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Sample records for acquired immune-deficiency syndrome

  1. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy occurring with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    England, J D; Hsu, C Y; Garen, P D; Goust, J M; Biggs, P J

    1984-08-01

    A 33-year-old homosexual man with symptoms and signs of a focal brain process was subsequently found to have an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) with biopsy-proven progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. This report reemphasizes the association of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with AIDS and probably is best viewed as another example of an opportunistic CNS infection complicating deficient cell-mediated immunity. PMID:6540476

  2. DNA image cytometry in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Auffermann, W; Krueger, G R; Böcking, A

    1986-03-01

    In nine cases with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), including four stage I cases, three stage II cases and two stage III cases, DNA image cytometry was performed on Feulgen-stained lymph node imprint smears. Diploidy was found in three cases, tetraploidy in three cases and octoploidy in two cases. Aneuploid DNA distribution patterns were not seen. The lymphoid cells showed an enormously increased proliferation rate. Two cases in stage I revealed characteristic intranuclear DNA inclusions in lymphoid cells. These results indicate that DNA image cytometry may be useful as an adjunct to surgical pathology in certain cases to assist in the differential diagnosis between AIDS and benign conditions of the lymphoid system as well as between AIDS and malignant lymphomas, which usually have aneuploid DNA patterns.

  3. Autopsy pathology in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, C. M.; O'Leary, T. J.; Levens, D. L.; Simrell, C. R.; Macher, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a devastating new illness which appears to be sexually and parenterally transmissible. AIDS was first described in the male homosexual community; however, the disease has more recently been described among intravenous drug abusers, Haitians, hemophiliacs, and others. The etiologic agent is unknown. AIDS may represent an infection by a previously undescribed organism, a mutant of a known microorganism, or a multifactorial combination of environmental, immunologic, and genetic factors. As a consequence of the disease's seemingly irreversible ablation of the cell-mediated immune system, AIDS victims succumb to a variety of infections and/or unusual neoplasms. In its fully developed form, mortality approaches 100%. At autopsy the gross and microscopic pathology of the syndrome can be divided into three general categories: 1) morphologic manifestations of profound lymphoid depletion; 2) infections, usually with mixed opportunistic pathogens; and 3) unusual neoplasms, most frequently Kaposi's sarcoma or high-grade lymphomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 PMID:6311021

  4. Monocyte function in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Defective chemotaxis.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, P D; Ohura, K; Masur, H; Lane, H C; Fauci, A S; Wahl, S M

    1984-01-01

    The ineffective immune response in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) contributes to severe and widespread infections and unrestricted growth by certain tumors. To determine whether monocyte dysfunction contributes to this immunosuppressed condition, we investigated monocyte chemotaxis in patients with AIDS. Using three different chemotactic stimuli, N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine, lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor, and C5a des Arg, we studied the chemotactic responses of monocytes from seven homosexual men with AIDS, three homosexuals with lymphadenopathy and an abnormal immunological profile, seven healthy homosexual men, and 23 heterosexual control individuals. Monocytes from each of the AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma and/or opportunistic infection exhibited a marked reduction in chemotaxis to all stimuli compared with the healthy control subjects. The reduced chemotactic responses were observed over a wide range of concentrations for each stimulus. Monocytes from AIDS patients who had clinically apparent opportunistic infection(s) exhibited a greater reduction in monocyte migration to all three stimuli than monocytes from the AIDS patient with only Kaposi's sarcoma. Monocytes from each of three homosexuals with lymphadenopathy and an abnormal immunological profile exhibited decreased chemotactic responses that were intermediate between those of the AIDS patients and the healthy heterosexual control subjects. In contrast to these findings, monocytes from each of seven healthy homosexuals exhibited normal chemotactic responses to the same stimuli. In addition, monocytes from AIDS patients exhibited reduced chemotaxis to soluble products of Giardia lamblia, one of several protozoan parasites prevalent in AIDS patients. Thus the immune abnormality in AIDS, previously thought to involve only the T-, B-, and natural killer lymphocytes, extends to the monocyte-macrophage. Defective monocyte migratory function may contribute to

  5. Small intestinal lymphoma in three patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Steinberg, J J; Bridges, N; Feiner, H D; Valensi, Q

    1985-01-01

    Three cases of small bowel lymphoma in young homosexual men are presented. All three had acquired immune deficiency syndrome as demonstrated by demography, sexual history, cachexia, opportunistic infections by Cytomegalovirus, Pneumocystis carinii, atypical Mycobacterium, Candida, and/or evidence of immune deficiency, such as skin test anergy, lymphopenia, inversion of T-helper/T-suppressor ratio, and diminished lymphocyte response to either phytohemmaglutinin or pokeweed mitogen. All had peripheral and/or abdominal lymphadenopathy, and gastrointestinal symptoms, e.g., diarrhea, spasms, constipation, and oral candidiasis. The diagnosis of lymphoma was made at laparotomy in all cases. All three had complete removal of localized tumor (stage Ie or IIe), yet died within 6 months of surgery and/or chemotherapy. Thus gastrointestinal complaints may not always be related to "gay bowel" syndrome, or other infectious diseases in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Small intestinal lymphoma should be added to the list of neoplasms to which this group is susceptible.

  6. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, AIDS: A Selected Bibliography of Federal Government Publications. Research Guide 90 104.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Margaret

    This research guide presents a selected bibliography of federal government publications about the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). These documents are listed in five categories: (1) Bibliographies (7); (2) Congressional Publications (69 hearings and reports); (3) Executive Branch Publications (43 reports); (4) Federal Government…

  7. Semantic Differential Responses to Educational Posters on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Christopher; Stewin, Leonard L.

    1992-01-01

    Undergraduate students (n=131) responded to eight educational posters dealing with the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) using a nine-item semantic differential scale. Two posters were consistently rated as more informative, reassuring, effective, decent, and better than the others. The first utilized an objective and informative…

  8. Teaching AIDS. A Resource Guide on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quackenbush, Marcia; Sargent, Pamela

    The first edition of this resource guide for educators on how to teach students about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) was published in 1986. Since then, basic facts about the transmission and prevention of the AIDS virus have not changed substantially. The terminologies about the disease, however, have changed and the changing…

  9. Primary cardiac lymphoma in a patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Constantino, A.; West, T.E.; Gupta, M.; Loghmanee, F.

    1987-12-01

    A 34-year-old male prisoner with a history of intravenous drug abuse presented with fever, lymphadenopathy, weight loss, and recent onset of congestive heart failure. Serologic testing was positive for antibodies to human immune deficiency virus. There was intense myocardial uptake of gallium. Autopsy showed a primary immunoblastic lymphoma involving only the myocardium. While primary cardiac lymphoma is an extremely rare condition, the incidence may be higher in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and should be suspected in cases with atypical cardiomyopathy.

  10. The science base underlying research on acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Taube, S; Goldberg, M

    1983-01-01

    In order to define the clinical syndrome of AIDS and begin to deal with it effectively, scientists needed to understand how the immune system works. Fortunately, considerable knowledge was available: research in immunology over the last two decades had provided the technological advances and basic information about cell-mediated immunity that were necessary for identification of the syndrome. Without this knowledge base, immune suppression would not have been recognized as the common link among AIDS patients manifesting a variety of infections and unusual neoplasms. Similarly, research on infectious diseases, and in particular on the role of viruses as etiologic agents, has had an important bearing on understanding of AIDS. The epidemiologic data to date indicate that an infectious agent most likely is involved and that transmission of the disease requires intimate contact and perhaps some passage of blood. Among the candidates for viral agents are Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, and human T-cell leukemia virus. All have been isolated from the cells of AIDS victims, but whether they are etiologic agents or opportunistic pathogens remains unresolved. Knowledge gained from the study of any of these viruses will contribute to understanding of AIDS, and vice versa. In this paper, we have attempted to show the integral relationship between specific research on AIDS and the ongoing research effort in related disciplines. It is important to recognize that effective research is the result of careful consideration of which questions can and should be addressed and the development of innovative approaches to gain answers to those questions. Research on AIDS is proceeding as rapidly as it is only because of the solid foundations that have been developed in the areas of immunology and virology. It is this base of research that ultimately will provide the rationale and the tools for solving new problems.

  11. Heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans) in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Detection by gallium scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Drane, W E; Tipler, B M

    1987-06-01

    A case of heterotopic ossification (myositis ossificans) secondary to the central nervous system complications of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is reported. Because of the overwhelming suspicion of infection in this patient, this diagnosis was not considered until a gallium scan revealed the typical findings of heterotopic ossification. Because of the increasing utilization of gallium imaging in the AIDS population, every imaging specialist should be aware of this potential disorder.

  12. Differences in acquired immune deficiency syndrome treatment and evaluation strategies between Chinese and Western Medicine.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhibin; Li, Xia; Yang, Jiping; Xu, Liran; Guo, Huijun

    2015-12-01

    Complementary and alternative medicine, including Chinese medicine (CM), has been used to treat acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) foralmost 30 years. We aimed to compare the main differences between AIDS treatment and evaluation strategies between CM and Western Medicine (WM), and analyze advantages and disadvantages. The characteristics of integrative medicine (IM), based on CM and WM, include a patient-centered mode of medicine based on evidence. IM focuses on complex intervention and management with systemic and individual treatment. The evaluation indexes of IM might consist of objective indicators and subjective indexes. IM might be a more valuable method for treating AIDS in the future instead of WM or CM alone.

  13. [Changes in the thoracic roentgen image in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pölzleitner, D; Herold, C; Tscholakoff, D; Imhof, H

    1990-01-19

    Since the earliest reports of what was later termed the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) appeared in 1980/81, with the recognition of opportunistic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma in homosexual men and i.v. drug abusers, more than 60% of AIDS patients develop pulmonary manifestations at some time in the course of their disease. Radiographic evaluation of the chest plays an important role in diagnosis. In fact, radiological changes are unspecific and either bacteriological proof or histological verification needs to be confirmed.

  14. Erythema elevatum diutinum in acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Can it be an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Sheethal K; Marfatia, Yogesh S.

    2016-01-01

    A 47-year-old male with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) presented with multiple hyperpigmented papules and nodules on both ankles, dorsum of bilateral feet and soles. It was associated with mild itching and pain. The patient was diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 2007. First-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) was started in 2009 to which he responded initially. He was shifted to second-line ART 11 months ago in March 2015 due to treatment failure as suggested by CD4 count of 50 cells/mm3. The present skin lesions started 2 months after the initiation of second-line ART. Differential diagnoses considered were Kaposi's sarcoma and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) related infections, but biopsy was suggestive of erythema elevatum diutinum (EED). Patient was started on oral dapsone 100 mg/day and increased to 200 mg/day to which he is responding gradually. In the present case, appearance of the lesions after initiation of second-line ART coupled with increase in CD4 count and decrease of viral load below undetectable level suggest that EED could be an IRIS. PMID:27190420

  15. Antimicrobial synergism against Mycobacterium avium complex strains isolated from patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Yajko, D M; Kirihara, J; Sanders, C; Nassos, P; Hadley, W K

    1988-01-01

    Pairs of 11 antimicrobial agents were tested in vitro for their ability to act synergistically against three strains of Mycobacterium avium complex isolated from patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. From the combinations tested, four drugs (ethambutol, rifampin, ciprofloxacin, and erythromycin) were selected for more extensive study against 20 strains of M. avium complex. The inhibitory and killing synergism obtained with combinations of two, three, or four drugs was assessed by determining the fractional inhibitory concentration index and fractional bactericidal concentration index. Inhibitory synergism occurred against 90 to 100% of the strains for all drug combinations in which ethambutol was included. Killing synergism occurred against 85 to 95% of the strains when ethambutol was used in combinations which included either rifampin or ciprofloxacin. However, killing synergism occurred against only 45% of the strains when drugs were tested at concentrations that can be obtained in patient serum. In other experiments, rifabutin (Ansamycin) gave results that were comparable to those obtained with rifampin. Clofazimine did not show synergistic killing activity at a concentration that is achievable in serum for any of the drugs tested. Our results indicate that there is considerable variability in the antimicrobial susceptibility of M. avium isolates obtained from patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. This variability could have significant impact on the clinical response to various therapies. PMID:3196000

  16. Length of survival of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome in the United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Marasca, G; McEvoy, M

    1986-01-01

    An analysis of the lengths of survival of patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome presenting with different opportunistic diseases was performed using epidemiological data routinely collected at the PHLS Communicable Disease Surveillance Centre. The overall crude case fatality rate was 55.4% (93/168). The median survival times were: 21.2 months for Kaposi's sarcoma, 12.5 months for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and 13.3 months for other opportunistic infections. The shortest median survival time (6.6 months) was found for those with both Kaposi's sarcoma and P carinii pneumonia. There were significant differences between durations of survival of patients with Kaposi's sarcoma and those with all other diseases, which indicated impaired cellular immunity apart from opportunistic infections. This analysis shows that those with Kaposi's sarcoma alone have the most favourable prognosis. PMID:3089373

  17. Social capital of Iranian patients living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome and associated factors.

    PubMed

    Ansari, S K; Nedjat, S; Jabbari, H; Saiepour, N; Heris, M J

    2015-12-13

    This study investigated the social capital of Iranian patients living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the associated factors. In a cross-sectional study the Integrated Social Capital Questionnaire was filled by a sequential sample of 300 patients visiting a referral counselling centre in Tehran. The patients' social capital scores were around 50% in the trust, social cohesion, collective action and cooperation and political empowerment domains. The groups and networks membership domain scored the lowest (27.1%). In regression analysis, employment status was significantly associated with groups and networks membership; age, marital status and financial status were associated with collective action and cooperation; period of disease awareness and marital status affected social cohesion and inclusion; and having risky behaviour affected empowerment and political action. Efforts are needed to enhance the social capital of those patients living with AIDS who are younger, unemployed, divorced/widowed, with risky behaviours and shorter disease awareness.

  18. Coping Strategies of Patients with Haemophilia as a Risk Group for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). Brief Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naji, Simon; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Plans are described for a 2-year project whose major focus is the identification of ways in which patients with hemophilia and their families assimilate, interpret, and act on information about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Findings will be related to perceived risk, anxiety levels, and the development of coping strategies.…

  19. AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; Information and Procedural Guidelines for Providing Services to Persons with AIDS/HIV. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Helena. Health Education Bureau.

    This volume consists of updated information to be inserted into a Montana AIDS Project manual on providing services to persons with acquired immune deficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV), originally published in December 1985. The updates are mainly statistics and terminology, along with the addition of several new sections.…

  20. AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, Information and Procedural Guidelines for Providing Services to Persons with AIDS/HTLV-III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Helena.

    This manual presents information about the disease, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), and guidelines for service delivery to Montana residents who have been diagnosed with AIDS or related disorders. The first section describes the disease's causes, symptoms, and transmission; risk factors; high-risk populations; prevention suggestions;…

  1. Select Personality Characteristic Differences between Caregivers for Persons with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Caregivers for Other Types of Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Angel, Daniel Scott; Heritage, Jeannette

    The purpose of this study was to analyze select personality characteristics of individuals working within the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) population in comparison to non-AIDS caregivers by using two personality assessment instruments. Subjects were from two health care provider populations. Two hundred research packets were…

  2. Predictive factors for the Nursing Diagnoses in people living with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome 1

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Richardson Augusto Rosendo; Costa, Romanniny Hévillyn Silva; Nelson, Ana Raquel Cortês; Duarte, Fernando Hiago da Silva; Prado, Nanete Caroline da Costa; Rodrigues, Eduardo Henrique Fagundes

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: to identify the predictive factors for the nursing diagnoses in people living with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome. Method: a cross-sectional study, undertaken with 113 people living with AIDS. The data were collected using an interview script and physical examination. Logistic regression was used for the data analysis, considering a level of significance of 10%. Results: the predictive factors identified were: for the nursing diagnosis of knowledge deficit-inadequate following of instructions and verbalization of the problem; for the nursing diagnosis of failure to adhere - years of study, behavior indicative of failure to adhere, participation in the treatment and forgetfulness; for the nursing diagnosis of sexual dysfunction - family income, reduced frequency of sexual practice, perceived deficit in sexual desire, perceived limitations imposed by the disease and altered body function. Conclusion: the predictive factors for these nursing diagnoses involved sociodemographic and clinical characteristics, defining characteristics, and related factors, which must be taken into consideration during the assistance provided by the nurse. PMID:27384466

  3. The keys of oxidative stress in acquired immune deficiency syndrome apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Romero-Alvira, D; Roche, E

    1998-08-01

    Apoptosis is the main cause of CD4+ T-lymphocyte depletion in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Various agents appear to be able to trigger apoptosis in CD4+ T cells, including viral proteins (i.e. gp120, Tat), inappropriate secretion of inflammatory cytokines by activated macrophages (i.e. tumor necrosis factor alpha) and toxins produced by opportunistic micro-organisms. Since oxidative stress can also induce apoptosis, it can be hypothesized that such a mechanism could participate in CD4+ T-cell apoptosis observed in AIDS. This correlates strongly with the observation that AIDS patients present low levels of antioxidants (i.e. superoxide dismutase-Mn, vitamin E, selenium and glutathion) most likely due to inappropriate nutrition (i.e. diets poor in antioxidants), alcohol and drug consumption, and digestive problems associated with the disease. Furthermore, the coadministration of the antiviral drug zidovudine with antioxidants increases its therapeutic potential. Finally, the following additional observations support the hypothesis that oxidative stress is involved in cell apoptosis in AIDS: (1) The depletion of the anti-apoptotic/antioxidant protein Bcl-2 in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected CD4+ cells; (2) a decrease of apoptosis in HIV-infected cells treated with antioxidants and; (3) the presence of the pro-apoptotic/pro-oxidant cytokines secreted by activated macrophages in AIDS patients. Therefore, anti-apoptotic/antioxidant strategies should be considered, alongside antiviral strategies, in order to design a more efficient therapy for AIDS in the near future.

  4. Effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine in treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome: 2004-2014.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Ji-Ping; Xu, Li-Ran

    2015-12-23

    Substantial progress has been made in China in using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Our objective was to review the latest developments in TCM treatment of AIDS in China between 2004 and 2014. We reviewed the content of original articles investigating the efficacy and safety of TCM for treating AIDS published in Chinese and English language journals. Relevant references from 2004 to 2014 were found using PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database. We found that TCM has been widely used for treating AIDS and its complications in China. The number of TCM studies has increased, which indicates efficacy and safety. Measures of efficacy in the reviewed articles included the alleviation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related signs and symptoms, improvements in quality of life, improvements in long-term survival, counteraction of the adverse side effects of antiviral drugs, promotion of immune reconstitution, and improvement of laboratory results. In sum, the literature indicates that TCM is safe. TCM plays an important role in the treatment of AIDS. Some studies have attempted to measure the efficacy and safety of TCM for treating AIDS, but more evidence is needed. Therefore, more research on this topic is required in the future.

  5. Physicians' obligations to patients infected with Ebola: echoes of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Minkoff, Howard; Ecker, Jeffrey

    2015-04-01

    Physicians across the United States are engaged in training in the identification, isolation, and initial care of patients with Ebola. Some will be asked to do more. The issue this viewpoint will address is the moral obligation of physicians to participate in these activities. In order to do so the implicit contract between society and its physicians will be considered, as will many of the arguments that are redolent of those that were litigated 30 years ago when acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) was raising public fears to similar levels, and some physicians were publically proclaiming their unwillingness to render care to those individuals. We will build the case that if steps are taken to reduce risks-optimal personal protective equipment and training-to what is essentially the lowest possible level then rendering care should be seen as obligatory. If not, as in the AIDS era there will be an unfair distribution of risk, with those who take their obligations seriously having to go beyond their fair measure of exposure. It would also potentially undermine patients' faith in the altruism of physicians and thereby degrade the esteem in which our profession is held and the trust that underpins the therapeutic relationship. Finally there is an implicit contract with society. Society gives tremendously to us; we encumber a debt from all society does and offers, a debt for which recompense is rarely sought. The mosaic of moral, historical, and professional imperatives to render care to the infected all echoes the words of medicine's moral leaders in the AIDS epidemic. Arnold Relman perhaps put it most succinctly, "the risk of contracting the patient's disease is one of the risks that is inherent in the profession of medicine. Physicians who are not willing to accept that risk…ought not be in the practice of medicine." PMID:25530596

  6. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma of hard palate as first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Narwal, Anjali; Yadav, Achla Bharti; Prakash, Sant; Gupta, Shally

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an uncommon disease, accounting for <5% of all cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We report a case of 48-year-old male who presented a clinically benign swelling in the right anterior palatal region since last 2 months. Radiographic evaluation showed no bone loss in palatal area. Histological and radiological examination was in favor of a peripheral reactive lesion like pyogenic granuloma or a benign salivary gland tumor. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative (ALK(−)) ALCL. Further laboratory tests ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and CD4 cell count was done which showed positivity for HIV. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case of ALK(−) ALCL in the hard palate presenting as the first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. PMID:27041916

  7. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma of hard palate as first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Narwal, Anjali; Yadav, Achla Bharti; Prakash, Sant; Gupta, Shally

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an uncommon disease, accounting for <5% of all cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We report a case of 48-year-old male who presented a clinically benign swelling in the right anterior palatal region since last 2 months. Radiographic evaluation showed no bone loss in palatal area. Histological and radiological examination was in favor of a peripheral reactive lesion like pyogenic granuloma or a benign salivary gland tumor. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative (ALK(-)) ALCL. Further laboratory tests ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and CD4 cell count was done which showed positivity for HIV. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case of ALK(-) ALCL in the hard palate presenting as the first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. PMID:27041916

  8. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase negative anaplastic large cell lymphoma of hard palate as first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Narwal, Anjali; Yadav, Achla Bharti; Prakash, Sant; Gupta, Shally

    2016-01-01

    Anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL) is an uncommon disease, accounting for <5% of all cases of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. We report a case of 48-year-old male who presented a clinically benign swelling in the right anterior palatal region since last 2 months. Radiographic evaluation showed no bone loss in palatal area. Histological and radiological examination was in favor of a peripheral reactive lesion like pyogenic granuloma or a benign salivary gland tumor. Immunohistochemistry confirmed the diagnosis of anaplastic lymphoma kinase-negative (ALK(-)) ALCL. Further laboratory tests ELISA for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and CD4 cell count was done which showed positivity for HIV. To the best of our knowledge, it is the first case of ALK(-) ALCL in the hard palate presenting as the first clinical manifestation of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

  9. Toenail onychomycosis in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome: treatment with terbinafine.

    PubMed

    Herranz, P; García, J; De Lucas, R; González, J; Peña, J M; Díaz, R; Casado, M

    1997-10-01

    Skin infections caused by dermatophytes are one of the most frequent dermatological complications in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) resulting from infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Tinea unguium associated with AIDS is characterized by being clinically more aggressive and therapeutically more difficult to treat than in the general population. Terbinafine is considered to be a first-choice option for the treatment of dermatophyte onychomycosis in immunocompetent individuals. This drug has been used in a series of 21 HIV-positive patients diagnosed with tinea unguium for 1 year in the University Hospital La Paz, Madrid. All patients underwent a subsequent clinical follow-up for 6 months. The results showed a high percentage of clinical and mycological cures, as well as maintenance of the response after follow-up; no drug interactions or significant adverse effects related to the drug under study were recorded.

  10. Health related quality of life: is it another comprehensive evaluation indicator of Chinese medicine on acquired immune deficiency syndrome treatment?

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhibin; Yang, Jiping

    2015-10-01

    Health related quality of life (HRQOL) can better reflect changes in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and inform economic evaluation of AIDS treatment services, and the assessment of HRQOL can help us to detect problems that may influence the progression of the disease, hence HRQOL has become a particularly important assessment indictor for HIV comprehensive interventions. Being a multi-angle, multi-level, and diversified complex intervention, roles of Chinese medicine (CM) in AIDS treatment have been recognized and accepted by more and more patients, and HRQOL has been widely used to evaluate the comprehensive management effects of CM on AIDS. In this article, the authors analyze the definition and measurement of HRQOL, measurement of HRQOL of HIV/AIDS patients and effects of CM on AIDS, and give some reasonable advices for the usage of the scale of HRQOL. The authors hold that some new HRQOL instruments specific for CM treatment of AIDS should be developed and further prospective studies should be carried out to demonstrate the practicality, reliability and validity of HRQOL as an evaluation indictor for CM treatment of AIDS.

  11. [Comment on the intervention of Traditional Chinese Medicine on survival rates of patients living with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Liu, Zhibin; Yang, Jiping; Guo, Huijun; Xu, Liran

    2016-06-01

    Despite many differences between Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) and conventional medicine, the use of TCM in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is increasingly recognized and accepted by patients. Recent research findings on the benefits of Chinese herbal medicine on long-term survival in patients with HIV/AIDS are encouraging and hopeful, but inconclusive. More research is needed.

  12. The role of nurses in the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome policy process in Botswana.

    PubMed

    Phaladze, N A

    2003-03-01

    In Botswana, there is dearth of literature on the role of nursing in health-care policy and resource allocation and yet nurses constitute the majority (85%) of health manpower. The health-care delivery system depends mostly on nurses for service provision. There were two main purposes of this study: first, to gather descriptive data from major key players (with particular emphasis on nurses) concerning knowledge of the policy process and resource allocation for management and care of clients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Botswana; and, second, to identify nurse characteristics (e.g. position, education, experience, job category) associated with motivation to influence health-care policy in HIV/AIDS management and care in Botswana. A policy process conceptual framework was used to guide data collection and analysis. A case-study research method was used to conduct in-depth interviews from a purposive sample of 19 policy makers, and a survey questionnaire was used to collect data from a purposive sample of 95 registered nurses from six study sites in Botswana. The study findings indicate minimal participation of nurses in health-care policy process and resource allocation. The demographic variable of position was a predictor of the involvement of nurses in policy and in budgetary decisions. Both survey and interview data indicated that this minimal participation of nurses in the policy process resulted in implementation problems, thus compromising service provision. Implications of the findings for the nursing profession, nursing practice and policy, which address the importance of nurses' involvement, are discussed. PMID:12581124

  13. Development and Evaluation of a Complementary and Alternative Medicine Use Survey in African-Americans with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sterk, Claire; McCarty, Frances; Hankerson-Dyson, Dana; DiClemente, Ralph

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objectives The purpose of the current study was to develop and evaluate the psychometric properties of a culturally- and stage-of-disease-appropriate measure of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use among a population of African-American individuals with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) using a mixed-method design. Design Data were collected in two phases. In phase 1, qualitative data were used to refine an existing CAM measure for the specific study population in the present study. In phase 2, this refined instrument was implemented in a larger sample. The resulting numeric data were analyzed to evaluate the psychometric properties of the revised CAM instrument. Setting Data were collected from patients who were receiving care from the infectious disease clinic of a large, public, urban hospital in the Southeastern United States. Subjects Patients were eligible to participate if they (1) were receiving their care from the clinic, (2) had an AIDS diagnosis, (3) were identified as African-American, (4) were ≥21 years of age, (5) spoke English, and (6) were not cognitively impaired. Measures Focus groups in phase 1 were conducted with a semistructured focus group guide. Participants also completed a basic sociodemographic survey. Phase 2 participants used programmed laptops to answer questions about their CAM use and several sociodemographic questions. Results Information from the focus groups prompted some substantive revisions in the already-existing CAM survey. The revised instrument had satisfactory face validity and adequate test–retest reliability (r = 0.79). Furthermore, the instrument factored in a manner that was interpretable and consistent with prior findings. Conclusions In order for human immunodeficiency virus health care providers to provide the best care to their patients, they need to be informed about the types and frequency of CAM use among their patients. This can be accomplished by methodologically developing

  14. Orchitis and human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infected cells in reproductive tissues from men with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Pudney, J.; Anderson, D.

    1991-01-01

    Mechanisms underlying human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection of the male reproductive tract and the sexual transmission of HIV-1 through semen are poorly understood. To address these issues, the authors performed morphologic and immunocytochemical analyses of reproductive tissues obtained at autopsy from 43 male acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Monoclonal antibodies recognizing different subpopulations of white blood cells were used to detect leukocyte infiltration and map the location of potential lymphocytic/monocytic HIV-1 host cells and immunocytochemistry and in situ hybridization techniques were used to detect HIV-1-infected cells in the testis, excurrent ducts, and prostate. Distinct pathologic changes were observed in a majority of testes of AIDS patients that included azoospermia, hyalinization of the boundary wall of seminiferous tubules, and lymphocytic infiltration of the interstitium. The reproductive excurrent ducts and prostate appeared morphologically normal except for the presence of focal accumulations of white blood cells in the connective tissue stroma. In the testis many white blood cells were shown to be CD4+, indicating the presence of abundant host cells (T-helper/inducer lymphocytes and macrophages) for HIV-1. Furthermore macrophages and cells of lymphocytic morphology were observed migrating across the boundary walls of hyalinized seminiferous in tubules to enter the lumen. In 9 of the 23 cases tested for HIV-1 protein expression by immunocytochemistry. HIV-1 + cells of lymphocytic/monocytic morphology were found in the seminiferous tubules and interstitium of the testis, epididymal epithelium, and connective tissue of the epididymis and prostate. One patient with epididymal blockage had accumulations of HIV-1-antigen-positive cells of macrophages morphology in the distended lumen of the efferent ducts. There was no evidence of active HIV-1 infection in germ cells or Sertoli cells of the seminiferous

  15. A Case of Mycobacterium riyadhense in an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Patient with a Suspected Paradoxical Response to Antituberculosis Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Badreddine, Samar Assem

    2016-01-01

    A 30-year-old male patient with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) presented with clinical picture suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis. He was commenced on antituberculosis therapy (ATT) with signs of improvement. Then he developed cervical lymph node abscess which was drained. Steroid was started for presumed paradoxical response to ATT which results in clinical regression. The culture result revealed Mycobacterium riyadhense. This report addresses the rarity of this bacteria in medical literature. It reviews clinical presentations and medical treatment particularly in the setting of coinfections. PMID:27703819

  16. Refractory and/or Relapsing Cryptococcosis Associated with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: Clinical Features, Genotype, and Virulence Factors of Cryptococcus spp. Isolates.

    PubMed

    Nascimento, Erika; Vitali, Lucia H; Tonani, Ludmilla; Kress, Marcia R Von Zeska; Takayanagui, Osvaldo M; Martinez, Roberto

    2016-05-01

    Refractory and relapsing crytocococcosis in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients have a poor prognosis. The risk factors for this complicated infection course were evaluated by comparing refractory and/or relapsing cryptococcosis in human immunodeficiency virus-coinfected patients (cohort 1) with another group of AIDS patients who adequately responded to antifungals (cohort 2). Except for one isolate of Cryptococcus gattii from a cohort 2 case, all other isolates were identified as Cryptococcus neoformans var. grubii, sex type α, genotype VNI, including Cryptococcus reisolated from the relapse or in the refractory state. No differences were observed with respect to Cryptococcus capsule size and in the melanin and phospholipase production. The cohort 1 patients presented higher prevalence of cryptococcemia, cerebral dissemination, chronic liver disease, and leucopenia, and have increased death rate. Apparently, the refractory and/or relapsing cryptococcosis in the AIDS patients were more related to the host and the extent of the infection than to the fungal characteristics. PMID:26928832

  17. Unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling: a management modality for treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome with Chinese medicine in Henan Province of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-jun; Liu, Zhi-bin; Li, Qiang; Yang, Ji-ping; He, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Henan Province in China has a major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Chinese medicine (CM) has been used throughout the last decade, and a management modality was developed, which can be described by unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling (UGC). The UGC modality has one primary concept (patient-centered medicine from CM theory), four basic foundations (classifying administrative region, characteristics of CM on disease treatment, health resource conditions, and distribution of patients living with HIV), six important relationships (the "three uniformities and three combinations," and the six relationships therein guide the treatment of AIDS with CM), and four key sections (management, operation, records, and evaluation). In this article, the authors introduce the UGC modality, which could be beneficial to developing countries or resource-limited areas for the management of chronic infectious disease. PMID:25877652

  18. Induction of antibody to asialo GM1 by spermatozoa and its occurrence in the sera of homosexual men with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed Central

    Witkin, S S; Sonnabend, J; Richards, J M; Purtilo, D T

    1983-01-01

    Compared to healthy homosexual and heterosexual men, homosexual men with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) possessed significantly higher levels of IgG antibody to the neutral glycolipid asialo GM1 (ganglio-N-tetraosylceramide) (P less than 0.01). Of 31 homosexuals with AIDS, 36% possessed levels of this antibody that were at least two standard deviations above the mean of the healthy men. Furthermore, asialo GM1 antibody could be removed from serum by adsorption with spermatozoa. Weekly rectal insemination of male rabbits with rabbit semen also led to the appearance of antibody to asialo GM1 by 15 weeks. These results suggest that asialo GM1 is a component of ejaculated spermatozoa and demonstrate that rectal insemination by itself can lead to the production of antibodies to this glycolipid in the rabbit. In addition, asialo GM1 antibodies may be of value as a serological marker for the early detection of individuals with AIDS. PMID:6652964

  19. Unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling: a management modality for treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome with Chinese medicine in Henan Province of China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Ran; Guo, Hui-jun; Liu, Zhi-bin; Li, Qiang; Yang, Ji-ping; He, Ying

    2015-04-01

    Henan Province in China has a major epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Chinese medicine (CM) has been used throughout the last decade, and a management modality was developed, which can be described by unified-planning, graded-administration, and centralized-controlling (UGC). The UGC modality has one primary concept (patient-centered medicine from CM theory), four basic foundations (classifying administrative region, characteristics of CM on disease treatment, health resource conditions, and distribution of patients living with HIV), six important relationships (the "three uniformities and three combinations," and the six relationships therein guide the treatment of AIDS with CM), and four key sections (management, operation, records, and evaluation). In this article, the authors introduce the UGC modality, which could be beneficial to developing countries or resource-limited areas for the management of chronic infectious disease.

  20. Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and the Veterans' Administration. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Hospitals and Health Care of the Committee on Veterans' Affairs. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Veterans' Affairs.

    This document presents witness testimony and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the issue of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the role of the Veterans' Administration (VA) in combating AIDS. Opening statements are included from Representatives G. V. Montgomery, J. Roy Rowland, Joseph P. Kennedy, II,…

  1. AIDS Federal Policy Act of 1987. Hearings on S. 1575: To Amend the Public Health Service Act To Establish a Grant Program To Provide for Counseling and Testing Services Relating to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and To Establish Certain Prohibitions for the Purpose of Protecting Individuals with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome or Related Conditions. Committee on Labor and Human Resources. United States Senate, One Hundredth Congress, First Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    This document presents the text from two Senate hearings on the AIDS Federal Policy Act of 1987 which concerns voluntary testing for AIDS virus, education and counseling to stop the spread of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), and confidentiality and discrimination against AIDS victims. In the first hearing, opening statements are…

  2. Epidemiology of children with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (stage 3): A referral hospital-based study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Zahra; Mahmoudi, Shima; Pourakbari, Babak; Keshavarz Valian, Nasrin; Sabouni, Farah; Ramezani, Amitis; Bahador, Abbas; Mamishi, Setareh

    2016-01-01

    Lack of recognition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection especially in children and delayed implementation of effective control programs makes HIV infection as a major cause for concern. Information on HIV epidemiology in Iran as well as other Islamic countries is limited. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical manifestation and laboratory finding of HIV infected children who were admitted to a referral Children Medical Center (CMC) in Tehran, Iran, during 11 years from January 2002 to January 2013. This was a retrospective study carried out over a period of 11 years. The records of all patients attending to the CMC with confirmed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were screened. The patients were evaluated for social circumstance, family history, age, gender, clinical, and laboratory features. Clinical data including fever, respiratory distress, diarrhea, rash, etc. as well as laboratory tests including complete blood count, serum glucose level, electrolytes, liver function test, cultures, CD4 lymphocyte count were evaluated. During the study period, 32 HIV positive children were enrolled. The majority of patients were presented with weight loss, prolonged fever, respiratory infection and chronic diarrhea. In this study, salmonella infections as well as streptococcal pneumonia and candida infections followed by, tuberculosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections were the predominant opportunistic infections. Since the number of HIV-positive children has been alarmingly increasing in recent years and perinatal transmission is the most common route of HIV infection in children, essential recommendations for prenatal HIV testing as well as appropriate antiretroviral therapy by HIV infected mothers are needed.

  3. Attitudes of Turkish midwives and nurses working at hospitals towards people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akgun Kostak, Melahat; Unsar, Serap; Kurt, Seda; Erol, Ozgul

    2012-10-01

    Health professionals caring for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) show poor or negative attitudes because of fear of contagion. Therefore, it is important to know the attitudes of midwives' and nurses' towards people living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this descriptive and cross-sectional study is to assess the attitudes of Turkish midwives and nurses working at hospitals to people living with HIV/AIDS and to identify factors that affect these attitudes. A group of 46 midwives and 192 nurses working in hospitals were included in the study. Data were collected through AIDS Attitude Scale. Age, professional experience, number of children and marital status influenced the attitudes of the participants towards people living with HIV/AIDS. We concluded that higher level of education appear to positively influence the attitudes of the participants. Education programmes including evidence-based nursing implications might be planned to improve positive attitudes and to prevent stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS.

  4. The thymus in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Comparison with other types of immunodeficiency diseases, and presence of components of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Schuurman, H. J.; Krone, W. J.; Broekhuizen, R.; van Baarlen, J.; van Veen, P.; Golstein, A. L.; Huber, J.; Goudsmit, J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors studied thymus specimens taken at autopsy from eight acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and compared these with those taken from four patients with congenital immunodeficiency (unrelated to an intrinsic thymus defect) and seven patients after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. In all cases, histology showed a severely involuted architecture, compatible with a debilitating disease before death. There were no major differences between thymus tissue in AIDS patients and in the other patients studied. This argues against the claim expressed in the literature that the epithelial microenvironment incurs particular HIV-1-induced injury in AIDS. This conclusion is substantiated by immunohistochemistry for HIV-1 gag and env proteins, and by hybridohistochemistry for gag/pol and env mRNA of HIV-1. Positive cells were observed only in low numbers, both inside the epithelial parenchyma and in the (expanded) perivascular areas. An interesting finding was the labeling of subcapsular/medullary epithelium in normal uninvoluted thymus by a number of antibodies to HIV-1 gag p17 and p24 proteins. Compatible with this labeling was the staining of epithelial stalks in hyperinvoluted thymuses irrespective of disease category. The previously reported cross-reactivity between HIV-1 core protein and thymosin alpha 1 cannot fully explain this observation, because the epithelium in the hyperinvoluted state is negative for thymosin alpha 1. This study confirms and extends previous reports on the endogenous presence of epitopes of retroviral antigens in thymic epithelium. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2474255

  5. Effect of traditional Chinese medicine for treating human immunodeficiency virus infections and acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Boosting immune and alleviating symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wen; Wang, Jian; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    To respond to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in China, the integration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has important implications in health outcomes, especially in China where the use of TCM is widespread. The National Free TCM Pilot Program for HIV Infected People began in 5 provinces (Henan, Hebei, Anhui, Hubei, and Guangdong) in 2004, and quickly scaled up to 19 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China including some places with high prevalence, 26,276 adults have been treated thus far. Usually, people with HIV infection seek TCM for four main reasons: to enhance immune function, to treat symptoms, to improve quality of life, and to reduce side effects related to medications. Evidences from randomized controlled clinical trials suggested some beneficial effects of use of traditional Chinese herbal medicine for HIV infections and AIDS. More proofs from large, well-designed, rigorous trials is needed to give firm support. Challenges include interaction between herbs and antiretroviral drugs, stigma and discrimination. The Free TCM Program has made considerable progress in providing the necessary alternative care and treatment for HIV-infected people in China, and has strong government support for continued improvement and expansion, establishing and improving a work mechanism integrating Chinese and Western medicines.

  6. Effect of traditional Chinese medicine for treating human immunodeficiency virus infections and acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Boosting immune and alleviating symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wen; Wang, Jian; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    To respond to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in China, the integration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has important implications in health outcomes, especially in China where the use of TCM is widespread. The National Free TCM Pilot Program for HIV Infected People began in 5 provinces (Henan, Hebei, Anhui, Hubei, and Guangdong) in 2004, and quickly scaled up to 19 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China including some places with high prevalence, 26,276 adults have been treated thus far. Usually, people with HIV infection seek TCM for four main reasons: to enhance immune function, to treat symptoms, to improve quality of life, and to reduce side effects related to medications. Evidences from randomized controlled clinical trials suggested some beneficial effects of use of traditional Chinese herbal medicine for HIV infections and AIDS. More proofs from large, well-designed, rigorous trials is needed to give firm support. Challenges include interaction between herbs and antiretroviral drugs, stigma and discrimination. The Free TCM Program has made considerable progress in providing the necessary alternative care and treatment for HIV-infected people in China, and has strong government support for continued improvement and expansion, establishing and improving a work mechanism integrating Chinese and Western medicines. PMID:26577109

  7. Utility of /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy and bronchial washings in the diagnosis and treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Tuazon, C.U.; Delaney, M.D.; Simon, G.L.; Witorsch, P.; Varma, V.M.

    1985-11-01

    Twenty patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and suspected Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were evaluated by /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy and fiberoptic bronchoscopy for initial diagnosis and response to therapy. Lung uptake of /sup 67/Ga was demonstrated in 100% of AIDS patients with P. carinii pneumonia, including those with subclinical infection. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy identified P. carinii in the bronchial washings of 100% of cases (19 patients), whereas only 13 of 16 (81%) patients had P. carinii in lung tissue obtained by transbronchial biopsy. Repeat fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed in 16 of 20 patients. After 2 to 4 wk of therapy, P. carinii was identified in bronchial washings in 8 of 16 (50%) patients and in transbronchial biopsy in 1 of 10 (10%) patients examined. Bronchial washing has a higher yield than transbronchial biopsy in demonstrating P. carinii in patients with AIDS and may evolve as the procedure of choice in such patients. Based on the clinical course and results of /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy and fiberoptic bronchoscopy in AIDS patients with P. carinii pneumonia, optimal therapy may require at least 3 wk of treatment.

  8. Opportunistic infections in acquired immune deficiency syndrome result from synergistic defects of both the natural and adaptive components of cellular immunity.

    PubMed Central

    Siegal, F P; Lopez, C; Fitzgerald, P A; Shah, K; Baron, P; Leiderman, I Z; Imperato, D; Landesman, S

    1986-01-01

    We evaluated the cellular immunity of 408 clinically stratified subjects at risk for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), to define the role of interferon-alpha production deficits in the pathogenesis of opportunistic infections (OI). We followed 115 prospectively for up to 45 mo. Onset of OI was associated with, and predicted by, deficiency both of interferon-alpha generation in vitro, and of circulating Leu-3a+ cells. Interferon-alpha production is an index of the function of certain non-T, non-B, large granular lymphocytes (LGL) that are independent of T cell help. Leu-3a+ cell counts are a marker of T cell function. OI did not usually develop until both of these mutually independent immune functions were simultaneously critically depressed, leading to a synergistic interaction. These data suggest that the AIDS virus affects a subset of LGL, and that cytokine production by these cells is an important component of the host defense against intracellular pathogens that becomes crucial in the presence of severe T cell immunodeficiency. PMID:3088039

  9. Influence of the home environment on the prevention of mother to child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sewnunan, A; Modiba, L M

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is still a 'family crises' which marks the beginning of the deterioration of the family unit and the trauma in the emotional, psychological and material lives of both the mother and child. In South African context where the majority of HIV-positive mothers are young single women who live in extended families, disclosure to the sexual partner alone is not an adequate condition for the success of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). In South Africa, close to one in three women who attend antenatal clinics are HIV positive. KwaZulu-Natal is one of the worst affected provinces, where as many as 40-60% of pregnant women attending antenatal services are living with HIV infection. The study sought to investigate the link between the home environment and its contribution to the success of the programme on PMTCT of HIV/AIDS. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study was used in this study to explore whether the home environment for the support system is available for the HIV-positive women on the PMTCT programme. The population of this study included all women who have undergone counselling and tested HIV positive and who have joined the programme on PMTCT of HIV/AIDS in a specific hospital in KwaZulu-Natal Province. Although 14 women agreed to participate in the study, only 10 women were interviewed as saturation was attained. Data were collected using semi-structured interview schedule. Interviews were audio-taped and field notes were taken. Content analysis was used and it was done manually. This study revealed that one of the major issues still surrounding HIV/AIDS and PMTCT is that of non-disclosure, selective disclosure and the stigma and discrimination that surrounds this disease. PMID:26694631

  10. Influence of the home environment on the prevention of mother to child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sewnunan, A; Modiba, L M

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is still a 'family crises' which marks the beginning of the deterioration of the family unit and the trauma in the emotional, psychological and material lives of both the mother and child. In South African context where the majority of HIV-positive mothers are young single women who live in extended families, disclosure to the sexual partner alone is not an adequate condition for the success of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). In South Africa, close to one in three women who attend antenatal clinics are HIV positive. KwaZulu-Natal is one of the worst affected provinces, where as many as 40-60% of pregnant women attending antenatal services are living with HIV infection. The study sought to investigate the link between the home environment and its contribution to the success of the programme on PMTCT of HIV/AIDS. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study was used in this study to explore whether the home environment for the support system is available for the HIV-positive women on the PMTCT programme. The population of this study included all women who have undergone counselling and tested HIV positive and who have joined the programme on PMTCT of HIV/AIDS in a specific hospital in KwaZulu-Natal Province. Although 14 women agreed to participate in the study, only 10 women were interviewed as saturation was attained. Data were collected using semi-structured interview schedule. Interviews were audio-taped and field notes were taken. Content analysis was used and it was done manually. This study revealed that one of the major issues still surrounding HIV/AIDS and PMTCT is that of non-disclosure, selective disclosure and the stigma and discrimination that surrounds this disease.

  11. Do-Not-Resuscitate Orders and/or Hospice Care, Psychological Health, and Quality of Life among Children/Adolescents with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lyon, Maureen E.; Williams, Paige L.; Woods, Elizabeth R.; Hutton, Nancy; Butler, Anne M.; Sibinga, Erica; Brady, Michael T.; Oleske, James M.

    2009-01-01

    Objective The frequency of do-not-resuscitate (DNR) orders and hospice enrollment in children/adolescents living with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and followed in Pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Group (PACTG) Study 219C was examined, and evaluated for any association with racial disparities or enhanced quality of life (QOL), particularly psychological adjustment. Methods A cross-sectional analysis of children with AIDS enrolled in this prospective multicenter observational study between 2000 and 2005 was conducted to evaluate the incidence of DNR/hospice overall and by calendar time. Linear regression models were used to compare caregivers' reported QOL scores within 6 domains between those with and without DNR/hospice care, adjusting for confounders. Results Seven hundred twenty-six (726) children with AIDS had a mean age of 12.9 years (standard deviation [SD] = 4.5), 51% were male, 60% black, 25% Hispanic. Twenty-one (2.9%) had either a DNR order (n = 16), hospice enrollment (n = 7), or both (n = 2). Of 41 children who died, 80% had no DNR/hospice care. Increased odds of DNR/hospice were observed for those with CD4% less than 15%, no current antiretroviral use, and prior hospitalization. No differences by race were detected. Adjusted mean QOL scores were significantly lower for those with DNR/hospice enrollment than those without across all domains except for psychological status and health care utilization. Poorer psychological status correlated with higher symptom distress, but not with DNR/hospice enrollment after adjusting for symptoms. Conclusions Children who died of AIDS rarely had DNR/hospice enrollment. National guidelines recommend that quality palliative care be integrated routinely with HIV care. Further research is needed to explore the barriers to palliative care and advance care planning in this population. PMID:18363489

  12. Expression of Ley antigen in human immunodeficiency virus-infected human T cell lines and in peripheral lymphocytes of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC)

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Ley determinant (Fuc alpha 1----2Gal beta 1----4[Fuc alpha 1---- 3]GlcNAc beta 1----R) defined by mAb BM-1 is highly expressed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected T cell lines and in CD3+ peripheral mature T cells of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or with AIDS-related complex (ARC). Ley expression increased greatly in the CD3+ population in the advanced stage of AIDS when the CD4+ population decreased greatly. Six other carbohydrate antigens tested by their respective mAbs were not detected in these same cells. None of the carbohydrate antigens tested by the seven mAbs used in this study were found in noninfected T cell lines and in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes. PMID:3258005

  13. An Overlapping Syndrome of Allergy and Immune Deficiency in Children

    PubMed Central

    Szczawinska-Poplonyk, Aleksandra

    2012-01-01

    Recurrent airway inflammations in children are an important clinical problem in pediatric practice. An essential challenge is differentiation between allergic background and immune deficiency, which is a difficult task taking into consideration individual predisposition to atopy, immune system maturation in the early childhood, as well as exposition to environmental allergens and microbial antigens. In this paper relationship between selected elements of innate and adaptive immunity, such as pattern-recognition receptors, complement components, dendritic cells, as well as immunoglobulins, and regulatory T lymph cells has been discussed. Particular attention has been paid to these mechanisms of the immune response which, depending on settings and timing of activation, predispose to allergy or contribute to tolerogenic phenotype. In the context of multifactorial conditioning of the innate and adaptive immunity governing the ultimate response and associations between allergy and immune deficiencies, these phenomena should be considered as pathogenetically not precluding, but as an overlapping syndrome. PMID:21918651

  14. Immunomodulatory and Antioxidant Effects of Purple Sweet Potato Extract in LP-BM5 Murine Leukemia Virus-Induced Murine Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ok-Kyung; Nam, Da-Eun; Yoon, Ho-Geun; Baek, Sun Jung; Jun, Woojin; Lee, Jeongmin

    2015-08-01

    The immunomodulatory effects of a dietary supplement of purple sweet potato extract (PSPE) in LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus (MuLV)-induced immune-deficient mice were investigated. Mice were divided into six groups: normal control, infected control (LP-BM5 MuLV infection), positive control (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of red ginseng 300 mg/kg), purple sweet potato water extract (PSPWE) (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of PSPE 300 mg/kg), PSP10EE (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of 10% ethanol PSPE 300 mg/kg), and PSP80EE (LP-BM5 MuLV infection+dietary supplement of 80% ethanol PSPE 300 mg/kg). Dietary supplementation began on the day of LP-BM5 MuLV infection and continued for 12 weeks. Dietary supplementation of PSPE inhibited LP-BM5 MuLV-induced splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy and attenuated the suppression of T- and B-cell proliferation and T helper 1/T helper 2 cytokine imbalance in LP-BM5 MuLV-infected mice. Dietary supplement of PSPE increased the activity of the antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. The data suggest that PSPE may ameliorate immune dysfunction due to LP-BM5 MuLV infection by modulating antioxidant defense systems. PMID:26076116

  15. Behcet's disease in acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Siddiqui, Beenish; Fernandes, Denise; Chaucer, Benjamin; Chevenon, Marie; Nandi, Minesh; Saverimuttu, Jessie; Nfonoyim, Jay

    2016-01-01

    HIV/AIDS patients often present with orogenital ulcers. In the immunocompromised patient diagnosis of these ulcers pose a challenge, as there is a myriad of etiologies. We present a case of an HIV/AIDS patient with recurrent orogenital aphthosis that was confirmed to have concomitant diagnosis of Behcet's disease. Proper awareness of the causes of these ulcers is essential for prompt and effective treatment. While rare causes may be at the bottom of a differential list in an immunocompetent host, when HIV/AIDS is involved these rare causes often percolate to the top. PMID:26793479

  16. A lactogenic-immune-deficiency-syndrome in cows: unexplained phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Brenner, J; Neria, A; Askenazy, G; Paz, R; Meirom, R; Ungar-Waron, H; Trainin, Z

    1992-05-01

    The majority of adult cows in a certain dairy herd, were found to have very low levels of immunoglobulins (Igs) in their colostrum. This phenomenon was defined by us as Lactogenic-Immune-Deficiency-Syndrome (LIDS). The mean IgG levels were 44.5 and 57.2 mg ml-1 respectively (on two different occasions) as compared to that of a control group which was 103.4 mg ml-1. The levels of Igs in the colostra of heifers from the same herd were found to be higher than those of adult cows. The degree of LIDS was found to be closely related to the age of cows in the herd. The low levels of Igs in the colostra were not directly linked to their concentrations in the sera of the affected cows. The relatively low amount of IgA in the affected colostra suggests that the local production in the lymph tissue associated with the mammary glands is impaired as well. In order to investigate the etiology of the phenomenon, tests were carried out to reveal whether bovine leucosis virus (BLV) infection or immune complexes were involved in the pathogenesis of LIDS. The results were negative. The etiology of LIDS remains for the time being unknown. PMID:1632067

  17. Hypogammaglobulinemia factitia- Munchausen syndrome masquerading as common variable immune deficiency

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We describe the first case of a patient with factitious disorder who closely simulated a primary immune deficiency disorder – Common Variable Immune Deficiency (CVID), by surreptitiously ingesting non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. Case description He was treated with several expensive and potentially dangerous drugs before the diagnosis was established through collateral information. In retrospect he did not meet the proposed new criteria for CVID. These criteria may prove useful in distinguishing cases of CVID from secondary hypogammaglobulinemia. Conclusion It is imperative clinicians recognise patients with factitious disorder at the earliest opportunity to prevent iatrogenic morbidity and mortality. PMID:24341706

  18. Sweet's syndrome in human immune deficiency virus-infected patient

    PubMed Central

    Rajendran, Adarsh; Zacharia, George Sarin; Zacharia, Sue Ann; George, K. C.

    2014-01-01

    Sweet's syndrome is an uncommon dermatosis and can be associated with a wide variety of illnesses including infections and malignancies. Sweet's syndrome as a dermatological manifestation in human immunedeficiency virus (HIV) infection is rarely reported. Furthermore, called acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis is characterized by fever and skin lesions, which are often erythematous papules and pseudovesicles. Diagnosis is based on clinical features and histology. The gold standard for treatment is systemic steroids although many other medications have been tried with variable success. We here report a case of Sweet's syndrome in an HIV-infected patient. PMID:26396453

  19. Experimental oral polio vaccines and acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hooper, E

    2001-06-29

    The simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) of the common chimpanzee is widely acknowledged as the direct ancestor of HIV-1. There is increasing historical evidence that during the late 1950s, kidneys were routinely excised from central African chimpanzees by scientists who were collaborating with the polio vaccine research of Dr Hilary Koprowski, and sent - inter alia - to vaccine-making laboratories in the USA and Africa, and to unspecified destinations in Belgium. While there is no direct evidence that cells from these kidneys were used as a substrate for growing Dr Koprowski's oral polio vaccines, there is a startling coincidence between places in Africa where his CHAT vaccine was fed, and the first appearances in the world of HIV-1 group M and group-M-related AIDS. Because of the enormous implications of the hypothesis that AIDS may be an unintended iatrogenic (physician-caused) disease, it is almost inevitable that this theory will engender heated opposition from many of those in the scientific establishment, and those with vested interests.

