Science.gov

Sample records for acquired mass spectra

  1. AN ION CORRELATION PROGRAM FOR DECONVOLUTING COMPOSITE MASS SPECTRA ACQUIRED USING A DIRECT SURFACE IONIZATION SOURCE INTERFACED TO A TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The rapid sampling provided by the DART in ambient air will allow rapid delineation of areas of dispersed chemicals after natural or man-made disasters. Exact masses and RIAs of dimer, precursor, and product ions measured by the oa-TOFMS entered dinto the Ion Correlation Program...

  2. Error Analysis of Remotely-Acquired Mossbauer Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, Martha W.; Dyar, M. Darby; Agresti, David G.; Schaefer, Bradley E.

    2005-01-01

    On the Mars Exploration Rovers, Mossbauer spectroscopy has recently been called upon to assist in the task of mineral identification, a job for which it is rarely used in terrestrial studies. For example, Mossbauer data were used to support the presence of olivine in Martian soil at Gusev and jarosite in the outcrop at Meridiani. The strength (and uniqueness) of these interpretations lies in the assumption that peak positions can be determined with high degrees of both accuracy and precision. We summarize here what we believe to be the major sources of error associated with peak positions in remotely-acquired spectra, and speculate on their magnitudes. Our discussion here is largely qualitative because necessary background information on MER calibration sources, geometries, etc., have not yet been released to the PDS; we anticipate that a more quantitative discussion can be presented by March 2005.

  3. Reanalysis of Tyrannosaurus rex Mass Spectra.

    PubMed

    Bern, Marshall; Phinney, Brett S; Goldberg, David

    2009-09-01

    Asara et al. reported the detection of collagen peptides in a 68-million-year-old Tyrannosaurus rex bone by shotgun proteomics. This finding has been called into question as a possible statistical artifact. We reanalyze Asara et al.'s tandem mass spectra using a different search engine and different statistical tools. Our reanalysis shows a sample containing common laboratory contaminants, soil bacteria, and bird-like hemoglobin and collagen.

  4. Method and system for calibrating acquired spectra for use in spectral analysis

    DOEpatents

    Reber, Edward L.; Rohde, Kenneth W.; Blackwood, Larry G.

    2010-09-14

    A method for calibrating acquired spectra for use in spectral analysis includes performing Gaussian peak fitting to spectra acquired by a plurality of NaI detectors to define peak regions. A Na and annihilation doublet may be located among the peak regions. A predetermined energy level may be applied to one of the peaks in the doublet and a location of a hydrogen peak may be predicted based on the location of at least one of the peaks of the doublet. Control systems for calibrating spectra are also disclosed.

  5. Odor Impression Prediction from Mass Spectra.

    PubMed

    Nozaki, Yuji; Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell arises from the perception of odors from chemicals. However, the relationship between the impression of odor and the numerous physicochemical parameters has yet to be understood owing to its complexity. As such, there is no established general method for predicting the impression of odor of a chemical only from its physicochemical properties. In this study, we designed a novel predictive model based on an artificial neural network with a deep structure for predicting odor impression utilizing the mass spectra of chemicals, and we conducted a series of computational analyses to evaluate its performance. Feature vectors extracted from the original high-dimensional space using two autoencoders equipped with both input and output layers in the model are used to build a mapping function from the feature space of mass spectra to the feature space of sensory data. The results of predictions obtained by the proposed new method have notable accuracy (R≅0.76) in comparison with a conventional method (R≅0.61).

  6. Odor Impression Prediction from Mass Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Nakamoto, Takamichi

    2016-01-01

    The sense of smell arises from the perception of odors from chemicals. However, the relationship between the impression of odor and the numerous physicochemical parameters has yet to be understood owing to its complexity. As such, there is no established general method for predicting the impression of odor of a chemical only from its physicochemical properties. In this study, we designed a novel predictive model based on an artificial neural network with a deep structure for predicting odor impression utilizing the mass spectra of chemicals, and we conducted a series of computational analyses to evaluate its performance. Feature vectors extracted from the original high-dimensional space using two autoencoders equipped with both input and output layers in the model are used to build a mapping function from the feature space of mass spectra to the feature space of sensory data. The results of predictions obtained by the proposed new method have notable accuracy (R≅0.76) in comparison with a conventional method (R≅0.61). PMID:27326765

  7. High Resolution Mass Spectra Analysis with a Programmable Calculator.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdsworth, David K.

    1980-01-01

    Highlighted are characteristics of programs written for a pocket-sized programmable calculator to analyze mass spectra data (such as displaying high resolution masses for formulas, predicting whether formulas are stable molecules or molecular ions, determining formulas by isotopic abundance measurement) in a laboratory or classroom. (CS)

  8. Active and sterile neutrino mass effects on beta decay spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Boillos, Juan Manuel; Moya de Guerra, Elvira

    2013-06-10

    We study the spectra of the emitted charged leptons in charge current weak nuclear processes to analyze the effect of neutrino masses. Standard active neutrinos are studied here, with masses of the order of 1 eV or lower, as well as sterile neutrinos with masses of a few keV. The latter are warm dark matter (WDM) candidates hypothetically produced or captured as small mixtures with the active neutrinos. We compute differential decay or capture rates spectra in weak charged processes of different nuclei ({sup 3}H, {sup 187}Re, {sup 107}Pd, {sup 163}Ho, etc) using different masses of both active and sterile neutrinos and different values of the mixing parameter.

  9. Mass spectra and Regge trajectories of , , and baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Zalak; Thakkar, Kaushal; Rai, Ajay Kumar; Vinodkumar, P. C.

    2016-12-01

    We calculate the mass spectra of the singly charmed baryons (, , and ) using the hypercentral constituent quark model (hCQM). The hyper color Coulomb plus linear potential is used to calculate the masses of positive (up to ) and negative (up to ) parity excited states. The spin-spin, spin-orbital and tensor interaction terms are also incorporated for mass spectra. We have compared our results with other theoretical and lattice QCD predictions for each baryon. Moreover, the known experimental results are also reasonably close to our predicted masses. By using the radial and orbital excitation, we construct Regge trajectories for the baryons in the (n, M2) plane and find their slopes and intercepts. Other properties of these baryons, like magnetic moments, radiative transitions and radiative decay widths, are also calculated successfully. Supported in part (A. K. Rai) by DST, India (SERB Fast Track Scheme SR/FTP/PS-152/2012)

  10. Reflectance calibration and shadow effect of VNIS spectra acquired by the Yutu rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Sen; Lin, Yang-Ting; Liu, Bin; Yang, Wei; He, Zhi-Ping; Xing, Wei-Fan

    2015-09-01

    Yutu is the first lunar rover after the Apollo program and Luna missions. One of the payloads on the Yutu rover, the Visible and Near-infrared Imaging Spectrometer (VNIS), has acquired four VIS/NIR images and SWIR spectra near its landing site in Mare Imbrium. The radiance images were reduced through repairing bad lines and bad points, and applying flat field correction, and then were converted into reflectance values based on the solar irradiance and angles of incidence. A significant shadow effect was observed in the VIS/NIR image. The shadowed regions show lower reflectance with a darkening trend compared with illuminated regions. The reflectance increased by up to 24% for entire images and 17% for the VIS/NIR-SWIR overlapping regions after shadow correction. The correction for the shadow effect will remarkably decrease the estimate of FeO content, by up to 4.9 wt.% in this study. The derived FeO contents of CD-005∼008 after shadow correction are around 18.0 wt.%.

  11. Mass spectra of 0+-, 1-+, and 2+- exotic glueballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Liang; Qiao, Cong-Feng

    2016-03-01

    With appropriate interpolating currents the mass spectra of 0+-, 1-+, and 2+- oddballs are studied in the framework of QCD sum rules (QCDSR). We find there exits one stable 0+- oddball with mass of 4.57 ± 0.13GeV, and one stable 2+- oddball with mass of 6.06 ± 0.13GeV, whereas, no stable 1-+ oddball shows up. The possible production and decay modes of these glueballs with unconventional quantum numbers are analyzed, which are hopefully measurable in either BELLEII, PANDA, Super-B or LHCb experiments.

  12. MS2Grouper: group assessment and synthetic replacement of duplicate proteomic tandem mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Tabb, David L; Thompson, Melissa R; Khalsa-Moyers, Gurusahai; VerBerkmoes, Nathan C; McDonald, W Hayes

    2005-08-01

    Shotgun proteomics experiments require the collection of thousands of tandem mass spectra; these sets of data will continue to grow as new instruments become available that can scan at even higher rates. Such data contain substantial amounts of redundancy with spectra from a particular peptide being acquired many times during a single LC-MS/MS experiment. In this article, we present MS2Grouper, an algorithm that detects spectral duplication, assesses groups of related spectra, and replaces these groups with synthetic representative spectra. Errors in detecting spectral similarity are corrected using a paraclique criterion-spectra are only assessed as groups if they are part of a clique of at least three completely interrelated spectra or are subsequently added to such cliques by being similar to all but one of the clique members. A greedy algorithm constructs a representative spectrum for each group by iteratively removing the tallest peaks from the spectral collection and matching to peaks in the other spectra. This strategy is shown to be effective in reducing spectral counts by up to 20% in LC-MS/MS datasets from protein standard mixtures and proteomes, reducing database search times without a concomitant reduction in identified peptides.

