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Sample records for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

  1. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1983-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of utmost importance. PMID:6342737

  2. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  3. Diffuse hyperpigmentation associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Peter, S. A.; Brignol, Y. F.; Razavi, M. H.; Greeley, N.

    1992-01-01

    This article reports a case of diffuse hyperpigmentation in a 56-year-old Latino male after he was diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The possible causes of this hyperpigmentation are discussed. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:1334155

  4. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Vykuntaraju K N; Sukanya, V; Shivananda

    2012-11-01

    A 7-year-old boy with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, receiving antiretroviral drugs for 2 years, presented with a recent onset of myoclonic jerks and cognitive deterioration. On examination, he manifested myoclonic jerks once every 10-15 seconds. His electroencephalogram indicated periodic complexes, and his cerebrospinal fluid tested positive for measles antibodies.

  5. Pediatric human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: an overview.

    PubMed

    Layton, T L; Davis-McFarland, E

    2000-01-01

    This article covers the epidemiological manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in children, demographic statistics, and information on the three modes of virus transmission. The various opportunistic diseases and neurological dysfunction that characterize pediatric HIV are described. The Center for Disease Control pediatric HIV classification system is presented, and the developmental disorders often found in children with HIV are discussed. The Universal Disease Precautions of the American Speech and Hearing Association (ASHA) for clinicians is also presented.

  6. [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in pediatric patients].

    PubMed

    Molina Moguel, J L; Ruiz Illezcas, R; Forsbach Sánchez, S; Carreño Alvarez, S; Picco Díaz, I

    1990-12-01

    The object of this study was to determine how many of the patients treated at the Pediatric Odontology Clinic, a branch of the Maxillo-Facial Surgery Service at the Veinte de Noviembre Regional Hospital, ISSSTE, are VIH-positive of show serious manifestations of Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). For such purpose, 100 pediatric patients suffering from different systemic or local diseases were evaluated, the most common being hematological alterations. Results evidenced the presence of VIH in the blood of five of the pediatric subjects, all suffering from Hemophilia.

  7. The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: current status.

    PubMed Central

    Quagliarello, V.

    1982-01-01

    A recently recognized syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-AIDS) has arisen since June 1981. It has received international attention. The clinical spectrum consists of repeated opportunistic infections, rare malignancies, and autoimmune phenomena, occurring in previously healthy adults with no history of an immunologic disorder. The population subset at risk for this syndrome appears to be predominantly homosexual American males and intravenous drug abusers with rare cases being reported in heterosexuals, hemophiliacs, and foreign patients, especially Haitians. The immunologic aberrancy in all patients described appears limited to T-lymphocyte hyporesponsiveness and imbalance of T-helper and suppressor cells. This disordered immunoregulation is a consistent finding in all reported cases and appears to predispose to the opportunistic infections and malignancies which have been associated with a 40 percent mortality. The underlying factor responsible for the immunoregulatory defect is unknown but possible etiologies include a transmissible infectious agent, drug use, chronic antigen stimulation, and spermatozoa exposure. Treatment of the associated infections and malignancies has been a frustrating endeavor as many patients respond incompletely or relapse soon after successful treatment course. Preventive measures, including patient education, physician awareness, and immunomodulating agents, are discussed. PMID:6134399

  8. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in gay men.

    PubMed

    Jaffe, H W; Hardy, A M; Morgan, W M; Darrow, W W

    1985-11-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a major health problem for gay men in the United States. About three fourths of all reported cases have occurred in this population, and the number is projected to double in the next year. In Manhattan and San Francisco, AIDS is now the leading cause of premature mortality in men aged 25 to 44 years who have never married. In a sample of a cohort of gay men enrolled in a San Francisco clinic, 2.7% of the men had the syndrome and 26% had related conditions in 1984. Antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus, type III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus was found in sera from 67% of the men, including 58% of asymptomatic men. Behavioral factors associated with an increased risk of AIDS include large numbers of sexual partners, receptive anal intercourse, and "fisting." The adoption of safer lifestyles is currently the basis of attempts to control the syndrome in gay men.

  9. [HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, J

    1997-05-01

    On June 4, 1981, MMWR published a report about Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in homosexual men in Los Angeles. This was the first published report. A years later, this disease was named acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the following year, Montangier et al in France discovered the causative agent, which they called lymphadenopathy virus (LAV), now known as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In 1985, solid-phase enzymeimmunoassay for the detection of the antibody to HIV was developed. Since then, other new techniques for the identification of HIV infection have been become available. These include more sensitive methods (for example; polymerase chain reaction techniques). Although these techniques facilitate early and definite diagnosis of infection, these tests may fail to detect the antibody in sera during window period of infection or overdiagnose infection in sera contaminated with genes not related to HIV. Although preventing blood exposure is the primary means of preventing occupationally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, appropriate post-exposure management is an important element of workplace safety. Information suggesting that zidovudine (ZDV) postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) may reduce the risk for HIV transmission after occupational exposure to HIV infected blood prompted a Public Health Service (PHS) interagency working group, with expert consultation, and recommendations on PEP and management of occupational exposure to HIV in relation to these findings were discussed.

  10. Mycobacterial disease, immunosuppression, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Collins, F M

    1989-01-01

    The mycobacteria are an important group of acid-fast pathogens ranging from obligate intracellular parasites such as Mycobacterium leprae to environmental species such as M. gordonae and M. fortuitum. The latter may behave as opportunistic human pathogens if the host defenses have been depleted in some manner. The number and severity of such infections have increased markedly with the emergence of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. These nontuberculous mycobacteria tend to be less virulent for humans than M. tuberculosis, usually giving rise to self-limiting infections involving the cervical and mesenteric lymph nodes of young children. However, the more virulent serovars of M. avium complex can colonize the bronchial and intestinal mucosal surfaces of healthy individuals, becoming virtual members of the commensal gut microflora and thus giving rise to low levels of skin hypersensitivity to tuberculins prepared from M. avium and M. intracellulare. Systemic disease develops when the normal T-cell-mediated defenses become depleted as a result of old age, cancer chemotherapy, or infection with human immunodeficiency virus. As many as 50% of human immunodeficiency virus antibody-positive individuals develop mycobacterial infections at some time during their disease. Most isolates of M. avium complex from AIDS patients fall into serotypes 4 and 8. The presence of these drug-resistant mycobacteria in the lungs of the AIDS patient makes their effective clinical treatment virtually impossible. More effective chemotherapeutic, prophylactic, and immunotherapeutic reagents are urgently needed to treat this rapidly increasing patient population. PMID:2680057

  11. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and human immunodeficiency virus infection in Nevada.

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, J. Q.; Semiatin, S. L.

    1991-01-01

    We summarize information from three sets of epidemiologic data: the Nevada AIDS [acquired immunodeficiency syndrome] Surveillance System, which contains information about every case identified within the state boundaries through September 1989; the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seroprevalence reporting systems, which currently include data on all HIV-positive reports submitted statewide to public health authorities; and surveys on the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors of Nevadans concerning HIV-related disease. The Nevada State AIDS Task Force outlined major policy recommendations, nearly half of which concerned testing; only 2 dealt with preventing HIV transmission. Greater efforts should go into education, particularly directed toward groups at greatest risk of exposure to HIV, and to improve community-based care of infected persons. PMID:2024509

  12. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Simmons, J.T.; Masur, H.; Smith, P.D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Ognibene, F.P.

    1987-02-01

    All gallium-67 citrate scans obtained in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the results of bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and endoscopy. There were 164 scans of 95 patients. Twenty scans were from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 19 were abnormal, for a sensitivity of 95%. Ga-67 uptake tended to be less in patients receiving therapy for P. carinii pneumonia. Chest radiographs were normal at least initially in three patients with abnormal scans and P. carinii pneumonia. Unusually prominent colonic activity was associated with infection in some patients. No lesions of Kaposi sarcoma showed tracer uptake. Gallium scanning is useful for detecting P. carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS, but it is not useful for localizing Kaposi sarcoma.

  13. Pathology of thyroid in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lanjewar, Dhaneshwar Namdeorao; Ramraje, Sushma Nagsen; Lanjewar, Sonali Dhaneshwar

    2016-01-01

    The course of human immunodeficiency virus infection and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome can be complicated by a variety of endocrine abnormalities, including abnormalities of thyroid gland. This study was designed to understand the spectrum of pathology of thyroid in Indian patients with AIDS. The present study describes the findings of retrospective autopsy findings of 158 patients with AIDS which revealed infectious diseases from a time period before the use of highly active antiretroviral regimen. A wide range of bacterial, fungal, and viral infections were observed. Tuberculosis was recorded in 14 (09%) patients, Cryptococcus neoformans in 11 (7%) patients and cytomegalovirus in 3 (2%) patients. Hashimoto's thyroiditis and lymphocytic thyroiditis were seen in 02 (01%) patients each. One patient had dual infection comprising of tuberculosis and cytomegalovirus infection. The other microscopic findings observed were goiter (2 patients), interstitial fibrosis in thyroid (7 patients), and calcification in thyroid (8 patients). Abnormalities of thyroid are uncommon findings in patients with HIV infection however several case reports of thyroid involvement by infectious agents and neoplasm are described in these patients; hence patients with HIV infection should be closely followed up for development of goiter or abnormalities of thyroid functions.

  14. [Thoracic manifestations of AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)].

    PubMed

    Bernasconi, A; Zompatori, M; Chiodo, F; Costigliola, P; Ricchi, E; Colangeli, V; Canini, R; Gavelli, G

    1989-11-01

    AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) seems to be related to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and is characterized by severe T-helpers lymphocyte dysfunction. Many of the AIDS patients (47-70%) develop pulmonary manifestations, both infectious and neoplastic, in the course of their disease. In the Department of Infectious Diseases of our Hospital are studied many patients HIV+. Every year 246 seropositive new patients have been discovered. Among them we have studied 25 subjects with respiratory disease, by chest radiographs; successively, according to clinical picture, we have performed thoracic computed tomography, Gallium scintigraphy, fiberoptic bronchoscopy with transbronchial biopsy (TBB), bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL); the majority of these patients (68%) had AIDS, only 28% had ARC and 4% had PGL. In our experience, the diagnosed diseases were mainly infections (92%), and most frequently (52%) due to Pneumocystis carinii, alone or in association with other etiologic agents. We have not found pathognomonic radiographic abnormalities, but chest X-ray evaluated with clinical and laboratory data, may often be useful to obtain diagnostic indications and in order to determine a more specific and aggressive diagnostic approach.

  15. Neuroleptic malignant syndrome in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Hernández, J. L.; Palacios-Araus, L.; Echevarría, S.; Herrán, A.; Campo, J. F.; Riancho, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    Patients infected by the human immunodeficiency virus are predisposed to many infectious and noninfectious complications and often receive a variety of drugs. Furthermore, they seem to have a particular susceptibility to idiosyncratic adverse drug reactions. It is therefore surprising that only a few cases of the neuroleptic malignant syndrome have been described in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A high index of suspicion is required to diagnose the neuroleptic malignant syndrome in these patients, as its usual manifestations, including fever and altered consciousness, are frequently attributed to an underlying infection. PMID:9497946

  16. Gastrointestinal Manifestations of the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rodgers, Vance D.; Kagnoff, Martin F.

    1987-01-01

    In addition to abnormalities in systemic immune function, patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the pre-AIDS syndromes have significant abnormalities in the distribution of T-cell subsets in the intestinal tract. Such immune deficits predispose such patients to opportunistic infections and tumors, many of which involve the gastrointestinal tract. For example, Candida albicans often causes stomatitis and esophagitis. Intestinal infections with parasites (Cryptosporidium, Isospora belli, Microsporidia) or bacteria (Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare) are associated with severe diarrhea and malabsorption, whereas viruses like cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus cause mucosal ulcerations. Clinically debilitating chronic diarrhea develops in many AIDS patients for which no clear cause can be identified. Enteric pathogens like Salmonella and Campylobacter can be associated with bacteremias. Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma involving the intestinal tract are now well-recognized complications of AIDS. Although AIDS is not associated with a pathognomonic liver lesion, opportunistic infections and Kaposi's sarcoma or lymphoma may involve the liver. ImagesFigure 3.Figure 4.Figure 5.Figure 6.Figure 7. PMID:3825111

  17. Cytomegalovirus retinitis associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Geng, Shuang; Ye, Jun-jie; Zhao, Jia-liang; Li, Tai-sheng; Han, Yang

    2011-04-01

    Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the most severe intraocular complication that results in total retinal destruction and loss of visual acuity in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study aimed to investigate the fundus characteristics, systemic manifestations and therapeutic outcomes of CMV retinitis associated with AIDS. It was a retrospective case series. CMV retinitis was present in 39 eyes (25 patients). Best corrected visual acuities, anterior segment, fundus features, fundus fluorescence angiography (FFA) and CD4(+) T-lymphocyte counts of the patients with CMV retinitis associated with AIDS were analyzed. Intravitreal injections of ganciclovir (400 µg) were performed in 4 eyes (2 patients). Retinal vasculitis, dense, full-thickness, yellow-white lesions along vascular distribution with irregular granules at the border, and hemorrhage on the retinal surface were present in 28 eyes. The vitreous was clear or mildly opaque. Late stage of the retinopathy was demonstrated in 8 eyes characterized as atrophic retina, sclerotic and attenuated vessels, retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) atrophy, and optic nerve atrophy. Retinal detachment was found in 3 eyes. The average CD4(+) T-lymphocyte count in peripheral blood of the patients with CMV retinitis was (30.6 ± 25.3) × 10(6)/L (range, (0 - 85) × 10(6)/L). After intravitreal injections of ganciclovir, visual acuity was improved and fundus lesions regressed. CMV retinitis is the most severe and the most common intraocular complication in patients with AIDS. For the patients with yellow-white retinal lesions, hemorrhage and retinal vasculitis without clear cause, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) serology should be performed. Routine eye examination is also indicated in HIV positive patients.

  18. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the Americas.

    PubMed

    1987-01-01

    As of September 18, 1987, 48,104 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had been reported in the Americas to the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), with a case-fatality mate of 55%. Brazil, Canada, Haiti, and the US contributed 96% of the reported cases. Excluding North America, 4966 AIDS cases were reported in the remaining 40 countries and territories of the Americas. Unlike the situation in Africa, where the 1:1 male: female ratio indicates heterosexual transmission, the profile of AIDS in the Americas is dominated by transmission between homosexual and bisexual males. In 2 countries, however, Haiti and the dominican Republic, the ratio of male to female cases is 4:1, which is intermediate between the ratio in Africa and that in the US. PAHO estimates that the true number of AIDS cases in all countries except the US and Canada may be 2-4 times higher than official reported indicate. A Regional WHO/PAHO Special Program on AIDS has been developed to prevent transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and reduce the morbidity and mortality associated with HIV infection. Multiple strategies and activities are projected for 1987-89, but the principal goal is to help develop and implement national AIDS prevention and control programs. The strategy calls for support of research to define the epidemiology of AIDS, surveillance conducted with appropriate laboratory support, training of health care workers, and implementation of preventive measures. The PAHO program has already mobilized US$1.3 million from WHO's nonregular funding sources for AIDS prevention and control activities in the Americas. An additional US$5 million has been obtained for AIDS research in Latin America and the Caribbean.

  19. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in older African Americans.

    PubMed Central

    Funnyé, Allen S.; Akhtar, Abbasi J.; Biamby, Gisele

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if older African Americans are disproportionately affected by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and to review the clinical impact of AIDS and the importance of prevention and treatment efforts. A review of the literature and statistics was obtained using Medline and the AIDS Public Information Data Set offered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Twenty-seven percent of the U.S. population is above the age of 50, and the number of AIDS cases in this group is growing, with African Americans accounting for the highest proportion of cases and deaths. Testing for HIV may be delayed and symptoms attributed to other illnesses. Though 5% of new cases occur in those over 50, prevention programs, testing, and the perception of risk by providers may be insufficient. There are few research studies on HIV treatment in older patients and no specific guidelines for antiretroviral treatments available. Although death rates for AIDS has been declining, adults over 50 still have the highest mortality rate. Co-morbid conditions, such as heart disease and hypertension, may require taking multiple drugs, which may complicate treatment. Increasing heterosexual transmission rates and a lack of information on HIV reinforces the need for specific prevention programs targeted toward older African Americans. PMID:11991333

  20. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in older African Americans.

    PubMed

    Funnyé, Allen S; Akhtar, Abbasi J; Biamby, Gisele

    2002-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if older African Americans are disproportionately affected by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and to review the clinical impact of AIDS and the importance of prevention and treatment efforts. A review of the literature and statistics was obtained using Medline and the AIDS Public Information Data Set offered by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Twenty-seven percent of the U.S. population is above the age of 50, and the number of AIDS cases in this group is growing, with African Americans accounting for the highest proportion of cases and deaths. Testing for HIV may be delayed and symptoms attributed to other illnesses. Though 5% of new cases occur in those over 50, prevention programs, testing, and the perception of risk by providers may be insufficient. There are few research studies on HIV treatment in older patients and no specific guidelines for antiretroviral treatments available. Although death rates for AIDS has been declining, adults over 50 still have the highest mortality rate. Co-morbid conditions, such as heart disease and hypertension, may require taking multiple drugs, which may complicate treatment. Increasing heterosexual transmission rates and a lack of information on HIV reinforces the need for specific prevention programs targeted toward older African Americans.

  1. Ocular Manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young Shin; Sun, Hae Jung; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kang, Kui Dong

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the patterns and risk factors of the ocular manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and their correlation with CD4+ count in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). Methods This retrospective study examined 127 AIDS patients who presented to Soonchunhyang University Hospital. Data were collected from patient interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory investigations. Ophthalmologic examinations included the best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, anterior segment and adnexal examination, and dilated fundus examination. Results Of the 127 patients with AIDS, 118 were on HAART and 9 were not. The mean CD4+ count was 266.7 ± 209.1 cells/µL. There were ocular manifestations in 61 patients (48.0%). The incidence of anterior segment manifestations was higher than posterior segment manifestations at 28.3% and 19.7%, respectively. The mean CD4+ count was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the patients with posterior versus anterior segment ocular manifestations. The most common ocular manifestation was retinal microvasculopathy (15.0%), followed by keratoconjunctivitis sicca (14.2%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (9.4%), cytomegalovirus retinitis (3.1%), herpes zoster ophthalmicus (2.4%), and blepharitis (1.6%). Retinal microvasculopathy and cytomegalovirus retinitis were common in patients with CD4+ counts <200 cells/µL, while keratoconjunctivitis sicca and conjunctival microvasculopathy were common in patients with CD4+ counts of 200 to 499 cells/µL. There was a significant (p < 0.05) association between ocular manifestation and CD4+ count or age. Conclusions The introduction of HAART has changed the landscape of ocular presentations in patients with AIDS. In this study, anterior segment and external ocular manifestations occurred more frequently than posterior segment manifestations. Also, the mean CD4+ count was significantly lower in patients with posterior segment ocular manifestations

  2. Ocular Manifestations of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young Shin; Sun, Hae Jung; Kim, Tae Hyong; Kang, Kui Dong; Lee, Sung Jin

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the patterns and risk factors of the ocular manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and their correlation with CD4+ count in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). This retrospective study examined 127 AIDS patients who presented to Soonchunhyang University Hospital. Data were collected from patient interviews, clinical examinations, and laboratory investigations. Ophthalmologic examinations included the best-corrected visual acuity, intraocular pressure, anterior segment and adnexal examination, and dilated fundus examination. Of the 127 patients with AIDS, 118 were on HAART and 9 were not. The mean CD4+ count was 266.7 ± 209.1 cells/µL. There were ocular manifestations in 61 patients (48.0%). The incidence of anterior segment manifestations was higher than posterior segment manifestations at 28.3% and 19.7%, respectively. The mean CD4+ count was significantly (p < 0.05) lower in the patients with posterior versus anterior segment ocular manifestations. The most common ocular manifestation was retinal microvasculopathy (15.0%), followed by keratoconjunctivitis sicca (14.2%), conjunctival microvasculopathy (9.4%), cytomegalovirus retinitis (3.1%), herpes zoster ophthalmicus (2.4%), and blepharitis (1.6%). Retinal microvasculopathy and cytomegalovirus retinitis were common in patients with CD4+ counts <200 cells/µL, while keratoconjunctivitis sicca and conjunctival microvasculopathy were common in patients with CD4+ counts of 200 to 499 cells/µL. There was a significant (p < 0.05) association between ocular manifestation and CD4+ count or age. The introduction of HAART has changed the landscape of ocular presentations in patients with AIDS. In this study, anterior segment and external ocular manifestations occurred more frequently than posterior segment manifestations. Also, the mean CD4+ count was significantly lower in patients with posterior segment ocular manifestations versus anterior segment ocular

  3. Toxoplasmic Encephalitis in Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Bok; Lee, Tae-Gyu

    2017-04-01

    Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is an opportunistic infection found in immunocompromised patients and TE related cerebral mass lesion is often reported in acquired immunodeficiency acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. However, incidence of TE related AIDS in Korea is still rare and is unfamiliar to neurosurgeons. Differential diagnosis is needed to rule out other brain lesions. A 39-year-old man visited the emergency room with rapid progressive left hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a ring-enhanced mass lesion in his right frontal lobe. Human immunodeficiency virus and Toxoplasma gondii immunoglobulin G were tested positive by a serologic test. We report here a rare case of patient with TE related AIDS.

  4. Systematic review of vestibular disorders related to human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heinze, B; Swanepoel, D W; Hofmeyr, L M

    2011-09-01

    Disorders of the auditory and vestibular system are often associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. However, the extent and nature of these vestibular manifestations are unclear. To systematically review the current peer-reviewed literature on vestibular manifestations and pathology related to human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Systematic review of peer-reviewed articles related to vestibular findings in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Several electronic databases were searched. We identified 442 records, reduced to 210 after excluding duplicates and reviews. These were reviewed for relevance to the scope of the study. We identified only 13 reports investigating vestibular functioning and pathology in individuals affected by human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. This condition can affect both the peripheral and central vestibular system, irrespective of age and viral disease stage. Peripheral vestibular involvement may affect up to 50 per cent of patients, and central vestibular involvement may be even more prevalent. Post-mortem studies suggest direct involvement of the entire vestibular system, while opportunistic infections such as oto- and neurosyphilis and encephalitis cause secondary vestibular dysfunction resulting in vertigo, dizziness and imbalance. Patients with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome should routinely be monitored for vestibular involvement, to minimise functional limitations of quality of life.

  5. State policies and the financing of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome care

    PubMed Central

    Pascal, Anthony; Cvitanic, Marilyn; Bennett, Charles; Gorman, Michael; Serrato, Carl A.

    1989-01-01

    State policies, with respect to the operation of Medicaid programs and the regulation of private health insurance, affect who gets what care, how much is spent, and who ultimately pays. A RAND Corporation study was used to assess States and the District of Columbia in terms of the effects of their Medicaid and health insurance regulations on people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and other human immunodeficiency virus-related illnesses. State characteristics are used to explain the individual State policy rankings. PMID:10313357

  6. Subject Control of the Literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bierbaum, Esther Green; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study that analyzed the Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) terms used to index the literature of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Subject access to the AIDSLINE database developed by the National Library of Medicine (NLM) is examined, and changes in subject headings that reflect the growth of the field are analyzed. (12…

  7. Myopericarditis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome diagnosed by gallium scintigraphy

    SciTech Connect

    Cregler, L.L.; Sosa, I.; Ducey, S.; Abbey, L. )

    1990-07-01

    Myocarditis is among the cardiac complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and, yet, is often not discovered until autopsy. Gallium scintigraphy has been employed in diagnosing this entity, but few data are available about its diagnostic accuracy and value. Here, the authors report two cases of myopericarditis as diagnosed by gallium scan.

  8. [AIDS. The etiologic agent for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Lee, W Y

    1993-01-01

    In 1981, an unusual case with immunodeficiency was reported and there after an epidemic fo the similar syndrome in population of homosexuals was recognized by Center for Diseases Control(CDC) U. S. A. Later the disease was characterized as an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDS). In 1983, virologists found the causative agent which is a novel retrovirus named human immunodeficiency virus(HIV). Since then, by use of modern biotechnology, numerous and detailed informations have been accumulated by various researchers. The result, however, demonstrated that there is no a single method of satisfaction to prevent of cure the disease except avoiding from the agent. This problems are discussed by reviewing the results reported up to date.

  9. Inhibition of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome virus by oligodeoxynucleoside methylphosphonates.

    PubMed Central

    Sarin, P S; Agrawal, S; Civeira, M P; Goodchild, J; Ikeuchi, T; Zamecnik, P C

    1988-01-01

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotides containing internucleoside methylphosphonate linkages were examined for their ability to inhibit human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-induced syncytium formation and virus expression. HIV inhibitory activity was found to be dependent on both chain length and the number of phosphonate residues. Introduction of 18 phosphonate groups in an oligomer of chain length 20 significantly increased HIV inhibitory activity relative to the parent oligonucleotide, whereas 5 such groups showed little or no increase in the HIV inhibition capacity. Methylphosphonate-linked oligomers are more stable to nuclease degradation and hence could be potentially useful in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. PMID:3174646

  10. New Jersey's Medicaid waiver for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Merzel, Cheryl; Crystal, Stephen; Sambamoorthi, Usha; Karus, Daniel; Kurland, Carol

    1992-01-01

    This article contains data from a study of New Jersey's home and community-based Medicaid waiver program for persons with symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus illness. Major findings include lower hospital costs and utilization for waiver participants compared with general Medicaid acquired immunodeficiency syndrome admissions in New Jersey. Average program expenditures were $2,400 per person per month. Based on study findings, it is evident that the waiver program is an important means of providing financial benefits and access to services and that comprehensive case management is a critical factor in assuring program quality. PMID:10120180

  11. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated with blood-product transfusions

    SciTech Connect

    Jett, J.R.; Kuritsky, J.N.; Katzmann, J.A.; Homburger, H.A.

    1983-11-01

    A 53-year-old white man had fever, malaise, and dyspnea on exertion. His chest roentgenogram was normal, but pulmonary function tests showed impaired diffusion capacity and a gallium scan showed marked uptake in the lungs. Results of an open-lung biopsy documented Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Immunologic test results were consistent with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The patient denied having homosexual contact or using intravenous drugs. Twenty-nine months before the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia was made, the patient had had 16 transfusions of whole blood, platelets, and fresh-frozen plasma during coronary artery bypass surgery at another medical center. This patient is not a member of any currently recognized high-risk group and is believed to have contracted the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from blood and blood-product transfusions.

  12. Trypanosoma cruzi meningoencephalitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Yasukawa, Kosuke; Patel, Shital M; Flash, Charlene A; Stager, Charles E; Goodman, Jerry C; Woc-Colburn, Laila

    2014-07-01

    As a result of global migration, a significant number of people with Trypanosoma cruzi infection now live in the United States, Canada, many countries in Europe, and other non-endemic countries. Trypanosoma cruzi meningoencephalitis is a rare cause of ring-enhancing lesions in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) that can closely mimic central nervous system (CNS) toxoplasmosis. We report a case of CNS Chagas reactivation in an AIDS patient successfully treated with benznidazole and antiretroviral therapy in the United States.

  13. [Reflection on treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome by integrative medicine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-Ni

    2012-02-01

    The current situation of Chinese medicine and Western medicine treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has made the integrative medicine treatment of AIDS an important treatment strategy. Integrative medicine treatment of AIDS has made certain achievements in clinical research, basic research, and other aspects. It has good mass foundation and curative efficacy, as well as insufficiency. I hope integrative medicine can be brought into full play in the treatment of AIDS and make breakthrough progress.

  14. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Menon, V; Bharucha, K

    1994-01-01

    As health care professionals, we face a grave risk of acquiring HIV infection in the course of our work. But how many of us really know the precautions to be applied in the hospital set up in dealing with HIV infected patients? A knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study was conducted in Pune hospitals to assess the current status. Among the results 65% servants had not heard of AIDS, 85% nursing staff did not apply the Universal Safety Precautions (USP) approach, 13.5% resident thought that the HIV was not transmitted by blood, 30% consultants would avoid contact with an HIV positive patient. This study has shown that definite lacunae exist in knowledge specific to the particular population in question. A proposal for an education programme which is target specific and one of constant renewal is sought.

  15. [Psychosocial aspects of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    de Moura, L; Jacquemin, A

    1991-04-01

    Psychosocial aspects which arise with regard to people directly or indirectly involved with AIDS: patients, relatives and professional staff, are studied. The results show that the population assisted in the Ribeirão Preto region is predominantly young, male and drug-addicted. The patients with "positive" results show reactions similar to those described by Kluber-Ross (1977) for terminal patients. The behavior observed in relatives forms a continuum which varies from the negation of the illness to the overprotection of the patient. For the professionals, perplexity is the most common reaction when they face a population which is different from that with which they are used to dealing. Finally, the data acquired indicate that the psychologist can help the professionals to deal with the reactions of the patients by integrating them into their organic and emotional aspects.

  16. Autoimmunity and dysmetabolism of human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yan-Mei; Hong, Xue-Zhi; Xu, Jia-Hua; Luo, Jiang-Xi; Mo, Han-You; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2016-06-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) remains ill-defined by lists of symptoms, infections, tumors, and disorders in metabolism and immunity. Low CD4 cell count, severe loss of body weight, pneumocystis pneumonia, and Kaposi's sarcoma are the major disease indicators. Lines of evidence indicate that patients living with AIDS have both immunodeficiency and autoimmunity. Immunodeficiency is attributed to deficits in the skin- and mucosa-defined innate immunity, CD4 T cells and regulatory T cells, presumably relating human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The autoimmunity in AIDS is evident by: (1) overproduction of autoantibodies, (2) impaired response of CD4 cells and CD8 cells, (3) failure of clinical trials of HIV vaccines, and (4) therapeutic benefits of immunosuppression following solid organ transplantation and bone marrow transplantation in patients at risk of AIDS. Autoantibodies are generated in response to antigens such as debris and molecules de novo released from dead cells, infectious agents, and catabolic events. Disturbances in metabolic homeostasis occur at the interface of immunodeficiency and autoimmunity in the development of AIDS. Optimal treatments favor therapeutics targeting on the regulation of metabolism to restore immune homeostasis.

  17. Trypanosoma cruzi Meningoencephalitis in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Yasukawa, Kosuke; Patel, Shital M.; Flash, Charlene A.; Stager, Charles E.; Goodman, Jerry C.; Woc-Colburn, Laila

    2014-01-01

    As a result of global migration, a significant number of people with Trypanosoma cruzi infection now live in the United States, Canada, many countries in Europe, and other non-endemic countries. Trypanosoma cruzi meningoencephalitis is a rare cause of ring-enhancing lesions in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) that can closely mimic central nervous system (CNS) toxoplasmosis. We report a case of CNS Chagas reactivation in an AIDS patient successfully treated with benznidazole and antiretroviral therapy in the United States. PMID:24891470

  18. Hair alteration in black patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leonidas, J R

    1987-06-01

    Four black men with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) demonstrated profound alterations in hair patterns two to three years after their first symptoms appeared. The hair became longer, lighter, softer, and silky, and it was occasionally discolored. One patient was thought to be of Indian extraction. These changes may not be as apparent in nonblack persons. Possible explanations are a retrogression of hair pattern to an earlier stage of growth, a phenomenon reminiscent of, but not similar to, malnutrition trichosis, or a combination of both. Closer attention should be paid to the hair of AIDS patients. Histologic and chemical analysis may be appropriate.

  19. Pathology of Toxoplasma myocarditis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sahasrabudhe, Neil S; Jadhav, M V; Deshmukh, S D; Holla, V V

    2003-10-01

    Involvement of the myocardium by Toxoplasma gondii is seen in patients of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), mostly in association with toxoplasma encephalitis. Only few patients die as a direct result of cardiac dysfunction. Clinico-pathological findings of three cases of toxoplasma myocarditis are reported, one of which presented and died due to massive pericardial effusion. All cases showed diffuse myocarditis with parasites on histopathological examination. Incidence of toxoplasma myocarditis in patients dying with AIDS was 8.3% (3 out of 36 cases).

  20. Polymorphous hemangioendothelioma in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Paul, Stephan R; Hurford, Matthew T; Miettinen, Markku M; Aronoff, Stephen C; Delvecchio, Michael; Grewal, Harsh; Tuluc, Madalina

    2008-03-01

    Polymorphous hemangioendotheliomas (PH) are rare and borderline malignant tumors that are among the wide range of vascular tumors. We report here a 13-year-old male presenting with a history of weight loss, opportunistic infections, and lymphadenopathy. He was determined to be HIV positive and to have acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A biopsy of a femoral node was diagnostic of PH. His systemic lymphadenopathy appeared to resolve with anti-retroviral therapy. This tumor should be considered within the differential diagnoses of pediatric and immunocompromised patients.

  1. Toxoplasma peritonitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Israelski, D M; Skowron, G; Leventhal, J P; Long, I; Blankenship, C F; Barrio, G W; Prince, J B; Araujo, F G; Remington, J S

    1988-07-01

    Toxoplasma gondii was identified in a stained slide preparation of, and isolated from, peritoneal fluid specimens obtained from a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). At the time of admission to the hospital, the patient's serologic tests were positive for Toxoplasma. Toxoplasma was isolated from samples of the patient's blood by mouse inoculation. Findings of newly developed methods for diagnosis of the presence of T gondii in body fluids by assay for Toxoplasma-specific antigen and by use of a DNA probe were positive.

  2. Gastric toxoplasmosis as the presentation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Merzianu, Mihai; Gorelick, Steven M; Paje, Voltaire; Kotler, Donald P; Sian, Corazon

    2005-04-01

    We report a case of a 39-year-old West African man with unknown human immunodeficiency virus status diagnosed with gastric toxoplasmosis as the presenting manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Toxoplasma gondii is common in severely immunosuppressed patients and most frequently involves the central nervous system, followed by the eye, myocardium and skeletal muscle, lungs, bone marrow, and peripheral blood. For unclear reasons, gastrointestinal involvement is exceedingly rare and occurs in the context of severe immunosuppression and disseminated disease. To our knowledge, this is the first report in the English literature of a patient with isolated, manifest gastric toxoplasmosis without evidence of concomitant cerebral or extracerebral involvement. It is important for both the clinician and the pathologist to maintain a high index of suspicion for toxoplasmosis in immunosuppressed patients presenting with nonspecific symptoms of gastritis and radiologic and endoscopic presence of thickened gastric folds with or without ulceration.

  3. [A case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with ileocecal ulcer].

    PubMed

    Iwasaki, Tetsuyoshi; Saruta, Masayuki; Sawada, Ryoichi; Ide, Daisuke; Arihiro, Seiji; Matsuoka, Mika; Katoh, Tomohiro; Tajiri, Hisao

    2015-10-01

    We report a case of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and ileocecal ulcer. A 31-year-old man was admitted with chief complaints of decreased body weight and abdominal pain. Colonoscopy revealed a round punched-out ulcer on the ileocecal valve. Initially, we suspected entero-Behçet's disease and simple ulcer as the cause of the ileocecal ulcer. However, after histologic examination of tissue biopsies obtained during colonoscopy, we diagnosed the patient as having cytomegalovirus (CMV) enteritis. Based on the patient's white blood cell depletion and CMV enteritis, we performed a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody test. The test was positive, and the diagnosis of AIDS was established. The number of patients with AIDS has been increasing in Japan; thus, we should consider the possibility of CMV enteritis and AIDS in young adult patients affected by ileocecal ulcer with no notable history.

  4. Histopathologic changes in macaques with an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed Central

    King, N. W.; Hunt, R. D.; Letvin, N. L.

    1983-01-01

    The authors recently described the clinical course of an Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) in a colony of macaque monkeys. In the present study, they have reviewed the histopathology of tissues obtained from a cohort of 16 animals with this clinical syndrome at necropsy. They found evidence in these animals of several opportunistic infections, including cytomegalovirus (CMV), simian virus 40 (SV-40), and noma. Furthermore, a number of other unusual pathologic processes were noted. In 4 animals an array of lymphoproliferative disorders was observed, ranging from multiple nodules of lymphocytes in the kidney, liver, and bone marrow, to frank lymphoma. Evidence of retroperitoneal fibrosis was found in 3 of the animals. Finally, amyloidosis was observed in several animals; in two instances it was present only in the mucosa of the small intestine. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 PMID:6316791

  5. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: manifestations in the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Aguirre-Urízar, José Manuel; Echebarría-Goicouría, María Angeles; Eguía-del-Valle, Asier

    2004-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a pandemic disease characterised by impairment of the immune system; the main parameter is a progressive decline in the number of CD4 lymphocytes. This circumstance paves the way for opportunistic infections and the development of neoplastic processes that can lead the patient to a state known as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and ultimately, results in death. The incorporation of treatment based on a cocktail of different active drugs (highly active antiretroviral therapy) has made it possible to drastically change the panorama of the disease in developed nations; improving quality of life for the patient and delaying the progression of the disease. The oral manifestations of HIV infection have been and continue to be an important component of the disease from the very first descriptions and are indicative of progression. At some point in the course of the disease, nine out of every ten patients will present oral manifestations and, on occasion, these symptoms will be the first sign of the syndrome. It is essential that oral healthcare professionals recognize the hallmarks of the illness. In developed countries, the emergence of new therapies has made it possible to significantly reduce immune deficiency-related oral manifestations, both in terms of frequency, as well as severity. This review analyses the most important oral lesions associated with HIV infection and the current state of affairs in this regard.

  6. Hepatic disease in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Lodenyo, Hudson; Segal, Issy

    2004-01-01

    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is now the leading cause of death in the world. Liver involvement in opportunistic infections and neoplasms affecting patients with human immunodeficiency disease syndrome are common. Many of these patients also take many medicines and toxins that are potentially harmful to the liver. This is an overview on the aetiology and possible diagnostic guide to determine liver involvement in patients with HIV infection. A literature review was performed on major published series on the liver and HIV infection between 1985 and 1999, both years inclusive. Data and opinions from 5 general reviews and 31 original articles from MEDLINE on liver disease in patients with HIV infection regarding aetiology, pathology, presentation and patient evaluation are summarised. The liver is frequently affected in patients with AIDS. The majority of the patients have hepatomegaly and abnormal liver enzymes secondary to involvement with opportunities infections, AIDS associated neoplasms and drug therapy. Most of the infections reach the liver by lymphohaematogeneous spread from other sites in the body. Methodical approach in patient evaluation is therefore essential for prompt diagnosis and treatment to minimise morbidity and early mortality.

  7. Chronic Alcohol Accentuates Simian Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-Associated Wasting

    PubMed Central

    Molina, Patricia E.; Lang, Charles H.; McNurlan, Margaret; Bagby, Gregory J.; Nelson, Steve

    2011-01-01

    Background Survival following human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection has improved significantly following the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy. A large percentage of HIV-infected patients consume and abuse alcohol. Erosion of lean body mass is an important contributing factor to patient morbidity and mortality, and is a common feature of both chronic alcohol (ALC) consumption and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We hypothesized that alcohol-induced loss in lean body mass is likely to exacerbate the AIDS wasting syndrome, particularly at the terminal stage of AIDS (SAIDS). Methods This study examined the impact of chronic, intra-gastric ALC (5 h/d × 4 d/wk; blood alcohol levels = 55 mM to 60 mM) administration on body composition and muscle mass in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected male Rhesus macaques in contrast to SIV-infected isocaloric (22 kcal/kg/d) sucrose (SUC)-infused control animals at the terminal stage of SIV infection. Results At terminal stage, ALC/SIV+ animals had significantly lower body weight, body mass index, and limb muscle area than SUC/SIV+ animals. Both ALC/SIV+ and SUC/SIV+ animals had suppressed expression of insulin-like growth factor-I and increased expression of the ubiquitin ligase muscle-specific RING finger-1 mRNA. ALC increased mRNA expression of atrogin- 1 (pre-SIV and at SAIDS) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α (SAIDS). These changes were not associated with significant differences in fractional rates of muscle protein synthesis or in overall survival rate. These data show that chronic ALC exacerbated the loss of muscle mass at terminal SAIDS. Conclusion Our findings suggest the involvement of TNF-α and increased muscle proteolysis via atrogin-1 for the greater erosion of lean body mass at terminal SAIDS in ALC-treated Rhesus macaques. PMID:18028526

  8. Longitudinal patterns of California Medicaid recipients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Roxanne; Keyes, Margaret; Pine, Penelope

    1991-01-01

    In this study, the authors examine the longitudinal experience, annual trends, and subpopulation differences in Medicaid use and expenditures for persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in California from 1983 through 1986. About two-thirds of adult males were enrolled in Medicaid within 1 month of their AIDS diagnosis. These recipients averaged approximately 20-percent higher lifetime expenditures than those enrolled at a later time. Monthly expenditures were higher in the beginning of enrollment and prior to death than in the months in between. From 1983 through 1986, there was a shift of care from inpatient to outpatient settings. In 1986, children and adult females had higher median expenditures than did adult males. PMID:10122357

  9. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in California's Medicaid program, 1981-84

    PubMed Central

    Andrews, Roxanne M.; Keyes, Margaret A.; Pine, Penelope L.

    1988-01-01

    In this article, Medicaid enrollment, use, and expenditures for persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in California from 1981-84 are examined. The data are from Tape-to-Tape, a person-level Medicaid enrollment and claims data base. It was found that expenditures per month of enrollment decreased as length of enrollment during the year increased. Average annual expenditures increased from 1982 to 1983 and then decreased in 1984. This decrease was most pronounced in hospital services with no indication of a substitution of ambulatory services. This decline is primarily a result of a decrease in hospital reimbursement per day as opposed to changes in use, because discharge rates decreased and length of stay increased. PMID:10312824

  10. Resource utilization patterns in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Okello, D O

    1994-12-01

    A survey in 1991 of resource use patterns and factors affecting the cost of care for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Mulago Hospital, Kampala, Uganda, revealed that drugs constitute 97% of the mean cost of care of affected individuals in the outpatient and 37% in hospitalized patients. The cost of drugs per treatment episode was Ug.Sh.5785.00 in the outpatient and Ug.Sh.8309.00 for inpatients. (The exchange rate for 1991 was US$ = Ug.Sh.910.00). Analysis of an attempt to provide essential drugs for the growing number of AIDS subjects shows that drugs alone could consume the entire health budget of the Ministry of Health in Uganda. There is therefore need to critically consider options to control the high cost for drugs in AIDS care.

  11. Infectious colitides in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mosenkis, B N; Simon, D

    1995-09-01

    Diarrhea is a common problem in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and infections of the colon constitute a significant etiology. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) is the most common opportunistic infection of the colon in patients with AIDS, and it can involve any portion of the colon and the gastrointestinal tract. Because CMV is potentially treatable with either ganciclovir or foscarnet, it is important to evaluate endoscopically the entire colon of patients with AIDS with protracted diarrhea and no cause identifiable with routine stool and laboratory tests. In addition to CMV, there are a variety of other viral, bacterial, protozoal, and fungal infections seen in patients with AIDS. A thorough evaluation will help identify these pathogens, and those that are treatable can be given appropriate therapy.

  12. Microsporum gypseum dermatophytosis in a patient of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Bhagra, S; Ganju, S A; Sood, A; Guleria, R C; Kanga, A K

    2013-01-01

    Microsporum gypseum, a geophillic dermatophyte is rarely isolated from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We report tinea corporis due to Microsporum gypseum, an uncommon aetiological agent, in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from our region. The clinical presentation resembled psoriasis characterised by atypical, scaly and hyperkeratotic lesions.

  13. Uveitis as an initial manifestation of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsen, Chui-Lien; Chen, Shih-Chou; Chen, Yao-Shen; Sheu, Shwu-Jiuan

    2017-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a multisystem disease that can involve the human eyes. Using ophthalmic examination records from January 2006 to November 2015, we retrospectively reviewed all patients who were diagnosed with HIV/AIDS in our hospital. The study was performed at a tertiary referral center in southern Taiwan. Data included age, gender, ophthalmic examinations, systemic conditions, CD4 cell counts, course, and treatment. Eleven patients were identified as having AIDS with uveitis as their presenting manifestation. All were men, with a mean age of 39.5 ± 11.4 years (range 24-56). The mean CD4(+) T-cell counts were 91.7 ± 50.3 cells/μl (range 27-169). Ocular diagnoses included cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in five patients, ocular syphilis in four patients, and ocular toxoplasmosis in two patients. Uveitis resolved in all patients after medical treatment. However, a retinal detachment developed in two eyes in CMV retinitis and one eye in ocular syphilis. Ocular manifestations are among the most common clinical features in patients with HIV/AIDS who have varying clinical presentations that affect almost all ocular structures. This study demonstrated that ocular findings could be an initial manifestation of an underlying disease. Awareness of ocular lesions in HIV/AIDS is important for early recognition and management.

  14. Palliative care in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): problems and practicalities.

    PubMed

    Glare, P A

    1994-03-01

    The World Health Organisation estimates that over 1.5 million human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections have occurred to date in South and South East Asia. As most of these patients will develop acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the coming decade, health services in the region face a major challenge in meeting their needs. While treatments are available which prolong the lives of patients with AIDS, most will eventually die of their disease, and attention needs to be given to controlling pain and other symptoms and improving quality of life. Providing palliative care for patients with AIDS raises complex issues not normally encountered in traditional palliative care practice. Based on the author's experience with the Central Sydney Area Palliative Care Service in Sydney, Australia, this paper discusses the problems and practicalities involved in palliative care for adult patients with advanced AIDS, such as clinical decision making, pain and other symptom control, psychosocial issues and terminal care. Representative case histories are described to illustrate how the palliative care physician can start to approach some of the dilemmas created by this demanding yet growing area of palliative care.

  15. ACOG Committee Opinion No. 536: Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and women of color.

    PubMed

    2012-09-01

    In the United States, most new cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occur among women of color (primarily African American and Hispanic women). Most women of color acquire the disease from heterosexual contact, often from a partner who has undisclosed risk factors for HIV infection. Safe sex practices, especially consistent condom use, must be emphasized for all women, including women of color. A combination of testing, education, and brief behavioral interventions can help reduce the rate of HIV infection and its complications among women of color. In addition,biomedical interventions such as early treatment of patients infected with HIV and pre-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis of high-risk individuals offer promise for future reductions in infections.

  16. Focal neurological disease in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Skiest, Daniel J

    2002-01-01

    Focal neurological disease in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome may be caused by various opportunistic pathogens and malignancies, including Toxoplasma gondii, progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and Epstein-Barr virus-related primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma. Diagnosis may be difficult, because the findings of lumbar puncture, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging are relatively nonspecific. Newer techniques have led to improved diagnostic accuracy of these conditions. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of cerebrospinal fluid specimens is useful for diagnosis of PML, CNS lymphoma, and CMV encephalitis. Recent studies have indicated the diagnostic utility of new neuroimaging techniques, such as single-photon emission CT and positron emission tomography. The combination of PCR and neuroimaging techniques may obviate the need for brain biopsy in selected cases. However, stereotactic brain biopsy, which is associated with relatively low morbidity rates, remains the reference standard for diagnosis. Highly active antiretroviral therapy has improved the prognosis of several focal CNS processes, most notably toxoplasmosis, PML, and CMV encephalitis.

  17. Skin aging in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    de Aquino Favarato, Grace Kelly Naves; da Silva, Aline Cristina Souza; Oliveira, Lívia Ferreira; da Fonseca Ferraz, Mara Lúcia; de Paula Antunes Teixeira, Vicente; Cavellani, Camila Lourencini

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the histomorphometric skin changes over aging patients with autopsied acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In 29 skin fragments of autopsied elderly (older than 50 years) and nonelderly patients with AIDS, epidermal thickness, the number of layers, the diameter of cells, the percentage of collagen and elastic fibers in the dermis, and the number and morphology of Langerhans cells were assessed. Statistical analysis was performed by SigmaStat 2.03 program. The thickness of the epidermis (92.55 × 158.94 μm), the number of layers (7 × 9 layers), and the diameter of the cells (13.27 × 17.6 μm) were statistically lower among the elderly. The quantity of collagen fibers (9.68 × 14.11%) and elastic fibers (11.89 × 15.31%) was also significantly lower in the elderly. There was a decrease in total (10.61 × 12.38 cel/mm(2)) and an increase in immature Langerhans cells (6.31 × 4.98 cel/mm(2)) in elderly patients with AIDS. The aging of the skin of patients with AIDS is amended in different histomorphometric aspects, the epidermis constituents suffer less pronounced changes in normal aging, and the dermis has more intense changes in elastic fibers and collagen.

  18. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    García-García, Concepción; Castillo-Álvarez, Federico; Azcona-Gutiérrez, José M; Herraiz, María J; Ibarra, Valvanera; Oteo, José A

    2015-05-01

    Neurological complications in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) are still common, even in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Opportunistic infections, immune reconstitution, the virus itself, antiretroviral drugs and neurocognitive disorders have to be considered when establishing the differential diagnosis. Toxoplasmic encephalitis remains the major cause of space-occupying lesions in the brain of patients with HIV/AIDS; however, spinal cord involvement has been reported infrequently. Here, we review spinal cord toxoplasmosis in HIV infection and illustrate the condition with a recent case from our hospital. We suggest that most patients with HIV/AIDS and myelitis with enhanced spine lesions, multiple brain lesions and positive serology for Toxoplasma gondii should receive immediate empirical treatment for toxoplasmosis, and a biopsy should be performed in those cases without clinical improvement or with deterioration.

  19. Brazilian response to the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic among injection drug users.

    PubMed

    Mesquita, Fábio; Doneda, Denise; Gandolfi, Denise; Nemes, Maria Inês Battistella; Andrade, Tarcísio; Bueno, Regina; Piconez e Trigueiros, Daniela

    2003-12-15

    The Brazilian response to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic is being observed all over the world because of its success. Understanding the role of injection drug users (IDUs) in the epidemic and the political response thereto is a key factor in the control of the epidemic in Brazil. This paper summarizes some of the most important analyses of the Brazilian response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic among and from IDUs. Key elements of the response include the support of the Brazilian Universal Public Health System, the provision of universal access to highly active antiretroviral therapy, and the creation of harm reduction projects that are politically and financially supported by the federal government. The response among and from IDUs is a key element in overall control of the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The response to the epidemic among and from IDUs has been headed in the correct direction since its beginning and is now being intensively expanded.

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome knowledge and risk factors in Ethiopian military personnel.

    PubMed

    Bakhireva, Ludmila N; Abebe, Yegeremu; Brodine, Stephanie K; Kraft, Heidi S; Shaffer, Richard A; Boyer, Cherrie B

    2004-03-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS)-related knowledge and behaviors were assessed in face-to-face structured interviews with 314 Ethiopian military personnel. A significant finding of this research was the association between HIV/AIDS knowledge and risky sexual behavior. That is, military personnel who had inaccurate knowledge about HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention were 3.4 times as likely to engage in combined sexual risk behaviors compared with personnel with accurate knowledge, after controlling for age, military rank, and marital status (odds ratio, 3.4; 95% confidence interval, 1.86-6.22). This finding highlights the potential value of educational programs in slowing the spread of HIV/AIDS in sub-Saharan Africa.

  1. Health Administrator Perspectives on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Prevention and Services at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra; Sutton, Madeline Y.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Due to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among African American young adults, the authors explored (1) number of historically black college and university (HBCU) campuses with existing HIV prevention policies and services and (2) perceived barriers for implementing…

  2. Health Administrator Perspectives on Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Prevention and Services at Historically Black Colleges and Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra; Sutton, Madeline Y.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Due to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among African American young adults, the authors explored (1) number of historically black college and university (HBCU) campuses with existing HIV prevention policies and services and (2) perceived barriers for implementing…

  3. The urological management of the patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Heyns, Chris F; Fisher, Megan

    2005-04-01

    In people infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) both the CD4 T-cell count and the viral load are used to monitor disease progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). CD4 counts of <500/mm(3) are associated with opportunistic infections and certain malignancies, so-called 'AIDS-defining' conditions. Highly active antiretroviral therapy, using combinations of reverse transcriptase inhibitors and/or protease inhibitors, can improve considerably the prognosis of people who are HIV-positive, but such therapy is not yet widely available in many developing countries. People with AIDS are predisposed to urinary tract infection (UTI) by uncommon bacteria and pathogens, e.g. fungi, parasites and viruses, which may affect any urogenital organ; treatment should be culture-specific and long-term, because there is a tendency to recurrence, infection with multiple organisms and resistant isolates. Voiding dysfunction in patients with AIDS is usually a result of neurological complications caused by opportunistic infections, and has a poor prognosis. Of patients with AIDS, 30-50% develop a cancer, especially Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). KS may involve any urogenital organ, but is usually part of systemic disease. Small lesions on the external genitalia can be treated with laser, cryotherapy or surgical excision, larger lesions with radiotherapy, and disseminated or visceral KS with multidrug chemotherapy. NHL may involve the kidneys, testes and retroperitoneal lymph nodes, thus obstructing the ureters, which may require ureteric stenting or percutaneous nephrostomy. NHL can be treated with radiotherapy and combination chemotherapy. Urolithiasis in patients with AIDS may be caused by indinavir, a protease inhibitor, but the more common types of stones may also occur. Fluid-electrolyte and acid-base disturbances are common in patients with advanced AIDS, secondary to vomiting, diarrhoea, malnutrition or septicaemia. HIV

  4. Orbital manifestations in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sodhi, Punita Kumari

    2014-01-01

    The orbital manifestations of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome(AIDS) are uncommon. To provide a review of orbital manifestations of AIDS, the predisposing factors, investigations, treatment and outcome. Meticulous and systematic literature search of Pubmed to identify manuscripts describing orbital manifestations of AIDS was done and the articles were reviewed.The keywords used in the search were “orbit and AIDS”, “HIV positive and orbit”,“orbit manifestations in AIDS”, “orbital disease and AIDS” and “orbital infections and AIDS”. The orbital involvement in AIDS may present with opportunistic infections from organisms like fungi, viruses, bacteria and protozoa or with malignancies like Kaposi’s sarcoma, squamous cell carcinoma, smooth muscle cell tumors and lymphoma.The predisposing factors for orbital involvement in AIDS are low CD4+ cell count and the immunosuppressive states like diabetes, diabetic ketoacidosis, intravenous drug abuse and neutropenia. A patient may present with fever, headache, nausea, vomiting,decreased vision, ocular pain, and, in cases of mass formation, there is periorbital swelling, axial proptosis, globe displacement and swollen optic disc. Radiologically,mass formation, orbital bony destruction, and spread of disease to contiguous structures including the central nervous system may be seen. The medical management includes therapy for infection and HIV-1 protease inhibitors (highly active antiretroviral therapy)to suppress HIV-1 replication. For tumors, radical surgery including debulking followed by postoperative radiotherapy is generally needed. Orbital involvements with AIDS in any form, infective or malignancy, causes significant morbidity and mortality and should be diagnosed and managed as early as possible.

  5. Treatment of infectious complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Furio, M M; Wordell, C J

    1985-01-01

    The infectious complications of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are discussed, and the conventional and nonconventional therapies used for these infections are reviewed. The infections most commonly encountered in patients with AIDS are Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (58%), Candida esophagitis (31%), toxoplasmosis (21%), cytomegalovirus infections (15%), and herpes-simplex virus infections (12%). Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is the most common life-threatening process in these patients. Trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMZ) is considered the drug of choice for its treatment. Oral candidiasis often indicates the progression to AIDS in the high-risk populations of homosexual or bisexual men, intravenous drug abusers, and individuals with hemophilia. Nystatin suspension is commonly used to treat oral candidiasis, while Candida esophagitis demands systemic therapy with ketoconazole. Toxoplasmosis most commonly manifests itself in patients with AIDS as a cerebral mass lesion. The recommended therapy includes sulfadiazine and pyrimethamine. AIDS patients frequently experience protozoal invasion of the intestinal tract with Giardia lamblia, Isospora belli, and Cryptosporidium muris. Various drugs have been tried for these infections, including quinacrine hydrochloride, metronidazole, TMP-SMZ, and spiramycin. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections commonly involve the lungs, gastrointestinal tract, eyes, brain, and nervous system. Attempts to treat these disseminated CMV infections with antiviral agents, including acyclovir, have not been successful. However, acyclovir has been found beneficial in the treatment of herpes-simplex virus infections. Multiple infectious complications may occur in patients with AIDS as a result of the cellular-immune deficiency associated with this disease. Until more research is done with AIDS patients, therapy must be based on the data available from the treatment of these infections in immunosuppressed patients without AIDS.

  6. The First Case of Vestibulocochlear Neuritis in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Korea.

    PubMed

    Park, Hyun Joo; Cho, Chin Saeng; Kim, Nak Min; Yun, Su A; Yoon, Hee Jung

    2016-06-01

    The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections continue to increase throughout the world. Although neurologic complications are frequent in individuals with HIV infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), vestibulocochlear neuritis is still a relatively rare manifestation. We report the first case of vestibulocochlear neuritis occurring in an AIDS patient in Korea.

  7. The First Case of Vestibulocochlear Neuritis in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyun Joo; Cho, Chin Saeng; Kim, Nak Min; Yun, Su A

    2016-01-01

    The incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections continue to increase throughout the world. Although neurologic complications are frequent in individuals with HIV infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), vestibulocochlear neuritis is still a relatively rare manifestation. We report the first case of vestibulocochlear neuritis occurring in an AIDS patient in Korea. PMID:27433384

  8. Prevention and treatment of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in resource-limited settings.

    PubMed Central

    Hogan, Daniel R.; Salomon, Joshua A.

    2005-01-01

    Strategies for confronting the epidemic of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) have included a range of different approaches that focus on prevention and treatment. However, debate persists over what levels of emphasis are appropriate for the different components of the global response. This paper presents an overview of this debate and briefly summarizes the evidence on a range of interventions designed to prevent the spread of HIV infection, paying particular attention to voluntary counselling and testing, treatment for sexually transmitted infections and prevention of mother-to-child transmission. We also review the experience with antiretroviral therapy to date in terms of response rates and survival rates, adherence, drug resistance, behavioural change and epidemiological impact. Although various studies have identified strategies with proven effectiveness in reducing the risks of HIV infection and AIDS mortality, considerable uncertainties remain. Successful integration of treatment and prevention of HIV/AIDS will require a balanced approach and rigorous monitoring of the impact of programmes in terms of both individual and population outcomes. PMID:15744406

  9. Pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Breen, Elizabeth Crabb

    2002-09-01

    In persons with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and/or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the immune system becomes dysfunctional in many ways. There is both immunodeficiency due to the loss of CD4-positive T helper cells and hyperactivity as a result of B-cell activation. Likewise, both decreases and increases are seen in the production and/or activity of cytokines. Cytokine changes in HIV infection have been assessed by a variety of techniques, ranging from determination of cytokine gene expression at the mRNA level to secretion of cytokine proteins in vivo and in vitro. Changes in cytokine levels in HIV-infected persons can affect the function of the immune system, and have the potential to directly impact the course of HIV disease by enhancing or suppressing HIV replication. In particular, the balance between the pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, which up-regulate HIV expression, and IL-10, which can act both as an anti-inflammatory cytokine and a B-cell stimulatory factor, may play an important role in the progression to AIDS. In light of its ability to suppress the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and, under some conditions, suppress HIV replication, increased IL-10 may be viewed as beneficial in slowing HIV disease progression. However, an association between increased IL-10 and the development of AIDS-associated B-cell lymphoma highlights the bifunctional nature of IL-10 as both an anti-inflammatory and B-cell-stimulatory cytokine that could have beneficial and detrimental effects on the course of HIV infection and AIDS.

  10. Opportunistic Neurologic Infections in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Albarillo, Fritzie; O'Keefe, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Infections of the central nervous system (CNS) in individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) remain a substantial cause of morbidity and mortality despite the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) especially in the resource-limited regions of the world. Diagnosis of these infections may be challenging because findings on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis and brain imaging are nonspecific. While brain biopsy provides a definitive diagnosis, it is an invasive procedure associated with a relatively low mortality rate, thus less invasive modalities have been studied in recent years. Diagnosis, therefore, can be established based on a combination of a compatible clinical syndrome, radiologic and CSF findings, and understanding of the role of HIV in these infections. The most common CNS opportunistic infections are AIDS-defining conditions; thus, treatment of these infections in combination with HAART has greatly improved survival.

  11. Vasculitis with eosinophilia and digital gangrene in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Enelow, R S; Hussein, M; Grant, K; Cupps, T R; Druckman, D; Mortazavi, A; Villaflor, S T; Glass-Royal, M

    1992-11-01

    Fewer than 40 cases of vasculitis have been described in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus infection. We describe a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), a heavy smoker, who developed a syndrome of constitutional symptoms, eosinophilia and digital gangrene. Vasculitis of the digital arteries was documented by angiography. He responded to high dose corticosteroid therapy with arrest of the ischemic process. After steroids were discontinued, he suffered a relapse of the vasculitis documented by skin biopsy. In patients with AIDS with this serious, potentially steroid responsive condition, steroid therapy should be considered in spite of the preexisting immunodeficiency state.

  12. The Effects of a Kansas Education Class on Students' Knowledge and Attitudes of Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sager, R. Warren, Jr.

    This study was undertaken to investigate the knowledge and attitudes of 8th, 9th, and 10th grade Kansas students pertaining to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Attitudes and knowledge of 9th and 10th grade students who had participated in a Sex Respect Class offered in the 9th grade were compared…

  13. Knowledge and attitude regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in dermatological outpatients.

    PubMed

    Kouznetsov, L; Kuznetsov, A V; Ruzicka, T; Matterne, U; Wienecke, R; Zippel, S A

    2009-08-01

    Dermatologists are often the first-line specialists who recognize and diagnose human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection because of pathognomic skin signs. It is therefore important to investigate attitudes and knowledge regarding HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) amongst dermatological patients in order to provide information for dermatologists and to draw their attention to the issues. Awareness of HIV/AIDS, its prevention, and hypothetical behaviour were surveyed in dermatological outpatients. The anonymous cross-sectional survey was conducted with consecutive German-speaking outpatients aged 18-65 years, who registered at the dermatological outpatient's clinic (excluding venereology, genitourinary or HIV medicine) of the University of Munich (Germany). Three hundred forty-seven (77.5%) questionnaires were accepted for analysis. Most of the patients knew about HIV incurability (89.4%), HIV transmissibility during needle sharing (95.3%), or vaginal (87.4%) and anal intercourse (79.5%), as well as about HIV prevention by condom use (97.8%), and use of single needles (76.2%). However, knowledge gaps and misconceptions were detected regarding the risk of HIV transmission during oral sex, and the efficacy of sexual fidelity and avoidance of blood transfusions in HIV prevention. The lowest knowledge level (< 50% correct answers) was detected in patients aged 50-59 years, in unemployed, divorced/widowed, and in those without or with incomplete school education. Patient education about HIV/AIDS in dermatological ambulant settings should be performed differentially with regard to socio-demographic factors, and focused on the topic of oral sexual HIV transmission and on some other specific misconceptions.

  14. Science and ethics of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome controversies in Africa.

    PubMed

    Brewster, David

    2011-09-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic in Africa has raised important ethical issues for both researchers and clinicians. The most notorious controversy has been related to the zidovudine (AZT) trials in Africa in the late 1990s, in which the control groups were given a placebo rather than an effective drug to prevent vertical transmission. This raised concerns in the sponsoring country about exploitation of subjects, injustice and an ethical double standard between donor countries and resource-poor settings. However, the real double standard is between clinical practice standards in Western versus African countries, which must be addressed as part of the increasing global inequity of wealth both between countries and also within countries. There are important limitations to ethical declarations, principles and guidelines on their own without contextual ethical reasoning. The focus on research ethics with the HIV epidemic has led to a relative neglect of ethical issues in clinical practice. Although the scientific advances in HIV/AIDS have changed the ethical issues since the 1990s, there has also been progress in the bioethics of HIV/AIDS in terms of ethical review capability by local committees as well as in exposure to ethical issues by clinicians and researchers in Africa. However, serious concerns remain about the overregulation of research by bureaucratic agencies which could discourage African research on specifically African health issues. There is also a need for African academic institutions and researchers to progressively improve their research capacity with the assistance of research funders and donor agencies.

  15. Histoplasmosis in Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS)

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Albert M.; Sanchez, Alejandro; Farabi, Alireza; Hage, Chadi; Baddley, John W.; Jhaveri, Malhar; Greenberg, Richard N.; Bamberger, David M.; Rodgers, Mark; Crawford, Timothy N.; Wheat, L. Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Although discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated histoplasmosis is accepted for patients with immunologic recovery, there have been no published studies of this approach in clinical practice, and minimal characterization of individuals who relapse with this disease. We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study to determine the outcome in AIDS patients following discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for histoplasmosis. Ninety-seven patients were divided into a physician-discontinued suppressive therapy group (PD) (38 patients) and a physician-continued suppressive therapy group (PC) (59 patients). The 2 groups were not statistically different at baseline, but at discontinuation of therapy and at the most recent follow-up there were significant differences in adherence to therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA, and urinary Histoplasma antigen concentration. There was no relapse or death attributed to histoplasmosis in the PD group compared with 36% relapse (p < 0.0001) and 5% death (p = 0.28) in the PC group. Relapse occurred in 53% of the nonadherent patients but not in the adherent patients (p < 0.0001). Sixty-seven percent of patients with initial central nervous system (CNS) histoplasmosis relapsed compared to 15% of patients without CNS involvement (p = 0.0004), which may be accounted for by nonadherence. In addition, patients with antigenuria above 2.0 ng/mL at 1-year follow-up were 12.82 times (95% confidence interval, 2.91–55.56) more likely to relapse compared to those with antigenuria below 2.0 ng/mL. Discontinuation of antifungal therapy was safe in adherent patients who completed at least 1 year of antifungal treatment, and had CD4 counts >150 cells/mL, HIV RNA <400 c/mL, Histoplasma antigenuria <2 ng/mL (equivalent to <4.0 units in second-generation method), and no CNS histoplasmosis. PMID:24378739

  16. Prevalence of enteric pathogens in homosexual men with and without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Laughon, B E; Druckman, D A; Vernon, A; Quinn, T C; Polk, B F; Modlin, J F; Yolken, R H; Bartlett, J G

    1988-04-01

    We studied 388 homosexual or bisexual men from the Baltimore-Washington area to define the spectrum of enteric pathogen carriage in a population at high risk for "gay bowel syndrome" in association with human immunodeficiency virus infection. Seventy-seven patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, 68 gay men with symptoms of acute diarrhea or proctitis, and 243 gay men without gastrointestinal symptoms and participating in a natural history study of human immunodeficiency virus infection were selected for study. Approximately 12% of the asymptomatic men harbored at least one enteric pathogen; the most frequently recovered were Chlamydia trachomatis, herpes simplex virus, and Giardia lamblia. Men carrying a pathogen were more likely to be human immunodeficiency virus seropositive (48%) than men without a pathogen (25%) (p = 0.018), more likely to have fewer T helper cells (p = 0.015), and more likely to have a mucopurulent exudate (p = 0.014). We recovered an agent of enteric disease from 68% of gay men presenting with diarrhea or proctitis. Campylobacter species, herpes simplex virus, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, C. trachomatis, G. lamblia, and Shigella species were identified most frequently. The most common pathogen associated with diarrhea in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome was Cryptosporidium (16% of 49 cases). Other agents identified were Clostridium difficile, Vibrio parahemolyticus, Campylobacter species, G. lamblia, Isospora, and cytomegalovirus. Approximately half of the identifiable etiologic agents of diarrhea in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients were treatable with antibiotics, but these agents required special culture procedures for detection.

  17. [Prevalence of antitoxoplasma antibodies in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and blood donors in Bamako].

    PubMed

    Maïga, I; Kiemtoré, P; Tounkara, A

    2001-08-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a cosmopolitan disease. Our aim was to evaluate the epidemiological importance of toxoplasmosis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and blood donors in Bamako (Mali, West Africa). A one year study of toxoplasmosis prevalence was carried out among patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and blood donors in Bamako. The toxoplasmosis prevalence was 60% from AIDS patients, 22.6% from the HIV-seropositive blood donors and 21% from the HIV-seronegative blood donors. The specific antibodies were IgG and IgA. The specific IgM were not detected.

  18. Relationship between current level of immunodeficiency and non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining malignancies.