  20. An ongoing tragedy: the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Desai, B T

    1989-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic has, to date, had only a minimal impact in India; however, given the low health status of the population and the lack of adequate health care facilities, the emergence of AIDS on a wider scale would be devastating. India's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity rate now stands at about 2-3/1000 people tested. In what is suspected to be a racially motivated move, the Government of India has embarked on testing all foreign students (most of whom are from Africa) for HIV and is returning all those who test seropositive to their countries of origin. Of concern is the steady increase in HIV infection in professional blood donors (1.5/1000 in late 1988). Mandatory screening of donated blood is prohibitively expensive in India, and none of the 9 companies that manufacture blood products in India test their donors for HIV infection. Another concern is the finding that 1 of every 6 prostitutes in Bombay is infected with HIV. The response of the Indian Government to the AIDS threat has tended to be punitive toward AIDS victims rather than based on a sound preventive strategy. For example, the 1989 AIDS Prevention Bill forces individuals who are infected with HIV to reveal their past sexual partners, empowers authorities to hospitalize AIDS victims and drug addicts, and contains no provisions to protect the human and civil rights of AIDS victims. The mass media have treated AIDS in a sensationalized manner rather than presenting scientific information about the prevention and transmission of the disease. It is essential that the Government of India--and all world governments--realize that punitive measures will do little to reduce the spread of AIDS. Needed, instead, is a global prevention and control effort based on generosity and compassion.

  1. Spinal cord injury-induced immune deficiency syndrome enhances infection susceptibility dependent on lesion level.

    PubMed

    Brommer, Benedikt; Engel, Odilo; Kopp, Marcel A; Watzlawick, Ralf; Müller, Susanne; Prüss, Harald; Chen, Yuying; DeVivo, Michael J; Finkenstaedt, Felix W; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Liebscher, Thomas; Meisel, Andreas; Schwab, Jan M

    2016-03-01

    Pneumonia is the leading cause of death after acute spinal cord injury and is associated with poor neurological outcome. In contrast to the current understanding, attributing enhanced infection susceptibility solely to the patient's environment and motor dysfunction, we investigate whether a secondary functional neurogenic immune deficiency (spinal cord injury-induced immune deficiency syndrome, SCI-IDS) may account for the enhanced infection susceptibility. We applied a clinically relevant model of experimental induced pneumonia to investigate whether the systemic SCI-IDS is functional sufficient to cause pneumonia dependent on spinal cord injury lesion level and investigated whether findings are mirrored in a large prospective cohort study after human spinal cord injury. In a mouse model of inducible pneumonia, high thoracic lesions that interrupt sympathetic innervation to major immune organs, but not low thoracic lesions, significantly increased bacterial load in lungs. The ability to clear the bacterial load from the lung remained preserved in sham animals. Propagated immune susceptibility depended on injury of central pre-ganglionic but not peripheral postganglionic sympathetic innervation to the spleen. Thoracic spinal cord injury level was confirmed as an independent increased risk factor of pneumonia in patients after motor complete spinal cord injury (odds ratio = 1.35, P < 0.001) independently from mechanical ventilation and preserved sensory function by multiple regression analysis. We present evidence that spinal cord injury directly causes increased risk for bacterial infection in mice as well as in patients. Besides obvious motor and sensory paralysis, spinal cord injury also induces a functional SCI-IDS ('immune paralysis'), sufficient to propagate clinically relevant infection in an injury level dependent manner.

  2. What High School Students Who Are Mildly Mentally Retarded Know about the Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Hazel B.; Horn, Charles J., Jr.

    Alabama high school students (N=309) with mild mental retardation completed a questionnaire concerning their knowledge, attitudes, and sources of information about human immune deficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Students demonstrated some basic knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and expressed some concern about getting AIDS. They…

  3. Immune Deficiency Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... for IDF Join our nationwide network of volunteers Resources For Patients & Families Peer Support Speak with someone who understands Locate a Physician ... secure Legacy Giving Establish your personal legacy and support IDF 'Immune Deficiency Foundation Remembers' Plaque Pay tribute to ... Educational Resources Find a wealth of IDF educational publications and ...

  4. Risk of Cataract among Subjects with the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Free of Ocular Opportunistic Infections

    PubMed Central

    Kempen, John H.; Sugar, Elizabeth A.; Varma, Rohit; Dunn, James P.; Heinemann, Murk-Hein; Jabs, Douglas A.; Lyon, Alice T.; Lewis, Richard A.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the risk of cataract in the setting of AIDS. Design Prospective cohort study. Participants Subjects with AIDS free of ocular opportunistic infections throughout catamnesis. Methods During 1998–2008 inclusive, subjects ≥13 years of age were enrolled. Demographic characteristics and clinical characteristics were documented at enrollment and semiannually. Main Outcome Measures Cataract was defined as high-grade lens opacity observed by biomicroscopy and judged to be the cause of a best-corrected visual acuity worse than 20/40. Eyes that underwent cataract surgery during follow-up were considered to have developed cataract prior to the first visit when pseudophakia or aphakia was observed. Results Among 1,606 participants (3,212 eyes), at enrollment 1.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.3%−2.7%) were observed to have cataract or prior cataract surgery. Among the 2,812 eyes initially free of cataract, and followed longitudinally (median follow-up=4.6 years), the incidence of cataract was 0.37%/eye-year (95% CI: 0.26%– 0.53%). In addition to age, significant cataract risk factors included prior cataract in the contralateral eye (adjusted hazard ratio (aHR)=21.6, 95% CI: 10.4–44.8), anterior segment inflammation (aHR=4.40, 95% CI: 1.64–11.9), prior retinal detachment (aHR=4.94, 95% CI: 2.21–11.0), and vitreous inflammation (aHR=7.12, 95% CI: 2.02– 25.0), each studied as a time-updated characteristic. Detectable HIV RNA in peripheral blood was associated with lower risk of cataract at enrollment (adjusted odds ratio=0.32, 95% CI: 0.12–0.80) but not of incident cataract (aHR=1.58, 95% CI: 0.90–2.76). After adjustment for other factors, neither the then current absolute CD4+ T cell count nor antiretroviral therapy status showed consistent association with cataract risk, nor did an additive diagnosis of other other co-morbidities. Compared to the available population-based studies that used similar definitions of cataract, the age-specific prevalence of cataract in our cohort was higher than in one of two such studies, and the age-specific incidence of cataract surgery was higher. Conclusions Our results suggest cataract may occur earlier among patients with AIDS free of ocular opportunistic infections than in the general population. Cataract risk was associated most strongly with age and with other ocular morbidity in this population. With improved survival, the burden of cataract likely will increase for persons with HIV/AIDS. PMID:25109932

  5. Gallium scans of the thorax in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): Description and utilization

    SciTech Connect

    Le, G.; Chen, D.C.P.; Siegel, M.E.

    1984-01-01

    The pattern of distribution of gallium uptake in the thorax was investigated in patients (pts) with AIDS. Eleven pts (ages 18-53), all active homosexual males suspected of having acute pulmonary infection were studied. Ga lung scans were performed at 24-48 and/or 72 hrs. post injection. The diagnosis of AIDS was based on appropriate clinical and laboratory findings. The Ga activity in the lung was graded from zero = background to 4+ which is > liver activity. Eight of eleven pts have positive Ga scan while seven of eleven pts had positive CXR. Six pts had both positive CXR and Ga scan. One pt had a positive Ga scan with negative CXR, and one with positive CXR and negative Ga scan. The positive Ga scans included 3 pts with 4+ diffuse uptake, two pts with 2+ diffuse uptake, two pts with 1+ diffuse uptake, and two with hilar node uptake. Three pts have focal increased uptake superimposed on diffuse uptake. Two pts with 4+ diffuse uptake had mild abnormality on their CXR. One pt with 4+ uptake in the initial scan shows decreased activity on follow-up with clinical improvement after therapy. Thus, all but two pts with positive Ga scans had diffuse lung uptake. These two patients alone had B cell immunoblastic sarcoma and oral candidiasis. The pattern of Ga lung uptake in pts with AIDS reveal that a majority of positive scans are diffuse (6/8) and the intensity may suggest more active disease than CXR (2 normal) and, thus, the study may be useful in detecting changes from atypical pulmonary infection in this population.

  6. [Cytomegalovirus infection (CMV) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Stepanov, A; Feuermannová, A; Hejsek, L; Jirásková, N; Plíšek, S; Rozsíval, P

    2014-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus infection (CMV) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, AIDS) is the most common opportunistic infection. This infection is harmless for healthy individuals, but for weakened individuals cause disease. The most common form of CMV-infection in patients with AIDS is cytomegalovirus retinitis, which occurs in 15% to 40% of cases. We report the case of aman twenty-five year old, treated for CMV retinitis and retinal vasculitis vessels. Prescribed Valcyte 900mg tbl. twice daily for 21 days with agood therapeutic effect. In patients with AIDS and decreased visual acuity is need be primarily thinking about the possible presence of CMV-infection and in time to start treatment.Key words: Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, AIDS, valganciklovir.

  7. Histoplasma capsulatum fungemia in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: detection by lysis-centrifugation blood-culturing technique.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Flávio de Mattos; Fernandes, Sérgio Sônego; Severo, Cecília Bittencourt; Guazzelli, Luciana Silva; Severo, Luiz Carlos

    2007-01-01

    Progressive disseminated histoplasmosis (PDH) is an increasingly common cause of infection in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report 21 cases of PDH associated with AIDS diagnosed by lysis-centrifugation blood culture method. The most prevalent clinical findings were fever, weight loss, respiratory symptoms, and mucocutaneous lesions. Chest roentgenogram showed diffuse pulmonary infiltrates in 13 of 21 patients (62%). Bronchoalveolar fluid has yielded positive culture in four patients only in medium with cycloheximide. PMID:17625688

  8. Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) update.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Linda M; Cowan, Morton J; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Kohn, Donald B; Puck, Jennifer M; Shearer, William T; Burroughs, Lauri M; Torgerson, Troy R; Decaluwe, Hélène; Haddad, Elie

    2016-08-01

    The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a collaboration of 41 North American centers studying therapy for rare primary immune deficiency diseases (PIDs), including severe combined immune deficiency (SCID), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS), and chronic granulomatous disease (CGD). An additional 3 European centers have partnered with the PIDTC to study CGD. Natural history protocols of the PIDTC analyze outcomes of treatment for rare PIDs in multicenter longitudinal retrospective, prospective, and cross-sectional studies. Since 2009, participating centers have enrolled more than 800 subjects on PIDTC protocols for SCID, and enrollment in the studies on WAS and CGD is underway. Four pilot projects have been funded, and 12 junior investigators have received fellowship awards. Important publications of the consortium describe the outcomes of hematopoietic cell transplantation for SCID during 2000-2009, diagnostic criteria for SCID, and the pilot project of newborn screening for SCID in the Navajo Nation. The PIDTC Annual Scientific Workshops provide an opportunity to strengthen collaborations with junior investigators, patient advocacy groups, and international colleagues. Funded by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases and the Office of Rare Diseases Research, National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, the PIDTC has recently received renewal for another 5 years. Here we review accomplishments of the group, projects underway, highlights of recent workshops, and challenges for the future. PMID:27262745

  9. Antibiotic prophylaxis in primary immune deficiency disorders.

    PubMed

    Kuruvilla, Merin; de la Morena, Maria Teresa

    2013-01-01

    Long-term prophylactic antibiotics are being widely implemented as primary or adjunctive therapy in primary immune deficiencies. This practice has transformed clinical outcomes in the setting of chronic granulomatous disease, complement deficiencies, Mendelian susceptibility to mycobacterial disease, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, hyper-IgE syndrome, Toll signaling defects, and prevented Pneumocystis in patients with T-cell deficiencies. Yet, controlled trials are few in the context of primary antibody deficiency syndromes, and most of this practice has been extrapolated from data in patients who are immune competent and with recurrent acute otitis media, chronic rhinosinusitis, cystic fibrosis, and bronchiectasis. The paucity of guidelines on the subject is reflected in recent surveys among practicing immunologists that highlight differences of habit regarding this treatment. Such discrepancies reinforce the lack of standard protocols on the subject. This review will provide evidence for the use of antibiotic prophylaxis in various primary immune deficiency populations, especially highlighting the role antibiotic prophylaxis in primary antibody deficiency syndromes. We also discussed the relationship of long-term antibiotic use and the prevalence of resistant pathogens. Overall, examination of available data on the use of prophylactic antibiotics in antibody deficiency syndromes merit future investigation in well-designed multicenter prospective trials because this population has few other management options.

  10. Pathogens in children with severe combined immune deficiency disease or AIDS.

    PubMed Central

    Lauzon, D; Delage, G; Brochu, P; Michaud, J; Jasmin, G; Joncas, J H; Lapointe, N

    1986-01-01

    We evaluated the frequency and severity of illnesses caused by various microbial pathogens in 15 children with severe combined immune deficiency disease (SCID) and 8 with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). There were 35 viral, 23 bacterial, 19 mycotic and 13 parasitic infections. Nineteen of the 23 patients died of infection; Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, giant-cell pneumonia due to paramyxoviruses and various disseminated viral infections were responsible for most deaths in both groups. The emerging role of paramyxoviruses was illustrated by the fact that they were responsible for giant-cell pneumonia in seven patients. Viral enteric infections were frequent in both groups. The variety of infectious microorganisms and the severity of resulting illnesses in the patients with AIDS were similar to those in the patients with SCID. Images Fig. 1 PMID:3719484

  11. Eosinophilia associated with disorders of immune deficiency or immune dysregulation

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kelli W.; Milner, Joshua D.; Freeman, Alexandra F.

    2015-01-01

    Synopsis Elevated serum eosinophil levels have been associated with multiple disorders of immune deficiency or immune dysregulation. Although primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD) are rare, it is important to consider these in the differential diagnosis of patients with eosinophilia. This review discusses the clinical features, laboratory findings, diagnosis, and genetic basis of disease of several disorders of immune deficiency or dysregulation – all which have documented eosinophilia as part of the syndrome. The article includes autosomal dominant hyper IgE syndrome, DOCK8 deficiency, PGM3 deficiency, ADA-SCID, Omenn syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, Loeys-Dietz syndrome, autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome, immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome, Comel-Netherton syndrome, and severe dermatitis, multiple allergies, and metabolic wasting syndrome (SAM). PMID:26209898

  12. Primary immune deficiency in bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Ozerovitch, Lorraine

    The primary purpose of the immune system is to protect the body from infection. Failure of the immune system can lead to repeated infections. The aim of this review is to discuss primary immune deficiency (PID) and its relationship with bronchiectasis in adults. It examines treatment options for patients with PID and provides practical details of how nurses can empower these patients to reduce their risk of respiratory infections.

  13. Primary immune deficiency in bronchiectasis.

    PubMed

    Ozerovitch, Lorraine

    The primary purpose of the immune system is to protect the body from infection. Failure of the immune system can lead to repeated infections. The aim of this review is to discuss primary immune deficiency (PID) and its relationship with bronchiectasis in adults. It examines treatment options for patients with PID and provides practical details of how nurses can empower these patients to reduce their risk of respiratory infections. PMID:27400622

  14. Sensationalism or sensitivity: use of words in stories on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) by Associated Press Videotext.

    PubMed

    Drushel, B E

    1991-01-01

    Although it appeared initially reluctant to cover the story at all, the mainstream press in the United States has supplied almost daily reports on AIDS since the mid-1980s. The author examined four weeks of stories on the Associated Press Videotext service in early 1986 in an effort to evaluate the validity of critics' charges that journalists were over-emphasizing the role of homosexuals in the progress of the disease, and that their stories were laden with negative or sensationalistic terms. The author found little evidence from the words used in the stories of distortion in telling the AIDS story, but speculated that such distortion might be found in selection, editing, and presentation decisions made by gatekeepers. PMID:1856471

  15. Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) Content in Introduction to Exceptionalities Textbooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulk, David; Gessner, Linda J.; Koorland, Mark A.

    2001-01-01

    Examined textbooks used in introductory courses for teachers preparing to work with students with disabilities, determining the extent of HIV/AIDS content in five categories (e.g., individualized education plans and program planning, prevention and transmission of HIV/AIDS, drug abuse prevention, and prevalence and background information about…

  16. Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency Share | Flu Vaccine Guidance for Patients with Immune Deficiency This article ... should patients with immune deficiency be given the vaccine? Immune deficient patients have a decreased resistance to ...

  17. Acquired Brown's syndrome: an unusual cause.

    PubMed

    Booth-Mason, S; Kyle, G M; Rossor, M; Bradbury, P

    1985-10-01

    A 62-year-old man with acquired Brown's syndrome is presented. This was due to an orbital metastatic deposit, a cause not previously reported. Other causes of this disorder and its treatment are discussed.

  18. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Vykuntaraju K N; Sukanya, V; Shivananda

    2012-11-01

    A 7-year-old boy with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, receiving antiretroviral drugs for 2 years, presented with a recent onset of myoclonic jerks and cognitive deterioration. On examination, he manifested myoclonic jerks once every 10-15 seconds. His electroencephalogram indicated periodic complexes, and his cerebrospinal fluid tested positive for measles antibodies.

  19. Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) report.

    PubMed

    Griffith, Linda M; Cowan, Morton J; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Kohn, Donald B; Puck, Jennifer M; Pai, Sung-Yun; Ballard, Barbara; Bauer, Sarah C; Bleesing, Jack J H; Boyle, Marcia; Brower, Amy; Buckley, Rebecca H; van der Burg, Mirjam; Burroughs, Lauri M; Candotti, Fabio; Cant, Andrew J; Chatila, Talal; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Dinauer, Mary C; Dvorak, Christopher C; Filipovich, Alexandra H; Fleisher, Thomas A; Bobby Gaspar, Hubert; Gungor, Tayfun; Haddad, Elie; Hovermale, Emily; Huang, Faith; Hurley, Alan; Hurley, Mary; Iyengar, Sumathi; Kang, Elizabeth M; Logan, Brent R; Long-Boyle, Janel R; Malech, Harry L; McGhee, Sean A; Modell, Fred; Modell, Vicki; Ochs, Hans D; O'Reilly, Richard J; Parkman, Robertson; Rawlings, David J; Routes, John M; Shearer, William T; Small, Trudy N; Smith, Heather; Sullivan, Kathleen E; Szabolcs, Paul; Thrasher, Adrian; Torgerson, Troy R; Veys, Paul; Weinberg, Kenneth; Zuniga-Pflucker, Juan Carlos

    2014-02-01

    The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a network of 33 centers in North America that study the treatment of rare and severe primary immunodeficiency diseases. Current protocols address the natural history of patients treated for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, and chronic granulomatous disease through retrospective, prospective, and cross-sectional studies. The PIDTC additionally seeks to encourage training of junior investigators, establish partnerships with European and other International colleagues, work with patient advocacy groups to promote community awareness, and conduct pilot demonstration projects. Future goals include the conduct of prospective treatment studies to determine optimal therapies for primary immunodeficiency diseases. To date, the PIDTC has funded 2 pilot projects: newborn screening for SCID in Navajo Native Americans and B-cell reconstitution in patients with SCID after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ten junior investigators have received grant awards. The PIDTC Annual Scientific Workshop has brought together consortium members, outside speakers, patient advocacy groups, and young investigators and trainees to report progress of the protocols and discuss common interests and goals, including new scientific developments and future directions of clinical research. Here we report the progress of the PIDTC to date, highlights of the first 2 PIDTC workshops, and consideration of future consortium objectives.

  20. Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) Report

    PubMed Central

    Griffith, Linda M.; Cowan, Morton J.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Kohn, Donald B.; Puck, Jennifer M.; Pai, Sung-Yun; Ballard, Barbara; Bauer, Sarah C.; Bleesing, Jack J. H.; Boyle, Marcia; Brower, Amy; Buckley, Rebecca H.; van der Burg, Mirjam; Burroughs, Lauri M.; Candotti, Fabio; Cant, Andrew J.; Chatila, Talal; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Dinauer, Mary C.; Dvorak, Christopher C.; Filipovich, Alexandra H.; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Gaspar, Hubert Bobby; Gungor, Tayfun; Haddad, Elie; Hovermale, Emily; Huang, Faith; Hurley, Alan; Hurley, Mary; Iyengar, Sumathi; Kang, Elizabeth M.; Logan, Brent R.; Long-Boyle, Janel R.; Malech, Harry L.; McGhee, Sean A.; Modell, Fred; Modell, Vicki; Ochs, Hans D.; O'Reilly, Richard J.; Parkman, Robertson; Rawlings, David J.; Routes, John M.; Shearer, William T.; Small, Trudy N.; Smith, Heather; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Szabolcs, Paul; Thrasher, Adrian; Torgerson, Troy R.; Veys, Paul; Weinberg, Kenneth; Zuniga-Pflucker, Juan Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) is a network of 33 centers in North America that study the treatment of rare and severe primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID). Current protocols address the natural history of patients treated for Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID), Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome and Chronic Granulomatous Disease through retrospective, prospective and cross-sectional studies. The PIDTC additionally seeks to: encourage training of junior investigators; establish partnerships with European and other International colleagues; work with patient advocacy groups to promote community awareness; and conduct pilot demonstration projects. Future goals include the conduct of prospective treatment studies to determine optimal therapies for PID. To date, the PIDTC has funded two pilot projects: newborn screening for SCID in Navajo Native Americans; and B cell reconstitution in SCID patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Ten junior investigators have received grant awards. The PIDTC Annual Scientific Workshop has brought together consortium members, outside speakers, patient advocacy groups, and young investigators and trainees to report progress of the protocols and discuss common interests and goals, including new scientific developments and future directions of clinical research. Here we report the progress of the PIDTC to date, highlights of the first two PIDTC workshops, and consideration of future consortium objectives. PMID:24139498

  1. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in gay men.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, H W; Hardy, A M; Morgan, W M; Darrow, W W

    1985-11-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major health problem for gay men in the United States. About three fourths of all reported cases have occurred in this population, and the number is projected to double in the next year. In Manhattan and San Francisco, AIDS is now the leading cause of premature mortality in men aged 25 to 44 years who have never married. In a sample of a cohort of gay men enrolled in a San Francisco clinic, 2.7% of the men had the syndrome and 26% had related conditions in 1984. Antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus, type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus was found in sera from 67% of the men, including 58% of asymptomatic men. Behavioral factors associated with an increased risk of AIDS include large numbers of sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse, and "fisting." The adoption of safer lifestyles is currently the basis of attempts to control the syndrome in gay men.

  2. Women and the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wofsy, Constance B.

    1988-01-01

    SPECIAL EDITOR'S NOTE: Constance B. Wofsy, MD, is Co-Director of AIDS Activities at San Francisco General Hospital and Medical Center, as well as Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine at the University of California, San Francisco; Assistant Chief, Infectious Diseases, San Francisco General Hospital; and Principal Investigator, Project AWARE (Association for Women's AIDS Research and Education). Although she was not able to contribute an article for WOMEN AND MEDICINE on this very important subject, she kindly agreed to an interview. Both physicians and nonphysicians were asked what questions they had about the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in women. Images PMID:3250110

  3. Sequential Cadaveric Lung and Bone Marrow Transplant for Immune Deficiency Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-12-01

    Severe Combined Immunodeficiency (SCID); Immunodeficiency With Predominant T-cell Defect, Unspecified; Severe Chronic Neutropenia; Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD); Hyper IgE Syndromes; Hyper IgM Deficiencies; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Mendelian Susceptibility to Mycobacterial Disease; Common Variable Immune Deficiency (CVID)

  4. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Simmons, J.T.; Masur, H.; Smith, P.D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Ognibene, F.P.

    1987-02-01

    All gallium-67 citrate scans obtained in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the results of bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and endoscopy. There were 164 scans of 95 patients. Twenty scans were from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 19 were abnormal, for a sensitivity of 95%. Ga-67 uptake tended to be less in patients receiving therapy for P. carinii pneumonia. Chest radiographs were normal at least initially in three patients with abnormal scans and P. carinii pneumonia. Unusually prominent colonic activity was associated with infection in some patients. No lesions of Kaposi sarcoma showed tracer uptake. Gallium scanning is useful for detecting P. carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS, but it is not useful for localizing Kaposi sarcoma.

  5. Thymus involution in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grody, W W; Fligiel, S; Naeim, F

    1985-07-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a severe disorder of unknown etiology and pathogenesis, predominantly affecting homosexual males and other high-risk groups and characterized by profound alterations in T-lymphocyte function. The authors have examined thymus tissue from 14 patients who died of AIDS and compared the results with findings in five control groups: healthy age-matched controls, elderly individuals, patients with chronic or debilitating illnesses other than AIDS, infants with conditions causing "stress atrophy," and patients with myasthenia gravis. The AIDS group included 11 homosexual males, 1 Haitian, 1 homosexual who was also a drug abuser, and a 10-month-old infant believed to have contracted AIDS following blood transfusion. All the AIDS cases showed marked thymus involution with severe depletion of both lymphocytes and epithelial elements. The latter component consisted primarily of thin cords and nests of primitive-appearing epithelial cells that could be defined by positive immunohistochemical staining for keratin. Many cases showed a variable plasma cell infiltration, and the majority exhibited distinct vascular changes in the form of hyalinization and/or onion-skin patterns, primarily in the adventitia. Most striking of all was the marked paucity of Hassall's corpuscles; four patients had none at all, while in the other ten patients all the Hassall's corpuscles were calcified. These changes were far more extensive than those seen in any of the control groups, which retained most of their complement of Hassall's corpuscles even in the face of marked overall involution. The physiologic function of Hassall's corpuscles is not known, but recent immunohistochemical studies have implicated them in the synthesis of "facteur thymique serique" (FTS, thymulin) and other thymic hormones known to play a role in regulating T-helper and suppressor cell activity. It is conceivable that the extensive destruction of Hassall's corpuscles observed in

  6. Mycobacterial disease, immunosuppression, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, F M

    1989-01-01

    The mycobacteria are an important group of acid-fast pathogens ranging from obligate intracellular parasites such as Mycobacterium leprae to environmental species such as M. gordonae and M. fortuitum. The latter may behave as opportunistic human pathogens if the host defenses have been depleted in some manner. The number and severity of such infections have increased markedly with the emergence of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. These nontuberculous mycobacteria tend to be less virulent for humans than M. tuberculosis, usually giving rise to self-limiting infections involving the cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes of young children. However, the more virulent serovars of M. avium complex can colonize the bronchial and intestinal mucosal surfaces of healthy individuals, becoming virtual members of the commensal gut microflora and thus giving rise to low levels of skin hypersensitivity to tuberculins prepared from M. avium and M. intracellulare. Systemic disease develops when the normal T-cell-mediated defenses become depleted as a result of old age, cancer chemotherapy, or infection with human immunodeficiency virus. As many as 50% of human immunodeficiency virus antibody-positive individuals develop mycobacterial infections at some time during their disease. Most isolates of M. avium complex from AIDS patients fall into serotypes 4 and 8. The presence of these drug-resistant mycobacteria in the lungs of the AIDS patient makes their effective clinical treatment virtually impossible. More effective chemotherapeutic, prophylactic, and immunotherapeutic reagents are urgently needed to treat this rapidly increasing patient population. PMID:2680057

  7. Recombinant human soluble thrombomodulin is active against hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chi, SungGi; Ikezoe, Takayuki; Takeuchi, Asako; Takaoka, Masato; Yokoyama, Akihito

    2013-11-01

    A 39-year-old man was admitted to our hospital to initiate highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART) for documented acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The HIV load was 2.5 million copies/mL and the CD4-positive lymphocyte count was only 52 cells/µL at presentation. The HAART regimen consisted of lamivudine and abacavir as the backbone, plus raltegravir and lopinavir/ritonavir as the base. The day after initiating HAART, his body temperature rose to 102.4 °F (39.1 °C), accompanied by elevated levels of liver enzymes, neutropenia, coagulopathies, and an extremely high serum ferritin level, prompting us to suspect hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) and disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC). To correct the coagulation abnormalities, recombinant thrombomodulin (rTM) was initiated at 375 U/kg. Surprisingly, fever resolved almost immediately, in parallel with dramatic decreases in serum levels of ferritin and liver enzymes and prompt normalization of coagulopathy with only two doses of rTM. The patient subsequently developed amebiasis, which was successfully treated using metronidazole. In summary, the use of rTM dramatically improved not only DIC, but also HLH, suggesting potent anti-inflammatory effects of the agent. Although further clinical reports and trials are needed, rTM appears to provide an additional therapeutic option in the management of HLH.

  8. Lung and chest wall mechanics in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and severe Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia.

    PubMed

    D'Angelo, E; Calderini, E; Robatto, F M; Puccio, P; Milic-Emili, J

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the mechanical characteristics of the respiratory system in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) caused by Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP). In 12 mechanically ventilated patients, total respiratory system mechanics was assessed using the technique of rapid airway occlusion during constant flow inflation, and was partitioned into lung and chest wall components using the oesophageal balloon technique. We measured interrupter resistance (Rint), which mainly reflects airway resistance, additional resistance (deltaR) due to viscoelastic behaviour and time constant inequalities, and static elastance (Est). In addition, the static inflation volume-pressure (V-P) curve was assessed. In eight patients, computed tomography scans were performed within 2 days of the assessment of respiratory mechanics. Compared to values reported in the literature for normal subjects, Est and deltaR were markedly increased in AIDS patients with PCP, whilst Rint exhibited a relatively smaller increase. These changes, which involved only the lung and airways, were mainly due to the reduction of ventilated lung units, but additional factors were involved to cause independent modifications of lung stiffness, airway calibre, and viscoelastic properties. The changes in Rint, deltaR, and Est were similar to those observed in other studies on patients with ARDS of different aetiologies. At variance with common observations in the latter patients, none of the AIDS patients with PCP exhibited an inflection point on the static inflation V-P curve, suggesting little or no alveolar recruitment during lung inflation. This finding could be related to the distinctive histopathology of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Indeed, computed tomography revealed homogeneous diffuse interstitial and alveolar infiltration rather than the dense, dependent opacities observed in other studies on acute respiratory

  9. Immune impairments and antibodies to HTLVIII/LAV in asymptomatic male homosexuals in Israel: relevance to the risk of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Bentwich, Z; Saxinger, C; Ben-Ishay, Z; Burstein, R; Berner, Y; Pecht, M; Trainin, N; Levin, S; Handzel, Z T

    1987-09-01

    We have studied 288 Israeli asymptomatic male homosexuals (MHS) to determine the prevalence of antibodies to HTLVI and HTLVIII and their correlation with impairments of the immune system and serum interferon (IFN). Seropositivity for HTLVI, HTLVIII, or both was found in 1.4, 8.3, and 0%, respectively. Significant decreases in the total peripheral T cells, TH cells, and TH/TS ratio as well as elevated alpha IFN serum levels were found in the MHS group in comparison with normal controls. Although no difference in the prevalence of either immune derangements or elevated serum IFN was observed between HTLVIII/LAV-seropositive and HTLVIII/LAV-seronegative MHS, the decreases in total T cells, TH cells, and TH/TS ratios were significantly greater in the seropositive MHS. These results indicate that (a) immune impairments and IFN system activation occur commonly in homosexuals, precede their exposure to HTLVIII/LAV, and probably reflect this group's increased risk for AIDS and (b) HTLVIII/LAV infection of MHS aggravates further their preexisting immune impairments.

  10. Neurofibromatosis, Down's syndrome, and acquired abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Ali, Syed Yousuf; Manne, Vimala; Manne, Ranjit; Himani, Chennamaneni

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with Down's syndrome and neurofibromatosis who presented with a keloid, sebaceous cyst and acanthosis nigricans, along with dental and ophthalmological defects. The coexistence of neurofibromatosis type 1 and Down's syndrome which are two unrelated genetic conditions is itself a rarity. PMID:27294059

  11. Neurofibromatosis, Down's syndrome, and acquired abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Syed Yousuf; Manne, Vimala; Manne, Ranjit; Himani, Chennamaneni

    2016-01-01

    We report a patient with Down's syndrome and neurofibromatosis who presented with a keloid, sebaceous cyst and acanthosis nigricans, along with dental and ophthalmological defects. The coexistence of neurofibromatosis type 1 and Down's syndrome which are two unrelated genetic conditions is itself a rarity. PMID:27294059

  12. Immune deficiencies in children: an overview.

    PubMed

    Jyothi, S; Lissauer, S; Welch, S; Hackett, S

    2013-12-01

    Primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) are disorders of the immune system that result in increased susceptibility to infectious disease, autoimmunity and malignancy. They are challenging to paediatricians as they can present anytime from birth to adolescence with a wide variety of signs and symptoms. It is important to diagnose PIDs promptly, especially more severe forms to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. However, significant challenges exist in deciding which children to investigate and when. We aim to give a basic understanding of the human immune system, the different presentations in a child that should alert a paediatrician about the possibility of PID and the possible underlying diagnosis. Additionally, we have developed a framework for a stepwise approach to investigating these children.

  13. Immune deficiencies in children: an overview.

    PubMed

    Jyothi, S; Lissauer, S; Welch, S; Hackett, S

    2013-10-01

    Primary immune deficiencies (PIDs) are disorders of the immune system that result in increased susceptibility to infectious disease, autoimmunity and malignancy. They are challenging to paediatricians as they can present anytime from birth to adolescence with a wide variety of signs and symptoms. It is important to diagnose PIDs promptly, especially more severe forms to prevent significant morbidity and mortality. However, significant challenges exist in deciding which children to investigate and when. We aim to give a basic understanding of the human immune system, the different presentations in a child that should alert a paediatrician about the possibility of PID and the possible underlying diagnosis. Additionally, we have developed a framework for a stepwise approach to investigating these children.

  14. Immune deficiencies following cancer treatment in children.

    PubMed

    Kantar, Mehmet; Cetingül, Nazan; Kansoy, Savaş; Kütükçüler, Necil; Aksu, Güzide

    2003-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum immunoglobulins, IgG subclasses, lymphocyte subsets, and serum protective antitoxin levels of tetanus and diphtheria, and to investigate specific antibody response to tetanus and diphtheria vaccines in children with cancer who have been treated for leukemias and solid tumors. Forty patients with different types of childhood malignancies were enrolled in this study and their lymphocyte subsets, serum Ig A, M, G and IgG subclass concentrations were determined at completion of chemotherapy and 6 months later. We measured serum diphtheria (D) and tetanus (T) antitoxin levels and investigated specific antibody responses against DT vaccines at 6 months. Only the leukemic children had low CD19+ cells at completion of chemotherapy and 6 months later. The patients with solid tumors had reduced CD4+ cells, but increased natural killer cells at completion of chemotherapy. Serum IgA and IgM levels were decreased in leukemic patients after chemotherapy. There were no IgG subclass deficiency. Forty-two per cent of the patients did not have protective serum T antitoxins. All patients produced high levels of DT antibodies by vaccination. Immune system changes recover by 6 months after cancer therapy in children. Children with solid tumors, as well as leukemias, should be followed-up in terms of immune deficiencies. A repeat dose of tetanus toxoid should be recommended at 6 months.

  15. Gene Therapy for the Treatment of Primary Immune Deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Caroline Y; Kohn, Donald B

    2016-05-01

    The use of gene therapy in the treatment of primary immune deficiencies (PID) has advanced significantly in the last decade. Clinical trials for X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency, adenosine deaminase deficiency (ADA), chronic granulomatous disease, and Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome have demonstrated that gene transfer into hematopoietic stem cells and autologous transplant can result in clinical improvement and is curative for many patients. Unfortunately, early clinical trials were complicated by vector-related insertional mutagenic events for several diseases with the exception of ADA-deficiency SCID. These results prompted the current wave of clinical trials for primary immunodeficiency using alternative retro- or lenti-viral vector constructs that are self-inactivating, and they have shown clinical efficacy without leukemic events thus far. The field of gene therapy continues to progress, with improvements in viral vector profiles, stem cell culturing techniques, and site-specific genome editing platforms. The future of gene therapy is promising, and we are quickly moving towards a time when it will be a standard cellular therapy for many forms of PID.

  16. Toxicity of oral radiotherapy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, J.S.; Fried, P.R.

    1987-03-01

    Although radiotherapy is a standard form of management of head and neck tumors, treatment of the oral cavity in patients who have the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome has produced unacceptable toxicity. Five such patients are described as a warning of enhanced toxicity of oral radiotherapy in this patient population.

  17. Subject Control of the Literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierbaum, Esther Green; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study that analyzed the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms used to index the literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Subject access to the AIDSLINE database developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is examined, and changes in subject headings that reflect the growth of the field are analyzed. (12…

  18. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated with blood-product transfusions

    SciTech Connect

    Jett, J.R.; Kuritsky, J.N.; Katzmann, J.A.; Homburger, H.A.

    1983-11-01

    A 53-year-old white man had fever, malaise, and dyspnea on exertion. His chest roentgenogram was normal, but pulmonary function tests showed impaired diffusion capacity and a gallium scan showed marked uptake in the lungs. Results of an open-lung biopsy documented Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Immunologic test results were consistent with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The patient denied having homosexual contact or using intravenous drugs. Twenty-nine months before the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia was made, the patient had had 16 transfusions of whole blood, platelets, and fresh-frozen plasma during coronary artery bypass surgery at another medical center. This patient is not a member of any currently recognized high-risk group and is believed to have contracted the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from blood and blood-product transfusions.

  19. [Reflection on treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome by integrative medicine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-Ni

    2012-02-01

    The current situation of Chinese medicine and Western medicine treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has made the integrative medicine treatment of AIDS an important treatment strategy. Integrative medicine treatment of AIDS has made certain achievements in clinical research, basic research, and other aspects. It has good mass foundation and curative efficacy, as well as insufficiency. I hope integrative medicine can be brought into full play in the treatment of AIDS and make breakthrough progress.

  20. Trypanosoma cruzi meningoencephalitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Kosuke; Patel, Shital M; Flash, Charlene A; Stager, Charles E; Goodman, Jerry C; Woc-Colburn, Laila

    2014-07-01

    As a result of global migration, a significant number of people with Trypanosoma cruzi infection now live in the United States, Canada, many countries in Europe, and other non-endemic countries. Trypanosoma cruzi meningoencephalitis is a rare cause of ring-enhancing lesions in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) that can closely mimic central nervous system (CNS) toxoplasmosis. We report a case of CNS Chagas reactivation in an AIDS patient successfully treated with benznidazole and antiretroviral therapy in the United States.

  1. Insights into primary immune deficiency from quantitative microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mace, Emily M; Orange, Jordan S

    2015-11-01

    Recent advances in genomics-based technology have resulted in an increase in our understanding of the molecular basis of many primary immune deficiencies. Along with this increased knowledge comes an increased responsibility to understand the underlying mechanism of disease, and thus increasingly sophisticated technologies are being used to investigate the cell biology of human immune deficiencies. One such technology, which has itself undergone a recent explosion in innovation, is that of high-resolution microscopy and image analysis. These advances complement innovative studies that have previously shed light on critical cell biological processes that are perturbed by single-gene mutations in primary immune deficiency. Here we highlight advances made specifically in the following cell biological processes: (1) cytoskeletal-related processes; (2) cell signaling; (3) intercellular trafficking; and (4) cellular host defense. PMID:26078103

  2. New genetic discoveries and primary immune deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Hernandez-Trujillo, Vivian

    2014-04-01

    The field of immunology has undergone recent discoveries of genetic causes for many primary immunodeficiency diseases (PIDD). The ever-expanding knowledge has led to increased understanding behind the pathophysiology of these diseases. Since these diseases are rare, the patients are frequently misdiagnosed early in the presentation of their illnesses. The identification of new genes has increased our opportunities for recognizing and making the diagnosis in patients with PIDD before they succumb to infections that may result secondary to their PIDD. Some mutations lead to a variety of presentations of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). The myriad and ever-growing genetic mutations which lead to SCID phenotypes have been identified in recent years. Other mutations associated with some genetic syndromes have associated immunodeficiency and are important for making the diagnosis of primary immunodeficiency in patients with some syndromes, who may otherwise be missed within the larger context of their syndromes. A variety of mutations also lead to increased susceptibility to infections due to particular organisms. These patterns of infections due to specific organisms are important keys in properly identifying the part of the immune system which is affected in these patients. This review will discuss recent genetic discoveries that enhance our understanding of these complex diseases.

  3. Polymorphous hemangioendothelioma in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Paul, Stephan R; Hurford, Matthew T; Miettinen, Markku M; Aronoff, Stephen C; Delvecchio, Michael; Grewal, Harsh; Tuluc, Madalina

    2008-03-01

    Polymorphous hemangioendotheliomas (PH) are rare and borderline malignant tumors that are among the wide range of vascular tumors. We report here a 13-year-old male presenting with a history of weight loss, opportunistic infections, and lymphadenopathy. He was determined to be HIV positive and to have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A biopsy of a femoral node was diagnostic of PH. His systemic lymphadenopathy appeared to resolve with anti-retroviral therapy. This tumor should be considered within the differential diagnoses of pediatric and immunocompromised patients.

  4. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — an assessment of the present situation in the world: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    A consultative meeting was convened by the World Health Organization in Geneva on 22-25 November 1983 to assess the present situation of AIDS (the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in the world and to encourage collaboration between the different nations affected by this disease. AIDS was first reported in the USA in 1981, but probably existed there as early as 1978. Soon after its recognition in the USA, similar cases were identified in other areas of the world. In most western European countries and Canada, the epidemiological pattern is very similar to that in the United States, the majority of cases being in homosexual men. In other areas such as equatorial Africa and the Caribbean, the pattern seems to be different with no identifiable risk factors for the majority of cases. The disease is manifested by opportunistic infections and/or selected malignancies, with apparent differences in the clinical presentation between the cases in North America and Europe, on the one hand, and those in the tropics. To date there is no treatment that has significantly improved the underlying cellular immune deficiency, and the mortality is very high. The etiology of AIDS is unknown, but the epidemiological pattern is most consistent with its being caused by a transmissible agent; retroviruses come on top of the list of candidate agents. Despite the unknown etiology and the lack of laboratory diagnostic tests, sufficient information is available to permit health authorities to make recommendations that may reduce appreciably the incidence of the disease. AIDS is an important health problem in a number of countries and has international implications. Collaborative laboratory, epidemiological and clinical research between countries is needed to accelerate control efforts. In the meantime, WHO will coordinate exchange of information among countries. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:6331905

  5. Fear of contagion: a stress response to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meisenhelder, J B; LaCharite, C L

    1989-01-01

    The threat of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has triggered an affective stress response to illness: fear of contagion, an anxious response to the perceived threat of catching a disease. Three behaviors characterize this fear: avoidance, extreme precautions, and verbal expressions of fear regarding the disease. Despite the scientific evidence for the low risk of occupational exposure to this infection, many health care workers appear to demonstrate highly fearful behavior. Social and cultural values, which attach a deep symbolic meaning to AIDS, combine with misperceptions about transmission to create this stress response. This article suggests education on cross-cultural, sexual, and death-related issues, as well as factural information on AIDS to decrease this fear. Implications for nursing research are included.

  6. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Nevada.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, J Q; Semiatin, S L

    1991-01-01

    We summarize information from three sets of epidemiologic data: the Nevada AIDS [acquired immunodeficiency syndrome] Surveillance System, which contains information about every case identified within the state boundaries through September 1989; the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence reporting systems, which currently include data on all HIV-positive reports submitted statewide to public health authorities; and surveys on the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of Nevadans concerning HIV-related disease. The Nevada State AIDS Task Force outlined major policy recommendations, nearly half of which concerned testing; only 2 dealt with preventing HIV transmission. Greater efforts should go into education, particularly directed toward groups at greatest risk of exposure to HIV, and to improve community-based care of infected persons.

  7. [A case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with ileocecal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Tetsuyoshi; Saruta, Masayuki; Sawada, Ryoichi; Ide, Daisuke; Arihiro, Seiji; Matsuoka, Mika; Katoh, Tomohiro; Tajiri, Hisao

    2015-10-01

    We report a case of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and ileocecal ulcer. A 31-year-old man was admitted with chief complaints of decreased body weight and abdominal pain. Colonoscopy revealed a round punched-out ulcer on the ileocecal valve. Initially, we suspected entero-Behçet's disease and simple ulcer as the cause of the ileocecal ulcer. However, after histologic examination of tissue biopsies obtained during colonoscopy, we diagnosed the patient as having cytomegalovirus (CMV) enteritis. Based on the patient's white blood cell depletion and CMV enteritis, we performed a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody test. The test was positive, and the diagnosis of AIDS was established. The number of patients with AIDS has been increasing in Japan; thus, we should consider the possibility of CMV enteritis and AIDS in young adult patients affected by ileocecal ulcer with no notable history.

  8. Bacillary angiomatosis: a new entity in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hnatuk, L A; Brown, D H; Snell, G E

    1994-06-01

    Since the recognition of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in 1981, previously rare infections and neoplasms have become increasingly common. Bacillary angiomatosis, undescribed in the medical literature prior to 1983, is now second in frequency only to Kaposi's sarcoma with respect to the cutaneous manifestations associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Caused by Rochalimaea henselae, bacillary angiomatosis is easily treated, when diagnosed early, with erythromycin. We present two cases of bacillary angiomatosis that presented to Toronto General Hospital and review this new and clinically interesting entity. The incidence of bacillary angiomatosis will undoubtedly increase as the HIV epidemic accelerates. Since bacillary angiomatosis commonly affects the head and neck region, it is important for the otolaryngologist to become increasingly proficient in its diagnosis and treatment. The current AIDS crisis demands that the otolaryngologist become aware not only of bacillary angiomatosis, but also of the other cutaneous head and neck manifestations of HIV infection.

  9. Resource utilization patterns in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Okello, D O

    1994-12-01

    A survey in 1991 of resource use patterns and factors affecting the cost of care for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, revealed that drugs constitute 97% of the mean cost of care of affected individuals in the outpatient and 37% in hospitalized patients. The cost of drugs per treatment episode was Ug.Sh.5785.00 in the outpatient and Ug.Sh.8309.00 for inpatients. (The exchange rate for 1991 was US$ = Ug.Sh.910.00). Analysis of an attempt to provide essential drugs for the growing number of AIDS subjects shows that drugs alone could consume the entire health budget of the Ministry of Health in Uganda. There is therefore need to critically consider options to control the high cost for drugs in AIDS care.

  10. Stereotactic biopsy of cerebral lesions in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Davies, M A; Pell, M F; Brew, B J

    1995-01-01

    The efficacy, mortality and morbidity of CT directed stereotactic biopsy of a cerebral lesion in 32 Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infected patients between July 1991 and June 1994 who had an atypical presentation for toxoplasmosis or who were failing or intolerant of empirical antitoxoplasmosis treatment was evaluated. An histological diagnosis was able to be made in 85%: progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML) in 13, primary cerebral lymphoma in 10, toxoplasmosis in 3 and HIV encephalitis in one. Non-specific reactive changes or gliosis were seen in 5 patients. There was no mortality, and morbidity occurred in 2 patients: one intraventricular haemorrhage and one transient third nerve palsy. Correct diagnosis made by image-directed stereotactic biopsy of central nervous system (CNS) disease in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients may improve outcome, particularly in those diseases where effective treatment strategies already exist and become increasingly available in the future.

  11. Resource utilization patterns in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Okello, D O

    1994-12-01

    A survey in 1991 of resource use patterns and factors affecting the cost of care for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, revealed that drugs constitute 97% of the mean cost of care of affected individuals in the outpatient and 37% in hospitalized patients. The cost of drugs per treatment episode was Ug.Sh.5785.00 in the outpatient and Ug.Sh.8309.00 for inpatients. (The exchange rate for 1991 was US$ = Ug.Sh.910.00). Analysis of an attempt to provide essential drugs for the growing number of AIDS subjects shows that drugs alone could consume the entire health budget of the Ministry of Health in Uganda. There is therefore need to critically consider options to control the high cost for drugs in AIDS care. PMID:7705257

  12. Pediatric acquired CNS demyelinating syndromes: Features associated with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Hintzen, Rogier Q; Dale, Russell C; Neuteboom, Rinze F; Mar, Soe; Banwell, Brenda

    2016-08-30

    Approximately one-third of children with an acquired demyelinating syndrome (ADS) will be diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS), either at onset according to the 2010 McDonald criteria, or on the basis of clinical or MRI evidence of relapsing disease, in the majority of patients within 2-4 years. ADS in adolescents, female patients, and patients with polyfocal deficits is associated with the highest likelihood of MS, while children with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis, those with documented preceding infection, and ADS presentation in young children more commonly portends a monophasic outcome. While pediatric MS associates with similar genetic risk alleles as have been documented in adult-onset MS, such associations are not diagnostically valuable at the individual level. The presence of antibodies directed against aquaporin-4 strongly supports a diagnosis of neuromyelitis optica, and should be assayed in children manifesting with severe optic neuritis, longitudinally extensive myelitis, or brainstem/hypothalamic syndromes. Further research will determine whether other antibody signatures are indicative of relapsing demyelination distinct from MS. PMID:27572864

  13. Experience with rehabilitation in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    O'Connell, P G; Levinson, S F

    1991-08-01

    Patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) represent a novel referral population for rehabilitation services. Limited information about the rehabilitation needs of individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection is available. We reviewed 51 consecutive patients with AIDS referred to a rehabilitation consult service. Common problems encountered included generalized deconditioning (27%) and neurologic dysfunction (45%). Neurologic presentations were diverse and included hemiparesis, diffuse cognitive dysfunction and dementia, myelopathy, myopathy and peripheral neuropathy. Other patients were referred for wound care as well as the management of the local effects of Kaposi's sarcoma, various musculoskeletal syndromes and new onset blindness. Problems identified included impaired mobility (76%), difficulty with self-care (57%), impaired cognition (29%) and uncontrolled pain (37%). Among the rehabilitation interventions utilized were therapeutic exercise (73%), gait aids (45%), bathroom and safety equipment (45%), orthotics (29%), vocational counseling (4%), pain management (29%) and whirlpool treatments (10%). Five patients were too ill or refused treatment. We conclude that AIDS patients referred for rehabilitation have a wide variety of physical deficits, demonstrate a considerable degree of functional impairment and may require multiple rehabilitation interventions. PMID:1878178

  14. [ANEMIC SYNDROME IN PATIENTS WITH COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA].

    PubMed

    Budnevsky, A V; Esaulenko, I E; Ovsyannikov, E S; Labzhaniya, N B; Voronina, E V; Chernov, A V

    2016-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia remains a most widespread acute infectious disease of socio-economic significance all over the world. Up to 30% of the patients present with anemia responsible for the unfavourable prognosis and elevated mortality. Not infrequently, anemia is not diagnosed during the hospital stay und therefore remains uncorrected. Severe anemia results in enhanced hypercapnia and slowed maturation of red blood cells in the bone marrow which facilitates the development of ischemic syndrome. Hepcidin, a mediator of inflammation and iron-regulatory hormone, plays an important role in the clinical course of community-acquired pneumonia. Hepsidin production increases during inflammation; it suppresses erythtropoiesis and depletes the iron depot leading to so-called anemia of inflammation. Hypoxia and anemia activate erythtropoiesis, and the released erythropoietin inhibits hepsidin production. During pneumonia resolution, hepsidin promotes recovery from anemia by activating iron absorption. The curreni literature contains few data on the use of hepcidin as a diagnostic marker of anemia. The necessity oftreating anemia in patients with pneumonia under hospital conditions is a matter of discussion. Direct involvement of hepcidin in iron metabolism creates a prerequisite for the treatment of anemia. Medicamental suppression of its activity by stimulating erythtropoiesis can facilitate normalization of iron metabolism and restoration of hemoglobin level.

  15. [Neural mechanism underlying autistic savant and acquired savant syndrome].

    PubMed

    Takahata, Keisuke; Kato, Motoichiro

    2008-07-01

    It is well known that the cases with savant syndrome, demonstrate outstanding mental capability despite coexisting severe mental disabilities. In many cases, savant skills are characterized by its domain-specificity, enhanced memory capability, and excessive focus on low-level perceptual processing. In addition, impaired integrative cognitive processing such as social cognition or executive function, restricted interest, and compulsive repetition of the same act are observed in savant individuals. All these are significantly relevant to the behavioral characteristics observed in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). A neurocognitive model of savant syndrome should explain these cognitive features and the juxtaposition of outstanding talents with cognitive disabilities. In recent neuropsychological studies, Miller (1998) reported clinical cases of "acquired savant," i.e., patients who improved or newly acquired an artistic savant-like skill in the early stage of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Although the relationship between an autistic savant and acquired savant remains to be elucidated, the advent of neuroimaging study of ASD and the clarification of FTD patients with savant-like skills may clarify the shared neural mechanisms of both types of talent. In this review, we classified current cognitive models of savant syndrome into the following 3 categories. (1) A hypermnesic model that suggests that savant skills develop from existing or dormant cognitive functions such as memory. However, recent findings obtained through neuropsychological examinations imply that savant individuals solve problems using a strategy that is fairly different from a non-autistic one. (2) A paradoxical functional facilitation model (Kapur, 1996) that offers possible explanations about how pathological states in the brain lead to development of prodigious skills. This model emphasizes the role of reciprocal inhibitory interaction among adjacent or distant cortical regions

  16. Autosomal recessive PGM3 mutations link glycosylation defects to atopy, immune deficiency, autoimmunity, and neurocognitive impairment

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yu; Yu, Xiaomin; Ichikawa, Mie; Lyons, Jonathan J.; Datta, Shrimati; Lamborn, Ian T.; Jing, Huie; Kim, Emily S.; Biancalana, Matthew; Wolfe, Lynne A.; DiMaggio, Thomas; Matthews, Helen F.; Kranick, Sarah M.; Stone, Kelly D.; Holland, Steven M.; Reich, Daniel S.; Hughes, Jason D.; Mehmet, Huseyin; McElwee, Joshua; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Freeze, Hudson H.; Su, Helen C.; Milner, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    Background Identifying genetic syndromes that lead to significant atopic disease can open new pathways for investigation and intervention in allergy. Objective To define a genetic syndrome of severe atopy, elevated serum IgE, immune deficiency, autoimmunity, and motor and neurocognitive impairment. Methods Eight patients from two families who had similar syndromic features were studied. Thorough clinical evaluations, including brain MRI and sensory evoked potentials, were performed. Peripheral lymphocyte flow cytometry, antibody responses, and T cell cytokine production were measured. Whole exome sequencing was performed to identify disease-causing mutations. Immunoblotting, qRT-PCR, enzymatic assays, nucleotide sugar and sugar phosphate analyses along with MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry of glycans were used to determine the molecular consequences of the mutations. Results Marked atopy and autoimmunity were associated with increased TH2 and TH17 cytokine production by CD4+ T cells. Bacterial and viral infection susceptibility were noted along with T cell lymphopenia, particularly of CD8+ T cells, and reduced memory B cells. Apparent brain hypomyelination resulted in markedly delayed evoked potentials and likely contributed to neurological abnormalities. Disease segregated with novel autosomal recessive mutations in a single gene, phosphoglucomutase 3 (PGM3). Although PGM3 protein expression was variably diminished, impaired function was demonstrated by decreased enzyme activity and reduced UDP-GlcNAc, along with decreased O- and N-linked protein glycosylation in patients’ cells. These results define a new Congenital Disorder of Glycosylation. Conclusions Autosomal recessive, hypomorphic PGM3 mutations underlie a disorder of severe atopy, immune deficiency, autoimmunity, intellectual disability and hypomyelination. PMID:24589341

  17. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and black Americans: special psychosocial issues.