  13. Quantitative Comparison of Tandem Mass Spectra Obtained on Various Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazsó, Fanni Laura; Ozohanics, Oliver; Schlosser, Gitta; Ludányi, Krisztina; Vékey, Károly; Drahos, László

    2016-08-01

    The similarity between two tandem mass spectra, which were measured on different instruments, was compared quantitatively using the similarity index (SI), defined as the dot product of the square root of peak intensities in the respective spectra. This function was found to be useful for comparing energy-dependent tandem mass spectra obtained on various instruments. Spectral comparisons show the similarity index in a 2D "heat map", indicating which collision energy combinations result in similar spectra, and how good this agreement is. The results and methodology can be used in the pharma industry to design experiments and equipment well suited for good reproducibility. We suggest that to get good long-term reproducibility, it is best to adjust the collision energy to yield a spectrum very similar to a reference spectrum. It is likely to yield better results than using the same tuning file, which, for example, does not take into account that contamination of the ion source due to extended use may influence instrument tuning. The methodology may be used to characterize energy dependence on various instrument types, to optimize instrumentation, and to study the influence or correlation between various experimental parameters.

  14. Verification of automated peptide identifications from proteomic tandem mass spectra

    PubMed Central

    Tabb, David L; Friedman, David B; Ham, Amy-Joan L

    2010-01-01

    Shotgun proteomics yields tandem mass spectra of peptides that can be identified by database search algorithms. When only a few observed peptides suggest the presence of a protein, establishing the accuracy of the peptide identifications is necessary for accepting or rejecting the protein identification. In this protocol, we describe the properties of peptide identifications that can differentiate legitimately identified peptides from spurious ones. The chemistry of fragmentation, as embodied in the ‘mobile proton’ and ‘pathways in competition’ models, informs the process of confirming or rejecting each spectral match. Examples of ion-trap and tandem time-of-flight (TOF/TOF) mass spectra illustrate these principles of fragmentation. PMID:17406459

  15. Application of blind source separation to gamma ray spectra acquired by GRaND around Vesta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mizzon, H.; Toplis, M. J.; Forni, O.; Prettyman, T. H.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2012-12-01

    The bismuth germinate (BGO) scintillator is one of the sensors of the gamma ray and neutron detector (GRaND)1 on board the Dawn spacecraft, that has spent just over one year in orbit around the asteroid 4-Vesta. The BGO detector is excited by energetic gamma-rays produced by galactic cosmic rays (GCR) or energetic solar particles interacting either with Vesta and/or the Dawn spacecraft. In detail, during periods of quiet solar activity, gamma ray spectra produced by the scintillator can be considered as consisting of three signals: i) a contribution of gamma-rays from Vesta produced by GCR interactions at the asteroid's surface, ii) a contribution from the spacecraft excited by neutrons coming from Vesta, and iii) a contribution of the spacecraft excited by local interaction with galactic cosmic rays. While the first two contributions should be positive functions of the solid angle of Vesta in the field of view during acquisition, the last one should have a negative dependence because Vesta partly shields the spacecraft from GCR. This theoretical mix can be written formally as: S=aΩSV+bΩSSCNV+c(4π-Ω)SSCGCR (1) where S is the series of recorded spectra, Ω is the solid angle, SV is the contribution of gamma rays coming from Vesta, SSCNV is the contribution of gamma rays coming from the spacecraft excited by the neutron coming from Vesta and SSCGCR is the contribution of gamma rays coming from the spacecraft excited by GCR. A blind source separation method called independent component analysis enables separating additive subcomponents supposing the mutual statistical independence of the non-Gaussian source signals2. Applying this method to BGO spectra acquired during the first three months of the low-altitude measurement orbit (LAMO) reveals two main independent components. The first one is dominated by the positron electron annihilation peak and is positively correlated to the solid angle. The second is negatively correlated to the solid angle and displays peaks

  16. Theory analysis of mass spectra of long-chain isocyanates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dongliang; Hao, Ce; Zhang, Hua; Qiao, Weihong; Li, Zongshi; Yu, Guanghui; Yan, Kelu; Guo, Yuliang; Cheng, Lvbo

    2008-07-01

    Electron impact mass spectra of four long-chain isocyanates, lauryl isocyanate, tetradecyl isocyanate, hexadecyl isocyanate and octadecyl isocyanate, were obtained with a GCT high-resolution time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The four isocyanates studied gave a common base peak of m/z 99, which suggested the formation of a stable six-membered ring structure to decentralize the positive charge. Quantum-mechanical energy calculation justified that the six-membered ring base peak had the lowest energy. The positive charge assigned during the fragmentation of the radical cation, and the relative intensity of the fragment ion peaks, were explained by quantum-mechanical calculations as well.

  17. Cosmic ray mass and momentum spectra at mountain altitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barber, H. B.; Bowen, T.; Delise, D. A.; Jenkins, E. W.; Jones, J. J.; Kalbach, R. M.; Pifer, A. E.

    1975-01-01

    A cosmic ray mass spectrometer using a superconducting magnet, digitized wire spark chambers, and a scintillation counter time of flight system, has been operated at an altitude of 2750 meters. The apparatus is most sensitive to charged particles with momentum to mass ratios between 0.2 and 2.0. Results for the momentum spectra of protons and deuterons are presented, as well as upper limits for H-3 and He-3. The reaction nucleon + nucleon yields deuteron + pion accounts for part of the observed deuteron spectrum in the 0.9 to 3 GeV/c region.-

  18. Mono-isotope Prediction for Mass Spectra Using Bayes Network

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui; Rwebangira, Mugizi Robert; Burge, Legand

    2015-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is one of the widely utilized important methods to study protein functions and components. The challenge of mono-isotope pattern recognition from large scale protein mass spectral data needs computational algorithms and tools to speed up the analysis and improve the analytic results. We utilized naïve Bayes network as the classifier with the assumption that the selected features are independent to predict mono-isotope pattern from mass spectrometry. Mono-isotopes detected from validated theoretical spectra were used as prior information in the Bayes method. Three main features extracted from the dataset were employed as independent variables in our model. The application of the proposed algorithm to publicMo dataset demonstrates that our naïve Bayes classifier is advantageous over existing methods in both accuracy and sensitivity. PMID:25620856

  19. Efficient Methods to Generate Reproducible Mass Spectra in Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization of Peptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Sung Hee; Park, Kyung Man; Bae, Yong Jin; Kim, Myung Soo

    2013-06-01

    In our previous matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) studies of peptides, we found that their mass spectra were virtually determined by the effective temperature in the early matrix plume, Tearly, when samples were rather homogeneous. This empirical rule allowed acquisition of quantitatively reproducible spectra. A difficulty in utilizing this rule was the complicated spectral treatment needed to get Tearly. In this work, we found another empirical rule that the total number of particles hitting the detector, or TIC, was a good measure of the spectral temperature and, hence, selection of spectra with the same TIC resulted in reproducible spectra. We also succeeded in obtaining reproducible spectra throughout a measurement by controlling TIC near a preset value through feedback adjustment of laser pulse energy. Both TIC selection and TIC control substantially reduced the shot-to-shot spectral variation in a spot, spot-to-spot variation in a sample, and even sample-to-sample variation in MALDI using α-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid or 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid as matrix. Based on the utilization of acquired data, TIC control was more efficient than TIC selection by an order of magnitude. Both techniques produced calibration curves with excellent linearity, suggesting their utility in quantification of peptides.

  20. ClusterSculptor: Software for Expert-Steered Classification of Single Particle Mass Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Zelenyuk, Alla; Imre, Dan G.; Nam, Eun Ju; Han, Yiping; Mueller, Klaus

    2008-08-01

    To take full advantage of the vast amount of highly detailed data acquired by single particle mass spectrometers requires that the data be organized according to some rules that have the potential to be insightful. Most commonly statistical tools are used to cluster the individual particle mass spectra on the basis of their similarity. Cluster analysis is a powerful strategy for the exploration of high-dimensional data in the absence of a-priori hypotheses or data classification models, and the results of cluster analysis can then be used to form such models. More often than not, when examining the data clustering results we find that many clusters contain particles of different types and that many particles of one type end up in a number of separate clusters. Our experience with cluster analysis shows that we have a vast amount of non-compiled knowledge and intuition that should be brought to bear in this effort. We will present new software we call ClusterSculptor that provides comprehensive and intuitive framework to aid scientists in data classification. ClusterSculptor uses k-means as the overall clustering engine, but allows tuning its parameters interactively, based on a non-distorted compact visual presentation of the inherent characteristics of the data in high-dimensional space. ClusterSculptor provides all the tools necessary for a high-dimensional activity we call cluster sculpting. ClusterSculptor is designed to be coupled to SpectraMiner, our data mining and visualization software package. The data are first visualized with SpectraMiner and identified problems are exported to ClusterSculptor, where the user steers the reclassification and recombination of clusters of tens of thousands particle mass spectra in real-time. The resulting sculpted clusters can be then imported back into SpectraMiner. Here we will greatly improved single particle chemical speciation in an example of application of this new tool to a number of particle types of atmospheric

  1. Excited state mass spectra of doubly heavy Ξ baryons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Zalak; Rai, Ajay Kumar

    2017-02-01

    In this paper, the mass spectra are obtained for doubly heavy Ξ baryons, namely, Ξ _{cc}+, Ξ _{cc}^{++}, Ξ _{bb}-, Ξ _{bb}0, Ξ _{bc}0 and Ξ _{bc}+. These baryons consist of two heavy quarks ( cc, bb, and bc) with a light ( d or u) quark. The ground, radial, and orbital states are calculated in the framework of the hypercentral constituent quark model with Coulomb plus linear potential. Our results are also compared with other predictions, thus, the average possible range of excited states masses of these Ξ baryons can be determined. The study of the Regge trajectories is performed in ( n, M2) and ( J, M2) planes and their slopes and intercepts are also determined. Lastly, the ground state magnetic moments of these doubly heavy baryons are also calculated.

