were within 2 mm of their intended shifts for a prostate and a head-and-neck patient case. The mean errors and standard deviations were 0.5 mm ± 1.5 mm and 0.2 mm ± 0.6 mm, respectively. Using the deformable pelvis phantom, the result showed a tracking accuracy of better than 1.5 mm for 23 seeds implanted in a phantom prostate that was deformed by inflation of a rectal balloon. Third, physician-drawn contours outlining the tumour volumes and certain anatomical structures in the original CT images were deformed along with the CT images acquired during subsequent treatments or during a different respiratory phase for a lung cancer case. Visual inspection of the positions and shapes of these deformed contours agreed well with human judgment. Together, these results suggest that the accelerated demons algorithm has significant potential for delineating and tracking doses in targets and critical structures during CT-guided radiotherapy.

  12. Three dimensional deformation of dry-stored complete denture base at room temperature

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The aim of this study was to evaluate whether there is any typical deformation pattern existing in complete denture when it was dried by using the 3D scanner and surface matching program. MATERIALS AND METHODS A total of 28 denture bases were fabricated with heat curing acrylic resin (each 14 upper and lower denture bases), and 14 denture bases (each 7 upper and lower denture bases) were stored in the water bottle (water stored), and another 14 denture bases were stored in the air (dry stored). Each specimen was scanned at 1st day after deflasking, 14th day after deflasking, and 28th day after deflasking, and digitalized. Three dimensional deformation patterns were acquired by comparison of the data within storage group using surface matching program. For evaluating differences between groups, these data were compared statisticallyusing Kruskal Wallis and Mann Whitney-U test (α=.05). RESULTS When evaluating 3D deformation of denture base, obvious deformations were not found in maxillary and mandibular water storage group. However, in dry stored group, typical deformation pattern was detected as storage time passes. It occurred mostly in first two weeks. Major deformations were found in the bilateral posterior area in both maxillary and mandibular group. In maxillary dry stored group, a statistical significance was found. CONCLUSION It was proved that in both upper and lower denture bases, dry storage caused more dimensional deformation than water storage with typical pattern. PMID:27555899

  13. Improving the quality of radiographic images acquired with conical radiation beams through divergence correction and filtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvani, M. I.; Almeida, G. L.; Latini, R. M.; Bellido, A. V. B.; Souza, E. S.; Lopes, R. T.

    2015-07-01

    Earlier works have shown the feasibility to correct the deformation of the attenuation map in radiographs acquired with conical radiation beams provided that the inspected object could be expressed into analytical geometry terms. This correction reduces the contribution of the main object in the radiograph, allowing thus the visualization of its otherwise concealed heterogeneities. However, the non-punctual character of the source demanded a cumbersome trial-and-error approach in order to determine the proper correction parameters for the algorithm. Within this frame, this work addresses the improvement of radiographs of specially tailored test-objects acquired with a conical beam through correction of its divergence by using the information contained in the image itself. The corrected images have afterwards undergone a filtration in the frequency domain aiming at the reduction of statistical fluctuation and noise by using a 2D Fourier transform. All radiographs have been acquired using 165Dy and 198Au gamma-ray sources produced at the Argonauta research reactor in Institutode Engenharia Nuclear - CNEN, and an X-ray sensitive imaging plate as detector. The processed images exhibit features otherwise invisible in the original ones. Their processing by conventional histogram equalization carried out for comparison purposes did not succeed to detect those features.

  14. Space-based monitoring of ground deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobakht Ersi, Fereydoun; Safari, Abdolreza; Gamse, Sonja

    2016-07-01

    Ground deformation monitoring is valuable to understanding of the behaviour of natural phenomena. Space-Based measurement systems such as Global Positioning System are useful tools for continuous monitoring of ground deformation. Ground deformation analysis based on space geodetic techniques have provided a new, more accurate, and reliable source of information for geodetic positioning which is used to detect deformations of the Ground surface. This type of studies using displacement fields derived from repeated measurments of space-based geodetic networks indicates how crucial role the space geodetic methods play in geodynamics. The main scope of this contribution is to monitor of ground deformation by obtained measurements from GPS sites. We present ground deformation analysis in three steps: a global congruency test on daily coordinates of permanent GPS stations to specify in which epochs deformations occur, the localization of the deformed GPS sites and the determination of deformations.

  15. Localized Surface Deformation Monitoring Applications using Ground Based Interferometric Radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legarsky, J. J.; Gomez, F. G.; Rosenblad, B.; Loehr, E.; Gurnani, G.; Fallert, Z.; Gilliam, J.

    2014-12-01

    Ground based interferometric radar (GBIR) measurements of localized surface deformation may be sought-after in various geosciences applications. The University of Missouri (MU) GBIR system is highly portable; moreover, it can be removed and re-positioned at the same point with geodetic-grade precision for long-term and repeat surveys. Initial quick-look imagery at C-band and Ku-band may be viewed in near real-time at the study site. Polarimetric calibration, radiometric calibration, and time-series analysis may further enhance the imagery. The MU GBIR has demonstrated millimeter and better sensitivity to localized surface deformation. Using real-aperture imaging and precision rotation, the MU GBIR acquires data by deploying three antennas that may be mounted parallel to one another on a 1-meter high tower. During typical operation, images are acquired by azimuthally rotating the GBIR antennas about its vertical axis. During deployment, the fast imaging capabilities allow a data collect scan in about 20 seconds for a 180 degree field of view. During the 2013 and 2014 field seasons using the MU GBIR, several locations were studied. The study sites include a rockfall experiment in Colorado, several dams in Kansas and Missouri, and a rock glacier in southern Colorado. Study results and additional progress will be presented. These projects are sponsored by grants from the University of Missouri Research Board and the National Science Foundation.

  16. Impact of lactobacilli on orally acquired listeriosis

    PubMed Central

    Archambaud, Cristel; Nahori, Marie-Anne; Soubigou, Guillaume; Bécavin, Christophe; Laval, Laure; Lechat, Pierre; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Cossart, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that crosses the intestinal barrier and disseminates within the host. Here, we report a unique comprehensive analysis of the impact of two Lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-3689 and Lactobacillus casei BL23, on L. monocytogenes and orally acquired listeriosis in a gnotobiotic humanized mouse model. We first assessed the effect of treatment with each Lactobacillus on L. monocytogenes counts in host tissues and showed that each decreases L. monocytogenes systemic dissemination in orally inoculated mice. A whole genome intestinal transcriptomic analysis revealed that each Lactobacillus changes expression of a specific subset of genes during infection, with IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) being the most affected by both lactobacilli. We also examined microRNA (miR) expression and showed that three miRs (miR-192, miR-200b, and miR-215) are repressed during L. monocytogenes infection. Treatment with each Lactobacillus increased miR-192 expression, whereas only L. casei association increased miR-200b and miR-215 expression. Finally, we showed that treatment with each Lactobacillus significantly reshaped the L. monocytogenes transcriptome and up-regulated transcription of L. monocytogenes genes encoding enzymes allowing utilization of intestinal carbon and nitrogen sources in particular genes involved in propanediol and ethanolamine catabolism and cobalamin biosynthesis. Altogether, these data reveal that the modulation of L. monocytogenes infection by treatment with lactobacilli correlates with a decrease in host gene expression, in particular ISGs, miR regulation, and a dramatic reshaping of L. monocytogenes transcriptome. PMID:23012479

  17. Seeing the eyes in acquired prosopagnosia.

    PubMed

    Pancaroglu, Raika; Hills, Charlotte S; Sekunova, Alla; Viswanathan, Jayalakshmi; Duchaine, Brad; Barton, Jason J S

    2016-08-01

    Case reports have suggested that perception of the eye region may be impaired more than that of other facial regions in acquired prosopagnosia. However, it is unclear how frequently this occurs, whether such impairments are specific to a certain anatomic subtype of prosopagnosia, and whether these impairments are related to changes in the scanning of faces. We studied a large cohort of 11 subjects with this rare disorder, who had a variety of occipitotemporal or anterior temporal lesions, both unilateral and bilateral. Lesions were characterized by functional and structural imaging. Subjects performed a perceptual discrimination test in which they had to discriminate changes in feature position, shape, or external contour. Test conditions were manipulated to stress focused or divided attention across the whole face. In a second experiment we recorded eye movements while subjects performed a face memory task. We found that greater impairment for eye processing was more typical of subjects with occipitotemporal lesions than those with anterior temporal lesions. This eye selectivity was evident for both eye position and shape, with no evidence of an upper/lower difference for external contour. A greater impairment for eye processing was more apparent under attentionally more demanding conditions. Despite these perceptual deficits, most subjects showed a normal tendency to scan the eyes more than the mouth. We conclude that occipitotemporal lesions are associated with a partially selective processing loss for eye information and that this deficit may be linked to loss of the right fusiform face area, which has been shown to have activity patterns that emphasize the eye region. PMID:27288649

  18. How to acquire customers on the Web.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, D L; Novak, T P

    2000-01-01

    Most retailers on the Web spend more to acquire customers than they will ever get back in revenue from them. Many think that sky-high spending on marketing is necessary to stake out their share of Internet space. But is it really? How do retailers know how much to pay? Consider CDnow, which has developed a multifaceted customer-acquisition strategy that reflects a clear understanding of the economics of an on-line business. At the heart of its strategy is affiliate marketing, a concept the company pioneered. Under its BuyWeb program, anyone can put a link to CDnow on his or her Web site, and if a customer uses that link to arrive at CDnow and make a purchase, the referring site owner gets a percentage of the sale. CDnow pays no money if no sale is made, which makes the marketing program completely efficient. But CDnow didn't stop there. Being a Web store, it had complete data on the number of visitors to its site and what they bought, which it used to work out the lifetime value of an average customer. CDnow used that figure to determine how much to wager on the expensive and risky world of traditional advertising to reach a wider audience that wasn't already on-line. CDnow's experience, still a work in progress, contradicts John Wanamaker's oft-quoted lament: "I know half the money I spend on advertising is wasted, but I can never find out which half." As the CDnow example demonstrates, there is a way to find out which half really works. PMID:11183979

  19. Impact of lactobacilli on orally acquired listeriosis.

    PubMed

    Archambaud, Cristel; Nahori, Marie-Anne; Soubigou, Guillaume; Bécavin, Christophe; Laval, Laure; Lechat, Pierre; Smokvina, Tamara; Langella, Philippe; Lecuit, Marc; Cossart, Pascale

    2012-10-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a foodborne pathogen that crosses the intestinal barrier and disseminates within the host. Here, we report a unique comprehensive analysis of the impact of two Lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus paracasei CNCM I-3689 and Lactobacillus casei BL23, on L. monocytogenes and orally acquired listeriosis in a gnotobiotic humanized mouse model. We first assessed the effect of treatment with each Lactobacillus on L. monocytogenes counts in host tissues and showed that each decreases L. monocytogenes systemic dissemination in orally inoculated mice. A whole genome intestinal transcriptomic analysis revealed that each Lactobacillus changes expression of a specific subset of genes during infection, with IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) being the most affected by both lactobacilli. We also examined microRNA (miR) expression and showed that three miRs (miR-192, miR-200b, and miR-215) are repressed during L. monocytogenes infection. Treatment with each Lactobacillus increased miR-192 expression, whereas only L. casei association increased miR-200b and miR-215 expression. Finally, we showed that treatment with each Lactobacillus significantly reshaped the L. monocytogenes transcriptome and up-regulated transcription of L. monocytogenes genes encoding enzymes allowing utilization of intestinal carbon and nitrogen sources in particular genes involved in propanediol and ethanolamine catabolism and cobalamin biosynthesis. Altogether, these data reveal that the modulation of L. monocytogenes infection by treatment with lactobacilli correlates with a decrease in host gene expression, in particular ISGs, miR regulation, and a dramatic reshaping of L. monocytogenes transcriptome. PMID:23012479

  20. Recovery of liver motion and deformation due to respiration using laparoscopic freehand 3D ultrasound system.

    PubMed

    Nakamoto, Masahiko; Hirayama, Hiroaki; Sato, Yoshinobu; Konishi, Kozo; Kakeji, Yoshihiro; Hashizume, Makoto; Tamura, Shinichi

    2006-01-01

    This paper describes a rapid method for intraoperative recovery of liver motion and deformation due to respiration by using a laparoscopic freehand 3D ultrasound (US) system. Using the proposed method, 3D US images of the liver can be extended to 4D US images by acquiring additional several sequences of 2D US images during a couple of respiration cycles. Time-varying 2D US images are acquired on several sagittal image planes and their 3D positions and orientations are measured using a laparoscopic ultrasound probe to which a miniature magnetic 3D position sensor is attached. During the acquisition, the probe is assumed to move together with the liver surface. In-plane 2D deformation fields and respiratory phase are estimated from the time-varying 2D US images, and then the time-varying 3D deformation fields on the sagittal image planes are obtained by combining 3D positions and orientations of the image planes. The time-varying 3D deformation field of the volume is obtained by interpolating the 3D deformation fields estimated on several planes. The proposed method was evaluated by in vivo experiments using a pig liver. PMID:17354794

  1. Electrostatics of Deformable Lipid Membranes

    PubMed Central

    Vorobyov, Igor; Bekker, Borislava; Allen, Toby W.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract It was recently demonstrated that significant local deformations of biological membranes take place due to the fields of charged peptides and ions, challenging the standard model of membrane electrostatics. The ability of ions to retain their immediate hydration environment, combined with the lack of sensitivity of permeability to ion type or even ion pairs, led us to question the extent to which hydration energetics and electrostatics control membrane ion permeation. Using the arginine analog methyl-guanidinium as a test case, we find that although hydrocarbon electronic polarizability causes dramatic changes in ion solvation free energy, as well as a significant change (∼0.4 V) in the membrane dipole potential, little change in membrane permeation energetics occurs. We attribute this to compensation of solvation terms from polar and polarizable nonpolar components within the membrane, and explain why the dipole potential is not fully sensed in terms of the locally deformed bilayer interface. Our descriptions provide a deeper understanding of the translocation process and allow predictions for poly-ions, ion pairs, charged lipids, and lipid flip-flop. We also report simulations of large hydrophobic-ion-like membrane defects and the ionophore valinomycin, which exhibit little membrane deformation, as well as hydrophilic defects and the ion channel gramicidin A, to provide parallels to membranes deformed by unassisted ion permeation. PMID:20550903

  2. Cretaceous Magmatism and Deformation in Central-west Tibet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnaud, N. O.; Paquette, J. L.; Leloup, P. H.; Valli, F.; Guillot, S.; Li, H.; Xu, Z.; Lacassin, R.; Tapponnier, P.

    2003-04-01

    While post-jurassic magmatism metamorphism and deformation are widespread in the Himalaya and is also reported along narrow belts along the northern edge of Tibet and further north, they are scarce on the Tibetan Plateau. In western Tibet, the Longmu lake is limited to the south by a significant relief marking a range of magmatic and metamorphic rocks, and bordered by the active left-lateral Goza fault. The range exposes essentially early Mesozoic rocks probably the remnants of a Triassic suture. The highest summits along the Longmu lake are composed of two mica leucocratic granites intruding unprecisely dated Cretaceous sediments (Red Beds). Those granites are locally strongly sheared, although those facies were not found in place. Where observed in the granites this deformation was partly strike slip although less intense, with a subvertical foliation striking N90-110, parallel to the Goza fault. The U/Pb age of the granites indicates a late cretaceous intrusion. 40Ar/39Ar dating yields mica cooling ages of 102 Ma close to the emplacement age both in the undeformed and the deformed facies and thus indicate that deformation was acquired during or very shortly after emplacement: those granites are therefore partly syn-tectonic. Modeling of K-feldspars 40Ar/39Ar ages show rapid cooling just after emplacement, followed by a period of protracted cooling and finally much faster cooling at ca 55 Ma. The discovery of a phase of Cretaceous magmatism and deformation in central Tibet suggests a localized event of probably crustal melting associated with deformation of the same age. Strike slip movements of Cretaceous age have already been reported in a metamorphic corridor locally bordering the present day traces of Altyn Tagh and Kunlun faults (ARNAUD et al., 2003). The discovery of similar facies in central Tibet suggests that this event must be extended further south into Tibet and could therefore has a wider significance than previously thought. The fact that the Goza

  3. In situ x-ray diffraction of shock-driven deformation and phase transformation in titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bolme, Cynthia; Lazicki, Amy; Brown, Don; Gleason, Arianna; Cerreta, Ellen; Morrow, Ben; Ali, Suzanne; Swift, Damian; Nagler, Bob; Galtier, Eric; Granados, Eduardo; Milathianaki, Despina; Heimann, Phil

    2015-06-01

    Titanium alloys are employed in demanding engineering applications due to their high strength-to-weight ratio and their resistance to corrosion. Pure titanium and titanium with high levels of oxygen impurities were studied under laser-driven shock compression at the Matter in Extreme Conditions endstation at the Linac Coherent Light Source. In situ x-ray diffraction data were acquired during compression, showing the lattice-level response of titanium as it underwent plastic deformation and phase transformation. The kinetics of these processes and the influence of oxygen impurities on the deformation behavior will be presented.

  4. Integration of GPS and DinSAR for Deformation Monitoring Based on Ant Colony Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Guoqiang; He, Xiufeng; Xiao, Ruya

    2014-11-01

    To acquire three-dimensional earth surface deformation, a measurement method based on ant colony optimization (ACO) is proposed. It highly integrates high-accuracy GPS observations from sparse ground points with InSAR line-of-sight (LOS) direction information. Two constraints, GPS and DInSAR observations, are employed in constructing the energy function whose minimum value will be searched by the ACO operated in continuous space. Compared with conventional interpolation algorithms, the proposed method increases the three-dimensional deformation observation accuracy, especially showing the improvement in the up direction.

  5. The Versatility of Autologous Fat Transplantation in Correction of Facial Deformities: A Single-Center Experience

    PubMed Central

    Hammer-Hansen, Niels; Akram, Javed; Damsgaard, Tine Engberg

    2015-01-01

    Deformities in the craniofacial region are of great social and functional importance. Several surgical techniques have been used to treat such pathologies often with high morbidity and lacking the ability to address smaller contour defects. The minimally invasive technique of fat transplantation has evolved rapidly within the last few decades. The objective of this paper is to present the versatility and applicability of fat transplantation in a wide range of contour deformities in the craniofacial region. We share our experiences in treating 13 patients with autoimmune disorders, congenital malformations, and acquired defects. Future perspectives of fat transplantation in the field of craniofacial reconstruction are discussed. PMID:25821598

  6. Male acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Salenave, Sylvie; Trabado, Sévérine; Maione, Luigi; Brailly-Tabard, Sylvie; Young, Jacques

    2012-04-01

    Acquired hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (AHH), contrary to congenital hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (CHH) is characterized by postnatal onset of disorders that damage or alter the function of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons and/or pituitary gonadotroph cells. AHH thus prevents the establishment of gonadotropin secretion at puberty, or its post-pubertal maintenance. Thus, postnatal AHH may prevent the onset of puberty or appear during pubertal development, but it usually emerges after the normal age of puberty. Although pituitary tumors, particularly prolactinoma, are the most common cause, sellar tumors or cyst of the hypothalamus or infundibulum, infiltrative, vascular, iron overload and other disorders may also cause AHH. Pituitary surgery and head trauma or cranial/pituitary radiation therapy are also usual causes of AHH. The clinical manifestations of AHH depend on age of onset, the degree of gonadotropin deficiency, the rapidity of its onset and the association to other pituitary function deficiencies or excess. Men with AHH have less stamina, decreased libido, erectile dysfunction and strength, and a worsened sense of well being leading to degraded quality of life. The physical examination is usually normal if hypogonadism is of recent onset. Diminished facial, body hair and muscle mass, fine facial wrinkles, gynecomastia, and hypotrophic testes are observed in long-standing and complete AHH. Spermatogenesis is impaired and the volume of ejaculate is decreased only when gonadotropins and testosterone levels are very low. Men with AHH may have normal or low serum LH and FSH concentrations, but normal gonadotropin values are inappropriate when associated with low serum testosterone. In the majority of AHH patients, serum inhibin B is "normal". The decrease of this sertolian hormone indicates a long-standing and severe gonadotropin deficiency. Symptoms, usually associated with significant testosterone deficiency in men with AHH, improve with

  7. Evaluation of fingerprint deformation using optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutierrez da Costa, Henrique S.; Maxey, Jessica R.; Silva, Luciano; Ellerbee, Audrey K.

    2014-02-01

    Biometric identification systems have important applications to privacy and security. The most widely used of these, print identification, is based on imaging patterns present in the fingers, hands and feet that are formed by the ridges, valleys and pores of the skin. Most modern print sensors acquire images of the finger when pressed against a sensor surface. Unfortunately, this pressure may result in deformations, characterized by changes in the sizes and relative distances of the print patterns, and such changes have been shown to negatively affect the performance of fingerprint identification algorithms. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel imaging technique that is capable of imaging the subsurface of biological tissue. Hence, OCT may be used to obtain images of subdermal skin structures from which one can extract an internal fingerprint. The internal fingerprint is very similar in structure to the commonly used external fingerprint and is of increasing interest in investigations of identify fraud. We proposed and tested metrics based on measurements calculated from external and internal fingerprints to evaluate the amount of deformation of the skin. Such metrics were used to test hypotheses about the differences of deformation between the internal and external images, variations with the type of finger and location inside the fingerprint.