    PubMed Central

    Mays, V M; Cochran, S D

    1987-01-01

    Approximately 25 percent of persons diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been black. This paper examines three areas of concern when focusing on AIDS in the black population: differences from whites in patterns of transmission of the infection, cultural factors that may affect health education efforts, and ethnically relevant issues in the provision of medical care to black persons with AIDS. Recognition of these differences is important in developing appropriate AIDS-related services for the black population. First, the epidemiologic pattern of infection in the black population differs from whites. Although they represent only 12 percent of the American population, blacks make up nearly one-quarter of reported AIDS cases. Currently, it is estimated that between 1 and 1.4 percent of the black population may be infected with the human T-lymphotropic virus/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV), a rate estimated to be three times that of whites. In addition, epidemiologic patterns of viral transmission in the black community suggest a greater incursion into the heterosexual population. Second, educational interventions designed to slow the rate of infection need to be sensitive to cultural and behavioral differences between blacks and whites who are at increased risk for acquiring or transmitting an HTLV-III/LAV infection. These include possible differences in perceptions of being at risk and actual risk behaviors. Third, in caring for black AIDS patients there are psychological, sociocultural, and medical care issues that are relevant. Research findings specific to health care for blacks are reviewed with particular reference to concerns that might arise in the treatment of black persons with AIDS. Recommendations for research and health education efforts in the black community are presented. PMID:3104981

  18. Microsporum gypseum dermatophytosis in a patient of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Bhagra, S; Ganju, S A; Sood, A; Guleria, R C; Kanga, A K

    2013-01-01

    Microsporum gypseum, a geophillic dermatophyte is rarely isolated from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We report tinea corporis due to Microsporum gypseum, an uncommon aetiological agent, in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from our region. The clinical presentation resembled psoriasis characterised by atypical, scaly and hyperkeratotic lesions.

  19. Advances in neonatal screening for primary immune deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, TINGTING; LI, ZHENGUANG; ZHANG, QIULI

    2016-01-01

    The congenital disorders of immune competence are known as primary immunodeficiencies (PID) and are mainly characterized by a pathological susceptibility to infection. These infections are mostly of time repetitive and drug resistant in nature. The number of infected infants has reached over 200 and is on the increase. Additionally, clinical severity of the disease has been confirmed to be extensive. The increasing number of these severe PIDs is due to the lack of specific as well as efficient management avenues. New assays and concepts for newborn screening of severe primary immune deficiencies are being explored and the present review focused on these new upcoming strategies for improved screening of neonates. PMID:27168770

  20. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome associated with left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Nascimbene, Angelo; Neelamegham, Sriram; Frazier, O H; Moake, Joel L; Dong, Jing-Fei

    2016-06-23

    Left ventricular assist devices (LVAD) provide cardiac support for patients with end-stage heart disease as either bridge or destination therapy, and have significantly improved the survival of these patients. Whereas earlier models were designed to mimic the human heart by producing a pulsatile flow in parallel with the patient's heart, newer devices, which are smaller and more durable, provide continuous blood flow along an axial path using an internal rotor in the blood. However, device-related hemostatic complications remain common and have negatively affected patients' recovery and quality of life. In most patients, the von Willebrand factor (VWF) rapidly loses large multimers and binds poorly to platelets and subendothelial collagen upon LVAD implantation, leading to the term acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS). These changes in VWF structure and adhesive activity recover quickly upon LVAD explantation and are not observed in patients with heart transplant. The VWF defects are believed to be caused by excessive cleavage of large VWF multimers by the metalloprotease ADAMTS-13 in an LVAD-driven circulation. However, evidence that this mechanism could be the primary cause for the loss of large VWF multimers and LVAD-associated bleeding remains circumstantial. This review discusses changes in VWF reactivity found in patients on LVAD support. It specifically focuses on impacts of LVAD-related mechanical stress on VWF structural stability and adhesive reactivity in exploring multiple causes of AVWS and LVAD-associated hemostatic complications. PMID:27143258

  1. Skin aging in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Aquino Favarato, Grace Kelly Naves; da Silva, Aline Cristina Souza; Oliveira, Lívia Ferreira; da Fonseca Ferraz, Mara Lúcia; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the histomorphometric skin changes over aging patients with autopsied acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In 29 skin fragments of autopsied elderly (older than 50 years) and nonelderly patients with AIDS, epidermal thickness, the number of layers, the diameter of cells, the percentage of collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis, and the number and morphology of Langerhans cells were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed by SigmaStat 2.03 program. The thickness of the epidermis (92.55 × 158.94 μm), the number of layers (7 × 9 layers), and the diameter of the cells (13.27 × 17.6 μm) were statistically lower among the elderly. The quantity of collagen fibers (9.68 × 14.11%) and elastic fibers (11.89 × 15.31%) was also significantly lower in the elderly. There was a decrease in total (10.61 × 12.38 cel/mm(2)) and an increase in immature Langerhans cells (6.31 × 4.98 cel/mm(2)) in elderly patients with AIDS. The aging of the skin of patients with AIDS is amended in different histomorphometric aspects, the epidermis constituents suffer less pronounced changes in normal aging, and the dermis has more intense changes in elastic fibers and collagen.

  2. Autoimmunity and dysmetabolism of human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Mei; Hong, Xue-Zhi; Xu, Jia-Hua; Luo, Jiang-Xi; Mo, Han-You; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-06-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains ill-defined by lists of symptoms, infections, tumors, and disorders in metabolism and immunity. Low CD4 cell count, severe loss of body weight, pneumocystis pneumonia, and Kaposi's sarcoma are the major disease indicators. Lines of evidence indicate that patients living with AIDS have both immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. Immunodeficiency is attributed to deficits in the skin- and mucosa-defined innate immunity, CD4 T cells and regulatory T cells, presumably relating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The autoimmunity in AIDS is evident by: (1) overproduction of autoantibodies, (2) impaired response of CD4 cells and CD8 cells, (3) failure of clinical trials of HIV vaccines, and (4) therapeutic benefits of immunosuppression following solid organ transplantation and bone marrow transplantation in patients at risk of AIDS. Autoantibodies are generated in response to antigens such as debris and molecules de novo released from dead cells, infectious agents, and catabolic events. Disturbances in metabolic homeostasis occur at the interface of immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in the development of AIDS. Optimal treatments favor therapeutics targeting on the regulation of metabolism to restore immune homeostasis.

  3. Skin aging in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Aquino Favarato, Grace Kelly Naves; da Silva, Aline Cristina Souza; Oliveira, Lívia Ferreira; da Fonseca Ferraz, Mara Lúcia; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the histomorphometric skin changes over aging patients with autopsied acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In 29 skin fragments of autopsied elderly (older than 50 years) and nonelderly patients with AIDS, epidermal thickness, the number of layers, the diameter of cells, the percentage of collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis, and the number and morphology of Langerhans cells were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed by SigmaStat 2.03 program. The thickness of the epidermis (92.55 × 158.94 μm), the number of layers (7 × 9 layers), and the diameter of the cells (13.27 × 17.6 μm) were statistically lower among the elderly. The quantity of collagen fibers (9.68 × 14.11%) and elastic fibers (11.89 × 15.31%) was also significantly lower in the elderly. There was a decrease in total (10.61 × 12.38 cel/mm(2)) and an increase in immature Langerhans cells (6.31 × 4.98 cel/mm(2)) in elderly patients with AIDS. The aging of the skin of patients with AIDS is amended in different histomorphometric aspects, the epidermis constituents suffer less pronounced changes in normal aging, and the dermis has more intense changes in elastic fibers and collagen. PMID:27649952

  4. Gastrointestinal Disorders Associated with Common Variable Immune Deficiency (CVID) and Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD)

    PubMed Central

    Uzzan, Mathieu; Ko, Huaibin M.; Mehandru, Saurabh; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    Common Variable Immune Deficiency (CVID) and Chronic Granulomatous Disease (CGD) are two of the well-characterized primary immune defects with distinct pathologic defects. While CVID is predominantly a disorder of the adaptive immune system, in CGD, innate immunity is impaired. In both syndromes, the clinical manifestations include an increased susceptibility to infections and a number of non-infectious, inflammatory conditions including systemic autoimmunity, as well as organ-specific pathology. Among the organ-associated disorders, gastrointestinal (GI) manifestations are one of the most intractable. As such, non-infectious inflammatory disorders of the GI tract are clinically challenging as they have protean manifestations, often resembling inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) or celiac disease, are notoriously difficult to treat, and hence are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therefore, assessing the pathogenesis, and defining appropriate therapeutic approaches for GI disease in patients with CVID and CGD is imperative. PMID:26951230

  5. Accelerated neutrophil apoptosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Pitrak, D L; Tsai, H C; Mullane, K M; Sutton, S H; Stevens, P

    1996-01-01

    Neutrophil (PMNL) function defects occur as a consequence of HIV infection. This study examined PMNL apoptosis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) to determine if accelerated apoptosis contributes to impaired function. PMNL were isolated from 10 HIV-infected patients with CD4+ lymphocyte counts < 200/mm3 without signs of active infection and 7 healthy volunteers. PMNL were stained with acridine orange and ethidium bromide after 0, 3, 6, and 18 h in culture, and examined for the morphologic changes of apoptosis and viability by fluorescent microscopy. Apoptosis was also demonstrated by electron microscopy, flow cytometry, and DNA gel electrophoresis. Apoptosis was minimal at 0 h, but PMNL from AIDS patients exhibited significantly greater apoptosis than controls at 3 h (22.5+/-11.5 vs. 8.9+/-6.9%, P = 0.015), 6 h (38.1+/-14.2 vs. 18.1+/-4.5%, P = 0.003), and 18 h (71.3+/-19.0 vs. 38.8+/-16.7%, P = 0.002). Viabilities were > or = 88.0% for both groups from 0-6 h, but by 18 h viability was significantly decreased for the HIV group (58.8+/-12.4 vs. 83.5+/-10.4%, P = 0.001) due to an increase in non-viable apoptotic cells. Incubation with serum from AIDS patients had no effect on control PMNL, and incubation with control serum did not reduce the rate of apoptosis of PMNL from AIDS patients. Incubation with granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) in vitro significantly decreased apoptosis for PMNL from AIDS patients. PMNL from patients with AIDS exhibit markedly accelerated apoptosis ex vivo. In vivo, apoptosis and functional impairment of PMNL may contribute to the risk of secondary infections, and cytokine therapy may be of potential clinical benefit in this circumstance. PMID:8981916

  6. Impairment of polymorphonuclear leucocyte function in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and with lymphadenopathy syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Lazzarin, A; Uberti Foppa, C; Galli, M; Mantovani, A; Poli, G; Franzetti, F; Nóvati, R

    1986-01-01

    Granulocyte functions were studied in 20 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), 20 subjects with lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS) and 15 symptom-free drug addicts (SFDA). Polymorphonuclear leucocyte (PMNL) phagocytosis and killing of C. albicans appeared normal in homosexual men with AIDS, while drug addicts with AIDS or LAS and SFDA showed a significant defect of these functions as compared to healthy controls. Migration of PMNL in response to a chemoattractant was normal in SFDA, but markedly defective both in LAS and in AIDS patients. In the AIDS group no significant differences were evident between homosexual men and drug addicts. We conclude that defective PMNL phagocytosis and killing, unlike defective migration, are somehow related to drug abuse rather than to infection with the causative agent of the immunodeficiency. PMID:3791696

  7. Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation for Primary Immune Deficiency Disorders.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Neena; Raj, Revathi

    2016-05-01

    Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation provides a curative option for children with primary immune deficiency disorders. Increased awareness and rapid diagnosis of these conditions has resulted in early referral and the chance to offer a curative option for affected children. Management of these children involves a multidisciplinary team including infectious disease specialists and intensivists. The use of reduced intensity conditioning chemotherapy, advances in detection and therapy of viral and fungal infections, optimal supportive care and techniques in stem cell processing, including T cell depletion has enabled doctors to transplant children with co-morbid conditions and no matched donors. Transplantation for these children has also brought in deep insights into the world of immunology and infectious diseases. PMID:26920397

  8. Microflora analysis of a child with severe combined immune deficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, G. R.; Kropp, K. D.; Molina, T. C.

    1978-01-01

    The paper presents a microflora analysis of a 5-year-old male child with severe combined immune deficiency who was delivered by Caesarean section and continuously maintained in an isolator. Despite precautions, it was found that the child had come in contact with at least 54 different microbial contaminants. While his skin autoflora was similar to that of a reference group of healthy male adults in numbers of different species and the number of viable cells present per square centimeter of surface area, the subject's autoflora differed from the reference group in that significantly fewer anaerobic species were recovered from the patient's mouth and feces. It is suggested that the child's remaining disease free shows that the reported bacteria are noninvasive or that the unaffected components of the child's immune defense mechanisms are important.

  9. Across sectional study: the knowledge, attitude, perception, misconception and views (KAPMV) of adult family members of people living with human immune virus-HIV acquired immune deficiency syndrome-AIDS (PLWHA).

    PubMed

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Bandari, Deepak Kumar; Elnour, Asim Ahmad; Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Baraka, Mohamed; Hamad, Farah; Shehab, Abdulla

    2015-01-01

    We intended to assess knowledge, attitude, perception, misconception and views (KAP-MV) of family members of PLWHA. A cross-sectional retrospective study conducted in Anti-retroviral centre of Mahatma Gandhi Memorial-MGM hospital, Warangal, Telangana, South-India from July to September 2014. A questionnaire containing 41 items was distributed among adult family members accompanying patients living with HIV/AIDS-PLWHA. Level of KAP-MV was categorized into poor (0-28), average (29-55) and good (56-82). Analysis was performed by Pearson's Chi square, analysis of variance and Spearman's correlation test on 41 variables using SPSS version 21 and p < 0.01. 538 questionnaires were distributed, response rate was (96 %). On knowledge scale, respondents had a mean score of 8.0 ± 1.7, attitude 5.8 ± 3.4, perception 23.4 ± 4.1, misconceptions 8.0 ± 2.1 and views 8.0 ± 3.9. The respondents mean score was 53.2 ± 9.1 (64.9 %). Overall, level of education, marital status, religious beliefs, and employment status has significant (p < 0.001) associations with KAP-MV. Knowledge was significantly correlated with respondents' attitude (r = -0.15, p < 0.001), perception (0.39; p < 0.001), and views (0.381; p < 0.001). Family members of PLWHA with less knowledge score had more negative attitude, perception and views. Level of education, marital status, religious beliefs and employment status were identified as key barriers. Interventions targeting family members of PLWHA are warranted. Practice implications are as follows: Encourage role of family members.Deploy interventions.Minimize barriers.Change misconceptions. PMID:26688783

  10. Across sectional study: the knowledge, attitude, perception, misconception and views (KAPMV) of adult family members of people living with human immune virus-HIV acquired immune deficiency syndrome-AIDS (PLWHA).

    PubMed

    Bhagavathula, Akshaya Srikanth; Bandari, Deepak Kumar; Elnour, Asim Ahmad; Ahmad, Akram; Khan, Muhammad Umair; Baraka, Mohamed; Hamad, Farah; Shehab, Abdulla

    2015-01-01

    We intended to assess knowledge, attitude, perception, misconception and views (KAP-MV) of family members of PLWHA. A cross-sectional retrospective study conducted in Anti-retroviral centre of Mahatma Gandhi Memorial-MGM hospital, Warangal, Telangana, South-India from July to September 2014. A questionnaire containing 41 items was distributed among adult family members accompanying patients living with HIV/AIDS-PLWHA. Level of KAP-MV was categorized into poor (0-28), average (29-55) and good (56-82). Analysis was performed by Pearson's Chi square, analysis of variance and Spearman's correlation test on 41 variables using SPSS version 21 and p < 0.01. 538 questionnaires were distributed, response rate was (96 %). On knowledge scale, respondents had a mean score of 8.0 ± 1.7, attitude 5.8 ± 3.4, perception 23.4 ± 4.1, misconceptions 8.0 ± 2.1 and views 8.0 ± 3.9. The respondents mean score was 53.2 ± 9.1 (64.9 %). Overall, level of education, marital status, religious beliefs, and employment status has significant (p < 0.001) associations with KAP-MV. Knowledge was significantly correlated with respondents' attitude (r = -0.15, p < 0.001), perception (0.39; p < 0.001), and views (0.381; p < 0.001). Family members of PLWHA with less knowledge score had more negative attitude, perception and views. Level of education, marital status, religious beliefs and employment status were identified as key barriers. Interventions targeting family members of PLWHA are warranted. Practice implications are as follows: Encourage role of family members.Deploy interventions.Minimize barriers.Change misconceptions.

  11. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection, distribution of viral types and risk factors in cervical samples from human immunodeficiency virus-positive women attending three human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immune deficiency syndrome reference centres in northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Albert Eduardo Silva; Lucena-Silva, Norma; Garcia, Renan Gomes; Welkovic, Stefan; Barboza, Aureliana; Menezes, Maria Luiza Bezerra; Maruza, Magda; Tenório, Terezinha; Ximenes, Ricardo AA

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients have a greater prevalence of coinfection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is of high oncogenic risk. Indeed, the presence of the virus favours intraepithelial squamous cell lesion progression and may induce cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection, distribution of HPV types and risk factors among HIV-positive patients. Cervical samples from 450 HIV-positive patients were analysed with regard to oncotic cytology, colposcopy and HPV presence and type by means of polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The results were analysed by comparing demographic data and data relating to HPV and HIV infection. The prevalence of HPV was 47.5%. Among the HPV-positive samples, 59% included viral types of high oncogenic risk. Multivariate analysis showed an association between HPV infection and the presence of cytological alterations (p = 0.003), age greater than or equal to 35 years (p = 0.002), number of partners greater than three (p = 0.002), CD4+ lymphocyte count < 200/mm3 (p = 0.041) and alcohol abuse (p = 0.004). Although high-risk HPV was present in the majority of the lesions studied, the low frequency of HPV 16 (3.3%), low occurrence of cervical lesions and preserved immunological state in most of the HIV-positive patients were factors that may explain the low occurrence of precancerous cervical lesions in this population. PMID:25317701

  12. Use of subcutaneous immunoglobulin in primary immune deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Aydıner, Elif Karakoç; Kıykım, Ayça; Barış, Safa; Özen, Ahmet; Barlan, Işıl

    2016-01-01

    Aim: Immunoglobulin replacement therapy is required to reduce the frequency and severity of infections in patients with primary antibody deficiencies. Immunoglobulin G (IgG) can be administered intramuscularly, intravenously or subcutaneously. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy, dose adjustment and adverse events in subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy by retrospectively presenting the records of 16 patients who received subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy. Material and Methods: The demographic findings, clinical and laboratory findings, subcutaneous immunoglobulin dosage and dose frequency, infusion time, area and methods, adverse events and frequency of infections were obtained from patient files and recorded. Results: Sixteen patients (seven female, nine male) aged between 0–33 years who were diagnosed with primary immune deficiency and treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulin were enrolled. All patients had been receiving intravenous imunoglobulin (5–10%) at a dose of 0.33–1.25 gr/kg/dose with two-four week intervals before subcutaneous immunoglobulin. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin (10%) was administered at a dose of 0.03–0.43 gr/kg/dose with one-two week intervals. No significant difference was found between serum through IgG levels before administration of intravenous imunoglobulin and steady state IgG levels during subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy. When five patients whose serum through IgG levels were below 600 mg/dL were evaluated, however, a significant increase was found in steady state IgG levels with subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy (p=0.043). In a ten-month follow-up period, seven infections were observed in four patients (three upper respiratory infectons, two lower respiratory tract infections and three acute gastroenteritis). No acute severe bacterial infection was observed. Local advers reaction was reported in only 10 of 180 infusions (6%). No serious adverse events were reported. All 16 patients were willing to continue IgG replacement

  13. Acquired factor VIII inhibitor syndrome: A rare cause of hematuria

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Muthuvel Seral; Raj Kumar, Thallur Ramakrishnan; Subramanian, Srinivasan

    2015-01-01

    A 50-year-old woman presented with gross hematuria for 1 month. Clinical examinations, laboratory investigations, ultrasound and contrast computed tomography were normal, except anemia. Cystoscopy revealed bloody efflux from the right side. Retrograde pyelogram showed filling defect in the renal pelvis and biopsy was inconclusive. Renal angiogram was normal. She developed ecchymosis on the right thigh and arm with elevated activated partial thromboplastin time. The partial thromboplastin time correction study and Bethesda study confirmed the presence of acquired factor VIII inhibitor (acquired hemophilia). With flexible ureterorenoscopy, the mass in the renal pelvis was removed and its histopathology revealed clotted blood. The patient was subsequently managed with steroids and Factor eight inhibitor bypass activity. PMID:25624582

  14. Cutaneous colesional acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated Kaposi sarcoma and cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Ramdial, Pratistadevi K; Sing, Yetish; Subrayan, Sumeshini; Calonje, Eduardo

    2010-12-01

    The clinicopathologic features of 4 AIDS patients with cutaneous colesional Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and cryptococcosis, a rare phenomenon, are described. Biopsies from 3 patients who were highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-naive demonstrated predominant KS with a conspicuous spindle cell component and small aggregates of cryptococcal yeasts in 2 biopsies and predominant gelatinous cryptococcosis with attenuated KS spindle cells in 1 biopsy. One patient was HAART exposed. He had childhood pulmonary tuberculosis, was treated for disseminated cutaneous cryptococcosis 18 months earlier and presented with cutaneous lesions, odynophagia and massive cervical lymphadenopathy in the eighth week of HAART, after achieving viral suppression and a CD4 cell increase from 28 to 184 cells/μL. His skin biopsy demonstrated a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, neutrophils, and granulomas with admixed aggregates and single Cryptococcus neoformans and focal aggregation of human herpes virus 8-immunopositive spindle cells. Acid fast bacilli were not identified and mycobacterial molecular studies were negative. The features were compatible with cutaneous cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. His nodal and oropharyngeal biopsies demonstrated dense mixed, including granulomatous, inflammation with few cryptococcal yeasts and acid fast bacilli, confirmed to be Mycobacterium tuberculosis on polymerase chain reaction testing, without KS. These features were also compatible with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, but the exact role of each infection in the extracutaneous sites was unconfirmed. Colesional KS and cryptococcosis served as the sentinel lesion of AIDS in 3 patients and of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in 1 patient.

  15. Nephrotic syndrome caused by immune-mediated acquired LCAT deficiency.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Satoshi; Hiromura, Keiju; Tsukida, Mayuko; Ohishi, Yuko; Hamatani, Hiroko; Sakurai, Noriyuki; Sakairi, Toru; Ikeuchi, Hidekazu; Kaneko, Yoriaki; Maeshima, Akito; Kuroiwa, Takashi; Yokoo, Hideaki; Aoki, Takeo; Nagata, Michio; Nojima, Yoshihisa

    2013-07-01

    Lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) is an enzyme involved in maintaining cholesterol homeostasis. In familial LCAT deficiency (FLD), abnormal lipid deposition causes renal injury and nephrotic syndrome, frequently progressing to ESRD. Here, we describe a 63-year-old Japanese woman with no family history of renal disease who presented with nephrotic syndrome. The laboratory data revealed an extremely low level of serum HDL and undetectable serum LCAT activity. Renal biopsy showed glomerular lipid deposition with prominent accumulation of foam cells, similar to the histologic findings of FLD. In addition, she had subepithelial electron-dense deposits compatible with membranous nephropathy, which are not typical of FLD. A mixing test and coimmunoprecipitation study demonstrated the presence of an inhibitory anti-LCAT antibody in the patient's serum. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence detected LCAT along parts of the glomerular capillary walls, suggesting that LCAT was an antigen responsible for the membranous nephropathy. Treatment with steroids resulted in complete remission of the nephrotic syndrome, normalization of serum LCAT activity and HDL level, and disappearance of foam cell accumulation in renal tissue. In summary, inhibitory anti-LCAT antibody can lead to glomerular lesions similar to those observed in FLD. PMID:23620397

  16. Opportunistic Neurologic Infections in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Albarillo, Fritzie; O'Keefe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) especially in the resource-limited regions of the world. Diagnosis of these infections may be challenging because findings on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and brain imaging are nonspecific. While brain biopsy provides a definitive diagnosis, it is an invasive procedure associated with a relatively low mortality rate, thus less invasive modalities have been studied in recent years. Diagnosis, therefore, can be established based on a combination of a compatible clinical syndrome, radiologic and CSF findings, and understanding of the role of HIV in these infections. The most common CNS opportunistic infections are AIDS-defining conditions; thus, treatment of these infections in combination with HAART has greatly improved survival.

  17. Molecular cloning and characterization of a unique type of human papillomavirus from an immune deficient patient.

    PubMed

    Ostrow, R S; Zachow, K R; Thompson, O; Faras, A J

    1984-04-01

    Several papillomas from a single patient who exhibited an unusual immune deficiency syndrome were analyzed for the presence of specific human papillomavirus (HPV) types. Preliminary analysis indicated that the HPV DNA species present in each of these tissues was quite unlike any of the previously characterized HPV types. In order to more rigorously analyze the HPV from this patient we have isolated the HPV DNA by molecularly cloning it into a bacteriophage lambda vector and have constructed a detailed restriction endonuclease map. Comparative hybridization studies using S1 nuclease analyses showed 6% or less nucleotide sequence homology of this viral DNA with HPV types 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, or an HPV-11, molecularly cloned in this laboratory. Moreover, Southern blot analyses under stringent hybridization conditions revealed little, if any, hybridization to HPV types 1, 2, 4, 5, 7, 8, 10, 11, HPV-EV isolated from a patient with epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV), or 2 previously described HPVs (HPV-P and HPV-PW) related to HPV-3. There was, however, a very weak sequence homology detected with HPV-6 and an extremely weak homology to HPV-3. No filter hybridization was observed with the recently characterized HPVs 9 or -12 to -24. These data accumulatively indicate that the HPV species from this immunosuppressed patient represents a new, hitherto unidentified HPV type. PMID:6323588

  18. [Hemophagocytic syndrome associated with tuberculosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency].

    PubMed

    González, Norma E; Álvarez Ponte, Silvia; López, Mariela; Fronti, Pablo; Smith, Silvina; Pawluk, Victor

    2016-10-01

    The secondary hemophagocytic syndrome is rare in children and even rarer associated with tuberculosis. e report the case of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, disseminated tuberculosis and hemophagocytic syndrome. An 8-year-old girl, diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, was admitted due to fever, vomiting and abdominal pain. She presented abdominal distension, dehydration, tachypnea, crackles and wheezing in both lungs, anemia, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. She received broad-spectrum antibiotics and exploratory laparotomy was performed with appendectomy and lymph node biopsy. After 72 hours the patient presented tonic clonic seizure, impaired sensory, fever, hypoxemia, hepatosplenomegaly, ascites and peripheral edema. She developed bicytopenia, hyperferritinemia and bone marrow microscopic examination with hemophagocytosis. She received intravenous gammaglobulin, steroids and blood transfusions. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured in gastric aspirate, bone marrow and abdominal lymph node biopsy. She was treated with isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol, showing marked improvement.

  19. [Hemophagocytic syndrome associated with tuberculosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency].

    PubMed

    González, Norma E; Álvarez Ponte, Silvia; López, Mariela; Fronti, Pablo; Smith, Silvina; Pawluk, Victor

    2016-10-01

    The secondary hemophagocytic syndrome is rare in children and even rarer associated with tuberculosis. e report the case of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, disseminated tuberculosis and hemophagocytic syndrome. An 8-year-old girl, diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, was admitted due to fever, vomiting and abdominal pain. She presented abdominal distension, dehydration, tachypnea, crackles and wheezing in both lungs, anemia, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. She received broad-spectrum antibiotics and exploratory laparotomy was performed with appendectomy and lymph node biopsy. After 72 hours the patient presented tonic clonic seizure, impaired sensory, fever, hypoxemia, hepatosplenomegaly, ascites and peripheral edema. She developed bicytopenia, hyperferritinemia and bone marrow microscopic examination with hemophagocytosis. She received intravenous gammaglobulin, steroids and blood transfusions. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured in gastric aspirate, bone marrow and abdominal lymph node biopsy. She was treated with isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol, showing marked improvement. PMID:27606663

  20. Domestically acquired seoul virus causing hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome-Maryland, 2008.

    PubMed

    Woods, Christian; Palekar, Rakhee; Kim, Peter; Blythe, David; de Senarclens, Olivier; Feldman, Katherine; Farnon, Eileen C; Rollin, Pierre E; Albariño, Cesar G; Nichol, Stuart T; Smith, Margo

    2009-11-15

    Hantaviruses are rodent-borne viruses capable of causing human disease. The Seoul virus is a hantavirus that causes hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in East Asia. To our knowledge, we report the first domestically acquired case of hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome caused by the Seoul virus, confirmed by serology testing, reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction, and nucleotide sequence analysis. The patient presented with myalgias and fever, and developed acute renal failure.

  1. [A case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy concomitant with acquired von Willebrand syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ueda, Maki; Kawamura, Nobutoshi; Tateishi, Takahisa; Shigeto, Hiroshi; Ohyagi, Yasumasa; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2011-05-01

    We report a case of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) concomitant with acquired von Willebrand syndrome. A 33-year-old man developed motor and sensory polyneuropathy with electrophysiological conduction slowing. At this time, M-protein was absent He was diagnosed with CIDP and received intravenous immunoglobulin and subsequent oral corticosteroids, which resulted in almost complete remission for over 10 years. At the age of 44, he presented with chronic anemia. Laboratory tests and colonoscopy revealed that he had acquired von Willebrand syndrome with monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (IgG lambda type) and colon cancer. Bleeding symptoms were.resolved with intravenous immunoglobulin, but not with supplementation of factor VIII. Shortly after successful excision of the cancer, CIDP and acquired von Willebrand syndrome simultaneously recurred. Intravenous immunoglobulin produced rapid improvement of both neurological and hematological abnormalities. Concurring CIDP and acquired von Willebrand syndrome in the present case may indicate that the conditions have a partly common immunological background including monoclonal gammopathy and a potential common autoantibody-mediated mechanism. Alternatively, dysfunction of von Willebrand factor may increase blood-nerve barrier permeability, inducing the recurrence of CIDP.

  2. Central nervous system infection due to Mycobacterium haemophilum in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Buppajarntham, Aubonphan; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Rutjanawech, Sasinuj; Khawcharoenporn, Thana

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium haemophilum is an environmental organism that rarely causes infections in humans. We report a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who had central nervous system infection due to M. haemophilum. The diagnosis required brain tissue procurement and molecular identification method while the treatment outcome was unfavourable.

  3. The First Case of Vestibulocochlear Neuritis in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Joo; Cho, Chin Saeng; Kim, Nak Min; Yun, Su A

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections continue to increase throughout the world. Although neurologic complications are frequent in individuals with HIV infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), vestibulocochlear neuritis is still a relatively rare manifestation. We report the first case of vestibulocochlear neuritis occurring in an AIDS patient in Korea. PMID:27433384

  4. The First Case of Vestibulocochlear Neuritis in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Joo; Cho, Chin Saeng; Kim, Nak Min; Yun, Su A; Yoon, Hee Jung

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections continue to increase throughout the world. Although neurologic complications are frequent in individuals with HIV infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), vestibulocochlear neuritis is still a relatively rare manifestation. We report the first case of vestibulocochlear neuritis occurring in an AIDS patient in Korea.

  5. Common variable immune deficiency associated Hodgkin’s lymphoma complicated with EBV-linked hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Gunes, Gursel; Aslan, Tuncay; Etgul, Sezgin; Aydin, Seda; Buyukasik, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) is described by an increase in macrophages accountable for extensive phagocytosis of hematopoietic cells. Secondary HPS arises commonly in the presence of infections, neoplasia, autoimmune disorders and immune disorders. Here, we reported a patient with common variable immune deficiency (CVID) and Hodgkin’s lymphoma (HL) who later developed EBV linked hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. 42 year old men underwent check-up because of back pain in July 2012. He had known CVID disease. In physical examination he had no lymphadenopathies however his spleen was palpable 3 cm under arcus costa. He had hypogammaglobulinemia with IgG levels around 500 mg/dl. In abdominal computed tomography (CT) multiple lymphadenopathies reaching maximum 26×17 cm size were seen so, PET-CT was performed. Involvement in thorax, abdomen, and bone was detected with maximum SUV max 11.5. He had undergone tru-cut biopsy from lymph node in November 2012 which revealed HL. Bone marrow investigation favored with mix cell type. His cytogenetic analysis was reported as 46 XY. He was considered as stage 4 disease and ABVD (Adriamycin, bleomycin, vincristine and dexamethasone). He was given six cycles of chemotherapy in May 2013 and complete remission was observed in control CT screening in July 2013. However pancytopenia evolved in August 2013. Bone marrow investigation revealed suspicious lymphohistiocytic infiltration. Treatment was planned to apply autologous stem cell transplantation (SCT) after salvage chemotherapy. Control bone marrow investigation again revealed the lymphohistiocytic aggregates with hemophagocytosis. Our patient showed 5 criteria of hemophagocytic syndrome. He had ferritin elevation (>5000 μg/dl), splenomegaly (13 cm) cytopenia, triglyceride elevation and hemophagocytosis. He had unrelated SCT transplantation however he died from transplant related toxicity. The primary and secondary immune deficiency caused by chemotherapy are the major causes

  6. Frequency of hyponatremia and nonosmolar vasopressin release in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Vitting, K.E.; Gardenswartz, M.H.; Zabetakis, P.M.; Tapper, M.L.; Gleim, G.W.; Agrawal, M.; Michelis, M.F. )

    1990-02-16

    The frequency and pathophysiology of hyponatremia were studied in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Of 71 hospitalized patients surveyed retrospectively, hyponatremia was observed in 37 (52%). Of 48 patients studied prospectively, 27 (56%) were hyponatremic. In 16 hyponatremic patients, volume status; serum and urine osmolalities; renal, adrenal, and thyroid function; and plasma vasopressin levels were assessed. Urine osmolalities were inappropriately elevated relative to serum osmolalities. Four patients had moderate renal insufficiency. Plasma vasopressin levels, measured by radioimmunoassay, were elevated in 15 patients, with the highest levels seen in patients who died. Hyponatremia of multiple etiologies occurred in a majority of inpatients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, often following the administration of hypotonic fluids, and was associated with a 30% (8/27) short-term mortality.

  7. Glioblastoma multiforme of the brain stem in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wolff, R; Zimmermann, M; Marquardt, Gerhard; Lanfermann, H; Nafe, R; Seifert, V

    2002-09-01

    Glioblastoma of the brain stem is rare and there is no description of such a lesion in patients suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The majority of intracerebral mass lesions are due either to toxoplasmosis or primary central nervous system lymphomas so that it is usually not included in the differential diagnosis of enhancing lesions of the central nervous system in these patients. A 31-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected man presented with a four months history of slowly progressive deterioration of brainstem associated symptoms despite antitoxoplasmic therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large ring enhancing lesion in the brainstem. Clinical and neuroradiological data could not establish a proper diagnosis and a stereotactic serial biopsy was undertaken. Histological examination of the specimen showed a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) as the first reported case of GBM located in the brainstem in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient. Patient management and effectiveness of stereotactic serial biopsy are discussed.

  8. Unilateral acquired Brown's syndrome in systemic scleroderma: An unusual cause for diplopia

    PubMed Central

    Pawar, Neelam; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Ramakrishnan, Renagappa; Maheshwari, Devendra; Trivedi, Bhakti

    2015-01-01

    Brown's syndrome can be congenital or acquired with multiple causes. It has been described as a ocular complication in various rheumatic and nonrheumatic diseases. We describe a case of 27-year-old female patient with 5 years old history of systemic scleroderma who developed vertical diplopia, a left head tilt, and restriction of left eye on elevation in adduction. The patient responded to systemic steroids with resolution of diplopia. PMID:26669341

  9. Nontropical pyomyositis as a cause of subacute, multifocal myalgia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, R.F.; Sprenger, H.G.; Mooyaart, E.L.; Tamsma, J.T.; Kengen, R.A.; Weits, J. )

    1990-11-01

    We report a case of nontropical pyomyositis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection, in which severe myalgia was the presenting symptom over several weeks. Multifocal muscle lesions were identified by gallium scanning and magnetic resonance imaging techniques. The epidemiology, possible pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnostic imaging, and therapy are reviewed. Early suspicion of nontropical pyomyositis in severely immunocompromised patients with cryptic myalgia is recommended.

  10. Lichenoid drug reaction to isoniazid presenting as exfoliative dermatitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thakur, B K; Verma, S; Mishra, J

    2015-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients are at increased risk of drug reactions because of immune dysregulation and multiple drug intake. Lichenoid drug reactions to isoniazid have been reported previously in the literature. However, for lichenoid drug reaction to isoniazid to be so extensive to present as exfoliative dermatitis is rare. We report here a rare case of lichenoid drug reaction to isoniazid presenting as exfoliative dermatitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

  11. Unilateral acquired Brown's syndrome in systemic scleroderma: An unusual cause for diplopia.

    PubMed

    Pawar, Neelam; Ravindran, Meenakshi; Ramakrishnan, Renagappa; Maheshwari, Devendra; Trivedi, Bhakti

    2015-11-01

    Brown's syndrome can be congenital or acquired with multiple causes. It has been described as a ocular complication in various rheumatic and nonrheumatic diseases. We describe a case of 27-year-old female patient with 5 years old history of systemic scleroderma who developed vertical diplopia, a left head tilt, and restriction of left eye on elevation in adduction. The patient responded to systemic steroids with resolution of diplopia. PMID:26669341

  12. Acute fulminant invasive fungal sinusitis with cavernous sinus syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chi, Tzu-Hang; Chen, Hsien-Shen; Yuan, Chien-Han; Su, Feng-Ming

    2014-11-01

    Acute fulminant invasive fungal sinusitis is most commonly found in immunocompromised patients with conditions such as diabetes mellitus, malignancies and acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The most common pathogens are Aspergillus and Mucoraceae and the sinus most frequently involved is the maxillary sinus. Fever, rhinorrhea, facial pain, headache, and diplopia are common presenting symptoms. Complications of this infection include intracranial and / or intraorbital spread of the infection; the prognosis is poor. Here, a rare case of acute fulminant invasive fungal sinusitis with cavernous sinus syndrome is reported.

  13. Uptake of inert microparticles in normal and immune deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Smyth, S H; Feldhaus, S; Schumacher, U; Carr, K E

    2008-01-01

    Intestinal microparticle uptake is important for drug delivery, environmental pollution and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. This paper explores further whether uptake occurs at mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) via the microfold (M) cells of Peyer's patch domes or through villous epithelium. It does this by comparing the results of exposure of either severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice (lacking MALT) or normal BALBc mice, to oral gavage with 2 microm fluorescent latex microparticles. At 5 and 30 min after gavage, full circumference samples along the small intestine were processed for fluorescence microscopy and microparticle numbers were collected for surface and tissue sites. Uptake occurred in both BALBc and SCID mice within 5 min of particle administration and increased further in the following 25 min. In BALBc mice, almost all particles (96%) are in non-MALT sites in MALT circumference samples, with very few at the domes: uptake was also substantial in entirely villous samples. In SCID mice, particle numbers were only slightly lower than those of the BALBc mice, and occurred exclusively by the villous route. These findings confirm that the villous uptake route must be considered when assessing the extent of the dose delivered following pharmaceutical or toxicological oral exposure to microparticles. PMID:17723283

  14. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 536: Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and women of color.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    In the United States, most new cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occur among women of color (primarily African American and Hispanic women). Most women of color acquire the disease from heterosexual contact, often from a partner who has undisclosed risk factors for HIV infection. Safe sex practices, especially consistent condom use, must be emphasized for all women, including women of color. A combination of testing, education, and brief behavioral interventions can help reduce the rate of HIV infection and its complications among women of color. In addition,biomedical interventions such as early treatment of patients infected with HIV and pre-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis of high-risk individuals offer promise for future reductions in infections.

  15. Lymphadenopathy, productive cough, eosinophilia, and a new-onset acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dzhindzhikhashvili, Megi; Absy-Jaghab, Minou; Frieri, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    We present a complicated case of a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected male patient with a complexity of confounding and overlapping symptoms that can masquerade as another diagnosis. This is the case of a patient with multiple secondary sexually transmitted infectious diseases, lymphadenopathy, B-cell lymphoma, a productive cough, a clinical picture suggestive of pulmonary tuberculosis, eosinophilia, and a new-onset acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Our presentation highlights those deteriorations seen in our patient as well as various underlying immunologic changes in the content of HIV infection. This case may not be unique, but less severe cases occur and can be underdiagnosed, indicating the need of timely screening, close evaluation, and monitoring of HIV-infected patients as well as those with high risk of acquiring HIV.

  16. Neuronal damage and its relation to dementia in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Trillo-Pazos, G; Everall, I P

    1996-01-01

    There are an estimated 21.8 million people infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) worldwide [Weekly Epidemiol Rec 1996; 27:204-208] and 90% of these people will have some form of neuropathological abnormality during the course of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In this review, we will highlight the primary HIV-associated brain disorders. The role of HIV proteins and cytokines on neuronal damage will be assessed. We will also discuss the role of neuronal loss and functional damage in HIV-associated dementia.

  17. Patterns of gallium-67 scintigraphy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the AIDS related complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bitran, J.; Bekerman, C.; Weinstein, R.; Bennett, C.; Ryo, U.; Pinsky, S.

    1987-07-01

    Thirty-two patients with AIDS related complex (ARC) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) underwent /sup 67/Ga scans as part of their evaluation. Three patterns of /sup 67/Ga biodistribution were found: lymph node uptake alone; diffuse pulmonary uptake; normal scan. Gallium-67 scans were useful in identifying clinically occult Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in seven of 15 patients with ARC who were asymptomatic and had normal chest radiographs. Gallium scans are a useful ancillary procedure in the evaluation of patients with ARC or AIDS.

  18. Bacillary (epithelioid) angiomatosis and concurrent Kaposi's sarcoma in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Berger, T G; Tappero, J W; Kaymen, A; LeBoit, P E

    1989-11-01

    Two patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome developed simultaneous Kaposi's sarcoma and bacillary (epithelioid) angiomatosis. The distinguishing clinical and histologic features of these two vascular proliferations associated with human immunodeficiency virus disease are described. The lesions of bacillary (epithelioid) angiomatosis contained bacteria, while the lesions of Kaposi's sarcoma did not. With erythromycin therapy, the lesions of bacillary (epithelioid) angiomatosis cleared, while those of Kaposi's persisted. Bacillary (epithelioid) angiomatosis, a treatable but potentially fatal opportunistic infection of human immunodeficiency virus disease, should be considered in the differential diagnosis of vascular lesions in immunosuppressed patients.

  19. Peripheral Blood and Bone Marrow Abnormalities in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Frontiera, Michael; Myers, Adam M.

    1987-01-01

    In reviewing the peripheral hematologic manifestations, bone marrow changes and clinical course in 41 consecutive patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), frequent findings included anemia (95%), leukopenia (76%), bone marrow hypercellularity (73%) and pancytopenia (41%). These hematologic abnormalities were not clearly associated with specific clinical manifestations of AIDS, but support the conclusion that the hematopoietic system is a target organ in AIDS. The mechanisms of these abnormalities still need to be evaluated. Clinicians should be aware of these commonly encountered changes. Images PMID:3660772

  20. Detection of thoracic infections by nuclear medicine techniques in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The challenge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for nuclear medicine has been the early detection of related intrathoracic opportunistic infections, inflammatory conditions, and neoplasms. Gallium-67 citrate scanning has proved a sensitive test not only for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia but for many of the other opportunistic infections and malignancies, including mycobacterial infections and lymphoma. Patterns and intensity of gallium uptake may suggest more specific diagnoses. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells may also be a valuable diagnostic tool in the AIDS patient.41 references.

  1. Acquired disorders of elastic tissue: part I. Increased elastic tissue and solar elastotic syndromes.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Kevan G; Bercovitch, Lionel; Dill, Sara W; Robinson-Bostom, Leslie

    2004-07-01

    Elastic fibers in the extracellular matrix are an integral component of dermal connective tissue. The resilience and elasticity required for normal structure and function of the skin may be attributed to the network of elastic tissue. Advances in our understanding of elastic tissue physiology provide a foundation for studying the pathogenesis of elastic tissue disorders. Many acquired disorders are nevertheless poorly understood due to the paucity of reported cases. Several acquired disorders in which accumulation or elastotic degeneration of dermal elastic fibers produces prominent clinical and histopathologic features have recently been described. They include elastoderma, linear focal elastosis, and late-onset focal dermal elastosis and must be differentiated from better-known disorders, among them acquired pseudoxanthoma elasticum, elastosis perforans serpiginosa, and Favré-Racouchot syndrome. Learning objective At the conclusion of this learning activity, participants should understand the similarities and differences between acquired disorders of elastic tissue that are characterized by an increase in elastic tissue, as well as the spectrum of solar elastotic dermatoses.

  2. Characterization of an immune deficiency homolog (IMD) in shrimp (Fenneropenaeus chinensis) and crayfish (Procambarus clarkii).

    PubMed

    Lan, Jiang-Feng; Zhou, Jing; Zhang, Xiao-Wen; Wang, Zong-Heng; Zhao, Xiao-Fan; Ren, Qian; Wang, Jin-Xing

    2013-12-01

    The immune deficiency (IMD) signal pathway mediates immunity against Gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila. Recent studies show that the IMD pathway also involves in antiviral innate immune responses. The functions of the pathway in crustacean immunity are largely unknown. In this paper, two IMDs (FcIMD and PcIMD), one of the key elements of the IMD pathway, were identified from Chinese white shrimp Fenneropenaeus chinensis and red swamp crayfish Procambarus clarkii. Both proteins have a death domain located at the C-terminal. FcIMD was mainly expressed in the gills and stomach and PcIMD was mainly detected in the heart, hepatopancreas, and stomach. FcIMD peaked in hemocytes at 12 h after white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) challenge and it peaked in the gills at 6 h after WSSV challenge, but it was decreased at 2 h and kept the low level to 24 h in hemocytes and no obviously change in gill after Vibrio anguillarum challenge. PcIMD first decreased in hemocytes at 2 h and peaked at 12 h in hemocytes after V. anguillarum challenge. It was also upregulated in gill after bacterial challenge, peaked at 2 h, and decreased at 6 h, and then gradually increased at 12-24 h. PcIMD has no significant change in hemocytes and gill after WSSV challenge. Western blot analysis detected FcIMD protein in all tissues, and immunocytochemical analysis localized FcIMD in the cytoplasm of hemocytes. RNA interference analysis showed that the IMD pathway was involved in regulating the expression of three kinds AMP genes, including crustins, anti-lipopolysaccharide factors and lysozymes, in shrimp and crayfish. They are Cru 1, Cru 2, ALF 1, ALF 2 and Lys 1 in crayfish, and Cru1, Cru 3, ALF 6, ALF 8, and Lys2 in shrimp. These results suggest that although IMD distribution and expression patterns have some differences, the IMD pathway may have conserved function for AMP regulation in shrimp and crayfish immunity against Gram-negative bacteria.

  3. [Retrospective bacteriological study of mycobacterial infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pangon, B; Michon, C; Bizet, C; Perronne, C; Katlama, C; Marche, C; Lévy-Frébault, V; Buré, A

    1988-05-21

    The main species of mycobacteria isolated in 62 of the 316 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients admitted to the Claude Bernard Hospital, Paris, between January, 1983 and October, 1986 were studied retrospectively according to their site of isolation and their pathogenic role. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was isolated in 19 cases (from pulmonary specimens in 17 cases); this species was present in 59 percent of our African patients as against 20 percent of our European patients. M. avium intracellulare was isolated in 33 cases (17 from blood, 12 from the lung and 11 from the gastrointestinal tract) and was found in 55 p. 100 of our European patients. Other species that were isolated less frequently were M. xenopi (5 cases), M. kansasii (3 cases), M. aurum, M. chelonae, M. fortuitum, M. gordonae, M. simiae and M. terrae (1 case each). Post mortem specimens obtained from 110 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients were cultivated during the same period. In 20 patients, at least one specimen was positive for a mycobacterium: M. tuberculosis in 2 cases, M. avium intracellulare in 18 cases. Twenty-nine of the 33 patients in whom M. avium intracellulare was isolated were considered a posteriori as being infected by this organism. The therapeutic approach varies according to the species involved. No treatment seems to be truly effective against M. avium intracellulare. Pending the results of cultures, no direct bacteriological examination can provide information on the mycobacterial species concerned; however, a conventional antituberculosis treatment may be instituted, particularly in patients from Africa or Haiti.

  4. Acquired Fanconi syndrome is an indolent disorder in the absence of overt multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Ma, Cynthia X; Lacy, Martha Q; Rompala, John F; Dispenzieri, Angela; Rajkumar, S Vincent; Greipp, Philip R; Fonseca, Rafael; Kyle, Robert A; Gertz, Morie A

    2004-07-01

    Adult-acquired Fanconi syndrome (FS) is a rare complication of monoclonal gammopathy. We retrospectively reviewed 32 patients diagnosed with adult-acquired FS between April 1968 and June 2002 at Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN). At diagnosis, most patients had monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS) or smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM), with a median creatinine level of 176.8 microM (2.0 mg/dL; range, 79.56-327.08 microM [0.9-3.7 mg/dL]) and evidence of osteomalacia. During the average 65 months (range, 2-238 months) of follow-up, 5 patients developed end-stage renal disease (ESRD) and only 1 of 14 patients with MGUS transformed to multiple myeloma (MM). Also, 14 deaths occurred, with only 1 from ESRD but 4 from alkylator-related leukemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. Chemotherapy offered little benefit on renal functions of MGUS or SMM patients. In conclusion, FS associated with monoclonal gammopathy does not appear to confer an additional risk of subsequent evolution to MM. ESRD occurs late in the disease process. PMID:15010372

  5. Utility of the National Death Index in ascertaining mortality in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance.

    PubMed

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Maddox, Lorene M; Lieb, Spencer; Niyonsenga, Theophile

    2011-07-01

    To assess the utility of the National Death Index (NDI) in improving the ascertainment of deaths among people diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the authors determined the number and characteristics of additional deaths identified through NDI linkage not ascertained by using standard electronic linkage with Florida Vital Records and the Social Security Administration's Death Master File. Records of people diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome between 1993 and 2007 in Florida were linked to the NDI. The demographic characteristics and reported human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission modes of people whose deaths were identified by using the NDI were compared with those whose deaths were ascertained by standard linkage methods. Of the 15,094 submitted records, 719 had confirmed matches, comprising 2.1% of known deaths (n = 34,504) within the cohort. Hispanics, males, people 40 years of age or older, and injection drug users were overrepresented among deaths ascertained only by the NDI. In-state deaths comprised 59.0% of newly identified deaths, and human immunodeficiency virus was less likely to be a cause of death among newly identified compared with previously identified deaths. The newly identified deaths were not previously ascertained principally because of slight differences in personal identifying information and could have been identified through improved linkages with Florida Vital Records.

  6. Colon perforation with peritonitis in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient due to cytomegalovirus and amoebic colitis.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Hung-Chin; Lee, Susan Shin-Jung; Wann, Shue-Ren; Chen, Yao-Shen; Chen, Eng-Rin; Yen, Chuan-Min; Liu, Yung-Ching

    2005-11-01

    Invasive amoebiasis is rarely seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, even in endemic areas. By contrast, cytomegalovirus (CMV) disease is recognized as a major clinical problem in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients. A 34-year-old HIV-infected man with amoeba colitis, disseminated Mycobacterium avian complex and CMV infection with cecum perforation, presented with the initial symptoms of fever, shortness of breath and painful sensation when swallowing. He was treated with fluconazole, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and hydrocortisone under the impression of esophageal candidiasis and Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia. However, diarrhea and abdominal pain developed on day 6 of hospitalization. Invasive amoebiasis and CMV colitis was diagnosed after examination of colon pathological specimens. Emergent laparotomy was performed. Right hemicolectomy with double barrel ileostomy and colostomy was done due to perforation of the cecum. Iodoquinol was given, followed by metronidazole 14 days afterwards. He underwent closure of double barrel ileostomy and colostomy 5 months later. This case illustrates the diagnostic challenge of caring for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome persons with multiple illnesses and medication use. CMV infection, amoebic colitis and possibly corticosteroid may have played a role in colon perforation in our patient.

  7. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis: a common cause of pulmonary disease in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Suffredini, A.F.; Ognibene, F.P.; Lack, E.E.; Simmons, J.T.; Brenner, M.; Gill, V.J.; Lane, H.C.; Fauci, A.S.; Parrillo, J.E.; Masur, H.

    1987-07-01

    During a 4.4-year period, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis was seen in 41 of 110 (38%) patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and accounted for 32% (48/152) of all episodes of clinical pneumonitis. Diffuse alveolar damage was typically a feature of nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, but neither lung biopsy nor bronchoalveolar lavage detected a pathogen. Of these 41 patients, 13 had no associated pulmonary tumor and had not been exposed to pulmonary toxins, whereas 28 patients had either concurrent pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma, previous experimental therapies, or a history of pneumocystis pneumonia or drug abuse. Of these 41, 23 had normal chest radiographs. The clinical features of patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis were similar to those of patients with pneumocystis pneumonia, although histologic findings showed less severe alveolar damage in patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (p less than 0.001). Pathologic evaluation and clinical follow-up suggest that many clinical episodes of pneumonitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are due to nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis of unknown cause.

  8. Brazilian response to the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic among injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Fábio; Doneda, Denise; Gandolfi, Denise; Nemes, Maria Inês Battistella; Andrade, Tarcísio; Bueno, Regina; Piconez e Trigueiros, Daniela

    2003-12-15

    The Brazilian response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is being observed all over the world because of its success. Understanding the role of injection drug users (IDUs) in the epidemic and the political response thereto is a key factor in the control of the epidemic in Brazil. This paper summarizes some of the most important analyses of the Brazilian response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic among and from IDUs. Key elements of the response include the support of the Brazilian Universal Public Health System, the provision of universal access to highly active antiretroviral therapy, and the creation of harm reduction projects that are politically and financially supported by the federal government. The response among and from IDUs is a key element in overall control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The response to the epidemic among and from IDUs has been headed in the correct direction since its beginning and is now being intensively expanded.