  2. Peptide mass fingerprinting peak intensity prediction: extracting knowledge from spectra.

    PubMed

    Gay, Steven; Binz, Pierre-Alain; Hochstrasser, Denis F; Appel, Ron D

    2002-10-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry has become a valuable tool in proteomics. With the increasing acquisition rate of mass spectrometers, one of the major issues is the development of accurate, efficient and automatic peptide mass fingerprinting (PMF) identification tools. Current tools are mostly based on counting the number of experimental peptide masses matching with theoretical masses. Almost all of them use additional criteria such as isoelectric point, molecular weight, PTMs, taxonomy or enzymatic cleavage rules to enhance prediction performance. However, these identification tools seldom use peak intensities as parameter as there is currently no model predicting the intensities based on the physicochemical properties of peptides. In this work, we used standard datamining methods such as classification and regression methods to find correlations between peak intensities and the properties of the peptides composing a PMF spectrum. These methods were applied on a dataset comprising a series of PMF experiments involving 157 proteins. We found that the C4.5 method gave the more informative results for the classification task (prediction of the presence or absence of a peptide in a spectra) and M5' for the regression methods (prediction of the normalized intensity of a peptide peak). The C4.5 result correctly classified 88% of the theoretical peaks; whereas the M5' peak intensities had a correlation coefficient of 0.6743 with the experimental peak intensities. These methods enabled us to obtain decision and model trees that can be directly used for prediction and identification of PMF results. The work performed permitted to lay the foundations of a method to analyze factors influencing the peak intensity of PMF spectra. A simple extension of this analysis could lead to improve the accuracy of the results by using a larger dataset. Additional peptide characteristics or even PMF experimental parameters can also be taken into

  3. De Novo Sequencing of Peptides from Top-Down Tandem Mass Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Vyatkina, Kira; Wu, Si; Dekker, Lennard J. M.; VanDuijn, Martijn M.; Liu, Xiaowen; Tolić, Nikola; Dvorkin, Mikhail; Alexandrova, Sonya; Luider, Theo M.; Paša-Tolić, Ljiljana; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2015-11-06

    De novo sequencing of proteins and peptides is one of the most important problems in mass spectrometry-driven proteomics. A variety of methods have been developed to accomplish this task from a set of bottom-up tandem (MS/MS) mass spectra. However, a more recently emerged top-down technology, now gaining more and more popularity, opens new perspectives for protein analysis and characterization, implying a need in efficient algorithms for processing this kind of MS/MS data. Here we describe a method that allows to retrieve from a set of top-down MS/MS spectra long and accurate sequence fragments of the proteins contained in a sample. To this end, we outline a strategy for generating high-quality sequence tags from top-down spectra, and introduce the concept of a T-Bruijn graph by adapting to the case of tags the notion of an A-Bruijn graph widely used in genomics. The output of the proposed approach represents the set of amino acid strings spelled out by optimal paths in the connected components of a T-Bruijn graph. We illustrate its performance on top-down datasets acquired from carbonic anhydrase 2 (CAH2) and the Fab region of alemtuzumab.

  4. Comprehensive analysis of a multidimensional liquid chromatography mass spectrometry dataset acquired on a quadrupole selecting, quadrupole collision cell, time-of-flight mass spectrometer: I. How much of the data is theoretically interpretable by search engines?

    PubMed

    Chalkley, Robert J; Baker, Peter R; Hansen, Kirk C; Medzihradszky, Katalin F; Allen, Nadia P; Rexach, Michael; Burlingame, Alma L

    2005-08-01

    An in-depth analysis of a multidimensional chromatography-mass spectrometry dataset acquired on a quadrupole selecting, quadrupole collision cell, time-of-flight (QqTOF) geometry instrument was carried out. A total of 3269 CID spectra were acquired. Through manual verification of database search results and de novo interpretation of spectra 2368 spectra could be confidently determined as predicted tryptic peptides. A detailed analysis of the non-matching spectra was also carried out, highlighting what the non-matching spectra in a database search typically are composed of. The results of this comprehensive dataset study demonstrate that QqTOF instruments produce information-rich data of which a high percentage of the data is readily interpretable.

  5. Charmed-strange mesons revisited: Mass spectra and strong decays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Qin-Tao; Chen, Dian-Yong; Liu, Xiang; Matsuki, Takayuki

    2015-03-01

    Inspired by the present experimental status of charmed-strange mesons, we perform a systematic study of the charmed-strange meson family in which we calculate the mass spectra of the charmed-strange meson family by taking a screening effect into account in the Godfrey-Isgur model and investigate the corresponding strong decays via the quark pair creation model. These phenomenological analyses of charmed-strange mesons not only shed light on the features of the observed charmed-strange states, but also provide important information on future experimental search for the missing higher radial and orbital excitations in the charmed-strange meson family, which will be a valuable task in LHCb, the forthcoming Belle II, and PANDA.

  6. Comparison of Newly Acquired Lunar Spectra with the Titanium Abundance Maps Derived from Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holsclaw, G. M.; McClintock, W. E.; Robinson, M. S.

    2005-01-01

    The Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer (MASCS) is one of seven science instruments onboard NASA's MESSENGER mission, currently en-route to the planet Mercury. One of MASCS s components, referred to as the Visible and Near Infrared Spectrograph (VIRS), will record reflectance spectra of the surface in order to characterize the mineralogy of the planet [1]. The lunar highlands and the average mercurian crust are proposed to be compositionally similar [i.e. 2]. In preparation to interpret VIRS reflectance spectra of Mercury to be first obtained in 2008, the Moon has been observed with an engineering model of the VIRS from a ground-based telescope. In this study, the ultraviolet and visible region of the spectrum is compared with titanium content in the lunar regolith.

  7. Visible and Near-IR Reflectance Spectra of Smectite Acquired Under Dry Conditions for Interpretation of Martian Surface Mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Richard V.; Achilles, Cherie N; Archer, Paul D.; Graff, Trevor G.; Agresti, David G.; Ming, Douglas W; Golden, Dadi C.; Mertzman, Stanley A.

    2011-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectra from the MEx OMEGA and the MRO CRISM hyper-spectral imaging instruments have spectral features associated with the H2O molecule and M OH functional groups (M = Mg, Fe, Al, and Si). Mineralogical assignments of martian spectral features are made on the basis of laboratory VNIR spectra, which were often acquired under ambient (humid) conditions. Smectites like nontronite, saponite, and montmorillionite have interlayer H2O that is exchangeable with their environment, and we have acquired smectite reflectance spectra under dry environmental conditions for interpretation of martian surface mineralogy. We also obtained chemical, Moessbauer (MB), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric (TG) data to understand variations in spectral properties. VNIR spectra were recorded in humid lab air at 25-35C, in a dynamic dry N2 atmosphere (50-150 ppmv H2O) after exposing the smectite samples (5 nontronites, 3 montmorillionites, and 1 saponite) to that atmosphere for up to approximately l000 hr each at 25-35C, approximately 105C, and approximately 215C, and after re-exposure to humid lab air. Heating at 105C and 215C for approximately 1000 hr is taken as a surrogate for geologic time scales at lower temperatures. Upon exposure to dry N2, the position and intensity of spectral features associated with M-OH were relatively insensitive to the dry environment, and the spectral features associated with H2O (e.g., approximately 1.90 micrometers) decreased in intensity and are sometimes not detectable by the end of the 215C heating step. The position and intensity of H2O spectral features recovered upon re-exposure to lab air. XRD data show interlayer collapse for the nontronites and Namontmorillionites, with the interlayer remaining collapsed for the latter after re-exposure to lab air. The interlayer did not collapse for the saponite and Ca-montmorillionite. TG data show that the concentration of H2O derived from structural OH was invariant

  8. Reactions and mass spectra of complex particles using Aerosol CIMS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hearn, John D.; Smith, Geoffrey D.