  8. Ground deformation from ground-based SAR interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarchi, Dario; Casagli, Nicola; Fortuny-Guasch, Joaquim; Guerri, Letizia; Antonello, Giuseppe; Leva, Davide

    An in-depth analysis of the last two images acquired by the ground-based interferometric synthetic aperture radar system installed on Stromboli before the 5 April 2003 explosion allowed us to detect the precursory signals of the explosion related to ground deformation. In particular, it was possible to estimate the exact time of the explosion through the time domain analysis of raw data from the radar acquisition. This was interrupted by a blackout that occurred a few seconds after the event. The explosion onset time corresponds to a clear change in the intensity of the backscattered energy, related to the dense volcanic plume emission from the Crater. In addiction, the use of a particular interferometric processing technique for the last two acquisitions, consisting of the selection of synthetic sub-apertures from the main ones and creating with these a sequence of interferograms with a higher temporal resolution, detected precursory deformations starting 2 min before the explosion. These observations indicate the occurrence of an elastic deformation of a centimeter amplitude that affected the volcanic edifice progressively from the Crater down to the Sciara del Fuoco depression.

  9. Post-seismic deformation of the 2011 Tohoku earthquake, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kyriakopoulos, C.; Masterlark, T.; Chini, M.; Bignami, C.; Stramondo, S.

    2012-04-01

    The Mw 9.0 Tohoku earthquake on March 11, 2011 occurred near the northeast coast of Honshu, Japan. The earthquake resulted from a thrust faulting on the subduction zone boundary between the Pacific and North America plates. Surface displacements due to the Tohoku-Oki earthquake were observed by more than 1200 continuously recording Global Positioning System (GPS) sites, installed and operated by the Geodetic Survey of Japan (GSI). For the first time, in a megathrust event, the displacement above the hypocenter is detected from 5 GPS installed in the seafloor (Sato et., al 2011), giving new insights into the megathrust mechanism. The link, i.e. Green's Functions, between the surface displacement and the model parameters is obtained from a 3D Finite Element (FE) model for the 11 March earthquake. Several geophysical features of the Japan trench are implemented into the FE model. The Subducting slab geometry is implemented from USGS and Gavin Hayes Slab 1.0 project. Bathymetry and topography from the ETOPO Global Relief Project (NOAA) are implemented as well. Moreover, the model is designed to simulate coseismic and postseismic (poroelastic) deformation while simultaneously account for the known geologic structure and geophysical context (Zhao et al., 1992 ) of the Japanese subduction zone. The postseismic deformation is explored using the postseismic GPS vectors available in the literature. Furthermore, we applied DInSAR (Differential SAR interferometry) to infer the post-seismic deformation field by exploiting the available SAR images acquired by the ENVISAT satellite.

  10. Deformable registration of multi-modal data including rigid structures

    SciTech Connect

    Huesman, Ronald H.; Klein, Gregory J.; Kimdon, Joey A.; Kuo, Chaincy; Majumdar, Sharmila

    2003-05-02

    Multi-modality imaging studies are becoming more widely utilized in the analysis of medical data. Anatomical data from CT and MRI are useful for analyzing or further processing functional data from techniques such as PET and SPECT. When data are not acquired simultaneously, even when these data are acquired on a dual-imaging device using the same bed, motion can occur that requires registration between the reconstructed image volumes. As the human torso can allow non-rigid motion, this type of motion should be estimated and corrected. We report a deformation registration technique that utilizes rigid registration for bony structures, while allowing elastic transformation of soft tissue to more accurately register the entire image volume. The technique is applied to the registration of CT and MR images of the lumbar spine. First a global rigid registration is performed to approximately align features. Bony structures are then segmented from the CT data using semi-automated process, and bounding boxes for each vertebra are established. Each CT subvolume is then individually registered to the MRI data using a piece-wise rigid registration algorithm and a mutual information image similarity measure. The resulting set of rigid transformations allows for accurate registration of the parts of the CT and MRI data representing the vertebrae, but not the adjacent soft tissue. To align the soft tissue, a smoothly-varying deformation is computed using a thin platespline(TPS) algorithm. The TPS technique requires a sparse set of landmarks that are to be brought into correspondence. These landmarks are automatically obtained from the segmented data using simple edge-detection techniques and random sampling from the edge candidates. A smoothness parameter is also included in the TPS formulation for characterization of the stiffness of the soft tissue. Estimation of an appropriate stiffness factor is obtained iteratively by using the mutual information cost function on the result

  11. Highly deformable bones: unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse armor.

    PubMed

    Porter, Michael M; Novitskaya, Ekaterina; Castro-Ceseña, Ana Bertha; Meyers, Marc A; McKittrick, Joanna

    2013-06-01

    Multifunctional materials and devices found in nature serve as inspiration for advanced synthetic materials, structures and robotics. Here, we elucidate the architecture and unusual deformation mechanisms of seahorse tails that provide prehension as well as protection against predators. The seahorse tail is composed of subdermal bony plates arranged in articulating ring-like segments that overlap for controlled ventral bending and twisting. The bony plates are highly deformable materials designed to slide past one another and buckle when compressed. This complex plate and segment motion, along with the unique hardness distribution and structural hierarchy of each plate, provide seahorses with joint flexibility while shielding them against impact and crushing. Mimicking seahorse armor may lead to novel bio-inspired technologies, such as flexible armor, fracture-resistant structures or prehensile robotics. PMID:23470547

  12. Preferred orientation in experimentally deformed stishovite: implications for deformation mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaercher, Pamela M.; Zepeda-Alarcon, Eloisa; Prakapenka, Vitali B.; Kanitpanyacharoen, Waruntorn; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav; Wenk, Hans-Rudolf

    2015-04-01

    Although the crystal structure of the high-pressure SiO2 polymorph stishovite has been studied in detail, little is known about the development of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) during deformation in stishovite. Insight into CPO and associated deformation mechanics of stishovite would provide important information for understanding subduction of quartz-bearing crustal rocks into the mantle. To study CPO development, we converted a natural sample of flint to stishovite in a laser-heated diamond anvil cell and compressed the stishovite aggregate up to 38 GPa. We collected diffraction patterns in radial geometry to examine in situ development of crystallographic preferred orientation and find that (001) poles preferentially align with the compression direction. Viscoplastic self-consistent modeling suggests the most likely slip systems at high pressure and ambient temperature are pyramidal and basal slip.

  13. SU-E-J-218: Novel Validation Paradigm of MRI to CT Deformation of Prostate

    SciTech Connect

    Padgett, K; Pirozzi, S; Nelson, A; Piper, J; Horvat, M; Stoyanova, R; Dogan, N; Pollack, A

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Deformable registration algorithms are inherently difficult to characterize in the multi-modality setting due to a significant differences in the characteristics of the different modalities (CT and MRI) as well as tissue deformations. We present a unique paradigm where this is overcome by utilizing a planning-MRI acquired within an hour of the planning-CT serving as a surrogate for quantifying MRI to CT deformation by eliminating the issues of multi-modality comparisons. Methods: For nine subjects, T2 fast-spin-echo images were acquired at two different time points, the first several weeks prior to planning (diagnostic-MRI) and the second on the same day as the planning-CT (planning-MRI). Significant effort in patient positioning and bowel/bladder preparation was undertaken to minimize distortion of the prostate in all datasets. The diagnostic-MRI was rigidly and deformably aligned to the planning-CT utilizing a commercially available deformable registration algorithm synthesized from local registrations. Additionally, the quality of rigid alignment was ranked by an imaging physicist. The distances between corresponding anatomical landmarks on rigid and deformed registrations (diagnostic-MR to planning-CT) were evaluated. Results: It was discovered that in cases where the rigid registration was of acceptable quality the deformable registration didn’t improve the alignment, this was true of all metrics employed. If the analysis is separated into cases where the rigid alignment was ranked as unacceptable the deformable registration significantly improved the alignment, 4.62mm residual error in landmarks as compared to 5.72mm residual error in rigid alignments with a p-value of 0.0008. Conclusion: This paradigm provides an ideal testing ground for MR to CT deformable registration algorithms by allowing for inter-modality comparisons of multi-modality registrations. Consistent positioning, bowel and bladder preparation may Result in higher quality rigid

  14. Clusterization and quadrupole deformation in nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Cseh, J.; Algora, A.; Antonenko, N. V.; Jolos, R. V.; Scheid, W.; Darai, J.; Hess, P. O.

    2006-04-26

    We study the interrelation of the clusterization and quadrupole deformation of atomic nuclei, by applying cluster models. Both the energetic stability and the exclusion principle is investigated. Special attention is paid to the relative orientations of deformed clusters.

  15. Application of Quaternions for Mesh Deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2002-01-01

    A new three-dimensional mesh deformation algorithm, based on quaternion algebra, is introduced. A brief overview of quaternion algebra is provided, along with some preliminary results for two-dimensional structured and unstructured viscous mesh deformation.

  16. Acquired pulmonary arteriovenous malformation secondary to hydatid cyst operation.

    PubMed

    Gezer, S; Turut, H; Oz, G; Demirag, F; Tastepe, I

    2007-10-01

    Pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are abnormal communications between pulmonary arteries and pulmonary veins. The majority of the cases are congenital in origin, and acquired pulmonary arteriovenous malformations are very rare. We present a case here, which - to the best of our knowledge - is the first acquired pulmonary arteriovenous malformation secondary to a hydatid cyst operation in the literature, and we discuss the etiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic modalities and treatment of acquired pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. PMID:17902072

  17. Kirner's deformity: a case report and review.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, C. E.; Engber, W.

    1996-01-01

    Kirner's deformity is an uncommon "characteristic" palmo-radial curvature of the distal phalanx of the little finger. Splinting may be beneficial for pain relief and, if used early, may retard progression of the deformity. Disability is usually minimal and treatment to correct the deformity may be delayed to prevent recurrence. Images Figure 1A Figure 1B Figure 1C PMID:9129292

  18. New regions of nuclear deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Lister, C.J.; Gelletly, W.; Varley, B.J.; Price, H.G.; Olness, J.W.

    1983-01-01

    It has long been expected from general theoretical considerations that nuclei with Z and N far removed from major shell closures should exhibit considerable collectivity and maybe deformed in their groundstates. A number of calculations have recently attempted to quantify these expectations through detailed predictions of nuclear shapes across the periodic table. In this contribution we review predictions and experimental data for the regions with Z,N = (40,40), (40,64) and (64,64) which are all off the valley of stability. Emphasis is placed on the experimental techniques and data obtained from the first of these regions where the prediction of extremely large prolate deformation has been experimentally verified.

  19. Thermal deformation of helical gears

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Fei, Ye-tai; Liu, Shan-lin

    2010-08-01

    The analytical equation for the thermal field of a helical gear under normal working condition in a stable thermal field is established using mathematical physics, and the thermal deformation of the gear can be computed using this equation. The variations of gear geometric parameters, such as radial dimension, tooth depth, spiral angle, pressure angle, flank clearance and etc., are investigated with respect to the temperature change. According to the analytical and computational results obtained using the equation, the thermal deformation of the gear is strongly dependent on the choice of parameters, which is also confirmed using simulation software (COMSOL Multiphysic software). This is significant for the improvement of the rotation precision and working efficiency of screw gears.

  20. Performance through Deformation and Instability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertoldi, Katia

    2015-03-01

    Materials capable of undergoing large deformations like elastomers and gels are ubiquitous in daily life and nature. An exciting field of engineering is emerging that uses these compliant materials to design active devices, such as actuators, adaptive optical systems and self-regulating fluidics. Compliant structures may significantly change their architecture in response to diverse stimuli. When excessive deformation is applied, they may eventually become unstable. Traditionally, mechanical instabilities have been viewed as an inconvenience, with research focusing on how to avoid them. Here, I will demonstrate that these instabilities can be exploited to design materials with novel, switchable functionalities. The abrupt changes introduced into the architecture of soft materials by instabilities will be used to change their shape in a sudden, but controlled manner. Possible and exciting applications include materials with unusual properties such negative Poisson's ratio, phononic crystals with tunable low-frequency acoustic band gaps and reversible encapsulation systems.

  1. Variational approach and deformed derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weberszpil, J.; Helayël-Neto, J. A.

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we have demonstrated that there exists a possible relationship between q-deformed algebras in two different contexts of Statistical Mechanics, namely, the Tsallis' framework and the Kaniadakis' scenario, with a local form of fractional-derivative operators for fractal media, the so-called Hausdorff derivatives, mapped into a continuous medium with a fractal measure. Here, in this paper, we present an extension of the traditional calculus of variations for systems containing deformed-derivatives embedded into the Lagrangian and the Lagrangian densities for classical and field systems. The results extend the classical Euler-Lagrange equations and the Hamiltonian formalism. The resulting dynamical equations seem to be compatible with those found in the literature, specially with mass-dependent and with nonlinear equations for systems in classical and quantum mechanics. Examples are presented to illustrate applications of the formulation. Also, the conserved ​Noether current is worked out.

  2. Large Scale Nanolaminate Deformable Mirror

    SciTech Connect

    Papavasiliou, A; Olivier, S; Barbee, T; Miles, R; Chang, K

    2005-11-30

    This work concerns the development of a technology that uses Nanolaminate foils to form light-weight, deformable mirrors that are scalable over a wide range of mirror sizes. While MEMS-based deformable mirrors and spatial light modulators have considerably reduced the cost and increased the capabilities of adaptive optic systems, there has not been a way to utilize the advantages of lithography and batch-fabrication to produce large-scale deformable mirrors. This technology is made scalable by using fabrication techniques and lithography that are not limited to the sizes of conventional MEMS devices. Like many MEMS devices, these mirrors use parallel plate electrostatic actuators. This technology replicates that functionality by suspending a horizontal piece of nanolaminate foil over an electrode by electroplated nickel posts. This actuator is attached, with another post, to another nanolaminate foil that acts as the mirror surface. Most MEMS devices are produced with integrated circuit lithography techniques that are capable of very small line widths, but are not scalable to large sizes. This technology is very tolerant of lithography errors and can use coarser, printed circuit board lithography techniques that can be scaled to very large sizes. These mirrors use small, lithographically defined actuators and thin nanolaminate foils allowing them to produce deformations over a large area while minimizing weight. This paper will describe a staged program to develop this technology. First-principles models were developed to determine design parameters. Three stages of fabrication will be described starting with a 3 x 3 device using conventional metal foils and epoxy to a 10-across all-metal device with nanolaminate mirror surfaces.

  3. Deformation processes in forging ceramics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, R. M.; Rhodes, W. H.

    1972-01-01

    The deformation processes involved in the forging of refractory ceramic oxides were investigated. A combination of mechanical testing and forging are utilized to investigate both the flow and fracture processes involved. An additional hemisphere forging was done which failed prematurely. Analysis and comparison with available fracture data for AL2O3 indicated possible causes of the failure. Examination of previous forgings indicated an increase in grain boundary cavitation with increasing strain.

  4. Shape memory composite deformable mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riva, M.; Bettini, P.; Di Landro, L.; Sala, G.

    2009-03-01

    This paper deals with some of the critical aspects regarding Shape Memory Composite (SMC) design: firstly some technological aspects concerning embedding technique and their efficiency secondarily the lack of useful numerical tools for this peculiar design. It has been taken into account as a possible application a deformable panel which is devoted to act as a substrate for a deformable mirror. The activity has been mainly focused to the study of embedding technologies, activation and authority. In detail it will be presented the "how to" manufacturing of some smart panels with embedded NiTiNol wires in order to show the technology developed for SMC structures. The first part of the work compares non conventional pull-out tests on wires embedded in composites laminates (real condition of application), with standard pull-out in pure epoxy resin blocks. Considering the numerical approach some different modeling techniques to be implemented in commercial codes (ABAQUS) have been investigated. The Turner's thermo-mechanical model has been adopted for the modeling of the benchmark: A spherical panel devoted to work as an active substrate for a Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP) deformable mirror has been considered as a significant technological demonstrator and possible future application (f=240mm, r.o.c.=1996mm).

  5. Deformational injection rate measuring method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marčič, Milan

    2002-09-01

    After completing the diesel engine endurance testing, we detected various traces of thermal load on the walls of combustion chambers located in the engine pistons. The engines were fitted with ω combustion chambers. The thermal load of different intensity levels occurred where the spray of fuel, fuel vapor, and air interacted with the combustion chamber wall. The uneven thermal load distribution of the combustion chamber wall results from varying injection rates in each injection nozzle hole. The most widely applied controlling methods so far for injection rate measurement, such as the Zeuch and Bosch concepts, allow measurement of only the total injection rate in multihole nozzles, without providing any indication whatsoever of the injection rate differences in individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the article allows the injection rate to be measured in each hole of the multihole nozzle. The results of the measurements using this method showed that the differences occurred in injection rates of individual injection nozzle holes. These differences may be the cause of various thermal loads on the combustion chamber walls. The criterion for injection rate is the deformation of the membrane due to an increase in the fuel quantity in the measuring space and due to the pressure waves resulting from the fuel being injected into the measuring space. The membrane deformation is measured using strain gauges, glued to the membrane and forming the Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the temperature compensation of the Wheatstone's bridge and the membrane, heated up during the measurements.

  6. Elastic deformations of bolalipid membranes.

    PubMed

    Galimzyanov, Timur R; Kuzmin, Peter I; Pohl, Peter; Akimov, Sergey A

    2016-02-17

    Archaeal membranes have unique mechanical properties that enable these organisms to survive under extremely aggressive environmental conditions. The so-called bolalipids contribute to this exceptional stability. They have two polar heads joined by two hydrocarbon chains. The two headgroups can face different sides of the membrane (O-shape conformation) or the same side (U-shape conformation). We have developed an elasticity theory for bolalipid membranes and show that the energetic contributions of (i) tilt deformations, (ii) area compression/stretching deformations, (iii) as well as those of Gaussian splay from the two membrane surfaces are additive, while splay deformations yield a cross-term. The presence of a small fraction of U-shaped molecules resulted in spontaneous membrane curvature. We estimated the tilt modulus to be approximately equal to that of membranes in eukaryotic cells. In contrast to conventional lipids, the bolalipid membrane possesses two splay moduli, one of which is estimated to be an order of magnitude larger than that of conventional lipids. The projected values of elastic moduli act to hamper pore formation and to decelerate membrane fusion and fission. PMID:26791255

  7. What is red cell deformability?

    PubMed

    Schmid-Schönbein, H; Gaehtgens, P

    1981-01-01

    Microscopic flow visualization of the process of red cell adaptation to flow shows that red cell deformation in flow is the consequence of a continuous viscous rather than an elastic deformation. This fluid drop-like adaptation primarily depends on: (a) the fluidity of the cytoplasm and (b) the favourable surface-area-to-volume ratio, with an excess of surface area allowing strong deformations without an increase in surface area (a real strain). (c) In contrast to previous notions, the modulus of shear elasticity of the membrane is probably less significant. After many attempts to differentiate the contribution of bending and shear stiffness to the elastic recovery of the normal biconcave cell shape have not produced equivocal results, we have changed the elastic shear modulus experimentally by cross-linking the spectrin using the membrane-permeant, bifunctional SH-reagent DIAMIDE, which allows to increase the elastic shear modulus in a dose-dependent manner. Despite a 25-fold decrease in compliance the DIAMIDE-treated cells have normal shape and show remarkably small changes in the rheological behaviour when tested in vitro and in vivo. PMID:6948373

  8. Shapeable sheet without plastic deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oppenheimer, Naomi; Witten, Thomas A.

    2015-11-01

    Randomly crumpled sheets have shape memory. In order to understand the basis of this form of memory, we simulate triangular lattices of springs whose lengths are altered to create a topography with multiple potential energy minima. We then deform these lattices into different shapes and investigate their ability to retain the imposed shape when the energy is relaxed. The lattices are able to retain a range of curvatures. Under moderate forcing from a state of local equilibrium, the lattices deform by several percent but return to their retained shape when the forces are removed. By increasing the forcing until an irreversible motion occurs, we find that the transitions between remembered shapes show cooperativity among several springs. For fixed lattice structures, the shape memory tends to decrease as the lattice is enlarged; we propose ways to counter this decrease by modifying the lattice geometry. We survey the energy landscape by displacing individual nodes. An extensive fraction of these nodes proves to be bistable; they retain their displaced position when the energy is relaxed. Bending the lattice to a stable curved state alters the pattern of bistable nodes. We discuss this shapeability in the context of other forms of material memory and contrast it with the shapeability of plastic deformation. We outline the prospects for making real materials based on these principles.

  9. Development of patient-specific biomechanical models for predicting large breast deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Lianghao; Hipwell, John H.; Tanner, Christine; Taylor, Zeike; Mertzanidou, Thomy; Cardoso, Jorge; Ourselin, Sebastien; Hawkes, David J.

    2012-01-01

    Physically realistic simulations for large breast deformation are of great interest for many medical applications such as cancer diagnosis, image registration, surgical planning and image-guided surgery. To support fast, large deformation simulations of breasts in clinical settings, we proposed a patient-specific biomechanical modelling framework for breasts, based on an open-source graphics processing unit-based, explicit, dynamic, nonlinear finite element (FE) solver. A semi-automatic segmentation method for tissue classification, integrated with a fully automated FE mesh generation approach, was implemented for quick patient-specific FE model generation. To solve the difficulty in determining material parameters of soft tissues in vivo for FE simulations, a novel method for breast modelling, with a simultaneous material model parameter optimization for soft tissues in vivo, was also proposed. The optimized deformation prediction was obtained through iteratively updating material model parameters to maximize the image similarity between the FE-predicted MR image and the experimentally acquired MR image of a breast. The proposed method was validated and tested by simulating and analysing breast deformation experiments under plate compression. Its prediction accuracy was evaluated by calculating landmark displacement errors. The results showed that both the heterogeneity and the anisotropy of soft tissues were essential in predicting large breast deformations under plate compression. As a generalized method, the proposed process can be used for fast deformation analyses of soft tissues in medical image analyses and surgical simulations.