  9. Treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with Chinese medicine in China: opportunity, advancement and challenges.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Bin; Wang, Xin; Liu, Hui-Juan; Jin, Yan-Tao; Guo, Hui-Jun; Jiang, Zi-Qiang; Li, Zhen; Xu, Li-Ran

    2013-08-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) has been used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for 30 years and the demonstrated therapeutic effects of CM, such as reducing plasma HIV viral load, increasing CD4(+)T cell counts, promoting immunity reconstitution, ameliorating symptoms and signs, improving the health related quality of life (HRQOL) and counteracting against the effects of anti-retroviral drugs, were summarized and reviewed in this article. The authors point out that it had been a good opportunity to use CM for the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS in the past and also there are huge challenges ahead for CM research and clinicians to discover more effective CM and its underlying mechanisms for treatment of AIDS.

  10. Pancreatic tuberculosis with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Meesiri, Somchai

    2012-02-21

    Pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively rare disease that can mimic carcinoma, lymphoma, cystic neoplasia, retroperitoneal tumors, pancreatitis or pseudocysts. Here, I report the case of a 31-year-old immigrant Burmese woman who exhibited epigastralgia, fever, weight loss and an epigastric mass. The patient was diagnosed with pancreatic TB and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and was treated with antituberculous drugs and percutaneous catheter drainage without a laparotomy. The clinical presentation, radiographic investigation and management of pancreatic TB are summarized in this paper to emphasize the importance of considering this rare disease in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic masses concomitant with human immunodeficiency virus infection. I also emphasize the need for both histopathological and microbiological diagnosis via fine-needle aspiration.

  11. Investigation of potent lead for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tzu-Chieh; Lee, Wen-Yuan; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Chan, Yueh-Chiu; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2014-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), has become, because of the rapid spread of the disease, a serious global problem and cannot be treated. Recent studies indicate that VIF is a protein of HIV to prevent all of human immunity to attack HIV. Molecular compounds of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) database filtered through molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations to inhibit VIF can protect against HIV. Glutamic acid, plantagoguanidinic acid, and Aurantiamide acetate based docking score higher with other TCM compounds selected. Molecular dynamics are useful for analysis and detection ligand interactions. According to the docking position, hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding changes, and structure variation, the study try to select the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine compound Aurantiamide acetate is better than the other for protein-ligand interactions to maintain the protein composition, based on changes in the structure.

  12. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    García-García, Concepción; Castillo-Álvarez, Federico; Azcona-Gutiérrez, José M; Herraiz, María J; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José A

    2015-05-01

    Neurological complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are still common, even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infections, immune reconstitution, the virus itself, antiretroviral drugs and neurocognitive disorders have to be considered when establishing the differential diagnosis. Toxoplasmic encephalitis remains the major cause of space-occupying lesions in the brain of patients with HIV/AIDS; however, spinal cord involvement has been reported infrequently. Here, we review spinal cord toxoplasmosis in HIV infection and illustrate the condition with a recent case from our hospital. We suggest that most patients with HIV/AIDS and myelitis with enhanced spine lesions, multiple brain lesions and positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii should receive immediate empirical treatment for toxoplasmosis, and a biopsy should be performed in those cases without clinical improvement or with deterioration.

  13. Risk reduction for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome among intravenous drug users.

    PubMed

    Des Jarlais, D C; Friedman, S R; Hopkins, W

    1985-11-01

    Intravenous drug users are the second largest risk group for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and a bridge to two other groups: children and heterosexual partners. In the absence of effective treatment or vaccines, control of the epidemic among drug users will rely on efforts to reduce needle sharing. However, the traditional image of intravenous drug users leads one to expect little or no risk reduction. We review characteristics of AIDS as a disease that impede efforts at risk reduction among drug users and report on current risk reduction among intravenous drug users in New York City. There has been a sustained increase in the demand for new, unused needles, as shown in the emergence of "resealed" needles and in interviews with persons selling needles in illicit drug-purchasing areas.

  14. Differences in histoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the United States and Brazil.

    PubMed

    Karimi, Kian; Wheat, L Joseph; Connolly, Patricia; Cloud, Gretchen; Hajjeh, Rana; Wheat, Emerson; Alves, Katia; Lacaz Cd, Carlos da Silva; Keath, Elizabeth

    2002-12-01

    Demographic and clinical parameters among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and histoplasmosis in Brazil and United States were compared. The Brazilian isolates were typed by restriction-fragment length polymorphism analysis and were DNA fingerprinted by random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Skin lesions occurred in 66% of Brazilian case patients, compared with 1%-7% of US case patients. Of 21 treated case patients, 4 (19%) died, a rate similar to that of the US case patients (5%-13%). By nuclear gene typing, the Brazilian isolates were equally divided between South American classes 5 and 6, and RAPD-PCR showed 18 distinct genetic fingerprints in 20 isolates. Skin lesions are more common in infection with class 5 or 6 organisms than with class 2 Histoplasma capsulatum. The role of genetic differences in the organism as a cause for the clinical differences requires investigation. PMID:12447743

  15. Gallium-67 scans of the chest in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J.; Garay, S.M.; Greene, J.B.; Tiu, S.; Banner, H.; McCauley, D.I.

    1987-07-01

    Eighty-six (/sup 67/Ga)citrate chest scans were performed in 71 adult patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Forty-five of these patients also had Kaposi's sarcoma. Only 29 of 57 abnormal scans were correlated with abnormal chest radiographs. Chest radiographs were negative for 27 scans and unavailable for one. Several scan patterns were seen. Diffusely increased lung uptake was seen most commonly with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, but also other infections and noninfectious inflammatory conditions. Focal uptake corresponding to regional lymph node groups occurred most often with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare but aslo with lymphoma. Localized intrapulmonary uptake was seen in bacterial pneumonias. Perihilar activity occurred in two cases. When chest radiographs were abnormal and /sup 67/Ga scans negative, the most common diagnosis was pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma.

  16. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: report of 23 cases.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, A; Chang, P; Moreno, K; Fernández-Fernández, V; Montes de Oca, G; Araiza, J; Ponce, R M

    2009-06-01

    Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis is an opportunistic infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We report a series of 23 cases (21 men, two women; median age 29 years) with disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis seen at two hospital centres. Most of the patients (21/23) were classified as stage C3. The most common dermatological findings were papules, crusting plaques, nodules and ulcers, mainly located on the face and chest. Of the 23 cases, 15 (65%) had pulmonary involvement. Amphotericin B and itraconazole were the main drugs used for treatment. Treatment response was variable: four of the patients were cured, six improved and remain stable, nine patients died, and four patients were lost to follow-up.

  17. Herpetic (non-cytomegalovirus) retinal infections in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael W

    2013-04-01

    Human herpes viruses cause significant morbidity in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Even after the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), herpes viruses remain the leading causes of blindness in AIDS patients. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis and the closely-related immune reconstitution uveitis syndrome are the most common causes of blindness, but progressive outer retinal necrosis and acute retinal necrosis due to varicella zoster and herpes simplex are also important causes of vision loss. Successful treatment of these conditions requires an aggressive approach with multi-drug intravenous therapy or repeated intravitreal antiviral injections. Since the rate of retinal detachment is alarmingly high despite successful antiviral therapy, internists and ophthalmologists must work closely together to recognize and treat complications as they arise. Fortunately, Epstein-Barr virus is a rare cause of retinal infection and human herpes virus (HHV)-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8 do not appear to be primary pathogens. However, increasing evidence suggests that HHV-6 and HHV-7 play important roles in modulating the immune system and potentiating infection by CMV.

  18. Recent advances in transplantation for primary immune deficiency diseases: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    de la Morena, M Teresa; Nelson, Robert P

    2014-04-01

    Hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) is a curative therapeutic option for severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID), a group of diseases which otherwise carry life expectancies that are of limited duration and quality. Survival following HCT for SCID has improved from approximately 23 to 91 % over the last 40 years. Success with SCID prompted efforts to apply HCT to the therapeutic challenge of well over 20 molecularly defined primary immune deficiency diseases (PID). Such success is due to both early recognition of PIDs and advances in the field of transplantation. Such advances include high-resolution HLA DNA donor-recipient matching, expansion of donor sources, better tolerated conditioning, new antibiotics, and wider availability. International collaborative efforts have provided patients and caregivers information that permit better treatment decisions now, and direct clinicians and investigators to ensure progress in the future. Pioneers in screening for SCID have taken steps to correct the fundamental challenge to successful treatment, which is the rapid discovery and characterization of cases and offering the transplant option to an affected child early in life; blood spot testing for T and B cell receptor quantification is now available to a growing fraction of newborns. Organizations including the Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium in the USA, The European Society for Primary Immunodeficiency, the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium, the United States Immunodeficiency Network, the Immune Deficiency Foundation, and the Jeffrey Modell Foundation are contributing mightily to increase awareness and standardize optimal utilization to the benefit of patients. This review will update the allergist-immunologist concerning disease presentations, indications for transplantation, methodologies, conditioning regimens, and clinical outcomes for patients with PID for which timely HCT is

  19. [The use of growth hormone to treat endocrine-metabolic disturbances in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients].

    PubMed

    Spinola-Castro, Angela Maria; Siviero-Miachon, Adriana A; da Silva, Marcos Tadeu Nolasco; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2008-07-01

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids) was initially related to HIV-associated wasting syndrome, and its metabolic disturbances to altered body composition. After Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) was started, malnutrition has declined and HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome has emerged as an important metabolic disorder. Aids is also characterized by hormonal disturbances, principally in growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF-1) axis. The use of recombinant human GH (hrGH) was formerly indicated to treat wasting syndrome, in order to increase lean body mass. Even though the use of hrGH in lipodystrophy syndrome has been considered, the decrease in insulin sensitivity is a limitation for its use, which has not been officially approved yet. Diversity in therapeutic regimen is another limitation to its use in Aids patients. The present study has reviewed the main HIV-related endocrine-metabolic disorders as well as the use of hrGH in such conditions.

  20. Bone marrow transplantation for CVID-like humoral immune deficiency associated with red cell aplasia.

    PubMed

    Sayour, Elias J; Mousallem, Talal; Van Mater, David; Wang, Endi; Martin, Paul; Buckley, Rebecca H; Barfield, Raymond C

    2016-10-01

    Patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) have a higher incidence of autoimmune disease, which may mark the disease onset; however, anemia secondary to pure red cell aplasia is an uncommon presenting feature. Here, we describe a case of CVID-like humoral immune deficiency in a child who initially presented with red cell aplasia and ultimately developed progressive bone marrow failure. Although bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has been associated with high mortality in CVID, our patient was successfully treated with a matched sibling BMT and engrafted with >98% donor chimerism and the development of normal antibody titers to diphtheria and tetanus toxoids. PMID:27273469

  1. The Basic Nature of Ethical Problems Experienced by Persons with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Implications for Nursing Ethics Education and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Miriam E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-five persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) described and validated 100 ethical problems that are experienced by people with AIDS from 3 levels of ethical inquiry: descriptive ethics, normative ethics, and metaethics. Findings suggest strategies for improving nursing ethics education. (JOW)

  2. Health Administrator Perspectives on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Prevention and Services at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra; Sutton, Madeline Y.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Due to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among African American young adults, the authors explored (1) number of historically black college and university (HBCU) campuses with existing HIV prevention policies and services and (2) perceived barriers for implementing…

  3. Selected Laws, Rules and State-Level Activities in Wisconsin Related to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Information Memorandum 87-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Richard

    This information memorandum describes the selected laws, rules, and state-level activities in Wisconsin related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tests for antibodies to the virus (HIV) that causes AIDS. A section on current state laws on AIDS and HIV antibody testing describes laws related to informed consent for testing,…

  4. Effects of a Syndrome-Specific Antibiotic Stewardship Intervention for Inpatient Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Michelle K.; Dalton, Kristen; Knepper, Bryan C.; Stella, Sarah A.; Cervantes, Lilia; Price, Connie S.; Burman, William J.; Mehler, Philip S.; Jenkins, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Syndrome-specific interventions are a recommended approach to antibiotic stewardship, but additional data are needed to understand their potential impact. We implemented an intervention to improve the management of inpatient community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and evaluated its effects on antibiotic and resource utilization. Methods. A stakeholder group developed and implemented a clinical practice guideline and order set for inpatient, non-intensive care unit CAP recommending a short course (5 days) of a fluoroquinolone-sparing antibiotic regimen in uncomplicated cases. Unless there was suspicion for complications or resistant pathogens, chest computed tomography (CT) and sputum cultures were discouraged. This was a retrospective preintervention postintervention study of patients hospitalized for CAP before (April 15, 2008–May 31, 2009) and after (July 1, 2011–July 31, 2012) implementation of the guideline. The primary comparison was the difference in duration of therapy during the baseline and intervention periods. Secondary outcomes included changes in use of levofloxacin, CT scans, and sputum culture. Results. One hundred sixty-six and 84 cases during the baseline and intervention periods, respectively, were included. From the baseline to intervention period, the median duration of therapy decreased from 10 to 7 days (P < .0001). Prescription of levofloxacin at discharge decreased from 60% to 27% of cases (P < .0001). Use of chest CT and sputum culture decreased from 47% to 32% of cases (P = .02) and 51% to 31% of cases (P = .03), respectively. The frequency of clinical failure between the 2 periods was similar. Conclusions. A syndrome-specific intervention for inpatient CAP was associated with shorter treatment durations and reductions in use of fluoroquinolones and low-yield diagnostic tests. PMID:27747254

  5. IgH sequences in common variable immune deficiency reveal altered B cell development and selection**

    PubMed Central

    Roskin, Krishna M.; Simchoni, Noa; Liu, Yi; Lee, Ji-Yeun; Seo, Katie; Hoh, Ramona A.; Pham, Tho; Park, Joon H.; Furman, David; Dekker, Cornelia L.; Davis, Mark M.; James, Judith A.; Nadeau, Kari C.; Cunningham-Rundles, Charlotte; Boyd, Scott D.

    2015-01-01

    Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) is the most common symptomatic primary immune deficiency, affecting ∼1 in 25,000 persons. These patients suffer from impaired antibody responses, autoimmunity, and susceptibility to lymphoid cancers. To explore the cellular basis for these clinical phenotypes, we conducted high-throughput DNA sequencing of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangements from 93 CVID patients and 105 control subjects and sorted naïve and memory B cells from 13 of the CVID patients and 10 of the control subjects. CVID patients showed abnormal VDJ rearrangement and abnormal formation of complementarity determining region 3 (CDR3). We observed decreased selection against antibodies with long CDR3 regions in memory repertoires and decreased V gene replacement, offering possible mechanisms for increased patient autoreactivity. Our data indicate that patient immunodeficiency might derive both from decreased diversity of the naïve B cell pool and decreased somatic hypermutation in memory repertoires. CVID patients also exhibited abnormal clonal expansion of unmutated B cells relative to controls. Although impaired B cell germinal center activation is commonly viewed as causative in CVID, these data indicate that CVID B cells diverge from controls as early as the pro-B cell stage and suggest possible explanations for the increased incidence of autoimmunity, immunodeficiency, and lymphoma CVID patients. PMID:26311730

  6. Bilateral Lung Transplantation in a Patient with Humoral Immune Deficiency: A Case Report with Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Jocelyn R.; Sokol, Caroline L.; Bonilla, Francisco A.; Murali, Mandakolathur R.; Kradin, Richard L.; Astor, Todd L.; Walter, Jolan E.

    2014-01-01

    Humoral immune deficiencies have been associated with noninfectious disease complications including autoimmune cytopenias and pulmonary disease. Herein we present a patient who underwent splenectomy for autoimmune cytopenias and subsequently was diagnosed with humoral immune deficiency in the context of recurrent infections. Immunoglobulin analysis prior to initiation of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy was notable for low age-matched serum levels of IgA (11 mg/dL), IgG2 (14 mg/L), and IgG4 (5 mg/L) with a preserved total level of IgG. Flow cytometry was remarkable for B cell maturation arrest at the IgM+/IgD+ stage. Selective screening for known primary immune deficiency-causing genetic defects was negative. The disease course was uniquely complicated by the development of pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs), ultimately requiring bilateral lung transplantation in 2012. This is a patient with humoral immune deficiency that became apparent only after splenectomy, which argues for routine immunologic evaluation prior to vaccination and splenectomy. Lung transplantation is a rare therapeutic endpoint and to our knowledge has never before been described in a patient with humoral immune deficiency for the indication of pulmonary AVMs. PMID:25379312

  7. Sodium stibogluconate (pentostan) overdose in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reymond, J M; Desmeules, J

    1998-12-01

    A 32-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) admitted to the hospital for treatment of visceral leishmaniasis was inadvertently given 10 times the prescribed first dose of sodium stibogluconate ([Sb] 6.5 g instead of 0.65 g). He experienced no immediate major toxicity during the first 48 hours, but a significant rise of pancreatic enzyme activities was observed (amylase at 10 times the upper limit of normal, lipase at 50 times the upper limit of normal) without clinical signs or indications on computed tomography (CT) of pancreatitis. The third day after the overdose, he developed appendicitis, which appeared coincidental; he recovered uneventfully from surgery. Most of the overdose of Sb was eliminated within the first few hours. Pharmacokinetics remained linear; the rapid, long elimination half-lives (2.7 hours and 54 hours, respectively) were similar to those in previously published results. The administration of a chelating agent, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA), 72 hours after the Sb overdose did not modify the pharmacokinetics of the medication.

  8. Intravitreal foscarnet for cytomegalovirus retinitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Llopis, M; Chipont, E; Sanchez, S; España, E; Navea, A; Menezo, J L

    1992-12-15

    We treated a patient who had acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and cytomegalovirus retinitis of the left eye. After anesthetic had been topically administered, the patient received intravitreal injections of 1,200 micrograms of foscarnet. Plasma and vitreous foscarnet levels were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Systemic absorption of the drug was not evident. Elimination half-life from the vitreous after one injection was 54.0 hours. Vitreous levels remained above the mean 50% inhibition value for cytomegalovirus for approximately 56 hours and above the mean inhibition value for human immunodeficiency virus for approximately 241 hours. The patient's visual acuity improved from 20/30 to 20/25 in the left eye. Ophthalmoscopy showed the retinal lesion to have become inactive, and no reactivation occurred during the follow-up period of more than four months. The drug was well tolerated and no retinal toxicity was evident. We suggest an induction treatment regimen of two injections weekly for three weeks, followed by a maintenance treatment regimen of one injection weekly.

  9. Disseminated histoplasmosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in Uberaba, MG, Brazil.

    PubMed

    Mora, Delio José; dos Santos, Celso Tadeu Barbosa; Silva-Vergara, Mario León

    2008-03-01

    Histoplasmosis occurs in approximately 5% of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients in endemic areas and often evolves to a disseminated picture if diagnosis is delayed and/or CD4 count falls below 150 cells x mm(3) without high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This report presents clinical features of patients with histoplasmosis admitted from 1992 to 2005. Of the 57 individuals, 45 (79%) were male, aged 20-40 years; 30 (52.6%) presented histoplasmosis together with HIV diagnosis and 35 (61.4%) referred illness course up to 4 weeks. Fever, hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly, dyspnea and skin lesions were noticed in 50 (87.7%), 38 (66.7%), 30 (52.6%) and 25 (43.9%) patients respectively. High levels of lactic acid dehydrogenase, X-ray lung interstitial pattern, pancytopenia and CD4 count <100 cells x mm(3) were observed in 48 (84.2%), 35 (66%), 34 (59.6%) and 33 (94%) patients respectively. Mycological diagnosis was performed by one or more methods in all patients. Thirty nine (68.4%) received amphotericin B and/or itraconazole. A cure rate was observed in 76.9% and nine (23.1%) died early during therapy. Otherwise death occurred in 18 (31.6%) before diagnosis was completed. Despite free HAART disposal in public Brazilian health services, histoplasmosis still occurs as the first AIDS baseline condition in patients without antiretroviral therapy, many of whom are not receiving any medical care for HIV infection. PMID:18254750

  10. CD4 T cells in murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: polyclonal progression to anergy

    PubMed Central

    1992-01-01

    We have examined the kinetics of changes that occur in the helper T cell subset during murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which occurs after infection with the mix of viruses known as BM5. We find that there is expansion of the CD4 T cells by 2 wk, 50% of the CD4 T cells become large as the disease progresses, and the CD4 T cell population is increasingly comprised of cells with a memory/activated phenotype. These effects are apparent by 2 wk postinfection, and the change is nearly complete by 6-8 wk. The phenotypic shift is paralleled by the loss of the ability of the CD4 T cells to proliferate or to produce interleukin 2 (IL-2), IL-3, IL-4, and interferon gamma in response to stimulation with mitogens, superantigen, or anti-CD3. There is no obvious expansion or deletion of CD4 T cells expressing particular V beta genes, as might be expected if a conventional superantigen were driving the changes. The results suggest, however, that the total CD4 population has been driven to anergy by some potent polyclonal stimulus directly associated with viral infection. PMID:1588283

  11. Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis Combined with Vitreous Hemorrhage in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    You, Yong Sung; Lee, Sung Jin; Lee, Sung Ho; Park, Chang Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To describe an unusual case of rapidly progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) with vitreous hemorrhage in a 41-year-old woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who had retinitis developed from what was probably varicellar-zoster virus combined with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex type 1,2, as proven by the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). Methods This study is a case report detailing clinical follow-up and an aqueous humor test by PCR-RFLP. Results The deep, white retinal lesions coalesced and progressively expanded in a circumferential manner, with sparing of the perivascular retina. However, retinal and vitreous hemorrhages, unusual findings for PORN, could be noted around the optic nerve. Varicellar-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex types 1,2 (HSV-1,2) were detected in the aqueous humor by PCR. Conclusions PORN has been described as a variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy, occurring particularly in patients with AIDS. Although the etiologic agent has been reported to be VZV, concurrent or combined etiologic agents can include HSV-1, HSV-2, and CMV in AIDS patients. Therefore, combined antiviral therapy with acyclovir and ganciclovir could be more reasonable as an initial therapy. PMID:17460434

  12. Prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Daniel R.; Salomon, Joshua A.

    2005-01-01

    Strategies for confronting the epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) have included a range of different approaches that focus on prevention and treatment. However, debate persists over what levels of emphasis are appropriate for the different components of the global response. This paper presents an overview of this debate and briefly summarizes the evidence on a range of interventions designed to prevent the spread of HIV infection, paying particular attention to voluntary counselling and testing, treatment for sexually transmitted infections and prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We also review the experience with antiretroviral therapy to date in terms of response rates and survival rates, adherence, drug resistance, behavioural change and epidemiological impact. Although various studies have identified strategies with proven effectiveness in reducing the risks of HIV infection and AIDS mortality, considerable uncertainties remain. Successful integration of treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS will require a balanced approach and rigorous monitoring of the impact of programmes in terms of both individual and population outcomes. PMID:15744406

  13. First report of Cystoisospora belli parasitemia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Jorge Néstor; di Risio, Cecilia Alicia; Etchart, Cristina Beatriz; Chertcoff, Agustín Víctor; Nigro, Mónica Gabriela; Pantano, María Laura; Ledesma, Bibiana Alba; Vittar, Natalia; Carnevale, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Cystoisospora belli in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been described as cause of chronic diarrhea and disseminated cystoisosporosis. Diagnosis of intestinal cystoisosporosis can be achieved at the tissue level in the villus epithelium of the small bowel. Disseminated cystoisosporosis is diagnosed by microscopy identification of unizoite tissue cysts in the lamina propria of the intestine. We report a case of disseminated cystoisosporosis in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient with detection of parasitemia. We studied a 39-year old patient with AIDS and chronic diarrhea by analysis of stool and duodenal biopsy samples. Blood samples were also collected and examined by light microscopy and molecular techniques for C. belli DNA detection. The unizoite tissue cyst stages were present in the lamina propria, with unsporulated oocysts in feces. Zoites were present in blood smears and DNA of C. belli was detected in blood samples. Our study identified a new stage in the life cycle of C. belli. Detection of parasitemia is a novel and noninvasive tool for diagnosis of disseminated cystoisosporosis.

  14. HIV-2 and its role in conglutinated approach towards Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Vaccine Development.

    PubMed

    Diwan, Batul; Saxena, Rupali; Tiwari, Archana

    2013-12-01

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is one of the most critically acclaimed endemic diseases, caused by two lentiviruses HIV-1 and 2. HIV-2 displays intimate serological and antigenic resemblance to Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) along with less pathogenicity, lower infectivity and appreciable cross reactivity with HIV-1 antigens. The present era is confronted with the challenge to fabricate a vaccine effective against all clades of both the species of HIV. But vaccine development against HIV-1 has proven highly intricate, moreover the laborious and deficient conventional approaches has slackened the pace regarding the development of new vaccines. These concerns may be tackled with the development of HIV-2 vaccine as a natural control of HIV-1 that has been found in ancestors of HIV-2 i.e. African monkeys, mangabeys and macaques. Thereby, suggesting the notion of cross protection among HIV-2 and HIV-1. Assistance of bioinformatics along with vaccinomics strategy can bring about a quantum leap in this direction for surpassing the bottleneck in conventional approaches. These specifics together can add to our conception that HIV-2 vaccine design by in silico strategy will surely be a constructive approach for HIV-1 targeting.

  15. Outcomes of laparoscopic and open appendectomy for acute appendicitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Masoomi, Hossein; Mills, Steven D; Dolich, Matthew O; Dang, Phat; Carmichael, Joseph C; Nguyen, Ninh T; Stamos, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    The aims of this study were to compare outcomes of appendectomy between acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and nonAIDS patients and laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) versus open appendectomy (OA) in AIDS patients. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, from 2006 to 2008, clinical data of patients with AIDS who underwent LA and OA were evaluated. A total of 800 patients with AIDS underwent appendectomy during these years. Patients with AIDS had a significantly higher postoperative complication rate (22.56% vs 10.36%), longer length of stay [(LOS) 4.9 vs 2.9 days], and higher mortality (0.61% vs 0.16%) compared with non-AIDS patients. In nonperforated cases in patients with AIDS, LA was associated with a significantly lower complication rate (11.25% vs 21.61%), lower mortality (0.0% vs 2.78%), and shorter mean LOS (3.22 days vs 4.82 days) compared with OA. In perforated cases in patients with AIDS, LA had a significantly lower complication rate (27.52% vs 57.50%), and shorter mean LOS (5.92 days vs 9.67 days) compared with OA. No mortality was reported in either group. In patients with AIDS, LA has a lower morbidity, lower mortality, and shorter LOS compared with OA. Laparoscopic appendectomy should be considered as a preferred operative option for acute appendicitis in patients with AIDS.

  16. Monitoring of HAART regime antiretrovirals in serum of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients by micellar liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Casas-Breva, I; Peris-Vicente, J; Rambla-Alegre, M; Carda-Broch, S; Esteve-Romero, J

    2012-09-21

    A methodology based on micellar liquid chromatography to monitor five antiretroviral drugs (lamivudine, stavudine, tenofovir, zidovudine and efavirenz) was proposed. Antiretrovirals were studied in sets of three, corresponding to each highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regime, prescribed to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-infected patients. Four aqueous micellar mobile phases buffered at pH 7 were optimized to separate these compounds, using sodium dodecyl sulfate as the tensioactive, and 1-propanol or 1-pentanol as the organic modifier. The composition of each mobile phase was optimized for each antiretroviral. The common separation conditions were: C18 apolar column (125 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size), UV detection set at 214 nm, and mobile phase running at 1 mL min(-1) without controlling the temperature. The finally suggested method was validated for five analysed antiretroviral drugs following the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines in terms of: linearity between 0.5 and 50 ppm (r(2) > 0.9995), sensitivity (LOD lower than 0.25 ppm), intra- and inter-day precision (<7.1 and <5.2%, respectively) and accuracy (recovery 88.5-105.3% and 93.5-101.3%, respectively), as well as robustness (<6.5%). The proposed method was used to monitor the level of antiretrovirals in the serum of AIDS patients. The suggested methodology was found to be useful in the routine analysis of antiretrovirals in serum samples.

  17. Pathologic findings in the adrenal glands of autopsied patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Denise; Reis, Marlene; Teixeira, Vicente; Silva-Vergara, Mário; Filho, Dalmo Correia; Adad, Sheila; Lazo, Javier

    2002-01-01

    A morphologic evaluation was carried out on adrenal glands from 128 autopsied patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The adrenal gland was compromised in 99.2% of the cases, with distinct pathological features and infectious agents. Inflammatory infiltrates were observed in 99.2% of the cases with a predominance of mononuclear cells in 97.4%, affecting mainly the medulla. Necrosis, fibrosis, hemorrhages and neoplasias were observed. We also described 3 (2.3%) cases of calcification located in the adrenal gland central vein (AGCV). This is seldom mentioned in the literature. Cytomegalovirus was the most frequent infectious agent, observed in 48.4% of cases. Balamuthia mandrillaris, a free living ameba, was found in one case affecting the entire gland. We also found a nest of Trypanosoma cruzi in the musculature of the AGCV. The presence of the nest of T cruzi in AGCV may play a role in the reactivation of this infection in immunosuppressed individuals. Pathologic processes and opportunistic infections may contribute to the alterations in the adrenal gland that lead to multiple organ failure observed in terminal AIDS patients.

  18. Decreased skin reactivity to codeine in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Simonart, T h; Parent, D; Heenen, M; Farber, C M; Van Vooren, J P

    1996-10-01

    To evaluate the skin reactivity and the mast cell releasibility in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), 24 patients with AIDS were skin tested with histamine (1 mg/ml) and codeine phosphate (0.9, 0.09, and 0.009 mg/ml), a mast cell degranulating agent. They were compared to 12 HIV-negative healthy volunteers and 16 urticaria-prone subjects. Reactivity to codeine phosphate was lower in patients with AIDS than in HIV-negative subjects. This difference in skin reactivity was the more significant when the AIDS group was compared to the urticaria-prone group. There was no correlation between the reactivity to codeine and the IgE levels. Possible explanations to the decreased skin reacting to codeine in patients with AIDS include a decrease of local mast cell density or releasibility. This suggests that a mechanism related to urticaria and involving mast cells is quite unlikely to be at the origin of the hypersensitivity reactions observed in AIDS.

  19. Progressive outer retinal necrosis associated with occlusive vasculitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chien-Chi; Chen, San-Ni; Hwang, Jiunn-Feng; Lin, Chun-Ju; Chen, Huan-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    A 45-year-old man, a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, received a highly active antiretroviral therapy at the outpatient service for 4 years without regular follow-up. He experienced progressively blurred vision for 6 months and a cutaneous zoster on his back 3 months ago. He was diagnosed with progressive outer retinal necrosis by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism using an aqueous humor sample, which revealed an existence of varicella zoster virus. He was given a combination of systemic, intravitreal antiviral and a highly active antiretroviral therapy. Occlusive vasculitis, an unusual finding for progressive outer retinal necrosis, developed in both eyes 1 week after the secondary intravitreal injection. Unfortunately, his vision deteriorated to no light perception in both eyes within 2 weeks. Progressive outer retinal necrosis is characterized clinically as showing minimal or no inflammation in the aqueous and vitreous humors, absence of retinal vasculitis, and patches of yellowish spots located deep in the retina. Physicians should pay attention to this rare case of progressive outer retinal necrosis associated occlusive vasculitis with very poor prognosis in spite of aggressive treatment.

  20. Cranial CT in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: spectrum of diseases and optimal contrast enhancement technique.

    PubMed

    Post, M J; Kursunoglu, S J; Hensley, G T; Chan, J C; Moskowitz, L B; Hoffman, T A

    1985-11-01

    A retrospective review of cranial CT scans obtained over a 4 year period in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and documented central nervous system (CNS) pathology is presented. The spectrum of diseases and the value of CT in detecting new, recurrent, and superimposed disease processes were determined. Fifty-one AIDS patients with confirmed CNS pathology were identified. Six of them had two coexistent diseases. Opportunistic infections predominated, especially Toxoplasma encephalitis and cryptococcal meningitis, while tumor was seen infrequently. Initial CT was positive in 76% of cases. In contrast to meningeal processes, where it was not very effective, CT was very sensitive in detecting most parenchymal disease processes. Characteristic although not pathognomonic CT patterns were found for certain diseases. Improvement or resolution of CT abnormalities in patients on medical therapy for Toxoplasma encephalitis correlated well with clinical improvement. Recurrence of CT abnormalities correlated well with medical noncompliance. The optimal contrast enhancement technique for detecting CNS pathology and for monitoring the effectiveness of medical therapy was also evaluated by a prospective study in which both immediate (IDD) and 1 hr delayed (DDD) double-dose contrast CT scans were compared. The examination found to be diagnostically superior in 30 of the 41 IDD/DDD studies was the delayed scan. It is recommended that CT be used routinely and with the 1 hr DDD scan to evaluate and follow AIDS patients with neurologic symptoms and/or signs.

  1. Morphometric comparisons of optic nerve axon loss in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tenhula, W N; Xu, S Z; Madigan, M C; Heller, K; Freeman, W R; Sadun, A A

    1992-01-15

    Axonal degeneration and diminution of the axonal population in the optic nerve have been documented in aging and in various neuro-ophthalmic conditions. We applied morphometric techniques to the postmortem examination of optic nerves obtained from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Twelve optic nerves (eight from patients with AIDS and four from age-matched control eyes) were stained with paraphenylenediamine and morphometrically analyzed with a computer-assisted image and measurement system. Degeneration was often severe and was scattered throughout all of the AIDS-affected optic nerves. In the AIDS-affected optic nerves, the mean axonal population was markedly lower than the mean obtained from normal optic nerves (880,000 vs 1,507,000). Despite the approximate 40% loss of axons, mean axonal diameters were not markedly different, suggesting that no particular class of axon was especially susceptible to AIDS-associated degeneration. The extent and pattern of axonal loss in optic nerves of patients with AIDS suggest that the changes may not only be secondary to damage at the retina, but may reflect an AIDS-associated primary optic neuropathy.

  2. Simian virus 40-induced disease in rhesus monkeys with simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, C. J.; Simon, M. A.; Bergsagel, D. J.; Pauley, D. R.; King, N. W.; Garcea, R. L.; Ringler, D. J.

    1992-01-01

    Simian virus 40 (SV40) disease was diagnosed in four rhesus monkeys that died with SIV-induced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). One juvenile monkey seroconverted for SV40 6 months after inoculation with SIV and developed severe bilateral tubulointerstitial nephritis. In contrast, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) occurred in two adult monkeys that were seropositive for SV40 before SIV inoculation, as well as a third adult that was naturally infected with SIV and seropositive for SV40 5 years before death. Large intranuclear inclusions containing abundant polyomavirus particles were limited to either renal tubular epithelial cells or oligodendrocytes. In situ DNA hybridization for SV40 large T antigen further demonstrated that SV40 nucleic acid was localized to either kidney or brain tissue. By immunohistochemical analysis, areas of central nervous system inflammation and demyelination were shown to contain CD68+ macrophages (gitter cells), aggregates of CD8+ T lymphocytes, and numerous gemistocytic astrocytes that labeled for glial fibrillary acidic protein. These observations indicate that rhesus monkeys with SIV-induced AIDS are predisposed to polyomaviral disease, in which SV40 nucleic acid is observed in renal tissue in primary infections and brain tissue after viral reactivation. Furthermore, this organ-specific replication suggests that tissue-tropic strains of SV40 may develop in immunodeficient monkeys. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:1376560

  3. Morphological changes of an inflammatory myopathy in rhesus monkeys with simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dalakas, M C; Gravell, M; London, W T; Cunningham, G; Sever, J L

    1987-09-01

    Eleven of 25 rhesus monkeys which died of simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SAIDS) caused by infection with a type D retrovirus related to Mason-Pfizer monkey virus showed evidence of muscle weakness and atrophy and had elevated levels of muscle enzymes. Biopsies of affected muscle studied with enzyme histochemistry showed the characteristic features of polymyositis. Inflammatory cells consisting of lymphocytes, macrophages, and large vacuolated bizarre-shaped cells of undetermined type were surrounding or invading muscle fibers and were present in the perivascular spaces and endomysia septa. Within the perivascular infiltrates, lymphocytes were abundant but very few macrophages were present. Other myopathic features including profound proliferation of fibrous tissue, necrosis, and phagocytosis of muscle fibers were noted to a variable degree. The retrovirus was isolated from affected muscles. The clinical and historical features of polymyositis in rhesus monkeys with SAIDS are very similar to those of human polymyositis. The polymyositis in SAIDS induced by a type D retrovirus related to Mason-Pfizer monkey virus is an excellent primate model to study the mechanism and morphological changes of viral-induced muscle damage.

  4. Acquired immunity and asymptomatic reservoir impact on frontline and airport ebola outbreak syndromic surveillance and response.

    PubMed

    Tambo, Ernest; Xiao-Nong, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    The number of surveillance networks for infectious disease diagnosis and response has been growing. In 2000, the World Health Organization (WHO) established the Global Outbreak Alert and Response Network, which has been endorsed by each of the 46 WHO African members since then. Yet, taming the dynamics and plague of the vicious Ebola virus disease (EVD) in African countries has been patchy and erratic due to inadequate surveillance and contact tracing, community defiance and resistance, a lack of detection and response systems, meager/weak knowledge and information on the disease, inadequacies in protective materials protocols, contact tracing nightmare and differing priorities at various levels of the public health system. Despite the widespread acceptance of syndromic surveillance (SS) systems, their ability to provide early warning alerts and notifications of outbreaks is still unverified. Information is often too limited for any outbreak, or emerging or otherwise unexpected disease, to be recognized at either the community or the national level. Indeed, little is known about the role and the interactions between the Ebola infection and exposure to other syndemics and the development of acquired immunity, asymptomatic reservoir, and Ebola seroconversion. Can lessons be learnt from smallpox, polio, and influenza immunity, and can immunization against these serve as a guide? In most endemic countries, community health centers and disease control and prevention at airports solely relies on passive routine immunization control and reactive syndromic response. The frontline and airport Ebola SS systems in West Africa have shown deficiencies in terms of responding with an alarming number of case fatalities, and suggest that more detailed insights into Ebola, and proactive actions, are needed. The quest for effective early indicators (EEE) in shifting the public and global health paradigm requires the development and implementation of a comprehensive and effective

  5. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Breen, Elizabeth Crabb

    2002-09-01

    In persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and/or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the immune system becomes dysfunctional in many ways. There is both immunodeficiency due to the loss of CD4-positive T helper cells and hyperactivity as a result of B-cell activation. Likewise, both decreases and increases are seen in the production and/or activity of cytokines. Cytokine changes in HIV infection have been assessed by a variety of techniques, ranging from determination of cytokine gene expression at the mRNA level to secretion of cytokine proteins in vivo and in vitro. Changes in cytokine levels in HIV-infected persons can affect the function of the immune system, and have the potential to directly impact the course of HIV disease by enhancing or suppressing HIV replication. In particular, the balance between the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which up-regulate HIV expression, and IL-10, which can act both as an anti-inflammatory cytokine and a B-cell stimulatory factor, may play an important role in the progression to AIDS. In light of its ability to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and, under some conditions, suppress HIV replication, increased IL-10 may be viewed as beneficial in slowing HIV disease progression. However, an association between increased IL-10 and the development of AIDS-associated B-cell lymphoma highlights the bifunctional nature of IL-10 as both an anti-inflammatory and B-cell-stimulatory cytokine that could have beneficial and detrimental effects on the course of HIV infection and AIDS.

  6. Distinct mechanisms account for acquired von Willebrand syndrome in plasma cell dyscrasias.

    PubMed

    Dicke, Christina; Schneppenheim, Sonja; Holstein, Katharina; Spath, Brigitte; Bokemeyer, Carsten; Dittmer, Rita; Budde, Ulrich; Langer, Florian

    2016-05-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) is a rare bleeding disorder that may cause life-threatening hemorrhages in patients with plasma cell dyscrasias (PCDs). Early diagnosis and treatment require a thorough understanding of its underlying pathophysiology. Two patients with IgG MGUS presented with dramatically decreased plasma von Willebrand factor (VWF) and a severe type-1 pattern on multimer analysis. A prompt response to intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIG), but not to VWF/FVIII, was consistent with accelerated immunologic clearance of plasma VWF. Another IgG MGUS patient showed a type-2 pattern and a less pronounced response to IVIG, suggesting that additional mechanism(s) contributed to AVWS evolution. In a patient with Waldenström's macroglobulinemia and severe depletion of plasma VWF, multimer analysis indicated association of the IgM paraprotein with VWF before, but not after plasmapheresis, resulting in destruction of the agarose gel and a characteristically distorted band structure of VWF multimers. A type-2 pattern with highly abnormal VWF triplets and laboratory evidence of excessive fibrinolytic activity suggested that plasmin-mediated VWF degradation contributed to AVWS in a patient with multiple myeloma (MM) and AL amyloidosis. Finally, in a patient with IgG MM, maximally prolonged PFA-100® closure times and a specific defect in ristocetin-induced platelet agglutination, both of which resolved after remission induction, indicated interference of the paraprotein with VWF binding to platelet GPIb. Importantly, in none of the six patients, circulating autoantibodies to VWF were detected by a specific in-house ELISA. In summary, when evaluating PCD patients with severe bleeding symptoms, AVWS due to various pathogenic mechanisms should be considered. PMID:27040683

  7. Investigation of chronic diarrhoea in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A prospective study of 155 patients.

    PubMed Central

    Blanshard, C; Francis, N; Gazzard, B G

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The optimum diagnostic investigation for patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and diarrhoea is not known. Often no pathogen is detected and it is unclear whether this is because pathogens are absent in some patients or the investigations used fail to detect them. The hypothesis that AIDS related diarrhoea is usually due to an infection, which can be identified by a simple diagnostic strategy based on the results of intensive investigation of a cohort of such patients, was investigated. METHODS: 155 patients with AIDS and chronic diarrhoea underwent contemporaneous examination of stools, duodenal, jejunal, and rectal biopsy specimens and duodenal aspirate for bacterial, protozoal, and viral pathogens. A decision tree analysis was used to determine the best sequential diagnostic strategy for clinicians. RESULTS: 128 of 155 patients investigated (83%) had at least one potential pathogen. The presenting clinical features could not predict the presence or site of the pathogens. Stool analysis identified the most pathogens (93 of 199, 47%). Rectal biopsy was essential for the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus and adenovirus. Duodenal biopsy was as helpful as jejunal biopsy and detected some treatable pathogens missed by other methods. Electron microscopy, impression smears, and duodenal aspirate yielded little extra information. If gut biopsy was reserved for patients without a stool pathogen, some treatable pathogens would have been missed. CONCLUSION: Most patients with AIDS and chronic diarrhoea have at least one gut pathogen, which can be identified by stool analysis and light microscopic examination of duodenal and rectal biopsies. Some pathogens will be missed unless all these investigations are done on all such patients. PMID:9038664

  8. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis: a cause of pulmonary gallium-67 uptake in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckier, L.S.; Ongseng, F.; Goldfarb, C.R.

    1988-05-01

    Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) is currently recognized as a frequent pediatric manifestation of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report the gallium scan findings in a 3-yr-old girl with this disorder and review its clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features. LIP must be a prime consideration in the differential diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary gallium uptake in pediatric AIDS patients. Further experience will afford greater perspective on the diagnostic role that nuclear medicine will ultimately play in this disease. 49 references.

  9. Allogeneic Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant for Patients With Primary Immune Deficiencies

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-08-15

    SCID; Omenn's Syndrome; Reticular Dysgenesis; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Bare Lymphocyte Syndrome; Common Variable Immunodeficiency; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; CD40 Ligand Deficiency; Hyper IgM Syndrome; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disease; Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis; Griscelli Syndrome; Chediak-Higashi Syndrome; Langerhan's Cell Histiocytosis

  10. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated cancers in Sub-Saharan Africa.

    PubMed

    Thomas, J O

    2001-04-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa is considered home to more than 60% of all human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected cases, with an estimated adult prevalence of 8.0%. It is stated that this region has contributed more than 90% of childhood deaths related to HIV infection and about 93% of childhood acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related deaths. Although no country in Africa is spared of the infection, the bulk is seen in East and South Africa, with the highest recorded rates of 20% to 50% in Zimbabwe. On the other hand, West Africa is less affected, while countries in Central Africa have relatively stable infection rates. Although infections, especially tuberculosis, have emerged as the most important HIV/AIDS-associated killers in recent times, AIDS-associated malignancies are increasingly identified in the late stages. As a result of incomplete data from African countries, it is unclear whether the epidemiology and risks of these cancers are the same as observed in the developed countries. Since the advent of AIDS, epidemic Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) has become more common in both sexes in Africa, with a dramatic lowering of the male to female ratio from 19:1 to 1.7:1, especially in East Africa. Although there has been a rising trend of AIDS-associated non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL) worldwide, there is an apparently lower risk in Africa compared with that in the developing world. At present, there is no strong evidence linking increased incidence of invasive cervical cancer to the HIV epidemic; however, some studies have demonstrated an association between HIV and the increased prevalence of human papilloma virus (HPV) and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). On the other hand, HIV infection is now established as a risk factor for the development of squamous cell neoplasia of the conjunctiva based on studies from Rwanda, Malawi, and Uganda. Despite the problems and limitations of information from sub-Saharan Africa, interesting trends of HIV/AIDS-related cancers

  11. Transdermal testosterone administration in women with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome wasting: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Miller, K; Corcoran, C; Armstrong, C; Caramelli, K; Anderson, E; Cotton, D; Basgoz, N; Hirschhorn, L; Tuomala, R; Schoenfeld, D; Daugherty, C; Mazer, N; Grinspoon, S

    1998-08-01

    Although human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease is increasing rapidly among women, no prior studies have investigated gender-based therapeutic strategies for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and its complications in this population. Markedly decreased serum androgen levels have been demonstrated in women with AIDS and may be a contributing factor to the wasting syndrome in this population. To assess the effects of androgen replacement therapy in women with AIDS wasting, we conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled, pilot study of transdermal testosterone administration. The primary aim of the study was to determine efficacy in terms of the change in serum testosterone levels, safety parameters and tolerability. A secondary aim of the study was to investigate testosterone effects on weight, body composition, quality of life, and functional indexes. Fifty-three ambulatory women with the AIDS wasting syndrome defined as weight less than 90% of ideal body weight or weight loss of more than 10% of the preillness maximum, free of new opportunistic infection within 6 weeks of study initiation, and with screening serum levels of free testosterone less than the mean of the normal reference range (< 3 pg/mL) were enrolled in the study. Subjects were age 37 +/- 1 yr old (mean +/- SEM), weighed 92 +/- 2% of ideal body weight, and had lost 17 +/- 1% of their maximum weight. CD4 count was 324 +/- 36 cells/mm3, and viral burden was 102,382 +/- 28,580 copies. Subjects were randomized into three treatment groups, in which two placebo patches (PP), one active/one placebo patch (AP group), or two active patches (AA group) were applied twice weekly to the abdomen for 12 weeks. The expected nominal delivery rates of testosterone were 150 and 300 microg/day, respectively, for the AP and AA groups. Forty-five subjects completed the study (PP group, n = 13; AP group, n = 14; AA group, n = 18). Two additional subjects from the PP group and two from the AP

  12. Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: correlation but not causation.

    PubMed Central

    Duesberg, P H

    1989-01-01

    AIDS is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defined by a severe depletion of T cells and over 20 conventional degenerative and neoplastic diseases. In the U.S. and Europe, AIDS correlates to 95% with risk factors, such as about 8 years of promiscuous male homosexuality, intravenous drug use, or hemophilia. Since AIDS also correlates with antibody to a retrovirus, confirmed in about 40% of American cases, it has been hypothesized that this virus causes AIDS by killing T cells. Consequently, the virus was termed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and antibody to HIV became part of the definition of AIDS. The hypothesis that HIV causes AIDS is examined in terms of Koch's postulates and epidemiological, biochemical, genetic, and evolutionary conditions of viral pathology. HIV does not fulfill Koch's postulates: (i) free virus is not detectable in most cases of AIDS; (ii) virus can only be isolated by reactivating virus in vitro from a few latently infected lymphocytes among millions of uninfected ones; (iii) pure HIV does not cause AIDS upon experimental infection of chimpanzees or accidental infection of healthy humans. Further, HIV violates classical conditions of viral pathology. (i) Epidemiological surveys indicate that the annual incidence of AIDS among antibody-positive persons varies from nearly 0 to over 10%, depending critically on nonviral risk factors. (ii) HIV is expressed in less than or equal to 1 of every 10(4) T cells it supposedly kills in AIDS, whereas about 5% of all T cells are regenerated during the 2 days it takes the virus to infect a cell. (iii) If HIV were the cause of AIDS, it would be the first virus to cause a disease only after the onset of antiviral immunity, as detected by a positive "AIDS test." (iv) AIDS follows the onset of antiviral immunity only after long and unpredictable asymptomatic intervals averaging 8 years, although HIV replicates within 1 to 2 days and induces immunity within 1 to 2 months. (v) HIV supposedly causes AIDS

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging depiction of acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome with crossed cerebro-cerebellar diaschisis: Report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Ranjana; Joshi, Sandeep; Mittal, Amit; Luthra, Ishita; Mittal, Puneet; Verma, Vibha

    2015-01-01

    Acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome, also known as hemispheric atrophy, is characterized by loss of volume of one cerebral hemisphere from an insult in early life. Crossed cerebellar diaschisis refers to dysfunction/atrophy of cerebellar hemisphere which is secondary to contralateral supratentorial insult. We describe magnetic resonance imaging findings in two cases of acquired Dyke-Davidoff-Masson syndrome with crossed cerebro-cerebellar diaschisis.

  14. Monocyte/macrophage trafficking in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome encephalitis: lessons from human and nonhuman primate studies.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Smith, Tracy; Bell, Christie; Croul, Sidney; Lewis, Mark; Rappaport, Jay

    2008-08-01

    whose viral burden was predominantly at 1 x 10(6) copies/ml or greater developed encephalitis. To further investigate the relationship between CD163(+)/CD16(+) MPhis/microglia in the CNS and altered homeostasis in the periphery, the authors performed flow-cytometric analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from SIV-infected rhesus macaques. The results demonstrate an increase in the percent frequency of CD163(+)/CD16(+) monocytes in animals with detectable virus that correlated significantly with increased viral burden and CD4(+) T-cell decline. These results suggest the importance of this monocyte subset in HIV/SIV CNS disease, and also in the immune pathogenesis of lentiviral infection. The authors further discuss the potential role of CD163(+)/CD16(+) monocyte/MPhi subset expansion, altered myeloid homeostasis, and potential consequences for immune polarization and suppression. The results and discussion here suggest new avenues for the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) therapeutics and vaccine design.

  15. Radiologic evaluation of the acute abdomen in the patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): the role of CT scanning.

    PubMed

    Wu, C M; Davis, F; Fishman, E K

    1998-04-01

    Abdominal complaints are common in the HIV-infected patient, and the signs and symptoms of disease may be masked by concurrent illness and a weak immune response, making accurate diagnosis difficult. Patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are susceptible to diseases common to the general population; however, their generalized state of immunodeficiency places them at increased risk for many unusual disorders, predominately infectious and neoplastic. Radiologic evaluation, in particular, computed tomography (CT) with its ability to image the entire abdomen and pelvis, plays a crucial role in the prompt and accurate diagnosis and treatment of these patients.

  16. The Relationship between Acquired Impairments of Executive Function and Behaviour Change in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Dawn; Oliver, C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: The latter stages of dementia in individuals with Down syndrome are well documented; however, earlier cognitive and behavioural changes have only recently been described. Holland et al. suggested such early signs of dementia in this population are behavioural and are similar to those seen in frontotemporal dementia, but there is, as…

  17. Can Individuals with Down Syndrome Acquire Alphabetic Literacy Skills in the Absence of Phoneme Awareness?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso-Martins, Claudia; Frith, Uta

    2001-01-01

    Reports two studies investigating the relationship between phoneme awareness and word reading ability in Down syndrome (DS) subjects. Finds that the results question that phoneme awareness is not related to alphabetic reading acquisition in DS. Concludes that the ability to detect phonemic similarities in words significantly differentiated between…

  18. The case for a national service for primary immune deficiency disorders in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ameratunga, Rohan; Steele, Richard; Jordan, Anthony; Preece, Kahn; Barker, Russell; Brewerton, Maia; Lindsay, Karen; Sinclair, Jan; Storey, Peter; Woon, See-Tarn

    2016-01-01

    Primary immune deficiency disorders (PIDs) are rare conditions for which effective treatment is available. It is critical these patients are identified at an early stage to prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Treatment of these disorders is expensive and expert evaluation and ongoing management by a clinical immunologist is essential. Until recently there has been a major shortage of clinical immunologists in New Zealand. While the numbers of trained immunologists have increased in recent years, most are located in Auckland. The majority of symptomatic PID patients require life-long immunoglobulin replacement. Currently there is a shortage of subcutaneous and intravenous immunoglobulin (SCIG/IVIG) in New Zealand. A recent audit by the New Zealand Blood Service (NZBS) showed that compliance with indications for SCIG/IVIG treatment was poor in District Health Boards (DHBs) without an immunology service. The NZBS audit has shown that approximately 20% of annual prescriptions for SCIG/IVIG, costing $6M, do not comply with UK or Australian guidelines. Inappropriate use may have contributed to the present shortage of SCIG/IVIG necessitating importation of the product. This is likely to have resulted in a major unnecessary financial burden to each DHB. Here we present the case for a national service responsible for the tertiary care of PID patients and oversight for immunoglobulin use for primary and non-haematological secondary immunodeficiencies. We propose that other PIDs, including hereditary angioedema, are integrated into a national PID service. Ancillary services, including the customised genetic testing service, and research are also an essential component of an integrated national PID service and are described in this review. As we show here, a hub-and-spoke model for a national service for PIDs would result in major cost savings, as well as improved patient care. It would also allow seamless transition from paediatric to adult services.

  19. Abrogation of hybrid resistance to bone marrow engraftment by graft versus host induced immune deficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Hakim, F.T.; Shearer, G.M.

    1986-03-01

    Lethally irradiated F/sub 1/ mice, heterozygous at the hematopoietic histocompatibility (Hh) locus at H-2D/sup b/, reject bone marrow grafts from homozygous H-2/sup b/ parents. This hybrid resistance (HR) is reduced by prior injection of H-2/sup b/ parental spleen cells. Since injection of parental spleen cells produces a profound suppression of F/sub 1/ immune functions, the authors investigated whether parental-induced abrogation of HR was due to graft-vs-host induced immune deficiency (GVHID). HR was assessed by quantifying engraftment in irradiated mice using /sup 125/I-IUdR spleen uptake; GVHID by measuring generation of cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) from unirradiated mice. They observed correlation in time course, spleen dose dependence and T cell dependence between GVHID and loss of HR. The injection of B10 recombinant congenic spleens into (B10 x B10.A) F/sub 1/ mice, prior to grafting with B10 marrow, demonstrated that only those disparities in major histocompatibility antigens which generated GVHID would result in loss of HR. Spleens from (B10 x B10.A(2R))F/sub 1/ mice (Class I disparity only) did not induce GVHID or affect HR, while (B10 x B10.A(5R)F/sub 1/ spleens (Class I and II disparity) abrogated CTL generation and HR completely. GVHID produced by a Class II only disparity, as in (B10 x B10.A(5R))F/sub 1/ spleens injected into (B6/sup bm12 x B10.A(5R))F/sub 1/ mice, was also sufficient to markedly reduce HR to B10 bone marrow. Modulation of hematopoietic graft rejection by GVHID may affect marrow engraftment in man.