    2006-12-01

    Aerosol chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) is used both on- and off-line for the analysis of complex laboratory-generated and ambient particles. One of the primary advantages of Aerosol CIMS is the low degree of ion fragmentation, making this technique well suited for investigating the reactivity of complex particles. To demonstrate the usefulness of this "soft" ionization, particles generated from meat cooking were reacted with ozone and the composition was monitored as a function of reaction time. Two distinct kinetic regimes were observed with most of the oleic acid in these particles reacting quickly but with 30% appearing to be trapped in the complex mixture. Additionally, detection limits are measured to be sufficiently low (100-200 ng/m3) to detect some of the more abundant constituents in ambient particles, including sulfate, which is measured in real-time at 1.2 [mu]g/m3. To better characterize complex aerosols from a variety of sources, a novel off-line collection method was also developed in which non-volatile and semi-volatile organics are desorbed from particles and concentrated in a cold U-tube. Desorption from the U-tube followed by analysis with Aerosol CIMS revealed significant amounts of nicotine in cigarette smoke and levoglucosan in oak and pine smoke, suggesting that this may be a useful technique for monitoring particle tracer species. Additionally, secondary organic aerosol formed from the reaction of ozone with R-limonene and volatile organics from orange peel were analyzed off-line showing large molecular weight products (m/z > 300 amu) that may indicate the formation of oligomers. Finally, mass spectra of ambient aerosol collected offline reveal a complex mixture of what appears to be highly processed organics, some of which may contain nitrogen.

  9. Radiation anomaly detection algorithms for field-acquired gamma energy spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Maurer, Richard; Wolff, Ron; Guss, Paul; Mitchell, Stephen

    2015-08-01

    The Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) is developing a tactical, networked radiation detection system that will be agile, reconfigurable, and capable of rapid threat assessment with high degree of fidelity and certainty. Our design is driven by the needs of users such as law enforcement personnel who must make decisions by evaluating threat signatures in urban settings. The most efficient tool available to identify the nature of the threat object is real-time gamma spectroscopic analysis, as it is fast and has a very low probability of producing false positive alarm conditions. Urban radiological searches are inherently challenged by the rapid and large spatial variation of background gamma radiation, the presence of benign radioactive materials in terms of the normally occurring radioactive materials (NORM), and shielded and/or masked threat sources. Multiple spectral anomaly detection algorithms have been developed by national laboratories and commercial vendors. For example, the Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS) a one-dimensional deterministic radiation transport software capable of calculating gamma ray spectra using physics-based detector response functions was developed at Sandia National Laboratories. The nuisance-rejection spectral comparison ratio anomaly detection algorithm (or NSCRAD), developed at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, uses spectral comparison ratios to detect deviation from benign medical and NORM radiation source and can work in spite of strong presence of NORM and or medical sources. RSL has developed its own wavelet-based gamma energy spectral anomaly detection algorithm called WAVRAD. Test results and relative merits of these different algorithms will be discussed and demonstrated.

  10. An unsupervised machine learning method for assessing quality of tandem mass spectra

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In a single proteomic project, tandem mass spectrometers can produce hundreds of millions of tandem mass spectra. However, majority of tandem mass spectra are of poor quality, it wastes time to search them for peptides. Therefore, the quality assessment (before database search) is very useful in the pipeline of protein identification via tandem mass spectra, especially on the reduction of searching time and the decrease of false identifications. Most existing methods for quality assessment are supervised machine learning methods based on a number of features which describe the quality of tandem mass spectra. These methods need the training datasets with knowing the quality of all spectra, which are usually unavailable for the new datasets. Results This study proposes an unsupervised machine learning method for quality assessment of tandem mass spectra without any training dataset. This proposed method estimates the conditional probabilities of spectra being high quality from the quality assessments based on individual features. The probabilities are estimated through a constraint optimization problem. An efficient algorithm is developed to solve the constraint optimization problem and is proved to be convergent. Experimental results on two datasets illustrate that if we search only tandem spectra with the high quality determined by the proposed method, we can save about 56 % and 62% of database searching time while losing only a small amount of high-quality spectra. Conclusions Results indicate that the proposed method has a good performance for the quality assessment of tandem mass spectra and the way we estimate the conditional probabilities is effective. PMID:22759570

  11. 4-Neutrino mass schemes and the likelihood of (3+1)-mass spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grimus, W.; Schwetz, T.

    2001-04-01

    We examine the (3+1)-class of 4-neutrino mass spectra within a rigorous statistical analysis based on the Bayesian approach to probability. The data of the Bugey, CDHS and KARMEN experiments are combined by using a likelihood function. Our statistical approach allows us to incorporate solar and atmospheric neutrino data and also the result of the CHOOZ experiment via inequalities which involve elements of the neutrino mixing matrix and are derived from these data. For any short-baseline Δ m^2 we calculate a bound on the LSND transition amplitude A_{μ;e} and find that, in the Δ m^2 A_{μ;e} plane, there is no overlap between the 99% CL region allowed by the latest LSND analysis and the region allowed by our bound on A_{μ;e} at 95% CL; there are some small overlap regions if we take the bound at 99% CL. Therefore, we conclude that, with the existing data, the (3+1)-neutrino mass spectra are not very likely. However, treating the (2+2)-spectra with our method, we find that they are well compatible with all data.

  12. A proteomics search algorithm specifically designed for high-resolution tandem mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Wenger, Craig D; Coon, Joshua J

    2013-03-01

    The acquisition of high-resolution tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) is becoming more prevalent in proteomics, but most researchers employ peptide identification algorithms that were designed prior to this development. Here, we demonstrate new software, Morpheus, designed specifically for high-mass accuracy data, based on a simple score that is little more than the number of matching products. For a diverse collection of data sets from a variety of organisms (E. coli, yeast, human) acquired on a variety of instruments (quadrupole-time-of-flight, ion trap-orbitrap, and quadrupole-orbitrap) in different laboratories, Morpheus gives more spectrum, peptide, and protein identifications at a 1% false discovery rate (FDR) than Mascot, Open Mass Spectrometry Search Algorithm (OMSSA), and Sequest. Additionally, Morpheus is 1.5 to 4.6 times faster, depending on the data set, than the next fastest algorithm, OMSSA. Morpheus was developed in C# .NET and is available free and open source under a permissive license.

  13. Game-theory-based search engine to automate the mass assignment in complex native electrospray mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Yao-Hsin; Uetrecht, Charlotte; Yang, Shih-Chieh; Barendregt, Arjan; Heck, Albert J R; Peng, Wen-Ping

    2013-12-03

    Electrospray ionization coupled to native mass spectrometry (MS) has evolved into an important tool in structural biology to decipher the composition of protein complexes. However, the mass analysis of heterogeneous protein assemblies is hampered because of their overlapping charge state distributions, fine structure, and peak broadening. To facilitate the mass analysis, it is of importance to automate preprocessing raw mass spectra, assigning ion series to peaks and deciphering the subunit compositions. So far, the automation of preprocessing raw mass spectra has not been accomplished; Massign was introduced to simplify data analysis and decipher the subunit compositions. In this study, we develop a search engine, AutoMass, to automatically assign ion series to peaks without any additional user input, for example, limited ranges of charge states or ion mass. AutoMass includes an ion intensity-dependent method to check for Gaussian distributions of ion series and an ion intensity-independent method to address highly overlapping and non-Gaussian distributions. The minimax theorem from game theory is adopted to define the boundaries. With AutoMass, the boundaries of ion series in the well-resolved tandem mass spectra of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) capsids and those of the mass spectrum from CRISPR-related cascade protein complex are accurately assigned. Theoretical and experimental HBV ion masses are shown in agreement up to ~0.03%. The analysis is finished within a minute on a regular workstation. Moreover, less well-resolved mass spectra, for example, complicated multimer mass spectra and norovirus capsid mass spectra at different levels of desolvation, are analyzed. In sum, this first-ever fully automatic program reveals the boundaries of overlapping ion peak series and can further aid developing high-throughput native MS and top-down proteomics.

  14. Automated Glycan Sequencing from Tandem Mass Spectra of N-Linked Glycopeptides.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chuan-Yih; Mayampurath, Anoop; Zhu, Rui; Zacharias, Lauren; Song, Ehwang; Wang, Lei; Mechref, Yehia; Tang, Haixu

    2016-06-07

    Mass spectrometry has become a routine experimental tool for proteomic biomarker analysis of human blood samples, partly due to the large availability of informatics tools. As one of the most common protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) in mammals, protein glycosylation has been observed to alter in multiple human diseases and thus may potentially be candidate markers of disease progression. While mass spectrometry instrumentation has seen advancements in capabilities, discovering glycosylation-related markers using existing software is currently not straightforward. Complete characterization of protein glycosylation requires the identification of intact glycopeptides in samples, including identification of the modification site as well as the structure of the attached glycans. In this paper, we present GlycoSeq, an open-source software tool that implements a heuristic iterated glycan sequencing algorithm coupled with prior knowledge for automated elucidation of the glycan structure within a glycopeptide from its collision-induced dissociation tandem mass spectrum. GlycoSeq employs rules of glycosidic linkage as defined by glycan synthetic pathways to eliminate improbable glycan structures and build reasonable glycan trees. We tested the tool on two sets of tandem mass spectra of N-linked glycopeptides cell lines acquired from breast cancer patients. After employing enzymatic specificity within the N-linked glycan synthetic pathway, the sequencing results of GlycoSeq were highly consistent with the manually curated glycan structures. Hence, GlycoSeq is ready to be used for the characterization of glycan structures in glycopeptides from MS/MS analysis. GlycoSeq is released as open source software at https://github.com/chpaul/GlycoSeq/ .