  10. Development of patient-specific biomechanical models for predicting large breast deformation.

    PubMed

    Han, Lianghao; Hipwell, John H; Tanner, Christine; Taylor, Zeike; Mertzanidou, Thomy; Cardoso, Jorge; Ourselin, Sebastien; Hawkes, David J

    2012-01-21

    Physically realistic simulations for large breast deformation are of great interest for many medical applications such as cancer diagnosis, image registration, surgical planning and image-guided surgery. To support fast, large deformation simulations of breasts in clinical settings, we proposed a patient-specific biomechanical modelling framework for breasts, based on an open-source graphics processing unit-based, explicit, dynamic, nonlinear finite element (FE) solver. A semi-automatic segmentation method for tissue classification, integrated with a fully automated FE mesh generation approach, was implemented for quick patient-specific FE model generation. To solve the difficulty in determining material parameters of soft tissues in vivo for FE simulations, a novel method for breast modelling, with a simultaneous material model parameter optimization for soft tissues in vivo, was also proposed. The optimized deformation prediction was obtained through iteratively updating material model parameters to maximize the image similarity between the FE-predicted MR image and the experimentally acquired MR image of a breast. The proposed method was validated and tested by simulating and analysing breast deformation experiments under plate compression. Its prediction accuracy was evaluated by calculating landmark displacement errors. The results showed that both the heterogeneity and the anisotropy of soft tissues were essential in predicting large breast deformations under plate compression. As a generalized method, the proposed process can be used for fast deformation analyses of soft tissues in medical image analyses and surgical simulations. PMID:22173131

  11. Automated registration of large deformations for adaptive radiation therapy of prostate cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Godley, Andrew; Ahunbay, Ergun; Peng Cheng; Li, X. Allen

    2009-04-15

    Available deformable registration methods are often inaccurate over large organ variation encountered, for example, in the rectum and bladder. The authors developed a novel approach to accurately and effectively register large deformations in the prostate region for adaptive radiation therapy. A software tool combining a fast symmetric demons algorithm and the use of masks was developed in C++ based on ITK libraries to register CT images acquired at planning and before treatment fractions. The deformation field determined was subsequently used to deform the delivered dose to match the anatomy of the planning CT. The large deformations involved required that the bladder and rectum volume be masked with uniform intensities of -1000 and 1000 HU, respectively, in both the planning and treatment CTs. The tool was tested for five prostate IGRT patients. The average rectum planning to treatment contour overlap improved from 67% to 93%, the lowest initial overlap is 43%. The average bladder overlap improved from 83% to 98%, with a lowest initial overlap of 60%. Registration regions were set to include a volume receiving 4% of the maximum dose. The average region was 320x210x63, taking approximately 9 min to register on a dual 2.8 GHz Linux system. The prostate and seminal vesicles were correctly placed even though they are not masked. The accumulated doses for multiple fractions with large deformation were computed and verified. The tool developed can effectively supply the previously delivered dose for adaptive planning to correct for interfractional changes.

  12. The ANACONDA algorithm for deformable image registration in radiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Weistrand, Ola; Svensson, Stina

    2015-01-15

    Purpose: The purpose of this work was to describe a versatile algorithm for deformable image registration with applications in radiotherapy and to validate it on thoracic 4DCT data as well as CT/cone beam CT (CBCT) data. Methods: ANAtomically CONstrained Deformation Algorithm (ANACONDA) combines image information (i.e., intensities) with anatomical information as provided by contoured image sets. The registration problem is formulated as a nonlinear optimization problem and solved with an in-house developed solver, tailored to this problem. The objective function, which is minimized during optimization, is a linear combination of four nonlinear terms: 1. image similarity term; 2. grid regularization term, which aims at keeping the deformed image grid smooth and invertible; 3. a shape based regularization term which works to keep the deformation anatomically reasonable when regions of interest are present in the reference image; and 4. a penalty term which is added to the optimization problem when controlling structures are used, aimed at deforming the selected structure in the reference image to the corresponding structure in the target image. Results: To validate ANACONDA, the authors have used 16 publically available thoracic 4DCT data sets for which target registration errors from several algorithms have been reported in the literature. On average for the 16 data sets, the target registration error is 1.17 ± 0.87 mm, Dice similarity coefficient is 0.98 for the two lungs, and image similarity, measured by the correlation coefficient, is 0.95. The authors have also validated ANACONDA using two pelvic cases and one head and neck case with planning CT and daily acquired CBCT. Each image has been contoured by a physician (radiation oncologist) or experienced radiation therapist. The results are an improvement with respect to rigid registration. However, for the head and neck case, the sample set is too small to show statistical significance. Conclusions: ANACONDA

  13. Stochastic deformation of a thermodynamic symplectic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazinski, P. O.

    2009-01-01

    A stochastic deformation of a thermodynamic symplectic structure is studied. The stochastic deformation is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables such as deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). Gauge symmetries of thermodynamics and corresponding stochastic mechanics, which describes fluctuations of a thermodynamic system, are revealed and gauge fields are introduced. A physical interpretation to the gauge transformations and gauge fields is given. An application of the formalism to a description of systems with distributed parameters in a local thermodynamic equilibrium is considered.

  14. Stochastic deformation of a thermodynamic symplectic structure.

    PubMed

    Kazinski, P O

    2009-01-01

    A stochastic deformation of a thermodynamic symplectic structure is studied. The stochastic deformation is analogous to the deformation of an algebra of observables such as deformation quantization, but for an imaginary deformation parameter (the Planck constant). Gauge symmetries of thermodynamics and corresponding stochastic mechanics, which describes fluctuations of a thermodynamic system, are revealed and gauge fields are introduced. A physical interpretation to the gauge transformations and gauge fields is given. An application of the formalism to a description of systems with distributed parameters in a local thermodynamic equilibrium is considered. PMID:19256999

  15. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Authority to acquire real estate..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate; General § 211.2 Authority to acquire real estate. (a) Congressional...

  16. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Authority to acquire real estate..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate; General § 211.2 Authority to acquire real estate. (a) Congressional...

  17. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authority to acquire real estate..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE REAL ESTATE ACTIVITIES OF THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS IN CONNECTION WITH CIVIL WORKS PROJECTS Real Estate; General § 211.2 Authority to acquire real estate. (a) Congressional...

  18. 10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acquiring oil by direct purchase. 626.6 Section 626.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (CONTINUED) SALES REGULATION PROCEDURES FOR ACQUISITION OF PETROLEUM FOR THE STRATEGIC PETROLEUM RESERVE § 626.6 Acquiring oil by direct purchase. (a) General. For the direct purchase of crude oil, DOE shall, through...

  19. 27 CFR 6.45 - Assistance in acquiring license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Assistance in acquiring license. 6.45 Section 6.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Furnishing Things of Value § 6.45 Assistance in acquiring license....

  20. 27 CFR 6.45 - Assistance in acquiring license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Assistance in acquiring license. 6.45 Section 6.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Furnishing Things of Value § 6.45 Assistance in acquiring license....

  1. 27 CFR 6.45 - Assistance in acquiring license.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Assistance in acquiring license. 6.45 Section 6.45 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL âTIED-HOUSEâ Unlawful Inducements Furnishing Things of Value § 6.45 Assistance in acquiring license....

  2. Free Reading: A Powerful Tool for Acquiring a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Priya, J.; Ponniah, R. Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The paper claims that free reading is a crucial ingredient in acquiring a second or foreign language. It contributes to the development of all measures of language competence which include grammar, vocabulary, spelling, syntax, fluency and style. The review supports the claim that readers acquire language subconsciously when they receive…

  3. 34 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.4 Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should be assigned to...

  4. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Articles acquired abroad. 148.33 Section 148.33... Articles acquired abroad. (a) Exemption. Each returning resident is entitled to bring in free of duty and..., Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202), articles for his personal or household...

  5. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Articles acquired abroad. 148.33 Section 148.33... Articles acquired abroad. (a) Exemption. Each returning resident is entitled to bring in free of duty and..., Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202), articles for his personal or household...

  6. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Articles acquired abroad. 148.33 Section 148.33... Articles acquired abroad. (a) Exemption. Each returning resident is entitled to bring in free of duty and..., Harmonized Tariff Schedule of the United States (19 U.S.C. 1202), articles for his personal or household...

  7. 26 CFR 1.9002-6 - Acquiring corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Acquiring corporation. 1.9002-6 Section 1.9002-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-6 Acquiring corporation. Section 5(d) of...

  8. 26 CFR 1.9002-6 - Acquiring corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Acquiring corporation. 1.9002-6 Section 1.9002-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-6 Acquiring corporation. Section...

  9. 26 CFR 1.9002-6 - Acquiring corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Acquiring corporation. 1.9002-6 Section 1.9002-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-6 Acquiring corporation. Section...

  10. 26 CFR 1.9002-6 - Acquiring corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Acquiring corporation. 1.9002-6 Section 1.9002-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-6 Acquiring corporation. Section...

  11. 26 CFR 1.9002-6 - Acquiring corporation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 13 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Acquiring corporation. 1.9002-6 Section 1.9002-6 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) General Actuarial Valuations § 1.9002-6 Acquiring corporation. Section...

  12. 45 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services GENERAL ADMINISTRATION EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.4 Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should...

  13. 34 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Education Office of the Secretary, Department of Education EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.4 Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should be assigned to...

  14. Acquiring Knowledge of Derived Nominals and Derived Adjectives in Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinellie, Sally A.; Kneile, Lynn A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This research investigated children's ability to acquire semantic and syntactic knowledge of derived nominals and derived adjectives in the context of short passages. The study also investigated the relation of morphological awareness and the ability to acquire knowledge of derived words in context. Method: A total of 106 children in…

  15. 43 CFR 3471.4 - Future interest, acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Future interest, acquired lands. 3471.4... Coal Management Provisions and Limitations § 3471.4 Future interest, acquired lands. An application to lease lands in which the United States has a future interest filed more than 2 years prior to the...

  16. 43 CFR 3471.4 - Future interest, acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Future interest, acquired lands. 3471.4... Coal Management Provisions and Limitations § 3471.4 Future interest, acquired lands. An application to lease lands in which the United States has a future interest filed more than 2 years prior to the...

  17. 43 CFR 3471.4 - Future interest, acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Future interest, acquired lands. 3471.4... Coal Management Provisions and Limitations § 3471.4 Future interest, acquired lands. An application to lease lands in which the United States has a future interest filed more than 2 years prior to the...

  18. 43 CFR 3471.4 - Future interest, acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Future interest, acquired lands. 3471.4... Coal Management Provisions and Limitations § 3471.4 Future interest, acquired lands. An application to lease lands in which the United States has a future interest filed more than 2 years prior to the...

  19. 45 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.4 Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should be assigned to the Government, it...

  20. 45 CFR 7.4 - Option to acquire foreign rights.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Option to acquire foreign rights. 7.4 Section 7.4 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL ADMINISTRATION EMPLOYEE INVENTIONS § 7.4 Option to acquire foreign rights. In any case where it is determined that all domestic rights should be assigned to the Government, it...

  1. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... States the cigarette limit is 1,000, not more than 200 of which shall have been acquired elsewhere than... beneficiary countries. (e) Exemption not applicable. The exemption does not apply to articles intended for sale or acquired on commission, i.e., for the account of another person, with or without...

  2. 19 CFR 148.33 - Articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... States the cigarette limit is 1,000, not more than 200 of which shall have been acquired elsewhere than... beneficiary countries. (e) Exemption not applicable. The exemption does not apply to articles intended for sale or acquired on commission, i.e., for the account of another person, with or without...

  3. 33 CFR 211.27 - Method of acquiring Federal jurisdiction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Method of acquiring Federal jurisdiction. 211.27 Section 211.27 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY... PROJECTS Federal Jurisdiction over Real Estate § 211.27 Method of acquiring Federal...

  4. 26 CFR 1.471-9 - Inventories of acquiring corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of acquiring corporations. 1.471-9 Section 1.471-9 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.471-9 Inventories of acquiring corporations....

  5. 26 CFR 1.472-7 - Inventories of acquiring corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Inventories of acquiring corporations. 1.472-7 Section 1.472-7 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES Inventories § 1.472-7 Inventories of acquiring corporations....

  6. SU-E-J-186: Acquiring and Assessing Upright CBCT Images for Future Treatment Planning

    SciTech Connect

    Fave, X; Yang, J; Balter, P; Court, L

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To acquire upright CBCT images using the onboard imager of a Varian TrueBeam. An easy to implement upright imaging protocol could allow for widespread upright radiation therapy which would greatly benefit certain patients. These include thoracic cancer patients (because lung volume increases in a seated position) and patients who experience substantial discomfort during supine treatment. Methods: To acquire upright CBCT images, the gantry head remained stationary at 0 degrees with the KV imager arms extended to their lateral positions. Phantoms were placed upright at the end of the treatment couch. During a scan, the couch rotated from 270 to 90 degrees while continuous fluoroscopic projections were taken by the onboard imager. To extend the field-of-view, this sequence was performed twice: once with the KV detector longitudinally offset +14.5cm and once with it longitudinally offset −14.5cm. The resulting two image sets were stitched together before reconstruction. The imaging beam parameters were chosen to deliver a dose similar to that given during a simulation CT. Image quality was evaluated for spatial linearity, high and low contrast resolution, and HU linearity using CatPhan and anthropomorphic phantoms. A deformable registration technique was used to evaluate HU mapping from a simulation CT. Results: Spatial linearity and high contrast resolution were maintained in upright CBCT when compared to simulation CT. However, low contrast resolution and HU linearity degraded. Streak artifacts were caused by the limited 180 degree arc of the couch, and the stitching process created a sharp artifact at the center of the reconstruction. The deformable registration was robust in the HU mapping even with these artifacts and the loss of HU linearity. Conclusions: The image quality obtained from upright CBCT was sufficient for treatment planning. The success of this novel technique is an important step towards a future clinical protocol. This project was funded

  7. Long-range ground deformation monitoring by InSAR analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rokugawa, S.; Nakamura, T.

    2015-11-01

    InSAR (Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar) analysis is an effective technique to map 3-dimensional surface deformation with high spatial resolution. The aim of this study was to evaluate the capability of InSAR analysis when applied to ground monitoring of an environmental disaster. We performed a time series InSAR analysis using ENVISAT/ASAR and ALOS/PALSAR data and commercial software to investigate subsidence around the Kanto District of Japan. We also investigated techniques for efficient early detection of landslides in Kyushu using time series analysis that incorporated synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. ENVISAT/ASAR data acquired from 2003-2010 and ALOS/PALSAR data acquired from 2006-2011 were used to detect poorly expressed geomorphological deformation by conducting time series analyses of periodically acquired SAR data. In addition, to remove noise caused by geographical feature stripes or phase retardation, we applied median filtering, histogram extraction processing, and clarification of the displacement with a Laplacian filter. The main functions of the InSAR time series analysis are the calculation of phase differences between two images and the inversion with smoothness constraint for the estimation of deformation along the line of sight. The results enabled us to establish criteria for the selection of suitable InSAR data pairs, and provided the final error estimation of the derived surface deformation. The results of the analysis in the Kanto District suggested that localized areas of uplift and subsidence have occurred at irregular intervals in this area. Furthermore, the method offers the possibility of early warning of environmental disasters such as landslide and abrupt subsidence. Our results confirm the effectiveness of InSAR analysis for the monitoring of ground deformation over wide areas via the detection of localized subsidence and landslides.

  8. Deformable medical image registration of pleural cavity for photodynamic therapy by using finite-element based method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Penjweini, Rozhin; Kim, Michele M.; Dimofte, Andrea; Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2016-03-01

    When the pleural cavity is opened during the surgery portion of pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant mesothelioma, the pleural volume will deform. This impacts the delivered dose when using highly conformal treatment techniques. To track the anatomical changes and contour the lung and chest cavity, an infrared camera-based navigation system (NDI) is used during PDT. In the same patient, a series of computed tomography (CT) scans of the lungs are also acquired before the surgery. The reconstructed three-dimensional contours from both NDI and CTs are imported into COMSOL Multiphysics software, where a finite element-based (FEM) deformable image registration is obtained. The CT contour is registered to the corresponding NDI contour by overlapping the center of masses and aligning their orientations. The NDI contour is considered as the reference contour, and the CT contour is used as the target one, which will be deformed. Deformed Geometry model is applied in COMSOL to obtain a deformed target contour. The distortion of the volume at X, Y and Z is mapped to illustrate the transformation of the target contour. The initial assessment shows that FEM-based image deformable registration can fuse images acquired by different modalities. It provides insights into the deformation of anatomical structures along X, Y and Z-axes. The deformed contour has good matches to the reference contour after the dynamic matching process. The resulting three-dimensional deformation map can be used to obtain the locations of other critical anatomic structures, e.g., heart, during surgery.

  9. Deformable medical image registration of pleural cavity for photodynamic therapy by using finite-element based method

    PubMed Central

    Penjweini, Rozhin; Kim, Michele M.; Dimofte, Andrea; Finlay, Jarod C; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    When the pleural cavity is opened during the surgery portion of pleural photodynamic therapy (PDT) of malignant mesothelioma, the pleural volume will deform. This impacts the delivered dose when using highly conformal treatment techniques. To track the anatomical changes and contour the lung and chest cavity, an infrared camera–based navigation system (NDI) is used during PDT. In the same patient, a series of computed tomography (CT) scans of the lungs are also acquired before the surgery. The reconstructed three-dimensional contours from both NDI and CTs are imported into COMSOL Multiphysics software, where a finite element-based (FEM) deformable image registration is obtained. The CT contour is registered to the corresponding NDI contour by overlapping the center of masses and aligning their orientations. The NDI contour is considered as the reference contour, and the CT contour is used as the target one, which will be deformed. Deformed Geometry model is applied in COMSOL to obtain a deformed target contour. The distortion of the volume at X, Y and Z is mapped to illustrate the transformation of the target contour. The initial assessment shows that FEM-based image deformable registration can fuse images acquired by different modalities. It provides insights into the deformation of anatomical structures along X, Y and Z-axes. The deformed contour has good matches to the reference contour after the dynamic matching process. The resulting three-dimensional deformation map can be used to obtain the locations of other critical anatomic structures, e.g., heart, during surgery. PMID:27053826

  10. Mesh deformation based on artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stadler, Domen; Kosel, Franc; Čelič, Damjan; Lipej, Andrej

    2011-09-01

    In the article a new mesh deformation algorithm based on artificial neural networks is introduced. This method is a point-to-point method, meaning that it does not use connectivity information for calculation of the mesh deformation. Two already known point-to-point methods, based on interpolation techniques, are also presented. In contrast to the two known interpolation methods, the new method does not require a summation over all boundary nodes for one displacement calculation. The consequence of this fact is a shorter computational time of mesh deformation, which is proven by different deformation tests. The quality of the deformed meshes with all three deformation methods was also compared. Finally, the generated and the deformed three-dimensional meshes were used in the computational fluid dynamics numerical analysis of a Francis water turbine. A comparison of the analysis results was made to prove the applicability of the new method in every day computation.

  11. SBAS-InSAR analysis of surface deformation at Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes in Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Casu, F.; Lanari, Riccardo; Sansosti, E.; Solaro, G.; Tizzani, Pietro; Poland, M.; Miklius, Asta

    2009-01-01

    We investigate the deformation of Mauna Loa and K??lauea volcanoes, Hawai'i, by exploiting the advanced differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (InSAR) technique referred to as the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) algorithm. In particular, we present time series of line-of-sight (LOS) displacements derived from SAR data acquired by the ASAR instrument, on board the ENVISAT satellite, from the ascending (track 93) and descending (track 429) orbits between 2003 and 2008. For each coherent pixel of the radar images we compute time-dependent surface displacements as well as the average LOS deformation rate. Our results quantify, in space and time, the complex deformation of Mauna Loa and K??lauea volcanoes. The derived InSAR measurements are compared to continuous GPS data to asses the quality of the SBAS-InSAR products. ??2009 IEEE.

  12. Towards the Integration of SAR Tomography and PSI for Improved Deformation Assessment in Urban Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Siddique, Muhammad Adnan; Hajnsek, Irena; Wegmuller, Urs; Frey, Othmar

    2015-05-01

    Persistent scatterer interferometry (PSI) typically rejects the range-azimuth pixels containing multiple scatterers, such as in a layover scenario. Since layovers occur frequently in urban areas, a significant number of candidates may get rejected. SAR tomography allows for resolving layover and has thus the potential to extend the spatial sampling of deformation measurements to layover affected areas. Using extended phase models, also taking into account temperature, an improved simultaneous estimation of elevation, deformation velocity, and temperature-induced scatterer displacement is possible. This paper explores the combined use of PSI and SAR tomography for deformation analysis in urban areas, using a multi-baseline and multi-temporal interferometric stack of stripmap TerraSAR-X images acquired over the city of Barcelona.

  13. A microfabricated deformability-based flow cytometer with application to malaria

    PubMed Central

    Bow, Hansen; Pivkin, Igor; Diez-Silva, Monica; Goldfless, Stephen J.; Dao, Ming; Niles, Jacquin C.; Suresh, Subra; Han, Jongyoon

    2012-01-01

    Malaria resulting from Plasmodium falciparum infection is a major cause of human suffering and mortality. Red blood cell (RBC) deformability plays a major role in the pathogenesis of malaria. Here we introduce an automated microfabricated “deformability cytometer” that measures dynamic mechanical responses of 103–104 individual RBCs in a cell population. Fluorescence measurements of each RBC are simultaneously acquired, resulting in a population-based correlation between biochemical properties, such as cell surface markers and dynamic mechanical deformability. This device is especially applicable to heterogeneous cell populations. We demonstrate its ability to mechanically characterize a small number of P. falciparum-infected (ring stage) RBCs in a large population of uninfected RBCs. Furthermore, we are able to infer quantitative mechanical properties of individual RBCs from the observed dynamic behavior through a dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model. These methods collectively provide a systematic approach to characterize the biomechanical properties of cells in a high-throughput manner. PMID:21293801

  14. Does deformation saturate seismic anisotropy?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatham, D. J.; Lloyd, G. E.; Butler, R. W.; Casey, M.