  20. The case for a national service for primary immune deficiency disorders in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Ameratunga, Rohan; Steele, Richard; Jordan, Anthony; Preece, Kahn; Barker, Russell; Brewerton, Maia; Lindsay, Karen; Sinclair, Jan; Storey, Peter; Woon, See-Tarn

    2016-01-01

    Primary immune deficiency disorders (PIDs) are rare conditions for which effective treatment is available. It is critical these patients are identified at an early stage to prevent unnecessary morbidity and mortality. Treatment of these disorders is expensive and expert evaluation and ongoing management by a clinical immunologist is essential. Until recently there has been a major shortage of clinical immunologists in New Zealand. While the numbers of trained immunologists have increased in recent years, most are located in Auckland. The majority of symptomatic PID patients require life-long immunoglobulin replacement. Currently there is a shortage of subcutaneous and intravenous immunoglobulin (SCIG/IVIG) in New Zealand. A recent audit by the New Zealand Blood Service (NZBS) showed that compliance with indications for SCIG/IVIG treatment was poor in District Health Boards (DHBs) without an immunology service. The NZBS audit has shown that approximately 20% of annual prescriptions for SCIG/IVIG, costing $6M, do not comply with UK or Australian guidelines. Inappropriate use may have contributed to the present shortage of SCIG/IVIG necessitating importation of the product. This is likely to have resulted in a major unnecessary financial burden to each DHB. Here we present the case for a national service responsible for the tertiary care of PID patients and oversight for immunoglobulin use for primary and non-haematological secondary immunodeficiencies. We propose that other PIDs, including hereditary angioedema, are integrated into a national PID service. Ancillary services, including the customised genetic testing service, and research are also an essential component of an integrated national PID service and are described in this review. As we show here, a hub-and-spoke model for a national service for PIDs would result in major cost savings, as well as improved patient care. It would also allow seamless transition from paediatric to adult services. PMID:27355232

  1. Acquired Fanconi syndrome in a dog exposed to jerky treats in Japan

    PubMed Central

    IGASE, Masaya; BABA, Kenji; SHIMOKAWA MIYAMA, Takako; NOGUCHI, Shunsuke; MIZUNO, Takuya; OKUDA, Masaru

    2015-01-01

    A 6-year-old spayed female Jack Russell Terrier presented with a 1-month history of lethargy, anorexia, vomiting and weight loss. The dog was fed beef and chicken jerky treats daily in addition to a commercial diet. Laboratory tests revealed azotemia, hypokalemia, hyperchloremia, metabolic acidosis and glucosuria with normoglycemia. Urine amino acid analysis showed significant amino acid loss into the urine. Thus, Fanconi syndrome was diagnosed, and based on the case history and extensive diagnostic testing, excessive consumption of jerky treats was strongly suspected as the cause. Glucosuria resolved 7 days after the withdrawal of jerky treats and fluid therapy. Aminoaciduria was substantially, but not completely, improved 3 months after diagnosis. Mild azotemia remained, suggesting chronic renal disease. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of Fanconi syndrome following the consumption of jerky treats in Japan. PMID:26062568

  2. New diagnostic criteria for common variable immune deficiency (CVID), which may assist with decisions to treat with intravenous or subcutaneous immunoglobulin

    PubMed Central

    Ameratunga, R; Woon, S-T; Gillis, D; Koopmans, W; Steele, R

    2013-01-01

    Common variable immune deficiency (CVID) is the most frequent symptomatic primary immune deficiency in adults. The standard of care is intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) or subcutaneous immunoglobulin (scIG) therapy. The cause of CVID is currently unknown, and there is no universally accepted definition of CVID. This creates problems in determining which patients will benefit from IVIG/scIG treatment. In this paper, we review the difficulties with the commonly used European Society of Immune Deficiencies (ESID) and the Pan American Group for Immune Deficiency (PAGID) definition of CVID. We propose new criteria for the diagnosis of CVID, which are based on recent scientific discoveries. Improved diagnostic precision will assist with treatment decisions including IVIG/scIG replacement. We suggest that asymptomatic patients with mild hypogammaglobulinaemia are termed hypogammaglobulinaemia of uncertain significance (HGUS). These patients require long-term follow-up, as some will evolve into CVID. PMID:23859429

  3. Disseminated cryptococcosis and fluconazole resistant oral candidiasis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Kothavade, Rajendra J; Oberai, Chetan M; Valand, Arvind G; Panthaki, Mehroo H

    2010-10-28

    Disseminated cryptococcosis and recurrent oral candidiasis was presented in a-heterosexual AIDS patient. Candida tropicalis (C.tropicalis) was isolated from the oral pseudomembranous plaques and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) was isolated from maculopapular lesions on body parts (face, hands and chest) and body fluids (urine, expectorated sputum, and cerebrospinal fluid). In vitro drug susceptibility testing on the yeast isolates demonstrated resistance to fluconazole acquired by C. tropicalis which was a suggestive possible root cause of recurrent oral candidiasis in this patient.

  4. Monocyte function in intravenous drug abusers with lymphadenopathy syndrome and in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: selective impairment of chemotaxis.

    PubMed Central

    Poli, G; Bottazzi, B; Acero, R; Bersani, L; Rossi, V; Introna, M; Lazzarin, A; Galli, M; Mantovani, A

    1985-01-01

    We have investigated monocyte function in 17 intravenous drug abusers with the clinical and laboratory features of lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS). LAS patients had normal numbers of circulating monocytes. Monocytes from LAS patients were comparable to cells from normal donors in terms of phagocytosis of latex beads, interleukin-1 secretion, O2- release and killing of antibody-sensitized lymphoma cells or actinomycin D pretreated WEHI 164 cells. In contrast 13 out of 17 LAS subjects tested in this respect as well as six out of nine AIDS patients showed a marked defect of monocyte chemotaxis. Thus monocytes from patients with LAS or AIDS have a selective defect of monocyte chemotaxis. PMID:2998656

  5. Acquired Pseudo-Brown's syndrome immediately following Ahmed valve glaucoma implant.

    PubMed

    Coats, D K; Paysse, E A; Orenga-Nania, S

    1999-05-01

    A 76-year-old woman noted vertical and horizontal diplopia one day following placement of an Ahmed valve in the superonasal quadrant of her left eye. She was unable to elevate her left eye, especially in adduction. She refused implant removal and strabismus surgery alone failed to satisfactorily resolve her problem. On forced duction testing, the implant became wedged between the globe and orbit superonasally. Subsequent repositioning of the valve resulted in resolution of her motility problem. Implant-orbital disproportion can produce a pseudo-Brown's syndrome. Surgeons are encouraged to perform forced duction testing at the time of glaucoma implant placement to detect and prevent this complication.

  6. Lymphoma Secondary to Congenital and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndromes at a Turkish Pediatric Oncology Center.

    PubMed

    Tanyildiz, Hikmet G; Dincaslan, Handan; Yavuz, Gulsan; Unal, Emel; Ikinciogulları, Aydan; Dogu, Figen; Tacyildiz, Nurdan

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence of lymphoma in primary immunodeficiency cases and autoimmune diseases, as well as on a background of immunodeficiency following organ transplants, is increasing. The lymphoma treatment success rate is known to be a low prognosis. Our study aimed to emphasize the low survival rates in immunodeficient vs. immunocompetent lymphoma patients and also to investigate the effect of rituximab in patients with ataxia telangiectasia and other immunodeficiencies. We summarized the clinical characteristics and treatment results of 17 cases with primary immunodeficiency that developed non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) retrospectively. Seven patients were diagnosed with ataxia-telangiectasia, two with common variable immunodeficiency, two with selective IgA deficiency, one with X-related lymphoproliferative syndrome, one with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, one with Epstein-Barr virus-related lymphoproliferative syndrome, one with interleukin-2-inducible T-cell kinase (ITK) deficiency, and one with lymphoma developing after autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS). One patient underwent a renal transplant. Of the nine males and eight females (aged 3-12 years, median = 7) that developed lymphoma, seven were diagnosed with HL and ten with NHL (seven B-cell, three T-cell). The NHL patients were started on the Berlin-Frankfurt-Münster, POG9317, LMB-96, or R-CHOP treatment protocols with reduced chemotherapy dosages. HL cases were started on the doxorubicin, bleomycin, vinblastine, and dacarbazine (ABVD) and/or cyclophosphamide, vincristine, procarbazine, and prednisone (COPP) protocol, also with modified dosages. Importantly, all seven cases of HL are alive and in remission, while six of the ten NHL patients have died. Primary immunodeficiency is a strong predisposing factor for developing lymphoma. Low treatment success rates relative to other lymphomas and difficulties encountered during treatment indicate that new treatment agents are needed

  7. De Novo intracerebral aneurysm in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bakhaidar, Mohamad G; Ahamed, Naushad A; Almekhlafi, Mohammed A; Baeesa, Saleh S

    2015-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection associated aneurysmal vasculopathy is a rare complication of HIV infection affecting the pediatric and adult population. We present a case of a 7-year-old male child known to have a congenitally acquired HIV infection presenting with a ruptured left distal internal carotid artery fusiform aneurysm that was diagnosed on MRI scans 6 months prior to his presentation. He underwent craniotomy and successful aneurysm reconstruction. He had uncomplicated postoperative course and experienced a good recovery. This case is among the few reported pediatric cases of HIV-associated cerebral arteriopathy to undergo surgery. We also reviewed the relevant literature of this rare condition.

  8. Salvage therapy with high dose Intravenous Immunoglobulins in acquired Von Willebrand Syndrome and unresponsive severe intestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    A 91-year-old woman affected with acquired Von Willebrand (VW) syndrome and intestinal angiodysplasias presented with severe gastrointestinal bleeding (hemoglobin 5 g/dl). Despite replacement therapy with VW factor/factor VIII concentrate qid, bleeding did not stop (eleven packed red blood cell units were transfused over three days). High circulating levels of anti-VW factor immunoglobulin M were documented immunoenzimatically. Heart ultrasound showed abnormalities of the mitral and aortic valves with severe flow alterations. When intravenous immunoglobulins were added to therapy, prompt clinical and laboratory responses occurred: complete cessation of bleeding, raise in hemoglobin, VW factor antigen, VW ristocetin cofactor and factor VIII levels as well as progressive reduction of the anti-VWF autoantibody levels. PMID:24926417

  9. [Cystic lymphoid hyperplasia of the parotid in relation to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV+). Apropos of 2 cases].

    PubMed

    Vaillant, J M; Chomette, G; Talbi, M; Labrousse, F; Szpirglas, H; Raphael, B; Gentilini, M; Auriol, M; Guilbert, F

    1989-01-01

    Cystic lymphoid hyperplasia of the parotid, a rare disease, was recently described in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We reported here 2 new cases of this illness. The 2 HIV+ patients showed an enlargement of parotid gland. A superficial parotidectomy was performed. The histological and immunohistochemical studies were completed in one case by a histoenzymological and ultrastructural study. We could see numerous cystic cavities lined with a cylindrical or metaplastic malpighian epithelium and surrounded by a lymphoid tissue, similar to a true lymph node with germinal centers. In these lymphoid structures, we could find some epithelial remnants and numerous epimyoepithelial islands. Besides, anomalies similar to those described in persistent generalized lymphadenopathies were obvious: hyperplastic germinal centers with multiplication of B lymphocytes and thin mantle zone, perifollicular hypervascularization, numerous macrophages, plasmocytes and T lymphocytes with increase of T8 cytotoxic subset in interfollicular and paracortical areas. An early opportunist infection is suggested in the histogenesis of this disease. PMID:2727611

  10. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B toxic shock syndrome induced by community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA).

    PubMed

    Kashiwada, Takeru; Kikuchi, Ken; Abe, Shinji; Kato, Hidehito; Hayashi, Hiroki; Morimoto, Taisuke; Kamio, Koichiro; Usuki, Jiro; Takeda, Shinhiro; Tanaka, Keiji; Imanishi, Ken'ichi; Yagi, Junji; Azuma, Arata; Gemma, Akihiko

    2012-01-01

    We herein report a case of toxic shock syndrome (TSS) associated with the 2009 pandemic H1N1 (pH1N1) influenza virus and a community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infection in a 16-year-old Vietnamese girl. Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) was detected in the patient's serum, and the level of anti-SEB antibodies was found to be elevated. A flow cytometric analysis showed evidence of activated SEB-reactive Vβ3+ and Vβ12+ T cells. These data suggest that the CA-MRSA-induced activation of SEB-reactive T cells may cause TSS in patients with pH1N1 virus infection. Moreover, this is the first report describing immunological confirmation of SEB contributing directly to TSS in a patient fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of TSS.

  11. Composition of Intestinal Microbiota in Immune-Deficient Mice Kept in Three Different Housing Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Thoene-Reineke, Christa; Fischer, André; Friese, Christian; Briesemeister, Dana; Göbel, Ulf B.; Kammertoens, Thomas; Bereswill, Stefan; Heimesaat, Markus M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Abundance of commensals constituting the intestinal microbiota (IM) affects the immune system and predisposes to a variety of diseases, including intestinal infections, cancer, inflammatory and metabolic disorders. Housing conditions determine the IM and can hence influence the immune system. We analyzed how both variables affect the IM of four immune-compromized mouse lines kept under different housing conditions. Methodology/Principal Findings We investigated the IM composition in mice by quantitative 16S rRNA RT-PCR analysis of the main fecal bacterial groups (Enterobacteriaceae, enterococci, lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, Bacteroides/Prevotella (BP) spp., Clostridium leptum and coccoides groups). Mice were homozygous (HO) or heterozygous (HE) for a targeted inactivating mutation of either the IFN-γ Receptor (R), IFN-γ, Rag1 or IL-4 genes. Overall, differences in IM composition were subtle. However, in the SPF-barrier, total eubacterial loads were higher in Rag1 HE versus Rag1 HO mice as well as in IFN-γR HE versus IFN-γR HO and WT animals. Although absent in WT mice, bifidobacterial loads were higher in HO and HE IFN-γ and Rag1 as well as IL-4 HO mice. Furthermore, BP was slightly lower in HO and HE IFN-γR and IFN-γ mice as well as in IL-4 HO mice as compared to WT controls. Interestingly, IM compositions were comparable in WT mice when kept in individual ventilated cages (IVC) or open cages (OC). IFN-γ HO and HE mice, however, had higher enterobacteria and BP loads, but lacked bifidobacteria when kept in OC versus IVC, as was the case in HO and HE Rag1 mice. In addition, Rag1 HO mice harbored higher clostridial loads when housed in OC as compared to IVC. Unexpectedly, lactobacilli levels were higher in IFN-γR mice when kept in OC versus IVC. Conclusion/Significance Housing-dependent and immune-deficiency mediated changes in intestinal microbiota composition were rather subtle but may nevertheless impact immunopathology in experimental models

  12. Correlation of Pneumocystis carinii cyst density with mortality in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and pneumocystis pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Blumenfeld, W; Miller, C N; Chew, K L; Mayall, B H; Griffiss, J M

    1992-06-01

    Fifteen percent to 20% of patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and pneumocystis pneumonia do poorly despite early intervention. It is not known what distinguishes those who die, despite early intervention and aggressive therapy, from those who readily respond to therapy. We used image analysis to determine the relative abundance of cysts within aggregates of Pneumocystis carinii found in induced sputa (21 patients) and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (14 patients) from 35 patients with pneumocystis pneumonia. We calculated a cyst density (number of cysts per area of aggregate) for each aggregate and a mean cyst density for all of the aggregates on the smear. Six patients died within 2 weeks of diagnosis; four of these six patients who had autopsies all had residual P carinii. The mean cyst density for those who died was 9.7 +/- 3.9 (range, 5 to 15 x 10(-3)). The 29 patients who survived beyond 2 weeks had a mean cyst density of 18.4 +/- 8.7 (range, 5 to 35 x 10(-3); P = .01). Mean cyst density was not influenced by the number of aggregates present in the smear, the variation in cyst density among aggregates in a smear, or the episode of pneumocystis pneumonia. Cyst density determinations alone should not be used to predict outcome for individuals with P carinii pneumonia until further study is completed. Nevertheless, the current study suggests that a low cyst density specimen, which may indirectly indicate a greater proportion of trophozoites compared with a high cyst density specimen, may be associated with an unfavorable outcome in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated pneumocystis pneumonia.

  13. Pediatric renal cryptococcosis: novel manifestations in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome era.

    PubMed

    Ramdial, Pratistadevi K; Sing, Yetish; Deonarain, Julian; Bhimma, Rajendra; Chotey, Nivesh; Sewram, Vikash

    2011-06-01

    Pediatric cryptococcosis has been documented in various organs, but pediatric renal cryptococcosis (RC) remains undocumented to date. The authors report RC in 2 children with AIDS, 7 and 9 years of age, with proteinuria. Both patients, on antiretroviral therapy (ARV) for 28 (patient 1) and 54 (patient 2) weeks each, had secured viral immunosuppression, but immune restoration was realized by patient 1 only. Cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) was diagnosed on the renal biopsy from patient 1 based on the clinicopathological profile and the presence of segmental glomerular and an interstitial lymphoplasmacytic and granulomatous reaction to Cryptococcus neoformans, with a predominance of capsule-deficient fungal forms. The renal biopsy from patient 2 demonstrated typical HIV-associated nephropathy with focal intratubular and interstitial C neoformans yeasts. Pediatric AIDS-associated renal disease must be expanded to include RC and cryptococcal IRIS, and the kidney must be included as a potential sentinel site of IRIS.

  14. In vivo treatment with interleukin 12 protects mice from immune abnormalities observed during murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (MAIDS)

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    Lymphoproliferation, chronic B cell activation resulting in hypergammaglobulinemia, and profound immunodeficiency are prominent features of a retrovirus-induced syndrome designated murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (MAIDS). In vivo treatment of infected mice with recombinant interleukin 12 (IL-12) beginning at the time of infection or up to 9 wk after virus inoculation markedly inhibited the development of splenomegaly and lymphadenopathy, as well as B cell activation and Ig secretion. Treatment with IL-12 also had major effects in preventing induction of several immune defects including impaired production of interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) and IL-2 and depressed proliferative responses to various stimuli. The therapeutic effects of IL-12 on the immune system of mice with MAIDS were also associated with reduced expression of the retrovirus that causes this disease (BM5def), with lesser effects on expression of ecotropic MuLV. IL-12 treatment was not effective in IFN-gamma knockout mice or in infected mice treated simultaneously with IL-12 and anti-IFN-gamma. These results demonstrate that induction and progression of MAIDS are antagonized by IL-12 through high-level expression of IFN-gamma and may provide an experimental basis for developing treatments of retrovirus- induced immune disorders with similar immunopathogenic mechanisms. PMID:7964495

  15. Toxoplasma encephalitis in Haitian adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a clinical-pathologic-CT correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Post, M.J.D.; Chan, J.C.; Hensley, G.T.; Hoffman, T.A.; Moskowitz, L.B.; Lippmann, S.

    1983-05-01

    The clinical data, histologic findings, and computed tomographic (CT) abnormalities in eight adult Haitians with toxoplasma encephalitis were analyzed retrospectively. Diagnosis was established by identification of Toxoplasma gondii on autopsy in five and brain biopsy in three specimens and subsequently confirmed by the immunoperoxidase method. All these patiens, six of whom had been in the United States for 24 months or less, had severe idiopathic immunodeficiency syndrome. All were lymphopenic and six were on treatment for tuberculosis when the toxoplasma encephalitis developed. All patients were studied with CT when they developed an altered mental status and fever associated with seizures and/or focal neurologic deficits. Scans before treatment showed multiple intraparenchymal lesions in seven and a single lesion in the thalamus in one. Ring and/or nodular enhancement of the lesions was found in six and hypodense areas in two. Progressions of abnormalities occurred on serial studies. These CT findings that were best shown on axial and coronal thin-section double-dose contrast studies were useful but not diagnostically pathognomonic. In patients with similar clinical presentation CT is recommended to identify focal areas of involvement and to guide brain biopsy or excision so that prompt medical thereapy of this often lethal infection can be instituted.

  16. Silent sinus syndrome an acquired condition and the essential role of otorhinolaryngologist consultation: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Capoccioni, Gabriel; Varela-Martínez, Ernesto; Martín-Martín, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The silent sinus syndrome (SSS) is a rare clinical entity characterized by painless spontaneous enophthalmos, hypoglobus, and facial deformities secondary to chronic maxillary sinus atelectasis. The aim of this study was to present an SSS diagnostic feature and evaluate the relationship between nasal septum deviation and maxillary sinus volume. A retrospective chart review of the clinical characteristics of 20 patients diagnosed with SSS between January 2013 and July 2014 were analyzed by the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of University Hospital Complex of Santiago de Compostela. 14 patients were females and six males. The mean age was 43 years (range 28-67 years). The right maxillary sinus was involved in 12 patients and the left maxillary sinus in eight patients. There was no statistical difference between gender and the presence of SSS. Maxillary sinus sizes were significantly smaller on the same side as the deviation (p < 0.01). 14 patients were treated with functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) with maxillary antrostomy. We concluded that patients with SSS usually present with facial asymmetry, and the best approach to document and show all facial asymmetries for these patients are the frontal and craneo-caudal photographs. The present study demonstrates that, in adult patients, SSS generally presents a septal deviation to the affected maxillary sinus. We recommend performing a paranasal sinus CT scan when the patient has a deviated nasal septum, retraction of the malar eminence (evidenced from the viewpoint cranio-caudal facial) and hypoglobus. FESS performing postero-anterior uncinectomy and enlargement of the maxillary ostium is recommended to restore sinus pressure and prevent progression of the enophthalmos, hypoglobus and facial deformities.

  17. Silent sinus syndrome an acquired condition and the essential role of otorhinolaryngologist consultation: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Capoccioni, Gabriel; Varela-Martínez, Ernesto; Martín-Martín, Carlos

    2016-10-01

    The silent sinus syndrome (SSS) is a rare clinical entity characterized by painless spontaneous enophthalmos, hypoglobus, and facial deformities secondary to chronic maxillary sinus atelectasis. The aim of this study was to present an SSS diagnostic feature and evaluate the relationship between nasal septum deviation and maxillary sinus volume. A retrospective chart review of the clinical characteristics of 20 patients diagnosed with SSS between January 2013 and July 2014 were analyzed by the Department of Otorhinolaryngology of University Hospital Complex of Santiago de Compostela. 14 patients were females and six males. The mean age was 43 years (range 28-67 years). The right maxillary sinus was involved in 12 patients and the left maxillary sinus in eight patients. There was no statistical difference between gender and the presence of SSS. Maxillary sinus sizes were significantly smaller on the same side as the deviation (p < 0.01). 14 patients were treated with functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) with maxillary antrostomy. We concluded that patients with SSS usually present with facial asymmetry, and the best approach to document and show all facial asymmetries for these patients are the frontal and craneo-caudal photographs. The present study demonstrates that, in adult patients, SSS generally presents a septal deviation to the affected maxillary sinus. We recommend performing a paranasal sinus CT scan when the patient has a deviated nasal septum, retraction of the malar eminence (evidenced from the viewpoint cranio-caudal facial) and hypoglobus. FESS performing postero-anterior uncinectomy and enlargement of the maxillary ostium is recommended to restore sinus pressure and prevent progression of the enophthalmos, hypoglobus and facial deformities. PMID:26965897

  18. Illustrated operative management of spontaneous bleeding and compartment syndrome of the lower extremity in a patient with acquired hemophilia A: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Spontaneous bleeding resulting in compartment syndrome at the lower adult leg due to acquired hemophilia A is rare. There are no reports on operative management of this entity. Case presentation We present a case of atraumatic compartment syndrome of the lower leg due to acquired factor VIII deficiency, in an 83-year-old Caucasian man of European descent. He was treated surgically with a long and complicated postoperative course after presenting to a community hospital with a 2-day history of increasing pain and swelling in his left lower leg without a previous history of trauma. Conclusions Awareness, prompt diagnosis and effective treatment of compartment syndrome caused by a rare bleeding disorder, which is usually acquired by the elderly, is essential and may spare a patient from surgery or even limb loss, if early administration of recombinant factor VIIa is effective. The course of disease in a patient with operative management of spontaneous bleeding, compartment syndrome and acquired hemophilia A may be prolonged. However, an interdisciplinary approach with meticulous surgical treatment and bleeding management with recombinant factor VIIa as well as inhibitor eradication by immunosuppressive treatment can be successful and expensive. PMID:24886030

  19. Programmed cell death of T lymphocytes during acute viral infection: a mechanism for virus-induced immune deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Razvi, E S; Welsh, R M

    1993-01-01

    Acute viral infections induce immune deficiencies, as shown by unresponsiveness to mitogens and unrelated antigens. T lymphocytes isolated from mice acutely infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) were found in this study to undergo activation-induced apoptosis upon signalling through the T-cell receptor (TcR)-CD3 complex. Kinetic studies demonstrated that this sensitivity to apoptosis directly correlated with the induction of immune deficiency, as measured by impaired proliferation in response to anti-CD3 antibody or to concanavalin A. Cell cycling in interleukin-2 (IL-2) alone stimulated proliferation of LCMV-induced T cells without inducing apoptosis, but preculturing of T cells from acutely infected mice in IL-2 accelerated apoptosis upon subsequent TcR-CD3 cross-linking. T lymphocytes isolated from mice after the acute infection were less responsive to IL-2, but those T cells, presumably memory T cells, responding to IL-2 were primed in each case to die a rapid apoptotic death upon TcR-CD3 cross-linking. These results indicate that virus infection-induced unresponsiveness to T-cell mitogens is due to apoptosis of the activated lymphocytes and suggest that the sensitization of memory cells by IL-2 induced during infection will cause them to die upon antigen recognition, thereby impairing specific responses to nonviral antigens. Images PMID:8371341

  20. The hypertriglyceridemia of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is associated with an increased prevalence of low density lipoprotein subclass pattern B

    SciTech Connect

    Feingold, K.R.; Krauss, R.M.; Pang, M.; Doerrler, W.; Jensen, P.; Grunfeld, C. Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA )

    1993-06-01

    To better define the role of environmental factors on LDL phenotypic expression, the authors determined LDL patterns in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and infection characterized by hypertriglyceridemia and weight loss. Similar to previous studies, plasma triglyceride levels were increased, whereas plasma cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and HDL cholesterol levels were decreased in the AIDS subjects compared to those in age-matched controls. The percentage of AIDS subjects with the LDL B phenotype was increased 2.5-fold, demonstrating an increased prevalence of the LDL B phenotype in an acquired form of hypertriglyceridemia. For each LDL phenotype in AIDS, serum triglyceride levels were higher than the same phenotypic pattern in controls, with the most marked elevations in triglycerides found in AIDS subjects with the LDL B phenotype. In contrast to what was observed in controls, HDL cholesterol levels were decreased in all AIDS subjects and were unrelated to LDL pattern. Total and LDL cholesterol levels were higher in controls with the LDL B phenotype than in those with the LDL A phenotype, but there was no difference in total and LDL cholesterol in AIDS subjects with LDL B compared to A. On multiple regression analysis in subjects with AIDS, plasma triglyceride levels, age, and HDL cholesterol all contribute to the occurrence of the LDL B phenotype, but elevations in plasma triglyceride levels are the strongest independent predictor. Body mass index was not a predictor of LDL B phenotype in AIDS. These results suggest that disturbances in triglyceride metabolism that are caused by AIDS lead to the appearance of the LDL subclass B phenotype and provide further evidence that environmental or disease states that perturb lipid metabolism can produce an increased prevalence of the LDL B phenotype. 35 refs., 1 fig., 5 tabs.

  1. International military human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome policies and programs: strengths and limitations in current practice.

    PubMed

    Yeager, R; Hendrix, C W; Kingma, S

    2000-02-01

    A survey was conducted to evaluate military human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) policies and programs in 119 countries. Ninety-eight percent of the 62 respondents provide prevention education, 95% in group settings but only 53% individually. Predeployment briefings are more common than postdeployment briefings. Condoms are promoted more often than provided. Seventy-eight respondents report some form of mandatory HIV testing, and 58% perform mandatory recruit testing, with recruitment denied to HIV-positive individuals in 17%. Counseling accompanies mandatory testing less than voluntary testing. In-service care for AIDS patients is universal. Many military prevention programs can be improved through postdeployment briefings and proactive interventions involving education, condom distribution, and counseling combined with testing. Mandatory testing is often inconsistent with stated goals, and AIDS care policies may strain military budgets. Testing based on cost-benefit assessments may increase efficiency in military HIV control. Military budgets may benefit from greater civil-military cost sharing in AIDS care. PMID:10709366

  2. Influence of the greenhouse effect on human health through stratospheric cooling: Possible increase in acquired immunodeficient syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Kazuto; Tsushima, Hiroshi; Tanimoto, Shin

    1996-09-01

    The greenhouse effect cools the stratosphere and increases formation of PSC (polar stratospheric cloud) in polar regions and enhances ozone depletion. If the enhanced ozone depletion diffused to lower latitudes, it could increase ultraviolet radiation (UV), which might increase acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Epidemiological studies are made to test this hypothesis. The relation between AIDS prevalence R and latitude {theta}. Comparison of analyses shows that R of Caucasians would be higher than Non-Caucasians at the same {theta}. These trends are similar to those of skin cancers known to be caused by UV. In developing countries poverty, malnutrition, etc., could cause high R, and since most developing countries are located at low {theta}, the low {theta} increase may be due to these factors. However if so in Africa they are about the same and the low {theta} increase would disappear, but data on African countries also show the low {theta} increase and the significant correlation. Some countries at low {theta} have low R, probably because HIV is not prevalent for them. Then the upper envelope of the distribution of R would be cases when HIV is prevalent and UV is most effective. Therefore analyses are repeated using maxima of R within intervals of {theta} of 1, 3 and 5{degree}. In all cases the low {theta} increase and the correlation becomes more significant. These results support the hypothesis that AIDS is promoted by UV.

  3. International military human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome policies and programs: strengths and limitations in current practice.

    PubMed

    Yeager, R; Hendrix, C W; Kingma, S

    2000-02-01

    A survey was conducted to evaluate military human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) policies and programs in 119 countries. Ninety-eight percent of the 62 respondents provide prevention education, 95% in group settings but only 53% individually. Predeployment briefings are more common than postdeployment briefings. Condoms are promoted more often than provided. Seventy-eight respondents report some form of mandatory HIV testing, and 58% perform mandatory recruit testing, with recruitment denied to HIV-positive individuals in 17%. Counseling accompanies mandatory testing less than voluntary testing. In-service care for AIDS patients is universal. Many military prevention programs can be improved through postdeployment briefings and proactive interventions involving education, condom distribution, and counseling combined with testing. Mandatory testing is often inconsistent with stated goals, and AIDS care policies may strain military budgets. Testing based on cost-benefit assessments may increase efficiency in military HIV control. Military budgets may benefit from greater civil-military cost sharing in AIDS care.

  4. Epidemiology of invasive fungal infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome at a reference hospital for infectious diseases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Renata Buccheri; Atobe, Jane Harumi; Souza, Simone Aparecida; de Castro Lima Santos, Daniel Wagner

    2014-08-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) represent one of the main causes of morbimortality in immunocompromised patients. Pneumocystosis, cryptococcosis and histoplasmosis are the most frequently occurring IFIs in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Fungi, such as Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., may cause severe diseases during the course of an HIV infection. Following the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy, there has been a marked reduction of opportunistic fungal infections, which today is 20-25 % of the number of infections observed in the mid-1990s. This study is an observational and retrospective study aimed at the characterising IFI incidence and describing the epidemiology, clinical diagnostic and therapeutic features and denouement in HIV/AIDS patients. In HIV/AIDS patients, the IFI incidence is 54.3/1,000 hospitalisation/year, with a lethality of 37.7 %. Cryptococcosis represents the main opportunistic IFI in the population, followed by histoplasmosis. Nosocomial pathogenic yeast infections are caused principally by Candida spp., with a higher candidemia incidence at our institution compared to other Brazilian centres.

  5. Difficulties with diagnosis and consequential poor outcome due to stigma of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - a case report.

    PubMed

    Vuletic, Vladimira; Nevajda, Branimir; Spero, Martina; Chudy, Darko

    2013-09-01

    Low incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been detected in Croatia so far. Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is the most common opportunistic cerebral infection in AIDS patients and is highly responsive to antiparasitic chemotherapy, if treated at an early stage. We present the case of the brain biopsy confirmed as TE on a 36-year-old female patient who at admission presented with unconsciousness and a right hemiplegia. A MSCT was performed and two hypodense lesions were diagnosed. The patient's family initially denied the presence or history of any medical problem or infection. An MRI showed multiple ring-enhanced mass lesions. An infectologist required a brain biopsy to exclude cerebral lymphoma and multiple metastases. Pathohistological analysis suggested TE. Meanwhile, patient's blood samples were found to be HIV positive. The patient was transferred to University Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Zagreb, where she died 2 days following admission. The patient's family terminally confessed that the patient had been HIV positive for 10 years and had refused any treatment. Family's denial of infection as well as 'hiding information' concerning patient's health from physicians involved in her treatment caused a delay in proper on-time patient treatment. We would like to emphasize that TE must be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with multiple cerebral lesions, including patients without acknowledged past history of HIV infection. A stigma towards HIV infection and ignorance of the disease still exist and therefore hinders proper treatment.

  6. New clinical and histological patterns of acute disseminated histoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ollague Sierra, Jose E; Ollague Torres, Jose M

    2013-04-01

    Histoplasmosis has attained increasing relevance in the past 3 decades because of the appearance of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In most immunocompetent persons, the infection is asymptomatic or can produce a respiratory condition with symptoms and radiological images similar to those observed in pulmonary tuberculosis; in non-HIV+ immunocompromised patients, it can cause respiratory symptoms or evolve into a disseminated infection. The same can occur in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. We have observed a series of HIV+ patients with AIDS who presented with cutaneous histoplasmosis and in whom the clinical and histopathological features were highly unusual, including variable mucocutaneous lesions that were difficult to diagnose clinically. These patients displayed unusual, previously undescribed, histological patterns, including lichenoid pattern, nodular pseudomyxoid pattern, pyogenic granuloma-like pattern, perifollicular pattern, and superficial (S), mid (M), and deep perivascular dermatitis; and more commonly encountered patterns, such as histiocytic lobular panniculitis and focal nodular dermatitis. The novel histopathological patterns of cutaneous involvement by histoplasmosis seen in these patients resembled other common inflammatory and infectious conditions and required a high level of suspicion and the application of special stains for organisms for confirmation. These new, clinical, and histological findings do not seem to be commonly encountered in HIV- patients infected with the fungus but seem to be displayed most prominently in HIV+ patients with AIDS.

  7. Simulation study of the effect of influenza and influenza vaccination on risk of acquiring Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hawken, Steven; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha S; McGeer, Allison J; Ducharme, Robin; Campitelli, Michael A; Coyle, Doug; Wilson, Kumanan

    2015-02-01

    It is unclear whether seasonal influenza vaccination results in a net increase or decrease in the risk for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). To assess the effect of seasonal influenza vaccination on the absolute risk of acquiring GBS, we used simulation models and published estimates of age- and sex-specific risks for GBS, influenza incidence, and vaccine effectiveness. For a hypothetical 45-year-old woman and 75-year-old man, excess GBS risk for influenza vaccination versus no vaccination was -0.36/1 million vaccinations (95% credible interval -1.22% to 0.28) and -0.42/1 million vaccinations (95% credible interval, -3.68 to 2.44), respectively. These numbers represent a small absolute reduction in GBS risk with vaccination. Under typical conditions (e.g. influenza incidence rates >5% and vaccine effectiveness >60%), vaccination reduced GBS risk. These findings should strengthen confidence in the safety of influenza vaccine and allow health professionals to better put GBS risk in context when discussing influenza vaccination with patients.

  8. Buprenorphine as a safe alternative to methadone in a patient with acquired long QT syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    de Jong, I M; de Ruiter, G S

    2013-05-01

    A 52-year-old man with a medical history of intravenous drug abuse was admitted to our hospital with syncope due to torsades de pointes (TdP). Two days earlier, he had used methadone. The electrocardiogram showed a prolonged corrected QT interval (QTc) of 600 ms. Continuous telemetry observation showed multiple episodes of TdP. The patient was diagnosed with bradyarrhythmia-induced TdP with acquired long QT syndrome resulting from methadone use. The QTc normalised within 2 weeks after discontinuation of the methadone. In this case of a patient with opioid dependency, there is a reasonable risk of repeated methadone use. Therefore, implantable cardioverter defibrillator or pacemaker implantation is justified but risky because of possible infections when using intravenous drugs. Given the high mortality rates seen in untreated illicit opioid users, this patient needs an alternative pharmacological treatment. Buprenorphine is an opiate-receptor agonist associated with less QTc prolongation. The patient was referred to a rehab clinic and treated with an oral combination of buprenorphine and naloxone (Suboxone). During this therapy, his QTc remained normal. PMID:22020456

  9. Epstein-Barr and human immunodeficiency viruses in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related primary central nervous system lymphoma.

    PubMed Central

    Morgello, S.

    1992-01-01

    The prevalence of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma was examined. Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extracted from 12 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tumors was used as substrate for the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Targets for amplification were the EBNA-1 region of EBV, the gag region of HIV, and a single copy cellular sequence as a control. The cases studied were autopsy and surgical specimens collected between the years 1985 and 1989. By the working formulation for non-Hodgkin's lymphomas, five had large cell, four had mixed large and small cleaved cell, two had small cleaved cell, and one had an unclassified histology. Epstein-Barr virus was detected in 6 of 12 tumors studied. Human immunodeficiency virus was not detected in any of the tumors. The presence of EBV was not correlated with any particular histologic tumor type. It is concluded that EBV, not HIV, can be detected in a large percentage (50%) of AIDS-related primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphomas. This viral association may be significant in light of the demonstrated ability of EBV to induce lymphoid tumors in experimental mammalian systems. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1323221

  10. Rapid Tests and the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Coinfection.

    PubMed

    Barbosa Júnior, Walter Lins; Ramos de Araújo, Paulo Sérgio; Dias de Andrade, Luiz; Aguiar Dos Santos, Ana Maria; Lopes da Silva, Maria Almerice; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Medeiros, Zulma

    2015-11-01

    After the emergence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-HIV/AIDS coinfections has increased worldwide. Herein, we assessed the usefulness of an rK39-based immunochromatographic test (rK39 ICT) (DiaMed-IT LEISH(®); DiaMed AG, Cressier-sur-Morat, Switzerland) and a latex agglutination test (KAtex; Kalon Biological, Guildford, United Kingdom) for urinary antigen detection to diagnose VL in 15 HIV/AIDS patients from northeastern Brazil. VL diagnosis was based on clinical findings, cytology, serology, parasite DNA, and/or urinary antigen detection. VL was confirmed in seven out of 15 HIV/AIDS patients. Only three patients were positive in bone marrow cytology, three patients were conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive, while six were real-time PCR positive. All patients were direct agglutination test (DAT) (Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) positive; of these, four were positive by rK39 ICT and five by KAtex. Large-scale studies are needed to validate the use of the KAtex in the national public health laboratory network in Brazil, aiming at improving the diagnosis of VL in HIV/AIDS patients in this country.

  11. An Aggressive Plasmablastic Lymphoma of the Oral Cavity as Primary Manifestation of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Corti, Marcelo; Minué, Gonzalo; Campitelli, Ana; Narbaitz, Marina; Gilardi, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare entity that was first described in the jaws and the oral cavity of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Plasmablastic lymphoma is considered as a diffuse, large, B-cell lymphoma with a unique phenotype and a predilection for the oral cavity. Objective The authors describe a case of an aggressive plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity as the primary manifestation of AIDS. Resumed Report We report a case of plasmablastic lymphoma involving only the oral cavity as the first manifestation of AIDS. Diagnosis was confirmed by the oral lesion biopsy and the histopathologic examination that showed a dense infiltrate composed of atypical lymphocytes with numerous plasmocytes that expressed the plasma cell markers MUM-1 and CD138 and that were negative for the B-cell markers CD3, CD20, and CD45. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization revealed the Epstein-Barr virus genome in the atypical cells. Polymerase chain reaction was also positive for human herpesvirus-8 RNA. Conclusion The HIV serologic status should be evaluated in all patients with plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity or extraoral sites.

  12. Simulation study of the effect of influenza and influenza vaccination on risk of acquiring Guillain-Barré syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hawken, Steven; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha S; McGeer, Allison J; Ducharme, Robin; Campitelli, Michael A; Coyle, Doug; Wilson, Kumanan

    2015-02-01

    It is unclear whether seasonal influenza vaccination results in a net increase or decrease in the risk for Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS). To assess the effect of seasonal influenza vaccination on the absolute risk of acquiring GBS, we used simulation models and published estimates of age- and sex-specific risks for GBS, influenza incidence, and vaccine effectiveness. For a hypothetical 45-year-old woman and 75-year-old man, excess GBS risk for influenza vaccination versus no vaccination was -0.36/1 million vaccinations (95% credible interval -1.22% to 0.28) and -0.42/1 million vaccinations (95% credible interval, -3.68 to 2.44), respectively. These numbers represent a small absolute reduction in GBS risk with vaccination. Under typical conditions (e.g. influenza incidence rates >5% and vaccine effectiveness >60%), vaccination reduced GBS risk. These findings should strengthen confidence in the safety of influenza vaccine and allow health professionals to better put GBS risk in context when discussing influenza vaccination with patients. PMID:25625590

  13. Rapid Tests and the Diagnosis of Visceral Leishmaniasis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Coinfection.

    PubMed

    Barbosa Júnior, Walter Lins; Ramos de Araújo, Paulo Sérgio; Dias de Andrade, Luiz; Aguiar Dos Santos, Ana Maria; Lopes da Silva, Maria Almerice; Dantas-Torres, Filipe; Medeiros, Zulma

    2015-11-01

    After the emergence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL)-HIV/AIDS coinfections has increased worldwide. Herein, we assessed the usefulness of an rK39-based immunochromatographic test (rK39 ICT) (DiaMed-IT LEISH(®); DiaMed AG, Cressier-sur-Morat, Switzerland) and a latex agglutination test (KAtex; Kalon Biological, Guildford, United Kingdom) for urinary antigen detection to diagnose VL in 15 HIV/AIDS patients from northeastern Brazil. VL diagnosis was based on clinical findings, cytology, serology, parasite DNA, and/or urinary antigen detection. VL was confirmed in seven out of 15 HIV/AIDS patients. Only three patients were positive in bone marrow cytology, three patients were conventional polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positive, while six were real-time PCR positive. All patients were direct agglutination test (DAT) (Royal Tropical Institute, Amsterdam, The Netherlands) positive; of these, four were positive by rK39 ICT and five by KAtex. Large-scale studies are needed to validate the use of the KAtex in the national public health laboratory network in Brazil, aiming at improving the diagnosis of VL in HIV/AIDS patients in this country. PMID:26416105

  14. Transforming Growth Factor-β1 T869C Gene Polymorphism Is Associated with Acquired Sick Sinus Syndrome via Linking a Higher Serum Protein Level

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jan-Yow; Liu, Jiung-Hsiun; Wu, Hong-Dar Isaac; Lin, Kuo-Hung; Chang, Kuan-Cheng; Liou, Ying-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Familial sick sinus syndrome is associated with gene mutations and dysfunction of ion channels. In contrast, degenerative fibrosis of the sinus node tissue plays an important role in the pathogenesis of acquired sick sinus syndrome. There is a close relationship between transforming growth factor-β1 mediated cardiac fibrosis and acquired arrhythmia. It is of interest to examine whether transforming growth factor-β1 is involved in the pathogenesis of acquired sick sinus syndrome. Methods Overall, 110 patients with acquired SSS and 137 age/gender-matched controls were screened for transforming growth factor-β1 and cardiac sodium channel gene polymorphisms using gene sequencing or restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. An enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to determine the serum level of transforming growth factor-β1. Results Two transforming growth factor-β1 gene polymorphisms (C-509T and T+869C) and one cardiac sodium channel gene polymorphism (H588R) have been identified. The C-dominant CC/CT genotype frequency of T869C was significantly higher in acquired sick sinus syndrome patients than in controls (OR 2.09, 95% CI 1.16–3.75, P = 0.01). Consistently, the level of serum transforming growth factor-β1 was also significantly greater in acquired sick sinus syndrome group than in controls (5.3±3.4 ng/ml vs. 3.7±2.4 ng/ml, P = 0.01). In addition, the CC/CT genotypes showed a higher transforming growth factor-β1 serum level than the TT genotype (4.25 ± 2.50 ng/ml vs. 2.71± 1.76 ng/ml, P = 0.028) in controls. Conclusion Transforming growth factor-β1 T869C polymorphism, correlated with high serum transforming growth factor-β1 levels, is associated with susceptibility to acquired sick sinus syndrome. PMID:27380173

  15. Retrovirus-induced murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: natural history of infection and differing susceptibility of inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed

    Hartley, J W; Fredrickson, T N; Yetter, R A; Makino, M; Morse, H C

    1989-03-01

    C57BL mice (Fv-1b) develop a severe immunodeficiency disease following inoculation as adults with LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus (MuLV), a derivative of Duplan-Laterjet virus which contains B-tropic ecotropic and mink cell focus-inducing MuLVs and a putative defective genome which may be the proximal cause of disease. The stages of development of this disease were defined for C57BL mice on the basis of lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly; histopathological changes consistent with B-cell activation; and alterations in expression of cell surface antigens affected by proliferation of T cells, B cells, and macrophages. By using this disease profile as a standard, the response of adult mice of various inbred strains and selected F1 hybrids was compared. We show that although the strains which are highly sensitive are of the Fv-1b genotype (i.e., permissive for B-tropic MuLVs), certain Fv-1b strains, e.g., BALB/c and A/J, are resistant to murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, whereas certain Fv-1n strains (permissive for N-tropic MuLVs but restrictive for B-tropic MuLVs), notably P/N, BDP, and AKR, show moderate sensitivity and (C57BL/6 x CBA/N)F1 mice (Fv-1n/b and thus dually restrictive) are of relatively high susceptibility. The results of virus recovery tests suggest that apparently anomalous sensitivity, based on predicted Fv-1 restriction, may reflect MuLV induction and/or mutation to provide a helper virus for which the host is permissive.

  16. Retrovirus-induced murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: natural history of infection and differing susceptibility of inbred mouse strains.

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, J W; Fredrickson, T N; Yetter, R A; Makino, M; Morse, H C

    1989-01-01

    C57BL mice (Fv-1b) develop a severe immunodeficiency disease following inoculation as adults with LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus (MuLV), a derivative of Duplan-Laterjet virus which contains B-tropic ecotropic and mink cell focus-inducing MuLVs and a putative defective genome which may be the proximal cause of disease. The stages of development of this disease were defined for C57BL mice on the basis of lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly; histopathological changes consistent with B-cell activation; and alterations in expression of cell surface antigens affected by proliferation of T cells, B cells, and macrophages. By using this disease profile as a standard, the response of adult mice of various inbred strains and selected F1 hybrids was compared. We show that although the strains which are highly sensitive are of the Fv-1b genotype (i.e., permissive for B-tropic MuLVs), certain Fv-1b strains, e.g., BALB/c and A/J, are resistant to murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, whereas certain Fv-1n strains (permissive for N-tropic MuLVs but restrictive for B-tropic MuLVs), notably P/N, BDP, and AKR, show moderate sensitivity and (C57BL/6 x CBA/N)F1 mice (Fv-1n/b and thus dually restrictive) are of relatively high susceptibility. The results of virus recovery tests suggest that apparently anomalous sensitivity, based on predicted Fv-1 restriction, may reflect MuLV induction and/or mutation to provide a helper virus for which the host is permissive. Images PMID:2536830

  17. Human Immunodeficiency Virus as a Chronic Disease: Evaluation and Management of Nonacquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-Defining Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Serrano-Villar, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Félix; Miralles, Celia; Berenguer, Juan; Rivero, Antonio; Martínez, Esteban; Moreno, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    In the modern antiretroviral therapy (ART) era, motivated people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who have access to therapy are expected to maintain viral suppression indefinitely and to receive treatment for decades. Hence, the current clinical scenario has dramatically shifted since the early 1980s, from treatment and prevention of opportunistic infections and palliative care to a new scenario in which most HIV specialists focus on HIV primary care, ie, the follow up of stable patients, surveillance of long-term toxicities, and screening and prevention of age-related conditions. The median age of HIV-infected adults on ART is progressively increasing. By 2030, 3 of every 4 patients are expected to be aged 50 years or older in many countries, more than 80% will have at least 1 age-related disease, and approximately one third will have at least 3 age-related diseases. Contemporary care of HIV-infected patients is evolving, and questions about how we might monitor and perhaps even treat HIV-infected adults have emerged. Through key published works, this review briefly describes the most prevalent comorbidities and age-associated conditions and highlights the differential features in the HIV-infected population. We also discuss the most critical aspects to be considered in the care of patients with HIV for the management and prevention of age-associated disease. PMID:27419169

  18. Human Immunodeficiency Virus as a Chronic Disease: Evaluation and Management of Nonacquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-Defining Conditions.

    PubMed

    Serrano-Villar, Sergio; Gutiérrez, Félix; Miralles, Celia; Berenguer, Juan; Rivero, Antonio; Martínez, Esteban; Moreno, Santiago

    2016-04-01

    In the modern antiretroviral therapy (ART) era, motivated people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who have access to therapy are expected to maintain viral suppression indefinitely and to receive treatment for decades. Hence, the current clinical scenario has dramatically shifted since the early 1980s, from treatment and prevention of opportunistic infections and palliative care to a new scenario in which most HIV specialists focus on HIV primary care, ie, the follow up of stable patients, surveillance of long-term toxicities, and screening and prevention of age-related conditions. The median age of HIV-infected adults on ART is progressively increasing. By 2030, 3 of every 4 patients are expected to be aged 50 years or older in many countries, more than 80% will have at least 1 age-related disease, and approximately one third will have at least 3 age-related diseases. Contemporary care of HIV-infected patients is evolving, and questions about how we might monitor and perhaps even treat HIV-infected adults have emerged. Through key published works, this review briefly describes the most prevalent comorbidities and age-associated conditions and highlights the differential features in the HIV-infected population. We also discuss the most critical aspects to be considered in the care of patients with HIV for the management and prevention of age-associated disease. PMID:27419169

  19. Incidence and Long-term Outcomes of the HIV-Neuroretinal Disorder in Patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jabs, Douglas A.; Drye, Lea; Van Natta, Mark L.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Holland, Gary N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have an abnormality of retina/optic nerve function, manifested as decreased contrast sensitivity (in the absence of ocular opportunistic infections or media opacity), abnormalities on automated perimetry, and loss of retinal nerve fiber layer, even among those with good visual acuity, termed the HIV-neuroretinal disorder. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, incidence, risk factors for, and outcomes of HIV-neuroretinal disorder. Design Prospective cohort study Participants 1822 patients with AIDS without ocular infections or media opacities. Methods Patients with HIV-neuroretinal disorder were identified by a contrast sensitivity < 1.50 log units in either eye in the absence of ocular opportunistic infections or media opacity. Main outcome measures Incidence of HIV-neuroretinal disorder, mortality, visual impairment (visual acuity 20/50 or worse), and blindness (20/200 or worse) on logarithmic visual acuity charts. Results Sixteen percent of participants had HIV-neuroretinal disorder at enrollment. The estimated cumulative incidence by 20 years after AIDS diagnosis was 51% (95% confidence interval [CI] 46%–55%). HIV-neuroretinal disorder was more common in women and African American persons. Risk factors for it included hepatitis C infection, low CD4+ T cells, and detectable HIV RNA in the blood. Patients with HIV neuroretinal disorder had a 70% excess mortality vs. those without it, even after adjusting for CD4+ T cells and HIV load (hazard ratio=1.7, 95% CI= 1.3–2.1, P<0.0001). Patients with HIV-neuroretinal disorder had increased risks of bilateral visual impairment (hazard ratio=6.5, 95% CI=2.6–10.6, P<0.0001) and blindness (hazard ratio=5.9, 95% CI=2.8–13.7, P=0.01) vs. those without HIV neuroretinal disorder. Conclusions HIV-neuroretinal disorder is a common finding among patients with AIDS, and it is associated with an increased mortality and an increased

  20. Immune deficiency vs. immune excess in inflammatory bowel diseases-STAT3 as a rheo-STAT of intestinal homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Leppkes, Moritz; Neurath, Markus F; Herrmann, Martin; Becker, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies have provided many genetic alterations, conferring susceptibility to multifactorial polygenic diseases, such as inflammatory bowel diseases. Yet, how specific genetic alterations functionally affect intestinal inflammation often remains elusive. It is noteworthy that a large overlap of genes involved in immune deficiencies with those conferring inflammatory bowel disease risk has been noted. This has provided new arguments for the debate on whether inflammatory bowel disease arises from either an excess or a deficiency in the immune system. In this review, we highlight the functional effect of an inflammatory bowel disease-risk allele, which cannot be deduced from genome-wide association studies data alone. As exemplified by the transcription factor signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), we show that a single gene can have a plethora of effects in various cell types of the gut. These effects may individually contribute to the restoration of intestinal homeostasis on the one hand or pave the way for excessive immunopathology on the other, as an inflammatory "rheo-STAT".

  1. Congenital and acquired neutropenia consensus guidelines on diagnosis from the Neutropenia Committee of the Marrow Failure Syndrome Group of the AIEOP (Associazione Italiana Emato-Oncologia Pediatrica).

    PubMed

    Fioredda, Francesca; Calvillo, Michaela; Bonanomi, Sonia; Coliva, Tiziana; Tucci, Fabio; Farruggia, Piero; Pillon, Marta; Martire, Baldassarre; Ghilardi, Roberta; Ramenghi, Ugo; Renga, Daniela; Menna, Giuseppe; Barone, Angelica; Lanciotti, Marina; Dufour, Carlo

    2011-07-15

    Congenital and acquired neutropenia are rare disorders whose frequency in pediatric age may be underestimated due to remarkable differences in definition or misdiagnosed because of the lack of common practice guidelines. Neutropenia Committee of the Marrow Failure Syndrome Group (MFSG) of the AIEOP (Associazione Italiana Emato-Oncologia Pediatrica) elaborated this document following design and methodology formerly approved by the AIEOP board. The panel of experts reviewed the literature on the topic and participated in a conference producing a document which includes a classification of neutropenia and a comprehensive guideline on diagnosis of neutropenia.

  2. 20 CFR 401.200 - Blood donor locator service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The State agency or other authorized person, as...) Establish and maintain a system for standardizing records which includes the reasons for requesting...

  3. 20 CFR 401.200 - Blood donor locator service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The State agency or other authorized person, as...) Establish and maintain a system for standardizing records which includes the reasons for requesting...