  15. SVM model for quality assessment of medium resolution mass spectra from 18O-water labeling experiments.

    PubMed

    Nefedov, Alexey V; Gilski, Miroslaw J; Sadygov, Rovshan G

    2011-04-01

    We describe a method for assessing the quality of mass spectra and improving reliability of relative ratio estimations from (18)O-water labeling experiments acquired from low resolution mass spectrometers. The mass profiles of heavy and light peptide pairs are often affected by artifacts, including coeluting contaminant species, noise signal, instrumental fluctuations in measuring ion position and abundance levels. Such artifacts distort the profiles, leading to erroneous ratio estimations, thus reducing the reliability of ratio estimations in high throughput quantification experiments. We used support vector machines (SVMs) to filter out mass spectra that deviated significantly from expected theoretical isotope distributions. We built an SVM classifier with a decision function that assigns a score to every mass profile based on such spectral features as mass accuracy, signal-to-noise ratio, and differences between experimental and theoretical isotopic distributions. The classifier was trained using a data set obtained from samples of mouse renal cortex. We then tested it on protein samples (bovine serum albumin) mixed in five different ratios of labeled and unlabeled species. We demonstrated that filtering the data using our SVM classifier results in as much as a 9-fold reduction in the coefficient of variance of peptide ratios, thus significantly improving the reliability of ratio estimations.

  16. Excited State Mass Spectra of Ω0 c Baryon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shah, Z.; Thakkar, K.; Rai, A. K.; Vinodkumar, P. C.

    2016-10-01

    We have calculated the radial and orbital excited states of singly charmed baryon Oc using the Hypercentral Constituent Quark Model (hCQM). The confinement potential is assumed as coulomb plus power potential (CPP V ). The ground state and excited state masses are determined with and with out first order correction to the potential. Furthermore, we plot graph between Mass(M) → Potential Index(v). Our calculated results are in good agreement with experimental and other theoretical predictions.

  17. Towards a universal product ion mass spectral library - reproducibility of product ion spectra across eleven different mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Hopley, Chris; Bristow, Tony; Lubben, Anneke; Simpson, Alec; Bull, Elaine; Klagkou, Katerina; Herniman, Julie; Langley, John

    2008-06-01

    Product ion spectra produced by collision-induced dissociation (CID) in tandem mass spectrometry experiments can differ markedly between instruments. There have been a number of attempts to standardise the production of product ion spectra; however, a consensus on the most appropriate approach to the reproducible production of spectra has yet to be reached. We have previously reported the comparison of product ion spectra on a number of different types of instruments - a triple quadrupole, two ion traps and a Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (Bristow AWT, Webb KS, Lubben AT, Halket JM. Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 2004; 18: 1). The study showed that a high degree of reproducibility was achievable. The goal of this study was to improve the comparability and reproducibility of CID product ion mass spectra produced in different laboratories and using different instruments. This was carried out experimentally by defining a spectral calibration point on each mass spectrometer for product ion formation. The long-term goal is the development of a universal (instrument independent) product ion mass spectral library for the identification of unknowns. The spectra of 48 compounds have been recorded on eleven mass spectrometers: six ion traps, two triple quadrupoles, a hybrid triple quadrupole, and two quadrupole time-of-flight instruments. Initially, 4371 spectral comparisons were carried out using the data from eleven instruments and the degree of reproducibility was evaluated. A blind trial has also been carried out to assess the reproducibility of spectra obtained during LC/MS/MS. The results suggest a degree of reproducibility across all instrument types using the tuning point technique. The reproducibility of the product ion spectra is increased when comparing the tandem in time type instruments and the tandem in space instruments as two separate groups. This may allow the production of a more limited, yet useful, screening library for LC

  18. Purification of pharmaceutical preparations using thin-layer chromatography to obtain mass spectra with Direct Analysis in Real Time and accurate mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jessica L; Steiner, Robert R

    2011-06-01

    Forensic analysis of pharmaceutical preparations requires a comparative analysis with a standard of the suspected drug in order to identify the active ingredient. Purchasing analytical standards can be expensive or unattainable from the drug manufacturers. Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART™) is a novel, ambient ionization technique, typically coupled with a JEOL AccuTOF™ (accurate mass) mass spectrometer. While a fast and easy technique to perform, a drawback of using DART™ is the lack of component separation of mixtures prior to ionization. Various in-house pharmaceutical preparations were purified using thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and mass spectra were subsequently obtained using the AccuTOF™- DART™ technique. Utilizing TLC prior to sample introduction provides a simple, low-cost solution to acquiring mass spectra of the purified preparation. Each spectrum was compared against an in-house molecular formula list to confirm the accurate mass elemental compositions. Spectra of purified ingredients of known pharmaceuticals were added to an in-house library for use as comparators for casework samples. Resolving isomers from one another can be accomplished using collision-induced dissociation after ionization. Challenges arose when the pharmaceutical preparation required an optimized TLC solvent to achieve proper separation and purity of the standard. Purified spectra were obtained for 91 preparations and included in an in-house drug standard library. Primary standards would only need to be purchased when pharmaceutical preparations not previously encountered are submitted for comparative analysis. TLC prior to DART™ analysis demonstrates a time efficient and cost saving technique for the forensic drug analysis community. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. New FORTRAN computer programs to acquire and process isotopic mass spectrometric data: Operator`s manual

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D.H.; McKown, H.S.

    1993-09-01

    This TM is one of a pair that describes ORNL-developed software for acquisition and processing of isotope ratio mass spectral data. This TM is directed at the laboratory analyst. No technical knowledge of the programs and programming is required. It describes how to create and edit files, how to acquire and process data, and how to set up files to obtain the desired results. The aim of this TM is to serve as a utilitarian instruction manual, a {open_quotes}how to{close_quotes} approach rather than a {open_quotes}why?{close_quotes}

  20. Correlation of Multiple Peptide Mass Spectra for Phosphoprotein Identification

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    When collision induced dissociation is used to fragment phosphorylated peptides during tandem mass spectrometry (MS2), an ion exhibiting the neutral loss of phosphoric acid can be the major product. The neutral loss ion can then be fragmented during MS3 for additional resolution of the peptide sequ...

  1. Mass measurement using energy spectra in three-body decays

    SciTech Connect

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Franceschini, Roberto; Kim, Doojin; Wardlow, Kyle

    2016-05-24

    In previous works we have demonstrated how the energy distribution of massless decay products in two body decays can be used to measure the mass of decaying particles. In this study, we show how such results can be generalized to the case of multi-body decays. The key ideas that allow us to deal with multi-body final states are an extension of our previous results to the case of massive decay products and the factorization of the multi-body phase space. The mass measurement strategy that we propose is distinct from alternative methods because it does not require an accurate reconstruction of the entire event, as it does not involve, for instance, the missing transverse momentum, but rather requires measuring only the visible decay products of the decay of interest. To demonstrate the general strategy, we study a supersymmetric model wherein pair-produced gluinos each decay to a stable neutralino and a bottom quark-antiquark pair via an off -shell bottom squark. The combinatorial background stemming from the indistinguishable visible final states on both decay sides can be treated by an “event mixing” technique, the performance of which is discussed in detail. In conclusion, taking into account dominant backgrounds, we are able to show that the mass of the gluino and, in favorable cases, that of the neutralino can be determined by this mass measurement strategy.

  2. Mass measurement using energy spectra in three-body decays

    DOE PAGES

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Franceschini, Roberto; Kim, Doojin; ...