    PubMed

    Reekie, Joanne; Kosa, Csaba; Engsig, Frederik; Monforte, Antonella d'Arminio; Wiercinska-Drapalo, Alicja; Domingo, Pere; Antunes, Francisco; Clumeck, Nathan; Kirk, Ole; Lundgren, Jens D; Mocroft, Amanda

    2010-11-15

    In the combined antiretroviral therapy (cART) era, non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-defining malignancies account for more morbidity and mortality in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients than AIDS-defining malignancies. However, conflicting data have been reported on the relationship between immunodeficiency and the development of some non-AIDS-defining malignancies. A total of 14,453 patients from the prospective, multinational EuroSIDA cohort were included. Malignancies were classified as virus-related, non-virus-related epithelial, and other. The incidence of non-AIDS-defining malignancies was calculated stratified by current CD4 count. Poisson regression was used to investigate factors associated with the development of non-AIDS-defining malignancies. A total of 356 non-AIDS-defining malignancies occurred, with an incidence rate of 4.3 per 1000 person years of follow-up (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.8-4.7); 172 (48.3%) were virus-related, 135 (37.9%) were non-virus-related epithelial, and 49 (13.7%) were classified as other. Anal (69 cases), lung (31 cases), and melanoma (13 cases), respectively, were the most common non-AIDS-defining malignancies within each group. After adjustment, current CD4 was associated with virus-related non-AIDS-defining malignancies (incidence rate ratio [IRR], 0.81 per doubling; 95% CI, 0.75-0.88; P < .0001) and non-virus-related epithelial non-AIDS-defining malignancies (IRR, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.75-0.95; P = .004), but not with other non-AIDS-defining malignancies (IRR, 1.04; 95% CI, 0.83-1.31; P = .73). Current CD4 count was also associated with anal cancer (IRR, 0.86; 95% CI, 0.75-0.99; P = .03), Hodgkin lymphoma (n = 52; IRR, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.73-0.95; P = .005), and lung cancer (IRR, 0.76; 95% CI, 0.64-0.90; P = .0002). A low current CD4 count was associated with an increased incidence of certain non-AIDS-defining malignancies. Starting cART earlier to reduce the proportion of patients with a low CD4 count

  19. Lichenoid drug reaction to isoniazid presenting as exfoliative dermatitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thakur, B K; Verma, S; Mishra, J

    2015-06-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients are at increased risk of drug reactions because of immune dysregulation and multiple drug intake. Lichenoid drug reactions to isoniazid have been reported previously in the literature. However, for lichenoid drug reaction to isoniazid to be so extensive to present as exfoliative dermatitis is rare. We report here a rare case of lichenoid drug reaction to isoniazid presenting as exfoliative dermatitis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

  20. Prevalence and clinical correlates of metabolic syndrome in Nigerians living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ayodele, Olugbenga Edward; Akinboro, Adeolu Oludayo; Akinyemi, Suliat Omolola; Adepeju, Akinlawon Adetiloye; Akinremi, Oluwaseun Akinsanmi; Alao, Christiana Adeola; Popoola, Adetoun Adedayo

    2012-10-01

    Sub-Saharan Africa bears an inordinate burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Reports have shown increased prevalence of clustering of cardiovascular risk factors referred to as metabolic syndrome in treatment-naïve patients and patients on highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In view of the fact that metabolic syndrome is a heterogeneous disorder with substantial variability in the prevalence and component traits within and across populations and the dearth of publications on the prevalence and clinical correlates of metabolic syndrome in people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Nigeria, this study was carried out to determine the prevalence and clinical correlates of metabolic syndrome among an HIV-infected outpatient population using the National Cholesterol Education Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III), the International Diabetes Federation (IDF), and the Joint Interim Statement (JIS) definitions. We also sought to determine if HAART use and CD4 count level were associated with metabolic syndrome. This cross-sectional study involved 291 (95 men, 196 women) consecutive PLWHA. Anthropometry, blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, and lipid profile values were determined. The prevalence rates of metabolic syndrome according to the ATP III, IDF, and JIS criteria were 12.7%, 17.2%, and 21.0%, respectively. Metabolic syndrome was significantly associated with female gender (all definitions), body mass index (all definitions), increasing age, and CD4 count (IDF definition). There was no significant association between metabolic syndrome and HAART. The concordance [kappa coefficient (κ)] between the definitions of metabolic syndrome varied between 0.583 and 0.878. The prevalence of metabolic syndrome varied with the criteria used and metabolic syndrome correlates with traditional cardiovascular risk factors rather than HAART-related factors.

  1. Renal syndromes in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): lessons learned from analysis over 5 years.

    PubMed

    Rao, T K; Friedman, E A

    1988-06-01

    Renal syndromes associated with the Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome include: potentially reversible acute renal failure, AIDS associated nephropathy which leads to end stage renal disease, and AIDS developing in patients who are being treated by maintenance hemodialysis. The longitudinal study of 95 patients with AIDS and various forms of renal syndrome at two urban institutions indicates that both acute and chronic renal failure is increasing yearly. While some patients with acute renal failure recover renal function and survive for prolonged period, the mortality of dialyzed patients with irreversible renal failure continues to be unsatisfactory. There is a great need for collecting data from high risk areas to analyze the results of maintenance dialysis therapy in patients with AIDS, to assess the economic impact of uremia therapy, and for long-term planning of available resources.

  2. Central nervous system infection due to Mycobacterium haemophilum in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Buppajarntham, Aubonphan; Apisarnthanarak, Anucha; Rutjanawech, Sasinuj; Khawcharoenporn, Thana

    2015-03-01

    Mycobacterium haemophilum is an environmental organism that rarely causes infections in humans. We report a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome who had central nervous system infection due to M. haemophilum. The diagnosis required brain tissue procurement and molecular identification method while the treatment outcome was unfavourable.

  3. Implications of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome for Professionals in the Field of Visual Impairments and Blindness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daugherty, William E.

    1988-01-01

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has significant ocular implications. This article examines: the effect of AIDS on vision, historical and philosophical perspectives on public health education, AIDS education, legal and policy issues of concern to schools and service agencies, and sex education and AIDS-related education of blind and…

  4. Glioblastoma multiforme of the brain stem in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wolff, R; Zimmermann, M; Marquardt, Gerhard; Lanfermann, H; Nafe, R; Seifert, V

    2002-09-01

    Glioblastoma of the brain stem is rare and there is no description of such a lesion in patients suffering from acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The majority of intracerebral mass lesions are due either to toxoplasmosis or primary central nervous system lymphomas so that it is usually not included in the differential diagnosis of enhancing lesions of the central nervous system in these patients. A 31-year-old human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected man presented with a four months history of slowly progressive deterioration of brainstem associated symptoms despite antitoxoplasmic therapy. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large ring enhancing lesion in the brainstem. Clinical and neuroradiological data could not establish a proper diagnosis and a stereotactic serial biopsy was undertaken. Histological examination of the specimen showed a glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) as the first reported case of GBM located in the brainstem in an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient. Patient management and effectiveness of stereotactic serial biopsy are discussed.

  5. [Hemophagocytic syndrome associated with tuberculosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency].

    PubMed

    González, Norma E; Álvarez Ponte, Silvia; López, Mariela; Fronti, Pablo; Smith, Silvina; Pawluk, Victor

    2016-10-01

    The secondary hemophagocytic syndrome is rare in children and even rarer associated with tuberculosis. e report the case of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, disseminated tuberculosis and hemophagocytic syndrome. An 8-year-old girl, diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, was admitted due to fever, vomiting and abdominal pain. She presented abdominal distension, dehydration, tachypnea, crackles and wheezing in both lungs, anemia, thrombocytopenia and coagulopathy. She received broad-spectrum antibiotics and exploratory laparotomy was performed with appendectomy and lymph node biopsy. After 72 hours the patient presented tonic clonic seizure, impaired sensory, fever, hypoxemia, hepatosplenomegaly, ascites and peripheral edema. She developed bicytopenia, hyperferritinemia and bone marrow microscopic examination with hemophagocytosis. She received intravenous gammaglobulin, steroids and blood transfusions. Mycobacterium tuberculosis was cultured in gastric aspirate, bone marrow and abdominal lymph node biopsy. She was treated with isoniazid, rifampicin, streptomycin and ethambutol, showing marked improvement.

  6. Kaposi sarcoma and lymphadenopathy syndrome: limitations of abdominal CT in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, K.L. Jr.; Federle, M.P.; Abrams, D.I.; Volberding, P.; Lewis, B.J.

    1984-02-01

    Abdominal computed tomography (CT) was performed in 31 patients with Kaposi sarcoma (KS) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), three patients with classic KS, and 12 patients with the newly described lymphadenopathy syndrome (LNS). The frequency, distribution, and appearance of lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly were similar in the AIDS-related KS and LNS groups. Rectal and perirectal disease was identified in 86% of homosexual men studied; rectal KS could not be distinguished from proctitis on CT criteria alone. No CT abnormalities were seen in patients with classic KS. The CT demonstration of retroperitoneal, mesenteric, or pelvic adenopathy or of rectal or perirectal disease in patients with AIDS-related KS is not necessarily indicative of widespread involvement with the disease.

  7. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) manifesting Gerstmann's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Saito, H; Sakai, H; Fujihara, K; Fujihara, K; Itoyama, Y

    1998-11-01

    We reported a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) via multiple blood transfusions, who manifested progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) about 18 months after the development of AIDS. PML initiated with right hemiparesis, dysphasia, and Gerstmann's syndrome and resulted in death within 2 months after the onset. Neuroimaging examinations revealed white matter lesions mainly in the left posterior parietal lobe. The cortical gray matter also showed abnormal signal intensity. Peripheral CD4+ lymphocyte count was 81/microl. Routine cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations were negative. CSF antibodies against herpes simplex virus, varicella-zoster virus, cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr virus as well as serum antibody against toxoplasma gondii were negative. Though autopsy or biopsy of the brain was not performed, JC virus genomes were detected in the CSF sample by a polymerase chain reaction, and their sequencing showed unique alterations of the regulatory regions, characteristic to PML-type JC virus.

  8. Disseminated varicella zoster virus in an immunized child as the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining illness.

    PubMed

    Chilek, Katherine; Routhouska, Shannon; Tamburro, Joan

    2010-01-01

    Varicella zoster virus (VZV) immunization aids in the prevention of future VZV infections in immunocompetent patients; however, severely immunocompromised patients remain at increased risk of VZV infection. We report a case of a 10-year-old boy previously immunized to Varicella who presented with herpes zoster with hematogenous dissemination as the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-defining illness. Disseminated VZV is more commonly seen in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals with more advanced disease, as was the case with our patient. Disseminated VZV infection in a previously immunized child should raise suspicion for underlying immunosuppression.

  9. Cryptosporidiosis among medical patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Tikur Anbessa Teaching Hospital, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Mengesha, B

    1994-06-01

    Fresh stool specimens, collected at random from 63 medical in-patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), were studied prospectively for Cryptosporidium oocyst. The diagnosis of AIDS was made according to the clinical case definition of the Bangui criteria. These patients presented with profuse watery diarrhoea, significant weight loss and other associated symptoms and signs of clinical manifestations of symptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Using the modified Kinyoun acid fast staining technique, 25(39.7%) of the stool specimens were positive for Cryptosporidium oocyst. This study showed that the protozoan, Cryptosporidium parvum, may be responsible for a significant proportion of cases of chronic diarrhoea among AIDS patients in Ethiopia.

  10. Collaboration as a strategy for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome prevention.

    PubMed

    Kavanagh, K H; Harris, R M; Hetherington, S E; Scott, D E

    1992-12-01

    An eight-session training model used a social interactive framework to combine theoretical and methodological aspects of peer counseling, cross-cultural communication, and transcultural nursing, with a conviction that the participants (volunteers from an ongoing, urban methadone maintenance program) had significant strengths on which to build. The objective was to assist urban, drug dependent black women in taking control of their own lives through collaboration with health care professionals to develop and promote culturally acceptable behavioral alternatives related to reduction of risk for human immunodeficiency virus. The collaborative approach focused on rewards of behavioral change and minimized attention to prevention of negative behaviors, while openly valuing input from the women who are potential health promoters in their own communities. Evaluation of the Peer Counseling Leadership Training Program suggested that the approach facilitated personal risk-reducing behavioral change, improved self esteem, and successfully promoted involvement in community-based prevention efforts.

  11. Human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: correlation but not causation.

    PubMed Central

    Duesberg, P H

    1989-01-01

    AIDS is an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome defined by a severe depletion of T cells and over 20 conventional degenerative and neoplastic diseases. In the U.S. and Europe, AIDS correlates to 95% with risk factors, such as about 8 years of promiscuous male homosexuality, intravenous drug use, or hemophilia. Since AIDS also correlates with antibody to a retrovirus, confirmed in about 40% of American cases, it has been hypothesized that this virus causes AIDS by killing T cells. Consequently, the virus was termed human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and antibody to HIV became part of the definition of AIDS. The hypothesis that HIV causes AIDS is examined in terms of Koch's postulates and epidemiological, biochemical, genetic, and evolutionary conditions of viral pathology. HIV does not fulfill Koch's postulates: (i) free virus is not detectable in most cases of AIDS; (ii) virus can only be isolated by reactivating virus in vitro from a few latently infected lymphocytes among millions of uninfected ones; (iii) pure HIV does not cause AIDS upon experimental infection of chimpanzees or accidental infection of healthy humans. Further, HIV violates classical conditions of viral pathology. (i) Epidemiological surveys indicate that the annual incidence of AIDS among antibody-positive persons varies from nearly 0 to over 10%, depending critically on nonviral risk factors. (ii) HIV is expressed in less than or equal to 1 of every 10(4) T cells it supposedly kills in AIDS, whereas about 5% of all T cells are regenerated during the 2 days it takes the virus to infect a cell. (iii) If HIV were the cause of AIDS, it would be the first virus to cause a disease only after the onset of antiviral immunity, as detected by a positive "AIDS test." (iv) AIDS follows the onset of antiviral immunity only after long and unpredictable asymptomatic intervals averaging 8 years, although HIV replicates within 1 to 2 days and induces immunity within 1 to 2 months. (v) HIV supposedly causes AIDS

  12. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Naqi, Rohana; Azeemuddin, Muhammad; Ahsan, Humera

    2010-04-01

    Cerebral toxoplasmosis commonly affects patients with advanced HIV immunodeficiency. Toxoplasmosis in patients who are immunocompromised can be severe and debilitating in patients with Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement and the condition may be fatal. We report the case of a 40-year-old man who was a known case of HIV and presented with cerebral toxoplasmosis. His Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan showed multiple ring enhancing lesions with extensive surrounding oedema in supratentorial as well as infratentorial region. Lesions were mainly located in the periventricular region as well as at the grey-white matter junction and showed enhancement in the periphery as well as a tiny nodular enhancement in the centre. Patient was started on Septran DS, empirically for toxoplasmosis and steroids to reduce intracranial pressure. On follow up MRI scan after 10 days there was a reduction in size, number and enhancement of the masses with decrease in the surrounding oedema. Patient was clinically stable, oriented and his fever settled. He was discharged from hospital on same medication and advised to continue regular follow-up.

  13. Extracerebral toxoplasmosis in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Hofman, P; Bernard, E; Michiels, J F; Thyss, A; Le Fichoux, Y; Loubière, R

    1993-09-01

    Although Toxoplasma gondii frequently causes lesions of the central nervous system in AIDS, the exact incidence of extracerebral toxoplasmosis in these immunodepressed patients remains difficult to determine. Isolation of the parasite outside the central nervous system is rarely performed ante mortem, and most diagnoses of extracerebral toxoplasmosis are made post mortem. This article describes 23 cases of extracerebral toxoplasmosis diagnosed between 1987 and 1991 in an autopsy series of 170 patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Ante mortem diagnosis of extracerebral involvement was affirmed in 4 of these 23 patients by identification of trophozoites in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (2 cases), a surgical pulmonary biopsy specimen, and a bladder biopsy. Clinical and paraclinical findings suggested cardiac involvement in 4 other patients. Post mortem examination demonstrated disseminated toxoplasmosis in 18 cases and extracerebral monovisceral involvement in 5 cases. Extracerebral toxoplasmosis was directly responsible for the death of 6 patients. The most frequent extracerebral sites of Toxoplasma gondii involvement were the heart (21/23 cases; 91%), the lungs (14/23 cases; 61%) and the pancreas (6/23 cases; 26%). The tissular consequences of toxoplasmic involvement varied considerably, from formation of pseudocysts or cysts without any surrounding inflammatory reaction to necrotic lesions rich in neutrophilic polynuclear cells containing numerous free parasites. Immunoperoxidase study using antitoxoplasmic antibodies contributed to the diagnosis of 8 extracerebral localizations. Electron microscopy examination of a surgical lung biopsy and myocardial specimens (2 cases) demonstrated the ultrastructural characteristics of Toxoplasma gondii trophozoites.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. [Primary hepatic lymphoma in subjects with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Trinchieri, V; Causo, T; Fabietti, P; Bellagamba, R; Berardelli, G; Cirelli, A; Catania, S

    1992-02-01

    In this study the authors describe a non-Hodgkin's lymphoma histologically typed "large non-cleaved cell immunophenotype B cell", placed primitively into the liver. It affected a woman twenty seven years old, who contracted HIV infection due to heterosexual intercourse with at risk partner. At the time of diagnosis the woman was already considered AIDS patient on account of a previous Pneumocystis carinii pneumoniae and severe immunodeficiency (DC4 = 13 cells/mm3). The patient received cycles of chemotherapy (adriamycin 40 mg/iv, teniposide 50 mg/iv, cyclophosphamide 500 mg/iv, vincristine 2 mg/iv, bleomycin 15 mg/iv, betamethasone 4 mg/iv). At the 15th day of therapeutic cycle vincristine 2 mg/iv, bleomycin 15 mg/iv and betamethasone 4 mg/iv were given. After one cycle of therapy, hepatic echography showed signs that the lymphoma was reduced significantly. The authors stress the uncommon non-Hodgkin lymphoma localization, which is frequently underestimated in HIV-patients.

  15. Nontropical pyomyositis as a cause of subacute, multifocal myalgia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Wolf, R.F.; Sprenger, H.G.; Mooyaart, E.L.; Tamsma, J.T.; Kengen, R.A.; Weits, J. )

    1990-11-01

    We report a case of nontropical pyomyositis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and disseminated Mycobacterium avium infection, in which severe myalgia was the presenting symptom over several weeks. Multifocal muscle lesions were identified by gallium scanning and magnetic resonance imaging techniques. The epidemiology, possible pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnostic imaging, and therapy are reviewed. Early suspicion of nontropical pyomyositis in severely immunocompromised patients with cryptic myalgia is recommended.

  16. Cutaneous colesional acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated Kaposi sarcoma and cryptococcosis.

    PubMed

    Ramdial, Pratistadevi K; Sing, Yetish; Subrayan, Sumeshini; Calonje, Eduardo

    2010-12-01

    The clinicopathologic features of 4 AIDS patients with cutaneous colesional Kaposi sarcoma (KS) and cryptococcosis, a rare phenomenon, are described. Biopsies from 3 patients who were highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)-naive demonstrated predominant KS with a conspicuous spindle cell component and small aggregates of cryptococcal yeasts in 2 biopsies and predominant gelatinous cryptococcosis with attenuated KS spindle cells in 1 biopsy. One patient was HAART exposed. He had childhood pulmonary tuberculosis, was treated for disseminated cutaneous cryptococcosis 18 months earlier and presented with cutaneous lesions, odynophagia and massive cervical lymphadenopathy in the eighth week of HAART, after achieving viral suppression and a CD4 cell increase from 28 to 184 cells/μL. His skin biopsy demonstrated a dense lymphoplasmacytic infiltrate, neutrophils, and granulomas with admixed aggregates and single Cryptococcus neoformans and focal aggregation of human herpes virus 8-immunopositive spindle cells. Acid fast bacilli were not identified and mycobacterial molecular studies were negative. The features were compatible with cutaneous cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. His nodal and oropharyngeal biopsies demonstrated dense mixed, including granulomatous, inflammation with few cryptococcal yeasts and acid fast bacilli, confirmed to be Mycobacterium tuberculosis on polymerase chain reaction testing, without KS. These features were also compatible with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, but the exact role of each infection in the extracutaneous sites was unconfirmed. Colesional KS and cryptococcosis served as the sentinel lesion of AIDS in 3 patients and of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in 1 patient.

  17. Utility of the National Death Index in Ascertaining Mortality in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Maddox, Lorene M.; Lieb, Spencer; Niyonsenga, Theophile

    2011-01-01

    To assess the utility of the National Death Index (NDI) in improving the ascertainment of deaths among people diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the authors determined the number and characteristics of additional deaths identified through NDI linkage not ascertained by using standard electronic linkage with Florida Vital Records and the Social Security Administration’s Death Master File. Records of people diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome between 1993 and 2007 in Florida were linked to the NDI. The demographic characteristics and reported human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission modes of people whose deaths were identified by using the NDI were compared with those whose deaths were ascertained by standard linkage methods. Of the 15,094 submitted records, 719 had confirmed matches, comprising 2.1% of known deaths (n = 34,504) within the cohort. Hispanics, males, people 40 years of age or older, and injection drug users were overrepresented among deaths ascertained only by the NDI. In-state deaths comprised 59.0% of newly identified deaths, and human immunodeficiency virus was less likely to be a cause of death among newly identified compared with previously identified deaths. The newly identified deaths were not previously ascertained principally because of slight differences in personal identifying information and could have been identified through improved linkages with Florida Vital Records. PMID:21540319

  18. Utility of the National Death Index in ascertaining mortality in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome surveillance.

    PubMed

    Trepka, Mary Jo; Maddox, Lorene M; Lieb, Spencer; Niyonsenga, Theophile

    2011-07-01

    To assess the utility of the National Death Index (NDI) in improving the ascertainment of deaths among people diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), the authors determined the number and characteristics of additional deaths identified through NDI linkage not ascertained by using standard electronic linkage with Florida Vital Records and the Social Security Administration's Death Master File. Records of people diagnosed with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome between 1993 and 2007 in Florida were linked to the NDI. The demographic characteristics and reported human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission modes of people whose deaths were identified by using the NDI were compared with those whose deaths were ascertained by standard linkage methods. Of the 15,094 submitted records, 719 had confirmed matches, comprising 2.1% of known deaths (n = 34,504) within the cohort. Hispanics, males, people 40 years of age or older, and injection drug users were overrepresented among deaths ascertained only by the NDI. In-state deaths comprised 59.0% of newly identified deaths, and human immunodeficiency virus was less likely to be a cause of death among newly identified compared with previously identified deaths. The newly identified deaths were not previously ascertained principally because of slight differences in personal identifying information and could have been identified through improved linkages with Florida Vital Records.

  19. Lessons from the history of the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome epidemic among Spanish drug injectors.

    PubMed

    De La Fuente, L; Bravo, M J; Barrio, G; Parras, F; Suárez, M; Rodés, A; Noguer, I

    2003-12-15

    In Spain, approximately 10 years passed between the time when human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) harm-reduction programs should have been developed with sufficient coverage to have an optimum impact on public health (before the HIV/AIDS epidemic's explosion in 1984) and the date of their actual implementation. This delay yielded an enormous cost for the country. The introduction of the virus in drug injector networks during a period of widespread diffusion of heroin injection and the lack of political awareness of the growing problem were 2 important factors that contributed to the important diffusion of the HIV infection among Spanish injection drug users. Lessons can be learned that may be of great interest in countries or territories facing similar challenges now and in the future.

  20. A Critical Review of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection--And Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-Related Research: The Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practice of Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, Janice M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Reviews the research literature related to nurses' knowledge, attitudes, and practices concerning acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), human immunodeficiency virus infection, and care of people with AIDS. Gaps in knowledge and negative, fearful attitudes were identified; negative fears and attitudes decreased with the gain in accurate…

  1. Altered excretion of modified nucleosides and beta-aminoisobutyric acid in subjects with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome or at risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Borek, E; Sharma, O K; Buschman, F L; Cohn, D L; Penley, K A; Judson, F N; Dobozin, B S; Horsburgh, C R; Kirkpatrick, C H

    1986-05-01

    Urinary excretion of modified nucleosides and beta-aminoisobutyric acid, subsequently referred to as markers, was determined in populations of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or at risk for development of AIDS. Our results show that asymptomatic adult male homosexuals excreted elevated amounts of markers as compared to male heterosexuals. This aberrant excretion was more pronounced in asymptomatic adult male homosexuals with antibodies to HTLV-III. Significantly greater excretion of 1-methylinosine, N4-acetylcytidine, and N2-methylguanosine was observed in asymptomatic adult male homosexuals with antibodies to HTLV-III than in asymptomatic male homosexuals without antibodies to HTLV-III. Increased amounts of markers were also excreted by subjects with the generalized or chronic lymphadenopathy syndrome, AIDS related complex (ARC), or AIDS. In these subjects, the most pronounced differences between groups were between subjects with chronic lymphadenopathy syndrome and those with ARC; subjects with ARC excreted greater amounts of seven of the ten urinary markers. There were few differences between subjects with ARC and those with AIDS, Kaposi's sarcoma, or AIDS with opportunistic infections. This observation may be useful for identifying subjects who are at risk of developing AIDS. A prospective study to test this hypothesis is under way.

  2. Human Immune Responses to HTLV-III Virus Infections in the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-11-10

    in western blots in the antibodies to HIV-1 structural antigens between this serum and the other sera which neutralize HIV at low dilutions but enhance...n3est AvailabCe AD N T== HUMAN IMMUNE RESPONSE TO HTLV -III VIRUS INFECTION IN ACQUIRED IMMUNODEFICIENCY SYNDROME N ANNUAL REPORT FRANCIS A. ENNIS D...Stimulation of HIV-1 specific T cells. We have stimulated the PBL of 20 HIV antibody-positive donors with live HIV-1 ( HTLV -IIIB) virus, and only 30% respond

  3. Medicaid home and community-based waivers for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients

    PubMed Central

    Lindsey, Phoebe A.; Jacobson, Peter D.; Pascal, Anthony H.

    1990-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), an increasingly significant health problem, presents a special challenge to Medicaid programs. Analyzed in this article is one particular approach to providing services for Medicaid-eligible AIDS patients: the Medicaid home and community-based (section 2176) waiver program, authorized by the 1981 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act and amended in 1985 to include persons with AIDS. The authors conclude that the AIDS-specific waiver is an attractive program for the States, but that changes in program administration and in how cost effectiveness is determined would likely facilitate broader acceptance by the States. PMID:10113487

  4. Extensive brain masses and cavitary lung lesions associated with toxoplasmosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ayoade, Folusakin; Todd, John; Al-Delfi, Firas; King, John

    2017-10-01

    Toxoplasmosis is an important cause of enhancing brain lesions in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), and it is typically associated with low CD4-lymphocyte counts. Extensive toxoplasma encephalitis when the CD4-lymphocyte count is above 100 cells/µl is unusual. Cavitary lung lesions are also not typically associated with toxoplasmosis. Here, we present a case of toxoplasmosis associated with extensive brain masses and cavitary lung lesions, both of which improved with directed toxoplasmosis therapy, in an AIDS patient with a CD4 cell count of 120 cells/µl.

  5. Patterns of gallium-67 scintigraphy in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the AIDS related complex

    SciTech Connect

    Bitran, J.; Bekerman, C.; Weinstein, R.; Bennett, C.; Ryo, U.; Pinsky, S.

    1987-07-01

    Thirty-two patients with AIDS related complex (ARC) or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) underwent /sup 67/Ga scans as part of their evaluation. Three patterns of /sup 67/Ga biodistribution were found: lymph node uptake alone; diffuse pulmonary uptake; normal scan. Gallium-67 scans were useful in identifying clinically occult Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in seven of 15 patients with ARC who were asymptomatic and had normal chest radiographs. Gallium scans are a useful ancillary procedure in the evaluation of patients with ARC or AIDS.

  6. Audiological and electrophysiological evaluation of children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Leite, Renata Aparecida; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Gonçalves, Isabela Crivellaro

    2006-08-01

    We examined the peripheral auditory system and the auditory brainstem pathway of children with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). One hundred and one children, 51 with AIDS diagnosis and 50 normal children were evaluated. Audiological assessment included immittance measures, pure tone and speech audiometry and auditory brainstem response (ABR). The children with AIDS more frequently had abnormal results than did their matched controls, presenting either peripheral or auditory brainstem impairment. We suggest that AIDS be considered a risk factor for peripheral and/or auditory brainstem disorders. Further research should be carried out to investigate the auditory effects of HIV infection along the auditory pathway.

  7. Current issues in developing a strategy for dealing with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Fauci, A S

    1986-01-01

    A number of current issues exist that must be taken into account in the development of a strategy for dealing with the problem of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the United States and throughout the world. Given the complexity of the problem and the fact that the epidemic is still in its evolving stages, such issues must be considered individually and as a group. The present discussion focuses on several of these critical issues and outlines approaches that might be useful in the formulation of basic scientific and public health strategies for dealing with the currently appreciated and projected problems in AIDS. PMID:3467307

  8. Nutrition and infectious diseases in developing countries and problems of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ambrus, Julian L; Ambrus, Julian L

    2004-06-01

    Infectious diseases are the major causes of death and morbidity in underdeveloped countries, particularly in children. Increasing evidence suggests that malnutrition-both Protein-Energy type Malnutrition (PEM) and essential micronutrient (vitamins, trace minerals, essential amino acids, polyunsaturated fatty acids) type-is the underlying reason for increased susceptibility to infections. On the other hand, certain infectious diseases also cause malnutrition, which results in a vicious cycle. Before its viral origin was known, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) had been termed the thin disease because cachexia was AIDS' main clinical manifestation. The relationship between infection and malnutrition is well documented in the literature. Our experience supports this. Preventive and therapeutic measures are suggested.

  9. Dermoscopy of Norwegian scabies in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Towersey, Loan; Cunha, Marina X da; Feldman, Cecilia A; Castro, Carlos Gustavo C de; Berger, Timothy G

    2010-01-01

    The authors report here on the case of a female patient with Norwegian (crusted) scabies and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome whose compliance with antiretroviral therapy was poor. Definitive diagnosis was confirmed by direct microscopic examination, which revealed numerous Sarcoptes scabei. Dermoscopy showed pathognomonic scabetic burrows and brownish structures in the shape of a hand-glider with a millipede-like appearance. The latter constitutes a diagnostic feature in the pathology of Norwegian scabies that has not yet been described. The patient responded well to oral ivermectin and topical vaseline with sulphur at a proportion of 10%. There was a simultaneous improvement in dermoscopic parameters.

  10. Detection of thoracic infections by nuclear medicine techniques in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J. )

    1989-11-01

    The challenge of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for nuclear medicine has been the early detection of related intrathoracic opportunistic infections, inflammatory conditions, and neoplasms. Gallium-67 citrate scanning has proved a sensitive test not only for Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia but for many of the other opportunistic infections and malignancies, including mycobacterial infections and lymphoma. Patterns and intensity of gallium uptake may suggest more specific diagnoses. Indium-111-labeled white blood cells may also be a valuable diagnostic tool in the AIDS patient.41 references.

  11. Pancreatic tuberculosis with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: A case report and systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Meesiri, Somchai

    2012-01-01

    Pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively rare disease that can mimic carcinoma, lymphoma, cystic neoplasia, retroperitoneal tumors, pancreatitis or pseudocysts. Here, I report the case of a 31-year-old immigrant Burmese woman who exhibited epigastralgia, fever, weight loss and an epigastric mass. The patient was diagnosed with pancreatic TB and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and was treated with antituberculous drugs and percutaneous catheter drainage without a laparotomy. The clinical presentation, radiographic investigation and management of pancreatic TB are summarized in this paper to emphasize the importance of considering this rare disease in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic masses concomitant with human immunodeficiency virus infection. I also emphasize the need for both histopathological and microbiological diagnosis via fine-needle aspiration. PMID:22363146

  12. Pediatric acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Asia: mother-to-child transmission.

    PubMed

    Pancharoen, Chitsanu; Thisyakorn, Usa

    2002-05-01

    At least 6 million people in the Asia-Pacific region have human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The numbers of HIV-infected women and children are increasing at an alarming rate. Important components of infection control that need to be addressed if mother-to-child transmission of HIV is to be prevented successfully include voluntary and confidential counseling and testing, family planning, obstetric care, use of antiretroviral agents, and availability of alternatives to breast-feeding. Many services can aid in the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV and the care of HIV-infected mothers and their children. Each country needs to take into account the features of HIV and AIDS epidemiology that are peculiar to it, its infrastructure, and the resources that are available. Providing services in a stepwise manner can help prevent mother-to-child transmission of HIV.

  13. Investigation of potent lead for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from traditional Chinese medicine.

    PubMed

    Hung, Tzu-Chieh; Lee, Wen-Yuan; Chen, Kuen-Bao; Chan, Yueh-Chiu; Chen, Calvin Yu-Chian

    2014-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), caused by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), has become, because of the rapid spread of the disease, a serious global problem and cannot be treated. Recent studies indicate that VIF is a protein of HIV to prevent all of human immunity to attack HIV. Molecular compounds of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) database filtered through molecular docking and molecular dynamics simulations to inhibit VIF can protect against HIV. Glutamic acid, plantagoguanidinic acid, and Aurantiamide acetate based docking score higher with other TCM compounds selected. Molecular dynamics are useful for analysis and detection ligand interactions. According to the docking position, hydrophobic interactions, hydrogen bonding changes, and structure variation, the study try to select the efficacy of traditional Chinese medicine compound Aurantiamide acetate is better than the other for protein-ligand interactions to maintain the protein composition, based on changes in the structure.

  14. Pancreatic tuberculosis with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report and systematic review.

    PubMed

    Meesiri, Somchai

    2012-02-21

    Pancreatic tuberculosis (TB) is a relatively rare disease that can mimic carcinoma, lymphoma, cystic neoplasia, retroperitoneal tumors, pancreatitis or pseudocysts. Here, I report the case of a 31-year-old immigrant Burmese woman who exhibited epigastralgia, fever, weight loss and an epigastric mass. The patient was diagnosed with pancreatic TB and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and was treated with antituberculous drugs and percutaneous catheter drainage without a laparotomy. The clinical presentation, radiographic investigation and management of pancreatic TB are summarized in this paper to emphasize the importance of considering this rare disease in the differential diagnosis of pancreatic masses concomitant with human immunodeficiency virus infection. I also emphasize the need for both histopathological and microbiological diagnosis via fine-needle aspiration.

  15. Treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with Chinese medicine in China: opportunity, advancement and challenges.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Bin; Wang, Xin; Liu, Hui-Juan; Jin, Yan-Tao; Guo, Hui-Jun; Jiang, Zi-Qiang; Li, Zhen; Xu, Li-Ran

    2013-08-01

    Chinese medicine (CM) has been used in the treatment of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for 30 years and the demonstrated therapeutic effects of CM, such as reducing plasma HIV viral load, increasing CD4(+)T cell counts, promoting immunity reconstitution, ameliorating symptoms and signs, improving the health related quality of life (HRQOL) and counteracting against the effects of anti-retroviral drugs, were summarized and reviewed in this article. The authors point out that it had been a good opportunity to use CM for the treatment of HIV infection and AIDS in the past and also there are huge challenges ahead for CM research and clinicians to discover more effective CM and its underlying mechanisms for treatment of AIDS.

  16. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: a comparison between patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and patients with other immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, J A; Hiemenz, J W; Macher, A M; Stover, D; Murray, H W; Shelhamer, J; Lane, H C; Urmacher, C; Honig, C; Longo, D L

    1984-05-01

    Clinical features of 49 episodes of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were compared with those of 39 episodes in patients with other immunosuppressive diseases. At presentation patients with the syndrome were found to have a longer median duration of symptoms (28 days versus 5 days, p = 0.0001), lower mean respiratory rate (23.4 versus 30, p = 0.005), and higher median room air arterial oxygen tension (69 mm Hg versus 52 mm Hg, p = 0.0002). The survival rate from 1979 to 1983 was similar for the two groups (57% and 50% respectively). Patients with the syndrome had a higher incidence of adverse reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (22 of 34 versus 2 of 17, p = 0.0007). Survivors with the syndrome at initial presentation had a significantly lower respiratory rate, and higher room air arterial oxygen tension, lymphocyte count, and serum albumin level compared to nonsurvivors. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia presents as a more insidious disease process in patients with the syndrome, and drug therapy in these patients is complicated by frequent adverse reactions.

  17. Altered Virome and Bacterial Microbiome in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Associated Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Monaco, Cynthia L; Gootenberg, David B; Zhao, Guoyan; Handley, Scott A; Ghebremichael, Musie S; Lim, Efrem S; Lankowski, Alex; Baldridge, Megan T; Wilen, Craig B; Flagg, Meaghan; Norman, Jason M; Keller, Brian C; Luévano, Jesús Mario; Wang, David; Boum, Yap; Martin, Jeffrey N; Hunt, Peter W; Bangsberg, David R; Siedner, Mark J; Kwon, Douglas S; Virgin, Herbert W

    2016-03-09

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with increased intestinal translocation of microbial products and enteropathy as well as alterations in gut bacterial communities. However, whether the enteric virome contributes to this infection and resulting immunodeficiency remains unknown. We characterized the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome in a cohort of Ugandan patients, including HIV-uninfected or HIV-infected subjects and those either treated with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) or untreated. Low peripheral CD4 T cell counts were associated with an expansion of enteric adenovirus sequences and this increase was independent of ART treatment. Additionally, the enteric bacterial microbiome of patients with lower CD4 T counts exhibited reduced phylogenetic diversity and richness with specific bacteria showing differential abundance, including increases in Enterobacteriaceae, which have been associated with inflammation. Thus, immunodeficiency in progressive HIV infection is associated with alterations in the enteric virome and bacterial microbiome, which may contribute to AIDS-associated enteropathy and disease progression.

  18. Cytokine Polymorphisms are Associated with Poor Sleep Maintenance in Adults Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kathryn A.; Gay, Caryl; Pullinger, Clive R.; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; Zak, Rochelle S.; Aouizerat, Bradley E.

    2014-01-01

    Study Objectives: Cytokine activity and polymorphisms have been associated with sleep outcomes in prior animal and human research. The purpose of this study was to determine whether circulating plasma cytokines and cytokine polymorphisms are associated with the poor sleep maintenance commonly experienced by adults living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Design: Cross-sectional descriptive study. Setting: HIV clinics and community sites in the San Francisco Bay area. Participants: A convenience sample of 289 adults (193 men, 73 women, and 23 transgender) living with HIV/AIDS. Interventions: None. Measurements and Results: A wrist actigraph was worn for 72 h to estimate the percentage of wake after sleep onset (WASO%) and total sleep time (TST), plasma cytokines were analyzed, and genotyping was conducted for 15 candidate genes involved in cytokine signaling: interferon-gamma (IFNG), IFNG receptor 1 (IFNGR1), interleukins (IL1B, IL1R2, IL1R2, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL13, IL17A), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells (NFKB1 and NFKB2), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA). Controlling for demographic variables such as race and sex, and clinical variables such as CD4+ count and medications, higher WASO% was associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL1R2 rs11674595 and TNFA rs1041981 and less WASO% was associated with IL2 rs2069776. IL1R2 rs11674595 and TNFA rs1041981 were also associated with short sleep duration. Conclusions: This study strengthens the evidence for an association between inflammation and sleep maintenance problems. In this chronic illness population, cytokine polymorphisms associated with wake after sleep onset provide direction for intervention research aimed at comparing anti-inflammatory mechanisms with hypnotic agents for improving sleep maintenance and total sleep time. Citation: Lee KA; Gay C; Pullinger CR; Hennessy MD; Zak RS; Aouizerat BE

  19. Nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis: a common cause of pulmonary disease in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Suffredini, A.F.; Ognibene, F.P.; Lack, E.E.; Simmons, J.T.; Brenner, M.; Gill, V.J.; Lane, H.C.; Fauci, A.S.; Parrillo, J.E.; Masur, H.

    1987-07-01

    During a 4.4-year period, nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis was seen in 41 of 110 (38%) patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and accounted for 32% (48/152) of all episodes of clinical pneumonitis. Diffuse alveolar damage was typically a feature of nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis, but neither lung biopsy nor bronchoalveolar lavage detected a pathogen. Of these 41 patients, 13 had no associated pulmonary tumor and had not been exposed to pulmonary toxins, whereas 28 patients had either concurrent pulmonary Kaposi sarcoma, previous experimental therapies, or a history of pneumocystis pneumonia or drug abuse. Of these 41, 23 had normal chest radiographs. The clinical features of patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis were similar to those of patients with pneumocystis pneumonia, although histologic findings showed less severe alveolar damage in patients with nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis (p less than 0.001). Pathologic evaluation and clinical follow-up suggest that many clinical episodes of pneumonitis in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are due to nonspecific interstitial pneumonitis of unknown cause.

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is highly associated with giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients.

    PubMed

    Lv, Bei; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Jackson; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Liping; Wang, Liwei; Huang, Shaoping; Fan, Zhenyu; Zhang, Renfang; Shen, Yinzhong; Li, Lei; Liu, Baochi; Qi, Tangkai; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Jilin

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to determine whether the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exists in giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in the patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). 16 AIDS patients with a primary complaint of epigastric discomfort were examined by gastroscopy. Multiple and giant esophageal ulcers were biopsied and analyzed with pathology staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine the potential pathogenic microorganisms, including HIV, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses (HSV). HIV was detected in ulcer samples from 12 out of these 16 patients. Ulcers in 2 patients were infected with CMV and ulcers in another 2 patients were found HSV positive. No obvious cancerous pathological changes were found in these multiple giant esophageal ulcer specimens. HIV may be one of the major causative agents of multiple benign giant esophageal ulcers in AIDS patients.

  1. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is highly associated with giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Bei; Cheng, Xin; Gao, Jackson; Zhao, Hong; Chen, Liping; Wang, Liwei; Huang, Shaoping; Fan, Zhenyu; Zhang, Renfang; Shen, Yinzhong; Li, Lei; Liu, Baochi; Qi, Tangkai; Wang, Jing; Cheng, Jilin

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to determine whether the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) exists in giant idiopathic esophageal ulcers in the patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Methods: 16 AIDS patients with a primary complaint of epigastric discomfort were examined by gastroscopy. Multiple and giant esophageal ulcers were biopsied and analyzed with pathology staining and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) to determine the potential pathogenic microorganisms, including HIV, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses (HSV). Results: HIV was detected in ulcer samples from 12 out of these 16 patients. Ulcers in 2 patients were infected with CMV and ulcers in another 2 patients were found HSV positive. No obvious cancerous pathological changes were found in these multiple giant esophageal ulcer specimens. Conclusion: HIV may be one of the major causative agents of multiple benign giant esophageal ulcers in AIDS patients. PMID:27830031

  2. New clinical and histological patterns of acute disseminated histoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ollague Sierra, Jose E; Ollague Torres, Jose M

    2013-04-01

    Histoplasmosis has attained increasing relevance in the past 3 decades because of the appearance of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In most immunocompetent persons, the infection is asymptomatic or can produce a respiratory condition with symptoms and radiological images similar to those observed in pulmonary tuberculosis; in non-HIV+ immunocompromised patients, it can cause respiratory symptoms or evolve into a disseminated infection. The same can occur in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. We have observed a series of HIV+ patients with AIDS who presented with cutaneous histoplasmosis and in whom the clinical and histopathological features were highly unusual, including variable mucocutaneous lesions that were difficult to diagnose clinically. These patients displayed unusual, previously undescribed, histological patterns, including lichenoid pattern, nodular pseudomyxoid pattern, pyogenic granuloma-like pattern, perifollicular pattern, and superficial (S), mid (M), and deep perivascular dermatitis; and more commonly encountered patterns, such as histiocytic lobular panniculitis and focal nodular dermatitis. The novel histopathological patterns of cutaneous involvement by histoplasmosis seen in these patients resembled other common inflammatory and infectious conditions and required a high level of suspicion and the application of special stains for organisms for confirmation. These new, clinical, and histological findings do not seem to be commonly encountered in HIV- patients infected with the fungus but seem to be displayed most prominently in HIV+ patients with AIDS.

  3. Disseminated histoplasmosis: a comparative study between patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and non-human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals.

    PubMed

    Tobón, Angela M; Agudelo, Carlos A; Rosero, David S; Ochoa, Juan E; De Bedout, Catalina; Zuluaga, Alejandra; Arango, Myrtha; Cano, Luz E; Sampedro, Jaime; Restrepo, Angela

    2005-09-01

    We studied 52 patients with disseminated histoplasmosis, 30 with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) (cohort 1) and 22 not co-infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (cohort 2). Demographic, clinical, laboratory, mycologic findings, as well as antifungal therapy and highly active antiretroviral (HAART), were analyzed. Skin lesions were significantly higher in cohort 1 than in cohort 2 (P = 0.001). Anemia, leukopenia, and an elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate were also more pronounced in cohort 1 than in cohort 2 (P < 0.001). Histoplasma capsulatum was isolated more often in cohort 1 than in cohort 2 (P < 0.05) patients, but antibodies to H. capsulatum were detected more frequently in cohort 2 than in cohort 1 (P < 0.05). Itraconazole treatment was less effective in cohort 1 than in cohort 2 (P = 0.012). In cohort 1 patients, HAART improved response to antifungals when compared with individuals not given HAART (P = 0.003), who exhibited higher mortality rates (P = 0.025). Cohort 1 patients who were given dual antifungal and anti-retroviral therapies responded as well as the non-HIV patients in cohort 2, who were treated only with itraconazole. These results indicate the need to promote restoration of the immune system in patients with AIDS and histoplasmosis.

  4. Health administrator perspectives on human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome prevention and services at historically black colleges and universities.

    PubMed

    Warren-Jeanpiere, Lari; Jones, Sandra; Sutton, Madeline Y

    2011-01-01

    Due to the disproportionate impact of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) among African American young adults, the authors explored (1) number of historically black college and university (HBCU) campuses with existing HIV prevention policies and services and (2) perceived barriers for implementing HIV prevention services. Semistructured telephone surveys were conducted with health administrators from 25 HBCUs. Twenty-four of 25 (96%) health administrators responded. Twelve of 24 administrators (50%) reported having no formal HIV prevention policies or services on campus, 11 of 24 (46%) described having formal HIV prevention policies and services (eg, condom distribution, HIV testing), and 1 was unsure. Seven of 11 (64%) administrators who reported having policies or services indicated that the availability of condoms on campus facilitated HIV/AIDS prevention by promoting safer sex. Perceived barriers to more effectively providing services included negative student attitudes regarding HIV and lack of support from school administration and parents. There are inadequate HIV/AIDS prevention services on some HBCU campuses.

  5. South Asian Consensus Guidelines for the rational management of diabetes in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Sanjay; Unnikrishnan, Ambika Gopalakrishnan; Raza, Syed Abbas; Bantwal, Ganpathy; Baruah, Manash P.; Latt, Tint Swe; Shrestha, Dina; John, Mathew; Katulanda, Prasad; Somasundaram, Noel; Sahay, Rakesh; Pathan, Faruque

    2011-01-01

    As newer methods of management are made available, and accessible, survival rates with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are increasing. This means that chronic, metabolic complications of HIV are becoming more frequent in clinical practice, as acute morbidity is controlled. Management of HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is gradually expanding to include these chronic and metabolic complications of the disease, and the adverse effects associated with its treatments, including diabetes. Unfortunately, no guidelines are available to help the medical practitioners choose appropriate therapy for patients with these conditions. The aim of the South Asian Consensus Guidelines is to provide evidence-based recommendations to assist healthcare providers in the rational management of type 2 diabetes mellitus in patients with HIV. The development of these guidelines used systematic reviews of available evidence to form its key recommendations. These guidelines and associated review of literature represent a compilation of available knowledge regarding rational management of diabetes in HIV. Patients of diabetes with concomitant HIV infection are managed optimally with insulin therapy and judicious use of highly active antiretroviral therapy with suitable alternatives is also recommended. These guidelines should prove helpful to physicians, not only in South Asia, but also across the globe, while managing patients with coexistent HIV and diabetes. PMID:22028994

  6. Oral candidiasis in high-risk patients as the initial manifestation of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Klein, R S; Harris, C A; Small, C B; Moll, B; Lesser, M; Friedland, G H

    1984-08-09

    We studied the frequency with which unexplained oral candidiasis led to unequivocal acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in patients at risk. Twenty-two previously healthy adults with unexplained oral candidiasis, of whom the 19 tested had a reversed T4/T8 ratio and 20 had generalized lymphadenopathy, were compared with 20 similar patients with a reversed T4/T8 ratio and generalized lymphadenopathy who did not have oral candidiasis. All were intravenous-drug abusers, homosexual or bisexual men, or both. Thirteen of the 22 patients with oral candidiasis (59 per cent) acquired a major opportunistic infection or Kaposi's sarcoma at a median of three months (range, 1 to 23) as compared with none of 20 patients with generalized lymphadenopathy and immunodeficiency but without candidiasis who were followed for a median of 12 months (range, 5 to 21) (P less than 0.001). AIDS developed in 12 of 15 patients with candidiasis and T4/T8 ratios less than or equal to 0.51, as compared with none of four with ratios equal to or greater than 0.60 (P less than 0.01). We conclude that in patients at high risk for AIDS, the presence of unexplained oral candidiasis predicts the development of serious opportunistic infections more than 50 per cent of the time. Whether the remainder will have AIDS is not yet known.

  7. Gene-based immunotherapy for human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dropulic, Boro; June, Carl H

    2006-06-01

    More than 40 million people are infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and a successful vaccine is at least a decade away. Although highly active antiretroviral therapy prolongs life, the maintenance of viral latency requires life-long treatment and results in cumulative toxicities and viral escape mutants. Gene therapy offers the promise to cure or prevent progressive HIV infection by interfering with HIV replication and CD4+ cell decline long term in the absence of chronic chemotherapy, and approximately 2 million HIV-infected individuals live in settings where there is sufficient infrastructure to support its application with current technology. Although the development of HIV/AIDS gene therapy has been slow, progress in a number of areas is evident, so that studies to date have significantly advanced the field of gene-based immunotherapy. Advances have helped to define a series of ongoing and planned trials that may shed light on potential mechanisms for the successful clinical gene therapy of HIV.

  8. [The laryngeal involvement in Kaposi's sarcoma in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Olmo, A; Vilaseca, I; Moragas, M; Pérez, J; Blanch, J L; Avellaneda, R; Traserra, J

    1993-01-01

    Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is a malignant vascular neoplasm characterized, in its classical form, by a slow evolutive course, beginning in the lower extremities. Lately have been reported more and more cases of this entity associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), running much more aggressively. In ENT-pathology are not uncommon this kind of neoplasm in the oral cavity and oropharynx. However at larynx's level such descriptions till now had been sporadic. The AA. present a KS case sitting in the epiglottis of an AIDS patient. They emphasize the importance of a throughout ENT-examination of these patients and also remark the necessity of performing various and deep biopsies in order to gain a diagnosis that can be relied on. Finally, they review the updated management alternatives for this sort of pathology.

  9. Toxoplasmosis of spinal cord in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patient presenting as paraparesis: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Sachin R; Singh, Vinita; Ingale, Sheetal; Jain, Ajeet Prasad

    2014-10-01

    Although brain has been the most common site for toxoplasma infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients, involvement of spinal cord by toxoplasma has been rarely found. Spinal cord toxoplasmosis can present as acute onset weakness in both lower limbs associated with sensory and bladder dysfunction. A presumptive diagnosis can be made in patients with CD4 count <100/mm(3) based on a positive serum Toxoplasma gondii IgG antibodies, no recent prophylaxis against toxoplasmosis, intramedullary ring enhancing lesion in spinal cord supported by similar lesions in brain parenchyma. Institutions of antitoxoplasma treatment in such patients result in prompt clinical response and therefore avoiding the need of unnecessary invasive diagnostic tests. Here, we report a case of toxoplasmic myelitis in immunocompromised patient presenting as myelopathy who showed significant clinical improvement after starting antitoxoplasma treatment. Hence toxoplasmic myelitis should be considered in toxoplasma seropositive immunocompromised patients presenting as myelopathy and imaging studies showing ring enhancing intramedullary lesion.

  10. Isolated toxoplasmosis of the thoracic spinal cord in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Case report.

    PubMed

    Resnick, D K; Comey, C H; Welch, W C; Martinez, A J; Hoover, W W; Jacobs, G B

    1995-03-01

    Toxoplasmosis and lymphoma are the two most common causes of intraparenchymal cerebral mass lesions in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The clinical and radiographic features of the intracranial lesions have been well described. Because of the high frequency of toxoplasmosis in the AIDS population, common therapy for patients presenting with intracranial mass lesions consists of an empirical trial of anti-Toxoplasma chemotherapy, with biopsy reserved for cases demonstrating features considered to be more consistent with lymphoma, or for lesions that do not improve despite adequate anti-Toxoplasma treatment. A similar treatment algorithm does not exist for intramedullary lesions of the spinal cord. The authors describe a patient who presented with paraparesis resulting from an isolated thoracic intramedullary lesion. An open biopsy of the lesion revealed characteristic structures containing Toxoplasma tachyzoites. The clinical and radiographic presentation of the lesion is discussed, the available literature is reviewed, and a treatment strategy for spinal cord lesions in AIDS patients is proposed.

  11. Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: report of 23 cases.

    PubMed

    Bonifaz, A; Chang, P; Moreno, K; Fernández-Fernández, V; Montes de Oca, G; Araiza, J; Ponce, R M

    2009-06-01

    Disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis is an opportunistic infection in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. We report a series of 23 cases (21 men, two women; median age 29 years) with disseminated cutaneous histoplasmosis seen at two hospital centres. Most of the patients (21/23) were classified as stage C3. The most common dermatological findings were papules, crusting plaques, nodules and ulcers, mainly located on the face and chest. Of the 23 cases, 15 (65%) had pulmonary involvement. Amphotericin B and itraconazole were the main drugs used for treatment. Treatment response was variable: four of the patients were cured, six improved and remain stable, nine patients died, and four patients were lost to follow-up.

  12. Gallium-67 scans of the chest in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Kramer, E.L.; Sanger, J.J.; Garay, S.M.; Greene, J.B.; Tiu, S.; Banner, H.; McCauley, D.I.

    1987-07-01

    Eighty-six (/sup 67/Ga)citrate chest scans were performed in 71 adult patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Forty-five of these patients also had Kaposi's sarcoma. Only 29 of 57 abnormal scans were correlated with abnormal chest radiographs. Chest radiographs were negative for 27 scans and unavailable for one. Several scan patterns were seen. Diffusely increased lung uptake was seen most commonly with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, but also other infections and noninfectious inflammatory conditions. Focal uptake corresponding to regional lymph node groups occurred most often with Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare but aslo with lymphoma. Localized intrapulmonary uptake was seen in bacterial pneumonias. Perihilar activity occurred in two cases. When chest radiographs were abnormal and /sup 67/Ga scans negative, the most common diagnosis was pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma.

  13. Structural characterization of reverse transcriptase and endonuclease polypeptides of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome retrovirus.

    PubMed Central

    Lightfoote, M M; Coligan, J E; Folks, T M; Fauci, A S; Martin, M A; Venkatesan, S

    1986-01-01

    Automated N-terminal microsequencing of immune affinity-purified acquired immunodeficiency syndrome retrovirus polypeptides from infected cells was used to locate the N termini of 64-, 51-, and 34-kilodalton (kDa) polypeptides within the pol open reading frame (ORF) of the proviral DNA. The 64- and 51-kDa proteins had identical N termini (Pro-Ile-Ser-Pro-IIe-Glu-Thr-Val-) positioned 156 residues from the beginning of the pol ORF. The N terminus of the 34-kDa pol gene product, Phe-Leu-Asp-Gly-Ile-Asp-Lys-, mapped 716 residues into the pol ORF. These polypeptides were absent in an RT-negative, CD4-negative, persistently infected cell line (8E5) carrying a single defective copy of a constitutively expressed, integrated proviral DNA. Images PMID:2430111

  14. Acute Chagas' disease (Trypanosomiasis americana) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Oddó, D; Casanova, M; Acuña, G; Ballesteros, J; Morales, B

    1992-01-01

    Two heterosexual men, aged 31 and 40 years, with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and presenting with the acute form of Chagas' disease are reported. The first patient, a carrier of hemophilia A, was treated for 20 years with Chilean and Brazilian cryoprecipitates. This patient acquired both diseases through this medium. The second patient, an inhabitant of northern Chile (fourth region), was allegedly bitten by Triatoma infestans and was an intravenous drug addict. The hemophilic patient presented with a neurologic syndrome; a brain biopsy showed a necrotizing encephalitis with an obliterative angiitis and abundant macrophages. The second patient developed intractable congestive heart failure; necropsy showed a dilated myocarditis with rupture of myofibers and an inflammatory infiltrate rich in plasma cells, lymphocytes, and macrophages. Using light and electron microscopy, abundant amastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were seen in brain tissue, especially in the cytoplasm of macrophages, as well as in some myocardial fibers. In both cases, determination of anti-T cruzi antibodies (indirect hemagglutination technique) and xenodiagnosis were positive.

  15. Cytokine polymorphisms are associated with poor sleep maintenance in adults living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kathryn A; Gay, Caryl; Pullinger, Clive R; Hennessy, Mary Dawn; Zak, Rochelle S; Aouizerat, Bradley E

    2014-03-01

    Cytokine activity and polymorphisms have been associated with sleep outcomes in prior animal and human research. The purpose of this study was to determine whether circulating plasma cytokines and cytokine polymorphisms are associated with the poor sleep maintenance commonly experienced by adults living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). Cross-sectional descriptive study. HIV clinics and community sites in the San Francisco Bay area. A convenience sample of 289 adults (193 men, 73 women, and 23 transgender) living with HIV/AIDS. None. A wrist actigraph was worn for 72 h to estimate the percentage of wake after sleep onset (WASO%) and total sleep time (TST), plasma cytokines were analyzed, and genotyping was conducted for 15 candidate genes involved in cytokine signaling: interferon-gamma (IFNG), IFNG receptor 1 (IFNGR1), interleukins (IL1B, IL1R2, IL1R2, IL2, IL4, IL6, IL8, IL10, IL13, IL17A), nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells (NFKB1 and NFKB2), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFA). Controlling for demographic variables such as race and sex, and clinical variables such as CD4+ count and medications, higher WASO% was associated with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of IL1R2 rs11674595 and TNFA rs1041981 and less WASO% was associated with IL2 rs2069776. IL1R2 rs11674595 and TNFA rs1041981 were also associated with short sleep duration. This study strengthens the evidence for an association between inflammation and sleep maintenance problems. In this chronic illness population, cytokine polymorphisms associated with wake after sleep onset provide direction for intervention research aimed at comparing anti-inflammatory mechanisms with hypnotic agents for improving sleep maintenance and total sleep time.

  16. [Clinical features of oral lesions in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Guangxi autonomous region].

    PubMed

    Yong, Xiangzhi; Jiang, Lanlan; Lu, Xiangchan; Liu, Wei; Wu, Nianning; Tao, Renchuan

    2014-08-01

    To investigate the features of oral lesions in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). A total of 127 HIV-seropositive patients were interviewed for health information and examined for their HIV-related oral lesions according to the EC Clearing House Criteria on Oral Problems related to HIV-Infection (1992). The examinations were conducted by dental specialist and HIV specialist. The CD4 T cell count in peripheral blood of the patients was tested by flow cytometry. The patients were divided into HIV- infected group (42) and AIDS group (85) according to CDC Classification System for HIV- Infected Adults and Adolescents (revised in 1993). Chi-square test was used to test the relationship between systemic disease and oral lesions, and the difference of the prevalence of oral lesions between the two groups. Among the 127 patients, oral candidiasis (51/127), oral hairy leukoplakia (24/127) were common oral manifestation. There was no relationship between the oral manifestation and systemic disease (P = 0.397). The occurrence of oral lesions and oral candidiasis was significantly different between the two groups (χ² = 7.684, P = 0.006; χ² = 14.410, P < 0.001). The CD4 count was related to the prevalence of oral lesions (P = 0.006) and oral candidasis (P = 0.003). Most oral lesions appeared before the appearance of systemic disease. Oral candidiasis and oral hairy leukoplakia were the most common lesions.Oral lesions had no relationship with systemic disease but could be still an indicator for disease progress.

  17. Study of infections among human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in Shadan Hospital, Telangana, India

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, Sukumar Gajjala; Ali, Syed Yousuf; Khalidi, Azheel

    2016-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemicity is a major concern today as it causes greater loss of productivity than any other disease. HIV infection leads to profound immune deficiency and patients become highly susceptible to opportunistic infections (OIs). HIV epidemic in India is heterogeneous in nature, both in terms of routes of transmission as well as geographical spread. Aims: (1) Determine prevalence of OIs among HIV-seropositive patients and their relation to CD4 count and to focus on the routes of transmission. (2) Analyze the route of transmission. Methods: This is a single-center prospective study including all the patients attending acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) care center during the period of January 2014 to December 2014. Results: Among 71 patients included in this study, mean age was 30 years, 57.7% (41 patients) were male, 42.3% (30 patients) were female. Mean CD4 cell count of the study group was 260.11 and of patients on antiretroviral therapy increased subsequently to 553.37 cells/ml. Among the infections, the prevalence of candidiasis, tuberculosis (TB), tinea infections, seborrheic dermatitis, giardiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and Entamoeba histolytica were 36.6%, 29.58%, 4.22%, 2.82%, 4.22%, 1.4%, and 1.4%. Most predominant routes were heterosexual transmission at 94.3%. It was followed by vertical transmission seen in 2.8%. Homosexual transmission is 1.4% and intravenous drug abuse 1.4%. Conclusion: The frequency of infections among HIV/AIDS patients has got a similar linear relation with CD4 cell count. This study reports data will serve as a matrix for future evaluation. It is concluded that candidiasis, TB are the most common infections in the HIV-seropositive patients in the present study group. PMID:27890948

  18. Human immunodeficiency virus disease in California. Effects of the 1993 expanded case definition of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, J A; Tabnak, F; Kuan, J; Rutherford, G W

    1996-01-01

    On January 1, 1993, the case definition of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in adults and adolescents used for monitoring the AIDS epidemic in California was expanded to include persons infected with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with CD4 T-lymphocyte counts of less than 200 x 10(6) per liter (< 200 per mm3), pulmonary tuberculosis, recurrent pneumonia, or invasive cervical cancer. To assess the implications of this revision on AIDS case reporting in California, we compared cases reported through the end of 1994 based on 1 or more of the 4 new AIDS-defining conditions added in 1993 to cases reported based on pre-1993 AIDS-defining opportunistic infections and cancers. The 4 new conditions included in the 1993 expanded AIDS case definition accounted for a 23% increase in cumulative AIDS cases reported in California by the end of 1993, a 170% increase in the number of cases reported during 1993, and an 88% increase in the number of patients with AIDS living at the end of 1993. The number of cases reported in 1993 (19,629) was 124% more than that reported in 1992 (8,780) and 69% more than that reported in 1994 (11,587). The proportion of cases among women, injection-drug users, and African Americans also increased as a result of this change in the case definition. The expansion of the case definition may have resulted in a peak or plateau in the AIDS incidence in California because of reporting earlier in the HIV disease progression. The expanded case definition has enhanced the usefulness of AIDS surveillance data for targeting secondary prevention efforts, but more behavioral and HIV serosurveys are still needed to adequately target primary HIV prevention efforts. Images Figure 1. PMID:8775725

  19. The Basic Nature of Ethical Problems Experienced by Persons with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Implications for Nursing Ethics Education and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Miriam E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-five persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) described and validated 100 ethical problems that are experienced by people with AIDS from 3 levels of ethical inquiry: descriptive ethics, normative ethics, and metaethics. Findings suggest strategies for improving nursing ethics education. (JOW)

  20. The Basic Nature of Ethical Problems Experienced by Persons with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Implications for Nursing Ethics Education and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cameron, Miriam E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Twenty-five persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) described and validated 100 ethical problems that are experienced by people with AIDS from 3 levels of ethical inquiry: descriptive ethics, normative ethics, and metaethics. Findings suggest strategies for improving nursing ethics education. (JOW)

  1. Selected Laws, Rules and State-Level Activities in Wisconsin Related to Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Information Memorandum 87-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sweet, Richard

    This information memorandum describes the selected laws, rules, and state-level activities in Wisconsin related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and tests for antibodies to the virus (HIV) that causes AIDS. A section on current state laws on AIDS and HIV antibody testing describes laws related to informed consent for testing,…

  2. Central nervous system toxoplasmosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: An emerging disease in India.

    PubMed

    Mathew, M J; Chandy, M J

    1999-09-01

    With the incidence of patients infected with human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) increasing in India, the central nervous system (CNS) manifestations of the disease will be seen more frequently. The CNS may be primarily afflicted by the virus or by opportunistic infections and neoplasms secondary to the immune suppression caused by the virus. In India, although mycobacterium tuberculosis has been reported to be the most common opportunistic infection, toxoplasmosis may become as common owing to the ubiquitous nature of the protozoan. Since an empirical trial of medical therapy without histopathological diagnosis is recommended, the true incidence of this condition may remain under estimated. The role of ancillary tests such as radiology and serology in the initial diagnosis of this condition remain crucial. This report highlights two patients who were diagnosed to have acquired immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) only after the biopsy of the intracranial lesion was reported as toxoplasmosis. Presently all patients for elective neurosurgery are tested for HIV antigen. The management protocol to be followed in a known patient with AIDS presenting with CNS symptoms is discussed in detail. The value of ancillary tests is also reviewed.

  3. Immunologic markers of progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome are time-dependent and illness-specific.

    PubMed

    Krämer, A; Biggar, R J; Hampl, H; Friedman, R M; Fuchs, D; Wachter, H; Goedert, J J

    1992-07-01

    Since prevalent cohorts may be biased by the duration of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection (onset bias), it is useful to assess the potential predictive value of markers in incident cohorts of HIV-positive subjects for whom the date of seroconversion is known or can reliably be estimated. Of 131 homosexual men with HIV-1 seroconversion from New York City and Washington, DC, who were evaluated annually beginning in 1982, 60 developed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by the end of 1989. The prognostic significance of immunologic markers (proportion of CD4+ T-lymphocytes, neopterin, beta 2-microglobulin, serum interferon, and anti-p24 antibody) and of a virologic marker (HIV p24 antigen) was determined using measurements made at defined time intervals after the known or estimated date of HIV seroconversion. When measurements made 3 years after seroconversion were used, all markers except anti-p24 antibody were found to be significant estimators of AIDS risk in univariate analyses. In multivariate Cox regression modeling, the maximum information was obtained by including neopterin, interferon, and the CD4+ T-lymphocyte proportion. The predictive value of markers after HIV seroconversion could change considerably from one interval to another. Elevated levels of beta 2-microglobulin and neopterin significantly predicted the development of Kaposi's sarcoma. These two markers were highly correlated (r = 0.74). The authors conclude that immunologic markers can be important for an HIV staging system for estimating prognosis and facilitating early therapeutic intervention in HIV-positive patients.

  4. First report of Cystoisospora belli parasitemia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Velásquez, Jorge Néstor; di Risio, Cecilia Alicia; Etchart, Cristina Beatriz; Chertcoff, Agustín Víctor; Nigro, Mónica Gabriela; Pantano, María Laura; Ledesma, Bibiana Alba; Vittar, Natalia; Carnevale, Silvana

    2016-01-01

    Cystoisospora belli in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been described as cause of chronic diarrhea and disseminated cystoisosporosis. Diagnosis of intestinal cystoisosporosis can be achieved at the tissue level in the villus epithelium of the small bowel. Disseminated cystoisosporosis is diagnosed by microscopy identification of unizoite tissue cysts in the lamina propria of the intestine. We report a case of disseminated cystoisosporosis in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patient with detection of parasitemia. We studied a 39-year old patient with AIDS and chronic diarrhea by analysis of stool and duodenal biopsy samples. Blood samples were also collected and examined by light microscopy and molecular techniques for C. belli DNA detection. The unizoite tissue cyst stages were present in the lamina propria, with unsporulated oocysts in feces. Zoites were present in blood smears and DNA of C. belli was detected in blood samples. Our study identified a new stage in the life cycle of C. belli. Detection of parasitemia is a novel and noninvasive tool for diagnosis of disseminated cystoisosporosis.

  5. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related malignancies in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, Wendy B; Little, Richard F; Wilson, Wyndham H; Yarchoan, Robert

    2006-07-01

    Since the beginning of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic, malignancies have been an important feature of this disease. Several cancers, including Kaposi sarcoma (KS), certain aggressive B-cell lymphomas, and cervical cancer, are considered AIDS-defining when they occur in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Most AIDS-defining tumors are associated with one of 3 DNA viruses: KS-associated herpesvirus, Epstein-Barr virus, or human papillomavirus. With the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), the incidence of KS and certain lymphomas has decreased, whereas that of other tumors, such as cervical cancer, has undergone little change. Several new drugs and therapies have been developed for KS and AIDS-related lymphomas, and these treatments, plus the development of HAART, have contributed to improvements in morbidity and mortality. At the same time, the improved overall survival of patients with HAART has contributed to an increase in the number of patients living with AIDS in developed countries such as the United States. With the development of HAART and improved prevention and treatment of opportunistic infections, an increasing percentage of the deaths in AIDS patients have been from malignancies. Strategies for prevention, screening, and therapy remain important areas of research in this developing field.

  6. Rifabutin corneal deposits in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: in vivo confocal microscopy investigation.

    PubMed

    Mazzotta, Cosimo; Traversi, Claudio; Nuti, Elisabetta; Sparano, Maria Caterina; Caporossi, Aldo

    2009-01-01

    To establish the real localization of rifabutin-related corneal deposits in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection by in vivo HRT II confocal microscopy with related clinicopathologic implications. Observational case report. After Siena University Institutional Review Board approval in May 2008 and specific informed consent, a 54-year-old patient with HIV infection under rifabutin treatment for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Mycobacterium avium complex prevention who developed diffuse corneal deposits was examined at the Department of Ophthalmology of Siena University. He underwent a complete clinical eye examination, biomicroscopy, and digital slit lamp photographs, endothelial specular microscopy, ultrasound pachymetry, and confocal microscopy by HRT II system. Confocal scans revealed the presence of deep stromal and pre descemetic hyperreflective polymorphous deposits. In vivo confocal examination excluded the presence of rifabutin-related deposits at endothelial level. Confocal microscopy enables establishment of the real localization of rifabutin deposits at deep stromal level, providing a better qualitative analysis of all corneal layers compared to biomicroscopic examination, with clinical and physiopathologic implications.