    2006-12-01

    The progressive simple shear deformation that characterizes ductile fault zones in the crust involves both rotation and intensification of the strain ellipsoid. These mathematic predictions have been confirmed repeatedly by finite strain determinations in outcrop studies of natural shear zones and used to test geodynamic models of mountain belts. Seismic anisotropy (SA) methods offer the opportunity to pursue these approaches in situ. First however, we must calibrate the magnitude and orientation of the SA ellipsoid against naturally deformed tectonites of known strain state and microstructure. Here we present data from a field analogue of mafic ductile crust in an amphibolite-facies shear zone developed in a deformed mafic dyke embedded within the Lewisian Gneiss (Badcall, NW Scotland). Deflection of pre-existing linear and planar elements and attenuation of the dyke into the shear zone are used to determine the strain gradient. Specimens collected along this gradient were used to establish the geometric fabric intensity defined by different minerals (hornblende grain alignment and ellipticity of plagioclase clots). Finally, petrophysical properties were calculated for the specimens using the SEM-EBSD measured populations of lattice preferred orientations (LPO) for all mineral phases. It is the hornblende-plagioclase LPO, combined in their modal proportions and modulated by the individual mineral single crystal elastic properties, which define the SA profile across the shear zone. Hornblende develops a strong preferred dimensional orientation and hence LPO at shear strains of about 2, whereas the plagioclase LPO remains close to random regardless of bulk strain. The modelled SA of the samples is dominated therefore by the amphibole LPO. Although the values of bulk shear strain vary across the shear zone (0 at the margins to greater than 12 in the centre), the calculated intensity of SA saturates at a shear strain of about 2. These results, if typical of large

  15. Rethinking responsibility in offenders with acquired paedophilia: punishment or treatment?

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Frédéric; Focquaert, Farah

    2015-01-01

    This article reviews the current neurobiological literature on the aetiology of developmental and acquired paedophilia and examines what the consequences could be in terms of responsibility and treatment for the latter. Addressing the question of responsibility and punishment of offenders with acquired paedophilia from a neurobiological perspective is controversial. Consequently it is essential to avoid hasty conclusions based strictly on neurobiological abnormality justifications. This study establishes a distinction between developmental and acquired paedophilia. The article investigates whether offenders who fulfil the diagnosis of acquired paedophilia should be held fully responsible, particularly in cases where the offender's conduct appears to result from volitionally controlled behaviour that is seemingly incompatible with a neurological cause. Moreover, the article explores how responsibility can be compromised when offenders with acquired paedophilia have (partially) preserved moral knowledge despite their sexual disorder. The article then examines the option of offering mandatory treatment as an alternative to imprisonment for offenders with acquired paedophilia. Furthermore, the article addresses the ethical issues related to offering any form of quasi-coercive treatment as a condition of release. This study concludes that decisions to fully or partially excuse an individual who fulfil the diagnosis of acquired paedophilia should take all relevant information into account, both neurobiological and other environmental evidence, and should proceed on a careful case by case analysis before sentencing or offering treatment. PMID:25725545

  16. Deformable Mirrors Correct Optical Distortions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    By combining the high sensitivity of space telescopes with revolutionary imaging technologies consisting primarily of adaptive optics, the Terrestrial Planet Finder is slated to have imaging power 100 times greater than the Hubble Space Telescope. To this end, Boston Micromachines Corporation, of Cambridge, Massachusetts, received Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts from the Jet Propulsion Laboratory for space-based adaptive optical technology. The work resulted in a microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) deformable mirror (DM) called the Kilo-DM. The company now offers a full line of MEMS DMs, which are being used in observatories across the world, in laser communication, and microscopy.

  17. Deformation quantization of cosmological models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cordero, Rubén; García-Compeán, Hugo; Turrubiates, Francisco J.

    2011-06-01

    The Weyl-Wigner-Groenewold-Moyal formalism of deformation quantization is applied to cosmological models in the minisuperspace. The quantization procedure is performed explicitly for quantum cosmology in a flat minisuperspace. The de Sitter cosmological model is worked out in detail and the computation of the Wigner functions for the Hartle-Hawking, Vilenkin and Linde wave functions are done numerically. The Wigner function is analytically calculated for the Kantowski-Sachs model in (non)commutative quantum cosmology and for string cosmology with dilaton exponential potential. Finally, baby universes solutions are described in this context and the Wigner function is obtained.

  18. Tectonic deformation in southern California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, David D.

    1993-01-01

    Our objectives were to use modem geodetic data, especially those derived from space techniques like Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI), Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR), and the Global Positioning System (GPS) to infer crustal deformation in southern California and relate it to plate tectonics and earthquake hazard. To do this, we needed to collect some original data, write computer programs to determine positions of survey markers from geodetic observables, interpret time dependent positions in terms of velocity and earthquake caused episodic displacements, and construct a model to explain these velocities and displacements in terms of fault slip and plate movements.

  19. Formation Flying and Deformable Instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Rio, Yvon

    2009-05-11

    Astronomers have always attempted to build very stable instruments. They fight all that can cause mechanical deformation or image motion. This has led to well established technologies (autoguide, active optics, thermal control, tip/tilt correction), as well as observing methods based on the use of controlled motion (scanning, micro scanning, shift and add, chopping and nodding). Formation flying disturbs this practice. It is neither possible to reduce the relative motion to very small amplitudes, nor to control it at will. Some impacts on Simbol-X instrument design, and operation are presented.

  20. Deformational characteristics of thermoplastic elastomers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Indukuri, Kishore K.

    This thesis focuses primarily on the structure-property relationships of poly (styrene-ethylene-butylene-styrene) triblock copolymer TPEs. First evidence for strain-induced crystallization occurring in certain SEBS block copolymers has been established using unique techniques like deformation calorimetry, combined in-situ small angle X-ray and wide angle X-ray diffraction (SAXD/WAXD). Also the ramifications of such strain-induced crystallization on the mechanical properties like cyclic hysteresis, stress relaxation/creep retention of these SEBS systems have been studied. In addition, the structural changes in the morphology of these systems on deformation have been investigated using combined SAXD/WAXD setup. Small angle X-ray diffraction probed the changes at the nano-scale of polystyrene (PS) cylinders, while wide angle X-ray diffraction probed the changes at molecular length scales of the amorphous/crystalline domains of the elastomeric mid-block in these systems. New structural features at both these length scales have been observed and incorporated into the overall deformation mechanisms of the material. Continuous processing techniques like extrusion have been used to obtain ultra long-range order and orientation in these SEBS systems. Thus well ordered crystal like hexagonal packing of cylinders, where in each element in this hexagonal lattice can be individually addressed without any grain boundaries can be realized using these robust techniques. The effect of long-range order/orientation on the mechanical properties has been studied. In addition, these well ordered systems serve as model systems for evaluating deformation mechanisms of these SEBS systems, where the relative contributions of each of the phases can be estimated. EPDM/i-PP thermoplastic vulcanizates (TPVs) have micron size scale phase separated morphologies of EPDM rubber dispersed in a semicrystalline i-PP matrix as a result of the dynamic vulcanization process. Confocal microscopy studies

  1. Dissipation in deforming chaotic billiards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnett, Alexander Harvey

    Chaotic billiards (hard-walled cavities) in two or more dimensions are paradigm systems in the fields of classical and quantum chaos. We study the dissipation (irreversible heating) rate in such billiard systems due to general shape deformations which are periodic in time. We are motivated by older studies of one-body nuclear dissipation and by anticipated mesoscopic applications. We review the classical and quantum linear response theories of dissipation rate and demonstrate their correspondence in the semiclassical limit. In both pictures, heating is a result of stochastic energy spreading. The heating rate can be expressed as a frequency-dependent friction coefficient μ(ω), which depends on billiard shape and deformation choice. We show that there is a special class of deformations for which μ vanishes as like a power law in the small- ω limit. Namely, for deformations which cause translations and dilations μ ~ ω4 whereas for those which cause rotations μ ~ ω2. This contrasts the generic case for which μ ~ ω4 We show how a systematic treatment of this special class leads to an improved version of the `wall formula' estimate for μ(0). We show that the special nature of dilation (a new result) is semiclassically equivalent to a quasi- orthogonality relation between the (undeformed) billiard quantum eigenstates on the boundary. This quasi- orthogonality forms the heart of a `scaling method' for the numerical calculation of quantum eigenstates, invented recently by Vergini and Saraceno. The scaling method is orders of magnitude more efficient than any other known billiard quantization method, however an adequate explanation for its success has been lacking until now. We explain the scaling method, its errors, and applications. We also present improvements to Heller's plane wave method. Two smaller projects conclude the thesis. Firstly, we give a new formalism for quantum point contact (QPC) conductance in terms of scattering cross-section in the half

  2. Road Signs Detection and Recognition Utilizing Images and 3d Point Cloud Acquired by Mobile Mapping System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y. H.; Shinohara, T.; Satoh, T.; Tachibana, K.

    2016-06-01

    High-definition and highly accurate road maps are necessary for the realization of automated driving, and road signs are among the most important element in the road map. Therefore, a technique is necessary which can acquire information about all kinds of road signs automatically and efficiently. Due to the continuous technical advancement of Mobile Mapping System (MMS), it has become possible to acquire large number of images and 3d point cloud efficiently with highly precise position information. In this paper, we present an automatic road sign detection and recognition approach utilizing both images and 3D point cloud acquired by MMS. The proposed approach consists of three stages: 1) detection of road signs from images based on their color and shape features using object based image analysis method, 2) filtering out of over detected candidates utilizing size and position information estimated from 3D point cloud, region of candidates and camera information, and 3) road sign recognition using template matching method after shape normalization. The effectiveness of proposed approach was evaluated by testing dataset, acquired from more than 180 km of different types of roads in Japan. The results show a very high success in detection and recognition of road signs, even under the challenging conditions such as discoloration, deformation and in spite of partial occlusions.

  3. Incidence, Outcomes, and Risk Factors of Community-Acquired and Hospital-Acquired Acute Kidney Injury

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Chien-Ning; Lee, Chien-Te; Su, Chien-Hao; Wang, Yu-Ching Lily; Chen, Hsiao-Ling; Chuang, Jiin-Haur; Tain, You-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The disease burden and outcomes of community-acquired (CA-) and hospital-acquired acute kidney injury (HA-AKI) are not well understood. The aim of the study was to investigate the incidence, outcomes, and risk factors of AKI in a large Taiwanese adult cohort. This retrospective cohort study examined 734,340 hospital admissions from a group of hospitals within an organization in Taiwan between January 1, 2010 and December 31, 2014. Patients with AKI at discharge were classified as either CA- or HA-AKI based on the RIFLE (risk, injury, failure, loss of function, end stage of kidney disease) classification criteria. Outcomes were in-hospital mortality, dialysis, recovery of renal function, and length of stay. Risks of developing AKI were determined using multivariate logistic regression based on demographic and baseline clinical characteristics and nephrotoxin use before admission. AKI occurred in 1.68% to 2% hospital discharges among adults without and with preexisting chronic kidney disease (CKD), respectively. The incidence of CA-AKI was 17.25 and HA-AKI was 8.14 per 1000 admissions. The annual rate of CA-AKI increased from 12.43 to 19.96 per 1000 people, but the change in HA-AKI was insignificant. Comparing to CA-AKI, those with HA-AKI had higher levels of in-hospital mortality (26.07% vs 51.58%), mean length of stay (21.25 ± 22.35 vs 35.84 ± 34.62 days), and dialysis during hospitalization (1.45% vs 2.06%). Preexisting systemic diseases, including CKD were associated with increased risks of CA-AKI, and nephrotoxic polypharmacy increased risk of both CA- and HA-AKI. Patients with HA-AKI had more severe outcomes than patients with CA-AKI, and demonstrated different spectrum of risk factors. Although patients with CA-AKI with better outcomes, the incidence increased over time. It is also clear that optimal preventive and management strategies of HA- and CA-AKI are urgently needed to limit the risks in susceptible individuals. PMID:27175701

  4. Allopurinol in the treatment of acquired reactive perforating collagenosis*

    PubMed Central

    Tilz, Hemma; Becker, Jürgen Christian; Legat, Franz; Schettini, Antonio Pedro Mendes; Inzinger, Martin; Massone, Cesare

    2013-01-01

    Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis is a perforating dermatosis usually associated with different systemic diseases, mainly diabetes mellitus and/or chronic renal insufficiency. Different therapies have been tried but treatment is not standardized yet and remains a challenge. In the last few years, allopurinol has been reported as a good therapeutic option for acquired reactive perforating collagenosis. We describe the case of a 73-year-old man affected by acquired reactive perforating collagenosis associated with diabetes type 1 and chronic renal failure with secondary hyperparathyroidism. The patient was successfully treated with allopurinol 100mg once/day p.o.. PMID:23539010

  5. SU-E-J-241: Creation of Ventilation CT From Daily 4D CTs Or 4D Conebeam CTs Acquired During IGRT for Thoracic Cancers

    SciTech Connect

    Tai, A; Ahunbay, E; Li, X

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To develop a method to create ventilation CTs from daily 4D CTs or 4D KV conebeam CTs (4DCBCT) acquired during image-guided radiation therapy (IGRT) for thoracic tumors, and to explore the potential for using the ventilation CTs as a means for early detection of lung injury during radiation treatment. Methods: 4DCT acquired using an in-room CT (CTVision, Siemens) and 4DCBCT acquired using the X-ray Volume Imaging (XVI) system (Infinity, Elekta) for representative lung cancer patients were analyzed. These 4D data sets were sorted into 10 phase images. A newly-available deformable image registration tool (ADMIRE, Elekta) is used to deform the phase images at the end of exhale (EE) to the phase images at the end of inhale (EI). The lung volumes at EI and EE were carefully contoured using an intensity-based auto-contour tool and then manually edited. The ventilation images were calculated from the variations of CT numbers of those voxels masked by the lung contour at EI between the registered phase images. The deformable image registration is also performed between the daily 4D images and planning 4DCT, and the resulting deformable field vector (DFV) is used to deform the planning doses to the daily images by an in-house Matlab program. Results: The ventilation images were successfully created. The tide volumes calculated using the ventilation images agree with those measured through volume difference of contours at EE and EI, indicating the accuracy of ventilation images. The association between the delivered doses and the change of lung ventilation from the daily ventilation CTs is identified. Conclusions: A method to create the ventilation CT using daily 4DCTs or 4D KV conebeam CTs was developed and demonstrated.

  6. Video model deformation system for the National Transonic Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burner, A. W.; Snow, W. L.; Goad, W. K.

    1983-01-01

    A photogrammetric closed circuit television system to measure model deformation at the National Transonic Facility is described. The photogrammetric approach was chosen because of its inherent rapid data recording of the entire object field. Video cameras are used to acquire data instead of film cameras due to the inaccessibility of cameras which must be housed within the cryogenic, high pressure plenum of this facility. A rudimentary theory section is followed by a description of the video-based system and control measures required to protect cameras from the hostile environment. Preliminary results obtained with the same camera placement as planned for NTF are presented and plans for facility testing with a specially designed test wing are discussed.

  7. Lung deformation estimation and four-dimensional CT lung reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Xu, Sheng; Taylor, Russell H; Fichtinger, Gabor; Cleary, Kevin

    2005-01-01

    Four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) image acquisition is a useful technique in radiation treatment planning and interventional radiology in that it can account for respiratory motion of lungs. Current 4D lung reconstruction techniques have limitations in either spatial or temporal resolution. In addition, most of these techniques rely on auxiliary surrogates to relate the time of CT scan to the patient's respiratory phase. In this paper, we propose a novel 4D CT lung reconstruction and deformation estimation algorithm. Our algorithm is purely image based. The algorithm can reconstruct high quality 4D images even if the original images are acquired under irregular respiratory motion. The algorithm is validated using synthetic 4D lung data. Experimental results from a swine study data are also presented. PMID:16685974

  8. Deformation During Friction Stir Welding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, Henry J.

    2002-01-01

    Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a solid state welding process that exhibits characteristics similar to traditional metal cutting processes. The plastic deformation that occurs during friction stir welding is due to the superposition of three flow fields: a primary rotation of a radially symmetric solid plug of metal surrounding the pin tool, a secondary uniform translation, and a tertiary ring vortex flow (smoke rings) surrounding the tool. If the metal sticks to the tool, the plug surface extends down into the metal from the outer edge of the tool shoulder, decreases in diameter like a funnel, and closes up beneath the pin. Since its invention, ten years have gone by and still very little is known about the physics of the friction stir welding process. In this experiment, an H13 steel weld tool (shoulder diameter, 0.797 in; pin diameter, 0.312 in; and pin length, 0.2506 in) was used to weld three 0.255 in thick plates. The deformation behavior during friction stir welding was investigated by metallographically preparing a plan view sections of the weldment and taking Vickers hardness test in the key-hole region.

  9. Deformation parameters influencing prepreg tack

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, K.J.; Seferis, J.C. ); Pelton, T.; Wilhelm, M. )

    1992-01-01

    A compression to tension apparatus and a methodology capable of measuring prepreg tack have been analyzed in detail in order to establish fundamental material and operating characteristics. Both intrinsic and extrinsic parameters influencing prepreg tack were identified and analyzed using commercially available carbon fiber/epoxy prepregs and mechanical testing equipment. Two different factors, (1) contact (or wetting) area of adjacent prepreg plies and (2) viscoelastic properties of the prepreg, were found to control prepreg tack. At low temperatures, contact area was the main deformation controlling step, while at high temperatures, the viscoelastic property of the prepreg was found to be dominant. Both interlaminar and intralaminar deformations were observed depending on the prepreg systems examined as well as the operating conditions of the test. In addition, hold time, hold pressure, loading rate, resin content, and out-time were also found to affect prepreg tack. Energy of separation, which may be viewed as a descriptor of prepreg tack, was observed to increase with increasing hold time, hold pressure, and loading rate. Energy of separation also showed a maximum value at a specific resin content for a specific prepreg system, while it decreased with increasing prepreg out-time due to prepreg surface characteristic change rather than bulk physical aging. Conclusively, it was observed that prepreg tack must be viewed as an extrinsic, bulk, but surface-sensitive, viscoelastic property which depends on material as well as operating conditions.

  10. Deformable human body model development

    SciTech Connect

    Wray, W.O.; Aida, T.

    1998-11-01

    This is the final report of a three-year, Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project at the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). A Deformable Human Body Model (DHBM) capable of simulating a wide variety of deformation interactions between man and his environment has been developed. The model was intended to have applications in automobile safety analysis, soldier survivability studies and assistive technology development for the disabled. To date, we have demonstrated the utility of the DHBM in automobile safety analysis and are currently engaged in discussions with the U.S. military involving two additional applications. More specifically, the DHBM has been incorporated into a Virtual Safety Lab (VSL) for automobile design under contract to General Motors Corporation. Furthermore, we have won $1.8M in funding from the U.S. Army Medical Research and Material Command for development of a noninvasive intracranial pressure measurement system. The proposed research makes use of the detailed head model that is a component of the DHBM; the project duration is three years. In addition, we have been contacted by the Air Force Armstrong Aerospace Medical Research Laboratory concerning possible use of the DHBM in analyzing the loads and injury potential to pilots upon ejection from military aircraft. Current discussions with Armstrong involve possible LANL participation in a comparison between DHBM and the Air Force Articulated Total Body (ATB) model that is the current military standard.

  11. Thermocapillary motion of deformable drops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haj-Hariri, Hossein; Shi, Qingping; Borhan, Ali

    1994-01-01

    The thermocapillary motion of initially spherical drops/bubbles driven by a constant temperature gradient in an unbounded liquid medium is simulated numerically. Effects of convection of momentum and energy, as well as shape deformations, are addressed. The method used is based on interface tracking on a base cartesian grid, and uses a smeared color or indicator function for the determination of the surface topology. Quad-tree adaptive refinement of the cartesian grid is implemented to enhance the fidelity of the surface tracking. It is shown that convection of energy results in a slowing of the drop, as the isotherms get wrapped around the front of the drop. Shape deformation resulting from inertial effects affect the migration velocity. The physical results obtained are in agreement with the existing literature. Furthermore, remarks are made on the sensitivity of the calculated solutions to the smearing of the fluid properties. Analysis and simulations show that the migration velocity depends very strongly on the smearing of the interfacial force whereas it is rather insensitive to the smearing of other properties, hence the adaptive grid.

  12. Uniaxial deformation of a soft porous material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMinn, Chris; Dufresne, Eric; Wettlaufer, John

    2015-11-01

    Compressing a porous material will decrease the volume of pore space, driving fluid out. Similarly, injecting fluid into a porous material will drive mechanical deformation, distorting the solid skeleton. This poromechanical coupling has applications ranging from cell and tissue mechanics to geomechanics and hydrogeology. The classical theory of linear poroelasticity captures this coupling by combining Darcy's law with linear elasticity and then further linearizing in the strain. This is a good model for very small deformations, but it becomes increasingly inappropriate as deformations grow larger, and moderate to large deformations are common in the context of phenomena such as swelling, damage, and extreme softness. Here, we compare the predictions of linear poroelasticity with those of a rigorous large-deformation framework in the context of two uniaxial model problems. We explore the error associated with the linear model in both steady and dynamic situations, as well as the impact of allowing the permeability to vary with the deformation.

  13. Protein transfer to membranes upon shape deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sagis, L. M. C.; Bijl, E.; Antono, L.; de Ruijter, N. C. A.; van Valenberg, H.

    2013-05-01

    Red blood cells, milk fat droplets, or liposomes all have interfaces consisting of lipid membranes. These particles show significant shape deformations as a result of flow. Here we show that these shape deformations can induce adsorption of proteins to the membrane. Red blood cell deformability is an important factor in several diseases involving obstructions of the microcirculatory system, and deformation induced protein adsorption will alter the rigidity of their membranes. Deformation induced protein transfer will also affect adsorption of cells onto implant surfaces, and the performance of liposome based controlled release systems. Quantitative models describing this phenomenon in biomaterials do not exist. Using a simple quantitative model, we provide new insight in this phenomenon. We present data that show convincingly that for cells or droplets with diameters upwards of a few micrometers, shape deformations induce adsorption of proteins at their interface even at moderate flow rates.