    2016-05-24

    In previous works we have demonstrated how the energy distribution of massless decay products in two body decays can be used to measure the mass of decaying particles. In this study, we show how such results can be generalized to the case of multi-body decays. The key ideas that allow us to deal with multi-body final states are an extension of our previous results to the case of massive decay products and the factorization of the multi-body phase space. The mass measurement strategy that we propose is distinct from alternative methods because it does not require an accurate reconstruction ofmore » the entire event, as it does not involve, for instance, the missing transverse momentum, but rather requires measuring only the visible decay products of the decay of interest. To demonstrate the general strategy, we study a supersymmetric model wherein pair-produced gluinos each decay to a stable neutralino and a bottom quark-antiquark pair via an off -shell bottom squark. The combinatorial background stemming from the indistinguishable visible final states on both decay sides can be treated by an “event mixing” technique, the performance of which is discussed in detail. In conclusion, taking into account dominant backgrounds, we are able to show that the mass of the gluino and, in favorable cases, that of the neutralino can be determined by this mass measurement strategy.« less

  3. Search and decoy: the automatic identification of mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Eisenacher, Martin; Kohl, Michael; Turewicz, Michael; Koch, Markus-Hermann; Uszkoreit, Julian; Stephan, Christian

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the generation and interpretation of MS/MS spectra for the identification of peptides and proteins has matured to a frequently used automatic workflow in Proteomics. Several software solutions for the automated analysis of MS/MS spectra allow for high-throughput/high-performance analyses of complex samples. Related to MS/MS searches, target-decoy approaches have gained more and more popularity: in a "decoy" part of the search database nonexistent sequences mimic real sequences (the "target" sequences). With their help, the number of falsely identified peptides/proteins can be estimated after a search and the resulting protein list can be cut at a specified false discovery rate (FDR). This is an essential prerequisite for all quantitative approaches, as they rely on correct identifications. Especially the label-free approach "spectral counting"-gaining more and more popularity due to low costs and simplicity-depends directly on the correctness of peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs). This work's aim is to describe five popular search engines-especially their general properties regarding protein identification, but also their quantification abilities, if those go beyond spectral counting. By doing so, Proteomics researchers are enabled to compare their features and to choose an appropriate solution for their specific question. Furthermore, the search engines are applied to a spectrum data set generated from a complex sample with a Thermo LTQ Velos OrbiTrap (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, USA). The results of the search engines are compared, e.g., regarding time requirements, peptides and proteins found, and the search engines' behavior using the decoy approach.

  4. Comparison of MALDI-TOF mass spectra with microsatellite length polymorphisms in Candida albicans.

    PubMed

    Dhieb, C; Normand, A C; L'Ollivier, C; Gautier, M; Vranckx, K; El Euch, D; Chaker, E; Hendrickx, M; Dalle, F; Sadfi, N; Piarroux, R; Ranque, S

    2015-02-01

    Candida albicans is the most frequent yeast involved in human infections. Its population structure can be divided into several genetic clades, some of which have been associated with antifungal susceptibility. Therefore, detecting and monitoring fungal clones in a routine laboratory setting would be a major epidemiological advance. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectra results are now widely used as bar codes to identify microorganisms in clinical microbiology laboratories. This study aimed at testing MALDI-TOF mass spectra bar codes to identify clades among a set of C. albicans isolates. Accordingly, 102 clinical strains were genotyped using 10 microsatellite markers and analyzed via MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. The mass spectra were compared with a reference spectral library including 33 well-characterized collection strains, using a Microflex(TM) system and Biotyper(TM) software, to test the capacity of the spectrum of a given isolate to match with the reference mass spectrum of an isolate from the same genetic clade. Despite high confidence species identification, the spectra failed to significantly match with the corresponding clade (p = 0.74). This was confirmed with the MALDI-TOF spectra similarity dendrogram, in which the strains were dispersed irrespective of their genetic clade. Various attempts to improve intra-clade spectra recognition were unsuccessful. In conclusion, MALDI-TOF mass spectra bar code analysis failed to reliably recognize genetically related C. albicans isolates. Further studies are warranted to develop alternative MALDI-TOF mass spectra analytical approaches to identify and monitor C. albicans clades in the routine clinical laboratory.

  5. Mass spectra of heavy ions near comet Halley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korth, A.; Richter, A. K.; Loidl, A.; Anderson, K. A.; Carlson, C. W.

    1986-01-01

    The heavy-ion analyzer, RPA2-PICCA, aboard the Giotto spacecraft, detected the first cometary ions at a distance of about 1.05 million km from the nucleus of comet Halley. In the inner coma the major ions identified are associated with the H2O, CO and CO2 groups. Ions of larger atomic mass unit are also present, corresponding possibly to various hydrocarbons, heavy metals of the iron-group or to sulphur compounds.

  6. Lateral Mixing DRI Analysis: Submesoscale Water-Mass Spectra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-09-30

    1 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Lateral Mixing DRI Analysis: Submesoscale Water-Mass... submesoscale on horizontal lengthscales of 0.1-10 km. These scales of the subinertial fields are not well understood dynamically for subinertial...program to determine submesoscale variability in the Sargasso Sea under weak-to-moderate mesoscale conditions. Two sites were examined, a quiet site

  7. Optical, mass, and auger spectra from e-bombarded KBr

    SciTech Connect

    Arakawa, E.T.; Kamada, M.

    1988-01-01

    We have measured the mass spectrum and optical emission lines of neutral potassium atoms ejected from KBr at T = 300/degree/K and 443/degree/K bombarded by 2-keV electrons. The room-temperature data may be complicated by the nonstoichiometry of the alkali-enriched sample surface and seem difficult to interpret. The high-temperature sample, which maintains the proper stoichiometry, produces data in support of gas-phase excitation of alkali atoms desorbed from the surface. 15 refs., 4 figs.

  8. Improved Peak Detection and Deconvolution of Native Electrospray Mass Spectra from Large Protein Complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Jonathan; Trnka, Michael J.; Roh, Soung-Hun; Robinson, Philip J. J.; Shiau, Carrie; Fujimori, Danica Galonic; Chiu, Wah; Burlingame, Alma L.; Guan, Shenheng

    2015-12-01

    Native electrospray-ionization mass spectrometry (native MS) measures biomolecules under conditions that preserve most aspects of protein tertiary and quaternary structure, enabling direct characterization of large intact protein assemblies. However, native spectra derived from these assemblies are often partially obscured by low signal-to-noise as well as broad peak shapes because of residual solvation and adduction after the electrospray process. The wide peak widths together with the fact that sequential charge state series from highly charged ions are closely spaced means that native spectra containing multiple species often suffer from high degrees of peak overlap or else contain highly interleaved charge envelopes. This situation presents a challenge for peak detection, correct charge state and charge envelope assignment, and ultimately extraction of the relevant underlying mass values of the noncovalent assemblages being investigated. In this report, we describe a comprehensive algorithm developed for addressing peak detection, peak overlap, and charge state assignment in native mass spectra, called PeakSeeker. Overlapped peaks are detected by examination of the second derivative of the raw mass spectrum. Charge state distributions of the molecular species are determined by fitting linear combinations of charge envelopes to the overall experimental mass spectrum. This software is capable of deconvoluting heterogeneous, complex, and noisy native mass spectra of large protein assemblies as demonstrated by analysis of (1) synthetic mononucleosomes containing severely overlapping peaks, (2) an RNA polymerase II/α-amanitin complex with many closely interleaved ion signals, and (3) human TriC complex containing high levels of background noise.

  9. Improved mass resolution and mass accuracy in TOF-SIMS spectra and images using argon gas cluster ion beams.

    PubMed

    Shon, Hyun Kyong; Yoon, Sohee; Moon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Tae Geol

    2016-06-09

    The popularity of argon gas cluster ion beams (Ar-GCIB) as primary ion beams in time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) has increased because the molecular ions of large organic- and biomolecules can be detected with less damage to the sample surfaces. However, Ar-GCIB is limited by poor mass resolution as well as poor mass accuracy. The inferior quality of the mass resolution in a TOF-SIMS spectrum obtained by using Ar-GCIB compared to the one obtained by a bismuth liquid metal cluster ion beam and others makes it difficult to identify unknown peaks because of the mass interference from the neighboring peaks. However, in this study, the authors demonstrate improved mass resolution in TOF-SIMS using Ar-GCIB through the delayed extraction of secondary ions, a method typically used in TOF mass spectrometry to increase mass resolution. As for poor mass accuracy, although mass calibration using internal peaks with low mass such as hydrogen and carbon is a common approach in TOF-SIMS, it is unsuited to the present study because of the disappearance of the low-mass peaks in the delayed extraction mode. To resolve this issue, external mass calibration, another regularly used method in TOF-MS, was adapted to enhance mass accuracy in the spectrum and image generated by TOF-SIMS using Ar-GCIB in the delayed extraction mode. By producing spectra analyses of a peptide mixture and bovine serum albumin protein digested with trypsin, along with image analyses of rat brain samples, the authors demonstrate for the first time the enhancement of mass resolution and mass accuracy for the purpose of analyzing large biomolecules in TOF-SIMS using Ar-GCIB through the use of delayed extraction and external mass calibration.

  10. Automatic Preocessing of Impact Ionization Mass Spectra Obtained by Cassini CDA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villeneuve, M.

    2015-12-01

    Since Cassini's arrival at Saturn in 2004, the Comic Dust Analyzer (CDA) has recorded nearly 200,000 mass spectra of dust particles. A majority of this data has been collected in Saturn's diffuse E ring where sodium salts embedded in water ice particles indicate that many particles are in fact frozen droplets from Enceladus' subsurface ocean that have been expelled from cracks in the icy crust. So far only a small fraction of the obtained spectra have been processed because the steps in processing the spectra require human manipulation. We developed an automatic processing pipeline for CDA mass spectra which will consistently analyze this data. The preprocessing steps are to de-noise the spectra, determine and remove the baseline, calculate the correct stretch parameter, and finally to identify elements and compounds in the spectra. With the E ring constantly evolving due to embedded active moons, this data will provide valuable information about the source of the E ring, the subsurface of Saturn's ice moon Enceladus, as well as about the dynamics of the ring itself.