  7. Retroperitoneal fibromatosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in macaques. Pathologic observations and transmission studies.

    PubMed Central

    Giddens, W. E.; Tsai, C. C.; Morton, W. R.; Ochs, H. D.; Knitter, G. H.; Blakley, G. A.

    1985-01-01

    A peculiar fibroproliferative syndrome called retroperitoneal fibromatosis (RF) has been observed in Macaca nemestrina, Macaca mulatta, Macaca fascicularis, and Macaca fuscata at the Washington Regional Primate Research Center. RF is characterized by the aggressive proliferation of highly vascular fibrous tissue subjacent to the peritoneum covering the ileocecal junction and associated mesenteric lymph nodes. In the early, proliferative phase of the disease, most of the fibroblastlike cells contain Factor VIII-related antigen. Two syndromes have been recognized: localized, in which fibroproliferative lesions occur only in solitary nodules; and progressive, in which fibromatosis occurs throughout the abdominal cavity. RF-affected monkeys often develop a simian acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (SAIDS) with severe thymic and lymphoid atrophy, chronic enterocolitis, and wasting. Experimental intraperitoneal inoculation with suspensions of RF tissue in two separate experiments resulted in the development of SAIDS in 5 of 16 and RF-SAIDS in 3 of 16 macaques. RF associated with SAIDS appears to be an excellent model for the Kaposi's sarcoma associated with AIDS. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:3993741

  8. Sera from patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome inhibit production of interleukin-2 by normal lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, J P; Djeu, J Y; Stocks, N I; Masur, H; Gelmann, E P; Quinnan, G V

    1985-01-01

    We studied the effects of sera from patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) on interleukin-2 (IL-2) production to help elucidate the mechanism of immunodeficiency. Compared with sera from healthy controls, sera from AIDS patients suppressed phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-induced IL-2 production by normal blood mononuclear cells. Sera from homosexual contacts of AIDS patients and from adults with acute cytomegalovirus infection generally lacked this suppressive activity. The effect of the AIDS sera could not be attributed to absence of a stimulatory or nutritive factor, to inactivation of IL-2, to inhibition of the IL-2 assay, nor to increased turnover of IL-2. The suppressive effect of the sera was not mediated by radiosensitive or T8 antigen-bearing suppressor cells or by increased prostaglandin production or decreased interleukin-1 production. The sera acted directly on the groups of cells that produce IL-2, T cells and large granular lymphocytes; suppression occurred at an early, probably pretranslational, stage. When cells were incubated with AIDS sera and then washed, the suppressive effect persisted. The sera did not cause direct or complement-mediated cytotoxic effects on normal mononuclear cells nor did they suppress PHA-induced interferon production, nor proliferation of T lymphoblasts or lymphocyte lines. The suppressive effect was not mediated by interferon, cortisol, immunoglobulin G or M, or immune complexes. The activity was stable at pH 3, pH 10, and 60 degrees C; inactivated at 100 degrees C; and not ether extractable. Because IL-2 plays a central role in the development of many immune responses, the serum factor(s) that inhibits IL-2 production could contribute significantly to the immunodeficiency of AIDS. PMID:2989337

  9. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders: implications for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated malignancies.

    PubMed

    Swinnen, L J

    2001-01-01

    Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLDs) comprise a histologic spectrum, ranging from hyperplastic-appearing lesions to frank non-Hodgkin's lymphoma or multiple myeloma histology. Multiple clones may coexist, each representing a discrete lymphomagenic event, a situation that is unique to immunodeficiency states. The incidence varies from 1% in renal recipients to 5% in heart recipients, but can be markedly increased by the use of anti-T-cell therapies or by T-cell depletion in bone marrow transplantation. PTLD continues to arise, even many years after transplantation, and late T-cell lymphomas have recently been recognized. Pretransplant Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seronegativity increases risk to as high as 30%-50%. PTLD has a highly variable clinical picture; certain patterns are, however, seen. Reversibility of PTLD with reduction in immunosuppressives has long been recognized. Predicting reversibility has been difficult. The presence or absence of bcl-6 mutations has recently been identified as being of predictive value. Surgical resection can be curative. Cytotoxics, although problematic, can also be curative. Long-term remission has been achieved with anti CD21 and CD24 antibodies; efficacy has been reported for interferon alfa and for rituximab. In vitro expanded EBV-specific T cells have been effective as treatment and as prophylaxis in the setting of bone marrow transplantation. EBV viral load measured in blood appears to associate with the emergence of PTLD and may facilitate prophylactic studies. PTLD is a model of immunodeficiency-related EBV lymphomagenesis. Pathogenetic, therapeutic, and prophylactic insights gained from the study of PTLD are likely to be applicable to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome setting.

  10. Otic and ophthalmic pneumocystosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Wasserman, L; Haghighi, P

    1992-05-01

    A case of primary Pneumocystis carinii infection involving the left middle ear of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome is described, and the literature on the otic and ophthalmic pneumocystosis is reviewed. Otic pneumocystosis typically presents as a unilateral polypoid mass, and it is clinically manifested as otalgia, hearing loss, or, sometimes, otorrhea without evidence of current respiratory disease or previous Pneumocystis pneumonia. In contrast, choroidal pneumocystosis usually occurs in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with at least one previous episode of Pneumocystis pneumonia and aerosolized pentamidine treatment, it is usually asymptomatic and bilateral, and it may be discovered only because of other concurrent human immunodeficiency virus-related ophthalmic disease. The diagnosis is made clinically, and intravenous antiparasite treatment is successful.

  11. Phonological awareness abilities of a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome before and after speech therapy.

    PubMed

    Furlan, Suzana Aparecida; Fukuda, Marisa Tomoe Hebihara; Granzotti, Raphaela Barroso Guedes

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to characterize the phonological awareness abilities of a child with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) before and after speech-language therapy. The participant was a 6-year-old girl, first-grade Elementary School student, with AIDS acquired by vertical transmission. The child's phonological awareness abilities were evaluated using the Instrument of Sequential Evaluation of Phonological Awareness (CONFIAS). After this first evaluation, a closed therapeutic program (15 sessions) for phonological awareness was developed, consisting of activities for syllabic and phonemic levels. The CONFIAS was reapplied in the last session in order to investigate therapy effectiveness. In the pre-therapy assessment, the child scored 18 points in syllable tasks and 1 point in phoneme tasks, with a total score of 19 points. In the post-therapy assessment, the child scored 26 points in syllable tasks and 11 points in phoneme tasks, with a total score of 37 points. This study allowed us to characterize the performance of a child with AIDS in tasks of phonological awareness and the effectiveness of the therapeutic program. The score obtained before therapy was much lower than expected for the child's age, and presented significant improvement after speech-language therapy. Thus, professionals working with this population must be aware of therapeutic programs that approach phonological processing abilities in addition to other aspects.

  12. Herpetic (non-cytomegalovirus) retinal infections in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael W

    2013-04-01

    Human herpes viruses cause significant morbidity in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Even after the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART), herpes viruses remain the leading causes of blindness in AIDS patients. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis and the closely-related immune reconstitution uveitis syndrome are the most common causes of blindness, but progressive outer retinal necrosis and acute retinal necrosis due to varicella zoster and herpes simplex are also important causes of vision loss. Successful treatment of these conditions requires an aggressive approach with multi-drug intravenous therapy or repeated intravitreal antiviral injections. Since the rate of retinal detachment is alarmingly high despite successful antiviral therapy, internists and ophthalmologists must work closely together to recognize and treat complications as they arise. Fortunately, Epstein-Barr virus is a rare cause of retinal infection and human herpes virus (HHV)-6, HHV-7, and HHV-8 do not appear to be primary pathogens. However, increasing evidence suggests that HHV-6 and HHV-7 play important roles in modulating the immune system and potentiating infection by CMV.

  13. Comparison of changing autopsy trends in the Bronx population with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Concepcion, L; Markowitz, G S; Borczuk, A C; Factor, S M

    1996-10-01

    The opportunistic infections, malignancies, and causes of death related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) are changing, perhaps as a result of improved treatment, prophylaxis, and education. With its high percentage of persons who acquired the human immunodeficiency virus from intravenous drug (IVD) use, the population of patients with AIDS in the Bronx is potentially unique. All of the 257 consecutive adult human immunodeficiency virus and/or AIDS cases from two Bronx teaching hospitals from 1982 through 1995 were collected. The reports were reviewed for patient demographics, opportunistic infections, malignancies, and causes of death. One hundred thirteen cases from 1982 through 1988 were compared with 144 cases from 1989 through 1995, separated by the institution of antiretroviral therapy and Pneumocystis carinii (PCP) prophylaxis in the latter period. Male homosexuality as a risk factor significantly decreased from 24.8% of the cases in our study from the 1982/88 period to 12.5% during the 1989/95 period (P = 0.014), but IVD use cases showed no change. Cases of AIDS in heterosexual patients increased from 23.9 to 36.1% (P = 0.041) but did not achieve statistical significance unless the unknown risk category (a population shown to be infected predominantly through heterosexual transmission) was included. The prevalence of PCP at autopsy as an opportunistic infection decreased from 37.2 to 25% (P = 0.04), and its prevalence as a cause of death decreased from 31.9 to 13.9% (P = 0.007). This decrease was seen in the homosexual and heterosexual populations but not in the population of IVD users. The homosexual population, as opposed to the population of IVD users, may have taken greater advantage of PCP treatment and prevention. As a result, bronchopneumonia, not PCP, is now the leading cause of death among the patients with AIDS in this study. These findings have important implications for therapy and prophylaxis to control the spread of AIDS and its

  14. [The incidence of oral candidiasis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from Yunnan, China].

    PubMed

    Wen, Yan; Li, Chengwen; Pei, Junhaoxiang; Bai, Jinsong; Yang, Xianghong; Duan, Kaiwen

    2014-08-01

    To assess the incidence of oral candidiasis and its influencing factors in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). An oral examination was conducted in the 1 566 HIV/AIDS patients in the Third Hospital of Kunming from March 2008 to September 2012 (M/F: 1 062/504, age range: 0.2 to 84.0 years old). The HIV viral load (HIV- RNA) and peripheral blood CD4 count were respectively analyzed by Bayer Q340 fluorescence signal surveying instrument (bDNA method) and flow cytometry analysis. The information on usage of highly active anti-retroviral (HAART) drugs and transmission of HIV were obtained through questionnaires. The incidence of oral candidiasis in patients with different HIV-RNA levels and CD4 count and the use of HAART was analyzed and compared. The total incidence of oral candidosis was 31.0% (486/1 566) and there was no difference in sex. The oral lesions were presented by three types, psudomembranous candidosis (PC), erythematous candidosis (EC) and angular cheilitis (AC), and the morbidity was 13.9% (217/1 566), 17.0% (267/1 566) and 4.9% (77/1 566), respectively. The average level of CD4 count in psudomembranous candidosis, erythematous candidosis and angular cheilitis [81.0 (146.0), 74.0 (152.0) and 69.0 (121.5) cell/µl] showed no significant difference (P > 0.05). The incidence of oral candidiasis in non-HAART and HAART subjects were 36.3% (402/1 107) and 18.3% (84/459), respectively (P = 0.000). The CD4 count and absolute counts of HIV viral load in oral candidiasis patients and non-oral candidiasis patients had significant difference (Z = -10.261, P = 0.000 and Z = -4.762, P = 0.000). The morbidity of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients in Yunnan Province was high, including PC, EC and AC and hyperplastic candidosis was not detected. The incidence was related to the degree of immune suppression and HIV viral load.

  15. The risk of hepatocellular carcinoma among individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the United States.

    PubMed

    Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V; Shiels, Meredith S; McGlynn, Katherine A; Engels, Eric A

    2012-12-15

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a concern among individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The authors analyzed population-based registry linkage data from the US HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study (1980-2009) to examine the risk and trends of HCC among individuals with AIDS. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to measure HCC risk relative to the general population, and Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (RR) comparing incidence among individuals with AIDS. People with AIDS were categorized according to their HIV risk group into high and low hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence groups based on their HIV transmission risk category. Among 615,150 individuals with AIDS, HCC risk was elevated almost 4 times compared with the risk in the general population (N = 366; SIR, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 3.5-4.3). Although HCC incidence increased steadily across calendar periods (P(trend) < .0001; adjusted for sex and age), the excess risk in individuals with AIDS compared with the general population remained somewhat constant (SIRs range, 3.5-3.9) between the monotherapy/dual therapy era (1990-1995) and the recent highly active antiretroviral therapy era (2001-2009). In a multivariate model adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, and attained calendar period, HCC incidence increased with advancing age (P(trend) < .0001) and was associated with HIV risk groups with a known higher prevalence of HCV (adjusted RR, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.8-2.8). HCC incidence in individuals with AIDS has increased over time despite improved HIV treatment regimens, likely reflecting prolonged survival with chronic liver disease. The high incidence in older adults suggests that this cancer will increase in importance with aging of the HIV-infected population. Published 2012 American Cancer Society.

  16. The Risk of Hepatocellular Carcinoma Among Individuals With Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sahasrabuddhe, Vikrant V.; Shiels, Meredith S.; McGlynn, Katherine A.; Engels, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a concern among individuals with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). METHODS The authors analyzed population-based registry linkage data from the US HIV/AIDS Cancer Match Study (1980–2009) to examine the risk and trends of HCC among individuals with AIDS. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to measure HCC risk relative to the general population, and Poisson regression was used to calculate incidence rate ratios (RR) comparing incidence among individuals with AIDS. People with AIDS were categorized according to their HIV risk group into high and low hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence groups based on their HIV transmission risk category. RESULTS Among 615,150 individuals with AIDS, HCC risk was elevated almost 4 times compared with the risk in the general population (N = 366; SIR, 3.8; 95% confidence interval, 3.5–4.3). Although HCC incidence increased steadily across calendar periods (Ptrend < .0001; adjusted for sex and age), the excess risk in individuals with AIDS compared with the general population remained somewhat constant (SIRs range, 3.5–3.9) between the monotherapy/dual therapy era (1990–1995) and the recent highly active antiretroviral therapy era (2001–2009). In a multivariate model adjusting for sex, race/ethnicity, and attained calendar period, HCC incidence increased with advancing age (Ptrend < .0001) and was associated with HIV risk groups with a known higher prevalence of HCV (adjusted RR, 2.2; 95% confidence interval, 1.8–2.8). CONCLUSIONS HCC incidence in individuals with AIDS has increased over time despite improved HIV treatment regimens, likely reflecting prolonged survival with chronic liver disease. The high incidence in older adults suggests that this cancer will increase in importance with aging of the HIV-infected population. PMID:22736272

  17. Incidence of Intermediate-stage Age-related Macular Degeneration in Patients With Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jabs, Douglas A; Van Natta, Mark L; Pak, Jeong Won; Danis, Ronald P; Hunt, Peter W

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the incidence of intermediate-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Cohort study. Patients enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (LSOCA) underwent 5- and 10-year follow-up retinal photographs. Intermediate-stage AMD (AREDS stage 3) was determined from these photographs by graders at a centralized Reading Center, using the Age-Related Eye Disease Study-2 grading system. The incidence of AMD in LSOCA was compared with that in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA), a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV)-uninfected cohort, which used a similar photographic methodology. The incidence of AMD in LSOCA was 0.65/100 person-years (PY). In a multivariate analysis the only significant risk factor for AMD in LSOCA was smoking; the relative risk vs never-smokers was 3.4 for former smokers (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3, 9.5; P = .02) and 3.3 for current smokers (95% CI 1.1, 9.7; P = .03). Compared with the MESA cohort, the race/ethnicity- and sex-adjusted risk of AMD in LSOCA was 1.75 (95% CI 1.16, 2.64; P = .008), despite the fact that the mean age of the MESA cohort was 17 years greater than the LSOCA cohort (61 ± 9 years vs 44 ± 8 years). Patients with AIDS have a 1.75-fold increased race- and sex-adjusted incidence of intermediate-stage AMD compared with that found in an HIV-uninfected cohort. This increased incidence is consistent with the increased incidence of other age-related diseases in antiretroviral-treated, immune-restored, HIV-infected persons when compared with HIV-uninfected persons. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Submandibular and sublingual glands involvement in advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): an autopsy-based study.

    PubMed

    León, Jorge E; Mauad, Thais; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Almeida, Oslei P; Vargas, Pablo A

    2009-08-01

    To assess the histopathological, immunohistochemical (IHC), and in situ hybridization (ISH) features found in the submandibular (SM) and sublingual (SL) glands of 105 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients at autopsy. Gender, age, CD4 cell level, and clinical histories were obtained from clinical charts (SM: n = 103; SL: n = 92). Histologic analysis of hematoxylin and eosin, Gomori-Grocott, and Ziehl-Neelsen stained tissues, IHC to detect infectious agents and characterize inflammatory cells in sialadenitis, and ISH for EBER-1/2 were performed. The mean age of the patients and CD4 cell count were 36 years and 76 cells/microL, respectively. Fifty-eight cases (SM: n = 51 [49%]; SL: n = 54 [59%]) were considered to be microscopically normal. The most common infectious conditions were mycobacteriosis (SM: n = 11 [10%]; SL: n = 7 [7%]), followed by cytomegalovirus (CMV) (SM: n = 14 [13%]; SL: n = 2 [2%]), and cryptococcosis (SM: n = 3 [3%]; SL: n = 4 [4%]). Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) p24 (SM: n = 2 [2%]; SL: n = 1 [1%]) and EBER-1/2 (SM: n = 9 [39%]; SL: n = 4 [20%]) were seen only in macrophages and lymphocytes, respectively. The most prevalent cells seen in chronic nonspecific sialadenitis (SM: n = 25; SL: n = 25) were CD8+ T lymphocytes, whereas CD68+ macrophages were predominant in the mycobacteriosis-associated granulomatous and nonspecific diffuse macrophagic sialadenitis. Concomitant infections occurred in 5 cases (SM: n = 4; SL: n = 1) and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in 1 case. Infectious diseases and chronic nonspecific sialadenitis were the main alterations found in the SM and SL glands. These alterations were greater in the SM than in the SL glands. CD8+ T lymphocytes and CD68+ macrophages might be relevant to the pathogenesis of the sialadenitis. Clinicians should consider these diseases when assessing the major salivary glands in advanced AIDS patients and follow biosafety procedures to avoid contamination by HIV, CMV, mycobacteriosis, and

  19. Prevalence of intermediate-stage age-related macular degeneration in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Jabs, Douglas A; Van Natta, Mark L; Sezgin, Efe; Pak, Jeong Won; Danis, Ronald

    2015-06-01

    To evaluate the prevalence of intermediate-stage age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Cross-sectional study of patients with AIDS enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of the Ocular Complications of AIDS. Intermediate-stage AMD was determined from enrollment retinal photographs by graders at a centralized Reading Center, using the Age-Related Eye Disease Study grading system. Graders were masked as to clinical data. Of 1825 participants with AIDS and no ocular opportunistic infections, 9.9% had intermediate-stage AMD. Risk factors included age, with an odds ratio (OR) of 1.9 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.6, 2.3, P < .001) for every decade of age; the prevalence of AMD ranged from 4.0% for participants 30-39 years old to 24.3% for participants ≥60 years old. Other risk factors included the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) risk groups of injection drug use (OR = 2.4, 95% CI 1.5, 3.9, P < .001) or heterosexual contact (OR = 1.9, 95% CI 1.3, 2.8, P = .001). Compared with the HIV-uninfected population in the Beaver Dam Offspring Study, there was an approximate 4-fold increased age-adjusted prevalence of intermediate-stage AMD. Patients with AIDS have an increased age-adjusted prevalence of intermediate-stage AMD compared with that found in a non-HIV-infected cohort evaluated with similar methods. This increased prevalence is consistent with the increased prevalence of other age-related diseases in antiretroviral-treated, immune-restored, HIV-infected persons when compared to non-HIV-infected persons. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Herbal compatibility of traditional Chinese medical formulas for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cui, Meng; Li, Jinghua; Li, Haiyan; Song, Chunxin

    2012-09-01

    Because herbal compatibility is one of the most important reasons why Traditional Chinese Medcine (TCM) formulas are effective for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), our study aimed to determine the compatibility of herbs based on published AIDS clinical research in Chinese periodicals. To achieve this aim, we designed a new data-mining algorithm according to TCM data characteristics. We found 25 clinical AIDS studies, all using Chinese herbs for treatment, in the Traditional Chinese Medicine Database System, and information on diagnosis and treatment was extracted. To find out herbal compatibility, especially the formulae for herbal combinations, we proposed an improved association rule algorithm based on the frequency of combinations. In this algorithm, all the compatibility relationships were displayed in a tree structure, by which the relationship between formulas and their derivation could be clearly inferred. Data analysis showed that approximately 100 herbs have been used for treating AIDS. Based on the whole herb compatibility tree, we calculated a basic formula for AIDS: Huang Qi combined with Ren Shen, Fu Ling, Bai Zhu, Bai Zhu, Dang Gui, and Bai Shao. This formula, deriving from most of clinical prescriptions, and was chosed by most of clinicians for AIDS treatment. From data mining we found that Qi replenishment and detoxification were the main treatment principles, which coincided with the AIDS pathological mechanism in which immune function is destroyed by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Our data-mining results suggest that the core TCM treatment of AIDS is replenishing Qi and detoxification, by which AIDS patients' immune system may be enhanced. Compatibility of Huang Qi with some frequently-used herbs have shown real efficacy in clinical practice, which warrants pharmacological research in the future.

  1. Diketo acids derivatives as integrase inhibitors: the war against the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Góez, Yenny; Patiño, Pablo; Rugeles, Maria T

    2006-06-01

    Since the human immunodeficiency virus was identified as etiological agent of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, great advances have been accomplished in the therapeutic field leading to reduced morbidity and mortality among infected patients. However, the high mutation rate of the viral genome generates strains resistant to multiple drugs, pointing to the importance of finding new therapeutic targets. Among the HIV structural genes, the POL gene codes for three essential enzymes: reverse transcriptase, protease, and integrase; nineteen of the twenty drugs currently approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat this viral infection, inhibit the reverse transcriptase and the protease. Although intense research has been carried out in this area during the last 10 years, HIV integrase inhibitors are not yet approved for clinical use; however the fact that presence of this enzyme is a sine qua non for a productive HIV life cycle joined to its unique properties makes it a promissory target for anti-HIV therapy. Many compounds have been claimed to inhibit integrase in vitro; however, few of them have proven to have antiviral activity and low cytotoxicity in cell systems. Diketoacid derivatives are the most promising integrase inhibitors so far reported. Initially discovered independently by Shionogi & Co. and the Merck Research Laboratories, these compounds are highly specific for the integrase with potent antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo, and low cytotoxicity in cell cultures. Some of these compounds have recently entered clinical trials. Due to the high relevance of integrase inhibitors, and specifically of diketoacid derivatives, we review the latest findings and patents in this important field of research.

  2. Fraction of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome prevented by the interactions of identified restriction gene variants.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, M J; Smith, M W; Chmiel, J S; Detels, R; Margolick, J B; Rinaldo, C R; O'Brien, S J; Muñoz, A

    2004-02-01

    Previous research has demonstrated isolated effects of host genetic factors on the progression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection. In this paper, the authors present a novel use of multivariable methods for estimating the prevented fraction of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) cases attributable to six restriction genes after accounting for their epidemiologic interactions. The methods presented will never yield a prevented fraction above 1. The study population consisted of a well-characterized cohort of 525 US men with HIV-1 seroconversion documented during follow-up (1984-1996). On the basis of a regression tree approach using a Cox proportional hazards model for times to clinical AIDS, the combinations of genes associated with the greatest protection, relative to the lack of a protective genotype, consisted of: 1) C-C chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5)-Delta 32 and C-C chemokine receptor 2 (CCR2)-64I (relative hazard = 0.44); 2) interleukin 10 (IL10)-+/+ in combination with CCR5-Delta 32 or CCR2-64I (relative hazard = 0.45); and 3) IL10-+/+ in combination with stromal-derived factor (SDF1)-3 'A and CCR5 promoter P1/approximately P1 (relative hazard = 0.37). Overall, 30% of potential AIDS cases were prevented by the observed combinations of restriction genes (95% confidence interval: 7, 47). However, the combined effect was confined to the first 4 years following HIV-1 seroconversion. Additional research is needed to identify AIDS restriction genes with stronger and long-lasting protection to better characterize the genetic epidemiology of HIV-1.

  3. Gastric toxoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. A case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Ganji, Masoud; Tan, Ailyn; Maitar, Michael I; Weldon-Linne, C Michael; Weisenberg, Elliot; Rhone, Douglas P

    2003-06-01

    Toxoplasmosis is a common opportunistic pathogen in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). It usually presents with ocular, central nervous system, or pulmonary disease. Gastric toxoplasmosis is uncommon in AIDS patients, especially in the absence of central nervous system manifestations. In the few reported cases, patients have presented with abdominal pain and other digestive complaints that usually are attributed to the more common gastrointestinal manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus infection. We describe a 49-year-old man with AIDS who presented with abdominal pain, diarrhea, dry cough, and systemic symptoms and was diagnosed with toxoplasmosis by a gastric biopsy.

  4. Influence of the greenhouse effect on human health through stratospheric cooling: Possible increase in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Kazuto; Tsushima, Hiroshi; Tanimoto, Shin

    1996-12-31

    The greenhouse effect cools the stratosphere and enhances ozone depletion by heterogeneous processes via PSC (polar stratospheric cloud) in polar regions, because at low temperatures PSC formation increases. The ozone depletion thus enhanced could diffuse to lower latitudes. A resultant increase in ultraviolet radiation (UV) would be dangerous for residents in this region because of their thin skin color. It might increase acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) through several factors. (1) Reduction of immunoresistance, (21) direct activation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and (3) increase of active oxygen radicals. Epidemiological studies are made to test this hypothesis.

  5. Paediatric intussusception caused by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Ramdial, Pratistadevi K; Sing, Yetish; Hadley, G P; Chotey, Nivesh A; Mahlakwane, Mabitsela S; Singh, Bhugwan

    2010-08-01

    To document the clinicopathological features of paediatric intussusception caused by acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated Kaposi sarcoma (KS). Clinicopathological features of six patients with AIDS-KS-associated intussusception were obtained retrospectively from departmental and hospital records. Six debilitated male children, without cutaneous KS, were presented with abdominal pain and vomiting for >1 week. Intussusception was the sentinel of HIV infection in five patients. One patient had been on HAART for 13 months. Three patients each had ileal and ileocolic intussusceptions; two had recurrent intussusception. Bowel resection was performed because of failed reduction, infarction and polypoid lead points in all patients, in addition to perforation and peritonitis in three. Five patients died, the immediate cause being massive hematochezia from anorectal KS and/or septic shock. One patient, who received post-surgical chemotherapy and HAART, is currently in remission. Pathologic examination confirmed intussusception due to KS. AIDS-KS-associated intussusception occurred without cutaneous KS. Resection of the infarcted segment may relieve the presenting obstruction, but recurrent intussusception may occur because every elevated KS is a potential lead point. AIDS-KS-I is rare but fatal in children, unless timely surgical intervention, optimal histopathological diagnosis, and appropriate medical management, including HAART and chemotherapy, are facilitated.

  6. Characteristics relating to the interiorization of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Brazil: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Gabriel de Deus; Dos Reis, Ana Raquel Paz; Augusto, Francisco Ormidiel Teles de Alcântara; Martins, Karina Reis; Kern, Paulo Roberto Fernandes; de Souza, Thairini Fuza; Basano, Sérgio de Almeida; Camargo, Luís Marcelo Aranha; de Sousa, Camila Maciel

    2015-07-11

    In recent years there has been changes in the social and geographic profile of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). The aim of this study was to evaluate the internalization of AIDS in the state of Rondônia, Brazil. In Rondônia, 1473 AIDS cases were reported, with an average annual incidence of 15.8/100,000 persons (42.7 % women). The most common mode of viral transmission was sexual (96.5 %), and the majority of the individuals had not completed their primary education (64.8 %). There was heterogeneity in relation to case distribution, involving almost all of the municipalities in the state. The average annual mortality rate was 2.5/100,000 persons. Rondônia has a higher incidence of AIDS than the national average and the northern region. Efforts to provide access to treatment and follow-up of these individuals should be implemented, prioritizing areas where the incidence is higher and decentralizing the treatment of patients with AIDS in the state.

  7. Progressive Outer Retinal Necrosis Combined with Vitreous Hemorrhage in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    You, Yong Sung; Lee, Sung Jin; Lee, Sung Ho; Park, Chang Hyun

    2007-01-01

    Purpose To describe an unusual case of rapidly progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) with vitreous hemorrhage in a 41-year-old woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who had retinitis developed from what was probably varicellar-zoster virus combined with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex type 1,2, as proven by the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). Methods This study is a case report detailing clinical follow-up and an aqueous humor test by PCR-RFLP. Results The deep, white retinal lesions coalesced and progressively expanded in a circumferential manner, with sparing of the perivascular retina. However, retinal and vitreous hemorrhages, unusual findings for PORN, could be noted around the optic nerve. Varicellar-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex types 1,2 (HSV-1,2) were detected in the aqueous humor by PCR. Conclusions PORN has been described as a variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy, occurring particularly in patients with AIDS. Although the etiologic agent has been reported to be VZV, concurrent or combined etiologic agents can include HSV-1, HSV-2, and CMV in AIDS patients. Therefore, combined antiviral therapy with acyclovir and ganciclovir could be more reasonable as an initial therapy. PMID:17460434

  8. Salivary Gland and Nasopharyngeal Cancers in Individuals with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in United States

    PubMed Central

    Shebl, Fatma M.; Bhatia, Kishor; Engels, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) manifest an increased risk of cancer, particularly cancers caused by oncogenic viruses. Because some salivary gland and nasopharyngeal cancers are associated with Epstein Barr virus, the impact of AIDS on these cancers needs further evaluation. We used linked U.S. AIDS and cancer registry data (N=519,934 people with AIDS) to derive standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) comparing risk of salivary gland and nasopharyngeal cancers to the general population. For salivary gland cancers (N=43 cases), individuals with AIDS had strongly elevated risks for lymphoepithelial carcinoma (SIR 39, 95% CI 16-81) and squamous cell carcinoma (SIR 4.9, 95% CI 2.5-8.6). Among nasopharyngeal cancers (N=39 cases), risks were elevated for both keratinizing and non-keratinizing carcinomas (SIR 2.4, 95% CI 1.5-3.7, and SIR 2.4, 95% CI 1.2-4.4, respectively). The elevated risks of salivary gland and nasopharyngeal cancers among people with AIDS suggest that immunosuppression and oncogenic viral infections are etiologically important. PMID:19810095

  9. Gastric toxoplasmosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: antemortem diagnosis with histopathologic characterization.

    PubMed

    Alpert, L; Miller, M; Alpert, E; Satin, R; Lamoureux, E; Trudel, L

    1996-01-01

    Gastrointestinal symptoms attributable to Toxoplasma gondii infection are distinctly unusual, and antemortem diagnosis of gastrointestinal involvement is rarely documented, particularly in the absence of cerebral manifestations or disseminated disease. This case report describes a rare example of T. gondii infection of the stomach diagnosed antemortem in a 22-year-old Haitian woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who presented with fever and abdominal pain. An abdominal computerized tomographic scan showed thickened gastric walls. Endoscopy showed diffusely thickened gastric folds and a fundic ulcer along the greater curvature. Light and electron-microscopic examination of gastric mucosal biopsy specimens showed active Toxoplasma infection with necrosis and intracellular trophozoites within the gastric epithelium, smooth muscle cells, macrophages, and endothelial cells. Both true cysts and pseudocysts were seen. Disseminated disease was documented by the growth of T. gondii in a tissue culture from a venous blood sample. It is concluded that some patients with AIDS, particularly those from areas endemic for Toxoplasma infection, can manifest disseminated disease in unusual locations such as the gastrointestinal tract. Documentation of active T. gondii infection based on tissue cultures of venous blood or on biopsy specimens of symptomatic extracerebral sites can lead to a rapid diagnosis of toxoplasmosis, a treatable disease.

  10. Anterior segment manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sudharshan, S

    2008-01-01

    Ocular complications are known to occur as a result of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. They can be severe leading to ocular morbidity and visual handicap. Cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis is the commonest ocular opportunistic infection seen in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Though posterior segment lesions can be more vision-threatening, there are varied anterior segment manifestations which can also lead to ocular morbidity and more so can affect the quality of life of a HIV-positive person. Effective antiretroviral therapy and improved prophylaxis and treatment of opportunistic infections have led to an increase in the survival of an individual afflicted with AIDS. This in turn has led to an increase in the prevalence of anterior segment and adnexal disorders. Common lesions include relatively benign conditions such as blepharitis and dry eye, to infections such as herpes zoster ophthalmicus and molluscum contagiosum and malignancies such as squamous cell carcinoma and Kaposi′s sarcoma. With the advent of highly active antiretroviral therapy, a new phenomenon known as immune recovery uveitis which presents with increased inflammation, has been noted to be on the rise. Several drugs used in the management of AIDS such as nevirapine or indinavir can themselves lead to severe inflammation in the anterior segment and adnexa of the eye. This article is a comprehensive update of the important anterior segment and adnexal manifestations in HIV-positive patients with special reference to their prevalence in the Indian population. PMID:18711264

  11. Defective in vitro growth of the hemopoietic progenitor cells in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Stella, C C; Ganser, A; Hoelzer, D

    1987-01-01

    In addition to immunologic derangement, hematological abnormalities have been reported in the majority of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In this study 15 patients with AIDS or AIDS-related complex (ARC) were evaluated for the in vitro growth of hemopoietic progenitor cells. In all patients a significant reduction of growth (mean +/- SEM) of colony-forming unit-granulocyte, erythrocyte, macrophage, (megakaryocyte) (CFU-GEM) (1.2 +/- 0.3), burst-forming unit-erythroid (BFU-E) (17 +/- 10), CFU-megakaryocyte (CFU-Mk) (1.7 +/- 0.6), and CFU-granulocyte-macrophage (CFU-GM) (35 +/- 10) was observed in comparison with normal controls. Depletion of T cells from the bone marrow before culture led to a significant increase in colony growth, which indicated an imbalance of the normally modulating T cell subsets. This increase was reversed by readdition of autologous T cells causing a decrease in colony growth to a degree, dependent on the T4 to T8 ratio. A decreased number of hemopoietic progenitor cells and/or a defective modulation of progenitor cell growth, normally carried out by T lymphocyte subsets, might be the cause of the hematological abnormalities in AIDS patients. PMID:3497175

  12. Monitoring of HAART regime antiretrovirals in serum of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients by micellar liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Casas-Breva, I; Peris-Vicente, J; Rambla-Alegre, M; Carda-Broch, S; Esteve-Romero, J

    2012-09-21

    A methodology based on micellar liquid chromatography to monitor five antiretroviral drugs (lamivudine, stavudine, tenofovir, zidovudine and efavirenz) was proposed. Antiretrovirals were studied in sets of three, corresponding to each highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regime, prescribed to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-infected patients. Four aqueous micellar mobile phases buffered at pH 7 were optimized to separate these compounds, using sodium dodecyl sulfate as the tensioactive, and 1-propanol or 1-pentanol as the organic modifier. The composition of each mobile phase was optimized for each antiretroviral. The common separation conditions were: C18 apolar column (125 × 4.6 mm, 5 μm particle size), UV detection set at 214 nm, and mobile phase running at 1 mL min(-1) without controlling the temperature. The finally suggested method was validated for five analysed antiretroviral drugs following the US Food and Drug Administration guidelines in terms of: linearity between 0.5 and 50 ppm (r(2) > 0.9995), sensitivity (LOD lower than 0.25 ppm), intra- and inter-day precision (<7.1 and <5.2%, respectively) and accuracy (recovery 88.5-105.3% and 93.5-101.3%, respectively), as well as robustness (<6.5%). The proposed method was used to monitor the level of antiretrovirals in the serum of AIDS patients. The suggested methodology was found to be useful in the routine analysis of antiretrovirals in serum samples.

  13. Outcomes of laparoscopic and open appendectomy for acute appendicitis in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Masoomi, Hossein; Mills, Steven D; Dolich, Matthew O; Dang, Phat; Carmichael, Joseph C; Nguyen, Ninh T; Stamos, Michael J

    2011-10-01

    The aims of this study were to compare outcomes of appendectomy between acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and nonAIDS patients and laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) versus open appendectomy (OA) in AIDS patients. Using the Nationwide Inpatient Sample database, from 2006 to 2008, clinical data of patients with AIDS who underwent LA and OA were evaluated. A total of 800 patients with AIDS underwent appendectomy during these years. Patients with AIDS had a significantly higher postoperative complication rate (22.56% vs 10.36%), longer length of stay [(LOS) 4.9 vs 2.9 days], and higher mortality (0.61% vs 0.16%) compared with non-AIDS patients. In nonperforated cases in patients with AIDS, LA was associated with a significantly lower complication rate (11.25% vs 21.61%), lower mortality (0.0% vs 2.78%), and shorter mean LOS (3.22 days vs 4.82 days) compared with OA. In perforated cases in patients with AIDS, LA had a significantly lower complication rate (27.52% vs 57.50%), and shorter mean LOS (5.92 days vs 9.67 days) compared with OA. No mortality was reported in either group. In patients with AIDS, LA has a lower morbidity, lower mortality, and shorter LOS compared with OA. Laparoscopic appendectomy should be considered as a preferred operative option for acute appendicitis in patients with AIDS.

  14. Progressive outer retinal necrosis associated with occlusive vasculitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Chien-Chi; Chen, San-Ni; Hwang, Jiunn-Feng; Lin, Chun-Ju; Chen, Huan-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    A 45-year-old man, a case of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, received a highly active antiretroviral therapy at the outpatient service for 4 years without regular follow-up. He experienced progressively blurred vision for 6 months and a cutaneous zoster on his back 3 months ago. He was diagnosed with progressive outer retinal necrosis by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism using an aqueous humor sample, which revealed an existence of varicella zoster virus. He was given a combination of systemic, intravitreal antiviral and a highly active antiretroviral therapy. Occlusive vasculitis, an unusual finding for progressive outer retinal necrosis, developed in both eyes 1 week after the secondary intravitreal injection. Unfortunately, his vision deteriorated to no light perception in both eyes within 2 weeks. Progressive outer retinal necrosis is characterized clinically as showing minimal or no inflammation in the aqueous and vitreous humors, absence of retinal vasculitis, and patches of yellowish spots located deep in the retina. Physicians should pay attention to this rare case of progressive outer retinal necrosis associated occlusive vasculitis with very poor prognosis in spite of aggressive treatment.

  15. Kaposi sarcoma of the conjunctiva and eyelids associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Shuler, J.D.; Holland, G.N.; Miles, S.A.; Miller, B.J.; Grossman, I.

    1989-06-01

    Three studies were performed to assess more accurately the prevalence, natural history, and appropriate treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related Kaposi sarcoma involving ocular structures. The first study was a prospective examination of 100 male homosexuals with AIDS-related Kaposi sarcoma for signs of ophthalmic involvement. Of the 20 patients who had ophthalmic lesions, 16 had eyelid lesions and seven had conjunctival lesions. In four patients, the ophthalmic lesion was the first, and initially the only, clinically identified manifestation of Kaposi sarcoma. The second study was a retrospective review of all patients with ophthalmic Kaposi sarcoma examined at one institution over a six-year period to determine its natural history and response to therapy. Most lesions were slowly progressive and responded to systemic drug therapy. Six patients were successfully treated with radiation therapy to prevent complications. The third study was a retrospective review of all patients with AIDS-related ophthalmic Kaposi sarcoma treated with local irradiation by one radiation oncologist. Each of 12 patients showed a response to treatment, and ten had a complete resolution of lesions, but recurrences were common. Side effects included skin erythema in six patients and hair loss in one patient. For local treatment of ophthalmic Kaposi sarcoma, irradiation appears to be safe and effective for palliative therapy.

  16. Erythrovirus B19 infection in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: screening by histopathology, immunohistochemistry, and in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Setúbal, Sérgio; de Oliveira, Solange Artimos; Pires, Andréia Rodrigues Cordovil; da Fonseca, Eliene Carvalho; Camacho, Luiz Antônio Bastos; Seródio, Ana Cristina Freire; do Nascimento, Jussara Pereira

    2006-06-01

    Erythrovirus B19 infects erythrocytic progenitors, transiently interrupting erythropoiesis. In AIDS patients it causes chronic anemia amenable to treatment. We looked for evidences of B19 infection in stored bone marrow material from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Histological sections were made from stored paraffin blocks from 33 autopsies (39 blocks) and 35 biopsies (45 blocks, 30 patients) performed from 1988 to 2002. They were examined after hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, immunohistochemical (IHC), and in situ hybridization. HE revealed intra-nuclear inclusion bodies ("lantern cells") suggesting B19 infection in 19 sections corresponding to 19 of 63 patients examined with this test. Seven of 78 sections subjected to immunohistochemistry were positive, corresponding to 7 of 58 patients examined with this test. Fourteen sections corresponding to 13 of the 20 HE and/or IHC positive patients were subjected to in situ hybridization, with six positives results. Among the 13 patients subjected to the three techniques, only one gave unequivocal positive results in all and was considered a true positive. The frequency of B19 infection (1/63 patients) in the material examined can be deemed low.

  17. Progressive outer retinal necrosis combined with vitreous hemorrhage in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    You, Yong Sung; Lee, Sung Jin; Lee, Sung Ho; Park, Chang Hyun; Kwon, Oh Woong

    2007-03-01

    To describe an unusual case of rapidly progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) with vitreous hemorrhage in a 41-year-old woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who had retinitis developed from what was probably varicellar-zoster virus combined with cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex type 1,2, as proven by the polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP). This study is a case report detailing clinical follow-up and an aqueous humor test by PCR-RFLP. The deep, white retinal lesions coalesced and progressively expanded in a circumferential manner, with sparing of the perivascular retina. However, retinal and vitreous hemorrhages, unusual findings for PORN, could be noted around the optic nerve. Varicellar-zoster virus (VZV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), and herpes simplex types 1,2 (HSV-1,2) were detected in the aqueous humor by PCR. PORN has been described as a variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy, occurring particularly in patients with AIDS. Although the etiologic agent has been reported to be VZV, concurrent or combined etiologic agents can include HSV-1, HSV-2, and CMV in AIDS patients. Therefore, combined antiviral therapy with acyclovir and ganciclovir could be more reasonable as an initial therapy.

  18. Thyroid hormone levels in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) or AIDS-related complex.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, W W; Kaptein, E M

    1989-01-01

    Hypothalamic-pituitary dysfunction and thyroid gland cytomegalovirus inclusions have been described in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC). We evaluated 80 patients with AIDS or ARC for the frequency of hypothalamic-pituitary or thyroid gland failure and altered serum thyroid hormone levels due to nonthyroidal disorders. One patient had subclinical hypothyroidism. Of these patients, 60% had low free triiodothyronine (T3) index values and 4% had low free thyroxine (T4) indexes; none of the latter had hypothalamic-pituitary or thyroid gland failure, since all serum cortisol values were greater than or equal to 552 nmol per liter (greater than or equal to 20 micrograms per dl) and all thyrotropin levels were less than or equal to 3 mU per liter (less than or equal to 3 microU per ml), respectively. Those who died had lower total T4 and T3, free T3 index, and albumin levels than those discharged from hospital. Serum total T4 and T3 levels correlated with albumin levels and total T3 with serum sodium levels. Serum total T3 levels best predicted the outcome of the hospital stay (accuracy = 82%). Thus, abnormal serum thyroid hormone levels in AIDS or ARC patients are most frequently due to nonthyroidal disorders, but hypothalamic-pituitary or thyroid gland failure may occur. PMID:2618039

  19. Miliary tuberculosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome – ‘a cursed duet’

    PubMed Central

    Tatari, Atif; Ramanujam, Sahana; Mathai, Suja; Karabulut, Nigahus; Moser, Robert L.; Wallach, Sara L.

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculous osteomyelitis is rare and usually involves the vertebrae but is seldom found in the foot. The uncommon site and ability to mimic other disorders clinically and radiographically leads to diagnostic and therapeutic delays. We report a case of a 40-year-old man who initially presented to his podiatrist with intermittent pain and swelling of his right ankle and foot that lasted for a year. He also started to exhibit significant weight loss and unexplained fevers and was subsequently hospitalized for cellulitis of his right foot. On further workup, patient was found to have miliary tuberculosis (TB) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Patient was treated with anti-TB therapy for 9 months and highly active anti-retroviral therapy. Our patient presented with ongoing chronic right foot and ankle pain that was proven to be secondary to TB osteomyelitis of cuneiform bones of the right ankle in the setting of AIDS. The patient's clinical presentation was unusual due to symptom duration and lack of systemic characteristics. Like our case, reported incidence of osteomyelitis of bone/joint in extrapulmonary TB is estimated to be 10%, and out of all bones/joint TB cases, only 1% are found to be in the foot. PMID:27802849

  20. Pulmonary disease at autopsy in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wallace, J M; Hannah, J B

    1988-08-01

    To characterize the postmortem pulmonary disease and analyze the effectiveness of antemortem diagnosis, we examined the clinical records and autopsy material from 54 patients who died of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. At autopsy, all patients had pulmonary disease. One or more specific diagnoses were made in 53, including opportunistic infection, nonopportunistic infection, and Kaposi's sarcoma. Multiple postmortem pulmonary diagnoses were established in 37. Respiratory failure was the most common cause of death. Of the 97 pulmonary disorders discovered at autopsy, only 31 were diagnosed before death. The frequency with which infections were diagnosed during life varied according to the organism, and was significantly higher for Pneumocystis carinii than for cytomegalovirus or bacterial agents. Pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma was diagnosed in only 7% of patients with autopsy documentation. The yield of diagnostic procedures also varied according to the disease present. Sputum culture was relatively effective in detecting Cryptococcus neoformans and Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare, fiber-optic bronchoscopy was extremely useful for diagnosing P Carinii, and one or more diagnoses were provided in 4 of 7 patients who underwent thoracotomy, but significant disease including cytomegalovirus infection and pulmonary Kaposi's sarcoma was frequently missed. Although the spectrum of lung disease found at autopsy is similar to that observed during life, the frequency of some pathologic processes including cytomegalovirus infection and Kaposi's sarcoma may be underrepresented in antemortem series.

  1. Laboratory diagnosis of mycobacterial infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Kiehn, T E; Cammarata, R

    1986-01-01

    Disseminated mycobacterial infections are commonly seen in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, and laboratory culture is the best method for diagnosing these infections. In addition to conventional agar media, we used BACTEC 12A (Johnston Laboratories, Inc., Towson, Md.) broth medium for culture. More isolates of Mycobacterium avium complex and Mycobacterium tuberculosis were recovered from 12A broth than from Lowenstein-Jensen or Middlebrook 7H11 agar. Also, the average detection time of these mycobacteria was the earliest with 12A broth. Stool examination has been helpful in diagnosing mycobacterial disease in AIDS patients, and in this study both acid-fast stain and culture of fecal material was necessary for efficient detection of mycobacteria. Another sensitive and practical method for detecting mycobacterial infections in patients with AIDS is the Isolator lysis-centrifugation system (Du Pont Co., Wilmington, Del.) which offers the advantage of quantitating the degree of mycobacteremia. Laboratories should be alerted to the possibility of mixed mycobacterial infection in patients with AIDS, and positive cultures should be repeatedly examined to detect coinfection with a slower-growing mycobacterium such as M. tuberculosis as well as M. avium complex. PMID:3095369

  2. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Using drug from mathematical perceptive.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, Amar Nath; Saha, Shubhankar; Roy, Priti Kumar

    2015-11-12

    Entry of acquired immune deficiency syndrome virus into the host immune cell involves the participation of various components of host and viral cell unit. These components may be categorized as attachment of the viral surface envelope protein subunit, gp120, to the CD4(+) receptor and chemokine coreceptors, CCR5 and CXCR4, present on T cell surface. The viral fusion protein, gp41, the second cleaved subunit of Env undergoes reconfiguration and the membrane fusion reaction itself. Since the CD4(+) T cell population is actively involved; the ultimate outcome of human immunodeficiency virus infection is total collapse of the host immune system. Mathematical modeling of the stages in viral membrane protein-host cell receptor-coreceptor interaction and the effect of antibody vaccine on the viral entry into the susceptible host cell has been carried out using as impulsive differential equations. We have studied the effect of antibody vaccination and determined analytically the threshold value of drug dosage and dosing interval for optimum levels of infection. We have also investigated the effect of perfect adherence of drug dose on the immune cell count in extreme cases and observed that systematic drug dosage of the immune cells leads to longer and improved lives.

  3. Can we find a solution to the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome controversy? Is acquired immune deficiency syndrome the consequence of continuous excessive stressing of the body?

    PubMed

    Hässig, A; Wen-Xi, L; Stampfli, K

    1996-04-01

    The time of re-evaluation of the role of human immunodeficiency viruses in the pathogenesis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome has now come, now that methods are available for the direct detection of human immunodeficiency viruses and for the detection of cellular anti-human immunodeficiency virus immune reactions. It has been shown that human immunodeficiency virus infections are common among anti-human immunodeficiency virus antibody negative high-risk individuals. The disease is brought under control by cellular immune reactions and the anti-human immunodeficiency virus antibody test remains negative. Apart from proof that infection with human immunodeficiency viruses has occurred, a positive result in an anti-human immunodeficiency virus-antibody test is also an indication of an independent immunosuppression state. According to the definition of the Centers of Disease Control classical acquired immune deficiency syndrome is the consequence of infection with human immunodeficiency virus in association with continuous excessive stress, such as observed in the known risk groups. At the center of the pathogenetic process is hypercortisolism-determined damage of T lymphocytes, in which insufficiency of thymus is prominent. For this reason, in our view, there are indications for shifting efforts from the prophylaxis of infection with human immunodeficiency viruses to the prophylaxis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome by reducing stress factors.

  4. Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis: a cause of pulmonary gallium-67 uptake in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Zuckier, L.S.; Ongseng, F.; Goldfarb, C.R.

    1988-05-01

    Lymphocytic interstitial pneumonitis (LIP) is currently recognized as a frequent pediatric manifestation of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). We report the gallium scan findings in a 3-yr-old girl with this disorder and review its clinical, radiologic, and pathologic features. LIP must be a prime consideration in the differential diagnosis of diffuse pulmonary gallium uptake in pediatric AIDS patients. Further experience will afford greater perspective on the diagnostic role that nuclear medicine will ultimately play in this disease. 49 references.

  5. Epidemiology of isosporiasis among persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Los Angeles County.

    PubMed

    Sorvillo, F J; Lieb, L E; Seidel, J; Kerndt, P; Turner, J; Ash, L R

    1995-12-01

    To determine factors associated with isosporiasis in persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Los Angeles County, data from the AIDS surveillance registry were analyzed for the eight-year period 1985-1992. Isosporiasis was reported in 127 (1.0%) of 16,351 persons with AIDS during the study period. Prevalence of infection was highest among foreign-born patients (3.2%), especially those from El Salvador (7.4%) and Mexico (5.4%), and in all persons of Hispanic ethnicity (2.9%). Persons with a history of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) were less likely than PCP-negative patients to have isosporiasis (0.2% and 1.4%, respectively, P < 0.01). A decrease in the prevalence of isosporiasis in patients negative for PCP was observed beginning in 1989 (P = 0.02). Prevalence decreased with age (P < 0.01, by chi-square test for trend). After controlling for multiple factors by logistic regression, isosporiasis was more likely to occur in foreign-born patients than in those born in the United States (adjusted odds ratio [OR] = 5.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] 3.4, 9.9, P < 0.001) and in Hispanics than in whites (non-Hispanics) (adjusted OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.7, 7.2, P < 0.001). A prior history of PCP continued to be negatively associated with isosporiasis (adjusted OR = 0.2, 95% CI 0.1, 0.3, P < 0.001). Age and time remained independently associated with infection. These data suggest that isosporiasis among persons with AIDS in Los Angeles County may be related to travel exposure and/or recent immigration and that the use of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) for PCP may effectively prevent primary infection or expression of latent isosporiasis. Physicians should have an increased index of suspicion for Isospora in AIDS patients with diarrhea who have immigrated from or traveled to Latin America, among Hispanics born in the United States, in young adults, and in those not receiving PCP prophylaxis. Food and water precautions should be advised and TMP

  6. Association Between Abnormal Contrast Sensitivity and Mortality Among People With Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    HOLLAND, GARY N.; KAPPEL, PETER J.; NATTA, MARK L. VAN; PALELLA, FRANK J.; LYON, ALICE T.; SHAH, KAYUR H.; PAVAN, PETER R.; JABS, DOUGLAS A.

    2014-01-01

    PURPOSE To investigate the relationship between contrast sensitivity (CS) and mortality among people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); and to explore the hypothesis that abnormal CS is a marker of systemic, life-threatening microvascular disease. DESIGN Longitudinal, observational cohort study. METHODS We evaluated 3395 eyes of 1706 individuals enrolled in the Longitudinal Study of the Complications of AIDS (1998–2008). CS was evaluated as a risk factor for death, and was compared to the presence of systemic diseases characterized by microvasculopathy (diabetes, cardiovascular disease, stroke, renal disease) and to laboratory markers of those diseases. Abnormal CS was defined as logCS <1.5 (lower 2.5th percentile for a normal control population). RESULTS CS was abnormal in 284 of 1691 (16.8%) study participants at enrollment. There was a positive relationship between the presence of abnormal CS at study entry and mortality (relative risk 2.0, 95% confidence interval 1.7-2.3, P < .0001). Abnormal CS was related to the presence of cardiovascular disease, stroke, and renal disease (all P values < .01), but abnormal CS remained associated with death even after adjustment for these diseases and for other known predictors of death among people with AIDS. Diseases characterized by microvasculopathy were more often identified as causes of death among individuals with abnormal CS than among those with normal CS, although the strength of the association was moderate (P = .06). CONCLUSIONS Abnormal CS among people with AIDS is associated with increased mortality, and is independent of other risk factors for death that are monitored routinely. The relationship may indicate life-threatening microvascular disease in other organs. PMID:20399927

  7. Advantages of Chinese medicine for patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in rural central China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Qian-Lei; Guo, Hui-Jun; Jin, Yan-Tao; Wang, Jian; Jiang, Zi-Qiang; Li, Zheng-Wei; Chen, Xiu-Min; Liu, Ying; Xu, Li-Ran

    2017-09-08

    To analyze the effect of Chinese medicine (CM) on mortality and quality of life (QOL) of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients treated with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). A random sample of AIDS patients enrolled in the National Chinese Medicine Treatment Trial Program (NCMTP) that met the inclusion criteria was included in this study. NCMTP patients were included as the CM+cART group, and those not in the NCMTP were included as the cART group. Survival from September 2004 to September 2012 was analyzed by retrospective cohort study. QOL was analyzed by cross-sectional study. The retrospective cohort study included 528 AIDS patients, 322 in the CM+cART group and 206 in the cART group. After 8 years, the mortality in the CM+cART group was 3.3/100 person-years, which was lower than the cART group of 5.3/100 person-years (P <0.05). The hazard ratio (HR) for mortality in the cART group was 1.6 times that of the CM+cART group by Cox proportional hazard model analysis. After controlling for gender, age, marital status, education, and CD4 T-cell count, the HR was 1.9 times higher in the cART group compared with the CM+cART group (P <0.05). The cross-sectional study investigated 275 AIDS patients. The mean scores of all QOL domains except spirituality/personal beliefs were higher in the CM+cART group than in the cART group (P <0.05). For AIDS patients, CM could help to prolong life, decrease mortality, and improve QOL. However, there were limitations in the study, so prospective studies should be carried out to confirm our primary results.

  8. Non-cytomegalovirus ocular opportunistic infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Gangaputra, Sapna; Drye, Lea; Vaidya, Vijay; Thorne, Jennifer E; Jabs, Douglas A; Lyon, Alice T

    2013-02-01

    To report the incidence and clinical outcomes of non-cytomegalovirus (non-CMV) ocular opportunistic infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. Multicenter, prospective, observational study of patients with AIDS. Medical history, ophthalmologic examination, and laboratory tests were performed at enrollment and every 6 months subsequently. Once an ocular opportunistic infection was diagnosed, patients were seen every 3 months for outcomes. At enrollment, 37 non-CMV ocular opportunistic infections were diagnosed: 16 patients, herpetic retinitis; 11 patients, toxoplasmic retinitis; and 10 patients, choroiditis. During the follow-up period, the estimated incidences (and 95% confidence intervals [CI]) of these were: herpetic retinitis, 0.007/100 person-years (PY) (95% CI 0.0004, 0.039); toxoplasmic retinitis, 0.007/100 PY (95% CI 0.004, 0.039); and choroiditis, 0.014/ 100 PY (95% CI 0.0025, 0.050). The mortality rates appeared higher among those patients with newly diagnosed or incident herpetic retinitis and choroiditis (rates = 21.7 deaths/100 PY [P = .02] and 12.8 deaths/100 PY [P = .04]), respectively, than those for patients with AIDS without an ocular opportunistic infection (4.1 deaths/100 PY); toxoplasmic retinitis did not appear to be associated with greater mortality (6.4/100 PY, P = .47). Eyes with newly diagnosed herpetic retinitis appeared to have a poor visual prognosis, with high rates of visual impairment (37.9/100 PY) and blindness (17.5/100 PY), whereas those outcomes in eyes with choroiditis appeared to be lower (2.3/100 PY and 0/100 PY, respectively). Although uncommon, non-CMV ocular opportunistic infections may be associated with high rates of visual loss and/or mortality. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Monocyte/macrophage trafficking in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome encephalitis: Lessons from human and nonhuman primate studies

    PubMed Central

    Fischer-Smith, Tracy; Bell, Christie; Croul, Sidney; Lewis, Mark; Rappaport, Jay

    2009-01-01

    predominantly at 1 × 106 copies/ml or greater developed encephalitis. To further investigate the relationship between CD163+/CD16+ MΦs/microglia in the CNS and altered homeostasis in the periphery, the authors performed flow-cytometric analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from SIV-infected rhesus macaques. The results demonstrate an increase in the percent frequency of CD163+/CD16+ monocytes in animals with detectable virus that correlated significantly with increased viral burden and CD4+ T-cell decline. These results suggest the importance of this monocyte subset in HIV/SIV CNS disease, and also in the immune pathogenesis of lentiviral infection. The authors further discuss the potential role of CD163+/CD16+ monocyte/MΦ subset expansion, altered myeloid homeostasis, and potential consequences for immune polarization and suppression. The results and discussion here suggest new avenues for the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) therapeutics and vaccine design. PMID:18780233

  10. Monocyte/macrophage trafficking in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome encephalitis: lessons from human and nonhuman primate studies.

    PubMed

    Fischer-Smith, Tracy; Bell, Christie; Croul, Sidney; Lewis, Mark; Rappaport, Jay

    2008-08-01

    whose viral burden was predominantly at 1 x 10(6) copies/ml or greater developed encephalitis. To further investigate the relationship between CD163(+)/CD16(+) MPhis/microglia in the CNS and altered homeostasis in the periphery, the authors performed flow-cytometric analyses of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from SIV-infected rhesus macaques. The results demonstrate an increase in the percent frequency of CD163(+)/CD16(+) monocytes in animals with detectable virus that correlated significantly with increased viral burden and CD4(+) T-cell decline. These results suggest the importance of this monocyte subset in HIV/SIV CNS disease, and also in the immune pathogenesis of lentiviral infection. The authors further discuss the potential role of CD163(+)/CD16(+) monocyte/MPhi subset expansion, altered myeloid homeostasis, and potential consequences for immune polarization and suppression. The results and discussion here suggest new avenues for the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) therapeutics and vaccine design.

  11. [The use of growth hormone to treat endocrine-metabolic disturbances in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients].

    PubMed

    Spinola-Castro, Angela Maria; Siviero-Miachon, Adriana A; da Silva, Marcos Tadeu Nolasco; Guerra-Junior, Gil

    2008-07-01

    Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (Aids) was initially related to HIV-associated wasting syndrome, and its metabolic disturbances to altered body composition. After Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART) was started, malnutrition has declined and HIV-associated lipodystrophy syndrome has emerged as an important metabolic disorder. Aids is also characterized by hormonal disturbances, principally in growth hormone/insulin-like growth factor 1 (GH/IGF-1) axis. The use of recombinant human GH (hrGH) was formerly indicated to treat wasting syndrome, in order to increase lean body mass. Even though the use of hrGH in lipodystrophy syndrome has been considered, the decrease in insulin sensitivity is a limitation for its use, which has not been officially approved yet. Diversity in therapeutic regimen is another limitation to its use in Aids patients. The present study has reviewed the main HIV-related endocrine-metabolic disorders as well as the use of hrGH in such conditions.

  12. Avian influenza: potential impact on sub-Saharan military populations with high rates of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Robert L; Nickell, Kent

    2007-07-01

    Several sub-Saharan militaries have large percentages of troops with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. With the arrival of avian influenza in Africa, the potential exists that some of those soldiers might also become infected with H5N1, the virus responsible for the disease. Two possible scenarios have been postulated regarding how such a coinfection of HIV and H5N1 might present. (1) Soldiers already weakened by HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome rapidly succumb to H5N1. The cause of death is a "cytokine storm," essentially a runaway inflammatory response. (2) The weakened immune system prevents the cytokine storm from occurring; however, H5N1 is still present, replicating, and being shed, leading to the infection of others. A cytokine storm is particularly dangerous for individuals of military age, as evidenced by the large number of soldiers who died during the 1918 influenza epidemic. If large numbers of sub-Saharan soldiers suffer a similar fate from avian influenza, then military and political instability could develop.

  13. Cumulative incidence of cancer among individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the United States.

    PubMed

    Simard, Edgar P; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Engels, Eric A

    2011-03-01

    The overall burden of cancer may increase as individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) live longer because of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), which has been widely available since 1996. A population-based, record-linkage study identified cancers in 472,378 individuals with AIDS from 1980 to 2006. By using nonparametric competing-risk methods, the cumulative incidence of cancer was estimated across 3 calendar periods (AIDS onset in 1980-1989, 1990-1995, and 1996-2006). Measured at 5 years after AIDS onset, the cumulative incidence of AIDS-defining cancer (ADC) declined sharply across the 3 AIDS calendar periods (from 18% in 1980-1989, to 11% in 1990-1995, to 4.2% in 1996-2006 [ie, the HAART era]). The cumulative incidence of Kaposi sarcoma declined from 14.3% during 1980 to 1989, to 6.7% during 1990 to 1995, and to 1.8% during 1996 to 2006. The cumulative incidence of non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) declined from 3.8% during 1990 through 1995 to 2.2% during 1996 through 2006; during the HAART era, NHL was the most common ADC (53%). The cumulative incidence of non-AIDS-defining cancer (NADC) increased from 1.1% to 1.5% with no change thereafter (1%; 1996-2006), in part because of declines in competing mortality. However, cumulative incidence increased steadily over time for specific NADCs (anal cancer, Hodgkin lymphoma, and liver cancer). The cumulative incidence of lung cancer increased from 0.14% during 1980 to 1989 to 0.32% during 1990 to 1995, and no change was observed thereafter. Dramatically declining cumulative incidence was noted in 2 major ADCs (Kaposi sarcoma and NHL), and increases were observed in some NADCs (specifically, cancers of the anus, liver, and lung and Hodgkin lymphoma). As HIV/AIDS is increasingly managed as a chronic disease, greater attention should be focused on cancer screening and prevention. Published 2010 American Cancer Society.

  14. Treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma with a standard chemotherapy regimen.

    PubMed

    Avilés, A; Nambo, M J; Halabe, J

    1999-01-01

    Sixty patients with poor-prognosis malignant lymphoma associated with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were treated with a standard chemotherapy regimen: cyclophosphamide 600 mg/m2 i.v., day 1; vincristine 1.4 mg/m2 i.v., day 1; epirubicin 70 mg/m2 i.v., day 1; and bleomycin 10 mg/m2 i.v., on day 14. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, 5 microg/kg/day, was administered subcutaneously on days 4-14 to ameliorate severe myelosuppression. All patients were in an advanced stage of AIDS with <200 absolute CD4+ cells/mm3 and the presence of adverse prognostic factors related to lymphoma, such as high or high-intermediate clinical risk, multiple extranodal involvement, presence of bulky disease, and high levels of beta 2 microglobulin. Complete response (CR) was achieved by 33 patients (54%); no partial response was observed, and 27 cases were considered failures. All 27 died secondary to tumor progression without any response to salvage chemotherapy. Twenty patients in CR died of opportunistic infections related to AIDS. Actuarial 5-year survival shows that time to treatment failure for the 13 patients who remain in CR is 3.1 years. However, disease-free survival was 14.5 months. Overall survival for the entire group was 13.6 months. Side effects secondary to chemotherapy were frequent and severe, but no death related to treatment was observed. Infection-related granulocytopenia was observed in 27 cycles (8%). This study indicates that standard chemotherapy could be useful in patients with AIDS-associated lymphoma because CR rate, duration of remission, and survival were similar to those with other intensive, but more toxic, regimens. Until a new and better therapy for AIDS is found, treatment of patients with AIDS-related lymphoma will be regarded as palliative, and less toxic regimens will be considered. The use of a standard regimen appears to be an adequate therapeutic approach in this group of patients.

  15. De Novo intracerebral aneurysm in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bakhaidar, Mohamad G.; Ahamed, Naushad A.; Almekhlafi, Mohammed A.; Baeesa, Saleh S.

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection associated aneurysmal vasculopathy is a rare complication of HIV infection affecting the pediatric and adult population. We present a case of a 7-year-old male child known to have a congenitally acquired HIV infection presenting with a ruptured left distal internal carotid artery fusiform aneurysm that was diagnosed on MRI scans 6 months prior to his presentation. He underwent craniotomy and successful aneurysm reconstruction. He had uncomplicated postoperative course and experienced a good recovery. This case is among the few reported pediatric cases of HIV-associated cerebral arteriopathy to undergo surgery. We also reviewed the relevant literature of this rare condition. PMID:26166600

  16. Incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated opportunistic diseases and the effect of treatment on a cohort of 1115 patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus, 1989-1997.

    PubMed

    San-Andrés, Francisco-Javier; Rubio, Rafael; Castilla, Jesús; Pulido, Federico; Palao, Guillermo; de Pedro, Inmaculada; Costa, José-Ramón; del Palacio, Angel

    2003-05-01

    Temporal trends in the incidence of opportunistic diseases (ODs) related to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied during 1989-1997 in 1115 outpatients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (331 of whom had AIDS) in a hospital in Madrid, Spain. We analyzed the effect of adherence to antiretroviral therapy and Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) prophylaxis on the incidence of OD. Diseases that showed a significant decreasing trend were esophageal candidiasis, pulmonary and extrapulmonary tuberculosis, and cerebral toxoplasmosis. Patients who adhered to antiretroviral therapy had a smaller risk of OD. Patients who adhered to PCP prophylaxis had a reduced risk of cerebral toxoplasmosis and PCP. A reduction in the incidence of AIDS-related ODs was observed, mainly in patients who underwent prophylaxis. Adherence to antiretroviral treatment and PCP prophylaxis was associated with a reduction in the risk of disease.

  17. Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome prevention in injection drug users and their partners and children: lessons learned in Latin America--the Argentinean case.

    PubMed

    Rossi, Diana; Goltzman, Paula; Cymerman, Pablo; Touzé, Graciela; Weissenbacher, Mercedes

    2003-12-15

    Thirty-nine percent of Argentineans living with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were infected with human immunodeficiency virus through the injection of drugs. However, it was not until the 1990s that harm reduction programs were created. Research and outreach projects have been developed to identify and interact with the hidden injection drug user (IDU) population. Implementation of rapid assessment and response methodology contributed to the founding of Argentina's first syringe exchange program. Community-based outreach is the appropriate method for working with the impoverished population of Buenos Aires. Seroprevalence studies and focused prevention campaigns targeting IDUs and their sex partners and children have been developed. Collaborations between government and nongovernmental organizations in various cities supported the distribution of prevention and harm reduction messages to 900 IDUs within a 3-month period. Ongoing research, community-based interventions, and collaborative work among different organizations allow for more frequent and more consistent contact with the IDU population of Argentina.

  18. Intersection of Smoking, Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Cancer: Proceedings of the 8(th) Annual Texas Conference on Health Disparities.

    PubMed

    Rajendiran, Smrithi; Kashyap, Meghana V; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K

    2013-10-05

    The Texas Center for Health Disparities, a National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Center of Excellence, presents an annual conference to discuss prevention, awareness education and ongoing research about health disparities both in Texas and among the national population. The 2013 Texas Conference on Health Disparities brought together experts, in research, patient care and community outreach, on the "Intersection of Smoking, Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and Cancer". Smoking, HIV/AIDS and cancer are three individual areas of public health concern, each with its own set of disparities and risk factors based on race, ethnicity, gender, geography and socio-economic status. Disparities among patient populations, in which these issues are found to be comorbid, provide valuable information on goals for patient care. The conference consisted of three sessions addressing "Comorbidities and Treatment", "Public Health Perspectives", and "Best Practices". This article summarizes the basic science, clinical correlates and public health data presented by the speakers.