  4. 20 CFR 401.200 - Blood donor locator service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The State agency or other authorized person, as...) Establish and maintain a system for standardizing records which includes the reasons for requesting...

  5. 20 CFR 401.200 - Blood donor locator service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The State agency or other authorized person, as...) Establish and maintain a system for standardizing records which includes the reasons for requesting...

  6. 20 CFR 401.200 - Blood donor locator service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... which causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The State agency or other authorized person, as...) Establish and maintain a system for standardizing records which includes the reasons for requesting...

  7. Computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG) and dynamic brain mapping in AIDS and HIV related syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Ferracuti, S; Freedman, A M; Sherer, C; Mehta, P; Itil, K Z

    1990-07-01

    In a group of HIV positive young male patients without any significant neuropsychiatric signs, computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG) and Dynamic Brain Mapping evaluations were conducted. These patients, who only had micro-neuropsychiatric symptoms, demonstrated CEEG profiles that more closely resemble those of patients diagnosed as suffering from mild dementia than age-related normals from our CEEG data base. The CEEGs of patients diagnosed as having Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), compared to patients with HIV positive, showed greater similarity in CEEG patterns to severely demented patients than to normal control groups. The findings of this pilot study suggest that CEEG may be useful for early determination of the Central Nervous System's (CNS) involvement with the AIDS virus and monitoring the progress of the illness. PMID:2364555

  8. Computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG) and dynamic brain mapping in AIDS and HIV related syndrome: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Itil, T M; Ferracuti, S; Freedman, A M; Sherer, C; Mehta, P; Itil, K Z

    1990-07-01

    In a group of HIV positive young male patients without any significant neuropsychiatric signs, computer-analyzed EEG (CEEG) and Dynamic Brain Mapping evaluations were conducted. These patients, who only had micro-neuropsychiatric symptoms, demonstrated CEEG profiles that more closely resemble those of patients diagnosed as suffering from mild dementia than age-related normals from our CEEG data base. The CEEGs of patients diagnosed as having Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), compared to patients with HIV positive, showed greater similarity in CEEG patterns to severely demented patients than to normal control groups. The findings of this pilot study suggest that CEEG may be useful for early determination of the Central Nervous System's (CNS) involvement with the AIDS virus and monitoring the progress of the illness.

  9. Rituximab as Successful Adjunct Treatment in a Patient With Disseminated Nontuberculous Mycobacterial Infection Due to Acquired Anti–Interferon-γ Autoantibody

    PubMed Central

    Czaja, Christopher A.; Merkel, Patricia A.; Chan, Edward D.; Lenz, Laurel L.; Wolf, Molly L.; Alam, Rafeul; Frankel, Stephen K.; Fischer, Aryeh; Gogate, Shaila; Perez-Velez, Carlos M.; Knight, Vijaya

    2014-01-01

    An acquired immune deficiency due to interferon gamma (IFN-γ) autoantibodies was diagnosed in a 78-year-old Japanese man with treatment-refractory disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. In addition to standard antimycobacterial therapy, he was successfully treated with rituximab to eliminate B cells and thereby the autoantibody. Subsequently, he obtained a sustained remission from infection. PMID:24336756

  10. Complement deficiency states and infection: epidemiology, pathogenesis and consequences of neisserial and other infections in an immune deficiency.

    PubMed

    Ross, S C; Densen, P

    1984-09-01

    Inherited deficiencies of the complement proteins are rare in unselected populations. Examination of patients with the clinical correlates of complement deficiency (autoimmune disease and certain bacterial infections) shows the frequency of inherited complement deficiency to rise enormously (5.9% of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus, 10 to 25% of adults with sporadic meningococcal disease). Autoimmune diseases of all types, but especially systemic lupus erythematosus, discoid lupus and glomerulonephritis, are seen in all categories of complement deficiency, most typically in those of the early classical pathway (C1, C4, C2). Pneumococcal infections are characteristic of deficiencies of the early classical pathway, as well. Deficiencies of C3 are associated with severe disease including autoimmune phenomena, pneumococcal and neisserial infections. C3-deficient patients become ill substantially earlier in life. Infections with N. meningitidis and N. gonorrhoeae are most typical of the late component deficiencies, with over 40% of homozygotes affected. Despite the presence of this deficiency from birth and the peak age-specific incidence of meningococcal disease in the general population at ages 3-8 months, the median age of first infection in the late component-deficient patients is 17 years. Relapse of infection is ten times more common in these patients, and discrete recurrences are seen in 45% of affected individuals. An unusual and unexplained predilection for infection with serogroup Y N. meningitidis exists. Despite an immune deficiency, and problems with ascertainment bias, it appears that persons with late component complement deficiency enjoy less mortality than normals who contract meningococcal disease. Attempts to explain the pathogenesis of neisserial infection in late component deficiencies have focused on the concept that normally non-pathogenic serum-sensitive bacteria are etiologic in the absence of serum bactericidal activity. Data to

  11. Successful recovery of MERS CoV pneumonia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shalhoub, Sarah; AlZahrani, Abdulwahab; Simhairi, Raed; Mushtaq, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS CoV) may cause severe pneumonia with significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with multiple comorbid condition. MERS CoV pneumonia has not been previously reported in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Herein, we report a case of MERS CoV pneumonia with a successful outcome in a patient recently diagnosed with HIV.

  12. Avian influenza: potential impact on sub-Saharan military populations with high rates of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Robert L; Nickell, Kent

    2007-07-01

    Several sub-Saharan militaries have large percentages of troops with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With the arrival of avian influenza in Africa, the potential exists that some of those soldiers might also become infected with H5N1, the virus responsible for the disease. Two possible scenarios have been postulated regarding how such a coinfection of HIV and H5N1 might present. (1) Soldiers already weakened by HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome rapidly succumb to H5N1. The cause of death is a "cytokine storm," essentially a runaway inflammatory response. (2) The weakened immune system prevents the cytokine storm from occurring; however, H5N1 is still present, replicating, and being shed, leading to the infection of others. A cytokine storm is particularly dangerous for individuals of military age, as evidenced by the large number of soldiers who died during the 1918 influenza epidemic. If large numbers of sub-Saharan soldiers suffer a similar fate from avian influenza, then military and political instability could develop.

  13. Acquired somatic ATRX mutations in myelodysplastic syndrome associated with alpha thalassemia (ATMDS) convey a more severe hematologic phenotype than germline ATRX mutations.

    PubMed

    Steensma, David P; Higgs, Douglas R; Fisher, Chris A; Gibbons, Richard J

    2004-03-15

    Acquired somatic mutations in ATRX, an X-linked gene encoding a chromatin-associated protein, were recently identified in 4 patients with the rare subtype of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) associated with thalassemia (ATMDS). Here we describe a series of novel point mutations in ATRX detected in archival DNA samples from marrow and/or blood of patients with ATMDS by use of denaturing high-performance liquid chromatography (DHPLC), a technique sensitive to low-level mosaicism. Two of the new mutations result in changes in amino acids altered in previously described pedigrees with germ line ATRX mutations (ATR-X syndrome), but the hematologic abnormalities were much more severe in the patients with ATMDS than in the corresponding constitutional cases. In one ATMDS case where DNA samples from several time points were available, the proportion of ATRX-mutant subclones correlated with changes in the amount of hemoglobin H. This study strengthens the link between acquired, somatic ATRX mutations and ATMDS, illustrates how molecular defects associated with MDS and other hematologic malignancies masked by somatic mosaicism may be detected by DHPLC, and shows that additional factors increase the severity of the hematologic phenotype of ATRX mutations in ATMDS.

  14. Attitudes of Baccalaureate Nursing Students toward Persons with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome According to Mode of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Andrea M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Nursing students (n=236) completed the AIDS Knowledge Scale and AIDS Attitude Scale. Results showed most stigma attached to AIDS acquired through drug use or sexual contact, the least through maternal transmission or blood transfusion. Demographic characteristics did not influence attitudes. (SK)

  15. Factors Associated with Student Nurses' Intent to Provide Physical and Psychosocial Care to Persons with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Frank L.

    1996-01-01

    Responses from 125 of 290 nursing undergraduates indicated their attitudes ranged from most to least positive regarding people with AIDS acquired through blood transfusion, heterosexual activity, homosexual activity, and needle sharing. Homophobia, fear of AIDS, and perceived susceptibility were inversely related with intention to care for AIDS…

  16. Early-onset acquired epileptic aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome, LKS) and regressive autistic disorders with epileptic EEG abnormalities: the continuing debate.

    PubMed

    Deonna, Thierry; Roulet-Perez, Eliane

    2010-10-01

    Early-onset acquired epileptic aphasia (Landau-Kleffner syndrome) may present as a developmental language disturbance and the affected child may also exhibit autistic features. Landau-Kleffner is now seen as the rare and severe end of a spectrum of cognitive-behavioural symptoms that can be seen in idiopathic (genetic) focal epilepsies of childhood, the benign end being the more frequent typical rolandic epilepsy. Several recent studies show that many children with rolandic epilepsy have minor developmental cognitive and behavioural problems and that some undergo a deterioration (usually temporary) in these domains, the so-called "atypical" forms of the syndrome. The severity and type of deterioration correlate with the site and spread of the epileptic spikes recorded on the electroencephalogram within the perisylvian region, and continuous spike-waves during sleep (CSWS) frequently occur during this period of the epileptic disorder. Some of these children have more severe preexisting communicative and language developmental disorders. If early stagnation or regression occurs in these domains, it presumably reflects epileptic activity in networks outside the perisylvian area, i.e. those involved in social cognition and emotions. Longitudinal studies will be necessary to find out if and how much the bioelectrical abnormalities play a causal role in these subgroup of children with both various degrees of language and autistic regression and features of idiopathic focal epilepsy. One has to remember that it took nearly 40 years to fully acknowledge the epileptic origin of aphasia in Landau-Kleffner syndrome and the milder acquired cognitive problems in rolandic epilepsies.

  17. In silico screening of the impact of hERG channel kinetic abnormalities on channel block and susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Lucia; Trenor, Beatriz; Yang, Pei-Chi; Saiz, Javier; Clancy, Colleen E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of predisposition to long QT syndrome is crucial for reducing the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. In recent years, drug-induced provocative tests have proved useful to unmask some latent mutations linked to cardiac arrhythmias. In this study we expanded this concept by developing a prototype for a computational provocative screening test to reveal genetic predisposition to acquired long-QT syndrome (aLQTS). We developed a computational approach to reveal the pharmacological properties of IKr blocking drugs that are most likely to cause aLQTS in the setting of subtle alterations in IKr channel gating that would be expected to result from benign genetic variants. We used the model to predict the most potentially lethal combinations of kinetic anomalies and drug properties. In doing so, we also implicitly predicted ideal inverse therapeutic properties of K channel openers that would be expected to remedy a specific defect. We systematically performed “in silico mutagenesis” by altering discrete kinetic transition rates of the Fink et al. Markov model of human IKr channels, corresponding to activation, inactivation, deactivation and recovery from inactivation of IKr channels. We then screened and identified the properties of IKr blockers that caused acquired long QT and therefore unmasked mutant phenotypes for mild, moderate and severe variants. Mutant IKr channels were incorporated into the O'Hara et al. human ventricular action potential (AP) model and subjected to simulated application of a wide variety of IKr–drug interactions in order to identify the characteristics that selectively exacerbate the AP duration (APD) differences between wild-type and IKr mutated cells. Our results show that drugs with disparate affinities to conformation states of the IKr channel are key to amplify variants underlying susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome, an effect that is especially pronounced at slow frequencies. Finally, we developed a mathematical

  18. In silico screening of the impact of hERG channel kinetic abnormalities on channel block and susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Lucia; Trenor, Beatriz; Yang, Pei-Chi; Saiz, Javier; Clancy, Colleen E.

    2014-01-01

    Accurate diagnosis of predisposition to long QT syndrome is crucial for reducing the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. In recent years, drug-induced provocative tests have proved useful to unmask some latent mutations linked to cardiac arrhythmias. In this study we expanded this concept by developing a prototype for a computational provocative screening test to reveal genetic predisposition to acquired Long-QT Syndrome (aLTQS). We developed a computational approach to reveal the pharmacological properties of IKr blocking drugs that are most likely to cause aLQTS in the setting of subtle alterations in IKr channel gating that would be expected to result from benign genetic variants. We used the model to predict the most potentially lethal combinations of kinetic anomalies and drug properties. In doing so, we also implicitly predicted ideal inverse therapeutic properties of K channel openers that would be expected to remedy a specific defect. We systematically performed “in silico mutagenesis” by altering discrete kinetic transition rates of the Fink et al. Markov model of human IKr channels, corresponding to activation, inactivation, deactivation and recovery from inactivation of IKr channels. We then screened and identified the properties of IKr blockers that caused acquired Long QT and therefore unmasked mutant phenotypes for mild, moderate and severe variants. Mutant IKr channels were incorporated into the O’Hara et al. human ventricular action potential (AP) model and subjected to simulated application of a wide variety of IKr-drug interactions in order to identify the characteristics that selectively exacerbate the AP duration (APD) differences between wild-type and IKr mutated cells. Our results show that drugs with disparate affinities to conformation states of the IKr channel are key to amplify variants underlying susceptibility to acquired Long QT Syndrome, an effect that is especially pronounced at slow frequencies. Finally, we developed a mathematical

  19. In silico screening of the impact of hERG channel kinetic abnormalities on channel block and susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Romero, Lucia; Trenor, Beatriz; Yang, Pei-Chi; Saiz, Javier; Clancy, Colleen E

    2014-07-01

    Accurate diagnosis of predisposition to long QT syndrome is crucial for reducing the risk of cardiac arrhythmias. In recent years, drug-induced provocative tests have proved useful to unmask some latent mutations linked to cardiac arrhythmias. In this study we expanded this concept by developing a prototype for a computational provocative screening test to reveal genetic predisposition to acquired long-QT syndrome (aLQTS). We developed a computational approach to reveal the pharmacological properties of IKr blocking drugs that are most likely to cause aLQTS in the setting of subtle alterations in IKr channel gating that would be expected to result from benign genetic variants. We used the model to predict the most potentially lethal combinations of kinetic anomalies and drug properties. In doing so, we also implicitly predicted ideal inverse therapeutic properties of K channel openers that would be expected to remedy a specific defect. We systematically performed "in silico mutagenesis" by altering discrete kinetic transition rates of the Fink et al. Markov model of human IKr channels, corresponding to activation, inactivation, deactivation and recovery from inactivation of IKr channels. We then screened and identified the properties of IKr blockers that caused acquired long QT and therefore unmasked mutant phenotypes for mild, moderate and severe variants. Mutant IKr channels were incorporated into the O'Hara et al. human ventricular action potential (AP) model and subjected to simulated application of a wide variety of IKr-drug interactions in order to identify the characteristics that selectively exacerbate the AP duration (APD) differences between wild-type and IKr mutated cells. Our results show that drugs with disparate affinities to conformation states of the IKr channel are key to amplify variants underlying susceptibility to acquired long QT syndrome, an effect that is especially pronounced at slow frequencies. Finally, we developed a mathematical

  20. Emergence of resistance to fluconazole as a cause of failure during treatment of histoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency disease syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wheat, L J; Connolly, P; Smedema, M; Brizendine, E; Hafner, R

    2001-12-01

    In sequential clinical trials of treatment for histoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, therapy with fluconazole failed in a higher proportion of patients than did therapy with itraconazole. To determine the cause for failure with fluconazole, antifungal susceptibility testing that used modified National Committee on Clinical Laboratory Standards procedures was performed on all baseline and failure isolates. Failure occurred more frequently in patients with baseline isolates with fluconazole minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) > or =5 microg/mL versus lower MICs; 29% versus 3%, respectively. There was at least a 4-fold increase in fluconazole MIC in the isolates from 10 (59%) of 17 patients for whom paired pretreatment and failure or relapse isolates were available. Cross-resistance to itraconazole was not seen. In conclusion, fluconazole is less active than itraconazole for Histoplasma capsulatum and induces resistance during therapy, which accounted for treatment failure in some patients.

  1. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome in a case of polycythemia vera resulting in recurrent and massive bleeding events in the pleural and abdominal cavity.

    PubMed

    Duan, Yanchao; Nie, Jing; Zhang, Zhirong; Ji, Chunyan

    2015-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital three times in a span of 5 years in hypovolemic shock because of spontaneous and massive bleeding in the pleural and abdominal cavity. Blood tests revealed a high number of blood cells, and bone marrow smears showed trilineage myeloproliferation. Serum erythropoietin level was decreased. Analysis revealed a V617F mutation in the JAK2 protein. Her activated partial thromboplastin time was slightly prolonged, the ratio between von Willebrand factor (vWF) propeptide and vWF antigen was in the normal range, but the ratio between vWF and ristocetin cofactor was decreased dramatically. Further investigation revealed the absence of large and intermediate vWF-multimers. She was diagnosed with polycythemia vera with acquired von Willebrand syndrome. The bleeding was stopped using a transfusion of freshly thawed plasma and cryoprecipitate.

  2. Small-intestine pneumocystis jiroveci pseudotumor as an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-presenting illness: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Shetty, Jayarama; Pins, Michael R

    2012-09-01

    A Pneumocystis jiroveci infection-associated mass clinically mimicking a malignancy (ie, pseudotumor) is rare and usually occurs in the lung in association with Pneumocystis pneumonia. Pneumocystis jiroveci pseudotumors of the small intestine are extremely rare and represent an unusual form of disseminated P jiroveci infection. We present a case of small-intestine P jiroveci pseudotumor as an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-presenting illness in a patient with coinfection with cytomegalovirus, no pulmonary symptoms, and no known risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus infection. This case reinforces the potential importance of cytomegalovirus coinfection in the disseminated form of Pneumocystis infection and illustrates the importance of an expanded differential diagnosis when confronted with a clinically atypical mass lesion.

  3. Disguising the taste of antiretrovirals for pediatric patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: creative flavor compounding and techniques, part 2.

    PubMed

    Horace, Alexis E; Akbarian-Tefagh, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    Adherence to antiretrovirals for pediatric patients is challenging for a variety of reasons, many of which are quite obvious. The medication's taste and texture may contribute to a child's resistance to following their regimen. To make the problem of compliance even more complex, there are fewer pediatric-friendly formulations available and fewer alternative options for antiretrovirals when compared to formulations and alternatives available to adults. For the sake of compliance, it is vital that parents and/or caregivers be offered innovative ways to disguise the taste of antiretrovirals for pediatric patients infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Compounding pharmacists can play an important role in finding answers to this situation. This article provides an in-depth discussion on some of the specific flavoring and taste-masking options that are available in the effort to increase adherence in the pediatric patient population.

  4. Sensitivity and specificity of Ga-67 pulmonary scans for the detection of p. carinii pneumonitis in patients with the acquired immunodefficiency syndrome and pulmonary symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Hattner, R.S.; Sollitto, R.A.; Golden, J.A.; Coleman, D.L.; Okerlund, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a severe disorder of cellular immunity of obscure etiology. Since its original recognition in 1981 the incidence of AIDS has doubled in each of the succeeding six months. The most common causes of death in AIDS are Kaposi's sarcoma and p. carinii pneumonia (PCP). The latter is treatable if diagnosed early, and AIDS patients (pts) may suffer recurrent episodes of PCP. Since the invasive technique of fiberoptic bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy, brushing, and bronchialveolar lavage are necessary for diagnosis and follow-up a noninvasive method of categorizing which AIDS pts require this procedure would be most welcome. Twenty-one pts with the syndrome of AIDS and pulmonary symptoms underwent Ga-67 scans of the thoracic region, and fibroptic bronchoscopy with washings, and brush and transbronchial biopsy. Pulmonary activity was graded in a blinded fashion by three experienced observers as follows: 1, less than, or equal to adjacent soft tissues; 2, greater than adjacent soft tissues, but less than liver; 3, equal to liver; 4, greater than liver. Eleven pts had documented PCP, and the remaining ten had non-specific pulmonary inflammation, or other, in some cases, putative, infections. The sensitivity and specificity of Ga-67 scans greater than or equal to grade 3 was 100% and 90% respectively. These results suggests a useful role for graded Ga-67 scans in AIDS pts with pulmonary symptoms, permitting selection of pts with a high risk of PCP for further mandatory invasive investigation of this otherwise usually fatal disease.

  5. Acute respiratory distress syndrome complicating community-acquired pneumonia secondary to mycobacterium tuberculosis in a tertiary care center in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoud, Ebrahim S.; Baharoon, Salim A.; Alsafi, Eiman; Al-Jahdali, Hamdan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To discuss our center’s experience with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) secondary to pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) in a major tertiary referral hospital in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. Methods: A retrospective review of medical records of all patients with community-acquired pneumonia secondary to mycobacterium TB infection who were admitted for critical care in a single center of King Abdulaziz Medical City, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia from 2004 to 2013. Results: In our review of 350 patients with community-acquired pneumonia admitted to Intensive Care Unit, 11 cases of TB complicated with ARDS were identified. The mean age of patients was 51.9 years. The median time from hospital admission to pulmonary TB diagnosis and start of therapy was 5 days, while the median time from onset of symptoms to initiation of treatment was 18 days. The mortality rate was 64%, and the median length of hospital stay before death was 21.4 days. Delayed treatment, as well as high acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II and CURB-65 scores at presentation, were independent risk factors for death. Conclusion: Patients with pulmonary TB infrequently present to intensive care with acute symptoms that meet all criteria for ARDS. Such a presentation of TB carries a high mortality risk. PMID:27570853

  6. [Pathology of the internal organs and central nervous system in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (with special reference to opportunistic infections)].

    PubMed

    Masini, T; Chinaglia, D; Riviera, L; Capricci, E; Gullotta, F; Spigolon, G; Bauer, A L

    1990-01-01

    Extracerebral and cerebral pathology in AIDS (with particular emphasis on the opportunistic infections). The Authors present the extracerebral pathology of 27 cases of AIDS observed at the Department of Pathology of Milan and the cerebral pathology of 80 cases of AIDS collected by three Institutes (Department of Pathology of Milan, Department of Pathology of Rimini and Department of Neuropathology of Münster) with particular emphasis on the pathology of the opportunistic infections. In the adults' group, the most frequent infections are the protozoan ones (T. gondii) followed with equal incidence by the viral and fungal diseases. In the pediatric group the viral diseases are the most frequently seen. Almost all of the adults show multiple infections in the same organ or in different organs. Diffuse lesions with heavy pathologic fields were observed also without tissue reaction. As to cerebral pathology AIDS' patients with opportunistic infections show focal symptoms, whereas the so called "subacute microglial encephalitis" generally appears as a demential syndrome. In cases with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy JC virus was always found and in one case also SV 40 - and BK virus. The diffuse demyelinization in some cases of HIV-Encephalopathy is aspecific. In HIV-positive newborns with cerebral signs, the lesions are characterized by oedema, spongiosis and microcalcifications of the basal ganglia; these are aspecific lesions which can be found in toxic and infectious encephalopathies.

  7. Animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus: Human relevance of acquired beyond hereditary syndromes and the role of oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Antonio; Mahía, Javier; Puerto, Amadeo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review different animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus, a neurobiological syndrome characterized by the excretion of copious amounts of diluted urine (polyuria), a consequent water intake (polydipsia), and a rise in the serum sodium concentration (hypernatremia). In rodents, Central Diabetes Insipidus can be caused by genetic disorders (Brattleboro rats) but also by various traumatic/surgical interventions, including neurohypophysectomy, pituitary stalk compression, hypophysectomy, and median eminence lesions. Regardless of its etiology, Central Diabetes Insipidus affects the neuroendocrine system that secretes arginine vasopressin, a neurohormone responsible for antidiuretic functions that acts trough the renal system. However, most Central Diabetes Insipidus models also show disorders in other neurobiological systems, specifically in the secretion of oxytocin, a neurohormone involved in body sodium excretion. Although the hydromineral behaviors shown by the different Central Diabetes Insipidus models have usually been considered as very similar, the present review highlights relevant differences with respect to these behaviors as a function of the individual neurobiological systems affected. Increased understanding of the relationship between the neuroendocrine systems involved and the associated hydromineral behaviors may allow appropriate action to be taken to correct these behavioral neuroendocrine deficits. PMID:27118135

  8. Prevalence and Predictors of Thyroid Dysfunction in Patients with HIV Infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An Indian Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Neera; Sharma, Lokesh Kumar; Dutta, Deep; Gadpayle, Adesh Kisanji; Anand, Atul; Gaurav, Kumar; Mukherjee, Sabyasachi; Bansal, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Background. Predictors of thyroid dysfunction in HIV are not well determined. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of thyroid dysfunction in HIV infected Indians. Methods. Consecutive HIV patients, 18–70 years of age, without any severe comorbid state, having at least 1-year follow-up at the antiretroviral therapy clinic, underwent clinical assessment and hormone assays. Results. From initially screened 527 patients, 359 patients (61.44 ± 39.42 months' disease duration), having good immune function [CD4 count >200 cell/mm3: 90.25%; highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): 88.58%], were analyzed. Subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) was the commonest thyroid dysfunction (14.76%) followed by sick euthyroid syndrome (SES) (5.29%) and isolated low TSH (3.1%). Anti-TPO antibody (TPOAb) was positive in 3.90%. Baseline CD4 count had inverse correlation with TPOAb after adjusting for age and body mass index. Stepwise linear regression revealed baseline CD4 count, TPOAb, and tuberculosis to be best predictors of ScH after adjusting for age, weight, duration of HIV, and history of opportunistic fungal and viral infections. Conclusion. Burden of thyroid dysfunction in chronic HIV infection with stable immune function is lower compared to pre-HAART era. Thyroid dysfunction is primarily of nonautoimmune origin, predominantly ScH. Severe immunodeficiency at disease onset, TPOAb positivity, and tuberculosis were best predictors of ScH. PMID:26798547

  9. Animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus: Human relevance of acquired beyond hereditary syndromes and the role of oxytocin.

    PubMed

    Bernal, Antonio; Mahía, Javier; Puerto, Amadeo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to review different animal models of Central Diabetes Insipidus, a neurobiological syndrome characterized by the excretion of copious amounts of diluted urine (polyuria), a consequent water intake (polydipsia), and a rise in the serum sodium concentration (hypernatremia). In rodents, Central Diabetes Insipidus can be caused by genetic disorders (Brattleboro rats) but also by various traumatic/surgical interventions, including neurohypophysectomy, pituitary stalk compression, hypophysectomy, and median eminence lesions. Regardless of its etiology, Central Diabetes Insipidus affects the neuroendocrine system that secretes arginine vasopressin, a neurohormone responsible for antidiuretic functions that acts trough the renal system. However, most Central Diabetes Insipidus models also show disorders in other neurobiological systems, specifically in the secretion of oxytocin, a neurohormone involved in body sodium excretion. Although the hydromineral behaviors shown by the different Central Diabetes Insipidus models have usually been considered as very similar, the present review highlights relevant differences with respect to these behaviors as a function of the individual neurobiological systems affected. Increased understanding of the relationship between the neuroendocrine systems involved and the associated hydromineral behaviors may allow appropriate action to be taken to correct these behavioral neuroendocrine deficits.

  10. Consensus on context-specific strategies for reducing the stigma of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Zambézia Province, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Mukolo, Abraham; Torres, Isabel; Bechtel, Ruth M.; Sidat, Mohsin; Vergara, Alfredo E.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma has been implicated in poor outcomes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) care. Reducing stigma is important for HIV prevention and long-term treatment success. Although stigma reduction interventions are conducted in Mozambique, little is known about the current nature of stigma and the efficacy and effectiveness of stigma reduction initiatives. We describe action research to generate consensus on critical characteristics of HIV stigma and anti-stigma interventions in Zambézia Province, Mozambique. Qualitative data gathering methods, including indepth key-informant interviews, community interviews and consensus group sessions, were utilized. Delphi methods and the strategic options development analysis technique were used to synthesize qualitative data. Key findings are that stigma enacted by the general public might be declining in tandem with the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mozambique, but there is likely excessive residual fear of HIV disease and community attitudes that sustain high levels of perceived stigma. HIV-positive women accessing maternal and child health services appear to shoulder a disproportionate burden of stigma. Unintentional biases among healthcare providers are currently the critical frontier of stigmatization, but there are few interventions designed to address them. Culturally sensitive psychotherapies are needed to address psychological distress associated with internalized stigma and these interventions should complement current supports for voluntary counseling and testing. While advantageous for defining stakeholder priorities for stigma reduction efforts, confirmatory quantitative studies of these consensus positions are needed before the launch of specific interventions. PMID:24527744

  11. Immunophenotypic characterization of the cutaneous exanthem of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys. Apposition of degenerative Langerhans cells and cytotoxic lymphocytes during the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Ringler, D. J.; Hancock, W. W.; King, N. W.; Letvin, N. L.; Daniel, M. D.; Desrosiers, R. C.; Murphy, G. F.

    1987-01-01

    A T-cell tropic retrovirus, simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), has recently been isolated from immunodeficient rhesus monkeys. This virus has remarkable similarities to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the etiologic agent of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Subsequent studies of simian infection with SIV have shown it to be a relevant animal model for studying the pathogenesis of AIDS in man. In both HIV-infected humans and SIV-infected monkeys, a cutaneous maculopapular eruption has been described. To date, the pathogenesis and possible relationship of these exanthema to the evolution of systemic immunosuppression have remained obscure. In this study, the mononuclear cell infiltrates that characterize skin rashes of SIV-infected rhesus monkeys were found to be composed predominantly of cells with phenotypic characteristics of cytotoxic/suppressor (T8+) lymphocytes and natural killer cells. Many of these cells expressed membrane-bound interleukin-2 receptor molecules. Double labeling and immunoelectron microscopy revealed these cells in direct contact with degenerative Langerhans cells within the epidermis and dermis. These observations suggest that the cutaneous rash associated with SIV infection may be the consequence of target cell injury of Langerhans cells by effector cells with cytotoxic potential. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:3030113

  12. Sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) - a review and proposed strategies toward a better understanding of pathogenesis, early diagnosis, and therapy.

    PubMed

    Komáromy, András M; Abrams, Kenneth L; Heckenlively, John R; Lundy, Steven K; Maggs, David J; Leeth, Caroline M; MohanKumar, Puliyur S; Petersen-Jones, Simon M; Serreze, David V; van der Woerdt, Alexandra

    2016-07-01

    Sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) is one of the leading causes of currently incurable canine vision loss diagnosed by veterinary ophthalmologists. The disease is characterized by acute onset of blindness due to loss of photoreceptor function, extinguished electroretinogram with an initially normal appearing ocular fundus, and mydriatic pupils which are slowly responsive to bright white light, unresponsive to red, but responsive to blue light stimulation. In addition to blindness, the majority of affected dogs also show systemic abnormalities suggestive of hyperadrenocorticism, such as polyphagia with resulting obesity, polyuria, polydipsia, and a subclinical hepatopathy. The pathogenesis of SARDS is unknown, but neuroendocrine and autoimmune mechanisms have been suggested. Therapies that target these disease pathways have been proposed to reverse or prevent further vision loss in SARDS-affected dogs, but these treatments are controversial. In November 2014, the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists' Vision for Animals Foundation organized and funded a Think Tank to review the current knowledge and recently proposed ideas about disease mechanisms and treatment of SARDS. These panel discussions resulted in recommendations for future research strategies toward a better understanding of pathogenesis, early diagnosis, and potential therapy for this condition.

  13. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated lymphomas are efficiently lysed through complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity by rituximab.

    PubMed

    Golay, Joseè; Gramigna, Rosanna; Facchinetti, Valeria; Capello, Daniela; Gaidano, Gianluca; Introna, Martino

    2002-12-01

    Rituximab (Mabthera) and alemtuzumab (Campath(R), Mabcampath(R)) are non-conjugated IgG1 therapeutic monoclonal antibodies directed against the CD20 and CD52 surface antigens respectively. They are presently used in the therapy of indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (B-NHL) and of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia, and are thought to act mainly through complement-dependent cytotoxicity (CDC) and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC). Here we have analysed the capacity of these two monoclonal antibodies to lyse cell lines of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related B-NHL through either complement activation or antibody-dependent cytotoxicity. Rituximab strongly activated both CDC and ADCC against CD20-positive AIDS-NHL cells lines, inducing up to 60-98% and 20% specific lysis respectively. In contrast, alemtuzumab was a poor activator of CDC, even in the AIDS-NHL cell lines expressing high amounts of CD52, leading to a lysis of only 1-30%, whereas it was at least as strong as rituximab in inducing ADCC of the same lines (up to 30% specific lysis). Altogether, these data offer a first in vitro rationale supporting the therapeutic use of rituximab for CD20-positive AIDS-NHL.

  14. Intersection of Smoking, Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Cancer: Proceedings of the 8th Annual Texas Conference on Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Rajendiran, Smrithi; Kashyap, Meghana V.; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K.

    2013-01-01

    The Texas Center for Health Disparities, a National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Center of Excellence, presents an annual conference to discuss prevention, awareness education and ongoing research about health disparities both in Texas and among the national population. The 2013 Texas Conference on Health Disparities brought together experts, in research, patient care and community outreach, on the “Intersection of Smoking, Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and Cancer”. Smoking, HIV/AIDS and cancer are three individual areas of public health concern, each with its own set of disparities and risk factors based on race, ethnicity, gender, geography and socio-economic status. Disparities among patient populations, in which these issues are found to be comorbid, provide valuable information on goals for patient care. The conference consisted of three sessions addressing “Comorbidities and Treatment”, “Public Health Perspectives”, and “Best Practices”. This article summarizes the basic science, clinical correlates and public health data presented by the speakers. PMID:24227993

  15. Sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) - a review and proposed strategies toward a better understanding of pathogenesis, early diagnosis, and therapy.

    PubMed

    Komáromy, András M; Abrams, Kenneth L; Heckenlively, John R; Lundy, Steven K; Maggs, David J; Leeth, Caroline M; MohanKumar, Puliyur S; Petersen-Jones, Simon M; Serreze, David V; van der Woerdt, Alexandra

    2016-07-01

    Sudden acquired retinal degeneration syndrome (SARDS) is one of the leading causes of currently incurable canine vision loss diagnosed by veterinary ophthalmologists. The disease is characterized by acute onset of blindness due to loss of photoreceptor function, extinguished electroretinogram with an initially normal appearing ocular fundus, and mydriatic pupils which are slowly responsive to bright white light, unresponsive to red, but responsive to blue light stimulation. In addition to blindness, the majority of affected dogs also show systemic abnormalities suggestive of hyperadrenocorticism, such as polyphagia with resulting obesity, polyuria, polydipsia, and a subclinical hepatopathy. The pathogenesis of SARDS is unknown, but neuroendocrine and autoimmune mechanisms have been suggested. Therapies that target these disease pathways have been proposed to reverse or prevent further vision loss in SARDS-affected dogs, but these treatments are controversial. In November 2014, the American College of Veterinary Ophthalmologists' Vision for Animals Foundation organized and funded a Think Tank to review the current knowledge and recently proposed ideas about disease mechanisms and treatment of SARDS. These panel discussions resulted in recommendations for future research strategies toward a better understanding of pathogenesis, early diagnosis, and potential therapy for this condition. PMID:26096588

  16. [A case of non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining lung adenocarcinoma in a multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient].

    PubMed

    Mori, Naoyoshi; Maeda, Hikaru; Fujiwara, Kentarou; Taniguchi, Haruki

    2013-10-01

    We report a case of non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining lung adenocarcinoma in a multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patient. The patient was a 47-year-old Japanese woman who received salvage combination anti-retroviral therapy with darunavir plus ritonavir plus raltegravir plus tenofovir/emtricitabine in May 2009. She was diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma (T3N3M1, stage IV) in November 2010 and was not found to possess any activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene. Therefore, 6 courses of carboplatin plus pemetrexed and 3 courses of gemcitabine followed by erlotinib were administrated, and therapy was changed to home medical care. The only drug-related adverse event was grade 1 neutropenia, and drug interaction between the simultaneously administered anti-retroviral and chemotherapeutic agents was not confirmed. The patient battled lung adenocarcinoma for 1 year after the diagnosis and died of cancer progression in October 2011. Her performance status was stable and the CD4 (+) lymphocyte count and HIV load were well controlled throughout the course of treatment. In conclusion, the agents used for this patient show high tolerability and can be used as an effective treatment strategy for lung cancer occurring in HIV-positive patients.

  17. Escitalopram treatment of depression in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Hoare, Jacqueline; Carey, Paul; Joska, John A; Carrara, Henri; Sorsdahl, Katherine; Stein, Dan J

    2014-02-01

    Depression can be a chronic and impairing illness in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Large randomized studies of newer selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as escitalopram in the treatment of depression in HIV, examining comparative treatment efficacy and safety, have yet to be done in HIV-positive patients. This was a fixed-dose, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study to investigate the efficacy of escitalopram in HIV-seropositive subjects with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, major depressive disorder. One hundred two participants were randomly assigned to either 10 mg of escitalopram or placebo for 6 weeks. An analysis of covariance of the completers found that there was no advantage for escitalopram over placebo on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (p = 0.93). Sixty-two percent responded to escitalopram and 59% responded to placebo on the Clinical Global Impression Scale. Given the relatively high placebo response, future trials in this area need to be selective in participant recruitment and to be adequately powered.

  18. Consensus on context-specific strategies for reducing the stigma of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Zambézia Province, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Mukolo, Abraham; Torres, Isabel; Bechtel, Ruth M; Sidat, Mohsin; Vergara, Alfredo E

    2013-01-01

    Stigma has been implicated in poor outcomes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) care. Reducing stigma is important for HIV prevention and long-term treatment success. Although stigma reduction interventions are conducted in Mozambique, little is known about the current nature of stigma and the efficacy and effectiveness of stigma reduction initiatives. We describe action research to generate consensus on critical characteristics of HIV stigma and anti-stigma interventions in Zambézia Province, Mozambique. Qualitative data gathering methods, including in-depth key-informant interviews, community interviews and consensus group sessions, were utilized. Delphi methods and the strategic options development analysis technique were used to synthesize qualitative data. Key findings are that stigma enacted by the general public might be declining in tandem with the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mozambique, but there is likely excessive residual fear of HIV disease and community attitudes that sustain high levels of perceived stigma. HIV-positive women accessing maternal and child health services appear to shoulder a disproportionate burden of stigma. Unintentional biases among healthcare providers are currently the critical frontier of stigmatization, but there are few interventions designed to address them. Culturally sensitive psychotherapies are needed to address psychological distress associated with internalized stigma and these interventions should complement current supports for voluntary counseling and testing. While advantageous for defining stakeholder priorities for stigma reduction efforts, confirmatory quantitative studies of these consensus positions are needed before the launch of specific interventions.

  19. A controlled study of funding for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as resource capacity building in the health system in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Donald S; Zeng, Wu; Amico, Peter; Rwiyereka, Angelique K; Avila-Figueroa, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    Because human inmmunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) receives more donor funding globally than that for all other diseases combined, some critics allege this support undermines general health care. This empirical study evaluates the impact of HIV/AIDS funding on the primary health care system in Rwanda. Using a quasi-experimental design, we randomly selected 25 rural health centers (HCs) that started comprehensive HIV/AIDS services from 2002 through 2006 as the intervention group. Matched HCs with no HIV/AIDS services formed the control group. The analysis compared growth in inputs and services between intervention and control HCs with a difference-in-difference analysis in a random-effects model. Intervention HCs performed better than control HCs in most services (seven of nine), although only one of these improvements (Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination) reached or approached statistical significance. In conclusion, this six-year controlled study found no adverse effects of the expansion of HIV/AIDS services on non-HIV services among rural health centers in Rwanda.

  20. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a spatio-temporal analysis of cases reported in the period 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Alves, André T J; Nobre, Flávio F

    2014-05-01

    Despite increased funding for research on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), neither vaccine nor cure is yet in sight. Surveillance and prevention are essential for disease intervention, and it is recognised that spatio-temporal analysis of AIDS cases can assist the decision-making process for control of the disease. This study investigated the dynamic, spatial distribution of notified AIDS cases in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2001 and 2010, based on the annual incidence in each municipality. Sequential choropleth maps were developed and used to analyse the incidence distribution and Moran's I spatial autocorrelation statistics was applied for characterisation of the spatio-temporal distribution pattern. A significant, positive spatial autocorrelation of AIDS incidence was observed indicating that municipalities with high incidence are likely to be close to other municipalities with similarly high incidence and, conversely, municipalities with low incidence are likely to be surrounded by municipalities with low incidence. Two clusters were identified; one hotspot related to the State Capital and the other with low to intermediate AIDS incidence comprising municipalities in the north-eastern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro.

  1. Clonal analysis of T lymphocytes in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Evidence for an abnormality affecting individual helper and suppressor T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Margolick, J B; Volkman, D J; Lane, H C; Fauci, A S

    1985-01-01

    Purified helper-inducer (T4+) and suppressor-cytotoxic (T8+) lymphocytes from eight patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and eight healthy heterosexual donors were examined by limiting dilution analysis for their ability to be clonally expanded. It was demonstrated that viable T4+ and T8+ lymphocytes from patients with AIDS had markedly reduced proportions of clonable cells compared to the healthy donors (T4 = 1:255 vs. 1:34, P = 0.06; T8 = 1:355 vs. 1:55, P = 0.01). However, the cloned T cells that were obtained from the patients with AIDS demonstrated normal proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin and alloantigen, and normal ability to help or suppress pokeweed mitogen-driven IgG synthesis. These results strongly suggest that, in addition to a quantitative diminution of T4+ lymphocytes in AIDS, there is an intrinsic functional defect in the surviving T4+ and T8+ lymphocytes, which is reflected by a severe decrease in their potential for clonal expansion. PMID:3161909

  2. Recursion-based depletion of human immunodeficiency virus-specific naive CD4(+) T cells may facilitate persistent viral replication and chronic viraemia leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Okada, Seiji; Matano, Tetsuro

    2016-09-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy has made human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection a controllable disease, it is still unclear how viral replication persists in untreated patients and causes CD4(+) T-cell depletion leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in several years. Theorists tried to explain it with the diversity threshold theory in which accumulated mutations in the HIV genome make the virus so diverse that the immune system will no longer be able to recognize all the variants and fail to control the viraemia. Although the theory could apply to a number of cases, macaque AIDS models using simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have shown that failed viral control at the set point is not always associated with T-cell escape mutations. Moreover, even monkeys without a protective major histocompatibility complex (MHC) allele can contain replication of a super infected SIV following immunization with a live-attenuated SIV vaccine, while those animals are not capable of fighting primary SIV infection. Here we propose a recursion-based virus-specific naive CD4(+) T-cell depletion hypothesis through thinking on what may happen in individuals experiencing primary immunodeficiency virus infection. This could explain the mechanism for impairment of virus-specific immune response in the course of HIV infection.

  3. Recursion-based depletion of human immunodeficiency virus-specific naive CD4(+) T cells may facilitate persistent viral replication and chronic viraemia leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Okada, Seiji; Matano, Tetsuro

    2016-09-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy has made human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection a controllable disease, it is still unclear how viral replication persists in untreated patients and causes CD4(+) T-cell depletion leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in several years. Theorists tried to explain it with the diversity threshold theory in which accumulated mutations in the HIV genome make the virus so diverse that the immune system will no longer be able to recognize all the variants and fail to control the viraemia. Although the theory could apply to a number of cases, macaque AIDS models using simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have shown that failed viral control at the set point is not always associated with T-cell escape mutations. Moreover, even monkeys without a protective major histocompatibility complex (MHC) allele can contain replication of a super infected SIV following immunization with a live-attenuated SIV vaccine, while those animals are not capable of fighting primary SIV infection. Here we propose a recursion-based virus-specific naive CD4(+) T-cell depletion hypothesis through thinking on what may happen in individuals experiencing primary immunodeficiency virus infection. This could explain the mechanism for impairment of virus-specific immune response in the course of HIV infection. PMID:27515208

  4. UbcD4, an ortholog of E2-25K/Ube2K, is essential for activation of the immune deficiency pathway in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Park, Eun Sil; Elangovan, Muthukumar; Kim, Young-Joon; Yoo, Yung Joon

    2016-01-22

    Ubiquitination is a key regulatory mechanism in the immune deficiency (IMD) pathway in Drosophila. In this study, we first developed a simple immunoblot method to identify components involved in this pathway. Considering the emerging roles of ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) in determining ubiquitin chain types and ubiquitination speed, we screened for E2s required for IMD activation. We found that UbcD4, in addition to the previously reported E2s Effete and Bendless, was required for activation of the IMD pathway. RNAi-mediated knockdown of the UbcD4 ortholog, E2-25K/Ube2K, inhibited TNFα- and LPS-mediated activation of the NF-κB pathway, implying that UbcD4 and E2-25K/Ube2K play a conserved role as positive regulators in both pathways. PMID:26707646

  5. T-cell receptor gene therapy in human melanoma-bearing immune-deficient mice: human but not mouse T cells recapitulate outcome of clinical studies.

    PubMed

    Straetemans, Trudy; Coccoris, Miriam; Berrevoets, Cor; Treffers-Westerlaken, Elike; Scholten, Csilla E V; Schipper, Debby; Ten Hagen, Timo L M; Debets, Reno

    2012-02-01

    Adoptive cell therapy using T-cell receptor (TCR)-engineered T cells is a clinically feasible and promising approach to target tumors, but is currently faced with compromised antitumor efficacies in patients. Here, we extensively validated immune-deficient mice to facilitate further development of the therapeutic potential of TCR-engineered T cells. Treatment of human melanoma-bearing SCID or NSG mice with high doses of human T cells transduced with an hgp100/HLA-A2-specific TCR did not result in antitumor responses irrespective of chemotherapeutic preconditioning. Imaging of human green fluorescent protein-labeled T cells demonstrated significant T-cell accumulation in intratumoral vasculature directly upon T-cell transfer, which was followed by loss of T cells within 72 hr. Peripheral persistence of human T cells was highly compromised and appeared related to T-cell differentiation. On the contrary, adoptive transfer (AT) of relatively low numbers of hgp100/HLA-A2 TCR-transduced mouse T cells resulted in rapid clearance of large established human melanomas. Unexpectedly and in contrast to reported studies with chimeric antibody receptor-engineered T cells, antitumor activity and homeostatic expansion of T cells were independent of TCR transgene as evidenced in two SCID strains and using two different human melanoma cell lines. Interestingly, the xeno-reactive melanoma response of mouse T cells appeared to be dictated by CD4(+) tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes and did not require in vitro T-cell activation, retroviral gene transfer, or subcutaneous interleukin-2 support. Taken together, AT of human but not mouse T cells in human melanoma-bearing immune-deficient mice is in close accordance with clinical studies. PMID:21958294

  6. Computer simulations of the interaction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) aspartic protease with spherical gold nanoparticles: implications in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Whiteley, Chris G; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with human immune-deficiency virus aspartic protease (HIVPR) is modelled using a regime of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations of the 'docking', first as a rigid-body complex, and eventually through flexible-fit analysis, creates 36 different complexes from four initial orientations of the nanoparticle strategically positioned around the surface of the enzyme. The structural deviations of the enzymes from the initial x-ray crystal structure during each docking simulation are assessed by comparative analysis of secondary structural elements, root mean square deviations, B-factors, interactive bonding energies, dihedral angles, radius of gyration (R g), circular dichroism (CD), volume occupied by C α , electrostatic potentials, solvation energies and hydrophobicities. Normalisation of the data narrows the selection from the initial 36 to one 'final' probable structure. It is concluded that, after computer simulations on each of the 36 initial complexes incorporating the 12 different biophysical techniques, the top five complexes are the same no matter which technique is explored. The significance of the present work is an expansion of an earlier study on the molecular dynamic simulation for the interaction of HIVPR with silver nanoparticles. This work is supported by experimental evidence since the initial 'orientation' of the AgNP with the enzyme is the same as the 'final' AuNP-HIVPR complex generated in the present study. The findings will provide insight into the forces of the binding of the HIVPR to AuNP. It is anticipated that the protocol developed in this study will act as a standard process for the interaction of any nanoparticle with any biomedical target.

  7. Computer simulations of the interaction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) aspartic protease with spherical gold nanoparticles: implications in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whiteley, Chris G.; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with human immune-deficiency virus aspartic protease (HIVPR) is modelled using a regime of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations of the ‘docking’, first as a rigid-body complex, and eventually through flexible-fit analysis, creates 36 different complexes from four initial orientations of the nanoparticle strategically positioned around the surface of the enzyme. The structural deviations of the enzymes from the initial x-ray crystal structure during each docking simulation are assessed by comparative analysis of secondary structural elements, root mean square deviations, B-factors, interactive bonding energies, dihedral angles, radius of gyration (R g), circular dichroism (CD), volume occupied by C α , electrostatic potentials, solvation energies and hydrophobicities. Normalisation of the data narrows the selection from the initial 36 to one ‘final’ probable structure. It is concluded that, after computer simulations on each of the 36 initial complexes incorporating the 12 different biophysical techniques, the top five complexes are the same no matter which technique is explored. The significance of the present work is an expansion of an earlier study on the molecular dynamic simulation for the interaction of HIVPR with silver nanoparticles. This work is supported by experimental evidence since the initial ‘orientation’ of the AgNP with the enzyme is the same as the ‘final’ AuNP-HIVPR complex generated in the present study. The findings will provide insight into the forces of the binding of the HIVPR to AuNP. It is anticipated that the protocol developed in this study will act as a standard process for the interaction of any nanoparticle with any biomedical target.

  8. Computer simulations of the interaction of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) aspartic protease with spherical gold nanoparticles: implications in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Whiteley, Chris G; Lee, Duu-Jong

    2016-09-01

    The interaction of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) with human immune-deficiency virus aspartic protease (HIVPR) is modelled using a regime of molecular dynamics simulations. The simulations of the 'docking', first as a rigid-body complex, and eventually through flexible-fit analysis, creates 36 different complexes from four initial orientations of the nanoparticle strategically positioned around the surface of the enzyme. The structural deviations of the enzymes from the initial x-ray crystal structure during each docking simulation are assessed by comparative analysis of secondary structural elements, root mean square deviations, B-factors, interactive bonding energies, dihedral angles, radius of gyration (R g), circular dichroism (CD), volume occupied by C α , electrostatic potentials, solvation energies and hydrophobicities. Normalisation of the data narrows the selection from the initial 36 to one 'final' probable structure. It is concluded that, after computer simulations on each of the 36 initial complexes incorporating the 12 different biophysical techniques, the top five complexes are the same no matter which technique is explored. The significance of the present work is an expansion of an earlier study on the molecular dynamic simulation for the interaction of HIVPR with silver nanoparticles. This work is supported by experimental evidence since the initial 'orientation' of the AgNP with the enzyme is the same as the 'final' AuNP-HIVPR complex generated in the present study. The findings will provide insight into the forces of the binding of the HIVPR to AuNP. It is anticipated that the protocol developed in this study will act as a standard process for the interaction of any nanoparticle with any biomedical target. PMID:27483476

  9. Acquired lymphangiectasis.

    PubMed

    Celis, A V; Gaughf, C N; Sangueza, O P; Gourdin, F W

    1999-01-01

    Acquired lymphangiectasis is a dilatation of lymphatic vessels that can result as a complication of surgical intervention and radiation therapy for malignancy. Acquired lymphangiectasis shares clinical and histologic features with the congenital lesion, lymphangioma circumscriptum. Diagnosis and treatment of these vesiculo-bullous lesions is important because they may be associated with pain, chronic drainage, and cellulitis. We describe two patients who had these lesions after treatment for cancer and review the pertinent literature. Although a number of treatment options are available, we have found CO2 laser ablation particularly effective. PMID:9932832

  10. Food Security in Households of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in a Subdivision of Darjeeling District, West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) adversely impacts food security in households of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Little research has focused on food insecurity among PLWHA in India. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of and factors relating to food security in households of PLWHA in the Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 173 PLWHA residing in Siliguri and registered at the Anti-retroviral Therapy Centre of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital. Data was collected at the household level with interviews of PLWHA using a food security survey instrument. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of household food security among the participants was 50.9% (88/173). Five years or more of schooling, higher socioeconomic class and males were found to be significantly associated with a higher likelihood of food security. A later stage of the disease and the presence of other family members with HIV/AIDS were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of food security. The major coping strategies to deal with food insecurity in the acute phase HIV infection included borrowing money (56.1%), followed by spousal support, loans from microfinance institutions, banks, or money lenders, borrowing food, or selling agricultural products. Conclusions: The present study revealed that only about half of households with PLWHA were food secure. Prior interventions relating to periods of food and economic crisis as well as strategies for sustaining food security and economic status are needed in this area. PMID:27499166

  11. Histoplasmosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS): multicenter study of outcomes and factors associated with relapse.

    PubMed

    Myint, Thein; Anderson, Albert M; Sanchez, Alejandro; Farabi, Alireza; Hage, Chadi; Baddley, John W; Jhaveri, Malhar; Greenberg, Richard N; Bamberger, David M; Rodgers, Mark; Crawford, Timothy N; Wheat, L Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Although discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated histoplasmosis is accepted for patients with immunologic recovery, there have been no published studies of this approach in clinical practice, and minimal characterization of individuals who relapse with this disease. We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study to determine the outcome in AIDS patients following discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for histoplasmosis. Ninety-seven patients were divided into a physician-discontinued suppressive therapy group (PD) (38 patients) and a physician-continued suppressive therapy group (PC) (59 patients). The 2 groups were not statistically different at baseline, but at discontinuation of therapy and at the most recent follow-up there were significant differences in adherence to therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA, and urinary Histoplasma antigen concentration. There was no relapse or death attributed to histoplasmosis in the PD group compared with 36% relapse (p < 0.0001) and 5% death (p = 0.28) in the PC group. Relapse occurred in 53% of the nonadherent patients but not in the adherent patients (p < 0.0001). Sixty-seven percent of patients with initial central nervous system (CNS) histoplasmosis relapsed compared to 15% of patients without CNS involvement (p = 0.0004), which may be accounted for by nonadherence. In addition, patients with antigenuria above 2.0 ng/mL at 1-year follow-up were 12.82 times (95% confidence interval, 2.91-55.56) more likely to relapse compared to those with antigenuria below 2.0 ng/mL. Discontinuation of antifungal therapy was safe in adherent patients who completed at least 1 year of antifungal treatment, and had CD4 counts >150 cells/mL, HIV RNA <400 c/mL, Histoplasma antigenuria <2 ng/mL (equivalent to <4.0 units in second-generation method), and no CNS histoplasmosis.

  12. [Cerebral infarction and intracranial aneurysm related to the reactivation of varicella zoster virus in a Japanese acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient].