  14. [Antibiotic therapy of severe community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Molchanova, O V; Suleĭmanov, S Sh; Ostrovskiĭ, A B

    2009-01-01

    Combined antibiotic therapy, including the use of intravenous cefotaxime (a beta-lactam) and azithromycin (a macrolide) was shown advantageous from both clinical and economic viewpoints in the treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia. PMID:19711847

  15. Acquired localised hypertrichosis in a Chinese child after cast immobilisation.

    PubMed

    Yuen, M W; Lai, Loretta K P; Chan, P F; Chao, David V K

    2015-08-01

    Hypertrichosis refers to excessive hair growth that is independent of any androgen effect. Hypertrichosis could be congenital or acquired, localised or generalised. The phenomenon of acquired localised hypertrichosis following cast application for a fracture is well known to orthopaedic surgeons, but is rarely encountered by primary care physicians. We describe a 28-month-old Chinese boy who had fracture of right leg as a result of an injury. He had a cast applied by an orthopaedic surgeon as treatment. On removal of the cast 6 weeks later, he was noticed to have significant hair growth on his right leg compared with the left leg. The patient was reassessed 3 months after removal of the cast. The hypertrichosis resolved completely with time. This patient was one of the youngest among the reported cases of acquired localised hypertrichosis after cast application. We illustrate the significance of management of post-cast-acquired localised hypertrichosis in the primary care setting. PMID:26238136

  16. Topological deformation of isolated horizons

    SciTech Connect

    Liko, Tomas

    2008-03-15

    We show that the Gauss-Bonnet term can have physical effects in four dimensions. Specifically, the entropy of a black hole acquires a correction term that is proportional to the Euler characteristic of the cross sections of the horizon. While this term is constant for a single black hole, it will be a nontrivial function for a system with dynamical topologies such as black-hole mergers: it is shown that for certain values of the Gauss-Bonnet parameter, the second law of black-hole mechanics can be violated.

  17. Integrable deformations of the XXZ spin chain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beisert, Niklas; Fiévet, Lucas; de Leeuw, Marius; Loebbert, Florian

    2013-09-01

    We consider integrable deformations of the XXZ spin chain for periodic and open boundary conditions. In particular, we classify all long-range deformations and study their impact on the spectrum. As compared to the XXX case, we have the z-spin at our disposal, which induces two additional deformations: the short-range magnetic twist and a new long-range momentum-dependent twist.

  18. Self-adjointness of deformed unbounded operators

    SciTech Connect

    Much, Albert

    2015-09-15

    We consider deformations of unbounded operators by using the novel construction tool of warped convolutions. By using the Kato-Rellich theorem, we show that unbounded self-adjoint deformed operators are self-adjoint if they satisfy a certain condition. This condition proves itself to be necessary for the oscillatory integral to be well-defined. Moreover, different proofs are given for self-adjointness of deformed unbounded operators in the context of quantum mechanics and quantum field theory.

  19. [Differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Deĭkina, O N; Mishin, V Iu; Demikhova, O V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to enhance the efficiency of differential diagnosis of pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis. A hundred and fifty-nine adult patients were examined. These included 78 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 81 with community-acquired p neumonia. The clinical features of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 48) and mild community-acquired pneumonia (n = 51) were compared. The course of caseous pneumonia (n = 30) was compared with that of moderate and severe community-acquired pneumonia (n = 30). Significant differences in the manifestations of the intoxication and bronchopulmonary syndrome were not found in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Physical studies showed that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, moist rale (54.9%) and crepitation (11.8%) were prevalent, but in those with infiltrative tuberculosis rale was absent in 60.4% of cases and the pattern of respiration was unchanged in 79.2%. Chest X-ray studies indicated that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, lower lobar inflammatory changes were predominant in 62.8% of cases whereas in those with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis the process was mainly bilateral (43.8%) with the presence of destructive changes (83.3%) and bronchogenic dissemination (66.7%). In patients with caseous pneumonia, the intoxication syndrome was more significant than in those with severe community-acquired pneumonia. Chest X-ray studies demonstrated that in patients with caseous pneumonia, specific changes were bilateral with the involvement of 2 lobes or more, with destruction and bronchogenic dissemination while in those with community-acquired pneumonia, the pulmonary processes were predominantly bilateral (76.6%) at the lower lobar site (36.7%). PMID:17338353

  20. Physics-based deformable tongue visualization.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yin; Guo, Xiaohu; Vick, Jennell; Torres, Luis G; Campbell, Thomas F

    2013-05-01

    In this paper, a physics-based framework is presented to visualize the human tongue deformation. The tongue is modeled with the Finite Element Method (FEM) and driven by the motion capture data gathered during speech production. Several novel deformation visualization techniques are presented for in-depth data analysis and exploration. To reveal the hidden semantic information of the tongue deformation, we present a novel physics-based volume segmentation algorithm. This is accomplished by decomposing the tongue model into segments based on its deformation pattern with the computation of deformation subspaces and fitting the target deformation locally at each segment. In addition, the strain energy is utilized to provide an intuitive low-dimensional visualization for the high-dimensional sequential motion. Energy-interpolation-based morphing is also equipped to effectively highlight the subtle differences of the 3D deformed shapes without any visual occlusion. Our experimental results and analysis demonstrate the effectiveness of this framework. The proposed methods, though originally designed for the exploration of the tongue deformation, are also valid for general deformation analysis of other shapes. PMID:23492381

  1. Deformation twinning: Influence of strain rate

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, G.T. III

    1993-11-01

    Twins in most crystal structures, including advanced materials such as intermetallics, form more readily as the temperature of deformation is decreased or the rate of deformation is increased. Both parameters lead to the suppression of thermally-activated dislocation processes which can result in stresses high enough to nucleate and grow deformation twins. Under high-strain rate or shock-loading/impact conditions deformation twinning is observed to be promoted even in high stacking fault energy FCC metals and alloys, composites, and ordered intermetallics which normally do not readily deform via twinning. Under such conditions and in particular under the extreme loading rates typical of shock wave deformation the competition between slip and deformation twinning can be examined in detail. In this paper, examples of deformation twinning in the intermetallics TiAl, Ti-48Al-lV and Ni{sub 3}A as well in the cermet Al-B{sub 4}C as a function of strain rate will be presented. Discussion includes: (1) the microstructural and experimental variables influencing twin formation in these systems and twinning topics related to high-strain-rate loading, (2) the high velocity of twin formation, and (3) the influence of deformation twinning on the constitutive response of advanced materials.

  2. Origami-enabled deformable silicon solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Rui; Huang, Hai; Liang, Hanshuang; Liang, Mengbing; Tu, Hongen; Xu, Yong; Song, Zeming; Jiang, Hanqing; Yu, Hongyu

    2014-02-24

    Deformable electronics have found various applications and elastomeric materials have been widely used to reach flexibility and stretchability. In this Letter, we report an alternative approach to enable deformability through origami. In this approach, the deformability is achieved through folding and unfolding at the creases while the functional devices do not experience strain. We have demonstrated an example of origami-enabled silicon solar cells and showed that this solar cell can reach up to 644% areal compactness while maintaining reasonable good performance upon cyclic folding/unfolding. This approach opens an alternative direction of producing flexible, stretchable, and deformable electronics.

  3. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness in the burn population.

    PubMed

    Cubitt, Jonathan J; Davies, Menna; Lye, George; Evans, Janine; Combellack, Tom; Dickson, William; Nguyen, Dai Q

    2016-05-01

    Intensive care unit-acquired weakness is an evolving problem in the burn population. As patients are surviving injuries that previously would have been fatal, the focus of treatment is shifting from survival to long-term outcome. The rehabilitation of burn patients can be challenging; however, a certain subgroup of patients have worse outcomes than others. These patients may suffer from intensive care unit-acquired weakness, and their treatment, physiotherapy and expectations need to be adjusted accordingly. This study investigates the condition of intensive care unit-acquired weakness in our burn centre. We conducted a retrospective analysis of all the admissions to our burn centre between 2008 and 2012 and identified 22 patients who suffered from intensive care unit-acquired weakness. These patients were significantly younger with significantly larger burns than those without intensive care unit-acquired weakness. The known risk factors for intensive care unit-acquired weakness are commonplace in the burn population. The recovery of these patients is significantly affected by their weakness. PMID:26975787

  4. 2012 ROCK DEFORMATION: FEEDBACK PROCESSES IN ROCK DEFORMATION GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE, AUGUST 19-24, 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Kelemen, Peter

    2012-08-24

    Topics covered include: Failure At High Confining Pressure; Fluid-assisted Slip, Earthquakes & Fracture; Reaction-driven Cracking; Fluid Transport, Deformation And Reaction; Localized Fluid Transport And Deformation; Earthquake Mechanisms; Subduction Zone Dynamics And Crustal Growth.

  5. Madelung deformity and Madelung-type deformities: a review of the clinical and radiological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Ali, Sayed; Kaplan, Summer; Kaufman, Theresa; Fenerty, Sarah; Kozin, Scott; Zlotolow, Dan A

    2015-11-01

    Madelung deformity of the distal radius results from premature closure of the medial volar aspect of the distal radial physis, leading to increased volar tilt and increased inclination of the radial articular surface, triangulation of the carpus with proximal migration of the lunate and dorsal displacement of the distal ulna. The deformity is particularly common in Leri-Weill dyschondrosteosis, but it may also occur in isolation. True Madelung deformity can be differentiated from Madelung-type deformities by the presence of an anomalous radiolunate ligament (Vickers ligament). In this article, we will review the imaging characteristics of true Madelung deformity, including the common "distal radius" variant, the less common "entire radius" variant and "reverse" Madelung deformity. We will discuss the role of the Vickers ligament in disease pathogenesis and its use in differentiating true Madelung deformity from Madelung-type deformities arising from trauma or multiple hereditary exostoses. Surgical management of these patients will also be addressed. PMID:26135644

  6. Geometric phase analysis based on the windowed Fourier transform for the deformation field measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Xianglu; Xie, Huimin; Wang, Qinghua

    2014-06-01

    The geometric phase analysis (GPA), an important image-based deformation measurement method, has been used at both micro- and nano-scale. However, when a deformed image has apparent distortion, non-ignorable error in the obtained deformation field could occur by using this method. In this paper, the geometric phase analysis based on the windowed Fourier transform (WFT) is proposed to solve the above-mentioned issue, defined as the WFT-GPA method. In WFT-GPA, instead of the Fourier transform (FT), the WFT is utilized to extract the phase field block by block, and therefore more accurate local phase information can be acquired. The simulation tests, which include detailed discussion of influence factors for measurement accuracy such as window size and image noise, are conducted with digital deformed grids. The results verify that the WFT-GPA method not only keeps all advantages of traditional GPA method, but also owns a better accuracy for deformation measurement. Finally, the WFT-GPA method is applied to measure the machining distortion incurred in soft ultraviolet nanoimprint lithography (UV-NIL) process. The successful measurement shows the feasibility of this method and offers a full-field way for characterizing the replication quality of UV-NIL process.

  7. Gravity-driven deformation of Tenerife measured by InSAR time series analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández, J.; Tizzani, P.; Manzo, M.; Borgia, A.; González, P. J.; Martí, J.; Pepe, A.; Camacho, A. G.; Casu, F.; Berardino, P.; Prieto, J. F.; Lanari, R.

    2009-02-01

    We study the state of deformation of Tenerife (Canary Islands) using Differential Synthetic Aperture Radar Interferometry (DInSAR). We apply the Small BAseline Subset (SBAS) DInSAR algorithm to radar images acquired from 1992 to 2005 by the ERS sensors to determine the deformation rate distribution and the time series for the coherent pixels identified in the island. Our analysis reveals that the summit area of the volcanic edifice is characterized by a rather continuous subsidence extending well beyond Las Cañadas caldera rim and corresponding to the dense core of the island. These results, coupled with GPS ones, structural and geological information and deformation modeling, suggest an interpretation based on the gravitational sinking of the dense core of the island into a weak lithosphere and that the volcanic edifice is in a state of compression. We also detect more localized deformation patterns correlated with water table changes and variations in the deformation time series associated with the seismic crisis in 2004.

  8. Fast deformable registration for soft organs with large motion in HIFU treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xishi; Abdalbari, Anwar; Zaheer, Sameer; Looi, Thomas; Ren, Jing; Drake, James

    2013-03-01

    In noninvasive high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) treatment, we often need to register MR images acquired with different patient positioning or at different respiratory instances. In these scenarios, the abdominal organs such as the liver exhibit a large motion in different images. In our previous work, we proposed a fast neuro-fuzzy technique for deformable registration with small motion. In this study, based on elastic solid mechanics, we extend our previous results to deformation with large motion which is often the case for soft tissues in HIFU treatment. The proposed method involves minimizing strain energy of soft tissues which is constrained by 3D curves of blood vessels and point marks. It provides fast and robust deformable match for internal structures such as blood vessels, and eliminates local minima. Furthermore, the strain energy constraint provides good generalization properties, prevents the issue of overfitting, and leads to physically consistent deformable registration results. We have demonstrated the effectiveness of our deformable technique in registering MR liver images. Validation shows a target registration error of 2.31 mm and an average centerline distance error of 2.30 mm. This technique has the potential to significantly improve the registration capability and the quality of intra-operative image guidance in HIFU procedures.

  9. Ground reaction forces in horses, assessed from hoof wall deformation using artificial neural networks.

    PubMed

    Savelberg, H H; Van Loon, T; Schamhardt, H C

    1997-05-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) was developed to investigate whether hoof wall deformation could be used to determine ground reaction forces (GRF) in horses. The ANN was taught this relationship under certain conditions and was able to generalise this knowledge to conditions for which it was not trained before. To acquire data to train and test the ANN, a horse was equipped with strain gauges attached to the dorsal, lateral and medial parts of the hoof to assess hoof wall deformation. A force plate was used to measure the GRFs. Both hoof wall deformation and GRF were recorded simultaneously at different speeds, gaits, surfaces and loads. An ANN was trained with some of these data, and subsequently provided with strain gauge recordings of strides, not used for training. By comparing the GRF calculated by the ANN based on the hoof wall deformation with that recorded simultaneously by the force plate, the generalisability of the ANN was determined. It was found that an ANN is capable of 'learning' the relationship between hoof wall deformation and GRF, and to generalise it to a wide range of new conditions. This technique enables assessment of GRF under difficult conditions, such as on a treadmill or on surfaces where a force plate cannot be employed. PMID:9354277

  10. Deformed ellipsoidal diffraction grating blank

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Decew, Alan E., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    The Deformed Ellipsoidal Grating Blank (DEGB) is the primary component in an ultraviolet spectrometer. Since one of the major concerns for these instruments is throughput, significant efforts are made to reduce the number of components and subsequently reflections. Each reflection results in losses through absorption and scattering. It is these two sources of photon loss that dictated the requirements for the DEGB. The first goal is to shape the DEGB in such a way that the energy at the entrance slit is focused as well as possible on the exit slit. The second goal is to produce a surface smooth enough to minimize the photon loss due to scattering. The program was accomplished in three phases. The first phase was the fabrication planning. The second phase was the actual fabrication and initial testing. The last phase was the final testing of the completed DEGB.

  11. Deformable Surface Spatial Light Modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hess, K.; Dandliker, R.; Thalmann, R.

    1987-05-01

    A spatial light modulator (SLM) based on a deformable gel surface is presented. It has remarkable optical properties and its construction and operation are comparatively simple. It can be optically addressed through a photoconductor layer. The surface relief pattern is read out by total reflection and a schlieren optical system. The device provides good wavefront quality (X/10 over the whole aperture of 30 x 50 mm2) and has a spatial resolution of 10 line pairs/mm. Contrast ratios for modulation up to 40:1 were measured. The input sensitivity is typically 0.3 mW/cm2. The rise and decay times are both approximately 20 ms. Besides its primary application as a light valve in large screen TV projection, it can be used in optical information processing systems, e.g., as an incoherent-to-coherent transducer. Combined with a CRT, the SLM can be addressed electronically.

  12. Developing a Virtual Rock Deformation Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, W.; Ougier-simonin, A.; Lisabeth, H. P.; Banker, J. S.

    2012-12-01

    Experimental rock physics plays an important role in advancing earthquake research. Despite its importance in geophysics, reservoir engineering, waste deposits and energy resources, most geology departments in U.S. universities don't have rock deformation facilities. A virtual deformation laboratory can serve as an efficient tool to help geology students naturally and internationally learn about rock deformation. Working with computer science engineers, we built a virtual deformation laboratory that aims at fostering user interaction to facilitate classroom and outreach teaching and learning. The virtual lab is built to center around a triaxial deformation apparatus in which laboratory measurements of mechanical and transport properties such as stress, axial and radial strains, acoustic emission activities, wave velocities, and permeability are demonstrated. A student user can create her avatar to enter the virtual lab. In the virtual lab, the avatar can browse and choose among various rock samples, determine the testing conditions (pressure, temperature, strain rate, loading paths), then operate the virtual deformation machine to observe how deformation changes physical properties of rocks. Actual experimental results on the mechanical, frictional, sonic, acoustic and transport properties of different rocks at different conditions are compiled. The data acquisition system in the virtual lab is linked to the complied experimental data. Structural and microstructural images of deformed rocks are up-loaded and linked to different deformation tests. The integration of the microstructural image and the deformation data allows the student to visualize how forces reshape the structure of the rock and change the physical properties. The virtual lab is built using the Game Engine. The geological background, outstanding questions related to the geological environment, and physical and mechanical concepts associated with the problem will be illustrated on the web portal. In

  13. Statistical field theories deformed within different calculi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olemskoi, A. I.; Borysov, S. S.; Shuda, I. A.

    2010-09-01

    Within the framework of basic-deformed and finite-difference calculi, as well as deformation procedures proposed by Tsallis, Abe, and Kaniadakis and generalized by Naudts, we develop field-theoretical schemes of statistically distributed fields. We construct a set of generating functionals and find their connection with corresponding correlators for basic-deformed, finite-difference, and Kaniadakis calculi. Moreover, we introduce pair of additive functionals, which expansions into deformed series yield both Green functions and their irreducible proper vertices. We find as well formal equations, governing by the generating functionals of systems which possess a symmetry with respect to a field variation and are subjected to an arbitrary constrain. Finally, we generalize field-theoretical schemes inherent in concrete calculi in the Naudts manner. From the physical point of view, we study dependences of both one-site partition function and variance of free fields on deformations. We show that within the basic-deformed statistics dependence of the specific partition function on deformation has in logarithmic axes symmetrical form with respect to maximum related to deformation absence; in case of the finite-difference statistics, the partition function takes non-deformed value; for the Kaniadakis statistics, curves of related dependences have convex symmetrical form at small curvatures of the effective action and concave form at large ones. We demonstrate that only moment of the second order of free fields takes non-zero values to be proportional to inverse curvature of effective action. In dependence of the deformation parameter, the free field variance has linearly arising form for the basic-deformed distribution and increases non-linearly rapidly in case of the finite-difference statistics; for more complicated case of the Kaniadakis distribution, related dependence has double-well form.

  14. Heart deformation analysis: measuring regional myocardial velocity with MR imaging.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai; Collins, Jeremy D; Chowdhary, Varun; Markl, Michael; Carr, James C

    2016-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to test the hypothesis that heart deformation analysis (HDA) may serve as an alternative for the quantification of regional myocardial velocity. Nineteen healthy volunteers (14 male and 5 female) without documented cardiovascular diseases were recruited following the approval of the institutional review board (IRB). For each participant, cine images (at base, mid and apex levels of the left ventricle [LV]) and tissue phase mapping (TPM, at same short-axis slices of the LV) were acquired within a single magnetic resonance (MR) scan. Regional myocardial velocities in radial and circumferential directions acquired with HDA (Vrr and Vcc) and TPM (Vr and VФ) were measured during the cardiac cycle. HDA required shorter processing time compared to TPM (2.3 ± 1.1 min/case vs. 9.5 ± 3.7 min/case, p < 0.001). Moderate to good correlations between velocity components measured with HDA and TPM could be found on multiple myocardial segments (r = 0.460-0.774) and slices (r = 0.409-0.814) with statistical significance (p < 0.05). However, significant biases of velocity measures at regional myocardial areas between HDA and TPM were also noticed. By providing comparable velocity measures as TPM does, HDA may serve as an alternative for measuring regional myocardial velocity with a faster image processing procedure. PMID:27076222

  15. Surface deformation and coherence measurements of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, from SIR C radar interferometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosen, P. A.; Hensley, S.; Zebker, H. A.; Webb, F. H.; Fielding, E. J.

    1996-10-01

    The shuttle imaging radar C/X synthetic aperture radar (SIR C/X SAR) radar on board the space shuttle Endeavor imaged Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, in April and October 1994 for the purpose of measuring active surface deformation by the methods of repeat-pass differential radar interferometry. Observations at 24 cm (L band) and 5.6 cm (C band) wavelengths were reduced to interferograms showing apparent surface deformation over the 6-month interval and over a succession of 1-day intervals in October. A statistically significant local phase signature in the 6-month interferogram is coincident with the Pu'u O'o lava vent. Interpreted as deformation, the signal implies centimeter-scale deflation in an area several kilometers wide surrounding the vent. Peak deflation is roughly 14 cm if the deformation is purely vertical, centered southward of the Pu'u O'o caldera. Delays in the radar signal phase induced by atmospheric refractivity anomalies introduce spurious apparent deformation signatures, at the level of 12 cm peak-to-peak in the radar line-of-sight direction. Though the phase observations are suggestive of the wide-area deformation measured by Global Positioning System (GPS) methods, the atmospheric effects are large enough to limit the interpretation of the result. It is difficult to characterize centimeter-scale deformations spatially distributed over tens of kilometers using differential interferometry without supporting simultaneous, spatially distributed measurements of refractivity along the radar line of sight. Studies of the interferometric correlation of images acquired at different times show that L band is far superior to C band in the vegetated areas, even when the observations are separated by only 1 day. These results imply longer wavelength instruments are more appropriate for studying surfaces by repeat-pass observations.