  19. Recursion-based depletion of human immunodeficiency virus-specific naive CD4(+) T cells may facilitate persistent viral replication and chronic viraemia leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Tetsuo; Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Okada, Seiji; Matano, Tetsuro

    2016-09-01

    Although antiretroviral therapy has made human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection a controllable disease, it is still unclear how viral replication persists in untreated patients and causes CD4(+) T-cell depletion leading to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in several years. Theorists tried to explain it with the diversity threshold theory in which accumulated mutations in the HIV genome make the virus so diverse that the immune system will no longer be able to recognize all the variants and fail to control the viraemia. Although the theory could apply to a number of cases, macaque AIDS models using simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) have shown that failed viral control at the set point is not always associated with T-cell escape mutations. Moreover, even monkeys without a protective major histocompatibility complex (MHC) allele can contain replication of a super infected SIV following immunization with a live-attenuated SIV vaccine, while those animals are not capable of fighting primary SIV infection. Here we propose a recursion-based virus-specific naive CD4(+) T-cell depletion hypothesis through thinking on what may happen in individuals experiencing primary immunodeficiency virus infection. This could explain the mechanism for impairment of virus-specific immune response in the course of HIV infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Risk behavior-based model of the cubic growth of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Colgate, S.A.; Stanley, E.A.; Hyman, J.M.; Layne, S.P.; Qualls, C. )

    1989-06-01

    The cumulative number of cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in the United States has grown as the cube of time rather than exponentially. The authors explain this by interactions involving partner choice and sexual frequency in a risk-behavior model with biased mixing. This leads to a saturation wave of infection moving from high- to low-risk groups. If this description is correct, then the decreasing growth rate of AIDS cases is not due to behavior changes; rather it is due to the intrinsic epidemiology of the disease.

  1. [Fatal lactic acidosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy. Report of a case].

    PubMed

    Lasso, M; Pérez, J; Noriega, L M; Northland, R

    2000-10-01

    Type B lactic acidosis occurs without any evidence of cellular hypoxia and is associated with the use of drugs or toxins. We report a 36 years old woman with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome that was admitted to the hospital with a severe lactic acidosis. She had been treated with didanosine, stavudine and efavirenz for four months prior to admission. Despite the use of high bicarbonate doses and vasoactive drugs, the patient had a catastrophic evolution and died in shock and multiple organ failure, 68 hours after admission. (Rev Méd Chile 2000; 128: 1139-43).

  2. Production of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus in human and nonhuman cells transfected with an infectious molecular clone

    SciTech Connect

    Adachi, A.; Gendelman, H.E.; Koenig, S.; Folks, T.; Willey, R.; Rabson, A.; Martin, M.A.

    1986-08-01

    The authors considered an infectious molecular clone of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated retrovirus. Upon transfection, this clone directed the production of infectious virus particles in a wide variety of cells in addition to human T4 cells. The progeny, infectious virions, were synthesized in mouse, mink, monkey, and several human non-T cell lines, indicating the absence of any intracellular obstacle to viral RNA or protein production or assembly. During the course of these studies, a human colon carcinoma cell line, exquisitely sensitive to DNA transfection, was identified.

  3. Pneumocystis carinii Pneumonia Treated With α-Difluoromethylornithine—A Prospective Study Among Patients With the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Golden, Jeffrey A.; Sjoerdsma, Albert; Santi, Daniel V.

    1984-01-01

    Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia is a protozoal infection that, in the setting of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), is often lethal and unresponsive to conventional therapy with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole or pentamidine. In the present study, we have prospectively assessed the use of α-difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), an inhibitor of polyamine biosynthesis, in the treatment of P carinii pneumonia in patients with AIDS who were intolerant or unresponsive to conventional drugs. Improvement by both clinical and objective criteria was observed in six patients who completed six to eight weeks of DFMO therapy. Expansion of these early trials of DFMO is warranted. Images PMID:6440364

  4. [Clinical characteristic and treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis in 80 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Yang, Yaling; Jiang, Rui; He, Taiwen; Lu, Hongzhou; Zhang, Renfang; Shen, Yinzhong; Zheng, Yufang; Liu, Li; Wang, Wenji

    2014-03-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics of cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients. Retrospective case-series study. The clinical and laboratory data of 80 AIDS patients (118 eyes) with findings of CMVR were collected from Shanghai Public Health Clinical Center from December 2006 to December 2011. The relationship between CMVR and cellular immunity, the high risk factor, clinical characteristics, treatment and prognosis of CMVR were analyzed in this study. χ(2) test was used to check the incidence of CMVR in different CD4(+) T lymphocyte count groups. There was 80 AIDS patients (118 eyes) totally, 71 males and 9 females. Their age was from 18 to 60 years old, which mean value was (38 ± 10) years old. The incidence in the group of CD4(+) T lymphocyte count over 100 cells/µl was lower than the two groups of CD4(+) T lymphocyte count less than 100 cells/µl (χ(2) = 15.567, 32.469; P = 0.00,0.00). CD4(+) T lymphocyte count was always ranged from 0 to 141 cells/µl in CMVR patients. It was less than 50 cells/µl in 81.3% cases. In 10.0% AIDS patients, CMVR was the first manifestation. In 25% AIDS patients(26 eyes), lesions in retina was found by routine eye examination. In 54.2% patients, the best corrected visual acuity was less than 0.3. Retinal necrosis was involvement near the posterior pole in 62.5% CMVR patients. The visual acuity of 51 eyes was improved after treatment within 94.1% cases which were treated within 3 months. However, BCVA of 35 eyes decreased or with less change within 42.9% cases which were treated after symptoms appeared 3 months. The anti-CMV treatment included induction and maintenance of ganciclovir or foscarnet stopped when the CD4(+)T lymphocyte count was more than 150 cells/µl in 3 continuous months. 86.9% eyes were cured clinically. Retinal detachment, immune reconstitution uveitis and complicated cataract was found in 13.1%, 12.1% and 20.5% cases respectively. Optic atrophy occurred

  5. Reproductive aspects and knowledge of family planning among women with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lima, Ivana Cristina Vieira de; Cunha, Maria da Conceição Dos Santos Oliveira; Cunha, Gilmara Holanda da; Galvão, Marli Teresinha Gimeniz

    2017-05-25

    To analyze the reproductive aspects and knowledge of family planning among women with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS). Cross-sectional and descriptive study carried out from January to December, 2015, in the outpatient care of infectious disease unit in a hospital located in Fortaleza, Ceará. Data were collected through a form applied by interview in a private setting. 102 women participated in the study. Most were aware that they were serologically positive with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) during prenatal care (96.1%) and did not intend to have more children (63.7%). Women who were less than 39 years of age, had a higher educational level, and a shorter time of antiretroviral therapy had better chances of having children (p≤0.05). Having a steady partner increased the chance of desiring to have children, while tubal ligation was higher among women that did not receive counseling on family planning. Knowledge of family planning was limited because of lack of assistance provided by health professionals. Analisar aspectos reprodutivos e conhecimento sobre planejamento familiar de mulheres com síndrome da imunodeficiência adquirida (Aids). Estudo transversal, descritivo, realizado de janeiro a dezembro de 2015, no ambulatório de infectologia de um hospital em Fortaleza, Ceará. Os dados foram coletados por meio de formulário, aplicado por entrevista em ambiente privativo. Participaram do estudo 102 mulheres. A maioria delas teve conhecimento da sorologia positiva para vírus da imunodeficiência humana (HIV) durante o pré-natal (96,1%), e estas não pretendiam mais ter filhos (63,7%). Mulheres com idade menor que 39 anos, maior escolaridade e menor tempo de terapia antirretroviral tiveram maiores chances de ter filhos (p≤0,05). Mulheres com idade menor que 39 anos e maior escolaridade tiveram maiores chances de ter informações corretas sobre ter filhos na vigência do HIV (p≤0,05). Ter parceiro fixo aumentou a chance de desejar ter

  6. Acquired factor VIII deficiency associated with a novel primary immunodeficiency suggestive of autosomal recessive hyper IgE syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ozgur, Tuba Turul; Asal, Gulten Turkkan; Gurgey, Aytemiz; Tezcan, Ilhan; Ersoy, Fugen; Sanal, Ozden

    2007-05-01

    Primary immunodeficiency diseases (PID) are associated with various autoimmune complications and several manifestations of autoimmunity can be seen in the disorders of T cells, B cells, phagocytes, and complement components. Acquired hemophilia is a rare entity in childhood. Although autoantibodies may develop in various forms of PID, Factor VIII (FVIII) inhibitors have not been described before. Herein, we present a case of acquired hemophilia resulting from FVIII inhibitors who had underlying undefined PID features suggestive of autosomal recessive hyper IgE syndrome. Our patient responded to corticosteroid treatment rather well and quickly, with an increased FVIII level and decreased FVIII inhibitors. However, FVIII inhibitor reappeared 7 months later, and disappeared spontaneously 4 months ago. Long-term and close follow-up is needed to observe the long-term prognosis in this child.

  7. Thrombocytopenia in homosexual patients. Prognosis, response to therapy, and prevalence of antibody to the retrovirus associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Walsh, C; Krigel, R; Lennette, E; Karpatkin, S

    1985-10-01

    Thirty-three homosexual patients with thrombocytopenia (mean [+/- SE] platelet count, 50 000 +/- 7000/mm3; range, 7 to 135 000/mm3) have been followed for a mean period of 20 +/- 2 months. Six patients have developed the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome 1 to 37 months after the diagnosis of thrombocytopenia. Six patients spontaneously reverted to normal platelet counts 5 to 27 months (median, 10 months) after the diagnosis of thrombocytopenia, in the absence of splenectomy and while not receiving corticosteroids. Sixteen of seventeen patients had a moderate to excellent response while on corticosteroid treatment. Ten of ten patients had an excellent response to splenectomy which has persisted. Fifteen patients did not require treatment for their thrombocytopenia. Thirteen of fourteen patients had antibody against the retrovirus associated with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, as did 4 of 12 homosexual controls without thrombocytopenia. Thrombocytopenia in homosexuals is part of the complex related to the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

  8. Insights into vaccine development for acquired immune deficiency syndrome from crystal structures of human immunodeficiency virus-1 gp41 and equine infectious anemia virus gp45.

    PubMed

    Duan, Liangwei; Du, Jiansen; Liu, Xinqi

    2015-10-01

    An effective vaccine against acquired immune deficiency syndrome is still unavailable after dozens of years of striving. The glycoprotein gp41 of human immunodeficiency virus is a good candidate as potential immunogen because of its conservation and relatively low glycosylation. As a reference of human immunodeficiency virus gp41, gp45 from equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) could be used for comparison because both wild-type and vaccine strain of EIAV have been extensively studied. From structural studies of these proteins, the conformational changes during viral invasion could be unveiled, and a more effective acquired immune deficiency syndrome vaccine immunogen might be designed based on this information.

  9. Failure of adjunctive cytomegalovirus intravenous immune globulin to improve efficacy of ganciclovir in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and cytomegalovirus retinitis: a phase 1 study.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, M A; O'Donnell, J J; Rousell, R; Dionian, B; Mills, J

    1990-01-01

    Six men with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis, treated with combined ganciclovir induction therapy and hyperimmune globulin (CMV-IGIV) for 10 days followed by CMV-IGIV alone, had a median time to retinitis progression shorter (7 days) than had eight historical controls given ganciclovir maintenance therapy (54 days; P = 0.06) and similar to that in eight controls given ganciclovir for 10 days only (19 days; P = 0.97). CMV-IGIV, which also failed to inhibit CMV replication in blood and urine, did not appear to add markedly to the efficacy of ganciclovir in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated CMV retinitis. PMID:2158273

  10. [Ulcerative colitis caused by Histoplasma capsulatum in a patient with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Naveau, S; Roulot, D; Cartier, I; Blanchard, A; Poynard, T; Drouhet, E; Chaput, J C

    1986-11-01

    The authors report a case of ulcerative colitis due to Histoplasma capsulatum in a previously healthy 35 year-old french geologist with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Gomori-Grocott and PAS stains and indirect immunofluorescence revealed Histoplasma capsulatum in colonic biopsies. The search for LAV antibody was positive. T-lymphocyte analysis revealed 10/mm3 OKT4 with OKT4/OKT8 ratio of 0.16. Histoplasmosis should be considered in subjects with ulcerative colitis according to the epidemiological context. In patients with AIDS relapses after discontinuation of treatment are to be expected and suppressive therapy with an imidazole derivative should probably be continued indefinitely.

  11. [Cerebral arterial aneurysm in a child with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: case report].

    PubMed

    Carvalho Neto Ad; Bruck, I; Coelho, L O; Cruz, C R; Liu, C B; Gomes, A F; Ogata, S A; Tahan, T T

    2001-06-01

    Cerebral aneurysmal arteriopathy of the circle of Willis is an uncommon manifestation of acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and up to now only 15 cases have been published in the literature. For this reason we add our experience of this rare case, and review the most important aspects related to this entity. The patient is a 6 year old male with perinatal transmitted AIDS, tetraparethic, developed symptoms characterized by episodes of dystonic postures. The computed tomography of the brain showed aneurismal arteriopathy of the circle of Willis. He had a previous normal examination. The review of the literature shows the pathological abnormalities of the affected vessels are mainly medial fibrosis, with destruction of the internal elastic lamina and intimal hyperplasia. The etiology for the vasculitis is unknown. Varicela zoster virus, as well as HIV by itself, can be related to the physiopathology of the vasculitis. On conclusion, it can be said that although uncommon, such complications are of great importance by the fact that the patients with vascular aneurismal arteriopathy are in high risk for vascular accidents, and once a diagnosis was made, death occurs in less than 6 months, according to the literature.

  12. Toxoplasma encephalitis in Haitian adults with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a clinical-pathologic-CT correlation

    SciTech Connect

    Post, M.J.D.; Chan, J.C.; Hensley, G.T.; Hoffman, T.A.; Moskowitz, L.B.; Lippmann, S.

    1983-05-01

    The clinical data, histologic findings, and computed tomographic (CT) abnormalities in eight adult Haitians with toxoplasma encephalitis were analyzed retrospectively. Diagnosis was established by identification of Toxoplasma gondii on autopsy in five and brain biopsy in three specimens and subsequently confirmed by the immunoperoxidase method. All these patiens, six of whom had been in the United States for 24 months or less, had severe idiopathic immunodeficiency syndrome. All were lymphopenic and six were on treatment for tuberculosis when the toxoplasma encephalitis developed. All patients were studied with CT when they developed an altered mental status and fever associated with seizures and/or focal neurologic deficits. Scans before treatment showed multiple intraparenchymal lesions in seven and a single lesion in the thalamus in one. Ring and/or nodular enhancement of the lesions was found in six and hypodense areas in two. Progressions of abnormalities occurred on serial studies. These CT findings that were best shown on axial and coronal thin-section double-dose contrast studies were useful but not diagnostically pathognomonic. In patients with similar clinical presentation CT is recommended to identify focal areas of involvement and to guide brain biopsy or excision so that prompt medical thereapy of this often lethal infection can be instituted.

  13. Is human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome decreasing among Brazilian injection drug users? Recent findings and how to interpret them.

    PubMed

    Bastos, Francisco I; Bongertz, Vera; Teixeira, Sylvia Lopes; Morgado, Mariza G; Hacker, Mariana A

    2005-02-01

    We briefly review findings from Brazilian settings where the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) epidemic among injection drug users (IDUs) seems to be decreasing, highlighting recent findings from Rio de Janeiro and discussing methodological alternatives. Former analyses using serologic testing algorithm for recent HIV seroconversion have shown that HIV incidence has been low in IDUs recruited by two different surveys carried out in Rio, where low injection frequencies and infection rates have been found among new injectors. The proportion of AIDS cases among IDUs in Rio has been fairly modest, compared to São Paulo and especially to the southernmost states. Notwithstanding, the interpretation of findings from serial surveys constitutes a challenge, magnified in the assessment of HIV spread among IDUs due to the dynamic nature of the drug scenes and limitations of sampling strategies targeting hard-to-reach populations. Assessment of epidemic trends may profit from the triangulation of data, but cannot avert biases associated with sampling errors. Efforts should be made to triangulate data from different sources, besides exploring specific studies from different perspectives. In an attempt to further assess the observed trends, we carried out original analyses using data from Brazilian AIDS databank.

  14. Consensus on context-specific strategies for reducing the stigma of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Zambézia Province, Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Mukolo, Abraham; Torres, Isabel; Bechtel, Ruth M; Sidat, Mohsin; Vergara, Alfredo E

    2013-01-01

    Stigma has been implicated in poor outcomes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) care. Reducing stigma is important for HIV prevention and long-term treatment success. Although stigma reduction interventions are conducted in Mozambique, little is known about the current nature of stigma and the efficacy and effectiveness of stigma reduction initiatives. We describe action research to generate consensus on critical characteristics of HIV stigma and anti-stigma interventions in Zambézia Province, Mozambique. Qualitative data gathering methods, including in-depth key-informant interviews, community interviews and consensus group sessions, were utilized. Delphi methods and the strategic options development analysis technique were used to synthesize qualitative data. Key findings are that stigma enacted by the general public might be declining in tandem with the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mozambique, but there is likely excessive residual fear of HIV disease and community attitudes that sustain high levels of perceived stigma. HIV-positive women accessing maternal and child health services appear to shoulder a disproportionate burden of stigma. Unintentional biases among healthcare providers are currently the critical frontier of stigmatization, but there are few interventions designed to address them. Culturally sensitive psychotherapies are needed to address psychological distress associated with internalized stigma and these interventions should complement current supports for voluntary counseling and testing. While advantageous for defining stakeholder priorities for stigma reduction efforts, confirmatory quantitative studies of these consensus positions are needed before the launch of specific interventions.

  15. [A case of non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining lung adenocarcinoma in a multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus-positive patient].

    PubMed

    Mori, Naoyoshi; Maeda, Hikaru; Fujiwara, Kentarou; Taniguchi, Haruki

    2013-10-01

    We report a case of non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-defining lung adenocarcinoma in a multidrug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patient. The patient was a 47-year-old Japanese woman who received salvage combination anti-retroviral therapy with darunavir plus ritonavir plus raltegravir plus tenofovir/emtricitabine in May 2009. She was diagnosed with lung adenocarcinoma (T3N3M1, stage IV) in November 2010 and was not found to possess any activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor gene. Therefore, 6 courses of carboplatin plus pemetrexed and 3 courses of gemcitabine followed by erlotinib were administrated, and therapy was changed to home medical care. The only drug-related adverse event was grade 1 neutropenia, and drug interaction between the simultaneously administered anti-retroviral and chemotherapeutic agents was not confirmed. The patient battled lung adenocarcinoma for 1 year after the diagnosis and died of cancer progression in October 2011. Her performance status was stable and the CD4 (+) lymphocyte count and HIV load were well controlled throughout the course of treatment. In conclusion, the agents used for this patient show high tolerability and can be used as an effective treatment strategy for lung cancer occurring in HIV-positive patients.

  16. Consensus on context-specific strategies for reducing the stigma of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Zambézia Province, Mozambique

    PubMed Central

    Mukolo, Abraham; Torres, Isabel; Bechtel, Ruth M.; Sidat, Mohsin; Vergara, Alfredo E.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma has been implicated in poor outcomes of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) care. Reducing stigma is important for HIV prevention and long-term treatment success. Although stigma reduction interventions are conducted in Mozambique, little is known about the current nature of stigma and the efficacy and effectiveness of stigma reduction initiatives. We describe action research to generate consensus on critical characteristics of HIV stigma and anti-stigma interventions in Zambézia Province, Mozambique. Qualitative data gathering methods, including indepth key-informant interviews, community interviews and consensus group sessions, were utilized. Delphi methods and the strategic options development analysis technique were used to synthesize qualitative data. Key findings are that stigma enacted by the general public might be declining in tandem with the HIV/AIDS epidemic in Mozambique, but there is likely excessive residual fear of HIV disease and community attitudes that sustain high levels of perceived stigma. HIV-positive women accessing maternal and child health services appear to shoulder a disproportionate burden of stigma. Unintentional biases among healthcare providers are currently the critical frontier of stigmatization, but there are few interventions designed to address them. Culturally sensitive psychotherapies are needed to address psychological distress associated with internalized stigma and these interventions should complement current supports for voluntary counseling and testing. While advantageous for defining stakeholder priorities for stigma reduction efforts, confirmatory quantitative studies of these consensus positions are needed before the launch of specific interventions. PMID:24527744

  17. Intersection of Smoking, Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and Cancer: Proceedings of the 8th Annual Texas Conference on Health Disparities

    PubMed Central

    Rajendiran, Smrithi; Kashyap, Meghana V.; Vishwanatha, Jamboor K.

    2013-01-01

    The Texas Center for Health Disparities, a National Institute on Minority Health and Health Disparities Center of Excellence, presents an annual conference to discuss prevention, awareness education and ongoing research about health disparities both in Texas and among the national population. The 2013 Texas Conference on Health Disparities brought together experts, in research, patient care and community outreach, on the “Intersection of Smoking, Human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and Cancer”. Smoking, HIV/AIDS and cancer are three individual areas of public health concern, each with its own set of disparities and risk factors based on race, ethnicity, gender, geography and socio-economic status. Disparities among patient populations, in which these issues are found to be comorbid, provide valuable information on goals for patient care. The conference consisted of three sessions addressing “Comorbidities and Treatment”, “Public Health Perspectives”, and “Best Practices”. This article summarizes the basic science, clinical correlates and public health data presented by the speakers. PMID:24227993

  18. Escitalopram treatment of depression in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Hoare, Jacqueline; Carey, Paul; Joska, John A; Carrara, Henri; Sorsdahl, Katherine; Stein, Dan J

    2014-02-01

    Depression can be a chronic and impairing illness in people with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Large randomized studies of newer selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors such as escitalopram in the treatment of depression in HIV, examining comparative treatment efficacy and safety, have yet to be done in HIV-positive patients. This was a fixed-dose, placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind study to investigate the efficacy of escitalopram in HIV-seropositive subjects with Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, major depressive disorder. One hundred two participants were randomly assigned to either 10 mg of escitalopram or placebo for 6 weeks. An analysis of covariance of the completers found that there was no advantage for escitalopram over placebo on the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (p = 0.93). Sixty-two percent responded to escitalopram and 59% responded to placebo on the Clinical Global Impression Scale. Given the relatively high placebo response, future trials in this area need to be selective in participant recruitment and to be adequately powered.

  19. Mucocutaneous manifestation of pediatric human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in relation to degree of immunosuppression: a study of a West African population.

    PubMed

    Umoru, Dominic; Oviawe, Osawaru; Ibadin, Michael; Onunu, Abel; Esene, Hendrith

    2012-03-01

    Mucocutaneous lesions occur at one point or the other during the course of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease. These lesions can be the initial presenting features but could also be a pointer to the presence of immunosuppression. This study was carried out to determine the pattern of mucocutaneous manifestation in children who have human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in relation to their level of immunosuppression. One hundred children who were HIV seropositive aged 18months to 16years were evaluated for mucocutaneous lesions, and their degree of immunosuppression was also determined using total CD(4+) count or CD(4+) percentage. Another group of age and gender matched 100 HIV-negative children were also examined for mucocutaneous lesions. The mucocutaneous manifestations were more common among the subjects compared to controls (P=0.000). The overall prevalence among the seropositive and seronegative subjects was 64% and 12% respectively. The prevalence of mucocutaneous findings in children with severe, moderate, and no immunosuppression were 93.8%, 55.2%, and 46.2%, respectively. The lesions were significantly more common among those with moderate and severe immunosuppression compared to those with no immunosuppression (P=0.000). Multiple lesions were more frequent among those with severe immunosuppression. Oral thrush was the most frequent lesion (25.6%) among the subjects followed by pruritic papular eruption (20.7%) and dermatophytosis (14.1%). Severe and atypical forms of dermatophytosis and herpes ulcer were also observed among the subjects. This study shows that mucocutaneous lesions are common in children with HIV/AIDS and could be an early indicator of immune suppression. It is important to recognize them early in order to enhance early case detection and treatment. © 2012 The International Society of Dermatology.

  20. Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research and Information Act of 1987. Report to Accompany S. 1220 from the Committee on Labor and Human Resources. 100th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources.

    The Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources' amendment of the Public Health Service Act (S. 1220) regarding Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is presented. The amendment provides for a comprehensive program of education, information, risk reduction, training, prevention, treatment, care, and research of AIDS. This volume includes a…

  1. An Aggressive Plasmablastic Lymphoma of the Oral Cavity as Primary Manifestation of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Corti, Marcelo; Minué, Gonzalo; Campitelli, Ana; Narbaitz, Marina; Gilardi, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare entity that was first described in the jaws and the oral cavity of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Plasmablastic lymphoma is considered as a diffuse, large, B-cell lymphoma with a unique phenotype and a predilection for the oral cavity. Objective The authors describe a case of an aggressive plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity as the primary manifestation of AIDS. Resumed Report We report a case of plasmablastic lymphoma involving only the oral cavity as the first manifestation of AIDS. Diagnosis was confirmed by the oral lesion biopsy and the histopathologic examination that showed a dense infiltrate composed of atypical lymphocytes with numerous plasmocytes that expressed the plasma cell markers MUM-1 and CD138 and that were negative for the B-cell markers CD3, CD20, and CD45. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization revealed the Epstein-Barr virus genome in the atypical cells. Polymerase chain reaction was also positive for human herpesvirus-8 RNA. Conclusion The HIV serologic status should be evaluated in all patients with plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity or extraoral sites. PMID:26491484

  2. Granulomas in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma: evidence for a role for Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Ramdial, Pratistadevi K; Sing, Yetish; Subrayan, Sumeshini; Calonje, Eduardo; Aboobaker, Jamila; Sydney, Clive; Sookdeo, Dinesh; Ramburan, Amsha; Madiba, Thandinkosi E

    2010-08-01

    Co-lesional acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated cutaneous Kaposi sarcoma (AIDS-KS) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis-associated granulomatous inflammation are undocumented. Retrospective appraisal of skin biopsies with co-lesional AIDS-KS and microscopic tuberculosis (TB). Sixteen biopsies from nine males and seven females form the study cohort. Histological assessment confirmed nodular and plaque KS in 12 and 4 cases each, respectively. Necrotizing, non-necrotizing and a combination of necrotizing and non-necrotizing granulomatous inflammation were present in nine, two and five biopsies each, respectively. The identification of acid fast bacilli on Ziehl-Neelsen staining and M. tuberculosis on polymerase chain reaction confirmed co-lesional TB in 15/16 biopsies. Co-lesional AIDS-KS and lichen scrofulosorum, hitherto undocumented, were confirmed in one biopsy. The histopathological findings served as a marker of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, visceral TB, therapeutic noncompliance and multidrug resistant pulmonary TB in nine, eight, five and one patient, respectively. M. tuberculosis was cultured from sputum or nodal tissue of all patients. Granulomatous inflammation in KS requires optimal histopathological and molecular investigation to confirm an M. tuberculosis origin. The cutaneous co-lesional occurrence of AIDS-KS and microscopic TB may serve as the sentinel clue to HIV infection, systemic TB, therapeutic noncompliance or multidrug resistant TB.

  3. An Aggressive Plasmablastic Lymphoma of the Oral Cavity as Primary Manifestation of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Corti, Marcelo; Minué, Gonzalo; Campitelli, Ana; Narbaitz, Marina; Gilardi, Leonardo

    2015-10-01

    Introduction Plasmablastic lymphoma is a rare entity that was first described in the jaws and the oral cavity of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Plasmablastic lymphoma is considered as a diffuse, large, B-cell lymphoma with a unique phenotype and a predilection for the oral cavity. Objective The authors describe a case of an aggressive plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity as the primary manifestation of AIDS. Resumed Report We report a case of plasmablastic lymphoma involving only the oral cavity as the first manifestation of AIDS. Diagnosis was confirmed by the oral lesion biopsy and the histopathologic examination that showed a dense infiltrate composed of atypical lymphocytes with numerous plasmocytes that expressed the plasma cell markers MUM-1 and CD138 and that were negative for the B-cell markers CD3, CD20, and CD45. Immunohistochemical and in situ hybridization revealed the Epstein-Barr virus genome in the atypical cells. Polymerase chain reaction was also positive for human herpesvirus-8 RNA. Conclusion The HIV serologic status should be evaluated in all patients with plasmablastic lymphoma of the oral cavity or extraoral sites.

  4. Difficulties with diagnosis and consequential poor outcome due to stigma of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome - a case report.

    PubMed

    Vuletic, Vladimira; Nevajda, Branimir; Spero, Martina; Chudy, Darko

    2013-09-01

    Low incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been detected in Croatia so far. Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is the most common opportunistic cerebral infection in AIDS patients and is highly responsive to antiparasitic chemotherapy, if treated at an early stage. We present the case of the brain biopsy confirmed as TE on a 36-year-old female patient who at admission presented with unconsciousness and a right hemiplegia. A MSCT was performed and two hypodense lesions were diagnosed. The patient's family initially denied the presence or history of any medical problem or infection. An MRI showed multiple ring-enhanced mass lesions. An infectologist required a brain biopsy to exclude cerebral lymphoma and multiple metastases. Pathohistological analysis suggested TE. Meanwhile, patient's blood samples were found to be HIV positive. The patient was transferred to University Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Zagreb, where she died 2 days following admission. The patient's family terminally confessed that the patient had been HIV positive for 10 years and had refused any treatment. Family's denial of infection as well as 'hiding information' concerning patient's health from physicians involved in her treatment caused a delay in proper on-time patient treatment. We would like to emphasize that TE must be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with multiple cerebral lesions, including patients without acknowledged past history of HIV infection. A stigma towards HIV infection and ignorance of the disease still exist and therefore hinders proper treatment.

  5. Circulating cytokine levels, Epstein-Barr viremia and risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Rabkin, Charles S.; Engels, Eric A.; Landgren, Ola; Schuurman, Rob; Camargo, M. Constanza; Pfeiffer, Ruth; Goedert, James J.

    2012-01-01

    Cytokine dysregulation and decontrol of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) latency by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are potential mechanisms for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL). We therefore assessed circulating blood levels in pre-diagnosis plasma or serum from 63 AIDS-related NHL cases 0.1 – 2.0 (median 1.0) years pre-NHL and 181 controls matched for CD4+ T-cell count. Cytokines were measured by Millipore 30-plex Luminex assays and cell-free EBV DNA detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Correlations in multiplex cytokine levels were summarized by factor analysis. Individual cytokines and their principal factors were analyzed for associations with NHL by conditional logistic regression. Cases had higher levels for 25 of the 30 cytokines. In analyses of cytokine profiles, cases had significantly higher scores for a principal factor primarily reflecting levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-13, and granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (four gene products with coordinated transcription in vitro), as well as IL-1alpha. Epstein-Barr viremia was not significantly associated based on 113 evaluable samples without PCR inhibition. We found increases of T-helper type 2 interleukins and generalized elevations of other inflammatory cytokines and growth factors up to two years before AIDS-NHL. Cytokine-mediated hyperstimulation of B-cell proliferation may play a role in AIDS-related lymphomagenesis. PMID:22022727

  6. Lipodystrophy, lipid profile changes, and low serum retinol and carotenoid levels in children and adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Battistini, Tânia Regina Beraldo; Sarni, Roseli Oselka Saccardo; de Souza, Fabíola Isabel Suano; Pitta, Tassiana Sacchi; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Hix, Sonia; Fonseca, Fernando Luiz Affonso; Tardini, Priscila Chemiotti; dos Santos, Valter Pinho; Lopez, Fábio Ancona

    2010-06-01

    To assess serum retinol and levels of carotenoids in children and adolescents with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and to correlate low serum retinol and carotenoid levels with the presence of lipodystrophy, lipid profile changes, lipid peroxidation, and insulin resistance. A cross-sectional, controlled observational study was carried out with 30 children and adolescents with AIDS (mean age 9.1 y) receiving antiretroviral therapy (median length of treatment 28.4 mo), including 30 uninfected healthy controls matched for age and gender. Clinical and laboratory assessments were performed to determine nutritional status, presence of lipodystrophy, serum concentrations of retinol, beta-carotene, lycopene, lipid profile (high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triacylglycerols), lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances), glycemia, and serum insulin (homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance, cutoff point >3). Statistical analysis was done with chi-square test and Student's t test. Lipodystrophy was observed in 53.3% of patients with AIDS, and dyslipidemia was detected in 60% and 23% of subjects with human immunodeficiency virus and control subjects, respectively (P = 0.004). A higher prevalence of retinol deficiency (60% versus 26.7%, P = 0.009) and beta-carotene deficiency (23.3% versus 3.3%, P = 0.026) was found in the group with human immunodeficiency virus than in the control group. No correlation was found for low retinol and beta-carotene levels, changes in lipid and glucose metabolism, or lipodystrophy in children and adolescents with AIDS. Despite the high frequency of dyslipidemia, lipodystrophy, and retinol and beta-carotene deficiencies, it was not possible to demonstrate a correlation of these findings with lipid peroxidation and insulin resistance. More studies are needed to investigate the causes of retinol and beta-carotene deficiencies in this population and the clinical

  7. Presentation and outcome amongst older Singaporeans living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS): does age alone drive excess mortality?

    PubMed

    Huggan, Paul J; Foo, Rui Min; Olszyna, Dariusz; Chew, Nicholas S; Smitasen, Nares; Mukhopadhyay, Amartya; Archuleta, Sophia

    2012-12-01

    There is little detailed information on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) amongst older adults in Singapore. A retrospective study of 121 consecutive referrals of patients presenting for HIV care was conducted. Demographic, clinical and laboratory variables were collected. A prognostic model derived from the North American Veterans' Affairs Cohort Study (VACS) was used to estimate prognosis. The median age at presentation was 43 (range, 18 to 76). Thirty-eight patients (31%) were aged 50 or older and 106 patients (88%) were male. Older patients were more likely to be of Chinese ethnicity (P = 0.035), married (P = 0.0001), unemployed or retired (P = 0.0001), and to have acquired their infection heterosexually (P = 0.0002). The majority of patients in both groups were symptomatic at presentation. Eighty-one (67%) had CD4 counts less than 200 at baseline with no observable differences in HIV ribonucleic acid (RNA) or clinical stage based on age. Non-Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) morbidity was observed more frequently amongst older patients. The estimated prognosis of patients differed significantly based on age. Using the VACS Index and comparing younger patients with those aged 50 and above, mean 5 year mortality estimates were 25% and 50% respectively (P <0.001). A trend towards earlier antiretroviral therapy was noted amongst older patients (P = 0.067) driven mainly by fewer financial difficulties reported as barriers to treatment. Older patients form a high proportion of newly diagnosed HIV/AIDS cases and present with more non-AIDS morbidity. This confers a poor prognosis despite comparable findings with younger patients in terms of clinical stage, AIDS-defining illness, CD4 count and HIV viral load.

  8. Histopathology of cerebral toxoplasmosis in human immunodeficiency virus infection: a comparison between patients with early-onset and late-onset acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Falangola, M F; Reichler, B S; Petito, C K

    1994-10-01

    We reviewed the histological features of untreated toxoplasmosis in 18 cases with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), eight of which were surgical biopsies and 10 of which were autopsy specimens. The results were compared according to the clinical status of the patient at the time the diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was made (early-onset v late-onset AIDS) and according to the source of the specimen (surgical biopsy specimen v autopsy specimen). Cerebral toxoplasmosis was the AIDS-defining illness in half of the cases (six surgical biopsy specimens and three autopsy specimens). Inflammation in these cases was moderate in 44% and severe in 56%. Fibrous capsules were found in five cases. Lymphocytes and plasma cells were more prominent than neutrophils. Cerebral toxoplasmosis developed in or was part of the terminal AIDS illness in the remaining nine cases (two surgical biopsy specimens and seven autopsy specimens). In this group inflammation was sparse in 44%, moderate in 55%, and severe in only 11%. Fibrous capsules were usually absent and neutrophils were the predominant cell type. Comparisons between surgical biopsy specimens and autopsy specimens showed moderate to severe inflammation and frequent fibrous encapsulation in all of the former specimens but only in those autopsy specimens in which toxoplasmosis was the initial manifestation of AIDS. Thus, this study demonstrates varied neuropathological patterns of untreated cerebral toxoplasmosis in patients with AIDS and correlates the inflammatory response in the brain with the clinical stage of the patient's human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV) infection. Inflammation and fibrous encapsulation were common only in patients with early-onset AIDS in whom cerebral toxoplasmosis was the first manifestation of the illness. This study highlights important differences between the histology of this infection at surgical biopsy and at autopsy, and stresses the need to consider toxoplasma as a potential cause of

  9. Purinergic signaling and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome: From viral entry to therapy.

    PubMed

    Passos, Daniela F; Schetinger, Maria Rosa C; Leal, Daniela Br

    2015-08-12

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is a serious condition associated to severe immune dysfunction and immunodeficiency. Mechanisms involved in HIV-associated immune activation, inflammation and loss of CD4+ T cells have been extensively studied, including those concerning purinergic signaling pathways. Purinergic signaling components are involved in viral entry and replication and disease progression. Research involving the participation of purinergic signaling in HIV infection has been not only important to elucidate disease mechanisms but also to introduce new approaches to therapy. The involvement of purinergic signaling in the pathogenesis of HIV infection and its implications in the control of the HIV infection are reviewed in this paper.

  10. Attitudes of Baccalaureate Nursing Students toward Persons with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome According to Mode of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Transmission.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Andrea M.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Nursing students (n=236) completed the AIDS Knowledge Scale and AIDS Attitude Scale. Results showed most stigma attached to AIDS acquired through drug use or sexual contact, the least through maternal transmission or blood transfusion. Demographic characteristics did not influence attitudes. (SK)

  11. Utility of immunohistochemical staining with FLI1, D2-40, CD31, and CD34 in the diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related and non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related Kaposi sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Rosado, Flavia G Nunes; Itani, Doha M; Coffin, Cheryl M; Cates, Justin M

    2012-03-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is a vascular tumor frequently associated with advanced human immunodeficiency virus infection, advanced age, or iatrogenic immunosuppression. Immunohistochemistry for CD31 and CD34, and more recently for FLI1 and D2-40, has been used as ancillary diagnostic tests for KS, despite little information regarding the sensitivities and differential staining patterns of the latter 2 markers in the major clinical subtypes and histologic stages of KS. This retrospective study aims to assess the prevalence of the vascular markers D2-40 and FLI1 in the main clinical subgroups and tumor stages of KS. Twenty-four cases of KS (12 acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]-related cases and 12 non-AIDS-related cases; 11 nodular-stage and 13 patch/plaque-stage KS) were stained for CD34, CD31, D2-40, and FLI1 by immunohistochemistry. The distribution of immunoreactivity was compared between the clinical subtypes and tumor stages of KS using the Mann-Whitney test. CD31, CD34, D2-40, and FLI1 strongly and diffusely stained tumor cells in 75%, 92%, 67%, and 92% of AIDS-related cases and 58%, 92%, 67%, and 75% of non-AIDS-related cases, respectively. Differences in the proportions of positive cases between AIDS-related and non-AIDS-related cases did not reach statistical significance. No significant staining differences were observed between nodular- and patch/plaque-stage KS either. There are no differences in the distribution of immunohistochemical reactivity for CD31, CD34, D2-40, or FLI1 between AIDS-related and non-AIDS-related KS or between nodular- and patch/plaque-stage KS. All of the markers studied demonstrated high sensitivity in both clinical settings and both stages of tumor progression.

  12. Changes in thyroid function in Ethiopian and non-Ethiopian Israeli patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cahn, Avivit; Chairsky-Segal, Irena; Olshtain-Pops, Keren; Maayan, Sholomo; Wolf, Dana; Dresner-Pollak, Rivka

    2012-01-01

    To investigate whether human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection or its treatment is a risk factor for thyroid dysfunction and whether thyroid function changes over time in 2 distinct subpopulations with HIV or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Israel: Ethiopian immigrants and Israeli patients. Serum thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) and free thyroxine levels were determined in HIV carriers undergoing follow-up at the Hadassah-Hebrew University Medical Center HIV clinic in Jerusalem, Israel, and these thyroid measurements were correlated with clinical and laboratory variables pertaining to their disease, including disease duration, drug therapy, viral load, CD4 count, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and creatine kinase. Serum samples stored at -20°C from the time of referral were tested as well. We recruited 121 consecutive patients with HIV or AIDS for this study: 60 Ethiopians and 61 Israeli patients. Of the 121 patients, 4 (3%) had abnormal thyroid function-subclinical hypothyroidism in 2, overt hypothyroidism in 1, and overt hyperthyroidism in 1. Previously stored serum samples were available for 60 of the 121 patients and revealed 2 additional patients with subclinical hypothyroidism, whose TSH has normalized in the subsequent test. Throughout the follow-up period of 3.2 ± 1.9 years, the mean TSH level remained unchanged in the Israeli cohort but significantly declined in the Ethiopian cohort. Thyroid function abnormalities were uncommon in these Israeli patients with HIV or AIDS. This finding does not support the need for routine thyroid function tests in this patient population. The decline in TSH level in the Ethiopian population over time probably represents a shift from an iodine-deficient to an iodine-sufficient country.

  13. Food Security in Households of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in a Subdivision of Darjeeling District, West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Pallabi; Bhattacherjee, Sharmistha; Das, Dilip Kumar

    2016-07-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) adversely impacts food security in households of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Little research has focused on food insecurity among PLWHA in India. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of and factors relating to food security in households of PLWHA in the Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 173 PLWHA residing in Siliguri and registered at the Anti-retroviral Therapy Centre of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital. Data was collected at the household level with interviews of PLWHA using a food security survey instrument. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression. The prevalence of household food security among the participants was 50.9% (88/173). Five years or more of schooling, higher socioeconomic class and males were found to be significantly associated with a higher likelihood of food security. A later stage of the disease and the presence of other family members with HIV/AIDS were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of food security. The major coping strategies to deal with food insecurity in the acute phase HIV infection included borrowing money (56.1%), followed by spousal support, loans from microfinance institutions, banks, or money lenders, borrowing food, or selling agricultural products. The present study revealed that only about half of households with PLWHA were food secure. Prior interventions relating to periods of food and economic crisis as well as strategies for sustaining food security and economic status are needed in this area.

  14. Histoplasmosis in patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS): multicenter study of outcomes and factors associated with relapse.

    PubMed

    Myint, Thein; Anderson, Albert M; Sanchez, Alejandro; Farabi, Alireza; Hage, Chadi; Baddley, John W; Jhaveri, Malhar; Greenberg, Richard N; Bamberger, David M; Rodgers, Mark; Crawford, Timothy N; Wheat, L Joseph

    2014-01-01

    Although discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-associated histoplasmosis is accepted for patients with immunologic recovery, there have been no published studies of this approach in clinical practice, and minimal characterization of individuals who relapse with this disease. We performed a multicenter retrospective cohort study to determine the outcome in AIDS patients following discontinuation of suppressive antifungal therapy for histoplasmosis. Ninety-seven patients were divided into a physician-discontinued suppressive therapy group (PD) (38 patients) and a physician-continued suppressive therapy group (PC) (59 patients). The 2 groups were not statistically different at baseline, but at discontinuation of therapy and at the most recent follow-up there were significant differences in adherence to therapy, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) RNA, and urinary Histoplasma antigen concentration. There was no relapse or death attributed to histoplasmosis in the PD group compared with 36% relapse (p < 0.0001) and 5% death (p = 0.28) in the PC group. Relapse occurred in 53% of the nonadherent patients but not in the adherent patients (p < 0.0001). Sixty-seven percent of patients with initial central nervous system (CNS) histoplasmosis relapsed compared to 15% of patients without CNS involvement (p = 0.0004), which may be accounted for by nonadherence. In addition, patients with antigenuria above 2.0 ng/mL at 1-year follow-up were 12.82 times (95% confidence interval, 2.91-55.56) more likely to relapse compared to those with antigenuria below 2.0 ng/mL. Discontinuation of antifungal therapy was safe in adherent patients who completed at least 1 year of antifungal treatment, and had CD4 counts >150 cells/mL, HIV RNA <400 c/mL, Histoplasma antigenuria <2 ng/mL (equivalent to <4.0 units in second-generation method), and no CNS histoplasmosis.

  15. Food Security in Households of People Living With Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Cross-sectional Study in a Subdivision of Darjeeling District, West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) adversely impacts food security in households of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA). Little research has focused on food insecurity among PLWHA in India. The purpose of this study was to identify the prevalence of and factors relating to food security in households of PLWHA in the Siliguri subdivision of Darjeeling, West Bengal, India. Methods: A cross-sectional community-based study was carried out among 173 PLWHA residing in Siliguri and registered at the Anti-retroviral Therapy Centre of North Bengal Medical College & Hospital. Data was collected at the household level with interviews of PLWHA using a food security survey instrument. We analyzed the associations using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of household food security among the participants was 50.9% (88/173). Five years or more of schooling, higher socioeconomic class and males were found to be significantly associated with a higher likelihood of food security. A later stage of the disease and the presence of other family members with HIV/AIDS were significantly associated with a lower likelihood of food security. The major coping strategies to deal with food insecurity in the acute phase HIV infection included borrowing money (56.1%), followed by spousal support, loans from microfinance institutions, banks, or money lenders, borrowing food, or selling agricultural products. Conclusions: The present study revealed that only about half of households with PLWHA were food secure. Prior interventions relating to periods of food and economic crisis as well as strategies for sustaining food security and economic status are needed in this area. PMID:27499166

  16. Difficulties with diagnosis and consequential poor outcome due to stigma of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome – a case report

    PubMed Central

    Vuletic, Vladimira; Nevajda, Branimir; Spero, Martina; Chudy, Darko

    2013-01-01

    Low incidence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has been detected in Croatia so far. Toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) is the most common opportunistic cerebral infection in AIDS patients and is highly responsive to antiparasitic chemotherapy, if treated at an early stage. We present the case of the brain biopsy confirmed as TE on a 36-year-old female patient who at admission presented with unconsciousness and a right hemiplegia. A MSCT was performed and two hypodense lesions were diagnosed. The patient’s family initially denied the presence or history of any medical problem or infection. An MRI showed multiple ring-enhanced mass lesions. An infectologist required a brain biopsy to exclude cerebral lymphoma and multiple metastases. Pathohistological analysis suggested TE. Meanwhile, patient’s blood samples were found to be HIV positive. The patient was transferred to University Hospital for Infectious Diseases in Zagreb, where she died 2 days following admission. The patient’s family terminally confessed that the patient had been HIV positive for 10 years and had refused any treatment. Family’s denial of infection as well as ‘hiding information’ concerning patient’s health from physicians involved in her treatment caused a delay in proper on-time patient treatment. We would like to emphasize that TE must be considered as a differential diagnosis in patients presenting with multiple cerebral lesions, including patients without acknowledged past history of HIV infection. A stigma towards HIV infection and ignorance of the disease still exist and therefore hinders proper treatment. PMID:24091082

  17. Pathologic lesions in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome an autopsy study of 11 cases from Mumbai, India.

    PubMed

    Lanjewar, Dhanesheshwar N; Bhatia, Varsha Omprakash; Lanjewar, Sonali Dhaneshwar

    2016-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection in India has now been prevalent over three decades, and an increasing number of children are being affected with HIV. The spectrum of pathologic lesions in children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in India has not been well described. A review of systematically conducted autopsies of 11 (10 boys and 1 girl) children with AIDS is presented. The mode of HIV transmission in 6 children was vertical; in one it was blood transfusion and in 4 children route was presumably vertical as these were children of orphanage. The clinical manifestations were failure to thrive; 9 children, persistent gastroenteritis; 8, recurrent fever; 5, bacterial infections; 5, hepatosplenomegaly; 5, candidiasis; 1, scabies; 1, skin rash; 2, tuberculous (TB) meningitis; 1 and paraplegia; in 1 child. The spectrum of pathologic lesions observed were precocious involution in thymus in 3 and dysinvolution in 2 cases. Infectious diseases comprised of TB; 4 cases, cytomegalovirus infection (CMV) 4; bacterial pneumonia and meningitis; 7, and esophageal candidiasis in 2 cases. Dual or multiple infections were observed in 9 (82%) cases; these comprised of two lesions in 2, three lesions in 2, four lesions in 4, and five lesions in 1 case. TB, bacterial pneumonia, meningitis, and CMV infection are the most frequent causes of death in children with AIDS. Vascular lesions showing features of arteriopathy were observed in 5 cases and brain in one case showed non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. This study provides a better insight into the spectrum of pathologic lesions in children with AIDS in India. TB and CMV infection has been found to be the most prevalent infection in our children.

  18. Cryptococcosis in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Patients Clinically Confirmed and/or Diagnosed at Necropsy in a Teaching Hospital in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Rafael Garcia; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Adad, Sheila Jorge; Micheletti, Adilha Rua; Ribeiro, Barbara de Melo; Silva, Leonardo Eurípedes Andrade; Mora, Delio Jose; Paim, Kennio Ferreira; Silva-Vergara, Mario León

    2016-10-05

    Cryptococcosis occurs in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with poor compliance to antiretroviral therapy or unaware of their human immunodeficiency virus status who present severe immunosuppression at admission. Consequently, high mortality rates are observed due to disseminated fungal infection. This report presents clinical and postmortem data of AIDS patients with cryptococcosis in a teaching hospital in Brazil. Retrospectively, medical and necropsy records of AIDS patients with cryptococcosis clinically confirmed and/or postmortem verified were reviewed. Clinical data were compared with those of patients presenting a good outcome to evaluate disseminated fungal infection and the agreement between clinical and postmortem diagnosis. At admission, most of the 45 patients with cryptococcal meningitis who died, presented more altered consciousness (P = 0.0047), intracranial increased pressure (P = 0.047), and severe malnutrition (P = 0.0006) than the survivors. Of 29 (64.4%) patients with cryptococcal meningitis, 23 died before week 2 on antifungal therapy, and the other six during the next 3 months. The remaining 16 (35.6%) cases had other diagnoses and died soon after. At necropsy, 31 (68.9%) presented disseminated infection involving two or more organs, whereas 14 (31.1%) cases had meningeal or pulmonary localized infection. The agreement of 64.4% between clinical and postmortem diagnosis was similar to some studies. However, other reports have shown figures ranging from 34% to 95%. Currently, a progressive worldwide decrease of autopsies is worrying because the role of postmortem examination is pivotal to verify or identify the death causes, which contributes to improve the quality of clinical diagnosis and medical training. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  19. Oral Candida albicans isolates from nonhospitalized normal carriers, immunocompetent hospitalized patients, and immunocompromised patients with or without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Brawner, D L; Cutler, J E

    1989-01-01

    A total of 128 human oral isolates of Candida albicans were collected from asymptomatic healthy carriers (64 isolates); asymptomatic, nonimmunosuppressed, hospitalized patients (25 isolates); immunosuppressed transplant patients (19 isolates); and human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with symptoms of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and oral candidiasis (20 isolates). Isolates were serotyped as A or B and tested for reactivity with an agglutinating immunoglobulin M monoclonal antibody (H9). Immunocompetent individuals colonized by oral C. albicans were almost equally likely to carry serotype A as serotype B cells, while immunocompromised individuals were at least twice as likely to be infected by serotype B than serotype A strains. The reactivity of isolates with H9 antibody followed a similar but more distinctive pattern. Approximately half of the strains from immunocompetent individuals reacted strongly with H9, and the remainder reacted weakly. However, up to 75% of the isolates from immunocompromised patients reacted weakly with H9, while the remainder reacted strongly. A correlation between H9 reactivity and the serotypes of these isolates existed (P = 0.16). The correlation between H9 reactivity and immune status was even stronger (P = 0.025). The monoclonal antibody activities described above were determined by agglutination tests during defined phases of C. albicans growth. Expression of antigen at various times during growth of several isolates was confirmed at the cellular level by analysis using fluorescence-activated cell sorting. Despite the correlation between serotype A and H9 reactivity, H9 antigen was not identical to the serotype A antigen because four serotype A strains reacted only weakly with H9 antibody, and one strain reacted strongly with H9 but was serotype B. These data indicate that oral strains of C. albicans from immunocompetent individuals differ as a group from C. albicans isolated from those who are immunosuppressed. PMID

  20. Toxoplasmosis of the central nervous system in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lanjewar, D N; Surve, K V; Maheshwari, M B; Shenoy, B P; Hira, S K

    1998-04-01

    Acute encephalitis caused by Toxoplasma gondi was diagnosed at autopsy in 10 (20.4%) of the 49 patients. All patients had under lying immunodeficiency due to AIDS and showed selective involvement of central nervous system at autopsy. Sexual promiscuity was the risk factor in nine cases while one case had a history of blood transfusion. Diagnosis of toxoplasmosis was hampered by a lack of suspicion that Toxoplasma could be the agent causing necrotising encephalitis. The large number of cases of CNS toxoplasmosis appearing in AIDs patients emphasize the necessity of including toxoplasmosis in the differential diagnosis of encephalitis of unknown aetiology.

  1. A controlled study of funding for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome as resource capacity building in the health system in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Shepard, Donald S; Zeng, Wu; Amico, Peter; Rwiyereka, Angelique K; Avila-Figueroa, Carlos

    2012-05-01

    Because human inmmunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) receives more donor funding globally than that for all other diseases combined, some critics allege this support undermines general health care. This empirical study evaluates the impact of HIV/AIDS funding on the primary health care system in Rwanda. Using a quasi-experimental design, we randomly selected 25 rural health centers (HCs) that started comprehensive HIV/AIDS services from 2002 through 2006 as the intervention group. Matched HCs with no HIV/AIDS services formed the control group. The analysis compared growth in inputs and services between intervention and control HCs with a difference-in-difference analysis in a random-effects model. Intervention HCs performed better than control HCs in most services (seven of nine), although only one of these improvements (Bacille Calmette-Guérin vaccination) reached or approached statistical significance. In conclusion, this six-year controlled study found no adverse effects of the expansion of HIV/AIDS services on non-HIV services among rural health centers in Rwanda.

  2. The thymus in acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Comparison with other types of immunodeficiency diseases, and presence of components of human immunodeficiency virus type 1.

    PubMed Central

    Schuurman, H. J.; Krone, W. J.; Broekhuizen, R.; van Baarlen, J.; van Veen, P.; Golstein, A. L.; Huber, J.; Goudsmit, J.

    1989-01-01

    The authors studied thymus specimens taken at autopsy from eight acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients and compared these with those taken from four patients with congenital immunodeficiency (unrelated to an intrinsic thymus defect) and seven patients after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. In all cases, histology showed a severely involuted architecture, compatible with a debilitating disease before death. There were no major differences between thymus tissue in AIDS patients and in the other patients studied. This argues against the claim expressed in the literature that the epithelial microenvironment incurs particular HIV-1-induced injury in AIDS. This conclusion is substantiated by immunohistochemistry for HIV-1 gag and env proteins, and by hybridohistochemistry for gag/pol and env mRNA of HIV-1. Positive cells were observed only in low numbers, both inside the epithelial parenchyma and in the (expanded) perivascular areas. An interesting finding was the labeling of subcapsular/medullary epithelium in normal uninvoluted thymus by a number of antibodies to HIV-1 gag p17 and p24 proteins. Compatible with this labeling was the staining of epithelial stalks in hyperinvoluted thymuses irrespective of disease category. The previously reported cross-reactivity between HIV-1 core protein and thymosin alpha 1 cannot fully explain this observation, because the epithelium in the hyperinvoluted state is negative for thymosin alpha 1. This study confirms and extends previous reports on the endogenous presence of epitopes of retroviral antigens in thymic epithelium. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 PMID:2474255

  3. Outcomes of cytomegalovirus retinitis-related retinal detachment surgery in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients in an Asian population.

    PubMed

    Wong, John X; Wong, Elizabeth P; Teoh, Stephen C

    2014-11-27

    This study reports the surgical outcomes of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with Cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMVR) -related retinal detachments(RD) in an Asian population. Review of CMVR characteristics, surgical outcomes and complications in 19 eyes with CMVR-related RD that underwent surgery from January 2000 to June 2011. CMVR was inactive in 73.7% of the eyes at time of surgery. Anatomical success was achieved in 14 eyes. Seven eyes (36.8%) had improvement of two or more lines in visual acuity (VA) and 8 eyes (42.1%) maintained VA. Thirteen eyes presented with worse than 6/120 vision, with 30.8% of them achieving ambulatory vision or better. Five eyes had re-detachments. Median durations from CMVR and immune recovery uveitis (IRU) diagnoses to RD were 2.7 and 1.0 months respectively. Surgery for CMVR-related RD is associated with good anatomical outcomes with most eyes maintaining or having improved vision. CMVR lesion size of <50% retinal area is associated with better outcomes. Eyes with CMVR and IRU require close monitoring for RD.

  4. Pulmonary cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients: comparison of imaging characteristics among RA, acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and immunocompetent patients.

    PubMed

    Yanagawa, Noriyo; Sakai, Fumikazu; Takemura, Tamiko; Ishikawa, Satoru; Takaki, Yasunobu; Hishima, Tsunekazu; Kamata, Noriko

    2013-11-01

    The imaging characteristics of cryptococcosis in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients were analyzed by comparing them with those of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and immunocompetent patients, and the imaging findings were correlated with pathological findings. Two radiologists retrospectively compared the computed tomographic (CT) findings of 35 episodes of pulmonary cryptococcosis in 31 patients with 3 kinds of underlying states (10 RA, 12 AIDS, 13 immunocompetent), focusing on the nature, number, and distribution of lesions. The pathological findings of 18 patients (8 RA, 2 AIDS, 8 immunocompetent) were analyzed by two pathologists, and then correlated with imaging findings. The frequencies of consolidation and ground glass attenuation (GGA) were significantly higher, and the frequency of peripheral distribution was significantly lower in the RA group than in the immunocompetent group. Peripheral distribution was less common and generalized distribution was more frequent in the RA group than in the AIDS group. The pathological findings of the AIDS and immunocompetent groups reflected their immune status: There was lack of a granuloma reaction in the AIDS group, and a complete granuloma reaction in the immunocompetent group, while the findings of the RA group varied, including a complete granuloma reaction, a loose granuloma reaction and a hyper-immune reaction. Cases with the last two pathologic findings were symptomatic and showed generalized or central distribution on CT. Cryptococcosis in the RA group showed characteristic radiological and pathological findings compared with the other 2 groups. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Autopsy findings in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). A report of 395 cases from the south of France.

    PubMed

    Hofman, P; Saint-Paul, M C; Battaglione, V; Michiels, J F; Loubière, R

    1999-01-01

    Necropsy findings in 395 adult patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) who died in Nice, France, between March 1983 and May 1996 were compared retrospectively with antemortem diagnoses, risk factors and number of positive T CD4 lymphocytes at the time of death. Special emphasis on bacterial infections was made in this study. Lesions observed from 1983 through 1989 and from 1990 through 1996 were compared. We assessed the role of organ lesions in the immediate cause of death. The organ system distribution of major opportunistic infections and neoplasms was similar throughout the years of the study. The most common diagnostic disease entities in all organ sites were cytomegalovirus infection, toxoplasmosis and candidiasis. Toxoplasmosis was more common in the intravenous drug abuser group. Bacterial infections were frequent and contributed to the mortality and morbidity of all risk factor groups. Kaposi' sarcoma continued to occur more frequently in the homosexual population. Cytomegalovirus infection remained one of the most common causes of death from 1983 to 1996. Mortality from fungal and bacterial infections, and mycobacteriosis increased in frequency during the course of this study whereas deaths from pneumocystosis declined. The death rate from malignant lymphoma and carcinoma increased after 1989. The clinical cause of death concurred with the pathological cause in 55% of the cases. Lung was the most frequent organ involved followed by the central nervous system the gastrointestinal tract and the heart.

  6. Epidemiology of invasive fungal infections in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome at a reference hospital for infectious diseases in Brazil.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Renata Buccheri; Atobe, Jane Harumi; Souza, Simone Aparecida; de Castro Lima Santos, Daniel Wagner

    2014-08-01

    Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) represent one of the main causes of morbimortality in immunocompromised patients. Pneumocystosis, cryptococcosis and histoplasmosis are the most frequently occurring IFIs in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Fungi, such as Candida spp. and Aspergillus spp., may cause severe diseases during the course of an HIV infection. Following the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy, there has been a marked reduction of opportunistic fungal infections, which today is 20-25 % of the number of infections observed in the mid-1990s. This study is an observational and retrospective study aimed at the characterising IFI incidence and describing the epidemiology, clinical diagnostic and therapeutic features and denouement in HIV/AIDS patients. In HIV/AIDS patients, the IFI incidence is 54.3/1,000 hospitalisation/year, with a lethality of 37.7 %. Cryptococcosis represents the main opportunistic IFI in the population, followed by histoplasmosis. Nosocomial pathogenic yeast infections are caused principally by Candida spp., with a higher candidemia incidence at our institution compared to other Brazilian centres.

  7. Influence of the greenhouse effect on human health through stratospheric cooling: Possible increase in acquired immunodeficient syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Okamoto, Kazuto; Tsushima, Hiroshi; Tanimoto, Shin

    1996-09-01

    The greenhouse effect cools the stratosphere and increases formation of PSC (polar stratospheric cloud) in polar regions and enhances ozone depletion. If the enhanced ozone depletion diffused to lower latitudes, it could increase ultraviolet radiation (UV), which might increase acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Epidemiological studies are made to test this hypothesis. The relation between AIDS prevalence R and latitude {theta}. Comparison of analyses shows that R of Caucasians would be higher than Non-Caucasians at the same {theta}. These trends are similar to those of skin cancers known to be caused by UV. In developing countries poverty, malnutrition, etc., could cause high R, and since most developing countries are located at low {theta}, the low {theta} increase may be due to these factors. However if so in Africa they are about the same and the low {theta} increase would disappear, but data on African countries also show the low {theta} increase and the significant correlation. Some countries at low {theta} have low R, probably because HIV is not prevalent for them. Then the upper envelope of the distribution of R would be cases when HIV is prevalent and UV is most effective. Therefore analyses are repeated using maxima of R within intervals of {theta} of 1, 3 and 5{degree}. In all cases the low {theta} increase and the correlation becomes more significant. These results support the hypothesis that AIDS is promoted by UV.

  8. Severe anemia is an important negative predictor for survival with disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sathe, S S; Gascon, P; Lo, W; Pinto, R; Reichman, L B; Gascone, P

    1990-12-01

    Disseminated Mycobacterium avium-intracellulare (MAI) in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is usually unresponsive to antimycobacterial therapy. We examined clinical and laboratory characteristics of MAI organisms and their relationship to the length of survival. We studied factors influencing survival and compared these in 76 patients with AIDS with and without MAI. Serum levels of p24 antigen and erythropoietin, and CD4-positive helper T-lymphocytes in blood were assessed in 36 additional patients with various clinical stages of HIV infection. In patients with MAI infection, survival was significantly related only to total lymphocyte count, hematocrit, platelet count, and sex. Of these, hematocrit and total lymphocyte count were the only linear predictors of survival. Anemia was significantly more profound in patients with AIDS and MAI than in the other patients. This anemia in patients with MAI could not be ascribed to increased peripheral destruction of red cells, deficient nutritional factors, or erythropoietin production, HIV viral or bacterial load, or a general effect on other blood elements such as neutrophils or platelets. The influence of MAI on survival in patients with AIDS did depend upon whether the MAI occurred as an index infection or was preceded by other opportunistic infections. Patients with other preceding opportunistic infection lived for a much shorter duration from the time of diagnosis of MAI.

  9. Endemic cryptosporidiosis and exposure to municipal tap water in persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Aragón, Tomás J; Novotny, Suzanne; Enanoria, Wayne; Vugia, Duc J; Khalakdina, Asheena; Katz, Mitchell H

    2003-01-06

    In persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), Cryptosporidium parvum causes a prolonged, severe diarrheal illness to which there is no effective treatment, and the risk of developing cryptosporidiosis from drinking tap water in non-outbreak settings remains uncertain. To test the hypothesis that drinking tap water was associated with developing cryptosporidiosis, we conducted a matched case-control study among persons with AIDS in San Francisco. Among patients reported to the San Francisco AIDS Registry from May 1996 through September 1998, we compared patients who developed cryptosporidiosis to those who did not. Cases were individually matched to controls based on age, sex, race/ethnicity, CD4+ T lymphocyte count, date of CD4+ count, and date of case diagnosis. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. The study consisted of 49 cases and 99 matched controls. In the multivariable analysis with adjustments for confounders, tap water consumption inside and outside the home at the highest exposure categories was associated with the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis (inside the home: odds ratio (OR), 6.76; 95% CI 1.37-33.5, and outside the home: OR 3.16; 95% CI 1.23-8.13). The PAF was 85%; that is, the proportion of cases of cryptosporidiosis in San Francisco AIDS patients attributable to tap water consumption could have been as high as 85%. Although the results from this observational study cannot be considered definitive, until there is more data, we recommend persons with AIDS, especially those with compromised immune systems, consider avoiding tap water.

  10. High rate of mutation K103N causing resistance to nevirapine in Indian children with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sehgal, S; Pasricha, N; Singh, S

    2008-01-01

    In north India the number of paediatric cases with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is on the rise. Most drug combinations used for treatment of AIDS incorporate nevirapine, resistance to which develops very fast if given singly or because of unplanned interruptions. This paper investigates presence of mutations at codon 103 and codon 215 of the HIV pol gene causing resistance to nevirapine and zidovudine (AZT) respectively in 25 children with AIDS. Mutations T215Y and K103N were detected by a nested cum amplification refractory mutation system polymerase chain reaction (ARMS PCR) and the results were confirmed by direct sequencing in five randomly selected cases. Nineteen patients had received nevirapine containing regimen and six were drug naive. Mutation K103N was observed in 56% (14/25) of the children while mutation T215Y was found in none. Two of the six drug naïve children also showed K103N mutation. Thus, Indian children drug naïve or treated with nevirapine containing regimens show a high rate of mutation conferring resistance to nevirapine which calls for a judicious use of nevirapine both in antenatal and postnatal setting.

  11. Demonstration of defective C3-receptor-mediated clearance by the reticuloendothelial system in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Bender, B S; Bohnsack, J F; Sourlis, S H; Frank, M M; Quinn, T C

    1987-01-01

    The function of macrophage C3 receptors was assessed in vivo by measuring the clearance of C3-sensitized autologous erythrocytes in seven acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients, eight healthy homosexual men, eight healthy heterosexual men, and four infected controls. Healthy heterosexual men had an initial clearance of 50.1 +/- 2.0% of the inoculum, with a release of a small portion of these cells (10.9 +/- 1.3%) into the circulation. Healthy homosexual men had a greater initial clearance of 66.0 +/- 4.2% (P less than 0.01) followed by a similar release (14.0 +/- 3.3%). AIDS patients had an initial clearance of 60.6 +/- 7.5% but had a relatively large release of cells (25.6 +/- 3.2%) (P less than 0.005 vs. heterosexuals; P less than 0.05 vs. homosexuals), suggesting a failure of macrophage phagocytosis. Infected controls had an initial clearance of 59.4 +/- 4.9%, with a release of 19.6 +/- 3.8% (P = NS vs. AIDS). These data, in addition to Fc-receptor dysfunction, demonstrate a global reticuloendothelial system dysfunction in AIDS patients. This may contribute to their frequent infections with opportunistic pathogens and inappropriate immune responses against these microorganisms. Images PMID:3546375

  12. Progressive outer retinal necrosis caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kashiwase, M; Sata, T; Yamauchi, Y; Minoda, H; Usui, N; Iwasaki, T; Kurata, T; Usui, M

    2000-04-01

    To identify the etiologic agent of rapidly progressive outer retinal necrosis (PORN) in a 32-year-old man with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), who had retinitis developed from cytomegalovirus (CMV). Multiple yellowish spots appeared in the deep retina without evidence of intraocular inflammation or retinal vasculitis, diagnosed clinically as PORN. Death occurred after failure of multiple organs. Case report. Both globes were taken at autopsy, fixed in formalin, and examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically to identify causative agents in the retinal lesions. Immunohistochemistry. All layers of the retina were severely damaged and contained focal calcification. Cytomegalic inclusion bodies were found in cells in the damaged retina of the right eye. Immunohistochemical studies for herpesviruses revealed the presence of CMV antigens in the right retina at the posterior pole and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1)-specific antigen in the periphery of both retinas. No varicella-zoster virus (VZV) antigen was detected in either retina. PORN has been described as a variant of necrotizing herpetic retinopathy, occurring particularly in patients with AIDS. Although the etiologic agent has been reported to be VZV, HSV-1 can be an etiologic agent.

  13. Addiction and sexually transmitted disease (STD), human immunodeficiency virus, (HIV), and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS): their mutual interactions.

    PubMed

    Adrian, Manuella

    2006-01-01

    We explore the links between substance use, misuse, addiction, and dependency1 and sexuality, sexually transmitted diseases (STD), human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) to increase our awareness of their interdependence and to identify new ways to perceive, judge, and intervene (or not to) with associated problems. We consider the sociocultural and economic context in which these behaviors occur; the impact these behaviors have on one another; the personal opinions and attitudes; the religious, moral, or political beliefs and agendas; the physiological and fiscal constraints; and theories of rational decision-making and psychological motivation that act to increase or reduce the incidence of these behaviors and their sequellae, while hindering or facilitating prevention, harm reduction, and treatment interventions. Mechanisms of epidemic spread of STDS/HIV/AIDS are presented in the Appendix. Each of these terms are loaded "container concepts" that are culture-bound and stakeholder-driven and whose dimensions are less than consensus-based. They represent a range of meanings, uses, and misuses in an ongoing politicalized area of human and systemic functioning and adaptations.