  11. Instrumental improvements and sample preparations that enable reproducible, reliable acquisition of mass spectra from whole bacterial cells

    PubMed Central

    Alusta, Pierre; Buzatu, Dan; Williams, Anna; Cooper, Willie-Mae; Tarasenko, Olga; Dorey, R Cameron; Hall, Reggie; Parker, W Ryan; Wilkes, Jon G

    2015-01-01

    Rationale Rapid sub-species characterization of pathogens is required for timely responses in outbreak situations. Pyrolysis mass spectrometry (PyMS) has the potential to be used for this purpose. Methods However, in order to make PyMS practical for traceback applications, certain improvements related to spectrum reproducibility and data acquisition speed were required. The main objectives of this study were to facilitate fast detection (<30 min to analyze 6 samples, including preparation) and sub-species-level bacterial characterization based on pattern recognition of mass spectral fingerprints acquired from whole cells volatilized and ionized at atmospheric pressure. An AccuTOF DART mass spectrometer was re-engineered to permit ionization of low-volatility bacteria by means of Plasma Jet Ionization (PJI), in which an electric discharge, and, by extension, a plasma beam, impinges on sample cells. Results Instrumental improvements and spectral acquisition methodology are described. Performance of the re-engineered system was assessed using a small challenge set comprised of assorted bacterial isolates differing in identity by varying amounts. In general, the spectral patterns obtained allowed differentiation of all samples tested, including those of the same genus and species but different serotypes. Conclusions Fluctuations of ±15% in bacterial cell concentrations did not substantially compromise replicate spectra reproducibility. © 2015 National Center for Toxicological Research. Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26443394

  12. CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS-ELECTROSPRAY MASS SPECTRA OF THE HERBICIDES PARAQUAT AND DIQUAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The positive ion electrospray mass spectra of the quaternary ammonium salt herbicides paraquat and diquat are examined by on-line separation with capillary electrophoresis (CE) and by direct infusion of the analytes. The analytes are separated by CE in 7-10 min at pH 3.9 in 50% m...

  13. Localization and mass spectra of various matter fields on scalar-tensor brane

    SciTech Connect

    Xie, Qun-Ying; Zhao, Zhen-Hua; Zhong, Yi; Yang, Jie; Zhou, Xiang-Nan

    2015-03-10

    Recently, a new scalar-tensor braneworld model was presented in [http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevD.86.127502]. It not only solves the gauge hierarchy problem but also reproduces a correct Friedmann-like equation on the brane. In this new model, there are two different brane solutions, for which the mass spectra of gravity on the brane are the same. In this paper, we investigate localization and mass spectra of various bulk matter fields (i.e., scalar, vector, Kalb-Ramond, and fermion fields) on the brane. It is shown that the zero modes of all the matter fields can be localized on the positive tension brane under some conditions, and the mass spectra of each kind of bulk matter field for the two brane solutions are different except for some special cases, which implies that the two brane solutions are not physically equivalent. When the coupling constants between the dilaton and bulk matter fields take special values, the mass spectra for both solutions are the same, and the scalar and vector zero modes are localized on the negative tension brane, while the KR zero mode is still localized on the positive tension brane.

  14. MS Amanda, a Universal Identification Algorithm Optimized for High Accuracy Tandem Mass Spectra

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Today’s highly accurate spectra provided by modern tandem mass spectrometers offer considerable advantages for the analysis of proteomic samples of increased complexity. Among other factors, the quantity of reliably identified peptides is considerably influenced by the peptide identification algorithm. While most widely used search engines were developed when high-resolution mass spectrometry data were not readily available for fragment ion masses, we have designed a scoring algorithm particularly suitable for high mass accuracy. Our algorithm, MS Amanda, is generally applicable to HCD, ETD, and CID fragmentation type data. The algorithm confidently explains more spectra at the same false discovery rate than Mascot or SEQUEST on examined high mass accuracy data sets, with excellent overlap and identical peptide sequence identification for most spectra also explained by Mascot or SEQUEST. MS Amanda, available at http://ms.imp.ac.at/?goto=msamanda, is provided free of charge both as standalone version for integration into custom workflows and as a plugin for the Proteome Discoverer platform. PMID:24909410

  15. lipID--a software tool for automated assignment of lipids in mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Hübner, Göran; Crone, Catharina; Lindner, Buko

    2009-12-01

    A new software tool called lipID is reported, which supports the identification of glycerophospholipids, glycosphingolipids, fatty acids and small oligosaccharides in mass spectra. The user-extendable software is a Microsoft (MS) Excel Add-In developed using Visual Basic for Applications and is compatible with all Versions of MS Excel since MS Excel 97. It processes singly given mass-to-charge values as well as mass lists considering a number of user-defined options. The software's mode of operation, usage and options are explained and the benefits and limitations of the tool are illustrated by means of three typical analytical examples of lipid analyses.

  16. Interpretation of collision-induced fragmentation tandem mass spectra of posttranslationally modified peptides.

    PubMed

    Bunkenborg, Jakob; Matthiesen, Rune

    2007-01-01

    Tandem collision-induced dissociation (CID) mass spectrometry (MS) provides a sensitive means of analyzing the amino acid sequence of peptides. Modern MS instrumentation is capable of rapidly generating many thousands of tandem mass spectra, and protein database search engines have been developed to cope with this avalanche of data. In most studies, there is a schism between discarding perfectly valid data and including nonsensical peptide identifications--this is currently a major bottleneck in data analysis and it calls for manual evaluation of the data. Especially for posttranslationally modified peptides, there is a need for manual validation of the data because search algorithms seldom have been optimized for the identification of modified peptides and because there are many pitfalls for the unwary. This chapter describes some of the issues that should be considered when interpreting and validating low-energy CID tandem mass spectra and gives some useful tables to aid this process.

  17. Robust automated mass spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation using mixed integer linear programming.

    PubMed

    Baran, Richard; Northen, Trent R

    2013-10-15

    Untargeted metabolite profiling using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry coupled via electrospray ionization is a powerful tool for the discovery of novel natural products, metabolic capabilities, and biomarkers. However, the elucidation of the identities of uncharacterized metabolites from spectral features remains challenging. A critical step in the metabolite identification workflow is the assignment of redundant spectral features (adducts, fragments, multimers) and calculation of the underlying chemical formula. Inspection of the data by experts using computational tools solving partial problems (e.g., chemical formula calculation for individual ions) can be performed to disambiguate alternative solutions and provide reliable results. However, manual curation is tedious and not readily scalable or standardized. Here we describe an automated procedure for the robust automated mass spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation using mixed integer linear programming optimization (RAMSI). Chemical rules among related ions are expressed as linear constraints and both the spectra interpretation and chemical formula calculation are performed in a single optimization step. This approach is unbiased in that it does not require predefined sets of neutral losses and positive and negative polarity spectra can be combined in a single optimization. The procedure was evaluated with 30 experimental mass spectra and was found to effectively identify the protonated or deprotonated molecule ([M + H](+) or [M - H](-)) while being robust to the presence of background ions. RAMSI provides a much-needed standardized tool for interpreting ions for subsequent identification in untargeted metabolomics workflows.

  18. A theoretical analysis on the vibronic spectra with mass analyzed threshold ionization spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Sheng D.; Peng, Hsin Y.

    2008-01-01

    We have theoretically studied the absorption vibronic spectra with the resonance two-photon (R2P) and non-resonance two-photon (NR2P) mass analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectroscopy. The theory uses the inverse Born-Oppenheimer approximation (IBOA) to establish a proper basis set. To analyze the MATI vibronic spectra, we have calculated the Franck-Condon factors involved in the vibronic transitions. Several experimental spectra are analyzed using this theory with emphasis on the importance of the resonance intermediate states. The long vibrational progression in a MATI spectrum can be partly attributed to the result of including the anharmonic correction in the calculated Franck-Condon factors. The experimentally observed isotope effect is also analyzed.