  16. `Geologic time series' of earth surface deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedrich, A. M.

    2004-12-01

    The debate of whether the earth has evolved gradually or by catastrophic change has dominated the geological sciences for many centuries. On a human timescale, the earth appears to be changing slowly except for a few sudden events (singularities) such as earthquakes, floods, or landslides. While these singularities dramatically affect the loss of life or the destruction of habitat locally, they have little effect on the global population growth rate or evolution of the earth's surface. It is also unclear to what degree such events leave their traces in the geologic record. Yet, the earth's surface is changing! For example, rocks that equilibrated at depths of > 30 km below the surface are exposed at high elevations in mountains belts indicating vertical motion (uplift) of tens of kilometers; and rocks that acquired a signature of the earth's magnetic field are found up to hundreds of kilometers from their origin indicating significant horizontal transport along great faults. Whether such long-term motion occurs at the rate indicated by the recurrence interval of singular events, or whether singularities also operate at a higher-order scale ("mega-singularities") are open questions. Attempts to address these questions require time series significantly longer than several recurrence intervals of singularities. For example, for surface rupturing earthquakes (Magnitude > 7) with recurrence intervals ranging from tens to tens of thousands of years, observation periods on the order of thousands of years to a million years would be needed. However, few if any of the presently available measurement methods provide both the necessary resolution and "recording duration." While paleoseismic methods have the appropriate spatial and temporal resolution, data collection along most faults has been limited to the last one or two earthquakes. Geologic and geomorphic measurements may record long-term changes in fault slip, but only provide rates averaged over many recurrence

  17. Dynamic Deformation Measurements of an Aeroelastic Semispan Model. [conducted in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graves, Sharon S.; Burner, Alpheus W.; Edwards, John W.; Schuster, David M.

    2001-01-01

    The techniques used to acquire, reduce, and analyze dynamic deformation measurements of an aeroelastic semispan wind tunnel model are presented. Single-camera, single-view video photogrammetry (also referred to as videogrammetric model deformation, or VMD) was used to determine dynamic aeroelastic deformation of the semispan 'Models for Aeroelastic Validation Research Involving Computation' (MAVRIC) model in the Transonic Dynamics Tunnel at the NASA Langley Research Center. Dynamic deformation was determined from optical retroreflective tape targets at five semispan locations located on the wing from the root to the tip. Digitized video images from a charge coupled device (CCD) camera were recorded and processed to automatically determine target image plane locations that were then corrected for sensor, lens, and frame grabber spatial errors. Videogrammetric dynamic data were acquired at a 60-Hz rate for time records of up to 6 seconds during portions of this flutter/Limit Cycle Oscillation (LCO) test at Mach numbers from 0.3 to 0.96. Spectral analysis of the deformation data is used to identify dominant frequencies in the wing motion. The dynamic data will be used to separate aerodynamic and structural effects and to provide time history deflection data for Computational Aeroelasticity code evaluation and validation.

  18. Landslide deformation character inferred from terrestrial laser scanner data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aryal, Arjun

    Landslides are ubiquitous and cause thousands of deaths and injuries each year. Achieving a better understanding of landslide stability and governing processes requires good knowledge of ground surface displacements but acquiring this information is challenging. Three dimensional point-cloud data from terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) show potential for obtaining ground displacements accurately. Problems arise, however, when estimating continuous displacement fields from TLS data because reflecting points from sequential scans of moving ground are non-unique, thus repeat TLS surveys typically do not track individual reflectors. In this dissertation, the cross-correlation-based Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) method is implemented to derive 3D surface deformation fields using TLS point-cloud data. Associated errors are estimated and the method's performance is tested with synthetic displacements applied to a TLS dataset. The method is applied to the toe of the episodically active Cleveland Corral landslide in northern California using six different TLS scans acquired between June 2005 and April 2012. Estimated displacements agree well with independent measurements at better than 9% root mean squared (RMS) error and permit further analysis to infer the subsurface deformation characteristics of the landslide. The hypothesis that the depth and orientation of the buried slip surface and the subsurface slip rate can be estimated using the surface displacement field is tested. To estimate slip depth and slip rate of the slide, a 2D balanced cross-section (BC) method commonly applied to landslides and an elastic dislocation (ED) model widely applied to study geologic faults are performed. The BC method provides slip-surface depth; the ED model determines the slip-surface depth as well as orientation and slip magnitude. The estimated slip-surface depths using both methods agree with direct measurements of depth. This indicates that these two approaches may offer more

  19. Solute transport through a deforming porous medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peters, Glen P.; Smith, David W.

    2002-06-01

    Solute transport through a porous medium is typically modelled assuming the porous medium is rigid. However, many applications exist where the porous medium is deforming, including, municipal landfill liners, mine tailings dams, and land subsidence. In this paper, mass balance laws are used to derive the flow and transport equations for a deforming porous medium. The equations are derived in both spatial and material co-ordinate systems. Solute transport through an engineered landfill liner is used as an illustrative example to show the differences between the theory for a rigid porous medium, and small and large deformation analysis of a deforming porous medium. It is found that the large deformation model produces shorter solute breakthrough times, followed by the small deformation model, and then the rigid porous medium model. It is also found that it is important to include spatial and temporal void ratio variations in the large deformation analysis. It is shown that a non-linear large deformation model may greatly reduce the solute breakthrough time, compared to a standard transport analysis typically employed by environmental engineers.

  20. Madelung Deformity and Extensor Tendon Rupture.

    PubMed

    Shahcheraghi, Gholam Hossain; Peyman, Maryam; Mozafarian, Kamran

    2015-07-01

    Extensor tendon rupture in chronic Madelung deformity, as a result of tendon attrition on the dislocated distal ulna, is a rare occurrence. It is, however, seen more often in rheumatoid arthritis. There are few case reports in the English-language literature on this issue. We report a case of multiple tendon ruptures in a previously undiagnosed Madelung deformity. PMID:26161772

  1. Inflated Soft Actuators with Reversible Stable Deformations.

    PubMed

    Hines, Lindsey; Petersen, Kirstin; Sitti, Metin

    2016-05-01

    Most soft robotic systems are currently dependent on bulky compressors or pumps. A soft actuation method is presented combining hyperelastic membranes and dielectric elastomer actuators to switch between stable deformations of sealed chambers. This method is capable of large repeatable deformations, and has a number of stable states proportional to the number of actuatable membranes in the chamber. PMID:27008455

  2. Interactive multigrid refinement for deformable image registration.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wu; Xie, Yaoqin

    2013-01-01

    Deformable image registration is the spatial mapping of corresponding locations between images and can be used for important applications in radiotherapy. Although numerous methods have attempted to register deformable medical images automatically, such as salient-feature-based registration (SFBR), free-form deformation (FFD), and demons, no automatic method for registration is perfect, and no generic automatic algorithm has shown to work properly for clinical applications due to the fact that the deformation field is often complex and cannot be estimated well by current automatic deformable registration methods. This paper focuses on how to revise registration results interactively for deformable image registration. We can manually revise the transformed image locally in a hierarchical multigrid manner to make the transformed image register well with the reference image. The proposed method is based on multilevel B-spline to interactively revise the deformable transformation in the overlapping region between the reference image and the transformed image. The resulting deformation controls the shape of the transformed image and produces a nice registration or improves the registration results of other registration methods. Experimental results in clinical medical images for adaptive radiotherapy demonstrated the effectiveness of the proposed method. PMID:24232828

  3. Measuring Viscoelastic Deformation with an Optical Mouse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ng, T. W.

    2004-01-01

    The feasibility of using an optical mouse to track the viscoelastic deformation of low-density polyethylene films that have a fixed attached load is presented. It is seen that using an optical mouse and with rudimentary experiment paraphernalia and arrangement, it is possible to get good measurements of viscoelastic deformation.

  4. Plate-tectonic mechanism of Laramide deformation.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamilton, W.

    1981-01-01

    The Laramide compressive deformation of the craton was caused by a clockwise rotation of about 2-4o of the Colorado Plateau region relative to the continental interior, during late Late Cretaceous and early Tertiary time. Late Paleozoic and Neogene deformation of the craton also were produced by motion of a southwestern subplate relative to the continental interior. -from Author

  5. Nanoplasmonic ruler to measure lipid vesicle deformation.

    PubMed

    Jackman, Joshua A; Špačková, Barbora; Linardy, Eric; Kim, Min Chul; Yoon, Bo Kyeong; Homola, Jiří; Cho, Nam-Joon

    2016-01-01

    A nanoplasmonic ruler method is presented in order to measure the deformation of adsorbed, nm-scale lipid vesicles on solid supports. It is demonstrated that single adsorbed vesicles undergo greater deformation on silicon oxide over titanium oxide, offering direct experimental evidence to support membrane tension-based theoretical models of supported lipid bilayer formation. PMID:26466086

  6. Deformation Mechanisms of Antigorite Serpentinite at Subduction Zone Conditions Determined from Experimentally and Naturally Deformed Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auzende, A. L.; Escartin, J.; Walte, N.; Guillot, S.; Hirth, G.; Frost, D. J.

    2014-12-01

    The rheology of serpentinite, and particularly that of antigorite-bearing rocks, is of prime importance for understanding subduction zone proceses, including decoupling between the downwelling slab and the overriding plate, exhumation of high-pressure rocks, fluids pathways and, more generally, mantle wedge dynamics. We present results from deformation-DIA experiments on antigorite serpentinite performed under conditions relevant of subduction zones (1-3.5 GPa ; 400-650°C). We complemented our study with a sample deformed in a Griggs-type apparatus at 1 GPa and 400°C (Chernak and Hirth, EPSL, 2010), and with natural samples from Cuba and the Alps deformed under blueschist/eclogitic conditions. Our observations on experimental samples of antigorite deformed within its stability field show that deformation is dominated by cataclastic flow; we can only document a minor contribution of plastic deformation. In naturally deformed samples, deformation-related plastic structures largely dominate strain accommodation, but we also document a minor contribution of brittle deformation. When dehydration occurs in experiments, plasticity increases, and is coupled to local embrittlement attributed to hydraulic fracturating due to the migration of dehydration fluids. Our results thus show that semibrittle deformation operates within and above the stability field of antigorite. We also document that the corrugated structure of antigorite has a control on the strain accommodation mechanisms under subduction conditions, with preferred inter and intra-cracking along (001) and gliding along both a and b. Deformation dominated by brittle processes, as observed in experiments, may occur during deformation at elevated (seismic?) strain rates, while plastic deformation, as observed in naturally deformed rocks, may correspond instead to low strain rates instead (aseismic creep?). We also discuss the role of antigorite rheology and mode of deformation on fluid transport.

  7. Detection of blood-related signal from a series of fingerprint images acquired during an input action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujieda, Ichiro; Hori, Atsushi; Kurita, Masashi

    2007-09-01

    When a finger is pressed against a flat plate and deformed, blood inside the finger moves away from the deformed area. This causes the finger to change its appearance from reddish to white. As the finger leaves the plate, the blood comes back and it looks reddish again. We have proposed to use this color change to distinguish genuine fingers from artificial ones for un-attended fingerprint identification systems. This blood-related signal may reflect the stiffness of the peripheral blood vessels and therefore it may be correlated with some health conditions such as blood pressure. In experiments, we used a fingerprint sensor based on scattered light detection. Because the spectra of the light scattered by the deformed fingers showed large changes mostly in the green portion, an LED emitting at 525 nm at peak strength was used. First, we compared series of fingerprint images acquired during a normal input action and those obtained while a rubber band occluded the blood flow. The occluded finger required a larger force to exhibit a similar change for these pixel values than the finger without the rubber band. Second, we analyzed fingerprint images recorded by six volunteers. We defined some indices based on the pixel values of the fingerprint images and the pressure applied to the fingers. The correlation coefficient of one of such indices and the average blood pressure of the participants was 0.86. Although the number of the subjects is small, this initial result is encouraging.

  8. Mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism: An observational study.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Somenath; Mondal, Modhuchanda; Das, Kapildev; Shrimal, Arpit

    2012-09-01

    Hypoparathyroidism is a disorder of calcium and phosphorus metabolism due to decreased secretion of parathyroid hormone. Hypoparathyroidism can be hereditary and acquired. Acquired hypoparathyroidism usually occurs following neck surgery (thyroid surgery or parathyroid surgery). Along with systemic manifestations, hypoparathyroidism produces some skin manifestations. Lack of study regarding mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism prompted us to undertake this study. To evaluate the mucocutaneous manifestations of acquired hypoparathyroidism. An observational study done in a tertiary care hospital of Kolkata by comprehensive history taking, through clinical examination and relevant laboratory investigations. Twenty-one patients were included in the study. The commonest form of acquired hypoparathyroidism was neck surgery (thyroidectomy and parathyroidectomy operation). Mucocutaneous manifestations were present in 76.19% of patients. The most frequent mucocutaneous manifestation was found in the hairs like the loss of axillary hair (61.9%), loss of pubic hair (52.38%), coarsening of body hair (47.62%), and alopecia areata (9.52%). The nail changes noted were brittle and ridged nail, followed by onycholysis, onychosezia, and onychomedesis. The most common skin features were xerotic skin in 11 patients (52.38%), followed by pellagra-like skin pigmentation, pustular psoriasis and acne form eruption, bullous impetigo, etc. Mucosa was normal in all the cases excepting the one which showed oral candidiasis. PMID:23087872

  9. Diminished acquired equivalence yet good discrimination performance in older participants

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Jasper; Owens, Emma

    2013-01-01

    We asked younger and older human participants to perform computer-based configural discriminations that were designed to detect acquired equivalence. Both groups solved the discriminations but only the younger participants demonstrated acquired equivalence. The discriminations involved learning the preferences [“like” (+) or “dislike” (−)] for sports [e.g., tennis (t) and hockey (h)] of four fictitious people [e.g., Alice (A), Beth (B), Charlotte (C), and Dorothy (D)]. In one experiment, the discrimination had the form: At+, Bt−, Ct+, Dt−, Ah−, Bh+, Ch−, Dh+. Notice that, e.g., Alice and Charlotte are “equivalent” in liking tennis but disliking hockey. Acquired equivalence was assessed in ancillary components of the discrimination (e.g., by looking at the subsequent rate of “whole” versus “partial” reversal learning). Acquired equivalence is anticipated by a network whose hidden units are shared when inputs (e.g., A and C) signal the same outcome (e.g., +) when accompanied by the same input (t). One interpretation of these results is that there are age-related differences in the mechanisms of configural acquired equivalence. PMID:24130542

  10. Strong crystal size effect on deformation twinning.

    PubMed

    Yu, Qian; Shan, Zhi-Wei; Li, Ju; Huang, Xiaoxu; Xiao, Lin; Sun, Jun; Ma, Evan

    2010-01-21

    Deformation twinning in crystals is a highly coherent inelastic shearing process that controls the mechanical behaviour of many materials, but its origin and spatio-temporal features are shrouded in mystery. Using micro-compression and in situ nano-compression experiments, here we find that the stress required for deformation twinning increases drastically with decreasing sample size of a titanium alloy single crystal, until the sample size is reduced to one micrometre, below which the deformation twinning is entirely replaced by less correlated, ordinary dislocation plasticity. Accompanying the transition in deformation mechanism, the maximum flow stress of the submicrometre-sized pillars was observed to saturate at a value close to titanium's ideal strength. We develop a 'stimulated slip' model to explain the strong size dependence of deformation twinning. The sample size in transition is relatively large and easily accessible in experiments, making our understanding of size dependence relevant for applications. PMID:20090749

  11. CubeSat deformable mirror demonstration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cahoy, Kerri; Marinan, Anne; Kerr, Caitlin; Cheng, Kezi; Jamil, Sara

    2012-09-01

    The goal of the CubeSat Deformable Mirror Demonstration (DeMi) is to characterize the performance of a small deformable mirror over a year in low-Earth orbit. Small form factor deformable mirrors are a key technology needed to correct optical system aberrations in high contrast, high dynamic range space telescope applications such as space-based coronagraphic direct imaging of exoplanets. They can also improve distortions and reduce bit error rates for space-based laser communication systems. While follow-on missions can take advantage of this general 3U CubeSat platform to test the on-orbit performance of several different types of deformable mirrors, this first design accommodates a 32-actuator Boston Micromachines MEMS deformable mirror.

  12. Scoliosis and tibiotarsal deformities in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Droual, R; Bickford, A A; Farver, T B

    1991-01-01

    The incidence and degree of scoliosis were investigated in broiler chickens with and without intertarsal deformities associated with slipped gastrocnemius tendons. In both groups, the incidence of scoliosis was similar and there was a significant tendency for scoliosis to be convex on the right side. However, scoliosis was significantly greater in birds with intertarsal deformities, and in a significant proportion of these the joint with a slipped tendon was on the convex side of scoliosis. In birds with deformities, inequalities between right and left tibiotarsi were significantly greater, and tibiotarsi with greater length, narrower condyles and trochleae, and shallower trochlear grooves were significantly more often on the convex side of scoliosis. Significant positive correlations were found between scoliosis and rotational and bending deformities of the distal tibiotarsus on the convex side of scoliosis. These findings suggest a cause-and-effect relationship between scoliosis and tibiotarsal deformities associated with slipped tendons. PMID:2029256

  13. Deformation-based surface morphometry applied to gray matter deformation.

    PubMed

    Chung, Moo K; Worsley, Keith J; Robbins, Steve; Paus, Tomás; Taylor, Jonathan; Giedd, Jay N; Rapoport, Judith L; Evans, Alan C

    2003-02-01

    We present a unified statistical approach to deformation-based morphometry applied to the cortical surface. The cerebral cortex has the topology of a 2D highly convoluted sheet. As the brain develops over time, the cortical surface area, thickness, curvature, and total gray matter volume change. It is highly likely that such age-related surface changes are not uniform. By measuring how such surface metrics change over time, the regions of the most rapid structural changes can be localized. We avoided using surface flattening, which distorts the inherent geometry of the cortex in our analysis and it is only used in visualization. To increase the signal to noise ratio, diffusion smoothing, which generalizes Gaussian kernel smoothing to an arbitrary curved cortical surface, has been developed and applied to surface data. Afterward, statistical inference on the cortical surface will be performed via random fields theory. As an illustration, we demonstrate how this new surface-based morphometry can be applied in localizing the cortical regions of the gray matter tissue growth and loss in the brain images longitudinally collected in the group of children and adolescents. PMID:12595176

  14. Performance of 12 DIR algorithms in low-contrast regions for mass and density conserving deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Yeo, U. J.; Supple, J. R.; Franich, R. D.; Taylor, M. L.; Smith, R.; Kron, T.

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: Deformable image registration (DIR) has become a key tool for adaptive radiotherapy to account for inter- and intrafraction organ deformation. Of contemporary interest, the application to deformable dose accumulation requires accurate deformation even in low contrast regions where dose gradients may exist within near-uniform tissues. One expects high-contrast features to generally be deformed more accurately by DIR algorithms. The authors systematically assess the accuracy of 12 DIR algorithms and quantitatively examine, in particular, low-contrast regions, where accuracy has not previously been established.Methods: This work investigates DIR algorithms in three dimensions using deformable gel (DEFGEL) [U. J. Yeo, M. L. Taylor, L. Dunn, R. L. Smith, T. Kron, and R. D. Franich, “A novel methodology for 3D deformable dosimetry,” Med. Phys. 39, 2203–2213 (2012)], for application to mass- and density-conserving deformations. CT images of DEFGEL phantoms with 16 fiducial markers (FMs) implanted were acquired in deformed and undeformed states for three different representative deformation geometries. Nonrigid image registration was performed using 12 common algorithms in the public domain. The optimum parameter setup was identified for each algorithm and each was tested for deformation accuracy in three scenarios: (I) original images of the DEFGEL with 16 FMs; (II) images with eight of the FMs mathematically erased; and (III) images with all FMs mathematically erased. The deformation vector fields obtained for scenarios II and III were then applied to the original images containing all 16 FMs. The locations of the FMs estimated by the algorithms were compared to actual locations determined by CT imaging. The accuracy of the algorithms was assessed by evaluation of three-dimensional vectors between true marker locations and predicted marker locations.Results: The mean magnitude of 16 error vectors per sample ranged from 0.3 to 3.7, 1.0 to 6.3, and 1.3 to 7

  15. Synchrotron X-ray Tomographic Quantification of Deformation Induced Strain Localisation in Semi-solid Al- 15wt.%Cu

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, B.; Karagadde, S.; Marrow, T. J.; Connolley, T.; Lee, P. D.

    2015-06-01

    Uniaxial compression and indentation of a semi-solid Al-15wt.%Cu alloy was investigated by high speed synchrotron X-ray microtomography, quantifying the microstructural response of a solidifying alloy to applied strain. Tomograms were continuously acquired whilst performing deformation using a precision thermal-mechanical rig on a synchrotron beamline. The results illustrate how defects and shear bands can form in response to different loading conditions. Using digital volume correlation, the global and localised strains were measured, providing quantitative datasets for granular flow models of semi-solid deformation.

  16. Inelastic deformation and dislocation structure of a nickel alloy - Effects of deformation and thermal histories

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chan, K. S.; Page, R. A.

    1988-01-01

    Inelastic deformation behavior of the cast Ni-base alloy, B1900 + Hf, was investigated using data from step-temperature tensile tests and thermomechanical cyclic tests in the temperature ranges 538-760 C and 760-982 C. The deformation results were correlated with the dislocation structures of deformed specimens, identified by TEM. It was found that, in the 760-982 C temperature range, there are no thermal history effects in the inelastic deformation behavior of B1900 + Hf. In the 538-760 range, anomalous cyclic hardening and, possibly, thermal history effects were observed in thermomechanically deformed alloy, caused by sessile (010) dislocations in the gamma-prime phase.