  14. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and the Americans with Disabilities Act: a legal duty to treat.

    PubMed

    Halevy, A; Brody, B

    1994-03-01

    The emergence of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) as a serious public health threat has rekindled long dormant debate about individual physicians' duty to treat potentially contagious patients. Because of the widely accepted common-law tenet of the "no duty [to treat] rule," previous work on a duty to treat focused on historical reviews, medical society position statements, and the ethical arguments upon which the statements are based. The passage of the Americans with Disabilities Act has rendered these discussions moot by creating, through federal civil rights mechanisms, a legal duty to treat patients with HIV, enforceable under considerable penalties. The paper also concludes that there has been inadequate attention paid to similar civil rights concerns of infected physicians.

  15. Retinal vessel caliber among people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: relationships with visual function.

    PubMed

    Kalyani, Partho S; Fawzi, Amani A; Gangaputra, Sapna; van Natta, Mark L; Hubbard, Larry D; Danis, Ronald P; Thorne, Jennifer E; Holland, Gary N

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate relationships between retinal vessel caliber and tests of visual function among people with AIDS. Longitudinal, observational cohort study. We evaluated data for participants without ocular opportunistic infections at initial examination (baseline) in the Longitudinal Studies of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (1998-2008). Visual function was evaluated with best-corrected visual acuity, Goldmann perimetry, automated perimetry (Humphrey Field Analyzer), and contrast sensitivity (CS) testing. Semi-automated grading of fundus photographs (1 eye/participant) determined central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE), central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE), and arteriole-to-venule ratio (AVR) at baseline. Multiple linear regression models, using forward selection, sought independent relationships between indices and visual function variables. Included were 1250 participants. Smaller AVR was associated with reduced visual field by Goldmann perimetry (P = .003) and worse mean deviation (P = .02) on automated perimetry and possibly with worse pattern standard deviation (PSD) on automated perimetry (P = .06). There was a weak association between smaller AVR and worse CS (P = .07). Relationships were independent of antiretroviral therapy and level of immunodeficiency (CD4+ T lymphocyte count, human immunodeficiency virus [HIV] RNA blood level). On longitudinal analysis, retinal vascular indices at baseline did not predict changes in visual function. Variation in retinal vascular indices is associated with abnormal visual function in people with AIDS, manifested by visual field loss and possibly by reduced CS. Relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that HIV-related retinal vasculopathy is a contributing factor to vision dysfunction among HIV-infected individuals. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether changes in indices predict change in visual function. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type in human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome patients: A cross-sectional investigation in Xinjiang, China.

    PubMed

    Peierdun, Mi-ji-ti; Liu, Wen-xian; Renaguli, Ai-ze-zi; Nurmuhammat, Amat; Li, Xiao-chun; Gulibaier, Ka-ha-er; Ainivaer, Wu-la-mu; Halmurat, Upur

    2015-12-01

    To investigate the distribution of abnormal hilit syndromes in traditional Uighur medicine (TUM) among human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients, and to find out the clinical characteristics of abnormal savda syndrome type HIV/AIDS patients. Between June and July in 2012, 307 eligible HIV/AIDS patients from in-patient department and out-patient clinics of Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region the Sixth People's Hospital in Urumqi were investigated. TUM syndrome differentiation was performed by a senior TUM physician. Each participant completed a Sign and Symptom Check-List for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS (SSC-HIV) questionnaire. Depression was evaluated by using Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression Questionnaire. Blood specimen was collected from each participant to test the levels of blood chemicals. Of 307 HIV/AIDS patients, 189 (61.6%) were abnormal savda syndrome type, 118 (38.4%) were non-abnormal-savda syndrome type. Mean CD4 counts of abnormal savda syndrome type patients was (227.61±192.93) cells/µL, and the prevalence of anemia, thrombocytopenia, and elevated cystatin C were 49.7%, 28.6%, and 44.7%, which were significantly higher than those in the non-abnormal-savda syndrome type patients (26.3%, 16.0% and 25.0%,P<0.05). In addition, depression (79.9%) and HIV/AIDS-related symptoms such as fatigue (42.3%), back aches (40.7%), lack of appetite (33.9%), night sweats (31.7%) were more common among abnormal savda syndrome patients (P<0.05). Abnormal savda syndrome is the dominant syndrome among HIV/AIDS patients, and they present a more sever clinical manifestation.

  17. Successful recovery of MERS CoV pneumonia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shalhoub, Sarah; AlZahrani, Abdulwahab; Simhairi, Raed; Mushtaq, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS CoV) may cause severe pneumonia with significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with multiple comorbid condition. MERS CoV pneumonia has not been previously reported in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Herein, we report a case of MERS CoV pneumonia with a successful outcome in a patient recently diagnosed with HIV.

  18. [Non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with perianal localization in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report].

    PubMed

    Bianchi, C; Scamuzzi, C; Mattioli, F P

    1996-01-01

    Non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) in a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected person is an AIDS-defining condition. The clinical presentation of this neoplasm is characterized by frequent involvement of extranodal sites, and it is primarily of intermediate or high grade B-cell origin, with poor prognosis for aggressive nature of the malignancy with and early recurrence. Perianal localization of the NHL imposes a differential diagnosis with anorectal suppurative disease including abscesses, fissures or fistulae. The modern techniques of imaging (TC scan and MNR) and fine needle biopsy are very useful for diagnostic accuracy. Surgical therapy is frequently useful only for obstructive complications on urinary or gastro-intestinal tract, and the medical treatment with chemotherapeutic drugs remains the best therapeutic choice, even if the same chemotherapy can make prognosis worse for the additional immunosuppressive effects of drugs with possible onset of opportunistic infections. The authors describe a case of NHL in HIV-infected man showing how the simile-abscess findings of the neoplasm in the perianal localization can determine a delay in the final diagnosis, obtained with fine-needle biopsy and histological and immunocytochemical examination, treated with temporary percutaneous nephrostomy and standard chemotherapy regimen.

  19. Disseminated cryptococcosis and fluconazole resistant oral candidiasis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Kothavade, Rajendra J; Oberai, Chetan M; Valand, Arvind G; Panthaki, Mehroo H

    2010-10-28

    Disseminated cryptococcosis and recurrent oral candidiasis was presented in a-heterosexual AIDS patient. Candida tropicalis (C.tropicalis) was isolated from the oral pseudomembranous plaques and Cryptococcus neoformans (C. neoformans) was isolated from maculopapular lesions on body parts (face, hands and chest) and body fluids (urine, expectorated sputum, and cerebrospinal fluid). In vitro drug susceptibility testing on the yeast isolates demonstrated resistance to fluconazole acquired by C. tropicalis which was a suggestive possible root cause of recurrent oral candidiasis in this patient.

  20. Pneumocystis colonization, airway inflammation, and pulmonary function decline in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Norris, Karen A; Morris, Alison; Patil, Sangita; Fernandes, Eustace

    2006-01-01

    As a result of improved diagnosis, treatment, and supportive care for HIV-infected patients, AIDS in developed countries has now become a chronic infection with prolonged survival time, but longterm complications are increasing contributors to morbidity and mortality. HIV-infected patients are at increased risk for the development of pulmonary complications, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, the mechanisms associated with this increased susceptibility have not been defined. Infectious agents may contribute to the development of COPD by upregulating inflammatory mediators in the lung that act in concert with cigarette smoke to promote lung pathology. Studies in human subjects and non-human primate models of AIDS suggest that the inflammatory response to asymptomatic carriage or colonization by the opportunistic pathogen, Pneumocystis sp. (Pc), is similar to that of COPD, which is characterized by influx of CD8+ T cells, neutrophils, and macrophages into the lungs. We have shown a high frequency of Pc colonization among asymptomatic HIV-infected subjects and in non-HIV infected subjects with COPD. To investigate the role of Pc in the progression of obstructive lung disease in HIV infections, we developed a non-human primate model of Pc colonizatoin and infection in simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected macaques. These animals develop a prolonged colonization state characterized by a persistent influx of CD8+ T cells and neutrophils, and local increases in IL-8, IFN-gamma, and TNF-alpha. SIV-infected Pc-colonized monkeys show progressive decline in pulmonary function compared to SIV-infected monkeys. We hypothesize that in the context of AIDS-immune dysfunction, Pc colonization induces inflammatory responses leading to changes in pulmonary function and architecture similar to that seen in emphysema. Information gained from these studies will lead to the development of interventions to prevent lung injury associated with Pc

  1. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and use of healthcare services among rural migrants: a cross-sectional study in China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Cochran, Christopher; Xu, Peng; Shen, Jay J; Zeng, Gang; Xu, Yanjun; Sun, Mei; Li, Chengyue; Li, Xiaohong; Chang, Fengshui; Lu, Jun; Hao, Mo; Lu, Fan

    2014-02-13

    Today's rapid growth of migrant populations has been a major contributor to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, relatively few studies have focused on HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among rural-to-urban migrants in China. This cross-sectional study was to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perceptions, including knowledge about reducing high-risk sex. Two-phase stratified cluster sampling was applied and 2,753 rural migrants participated in this study. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Guangdong and Sichuan provinces in 2007. Descriptive analysis was used to present the essential characteristics of the respondents. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models were performed to examine the associations between identified demographic factors and high-risk sex, sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms, and access to HIV screening services among the seven types of workers. 58.6% of participants were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS transmission, but approximately 90% had a negative attitude towards the AIDS patients, and that 6.2% had engaged in high-risk sex in the past 12 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed sex, marital status, income, migration and work experience to be associated with high-risk sex. Among the 13.9% of workers who reported having STD symptoms, risk factors that were identified included female gender, high monthly income, being married, daily laborer or entertainment worker, frequent migration, and length of work experience. Only 3% of migrant workers received voluntary free HIV screening, which was positively associated with monthly income and workplace. HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practices among rural migrants in China remain a thorny health issue, and use of healthcare services needs to be improved. Low levels of education and knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS among housekeepers and migrant day laborers result in

  2. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus knowledge, attitudes, and practices, and use of healthcare services among rural migrants: a cross-sectional study in China

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Today’s rapid growth of migrant populations has been a major contributor to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) epidemic. However, relatively few studies have focused on HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related knowledge, attitudes, and practice among rural-to-urban migrants in China. This cross-sectional study was to assess HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and perceptions, including knowledge about reducing high-risk sex. Methods Two-phase stratified cluster sampling was applied and 2,753 rural migrants participated in this study. An anonymous self-administered questionnaire was conducted in Guangdong and Sichuan provinces in 2007. Descriptive analysis was used to present the essential characteristics of the respondents. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression models were performed to examine the associations between identified demographic factors and high-risk sex, sexually transmitted disease (STD) symptoms, and access to HIV screening services among the seven types of workers. Results 58.6% of participants were knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS transmission, but approximately 90% had a negative attitude towards the AIDS patients, and that 6.2% had engaged in high-risk sex in the past 12 months. Logistic regression analysis revealed sex, marital status, income, migration and work experience to be associated with high-risk sex. Among the 13.9% of workers who reported having STD symptoms, risk factors that were identified included female gender, high monthly income, being married, daily laborer or entertainment worker, frequent migration, and length of work experience. Only 3% of migrant workers received voluntary free HIV screening, which was positively associated with monthly income and workplace. Conclusions HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and practices among rural migrants in China remain a thorny health issue, and use of healthcare services needs to be improved. Low levels of education and knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS among

  3. Do Students Eventually Get to Publish their Research Findings? The Case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research in Cameroon.

    PubMed

    Munung, Ns; Vidal, L; Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer, O

    2014-05-01

    Scientific publication is commonly used to communicate research findings and in most academic/research settings, to evaluate the potential of a researcher and for recruitment and promotion. It has also been said that researchers have the duty to make public, the findings of their research. As a result, researchers are encouraged to share their research findings with the scientific world through peer review publications. In this study, we looked at the characteristics and publication rate of theses that documented studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Cameroon. TO CHECK IF A THESIS RESULTED IN A PUBLICATION, WE SEARCHED: A database of publications on HIV in Cameroon, African Journals Online, PubMed and Google scholar. For each publication we recorded if the student was an author, the position of the student in the author listing, the journal and where the journal was indexed. We also looked at the impact factor of the journals. One hundred and thirty theses/dissertations were included in the study, 74.6% (97/130) were written as part of a medical degree (MD), 23.8% (31/130) a postgraduate (PG) degree and 1.5% (2/130) for a Doctorate/PhD. On a whole, 13.9% (18/130) of the theses resulted in at least one publication in a scientific journal with a total of 22 journal articles, giving a mean publication rate of 0.17 article/thesis, 86.4% (11/22) were indexed on PubMed, 9.1% (2/22) on African Journals Online and 4.6% (1/22) on Google scholar. One PG thesis led to two book chapters. The student was the first author in 22.7% (5/22) of the articles and not an author in 9.1% (2/22) of the articles. Student supervisor was an author in all the articles. This study reveals that most students in Cameroon failed to transform their theses/dissertations to scientific publications. This indicates an urgent need to sensitize students on the importance of presenting their research findings in scientific meetings and peer reviewed journals

  4. Do Students Eventually Get to Publish their Research Findings? The Case of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Research in Cameroon

    PubMed Central

    Munung, NS; Vidal, L; Ouwe-Missi-Oukem-Boyer, O

    2014-01-01

    Background: Scientific publication is commonly used to communicate research findings and in most academic/research settings, to evaluate the potential of a researcher and for recruitment and promotion. It has also been said that researchers have the duty to make public, the findings of their research. As a result, researchers are encouraged to share their research findings with the scientific world through peer review publications. In this study, we looked at the characteristics and publication rate of theses that documented studies on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Cameroon. Materials and Methods: To check if a thesis resulted in a publication, we searched: A database of publications on HIV in Cameroon, African Journals Online, PubMed and Google scholar. For each publication we recorded if the student was an author, the position of the student in the author listing, the journal and where the journal was indexed. We also looked at the impact factor of the journals. Results: One hundred and thirty theses/dissertations were included in the study, 74.6% (97/130) were written as part of a medical degree (MD), 23.8% (31/130) a postgraduate (PG) degree and 1.5% (2/130) for a Doctorate/PhD. On a whole, 13.9% (18/130) of the theses resulted in at least one publication in a scientific journal with a total of 22 journal articles, giving a mean publication rate of 0.17 article/thesis, 86.4% (11/22) were indexed on PubMed, 9.1% (2/22) on African Journals Online and 4.6% (1/22) on Google scholar. One PG thesis led to two book chapters. The student was the first author in 22.7% (5/22) of the articles and not an author in 9.1% (2/22) of the articles. Student supervisor was an author in all the articles. Conclusion: This study reveals that most students in Cameroon failed to transform their theses/dissertations to scientific publications. This indicates an urgent need to sensitize students on the importance of presenting their research

  5. Pediatric renal cryptococcosis: novel manifestations in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome era.

    PubMed

    Ramdial, Pratistadevi K; Sing, Yetish; Deonarain, Julian; Bhimma, Rajendra; Chotey, Nivesh; Sewram, Vikash

    2011-06-01

    Pediatric cryptococcosis has been documented in various organs, but pediatric renal cryptococcosis (RC) remains undocumented to date. The authors report RC in 2 children with AIDS, 7 and 9 years of age, with proteinuria. Both patients, on antiretroviral therapy (ARV) for 28 (patient 1) and 54 (patient 2) weeks each, had secured viral immunosuppression, but immune restoration was realized by patient 1 only. Cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) was diagnosed on the renal biopsy from patient 1 based on the clinicopathological profile and the presence of segmental glomerular and an interstitial lymphoplasmacytic and granulomatous reaction to Cryptococcus neoformans, with a predominance of capsule-deficient fungal forms. The renal biopsy from patient 2 demonstrated typical HIV-associated nephropathy with focal intratubular and interstitial C neoformans yeasts. Pediatric AIDS-associated renal disease must be expanded to include RC and cryptococcal IRIS, and the kidney must be included as a potential sentinel site of IRIS.

  6. Intestinal microsporidiosis in a Chilean patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Oddó, D; Chuaqui, R; Hoffmann, E; Garcia, M

    1993-03-01

    A 24-year-old male patient with AIDS diagnosed in 1989, and with several episodes of pneumocystosis, was admitted because of a chronic diarrheic syndrome and severe epigastric pain. Endoscopy showed a granular duodenal mucosa. Light microscopy showed a moderate villous atrophy with round-cell inflammatory infiltration of the chorion. Giemsa, Ziehl-Neelsen, and Gram stains showed microsporidial spores measuring between 1.5 and 2 microns in the supranuclear cytoplasm of some enterocytes. Electron microscopy showed sporoblasts and spores consistent with Enterocytozoon bieneusi, with an apparently non-tubular, rather electron-dense polar filament showing up to 7 coils and also a microtubular internal structure with annular disposition, a finding which has not been adequately emphasized in the pertinent literature, probably representing a contractile property of the polar filament, rather than a mere duct for the parasitic sporoplasm to be inoculated.

  7. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients also provides unifying pathophysiologic hypotheses for Holmes tremor.

    PubMed

    Lekoubou, Alain; Njouoguep, Rodrigue; Kuate, Callixte; Kengne, André Pascal

    2010-06-03

    Holmes tremor is a rare symptomatic movement disorder. Currently suggested pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease are mostly derived from stroke cases. Although rare, cerebral toxoplasmosis may strengthen the pathophysiologic mechanism of disease. A case of Holmes tremor secondary to cerebral toxoplasmosis in an AIDS patient is presented. A relevant literature search was performed, using pubmed and several entries for Holmes tremor as labelled in the literature. The unifying feature of our case and those of the literature is the involvement of either the cerebello-thalamo-cortical and/or the dentato-rubro-olivary pathways. The abscess or the extension of surrounding edema beyond these two circuits may account for the superimposed dysfunction of the nigrostriatal system in some but not all cases. The short delay observed in our observation and the dramatic response to treatment may indirectly support the secondary neuronal degeneration theory in the mechanism of Holmes tremor. Cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients also provide arguments for the role of the thalamo-cortical and/or the dentato-rubro-olivary pathways dysfunction in the pathogenesis of Holmes tremor. Involvement of the nigro-striatal pathway may not be crucial in the development of this syndrome. Our case also brings additional indirect arguments for the role of secondary neuronal degeneration in the mechanism of Holmes tremor.

  8. Cerebral toxoplasmosis in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients also provides unifying pathophysiologic hypotheses for Holmes tremor

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Holmes tremor is a rare symptomatic movement disorder. Currently suggested pathophysiological mechanisms of the disease are mostly derived from stroke cases. Although rare, cerebral toxoplasmosis may strengthen the pathophysiologic mechanism of disease. Case presentation A case of Holmes tremor secondary to cerebral toxoplasmosis in an AIDS patient is presented. A relevant literature search was performed, using pubmed and several entries for Holmes tremor as labelled in the literature. The unifying feature of our case and those of the literature is the involvement of either the cerebello-thalamo-cortical and/or the dentato-rubro-olivary pathways. The abscess or the extension of surrounding edema beyond these two circuits may account for the superimposed dysfunction of the nigrostriatal system in some but not all cases. The short delay observed in our observation and the dramatic response to treatment may indirectly support the secondary neuronal degeneration theory in the mechanism of Holmes tremor. Conclusion Cases of cerebral toxoplasmosis in AIDS patients also provide arguments for the role of the thalamo-cortical and/or the dentato-rubro-olivary pathways dysfunction in the pathogenesis of Holmes tremor. Involvement of the nigro-striatal pathway may not be crucial in the development of this syndrome. Our case also brings additional indirect arguments for the role of secondary neuronal degeneration in the mechanism of Holmes tremor. PMID:20525304

  9. Traditional Chinese medicine etiology and pathogenesis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome in simian immunodeficiency virus-infected Chinese rhesus macaques.

    PubMed

    Li, Maoqing; Fu, Linchun; Hu, Yinjie; Zhang, Miaomiao; He, Jinyang; Chen, Zhixi; Chen, Jinyan

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) etiology and pathogenesis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) by 18-month observation of Chinese rhesus macaques infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) mac239. Thirty-five healthy Chinese rhesus macaques were divided into a model group (n = 30) and a control group (n = 5). The model was established by inoculating monkeys intravenously with SIVmac239. Changes in TCM symptoms after SIV infection within 18 months were then observed and recorded. Routine blood tests, SIV viral load, T-lymphocyte subsets, plasma triiodothyronine (T3), tetraiodothyronine (T4), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and cortisol (Cor) were tested periodically during the experiment. During the acute infection period of SIV, model monkeys temporarily showed clinical symptoms such as diarrhea, dysphoria and slight weight loss. Decrease percentages of CD4+ T-lymphocytes were observed but levels of T3, T4, Cor, and ACTH were relatively unchanged. Monkeys in the model group during the early and middle periods of infection showed no obvious symptoms, except few monkeys exhibited transient diarrhea and reduced food intake. All variables at this stage showed normal fluctuations. In the middle period model group monkeys showed chronic and persistent diarrhea, weight loss, reduced food intake and low levels of T3 and Cor. In the late period, symptoms including emaciation, weight loss, listlessness, crouching in corners and low levels of T3 appeared. The results suggest that the rhesus monkey SIV/SAIDS model can be applied to research on TCM etiology and pathogenesis of AIDS. According to this model, the etiology of disease is the SIV virus. The pathogenesis manifests as the invasion of SIV virus, incubation of the virus, balance between virus and healthy "Qi", damage to spleen and kidney as the disease progressed, exhaustion of vitality and finally the failure of five zang and six fu organs.

  10. A Clinical Study of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Associated Penicillium Marneffei Infection from a Non-Endemic Area in China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Jinding; Gui, Xien; Cao, Qian; Yang, Rongrong; Yan, Yajun; Deng, Liping; Lio, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of penicilliosis among the patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in non-endemic areas of China, and then to discuss its incubation period and the diagnostic performance of serum galactomannan test for penicilliosis. Methods Medical records and travel histories of penicilliosis patients in Zhongnan hospital from January 2006 to December 2013, and the interval from when the patients left the endemic area to the onset of the disease was analyzed. Serum galactomannan levels of penicilliosis patients and AIDS patients with fever were measured by the Platelia Aspergillus Enzyme Immunoassay Kit. Results A total of 47 AIDS-associated penicilliosis were confirmed by fungal culture, which accounted for 4.8% of 981 AIDS-related admissions. The sensitivity and specificity of serum galactomannan test for penicilliosis were 95.8% (23/24) and 90.9% (30/33), respectively, (cutoff index = 1.0). Two independent predictors for early mortality (death within 12 weeks) of the patients (21.3%, 10/47) were a delayed diagnosis and no treatment with antifungal therapy. Among 14 patients who became ill after leaving endemic areas, ten patients presented with the onset symptoms within 12 months (from 11 days to 360 days). We found a patient living with asymptomatic P. marneffei fungemia who had not received any antifungal therapy until 18 months’ follow up. Conclusions The co-infection of P. marneffei and HIV was not uncommon in the non-endemic areas of penicilliosis in China. There exists a latent form of infection for P. marneffei. The incubation period of penicilliosis may be quite different from one patient to another. In AIDS patients, the serum galactomannan test has utility for the diagnosis of penicilliosis. When patients with penicilliosis/AIDS were diagnosed early and treated with standardized antifungal therapy and combined antiretroviral therapy, their prognosis improved

  11. A Clinical Study of Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome Associated Penicillium Marneffei Infection from a Non-Endemic Area in China.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jinding; Gui, Xien; Cao, Qian; Yang, Rongrong; Yan, Yajun; Deng, Liping; Lio, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of penicilliosis among the patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in non-endemic areas of China, and then to discuss its incubation period and the diagnostic performance of serum galactomannan test for penicilliosis. Medical records and travel histories of penicilliosis patients in Zhongnan hospital from January 2006 to December 2013, and the interval from when the patients left the endemic area to the onset of the disease was analyzed. Serum galactomannan levels of penicilliosis patients and AIDS patients with fever were measured by the Platelia Aspergillus Enzyme Immunoassay Kit. A total of 47 AIDS-associated penicilliosis were confirmed by fungal culture, which accounted for 4.8% of 981 AIDS-related admissions. The sensitivity and specificity of serum galactomannan test for penicilliosis were 95.8% (23/24) and 90.9% (30/33), respectively, (cutoff index = 1.0). Two independent predictors for early mortality (death within 12 weeks) of the patients (21.3%, 10/47) were a delayed diagnosis and no treatment with antifungal therapy. Among 14 patients who became ill after leaving endemic areas, ten patients presented with the onset symptoms within 12 months (from 11 days to 360 days). We found a patient living with asymptomatic P. marneffei fungemia who had not received any antifungal therapy until 18 months' follow up. The co-infection of P. marneffei and HIV was not uncommon in the non-endemic areas of penicilliosis in China. There exists a latent form of infection for P. marneffei. The incubation period of penicilliosis may be quite different from one patient to another. In AIDS patients, the serum galactomannan test has utility for the diagnosis of penicilliosis. When patients with penicilliosis/AIDS were diagnosed early and treated with standardized antifungal therapy and combined antiretroviral therapy, their prognosis improved.

  12. Epidemiology of non-keratinocytic skin cancers among persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Lanoy, Emilie; Dores, Graça M.; Madeleine, Margaret M.; Toro, Jorge R.; Fraumeni, Joseph F.; Engels, Eric A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective Immunosuppression may increase risk for some skin cancers. We evaluated skin cancer epidemiology among persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Design We linked data from population-based U.S. AIDS and cancer registries to evaluate risk of non-keratinocytic skin cancers (melanoma, Merkel cell carcinoma, and appendageal carcinomas, including sebaceous carcinoma) in 497,142 persons with AIDS. Methods Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were calculated to relate skin cancer risk to that in the general population. We used logistic regression to compare risk according to demographic factors, CD4 count, and a geographic index of ultraviolet radiation exposure. Results From 60 months before to 60 months after AIDS onset, persons with AIDS had elevated risks of melanoma (SIR=1.3, 95%CI 1.1-1.4, n=292 cases) and, more strongly, of Merkel cell carcinoma (SIR=11, 95%CI 6.3-17, n=17) and sebaceous carcinoma (SIR=8.1, 95%CI 3.2-17, n=7). Risk for appendageal carcinomas increased with progressive time relative to AIDS onset (p-trend=0.03). Risk of these skin cancers was higher in non-Hispanic whites than other racial/ethnic groups, and melanoma risk was highest among men who have sex with men. Melanoma risk was unrelated to CD4 count at AIDS onset (p=0.32). Risks for melanoma and appendageal carcinomas rose with increasing ultraviolet radiation exposure (p-trend<10-4 and p-trend=10-3, respectively). Conclusions Among persons with AIDS, there is a modest excess risk of melanoma which is not strongly related to immunosuppression and may relate to ultraviolet radiation exposure. In contrast, the greatly increased risks for Merkel cell and sebaceous carcinoma suggest an etiologic role for immunosuppression. PMID:19114864

  13. Endemic cryptosporidiosis and exposure to municipal tap water in persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS): A case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Aragón, Tomás J; Novotny, Suzanne; Enanoria, Wayne; Vugia, Duc J; Khalakdina, Asheena; Katz, Mitchell H

    2003-01-01

    Background In persons with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), Cryptosporidium parvum causes a prolonged, severe diarrheal illness to which there is no effective treatment, and the risk of developing cryptosporidiosis from drinking tap water in non-outbreak settings remains uncertain. To test the hypothesis that drinking tap water was associated with developing cryptosporidiosis, we conducted a matched case-control study among persons with AIDS in San Francisco. Methods Among patients reported to the San Francisco AIDS Registry from May 1996 through September 1998, we compared patients who developed cryptosporidiosis to those who did not. Cases were individually matched to controls based on age, sex, race/ethnicity, CD4+ T lymphocyte count, date of CD4+ count, and date of case diagnosis. Population attributable fractions (PAFs) were calculated. Results The study consisted of 49 cases and 99 matched controls. In the multivariable analysis with adjustments for confounders, tap water consumption inside and outside the home at the highest exposure categories was associated with the occurrence of cryptosporidiosis (inside the home: odds ratio (OR), 6.76; 95% CI 1.37–33.5, and outside the home: OR 3.16; 95% CI 1.23–8.13). The PAF was 85%; that is, the proportion of cases of cryptosporidiosis in San Francisco AIDS patients attributable to tap water consumption could have been as high as 85%. Conclusions Although the results from this observational study cannot be considered definitive, until there is more data, we recommend persons with AIDS, especially those with compromised immune systems, consider avoiding tap water. PMID:12515584

  14. Measures to decrease the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome transmission by blood transfusion. Evidence of volunteer blood donor cooperation.

    PubMed

    Pindyck, J; Waldman, A; Zang, E; Oleszko, W; Lowy, M; Bianco, C

    1985-01-01

    We studied whether volunteers giving blood to the Greater New York Blood Program (GNYBP) cooperated with procedures implementing public health recommendations intended to decrease the risk of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) transmission by blood transfusion. Predonation medical screening was expanded to exclude donors who might be ill with AIDS. To exclude possible asymptomatic carriers of the disease, members of groups at increased risk of AIDS were asked either not to give blood or to give it for laboratory studies. A confidential questionnaire, administered to all donors after medical screening, provided the vehicle for donors to advise the GNYBP whether their donation was for laboratory studies or for patient transfusion. We found that the number of male donors decreased; AIDS-related questions in medical history led to a 2 percent increase in donor rejections; 97 percent of donors said their blood could be used for transfusions; 1.4 percent said their blood could be used for laboratory studies only; and 1.6 percent did not respond. Only units designated for transfusion were released to hospitals. People who indicated that their donation was for laboratory studies had a higher prevalence of markers for hepatitis B virus and of antibodies to cytomegalovirus. White cell counts and helper/suppressor T lymphocyte ratios were not significantly different in the two groups. We conclude that volunteer donors have cooperated with the established procedures. None of the laboratory assays identified blood units donated by individuals who, based on information about AIDS high-risk groups, designated their donation for laboratory studies.

  15. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome — an assessment of the present situation in the world: Memorandum from a WHO Meeting*

    PubMed Central

    1984-01-01

    A consultative meeting was convened by the World Health Organization in Geneva on 22-25 November 1983 to assess the present situation of AIDS (the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome) in the world and to encourage collaboration between the different nations affected by this disease. AIDS was first reported in the USA in 1981, but probably existed there as early as 1978. Soon after its recognition in the USA, similar cases were identified in other areas of the world. In most western European countries and Canada, the epidemiological pattern is very similar to that in the United States, the majority of cases being in homosexual men. In other areas such as equatorial Africa and the Caribbean, the pattern seems to be different with no identifiable risk factors for the majority of cases. The disease is manifested by opportunistic infections and/or selected malignancies, with apparent differences in the clinical presentation between the cases in North America and Europe, on the one hand, and those in the tropics. To date there is no treatment that has significantly improved the underlying cellular immune deficiency, and the mortality is very high. The etiology of AIDS is unknown, but the epidemiological pattern is most consistent with its being caused by a transmissible agent; retroviruses come on top of the list of candidate agents. Despite the unknown etiology and the lack of laboratory diagnostic tests, sufficient information is available to permit health authorities to make recommendations that may reduce appreciably the incidence of the disease. AIDS is an important health problem in a number of countries and has international implications. Collaborative laboratory, epidemiological and clinical research between countries is needed to accelerate control efforts. In the meantime, WHO will coordinate exchange of information among countries. ImagesFig. 1 PMID:6331905

  16. Knowledge and attitude toward human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome among dental and medical undergraduate students

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vinod; Patil, Kavitha; Munoli, Karishma

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is a major public health challenge. Unjustified calls for the isolation of patients with HIV infection might further constrain the potential for expansion of clinical services to deal with a greater number of such patients. This infectious illness can evoke irrational emotions and fears in health care providers. Keeping this in view, a study was conducted to assess the knowledge and attitudes related to HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) among dental and medical students. Methodology: Descriptive cross-sectional survey of the entire dental and medical undergraduate students from two colleges was carried out using a pretested, self-administered questionnaire. Descriptive statistics such as percentage was used to present the data. Results: Ninety-eight percentage medical and dental undergraduate graduate students knew about HIV transmission in the hospital. Journals and internet were the leading source of information among both medical and dental undergraduates. The majority of respondents discussed HIV-related issues with their classmates. Surprisingly, 38% medical and 52% dental undergraduates think that HIV patient should be quarantined (isolation) to prevent the spread of infection. 68% medical and 60% dental undergraduates are willing to rendering dental/medical care to HIV-infected patients. Relatively large proportion (98%) of participants was willing to participate for HIV prevention program. Conclusion: The knowledge of medical and dental students is adequate, but the attitude needs improvement. Dental and medical students constitute a useful public health education resource. Comprehensive training, continuing education, and motivation will improve their knowledge and attitude, which enable them to provide better care to HIV patients. PMID:26538940

  17. Elevated levels of interferon-induced 2'-5' oligoadenylate synthetase in generalized persistent lymphadenopathy and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Read, S E; Williams, B R; Coates, R A; Evans, W K; Fanning, M M; Garvey, M B; Shepherd, F A

    1985-09-01

    The levels of the 2'-5' oligoadenylate enzyme synthetase in extracts of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from individuals with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC) were measured and compared with synthetase levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMs) from healthy heterosexual and homosexual controls. The mean basal synthetase level in heterosexual and homosexual controls was 14 +/- 13 and 12 +/- 9 pmol per hr/10(5) PBMs, respectively. Thirteen individuals with AIDS had a mean basal level of 129 +/- 75 pmol. Serial levels were persistently elevated in six of these individuals over a one- to 10-month period. Twelve of the 13 individuals had antibodies to human T cell lymphotrophic virus-III/lymphadenopathy-associated virus (HTLV-III/LAV). Thirty-three individuals with ARC had a mean basal synthetase level of 68 +/- 84 pmol. Thirty-two of the 33 had antibodies to HTLV-III/LAV. Eleven (33%) have had consistently normal synthetase levels (less than 2 SD above the mean for the homosexual controls, i.e., 30 pmol) over a three- to nine-month follow-up period. Fourteen (42%) had persistently elevated levels over the same period; four (29%) of these developed AIDS during the follow-up period. Eight have had fluctuating levels but have remained clinically well. These studies suggest that persistently elevated synthetase levels in individuals with ARC and antibodies to HTLV-III/LAV indicate progressive virus-induced disease activity. Elevated synthetase levels may be an important prognostic indicator of increased risk of progression to AIDS.

  18. Regional brain structural dysmorphology in human immunodeficiency virus infection: effects of acquired immune deficiency syndrome, alcoholism, and age.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Rosenbloom, Margaret J; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Kemper, Carol A; Deresinski, Stanley; Rohlfing, Torsten; Sullivan, Edith V

    2012-09-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and alcoholism each carries liability for disruption of brain structure and function integrity. Despite considerable prevalence of HIV-alcoholism comorbidity, few studies examined the potentially heightened burden of disease comorbidity. Participants were 342 men and women: 110 alcoholics, 59 with HIV infection, 65 with HIV infection and alcoholism, and 108 healthy control subjects. This design enabled examination of independent and combined effects of HIV infection and alcoholism along with other factors (acquired immune deficiency syndrome [AIDS]-defining events, hepatitis C infection, age) on regional brain volumes derived from T1-weighted magnetic resonance images. Brain volumes, expressed as Z scores corrected for intracranial volume and age, were measured in 20 tissue and 5 ventricular and sulcal regions. The most profound and consistent volume deficits occurred with alcohol use disorders, notable in the cortical mantle, insular and anterior cingulate cortices, thalamus, corpus callosum, and frontal sulci. The HIV-only group had smaller thalamic and larger frontal sulcal volumes than control subjects. HIV disease-related factors associated with greater volume abnormalities included CD4 cell count nadir, clinical staging, history of AIDS-defining events, infection age, and current age. Longer sobriety and less lifetime alcohol consumption were predictive of attenuated brain volume abnormalities in both alcohol groups. Having HIV infection with alcoholism and AIDS had an especially poor outcome on brain structures. That longer periods of sobriety and less lifetime alcohol consumption were predictive of attenuated brain volume abnormalities encourages the inclusion of alcohol recovery efforts in HIV/AIDS therapeutic settings. Copyright © 2012 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. [Bilateral cavernous sinus non-Hodgkin's lymphoma as the presenting sign of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: case report].

    PubMed

    Barreira Junior, Alan Kardec; Moura, Frederico Castelo; Monteiro, Mario Luiz Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Case report of bilateral cavernous sinus syndrome due to primary non-Hodgkin lymphoma of the central nervous system in a patient infected by the human immunodeficiency virus. A 51-year-old male patient infected by the human immunodeficiency virus but without antiretroviral treatment developed paralysis of the V and VI cranial nerves. Imaging studies were obtained to investigate an orbital apex and a cavernous sinus syndrome. A computerized tomography scan of the orbit was normal but a high-resolution magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated bilateral enlargement of the cavernous sinus. Although primary lymphoma of the central nervous system is a rare condition, it should be considered in the differential diagnosis in immunocompromised patients who develop ocular motility abnormalities and imaging signs suggestive of infiltrative cavernous sinus lesions.

  20. [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Sepúlveda, C

    1989-07-01

    The AIDS epidemics is a serious threat to world health. Transmission of infection follows well defined routes: sexual contact with infected people, transfusion of blood or other contaminated products and the transplacental infection. The bulk of cases is due homo or heterosexual contact. Measures to decrease the risk of transmission associated to blood transfusion are already operative in Chile. Campaigns for public education are starting and should be increased. Risky conducts can be decreased by these measures which are the responsibility of society at large.

  1. Efficacy and safety of traditional Chinese medicine for the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Deng, Xin; Jiang, Manjun; Zhao, Xiaofang; Liang, Jian

    2014-02-01

    To systematically review the efficacy and safety of Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) interventions, compared with control interventions (placebo or conventional Western medical therapy), in the treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Electronic databases including PubMed, the Cochrane Library, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Wanfang Data were searched to identify relevant randomized controlled trials (RCTs) published as of May 2012. Studies were selected according to the specified inclusion and exclusion criteria and then subjected to methodological quality assessment, data extraction, and meta-analysis according to the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions. Twelve RCTs involving 881 patients with AIDS were included. Methodological quality assessment showed that two were high-quality, two were moderate-quality, and eight were low-quality. Meta-analysis showed that TCM interventions were associated with significantly reduced plasma viral load compared with placebo [odds ratio OR = 2.46, 95% confidence interval CI (1.02, 5.94); P = 0.04]. However, the reductions in plasma viral load significantly favored conventional Western medical therapy alone over integrated traditional Chinese and Western medical therapy [OR = 0.16, 95% CI (0.05, 0.55); P = 0.004]. Patients receiving TCM interventions had significantly higher CD4+ T lymphocyte counts compared with those on placebo [OR = 2.54, 95% CI (1.40, 4.60); P = 0.002]. In addition, TCM interventions were significantly more likely to have improved clinical symptoms [OR = 2.82, 95% CI (1.85, 4.31); P < 0.00001]. TCM interventions conferred a similar risk of adverse events (AEs) compared with control interventions [OR = 1.87, 95% CI (0.58, 6.01); P = 0.29]. Current evidence suggests that TCM interventions are significantly more effective than placebo in reducing plasma viral load and increasing CD4+ T lymphocyte count in patients with AIDS. When compared with

  2. Factors associated with fatigue in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients with antiretroviral drug adverse reactions: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhibin; Yang, Jiping; Liu, Huijuan; Jin, Yantao

    2013-06-01

    To retrospectively study the prevalence of fatigue and factors associated with fatigue among acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients with antiretroviral drug adverse reactions. Data were collected from case report forms (CRFs) for a project funded by the 11th National 5-year Special Science and Technology Program on Major Infectious Diseases. Fatigue was defined by patient self-report. The outcomes were the prevalence of fatigue and the potential risk factors of fatigue. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify the factors associated with fatigue. Among the 228 subjects, the prevalence of fatigue was 86.8%. In univariate analysis, the significant differences in demographic characteristics between patients with and without fatigue were: gender [OR = 2.29; 95% CI (1.05-4.98)], education level [OR = 0.40; 95% CI (0.18-0.85)], anemia [OR = 3.80; 95% CI (1.27-11.31)], time of HIV diagnosis [OR = 0.29; 95% CI (0.13-0.65)], and route of infection [OR = 0.14; 95% CI (0.06-0.32)]. Abnormal taste and rapid pulse were more commonly seen in patients with fatigue (P < 0.05), while abdominal distension and lumbar soreness were encountered less often in patients with fatigue (P < 0.05). Multivariate analysis showed that the four main factors associated with fatigue were anemia [OR = 3.50; 95% CI (1.01-12.15)], route of infection [OR = 3.40; 95% CI (1.21-9.58); P = 0.02 < 0.05], lumbar soreness [OR = 0.06; 95% CI (0.02-0.18); P = 0.000 < 0.05], and rapid pulse [OR = 10.58; 95% CI (2.16-51.75); P = 0.004 < 0.05]. This study demonstrated that fatigue is common (86.8% prevalence) in AIDS patients with antiretroviral drug adverse reactions, and that anemia, route of infection (i.e., non-commercial blood donation) and rapid pulse were risk factors, while lumbar soreness was a protective factor related to fatigue. More attention should be paid to fatigue and more efforts should be made to find ways to prevent, control and eliminate

  3. Incidence and Long-term Outcomes of the HIV-Neuroretinal Disorder in Patients with the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Jabs, Douglas A.; Drye, Lea; Van Natta, Mark L.; Thorne, Jennifer E.; Holland, Gary N.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have an abnormality of retina/optic nerve function, manifested as decreased contrast sensitivity (in the absence of ocular opportunistic infections or media opacity), abnormalities on automated perimetry, and loss of retinal nerve fiber layer, even among those with good visual acuity, termed the HIV-neuroretinal disorder. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence, incidence, risk factors for, and outcomes of HIV-neuroretinal disorder. Design Prospective cohort study Participants 1822 patients with AIDS without ocular infections or media opacities. Methods Patients with HIV-neuroretinal disorder were identified by a contrast sensitivity < 1.50 log units in either eye in the absence of ocular opportunistic infections or media opacity. Main outcome measures Incidence of HIV-neuroretinal disorder, mortality, visual impairment (visual acuity 20/50 or worse), and blindness (20/200 or worse) on logarithmic visual acuity charts. Results Sixteen percent of participants had HIV-neuroretinal disorder at enrollment. The estimated cumulative incidence by 20 years after AIDS diagnosis was 51% (95% confidence interval [CI] 46%–55%). HIV-neuroretinal disorder was more common in women and African American persons. Risk factors for it included hepatitis C infection, low CD4+ T cells, and detectable HIV RNA in the blood. Patients with HIV neuroretinal disorder had a 70% excess mortality vs. those without it, even after adjusting for CD4+ T cells and HIV load (hazard ratio=1.7, 95% CI= 1.3–2.1, P<0.0001). Patients with HIV-neuroretinal disorder had increased risks of bilateral visual impairment (hazard ratio=6.5, 95% CI=2.6–10.6, P<0.0001) and blindness (hazard ratio=5.9, 95% CI=2.8–13.7, P=0.01) vs. those without HIV neuroretinal disorder. Conclusions HIV-neuroretinal disorder is a common finding among patients with AIDS, and it is associated with an increased mortality and an increased

  4. Small-intestine pneumocystis jiroveci pseudotumor as an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-presenting illness: report of a case and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yi; Shetty, Jayarama; Pins, Michael R

    2012-09-01

    A Pneumocystis jiroveci infection-associated mass clinically mimicking a malignancy (ie, pseudotumor) is rare and usually occurs in the lung in association with Pneumocystis pneumonia. Pneumocystis jiroveci pseudotumors of the small intestine are extremely rare and represent an unusual form of disseminated P jiroveci infection. We present a case of small-intestine P jiroveci pseudotumor as an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-presenting illness in a patient with coinfection with cytomegalovirus, no pulmonary symptoms, and no known risk factors for human immunodeficiency virus infection. This case reinforces the potential importance of cytomegalovirus coinfection in the disseminated form of Pneumocystis infection and illustrates the importance of an expanded differential diagnosis when confronted with a clinically atypical mass lesion.

  5. Persistence of high risk sexual activity among homosexual men in an area of low incidence for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Calabrese, L H; Harris, B; Easley, K A; Proffitt, M R

    1986-01-01

    A survey of 305 homosexual men was performed in an area of relatively low incidence for AIDS and low seroprevalence for antibody to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The objective of the study was to investigate current knowledge and practice of sexual behavior designed to limit transmission of HIV. The results showed that while the majority of the study group believed that they had made changes in their life styles that would reduce the likelihood of transmitting or acquiring the virus, nearly half admitted to persistently engaging in active and passive anal intercourse without condoms. These data suggest the need for more widespread and effective forms of education to help prevent the continuing spread of the AIDS epidemic.

  6. Monocyte function in intravenous drug abusers with lymphadenopathy syndrome and in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: selective impairment of chemotaxis.

    PubMed Central

    Poli, G; Bottazzi, B; Acero, R; Bersani, L; Rossi, V; Introna, M; Lazzarin, A; Galli, M; Mantovani, A

    1985-01-01

    We have investigated monocyte function in 17 intravenous drug abusers with the clinical and laboratory features of lymphadenopathy syndrome (LAS). LAS patients had normal numbers of circulating monocytes. Monocytes from LAS patients were comparable to cells from normal donors in terms of phagocytosis of latex beads, interleukin-1 secretion, O2- release and killing of antibody-sensitized lymphoma cells or actinomycin D pretreated WEHI 164 cells. In contrast 13 out of 17 LAS subjects tested in this respect as well as six out of nine AIDS patients showed a marked defect of monocyte chemotaxis. Thus monocytes from patients with LAS or AIDS have a selective defect of monocyte chemotaxis. PMID:2998656

  7. Prevalence and Predictors of Thyroid Dysfunction in Patients with HIV Infection and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An Indian Perspective.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Neera; Sharma, Lokesh Kumar; Dutta, Deep; Gadpayle, Adesh Kisanji; Anand, Atul; Gaurav, Kumar; Mukherjee, Sabyasachi; Bansal, Rahul

    2015-01-01

    Background. Predictors of thyroid dysfunction in HIV are not well determined. This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of thyroid dysfunction in HIV infected Indians. Methods. Consecutive HIV patients, 18-70 years of age, without any severe comorbid state, having at least 1-year follow-up at the antiretroviral therapy clinic, underwent clinical assessment and hormone assays. Results. From initially screened 527 patients, 359 patients (61.44 ± 39.42 months' disease duration), having good immune function [CD4 count >200 cell/mm(3): 90.25%; highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART): 88.58%], were analyzed. Subclinical hypothyroidism (ScH) was the commonest thyroid dysfunction (14.76%) followed by sick euthyroid syndrome (SES) (5.29%) and isolated low TSH (3.1%). Anti-TPO antibody (TPOAb) was positive in 3.90%. Baseline CD4 count had inverse correlation with TPOAb after adjusting for age and body mass index. Stepwise linear regression revealed baseline CD4 count, TPOAb, and tuberculosis to be best predictors of ScH after adjusting for age, weight, duration of HIV, and history of opportunistic fungal and viral infections. Conclusion. Burden of thyroid dysfunction in chronic HIV infection with stable immune function is lower compared to pre-HAART era. Thyroid dysfunction is primarily of nonautoimmune origin, predominantly ScH. Severe immunodeficiency at disease onset, TPOAb positivity, and tuberculosis were best predictors of ScH.

  8. Unusual Case of Metastatic Gastrointestinal Adenocarcinoma to the Cervical Spine without a Detectable Primary Source in a Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kaloostian, Paul E; Barry, Marc; Harrington, James Fred

    2012-01-01

    The authors report a case of metastatic gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma to the cervical spine in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) being treated with antiretroviral therapy. The source of this tumor could not be identified despite a thorough evaluation. A 49-year-old male being treated for AIDS presents with worsening neck pain and left distal arm weakness. MRI demonstrated an erosive mass within the cervical four vertebral body extending through the pedicle on the left side. Patient underwent needle biopsy followed by combined anterior and posterior fusion procedures. Pathology demonstrated metastatic gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma without known primary origin. He is currently undergoing palliative radiotherapy. This is an unusual case of metastatic gastrointestinal adenocarcinoma to the cervical spine. This should be included on the differential diagnosis of spinal lesions in this patient population and may represent a unique tumor in patients with HIV/AIDS who are on immunosuppressive therapy.

  9. Assessing the stages of change and decision-making for contraceptive use for the prevention of pregnancy, sexually transmitted diseases, and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Grimley, D M; Riley, G E; Bellis, J M; Prochaska, J O

    1993-01-01

    A synergistic approach was taken to examine contraceptive use adoption for two related behaviors: pregnancy prevention and the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). One hundred twenty-three young adults responded to questionnaire items based on two constructs from the Trans-theoretical Model of Change, the Stages of Change and Decisional Balance, as well as other pertinent variables. In Phase 1, two Decisional Balance measures were developed: One for the prevention of pregnancy and one for disease prevention. Final versions of both measures consisted of two 10-item scales: one representing the positive aspects (PROS) and one representing the negative aspects (CONS) of contraceptive and condom use. In Phase 2, the same individuals were staged for both pregnancy and disease prevention according to their readiness to change for contraceptive and condom use. MANOVAs and ANOVAs indicated that the PROS and CONS for both measures were related to stage of change for both contraceptive and condom use. Results from this pilot study were consistent with prior applications of the Trans-theoretical Model to the cessation of such problem behaviors as smoking and to the adoption of positive health behaviors such as exercise acquisition.

  10. The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: a spatio-temporal analysis of cases reported in the period 2001-2010.

    PubMed

    Alves, André T J; Nobre, Flávio F

    2014-05-01

    Despite increased funding for research on the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), neither vaccine nor cure is yet in sight. Surveillance and prevention are essential for disease intervention, and it is recognised that spatio-temporal analysis of AIDS cases can assist the decision-making process for control of the disease. This study investigated the dynamic, spatial distribution of notified AIDS cases in the State of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, between 2001 and 2010, based on the annual incidence in each municipality. Sequential choropleth maps were developed and used to analyse the incidence distribution and Moran's I spatial autocorrelation statistics was applied for characterisation of the spatio-temporal distribution pattern. A significant, positive spatial autocorrelation of AIDS incidence was observed indicating that municipalities with high incidence are likely to be close to other municipalities with similarly high incidence and, conversely, municipalities with low incidence are likely to be surrounded by municipalities with low incidence. Two clusters were identified; one hotspot related to the State Capital and the other with low to intermediate AIDS incidence comprising municipalities in the north-eastern region of the State of Rio de Janeiro.

  11. The spectrum of pathological changes in the lung in children with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: an autopsy study of 36 cases.

    PubMed

    Moran, C A; Suster, S; Pavlova, Z; Mullick, F G; Koss, M N

    1994-09-01

    We present the pulmonary findings in 36 autopsies of children affected by the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Twenty-three patients were male and 13 were female, ranging in age between 3 days and 13 years. Twenty children had human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive parents or parents who were at high risk of exposure (intravenous drug abusers and prostitutes), five had a history of transfusion, and one had a history of renal transplantation and blood transfusion. Clinically, the patients presented with recurrent infections, failure to thrive, hepatosplenomegaly, fever, cough, and/or hemoptysis. Histologically, specific infectious processes were the most common finding (75% of cases), with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia being the most prevalent type of infection, followed by bacterial pneumonia. Neoplastic conditions and lymphoid interstitial pneumonia were less frequent (approximately 10% of cases). In addition, in approximately 10% of the cases the pulmonary findings were non-specific (ie, pulmonary edema and atelectasis) and probably unrelated to HIV infection. Our findings suggest that specific infectious conditions constitute the most common type of pulmonary pathology in children with AIDS. However, because there is a small percentage of children with nonspecific findings, a transbronchial biopsy is important for proper evaluation before institution of therapy.

  12. HIV and Sports. American Academy of Pediatrics Policy Statement. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) Virus in the Athletic Setting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1992

    1992-01-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics policy statement on participation of athletes with human immunodeficiency virus suggests they be allowed to participate in competitive sports until disease transmission is found to occur in sport settings. The article discusses physician and coach roles and recommends precautions regarding body fluids and…

  13. Oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and their correlation to cluster of differentiation lymphocyte count in population of North-East India in highly active antiretroviral therapy era.

    PubMed

    Nayak, Sarat Kumar; Das, Bijay Kumar; Das, Surya Narayan; Mohapatra, Namita; Nayak, Suryakanti; Bhuyan, Lipsa

    2016-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection which manifests as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease involving the defects of the T-lymphocyte arm of the immune system. Certain laboratory parameters such as the cluster of differentiation (CD4) count and clinical parameters have long been used as markers of disease progression. In industrialized countries, many studies show a highly correlation between the incidence of oral lesions and immunosuppression and hence, can be used as a marker of immunosuppression. This might not be applicable to a developing country like India. In this study, efforts have been made to supplement the present knowledge on various aspects of oral manifestations in HIV patients in the Indian subcontinent. To correlate the oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients to the level of circulating CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and their effect in anti-retroviral therapy (ART). A total of 104 HIV positive patients were examined for oral lesions. The CD4 count estimated on the same day by fluorescent activated cell sort count machine was then correlated with various oral lesions. Oral manifestations appeared when CD4 count decreased below 500 cells/mm(3). Moreover, oral lesions found at different stages showed very strong correlation to their respective CD4 count. Furthermore, there was considerable decline in the incidence of oral manifestations in patients undergoing highly active ART. Oral manifestations are highly predictive markers of severe immune deterioration and disease progression in HIV patients.

  14. Oral manifestations of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and their correlation to cluster of differentiation lymphocyte count in population of North-East India in highly active antiretroviral therapy era

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Sarat Kumar; Das, Bijay Kumar; Das, Surya Narayan; Mohapatra, Namita; Nayak, Suryakanti; Bhuyan, Lipsa

    2016-01-01

    Background: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection which manifests as acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a disease involving the defects of the T-lymphocyte arm of the immune system. Certain laboratory parameters such as the cluster of differentiation (CD4) count and clinical parameters have long been used as markers of disease progression. In industrialized countries, many studies show a highly correlation between the incidence of oral lesions and immunosuppression and hence, can be used as a marker of immunosuppression. This might not be applicable to a developing country like India. In this study, efforts have been made to supplement the present knowledge on various aspects of oral manifestations in HIV patients in the Indian subcontinent. Aims: To correlate the oral manifestations in HIV/AIDS patients to the level of circulating CD4+ T-lymphocyte count and their effect in anti-retroviral therapy (ART). Subjects and Methods: A total of 104 HIV positive patients were examined for oral lesions. The CD4 count estimated on the same day by fluorescent activated cell sort count machine was then correlated with various oral lesions. Results: Oral manifestations appeared when CD4 count decreased below 500 cells/mm3. Moreover, oral lesions found at different stages showed very strong correlation to their respective CD4 count. Furthermore, there was considerable decline in the incidence of oral manifestations in patients undergoing highly active ART. Conclusions: Oral manifestations are highly predictive markers of severe immune deterioration and disease progression in HIV patients. PMID:27994425

  15. Perceived Life Changes in Adults with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and Kaposi’s Sarcoma Utilizing a Behavioral Systems Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-01-01

    Derdiarian Behavioral System Model (Instrument) GI Gastrointestinal GU Genitourinary HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus I/D Increase/Decrease IMP...Curran (1986) estimate that by 1991 this country will be caring for over 144,000 AIDS patients. The Human Immuno- deficiency Virus (HIV), known to cause...or N(-I) ( 1 -100) Aggressive/Protective 3B Maintaining emotional stability 131(73%) -.04 +.08 49.7 3C Cognitive ability to protect 77(43%) -.03 -.01

  16. Effect of treatment course of comprehensive intervention with Traditional Chinese Medicine on mortality of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients treated with combined antiretroviral therapy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Huijun; Wang, Jian; Li, Zhengwei; Jiang, Ziqiang; Xu, Qianlei; Xu, Liran

    2016-08-01

    To investigate the effect of a treatment course of comprehensive intervention with Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) on the mortality of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treated with combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). AIDS patients who had taken cART in a national TCM human immunodeficiency virus treatment trial program (NTCMTP) before 2009 were enrolled in this study and followed for 36 months from November 2009. Patients enrolled in the NTCMTP in 2004 were taken as the first group, those enrolled in 2006 as the second group, and those enrolled in 2009 as the third group. Cumulative survival rates were calculated by the life table method. Survival curves for subgroups were compared by the log-rank test. Hazard ratios were calculated with a Cox proportional hazards model. A total of 1443 AIDS patients were followed for 3 years (4198 person-years). During this period, 91 (6.3%) patients died and 13 (0.9%) were lost to follow-up. The total mortality rate was 2.17/ 100 person-years. The mortality rate of patients enrolled in the NTCMTP in 2004 was 1.49/100 person- years, which was lower than that of patients enrolled in 2006 (2.23/100 person-years) and 2009 (3.48/100 person-years). After adjusting for other factors, a shorter time of treatment with TCM, male sex, older age, lower CD4 + T-cell counts, and long-term treatment with cART were risk factors of mortality. Long-term treatment with TCM decreased the mortality risk of AIDS patients. Factors such as being male, older age, CD4 + T-cell counts, and time of treatment with TCM and cART were correlated with mortality.

  17. [Cerebral infarction and intracranial aneurysm related to the reactivation of varicella zoster virus in a Japanese acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patient].

    PubMed

    Yasuda, Chiharu; Okada, Kazumasa; Ohnari, Norihiro; Akamatsu, Naoki; Tsuji, Sadatoshi

    2013-01-01

    A 35-years-old right-handed man admitted to our hospital with a worsening of dysarthria, left facial palsy and left hemiparesis for 2 days. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was diagnosed when he was 28 years old. At that time, he also was treated for syphilis. After highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) was introduced at the age of 35 years old, serum level of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) was not detected, but the number of CD4+ T cells was still less than 200/μl. He had no risk factors of atherosclerosis including hypertension, diabetes and hyperlipidemia. He had neither coagulation abnormality nor autoimmune disease. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed acute ischemic infarction spreading from the right corona radiate to the right internal capsule without contrast enhancement. Stenosis and occlusion of intracranial arteries were not detected by MR angiography. Although argatroban and edaravone were administered, his neurological deficits were worsened to be difficult to walk independently. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examination showed a mild mononuclear pleocytosis (16/μl). Oligoclonal band was positive. The titer of anti-varicella zoster virus (VZV) IgG antibodies was increased, that indicated VZV reactivation in the central nervous system (CNS), although VZV DNA PCR was not detected. Therefore, acyclovir (750 mg/day for 2 weeks) and valaciclovir (3,000 mg/day for 1 month) were administered in addition to stroke therapy. He recovered to be able to walk independently 2 month after the admission.Angiography uncovered a saccular aneurysm of 3 mm at the end of branch artery of right anterior cerebral artery, Heubner artery, 28 days after the admission. We speculated that VZV vasculopathy caused by VZV reactivation in CNS was involved in the pathomechanism of cerebral infarction rather than HIV vasculopathy in the case.

  18. The physical activity levels among people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome receiving high active antiretroviral therapy in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Frantz, J M; Murenzi, A

    2013-01-01

    The accessibility of high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for local human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients is improving in Rwanda. It is well known that this therapy is associated with serious adverse effects, such as metabolic and morphologic changes. One of the recommended preventive modalities for these complications is participation in physical activity. The current study aims to determine the anthropometric profile and physical activity levels among people living with HIV and receiving HAART in Kigali, Rwanda. The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive quantitative survey. The participant's levels of physical activity participation and their association with anthropometric profiles were measured, using a structured self-administered questionnaire for 407 clients passing through the clinics. Of the participants, approximately 70% were inactive and in addition, 40% were obese and 43% overweight. Obesity was found to be strongly associated with inactivity. Lack of motivation, and time as well as fear of worsening the disease were found to be barriers to participation in physical activity.

  19. Characterization and growth in human macrophages of Mycobacterium avium complex strains isolated from the blood of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Meylan, P R; Richman, D D; Kornbluth, R S

    1990-01-01

    Strains of the Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) yield opaque and transparent colonial variants when cultivated in vitro. The transparent variants are more virulent than the opaque for animals, but little is known about the respective roles of these colonial variants in humans. To assess which variant infects humans, various blood fractions from eight patients with MAC bacteremia were plated directly onto 7H10 agar. In cell fractionation studies, all the M. avium complex CFU were associated with leukocytes and none were found free in plasma. All colonies on the primary culture plate exhibited the transparent phenotype. However, during subculture in 7H9 broth or on Lowenstein-Jensen agar, opaque variants appeared in seven of eight strains. Isogenic pairs of transparent and opaque variants were prepared and used to infect in vitro human monocyte-derived macrophages from healthy seronegative individuals. Transparent variants invariably grew inside macrophages, but only one of seven opaque variants did so. These observations indicate that the bacteremia of M. avium complex in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients consists exclusively of the transparent variants, perhaps because these variants are able to multiply inside macrophages. In contrast, opaque variants appear after in vitro subculture and are controlled by human macrophages, consistent with their reduced virulence in animals. Images PMID:2370109

  20. Attitudes of Turkish midwives and nurses working at hospitals towards people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Akgun Kostak, Melahat; Unsar, Serap; Kurt, Seda; Erol, Ozgul

    2012-10-01

    Health professionals caring for people living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) show poor or negative attitudes because of fear of contagion. Therefore, it is important to know the attitudes of midwives' and nurses' towards people living with HIV/AIDS. The aim of this descriptive and cross-sectional study is to assess the attitudes of Turkish midwives and nurses working at hospitals to people living with HIV/AIDS and to identify factors that affect these attitudes. A group of 46 midwives and 192 nurses working in hospitals were included in the study. Data were collected through AIDS Attitude Scale. Age, professional experience, number of children and marital status influenced the attitudes of the participants towards people living with HIV/AIDS. We concluded that higher level of education appear to positively influence the attitudes of the participants. Education programmes including evidence-based nursing implications might be planned to improve positive attitudes and to prevent stigmatization of people living with HIV/AIDS.

  1. Effect of traditional Chinese medicine for treating human immunodeficiency virus infections and acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Boosting immune and alleviating symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zou, Wen; Wang, Jian; Liu, Ying

    2016-01-01

    To respond to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic in China, the integration of antiretroviral therapy (ART) and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has important implications in health outcomes, especially in China where the use of TCM is widespread. The National Free TCM Pilot Program for HIV Infected People began in 5 provinces (Henan, Hebei, Anhui, Hubei, and Guangdong) in 2004, and quickly scaled up to 19 provinces, autonomous regions, and municipalities in China including some places with high prevalence, 26,276 adults have been treated thus far. Usually, people with HIV infection seek TCM for four main reasons: to enhance immune function, to treat symptoms, to improve quality of life, and to reduce side effects related to medications. Evidences from randomized controlled clinical trials suggested some beneficial effects of use of traditional Chinese herbal medicine for HIV infections and AIDS. More proofs from large, well-designed, rigorous trials is needed to give firm support. Challenges include interaction between herbs and antiretroviral drugs, stigma and discrimination. The Free TCM Program has made considerable progress in providing the necessary alternative care and treatment for HIV-infected people in China, and has strong government support for continued improvement and expansion, establishing and improving a work mechanism integrating Chinese and Western medicines.

  2. High Mortality and Coinfection in a Prospective Cohort of Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Patients with Histoplasmosis in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Samayoa, Blanca; Roy, Monika; Cleveland, Angela Ahlquist; Medina, Narda; Lau-Bonilla, Dalia; Scheel, Christina M; Gomez, Beatriz L; Chiller, Tom; Arathoon, Eduardo

    2017-07-01

    Histoplasmosis is one of the most common and deadly opportunistic infections among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Latin America, but due to limited diagnostic capacity in this region, few data on the burden and clinical characteristics of this disease exist. Between 2005 and 2009, we enrolled patients ≥ 18 years of age with suspected histoplasmosis at a hospital-based HIV clinic in Guatemala City. A case of suspected histoplasmosis was defined as a person presenting with at least three of five clinical or radiologic criteria. A confirmed case of histoplasmosis was defined as a person with a positive culture or urine antigen test for Histoplasma capsulatum. Demographic and clinical data were also collected and analyzed. Of 263 enrolled as suspected cases of histoplasmosis, 101 (38.4%) were confirmed cases. Median time to diagnosis was 15 days after presentation (interquartile range [IQR] = 5-23). Crude overall mortality was 43.6%; median survival time was 19 days (IQR = 4-69). Mycobacterial infection was diagnosed in 70 (26.6%) cases; 26 (25.7%) histoplasmosis cases were coinfected with mycobacteria. High mortality and short survival time after initial symptoms were observed in patients with histoplasmosis. Mycobacterial coinfection diagnoses were frequent, highlighting the importance of pursuing diagnoses for both diseases.

  3. Zinc protoporphyrin and percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes as markers of functional iron deficiency during therapy with erythropoietin in patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Matzkies, F K; Cullen, P; Schaefer, L; Hartmann, M; Hohage, H; Schaefer, R M

    1999-12-01

    We assessed zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP) and the percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes in patients with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treated with recombinant erythropoietin (rhEPO). Patients received 150 IU rhEPO subcutaneously every second day for 10 days, and 150 IU rhEPO plus 62.5 mg of intravenous iron every second day for an additional 10 days. Before rhEPO therapy, ZPP was at 64.3 +/- 27.3 micromol/mol heme and the percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes was elevated at 9.7%, indicating mild functional iron deficiency. Ferritin was 1,002 +/- 956 microg/L, with transferrin saturation of 19.1 +/- 9.7%. Under rhEPO alone, ZPP rose to 80.1 +/- 21.6 micromol/mol heme and the percentage of hypochromic red cells rose to 22.9 +/- 4.7%; ferritin fell to 705 +/- 601 microg/L and transferrin saturation fell to 12 +/- 6.3%. When rhEPO was supplemented with iron, ZPP fell to 70.4 +/- 20.5 micromol/mol heme, the percentage of hypochromic red cells fell to 14.7 +/- 3.4%; ferritin was unchanged at 771 +/- 62 microg/L and transferrin saturation rose to 20.5 +/- 5.5%. In contrast to ferritin and transferrin saturation, ZPP and the percentage of hypochromic erythrocytes effectively detect the functional iron deficiency under rhEPO therapy in advanced AIDS.

  4. Case Report: Disseminated Talaromyces (Penicillium) marneffei and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Coinfection in a Japanese Patient with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hatakeyama, Shuji; Yamashita, Takeshi; Sakai, Toshiyasu; Kamei, Katsuhiko

    2017-07-01

    Talaromyces marneffei is a dimorphic fungus endemic mainly in southeast and south Asia. It causes severe mycosis, usually in immunocompromised individuals, such as those with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. Concomitant infection with T. marneffei and other opportunistic pathogens is plausible because the majority of T. marneffei infections occur in patients with advanced HIV infection. Nonetheless, coinfection in the same site has rarely been reported, and poses a considerable diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We report the case of an HIV-infected Japanese patient who had lived in Thailand for 6 years. The patient developed T. marneffei and Mycobacterium tuberculosis coinfection, and both pathogens were isolated from the same sites: a blood specimen and a lymph node aspirate. Clinicians should be aware of concomitant infection with T. marneffei and other pathogens in patients with advanced HIV disease who are living in or who have visited endemic areas.

  5. Identification of Virulence-Associated Plasmids in Rhodococcus equi in Humans with and without Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Takai, Shinji; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza; Ferreira Camello, Thereza Cristina; Ohno, Ryoko; Okano, Hajime; da Silva, Aristeu Vieira

    2011-01-01

    Virulence of Rhodococcus equi strains from 20 humans in Brazil was investigated by using a polymerase chain reaction to characterize isolates as virulent (VapA), intermediately virulent (VapB), and avirulent. Nine isolates were obtained from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)–positive patients, six from HIV-negative patients, and five from patients of unknown status. Five isolates were VapB positive, four were VapA positive, and eleven were avirulent. Among the nine isolates from HIV-positive patients, five contained VapB plasmids and two contained VapA plasmids. Five VapB-positive isolates had the type 8 virulence plasmid. Eleven of the patients had a history of contact with livestock and/or a farm environment, and none had contact with pigs. PMID:21896813

  6. The physical activity levels among people living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome receiving high active antiretroviral therapy in Rwanda

    PubMed Central

    Frantz, J.M.; Murenzi, A.

    2014-01-01

    The accessibility of high active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for local human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients is improving in Rwanda. It is well known that this therapy is associated with serious adverse effects, such as metabolic and morphologic changes. One of the recommended preventive modalities for these complications is participation in physical activity. The current study aims to determine the anthropometric profile and physical activity levels among people living with HIV and receiving HAART in Kigali, Rwanda. The study was a cross-sectional, descriptive quantitative survey. The participant's levels of physical activity participation and their association with anthropometric profiles were measured, using a structured self-administered questionnaire for 407 clients passing through the clinics. Of the participants, approximately 70% were inactive and in addition, 40% were obese and 43% overweight. Obesity was found to be strongly associated with inactivity. Lack of motivation, and time as well as fear of worsening the disease were found to be barriers to participation in physical activity. PMID:24521093

  7. Factors Associated with Student Nurses' Intent to Provide Physical and Psychosocial Care to Persons with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Frank L.