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Chiharu; Okada, Kazumasa; Ohnari, Norihiro; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2013-01-01

    A 35-years-old right-handed man admitted to our hospital with a worsening of dysarthria, left facial palsy and left hemiparesis for 2 days. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was diagnosed when he was 28 years old. At that time, he also was treated for syphilis. After highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) was introduced at the age of 35 years old, serum level of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was not detected, but the number of CD4+ T cells was still less than 200/μl. He had no risk factors of atherosclerosis including hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. He had neither coagulation abnormality nor autoimmune disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed acute ischemic infarction spreading from the right corona radiate to the right internal capsule without contrast enhancement. Stenosis and occlusion of intracranial arteries were not detected by MR angiography. Although argatroban and edaravone were administered, his neurological deficits were worsened to be difficult to walk independently. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed a mild mononuclear pleocytosis (16/μl). Oligoclonal band was positive. The titer of anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgG antibodies was increased, that indicated VZV reactivation in the central nervous system (CNS), although VZV DNA PCR was not detected. Therefore, acyclovir (750 mg/day for 2 weeks) and valaciclovir (3,000 mg/day for 1 month) were administered in addition to stroke therapy. He recovered to be able to walk independently 2 month after the admission.Angiography uncovered a saccular aneurysm of 3 mm at the end of branch artery of right anterior cerebral artery, Heubner artery, 28 days after the admission. We speculated that VZV vasculopathy caused by VZV reactivation in CNS was involved in the pathomechanism of cerebral infarction rather than HIV vasculopathy in the case.

  13. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  14. Prevalence of hepatitis B, hepatitis C and human immune deficiency virus markers among patients with hereditary haemolytic anaemias.

    PubMed

    al-Mahroos, F T; Ebrahim, A

    1995-06-01

    To determine the prevalence of hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) markers among Bahraini children with hereditary haemolytic anaemias, a cross-sectional study was conducted at the paediatric outpatient clinic of Sulimaniya Medical Center in the State of Bahrain. A total of 242 patients with hereditary haemolytic anaemias were enrolled in the study: 171 (71%) with sickle cell syndromes, 59 (24%) with beta thalassaemia major and 12 (5%) with alpha thalassaemia. Among the 191 multi-transfused patients, 39 (20.5%) had one or more markers for HBV, 78 (40%) were seropositive for HCV antibody, and three (1.6%) were seropositive for HIV antibody. In contrast, none of the 51 non-transfusion group was seropositive for HBV and HIV antibodies but one patient was seropositive for HCV antibody. HBV, HCV and HIV infections therefore remain a major hazard for children with hereditary haemolytic anaemias, despite blood donor screening. More refined and sensitive tests which would detect infection in all stages of the disease are required. Hepatitis B vaccine should be given to all children with hereditary haemolytic anaemias.

  15. Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal cell-mediated immunity regulation in the Immune Restoration Inflammatory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Khakshooy, Allen; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Over one third of the patients sero-positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with signs of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and under treatment with anti-retroviral therapy (ART), develop the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). It is not clear what variables are that determine whether a patient with HIV/AIDS will develop ART-related IRIS, but the best evidence base thus far indicates that HIV/AIDS patients with low CD4 cell count, and HIV/AIDS patients whose CD4 count recovery shows a sharp slope, suggesting a particularly fast "immune reconstitution", are at greater risk of developing IRIS. Here, we propose the hypothesis that one important variable that can contribute to low CD4 cell count number and function in ART-treated HIV/AIDS patients is altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) cell-mediated immune (CMI) regulation. We discuss HPA-CMI deregulation in IRIS as the new frontier in comparative effectiveness research (CRE) for obtaining and utilizing the best evidence base for treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS in specific clinical settings. We propose that our hypothesis about altered HPA-CMI may extend to the pathologies observed in related viral infection, including Zika PMID:27212842

  16. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and use of healthcare services among rural migrants: a cross-sectional study in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Today’s rapid growth of migrant populations has been a major contributor to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, relatively few studies have focused on HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among rural-to-urban migrants in China. This cross-sectional study was to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perceptions, including knowledge about reducing high-risk sex. Methods Two-phase stratified cluster sampling was applied and 2,753 rural migrants participated in this study. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Guangdong and Sichuan provinces in 2007. Descriptive analysis was used to present the essential characteristics of the respondents. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models were performed to examine the associations between identified demographic factors and high-risk sex, sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms, and access to HIV screening services among the seven types of workers. Results 58.6% of participants were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS transmission, but approximately 90% had a negative attitude towards the AIDS patients, and that 6.2% had engaged in high-risk sex in the past 12 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed sex, marital status, income, migration and work experience to be associated with high-risk sex. Among the 13.9% of workers who reported having STD symptoms, risk factors that were identified included female gender, high monthly income, being married, daily laborer or entertainment worker, frequent migration, and length of work experience. Only 3% of migrant workers received voluntary free HIV screening, which was positively associated with monthly income and workplace. Conclusions HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practices among rural migrants in China remain a thorny health issue, and use of healthcare services needs to be improved. Low levels of education and knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS among

  17. Modeling altered T-cell development with induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with RAG1-dependent immune deficiencies.

    PubMed

    Brauer, Patrick M; Pessach, Itai M; Clarke, Erik; Rowe, Jared H; Ott de Bruin, Lisa; Lee, Yu Nee; Dominguez-Brauer, Carmen; Comeau, Anne M; Awong, Geneve; Felgentreff, Kerstin; Zhang, Yuhang H; Bredemeyer, Andrea; Al-Herz, Waleed; Du, Likun; Ververs, Francesca; Kennedy, Marion; Giliani, Silvia; Keller, Gordon; Sleckman, Barry P; Schatz, David G; Bushman, Frederic D; Notarangelo, Luigi D; Zúñiga-Pflücker, Juan Carlos

    2016-08-11

    Primary immunodeficiency diseases comprise a group of heterogeneous genetic defects that affect immune system development and/or function. Here we use in vitro differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) generated from patients with different recombination-activating gene 1 (RAG1) mutations to assess T-cell development and T-cell receptor (TCR) V(D)J recombination. RAG1-mutants from severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) patient cells showed a failure to sustain progression beyond the CD3(--)CD4(-)CD8(-)CD7(+)CD5(+)CD38(-)CD31(-/lo)CD45RA(+) stage of T-cell development to reach the CD3(-/+)CD4(+)CD8(+)CD7(+)CD5(+)CD38(+)CD31(+)CD45RA(-) stage. Despite residual mutant RAG1 recombination activity from an Omenn syndrome (OS) patient, similar impaired T-cell differentiation was observed, due to increased single-strand DNA breaks that likely occur due to heterodimers consisting of both an N-terminal truncated and a catalytically dead RAG1. Furthermore, deep-sequencing analysis of TCR-β (TRB) and TCR-α (TRA) rearrangements of CD3(-)CD4(+)CD8(-) immature single-positive and CD3(+)CD4(+)CD8(+) double-positive cells showed severe restriction of repertoire diversity with preferential usage of few Variable, Diversity, and Joining genes, and skewed length distribution of the TRB and TRA complementary determining region 3 sequences from SCID and OS iPSC-derived cells, whereas control iPSCs yielded T-cell progenitors with a broadly diversified repertoire. Finally, no TRA/δ excision circles (TRECs), a marker of TRA/δ locus rearrangements, were detected in SCID and OS-derived T-lineage cells, consistent with a pre-TCR block in T-cell development. This study compares human T-cell development of SCID vs OS patients, and elucidates important differences that help to explain the wide range of immunologic phenotypes that result from different mutations within the same gene of various patients. PMID:27301863

  18. Search for poliovirus carriers among people with primary immune deficiency diseases in the United States, Mexico, Brazil, and the United Kingdom.

    PubMed Central

    Halsey, Neal A.; Pinto, Jorge; Espinosa-Rosales, Francisco; Faure-Fontenla, María A.; da Silva, Edson; Khan, Aamir J.; Webster, A. D.; Minor, Philip; Dunn, Glynis; Asturias, Edwin; Hussain, Hamidah; Pallansch, Mark A.; Kew, Olen M.; Winkelstein, Jerry; Sutter, Roland

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To estimate the rate of long-term poliovirus excretors in people known to have B-cell immune deficiency disorders. METHODS: An active search for chronic excretors was conducted among 306 persons known to have immunoglobulin G (IgG) deficiency in the United States, Mexico, Brazil, and the United Kingdom, and 40 people with IgA deficiency in the United States. Written informed consent or assent was obtained from the participants or their legal guardians, and the studies were formally approved. Stool samples were collected from participants and cultured for polioviruses. Calculation of the confidence interval for the proportion of participants with persistent poliovirus excretion was based on the binomial distribution. FINDINGS: No individuals with long-term excretion of polioviruses were identified. Most participants had received oral poliovirus vaccine (OPV) and almost all had been exposed to household contacts who had received OPV. Polioviruses of recent vaccine origin were transiently found in four individuals in Mexico and Brazil, where OPV is recommended for all children. CONCLUSION: Although chronic poliovirus excretion can occur in immunodeficient persons, it appears to be rare. PMID:15106294

  19. The Natural History of Children with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency: Baseline Features of the First Fifty Patients of the Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium Prospective Study 6901

    PubMed Central

    Dvorak, Christopher C.; Cowan, Morton J.; Logan, Brent R.; Notarangelo, Luigi D.; Griffith, Linda M.; Puck, Jennifer M.; Kohn, Donald B.; Shearer, William T.; O'Reilly, Richard J.; Fleisher, Thomas A.; Pai, Sung-Yun; Hanson, I. Celine; Pulsipher, Michael A.; Fuleihan, Ramsay; Filipovich, Alexandra; Goldman, Frederick; Kapoor, Neena; Small, Trudy; Smith, Angela; Chan, Ka-Wah; Cuvelier, Geoff; Heimall, Jennifer; Knutsen, Alan; Loechelt, Brett; Moore, Theodore; Buckley, Rebecca H.

    2013-01-01

    The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) consists of 33 centers in North America. We hypothesized that the analysis of uniform data on patients with severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) enrolled in a prospective protocol will identify variables that contribute to optimal outcomes following treatment. We report baseline clinical, immunologic, and genetic features of the first 50 patients enrolled, and the initial therapies administered, reflecting current practice in the diagnosis and treatment of both typical (n = 37) and atypical forms (n = 13) of SCID. From August 2010 to May 2012, patients with suspected SCID underwent evaluation and therapy per local center practices. Diagnostic information was reviewed by the PIDTC eligibility review panel, and hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) details were obtained from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. Most patients (92%) had mutations in a known SCID gene. Half of the patients were diagnosed by newborn screening or family history, were younger than those diagnosed by clinical signs (median 15 vs. 181 days; P = <0.0001), and went to HCT at a median of 67 days vs. 214 days of life (P = <0.0001). Most patients (92%) were treated with HCT within 1–2 months of diagnosis. Three patients were treated with gene therapy and 1 with enzyme replacement. The PIDTC plans to enroll over 250 such patients and analyze short and long-term outcomes for factors beneficial or deleterious to survival, clinical outcome, and T- and B-cell reconstitution, and which biomarkers are predictive of these outcomes. PMID:23818196

  20. The Brain in AIDS: Central Nervous System HIV-1 Infection and AIDS Dementia Complex.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Richard W.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the complicated infection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) in its late stages of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex. Explains the syndrome's development of abnormalities in cognition, motor performance, and behavior. (TW)

  1. AIDS (image)

    MedlinePlus

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  2. CD40 agonist antibody mediated improvement of chronic Cryptosporidium infection in patients with X-linked hyper IgM syndrome

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    X-linked hyper-IgM syndrome (XHM) is a combined immune deficiency disorder caused by mutations in CD40 ligand. We tested CP-870,893, a human CD40 agonist monoclonal antibody, in the treatment of two XHM patients with biliary Cryptosporidiosis. CP-870,893 activated B cells and APCs in vitro, restori...

  3. Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) Coronavirus ORF8 Protein Is Acquired from SARS-Related Coronavirus from Greater Horseshoe Bats through Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Lau, Susanna K. P.; Feng, Yun; Chen, Honglin; Luk, Hayes K. H.; Yang, Wei-Hong; Li, Kenneth S. M.; Zhang, Yu-Zhen; Huang, Yi; Song, Zhi-Zhong; Chow, Wang-Ngai; Fan, Rachel Y. Y.; Ahmed, Syed Shakeel; Yeung, Hazel C.; Lam, Carol S. F.; Cai, Jian-Piao; Wong, Samson S. Y.; Chan, Jasper F. W.; Yuen, Kwok-Yung

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Despite the identification of horseshoe bats as the reservoir of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoVs), the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, which contains the 29-nucleotide signature deletion among human strains, remains obscure. Although two SARS-related Rhinolophus sinicus bat CoVs (SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs) previously detected in Chinese horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus sinicus) in Yunnan, RsSHC014 and Rs3367, possessed 95% genome identities to human and civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 protein exhibited only 32.2 to 33% amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs. To elucidate the origin of SARS-CoV ORF8, we sampled 348 bats of various species in Yunnan, among which diverse alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses, including potentially novel CoVs, were identified, with some showing potential interspecies transmission. The genomes of two betacoronaviruses, SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C, from greater horseshoe bats (Rhinolophus ferrumequinum), possessed 93% nucleotide identities to human/civet SARSr-CoV genomes. Although these two betacoronaviruses displayed lower similarities than SARSr-Rs-BatCoV RsSHC014 and Rs3367 in S protein to civet SARSr-CoVs, their ORF8 proteins demonstrated exceptionally high (80.4 to 81.3%) amino acid identities to that of human/civet SARSr-CoVs, compared to SARSr-BatCoVs from other horseshoe bats (23.2 to 37.3%). Potential recombination events were identified around ORF8 between SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs and SARSr-Rs-BatCoVs, leading to the generation of civet SARSr-CoVs. The expression of ORF8 subgenomic mRNA suggested that the ORF8 protein may be functional in SARSr-Rf-BatCoVs. The high Ka/Ks ratio among human SARS-CoVs compared to that among SARSr-BatCoVs supported that ORF8 is under strong positive selection during animal-to-human transmission. Molecular clock analysis using ORF1ab showed that SARSr-Rf-BatCoV YNLF_31C and YNLF_34C diverged from civet/human SARSr-CoVs in approximately 1990. SARS

  4. Comparative genomic study of arachnid immune systems indicates loss of beta-1,3-glucanase-related proteins and the immune deficiency pathway.

    PubMed

    Bechsgaard, J; Vanthournout, B; Funch, P; Vestbo, S; Gibbs, R A; Richards, S; Sanggaard, K W; Enghild, J J; Bilde, T

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of arthropod genomes have shown that the genes in the different innate humoral immune responses are conserved. These genes encode proteins that are involved in immune signalling pathways that recognize pathogens and activate immune responses. These immune responses include phagocytosis, encapsulation of the pathogen and production of effector molecules for pathogen elimination. So far, most studies have focused on insects leaving other major arthropod groups largely unexplored. Here, we annotate the immune-related genes of six arachnid genomes and present evidence for a conserved pattern of some immune genes, but also evolutionary changes in the arachnid immune system. Specifically, our results suggest that the family of recognition molecules of beta-1,3-glucanase-related proteins (βGRPs) and the genes from the immune deficiency (IMD) signalling pathway have been lost in a common ancestor of arachnids. These findings are consistent with previous work suggesting that the humoral immune effector proteins are constitutively produced in arachnids in contrast to insects, where these have to be induced. Further functional studies are needed to verify this. We further show that the full haemolymph clotting cascade found in the horseshoe crab is retrieved in most arachnid genomes. Tetranychus lacks at least one major component, although it is possible that this cascade could still function through recruitment of a different protein. The gel-forming protein in horseshoe crabs, coagulogen, was not recovered in any of the arachnid genomes; however, it is possible that the arachnid clot consists of a related protein, spätzle, that is present in all of the genomes. PMID:26528622

  5. Generation of Recombination Activating Gene-1-Deficient Neonatal Piglets: A Model of T and B Cell Deficient Severe Combined Immune Deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Tetsuya; Sendai, Yutaka; Yamazaki, Satoshi; Seki-Soma, Marie; Hirose, Kensuke; Watanabe, Motoo; Fukawa, Kazuo; Nakauchi, Hiromitsu

    2014-01-01

    Although severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) is a very important research model for mice and SCID mice are widely used, there are only few reports describing the SCID pig models. Therefore, additional research in this area is needed. In this study, we describe the generation of Recombination activating gene-1 (Rag-1)-deficient neonatal piglets in Duroc breed using somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) with gene targeting and analysis using fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and histology. We constructed porcine Rag-1 gene targeting vectors for the Exon 2 region and obtained heterozygous/homozygous Rag-1 knockout cell colonies using SCNT. We generated two Rag-1-deficient neonatal piglets and compared them with wild-type neonatal piglets. FACS analysis showed that Rag-1 disruption causes a lack of Immunoglobulin M-positive B cells and CD3-positive T cells in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Consistent with FACS analysis, histological analysis revealed structural defects and an absence of mature lymphocytes in the spleen, mesenteric lymph node (MLNs), and thymus in Rag-1-deficient piglets. These results confirm that Rag-1 is necessary for the generation of lymphocytes in pigs, and Rag-1-deficient piglets exhibit a T and B cell deficient SCID (T-B-SCID) phenotype similar to that of rodents and humans. The T-B-SCID pigs with Rag-1 deficiency generated in this study could be a suitably versatile model for laboratory, translational, and biomedical research, including the development of a humanized model and assessment of pluripotent stem cells. PMID:25437445

  6. Comparative genomic study of arachnid immune systems indicates loss of beta-1,3-glucanase-related proteins and the immune deficiency pathway.

    PubMed

    Bechsgaard, J; Vanthournout, B; Funch, P; Vestbo, S; Gibbs, R A; Richards, S; Sanggaard, K W; Enghild, J J; Bilde, T

    2016-02-01

    Analyses of arthropod genomes have shown that the genes in the different innate humoral immune responses are conserved. These genes encode proteins that are involved in immune signalling pathways that recognize pathogens and activate immune responses. These immune responses include phagocytosis, encapsulation of the pathogen and production of effector molecules for pathogen elimination. So far, most studies have focused on insects leaving other major arthropod groups largely unexplored. Here, we annotate the immune-related genes of six arachnid genomes and present evidence for a conserved pattern of some immune genes, but also evolutionary changes in the arachnid immune system. Specifically, our results suggest that the family of recognition molecules of beta-1,3-glucanase-related proteins (βGRPs) and the genes from the immune deficiency (IMD) signalling pathway have been lost in a common ancestor of arachnids. These findings are consistent with previous work suggesting that the humoral immune effector proteins are constitutively produced in arachnids in contrast to insects, where these have to be induced. Further functional studies are needed to verify this. We further show that the full haemolymph clotting cascade found in the horseshoe crab is retrieved in most arachnid genomes. Tetranychus lacks at least one major component, although it is possible that this cascade could still function through recruitment of a different protein. The gel-forming protein in horseshoe crabs, coagulogen, was not recovered in any of the arachnid genomes; however, it is possible that the arachnid clot consists of a related protein, spätzle, that is present in all of the genomes.

  7. Prospective study of cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to influenza and antibodies to human T lymphotropic virus-III in homosexual men. Selective loss of an influenza-specific, human leukocyte antigen-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte response in human T lymphotropic virus-III positive individuals with symptoms of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Shearer, G M; Salahuddin, S Z; Markham, P D; Joseph, L J; Payne, S M; Kriebel, P; Bernstein, D C; Biddison, W E; Sarngadharan, M G; Gallo, R C

    1985-01-01

    Peripheral blood leukocytes (PBL) from 18 homosexual men who did not have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and from 9 heterosexual men were repetitively tested for their ability to generate HLA self-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to influenza virus (flu-self) over a 2-yr period. The sera of the same donors were tested for antibodies to human T lymphotropic virus-III (HTLV-III). Six of the homosexual and none of the heterosexual donors consistently generated weak cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to flu-self. Seven of the homosexual and none of the heterosexual donors were seropositive for antibodies to HTLV-III. No obvious correlation was detected between weak flu-self cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses and antibodies to HTLV-III. However, one homosexual donor generated no detectable cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity to flu-self, although he was a strong responder to HLA-alloantigens. This donor had an OKT4:OKT8 ratio of 0.4 and was seropositive for HTLV-III antigens; HTLV-III virus was identified in his PBL; and he developed AIDS during the course of this study. A second donor with lymphadenopathy and who was seropositive for HTLV-III antigens exhibited marginal cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity to flu-self which he subsequently lost. PBL from two patients, one with Kaposi's sarcoma and one with generalized lymphadenopathy, were also tested for cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to flu-self and to alloantigens. Both donors failed to generate cytotoxic T lymphocyte to flu-self, but generated strong cytotoxic T lymphocyte responses to alloantigens. The selective loss of an HLA-restricted cytotoxic T lymphocyte response without loss of HLA alloantigenic cytotoxic T lymphocyte activity may be an important functional immunologic characteristic in the development of AIDS. PMID:2997287

  8. Apical Pneumocystis jiroveci as an AIDS defining illness: A case report illustrating a change in the paradigm.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Kyle; Kalra, Vivek; Adebowale, Adeniran; Juthani-Mehta, Manisha; Soo-Shin, Myung

    2014-11-01

    Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is a common acquired immune deficiency syndrome defining illness. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is classically described as having symmetrical bilateral perihilar ground-glass opacities on chest radiographs. We present an "atypical" case of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia presenting as symmetric biapical cystic spaces with relative sparing of the remainder of the lungs in a 22 year-old male, previously undiagnosed with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Our case illustrates that formerly unusual presentations of Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia are becoming more common as acquired immune deficiency syndrome defining illnesses as more patients are being imaged with further imaging such as high resolution computed tomography. PMID:25926907

  9. Imported acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related histoplasmosis in metropolitan France: a comparison of pre-highly active anti-retroviral therapy and highly active anti-retroviral therapy eras.

    PubMed

    Peigne, Vincent; Dromer, Françoise; Elie, Caroline; Lidove, Olivier; Lortholary, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum infection is rare outside disease-endemic areas. Clinical presentation and outcome of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related histoplasmosis are unknown in non-endemic areas with wide access to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Retrospective analysis of cases recorded at the French National Reference Center for Mycoses and Antifungals during two decades: pre-HAART (1985-1994) and HAART (1997-2006). Clinical features and outcome of all adults with proven acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related histoplasmosis were compared between the two periods. One hundred four patients were included (40 during the pre-HAART era and 64 during the HAART era). Diagnosis was established a mean of 62 days after onset of symptoms. One-year overall mortality rates decreased from 53% (pre-HAART era) to 22% (HAART era). Diagnosis during the pre-HAART era and an older age were the only independent factors associated with death. Histoplasmosis is a rare invasive fungal infection outside disease-endemic areas. Its prognosis improved significantly during the HAART era.

  10. HIV/AIDS Education for Students with Special Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colson, Steven E.; Carlson, Judith K.

    1993-01-01

    This article discusses human immune deficiency disease, the role of education as a prevention tool, a rationale for the inclusion of students with special needs in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education, a scope and sequence of skills related to AIDS, suggestions for implementing objectives across curricular areas, and multimedia…

  11. The Incorporation of HIV/AIDS Into Identity Over Time: Transformational Tales Continued.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Lisa M.

    The incorporation of human immune deficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) into identity over time was examined by collecting data from the same 11 HIV-positive individuals at 3 points in time (in 1995, early 1998, and late 1999). By the time of their semi-structured interviews in late 1999, the seven men and four women…

  12. HIV Disease: Current Concepts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    Describes human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), newly characterized human retrovirus which causes chronic, progressive, immune deficiency disease, the most severe phase of which is Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Reviews most important current epidemiologic, clinical, and virologic information about HIV and HIV disease and provides…

  13. First results about recovery of walking function in patients with intensive care unit-acquired muscle weakness from the General Weakness Syndrome Therapy (GymNAST) cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Mehrholz, Jan; Mückel, Simone; Oehmichen, Frank; Pohl, Marcus

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To describe the time course of recovery of walking function and other activities of daily living in patients with intensive care unit (ICU)-acquired muscle weakness. Design This is a cohort study. Participants We included critically ill patients with ICU-acquired muscle weakness. Setting Post-acute ICU and rehabilitation units in Germany. Measures We measured walking function, muscle strength, activities in daily living, motor and cognitive function. Results We recruited 150 patients (30% female) who fulfilled our inclusion and exclusion criteria. The primary outcome recovery of walking function was achieved after a median of 28.5 days (IQR=45) after rehabilitation onset and after a median of 81.5 days (IQR=64) after onset of illness. Our final multivariate model for recovery of walking function included two clinical variables from baseline: the Functional Status Score ICU (adjusted HR=1.07 (95% CI 1.03 to 1.12) and the ability to reach forward in cm (adjusted HR=1.02 (95% CI 1.00 to 1.04). All secondary outcomes but not pain improved significantly in the first 8 weeks after study onset. Conclusions We found good recovery of walking function for most patients and described the recovery of walking function of people with ICU-acquired muscle weakness. Trials registrations number Sächsische Landesärztekammer EK-BR-32/13-1; DRKS00007181, German Register of Clinical Trials. PMID:26700274

  14. A Bad Case of Good's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tachdjian, Raffi; Keller, Janet J; Pfeffer, Michael

    2014-12-01

    Good's syndrome is a relatively rare immunodeficiency condition that presents in the fourth or fifth decade of life and is defined by hypogammaglobulinemia in the setting of a thymoma. The humoral defect may be severe enough to cause an absence in B cells, with a consequent recurrence of sinopulmonary disease, chronic non-infectious diarrhea and opportunistic infections. The prognosis in patients with Good's syndrome appears to be worse than in those with X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) and common variable immune deficiency (CVID). There have only been three cases of Good's syndrome associated with mycobacterium, and only one case with a cavitary lesion in the lungs. We present here a unique case of Good's syndrome with a non-mycobacterial cavitary lesion.

  15. Congenital and acquired neutropenias consensus guidelines on therapy and follow-up in childhood from the Neutropenia Committee of the Marrow Failure Syndrome Group of the AIEOP (Associazione Italiana Emato-Oncologia Pediatrica).

    PubMed

    Fioredda, Francesca; Calvillo, Michaela; Bonanomi, Sonia; Coliva, Tiziana; Tucci, Fabio; Farruggia, Piero; Pillon, Marta; Martire, Baldassarre; Ghilardi, Roberta; Ramenghi, Ugo; Renga, Daniela; Menna, Giuseppe; Pusiol, Anna; Barone, Angelica; Gambineri, Eleonora; Palazzi, Giovanni; Casazza, Gabriella; Lanciotti, Marina; Dufour, Carlo

    2012-02-01

    The management of congenital and acquired neutropenias presents some differences according to the type of the disease. Treatment with recombinant human granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF) is not standardized and scanty data are available on the best schedule to apply. The frequency and the type of longitudinal controls in patients affected with neutropenias are not usually discussed in the literature. The Neutropenia Committee of the Marrow Failure Syndrome Group (MFSG) of the Associazione Italiana di Emato-Oncologia Pediatrica (AIEOP) elaborated this document following design and methodology formerly approved by the AIEOP board. The panel of experts reviewed the literature on the topic and participated in a conference producing a document that includes recommendations on neutropenia treatment and timing of follow-up.

  16. Survival transcriptome in the coenzyme Q10 deficiency syndrome is acquired by epigenetic modifications: a modelling study for human coenzyme Q10 deficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Ayala, Daniel J M; Guerra, Ignacio; Jiménez-Gancedo, Sandra; Cascajo, Maria V; Gavilán, Angela; DiMauro, Salvatore; Hirano, Michio; Briones, Paz; Artuch, Rafael; De Cabo, Rafael; Salviati, Leonardo; Navas, Plácido

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) deficiency syndrome is a rare condition that causes mitochondrial dysfunction and includes a variety of clinical presentations as encephalomyopathy, ataxia and renal failure. First, we sought to set up what all have in common, and then investigate why CoQ10 supplementation reverses the bioenergetics alterations in cultured cells but not all the cellular phenotypes. Design Modelling study This work models the transcriptome of human CoQ10 deficiency syndrome in primary fibroblast from patients and study the genetic response to CoQ10 treatment in these cells. Setting Four hospitals and medical centres from Spain, Italy and the USA, and two research laboratories from Spain and the USA. Participants Primary cells were collected from patients in the above centres. Measurements We characterised by microarray analysis the expression profile of fibroblasts from seven CoQ10-deficient patients (three had primary deficiency and four had a secondary form) and aged-matched controls, before and after CoQ10 supplementation. Results were validated by Q-RT-PCR. The profile of DNA (CpG) methylation was evaluated for a subset of gene with displayed altered expression. Results CoQ10-deficient fibroblasts (independently from the aetiology) showed a common transcriptomic profile that promotes cell survival by activating cell cycle and growth, cell stress responses and inhibiting cell death and immune responses. Energy production was supported mainly by glycolysis while CoQ10 supplementation restored oxidative phosphorylation. Expression of genes involved in cell death pathways was partially restored by treatment, while genes involved in differentiation, cell cycle and growth were not affected. Stably demethylated genes were unaffected by treatment whereas we observed restored gene expression in either non-methylated genes or those with an unchanged methylation pattern. Conclusions CoQ10 deficiency induces a specific transcriptomic profile that promotes

  17. NCA Legal Alert. A Preview: 1986-1987 Supreme Court Cases Affecting Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corkill, Phillip M.

    1987-01-01

    Offers brief summaries of upcoming Supreme Court cases that have implications for education, including two cases involving religion, affirmative action, and school policy regarding employees and students who have Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or carry AIDS antibodies. (DMM)

  18. 42 CFR 441.303 - Supporting documentation required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... per capita expenditures for a waiver that applies only to individuals with a particular illness (for example, acquired immune deficiency syndrome) or condition (for example, chronic mental illness) who...

  19. 42 CFR 441.303 - Supporting documentation required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... per capita expenditures for a waiver that applies only to individuals with a particular illness (for example, acquired immune deficiency syndrome) or condition (for example, chronic mental illness) who...

  20. 42 CFR 441.303 - Supporting documentation required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... waiver that applies only to individuals with a particular illness (for example, acquired immune deficiency syndrome) or condition (for example, chronic mental illness) who are inpatients in or who...

  1. Attitudes of Dental Faculty toward Individuals with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cohen, Leonard A.; Grace, Edward G., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    A survey of one dental school's faculty concerning attitudes toward homosexual or heterosexual patients with either Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia found significant negative biases both toward individuals with AIDS and toward homosexuals. (MSE)

  2. Two Reports of the AAMC Committee on AIDS and the Academic Medical Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Academic Medicine, 1989

    1989-01-01

    Association of American Medical Colleges' reports concerning Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome include "Policy Guidelines for Addressing HIV [human immunodeficiency virus] Infection in the Academic Medical Community" and "The HIV Epidemic and Medical Education." (MSE)

  3. Recent Sexually Transmitted Disease Prevention Efforts and Their Implications for AIDS Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Mildred Zeldes; DeJong, William

    1986-01-01

    The authors describe the principles and underlying assumptions that have guided the design of their STD (sexually transmitted diseases) initiatives, drawing special attention to the implications for AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) health education efforts. (Author/CT)

  4. AIDS, the Schools, and Policy Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.

    1986-01-01

    This article reviews the discovery of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and describes the biology of the disease. The problem of AIDS among children is discussed and implications for school policy decisions are cited. (Author/MT)

  5. The Tragedy of AIDS: A New Trial for Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodges, Linda C.; Poteet, Gaye W.

    1987-01-01

    Presents some recent facts regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Discusses the needs of nursing students for knowledge about this disease and how to protect themselves while caring for patients. Discusses the fear of contagion among health workers. (CH)

  6. AIDS Training in the Workplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vest, Jusanne M.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Management training regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) begins with three needs assessment tools--instruments measuring fear of AIDS, knowledge of AIDS, and beliefs about the business consequences of the disease. (SK)

  7. HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    HIV infection; Infection - HIV; Human immunodeficiency virus; Acquired immune deficiency syndrome ... Symptoms related to acute HIV infection (when a person is first infected) can be similar to the flu or other viral illnesses. They include: Fever and ...

  8. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  9. Research Report: HIV/AIDS

    MedlinePlus

    ... Reports » HIV/AIDS » Letter from the Director HIV/AIDS Email Facebook Twitter Letter from the Director Human ... the virus that causes acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) — has been with us for three decades now. ...

  10. Students with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broadwell, Cathy Allen; Strope, John L., Jr.

    1989-01-01

    Addresses the law as it pertains to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in public elementary and secondary schools. Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 has been used successfully in the majority of the AIDS cases discussed. (MLF)

  11. How-to-Do-It: Infection Control Guidelines for Blood Typing & Blood Smear Labs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vetter, Edwin A.

    1989-01-01

    Provides a set of guidelines for infection control of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and the serum hepatitis viruses during blood typing procedures. Emphasizes that disposal of blood contaminated materials should comply with local health department recommendations. (RT)

  12. Proceedings of the Joint AADS-AADR Symposium: Dentistry's Response to AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bader, James D.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Presentation topics on dentistry's response to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) include: AIDS-related changes in dental education, public programs, and dental practice and the impact of AIDS on dental practice. (MSE)

  13. AIDS in the Workplace: What Can Be Done?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Masi, Dale A.

    1987-01-01

    Discusses the legal ramifications for employers concerning acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Suggests that employers should have in place an AIDS policy that addresses such issues as AIDS testing, employee assistance programs, and health insurance coverage. (CH)

  14. AIDS and Herpes Carry Weighty Policy Implications for Your Board.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Few schools have policies to deal specifically with herpes and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Discusses some schools and states that have developed such policies and includes a source list for more information. (MD)

  15. In vivo high-resolution magic angle spinning magnetic resonance spectroscopy of Drosophila melanogaster at 14.1 T shows trauma in aging and in innate immune-deficiency is linked to reduced insulin signaling

    PubMed Central

    RIGHI, VALERIA; APIDIANAKIS, YIORGOS; MINTZOPOULOS, DIONYSSIOS; ASTRAKAS, LOUKAS; RAHME, LAURENCE G.; TZIKA, A. ARIA

    2010-01-01

    In vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS), a non-destructive biochemical tool for investigating live organisms, has yet to be used in the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster, a useful model organism for investigating genetics and physiology. We developed and implemented a high-resolution magic-angle-spinning (HRMAS) MRS method to investigate live Drosophila at 14.1 T. We demonstrated, for the first time, the feasibility of using HRMAS MRS for molecular characterization of Drosophila with a conventional MR spectrometer equipped with an HRMAS probe. We showed that the metabolic HRMAS MRS profiles of injured, aged wild-type (wt) flies and of immune deficient (imd) flies were more similar to chico flies mutated at the chico gene in the insulin signaling pathway, which is analogous to insulin receptor substrate 1–4 (IRS1–4) in mammals and less to those of adipokinetic hormone receptor (akhr) mutant flies, which have an obese phenotype. We thus provide evidence for the hypothesis that trauma in aging and in innate immune-deficiency is linked to insulin signaling. This link may explain the mitochondrial dysfunction that accompanies insulin resistance and muscle wasting that occurs in trauma, aging and immune system deficiencies, leading to higher susceptibility to infection. Our approach advances the development of novel in vivo non-destructive research approaches in Drosophila, suggests biomarkers for investigation of biomedical paradigms, and thus may contribute to novel therapeutic development. PMID:20596596

  16. The clinical characteristics of 80 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Xinjiang Autonomous Region and the effect of different treatments on the prognosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tongtong; He, Li; Wan, Xuefeng; Maimaitiaili, Wubuli; Song, Yuxia; Zhang, Yuexin; Lu, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the clinical features of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) patients in Xinjiang Autonomous Region and the impact of CD4 (+)T lymphocyte count, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and systemic chemotherapy on the prognosis. The clinical information of 80 AIDS-KS patients admitted in Sixth People's Hospital of Xinjiang Autonomous Region from January 2008 to August 2014 was retrospectively reviewed. Population characteristics, extent of lesions, KS progress, CD4 (+)T lymphocyte count, combined opportunistic infections, treatment and prognosis of these patients were analyzed. The 80 patients were divided into five groups according to treatment methods, including HAART, HAART + chemotherapy, chemotherapy + HAART, chemotherapy, and untreated groups. The efficacy and prognosis of the five groups were compared. Among the 80 patients, 74 (92.50%) patients were Uygur. The average age was 39.5±9.9 years and male-to-female ratio was 3:1. The median of baseline CD4 (+)T lymphocyte count was 152.5 cells/μL and the interquartile was 233.25 cells/μL. CD4 (+)T lymphocyte counts were significantly increased after treatment in HAART, HAART + chemotherapy, and chemotherapy + HAART groups (P < 0.05). CD4 (+)T lymphocyte count in chemotherapy groups was significantly reduced after treatment (P < 0.05). The untreated group had the highest mortality rate (33.3%). In HAART group, KS-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory response syndrome (KS-IRIS) appeared in 45.5% cases and 2 death cases were caused by KS-IRIS. In Xinjiang Autonomous Region, the incidence of AIDS-KS is high in young Uygur male people. HAART followed by chemotherapy has ideal efficacy, reduces the incidence of KS-IRIS and improves the prognosis.

  17. Acquired aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Elaine M

    2004-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a disorder characterized by a profound deficit of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, bone marrow hypocellularity, and peripheral blood pancytopenia. It primarily affects children, young adults, and those over 60 years of age. The majority of cases are idiopathic; however, idiosyncratic reactions to some drugs, chemicals, and viruses have been implicated in its etiology. An autoimmune T-cell reaction likely causes the stem cell depletion, but the precise mechanism, as well as the eliciting and target antigens, is unknown. Symptoms vary from severe life-threatening cytopenias to moderate or non-severe disease that does not require transfusion support. The peripheral blood typically exhibits pancytopenia, reticulocytopenia, and normocytic or macrocytic erythrocytes. The bone marrow is hypocellular and may exhibit dysplasia of the erythrocyte precursors. First line treatment for severe AA consists of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in young patients with HLA identical siblings, while immunosuppression therapy is used for older patients and for those of any age who lack a HLA matched donor. Patients with AA have an increased risk of developing paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), or acute leukemia. Further elucidation of the pathophysiology of this disease will result in a better understanding of the interrelationship among AA, PNH, and MDS, and may lead to novel targeted therapies.

  18. Acquired causes of intestinal malabsorption.

    PubMed

    van der Heide, F

    2016-04-01

    This review focuses on the acquired causes, diagnosis, and treatment of intestinal malabsorption. Intestinal absorption is a complex process that depends on many variables, including the digestion of nutrients within the intestinal lumen, the absorptive surface of the small intestine, the membrane transport systems, and the epithelial absorptive enzymes. Acquired causes of malabsorption are classified by focussing on the three phases of digestion and absorption: 1) luminal/digestive phase, 2) mucosal/absorptive phase, and 3) transport phase. Most acquired diseases affect the luminal/digestive phase. These include short bowel syndrome, extensive small bowel inflammation, motility disorders, and deficiencies of digestive enzymes or bile salts. Diagnosis depends on symptoms, physical examination, and blood and stool tests. There is no gold standard for the diagnosis of malabsorption. Further testing should be based on the specific clinical context and the suspected underlying disease. Therapy is directed at nutritional support by enteral or parenteral feeding and screening for and supplementation of deficiencies in vitamins and minerals. Early enteral feeding is important for intestinal adaptation in short bowel syndrome. Medicinal treatment options for diarrhoea in malabsorption include loperamide, codeine, cholestyramine, or antibiotics. PMID:27086886

  19. Anisocoria and Horner's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... In children, Horner’s syndrome may be caused by neuroblastoma, a tumor arising in another part of the body. Although rare, the risk of neuroblastoma is significantly greater with acquired Horner’s syndrome than ...

  20. Alternating and intermittent regimens of zidovudine (3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine) and dideoxycytidine (2',3'-dideoxycytidine) in the treatment of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex.

    PubMed

    Skowron, G; Merigan, T C

    1990-05-21

    The deoxynucleoside analogues 2',3'-dideoxy-cytidine (ddC) and 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (zidovudine, AZT) are active as single agents in conferring immunologic and virologic benefits in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex. Both drugs, however, produce dose-limiting toxicities. AZT is associated with unacceptable levels of bone marrow suppression, and ddC can cause painful peripheral neuropathy. The different toxicity profiles of these two drugs provide the rationale for testing them in alternating dosing combinations in an attempt to retain the antiretroviral activity of each against human immunodeficiency virus, while reducing the toxicities of both. A preliminary trial showed that 200 mg AZT given orally every four hours for seven-day periods, alternating with ddC at 0.03 mg/kg body weight orally every four hours for seven-day periods is a promising treatment regimen. An expanded multicenter study is evaluating ddC at 0.01 mg/kg and 0.03 mg/kg alternating with AZT at 200 mg in weekly or monthly periods. Weekly intermittent doses of AZT at 200 mg and ddC at 0.03 mg/kg are also being tested. The rationale and methods of the trial are discussed.

  1. Development of acquired von Willebrand syndrome during short-term micro axial pump support: implications for bleeding in a patient bridged to a long-term continuous-flow left ventricular assist device.

    PubMed

    Davis, Mary E; Haglund, Nicholas A; Tricarico, Nicole M; Keebler, Mary E; Maltais, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Percutaneous continuous-flow (CF) micro axial blood pumps, like the Impella 5.0, are commonly used for short-term (ST) mechanical circulatory support in patients with acute decompensated heart failure. The Impella device often serves as a bridge to implantation of a long-term (LT) CF left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD), such as the centrifugal-flow HeartWare (HVAD). All patients supported with axial CF-LVADs develop acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) as a result of mechanical shear stress. Increased shear stress leads to excessive proteolysis of von Willebrand factor and loss of high molecular weight multimers, thus contributing to platelet dysfunction and increased gastrointestinal bleeding. Bleeding events associated with AVWS have been reported in patients supported with LT CF-LVADs; however, the relation between early perioperative bleeding complications and AVWS remains poorly characterized in ST CF-LVADs. We sought to describe the relation between the development of AVWS and excessive intraoperative bleeding in a patient who was sequentially bridged with an ST micro axial device to a LT centrifugal CF-LVAD. This case highlights the importance of monitoring these hemostatic changes when bridging to LT CF-LVADs.

  2. Mechanisms of androgen deficiency in human immunodeficiency virus-infected women with the wasting syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grinspoon, S; Corcoran, C; Stanley, T; Rabe, J; Wilkie, S

    2001-09-01

    Although prior studies suggest reduced androgen levels in women with acquired immune deficiency syndrome wasting, little is known regarding the regulation of adrenal and ovarian androgen secretion in such patients. We investigated ovarian and adrenal function in 13 human immunodeficiency virus-infected women with acquired immune deficiency syndrome wasting and 21 age- and body mass index-matched healthy control subjects studied in the early follicular phase. Subjects received hCG (5000 U, im) on d 1 and Cosyntropin (0.25 mg, i.v.) on d 3 after dexamethasone (1 mg, orally, at 2400 h) pretreatment on d 2. At baseline, human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects demonstrated significantly reduced T [18 +/- 2 vs. 25 +/- 2 ng/dl (0.6 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.9 +/- 0.1 nmol/liter); P = 0.02], free T [1.5 +/- 0.1 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.2 pg/ml (5.3 +/- 0.5 vs. 8.3 +/- 0.6 pmol/liter); P = 0.001], androstenedione [119 +/- 6 vs. 162 +/- 14 ng/dl (4.16 +/- 0.20 vs. 5.66 +/- 0.48 nmol/liter); P = 0.02], and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate [0.96 +/- 0.17 vs. 1.55 +/- 0.19 microg/ml (2.6 +/- 0.5 vs. 4.2 +/- 0.5 micromol/liter); P = 0.047] levels compared with the control subjects. T [8 +/- 2 vs. 6 +/- 2 ng/dl (0.3 +/- 0.1 vs. 0.2 +/- 0.1 nmol/liter); P = 0.48], free T [0.5 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.4 +/- 0.1 pg/ml (1.7 +/- 0.7 vs. 1.5 +/- 0.5 pmol/liter); P = 0.85], 17 hydroxyprogesterone [0.5 +/- 0.2 vs. 0.7 +/- 0.2 microg/liter (1.6 +/- 0.6 vs. 2.0 +/- 0.6 nmol/liter); P = 0.63], and androstenedione [-1 +/- 12 vs. 8 +/- 11 ng/dl (-0.03 +/- 0.42 vs. 0.28 +/- 0.39 nmol/liter), P = 0.61] responses to hCG were not different between the groups. Cortisol responses were increased and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate responses were decreased in the human immunodeficiency virus-infected vs. control subjects after ACTH stimulation. The ratio of DHEA to cortisol was significantly decreased at 60 (71 +/- 11 vs. 107 +/- 10; P = 0.02) and 90 (63 +/- 8 vs. 102 +/- 9; P = 0.004) min post-ACTH in the human immunodeficiency

  3. A Case of Concurrent Miller-Dieker Syndrome (17p13.3 Deletion) and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Atwal, Paldeep S; Macmurdo, C

    2015-12-01

    Features of Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS, 17p13.3 deletion syndrome, LIS1-associated lissencephaly) include classic lissencephaly, microcephaly, cardiac malformations, growth restriction, and characteristic facial changes. Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome or velocardiofacial syndrome) are known to have congenital cardiac malformations (in particular conotruncal defects), palatal abnormalities (especially velopharyngeal insufficiency), hypocalcemia, immune deficiency, learning disabilities, and characteristic facial features. This case report describes phenotypic characteristics of a patient with extremely rare instance of having both MDS and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome that is unique in the medical literature. Prognosis in this concurrent phenotype is poor with our patient suffering from several malformations seen in both conditions and expiring in the neonatal period.

  4. A Case of Concurrent Miller-Dieker Syndrome (17p13.3 Deletion) and 22q11.2 Deletion Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Atwal, Paldeep S; Macmurdo, C

    2015-12-01

    Features of Miller-Dieker syndrome (MDS, 17p13.3 deletion syndrome, LIS1-associated lissencephaly) include classic lissencephaly, microcephaly, cardiac malformations, growth restriction, and characteristic facial changes. Individuals with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (DiGeorge syndrome or velocardiofacial syndrome) are known to have congenital cardiac malformations (in particular conotruncal defects), palatal abnormalities (especially velopharyngeal insufficiency), hypocalcemia, immune deficiency, learning disabilities, and characteristic facial features. This case report describes phenotypic characteristics of a patient with extremely rare instance of having both MDS and 22q11.2 deletion syndrome that is unique in the medical literature. Prognosis in this concurrent phenotype is poor with our patient suffering from several malformations seen in both conditions and expiring in the neonatal period. PMID:27617133

  5. 3'-Azido-3'-deoxythymidine prevents induction of murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in C57BL/10 mice infected with LP-BM5 murine leukemia viruses, a possible animal model for antiretroviral drug screening.

    PubMed Central

    Ohnota, H; Okada, Y; Ushijima, H; Kitamura, T; Komuro, K; Mizuochi, T

    1990-01-01

    Adult C57BL/10 mice (H-2b Fv-1b) inoculated with LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus develop a disease which has many features in common with human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), in particular abnormal lymphoproliferation and severe immunodeficiency. In the present study, we examined the possibility that this murine AIDS (MAIDS) model would be useful for evaluating antiretrovirus drugs in vivo through the use of a well-defined antiretrovirus drug, the reverse transcriptase (RT) inhibitor (H. Mitsuya, K.J. Weinhold, P.A. Furman, M.H. St. Claire, S. Nusinoff-Lehrman, R.C. Gallo, D. Bolognesi, D.W. Barry, and S. Broder, Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 82:7096-7100, 1985) 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT). We evaluated the effect of AZT treatment on de novo virus infection as well as on the induction of immunodeficiency by various parameters, including RT activity in serum, splenomegaly, proliferative responses against alloantigens and mitogens, soluble-antigen-presenting cell activity, and immunoglobulin G levels in serum. Our results demonstrated that AZT treatment of C57BL/10 mice infected with LP-BM5 murine leukemia virus efficiently prevented the induction of immunodeficiency if started at the time of virus inoculation. Starting AZT treatment 1 week later provided only a partial protective effect. Starting AZT treatment 2 weeks later was associated with suppression of RT activity in serum but no prevention of immunosuppression. This MAIDS model may allow rapid and cost-effective screening for antiretrovirus drugs targeted against retroviral functions shared between human AIDS and MAIDS, such as those encoded by gag, pol, or env. PMID:1693056

  6. Primary Extranodal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma of the Head and Neck in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Clinicopathologic Study of 24 Patients in a Single Hospital of Infectious Diseases in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Corti, Marcelo; Villafañe, María; Bistmans, Alicia; Narbaitz, Marina; Gilardi, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are commonly described in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and are related with an atypical morphology and aggressive clinical course. AIDS-associated lymphomas are characterized by their rapid progression, frequent extranodal manifestations, and poor outcome. Objective The aim of this article is to remake the clinical features of head and neck (HN) NHL in patients with AIDS to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. Methods We evaluated the epidemiologic, clinical, immunologic, virologic, and histopathologic characteristics of 24 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS with primary HN NHL treated at a single institution between 2002 and 2012. Histopathologic diagnosis was made according to the criteria of the World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Additional immunohistochemical stains were applied in all cases. Results Eighteen patients (75%) were men and the median of age was 39 years. The gingiva and the hard palate were the most common sites of the lesions (15 patients, 62.5%). Lactate dehydrogenase levels were elevated in 16 cases (84%). Bone marrow infiltration was detected only in 4 cases (16.6%). The median CD4 T-cell count was 100 cells/µL. According to the histopathologic evaluation, the most common subtype was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (12 cases, 50%), followed by plasmablastic lymphoma (9 cases, 37.5%) and Burkitt lymphoma (3 cases, 12.5%). Conclusion HN NHL is a severe complication of advanced HIV/AIDS disease. Early diagnosis followed by chemotherapy plus highly active antiretroviral treatment is necessary to improve the prognosis and the survival of these patients. PMID:25992103

  7. Primary extranodal non-hodgkin lymphoma of the head and neck in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a clinicopathologic study of 24 patients in a single hospital of infectious diseases in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Corti, Marcelo; Villafañe, María; Bistmans, Alicia; Narbaitz, Marina; Gilardi, Leonardo

    2014-07-01

    Introduction Extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are commonly described in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and are related with an atypical morphology and aggressive clinical course. AIDS-associated lymphomas are characterized by their rapid progression, frequent extranodal manifestations, and poor outcome. Objective The aim of this article is to remake the clinical features of head and neck (HN) NHL in patients with AIDS to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. Methods We evaluated the epidemiologic, clinical, immunologic, virologic, and histopathologic characteristics of 24 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS with primary HN NHL treated at a single institution between 2002 and 2012. Histopathologic diagnosis was made according to the criteria of the World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Additional immunohistochemical stains were applied in all cases. Results Eighteen patients (75%) were men and the median of age was 39 years. The gingiva and the hard palate were the most common sites of the lesions (15 patients, 62.5%). Lactate dehydrogenase levels were elevated in 16 cases (84%). Bone marrow infiltration was detected only in 4 cases (16.6%). The median CD4 T-cell count was 100 cells/µL. According to the histopathologic evaluation, the most common subtype was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (12 cases, 50%), followed by plasmablastic lymphoma (9 cases, 37.5%) and Burkitt lymphoma (3 cases, 12.5%). Conclusion HN NHL is a severe complication of advanced HIV/AIDS disease. Early diagnosis followed by chemotherapy plus highly active antiretroviral treatment is necessary to improve the prognosis and the survival of these patients. PMID:25992103

  8. Primary extranodal non-hodgkin lymphoma of the head and neck in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a clinicopathologic study of 24 patients in a single hospital of infectious diseases in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Corti, Marcelo; Villafañe, María; Bistmans, Alicia; Narbaitz, Marina; Gilardi, Leonardo

    2014-07-01

    Introduction Extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are commonly described in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and are related with an atypical morphology and aggressive clinical course. AIDS-associated lymphomas are characterized by their rapid progression, frequent extranodal manifestations, and poor outcome. Objective The aim of this article is to remake the clinical features of head and neck (HN) NHL in patients with AIDS to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. Methods We evaluated the epidemiologic, clinical, immunologic, virologic, and histopathologic characteristics of 24 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS with primary HN NHL treated at a single institution between 2002 and 2012. Histopathologic diagnosis was made according to the criteria of the World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Additional immunohistochemical stains were applied in all cases. Results Eighteen patients (75%) were men and the median of age was 39 years. The gingiva and the hard palate were the most common sites of the lesions (15 patients, 62.5%). Lactate dehydrogenase levels were elevated in 16 cases (84%). Bone marrow infiltration was detected only in 4 cases (16.6%). The median CD4 T-cell count was 100 cells/µL. According to the histopathologic evaluation, the most common subtype was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (12 cases, 50%), followed by plasmablastic lymphoma (9 cases, 37.5%) and Burkitt lymphoma (3 cases, 12.5%). Conclusion HN NHL is a severe complication of advanced HIV/AIDS disease. Early diagnosis followed by chemotherapy plus highly active antiretroviral treatment is necessary to improve the prognosis and the survival of these patients.

  9. [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma: 1. Course during the 20 years of the epidemic. 2. The experience at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán: 1986-2003].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Rivera, E Gabriela; Gómez-Roel, Xóchitl; Villasís-Keever, Angelina

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this presentation is the description of the epidemiologic evolution and changes in natural history of the human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) epidemic itself and its relation with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma (ARL). We have started with the description of the world's state of the HIV epidemic, its features since the first case report in the United States of America in 1981, through the peak of new diagnoses in 1993 until the event that changed the natural history of the disease: the era of the widespread use of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), introduced in 1995 in the world and in 1997 in our country. The widespread introduction of HAART led to dramatic reductions in AIDS related mortality and morbidity throughout the developed world with a marked fall in the incidence of the major opportunistic infections in AIDS. We describe the main risk factors for the development of ARL, and the prognostic factors for survival and response to treatment. There is no clear definition in the literature of the roll that has played the use of HAART in relation to survival and response to treatment in ARL, but there is evidence that the basal count of CD4 cells has increased with HAART, leading to a better survival and response in ARL. The debate regarding this issue is surely affected by factors such as degree of antiretroviral treatment compliance, antiretroviral therapy resistance and chemotherapy heterogeneity. Finally we present the preliminary results of the analysis of our experience in ARL from 1986 to 2003.

  10. Absence of lactobacilli containing glycolipids with the α-galactose epitope and the enhanced fucosylation of a receptor glycolipid GA1 in the digestive tracts of immune-deficient scid mice.

    PubMed

    Iwamori, Masao; Tanaka, Kyoko; Adachi, Shigeki; Aoki, Daisuke; Nomura, Taisei

    2015-07-01

    The Lactobacillus species in the digestive tracts of immune-deficient scid mice was distinct from that in control mice, i.e. Lactobacillus murinus in scid and L. johnsonii in control mice, according to their 16S-rRNA, indicating that a symbiotic relationship between lactobacilli and a host is established under pressure from the immune system. The caecal and colonal contents rich in L. murinus of scid mice were loose with a strong sour smell, resulting in diarrhoea, and those with L. johnsonii in control mice included abundant solid materials. Lactobacillus glycolipids were revealed to be recognized by the immune system, and by TLC-immunostaining, LacTetH-DG (Galα1-6Galα1-6Galα1-2Glcα1-3'DG) of L. johnsonii was detected in the stomach, caecum and colon of control mice, but not in those of scid ones, in which fucosylation of a receptor GA1 for L. johnsonii was enhanced more than 4-fold compared with in the control mice. Thus, structural modification of receptor glycolipids was revealed to occur in the process of establishment of a symbiotic relationship between lactobacilli and a host. LacTetH-DG was also immunogenic to human, because of the presence of natural antibodies against it, and the antibody binding to it was comparable to that of blood group- and species-related glycosphingolipids.