  17. The properties of Q-deformed hyperbolic and trigonometric functions in quantum deformation

    SciTech Connect

    Deta, U. A. E-mail: utamadeta@unesa.ac.id; Suparmi

    2015-09-30

    Quantum deformation has been studied due to its relation with applications in nuclear physics, conformal field theory, and statistical-quantum theory. The q-deformation of hyperbolic function was introduced by Arai. The application of q-deformed functions has been widely used in quantum mechanics. The properties of this two kinds of system explained in this paper including their derivative. The graph of q-deformed functions presented using Matlab. The special case is given for modified Poschl-Teller plus q-deformed Scarf II trigonometry potentials.

  18. The properties of Q-deformed hyperbolic and trigonometric functions in quantum deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deta, U. A.; Suparmi

    2015-09-01

    Quantum deformation has been studied due to its relation with applications in nuclear physics, conformal field theory, and statistical-quantum theory. The q-deformation of hyperbolic function was introduced by Arai. The application of q-deformed functions has been widely used in quantum mechanics. The properties of this two kinds of system explained in this paper including their derivative. The graph of q-deformed functions presented using Matlab. The special case is given for modified Poschl-Teller plus q-deformed Scarf II trigonometry potentials.

  19. Large Deformations of a Soft Porous Material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacMinn, Christopher W.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Wettlaufer, John S.

    2016-04-01

    Compressing a porous material will decrease the volume of the pore space, driving fluid out. Similarly, injecting fluid into a porous material can expand the pore space, distorting the solid skeleton. This poromechanical coupling has applications ranging from cell and tissue mechanics to geomechanics and hydrogeology. The classical theory of linear poroelasticity captures this coupling by combining Darcy's law with Terzaghi's effective stress and linear elasticity in a linearized kinematic framework. Linear poroelasticity is a good model for very small deformations, but it becomes increasingly inappropriate for moderate to large deformations, which are common in the context of phenomena such as swelling and damage, and for soft materials such as gels and tissues. The well-known theory of large-deformation poroelasticity combines Darcy's law with Terzaghi's effective stress and nonlinear elasticity in a rigorous kinematic framework. This theory has been used extensively in biomechanics to model large elastic deformations in soft tissues and in geomechanics to model large elastoplastic deformations in soils. Here, we first provide an overview and discussion of this theory with an emphasis on the physics of poromechanical coupling. We present the large-deformation theory in an Eulerian framework to minimize the mathematical complexity, and we show how this nonlinear theory simplifies to linear poroelasticity under the assumption of small strain. We then compare the predictions of linear poroelasticity with those of large-deformation poroelasticity in the context of two uniaxial model problems: fluid outflow driven by an applied mechanical load (the consolidation problem) and compression driven by a steady fluid throughflow. We explore the steady and dynamical errors associated with the linear model in both situations, as well as the impact of introducing a deformation-dependent permeability. We show that the error in linear poroelasticity is due primarily to kinematic

  20. Tracking of object deformations in color and depth video: deformation models and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordt, Andreas; Reinhold, Stefan; Koch, Reinhard

    2015-05-01

    The research on deformation tracking based on color image data has continuously gained a wide interest in the last 15 years. In addition, using depth sensors such as the Microsoft Kinect, allows to mitigate the ambiguity problems that arise when trying to solve the deformation tracking tasks on color images only, by adding depth information. However, the fusion of color and depth data is not straight forward, and the deformation tracking task is still ill-posed due to the lack of a general deformation model. The problem is usually circumvented by providing special deformation functions for the task at hand, e.g., skeleton-based for reconstructing people or triangle-based for tracking planar surfaces. In this article we summarize the Analysis by Synthesis (AbS) approach for deformation tracking in depth and color video and show some successful applications of specialized deformation functions. To overcome the issues with NURBS based deformation tracking we propose a new geodesic RBF-based deformation model, which can adapt to any surface topology and shape, while keeping the number of deformation parameters low. Example deformations for objects of different topologies are given, showing the versatility and efficiency of the proposed model.

  1. Evolution of acquired resistance to anti-cancer therapy

    PubMed Central

    Foo, Jasmine; Michor, Franziska

    2014-01-01

    Acquired drug resistance is a major limitation for the successful treatment of cancer. Resistance can emerge due to a variety of reasons including host environmental factors as well as genetic or epigenetic alterations in the cancer cells. Evolutionary theory has contributed to the understanding of the dynamics of resistance mutations in a cancer cell population, the risk of resistance pre-existing before the initiation of therapy, the composition of drug cocktails necessary to prevent the emergence of resistance, and optimum drug administration schedules for patient populations at risk of evolving acquired resistance. Here we review recent advances towards elucidating the evolutionary dynamics of acquired drug resistance and outline how evolutionary thinking can contribute to outstanding questions in the field. PMID:24681298

  2. Free Auricular Composite Graft for Acquired Nasal Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Riley, Charles A.; Lawlor, Claire M.; Gray, Mingyang Liu; Graham, H. Devon

    2016-01-01

    Background: Acquired nasal stenosis poses a reconstructive challenge for the facial plastic surgeon. Many surgical options are available, ranging from primary closure to skin grafts to free flap reconstruction for complex defects. The free auricular composite graft is a single-stage procedure that can be used to repair nasal vestibular stenosis causing nasal obstruction. Case Report: We present the case of a patient with acquired nasal stenosis as a result of prolonged nasal tampon placement secondary to severe epistaxis and subsequent nasal vestibular infection. Repair via auricular composite graft was successful, and we provide a thorough explanation of graft design and operative technique. Conclusion: Free auricular composite grafts can produce desirable functional and aesthetic outcomes and should be considered in patients presenting with acquired nasal stenosis. PMID:27303225

  3. ACQUIRE: A data acquisition system for CAMAC on SUN workstations

    SciTech Connect

    Kouzes, R.T. ); Lowry, M.M. )

    1994-02-01

    The data acquisition software package ACQUIRE has been used for many years by the Princeton University Cyclotron Laboratory for nuclear physics research applications. This code has been ported to the SUN Sparc workstation and is fully functional, including block data transfers using an in crate Event Handler. A SCSI interface to CAMAC is utilized, and the device handling software has been developed in such a way that little modification was needed in the ACQUIRE code for the SUN implementation. The Higz X windows graphics package from CERN is used for data display. ACQUIRE will be used for test and development of CAMAC based systems within the Molecular Science Research Center at Pacific Northwest Laboratory.

  4. Staphylococci in community-acquired infections: Increased resistance to penicillin.

    PubMed

    Hughes, G B; Chidi, C C; Macon, W L

    1976-04-01

    One hundred patients with community-acquired staphylococcal infections of the skin and soft tissues were treated in the Emergency Ward of Cleveland Metropolitan General Hospital from June to October of 1974. Each staphylococcal infection was considered community-acquired if, within two weeks prior to being treated for the first time, the patient had not received antibiotics, had not been hospitalized, and had not been in contact with other recently hospitalized persons. Of 100 community-acquired staphylococcal infections, 85 were resistant to penicillin. Almost no resistance to other tested antibiotics was observed. Unless indicated otherwise by bacteriologic testing, penicillin is a poor drug of choice in those skin and soft tissue infections suspected of harboring staphylococci. PMID:1267491

  5. Acquired night blindness due to bad eating patterns.

    PubMed

    Parafita-Fernández, A; Escalona-Fermín, M M; Sampil, M; Moraña, N; Viso, E; Fernández-Vila, P C

    2015-06-01

    We report a case of acquired night blindness in a developed country (Spain) without risk factors for nutritional deficiency disease or family history of hereditary retinal disease. A 76-year-old woman presented with acquired night blindness of 6-month progression. After a thorough inquiry about eating patterns she becomes suspicious of vitamin A low dietary intake, which is analytically confirmed and successfully treated. Despite being very uncommon in our environment and even more in patients without digestive problems, in a patient reporting acquired night blindness vitamin A deficiency should not be discarded until eating patterns have been investigated. It might be especially relevant in certain socioeconomic situations and eating disorders such as bulimia or anorexia nervosa. PMID:25804276

  6. Pediatric sensorineural hearing loss, part 2: syndromic and acquired causes.

    PubMed

    Huang, B Y; Zdanski, C; Castillo, M

    2012-03-01

    This article is the second in a 2-part series reviewing neuroimaging in childhood SNHL. Previously, we discussed the clinical work-up of children with hearing impairment, the classification of inner ear malformations, and congenital nonsyndromic causes of hearing loss. Here, we review and illustrate the most common syndromic hereditary and acquired causes of childhood SNHL, with an emphasis on entities that demonstrate inner ear abnormalities on cross-sectional imaging. Syndromes discussed include BOR syndrome, CHARGE syndrome, Pendred syndrome, Waardenburg syndrome, and X-linked hearing loss with stapes gusher. We conclude the article with a review of acquired causes of childhood SNHL, including infections, trauma, and neoplasms. PMID:21596810

  7. Imaging of acquired coronary diseases: From children to adults.

    PubMed

    Dehaene, A; Jacquier, A; Falque, C; Gorincour, G; Gaubert, J Y

    2016-05-01

    Acquired coronary diseases include aneurysms, fistulae, dissections, and stenosis. Aneurysms may occur secondarily to Kawasaki disease, a childhood vasculitis, the prognosis of which depends on the coronary involvement, or they may be degenerative, infectious, inflammatory, or traumatic in origin. Fistulae develop between the coronary arterial system and a pulmonary or bronchial artery, or cardiac cavity. Dissections may occur spontaneously or may be post-traumatic. These coronary abnormalities may be found incidentally or may present as complications, infarction or rupture. The goals of this article are to understand acquired childhood and adult coronary diseases and their usual means of presentation, the ways of investigating them, and the principles of their treatment. PMID:27130480

  8. [Features of morbidity community-acquired pneumonia among young recruits].

    PubMed

    Serdukov, D U; Gordienko, A V; Kozlov, M S; Mikhailov, A A; Davydov, P A

    2015-10-01

    Were examined 3338 military personnel of the combined training center. 183 of them diagnosed community-acquired pneumonia, in 3155 focal and infiltrative changes in lung tissue were not identified. The analisys of prevalence been made among young recruits of the acute respiratory illness before arriving in part and at the assembly point, foci of chronic infection, smoking, low body weight. 511 military personnel arrived at the training center in the disease state with symptoms of acute respiratory illness. Examined the relationship these risk factor to the development of community-acquired pneumonia in this category of servicemen. PMID:26827502

  9. Acquired coagulation factor XIII deficiency: a case report.

    PubMed

    Jia, Yongqing; Hu, Huixian; Wei, Bin

    2016-06-01

    The main objective of the study is to summarize the clinical characteristics of acquired factor XIII (FXIII) deficiency caused by a spontaneous FXIII inhibitor. Here we report a new case of acquired FXIII deficiency caused by FXIII inhibitor and review the medical literature regarding the characteristics and treatment of this disorder. FXIII deficiency caused by FXIII inhibitors is rare and of uncertain pathogenesis. Experience with therapeutic measures is limited to data from case reports. Immunosuppressive drugs may reduce autoantibodies or inhibit the cell clone generating the antibodies and may have been of benefit in our patient. The impact of such therapy on patient prognosis is incompletely known. PMID:26588447

  10. Acquired hemophilia A in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, T; Tsukamoto, N; Suto, M; Uchiumi, H; Mitsuhashi, H; Yokohama, A; Maesawa, A; Nojima, Y; Naruse, T

    2001-06-01

    A patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) developed acquired hemophilia A. The patient, a 24-year-old Japanese woman, was referred to our hospital because of uncontrollable bleeding following a tooth extraction. Laboratory examination revealed prolonged APTT (116 seconds), reduced factor VIII activity (2.8 %) and the presence of factor VIII inhibitor at a titer of 46.5 Bethesda units/ml. Transfusion of prothrombin complex concentrate and activated prothrombin complex concentrate followed by administration of prednisolone and cyclophosphamide successfully arrested bleeding and reduced the factor VIII inhibitor level. Acquired hemophilia A is a rare but lethal condition. Rapid diagnosis and introduction of adequate therapies are critical. PMID:11446683

  11. Accurate three-dimensional shape and deformation measurement at microscale using digital image correlation.

    PubMed

    Ren, Maodong; Liang, Jin; Li, Leigang; Wei, Bin; Wang, Lizhong; Tang, Zhengzong

    2015-07-01

    Based on stereomicroscope and three-dimensional (3D) digital image correlation (DIC) method, a non-contact measurement technique is presented to measure the 3D shape and deformation data on miniature specimens and the corresponding microscopic measurement system is developed. A pair of cameras is mounted on a binocular stereo light microscope to acquire pairing micrographs from two different optical paths of a specimen surface spraying with speckle pattern. Considering complex optical paths and high magnification, an accurate equivalent relative calibration method, combining a priori warping functions, is proposed to correct image distortions and optimize the intrinsic and extrinsic parameters of stereomicroscope. Then, a fast one-dimensional synchronous stereo matching method, based on the DIC method and image rectification technique, is proposed to search for discontinuous corresponding points in the pairing micrographs. Finally, the 3D shape is reconstructed from the corresponding points, while the temporal micrographs acquired before and after deformation are employed to determine the full-field deformation. The effectiveness and accuracy of the presented microscale measurement technique are verified by a series of experiments. PMID:26233412

  12. Deformability-based capsule sorting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Goff, Anne; Munier, Nadege; Maire, Pauline; Edwards-Levy, Florence; Salsac, Anne-Virginie

    2015-11-01

    Many microfluidic devices have been developed for cancer diagnosis applications, most of which relying on costly antibodies. Since some cancer cells display abnormal mechanical properties, new sorting tools based on mechanical sensing are of particular interest. We present a simple, passive pinched flow microfluidic system for capsule sorting. The device consists of a straight microchannel containing a cylindrical obstacle. Thanks to a flow-focusing module placed at the channel entrance, capsules arrive well-centered in the vicinity of the obstacle. Pure size-sorting can be achieved at low shear rate. When increasing the shear rate, capsules are deformed in the narrow space between the pillar and the wall. The softer the capsule, the more tightly it wraps around the obstacle. After the obstacle, streamlines diverge, allowing for the separation between soft capsules, that follow central streamlines, and stiff capsules, that drift away from the obstacle with a wider angle. This proves that we have developed a flexible multipurpose sorting microsystem based on a simple design.

  13. Capillary deformations of bendable films.

    PubMed

    Schroll, R D; Adda-Bedia, M; Cerda, E; Huang, J; Menon, N; Russell, T P; Toga, K B; Vella, D; Davidovitch, B

    2013-07-01

    We address the partial wetting of liquid drops on ultrathin solid sheets resting on a deformable foundation. Considering the membrane limit of sheets that can relax compression through wrinkling at negligible energetic cost, we revisit the classical theory for the contact of liquid drops on solids. Our calculations and experiments show that the liquid-solid-vapor contact angle is modified from the Young angle, even though the elastic bulk modulus (E) of the sheet is so large that the ratio between the surface tension γ and E is of molecular size. This finding indicates a new elastocapillary phenomenon that stems from the high bendability of very thin elastic sheets rather than from material softness. We also show that the size of the wrinkle pattern that emerges in the sheet is fully predictable, thus resolving a puzzle in modeling "drop-on-a-floating-sheet" experiments and enabling a quantitative, calibration-free use of this setup for the metrology of ultrathin films. PMID:23863002

  14. Mathematical textbook of deformable neuroanatomies.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M I; Christensen, G E; Amit, Y; Grenander, U

    1993-01-01

    Mathematical techniques are presented for the transformation of digital anatomical textbooks from the ideal to the individual, allowing for the representation of the variabilities manifest in normal human anatomies. The ideal textbook is constructed on a fixed coordinate system to contain all of the information currently available about the physical properties of neuroanatomies. This information is obtained via sensor probes such as magnetic resonance, as well as computed axial and emission tomography, along with symbolic information such as white- and gray-matter tracts, nuclei, etc. Human variability associated with individuals is accommodated by defining probabilistic transformations on the textbook coordinate system, the transformations forming mathematical translation groups of high dimension. The ideal is applied to the individual patient by finding the transformation which is consistent with physical properties of deformable elastic solids and which brings the coordinate system of the textbook to that of the patient. Registration, segmentation, and fusion all result automatically because the textbook carries symbolic values as well as multisensor features. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:8265653

  15. Weak associativity and deformation quantization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kupriyanov, V. G.

    2016-09-01

    Non-commutativity and non-associativity are quite natural in string theory. For open strings it appears due to the presence of non-vanishing background two-form in the world volume of Dirichlet brane, while in closed string theory the flux compactifications with non-vanishing three-form also lead to non-geometric backgrounds. In this paper, working in the framework of deformation quantization, we study the violation of associativity imposing the condition that the associator of three elements should vanish whenever each two of them are equal. The corresponding star products are called alternative and satisfy important for physical applications properties like the Moufang identities, alternative identities, Artin's theorem, etc. The condition of alternativity is invariant under the gauge transformations, just like it happens in the associative case. The price to pay is the restriction on the non-associative algebra which can be represented by the alternative star product, it should satisfy the Malcev identity. The example of nontrivial Malcev algebra is the algebra of imaginary octonions. For this case we construct an explicit expression of the non-associative and alternative star product. We also discuss the quantization of Malcev-Poisson algebras of general form, study its properties and provide the lower order expression for the alternative star product. To conclude we define the integration on the algebra of the alternative star products and show that the integrated associator vanishes.

  16. Crustal deformation: Earth vs Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turcotte, D. L.

    1989-01-01

    It is timely to consider the possible tectonic regimes on Venus both in terms of what is known about Venus and in terms of deformation mechanisms operative on the earth. Plate tectonic phenomena dominate tectonics on the earth. Horizontal displacements are associated with the creation of new crust at ridges and destruction of crust at trenches. The presence of plate tectonics on Venus is debated, but there is certainly no evidence for the trenches associated with subduction on the earth. An essential question is what kind of tectonics can be expected if there is no plate tectonics on Venus. Mars and the Moon are reference examples. Volcanic constructs appear to play a dominant role on Mars but their role on Venus is not clear. On single plate planets and satellites, tectonic structures are often associated with thermal stresses. Cooling of a planet leads to thermal contraction and surface compressive features. Delamination has been propsed for Venus by several authors. Delamination is associated with the subduction of the mantle lithosphere and possibly the lower crust but not the upper crust. The surface manifestations of delamination are unclear. There is some evidence that delamination is occurring beneath the Transverse Ranges in California. Delamination will certainly lead to lithospheric thinning and is likely to lead to uplift and crustal thinning.

  17. Mathematical textbook of deformable neuroanatomies.

    PubMed

    Miller, M I; Christensen, G E; Amit, Y; Grenander, U

    1993-12-15

    Mathematical techniques are presented for the transformation of digital anatomical textbooks from the ideal to the individual, allowing for the representation of the variabilities manifest in normal human anatomies. The ideal textbook is constructed on a fixed coordinate system to contain all of the information currently available about the physical properties of neuroanatomies. This information is obtained via sensor probes such as magnetic resonance, as well as computed axial and emission tomography, along with symbolic information such as white- and gray-matter tracts, nuclei, etc. Human variability associated with individuals is accommodated by defining probabilistic transformations on the textbook coordinate system, the transformations forming mathematical translation groups of high dimension. The ideal is applied to the individual patient by finding the transformation which is consistent with physical properties of deformable elastic solids and which brings the coordinate system of the textbook to that of the patient. Registration, segmentation, and fusion all result automatically because the textbook carries symbolic values as well as multisensor features. PMID:8265653

  18. Capillary Deformations of Bendable Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schroll, R. D.; Adda-Bedia, M.; Cerda, E.; Huang, J.; Menon, N.; Russell, T. P.; Toga, K. B.; Vella, D.; Davidovitch, B.

    2013-07-01

    We address the partial wetting of liquid drops on ultrathin solid sheets resting on a deformable foundation. Considering the membrane limit of sheets that can relax compression through wrinkling at negligible energetic cost, we revisit the classical theory for the contact of liquid drops on solids. Our calculations and experiments show that the liquid-solid-vapor contact angle is modified from the Young angle, even though the elastic bulk modulus (E) of the sheet is so large that the ratio between the surface tension γ and E is of molecular size. This finding indicates a new elastocapillary phenomenon that stems from the high bendability of very thin elastic sheets rather than from material softness. We also show that the size of the wrinkle pattern that emerges in the sheet is fully predictable, thus resolving a puzzle in modeling “drop-on-a-floating-sheet” experiments and enabling a quantitative, calibration-free use of this setup for the metrology of ultrathin films.

  19. Models of the Dynamic Deformations of Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merzhievsky, Lev; Voronin, Mihail; Korchagina, Anna

    2013-06-01

    In the process of deformation under the influence of external loading polymeric mediums show the complicated behavior connected with features of their structure. For amorphous polymers distinguish three physical conditions - glasslike, highlyelastic and viscoplastic. To each of the listed conditions there corresponds to mikro - meso- and macrostructural mechanisms of irreversible deformation. In the report the review of results of construction of models for the description of dynamic and shock-wave deformation of the polymers which are based on developed authors representations about mechanisms of irreversible deformation is made. Models include the formulation of the equations of conservation laws, considering effect of a relaxation of shear stresses in the process of deformation. For closing of models the equations of states with nonspherical tensor of deformations and relation for time of a relaxation of shear stresses are constructed. With using of the formulated models a number of problems of dynamic and shock wave deformations has been solved. The results are compared with corresponding experimental date. Development of the used approach are in summary discussed. To taking into account memory and fractal properties of real polymers is supposed of derivatives and integrals of a fractional order to use. Examples of constitutive equations with derivatives of a fractional order are presented. This work is supported by the Integration project of the Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Science 64 and grant RFBR 12-01-00726.