    1996-01-01

    Responses from 125 of 290 nursing undergraduates indicated their attitudes ranged from most to least positive regarding people with AIDS acquired through blood transfusion, heterosexual activity, homosexual activity, and needle sharing. Homophobia, fear of AIDS, and perceived susceptibility were inversely related with intention to care for AIDS…

  8. Expression of interleukin 2 receptors by monocytes from patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and induction of monocyte interleukin 2 receptors by human immunodeficiency virus in vitro.

    PubMed Central

    Allen, J B; McCartney-Francis, N; Smith, P D; Simon, G; Gartner, S; Wahl, L M; Popovic, M; Wahl, S M

    1990-01-01

    A population of circulating mononuclear cells from patients with AIDS was identified which expressed interleukin 2 receptors (IL-2R). By dual-fluorescence flow microfluorometry, the patients' IL-2R+ cells were further identified as Leu M3+ monocytes (29.4 +/- 5.2% of the Leu M3+ cells were IL-2R+, n = 15), whereas Leu M3+ monocytes from normal subjects were IL-2R negative (2.0 +/- 0.42%; P less than 0.001). By Northern analysis, monocytes from AIDS patients, but not control subjects, constitutively expressed steady-state levels of IL-2R mRNA. Functionally, the IL-2R+ monocytes were capable of depleting IL-2 from culture supernatants, suggesting a mechanism for the reduced IL-2 levels commonly seen in AIDS patients. IL-2R+ monocytes also expressed increased levels of surface HLA-DR which may favor monocyte T-cell interactions and the transmission of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In additional studies, normal monocytes were infected with a macrophage-tropic HIV isolate in vitro and monitored for IL-2R and HLA-DR expression. Within 24-48 h after exposure to HIV in vitro, but before evidence of productive infection, greater than 25% of the monocytes became IL-2R+ with increasing numbers of IL-2R+ cells and HLA-DR levels through day 6. These early signaling effects of HIV could be mimicked by adding purified HIV envelope glycoprotein gp120 to the monocytes. This stimulation of monocytes before or independent of productive infection of the cells by HIV is consistent with in vivo observations of activated and/or abnormal functions by monocytes that do not appear to be infected with HIV in AIDS patients. Images PMID:2295695

  9. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor and Substance P Antagonist Enhancement of Natural Killer Cell Innate Immunity in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Dwight L.; Lynch, Kevin G.; Benton, Tami; Dubé, Benoit; Gettes, David R.; Tustin, Nancy B.; Lai, Jian Ping; Metzger, David; Douglas, Steven D.

    2010-01-01

    Background Natural killer (NK) cells play an important role in innate immunity and are involved in the host defense against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. This study examines the potential role of three underlying regulatory systems that have been under investigation in central nervous system research as well as immune and viral research: serotonin, neurokinin, and glucocorticoid systems. Methods Fifty-one HIV-seropositive subjects were recruited to achieve a representative sample of depressed and nondepressed women. The effects of a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI), a substance P (SP) antagonist, and a glucocorticoid antagonist on NK cell function were assessed in a series of ex vivo experiments of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from each HIV-seropositive subject. Results Natural killer cell cytolytic activity was significantly increased by the SSRI citalopram and by the substance P antagonist CP-96345 relative to control conditions; the glucocorticoid antagonist, RU486, showed no effect on NK cytotoxicity. Our results suggest that the effects of the three agents did not differ as a function of depression. Conclusions Our findings provide evidence that NK cell function in HIV infection may be enhanced by serotonin reuptake inhibition and by substance P antagonism. It remains to be determined if HIV-related impairment in not only NK cytolytic activity but also NK noncytolytic activity can be improved by an SSRI or an SP antagonist. Clinical studies are warranted to address these questions and the potential roles of serotonergic agents and SP antagonists in improving NK cell immunity, delaying HIV disease progression, and extending survival with HIV infection. PMID:17945197

  10. Epidemiology of Oropharyngeal Candidiasis in Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome Patients and CD4+ Counts

    PubMed Central

    Berberi, Antoine; Noujeim, Ziad; Aoun, Georges

    2015-01-01

    Background: The present study was directed to evaluate the forms of oropharyngeal candidiasis (OPC) and their correlation with CD4+ cell counts in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients. Materials and Methods: This was a descriptive and analytical cross-sectional study carried out for a 2-year period, in which quantitative data collection methods were used. 50 patients with HIV infection were evaluated. Relationship between OPC and CD4+ was investigated. Results: Five different clinical forms were noticed on examination: pseudomembranous candidiasis 20/38 (P) was the most common one (52.6%) followed by erythematous 5/38 (13.15%), angular cheilitis 5/38 (13.15%) (AC), a combination of AC and E 4/38 (10.52%) or AC, E and P 4/38 (10.52%). Candida albicans was the most frequent specie isolated in 35 cases of OPC (92%). Candida tropicalis was isolated in 2 cases (5.26%) and Candida glabrata in 1 case (2.64%). The majority of patients with OPC had cell counts 28/38 (73%) <200 cells/mm3, followed by 9/38 (23%) at CD4+ cell counts of 201-499 cells/mm3. Conclusion: Oral Candida colonization and invasive infection occur more frequently in HIV-positive patient and is significantly more common in patients with CD4+ cell counts <200 cell/mm3. PMID:25878473

  11. Retinal vessel caliber among people with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: relationships with disease-associated factors and mortality.

    PubMed

    Gangaputra, Sapna; Kalyani, Partho S; Fawzi, Amani A; Van Natta, Mark L; Hubbard, Larry D; Danis, Ronald P; Thorne, Jennifer E; Holland, Gary N

    2012-03-01

    To evaluate relationships between retinal vessel caliber, AIDS-related factors, and mortality. Longitudinal, observational cohort study. We evaluated data for participants without ocular opportunistic infections at initial examination (baseline) in the Longitudinal Studies of the Ocular Complications of AIDS (1998-2008). Semi-automated evaluation of fundus photographs (1 eye/participant) determined central retinal artery equivalent (CRAE), central retinal vein equivalent (CRVE), and arteriole-to-venule ratio (AVR) at baseline. Multiple linear regression models, using forward selection, identified independent relationships between indices and various host- and disease-related variables. Included were 1250 participants. Mean follow-up for determination of mortality was 6.1 years. Smaller CRAE was related to increased age (P < .001) and hypertension (P < .001); larger CRAE was related to lower hematocrit (P = .002). Larger CRAE and CRVE were associated with black race (P < .001). Larger CRVE was related to smoking (P = .004); smaller CRVE was related to age (P < .001) and higher mean corpuscular volume (P = .001). We observed the following relationships with AIDS-associated factors: smaller CRAE and larger CRVE with history of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART; P < .001); and larger CRAE with lower CD4+ T lymphocyte count (P = .04). We did not identify independent relationships with human immunodeficiency virus RNA blood levels. There was a 12% (95% CI, 2%-21%) increase in mortality risk per quartile of decreasing AVR (P = .02). Variations in retinal vascular caliber are associated with AIDS-specific factors and are markers for increased mortality risk. Relationships are consistent with the hypothesis that the vasculature is altered by known atherogenic effects of chronic HAART or the prolonged inflammatory state associated with AIDS. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Increase of the prevalence of hepatitis B virus surface antigen related to immunodeficiency inherent in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Ouattara, S A; Meite, M; Aron, Y; Akran, V; Gody, M; Manlan, L K; de-The, G

    1990-01-01

    During the period from January to December 1987, 2,191 serum samples were collected from different groups of the population in the Ivory Coast (1,126 healthy people selected from the general population, 416 blood donors, 112 healthy anti-HIV carriers, 173 AIDS patients, and 364 patients suffering from icterigenic hepatitis) and tested for anti-HIV (HIV-1 and HIV-2) antibodies, HBsAg, HBeAg, delta antigen (HDAg), and anti-delta (anti-HD) antibody. Anti-HIV antibodies were found in 30 (2.6%) of the general population. 55 (13.2%) blood donors, and 93 (25.5%) patients suffering from icterigenic hepatitis. HBsAg was observed in 103 (9.1%) of the general population, 45 (10.8%) blood donors, 15 (13.4%) healthy anti-HIV carriers, 59 (34.1%) AIDS patients, and 45 (40%) icterigenous hepatitis patients. The simultaneous presence of anti-HIV and HBsAg was noted in 4 (0.4%) of the general population, 8 (2%) blood donors, 15 (13.4%) healthy anti-HIV carriers, 59 (34.1%) AIDS cases, and 36 (10%) patients suffering from icterigenic hepatitis. A high prevalence of HBeAg and serological markers of infection by the delta agent were noted in the different groups. HDAg was noted only among AIDS patients or those suffering from icterigenic hepatitis, with a higher frequency among anti-HIV carriers. Our conclusion from this study is that healthy anti-HIV carriers are no more likely to be HBsAg carriers than the HIV-seronegative subjects. However, immunodeficiency induced previously by HIV infection is likely to be responsible for the high prevalence of HBsAg among AIDS patients.

  13. Prevalence and pattern of neuropsychological impairment in human immunodeficiency virus-infected/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) patients across pre- and post-highly active antiretroviral therapy eras: a combined study of two cohorts.

    PubMed

    Cysique, Lucette A; Maruff, Paul; Brew, Bruce J

    2004-12-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the prevalence and pattern of neuropsychological impairment in cohorts of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals across pre- and post-HAART (highly active antiretroviral therapy) eras. Two cohorts of HIV-infected individuals attending tertiary referral hospital outpatient clinics were studied. The cohorts represented two eras of antiretroviral medication: monotherapy (n = 51) and HAART (n = 90). Each was compared in nine neuropsychological domains in regard to the prevalence as well as pattern of neuropsychological impairment. Because the authors intended to characterize the prevalence and pattern of neuropsychological deficits in nondemented advanced HIV-infected individuals, patients with a current diagnosis of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) dementia complex were not included. The prevalence of impairment was not significantly different across pre-HAART and HAART eras using a standard criterion to define impairment: -2 SD in two neuropsychological measures (41.1%/38.8%). Prevalence of deficits was not significantly reduced in patients with undetectable plasma viral load. The pattern of neuropsychological impairment was different across pre-HAART and HAART eras, with an improvement in attention, verbal fluency, visuoconstruction deficits, but a deterioration in learning efficiency and complex attention. This change remained even in patients with an undetectable plasma viral load, although the severity was partially diminished. Neuropsychological deficits remain common in the HAART era, essentially uninfluenced by HAART. The finding that some neuropsychological functions are improving while other are deteriorating indicates that these deficits do not reflect "burnt out" damage but rather that there is an active intracerebral process occurring, the nature of which is still to be determined.

  14. Prevalence of malnutrition in human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome orphans in the Nyanza province of Kenya: a comparison of conventional indexes with a composite index of anthropometric failure.

    PubMed

    Berger, Michelle R; Fields-Gardner, Cade; Wagle, Ashwini; Hollenbeck, Clarie B

    2008-06-01

    The prevalence of undernutrition in children is commonly reported using a conventional index, which identifies three conventional categories: stunting, underweight, and wasting. Recently, a composite index of anthropometric failure was developed to categorize undernutrition into seven mutually exclusive categories, including single failures (stunting, underweight, or wasting) and multiple failures (stunting and underweight, stunting and wasting, underweight and wasting, and stunting and underweight and wasting). This cross-sectional study used baseline data gathered during a feeding program targeting orphans and vulnerable children impacted by human immunodeficiency virus and/or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in Kenya to compare the conventional index with the composite index of anthropometric failure. Children younger than 5 years of age who participated in the feeding trial were included in the analysis (n=170). The conventional index found that the prevalence of undernutrition included 31.2% stunted, 14.1% underweight, and 5.9% wasted children, whereas the composite index of anthropometric failure estimated a more severe overall prevalence rate (38.2%); thus, the conventional index did not uncover the complexity of malnutrition experienced. Of the 53 children classified as stunted by the conventional index, the composite index of anthropometric failure identified 36 (67.9%) as stunted and 17 (32.1%) as stunted and underweight. Thus, the composite index of anthropometric failure was able to distinguish children with multiple anthropometric failures. In total, multiple anthropometric failures were found in 22 of the 65 children with anthropometric failure. These data suggest that the complexity and prevalence of undernutrition may be underestimated using the conventional index because it does not identify children experiencing multiple anthropometric failures. The ability of the composite index of anthropometric failure to identify children with

  15. Perception of personal risk of acquiring human immunodeficiency viral infection/acquired immune deficiency syndrome among people attending outpatient clinics in a teaching hospital of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Adegun, P T; Adegoke, S A; Solomon, O S; Ade-Ojo, I P

    2013-01-01

    The Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) pandemic is on the increase with the highest burden in sub-Saharan Africa. This descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 2008 to assess the knowledge, self-perception of risk of contracting HIV infection and risky sexual practices among patients attending some out-patient clinics at the University Teaching Hospital, Ado-Ekiti, Ekiti State, Nigeria. The knowledge on the modes of transmission and methods of prevention of HIV was high. Although, 53.0% of the study participants perceived themselves not to be at risk of contracting HIV infection, 80.6% were engaged in risky sexual practices within a year preceding the study. Significantly more participants with multiple sexual partners, past and present history of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI) perceived themselves not to be at risk (P= 0.001, 0.008 and 0.001 respectively). Effective strategies must therefore be developed, to enhance risk-perception since poor risk-perception is known to mitigate behavioral change.

  16. Treatment of facial lipoatrophy with polymethylmethacrylate among patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS): impact on the quality of life.

    PubMed

    Quintas, Rodrigo C S; de França, Emmanuel R; de Petribú, Kátia C L; Ximenes, Ricardo A A; Quintas, Lóren F F M; Cavalcanti, Ernando L F; Kitamura, Marco A P; Magalhães, Kássia A A; Paiva, Késsia C F; Filho, Demócrito B Miranda

    2014-04-01

    The lipodystrophy syndrome is characterized by selective loss of subcutaneous fat on the face and extremities (lipoatrophy) and/or accumulation of fat around the neck, abdomen, and thorax (lipohypertrophy). The aim of this study has been to assess the impact of polymethylmethacrylate facial treatment on quality of life, self-perceived facial image, and the severity of depressive symptoms in patients living with HIV/AIDS. A non-randomized before and after interventional study was developed. Fifty-one patients underwent facial filling. The self-perceived quality of life, facial image, and degree of depressive symptoms were measured by the Short-Form 36 and HIV/AIDS--Targeted quality of life questionnaires, by a visual analogue scale and by the Beck depression inventory, respectively, before and three months after treatment. Six of the eight domains of Short-Form 36 and eight of the nine dimensions of the HIV/AIDS--Targeted quality of life questionnaires, together with the visual analogue scale and by the Beck depression inventory scores, revealed a statistically significant improvement. The only adverse effects registered were edema and ecchymosis. The treatment of facial lipoatrophy improved the self-perceived quality of life and facial image as well as any depressive symptoms among patients with HIV/AIDS. © 2014 The International Society of Dermatology.

  17. Protein kinase C-beta inhibition induces apoptosis and inhibits cell cycle progression in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related non-hodgkin lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Saba, Nakhle S; Levy, Laura S

    2012-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) constitutes an aggressive variety of lymphomas characterized by increased extranodal involvement, relapse rate, and resistance to chemotherapy. Protein kinase C-beta (PKCβ) targeting showed promising results in preclinical and clinical studies involving a wide variety of cancers, but studies describing the role of PKCβ in AIDS-NHL are primitive if not lacking. In the present study, 3 AIDS-NHL cell lines were examined: 2F7 (AIDS-Burkitt lymphoma), BCBL-1 (AIDS-primary effusion lymphoma), and UMCL01-101 (AIDS-diffuse large B-cell lymphoma). Immunoblot analysis demonstrated expression of PKCβ1 and PKCβ2 in 2F7 and UMCL01-101 cells, and PKCβ1 alone in BCBL-1 cells. The viability of 2F7 and BCBL-1 cells decreased significantly in the presence of PKCβ-selective inhibitor at half-maximal inhibitory concentration of 14 and 15 μmol/L, respectively, as measured by tetrazolium dye reduction assay. In contrast, UMCL01-101 cells were relatively resistant. As determined using flow cytometric deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick-end labeling assay with propidium iodide staining, the responsiveness of sensitive cells was associated with apoptotic induction and cell cycle inhibition. Protein kinase C-beta-selective inhibition was observed not to affect AKT phosphorylation but to induce a rapid and sustained reduction in the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta, ribosomal protein S6, and mammalian target of rapamycin in sensitive cell lines. The results indicate that PKCβ plays an important role in AIDS-related NHL survival and suggest that PKCβ targeting should be considered in a broader spectrum of NHL. The observations in BCBL-1 were unexpected in the absence of PKCβ2 expression and implicate PKCβ1 as a regulator in those cells.

  18. Knowledge and attitude of Indian clinical dental students towards the dental treatment of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Marya, Charu Mohan; Sharma, Nilima; Mohanty, Vikrant; Marwah, Mohita; Oberoi, Avneet

    2014-12-01

    Oral health care of patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a growing area of concern. Information on HIV- and AIDS-related knowledge among dental students provides a crucial foundation for efforts aimed at developing an appropriate dental curriculum on HIV and AIDS. The purpose of this study was to assess the knowledge and attitude of Indian clinical dental students towards the treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS and perceived sources of information regarding HIV-related issues. Data were collected from clinical dental students (third year, fourth year and internship) from three dental institutions in Delhi National Capital Region (NCR). The questions assessed the knowledge and attitude towards treatment of patients with HIV and the perceived source of information related to HIV. The willingness to treat HIV-positive patients among dental students was 67.0%, and 74.20% were confident of treating a patient with HIV/AIDS. The potential problems in rendering treatment to these patients were effect on the attitude of other patients (49.90%) and staff fears (52.50%). The correct knowledge regarding the infection-control practice (barrier technique) was found among only 15.50% of respondents. The respondents had sufficient knowledge regarding the oral manifestations of HIV/AIDS. There was no correlation between the knowledge and attitude score, demonstrating a gap between knowledge and attitude among dental students regarding treatment of HIV-infected patients. Appropriate knowledge has to be delivered through the dental education curriculum, which can instil confidence in students about their ability to manage HIV-positive patients. © 2014 FDI World Dental Federation.

  19. Influence of the home environment on the prevention of mother to child transmission of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune-deficiency syndrome in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Sewnunan, A; Modiba, L M

    2015-01-01

    The human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is still a 'family crises' which marks the beginning of the deterioration of the family unit and the trauma in the emotional, psychological and material lives of both the mother and child. In South African context where the majority of HIV-positive mothers are young single women who live in extended families, disclosure to the sexual partner alone is not an adequate condition for the success of prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT). In South Africa, close to one in three women who attend antenatal clinics are HIV positive. KwaZulu-Natal is one of the worst affected provinces, where as many as 40-60% of pregnant women attending antenatal services are living with HIV infection. The study sought to investigate the link between the home environment and its contribution to the success of the programme on PMTCT of HIV/AIDS. A qualitative, explorative, descriptive and contextual study was used in this study to explore whether the home environment for the support system is available for the HIV-positive women on the PMTCT programme. The population of this study included all women who have undergone counselling and tested HIV positive and who have joined the programme on PMTCT of HIV/AIDS in a specific hospital in KwaZulu-Natal Province. Although 14 women agreed to participate in the study, only 10 women were interviewed as saturation was attained. Data were collected using semi-structured interview schedule. Interviews were audio-taped and field notes were taken. Content analysis was used and it was done manually. This study revealed that one of the major issues still surrounding HIV/AIDS and PMTCT is that of non-disclosure, selective disclosure and the stigma and discrimination that surrounds this disease.

  20. Multilevel drivers of human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome among Black Philadelphians: exploration using community ethnography and geographic information systems.

    PubMed

    Brawner, Bridgette M; Reason, Janaiya L; Goodman, Bridget A; Schensul, Jean J; Guthrie, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Unequal human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) distribution is influenced by certain social and structural contexts that facilitate HIV transmission and concentrate HIV in disease epicenters. Thus, one of the first steps in designing effective community-level HIV/AIDS initiatives is to disentangle the influence of individual, social, and structural factors on HIV risk. Combining ethnographic methodology with geographic information systems mapping can allow for a complex exploration of multilevel factors within communities that facilitate HIV transmission in highly affected areas. We present the formative comparative community-based case study findings of an investigation of individual-, social-, and structural-level factors that contribute to the HIV/AIDS epidemic among Black Philadelphians. Communities were defined using census tracts. The methodology included ethnographic and geographic information systems mapping, observation, informal conversations with residents and business owners, and secondary analyses of census tract-level data in four Philadelphia neighborhoods. Factors such as overcrowding, disadvantage, permeability in community boundaries, and availability and accessibility of health-related resources varied significantly. Furthermore, HIV/AIDS trended with social and structural inequities above and beyond the community's racial composition. This study was a first step to disentangle relationships between community-level factors and potential risk for HIV in an HIV epicenter. The findings also highlight stark sociodemographic differences within and across racial groups and further substantiate the need for comprehensive, community-level HIV prevention interventions. These findings from targeted U.S. urban communities have potential applicability for examining the distribution of HIV/AIDS in broader national and international geosocial contexts.

  1. Knowledge, attitude, and perception of disease among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome: A study from a tertiary care center in North India

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Mrinal; Mahajan, Vikram K.; Chauahn, Pushpinder S.; Mehta, Karainder S.; Rawat, Ritu; Shiny, T. N.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although modification of behavioral practices among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-affected patients is important in decreasing HIV disease transmission, the knowledge, attitude, and perception studies about HIV infection rarely include persons living with HIV/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Aims: To assess knowledge, attitude, and perceptions of persons living with HIV/AIDS for the disease and other epidemiological aspects. Materials and Methods: One-hundred and fifty consecutive persons living with HIV/AIDS were enrolled for this questionnaire-based cross-sectional, descriptive study. Results: These 150 patients comprised 93 men and 57 women, aged between 14 and 78 (mean 37.13) years. The majority, 112 (74.67%) patients were between 20 and 50 years of age and 116 (77.3%) patients were either illiterate or high-school dropouts. Drivers, laborers, and self-employed comprised 69 (74.2%) patients among affected males. Only 129 (86%) respondents had heard about HIV/AIDS and knew about its heterosexual transmission. Ninety-eight (65.3%) respondents were aware of disease transmission from infected blood or needle pricks. Interestingly, 106 (70.7%) respondents were aware of the importance of using condom in preventing disease transmission. Television/radio was the most common sources of information for 135 (90%) patients. Nearly, 69% respondents disfavored disclosing their disease to friends/colleagues fearing stigmatization. Conclusions: Information, education, and communication activities are imperative to educate persons living with HIV/AIDS about life-long nature of the disease, modes of its transmission, and significance of preventive measures to bridge the gaps in their knowledge. While improvement in individual economic status, education, and health services remains highly desirable, mass media can play a pivotal role in creating awareness among masses. PMID:27890953

  2. Clinical and Laboratory Profile of Persons Living with Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome and Histoplasmosis from a Colombian Hospital.

    PubMed

    Caceres, Diego H; Tobón, Angela M; Cleveland, Angela Ahlquist; Scheel, Christina M; Berbesi, Dedsy Y; Ochoa, Jesús; Restrepo, Angela; Brandt, Mary E; Chiller, Tom; Gómez, Beatriz L

    2016-10-05

    Histoplasmosis is common among persons living with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (PLWHA) in Latin America, but its diagnosis is difficult and often nonspecific. We conducted prospective screening for histoplasmosis among PLWHA with signs or symptoms suggesting progressive disseminated histoplasmosis (PDH) and hospitalized in Hospital La María in Medellín, Colombia. The study's aim was to obtain a clinical and laboratory profile of PLWHA with PDH. During 3 years (May 2008 to August 2011), we identified 89 PLWHA hospitalized with symptoms suggestive of PDH, of whom 45 (51%) had histoplasmosis. We observed tuberculosis (TB) coinfection in a large proportion of patients with PDH (35%), so all analyses were performed adjusting for this coinfection and, alternatively, excluding histoplasmosis patients with TB. Results showed that the patients with PDH were more likely to have Karnofsky score ≤ 30 (prevalence ratio [PR] = 1.98, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.97-4.06), liver compromised with hepatomegaly and/or splenomegaly (PR = 1.77, CI = 1.03-3.06) and elevation in serum of alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase to values > 40 mU/mL (PR = 2.06, CI = 1.09-3.88 and PR = 1.53, CI = 0.99-2.35, respectively). Using multiple correspondence analyses, we identified in patients with PDH a profile characterized by the presence of constitutional symptoms, namely weight loss and Karnofsky classification ≤ 30, gastrointestinal manifestations with alteration of liver enzymes and hepatosplenomegaly and/or splenomegaly, skin lesions, and hematological alterations. Study of the profiles is no substitute for laboratory diagnostics, but identifying clinical and laboratory indicators of PLWHA with PDH should allow development of strategies for reducing the time to diagnosis and thus mortality caused by Histoplasma capsulatum. © The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene.

  3. Stigma and discrimination within the Ethiopian health care settings: Views of inpatients living with human immunodeficiency virus and acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Wodajo, Befekadu S.; Thupayagale-Tshweneagae, Gloria

    2017-01-01

    Background Stigma and discrimination attached to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) have been recognised as a major obstacle to HIV prevention, treatment, care and support throughout the world. Stigma and discrimination are more devastating when they occur in health care settings where it is least expected. Aim To explore the factors attributable to stigma and discrimination of people living with HIV in two Ethiopian rural hospitals on what they thought of health care professionals (HCPs) attending to them. Methods A qualitative exploratory approach was used. Data collection was by means of audio-taped interview and Tesch’s content analysis approach was used. The sample size for this study was determined by saturation of data and consisted of 16 participants who were people living with HIV admitted as inpatients to the two selected hospitals in Amhara region of Ethiopia. Results Participants’ views were grouped into: fear of contact, delay of services, substandard services, denial of care, impoliteness of health care providers, breach of confidentiality and poor patient follow-up for persons infected with HIV. Conclusion The health care settings have been recognised as one of the contexts where HIV and AIDS-related stigmatisation and discrimination can occur. Hospital policies and institutional support should be tailored to embrace people living with HIV as the provision of institutional support is imperative in creating a good working environment and improving the commitment of HCPs so as to enable them to provide holistic care for people living with HIV and AIDS (PLWHA) without discrimination. PMID:28828877

  4. [Human acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)].

    PubMed

    Pivel, L; Di Píramoll, S; Betancor, E

    1987-12-01

    This work, intended primarily for dentists, provides detailed information on the mechanism of action of the AIDS virus, its epidemiology and most common routes of infection, the clinical manifestations of HIV infection, and related oral lesions of relevance to the dentist. The work also recommends ways in which dentists can aid in diagnosis, avoid contaminating patients, and avoid being infected themselves by seropositive patients. The article begins by describing retroviruses and their mode of action and then focuses on the pathogenic mechanism of the HIV virus, which preferentially attacks T4 helper lymphocytes. The lymphocytes are destroyed by the viruses multiplying in their interiors. The decline in the number of T4 lymphocytes results in diminished capacity of the immune system to respond, favoring in turn the appearance of certain tumors and opportunistic infections that eventually prove fatal. The virus may also affect cells of the central nervous system, producing dementia and other disorders. Although AIDS was initially observed primarily in male homosexuals and drug addicts in the US and Europe, it has had a relatively even sex ratio in Africa, where few victims have been homosexuals or drug addicts. The virus is now found in most of the world's countries and is known to be spread primarily through sexual contact. Other routes of transmission are by contaminated hypodermic needles, prenatal infection, and infected blood transfusions. There is still no good evidence that saliva can be a route of contamination. Lesions of the oral cavity that indicate immune deficiency include Candidiasis, gingivostomatitis, necrosing ulcer, Histoplasmosis, Herpes simplex, papillomas and condylomas, Leukoplasia vellosa, Kaposi's sarcoma, some cancers, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. European and American studies indicate that 75% of AIDS patients have oral or oral-esophageal candidiasis, which can occur in 3 forms. Most of these oral manifestations are very rare in the general population. The dentist should wear protective clothing to prevent direct transmission and should carefully discard or disinfect used materials and supplies. Tools and the work area should be carefully decontaminated after each patient is seen.

  5. [Cryptococcosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Lobos, T; Acuña, G; Espinoza, R; León, E

    1990-03-01

    The diagnosis of cryptococcal infection was established in 3 patients with AIDS. Infection was meningo-encephalic in all and presented a violent outset. The chemical characteristics of the CSF were normal. Detection of cryptococcal antigen, presence of encapsulated yeast forms revealed by india-ink staining and positive cultures allowed a definitive diagnosis. Response to therapy with amphotericin B alone or in combination with 5-fluorocytosine was poor. A maintenance therapy with fluconazole is recommended.

  6. Sexually Transmitted Infections Among Hospitalized Patients With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection and Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (HIV/AIDS) in Zahedan, Southeastern Iran

    PubMed Central

    Hashemi-Shahri, Seyed Mohammad; Sharifi-Mood, Batool; Kouhpayeh, Hamid-Reza; Moazen, Javad; Farrokhian, Mohsen; Salehi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies show that nearly 40 million people are living with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) around the world and since the beginning of the epidemic, about 35 million have died from AIDS. Heterosexual intercourse is the most common route for transmission of HIV infection (85%). People with a sexually transmitted infection (STI), such as syphilis, genital herpes, chancroid, or bacterial vaginosis, are more likely to obtain HIV infection during sex. On the other hand, a patient with HIV can acquire other infections such as hepatitis C virus (HCV) and hepatitis B virus (HBV) and also STIs. Co-infections and co-morbidities can affect the treatment route of patients with HIV/AIDs. Sometimes, physicians should treat these infections before treating the HIV infection. Therefore, it is important to identify co-infection or comorbidity in patients with HIV/AIDS. Objectives This study was conducted in order to understand the prevalence of HIV/AIDS/STI co-infection. Patients and Methods In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated all HIV/AIDS patients who were admitted to the infectious wards of Boo-Ali hospital (Southeastern Iran) between March 2000 and January 2015. All HIV/AIDS patients were studied for sexually transmitted infections (STI) such as syphilis, gonorrhea, hepatitis B virus (HBV) and genital herpes. A questionnaire including data on age, sex, job, history of vaccination against HBV, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc), hepatitis B surface antigen (anti-HBs), HCV-Ab, venereal disease research laboratory (VDRL) test, fluorescent treponemal antibody absorption (FTA-Abs) test, and urine culture was designed. Data was analyzed by the Chi square test and P values of < 0.05 were considered significant. Results Among the 41 patients with HIV/AIDS (11 females and 30 males; with age range of 18 to 69 years) five cases (12.1%) had a positive test (1:8 or more) for

  7. Frequency, pattern, and extent of skin diseases in relation to CD4+ cell count among adults with human immunodeficiency virus infection or acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Osogbo, southwestern Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Akinboro, Adeolu Oladayo; Onayemi, Olaniyi; Mejiuni, Ayodele D

    2014-04-01

    Skin diseases characterize all stages of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and contribute significantly to associated morbidity and mortality. The aim of this study was to document the prevalences, patterns, and extents (severity) of skin diseases and their relationships with immunologic status in HIV/AIDS patients. A total of 140 HIV/AIDS patients in different stages of HIV infection and 140 controls were recruited. Skin diseases were documented and CD4+ cell counts determined in all subjects. Severity was assessed according to the body surface area affected (using the Wallace rule of nines and the rule of palm) for lesions that tended to be widespread. The number of digits involved was counted for lesions involving the nails. Intensity of pain was graded for specific conditions such as herpes zoster. Chi-squared statistics and Pearson correlations were determined. Mean±standard deviation age was 35.04±8.83 years in the patient group and 32.21±8.30 years in the control group. The prevalences and patterns of skin diseases in HIV/AIDS patients were similar to those reported in previous studies. Most commonly found dermatoses were oral candidiasis (n=28, 20.0%), pruritic papular eruption (n=27, 19.3%), xeroderma (n=23, 16.4%), dermatophytosis (n=22, 15.7%), and fluffy hair (n=19, 13.6%). The presence of specific skin lesions represented a better correlate with immunosuppression than cutaneous extents. However, the extents of viral warts and multiple blue–black nails correlated significantly with CD4+ cell count. The presence of a lighter hair color phenotype signifies a lower CD4+ cell count than a softer hair phenotype. The presence of specific skin lesions correlates more strongly with a low CD4+ cell count than does the extent of their distribution, except in cases of viral warts. The presence of and higher numbers of nails affected with blue–black nail hyperpigmentation suggest severe

  8. Imported acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related histoplasmosis in metropolitan France: a comparison of pre-highly active anti-retroviral therapy and highly active anti-retroviral therapy eras.

    PubMed

    Peigne, Vincent; Dromer, Françoise; Elie, Caroline; Lidove, Olivier; Lortholary, Olivier

    2011-11-01

    Histoplasma capsulatum var. capsulatum infection is rare outside disease-endemic areas. Clinical presentation and outcome of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related histoplasmosis are unknown in non-endemic areas with wide access to highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Retrospective analysis of cases recorded at the French National Reference Center for Mycoses and Antifungals during two decades: pre-HAART (1985-1994) and HAART (1997-2006). Clinical features and outcome of all adults with proven acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related histoplasmosis were compared between the two periods. One hundred four patients were included (40 during the pre-HAART era and 64 during the HAART era). Diagnosis was established a mean of 62 days after onset of symptoms. One-year overall mortality rates decreased from 53% (pre-HAART era) to 22% (HAART era). Diagnosis during the pre-HAART era and an older age were the only independent factors associated with death. Histoplasmosis is a rare invasive fungal infection outside disease-endemic areas. Its prognosis improved significantly during the HAART era.

  9. Eight-year observation and comparative study of specific pathogen-free cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) subtypes A and B: terminal acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in a cat infected with FIV petaluma strain.

    PubMed

    Kohmoto, M; Uetsuka, K; Ikeda, Y; Inoshima, Y; Shimojima, M; Sato, E; Inada, G; Toyosaki, T; Miyazawa, T; Doi, K; Mikami, T

    1998-03-01

    Three specific pathogen-free cats experimentally infected with feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) strains Petaluma, TM1 and TM2, respectively were observed for over 8 years. Without showing any significant clinical signs of immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) for 8 years and 4 months of asymptomatic phase, the Petaluma-infected cat exhibited severe stomatitis/gingivitis, anorexia, emaciation, hematological and immunological disorders such as severe anemia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia, and decrease of CD4/CD8 ratio to 0.075, and finally died with hemoperitoneum at 8 years and 8 months post-infection. Histopathological studies revealed that the cat had systemic lymphoid atrophy and bone marrow disorders indicating acute myelocytic leukemia (aleukemic type). Plasma viral titer of the cat at AIDS phase was considerably high and anti-FIV antibody titer was slightly low as compared with the other FIV-infected cats. In addition, immunoblotting analysis using serially collected serum/plasma samples of these cats revealed that antibodies against FIV proteins were induced in all the infected cats, however in the Petaluma-infected cat anti-Gag antibodies disappeared during the asymptomatic period. These results suggested that plasma viral load and anti-FIV Gag antibody response correlated with disease progression, and supported FIV-infected cats as a suitable animal model of human AIDS.

  10. [Study on the prevalence of loss to follow-up and risk factors among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients in Baoshan city, Yunnan province].

    PubMed

    Huang, Dongsheng; Zheng, Weibin; Yang, Jiafang; Li, Yanping; Hu, Anyan; Xu, Zhengcui

    2014-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of loss to follow-up (PLF) and risk factors among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) patients from 1989 to 2012 in Baoshan city, Yunnan province. The epidemic and follow-up databases of HIV/AIDS patients by the end of 2012 were downloaded from "the history card downloading site" of HIV/AIDS database in China Information System for Disease Control and Prevention and obtained the related data of patients from 1989 to 2012 who had local residence in Baoshan city. These data included demographic characteristics (genders, age at the time of HIV testing positive, and occupation, marital status, and education levels, et al), transmission routes, and disease staging, antiretroviral therapy (ART), and sources of samples, the first CD4(+)T cell counts, and status of follow-up, et al. Descriptive epidemiological study was used to describe the general characteristics of loss to follow-up. Multivariable Cox regression was used for determining risk factors associated with loss to follow-up. A total of 3 295 eligible HIV/AIDS patients from 1989 to 2012 were included. The accumulative study person-year was 11 416.59 years, 222 HIV/AIDS patients were lost to follow-up, and the PLF was 0.019 4/ person years (py). The highest PLF was 0.052 8/py in 2008, the lowest was 0.006 2/py in 2012. The lost patients included 56.76% (126/222) males and 43.24% (96/222) females, the PLFs were 0.020 4/py, 0.018 3/py, respectively. Baoshan city, other cities in Yunnan province, and other provinces, foreign nationality as the family register reached 53.60% (119/222) , 28.83% (64/222) , and 5.86% (13/222) , 11.71% (26/222) , respectively, and their PLFs were 0.012 5/py, 0.046 3/py, and 0.053 6/py, 0.095 6/py, respectively. Receiving ART and not receiving ART occupied 6.76% (15/222) , 93.24% (207/222) , respectively, and the PLFs were 0.001 9/py, 0.0588/py. AIDS and HIV staging standed at 8.11% (18/222) , 91.89% (204

  11. Expression of Ley antigen in human immunodeficiency virus-infected human T cell lines and in peripheral lymphocytes of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and AIDS-related complex (ARC)

    PubMed Central

    1988-01-01

    Ley determinant (Fuc alpha 1----2Gal beta 1----4[Fuc alpha 1---- 3]GlcNAc beta 1----R) defined by mAb BM-1 is highly expressed in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected T cell lines and in CD3+ peripheral mature T cells of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) or with AIDS-related complex (ARC). Ley expression increased greatly in the CD3+ population in the advanced stage of AIDS when the CD4+ population decreased greatly. Six other carbohydrate antigens tested by their respective mAbs were not detected in these same cells. None of the carbohydrate antigens tested by the seven mAbs used in this study were found in noninfected T cell lines and in normal peripheral blood lymphocytes. PMID:3258005

  12. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome: review.

    PubMed

    Scully, C; Cawson, R A; Porter, S R

    1986-07-19

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is reviewed for dental practitioners, with an emphasis on oral findings; the clinical course, diagnosis, reporting, treatment, prognosis, transmission, and epidemiology are also covered. HIV infection has an incubation period that may be associated with glandular fever, a prodrome called AIDS-Related Complex (ARC) characterized by lymphadenopathy, low fever, weight loss, night sweats, diarrhea, oral candidosis, nonproductive cough and recurrent infections. AIDS is characterized by opportunistic infections. Over 50% present with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, 21% with Kaposi's sarcoma, and 6% have both. The AIDS virus causes direct neurological symptoms in some cases. Oral candidosis (thrush) in a young male without a local cause such as xerostomia or immune suppression is strongly suggestive of AIDS. Other oral manifestations are severe herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, venereal warts, aphthous ulceration, mycobacterial oral ulcers, oral histoplasmosis, sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the jaw. Hairy leukoplakia, usually seen on the lateral border of the tongue, is probably caused by Epstein-Barr virus. Kaposi's sarcoma, an endothelial cell tumor, is characteristic of AIDS, and in 50% of patients is oral or perioral. Cervical lymph node enlargement will be seen in those with ARC as well as AIDS. No guidelines have been issued by the Department of Health and Social Security for dental surgeons in the UK for reporting AIDS cases. Although HIV virions have been isolated from saliva, there are no known incidents of transmission via saliva. HIV is less likely to be transmitted by needle stick injuries than, for example hepatitis B (25% risk), especially if the blood is from a carrier rather than a full blown AIDS case.

  13. [Acquired Horner's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Alstadhaug, Karl B

    2011-05-20

    Horner's syndrome is characterized by the classic triad of eyelid ptosis, miosis and facial anhidrosis and is caused by an interruption of the oculosympathetic nerve pathway somewhere between its origin in the hypothalamus and the eye. This review is based on own experiences and a discretionary selection of articles found through non-systematic searches in PubMed. Cases from own practice serve as examples. Based on localization of the nerve pathway interruption, a Horner's syndrome is often classified as central, pre- or postganglionic. For the central type the syndrome is associated with other symptoms and signs from the central nervous system. The preganglionic type is most often caused by a tumor or trauma. The postganglionic type is often associated with pain/headache; most frequently it is seen as a consequence of carotid artery dissection or during cluster headache. Anhidrosis is rarely prominent, and in the postganglionic subtype it is virtually absent. Pharmacological tests can be used in diagnostics. Apraclonidine seems to be a good alternative to cocaine to confirm Horner's syndrome. MRI is generally recommended in the evaluation, if necessary with special sequences. The path of the long oculosympathetic fibers is complex and not fully understood. Topographic diagnostics may be challenging, but in most cases a specific cause is identified.

  14. [Epidemiological characteristics of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) in connection with the activities of maternal health care and family planning services].

    PubMed

    Vasilev, D; Mekhandzhieva, V

    1987-01-01

    Various epidemiological aspects of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are reviewed with special emphasis on the risk groups, the increasing role of heterosexual transmission, and possibilities of perinatal transmission and infection. In September of 1986, a total of 31,646 cases of AIDS were reported worldwide. AIDS cases were reported in virtually all countries. The average incidence of the disease (per 100,000) ranged from 9 in US to 1-1.2 in Europe, and 17-18 in Central Africa. In US, AIDS became a leading cause of infant mortality. Progressive increase in the incidence of heterosexual transmission poses a threat to the general population and increases the risk of perinatal transmission. During vaginal intercourse both partners have an equal chance to get infected with AIDS. The presence of other venereal diseases was found to increase the risk of AIDS transmission. Promiscuity was shown to increase the risk of AIDS. In Uganda, 14% of pregnant women were HIV seropositive. AIDS transmission was reported following blood transfusion during cesarean section. Almost 60% of infected newborn infants die within 1 month of birth. It was concluded that AIDS is a global social and medical problem, and in the absence of an effective cure or vaccine, the most important preventive measures are changes in sex behavior, the use of contraceptive agents and devices, and education of the general population and women of child-bearing age.

  15. Primary Extranodal Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma of the Head and Neck in Patients with Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: A Clinicopathologic Study of 24 Patients in a Single Hospital of Infectious Diseases in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Corti, Marcelo; Villafañe, María; Bistmans, Alicia; Narbaitz, Marina; Gilardi, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are commonly described in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and are related with an atypical morphology and aggressive clinical course. AIDS-associated lymphomas are characterized by their rapid progression, frequent extranodal manifestations, and poor outcome. Objective The aim of this article is to remake the clinical features of head and neck (HN) NHL in patients with AIDS to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. Methods We evaluated the epidemiologic, clinical, immunologic, virologic, and histopathologic characteristics of 24 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS with primary HN NHL treated at a single institution between 2002 and 2012. Histopathologic diagnosis was made according to the criteria of the World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Additional immunohistochemical stains were applied in all cases. Results Eighteen patients (75%) were men and the median of age was 39 years. The gingiva and the hard palate were the most common sites of the lesions (15 patients, 62.5%). Lactate dehydrogenase levels were elevated in 16 cases (84%). Bone marrow infiltration was detected only in 4 cases (16.6%). The median CD4 T-cell count was 100 cells/µL. According to the histopathologic evaluation, the most common subtype was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (12 cases, 50%), followed by plasmablastic lymphoma (9 cases, 37.5%) and Burkitt lymphoma (3 cases, 12.5%). Conclusion HN NHL is a severe complication of advanced HIV/AIDS disease. Early diagnosis followed by chemotherapy plus highly active antiretroviral treatment is necessary to improve the prognosis and the survival of these patients. PMID:25992103

  16. Primary extranodal non-hodgkin lymphoma of the head and neck in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a clinicopathologic study of 24 patients in a single hospital of infectious diseases in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Corti, Marcelo; Villafañe, María; Bistmans, Alicia; Narbaitz, Marina; Gilardi, Leonardo

    2014-07-01

    Introduction Extranodal non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHLs) are commonly described in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and are related with an atypical morphology and aggressive clinical course. AIDS-associated lymphomas are characterized by their rapid progression, frequent extranodal manifestations, and poor outcome. Objective The aim of this article is to remake the clinical features of head and neck (HN) NHL in patients with AIDS to facilitate early diagnosis and treatment. Methods We evaluated the epidemiologic, clinical, immunologic, virologic, and histopathologic characteristics of 24 patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/AIDS with primary HN NHL treated at a single institution between 2002 and 2012. Histopathologic diagnosis was made according to the criteria of the World Health Organization Classification of Tumors of Hematopoietic and Lymphoid Tissues. Additional immunohistochemical stains were applied in all cases. Results Eighteen patients (75%) were men and the median of age was 39 years. The gingiva and the hard palate were the most common sites of the lesions (15 patients, 62.5%). Lactate dehydrogenase levels were elevated in 16 cases (84%). Bone marrow infiltration was detected only in 4 cases (16.6%). The median CD4 T-cell count was 100 cells/µL. According to the histopathologic evaluation, the most common subtype was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (12 cases, 50%), followed by plasmablastic lymphoma (9 cases, 37.5%) and Burkitt lymphoma (3 cases, 12.5%). Conclusion HN NHL is a severe complication of advanced HIV/AIDS disease. Early diagnosis followed by chemotherapy plus highly active antiretroviral treatment is necessary to improve the prognosis and the survival of these patients.

  17. [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma: 1. Course during the 20 years of the epidemic. 2. The experience at the Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán: 1986-2003].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Rivera, E Gabriela; Gómez-Roel, Xóchitl; Villasís-Keever, Angelina

    2004-01-01

    The goal of this presentation is the description of the epidemiologic evolution and changes in natural history of the human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) epidemic itself and its relation with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-related lymphoma (ARL). We have started with the description of the world's state of the HIV epidemic, its features since the first case report in the United States of America in 1981, through the peak of new diagnoses in 1993 until the event that changed the natural history of the disease: the era of the widespread use of the highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), introduced in 1995 in the world and in 1997 in our country. The widespread introduction of HAART led to dramatic reductions in AIDS related mortality and morbidity throughout the developed world with a marked fall in the incidence of the major opportunistic infections in AIDS. We describe the main risk factors for the development of ARL, and the prognostic factors for survival and response to treatment. There is no clear definition in the literature of the roll that has played the use of HAART in relation to survival and response to treatment in ARL, but there is evidence that the basal count of CD4 cells has increased with HAART, leading to a better survival and response in ARL. The debate regarding this issue is surely affected by factors such as degree of antiretroviral treatment compliance, antiretroviral therapy resistance and chemotherapy heterogeneity. Finally we present the preliminary results of the analysis of our experience in ARL from 1986 to 2003.

  18. [Detection of anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG, IgM and IgA immunoglobulins in the serum, cerebrospinal fluid and saliva of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and neurotoxoplasmosis].

    PubMed

    Borges, Aercio Sebastião; Figueiredo, José Fernando de Castro

    2004-12-01

    We studied 55 patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and neurotoxoplasmosis (group 1), 37 patients with AIDS and neurological involvement due to another etiology (group 2) and 18 anti-HIV-negative individuals with neurological manifestations, by searching for anti-T. gondii IgG, IgA and IgM immunoglobulins in serum, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)and saliva, using ELISA. The negative predictive value of the test for IgG in serum was 100% and in CSF, 92.4%. There was no difference among the three groups studied regarding IgA in serum. For IgA, in CSF the test reached 72.7% specificity (p<0.05). In saliva, only the detection of IgG was found to be correlated with a diagnosis of neurotoxoplasmosis. We emphasize that the absence of anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies in serum and CSF strongly indicates the absence of a diagnosis of neurotoxoplasmosis and that specific IgA immunoglobulins in CSF and IgG in saliva may represent two auxiliary markers for the differential diagnosis of toxoplasmic encephalitis in AIDS.

  19. Coinfection of Leishmania guyanensis and Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: Report of a Case of Disseminated Cutaneous Leishmaniasis in Ecuador.

    PubMed

    Calvopina, Manuel; Aguirre, Cristina; Cevallos, William; Castillo, Alberto; Abbasi, Ibrahim; Warburg, Alon

    2017-05-01

    AbstractReported herein is the first case of Leishmania-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) coinfection in Ecuador. In Ecuador, HIV infections overlap endemic areas of leishmaniasis. Immunosuppression is a well-established risk factor for developing severe disease. This is a severe case of a 32-year-old man presenting with disseminated pleomorphic ulcers, papules, and cutaneous plaque-like lesions over his whole body. Numerous amastigotes were observed in both skin scrapings and biopsies. The sequence of the cytochrome b gene confirmed the presence of Leishmania guyanensis. The patient was treated but failed to respond to meglumine antimoniate and amphotericin B. Six months later, the patient died due to bacterial septic shock.

  20. Short report: Identification of virulence-associated plasmids in Rhodococcus equi in humans with and without acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Márcio Garcia; Takai, Shinji; de Vargas, Agueda Castagna; Mattos-Guaraldi, Ana Luiza; Ferreira Camello, Thereza Cristina; Ohno, Ryoko; Okano, Hajime; Silva, Aristeu Vieira da

    2011-09-01

    Virulence of Rhodococcus equi strains from 20 humans in Brazil was investigated by using a polymerase chain reaction to characterize isolates as virulent (VapA), intermediately virulent (VapB), and avirulent. Nine isolates were obtained from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients, six from HIV-negative patients, and five from patients of unknown status. Five isolates were VapB positive, four were VapA positive, and eleven were avirulent. Among the nine isolates from HIV-positive patients, five contained VapB plasmids and two contained VapA plasmids. Five VapB-positive isolates had the type 8 virulence plasmid. Eleven of the patients had a history of contact with livestock and/or a farm environment, and none had contact with pigs.

  1. Hemichorea-hemiballismus as an initial manifestation in a Moroccan patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and toxoplasma infection: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Rabhi, Samira; Amrani, Kawthar; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Khammar, Zineb; Khibri, Hajar; Ouazzani, Maha; Berrady, Rhizlane; Tizniti, Siham; Messouak, Ouafae; Belahsen, Faouzy; Bono, Wafaa

    2011-01-01

    Neurologic signs and symptoms may represent the initial presentation of AIDS in 10-30% of patients. Movement disorders may be the result of direct central nervous system infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or the result of opportunistic infections. We report the case of a 59 years old woman who had hemichorea-hemiballismus subsequently found to be secondary to a cerebral toxoplasmosis infection revealing HIV infection. Movement disorders, headache and nausea were resolved after two weeks of antitoxoplasmic treatment. Brain MRI control showed a marked resolution of cerebral lesion. Occurrence of hemichorea-ballismus in patient without familial history of movement disorders suggests a diagnosis of AIDS and in particular the diagnosis of secondary cerebral toxoplasmosis. Early recognition is important since it is a treatable entity.

  2. Hemichorea-hemiballismus as an initial manifestation in a Moroccan patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and toxoplasma infection: a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Rabhi, Samira; Amrani, Kawthar; Maaroufi, Mustapha; Khammar, Zineb; Khibri, Hajar; Ouazzani, Maha; Berrady, Rhizlane; Tizniti, Siham; Messouak, Ouafae; Belahsen, Faouzy; Bono, Wafaa

    2011-01-01

    Neurologic signs and symptoms may represent the initial presentation of AIDS in 10-30% of patients. Movement disorders may be the result of direct central nervous system infection by human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) or the result of opportunistic infections. We report the case of a 59 years old woman who had hemichorea-hemiballismus subsequently found to be secondary to a cerebral toxoplasmosis infection revealing HIV infection. Movement disorders, headache and nausea were resolved after two weeks of antitoxoplasmic treatment. Brain MRI control showed a marked resolution of cerebral lesion. Occurrence of hemichorea-ballismus in patient without familial history of movement disorders suggests a diagnosis of AIDS and in particular the diagnosis of secondary cerebral toxoplasmosis. Early recognition is important since it is a treatable entity. PMID:22187591

  3. Disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis resembling post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania donovani in three patients co-infected with visceral leishmaniasis and human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Gelanew, Tesfaye; Hurissa, Zewdu; Diro, Ermias; Kassahun, Aysheshm; Kuhls, Katrin; Schönian, Gabriele; Hailu, Asrat

    2011-06-01

    We report paired strains of Leishmania parasites, one from the viscera and the other from skin lesions that were isolated from three patients with visceral leishmaniasis and disseminated cutaneous leishmaniasis that were co-infected with human immunodeficiency virus. The causative parasites were characterized by polymerase chain reaction-restriction length polymorphism of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacer 1 and by a panel of multilocus microsatellite markers. We demonstrated that the causative agent was Leishmania donovani in all cases, irrespective of the phenotype of the disease. The paired strains from viscera and skin lesions of the same patients showed genetic identity across the 14 microsatellite markers investigated. These findings demonstrate that the skin lesions in these human immunodeficiency virus-positive patients with visceral leishmaniasis were caused by dissemination of viscerotropic L. donovani parasites as a consequence of severe immunosuppression. However, in all three patients, rapid clearance of the skin lesions was observed after antimonial therapy.

  4. Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on oral manifestations of patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome in South India

    PubMed Central

    Rao, K. V. S. Eswara; Chitturi, Ravi Teja; Kattappagari, Kiran Kumar; Kantheti, Lalith Prakash Chandra; Poosarla, Chandrasekhar; Baddam, Venkat Ramana Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a global health problem, although the development of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly modified the course of HIV disease into a manageable disease with improved quality-of-life mainly in the developed countries. Very few studies are available regarding effect of HAART on oral lesions in developing countries like India. Aims and Objectives: The aim was to document and compare oral lesions in HIV-seropositive patients before and after HAART. Materials and Methods: Oral manifestations were recorded in 320 HIV seropositive patients attending to the Voluntary Counseling and Confidential Testing Centre at the Government General Hospital, Guntur, before and after treating with HAART and the results were statistically analyzed using Student's t-test and Chi-square test. Results: Oral Candidiasis was significantly reduced in patients under HAART after 3 months. Furthermore, there was decreased incidence of periodontal diseases, but increased hyperpigmentation in patients undergoing HAART. Conclusion: The oral manifestations of HIV infection have changed due to the advent of HAART. Many opportunistic infections have resolved as a result of an improved immune system. Though the risk of hyperpigmentation in those with HAART has increased the prevalence of oral candidiasis and periodontal diseases were less in patients who had access to HAART. PMID:26392652

  5. Impact of highly active antiretroviral therapy on oral manifestations of patients with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immuno deficiency syndrome in South India.

    PubMed

    Rao, K V S Eswara; Chitturi, Ravi Teja; Kattappagari, Kiran Kumar; Kantheti, Lalith Prakash Chandra; Poosarla, Chandrasekhar; Baddam, Venkat Ramana Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a global health problem, although the development of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) has significantly modified the course of HIV disease into a manageable disease with improved quality-of-life mainly in the developed countries. Very few studies are available regarding effect of HAART on oral lesions in developing countries like India. The aim was to document and compare oral lesions in HIV-seropositive patients before and after HAART. Oral manifestations were recorded in 320 HIV seropositive patients attending to the Voluntary Counseling and Confidential Testing Centre at the Government General Hospital, Guntur, before and after treating with HAART and the results were statistically analyzed using Student's t-test and Chi-square test. Oral Candidiasis was significantly reduced in patients under HAART after 3 months. Furthermore, there was decreased incidence of periodontal diseases, but increased hyperpigmentation in patients undergoing HAART. The oral manifestations of HIV infection have changed due to the advent of HAART. Many opportunistic infections have resolved as a result of an improved immune system. Though the risk of hyperpigmentation in those with HAART has increased the prevalence of oral candidiasis and periodontal diseases were less in patients who had access to HAART.

  6. A constant threat for HIV: Fc-engineering to enhance broadly neutralizing antibody activity for immunotherapy of the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nimmerjahn, Falk

    2015-08-01

    Passive immunotherapy with polyclonal or hyperimmune serum immunoglobulin G (IgG) preparations provides an efficient means of protecting immunocompromised patients from microbial infections. More recently, the use of passive immunotherapy to prevent or to treat established infections with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has gained much attention, due to promising preclinical data obtained in monkey and humanized mouse in vivo model systems, demonstrating that the transfer of HIV-specific antibodies can not only prevent HIV infection, but also diminish virus load during chronic infection. Furthermore, an array of broadly neutralizing HIV-specific antibodies has become available and the importance of the IgG constant region as a critical modulator of broadly neutralizing activity has been demonstrated. The aim of this review is to summarize the most recent findings with regard to the molecular and cellular mechanisms responsible for antibody-mediated clearance of HIV infection, and to discuss how this may help to improve HIV therapy via optimizing Fcγ-receptor-dependent activities of HIV-specific antibodies.

  7. Inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying tuberculosis in childhood

    PubMed Central

    Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Bustamante, Jacinta; El-Baghdadi, Jamila; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Parvaneh, Nima; Azbaoui, Safaa El; Agader, Aomar; Hassani, Amal; Hafidi, Naima El; Mrani, Nidal Alaoui; Jouhadi, Zineb; Ailal, Fatima; Najib, Jilali; Reisli, Ismail; Zamani, Adil; Yosunkaya, Sebnem; Gulle-Girit, Saniye; Yildiran, Alisan; Cipe, Funda Erol; Torun, Selda Hancerli; Metin, Ayse; Atikan, Basak Yildiz; Hatipoglu, Nevin; Aydogmus, Cigdem; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Dogu, Figen; Karaca, Neslihan; Aksu, Guzide; Kutukculer, Necil; Keser-Emiroglu, Melike; Somer, Ayper; Tanir, Gonul; Aytekin, Caner; Adimi, Parisa; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Mamishi, Setareh; Bousfiha, Aziz; Sanal, Ozden; Mansouri, Davood; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Summary Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and a few related mycobacteria, is a devastating disease, killing more than a million individuals per year worldwide. However, its pathogenesis remains largely elusive, as only a small proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease either during primary infection or during reactivation from latency or secondary infection. Subacute, hematogenous, and extrapulmonary disease tends to be more frequent in infants, children, and teenagers than in adults. Life-threatening primary TB of childhood can result from known acquired or inherited immunodeficiencies, although the vast majority of cases remain unexplained. We review here the conditions conferring a predisposition to childhood clinical diseases caused by mycobacteria, including not only M.tb but also weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as BCG vaccines and environmental mycobacteria. Infections with weakly virulent mycobacteria are much rarer than TB, but the inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying these infections are much better known. Their study has also provided genetic and immunological insights into childhood TB, as illustrated by the discovery of single-gene inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlying severe cases of TB. Novel findings are expected from ongoing and future human genetic studies of childhood TB in countries that combine a high proportion of consanguineous marriages, a high incidence of TB, and an excellent clinical care, such as Iran, Morocco, and Turkey. PMID:25703555

  8. Inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying tuberculosis in childhood.

    PubMed

    Boisson-Dupuis, Stéphanie; Bustamante, Jacinta; El-Baghdadi, Jamila; Camcioglu, Yildiz; Parvaneh, Nima; El Azbaoui, Safaa; Agader, Aomar; Hassani, Amal; El Hafidi, Naima; Mrani, Nidal Alaoui; Jouhadi, Zineb; Ailal, Fatima; Najib, Jilali; Reisli, Ismail; Zamani, Adil; Yosunkaya, Sebnem; Gulle-Girit, Saniye; Yildiran, Alisan; Cipe, Funda Erol; Torun, Selda Hancerli; Metin, Ayse; Atikan, Basak Yildiz; Hatipoglu, Nevin; Aydogmus, Cigdem; Kilic, Sara Sebnem; Dogu, Figen; Karaca, Neslihan; Aksu, Guzide; Kutukculer, Necil; Keser-Emiroglu, Melike; Somer, Ayper; Tanir, Gonul; Aytekin, Caner; Adimi, Parisa; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Mamishi, Setareh; Bousfiha, Aziz; Sanal, Ozden; Mansouri, Davood; Casanova, Jean-Laurent; Abel, Laurent

    2015-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB), caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) and a few related mycobacteria, is a devastating disease, killing more than a million individuals per year worldwide. However, its pathogenesis remains largely elusive, as only a small proportion of infected individuals develop clinical disease either during primary infection or during reactivation from latency or secondary infection. Subacute, hematogenous, and extrapulmonary disease tends to be more frequent in infants, children, and teenagers than in adults. Life-threatening primary TB of childhood can result from known acquired or inherited immunodeficiencies, although the vast majority of cases remain unexplained. We review here the conditions conferring a predisposition to childhood clinical diseases caused by mycobacteria, including not only M.tb but also weakly virulent mycobacteria, such as BCG vaccines and environmental mycobacteria. Infections with weakly virulent mycobacteria are much rarer than TB, but the inherited and acquired immunodeficiencies underlying these infections are much better known. Their study has also provided genetic and immunological insights into childhood TB, as illustrated by the discovery of single-gene inborn errors of IFN-γ immunity underlying severe cases of TB. Novel findings are expected from ongoing and future human genetic studies of childhood TB in countries that combine a high proportion of consanguineous marriages, a high incidence of TB, and an excellent clinical care, such as Iran, Morocco, and Turkey. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. The clinical characteristics of 80 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated Kaposi's sarcoma in Xinjiang Autonomous Region and the effect of different treatments on the prognosis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Tongtong; He, Li; Wan, Xuefeng; Maimaitiaili, Wubuli; Song, Yuxia; Zhang, Yuexin; Lu, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the clinical features of AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma (AIDS-KS) patients in Xinjiang Autonomous Region and the impact of CD4 (+)T lymphocyte count, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and systemic chemotherapy on the prognosis. The clinical information of 80 AIDS-KS patients admitted in Sixth People's Hospital of Xinjiang Autonomous Region from January 2008 to August 2014 was retrospectively reviewed. Population characteristics, extent of lesions, KS progress, CD4 (+)T lymphocyte count, combined opportunistic infections, treatment and prognosis of these patients were analyzed. The 80 patients were divided into five groups according to treatment methods, including HAART, HAART + chemotherapy, chemotherapy + HAART, chemotherapy, and untreated groups. The efficacy and prognosis of the five groups were compared. Among the 80 patients, 74 (92.50%) patients were Uygur. The average age was 39.5±9.9 years and male-to-female ratio was 3:1. The median of baseline CD4 (+)T lymphocyte count was 152.5 cells/μL and the interquartile was 233.25 cells/μL. CD4 (+)T lymphocyte counts were significantly increased after treatment in HAART, HAART + chemotherapy, and chemotherapy + HAART groups (P < 0.05). CD4 (+)T lymphocyte count in chemotherapy groups was significantly reduced after treatment (P < 0.05). The untreated group had the highest mortality rate (33.3%). In HAART group, KS-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory response syndrome (KS-IRIS) appeared in 45.5% cases and 2 death cases were caused by KS-IRIS. In Xinjiang Autonomous Region, the incidence of AIDS-KS is high in young Uygur male people. HAART followed by chemotherapy has ideal efficacy, reduces the incidence of KS-IRIS and improves the prognosis.

  10. Common variable immunodeficiency complicated with hemolytic uremic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Common variable immunodeficiency is a primary immunodeficiency disease characterized by reduced serum immunoglobulins and heterogeneous clinical features. Recurrent pyogenic infections of upper and lower respiratory tracts are the main clinical manifestations of common variable immunodeficiency. Hemolytic uremic syndrome is a multisystemic disorder characterized by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and organ ischemia due to platelet aggregation in the arterial microvasculature. This is one of the rare cases of patients diagnosed with common variable immunodeficiency, which was complicated by hemolytic uremic syndrome. PMID:22059898

  11. Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection, distribution of viral types and risk factors in cervical samples from human immunodeficiency virus-positive women attending three human immunodeficiency virus-acquired immune deficiency syndrome reference centres in northeastern Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Albert Eduardo Silva; Lucena-Silva, Norma; Garcia, Renan Gomes; Welkovic, Stefan; Barboza, Aureliana; Menezes, Maria Luiza Bezerra; Maruza, Magda; Tenório, Terezinha; Ximenes, Ricardo AA

    2014-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive patients have a greater prevalence of coinfection with human papillomavirus (HPV) is of high oncogenic risk. Indeed, the presence of the virus favours intraepithelial squamous cell lesion progression and may induce cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of HPV infection, distribution of HPV types and risk factors among HIV-positive patients. Cervical samples from 450 HIV-positive patients were analysed with regard to oncotic cytology, colposcopy and HPV presence and type by means of polymerase chain reaction and sequencing. The results were analysed by comparing demographic data and data relating to HPV and HIV infection. The prevalence of HPV was 47.5%. Among the HPV-positive samples, 59% included viral types of high oncogenic risk. Multivariate analysis showed an association between HPV infection and the presence of cytological alterations (p = 0.003), age greater than or equal to 35 years (p = 0.002), number of partners greater than three (p = 0.002), CD4+ lymphocyte count < 200/mm3 (p = 0.041) and alcohol abuse (p = 0.004). Although high-risk HPV was present in the majority of the lesions studied, the low frequency of HPV 16 (3.3%), low occurrence of cervical lesions and preserved immunological state in most of the HIV-positive patients were factors that may explain the low occurrence of precancerous cervical lesions in this population. PMID:25317701

  12. [Pseudotumoral toxoplasmic cystitis revealing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ples, Raluca; Méchaï, Frédéric; Champiat, Bernard; Droupy, Stéphane; Huerre, Michel; Guettier, Catherine; Ferlicot, Sophie

    2011-02-01

    A case of bladder toxoplasmosis in a 57-year-old male Caucasian patient was diagnosed with difficulty due to misleading clinical presentation. The patient presented with pollakiuria and urination burning. Imagery showed pseudotumoral thickening of the vesicle wall. Previously unknown status of HIV infection was found positive through the diagnosis of bladder toxoplasmosis. The patient died rapidly from neurological complications. This is the second published case in which bladder toxoplasmosis reveals an HIV infection.

  13. [Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome and opportunistic infections].

    PubMed

    Dvaranauskaite, Lina; Velyvyte, Daiva; Kurklietyte, Virginija; Gumbelevicius, Antanas; Keleras, Evaldas; Laiskonis, Alvydas; Mickiene, Aukse

    2009-01-01

    This article presents a clinical case of late diagnosis of cerebral toxoplasmosis and cytomegalovirus retinitis of right eye in a 32-year-old patient who was unaware of her HIV status. In addition, this article reviews the literature reflecting clinical, diagnostic, and treatment issues of some opportunistic infections in AIDS.

  14. [Bacterial pneumonia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Flix, S; Castella, J; Puzo, C; Ausina, V; Rodo, M; Mayos, M; Cornudella, R

    1992-04-01

    Sixty five patients with AIDS and clinical and/or radiological evidence of pulmonary infection underwent 78 bronchofibroscopies (BF) with protected brushing and bronchoalveolar washing-out. Out of the 78 BF, bacterial infection was diagnosed in 30 cases and associated opportunistic infection in 12 cases. The 18 cases of exclusively bacterial infection accounted for 23% of the total and most of them were due by H. influenzae and pneumococcus. Just in one patient, the thoracic radiography showed a localized infiltration. Given the high incidence of bacterial infections observed, along with the relevance of myxoid infections (opportunistic and pyogenic bacteria) and the low specificity of the thoracic radiography, bronchoalveolar washing-out and protected brushing in the same BF is a recommended practice.

  15. [Antiretroviral therapy of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS)].

    PubMed

    Jevtović, Dj; Ranin, J; Salemović, D; Brmbolić, B; Zerjav, S

    1992-11-01

    The unique nature of the replication cycle of the retroviruses, including HIV, offera number of possible targets for chemotherapeutic agents. These are RNA viruses which have the capacity to make DNA copies through their characteristic enzyme, reverse transcriptase, encoded in the pole region of the viral genoma. Reverse transcription is an attractive target for therapeutic intervention as this event is uniquelly associated with retroviruses. Dideoxynucleoside analogues can compete with endogenous nucleosides that are the natural substrate for reverse transcriptase or may be incorporated intro the growing chain of proviral DNA and terminate elongation. Reverse transcriptase inhibition is the principal mechanism of action of zidovudine (AZT) and related nucleosides, dideoxyinosine (ddl) and dideoxycitidine (ddC), which all attach to reverse transcriptase to the same site. This review will discuss current approaches to the antiretroviral therapy in AIDS patients. Several well controlled clinical trials have established both the efficacy and toxicity of AZT in patients with AIDS and severe ARC and it was shown that this drug decreased the incidence and severity of opportunistic infections, with the highly significant reduction in early mortality. The efficacy of newer reverse transcriptase-inhibiting nucleoside derivatives will be discussed too, as well as the issue of combination therapies.

  16. Cryptosporidiosis in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cooper, D A; Wodak, A; Marriot, D J; Harkness, J L; Ralston, M; Hill, A; Penny, R

    1984-10-01

    Cryptosporidiosis was found in a patient with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The microbiological and morphological features of this newly recognized opportunistic infection are distinctive and diagnostic.

  17. Hyperthyroidism caused by acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, J-J; Zhou, J-J; Yuan, X-L; Li, C-Y; Sheng, H; Su, B; Sheng, C-J; Qu, S; Li, H

    2014-01-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is an immune deficiency disease. The etiology of hyperthyroidism, which can also be immune-related, is usually divided into six classical categories, including hypophyseal, hypothalamic, thyroid, neoplastic, autoimmune and inflammatory hyperthyroidism. Hyperthyroidism is a rare complication of highly active antimicrobial therapy (HAART) for human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Hyperthyroidism caused directly by AIDS has not been previously reported. A 29-year-old man who complained of dyspnea and asthenia for 1 month, recurrent fever for more than 20 days, and breathlessness for 1 week was admitted to our hospital. The thyroid function test showed that the level of free thyroxine (FT4) was higher than normal and that the level of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) was below normal. He was diagnosed with hyperthyroidism. Additional investigations revealed a low serum albumin level and chest infection, along with diffuse lung fibrosis. Within 1 month, he experienced significant weight loss, no hand tremors, intolerance of heat, and perspiration proneness. We recommended an HIV examination; subsequently, AIDS was diagnosed based on the laboratory parameters. This is the first reported case of hyperthyroidism caused by AIDS. AIDS may cause hyperthyroidism by immunization regulation with complex, atypical, and easily ignored symptoms. Although hyperthyroidism is rare in patients with AIDS, clinicians should be aware of this potential interaction and should carefully monitor thyroid function in HIV-positive patients.