  11. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  12. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... tends to be more serious than other lung infections because: People in the hospital are often very sick and cannot fight off ... prevent pneumonia. Most hospitals have programs to prevent hospital-acquired infections.

  13. Acquired Cerebral Trauma: Epilogue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigler, Erin D., Ed.

    1988-01-01

    The article summarizes a series of articles concerning acquired cerebral trauma. Reviewed are technological advances, treatment, assessment, potential innovative therapies, long-term outcome, family impact of chronic brain injury, and prevention. (DB)

  14. Brown's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilson, M E; Eustis, H S; Parks, M M

    1989-01-01

    Brown's syndrome is a well-recognized clinical disorder of ocular motility manifesting most notably a restriction of active and passive elevation in adduction. The original name, "superior oblique tendon sheath syndrome," is no longer appropriate, since it has been shown that the tissue surrounding the anterior superior oblique tendon is blameless as a restrictive force. "True" and "simulated" as descriptive modifiers should also be discarded, as they relate to the disproven sheath concept. Brown's syndrome occurs as a congenital or acquired, constant or intermittent condition; the common link is restriction of free movement through the trochlea pulley mechanism. The various etiologic theories are reviewed and the spectrum of medical and surgical treatments are described and evaluated. Evidence suggests that subtypes of Brown's syndrome lie on a single continuum and that spontaneous resolution occurs in each group, probably more often than previously recognized. A simplified classification scheme is encouraged and possible future directions in Brown's syndrome research are introduced.

  15. [Acquired haemophilia (acquired factor VIII inhibitor)].

    PubMed

    Ceresetto, José M; Duboscq, Cristina; Fondevila, Carlos; Tezanos Pinto, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    Acquired haemophilia is a rare disorder. The clinical picture ranges from mild ecchymosis and anaemia to life threatening bleeding in up to 20% of patients. The disease is produced by an antibody against Factor VIII and it usually occurs in the elderly, with no previous history of a bleeding disorder. It can be associated to an underlying condition such as cancer, autoimmune disorders, drugs or pregnancy. It has a typical laboratory pattern with isolated prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) that fails to correct upon mixing tests with normal plasma and low levels of factor VIII. Treatment recommendations are based on controlling the acute bleeding episodes with either bypassing agent, recombinant activated factor VII or activated prothrombin complex concentrate, and eradication of the antibody with immunosuppressive therapy.

  16. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach. PMID:26186969

  17. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Martin W; MacDonald, Stephen G

    2016-01-01

    Acquired hypofibrinogenemia is most frequently caused by hemodilution and consumption of clotting factors. The aggressive replacement of fibrinogen has become one of the core principles of modern management of massive hemorrhage. The best method for determining the patient’s fibrinogen level remains controversial, and particularly in acquired dysfibrinogenemia, could have major therapeutic implications depending on which quantification method is chosen. This review introduces the available laboratory and point-of-care methods and discusses the relative advantages and limitations. It also discusses current strategies for the correction of hypofibrinogenemia. PMID:27713652

  18. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach.

  19. Acquired Brain Injury Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

    This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

  20. Genetics Home Reference: common variable immune deficiency

    MedlinePlus

    ... H, Lougaris V, Plebani A, Gertz EM, Schäffer AA, Hammarström L, Grimbacher B. Deleterious mutations in LRBA ... 2015 Jun 19. Review. Citation on PubMed Schäffer AA, Salzer U, Hammarström L, Grimbacher B. Deconstructing common ...

  1. Acquired bleeding disorders in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Kruse-Jarres, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    The hemostatic balance changes with advancing age which may be due to factors such as platelet activation, increase of certain clotting factor proteins, slowing of the fibrinolytic system, and modification of the endothelium and blood flow. Generally, this predisposes the elderly to thrombosis rather than bleeding. It often necessitates antiplatelet or anticoagulation therapy, which can cause significant bleeding problems in an aging population. Additionally, changing renal function, modification in immune regulation, and a multitude of other disease processes, can give rise to acquired bleeding disorders. Bleeding can prove difficult to treat in a dynamic environment and in a population that may have underlying thrombotic risk factors.This article discusses some specific challenges of acquired bleeding arising in the elderly. The use of anticoagulation and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications is prevalent in the treatment of the elderly and predisposes them to increased bleeding risk as their physiology changes. When prescribing and monitoring these therapies, it is exceedingly important to weigh thrombotic versus bleeding risks. There are additional rare acquired bleeding disorders that predominantly affect the elderly. One of them is acquired hemophilia, which is an autoimmune disorder arising from antibodies against factor VIII. The treatment challenge rests in the use of hemostatic agents in a population that is already at increased risk for thrombotic complications. Another rare disorder of intensifying interest, acquired von Willebrand syndrome, has a multitude of etiologic mechanisms. Understanding the underlying pathophysiology is essential in making a treatment decision for this disorder.

  2. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Prina, Elena; Ranzani, Otavio T; Torres, Antoni

    2015-09-12

    Community-acquired pneumonia causes great mortality and morbidity and high costs worldwide. Empirical selection of antibiotic treatment is the cornerstone of management of patients with pneumonia. To reduce the misuse of antibiotics, antibiotic resistance, and side-effects, an empirical, effective, and individualised antibiotic treatment is needed. Follow-up after the start of antibiotic treatment is also important, and management should include early shifts to oral antibiotics, stewardship according to the microbiological results, and short-duration antibiotic treatment that accounts for the clinical stability criteria. New approaches for fast clinical (lung ultrasound) and microbiological (molecular biology) diagnoses are promising. Community-acquired pneumonia is associated with early and late mortality and increased rates of cardiovascular events. Studies are needed that focus on the long-term management of pneumonia.

  3. Systemic Acquired Resistance

    PubMed Central

    2006-01-01

    Upon infection with necrotizing pathogens many plants develop an enhanced resistance to further pathogen attack also in the uninoculated organs. This type of enhanced resistance is referred to as systemic acquired resistance (SAR). In the SAR state, plants are primed (sensitized) to more quickly and more effectively activate defense responses the second time they encounter pathogen attack. Since SAR depends on the ability to access past experience, acquired disease resistance is a paradigm for the existence of a form of “plant memory”. Although the phenomenon has been known since the beginning of the 20th century, major progress in the understanding of SAR was made over the past sixteen years. This review covers the current knowledge of molecular, biochemical and physiological mechanisms that are associated with SAR. PMID:19521483

  4. Acquired methemoglobinemia revisited.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Larry; Will, John

    2010-10-01

    Dentistry has two medications in its pain management armamentarium that may cause the potentially life-threatening disorder methemoglobinemia. The first medications are the topical local anesthetics benzocaine and prilocaine. The second medication is the injectable local anesthetic prilocaine. Acquired methemoglobinemia remains a source of morbidity and mortality in dental and medical patients despite the fact that it is better understood now than it was even a decade ago. It is in the interest of all dental patients that their treating dentists review this disorder. The safety of dental patients mandates professional awareness.

  5. Acquired plate-like osteoma cutis.

    PubMed

    Vashi, Neelam; Chu, Julie; Patel, Rishi

    2011-10-15

    Plate-like osteoma cutis is a rare disorder that has been historically classified as a congenital syndrome. It has a possible relationship to a mutation in the gene (GNAS1) that encodes the α-subunit of the stimulatory G protein, which regulates adenyl cyclase activity. We report a case of extensive plaque-like masses on the scalp and face with no abnormalities in calcium or phosphate metabolism and no preceding inflammatory cutaneous conditions. With less than ten reported cases, to our knowledge, this is one the few cases of acquired plate-like osteoma cutis described in the literature.

  6. Acquired scalp alopecia. Part II: A review.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, J R; Kossard, S

    1999-05-01

    The neutrophil-associated and infiltrative scarring alopecias are reviewed including folliculitis decalvans, tufted folliculitis, dissecting cellulitis of the scalp, acne keloidalis and follicular degeneration syndrome. The management of acquired scalp alopecia is also reviewed including newer, promising therapies. More specific agents targeting components of the androgen system will make the treatment of androgenetic alopecia more rewarding. Similarly new immunomodulatory therapies show great promise for the lymphocyte-associated alopecias and include a new generation of macrolide immunosuppressives (tacrolimus, SDZ ASM 981, and SDZ 281-240), some of which appear to have good transcutaneous absorption. PMID:10333615

  7. Psoriasis in hyper IgE syndrome – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ghaffari, Javad; Abedian- Kenari, Saeed; Ghasemi, Maryam; Gohardehi, Farzad

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hyper IgE syndrome (HIES) is a rare primary immune deficiency, described as Job`s syndrome characterized by increased serum levels of IgE, eczema, recurrent cutaneous and pulmonary infections. In this paper, we presented a case of Hyper IgE syndrome. Case Presentation: A 16-year-old Iranian boy presented with a one year history of skin lesions in knees and elbows was diagnosed of psoriasis disease. He had a history of recurrent infections including otitis media, pneumonia, diarrea and skin infection. Laboratory results showed increased level of total IgE and normal in other immunoglobulin. Histologic finding showed hyperkeratosis, parakeratosis of acanthotic epidermis with regular elongation of rete ridges diagnose psoriasis disorder. Conclusion: In conclusion, this is the first case of hyper IgE patient with psoriasis disorder. We addressed the important laboratory findings and actual theories explaining possible association between hyper IgE immunoglobulinemia and psoriasis disorder. PMID:24009971

  8. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Polverino, E; Torres Marti, A

    2011-02-01

    Despite the remarkable advances in antibiotic therapies, diagnostic tools, prevention campaigns and intensive care, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still among the primary causes of death worldwide, and there have been no significant changes in mortality in the last decades. The clinical and economic burden of CAP makes it a major public health problem, particularly for children and the elderly. This issue provides a clinical overview of CAP, focusing on epidemiology, economic burden, diagnosis, risk stratification, treatment, clinical management, and prevention. Particular attention is given to some aspects related to the clinical management of CAP, such as the microbial etiology and the available tools to achieve it, the usefulness of new and old biomarkers, and antimicrobial and other non-antibiotic adjunctive therapies. Possible scenarios in which pneumonia does not respond to treatment are also analyzed to improve clinical outcomes of CAP. PMID:21242952

  9. Clinicopathological associations of acquired erythroblastopenia

    PubMed Central

    Gunes, Gursel; Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Yasar, Hatime Arzu; Eliacik, Eylem; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Demiroglu, Haluk; Sayinalp, Nilgun; Aksu, Salih; Etgul, Sezgin; Aslan, Tuncay; Goker, Hakan; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Buyukasik, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acquired erythroblastopenia (AE) is a rare clinical situation. It is characterized by the reduction of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow together with the low reticulocyte counts in the peripheral blood. Background: Main secondary causes of AE are drugs, Parvovirus B19 and other infectious reasons, lymphoid and myeloid neoplasia, autoimmune diseases, thymoma and pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the frequencies and clinical associations of AE via analyzing 12340 bone marrow samples in a retrospective manner. Material and method: Bone marrow aspirations which were obtained from patients who applied to Hacettepe University Hematology Clinic between 2002 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Thirty four erythroblastopenia cases were found. Patients ranged in age from 16 to 80 years with a median of 38 years. Fifteen patients were men (44%) and nineteen were women (56%). In these patients, detected causes of erythroblastopenia were MDS, idiopathic pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), parvovirus infection, post chemotherapy aplasia, plasma proliferative diseases, copper deficiency due to secondary amyloidosis, fever of unknown origin, hemophagocytic syndrome, enteric fever and legionella pneumonia. We found that between those reasons the most common causes of erythroblastopenia are MDS (17.7%) and idiopathic PRCA (17.7%). Discussion: As a result, erythroblastopenia in the bone marrow may be an early sign of MDS. In those AE cases possibility of being MDS must be kept in mind as it can be mistaken for PRCA. Conclusion: To conclude, in adults MDS without excess blast is one of the most common causes of erythroblastopenia in clinical practice and in case of erythroblastopenia the presence of MDS should be investigated. PMID:26885236

  10. Nurses' Attitudes toward Gay and Hemophiliac Patients with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Judith A.; Damrosch, Shirley

    A sample of nurses (N=183) enrolled in a School of Nursing's master degree program was randomly assigned to read one of six vignettes about a patient who differed only in terms of diagnosis and lifestyle. Possible diagnoses were Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), AIDS acquired by a hemophiliac through blood therapy, and leukemia; possible…

  11. "Repellent and Shameful": The Portrayal of AIDS in "America Responds to AIDS" Broadcast Public Service Announcements, 1987-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Douglas J.

    To address a need for increased discussion of the dangers of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and an increased educative effort to prevent people from acquiring HIV infection, a study investigated one element of an AIDS campaign of the past: the "America Responds to AIDS" television and radio public service announcements (PSAs). Taking…

  12. The New Plymouth Framework for HIV/AIDS Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Plymouth School District, ID.

    A framework is presented for Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education in elementary and secondary schools. The objective is to enable students to understand the nature of the AIDS epidemic and acquire the knowledge and skills needed to maintain behaviors that eliminate risk of infection. The plan was…

  13. Laugier-Hunziker syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Ramakant S; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S; Hosmani, Jagadish V

    2012-05-01

    Laugier-Hunziker syndrome is a rare acquired disorder characterized by diffuse hyperpigmentation of the oral mucosa and longitudinal melanonychia in adults. They appear as macular lesions less than 5 mm in diameter. Laugier-Hunziker syndrome is considered to be a benign disease with no systemic manifestation or malignant potential. Therefore, it is important to rule out other mucocutaneous pigmentary disorders that do require medical management. Prompt clinical recognition also averts the need for excessive and invasive procedures and treatments. In India, the reported cases of this syndrome are very few. We provide a review of literature on Laugier-Hunziker syndrome with its differential diagnosis.

  14. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.2 Acquiring... each holds half of V's shares. Therefore, A and B each control V (see § 801.1(b)), and V is included...” are acquiring persons. (b) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 801.12, the...

  15. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.2 Acquiring... each holds half of V's shares. Therefore, A and B each control V (see § 801.1(b)), and V is included...” are acquiring persons. (b) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 801.12, the...

  16. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...” are acquiring persons. (b) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 801.12, the person(s.... Examples: 1. Corporation A (the ultimate parent entity included within person “A”) proposes to acquire Y, a... to be carried out by merging Y into X, a wholly-owned subsidiary of A, with X surviving, and...

  17. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...” are acquiring persons. (b) Except as provided in paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 801.12, the person(s.... Examples: 1. Corporation A (the ultimate parent entity included within person “A”) proposes to acquire Y, a... to be carried out by merging Y into X, a wholly-owned subsidiary of A, with X surviving, and...

  18. Acquiring and Organizing Curriculum Materials.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lare, Gary A.

    This book addresses two areas of need in a curriculum materials center--where to find curriculum materials for acquisition and how to organize these materials for efficient and effective access once they are acquired. The book is arranged in two parts: "Acquiring and Organizing the Collection" and "Resources." The book brings together many…

  19. Humoral immunodeficiency with facial dysmorphology and limb anomalies: a new syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, H M; Bastian, J F; Bird, L M

    2001-01-01

    We report a 6 year old girl with an isolated humoral immune deficiency and a unique combination of dysmorphic features. Physical findings include microcephaly, micrognathia, sickle shaped eyebrows, hypoplastic alae nasi, thenar hypoplasia, partial 4-5 syndactyly of toes, recessed great toes, anterior anus, and hypoplastic labia minora. Radiographic findings include triphalangeal thumbs and hypoplastic first metatarsals. She has postnatal growth retardation and her development is substantially slower than her twin's. Her clinical course has been complicated by recurrent sinopulmonary infections and pneumococcal bacteraemia. Laboratory evaluation revealed hypogammaglobulinaemia, absent B cells, and a 46,XX karyotype. A review of the literature and the London Dysmorphology Database did not produce any recognizable syndromes that match her constellation of findings. She may represent a unique syndrome of unknown etiology. PMID:11152140

  20. [Differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Deĭkina, O N; Mishin, V Iu; Demikhova, O V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to enhance the efficiency of differential diagnosis of pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis. A hundred and fifty-nine adult patients were examined. These included 78 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 81 with community-acquired p neumonia. The clinical features of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 48) and mild community-acquired pneumonia (n = 51) were compared. The course of caseous pneumonia (n = 30) was compared with that of moderate and severe community-acquired pneumonia (n = 30). Significant differences in the manifestations of the intoxication and bronchopulmonary syndrome were not found in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Physical studies showed that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, moist rale (54.9%) and crepitation (11.8%) were prevalent, but in those with infiltrative tuberculosis rale was absent in 60.4% of cases and the pattern of respiration was unchanged in 79.2%. Chest X-ray studies indicated that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, lower lobar inflammatory changes were predominant in 62.8% of cases whereas in those with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis the process was mainly bilateral (43.8%) with the presence of destructive changes (83.3%) and bronchogenic dissemination (66.7%). In patients with caseous pneumonia, the intoxication syndrome was more significant than in those with severe community-acquired pneumonia. Chest X-ray studies demonstrated that in patients with caseous pneumonia, specific changes were bilateral with the involvement of 2 lobes or more, with destruction and bronchogenic dissemination while in those with community-acquired pneumonia, the pulmonary processes were predominantly bilateral (76.6%) at the lower lobar site (36.7%).

  1. [Differential diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis and community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Deĭkina, O N; Mishin, V Iu; Demikhova, O V

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to enhance the efficiency of differential diagnosis of pneumonia and pulmonary tuberculosis. A hundred and fifty-nine adult patients were examined. These included 78 patients with pulmonary tuberculosis and 81 with community-acquired p neumonia. The clinical features of infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis (n = 48) and mild community-acquired pneumonia (n = 51) were compared. The course of caseous pneumonia (n = 30) was compared with that of moderate and severe community-acquired pneumonia (n = 30). Significant differences in the manifestations of the intoxication and bronchopulmonary syndrome were not found in patients with community-acquired pneumonia and infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis. Physical studies showed that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, moist rale (54.9%) and crepitation (11.8%) were prevalent, but in those with infiltrative tuberculosis rale was absent in 60.4% of cases and the pattern of respiration was unchanged in 79.2%. Chest X-ray studies indicated that in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, lower lobar inflammatory changes were predominant in 62.8% of cases whereas in those with infiltrative pulmonary tuberculosis the process was mainly bilateral (43.8%) with the presence of destructive changes (83.3%) and bronchogenic dissemination (66.7%). In patients with caseous pneumonia, the intoxication syndrome was more significant than in those with severe community-acquired pneumonia. Chest X-ray studies demonstrated that in patients with caseous pneumonia, specific changes were bilateral with the involvement of 2 lobes or more, with destruction and bronchogenic dissemination while in those with community-acquired pneumonia, the pulmonary processes were predominantly bilateral (76.6%) at the lower lobar site (36.7%). PMID:17338353

  2. Acute periostitis in early acquired syphilis simulating shin splints in a jogger.

    PubMed

    Meier, J L; Mollet, E

    1986-01-01

    Acute periostitis affecting the long bones is a characteristic but uncommon manifestation of syphilis in the adult with an early acquired infection. This report describes the history of a jogger who developed acute localized periostitis of the shaft of both tibiae during the early stage of acquired syphilis. Symptomatology was initially attributed to the medial tibial stress syndrome.

  3. Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia in a patient with occupational chemical exposure.

    PubMed

    Patel, Monaliben; Kalra, Ankur; Surapaneni, Rakesh; Schwarting, Roland; Devereux, Linda

    2014-01-01

    Acquired amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia (AAT) is a hematologic disorder that presents as thrombocytopenia with absent megakaryocytes in the bone marrow. Causes of AAT include toxins, drugs, viral infections, systemic lupus erythematosus, and cytokine deficiencies. Patients with AAT should be followed for possible progression to aplastic anemia or myelodysplastic syndrome. We present a case of a 61-year-old woman with AAT due to occupational chemical exposure.

  4. Silicone implant incompatibility syndrome (SIIS): a frequent cause of ASIA (Shoenfeld's syndrome).

    PubMed

    Cohen Tervaert, J W; Kappel, R M

    2013-07-01

    Silicon has a molecular mass of 28 daltons. In nature, silicon is found as silicon dioxide (silica) or in a variety of silicates (e.g., in talc or asbestos). Furthermore, silicon is present in silicones, polymerized siloxanes, which are often used as medical silicones in breast implants. Silicon exposure is associated with different systemic autoimmune diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, rheumatoid arthritis, progressive systemic sclerosis, and vasculitis. Remarkably, silicon in silicone-filled breast implants is considered to be safe, not increasing the risk of developing autoimmune diseases. We analyzed the impact of silicone-filled breast implants on the immune system in 32 consecutive patients attending a specialized autoimmunity clinic. All 32 patients had silicone implant incompatibility syndrome and complaints fulfilling the diagnostic criteria of ASIA (autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants). Furthermore, in 17 of the 32 patients, a systemic autoimmune disease was diagnosed, and 15 of the 32 patients had an impaired humoral immune system. Patients developed symptoms and signs after long-term follow-up, suggesting that these symptoms and signs started after implant aging and/or rupture. We postulate that silicon in silicone-filled breast implants may increase the risk of developing (auto) immune diseases and immune deficiencies.

  5. Immune Dysfunction in Children with CHARGE Syndrome: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    van der Burg, Mirjam; la Bastide-van Gemert, Sacha; Hogendorf, Lianne A.; van Ravenswaaij-Arts, Conny M. A.; Schölvinck, Elisabeth H.

    2015-01-01

    CHARGE syndrome is a variable, multiple congenital malformation syndrome. Patients with CHARGE syndrome have frequent infections that are presumed to be due to anatomical anomalies of the craniofacial region and upper airway, and cranial nerve problems resulting in swallowing difficulties and aspiration. The possible contribution of immunological abnormalities to these infections has not been systematically studied even though immune deficiencies have been described in patients with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome, a condition which shares remarkable clinical overlap with CHARGE syndrome. We assessed the frequency and nature of immune dysfunction in 24 children with genetically proven CHARGE syndrome. All patients, or their parents, completed a questionnaire on infectious history. Their immune system was extensively assessed through full blood counts, immunoglobulin levels, lymphocyte subpopulations, peripheral B- and T-cell differentiation, T-receptor excision circle (TREC) analysis, T-cell function, and vaccination responses. All CHARGE patients had a history of infections (often frequent), mainly otitis media and pneumonia, leading to frequent use of antibiotics and to hospital admissions. Decreased T-cell numbers were found in 12 (50%) patients, presumably caused by insufficient thymic output since TREC amounts were also diminished in CHARGE patients. Despite normal peripheral B-cell differentiation and immunoglobulin production in all patients, 83% of patients had insufficient antibody titers to one or more early childhood vaccinations. Based on our results, we recommend immunological evaluation of CHARGE patients with recurrent infections. PMID:26544072

  6. Seasons: The National Native American AIDS Prevention Center Quarterly. 1993.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rush, Andrea Green, Ed.

    1993-01-01

    The three 1993 issues of "Seasons" (the Spring/Summer issues are combined) address various aspects of dealing with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among Native Americans. The Winter issue focuses on tuberculosis (TB) and its incidence and treatment among HIV-positive individuals. "Remembering…

  7. Should Persons with Contagious Diseases Be Barred from School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roe, Richard L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews recent court decisions regarding whether individuals with contagious diseases may be barred from public schools. Devotes specific attention to the issue of whether certain communicable diseases such as tuberculosis and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) can be classified as handicaps and thereby qualify a person for protection…

  8. Are Victims of AIDS 'Handicapped' under Federal Law?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flygare, Thomas J.

    1986-01-01

    Discusses whether the disease AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) could be considered a "handicap." Describes a recent court decision, "Arline vs. School Board of Nassau County," in which the court found that a teacher with tuberculosis could be defined as handicapped and that her dismissal was in violation of Section 504 of the…

  9. AIDS: New Challenge to the Counseling Psychologist in Private Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fradkin, Howard R.

    Counseling psychologists, especially those who work with homosexual men, may find that Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a major focus of their work. Therapists must be comfortable talking explicitly with these clients about sex, and must be able to help clients talk explicitly about their behavior. Clients often feel ambivalent about…

  10. Integrating an HTLV-III Screening Program into a Community Based Family Health Service Agency.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausmeier, Walter W.; Henshaw, Beverly

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has become one of the most serious epidemic disease problems in recent years. In 1985 the Public Health Service recommended establishment of test sites where individuals might be tested for Human T Lymphotropic Virus III (HTLV-III) antibody. An HTLV-III antibody screening program was integrated into a…

  11. Affective and Behavioral Responses of Gay and Bisexual Men to HIV Antibody Testing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huggins, James; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Surveyed 56 gay and bisexual men tested for antibody to human immunodeficiency virus. Subjects who tested positive experienced increased anxiety, depression and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome anxiety; subjects who tested negative experienced decrease in these feelings after learning results. Subjects who chose not to learn results experienced…

  12. Why AIDS? The Mystery of How HIV Attacks the Immune System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Damaris

    1999-01-01

    Reviews differing theories surrounding the mystery of how human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) attacks the immune system. Claims that understanding how HIV triggers immune-cell depletion may enable researchers to block its effects. New knowledge could reveal strategies for acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) therapies that go beyond the drugs…

  13. Coping in an HIV/AIDS-Dominated Context: Teachers Promoting Resilience in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ebersohn, Liesel; Ferreira, Ronel

    2011-01-01

    This paper explains how teachers in schools function as resources to buoy resilience in the face of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome-compounded adversities. We draw on participatory reflection and action data from a longitudinal study with teachers (n = 57, 5 males, 52 females) from six schools in three South…

  14. Psychological Distress amongst AIDS-Orphaned Children in Urban South Africa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cluver, Lucie; Gardner, Frances; Operario, Don

    2007-01-01

    Background: South Africa is predicted to have 2.3 million children orphaned by Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) by 2020 (Actuarial Society of South Africa, 2005). There is little knowledge about impacts of AIDS-related bereavement on children, to aid planning of services. This study aimed to investigate psychological consequences of AIDS…

  15. Campuses Confront AIDS: Tapping the Vitality of Caring and Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keeling, Richard P.

    1993-01-01

    In response to needs created by the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, colleges and universities have struggled to develop or redesign policies and services to promote behavioral change. Effective institutional response requires comprehensive policy, services and referral, and education and prevention focusing on identity and…

  16. Adolescents' Thoughts and Feelings about AIDS in Relation to Cognitive Maturity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Candida C.; Murphy, Lisa

    1990-01-01

    Studied adolescents' (N=163) formal operational reasoning in relation to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) knowledge, AIDS fear, sexual knowledge, and reactions to AIDS victims. Found that advanced reasoning predicted better AIDS knowledge and general sexual knowledge. Advanced reasoning and AIDS knowledge were also linked with heightened…

  17. Guidelines for Counselling about HIV Infection and Disease. WHO AIDS Series 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    The present guidelines have been prepared to provide counselors, health care workers, and others with a model for use in counseling people affected directly or indirectly by Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The guidelines describe the nature, role, and principles of counseling, the…

  18. A Generation in Jeopardy: Children and AIDS. A Report of the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. U.S. House of Representatives, One Hundredth Congress, First Session (December 1987).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    This document presents a Congressional report on the topic of children and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). These topics are addressed: (1) dramatic increases in AIDS among infants and young children; (2) differences in pediatric AIDS and AIDS among adults; (3) minority children's disproportional rate of infection with AIDS; (4)…

  19. The Impact of HIV Infection on the Hemophilia Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitney, Christopher K.

    1989-01-01

    The hemophilia community has been deeply affected by the catastrophe of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The use of blood products that had first restored the potential for normal survival now bring the threat of AIDS infection and fear and discrimination from others. Strong leadership has come from the National Hemophilia Foundation.…

  20. Attitudes of Dental Hygiene Students toward Individuals with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haring, Joen Iannucci; Lind, Laura J.

    1992-01-01

    At Ohio State University, 81 dental hygiene students' attitudes toward homosexual and heterosexual patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or leukemia were assessed using ratings of prejudice, social interaction, and interpersonal interaction. Negative bias toward individuals with AIDS and unwillingness to engage in everyday…

  1. Report of the Task Force on AIDS and Dental Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molinari, John; Gray, Carolyn F.

    1988-01-01

    The American Association of Dental Schools' task force on acquired immune deficiency syndrome and dental education recommends that educational strategies stress the necessity for routine infection control procedures in treatment, enhancing the health professionals' knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors concerning all aspects of disease prevention.…

  2. AIDS at the Medical College of Georgia--A Study in Institutional Ethics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koelbl, James J.

    1991-01-01

    The article addresses issues arising when a dental student is positive for the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or has AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). Considered are the student's right to confidentiality, the duty to warn, the patient's right to informed consent, guidelines of the American Dental Association, possible alternatives…

  3. Gender, Self-Monitoring, Alcohol Consumption, and Sexual Behavior: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harnish, Richard J.; Abbey, Antonia

    For this study, college students were asked to describe their sexual histories and how their sexual behavior related to alcohol consumption, contraceptive use, and concern over Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) so that more could be learned about gender and self-monitoring differences in sexual behavior. College undergraduates (N=94)…

  4. Youth and HIV/AIDS: A Guide to Training and Technical Assistance Resources. Safe Choices Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Network for Youth, Washington, DC.

    This publication lists Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) materials and organizations as identified by the Safe Choices Project. It cites resources and organizations used by the Project for its national HIV/STD prevention trainings and when responding to requests for technical assistance. The publication…

  5. Study of Knowledge, Attitudes, Perceptions and Beliefs Regarding HIV and AIDS (KAPB). Memorandum Presented to the Directorate Primary Health Care of the Department of National Health and Population Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Plessis, G. E.; And Others

    This document reports on a study that assessed levels of knowledge, types of attitudes, perceptions, and beliefs (KAPB) of the general South African public regarding Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Interviews were conducted with 5,360 participants; survey data are summarized in 49…

  6. Living with HIV/AIDS in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedletter, 1993

    1993-01-01

    This newsletter article is concerned with understanding what schools can and must do to sustain life in the age of human immunodeficiency virus and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS). The article looks at the incidence of AIDS and reviews legislation related to AIDS infection and school attendance. School policy as it relates to…

  7. Experiential Service-Based Learning: An Integrated HIV/AIDS Education Model for College Campuses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Judith R.; Schwartz, Lisa B.

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a approach to teaching the sociology of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) by combining coursework with weekly volunteer work in an AIDS agency. Concludes with a discussion of the benefits of experiential learning and five guidelines for establishing similar community service programs. (CFR)

  8. AIDS-Related Stigmas and Safe-Sex Practices of African-American College Students: A Pilot Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chandler, Donald S., Jr.

    This study examined the safe-sex practices of African-American colleges students in light of culturally-specific beliefs that stigmatize Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in the African-American community. A total of 21 self-selected, sexually-active African-American students (15 females and 6 males) aged 18-22 completed the AIDS…

  9. Issues in the Development of Undergraduate Courses on the Psychosocial Implications of AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heyman, Steven R.

    This paper discusses the issues that should be addressed in an undergraduate course dealing with the psychosocial implications of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). These issues are: (1) the medical aspects of HIV infection and transmission; (2) death and dying versus life and living; (3) homosexuality; (4) intravenous drug use; (5)…

  10. AIDS, Social Sciences, and Health Education: A Personal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osborn, June E.

    1986-01-01

    Explores the nature of the new AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) virus and its diseases, avoidance strategies, neurologic disease and AIDS, co-factors involved in progression from asymptomatic infection to disease, AIDS versus civil liberties--barriers to effective communication, the importance of language in communication, and health…

  11. Pharmacotherapeutics for the AIDS Patient.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fife, Kenneth H.

    1991-01-01

    Anticipated shifts in the demographics of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic are examined, current state-of-the-art AIDS patient management is summarized, and some unique facets of drug therapy in the AIDS patient are discussed, including adverse reactions, complex drug interactions, use of investigational drugs, and…

  12. AIDS/HIV among Hispanics in the Northeast and Puerto Rico: Report of Findings and Recommendations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Hortensia

    1991-01-01

    Discusses six findings of the Northeast Hispanic Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) consortium's assessment of 2,527 members of the Hispanic community of the northeast United States and Puerto Rico. Highlights the subjects' needs for information, education, risk reduction, and services related to AIDS and the human immunodeficiency virus…

  13. Considerations for Prevention of HIV Infection among Hispanic Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amaro, Hortensia

    1988-01-01

    Notes overrepresentation of Hispanics among persons with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and considers factors in designing AIDS prevention programs in Hispanic communities. Discusses characteristics of AIDS epidemic among Hispanics, demographic and psychological characteristics of Hispanic women and their relevance to AIDS prevention…

  14. Exploring Self-Efficacy and Locus of Control as Risk Factors in Sexual Decision Making for African American Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pimpleton, Asher M.

    2012-01-01

    Sexually transmitted diseases have reached epidemic proportions, especially among African Americans. However, African American women have emerged as being one of the hardest hit groups by the most fatal of sexually transmitted diseases--the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Although there has…

  15. Guide to Planning Health Promotion for AIDS Prevention and Control. WHO AIDS Series 5.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Geneva (Switzerland).

    This guide is intended to provide planners, managers, and technical staff with guidelines for planning, implementing, monitoring, and evaluating an Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) health promotion program. As such, it can be used in the development of a detailed AIDS health promotion action plan. The guide reviews the steps, processes,…

  16. Workers' Reactions to AIDS and Other Illnesses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheehan, Eugene P.; And Others

    Previous research on the public's response to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has been concerned with attitudes and knowledge in relation to the disease itself. This study investigated people's willingness to interact with individuals with AIDS in the workplace. Participants (N=358) were college students with an average age of 25.…

  17. "An Instrument of Accountability." ILO/AIDS: A Global Plan and a New Code of Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World of Work, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Describes the International Labor Organization's plan of action to fight the global epidemic of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Describes the code of practice that provides workers, employers, and governments with guidelines for addressing AIDS and its impact on the workplace. Includes key principles of the code. (JOW)

  18. The Effect of Educational Intervention on Attitudes toward Selected High Risk Sexual Behaviors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Templeton, Josey H.; Wilson, Gary L.

    Education is one of the most often used methods in the prevention of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs). Numerous educational models have been designed in response to the needs of various groups to reduce the spread of HIV/AIDS. Results have been mixed because of the…

  19. Counseling Roles and AIDS. Highlights: An ERIC/CAPS Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Thomas C.

    This fact sheet considers the counselor's role in dealing with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Three counselor roles are examined: (1) direct counseling for those affected by AIDS; (2) coordination of support systems for victims of AIDS; and (3) education. Seven recommendations for health professionals dealing with AIDS patients are…

  20. Latinas and HIV/AIDS: Implications for the 90s.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maldonado, Miguelina

    1991-01-01

    Among Latinas, the number of cases of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is increasing relentlessly. From August 1989 to August 1990, there was a 53 percent increase nationally in cumulative AIDS cases among Latinas. In New York City, AIDS is the leading cause of death among Latinas aged 25-34. The conditions and circumstances that place…

  1. Training Volunteers for an AIDS Buddy Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojanlatva, Ansa; And Others

    In 1986, the Baton Rouge Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Task Force began to implement an individual volunteer support program to provide support services through a companion, a buddy, whose functions would be either emotional support or assistance in daily activities, or both. In order to have trained volunteers, an education program…

  2. Preventing Volunteer Burn Out Through a Structured Support Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosnowitz, Barbara G.; Appleby, George A.

    Communities will need a significant infusion of resources in the future to care for persons with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The AIDS epidemic has served to confuse the differences between professional and volunteer roles of caregiving and has complicated the original intent of service by each of these groups. Recognition on the…

  3. The Science, Spread and Therapy of HIV Disease. Everything You Need To Know, but Had No Idea Who To Ask.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiSpezio, Michael A.

    This book uses a question-and-answer format to provide information on the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and the disease caused by infection from the virus, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Topics covered include: (1) "Outbreak," which discusses the history of the AIDS outbreak including early theories about the causes of AIDS and…

  4. 76 FR 26363 - Medicare Program; Prospective Payment System and Consolidated Billing for Skilled Nursing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ...: ABN Advance Beneficiary Notice AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ARD Assessment Reference Date... Health Center FR Federal Register FY Fiscal Year GAO Government Accountability Office HAC Hospital... notice with comment period (75 FR 42886, July 22, 2010) that set forth updates to the SNF PPS...

  5. Death and Its Rituals in Novels on AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Joseph J.; Nouss, Alexis

    1993-01-01

    Reviews novels dealing with the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, noting that their perspectives on death can be extracted through content analysis. Concludes that, overall, these novels present weak symbolization about death with rituals that are not highly elaborated and that complex images of the afterlife are not offered.…

  6. The African American Family and AIDS: Counseling Issues and Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Patrick; Beamish, Patricia M.

    This document discusses the application of a systems approach for family counseling for African American families with a family member infected with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). It begins by citing statistics that illustrate that there exists a disproportionate representation of cases of AIDS among African Americans. A discussion on…

  7. AIDS in the Black Community: Programmatic Directions for New York State. Preliminary Report, Human Services Subcommittee. The Governor's Advisory Committee for Black Affairs, Albany. Volume 2, Human Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York Governor's Advisory Committee for Black Affairs, Albany.

    There is a critical need for culturally appropriate community-based services in the black community to stop the spread of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and to support those with the disease. AIDS is a priority health and social services issue for black New Yorkers, affecting not only individual men and women but whole families.…

  8. Conocimiento de Transmision de SIDA y Percepcion Hacia los Ninos con SIDA en el Salon de Clases de los Maestros de Educacion Especial (Knowledge of AIDS Transmission and Special Education Teachers' Attitudes towards Children with AIDS in the Classroom).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez de Williams, Milka

    This Spanish-language master's thesis presents a study which measured special education teachers' knowledge of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) virus transmission and their attitudes toward children with AIDS in schools. Attitudes were then related to social variables such as sex, teacher's age, and knowing someone with AIDS. A survey of…

  9. HIV Education for Adult Literacy Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Barbara E.

    This staff development package is designed to inform adult literacy practitioners about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (AIDS/HIV) and to facilitate implementation of HIV education in adult literacy programs. It is intended to teach them to plan and implement HIV education for their adult literacy students and to…

  10. Mass Media Messages, Myths and Martyrs: Analyzing "America Responds to AIDS" Public Service Announcements, 1987-1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Douglas J.

    Focusing on the federal government's efforts to educate the public to the dangers of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), a study examined "America Responds to AIDS" public service announcements (PSA's) through a traditional rhetorical analysis (PSA characters, plot, pace, tone, and message design). Forty-four English-language television…

  11. Representation of AIDS in Televised Public Service Announcements: The Discursive Practices of Government in the Constitution of Knowledge about AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Myrick, Roger; And Others

    Using a textualist approach (looking at meaning above and beyond overt message elements), a study examined televised public service announcements (PSAs) about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) produced by the Ad Council and the United States Department of Health and Human Services. Both ads identify young people who should be concerned…

  12. The Science of AIDS. Readings from Scientific American Magazine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scientific American, Inc., New York, NY.

    This collection of scientific articles on the subject of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) covers many facets of the physical and social aspects of the disease. Technical articles deal with the molecular and cellular biology of AIDS and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). The national and international epidemiology of AIDS and HIV are…

  13. Learning about AIDS. Interim Materials. Participatory Health Education Strategies for Health Educators with a Responsibility for Adult Education about AIDS [and] Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Homans, Hilary; And Others

    Intended for those who are responsible for educating other educators about AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), these materials are designed to result in learner-centered instruction about AIDS--helping students of all kinds explore their own anxieties about AIDS and consider the implications of factual information for their own behavior…

  14. Understanding HIV and AIDS: Preparing Students for Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steiner, Sue J.

    1995-01-01

    Current biological, immunological, and medical knowledge about Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), including methods of preventing transmission, is reviewed and presented in a format suitable for inclusion in a social work curriculum. Various ways in which the information can be incorporated into…

  15. Human Immunodeficiency Virus and the Enrolled Student: A Model Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iowa State Dept. of Education, Des Moines.

    In the nearly 4 years since the initial publication of the model policy "Communicable Diseases and the Enrolled Student" in January 1986, the statistics, recommendations, and even the terminology of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) have changed significantly. In light of the new information, the model policy, recommended for…

  16. HIV-AIDS Information and the American Library Community: An Overview of Responses to the HIV-AIDS Health Crisis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lukenbill, W. Bernard

    This paper presents an overview of how American libraries have responded to the health crisis caused by HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) and AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). AIDS information dissemination practices of libraries and the social role which American librarians have articulated regarding their special responsibilities are…

  17. A Decade of Denial: Teens and AIDS in America. A Report of the Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families. Together with Additional Views and Dissenting Minority Views. House of Representatives, 102d Congress, 2nd Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Children, Youth, and Families.

    Based on hearings, current research, and interviews with experts, including researchers, medical and service providers, and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) educators, this Select Committee report assesses the impact of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) epidemic on youth and identifies strategies policymakers and program planners…

  18. AIDS in Correctional Facilities: Issues and Options. Issues and Practices in Criminal Justice. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammett, Theodore M.

    This document, written for officials involved in making and implementing decisions regarding the correctional response to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS), provides the most current figures and trend data on the incidence of AIDS among incarcerated offenders. The stated purpose of this document is to be informational rather than…

  19. Knowing Both: Towards Integrating Two Main Approaches to the Tertiary Education of Health Care Workers Involved in Caring for People Living with HIV/AIDS. A Needs Assessment of HIV/AIDS Tertiary Education for Health Care Workers in Metropolitan South Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Barry; Mills, Patricia

    The need for continuing education about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) was assessed for health care workers in metropolitan South Australia. Seventeen focus group discussions were held to solicit the views and experiences of various persons regarding HIV/AIDS tertiary education. Included in the…

  20. AIDS and Persons with Developmental Disabilities: The Legal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rennert, Sharon; And Others

    This report provides lawyers and service providers with legal information and analysis about issues affecting persons with developmental disabilities and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The report reviews relevant medical facts, discusses federal and state laws which define the rights and responsibilities of disabled individuals and…

  1. Liability for Failure To Provide AIDS Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Michael R.

    1990-01-01

    The U.S. Constitution guarantees a right to privacy that requires deputies and jailers to avoid the unnecessary disclosure of sensitive information about a person. This privacy right especially covers Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome-related (AIDS) information, and it even protects the immediate family of persons infected with human…

  2. Vocational Rehabilitation Services to Persons with H.I.V. (AIDS). Institute on Rehabilitation Issues (16th, Savannah, Georgia). Report from the Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corthell, David W.; Oliverio, Michael

    This training manual addresses the vocational rehabilitation (VR) of persons with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and related conditions. It considers the medical, cultural, social, legal, psychological, and economic implications of this condition; and how these factors relate to the vocational…

  3. Psychotherapy with AIDS Patients: Countertransference Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilk, Carole A.

    This paper provides a personal account of the process of psychotherapy for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients, as seen from both the client's and the psychotherapist's perspective, with a focus on countertransference issues found in the early phases of treatment. Based on case material, the discussion explores themes presented by…

  4. Relationship Between Health Literacy, Knowledge of Health Status, and Beliefs about HIV/AIDS Transmission among Ryan White Clients in Miami

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mooss, Angela; Brock-Getz, Petra; Ladner, Robert; Fiano, Theresa

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to examine the relationships between health literacy, knowledge of health status, and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) transmission beliefs among recipients of Ryan White care. Design: Quota and convenience sampled, quantitative analysis captured with closed and…

  5. AIDS/HIV Infection Policies for Early Childhood and School Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts State Dept. of Public Health, Boston.

    This volume of policies related to children with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) describes appropriate ways to guarantee students' rights while maintaining public health, and answers questions for parents, educators, and caregivers. Section 1 presents policy guidelines for infants, toddlers, and…

  6. Assessment of Discharge Planning Referral to Nursing Homes for People with AIDS and HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linsk, Nathan L.; Marder, Reggi E.

    This study was conducted to identify efforts by hospital discharge planners to refer clients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) to nursing homes; to determine the responses of the facilities contacted; and to identify gaps in services, discharge planner practices, and relationships between…

  7. Children with HIV/AIDS: A Sourcebook for Caring. A Guide for Establishing Programs for Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allbritten, Dorothy J.

    This manual is intended for administrators and professional caregivers who wish to provide comprehensive health care to children with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection, the cause of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Chapter 1, an overview, examines the societal and economic issues that affect care and treatment of children…

  8. Living with AIDs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graubard, Stephen R., Ed.

    1989-01-01

    Because events move swiftly in the contemporary world, it is easy to forget that acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a phenomenon of the 1980s. It is generally agreed that this is only the very beginning of a scientific investigation that will go on well into the 21st century. This issue attempts to provide some of the basic information…

  9. A Study of Parent-Child Attachments in HIV+/AIDS Minority Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Yvette; And Others

    This study examined medical services and support services available to and utilized by minority families where a child and/or parent was identified as having Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Sixteen caregivers of children (ages 2-4) diagnosed as HIV positive or children who had been exposed to the…

  10. Designing and Implementing an Educational Program on AIDS for Minority Childbearing Women To Enhance AIDS Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nimphius, Gail M.

    Ignorance, misinformation, and a failure to personalize the risk for acquisition of the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) virus has created a situation in which the incidence of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) seroprevalence among minority childbearing women in a Florida county is increasing. An increased incidence in this population…

  11. Adolescent Sexuality Special Subject Bibliography, 1988-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Planned Parenthood Federation of America, Inc., New York, NY.

    This document consists of three annual issues of a special subject bibliography combining adolescent sexuality, for the years 1988, 1989, and 1990, respectively. Citations for books, journal articles, and reports concerned with adolescent sexuality are grouped under such topics as: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Human Immunodeficiency…

  12. Survival Models for People with AIDS in Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getzel, George S.

    1991-01-01

    Describes four modes of positive survival with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and analyzes them as they appear in support groups for people with AIDS. Sees beneficent, artistic-spiritual, heroic, and rational-instrumental survival modes as compromise solutions to fears of life and death described by Rank. Calls analysis nonpejorative…

  13. Children with HIV Infection: Collaborative Responsibilities of the Child Welfare and Medical Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boland, Mary G.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Describes collaborative efforts of New Jersey Department of Human Services child welfare division and the New Jersey Children's Hospital AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) Program to care for children with human immunodeficiency virus. Contends child welfare and health care communities have responsibility to provide comprehensive,…

  14. A Developmental Neuropsychological Model for the Study of Children with HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gioia, Gerard A.; And Others

    A developmental neuropsychological model is presented to address critical factors critical to the functional outcome in children with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. In the model, which is derived from work at the Boston Children's Hospital Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) program, neuropsychological outcomes are determined…

  15. Assessing Riverside Community College Nursing Student Attitudes toward Exposure to AIDS/HIV-Positive Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kross, Carolyn Sue

    In fall 1990, a study was conducted to assess the attitudes of nursing students who were attending Riverside Community College (RCC), in California, toward exposure to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (AIDS/HIV) positive patients in a hospital setting. All students enrolled in RCC's associate degree nursing program…

  16. Guidelines on AIDS in Europe. First Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zoffmann, H.; And Others

    The problem of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Europe and public health measures that can be taken to reduce the spread of infection are discussed. These guidelines cover: the magnitude of the problem in Europe, the virus and its mode of transmission, major clinical features of the disease, laboratory tests, possibilities of…

  17. Team Packs: Addressing Human Sexuality Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Florida Univ., Gainesville. Inst. for Child Health Policy.

    This kit provides materials that teach about Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS), sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), and pregnancy using group instructional methodology to actively engage students in the learning process. Using cooperative learning materials and videotape recordings, the program stresses…

  18. SAFE: Stopping AIDS through Functional Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hylton, Judith

    This functional curriculum is intended to teach people with developmental disabilities or other learning problems how to prevent infection with HIV/AIDS (Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The entire curriculum includes six video segments, four illustrated brochures, 28 slides and illustrations, as well as a guide…

  19. Extenuating Circumstances in Perceptions of Suicide: Disease Diagnosis (AIDS, Cancer), Pain Level, and Life Expectancy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Stephen K.; Range, Lillian M.

    1991-01-01

    Examined whether illness type, pain level, and life expectancy affected reactions of undergraduates (n=160) toward a terminal illness suicide with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) or cancer. AIDS patients were more stigmatized than cancer patients; suicide was more tolerated if victim was suffering greater pain. (Author/ABL)

  20. Development and Implementation of an AIDS Prevention Program for African-American Women at a Child Care Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moten-Tolson, Paula

    This program was designed to provide Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) prevention education for African-American women of child bearing age at a child care center which serves low income high risk families. The primary goal was to reduce the risk of African-American women at the child care center for contracting the Human Immunodeficiency…

  1. Facilitating Support Groups for Professionals Working with People with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grossman, Arnold H.; Silverstein, Charles

    1993-01-01

    Describes support groups for health care professionals who work with people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and who are experiencing burnout from excessive demands on their energy, strength, and resources. Discusses group administration, effective intervention techniques, and issues of health…

  2. Physicians Mutual Aid Group: A Response to AIDS-Related Burnout.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garside, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    Describes origins and functioning of physician's mutual aid group for physicians providing primary care to people with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Offers suggestions related to overcoming resistance physicians might have to participating in such a group and reviews modalities that were helpful in facilitating participants' ability…

  3. The Professional Challenges for Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garfield, Nancy J.; And Others

    This document consists of the fourth section of a book written to educate and inform those in the helping professions on how to deal with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). The three chapters in section 4 are devoted to special issues for counselors, issues that directly affect the caregiver. They examine professional challenges to…

  4. Burnout in Hospital Social Workers Who Work with AIDS Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oktay, Julianne S.

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed 128 hospital social workers who worked with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients. Found that hospital AIDS social workers had slightly higher rates of emotional exhaustion and depersonalization on Maslach Burnout Inventory but also felt substantially higher level of personal accomplishment. Age, autonomy, and belonging to…

  5. Psychosocial Correlates of Burnout and Depression in HIV Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mirsalimi, Hamid; Roffe, Michael W.

    Job stress in health care professionals who provide care to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients has been a subject of interest to a number of health center and hospital physicians, administrators, and to some extent, behavioral scientists. In this study psychosocial correlates of burnout and depression in HIV counselors were…

  6. Teaching about AIDS/HIV Disease to College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heller, Joseph R.

    This paper presents a psychology professor's account of his experiences teaching a course on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome/Human Immunodeficiency Virus (AIDS/HIV) to college students. The first section discusses how to introduce and market the course on campus, and anticipate students' and colleagues' questions about one's motivations for…

  7. Restructuring: School Counselors Can Make a Difference.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boley, Ellen

    Although there have been technological and structural advances in the schools within the past 10 years, the social environment for young people has severely deteriorated. Teenage pregnancy, guns in schools, illegal drugs, homelessness, suicide, Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome, and unemployment are some of the negative mental and physical…

  8. Act Smart. HIV/AIDS Education Curriculum for Three Age Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American National Red Cross, Washington, DC.

    This Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education curriculum was developed for boys and girls, ages 6 to 17 years. It is a supplement to a similar program, "SMART Moves," aimed at prevention of drug abuse and premature sexual activity. The Act SMART prevention team should consist of a staff facilitator…

  9. African-American Adolescents' Knowledge, Health-Related Attitudes, Sexual Behavior, and Contraceptive Decisions: Implications for the Prevention of Adolescent HIV Infection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    St. Lawrence, Janet S.

    1993-01-01

    African-American adolescents (n=195) completed measures on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) knowledge, condoms, health locus of control, vulnerability to human immunodeficiency virus, peer sexual norms, sexual behavior, and contraceptive preferences. Girls were more knowledgeable about AIDS, reported fewer sexual partners, held more…

  10. The Evaluation of Educational Help in Aids Prevention among Youth for Educators Working Outside the School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudreau, Louise; And Others

    Training of professionals as educators in the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and sex education domains has been seen as part of the solution to slow down the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) transmission and eventually stop it. This study evaluated an educational guide for AIDS prevention which was distributed to youth workers…

  11. The Impact of AIDS on the Black Community.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatchett, David

    1990-01-01

    More than 25 percent of those who have the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) virus are African American, and, in large urban areas, the disease is a leading cause of death, especially among black women. AIDS education is vital to supplement health care efforts in the black community. (SLD)

  12. AIDS and Child Care: A Booklet for Child Care Workers, Management Committees and Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fricke, Caroline; Glasson, Mark

    This booklet provides Australians with basic information about the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Contents cover the definiton of AIDS, ways the disease is transmitted, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) antibody testing for adults and children, variations among children infected with HIV, information that HIV is not transmitted…

  13. Human Subjects Issues in AIDS Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bayer, Ronald, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    Six articles are presented on the use of human subjects in research on acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Topics include the ethics of human experimentation, female and pediatric AIDS patients, Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and AIDS among correctional inmates, community-based AIDS research, and clinical trials of HIV…

  14. Victims of AIDS: Family, Society, Cost and Outlook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peyton, Doris F.

    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has become an increasing problem throughout the nation. Experts predict that there will have been 270,000 cases, including 179,000 deaths, by 1991. The disease has devastating psychosocial as well as physical effects. Neither preventive medicine nor a cure is anywhere in sight. Everyone needs to be…

  15. School-Based HIV-AIDS Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allan, Margaret C.

    Health and education matters in Canada are the responsibility of the government of each individual province. These opportunities for improvement in the Canadian system regarding Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education exist. First, a nationally standardized curriculum is needed. Second, more time allocated for AIDS education is…

  16. Illness Cognition and Responses to AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, George D.

    Along with the current epidemic of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has come what some have called an epidemic of fear. Two studies were conducted to explore lay responses to AIDS from the perspective of recent research on how lay people process illness information. The research examines the cognitive organization of disease information…

  17. Employment Tests You May Face.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsett, Michael C.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews a number of tests that persons applying for engineering jobs may encounter including drugs, honesty, polygraph, personality and job skills tests. Discusses some problems with tests. Defines discrimination in hiring. States that job applicants usually will not take a test for Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). (CW)

  18. The Creative Use of Psychotherapy with Terminally Ill with AIDS.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraenkel, William A.

    One clinical psychologist worked with terminally ill, end-stage Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients in a hospice type setting for an 18-month time period. Interventions included individual psychotherapy, mental status assessments, staff group sessions, and supportive services for families and significant others. During that time,…

  19. Considerations for Reaching the Latino Population with Sexuality and HIV/AIDS Information and Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Vega, Ernesto

    1990-01-01

    Latino and Latina sexual attitudes and behaviors must be understood if educators and counselors hope to reach this population with effective sexuality and Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) information and education. The general U.S. Latino population is mostly sexually conservative; direct talk in public…

  20. AIDS Education under Democracy: Gay Men, Sexual Dissent, and the Limits of Prevention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rofes, Eric

    This paper reviews past and current Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education and prevention efforts, describes three specific phases of efforts, and analyzes AIDS education and prevention in relation to emancipatory models of education. First the paper reviews data measuring the transmission of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) among…