  20. Ultrasound evaluation of foot deformities in infants.

    PubMed

    Miron, Marie-Claude; Grimard, Guy

    2016-02-01

    Foot deformity in infants is the most common congenital musculoskeletal condition. A precise diagnosis can sometimes be impossible to establish clinically. Radiologic imaging plays a major role in the evaluation of musculoskeletal abnormalities. However conventional imaging techniques, such as plain radiographs of the foot, are of very little help in this age group because of the lack of ossification of the tarsal bones. US presents a significant advantage because it permits the visualization of cartilaginous structures. This leads to the detailed assessment of foot deformities in infants. Furthermore, US can also be used as a dynamic imaging modality. Different scanning views are beneficial to evaluate the complete anatomy of the foot; depending on the suspected clinical diagnosis, some planes are more informative to display the pathological features of a specific deformity. We describe the US findings of five of the most common foot deformities referred to our pediatric orthopedic clinic (clubfoot, simple metatarsus adductus, skewfoot, and oblique and vertical talus). For each deformity we propose a specific imaging protocol based on US to provide an accurate diagnosis. US is a complementary tool to the clinical examination for determining the diagnosis and the severity of the deformity and also for monitoring the efficacy of treatment. Radiologists investigating foot deformities in infants should consider using US for the detailed assessment of the foot in this age group. PMID:26459012

  1. Salient region preservation for image deformation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yong; Lai, Jianhuang; Yuen, Pong C.; Xie, Xiaohua

    2014-11-01

    We present an interactive image deformation method which preserves the local shapes of salient objects in the concerned image during the deformation. The proposed method falls into the moving least squares (MLS) framework, but notably differs from the original MLS deformation method. First, a saliency-related distance is developed to replace the original Euclidean distance in the weight definition. Second, the original affine matrix is decomposed into a single rotation matrix and a symmetric matrix by using a singular value decomposition, then the free parameters of these matrices are interpolated according to the saliency information. Furthermore, for the line-based MLS deformation, the closed-form solution of weight cannot be found directly when using the proposed saliency-based distance. To address this problem, we propose a method using an exponential transformation to regulate the weight where the regulation factor is also correlated to saliency information. All these revisions lead a saliency-sensitive mapping which creates a deformation change in the nonvital parts of image while preserving the local shapes of salient parts. Experimental results show that the proposed deformation outperforms the original MLS deformation in terms of visual performance.

  2. A Deformable Atlas of the Laboratory Mouse

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hongkai; Stout, David B.; Chatziioannou, Arion F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose This paper presents a deformable mouse atlas of the laboratory mouse anatomy. This atlas is fully articulated and can be positioned into arbitrary body poses. The atlas can also adapt body weight by changing body length and fat amount. Procedures A training set of 103 micro-CT images was used to construct the atlas. A cage-based deformation method was applied to realize the articulated pose change. The weight-related body deformation was learned from the training set using a linear regression method. A conditional Gaussian model and thin-plate spline mapping were used to deform the internal organs following the changes of pose and weight. Results The atlas was deformed into different body poses and weights, and the deformation results were more realistic compared to the results achieved with other mouse atlases. The organ weights of this atlas matched well with the measurements of real mouse organ weights. This atlas can also be converted into voxelized images with labeled organs, pseudo CT images and tetrahedral mesh for phantom studies. Conclusions With the unique ability of articulated pose and weight changes, the deformable laboratory mouse atlas can become a valuable tool for preclinical image analysis. PMID:25049072

  3. Motion of deformable ring made of IPMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firouzeh, Amir; Alasty, Aria; Ozmaeian, Masoumeh

    2011-11-01

    In this paper application of Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) as actuator in a deformable ring capable of locomotion is studied. Such a deformable ring moves as a result of gravitational force acting on its body when its shape changes. It can be used in exploration, search and rescue missions in future, where using conventional robots with rigid bodies and actuators is impossible. Large deformation induced by small stimulating voltage, low stiffness the sensing characteristics that in future work can be used in feedback control make IPMC a good choice for such an application. In this work first a model for IPMC is introduce that can be used in simulating deformation of IPMC in different arrangements of actuators. Since in this research we used our own fabricated IPMC, next we present characterization tests and identification results for model's parameters. Then using this model in simulation possibility of generating locomotion using body deformation in a ring made of IPMC is confirmed. Finally result of experiment on deformable ring is presented and possibility of implementation of the proposed design is confirmed. Based on this work, more accurate models can be developed to get better compatibility between experiment and simulation results. Also by modifying fabrication techniques, a deformable ring with faster and steadier movement can be made in future.

  4. Motion of deformable ring made of IPMC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Firouzeh, Amir; Alasty, Aria; Ozmaeian, Masoumeh

    2012-04-01

    In this paper application of Ionic Polymer Metal Composite (IPMC) as actuator in a deformable ring capable of locomotion is studied. Such a deformable ring moves as a result of gravitational force acting on its body when its shape changes. It can be used in exploration, search and rescue missions in future, where using conventional robots with rigid bodies and actuators is impossible. Large deformation induced by small stimulating voltage, low stiffness the sensing characteristics that in future work can be used in feedback control make IPMC a good choice for such an application. In this work first a model for IPMC is introduce that can be used in simulating deformation of IPMC in different arrangements of actuators. Since in this research we used our own fabricated IPMC, next we present characterization tests and identification results for model's parameters. Then using this model in simulation possibility of generating locomotion using body deformation in a ring made of IPMC is confirmed. Finally result of experiment on deformable ring is presented and possibility of implementation of the proposed design is confirmed. Based on this work, more accurate models can be developed to get better compatibility between experiment and simulation results. Also by modifying fabrication techniques, a deformable ring with faster and steadier movement can be made in future.

  5. Deformed symmetries from quantum relational observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Girelli, Florian; Poulin, David

    2007-05-01

    Deformed Special Relativity (DSR) is a candidate phenomenological theory to describe the Quantum Gravitational (QG) semi-classical regime. A possible interpretation of DSR can be derived from the notion of deformed reference frame. Observables in (quantum) General Relativity can be constructed from (quantum) reference frame - a physical observable is then a relation between a system of interest and the reference frame. We present a toy model and study an example of such quantum relational observables. We show how the intrinsic quantum nature of the reference frame naturally leads to a deformation of the symmetries, comforting DSR to be a good candidate to describe the QG semi-classical regime.

  6. Marginal deformations of nonrelativistic field theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallayev, Davron; Vázquez-Poritz, Justin F.; Zhang, Zhibai

    2014-11-01

    We construct the supergravity duals of marginal deformations of a (0, 2) Landau-Ginsburg theory that describes the supersymmetric lowest Landau level. These deformations preserve supersymmetry and it is proposed that they are associated with the introduction of a phase in the (0, 2) superpotential. We also consider marginal deformations of various field theories that exhibit Schrödinger symmetry and Lifshitz scaling. This includes countably infinite examples with dynamical exponent z =2 based on the Sasaki-Einstein spaces Yp ,q and Lp ,q ,r, as well as an example with general dynamical exponent z ≥1 .

  7. Postearthquake deformation analysis of wildlife site

    SciTech Connect

    Gu, W.H. ); Morgenstern, N.R.; Robertson, P.K. . Dept. of Civil Engineering)

    1994-02-01

    Postearthquake deformations of the Wildlife site, Imperial Valley, Calif., following the 1987 Superstition Hills earthquake, have been interpreted by finite-element deformation analyses. The analyses consider the stress redistribution and reconsolidation caused by the development of liquefaction. The stress redistribution analysis was conducted under fully undrained condition to consider the effects of strain-softening behavior of liquefied materials. The reconsolidation analysis was conducted using Biot's theory to consider the effects of dissipation of excess pore-water pressures. The results reveal that the delayed pore-water pressure response and deformation may be due to the redistribution of stresses and pore-water pressures.

  8. Deformations of GR and BH thermodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, Kirill

    2016-08-01

    In four space–time dimensions General Relativity can be non-trivially deformed. Deformed theories continue to describe two propagating degrees of freedom, as GR. We study Euclidean black hole thermodynamics of these deformations. We use the recently developed formulation that works with {{SO}}(3) connections as well as certain matrices M of auxiliary fields. We show that the black hole entropy is given by one quarter of the horizon area as measured by the Lie algebra valued two-form MF, where F is the connection curvature. This coincides with the horizon area as measured by the metric only for the case of General Relativity.

  9. Liquid Droplets on a Highly Deformable Membrane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulman, Rafael D.; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2015-11-01

    We examine the deformation produced by microdroplets atop thin elastomeric and glassy free-standing films. Because of the Laplace pressure, the droplets deform the elastic membrane thereby forming a bulge. Thus, two angles define the droplet or membrane geometry: the angles the deformed bulge and the liquid surface make with the film. These angles are measured as a function of the film tension, and are in excellent agreement with a force balance at the contact line. Finally, we find that if the membrane has an anisotropic tension, the droplets are no longer spherical but become elongated along the direction of high tension.

  10. Optical tweezer for probing erythrocyte membrane deformability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Manas; Soni, Harsh; Sood, A. K.

    2009-12-01

    We report that the average rotation speed of optically trapped crenated erythrocytes is direct signature of their membrane deformability. When placed in hypertonic buffer, discocytic erythrocytes are subjected to crenation. The deformation of cells brings in chirality and asymmetry in shape that makes them rotate under the scattering force of a linearly polarized optical trap. A change in the deformability of the erythrocytes, due to any internal or environmental factor, affects the rotation speed of the trapped crenated cells. Here we show how the increment in erythrocyte membrane rigidity with adsorption of Ca++ ions can be exhibited through this approach.

  11. Spoken Persuasive Discourse Abilities of Adolescents with Acquired Brain Injury

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moran, Catherine; Kirk, Cecilia; Powell, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the performance of adolescents with acquired brain injury (ABI) during a spoken persuasive discourse task. Persuasive discourse is frequently used in social and academic settings and is of importance in the study of adolescent language. Method: Participants included 8 adolescents with ABI and 8 peers…

  12. Young Children's Recognition of How and when Knowledge Was Acquired

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tang, Connie M.; Bartsch, Karen

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments investigated young children's understanding of how and when knowledge was acquired. In Experiment 1, thirty 4- and 5-year-olds were shown or told about various toys hidden in distinctive containers in two sessions a week apart. In the second session, children were asked how and when they learned the containers' contents. They more…

  13. Unexpected postpartum hemorrhage due to an acquired factor VIII inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Paidas, Michael J; Hossain, Nazli

    2014-09-01

    Unexplained postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) refractory to standard hemostatic measures should trigger a heightened clinical suspicion of an acquired bleeding disorder. When hemostatic medical interventions and surgical procedures fail to control the bleeding, then significant postoperative blood loss, debilitating morbidity, loss of fertility, and death may occur. In the setting of an autoantibody inhibitor to factor VIII (FVIII), control of life-threatening PPH and avoidance of subsequent bleeding episodes depends on a timely and accurate diagnosis, prompt hemostatic treatment and eradication of FVIII inhibitors, and appropriate long-term patient care and management. Acquired postpartum hemophilia due to a FVIII inhibitor is a rare cause of PPH; however, delayed treatment can lead to increased maternal morbidity and mortality. Acquired FVIII inhibitors also pose an emerging bleeding threat to the neonate as a result of possible transplacental transfer of FVIII autoantibodies to the fetus during the last trimester of pregnancy. The purpose of this review is to increase awareness among hematologists and obstetricians/gynecologists regarding the occurrence of FVIII neutralizing autoantibodies as a cause of PPH, and emphasize the importance of collaboration between obstetrician/gynecologists and hematology specialists to optimize the diagnostic evaluation, treatment, and long-term management of women who experience PPH due to an acquired FVIII inhibitor. PMID:24338123

  14. [Acquired agammaglobulinaemia with predominantly intestinal symptoms (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Goldach, R; Wittwer, J

    1977-11-01

    In a 45-year-old female patient primary acquired agammaglobulinaemia was diagnosed. Intestinal symptoms predominated. The disease was characterized by a B-cell defect. Substitution with gamma-globulin (Beriglobin) practically cured the symptoms. The pathogenesis of the disease remains unexplained. PMID:72639

  15. Acquired inducible antimicrobial resistance in Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Chancey, Scott T; Zähner, Dorothea; Stephens, David S

    2012-01-01

    A major contributor to the emergence of antibiotic resistance in Gram-positive bacterial pathogens is the expansion of acquired, inducible genetic elements. Although acquired, inducible antibiotic resistance is not new, the interest in its molecular basis has been accelerated by the widening distribution and often ‘silent’ spread of the elements responsible, the diagnostic challenges of such resistance and the mounting limitations of available agents to treat Gram-positive infections. Acquired, inducible antibiotic resistance elements belong to the accessory genome of a species and are horizontally acquired by transformation/recombination or through the transfer of mobile DNA elements. The two key, but mechanistically very different, induction mechanisms are: ribosome-sensed induction, characteristic of the macrolide–lincosamide–streptogramin B antibiotics and tetracycline resistance, leading to ribosomal modifications or efflux pump activation; and resistance by cell surface-associated sensing of β-lactams (e.g., oxacillin), glycopeptides (e.g., vancomycin) and the polypeptide bacitracin, leading to drug inactivation or resistance due to cell wall alterations. PMID:22913355

  16. Bleomycin Containing Chemotherapeutic Regimen Induced Acquired Partial Lipodystrophy

    PubMed Central

    Tandon, Vishal R; Gupte, Novy; Mahajan, Vivek; Sharma, Rahul; Langer, Cheena; Khajuria, Vijay; Mahajan, Annil

    2016-01-01

    Bleomycin toxicity predominantly affects the skin and lungs. Cutaneous toxicity classically known to present with bleomycin are flagellate erythema and drug rash. We hereby report an isolated case of (bleomyicn)-induced acquired partial (lipodytrophy) having potential cosmetic implications in a young women prescribed postoperatively following a case of germ cell carcinoma of ovary (endodermal sinus tumor). PMID:26955139

  17. A Research-Inspired Laboratory Sequence Investigating Acquired Drug Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Elizabeth Vogel; Fortune, Jennifer A.; Drennan, Catherine L.

    2010-01-01

    Here, we present a six-session laboratory exercise designed to introduce students to standard biochemical techniques in the context of investigating a high impact research topic, acquired resistance to the cancer drug Gleevec. Students express a Gleevec-resistant mutant of the Abelson tyrosine kinase domain, the active domain of an oncogenic…

  18. School Reentry for Children with Acquired Central Nervous Systems Injuries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carney, Joan; Porter, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Onset of acquired central nervous system (CNS) injury during the normal developmental process of childhood can have impact on cognitive, behavioral, and motor function. This alteration of function often necessitates special education programming, modifications, and accommodations in the education setting for successful school reentry. Special…

  19. Frames of Reference in Spatial Memories Acquired From Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mou, Weimin; Zhang, Kan; McNamara, Timothy P.

    2004-01-01

    Four experiments examined reference systems in spatial memories acquired from language. Participants read narratives that located 4 objects in canonical (front, back, left, right) or noncanonical (left front, right front, left back, right back) positions around them. Participants' focus of attention was first set on each of the 4 objects, and then…

  20. Developmental and Acquired Dyslexia: Some Observations on Jorm (1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Andrew W.

    1979-01-01

    Jorm's proposal (EJ 205 636) that developmental dyslexics resemble brain-damaged deep dyslexics is not grounded on firm evidence. Holmes' likening of developmental dyslexia to acquired surface dyslexia at least demonstrates clear similarity between the errors made by the two groups. (Author/CP)

  1. Grief and Needs of Adults with Acquired Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Shirley A.; McKay, Robert C.; Nieuwoudt, Johan M.

    2010-01-01

    This report aims to illuminate the complex phenomenon of grief and the needs experienced throughout the time course of their impairments by adults with acquired visual impairments. The study applied a phenomenological research strategy using 10 case studies of South African adults, visually impaired within and beyond six years. Qualitative…

  2. Learning through Business Games: Acquiring Competences within Virtual Realities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fortmuller, Richard

    2009-01-01

    The didactic function of business games is often seen only in the development of sociocommunicative competences and general problem-solving strategies. An equally important aspect of business games lies in the acquirement of technical and problem-oriented knowledge, which is the focus of this article. Moreover, this knowledge dimension is further…

  3. Management of Travel-Related Illness Acquired in Haiti.

    PubMed

    Walters, Michele

    2015-12-01

    Management of travel-related diseases acquired in Haiti begins with the identification of tropical diseases that are prevalent in the region. Knowledge of various tropical disease incubation periods and presenting symptoms is crucial to ensure rapid triage and management of care. PMID:26596662

  4. A case of acquired Gitelman syndrome presenting as hypokalemic paralysis

    PubMed Central

    Kulkarni, M.; Kadri, P.; Pinto, R.

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a young female patient who presented with weakness of upper and lower limbs. On evaluation, she had hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, metabolic alkalosis and hypocalciuria. Anti-Ro (SSA) antibody was positive. She had an acquired Gitelman syndrome due to primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). SS presenting with features of Gitelman syndrome is very rare. PMID:26199478

  5. A case of acquired Gitelman syndrome presenting as hypokalemic paralysis.

    PubMed

    Kulkarni, M; Kadri, P; Pinto, R

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a young female patient who presented with weakness of upper and lower limbs. On evaluation, she had hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia, metabolic alkalosis and hypocalciuria. Anti-Ro (SSA) antibody was positive. She had an acquired Gitelman syndrome due to primary Sjögren's syndrome (SS). SS presenting with features of Gitelman syndrome is very rare. PMID:26199478

  6. 30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section 879.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER §...

  7. 30 CFR 879.14 - Management of acquired land.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Management of acquired land. 879.14 Section 879.14 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR ABANDONED MINE LAND RECLAMATION ACQUISITION, MANAGEMENT, AND DISPOSITION OF LANDS AND WATER §...

  8. Amazing Stories: Acquiring and Avoiding Inaccurate Information from Fiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rapp, David N.; Hinze, Scott R.; Slaten, Daniel G.; Horton, William S.

    2014-01-01

    Authors of fiction need not provide accurate accounts of the world, which might generate concern about the kinds of information people can acquire from narratives. Research has demonstrated that readers liberally encode and rely upon the information provided in fictional stories. To date, materials used to demonstrate these effects have largely…

  9. Students with Acquired Brain Injury. The School's Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glang, Ann, Ed.; Singer, George H. S., Ed.; Todis, Bonnie, Ed.

    Designed for educators, this book focuses on educational issues relating to students with acquired brain injury (ABI), and describes approaches that have been effective in improving the school experiences of students with brain injury. Section 1 provides an introduction to issues related to ABI in children and youth and includes: "An Overview of…

  10. 41 CFR 128-1.5002-1 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acquire. 128-1.5002-1 Section 128-1.5002-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.50-Authorities and Responsibilities...

  11. 41 CFR 128-1.5002-1 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acquire. 128-1.5002-1 Section 128-1.5002-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE 1-INTRODUCTION 1.50-Authorities and Responsibilities...

  12. Acquiring Software Design Schemas: A Machine Learning Perspective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harandi, Mehdi T.; Lee, Hing-Yan

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an approach based on machine learning that acquires software design schemas from design cases of existing applications. An overview of the technique, design representation, and acquisition system are presented. the paper also addresses issues associated with generalizing common features such as biases. The generalization process is illustrated using an example.

  13. A Corpus-Based Comparative Study of "Learn" and "Acquire"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Bei

    2016-01-01

    As an important yet intricate linguistic feature in English language, synonymy poses a great challenge for second language learners. Using the 100 million-word British National Corpus (BNC) as data and the software Sketch Engine (SkE) as an analyzing tool, this article compares the usage of "learn" and "acquire" used in natural…

  14. 43 CFR 3110.5-3 - Acquired lands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Acquired lands. 3110.5-3 Section 3110.5-3 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT...) If the lands applied for do not conform to the rectangular system of public land surveys, but...

  15. 33 CFR 211.2 - Authority to acquire real estate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... of the Army to acquire real estate for river and harbor improvements, flood control projects and... appropriating funds therefor. These enactments are generally termed Flood Control Acts and are passed following... consideration and approval. (c) Local cooperation. As a general rule in river and harbor and flood...

  16. Acquired Dysarthria in Conversation: Identifying Sources of Understandability Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bloch, Steven; Wilkinson, Ray

    2009-01-01

    Background: Acquired progressive dysarthria is traditionally assessed, rated, and researched using measures of speech perception and intelligibility. The focus is commonly on the individual with dysarthria and how speech deviates from a normative range. A complementary approach is to consider the features and consequences of dysarthric speech as…

  17. 10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... of crude oil, DOE shall, through certified contracting officers, conduct crude oil acquisitions in... grades and quantities of crude oil. (d) Market analysis. (1) DOE shall establish a market value for each... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquiring oil by direct purchase. 626.6 Section...

  18. 10 CFR 626.6 - Acquiring oil by direct purchase.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... of crude oil, DOE shall, through certified contracting officers, conduct crude oil acquisitions in... grades and quantities of crude oil. (d) Market analysis. (1) DOE shall establish a market value for each... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acquiring oil by direct purchase. 626.6 Section...

  19. The Method To Acquire the Strategic Knowledge on Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takaoka, Ryo; Okamoto, Toshio

    As a person learns, his problem solving ability improves and one reason for this is the increased acquisition of "macro-rules" which make problem solving more efficient. An intelligent computer assisted learning (ICAI) system is being developed which automatically acquires the useful knowledge from the domain experts; as experts give the learning…

  20. Heat Stress Screening of Peanut Seedlings for Acquired Thermotolerance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop a user-friendly and medium throughput laboratory protocol using acquired thermotolerance (ATT) in peanut seedlings as a measure of one mechanism of heat stress tolerance. Sixteen genotypes, including selected accessions of the U.S. peanut min...