  18. [Cutaneous cryptococcosis mimicking basal cell carcinoma and revealing systemic involvement in acquired immunodeficiency].

    PubMed

    Atarguine, H; Hocar, O; Abbad, F; Rais, H; Idalene, M; Tassi, N; Akhdari, N; Moutaj, R; Amal, S

    2015-06-01

    Cryptococcosis is a rare and a serious opportunistic infection that occurs primarily on the field of immunodeficiency. We report a case of disseminated cryptococcosis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome revealed by unusual skin lesions. A 52-year-old patient consulted for two crusty ulcerative lesions situated on the left supraorbital and on the nasal tip that appeared 6 months ago. He also reported respiratory symptoms present since one year, with dry cough and dyspnea, chronic headache and vomiting with no alteration in visual acuity. The mycological study of the skin biopsy on both lesions isolated Cryptococcus neoformans as well as in the sputum and cerebrospinal fluid. Serology of human immunodeficiency virus infection was positive. Treatment with fluconazole, local care and antiretroviral triple therapy was implemented. Skin lesions during cryptococcosis are rare and observed in 2-10% of cases. Cutaneous symptoms were the reason for consultation in our patient. This is a rare form of cutaneous cryptococcosis leading to the discovery of both pulmonary and central nervous system locations, and to diagnosis of HIV infection. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. The pathology of an epizootic of acquired immunodeficiency in rhesus macaques.

    PubMed Central

    Osborn, K. G.; Prahalada, S.; Lowenstine, L. J.; Gardner, M. B.; Maul, D. H.; Henrickson, R. V.

    1984-01-01

    A syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency within a group of outdoor-housed rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with unusually high mortality has been identified at the California Primate Research Center. The cause of death for most of the affected animals included septicemia and/or chronic diarrhea with wasting, often complicated by other problems. In many cases, multiple or unusual infectious agents were isolated or recognized, including cytomegalovirus, Cryptosporidium spp., and Candida albicans. Septicemias due to usually innocuous agents such as Staphylococcus epidermidis and Alcaligenes faecalis were seen. Two animals developed cutaneous fibrosarcomas. Affected animals had generalized lymphadenopathy and splenomegaly, with depletion of T-cell populations, initially follicular hyperplasia followed by depletion, and absence of plasma cells. This spontaneous disease syndrome in nonhuman primates has similarities to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in humans, providing an animal model for the study of the complex factors modulating the immune system. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 PMID:6691418

  20. Endocrine disorders in Brazilian patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Fontes, Rosita; Vangeloti, Andréa; Pires, Maria Lucia; Lima, Mário B C; Dimetz, Trude; Faulhaber, Marcelo; Faria, Raul; Meirelles, Ricardo M

    2003-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) was first reported in Brazil in 1980. In 1997, its incidence was 147 per million and then declined to 90 per million in 2000. Abnormalities of endocrine organ systems occur frequently in patients with AIDS. We evaluated mineralcorticoid, glucocorticoid, and thyroid hormone axes and glucose and insulin responses to a standardized oral glucose dose in healthy individuals; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-seropositive, asymptomatic individuals; HIV-infected patients with general lymphadenopathy, diarrhea, fever, fatigue, nocturnal sweating, and weight loss; and HIV-infected patients diagnosed with secondary infectious diseases or neoplasms. Baseline cortisol levels in the patients with AIDS were significantly higher than those in healthy control subjects. However, after adrenocorticotrophic hormone stimulation, cortisol levels were significantly lower in HIV-infected patients. Insulin concentrations were significantly higher after the glucose load in HIV-infected asymptomatic than in patients with AIDS. There were no significant differences in mineralocorticoid or thyroid function among groups.

  1. Acquired Brown's syndrome: an unusual cause.

    PubMed

    Booth-Mason, S; Kyle, G M; Rossor, M; Bradbury, P

    1985-10-01

    A 62-year-old man with acquired Brown's syndrome is presented. This was due to an orbital metastatic deposit, a cause not previously reported. Other causes of this disorder and its treatment are discussed.

  2. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    MedlinePlus

    ... incisions made in the mother’s abdomen and uterus. Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): A virus that attacks certain cells of the body’s immune system and causes acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Immune System: ...

  3. Vaccine-Acquired Rotavirus in Infants with Severe Combined Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Niraj C.; Hertel, Paula M.; Estes, Mary K.; de la Morena, Maite; Petru, Ann M.; Noroski, Lenora M.; Revell, Paula A.; Celine Hanson, I.; Paul, Mary E.; Rosenblatt, Howard M.; Abramson, Stuart L.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Live pentavalent human–bovine reassortant rotavirus vaccine is recommended in the United States for routine immunization of infants. We describe three infants, two with failure to thrive, who had dehydration and diarrhea within 1 month after their first or second rotavirus immunization and subsequently received a diagnosis of severe combined immunodeficiency. Rotavirus was detected, by means of reverse-transcriptase–polymerase-chain-reaction (RT-PCR) assay, in stool specimens obtained from all three infants, and gene-sequence analysis revealed the presence of vaccine rotavirus. These infections raise concerns regarding the safety of rotavirus vaccine in severely immunocompromised patients. PMID:20107217

  4. Acquired alexia with agraphia syndrome in childhood.

    PubMed

    Paquier, Philippe F; De Smet, Hyo Jung; Mariën, Peter; Poznanski, Nathalie; Van Bogaert, Patrick

    2006-04-01

    The acquired alexia with agraphia syndrome is a conspicuous disorder of reading and writing in the absence of significant other language impairments that has mainly been recorded in adults. Pure cases are rare, with most patients displaying mild aphasic deficits. In children, acquired reading and writing disorders are generally reported as part of more encompassing aphasic syndromes affecting oral and written language equally, for example, Broca or Wernicke aphasia. Documented instances of predominant acquired reading and writing disorders in childhood are exceptional. We report an 11-year-old, right-handed boy who sustained a left temporoparieto-occipital hematoma following rupture of an arteriovenous malformation and who consecutively presented with the acquired alexia with agraphia syndrome associated with word-finding difficulties. Neuropsychologic and neurolinguistic data showed that there was no concomitant Gerstmann and/or angular gyrus syndrome. Th e recoveryfrom the anomia was quite favorable, but recovery of written language was more protracted and acted on the patient's further scholastic achievement. This case is reminiscent of a historical childhood case reported in 1939 and is consonant with adult cases in terms of lesion location and semiologic picture.

  5. Isoprinosine (inosine pranobex BAN, INPX) in the treatment of AIDS and other acquired immunodeficiencies of clinical importance.

    PubMed

    Glasky, A J; Gordon, J F

    1987-01-01

    The immunopharmacologic effects of Isoprinosine (INPX) have been associated with clinical benefit to the patient in a number of conditions characterized by immunodeficiency of diverse etiology. Immunodepressed homosexuals at risk of developing acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) treated with placebo or INPX experienced an increase in the function and number of immunocompetent cells associated with clinical improvement. A multicenter trial designed to confirm these results has demonstrated that INPX produced an increase in natural killer (NK)-cell activity, total T cells, and T-helper cells, with certain effects persisting for months after completion of the 28-day treatment period. INPX-treated patients also experienced clinical improvement and decreased incidence of progression to AIDS. The administration of INPX for longer periods to patients with frank AIDS under a compassionate-use protocol has also proved useful. Clinical benefit associated with INPX treatment has been demonstrated in other patients with a depressed immune response, such as aged patients, cancer patients, severely burned patients, ill patients, and surgery patients. This program of clinical trials supports the therapeutic use of INPX in the treatment of AIDS and other acquired immunodeficiencies of clinical importance.

  6. Searching for the cause of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Leavitt, R D

    1984-02-01

    An outbreak of unexplained immune deficiency associated with opportunistic infection and Kaposi's sarcoma is occurring in the USA and other parts of the world. Affected individuals with what had come to be known as the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) have a high mortality. Epidemiological features suggest the presence of a transmissable agent, but no responsible agent has yet been identified. Homosexual and bisexual men make up 75% of these affected individuals. Cytomegalovirus, Epstein Barr and herpes simplex viruses, organisms that commonly affect male homosexuals, may produce some features of AIDS. Individually or collectively, however, they can not account for the emergence of a previously unrecognized clinical syndrome. Hepatitis B is prevalent in patients with AIDS and may play a role as a co-factor in the disease. The properties of a number of other known viruses may provide a model for the pathogenesis of some features of the AIDS immunodeficiency. Newly described simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome (SAIDS) is the best available animal model. In man, the retrovirus, human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV) may play a role in AIDS. However, HTLV or any other known virus cannot yet be assumed to cause AIDS. It is likely that an as yet unrecognized agent is the key causative agent of AIDS.

  7. Sporadic case of warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, immunodeficiency, and myelokathexis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tarzi, Michael D; Jenner, Michael; Hattotuwa, Keith; Faruqi, Asma Z; Diaz, George A; Longhurst, Hilary J

    2005-11-01

    The term WHIM syndrome (WHIMS) is an acronym describing a rare primary immunodeficiency disorder characterized by warts, hypogammaglobulinemia, immunodeficiency, and myelokathexis, the unusual association of neutropenia with bone marrow myeloid hypercellularity. WHIMS was recently associated with mutations in the gene encoding the chemokine receptor CXCR4 and as such is the first disease ascribed to abnormalities of chemokine signaling. We report a sporadic case of WHIMS in a woman presenting with recurrent infections and human papilloma virus-related genital dysplasia.

  8. Acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis in a child with the human immunodeficiency virus.

    PubMed

    Cowan, Katelyn R; Gonzalez Santiago, Tania M; Tollefson, Megha M

    2013-01-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EDV) is a rare genodermatosis characterized by susceptibility to human papilloma virus (HPV) infection. An acquired form of EDV has been described in the setting of immunosuppression, including in patients with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). We present the case of an HIV-positive, adopted Haitian boy who presented with EDV. Few cases of chidren with HIV and acquired EDV have been reported and are likely underrecognized.

  9. [Classification and diagnosis of immunodeficiency syndromes].

    PubMed

    Warnatz, K; Peter, H-H

    2004-08-01

    Primary immunodeficiency diseases of the adult are rare disorders, but often lead to serious consequences. Therefore an early diagnosis is critical. The variety in the clinical presentation, the complexity of the immune system and the ongoing discovery of new defects render it a difficult area for the involved physician. Due to the often imprecise complaint of a weak immune system the primary task is the identification of patients with true immunodeficiency. Subsequently, the immune defect needs to be identified in collaboration with a center for immunodeficiency disorders. The diagnostic procedure is dependent on the pattern of infections and follows a defined series of steps. This procedure should prevent costly diagnostic evaluation when not indicated, and also prevent the delayed diagnosis of patients with manifest immunodeficiency disease.

  10. Human immunodeficiency virus infection and pneumothorax

    PubMed Central

    Terzi, Eirini; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Dryllis, Georgios; Kioumis, Ioannis; Pitsiou, Georgia; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Madesis, Athanasios; Karaiskos, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Pneumothorax is a serious and relatively frequent complication of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection that may associate with increased morbidity and mortality and may prove difficult to manage, especially in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). PMID:25337392

  11. Aneurysmal vasculopathy in human-acquired immunodeficiency virus-infected adults: Imaging case series and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Nayak, Nikhil R; Pisapia, Jared M; Petrov, Dmitriy; Pukenas, Bryan A; Hurst, Robert W; Smith, Michelle J

    2015-01-01

    Background Intracranial vasculopathy in adult patients with human-acquired immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a rare but increasingly recognized disease entity. Objective We aimed to contribute to and summarize the adult literature describing patients with HIV/AIDS who have intracranial vasculopathy. Methods A retrospective review of adult patients with HIV/AIDS undergoing diagnostic cerebral angiography at our institution from 2007–2013 was performed. A literature review of relevant existing studies was performed. Results Five adult patients with HIV-related aneurysmal and occlusive vasculopathy were diagnosed and/or treated at our institution. A comprehensive review of the literature yielded data from 17 series describing 28 adult patients with HIV/AIDS and intracranial vasculopathy. Our review suggests that low CD4 count, motor weakness, and meningismus may be associated with the sequelae of intracranial vasculopathy/vasculitis in patients with HIV/AIDS. Conclusion Patients with HIV/AIDS who have aneurysmal and stenotic vascular disease may benefit from earlier surveillance with the onset of neurological symptoms. The roles of medical, open surgical, and endovascular therapy in this unique entity will be further defined as the pathological basis of the disease is better understood. PMID:26023074

  12. Gut epithelial barrier dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus coinfected patients: Influence on innate and acquired immunity

    PubMed Central

    Márquez, Mercedes; Fernández Gutiérrez del Álamo, Clotilde; Girón-González, José Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Even in cases where viral replication has been controlled by antiretroviral therapy for long periods of time, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have several non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related co-morbidities, including liver disease, cardiovascular disease and neurocognitive decline, which have a clear impact on survival. It has been considered that persistent innate and acquired immune activation contributes to the pathogenesis of these non-AIDS related diseases. Immune activation has been related with several conditions, remarkably with the bacterial translocation related with the intestinal barrier damage by the HIV or by hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver cirrhosis. Consequently, increased morbidity and mortality must be expected in HIV-HCV coinfected patients. Disrupted gut barrier lead to an increased passage of microbial products and to an activation of the mucosal immune system and secretion of inflammatory mediators, which in turn might increase barrier dysfunction. In the present review, the intestinal barrier structure, measures of intestinal barrier dysfunction and the modifications of them in HIV monoinfection and in HIV-HCV coinfection will be considered. Both pathogenesis and the consequences for the progression of liver disease secondary to gut microbial fragment leakage and immune activation will be assessed. PMID:26819512

  13. Gut epithelial barrier dysfunction in human immunodeficiency virus-hepatitis C virus coinfected patients: Influence on innate and acquired immunity.

    PubMed

    Márquez, Mercedes; Fernández Gutiérrez del Álamo, Clotilde; Girón-González, José Antonio

    2016-01-28

    Even in cases where viral replication has been controlled by antiretroviral therapy for long periods of time, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients have several non-acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) related co-morbidities, including liver disease, cardiovascular disease and neurocognitive decline, which have a clear impact on survival. It has been considered that persistent innate and acquired immune activation contributes to the pathogenesis of these non-AIDS related diseases. Immune activation has been related with several conditions, remarkably with the bacterial translocation related with the intestinal barrier damage by the HIV or by hepatitis C virus (HCV)-related liver cirrhosis. Consequently, increased morbidity and mortality must be expected in HIV-HCV coinfected patients. Disrupted gut barrier lead to an increased passage of microbial products and to an activation of the mucosal immune system and secretion of inflammatory mediators, which in turn might increase barrier dysfunction. In the present review, the intestinal barrier structure, measures of intestinal barrier dysfunction and the modifications of them in HIV monoinfection and in HIV-HCV coinfection will be considered. Both pathogenesis and the consequences for the progression of liver disease secondary to gut microbial fragment leakage and immune activation will be assessed.

  14. [Iris heterochromia in acquired Horner's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Beynat, J; Soichot, P; Bidot, S; Dugas, B; Creuzot-Garcher, C; Bron, A

    2007-09-01

    Horner's syndrome (HS) is related to an interruption of the oculosympathetic nerve pathway. The classic clinical findings associated with this condition are ptosis, miosis, and enophthalmos. Heterochromia is typically described in congenital HS, but it is an uncommon finding in acquired HS. We report a case of post-traumatic HS associated with heterochromia. A literature review indicates that this type of heterochromia may be related to a reduction in the number of iris melanocytes. This mechanism may be the same in the physiological iris color modifications in adulthood.

  15. Kaposi Sarcoma of Childhood: Inborn or Acquired Immunodeficiency to Oncogenic HHV‐8

    PubMed Central

    Dickson, Mark A.; Sadjadi, Mahan; Gessain, Antoine; Abel, Laurent; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Casanova, Jean‐Laurent

    2015-01-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an endothelial malignancy caused by human herpes virus‐8 (HHV‐8) infection. The epidemic and iatrogenic forms of childhood KS result from a profound and acquired T cell deficiency. Recent studies have shown that classic KS of childhood can result from rare single‐gene inborn errors of immunity, with mutations in WAS, IFNGR1, STIM1, and TNFRSF4. The pathogenesis of the endemic form of childhood KS has remained elusive. We review childhood KS pathogenesis and its relationship to inherited and acquired immunodeficiency to oncogenic HHV‐8. PMID:26469702

  16. Kaposi Sarcoma of Childhood: Inborn or Acquired Immunodeficiency to Oncogenic HHV-8.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Carolyn C; Dickson, Mark A; Sadjadi, Mahan; Gessain, Antoine; Abel, Laurent; Jouanguy, Emmanuelle; Casanova, Jean-Laurent

    2016-03-01

    Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an endothelial malignancy caused by human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8) infection. The epidemic and iatrogenic forms of childhood KS result from a profound and acquired T cell deficiency. Recent studies have shown that classic KS of childhood can result from rare single-gene inborn errors of immunity, with mutations in WAS, IFNGR1, STIM1, and TNFRSF4. The pathogenesis of the endemic form of childhood KS has remained elusive. We review childhood KS pathogenesis and its relationship to inherited and acquired immunodeficiency to oncogenic HHV-8. © 2015 The Authors. Pediatric Blood & Cancer, published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; Information and Procedural Guidelines for Providing Services to Persons with AIDS/HIV. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Helena. Health Education Bureau.

    This volume consists of updated information to be inserted into a Montana AIDS Project manual on providing services to persons with acquired immune deficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV), originally published in December 1985. The updates are mainly statistics and terminology, along with the addition of several new sections.…

  18. AIDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; Information and Procedural Guidelines for Providing Services to Persons with AIDS/HIV. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montana State Dept. of Health and Environmental Sciences, Helena. Health Education Bureau.

    This volume consists of updated information to be inserted into a Montana AIDS Project manual on providing services to persons with acquired immune deficiency syndrome/human immunodeficiency virus (AIDS/HIV), originally published in December 1985. The updates are mainly statistics and terminology, along with the addition of several new sections.…

  19. Treatment of the acquired von Willebrand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Budde, Ulrich; Scheppenheim, Sonja; Dittmer, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (aVWS) accounts for 22% of patients with abnormal von Willebrand factor. Most patients with known pathophysiological mechanisms suffer from cardiovascular, myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders. Less frequent associations are of autoimmune origin, due to hyperfibrinolysis, adsorption to tumor cells, reduced synthesis and prolonged circulation. The mechanisms leading to aVWS is hitherto not known in patients with liver and kidney diseases, drug use, glycogen storage disease, virus infections and at least 18 other disease entities. Diagnosis is complicated by the battery of tests needed, and their inherent rather low sensitivity and specificity for aVWS. Thus, even in acute bleeding situations it may take days until a firm diagnosis is settled and specific therapies can be initiated. The main aim is to shed more light onto this, compared with inherited von Willebrand disease, rare disease which affects at least 2-3% of the older population.

  20. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) in Brazil. Necropsy findings.

    PubMed

    Michalany, J; Mattos, A L; Michalany, N S; Filie, A C; Montezzo, L C

    1987-01-01

    According to the 15 autopsies performed at the Department of Pathological Anatomy, Escola Paulista de Medicina, São Paulo, Brazil, it was confirmed that acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurs preferably in young homosexual males, who die in a short period of time of the disease, which leads to a consumptive state verified by cachexia of the cadavers. The most affected organs of this series were the lungs and encephalum, exactly the ones responsible for the immediate cause of death. In this series of autopsies there were 9 types of microorganisms represented by virus, bacteria, fungi, protozoans and two types of tumors, Kaposi's sarcoma and lymphoma of the central nervous system. From the microorganisms, the most frequent was the Cytomegalovirus and, from the tumors, Kaposi's sarcoma. The various types of microorganisms were frequently associated, principally in the central nervous and digestive systems. There was also association of microorganisms with tumors. Besides the lesions produced by microorganisms there were other associated alterations as brown atrophy of neuronia, which was related to the infiltration of cerebral lymphoma, and the lymphocytic depletion of lymphoid organs due to immunological exhaustion. Cellular reaction to microorganisms was practically none, principally with Pneumocystis carinii and Cryptococcus neoformans, the first one behaving as an inert mould in the pulmonary alveoli and the second proliferating freely in tissues. In two cases there was no granulomatous reaction to Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The primary lymphoma of the central nervous system should be interpreted as a microglioma, i.e., a reticulosarcoma of this system according to Hortega's school.

  1. Recapitulation of acquired immuno deficiency syndrome associated Kaposi's sarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Govindan, Balaji

    2016-01-01

    Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS) associated Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) is one of the clinical forms of KS. KS is caused by human herpes viruses 8 or KS associated herpes virus (KSHV). In India, till now, only 16 cases of AIDS associated KS was reported. Of all the clinical forms of KS, AIDS associated KS is distinct in many ways viz.; cutaneous manifestations commonly affects face and trunk rather than lower limbs, more mucosal lesions, rapidly progressive, and early systemic involvement. When human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is co-infected with KSHV, in addition to the other pathogenic factors for the development of KS, HIV Tat protein promotes the proliferation of cytokine-activated endothelial cells and stimulates KS. Moreover, actions of HIV Tat lead to the aggressive course of KS in patients with AIDS, compared with the more confined behavior of KS in HIV-negative persons. Similarly, latency-associated nuclear antigen of KSHV would enhance HIV replication by activating the long terminal repeats of HIV-1 through its association with Tat. Effective antiretroviral treatment in AIDS associated KS results in reduction of the incidence of AIDS-related KS and regression of the existing lesions. Early diagnosis and treatment of AIDS associated KS would definitely increase the life span and quality of the patients. PMID:27890943

  2. 11q terminal deletion and combined immunodeficiency (Jacobsen syndrome): Case report and literature review on immunodeficiency in Jacobsen syndrome.

    PubMed

    Blazina, Štefan; Ihan, Alojz; Lovrečić, Luca; Hovnik, Tinka

    2016-12-01

    Antibody deficiency is common finding in patients with Jacobsen syndrome (JS). In addition, there have been few reports of T-cell defects in this condition, possibly because most of the reported patients have not been specifically evaluated for T-cell function. In this article, we present a child with an 11q deletion and combined immunodeficiency and we perform a literature overview on immunodeficiency in JS. Our patient presented with recurrent bacterial and prolonged viral infections involving the respiratory system, as well as other classic features of the syndrome. In addition to low IgM, IgG4, and B-cells, also low recent thymic emigrants, helper and naïve T-cells were found. We propose that patients with Jacobsen syndrome need thorough immunological evaluations as T-cell dysfunction might be more prevalent than previously reported. Patients with infections consistent with T-cell defects should be classified as having combined immunodeficiency. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Clinical manifestations of treatment-naive patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and responses to highly active antiretroviral therapy in the Taipei Veterans General Hospital: a 5-year prospective study.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shih-Fen; Yang, Su-Pen; Chan, Yu-Jiun; Wang, Yung-Wei

    2011-06-01

    Taipei Veterans General Hospital, one of the medical centers in Taiwan, has provided highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) to human immunodeficiency virus/AIDS patients for more than 10 years. Five years ago, we began a prospective follow-up of our patients' clinical manifestations and responses to HAART by collecting their clinical data. In this study, we analyzed the morbidity, mortality, and responses to HAART of treatment-naive AIDS patients. The purpose was to provide local data that may be valuable in Taiwan. Study cases were enrolled from January 1, 2004, to February 28, 2009, with inclusion criteria of newly diagnosed AIDS during hospitalization and being naive to HAART. Antiretroviral therapy was initiated. To evaluate the clinical responses to HAART, we excluded patients who were pregnant, died within 1 month after confirmation of an AIDS diagnosis, failed to initiate HAART, or were lost to follow-up for more than 6 months. Plasma viral loads and CD4(+) counts were quantified by reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and flow cytometry, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS statistical software. A total of 49 patients were enrolled and 45 patients fulfilled the inclusion criteria for evaluating the efficacy of HAART. At 3 months, 12 months, and 30 months after the initiation of HAART, 64.4% (29 of 45), 88.2% (30 of 34), and 93.8% (15 of 16) had undetectable plasma viral loads, respectively, and 37.8% (17 of 45), 73.5% (25 of 34), and 81.2% (13 of 16) had CD4(+) counts of more than 200 cells/μL, respectively. Median CD4(+) counts increased from baseline at Month 3 by 171 cells/μL and at Month 30 by 375 cells/μL. The overall mortality was 22.4% (11 of 49). The virologic and immunologic responses after initiating HAART in this study demonstrated our achievements in providing care and treatment for AIDS patients during this 5-year period, which provides a strong evidence of the efficacy of HAART. Copyright © 2011

  4. The clinical characteristics of 80 cases of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome-associated Kaposi’s sarcoma in Xinjiang Autonomous Region and the effect of different treatments on the prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Tongtong; He, Li; Wan, Xuefeng; Maimaitiaili, Wubuli; Song, Yuxia; Zhang, Yuexin; Lu, Xiaobo

    2015-01-01

    To analyze the clinical features of AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma (AIDS-KS) patients in Xinjiang Autonomous Region and the impact of CD4 +T lymphocyte count, highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and systemic chemotherapy on the prognosis. The clinical information of 80 AIDS-KS patients admitted in Sixth People’s Hospital of Xinjiang Autonomous Region from January 2008 to August 2014 was retrospectively reviewed. Population characteristics, extent of lesions, KS progress, CD4 +T lymphocyte count, combined opportunistic infections, treatment and prognosis of these patients were analyzed. The 80 patients were divided into five groups according to treatment methods, including HAART, HAART + chemotherapy, chemotherapy + HAART, chemotherapy, and untreated groups. The efficacy and prognosis of the five groups were compared. Among the 80 patients, 74 (92.50%) patients were Uygur. The average age was 39.5±9.9 years and male-to-female ratio was 3:1. The median of baseline CD4 +T lymphocyte count was 152.5 cells/μL and the interquartile was 233.25 cells/μL. CD4 +T lymphocyte counts were significantly increased after treatment in HAART, HAART + chemotherapy, and chemotherapy + HAART groups (P < 0.05). CD4 +T lymphocyte count in chemotherapy groups was significantly reduced after treatment (P < 0.05). The untreated group had the highest mortality rate (33.3%). In HAART group, KS-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory response syndrome (KS-IRIS) appeared in 45.5% cases and 2 death cases were caused by KS-IRIS. In Xinjiang Autonomous Region, the incidence of AIDS-KS is high in young Uygur male people. HAART followed by chemotherapy has ideal efficacy, reduces the incidence of KS-IRIS and improves the prognosis. PMID:26770484

  5. Organic Brain Syndromes: Conditions of Acquired Intellectual Deficit

    PubMed Central

    Roy, John R.

    1979-01-01

    The term 'organic brain syndrome' covers a multitude of ills, many of which are treatable conditions. Diagnosis must concentrate on defining which syndrome is involved; this article presents a diagnostic schema with illustrative case histories. Clinical aspects of acquired mental deficit are also outlined. The approach to organic brain syndromes is the classic medical observation of signs and symptoms. PMID:21297811

  6. Co-existence of clonal expanded autologous and transplacental-acquired maternal T cells in recombination activating gene-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    Lev, A; Simon, A J; Ben-Ari, J; Takagi, D; Stauber, T; Trakhtenbrot, L; Rosenthal, E; Rechavi, G; Amariglio, N; Somech, R

    2014-01-01

    It is commonly accepted that the presence of high amounts of maternal T cells excludes Omenn syndrome (OS) in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). We report a SCID patient with a novel mutation in the recombination activating gene (RAG)1 gene (4-BP DEL.1406 TTGC) who presented with immunodeficiency and OS. Several assays, including representatives of specific T cell receptors (TCR), Vβ families and TCR-γ rearrangements, were performed in order to understand more clearly the nature and origin of the patient's T cells. The patient had oligoclonal T cells which, based on the patient–mother human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B50 mismatch, were either autologous or of maternal origin. These cell populations were different in their numbers of regulatory T cells (Treg) and the diversity of TCR repertoires. This is the first description of the co-existence of large amounts of clonal expanded autologous and transplacental-acquired maternal T cells in RAG1-deficient SCID. PMID:24666246

  7. Co-existence of clonal expanded autologous and transplacental-acquired maternal T cells in recombination activating gene-deficient severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Lev, A; Simon, A J; Ben-Ari, J; Takagi, D; Stauber, T; Trakhtenbrot, L; Rosenthal, E; Rechavi, G; Amariglio, N; Somech, R

    2014-06-01

    It is commonly accepted that the presence of high amounts of maternal T cells excludes Omenn syndrome (OS) in severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID). We report a SCID patient with a novel mutation in the recombination activating gene (RAG)1 gene (4-BP DEL.1406 TTGC) who presented with immunodeficiency and OS. Several assays, including representatives of specific T cell receptors (TCR), Vβ families and TCR-γ rearrangements, were performed in order to understand more clearly the nature and origin of the patient's T cells. The patient had oligoclonal T cells which, based on the patient-mother human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B50 mismatch, were either autologous or of maternal origin. These cell populations were different in their numbers of regulatory T cells (T(reg)) and the diversity of TCR repertoires. This is the first description of the co-existence of large amounts of clonal expanded autologous and transplacental-acquired maternal T cells in RAG1-deficient SCID.

  8. Abnormal in vitro thymocyte differentiation in a patient with severe combined immunodeficiency-Nezelof`s syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Knutsen, A.P.; Wall, D.; Mueller, K.R.; Bouhasin, J.D.

    1996-05-01

    An in vitro coculture model system of CD34+ stem cells and allogenic cultured thymic epithelia fragments was used to evaluate thymocyte differentiation in a 9-month-old child of Amish descent with Nezelof syndrome. Though the patient`s stem cells differentiate to acquire normal expression of CD2 and CD7, later steps of maturation were abnormal. There was detectable but reduced expression of CD3 and CD4 phenotypes. CD44+ expression, however, was markedly reduced. CD44 is an adhesion molecule, interacting with the matrix ligands hyaluronan and fibronectin, and is expressed early in thymocyte differentiation and subsequently in mature T cells. It is hypothesized that abnormal expression of CD44 in a variant of severe combined immunodeficiency, Nezelof`s syndrome, interferes with normal thymocyte and thymic epithelial interaction, which leads to abnormal thymocyte differentiation. 35 refs., 2 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Exome Sequencing Reveals Primary Immunodeficiencies in Children with Community-Acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Asgari, Samira; McLaren, Paul J.; Peake, Jane; Wong, Melanie; Wong, Richard; Bartha, Istvan; Francis, Joshua R.; Abarca, Katia; Gelderman, Kyra A.; Agyeman, Philipp; Aebi, Christoph; Berger, Christoph; Fellay, Jacques; Schlapbach, Luregn J.; Posfay-Barbe, Klara

    2016-01-01

    One out of three pediatric sepsis deaths in high income countries occur in previously healthy children. Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) have been postulated to underlie fulminant sepsis, but this concept remains to be confirmed in clinical practice. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a common bacterium mostly associated with health care-related infections in immunocompromised individuals. However, in rare cases, it can cause sepsis in previously healthy children. We used exome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis to systematically search for genetic factors underpinning severe P. aeruginosa infection in the pediatric population. We collected blood samples from 11 previously healthy children, with no family history of immunodeficiency, who presented with severe sepsis due to community-acquired P. aeruginosa bacteremia. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood or tissue samples obtained intravitam or postmortem. We obtained high-coverage exome sequencing data and searched for rare loss-of-function variants. After rigorous filtrations, 12 potentially causal variants were identified. Two out of eight (25%) fatal cases were found to carry novel pathogenic variants in PID genes, including BTK and DNMT3B. This study demonstrates that exome sequencing allows to identify rare, deleterious human genetic variants responsible for fulminant sepsis in apparently healthy children. Diagnosing PIDs in such patients is of high relevance to survivors and affected families. We propose that unusually severe and fatal sepsis cases in previously healthy children should be considered for exome/genome sequencing to search for underlying PIDs. PMID:27703454

  10. Exome Sequencing Reveals Primary Immunodeficiencies in Children with Community-Acquired Pseudomonas aeruginosa Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Asgari, Samira; McLaren, Paul J; Peake, Jane; Wong, Melanie; Wong, Richard; Bartha, Istvan; Francis, Joshua R; Abarca, Katia; Gelderman, Kyra A; Agyeman, Philipp; Aebi, Christoph; Berger, Christoph; Fellay, Jacques; Schlapbach, Luregn J

    2016-01-01

    One out of three pediatric sepsis deaths in high income countries occur in previously healthy children. Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) have been postulated to underlie fulminant sepsis, but this concept remains to be confirmed in clinical practice. Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) is a common bacterium mostly associated with health care-related infections in immunocompromised individuals. However, in rare cases, it can cause sepsis in previously healthy children. We used exome sequencing and bioinformatic analysis to systematically search for genetic factors underpinning severe P. aeruginosa infection in the pediatric population. We collected blood samples from 11 previously healthy children, with no family history of immunodeficiency, who presented with severe sepsis due to community-acquired P. aeruginosa bacteremia. Genomic DNA was extracted from blood or tissue samples obtained intravitam or postmortem. We obtained high-coverage exome sequencing data and searched for rare loss-of-function variants. After rigorous filtrations, 12 potentially causal variants were identified. Two out of eight (25%) fatal cases were found to carry novel pathogenic variants in PID genes, including BTK and DNMT3B. This study demonstrates that exome sequencing allows to identify rare, deleterious human genetic variants responsible for fulminant sepsis in apparently healthy children. Diagnosing PIDs in such patients is of high relevance to survivors and affected families. We propose that unusually severe and fatal sepsis cases in previously healthy children should be considered for exome/genome sequencing to search for underlying PIDs.

  11. Immunotherapy of murine retrovirus-induced acquired immunodeficiency by CD4 T regulatory cell depletion and PD-1 blockade.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen; Green, William R

    2011-12-01

    LP-BM5 retrovirus induces a complex disease featuring an acquired immunodeficiency syndrome termed murine AIDS (MAIDS) in susceptible strains of mice, such as C57BL/6 (B6). CD4 T helper effector cells are required for MAIDS induction and progression of viral pathogenesis. CD8 T cells are not needed for viral pathogenesis, but rather, are essential for protection from disease in resistant strains, such as BALB/c. We have discovered an immunodominant cytolytic T lymphocyte (CTL) epitope encoded in a previously unrecognized LP-BM5 retroviral alternative (+1 nucleotide [nt]) gag translational open reading frame. CTLs specific for this cryptic gag epitope are the basis of protection from LP-BM5-induced immunodeficiency in BALB/c mice, and the inability of B6 mice to mount an anti-gag CTL response appears critical to the initiation and progression of LP-BM5-induced MAIDS. However, uninfected B6 mice primed by LP-BM5-induced tumors can generate CTL responses to an LP-BM5 retrovirus infection-associated epitope(s) that is especially prevalent on such MAIDS tumor cells, indicating the potential to mount a protective CD8 T-cell response. Here, we utilized this LP-BM5 retrovirus-induced disease system to test whether modulation of normal immune down-regulatory mechanisms can alter retroviral pathogenesis. Thus, following in vivo depletion of CD4 T regulatory (Treg) cells and/or selective interruption of PD-1 negative signaling in the CD8 T-cell compartment, retroviral pathogenesis was significantly decreased, with the combined treatment of CD4 Treg cell depletion and PD-1 blockade working in a synergistic fashion to substantially reduce the induction of MAIDS.

  12. Atopic manifestations in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome: response to recombinant interferon gamma.

    PubMed Central

    Parkin, J M; Eales, L J; Galazka, A R; Pinching, A J

    1987-01-01

    Six patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) had exacerbations or recurrences of previously quiescent atopic disease when they developed immunodeficiency. Four developed a different atopic illness from that suffered previously. Atopic symptoms developed within three months after the patients developed AIDS or during prodromal illness. Two of the patients were treated with recombinant interferon gamma: both showed a striking improvement in symptoms and cellular immunity. These results indicate that cellular immunity, through interferon gamma, may have a role in regulating atopic disease. PMID:3109572

  13. Active viral B hepatitis in parenteral drug abusers with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Leevy, C B; Nurse, H; Kapila, R

    1989-01-01

    Eighty-percent of 47 parenteral drug abusers with hepatomegaly and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome had HBV DNA in serum, although only 27% were HBsAg or "e" antigen-positive by polyclonal radioimmunoassay. Liver biopsies from each of 37 HBV DNA seropositive patients showed HBV DNA and were HBcAg-positive. The absence of positive HBsAg and "e" antigen in HBV DNA-positive patients was attributable to the presence of immune complexes; after in vitro dissociation of these complexes there was an increase in HBsAg from 24% to 86%, and of "e" antigen from 19% to 62%. These data indicate that actively replicating hepatitis B virus is common in patients with AIDS, and that precautions should be taken to prevent its dissemination. Therapy in these patients should address both human immunodeficiency and hepatitis B virus infections.

  14. Introduction and immunopathogenesis of acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sudharshan, S; Biswas, Jyotirmay

    2008-01-01

    India has a large number of patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), the third largest population of this group in the world. This disease was first described in patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia in 1981. Ocular lesions can occur at any stage of the disease but are more commonly seen at the late stages. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the causative agent of AIDS is a retrovirus with RNA genome and a unique 'Reverse transcriptase enzyme' and is of two types, HIV-1 and 2. Most human diseases are caused by HIV-1. The HIV-1 subtypes prevalent in India are A, B and C. They act predominantly by reducing the CD4+ cells and thus the patient becomes susceptible to opportunistic infections. High viral titers in the peripheral blood during primary infection lead to decrease in the number of CD4+ T lymphocytes. Onset of HIV-1-specific cellular immune response with synthesis of HIV-1 specific antibodies leads to the decline of plasma viral load and chronification of HIV-1 infection. However, the asymptomatic stage of infection may lead to persistent viral replication and a rapid turnover of plasma virions which is the clinical latency. During this period, there is further decrease in the CD4+ counts which makes the patient's immune system incapable of controlling opportunistic pathogens and thus life-threatening AIDS-defining diseases emerge. Advent of highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART) has revolutionized the management of AIDS though there is associated increased development of immune recovery uveitis in a few of these patients.

  15. Central Nervous System Histoplasmosis in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nyalakonda, Harita; Albuerne, Marisol; Suazo Hernandez, Lia Patricia; Sarria, Juan C

    2016-02-01

    Involvement of the central nervous system (CNS) by Histoplasma capsulatum in AIDS is uncommon and not easily recognized. CNS histoplasmosis cases from our institution were identified by a retrospective chart review from 2004-2014. A thorough literature search was performed for additional cases and their characteristics were compared. Clinical findings, treatment and outcomes are discussed. A total of 5 cases from our institution were identified. They had a clinical presentation that included classic signs of meningitis, often with evidence of disseminated involvement, and was typically severe with important neurological impairment. These cases were treated with antifungal agents, including a lipid amphotericin B formulation and azole drugs, but eventually 3 experienced nonresolution of their disease likely because of lack of adherence to therapy and died from their infection. The clinical presentation, treatment and outcome of these cases did not significantly differ from cases found in the review of the literature. Clinicians practicing in endemic areas should be aware of this rare but serious form of histoplasmosis. The recognition of 5 cases of CNS histoplasmosis in AIDS patients from a single institution suggests that histoplasmosis should be included in the differential diagnosis of the CNS complications of AIDS. Copyright © 2016 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. [Implications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome affecting the digestive system].

    PubMed

    Bálint Gábor, S

    1992-04-05

    Over the coming decades gastroenterology,--similarly to other branches of medicine,--will be confronted with AIDS and related disorders. In this article the gastrointestinal organ-associated symptoms are briefly reviewed with special reference to: esophagus, stomach, hepatobiliary system and the guts. Some special endoscopic problems of this field have also been mentioned.

  17. Palliative care for patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kemp, C; Stepp, L

    1995-01-01

    This article provides a clinically-oriented overview of palliative care for patients with AIDS. Indicators of decreased survival time are divided into categories of infections/illnesses, clinical signs and symptoms, immunological and serological markers, and psychosocial factors. Primary symptoms in AIDS are discussed according to etiology and treatment. However, treatments of opportunistic infections per se are not directly addressed in this article. Problems discussed include pain, confusion, depression and anxiety, fatigue, fever, dyspnea, nausea and vomiting, diarrhea, wasting, and dehydration. The article also briefly addresses clinical and ethical questions and challenges presented by AIDS to hospice or palliative care providers, and the various stages of HIV infection.

  18. [Disseminated histoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Pérez, C; Pérez, J; Oddó, D; Labarca, J; Guzmán, S; Acuña, G; León, E D

    1993-01-01

    A twenty nine year old male homosexual presented with malaise, weight loss, fever and profuse sweating. An ill defined abdominal mass was found during physical examination in the right lower quadrant and chest X rays disclosed a pleural effusion. HIV antibodies and hepatitis B surface antigen were positive and immunological parameters were altered. Light and electron microscopic examination of operative biopsies of the abdominal mass revealed the presence of Histoplasma capsulatum. Treatment with Amphotericin B was started with a favorable response and the patient was discharged. He was readmitted with a septic shock and died. Necropsy showed pulmonary histoplasmosis. This is the first case of disseminated histoplasmosis in a patient with AIDS described in Chile.

  19. [Chagas disease with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Clinical cases].

    PubMed

    Labarca, J; Acuña, G; Saavedra, H; Oddó, D; Sepúlveda, C; Ballesteros, J; Alvarez, M

    1992-02-01

    We report 2 patients with AIDS who developed Chagas infection, one with encephalitis, the other with acute myocarditis. The implications of immune depression for the manifestations and course of Chagas disease are discussed. Chagas disease should be considered in patients with AIDS who live in endemic zones and who develop cerebral or cardiac manifestations.

  20. [Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Oddó, D; Thompson, L; Castrillón, M; Sepúlveda, C; Zamboni, R; Arriagada, P

    1993-09-01

    We report a 28 year old heterosexual male with AIDS that presented with progressive motor disturbances and malaise. Light and transmission electron microscopy of a stereotaxic brain biopsy demonstrated a progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. This is a demyelinating infectious cerebral disease attributed to JC virus and must be considered in the differential diagnosis of central nervous system disturbances in AIDS patients.

  1. Histoplasmosis and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a study of prognostic factors.

    PubMed

    Couppié, Pierre; Sobesky, Milko; Aznar, Christine; Bichat, Saravane; Clyti, Emmanuel; Bissuel, François; El Guedj, Myriam; Alvarez, Fernand; Demar, Magali; Louvel, Dominique; Pradinaud, Roger; Carme, Bernard

    2004-01-01

    We aimed to identify prognostic factors for AIDS-associated disseminated histoplasmosis. In a multivariate analysis, we found that dyspnea, a platelet count of <100,000 platelets/mm3, and lactate dehydrogenase levels of >2 times the upper limit of the normal range were significantly independently associated with the death of the patient during the first 30 days of antifungal treatment.

  2. The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. An Air Force Readiness Issue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-09-01

    cases reported, 68% were among homosexual and bisexual men, 19% were among heterosexual men and women wit:h a history of intravenous drug abuse, and...determined by intravenous drug users (Lopez, 1988:183). The resu ts o’ several stud;es of homosexual men have shown that t*e ra’e of HIV infection among... homosexual males has dcc irec (-a% el a 1987:326; Polk et al, 1987:61; Winkeisten et a 1937,321’- The decrease in tee homosexual nfect or. a’e orobabcy due

  3. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: more than a health-related dilemma.

    PubMed Central

    Severin, M J

    1989-01-01

    Many legal issues will affect the health care worker during the AIDS pandemic. These issues are now beginning to be contested in our courts. It is certain that their numbers will continue to grow in the foreseeable future. As local, state, and federal governments design and implement new laws concerning PWA, mechanisms for surveillance, and control of AIDS, new issues are sure to arise. These will undoubtedly involve persons concerned with providing service to those afflicted with this illness. The direction of health care research has already been altered by AIDS. Societal relationships have been affected, as evidenced by the increasing number of legal charges filed when the question of HIV infection involves a patient, student, employee, or other citizen. Inevitably, the health care worker who has contact with PWA will be asked to participate in the mechanisms of the resulting legal contests. If the case reports cited above are an indication of the legal struggles ahead, appearance as a witness to provide scientific information as well as information about the care and treatment afforded PWA will be required of health care workers with increasing frequency. PMID:2680059

  4. Herpes simplex virus type 1 encephalitis in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chrétien, F; Bélec, L; Hilton, D A; Flament-Saillour, M; Guillon, F; Wingertsmann, L; Baudrimont, M; de Truchis, P; Keohane, C; Vital, C; Love, S; Gray, F

    1996-10-01

    Herpes simplex (HSV) infection of the central nervous system is uncommon in AIDS and usually has an atypical topography. This review is centred around the case of a 49-year-old homosexual patient with AIDS who died from diffuse encephalopathy. Neuropathological examination revealed necrotic and haemorrhagic changes involving both temporal lobes, insulae and cingulate gyri. Cowdry type A intranuclear inclusion bodies were abundant but inflammation was minimal. Electron microscopy confirmed characteristic herpes virus particles. Immunocyto-chemistry was positive for HSV type 1 and 2. In situ hybridization and PCR, however, were positive for HSV type 1 but excluded HSV type 2. There was associated cytomegalovirus ventriculitis but clearly separated from HSV encephalitis. There were no histological features of HIV encephalitis and HIV could not be demonstrated by immunocytochemistry or by PCR to demonstrate proviral DNA. Apoptotic neurons were numerous in areas with a severe macrophage reaction. Only two pathological cases with characteristic limbic distribution and necrotic haemorrhagic histologic have been reported previously. The rarity of these reports suggests that in advanced AIDS, the immune reaction causing a typical necrotizing encephalitis cannot be mounted. Distinction between HSV type 1 and 2 infection may be difficult by immunocytochemistry and usually requires in situ hybridization, tissue culture or PCR. In AIDS patients, HSV-1 has been identified as responsible for encephalitis whereas HSV-2 has been more responsible for myelitis. Associated productive HIV infection of the CNS was found in none of the cases. In contrast, cytomegalovirus encephalitis was found in nine of 11 cases of AIDS-associated HSV encephalitis.

  5. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and HTLV-III/LAV infection.

    PubMed

    Rogers, M F; Lifson, A R

    1986-06-01

    Although AIDS and HTLV-III/LAV infection are rare in adolescents, the number of infected adolescents in increasing. Adolescents may place themselves at risk for becoming infected through sexual exposure and use of intravenous drugs. The management of infected adolescents includes management of social, emotional, and psychologic problems as well as the physical condition. Providers of health and social care for adolescents need to be informed regarding HTLV-III/LAV infection in this population. Prevention depends largely on appropriate education of the teenage population.

  6. Nutrition in the management of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Thuita, F M; Mirie, W

    1999-09-01

    To highlight the influence of nutrition on the progress of HIV/AIDS and the role and importance of good nutrition in the management of the disease. The subject was selected because it is now recognised that nutritional care and support is an essential component of the health care plan and management for people with HIV/AIDS. The subject is especially relevant since few studies have been conducted locally on the effects of nutritional status on the progression of HIV/AIDS. DATA RESOURCES AND DATA SYNTHESIS: A review of current literature selected from local and international scientific journals and books on the subject of nutrition and HIV/AIDS. Data were developed from the reviewed information extracted from the contribution of different authors who are interested in nutritional management of people with HIV/AIDS. It was then analysed and synthesised into the current article. On the basis of the reviewed information, it is recommended that individuals with HIV/AIDS be given nutrition counselling and support to enable them achieve an adequate nutrient and energy intake for as long as possible. This would enhance the quality of their lives and minimise disease symptoms.

  7. Erythema elevatum diutinum in acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Can it be an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Sheethal K; Marfatia, Yogesh S.

    2016-01-01

    A 47-year-old male with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) presented with multiple hyperpigmented papules and nodules on both ankles, dorsum of bilateral feet and soles. It was associated with mild itching and pain. The patient was diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 2007. First-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) was started in 2009 to which he responded initially. He was shifted to second-line ART 11 months ago in March 2015 due to treatment failure as suggested by CD4 count of 50 cells/mm3. The present skin lesions started 2 months after the initiation of second-line ART. Differential diagnoses considered were Kaposi's sarcoma and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) related infections, but biopsy was suggestive of erythema elevatum diutinum (EED). Patient was started on oral dapsone 100 mg/day and increased to 200 mg/day to which he is responding gradually. In the present case, appearance of the lesions after initiation of second-line ART coupled with increase in CD4 count and decrease of viral load below undetectable level suggest that EED could be an IRIS. PMID:27190420

  8. Acquired Bartter syndrome following gentamicin therapy

    PubMed Central

    Singh, J.; Patel, M. L.; Gupta, K. K.; Pandey, S.; Dinkar, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aminoglycoside nephrotoxicity may manifest as nonoliguric renal failure or tubular dysfunction, such as Fanconi-like syndrome, Bartter-like syndrome (BS), or distal renal tubular acidosis. We report a case who developed severe renal tubular dysfunction on the the 7th day of gentamicin therapy, resulting in metabolic alkalosis, refractory hypokalemia, hypocalcemia, hypomagnesemia, and polyuria. The patient was diagnosed as a case of transient BS associated with gentamicin exposure. The patient recovered with conservative management. PMID:27942182

  9. von Willebrand factor-cleaving protease inhibitor in a patient with human immunodeficiency syndrome-associated thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura.

    PubMed

    Sahud, Mervyn A; Claster, Susan; Liu, Lucy; Ero, Michael; Harris, Kathryn; Furlan, Miha

    2002-03-01

    Antibodies that inhibit von Willebrand Factor (VWF)-cleaving protease activity occur in patients with acute thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and often persist in the chronic phase. A deficiency of this protease is likely to be responsible for the generation of ultrahigh VWF multimers and influence the formation of intra-arterial platelet aggregates that result in microangiopathic haemolytic anaemia, thrombocytopenia and end in organ failure. This report demonstrates complete deficiency of VWF-cleaving protease and the presence of a concentration-dependent IgG1 inhibitor in the plasma of a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These data may contribute to understanding the pathophysiology of human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV)-related TTP.

  10. Immunodeficiency and Intermittent Dosing Promote Acquired Rifamycin Monoresistance in Murine Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang-Won; Tasneen, Rokeya; Converse, Paul J; Nuermberger, Eric L

    2017-09-05

    More permissive preclinical models may be useful in evaluating anti-tuberculosis regimens for their propensity to select drug-resistant mutants. To evaluate whether acquired rifamycin monoresistance could be recapitulated in mice and, if so, to evaluate the effects of immunodeficiency, intermittent dosing and drug exposures. Athymic nude and BALB/c mice were infected. Controls received daily rifapentine alone or 2 months of rifampin, isoniazid, pyrazinamide and ethambutol, followed by 4 months of rifampin/isoniazid, either daily or twice-weekly with one of two isoniazid doses. Test groups received the same intensive regimen followed by once-weekly rifapentine, or isoniazid/rifapentine with rifapentine doses of 10, 15 or 20 mg/kg plus one of two isoniazid doses. All combination regimens rendered BALB/c mice culture-negative, but selected mutants resistant to isoniazid (8.5%, 12/140) or rifampin (3.5%, 5/140) in nude mice (P < 0.001). Intermittent intensive phase therapy selected isoniazid and rifampin resistance in 10% (8/80, P < 0.001) and 20% (16/80, P = 0.009) of nude mice, respectively, compared to 0% treated with a daily regimen. Once-weekly rifapentine-containing continuation phase regimens selected rifampin-resistant mutants in 18.0% (18/100, P = 0.035) compared to rifampin/isoniazid regimens. Higher isoniazid doses in the intermittent control regimen and higher rifapentine doses in once-weekly regimens were associated with less selection of isoniazid resistance. Acquired resistance, including rifamycin monoresistance, was more likely to occur in nude mice despite combination therapy. These results recapitulate clinical outcomes, and indicate that nude mice may be useful for evaluating the ability of novel regimens to prevent the selection of resistance. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  11. Successful treatment for West syndrome with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Motobayashi, Mitsuo; Inaba, Yuji; Fukuyama, Tetsuhiro; Kurata, Takashi; Niimi, Taemi; Saito, Shoji; Shiba, Naoko; Nishimura, Takafumi; Shigemura, Tomonari; Nakazawa, Yozo; Kobayashi, Norimoto; Sakashita, Kazuo; Agematsu, Kazunaga; Ichikawa, Motoki; Koike, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Several immune mechanisms are suspected in the unknown etiology of West syndrome (WS). We report a male infant who suffered from WS and X-linked T-B+NK- severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID) with a missense mutation of the IL2RG gene (c.202G>A, p.Glu68Lys). He promptly began vitamin B6 and valproic acid treatment, but infantile spasms (IS) and hypsarrhythmia persisted. Administration of intravenous immunoglobulin and the change to topiramate (TPM) at 7 months of age resulted in the rapid resolution of IS. The CD4/8 ratio in his peripheral blood increased from 0.04-0.09 to 0.20-1.95 following unrelated cord blood transplantation (UCBT). In vitro lymphocyte proliferation in response to phytohemagglutinin or concanavalin A and the ability of B lymphocytes to produce antibodies improved as well. Electroencephalogram findings became normal 1 month after UCBT. Thus, we consider that T-cell dysfunction and/or impairments in T-B cell interactions due to X-SCID may have played important roles in the onset of WS. Immune-modulating therapies along with the administration of TPM effectively treated this severe epileptic syndrome in our patient.

  12. Acquired Intermittent Pediatric Horner Syndrome due to Neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Liza M; Elliott, Alexandra; Freitag, Suzanne K

    2017-09-13

    A 3-month-old male developed intermittent left upper eyelid ptosis at the age of 1 month that was gradually increasing in frequency and duration. Examination revealed anisocoria and left upper and lower eyelid ptosis, consistent with a left Horner syndrome. Imaging showed a mass in the left superior posterior mediastinum, which was resected, and pathology was consistent with neuroblastoma. Eight months thereafter, the patient underwent left upper eyelid ptosis repair. Cases of infantile acquired Horner syndrome due to neuroblastoma are rare. To the authors' knowledge, there has only been one case described that presented with intermittent symptoms. The authors report the second case of intermittent acquired Horner syndrome due to neuroblastoma. This case demonstrates the importance of recognizing that Horner syndrome may present with subtle and intermittent symptoms. In a pediatric patient, one should maintain suspicion for neuroblastoma.

  13. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus Evolutionarily Acquires Two Proteins, Vif and Protease, Capable of Antagonizing Feline APOBEC3.

    PubMed

    Yoshikawa, Rokusuke; Takeuchi, Junko S; Yamada, Eri; Nakano, Yusuke; Misawa, Naoko; Kimura, Yuichi; Ren, Fengrong; Miyazawa, Takayuki; Koyanagi, Yoshio; Sato, Kei

    2017-06-01

    The interplay between viral and host proteins has been well studied to elucidate virus-host interactions and their relevance to virulence. Mammalian genes encode apolipoprotein B mRNA-editing enzyme catalytic polypeptide-like 3 (APOBEC3) proteins, which act as intrinsic restriction factors against lentiviruses. To overcome APOBEC3-mediated antiviral actions, lentiviruses have evolutionarily acquired an accessory protein, viral infectivity factor (Vif), and Vif degrades host APOBEC3 proteins via a ubiquitin/proteasome-dependent pathway. Although the Vif-APOBEC3 interaction and its evolutionary significance, particularly those of primate lentiviruses (including HIV) and primates (including humans), have been well investigated, those of nonprimate lentiviruses and nonprimates are poorly understood. Moreover, the factors that determine lentiviral pathogenicity remain unclear. Here, we focus on feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV), a pathogenic lentivirus in domestic cats, and the interaction between FIV Vif and feline APOBEC3 in terms of viral virulence and evolution. We reveal the significantly reduced diversity of FIV subtype B compared to that of other subtypes, which may associate with the low pathogenicity of this subtype. We also demonstrate that FIV subtype B Vif is less active with regard to feline APOBEC3 degradation. More intriguingly, we further reveal that FIV protease cleaves feline APOBEC3 in released virions. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that a lentivirus encodes two types of anti-APOBEC3 factors, Vif and viral protease.IMPORTANCE During the history of mammalian evolution, mammals coevolved with retroviruses, including lentiviruses. All pathogenic lentiviruses, excluding equine infectious anemia virus, have acquired the vif gene via evolution to combat APOBEC3 proteins, which are intrinsic restriction factors against exogenous lentiviruses. Here we demonstrate that FIV, a pathogenic lentivirus in domestic cats, antagonizes feline APOBEC3

  14. Protective effects of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor on endotoxin shock in mice with retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Toki, S; Hiromatsu, K; Aoki, Y; Makino, M; Yoshikai, Y

    1997-10-01

    Mice with retrovirus-induced murine acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (MAIDS) were hypersensitive to lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced lethal shock accompanied by marked elevations of systematic interleukin 1beta (IL-beta) and interferon gamma (IFN-gamma) after LPS challenge. Pretreatment with 10 microg of recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (rhG-CSF) protected MAIDS mice from hypersensitivity to LPS-induced lethal shock and this protection was concomitant with suppression of IFN-gamma production. Copyright 1997 Academic Press Limited.

  15. Teaching AIDS: A Resource Guide on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quackenbush, Marcia; Sargent, Pamela

    This document is a resource guide designed for teachers, youth leaders, and health educators as a practical and relevant approach to integrating information on Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) into their existing courses. The curriculum is written in language appropriate for teenagers, junior college students, and the young adult…

  16. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy occurring with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    England, J D; Hsu, C Y; Garen, P D; Goust, J M; Biggs, P J

    1984-08-01

    A 33-year-old homosexual man with symptoms and signs of a focal brain process was subsequently found to have an acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) with biopsy-proven progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. This report reemphasizes the association of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy with AIDS and probably is best viewed as another example of an opportunistic CNS infection complicating deficient cell-mediated immunity.

  17. B-cell Lymphoproliferative Disorders Associated with Primary and Acquired Immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Low, Lawrence K; Song, Joo Y

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of lymphoproliferative disorders associated with immunodeficiency can be challenging because many of these conditions have overlapping clinical and pathologic features and share similarities with their counterparts in the immunocompetent setting. There are subtle but important differences between these conditions that are important to recognize for prognostic and therapeutic purposes. This article provides a clinicopathologic update on how understanding of these B-cell lymphoproliferations in immunodeficiency has evolved over the past decade.

  18. Dumping syndrome, a cause of acquired glycogenic hepatopathy.

    PubMed

    Resnick, Jeffrey M; Zador, Ivan; Fish, Daryl L

    2011-01-01

    A 2-year-old boy, having undergone fundoplication for gastroesophageal reflux disease and fed by gastrostomy, presented with recurrent emesis, syncope with hypoglycemia, and persistently elevated serum liver transaminase levels. Liver biopsy revealed hepatocellular glycogenosis by light and electron microscopy. Further evaluation showed no evidence of diabetes mellitus, glycogen storage disease, or corticosteroid use. Since the hyperglycemic-hyperinsulinemic state of dumping syndrome would provide a mechanism for hepatocellular glycogenosis, the biopsy findings prompted consideration of dumping syndrome. Metabolic evaluation confirmed the diagnosis of dumping syndrome, and appropriate dietary management led to sustained resolution of symptomatology and hypertransaminasemia. Dumping syndrome is proposed to be a cause of hepatocellular glycogenosis, the latter representing a form of acquired glycogenic hepatopathy.

  19. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome: recommendations of a Working Party of the Hospital Infection Society.

    PubMed

    Speller, D C; Shanson, D C; Ayliffe, G A; Cooke, E M

    1990-01-01

    Unified procedures to control those infections that are transmitted by inoculation of blood are recommended. These should be applied to patients with acquired immune-deficiency syndrome (AIDS), AIDS-related complex, persistent generalized lymphadenopathy or hepatitis B, those with serological evidence of infection by human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis B virus, and those in medical and social categories with a higher than average prevalence of such infections. When the identification of these categories of patient would be particularly difficult, the precautions should be applied to all patients, in situations of high risk for inoculation incidents. Rational infection-control measures, based on the known mode of spread, permit efficient management of infected patients, with satisfactory protection of staff and other patients.

  20. Impact of health education on knowledge regarding human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Angadi, M M; Sorganvi, V S; Algur, V S

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the study were to determine the knowledge of HIV/AIDS among college girl students, to expose the college girl students to targeted HIV/AIDS education and to assess the impact of HIV/ AIDS health education on college girl students. A cross-sectional study was designed over the period September 2009 to February 2010. Study participants included 139 students of BLDEA's Arts and Commerce College for Women, Bijapur, Karnataka. Results indicated knowledge regarding HIV/ AIDS improved substantially, especially, with relation to various modes of transmission viz unsterilised syringes (41% to 72%), pregnant mother to child (23% to 66%) blood transfusion (20% to71%) and regarding preventive measures namely adherence to single partner (68% to 95%), use of condom (18% to 68%/), use of tested blood for transfusion (21% to 55%). The study showed significant difference between pre and post-test knowledge regarding HIV/AIDS

  1. Addressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Advanced Practice Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nokes, Kathleen M.; Stein, Gary L.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 23 advanced practice nursing programs showed only 3 had HIV-specific graduate-level nursing courses. Recommendations were made for HIV-specific courses, integration of HIV content into other courses, use of Centers for Disease Control and Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines, and subspecialties in HIV nursing. (SK)

  2. Addressing Human Immunodeficiency Virus/Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome in Advanced Practice Nursing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nokes, Kathleen M.; Stein, Gary L.

    1997-01-01

    A survey of 23 advanced practice nursing programs showed only 3 had HIV-specific graduate-level nursing courses. Recommendations were made for HIV-specific courses, integration of HIV content into other courses, use of Centers for Disease Control and Occupational Safety and Health Administration guidelines, and subspecialties in HIV nursing. (SK)

  3. 'Pseudolymphoma'. A case associated with primary immunodeficiency disease and polyglandular failure syndrome.

    PubMed

    Snover, D C; Filipovich, A H; Dehner, L P; Krivit, W

    1981-01-01

    An atypical lymphoproliferative process occurred in the liver and spleen of a child with combined immunodeficiency disease and polyglandular failure syndrome. The initial pathologic interpretation was that of malignant lymphoma, although the child's subsequent clinical course was complicated by rheumatoid arthritis, thyroiditis, and chronic active hepatitis, with no clear evidence of lymphoid neoplasia. This case illustrates that unusual lymphoid proliferations in patients with immunodeficiencies may simulate malignant lymphoma.

  4. [Hematopoietic stem cell transplant in combined immunodeficiency syndromes of childhood: an optimal treatment for primary immunodeficiency].

    PubMed

    Olaya-Vargas, Alberto; Coronel-Moran, Rocío; Rivera-Luna, Roberto; Bravo-Lindoro, Amalia; Bejar-Ramírez, Yadira; Lormendez-Jacome, Doris

    2005-01-01

    The congenital immunodeficiency disorders in which the defect has been clearly traced to the stem cell can be cured with allogeneic stem-cell transplantation (SCT) from an unaffected donor. Widespread application of this treatment modality has been tempered by the fact that risk-benefit considerations do not always favor a procedure that carries a significant risk for morbidity and mortality. Some malignant disorders of childhood eventually have to be treated by an autologous or allogeneic SCT, however nonmalignant disorders can also be treated with this approach. This article reviews the current status of SCT for nonmalignant inherited immunodeficiency disorders.

  5. Fatal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome with human immunodeficiency virus infection and Candida meningitis: case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Berkeley, Jennifer L; Nath, Avindra; Pardo, Carlos A

    2008-05-01

    Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an increasingly recognized phenomenon of paradoxical worsening of patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) upon initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). To date, there have been limited reports of IRIS in the central nervous system (CNS). Here, the authors describe a 43-year-old man with AIDS who presented with subacute meningitis. No pathogenic organism was identified by routine diagnostic tests, and he was treated empirically with an antituberculous regimen and initiated on HAART therapy. Soon after, he had a precipitous neurologic decline leading to his death. Postmortem evaluation showed a basilar Candida meningitis as well as vasculitis characterized by CD8+ T-cell infiltration, consistent with IRIS. The authors discuss the challenges in diagnosing fungal meningitides and the risks of initiating HAART therapy in those with possible undiagnosed underlying opportunistic infections. Additionally, the authors review the literature regarding CNS IRIS.

  6. Immunodeficiencies

    PubMed Central

    Ballow, M; Notarangelo, L; Grimbacher, B; Cunningham-Rundles, C; Stein, M; Helbert, M; Gathmann, B; Kindle, G; Knight, A K; Ochs, H D; Sullivan, K; Franco, J L

    2009-01-01

    Primary immunodeficiencies (PIDs) are uncommon, chronic and severe disorders of the immune system in which patients cannot mount a sufficiently protective immune response, leading to an increased susceptibility to infections. The treatment of choice for PID patients with predominant antibody deficiency is intravenous immunoglobulin (Ig) replacement therapy. Despite major advances over the last 20 years in the molecular characterization of PIDs, many patients remain undiagnosed or are diagnosed too late, with severe consequences. Various strategies to ensure timely diagnosis of PIDs are in place, and novel approaches are being developed. In recent years, several patient registries have been established. Such registries shed light on the pathology and natural history of these varied disorders. Analyses of the registry data may also reveal which patients are likely to respond well to higher Ig infusion rates and may help to determine the optimal dosing of Ig products. Faster infusion rates may lead to improved convenience for patients and thus increase patient compliance, and may reduce nursing time and the need for hospital resources. Data from two recent studies suggest that Gamunex® and Privigen® are well tolerated at high infusion rates. Nevertheless, careful selection of patients for high infusion rates, based on co-morbid conditions and tolerance of the current infusion rate, is advisable. Based on the available data, intravenous Ig offers broad protection against encapsulated organisms. As vaccine trends change, careful monitoring of specific antibody levels in the general population, such as those against pneumococcal and meningococcal bacteria, should be implemented. PMID:19883420

  7. Epstein-Barr virus-associated smooth muscle tumours after transplantation, infection with human immunodeficiency virus and congenital immunodeficiency syndromes.

    PubMed

    Hussein, Kais; Maecker-Kolhoff, Britta; Donnerstag, Frank; Laenger, Florian; Kreipe, Hans; Jonigk, Danny

    2013-01-01

    Smooth muscle tumours (SMT) after transplantation (PTSMT) or associated with congenital immunodeficiency syndromes (CI-SMT) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-SMT) are rare. The majority of PTSMT and CI-SMT are associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), while some HIV-SMT can be EBV-negative. SMT in immunodeficient states may present with unspecific symptoms which are mainly related to tumour localisation. In PTSMT, >50% of tumours manifest in the liver/transplant liver, but in general PTSMT, HIV-SMT and CI-SMT can occur at any site as single or multiple tumours. Multiple tumour manifestations do not define metastatic disease as PTSMT can occur synchronously and/or metachronously. PTSMT can originate from the recipient as well as from the donor. Morphologically, most tumours, in particular PTSMT, lack marked histological atypia or tumour necrosis, while some HIV-SMT and CI-SMT can present as sarcoma-like variants, but histomorphology does not predict clinical aggressiveness or tumourbiological behaviour. In PTSMT, surgery and reduced immunosuppression show comparable overall survival rates, while poor prognosis is mainly associated with intracranial manifestation and non-resectable tumours. In HIV-SMT and CI-SMT, surgery should be performed. In all 3 tumour types, adverse prognosis is mainly related to comorbidities associated with immunosuppression but not with the extent of histological atypia or tumour size. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Formalin-treated bacteria as selective B cell mitogens: results in primary and acquired immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed Central

    Sirianni, M C; Pucillo, L P; Fiorilli, M; Aiuti, F; Banck, G; Forsgren, A

    1981-01-01

    The mitogenic activity of the formalin-treated bacterial strains Branhamella catarrhalis, Haemophilus influenzae and the Cowan I strain of Staphylococcus aureus was assessed in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) from patients with primary immunodeficiencies, acute lymphocytic leukaemia (ALL), chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) and in umbilical cord blood lymphocytes. The bacteria selectively stimulated B cells, as demonstrated by the finding of a normal de novo DNA synthesis in children with a T cell defect and of an absent response in X-linked agammaglobulinaemia and severe combined immunodeficiency. A decreased mitogenic activity was exerted on PBL from four out of seven adults with common variable hypogammaglobulinemia (CVH). In B-CLL the mitogenic activity was normal while in T-ALL it was decreased. Umbilical cord blood lymphocytes responded better than PBL from adults. The selective stimulative ability of the bacteria for B lymphocytes is expressed when PBL are cultured together with the formalin-treated bacteria for 48 to 72 hr. PMID:6976247

  9. Immunodeficiency in DiGeorge Syndrome and Options for Treating Cases with Complete Athymia

    PubMed Central

    Davies, E. Graham

    2013-01-01

    The commonest association of thymic stromal deficiency resulting in T-cell immunodeficiency is the DiGeorge syndrome (DGS). This results from abnormal development of the third and fourth pharyngeal arches and is most commonly associated with a microdeletion at chromosome 22q11 though other genetic and non-genetic causes have been described. The immunological competence of affected individuals is highly variable, ranging from normal to a severe combined immunodeficiency when there is complete athymia. In the most severe group, correction of the immunodeficiency can be achieved using thymus allografts which can support thymopoiesis even in the absence of donor-recipient matching at the major histocompatibility loci. This review focuses on the causes of DGS, the immunological features of the disorder, and the approaches to correction of the immunodeficiency including the use of thymus transplantation. PMID:24198816

  10. Immunodeficiency in DiGeorge Syndrome and Options for Treating Cases with Complete Athymia.

    PubMed

    Davies, E Graham

    2013-10-31

    The commonest association of thymic stromal deficiency resulting in T-cell immunodeficiency is the DiGeorge syndrome (DGS). This results from abnormal development of the third and fourth pharyngeal arches and is most commonly associated with a microdeletion at chromosome 22q11 though other genetic and non-genetic causes have been described. The immunological competence of affected individuals is highly variable, ranging from normal to a severe combined immunodeficiency when there is complete athymia. In the most severe group, correction of the immunodeficiency can be achieved using thymus allografts which can support thymopoiesis even in the absence of donor-recipient matching at the major histocompatibility loci. This review focuses on the causes of DGS, the immunological features of the disorder, and the approaches to correction of the immunodeficiency including the use of thymus transplantation.

  11. Progressive intracranial fusiform aneurysms and T-cell immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Piantino, Juan A; Goldenberg, Fernando D; Pytel, Peter; Wagner-Weiner, Linda; Ansari, Sameer A

    2013-02-01

    In the pediatric population, intracranial fusiform aneurysms have been associated with human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and rarely with opportunistic infections related to other immunodeficiencies. The HIV virus and other infectious organisms have been implicated in the pathophysiology of these aneurysms. We present a child with T-cell immunodeficiency but no evidence of human immunodeficiency virus or opportunistic intracranial infections that developed progressive bilateral fusiform intracranial aneurysms. Our findings suggest a role of immunodeficiency or inflammation in the formation of some intracranial aneurysms.

  12. Primary immunodeficiency update I: Syndromes associated with eczematous dermatitis

    PubMed Central

    Pichard, Dominique C.; Freeman, Alexandra F.; Cowen, Edward W.

    2015-01-01

    In the past decade, the availability of powerful molecular techniques has accelerated the pace of discovery of several new primary immunodeficiencies (PID) and revealed the biologic basis of other established PID. These genetic advances, in turn, have facilitated more precise phenotyping of associated skin and systemic manifestations and provide a unique opportunity to better understand the complex human immunologic response. These continuing medical education articles will provide an update of recent advances about PID that may be encountered by dermatologists through their association with eczematous dermatitis, infectious, and non-infectious cutaneous manifestations. Part I will discuss new primary immunodeficiencies that have an eczematous dermatitis. Part II will focus on primary immunodeficiencies that greatly increase susceptibility to fungal infection and the noninfectious presentations of PID. PMID:26282794

  13. Acquired Fanconi syndrome in four cats treated with chlorambucil.

    PubMed

    Reinert, Natalie C; Feldman, David G

    2016-12-01

    Fanconi syndrome (FS) is well described in humans and dogs, but has not been reported in cats. This case series describes four cats with acquired FS. On the basis of clinical signs and intestinal biopsies, all cats were initially diagnosed with alimentary lymphoma or inflammatory bowel disease. Treatment with chlorambucil and corticosteroids was started at standard doses, based on published protocols. Within 2-26 months of the start of treatment, glucosuria, despite normoglycemia, was identified incidentally on routine biochemical screening; FS was diagnosed with urine metabolic assays, confirming aminoaciduria and glucosuria in all four cases. Neither polyuria nor polydipsia were noted in any case, and only 1/4 cats had any clinical signs at the time of diagnosis. Partial or complete resolution of FS was seen in 3/4 cases within 3 months of discontinuing chlorambucil therapy. This is the first case series to document acquired FS in the cat, and the first to suggest a possible association between chlorambucil and acquired FS. Cats treated with chlorambucil should be monitored for the development of glucosuria, and discontinuation of chlorambucil should be considered if FS is identified. Further study into the association between chlorambucil and acquired FS in cats is warranted. © The Author(s) 2015.

  14. The syndrome of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in primary immunodeficiencies: implications for differential diagnosis and pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Bode, Sebastian FN; Ammann, Sandra; Al-Herz, Waleed; Bataneant, Mihaela; Dvorak, Christopher C; Gehring, Stephan; Gennery, Andrew; Gilmour, Kimberly C; Gonzalez-Granado, Luis I; Groß-Wieltsch, Ute; Ifversen, Marianne; Lingman-Framme, Jenny; Matthes-Martin, Susanne; Mesters, Rolf; Meyts, Isabelle; van Montfrans, Joris M; Schmid, Jana Pachlopnik; Pai, Sung-Yun; Soler-Palacin, Pere; Schuermann, Uta; Schuster, Volker; Seidel, Markus G.; Speckmann, Carsten; Stepensky, Polina; Sykora, Karl-Walter; Tesi, Bianca; Vraetz, Thomas; Waruiru, Catherine; Bryceson, Yenan T.; Moshous, Despina; Lehmberg, Kai; Jordan, Michael B; Ehl, Stephan

    2015-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a hyperinflammatory syndrome defined by clinical and laboratory criteria. Current criteria were created to identify patients with familial hemophagocytic lmyphohistiocytosis in immediate need of immunosuppressive therapy. However, these criteria also identify patients with infection-associated hemophagocytic inflammatory states lacking genetic defects typically predisposing to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. These patients include those with primary immunodeficiencies, in whom the pathogenesis of the inflammatory syndrome may be distinctive and aggressive immunosuppression is contraindicated. To better characterize hemophagocytic inflammation associated with immunodeficiencies, we combined an international survey with a literature search and identified 63 patients with primary immunodeficiencies other than cytotoxicity defects or X-linked lymphoproliferative disorders, presenting with conditions fulfilling current criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Twelve patients had severe combined immunodeficiency with <100/μL T cells, 18 had partial T-cell deficiencies; episodes of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis were mostly associated with viral infections. Twenty-two patients had chronic granulomatous disease with hemophagocytic episodes mainly associated with bacterial infections. Compared to patients with cytotoxicity defects, patients with T-cell deficiencies had lower levels of soluble CD25 and higher ferritin concentrations. Other criteria for hemophagocytoc lymphohistiocytosis were not discriminative. Thus: (i) a hemophagocytic inflammatory syndrome fulfilling criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis can be the initial manifestation of primary immunodeficiencies; (ii) this syndrome can develop despite severe deficiency of T and NK cells, implying that the pathophysiology is distinct and not appropriately described as “lympho”-histiocytosis in these patients; and (iii) current criteria for

  15. The syndrome of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in primary immunodeficiencies: implications for differential diagnosis and pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Bode, Sebastian Fn; Ammann, Sandra; Al-Herz, Waleed; Bataneant, Mihaela; Dvorak, Christopher C; Gehring, Stephan; Gennery, Andrew; Gilmour, Kimberly C; Gonzalez-Granado, Luis I; Groß-Wieltsch, Ute; Ifversen, Marianne; Lingman-Framme, Jenny; Matthes-Martin, Susanne; Mesters, Rolf; Meyts, Isabelle; van Montfrans, Joris M; Pachlopnik Schmid, Jana; Pai, Sung-Yun; Soler-Palacin, Pere; Schuermann, Uta; Schuster, Volker; Seidel, Markus G; Speckmann, Carsten; Stepensky, Polina; Sykora, Karl-Walter; Tesi, Bianca; Vraetz, Thomas; Waruiru, Catherine; Bryceson, Yenan T; Moshous, Despina; Lehmberg, Kai; Jordan, Michael B; Ehl, Stephan

    2015-07-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a hyperinflammatory syndrome defined by clinical and laboratory criteria. Current criteria were created to identify patients with familial hemophagocytic lmyphohistiocytosis in immediate need of immunosuppressive therapy. However, these criteria also identify patients with infection-associated hemophagocytic inflammatory states lacking genetic defects typically predisposing to hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. These patients include those with primary immunodeficiencies, in whom the pathogenesis of the inflammatory syndrome may be distinctive and aggressive immunosuppression is contraindicated. To better characterize hemophagocytic inflammation associated with immunodeficiencies, we combined an international survey with a literature search and identified 63 patients with primary immunodeficiencies other than cytotoxicity defects or X-linked lymphoproliferative disorders, presenting with conditions fulfilling current criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. Twelve patients had severe combined immunodeficiency with <100/μL T cells, 18 had partial T-cell deficiencies; episodes of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis were mostly associated with viral infections. Twenty-two patients had chronic granulomatous disease with hemophagocytic episodes mainly associated with bacterial infections. Compared to patients with cytotoxicity defects, patients with T-cell deficiencies had lower levels of soluble CD25 and higher ferritin concentrations. Other criteria for hemophagocytoc lymphohistiocytosis were not discriminative. Thus: (i) a hemophagocytic inflammatory syndrome fulfilling criteria for hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis can be the initial manifestation of primary immunodeficiencies; (ii) this syndrome can develop despite severe deficiency of T and NK cells, implying that the pathophysiology is distinct and not appropriately described as "lympho"-histiocytosis in these patients; and (iii) current criteria for hemophagocytoc

  16. Three Cases of Acquired Simulated Brown Syndrome after Blowout Fracture Operations

    PubMed Central

    Ji, So Young; Yoo, Jae Hong; Ha, Won; Lee, Ji Won

    2015-01-01

    Brown syndrome is known as limited elevation of the affected eye during adduction. It is caused by a disorder of the superior oblique tendon, which makes it difficult for the eyeball to look upward, especially during adduction. It is classified into congenital true sheath Brown syndrome and acquired simulated Brown syndrome. Acquired simulated Brown syndrome can be caused by trauma, infection, or inflammatory conditions. The surgical restoration of blowout fractures can also lead to limitations of ocular motility, including Brown syndrome. We report on three patients with acquired simulated Brown syndrome, who complained of diplopia and limitation of ocular motility after operations to treat blowout fractures. PMID:26015892

  17. Acquired immunodeficiencies and tuberculosis: focus on HIV/AIDS and diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Ronacher, Katharina; Joosten, Simone A; van Crevel, Reinout; Dockrell, Hazel M; Walzl, Gerhard; Ottenhoff, Tom H M

    2015-03-01

    The spread of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection within Africa led to marked increases in numbers of cases of tuberculosis (TB), and although the epidemic peaked in 2006, there were still 1.8 million new cases in 2013, with 29.2 million prevalent cases. Half of all TB cases in Africa are in those with HIV co-infection. A brief review of the well-documented main immunological mechanisms of HIV-associated increased susceptibility to TB is presented. However, a new threat is facing TB control, which presents itself in the form of a rapid increase in the number of people living with type II diabetes mellitus (T2DM), particularly in areas that are already hardest hit by the TB epidemic. T2DM increases susceptibility to TB threefold, and the TB burden attributable to T2DM is 15%. This review addresses the much smaller body of research information available on T2DM-TB, compared to HIV-TB comorbidity. We discuss the altered clinical presentation of TB in the context of T2DM comorbidity, changes in innate and adaptive immune responses, including lymphocyte subsets and T-cell phenotypes, the effect of treatment of the different comorbidities, changes in biomarker expression and genetic predisposition to the respective morbidities, and other factors affecting the comorbidity. Although significant gains have been made in improving our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of T2DM-associated increased susceptibility, knowledge gaps still exist that require urgent attention.

  18. Autopsy pathology in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, C. M.; O'Leary, T. J.; Levens, D. L.; Simrell, C. R.; Macher, A. M.

    1983-01-01

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a devastating new illness which appears to be sexually and parenterally transmissible. AIDS was first described in the male homosexual community; however, the disease has more recently been described among intravenous drug abusers, Haitians, hemophiliacs, and others. The etiologic agent is unknown. AIDS may represent an infection by a previously undescribed organism, a mutant of a known microorganism, or a multifactorial combination of environmental, immunologic, and genetic factors. As a consequence of the disease's seemingly irreversible ablation of the cell-mediated immune system, AIDS victims succumb to a variety of infections and/or unusual neoplasms. In its fully developed form, mortality approaches 100%. At autopsy the gross and microscopic pathology of the syndrome can be divided into three general categories: 1) morphologic manifestations of profound lymphoid depletion; 2) infections, usually with mixed opportunistic pathogens; and 3) unusual neoplasms, most frequently Kaposi's sarcoma or high-grade lymphomas. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure 17 Figure 18 Figure 19 Figure 20 Figure 21 PMID:6311021

  19. Shigellosis in Subjects with Traveler's Diarrhea versus Domestically Acquired Diarrhea: Implications for Antimicrobial Therapy and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Surveillance

    PubMed Central

    Toro, Carlos; Sarria, Ana Arroyo, Ana; Iglesias, Nuria; Enríquez, Ana; Baquero, Margarita; de Guevara, Concepción Ladrón

    2015-01-01

    An increase of sexually transmitted shigellosis is currently being reported in developed countries. In addition, travel-related shigellosis can introduce resistant strains that could be disseminated within this new scenario. Epidemiological features and antimicrobial susceptibility of shigellosis depending on where infection was acquired were investigated. From 2008 to 2013, subjects with shigellosis were studied. Patients were classified according to acquisition of Shigella as traveler's diarrhea (TD) or domestically acquired diarrhea (DAD). Ninety cases of shigellosis were identified: 76 corresponding to the TD group and 14 to the DAD group. In the DAD group, most of patients were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), being shigellosis associated to male sex (P = 0.007) and HIV infection (P < 0.0001). S. sonnei (47.8%) and S. flexneri (42.2%) were the predominant species. The highest resistance was detected for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (81.8%), followed by ampicillin (AMP) (37.8%) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) (23.3%). Resistant Shigella strains were more frequent in subjects with TD than those with DAD, although only for CIP the difference was significant (P = 0.034). Continuous monitoring of patients with shigellosis is necessary to control the spread of resistant Shigella strains and for effective therapy. Men with shigellosis who have not traveled to an endemic area should be screened for HIV infection. PMID:26195465

  20. Shigellosis in Subjects with Traveler's Diarrhea Versus Domestically Acquired Diarrhea: Implications for Antimicrobial Therapy and Human Immunodeficiency Virus Surveillance.

    PubMed

    Toro, Carlos; Arroyo, Ana; Sarria, Ana; Iglesias, Nuria; Enríquez, Ana; Baquero, Margarita; de Guevara, Concepción Ladrón

    2015-09-01

    An increase of sexually transmitted shigellosis is currently being reported in developed countries. In addition, travel-related shigellosis can introduce resistant strains that could be disseminated within this new scenario. Epidemiological features and antimicrobial susceptibility of shigellosis depending on where infection was acquired were investigated. From 2008 to 2013, subjects with shigellosis were studied. Patients were classified according to acquisition of Shigella as traveler's diarrhea (TD) or domestically acquired diarrhea (DAD). Ninety cases of shigellosis were identified: 76 corresponding to the TD group and 14 to the DAD group. In the DAD group, most of patients were human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM), being shigellosis associated to male sex (P = 0.007) and HIV infection (P < 0.0001). S. sonnei (47.8%) and S. flexneri (42.2%) were the predominant species. The highest resistance was detected for trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole (SXT) (81.8%), followed by ampicillin (AMP) (37.8%) and ciprofloxacin (CIP) (23.3%). Resistant Shigella strains were more frequent in subjects with TD than those with DAD, although only for CIP the difference was significant (P = 0.034). Continuous monitoring of patients with shigellosis is necessary to control the spread of resistant Shigella strains and for effective therapy. Men with shigellosis who have not traveled to an endemic area should be screened for HIV infection.

  1. Cutaneous granulomas and epidermodysplasia verruciformis in early onset combined immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yen T; Geng, Bob; Yoo, Ki-Young; Stiehm, Ewald R; Garcia-Lloret, Maria; Wong, Derek; Smart, Chandra; Worswick, Scott; Barnhill, Raymond L

    2014-02-01

    Cutaneous granulomas with prominent caseating necrosis are a rare manifestation of immunodeficiency. Extensive and recalcitrant cutaneous viral infections can also be seen. We present a case of an 18-year-old white man with an early onset poorly characterized combined immunodeficiency syndrome who, over the past 5 years, developed enlarging tender red-purple plaques on his extremities and pink near-confluent macules on his chest and back. Previous biopsies of the red-purple plaques showed features of granuloma annulare. Histopathological examination of old and new biopsies revealed both sarcoidal and palisading necrobiotic granulomas with perforating features and elastophagocytosis. Stains and tissue cultures were negative for bacterial and fungal organisms. In addition, biopsy of a macule on the back demonstrated verruca plana with characteristics of epidermodysplasia verruciformis. As an infant, the patient had failure to thrive and a combined immunodeficiency, but was lost to follow-up for 15 years. He currently continues to have severe hypogammaglobinemia and cellular immunodeficiency. Intravenous immunoglobulin and prednisone were initiated and his plaques improved rapidly. Topical imiquimod was ineffective for the verruca plana. The patient and his parents are currently undergoing whole exome sequencing including evaluation for epidermodysplasia verruciformis 1 and 2 gene mutations. This case highlights the importance of including genetic immunodeficiency disorders in the clinical and histopathological differential diagnosis for cutaneous sarcoidal or palisading necrobiotic granulomas and for extensive cutaneous viral infection.

  2. [Neural mechanism underlying autistic savant and acquired savant syndrome].

    PubMed

    Takahata, Keisuke; Kato, Motoichiro

    2008-07-01

    It is well known that the cases with savant syndrome, demonstrate outstanding mental capability despite coexisting severe mental disabilities. In many cases, savant skills are characterized by its domain-specificity, enhanced memory capability, and excessive focus on low-level perceptual processing. In addition, impaired integrative cognitive processing such as social cognition or executive function, restricted interest, and compulsive repetition of the same act are observed in savant individuals. All these are significantly relevant to the behavioral characteristics observed in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). A neurocognitive model of savant syndrome should explain these cognitive features and the juxtaposition of outstanding talents with cognitive disabilities. In recent neuropsychological studies, Miller (1998) reported clinical cases of "acquired savant," i.e., patients who improved or newly acquired an artistic savant-like skill in the early stage of frontotemporal dementia (FTD). Although the relationship between an autistic savant and acquired savant remains to be elucidated, the advent of neuroimaging study of ASD and the clarification of FTD patients with savant-like skills may clarify the shared neural mechanisms of both types of talent. In this review, we classified current cognitive models of savant syndrome into the following 3 categories. (1) A hypermnesic model that suggests that savant skills develop from existing or dormant cognitive functions such as memory. However, recent findings obtained through neuropsychological examinations imply that savant individuals solve problems using a strategy that is fairly different from a non-autistic one. (2) A paradoxical functional facilitation model (Kapur, 1996) that offers possible explanations about how pathological states in the brain lead to development of prodigious skills. This model emphasizes the role of reciprocal inhibitory interaction among adjacent or distant cortical regions

  3. AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome) and Employment Discrimination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-30

    early 1984, American scientists isolated a virus from AIDS patients and called it human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III). Another group of...which is now called human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The popular press often refers to it as the AIDS virus . See, Answers, supra, note 1 , at 10-11...narrow point on a wide spectrum of illnesses resulting from a human -immunodeficiency- 16 virus (HIV) infection. HIV is an infectious and communicable

  4. Clinical and microbiological characteristics of community-acquired pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: a retrospective analysis of 79 HIV/AIDS patients.

    PubMed

    Bao, Zhiyao; Rong, Xiajun; Cheng, Qijian; Zhou, Min; Gong, Qiming; Shi, Guochao; Wan, Huanying

    2014-07-01

    HIV infections are prevalent; however, the clinical characteristics of these patients are atypical. In the present study, we analysed 79 patients who were newly diagnosed with HIV/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at Ruijin Hospital between January 1998 and August 2011 to improve awareness of the physicians' diagnoses and to elucidate the risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and the progression to severe pneumonia or respiratory failure in AIDS patients. The patients were divided into a CAP group (A) and a non-CAP group (B). Furthermore, group A was divided into a severe pneumonia group (A1 ) and a non-severe pneumonia group (A2 ). The serum albumin (25.60 ± 5.31 vs 34.00 ± 6.90; P < 0.05) and CD4 cell count (28.5 ± 30.5 vs 229.50 ± 229.45; P < 0.05) of group A were much lower than those of group B. The serum albumin and CD4 cell count negatively correlated with the incidence of CAP. The CD4 cell count (24.15 ± 25.1 vs 47.85 ± 132.5; P < 0.05) and partial pressure of oxygen (7.86 ± 1.43 vs 9.41 ± 2.15; P < 0.05) of group A1 were significantly lower than those of group A2 . Low serum albumin levels and high blood urea nitrogen levels were the risk factors of hypoxaemia in group A. Early screening and diagnosis of AIDS, as well as nutritional support, would prevent AIDS patients from developing CAP or progressing to severe pneumonia or respiratory failure. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Posterior Cord Syndrome and Trace Elements Deficiency as an Uncommon Presentation of Common Variable Immunodeficiency

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Mota, Ananda; Morais Monteiro, Priscila; Carvalho, Angela Cristina Gouvêa; Fernandes Diniz, Barbara; Gemal Lanzieri, Pedro; Carneiro Ramos, Ricardo; Mocarzel, Luis Otavio

    2017-01-01

    Diarrhea is one of the most common symptoms in common variable immunodeficiency, but neurologic manifestations are rare. We presented a 50-year-old woman with recurrent diarrhea and severe weight loss that developed a posterior cord syndrome. Endoscopy found a duodenal villous blunting, intraepithelial lymphocytosis, and lack of plasma cells and magnetic resonance imaging of the spine was normal. Laboratory assays confirmed common variable immunodeficiency syndrome and showed low levels of trace elements (copper and zinc). Treatment was initiated with parenteral replacement of trace elements and intravenous human immunoglobulin and the patient improved clinically. In conclusion, physicians must be aware that gastrointestinal and neurologic disorders may be related to each other and remember to request trace elements laboratory assessment. PMID:28356913

  6. Immune reconstitution syndrome in a human immunodeficiency virus infected child due to giardiasis leading to shock

    PubMed Central

    Nandy, Sneha; Shah, Ira

    2015-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome has been reported in association with tuberculosis, herpes zoster (shingles), Cryptococcus neoformans, Kaposi's sarcoma, Pneumocystis pneumonia, hepatitis B virus, hepatitis C virus, herpes simplex virus, Histoplasma capsulatum, human papillomavirus, and Cytomegalovirus. However, it has never been documented with giardiasis. We present a 7-year-old HIV infected girl who developed diarrhea and shock following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy, and her stool showed the presence of giardiasis. PMID:26985424

  7. Vanishing bile duct syndrome and immunodeficiency preceding the diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Yeh, P; Lokan, J; Anantharajah, A; Grigg, A

    2014-12-01

    Vanishing bile duct syndrome (VBDS) in association with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is well described but not well understood. We report an unusual case of a 75-year-old patient presenting with biopsy-proven VBDS and immunodeficiency, without identifiable cause, which showed a waxing and waning course, culminating in the development of HL 18 months later. To our knowledge, this is the first adult case in which VBDS preceded the diagnosis of HL by such a long period.

  8. Fatal respiratory distress syndrome due to coronavirus infection in a child with severe combined immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Szczawinska-Poplonyk, Aleksandra; Jonczyk-Potoczna, Katarzyna; Breborowicz, Anna; Bartkowska-Sniatkowska, Alicja; Figlerowicz, Magdalena

    2013-09-01

    Coronaviruses have been demonstrated to contribute substantially to respiratory tract infections among the child population. Though infected children commonly present mild upper airway symptoms, in high-risk patients with underlying conditions, particularly in immunocompromised children these pathogens may lead to severe lung infection and extrapulmonary disorders. In this paper, we provide the first report of the case of a 15-month-old child with severe combined immunodeficiency and coronavirus HKU1-related pneumonia with fatal respiratory distress syndrome.

  9. Primary central nervous system lymphoma in acquired immune deficiency syndrome mimicking toxoplasmosis.

    PubMed

    Utsuki, Satoshi; Oka, Hidehiro; Abe, Katsutoshi; Osawa, Shigeyuki; Yamazaki, Tomoya; Yasui, Yoshie; Fujii, Kiyotaka

    2011-02-01

    A 37-year-old man, a hepatitis B virus carrier due to mother-to-child transmission, had a medical examination in September 2008 in nearby hospitals due to anorexia and weight loss. He was transported to our hospital because computed tomography (CT) detected intracranial lesions, and he had a positive human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibody test. Head computed tomography (CT) revealed multiple hemorrhagic lesions and enhancement effect, suggesting a thin wall. Also, an enhancement effect was present in the ventricle walls and the subarachnoid space. No accumulation was found in the thallium-201 scintigraphy. The enhancement effect of the ventricle walls and the subarachnoid space disappeared after oral administration of pyrimethamine, sulfadiazine, and calcium folinate, contributing to the diagnosis of an abscess and meningitis due to toxoplasma. However, mass lesions did not reduce. A biopsy was performed on 30 October, and the pathological diagnosis was malignant lymphoma. He died from respiratory function deterioration on 8 November. Lymphoma cells were found in ventricle wall tissue and the subarachnoid space at the autopsy. Toxoplasmosis will typically occur as a brain lesion most commonly in acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), whereas malignant lymphoma commonly manifests as a brain neoplastic lesion. However, differentiating between images of these lesions is difficult, so diagnosis by early biopsy is recommended.

  10. The acquired immune deficiency syndrome: an international health problem of increasing importance.

    PubMed

    Wofsy, C B; Mills, J

    1984-06-01

    The Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a new disease which first appeared in human populations about 1979. The disease is defined by the development of unusual types of cancer (e.g. Kaposi's sarcoma), or severe cellular immunodeficiency manifested by opportunistic infections (e.g. Pneumocystis carinii infection), or both. Although the etiology of AIDS is unknown, the epidemiologic evidence is consistent with an infectious agent transmitted by blood (e.g. transfusion, needle sharing) or sexual intercourse. Over three-quarters of the cases have been in homosexual or bisexual males and in intravenous drug abusers; about 5% of cases do not have recognized risk factors. A small number of cases have resulted from transfusion of blood or blood products. The early clinical manifestations are non-specific, and may include asymptomatic skin lesions, dyspnea and dry cough, weight loss, chronic diarrhea, and focal and non-focal central nervous system findings. Treatment for the associated cancers and opportunistic infections may be successful in individual instances, but the underlying immunosuppression of AIDS appears to progress inexorably and the fatality rate approaches 100% within a few years from diagnosis. Although nosocomial transmission has not been documented, infection control guidelines have been developed by analogy with hepatitis B infection.

  11. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome in Thailand. A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Limsuwan, A; Kanapa, S; Siristonapun, Y

    1986-03-01

    As a major tourist attraction for heterosexuals and homosexuals, Thailand stands to experience major increases in the rate of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This article describes 2 AIDS cases in Thailand, including the 1st documented case. The 1st case involved a 28-year-old unmarried Thai male who travelled to the US in 1981 for postgraduate work and had contact with both female prostitutes and homosexual men. In 1982-83, the patient demonstrated fever, fatigue, meningitis, and finally Pneumocystis carinii. He was hospitalized in 1984 for fever, bilateral deafness, and diarrhea. Serologic analysis revealed antibodies to human T-cell lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV- III). Death occurred in January 1985. The 2nd patient was a 52-year- old single man who had moved from West Germany to Thailand 10 years previously to admission in 1985 for upper gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient, a homosexual, make frequent visits to Germany and was an alcoholic. The initial clinical diagnosis was ruptured esophageal varices with cirrhosis. The patient further had a history of herpes simplex genitalis. The subsequent course of the disease process included massive blood loss and interstitial pneumonitis. Serology revealed antibodies to HTLV-III. Death occurred in August 1985. Both of these patients belonged to groups at high risk of AIDS and had clinical, serologic, and immunologic indicators that enabled confirmation of the AIDS diagnosis.

  12. Effectiveness and safety of traditional Chinese medicine in treating acquired immune deficiency syndrome: 2004-2014.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi-Bin; Yang, Ji-Ping; Xu, Li-Ran

    2015-12-23

    Substantial progress has been made in China in using traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) to treat acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Our objective was to review the latest developments in TCM treatment of AIDS in China between 2004 and 2014. We reviewed the content of original articles investigating the efficacy and safety of TCM for treating AIDS published in Chinese and English language journals. Relevant references from 2004 to 2014 were found using PubMed and the China National Knowledge Infrastructure Database. We found that TCM has been widely used for treating AIDS and its complications in China. The number of TCM studies has increased, which indicates efficacy and safety. Measures of efficacy in the reviewed articles included the alleviation of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related signs and symptoms, improvements in quality of life, improvements in long-term survival, counteraction of the adverse side effects of antiviral drugs, promotion of immune reconstitution, and improvement of laboratory results. In sum, the literature indicates that TCM is safe. TCM plays an important role in the treatment of AIDS. Some studies have attempted to measure the efficacy and safety of TCM for treating AIDS, but more evidence is needed. Therefore, more research on this topic is required in the future.

  13. Risks and prevention of severe RS virus infection among children with immunodeficiency and Down's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mori, Masaaki; Morio, Tomohiro; Ito, Shuichi; Morimoto, Akira; Ota, Setsuo; Mizuta, Koichi; Iwata, Tsutomu; Hara, Toshiro; Saji, Tsutomu

    2014-08-01

    By the age of two years, almost all infants are infected with the Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV). One of the main causes of hospitalizations for bronchiolitis and pneumonia at this age is RSV infection. In addition to well-known risks for severe RSV disease, such as prematurity, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and congenital heart disease, immunodeficiencies, chromosomal abnormalities such as Down's syndrome or neuromuscular diseases have also been identified as risks. While the medical needs for RSV prevention in these risk groups are high, clinical evidence to support this is limited. Palivizumab was recently approved in Japan for prophylaxis in children with immunodeficiency or Down's syndrome. A clinical guidance protocol for the prevention of RSV infection using Palivizumab in these risk groups is provided here on the basis of a review of the available literature and on expert opinion. Thus, the present article reviews the published literature related to RSV infections in infants and children with immunodeficiencies or Down's syndrome in order to outline the risks, pathology and physiology of severe RSV disease in these patient groups. The purpose of this article is to facilitate understanding of the medical scientific bases for the clinical guidance.

  14. Diagnostic algorithm for relapsing acquired demyelinating syndromes in children.

    PubMed

    Hacohen, Yael; Mankad, Kshitij; Chong, W K; Barkhof, Frederik; Vincent, Angela; Lim, Ming; Wassmer, Evangeline; Ciccarelli, Olga; Hemingway, Cheryl

    2017-07-18

    To establish whether children with relapsing acquired demyelinating syndromes (RDS) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein antibodies (MOG-Ab) show distinctive clinical and radiologic features and to generate a diagnostic algorithm for the main RDS for clinical use. A panel reviewed the clinical characteristics, MOG-Ab and aquaporin-4 (AQP4) Ab, intrathecal oligoclonal bands, and Epstein-Barr virus serology results of 110 children with RDS. A neuroradiologist blinded to the diagnosis scored the MRI scans. Clinical, radiologic, and serologic tests results were compared. The findings showed that 56.4% of children were diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS), 25.4% with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder (NMOSD), 12.7% with multiphasic disseminated encephalomyelitis (MDEM), and 5.5% with relapsing optic neuritis (RON). Blinded analysis defined baseline MRI as typical of MS in 93.5% of children with MS. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis presentation was seen only in the non-MS group. Of NMOSD cases, 30.7% were AQP4-Ab positive. MOG-Ab were found in 83.3% of AQP4-Ab-negative NMOSD, 100% of MDEM, and 33.3% of RON. Children with MOG-Ab were younger, were less likely to present with area postrema syndrome, and had lower disability, longer time to relapse, and more cerebellar peduncle lesions than children with AQP4-Ab NMOSD. A diagnostic algorithm applicable to any episode of CNS demyelination leads to 4 main phenotypes: MS, AQP4-Ab NMOSD, MOG-Ab-associated disease, and antibody-negative RDS. Children with MS and AQP4-Ab NMOSD showed features typical of adult cases. Because MOG-Ab-positive children showed notable and distinctive clinical and MRI features, they were grouped into a unified phenotype (MOG-Ab-associated disease), included in a new diagnostic algorithm. © 2017 American Academy of Neurology.

  15. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy in a patient with myopathic dropped head syndrome and common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Rosato, E; Molinaro, I; Pisarri, S; Salsano, F

    2011-01-01

    Prominent neck extension weakness is an uncommon clinical entity, also termed dropped-head syndrome, that may be part of a generalized neuromuscular disorder. We report here the case of a woman with dropped-head syndrome and pulmonary arterial hypertension secondary to systemic sclerosis. Subsequently, she developed common variable immunodeficiency and subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy was started. After two months from the start of therapy we did not observe any improvement in the degree of flexion of the head, although the clinical examination shows an improvement in neck extensor muscle strength. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin therapy could be a possible therapeutic option for the treatment of myopathic neck extensor weakness.

  16. Case report, aetiology, and treatment of an acquired long-QT syndrome.

    PubMed

    Van Asbroeck, P J; Huybrechts, W; De Soir, R

    2014-04-01

    Acquired long-QT syndrome is an iatrogenic disorder, usually induced by drugs, which can cause life-threatening arrhythmias. We present a case report on an acquired long-QT syndrome with an interesting confluence of circumstances, and comment on aetiology and treatment.

  17. Hematologic disorders associated with human immunodeficiency virus and AIDS.

    PubMed

    Cosby, Cecily D

    2007-01-01

    Nurses encounter patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection at various stages of their infection and in a variety of settings. This article focuses on the most common hematologic disorders associated with human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, which can precipitate complications and frequently accompany hospitalization. It is important for nurses to have a solid foundation as to the cause of these disorders, their impact on quality of life and outcomes, and management strategies.

  18. A nationwide survey of pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Y.; Kira, R.; Ishizaki, Y.; Sakai, Y.; Sanefuji, M.; Ichiyama, T.; Oka, A.; Kishi, T.; Kimura, S.; Kubota, M.; Takanashi, J.; Takahashi, Y.; Tamai, H.; Natsume, J.; Hamano, S.; Hirabayashi, S.; Maegaki, Y.; Mizuguchi, M.; Minagawa, K.; Yoshikawa, H.; Kira, J.; Kusunoki, S.; Hara, T.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical and epidemiologic features of pediatric acquired demyelinating syndromes (ADS) of the CNS in Japan. Methods: We conducted a nationwide survey and collected clinical data on children with ADS aged 15 years or younger, who visited hospitals between 2005 and 2007. Results: Among 977 hospitals enrolled, 723 (74.0%) responded to our inquiries and reported a total of 439 patients as follows: 244 with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM), 117 with multiple sclerosis (MS), 14 with neuromyelitis optica (NMO), and 64 with other ADS. We collected and analyzed detailed data from 204 cases, including those with ADEM (66), MS (58), and NMO (10). We observed the following: (1) the estimated annual incidence rate of pediatric ADEM in Japan was 0.40 per 100,000 children (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.34–0.46), with the lowest prevalence in the north; (2) the estimated prevalence rate of MS was 0.69 per 100,000 children (95% CI, 0.58–0.80), with the lowest prevalence in the south; (3) NMO in Japan was rare, with an estimated prevalence of 0.06 per 100,000 children (95% CI, 0.04–0.08); and (4) the sex ratio and mean age at onset varied by ADS type, and (5) male/female ratios correlated with ages at onset in each ADS group. Conclusions: Our results clarify the characteristic clinical features of pediatric ADS in the Japanese population. PMID:27742816

  19. Acquired Myelodysplasia or Myelodysplastic Syndrome: Clearing the Fog

    PubMed Central

    Natelson, Ethan A.; Pyatt, David

    2013-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are clonal myeloid disorders characterized by progressive peripheral blood cytopenias associated with ineffective myelopoiesis. They are typically considered neoplasms because of frequent genetic aberrations and patient-limited survival with progression to acute myeloid leukemia (AML) or death related to the consequences of bone marrow failure including infection, hemorrhage, and iron overload. A progression to AML has always been recognized among the myeloproliferative disorders (MPD) but occurs only rarely among those with essential thrombocythemia (ET). Yet, the World Health Organization (WHO) has chosen to apply the designation myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN), for all MPD but has not similarly recommended that all MDS become the myelodysplastic neoplasms (MDN). This apparent dichotomy may reflect the extremely diverse nature of MDS. Moreover, the term MDS is occasionally inappropriately applied to hematologic disorders associated with acquired morphologic myelodysplastic features which may rather represent potentially reversible hematological responses to immune-mediated factors, nutritional deficiency states, and disordered myelopoietic responses to various pharmaceutical, herbal, or other potentially myelotoxic compounds. We emphasize the clinical settings, and the histopathologic features, of such AMD that should trigger a search for a reversible underlying condition that may be nonneoplastic and not MDS. PMID:24194760

  20. Immunodeficiency, centromeric heterochromatin instability of chromosomes 1, 9, and 16, and facial anomalies: the ICF syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Maraschio, P; Zuffardi, O; Dalla Fior, T; Tiepolo, L

    1988-01-01

    Instability of the heterochromatic centromeric regions of chromosomes 1, 9, and 16 associated with immunodeficiency was found in a four year old girl. Similar phenotypic and chromosomal abnormalities were described in a previous patient studied by us and in four other published cases. All these patients have facial anomalies in addition to combined immunodeficiency and chromosomal instability. Stretching of the heterochromatic centromeric regions of chromosomes 1, 16, and to a lesser extent, 9 and homologous and non-homologous associations of these regions were the most common cytogenetic findings in all the patients. Multi-branched configurations and whole arm deletions of chromosomes 1 or 16 or both were also found. Comparing clinical and chromosomal data we conclude that immunodeficiency, centromeric heterochromatin instability, and facial anomalies form a new syndrome, for which we propose the acronym ICF. A mutation interfering with the normal process of condensation of part of the centromeric heterochromatin is postulated as the basic chromosome defect in this syndrome. Images PMID:3351904

  1. Monocyte function in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Defective chemotaxis.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, P D; Ohura, K; Masur, H; Lane, H C; Fauci, A S; Wahl, S M

    1984-01-01

    The ineffective immune response in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) contributes to severe and widespread infections and unrestricted growth by certain tumors. To determine whether monocyte dysfunction contributes to this immunosuppressed condition, we investigated monocyte chemotaxis in patients with AIDS. Using three different chemotactic stimuli, N-formylmethionylleucylphenylalanine, lymphocyte-derived chemotactic factor, and C5a des Arg, we studied the chemotactic responses of monocytes from seven homosexual men with AIDS, three homosexuals with lymphadenopathy and an abnormal immunological profile, seven healthy homosexual men, and 23 heterosexual control individuals. Monocytes from each of the AIDS patients with Kaposi's sarcoma and/or opportunistic infection exhibited a marked reduction in chemotaxis to all stimuli compared with the healthy control subjects. The reduced chemotactic responses were observed over a wide range of concentrations for each stimulus. Monocytes from AIDS patients who had clinically apparent opportunistic infection(s) exhibited a greater reduction in monocyte migration to all three stimuli than monocytes from the AIDS patient with only Kaposi's sarcoma. Monocytes from each of three homosexuals with lymphadenopathy and an abnormal immunological profile exhibited decreased chemotactic responses that were intermediate between those of the AIDS patients and the healthy heterosexual control subjects. In contrast to these findings, monocytes from each of seven healthy homosexuals exhibited normal chemotactic responses to the same stimuli. In addition, monocytes from AIDS patients exhibited reduced chemotaxis to soluble products of Giardia lamblia, one of several protozoan parasites prevalent in AIDS patients. Thus the immune abnormality in AIDS, previously thought to involve only the T-, B-, and natural killer lymphocytes, extends to the monocyte-macrophage. Defective monocyte migratory function may contribute to

  2. Cognitive and Behavioral Functioning in Childhood Acquired Demyelinating Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Till, Christine; Noguera, Austin; Verhey, Leonard H; O'Mahony, Julia; Yeh, E Ann; Mah, Jean K; Sinopoli, Katia J; Brooks, Brian L; Aubert-Broche, Berengere; Collins, D Louis; Narayanan, Sridar; Arnold, Douglas L; Banwell, Brenda L

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to describe cognitive, academic, and psychosocial outcomes after an incident demyelinating event (acquired demyelinating syndromes, ADS) in childhood and to investigate the contribution of brain lesions and confirmed MS diagnosis on outcome. Thirty-six patients with ADS (mean age=12.2 years, SD=2.7, range: 7-16 years) underwent brain MRI scans at presentation and at 6-months follow-up. T2-weighted lesions on MRI were assessed using a binary classification. At 6-months follow-up, patients underwent neuropsychological evaluation and were compared with 42 healthy controls. Cognitive, academic, and behavioral outcomes did not differ between the patients with ADS and controls. Three of 36 patients (8.3%) were identified with cognitive impairment, as determined by performance falling ≤1.5 SD below normative values on more than four independent tests in the battery. Poor performance on a visuomotor integration task was most common, observed among 6/32 patients, but this did not differ significantly from controls. Twelve of 36 patients received a diagnosis of MS within 3 years post-ADS. Patients with MS did not differ from children with monophasic ADS in terms of cognitive performance at the 6-months follow-up. Fatigue symptoms were reported in 50% of patients, irrespective of MS diagnosis. Presence of brain lesions at onset and 6 months post-incident demyelinating event did not associate with cognitive outcome. Children with ADS experience a favorable short-term neurocognitive outcome, even those confirmed to have MS. Longitudinal evaluations of children with monophasic ADS and MS are required to determine the possibility of late-emerging sequelae and their time course. (JINS, 2016, 22, 1050-1060).

  3. [Pharyngeal ulcer in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Fang, Gaoli; Zhang, Luo; Wang, Chengshuo; Xiao, Jiang; Fu, Qian; Zhao, Hongxin

    2014-02-01

    To understand the high incidence of pharyngeal ulcer in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). By analyzing the clinical features in AIDS patients with pharyngeal ulcer, this study provided reference for clinicians. Twenty AIDS patients with pharyngeal ulcer were retrospectively analysed to explore its clinical features and mechanism, and to explore the feasible therapeutic methods. The patients generally had severe sore throat and dysphagia for 7 days to 8 months, resulting in significant weight loss. Common therapeutical method does not work. The ulcers developed mainly at vestibule of pharynx (10 cases), tonsil (3 cases), epiglottis (3 cases) and pyriform sinus (2 cases). Ulcer types included major aphthous ulcer (MaAU, 14 cases), fungal ulcer (2 cases), herpes zoster (1 case), ulcer secondary to drug eruption(1 case ), and lymphoma(2 cases). The disease course was long with CD4(+) T lymphocytes decreased significantly. Treatment was given with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HARRT), regulation of immune function, analgesic, anti-inflammatory and anti fungal. Treatment lasted from 2 weeks to 3 months, ulcer healed in 13 cases; 1 patient lost to follow-up, 6 patients dead. The manifestation of pharyngeal ulcer in AIDS patients has its particularity. It is often associated with a variety of opportunistic infection and tumors. Local treatment is preferred. HAART therapy and systemic comprehensive treatment play more important and effective role. Pharyngeal ulcer persists for a long time, complicated with fever, diarrhea and other symptoms. The history of blood transfusion, injection drug use or unsafe sexual behavior may predict HIV infection.

  4. Hepatobiliary manifestations of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cappell, M S

    1991-01-01

    Patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) frequently develop hepatic dysfunction. Although hepatic injury may indirectly result from malnutrition, hypotension, administered medications, sepsis, or other conditions, the hepatic injury is frequently due to opportunistic hepatic infection, directly related to AIDS. Infection with Mycobacterium avium intracellulare typically occurs in patients with advanced immunocompromise and with systemic symptoms due to widely disseminated infection. In contrast, hepatic tuberculosis often occurs with less advanced immunocompromise. Cytomegaloviral infection may produce a hepatitis. Cytomegaloviral and cryptosporidial infections have been implicated as causes of acalculous cholecystitis and of a secondary sclerosing cholangitis. About 10-20% of patients with AIDS have chronic hepatitis B infection. These patients tend to develop minimal hepatic inflammation and necrosis. The clinical findings in patients with hepatic cryptococcal infection are usually due to concomitant extrahepatic infection. Hepatic histoplasmosis usually develops as part of a widely disseminated infection with systemic symptoms. Hepatic involvement by Kaposi's sarcoma is rarely documented ante mortem because an unguided liver biopsy is an insensitive diagnostic procedure. Patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma of the liver typically have lymphadenopathy, hepatomegaly, and systemic symptoms. As a pragmatic approach, patients with liver dysfunction and HIV-related disease should have a sonographic or computerized tomographic examination of the liver. Patients with dilated bile ducts should undergo endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography because opportunistic infection may produce biliary obstruction. Patients with a focal hepatic lesion should be considered for a guided liver biopsy. Patients with a significantly elevated serum alkaline phosphatase level should be considered for a percutaneous liver biopsy. When performed for these

  5. Acquired von Willebrand syndrome in children with aorticand pulmonary stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Binnetoğlu, Fatih Köksal; Babaoğlu, Kadir; Filiz, Şayegan Güven; Zengin, Emine; Sarper, Nazan; Altun, Gürkan; Kılıç, Suar Çakı

    2016-01-01

    Summary Introduction: This prospective study was planned to investigate the frequency and relationship of acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AVWS) with aortic and pulmonary stenosis in patients. Methods: A total of 84 children, ranging from two to 18 years of age, were enrolled in this study. Of these, 28 had isolated aortic stenosis, 32 had isolated pulmonary stenosis and 24 were healthy. Children with aortic and pulmonary stenosis associated with other congenital heart diseases were excluded. Children with hypothyroidism, renal or liver disease, malignancy or autoimmune disease were also excluded. Wholeblood count, blood group, factor VIII level, prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT), von Willebrand factor antigen (VWF:Ag), ristocetin co-factor (VWF:RCo), and bleeding time using a platelet-function analyser (PFA-100) were performed in all patients. All of the children in the study underwent a detailed physical examination and echocardiographic evaluation. Results: A history of bleeding was positive in 18% of the aortic stenosis group, 9% of the pulmonary stenosis group, and 4% of the control group. Seven of 60 (12%) patients had laboratory findings that implied a diagnosis of AVWS, and two of these (28%) had a history of bleeding. The frequency of AVWS was 14% in patients with aortic stenosis and 9% in those with pulmonary stenosis. Conclusion: AVWS is not rare in stenotic obstructive cardiac diseases. A detailed history of bleeding should be taken from patients with valvular disease. Even if the history is negative, whole blood count, PT and aPTT should be performed. If necessary, PFA-100 closure time and further tests should be planned for the diagnosis of AVWS. PMID:27841910

  6. Vitamin D status in a Brazilian cohort of adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus infection.

    PubMed

    Schtscherbyna, Annie; Gouveia, Carla; Pinheiro, Maria Fernanda Miguens Castelar; Luiz, Ronir Raggio; Farias, Maria Lucia Fleiuss; Machado, Elizabeth Stankiewicz

    2016-02-01

    The purpose was to determine the prevalence and related factors of vitamin D (VitD) insufficiency in adolescents and young adults with perinatally acquired human immunodeficiency virus. A cohort of 65 patients (17.6 ± 2 years) at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, were examined for pubertal development, nutrition, serum parathormone and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [s25(OH)D]. s25(OH)D levels < 30 ng/mL (< 75 nmol/L) were defined as VitD insufficiency. CD4+ T-cell counts and viral load, history of worst clinical status, immunologic status as nadir, current immunologic status, and antiretroviral (ART) regimen were also evaluated as risk factors for VitD insufficiency. Mean s25(OH)D was 37.7 ± 13.9 ng/mL and 29.2% had VitD insufficiency. There was no difference between VitD status and gender, age, nutritional status, clinical and immunological classification, and type of ART. Only VitD consumption showed tendency of association with s25(OH)D (p = 0.064). Individuals analysed in summer/autumn season had a higher s25(OH)D compared to the ones analysed in winter/spring (42.6 ± 14.9 vs. 34.0 ± 11.9, p = 0.011). Although, the frequency of VitD insufficiency did not differ statistically between the groups (summer/autumn 17.9% vs. winter/spring 37.8%, p = 0.102), we suggest to monitor s25(OH)D in seropositive adolescents and young adults, especially during winter/spring months, even in sunny regions.

  7. Epidemiology of children with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (stage 3): A referral hospital-based study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Movahedi, Zahra; Mahmoudi, Shima; Pourakbari, Babak; Keshavarz Valian, Nasrin; Sabouni, Farah; Ramezani, Amitis; Bahador, Abbas; Mamishi, Setareh

    2016-01-01

    Lack of recognition of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection especially in children and delayed implementation of effective control programs makes HIV infection as a major cause for concern. Information on HIV epidemiology in Iran as well as other Islamic countries is limited. The aim of our study was to describe the clinical manifestation and laboratory finding of HIV infected children who were admitted to a referral Children Medical Center (CMC) in Tehran, Iran, during 11 years from January 2002 to January 2013. This was a retrospective study carried out over a period of 11 years. The records of all patients attending to the CMC with confirmed acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were screened. The patients were evaluated for social circumstance, family history, age, gender, clinical, and laboratory features. Clinical data including fever, respiratory distress, diarrhea, rash, etc. as well as laboratory tests including complete blood count, serum glucose level, electrolytes, liver function test, cultures, CD4 lymphocyte count were evaluated. During the study period, 32 HIV positive children were enrolled. The majority of patients were presented with weight loss, prolonged fever, respiratory infection and chronic diarrhea. In this study, salmonella infections as well as streptococcal pneumonia and candida infections followed by, tuberculosis and Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections were the predominant opportunistic infections. Since the number of HIV-positive children has been alarmingly increasing in recent years and perinatal transmission is the most common route of HIV infection in children, essential recommendations for prenatal HIV testing as well as appropriate antiretroviral therapy by HIV infected mothers are needed.

  8. Pseudo-Cushing's syndrome in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients.

    PubMed

    Miller, K K; Daly, P A; Sentochnik, D; Doweiko, J; Samore, M; Basgoz, N O; Grinspoon, S K

    1998-07-01

    To our knowledge, an association between human immunodeficiency virus infection and pseudo-Cushing's syndrome has not previously been described. We describe four HIV-infected patients with pseudo-Cushing's syndrome, characterized by striking dorsocervical and submandibular fat accumulation and central obesity. In each case, cortisol levels were either normal or suppressed adequately with administration of dexamethasone, excluding the diagnosis of true Cushing's syndrome. Immune function and weight improved significantly preceding the development of pseudo-Cushing's syndrome. Three of the four patients were taking a common protease inhibitor at the onset of symptoms, and the fourth reported the exacerbation of his symptoms with the addition of a protease inhibitor. The observed characteristic pattern of fat deposition may be attributable to a specific effect of new antiretroviral therapies or may relate to recovery independent of medication usage. Distinguishing between pseudo-Cushing's syndrome and true Cushing's syndrome is critical for preventing the unnecessary and potentially harmful treatment of such patients. Further research into the mechanisms of this novel phenomenon is needed.

  9. Cytomegalovirus Retinitis and the Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome: Bench to Bedside: LXVII Edward Jackson Memorial Lecture

    PubMed Central

    Jabs, Douglas A.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To update information on cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and to integrate information on its pathogenesis and clinical outcomes. Design Literature review. Methods Selected articles from the medical literature, particularly large epidemiologic studies, including the Johns Hopkins Cytomegalovirus Retinitis Cohort Study, the Longitudinal Study of the Ocular Complications of AIDS, and the Cytomegalovirus Retinitis and Viral Resistance Study, were reviewed. Clinical information is discussed in light of knowledge on CMV, its pathogenesis, and its interactions with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Results Cytomegalovirus uses several mechanisms to evade the immune system and establish latent infection in immunologically normal hosts. With immune deficiency, such as late-stage AIDS, CMV reactivates, is disseminated to the eye, and establishes a productive infection, resulting in retinal necrosis. HIV and CMV potentiate each other: CMV accelerates HIV disease, and CMV retinitis is associated with increased mortality. Randomized clinical trials have demonstrated the efficacy of treatments for CMV retinitis. Systemically-administered treatment for CMV retinitis decreases AIDS mortality. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART), effectively suppresses HIV replication, resulting in immune recovery, which, if sufficient, controls retinitis without anti-CMV therapy. Resistant CMV, detected in the blood, correlates with resistant virus in the eye and is associated with worse clinical outcomes, including mortality. Host factors, including host genetics and access to care, play a role in the development of CMV retinitis. Conclusions Clinical outcomes of CMV retinitis in patients with AIDS are dependent on characteristics of the virus and host and on HIV–CMV interactions. PMID:21168815

  10. Hepatitis in children with acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Histopathologic and immunocytologic features.

    PubMed

    Duffy, L F; Daum, F; Kahn, E; Teichberg, S; Pahwa, R; Fagin, J; Kenigsberg, K; Kaplan, M; Fisher, S E; Pahwa, S

    1986-01-01

    Hepatic morphology and immunocytology were evaluated in 4 children with clinical and immunologic characteristics of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome or acquired immune deficiency syndrome related complex. All 4 children had hepatomegaly and increased serum alanine and aspartate aminotransferase activity. Both lobular and portal changes were noted. Lymphocytic infiltration, piecemeal necrosis, hepatocellular and bile duct damage, sinusoidal cell hyperplasia, and endothelialitis were prominent. Vesicular rosettes in sinusoidal lymphocytes and tubuloreticular structures in sinusoidal endothelial cells were demonstrated by electron microscopy. The lymphocytic infiltrate in both the lobular and portal spaces was characterized by a relative increase of cytotoxic/suppressor (T8) cells. Hepatitis may be a common feature of pediatric acquired immune deficiency syndrome and acquired immune deficiency syndrome-related complex. Although the histopathologic changes are consistent with chronic active hepatitis, the specific pathogenesis remains to be determined.

  11. Acquired hemophagocytic syndrome in a patient with synovial sarcoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Ciccarese, Chiara; Ferrara, Roberto; Fantinel, Emanuela; Zecchetto, Camilla; Simionato, Francesca; Grego, Elisabetta; Ortolani, Silvia; Caccese, Mario; Bimbatti, Davide; Cingarlini, Sara; Brunelli, Matteo; Andreini, Angelo; Tortora, Giampaolo; Massari, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a syndrome characterized by severe hyperinflammation due to an overwhelming ineffective immune response to different triggers. Most important symptoms are fever, hepatosplenomegaly and cytopenias. Biochemical signs include elevated ferritin, hypertriglyceridemia and low fibrinogen. Hemophagocytosis in the bone marrow is a hallmark of this syndrome. Based on the pathogenetic mechanism, it can be classified into primary (inherited) or secondary (acquired) HLH. We report, to our knowledge, the first case of acquired hemophagocytic syndrome that arose in a 20-year-old man affected by synovial sarcoma as a complication during chemotherapy. PMID:28031902

  12. [Epilepsy-acquired aphasia syndrome with psychosis. Report of a case ].

    PubMed

    Zivi, A; Broussaud, G; Daymas, S; Hazard, J; Sicard, C

    1990-06-01

    We report the case of a boy whose development was normal until the age of three when regression with loss of speech occurred. Other anomalies included eating and sleep disorders, sterotyped behavior disorders, suggesting infantile psychosis. The electroencephalogram evidenced paroxysmal anomalies, particularly during sleep, with no clinical seizures. The diagnosis of epilepsia-acquired aphasia syndrome (Landau-Kleffner syndrome) was made. The psychotic disorders were not considered as a differential diagnosis but rather as intertwined with the elements of the syndrome. The relationship between acquired aphasia and psychosis are discussed.

  13. Cause-specific life expectancies after 35 years of age for human immunodeficiency syndrome-infected and human immunodeficiency syndrome-negative individuals followed simultaneously in long-term cohort studies, 1984-2008.

    PubMed

    Wada, Nikolas; Jacobson, Lisa P; Cohen, Mardge; French, Audrey; Phair, John; Muñoz, Alvaro

    2013-01-15

    Parametric and semiparametric competing risks methods were used to estimate proportions, timing, and predictors of acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS)-related and non-AIDS-related mortality among individuals both positive and negative for the human immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV) in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and Women's Interagency HIV Study (WIHS) from 1984 to 2008 and 1996 to 2008, respectively. Among HIV-positive MACS participants, the proportion of deaths unrelated to AIDS increased from 6% before the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) (before 1996) to 53% in the HAART era (P < 0.01); the median age of persons who died from non-AIDS-related causes after age 35 years increased from 49.0 to 66.0 years (P < 0.01). In both cohorts during the HAART era, median ages at time of non-AIDS-related death were younger for HIV-positive individuals than for comparable HIV-negative individuals (8.7 years younger in MACS (P < 0.01) and 7.6 years younger in WIHS (P < 0.01)). In a multivariate proportional cause-specific hazards model, unemployment (for non-AIDS death, hazard ratio (HR) = 1.8; for AIDS death, HR = 2.3), depression (for non-AIDS death, HR = 1.4; for AIDS death, HR = 1.4), and hepatitis B or C infection (for non-AIDS death, HR = 1.8, for AIDS death; HR = 1.4) were significantly (P < 0.05) associated with higher hazards of both non-AIDS and AIDS mortality among HIV-positive individuals in the HAART era, independent of study cohort. The results illuminate the changing face of mortality among the growing population infected with HIV.

  14. Moderate/Severe hyponatremia increases the risk of death among hospitalized Chinese human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lijun; Ye, Hanhui; Huang, Fan; Yang, Zongxing; Zhu, Biao; Xu, Yan; Qiu, Yunqing; Li, Lanjuan

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate whether the serum sodium concentration is associated with the progression and long-term prognosis of Chinese HIV/AIDS patients. Three hundred and eighty seven hospitalized patients were recruited into this retrospective cohort study. The strata of serum sodium concentration were moderate/severe hyponatremia, mild hyponatremia and normonatremia. Disease progression was estimated using CD4 counts and the WHO clinical stage. Correlation analysis was used to evaluate the serum sodium concentration with disease progression. The Kaplan-Meier method and the Cox proportional hazards model were used to analyze the effect of different serum sodium levels on survival. In this study 206 patients (53.2%) had hyponatremia, including 10.6% patients with moderate/severe hyponatremia and 42.6% with mild hyponatremia. The serum sodium concentration was significantly correlated with the HIV/AIDS progression (P<0.001). During the follow-up, 100 patients (25.6%) died. The cumulative survival rates of HIV/AIDS patients were 47.8% ± 8.5% in patients with moderate/severe hyponatremia, 59.8% ± 5.0% with mild hyponatremia and 79.9% ± 3.4% with normonatremia (log-rank P<0.001). After adjusting for sex, age, WHO stage, CD4 count, hemoglobin and albumin, the relative hazard was 3.5 (95% CI: 1.9-6.5) for patients with moderate/severe hyponatremia (P<0.001), and 1.5 (95% CI: 0.9-2.4) for those with mild hyponatremia (P = 0.161), compared with normonatremic patients. The serum sodium level is closely correlated with the severity of patients. Only moderate/severe hyponatremia affects the prognosis of Chinese HIV/AIDS patients. Earlier intensive medical managements(including HAART)are necessary to increase the survival rates of Chinese HIV/AIDS patients with moderate/severe hyponatremia.

  15. Personality profile among Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) positives and Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients of injecting drug users.

    PubMed

    Budhachandra, Y; Ramesh, K; Sumitra, G

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the various personality factors among HIV/AIDS patients of injecting drug users. The study was conducted during the period of July 2001 to August 2004 at Manipur State, India in which 60 samples of both male and female in the age range of 21 to 35 years were taken through the helps from R.I.M.S Hospital, Imphal, J.N. Hospital, Imphal and several NGOs of Manipur. The patients were administered 16 PF (Personality profile developed by R.B. Cattell and H.W. Eber) test in which 16 personalities were detected. The profile of the respondents includes age and sex cases of HIV/ AIDS. In the sample among the HIV/AIDS patients, from the age group of 21 to 25 years consists of only 20%. Most of the patients are from 26 to 35 years consisting of two age groups, i.e., 26 to 30 years and 31 to 35 years having 40% each with total of 80%. In the survey, it has been found that majority of the HIV/AIDS patients is male which consists of 60% and remaining 40% belongs to female in the ratio of 60:40. The following four scales are used to explain personality profile: 1 Introversion vs extraversion. 2 Low anxiety vs high anxiety. 3 Emotional sensitivity vs tough poise. 4 Subdueness vs independence.

  16. Serum immunoglobulin G subclass dysbalances in the lymphadenopathy syndrome and acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Aucouturier, P; Couderc, L J; Gouet, D; Danon, F; Gombert, J; Matheron, S; Saimot, A G; Clauvel, J P; Preud'homme, J L

    1986-01-01

    Serum IgG subclass levels were measured by an indirect competitive immunoenzymatic assay with monoclonal antibodies in 61 adult patients of different geographic origins affected either with the lymphoadenopathy syndrome (LAS, 46 cases) or with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS, 15 cases). In spite of considerable variations from patient to patient, IgG-1 and IgG-3 levels were higher than in normal Caucasians, with IgG-1 levels much more elevated in LAS than in AIDS patients. In Caucasians with AIDS or LAS, IgG-4 levels were low. IgG-2 levels tended to be low and correlated negatively with IgG-1 levels. IgG subclass imbalances were especially striking in patients with lymphoid interstitial pneumonitis. The results suggest that the IgG increase predominantly affects the less T-dependent subclasses. The low levels of the more T-dependent isotypes do not appear to play a clear role in the occurrence of pyogenic infections in certain patients. PMID:3955884

  17. Early-onset Evans syndrome, immunodeficiency, and premature immunosenescence associated with tripeptidyl-peptidase II deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Stepensky, Polina; Rensing-Ehl, Anne; Gather, Ruth; Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Fischer, Ute; Nabhani, Schafiq; Beier, Fabian; Brümmendorf, Tim H.; Fuchs, Sebastian; Zenke, Simon; Firat, Elke; Pessach, Vered Molho; Borkhardt, Arndt; Rakhmanov, Mirzokhid; Keller, Bärbel; Warnatz, Klaus; Eibel, Hermann; Niedermann, Gabriele; Elpeleg, Orly

    2015-01-01

    Autoimmune cytopenia is a frequent manifestation of primary immunodeficiencies. Two siblings presented with Evans syndrome, viral infections, and progressive leukopenia. DNA available from one patient showed a homozygous frameshift mutation in tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPP2) abolishing protein expression. TPP2 is a serine exopeptidase involved in extralysosomal peptide degradation. Its deficiency in mice activates cell death programs and premature senescence. Similar to cells from naïve, uninfected TPP2-deficient mice, patient cells showed increased major histocompatibility complex I expression and most CD8+ T-cells had a senescent CCR7-CD127−CD28−CD57+ phenotype with poor proliferative responses and enhanced staurosporine-induced apoptosis. T-cells showed increased expression of the effector molecules perforin and interferon-γ with high expression of the transcription factor T-bet. Age-associated B-cells with a CD21− CD11c+ phenotype expressing T-bet were increased in humans and mice, combined with antinuclear antibodies. Moreover, markers of senescence were also present in human and murine TPP2-deficient fibroblasts. Telomere lengths were normal in patient fibroblasts and granulocytes, and low normal in lymphocytes, which were compatible with activation of stress-induced rather than replicative senescence programs. TPP2 deficiency is the first primary immunodeficiency linking premature immunosenescence to severe autoimmunity. Determination of senescent lymphocytes should be part of the diagnostic evaluation of children with refractory multilineage cytopenias. PMID:25414442

  18. Early-onset Evans syndrome, immunodeficiency, and premature immunosenescence associated with tripeptidyl-peptidase II deficiency.

    PubMed

    Stepensky, Polina; Rensing-Ehl, Anne; Gather, Ruth; Revel-Vilk, Shoshana; Fischer, Ute; Nabhani, Schafiq; Beier, Fabian; Brümmendorf, Tim H; Fuchs, Sebastian; Zenke, Simon; Firat, Elke; Pessach, Vered Molho; Borkhardt, Arndt; Rakhmanov, Mirzokhid; Keller, Bärbel; Warnatz, Klaus; Eibel, Hermann; Niedermann, Gabriele; Elpeleg, Orly; Ehl, Stephan

    2015-01-29

    Autoimmune cytopenia is a frequent manifestation of primary immunodeficiencies. Two siblings presented with Evans syndrome, viral infections, and progressive leukopenia. DNA available from one patient showed a homozygous frameshift mutation in tripeptidyl peptidase II (TPP2) abolishing protein expression. TPP2 is a serine exopeptidase involved in extralysosomal peptide degradation. Its deficiency in mice activates cell death programs and premature senescence. Similar to cells from naïve, uninfected TPP2-deficient mice, patient cells showed increased major histocompatibility complex I expression and most CD8(+) T-cells had a senescent CCR7-CD127(-)CD28(-)CD57(+) phenotype with poor proliferative responses and enhanced staurosporine-induced apoptosis. T-cells showed increased expression of the effector molecules perforin and interferon-γ with high expression of the transcription factor T-bet. Age-associated B-cells with a CD21(-) CD11c(+) phenotype expressing T-bet were increased in humans and mice, combined with antinuclear antibodies. Moreover, markers of senescence were also present in human and murine TPP2-deficient fibroblasts. Telomere lengths were normal in patient fibroblasts and granulocytes, and low normal in lymphocytes, which were compatible with activation of stress-induced rather than replicative senescence programs. TPP2 deficiency is the first primary immunodeficiency linking premature immunosenescence to severe autoimmunity. Determination of senescent lymphocytes should be part of the diagnostic evaluation of children with refractory multilineage cytopenias.

  19. An ongoing tragedy: the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).

    PubMed

    Desai, B T

    1989-01-01

    The AIDS epidemic has, to date, had only a minimal impact in India; however, given the low health status of the population and the lack of adequate health care facilities, the emergence of AIDS on a wider scale would be devastating. India's human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) seropositivity rate now stands at about 2-3/1000 people tested. In what is suspected to be a racially motivated move, the Government of India has embarked on testing all foreign students (most of whom are from Africa) for HIV and is returning all those who test seropositive to their countries of origin. Of concern is the steady increase in HIV infection in professional blood donors (1.5/1000 in late 1988). Mandatory screening of donated blood is prohibitively expensive in India, and none of the 9 companies that manufacture blood products in India test their donors for HIV infection. Another concern is the finding that 1 of every 6 prostitutes in Bombay is infected with HIV. The response of the Indian Government to the AIDS threat has tended to be punitive toward AIDS victims rather than based on a sound preventive strategy. For example, the 1989 AIDS Prevention Bill forces individuals who are infected with HIV to reveal their past sexual partners, empowers authorities to hospitalize AIDS victims and drug addicts, and contains no provisions to protect the human and civil rights of AIDS victims. The mass media have treated AIDS in a sensationalized manner rather than presenting scientific information about the prevention and transmission of the disease. It is essential that the Government of India--and all world governments--realize that punitive measures will do little to reduce the spread of AIDS. Needed, instead, is a global prevention and control effort based on generosity and compassion.

  20. Clinical and immunological overlap between autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome and common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Rensing-Ehl, A; Warnatz, K; Fuchs, S; Schlesier, M; Salzer, U; Draeger, R; Bondzio, I; Joos, Y; Janda, A; Gomes, M; Abinun, M; Hambleton, S; Cant, A; Shackley, F; Flood, T; Waruiru, C; Beutel, K; Siepermann, K; Dueckers, G; Niehues, T; Wiesel, T; Schuster, V; Seidel, M G; Minkov, M; Sirkiä, K; Kopp, M V; Korhonen, M; Schwarz, K; Ehl, S; Speckmann, C

    2010-12-01

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) is mainly caused by defects in the CD95 pathway. Raised CD3+TCRαβ+CD4-CD8- double negative T cells and impaired T cell apoptosis are hallmarks of the disease. In contrast, the B cell compartment has been less well studied. We found an altered distribution of B cell subsets with raised transitional B cells and reduced marginal zone B cells, switched memory B cells and plasma blasts in most of 22 analyzed ALPS patients. Moreover, 5 out of 66 ALPS patients presented with low IgG and susceptibility to infection revealing a significant overlap between ALPS and common variable immunodeficiency (CVID). In patients presenting with lymphoproliferation, cytopenia, hypogammaglobulinemia and impaired B cell differentiation, serum biomarkers were helpful in addition to apoptosis tests for the identification of ALPS patients. Our observations may indicate a role for apoptosis defects in some diseases currently classified as CVID.

  1. Defective virus is associated with induction of murine retrovirus-induced immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Chattopadhyay, S K; Morse, H C; Makino, M; Ruscetti, S K; Hartley, J W

    1989-01-01

    C57BL/6 mice infected with a mixture of murine leukemia viruses (MuLV) develop a syndrome characterized by lymphoproliferation and profound immunodeficiency. Analyses of this viral mixture (LP-BM5 MuLV) showed that it includes replication-competent ecotropic and mink cell focus-inducing MuLV and defective viruses with genome sizes of 3.8-6.5 kilobases. The ecotropic and mink cell focus-inducing MuLV biologically cloned from the mixture did not induce disease, whereas viral preparations containing the ecotropic MuLV and 4.8-kilobase defective virus were active. Cells producing the 4.8-kilobase defective virus expressed an unusual gag-encoded polyprotein of Mr 60,000. Images PMID:2542949

  2. Heterochromatic Genes Undergo Epigenetic Changes and Escape Silencing in Immunodeficiency, Centromeric Instability, Facial Anomalies (ICF) Syndrome

    PubMed Central

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