  19. Classification of Tandem Mass Spectra for Identification of N- and O-linked Glycopeptides

    PubMed Central

    Toghi Eshghi, Shadi; Yang, Weiming; Hu, Yingwei; Shah, Punit; Sun, Shisheng; Li, Xingde; Zhang, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Analysis of intact glycopeptides by mass spectrometry is essential to determining the microheterogeneity of protein glycosylation. Higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) fragmentation of glycopeptides generates mono- or disaccharide ions called oxonium ions that carry information about the structure of the fragmented glycans. Here, we investigated the link between glycan structures and the intensity of oxonium ions in the spectra of glycopeptides and utilized this information to improve the identification of glycopeptides in biological samples. Tandem spectra of glycopeptides from fetuin, glycophorin A, ovalbumin and gp120 tryptic digests were used to build a spectral database of N- and O-linked glycopeptides. Logistic regression was applied to this database to develop model to distinguish between the spectra of N- and O-linked glycopeptides. Remarkably, the developed model was found to reliably distinguish between the N- and O-linked glycopeptides using the spectral features of the oxonium ions using verification spectral set. Finally, the performance of the developed predictive model was evaluated in HILIC enriched glycopeptides extracted from human serum. The results showed that pre-classification of tandem spectra based on their glycosylation type improved the identification of N-linked glycopeptides. The developed model facilitates interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry data for assignment of glycopeptides. PMID:27869200

  20. Classification of Tandem Mass Spectra for Identification of N- and O-linked Glycopeptides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toghi Eshghi, Shadi; Yang, Weiming; Hu, Yingwei; Shah, Punit; Sun, Shisheng; Li, Xingde; Zhang, Hui

    2016-11-01

    Analysis of intact glycopeptides by mass spectrometry is essential to determining the microheterogeneity of protein glycosylation. Higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) fragmentation of glycopeptides generates mono- or disaccharide ions called oxonium ions that carry information about the structure of the fragmented glycans. Here, we investigated the link between glycan structures and the intensity of oxonium ions in the spectra of glycopeptides and utilized this information to improve the identification of glycopeptides in biological samples. Tandem spectra of glycopeptides from fetuin, glycophorin A, ovalbumin and gp120 tryptic digests were used to build a spectral database of N- and O-linked glycopeptides. Logistic regression was applied to this database to develop model to distinguish between the spectra of N- and O-linked glycopeptides. Remarkably, the developed model was found to reliably distinguish between the N- and O-linked glycopeptides using the spectral features of the oxonium ions using verification spectral set. Finally, the performance of the developed predictive model was evaluated in HILIC enriched glycopeptides extracted from human serum. The results showed that pre-classification of tandem spectra based on their glycosylation type improved the identification of N-linked glycopeptides. The developed model facilitates interpretation of tandem mass spectrometry data for assignment of glycopeptides.

  1. Spectra and mass composition of ultrahigh-energy cosmic rays from point sources

    SciTech Connect

    Kalmykov, Nikolai N.

    2012-04-01

    We present spectra and mass composition of cosmic rays incoming to the Earth in the energy range (0.5−2)·10{sup 20} eV. As their sources we consider Seyfert galaxies located at distances ∼<40 Mpc, following an acceleration model for such moderate-power objects. Mass composition of the particles at sources is assumed to be mixed. Generation spectra are described by a function E{sup −γ{sub 0}}, where γ{sub 0} is an arbitrary parameter. It is shown that the assumptions adopted make it possible to describe experimental data provided by HiRes and Pierre Auger Observatory, using different values of γ{sub 0}.

  2. OMA and OPA--software-supported mass spectra analysis of native and modified nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Nyakas, Adrien; Blum, Lorenz C; Stucki, Silvan R; Reymond, Jean-Louis; Schürch, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    The platform-independent software package consisting of the oligonucleotide mass assembler (OMA) and the oligonucleotide peak analyzer (OPA) was created to support the analysis of oligonucleotide mass spectra. It calculates all theoretically possible fragments of a given input sequence and annotates it to an experimental spectrum, thus, saving a large amount of manual processing time. The software performs analysis of precursor and product ion spectra of oligonucleotides and their analogues comprising user-defined modifications of the backbone, the nucleobases, or the sugar moiety, as well as adducts with metal ions or drugs. The ability to expand the library of building blocks and to implement individual structural variations makes it extremely useful for supporting the analysis of therapeutically active compounds. The functionality of the software tool is demonstrated on the examples of a platinated double-stranded oligonucleotide and a modified RNA sequence. Experiments also reveal the unique dissociation behavior of platinated higher-order DNA structures.

  3. OMA and OPA—Software-Supported Mass Spectra Analysis of Native and Modified Nucleic Acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyakas, Adrien; Blum, Lorenz C.; Stucki, Silvan R.; Reymond, Jean-Louis; Schürch, Stefan

    2013-02-01

    The platform-independent software package consisting of the oligonucleotide mass assembler (OMA) and the oligonucleotide peak analyzer (OPA) was created to support the analysis of oligonucleotide mass spectra. It calculates all theoretically possible fragments of a given input sequence and annotates it to an experimental spectrum, thus, saving a large amount of manual processing time. The software performs analysis of precursor and product ion spectra of oligonucleotides and their analogues comprising user-defined modifications of the backbone, the nucleobases, or the sugar moiety, as well as adducts with metal ions or drugs. The ability to expand the library of building blocks and to implement individual structural variations makes it extremely useful for supporting the analysis of therapeutically active compounds. The functionality of the software tool is demonstrated on the examples of a platinated double-stranded oligonucleotide and a modified RNA sequence. Experiments also reveal the unique dissociation behavior of platinated higher-order DNA structures.

  4. Mass spectra of the particle-antiparticle system with a Dirac oscillator interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moshinsky, M.; Loyola, G.

    1993-01-01

    The present view about the structure of mesons is that they are a quark-antiquark system. The mass spectrum corresponding to this system should, in principle, be given by chromodynamics, but this turns out to be a complex affair. Thus it is of some interest to consider relativistic systems of particle-antiparticle, with a simple type of interaction, which could give some insight on the spectra we can expect for mesons. This analysis is carried out when the interaction is of the Dirac oscillator type. It is shown that the Dirac equation of the antiparticle can be obtained from that of the particle by just changing the frequency omega into -omega. Following a procedure suggested by Barut, the equation for the particle-antiparticle system is derived and it is solved by a perturbation procedure. Thus, explicit expressions for the square of the mass spectra are obtained and its implications in the meson case is discussed.

  5. Identification of isobaric product ions in electrospray ionization mass spectra of fentanyl using multistage mass spectrometry and deuterium labeling.

    PubMed

    Wichitnithad, Wisut; McManus, Terence J; Callery, Patrick S

    2010-09-15

    Isobaric product ions cannot be differentiated by exact mass determinations, although in some cases deuterium labeling can provide useful structural information for identifying isobaric ions. Proposed fragmentation pathways of fentanyl were investigated by electrospray ionization ion trap mass spectrometry coupled with deuterium labeling experiments and spectra of regiospecific deuterium labeled analogs. The major product ion of fentanyl under tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) conditions (m/z 188) was accounted for by a neutral loss of N-phenylpropanamide. 1-(2-Phenylethyl)-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (1) was proposed as the structure of the product ion. However, further fragmentation (MS(3)) of the fentanyl m/z 188 ion gave product ions that were different from the product ion in the MS/MS fragmentation of synthesized 1, suggesting that the m/z 188 product ion from fentanyl includes an isobaric structure different from the structure of 1. MS/MS fragmentation of fentanyl in deuterium oxide moved one of the isobars to 1 Da higher mass, and left the other isobar unchanged in mass. Multistage mass spectral data from deuterium-labeled proposed isobaric structures provided support for two fragmentation pathways. The results illustrate the utility of multistage mass spectrometry and deuterium labeling in structural assignment of isobaric product ions.

  6. A pattern recognition system for prostate mass spectra discrimination based on the CUDA parallel programming model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kostopoulos, Spiros; Glotsos, Dimitris; Sidiropoulos, Konstantinos; Asvestas, Pantelis; Cavouras, Dionisis; Kalatzis, Ioannis

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to implement a pattern recognition system for the discrimination of healthy from malignant prostate tumors from proteomic Mass Spectroscopy (MS) samples and to identify m/z intervals of potential biomarkers associated with prostate cancer. One hundred and six MS-spectra were studied in total. Sixty three spectra corresponded to healthy cases (PSA < 1) and forty three spectra were cancerous (PSA > 10). The MS-spectra are publicly available from the NCI Clinical Proteomics Database. The pre-processing comprised the steps: denoising, normalization, peak extraction and peak alignment. Due to the enormous number of features that rose from MS-spectra as informative peaks, and in order to secure optimum system design, the classification task was performed by programming in parallel the multiprocessors of an nVIDIA GPU card, using the CUDA framework. The proposed system achieved 98.1% accuracy. The identified m/z intervals displayed significant statistical differences between the two classes and were found to possess adequate discriminatory power in characterizing prostate samples, when employed in the design of the classification system. Those intervals should be further investigated since they might lead to the identification of potential new biomarkers for prostate cancer.

  7. Localization and mass spectra of fermions on symmetric and asymmetric thick branes

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yuxiao; Fu, C.-E; Zhao Li; Duan Yishi

    2009-09-15

    A three-parameter (positive odd integer s, thickness factor {lambda}, and asymmetry factor a) family of asymmetric thick brane solutions in five dimensions were constructed from a two-parameter (s and {lambda}) family of symmetric ones in by R. Guerrero, R. O. Rodriguez, and R. Torrealba in [Phys. Rev. D 72, 124012 (2005).]. The values s=1 and s{>=}3 correspond to single branes and double branes, respectively. These branes have very rich inner structure. In this paper, by presenting the mass-independent potentials of Kaluza-Klein (KK) modes in the corresponding Schroedinger equations, we investigate the localization and mass spectra of fermions on the symmetric and asymmetric thick branes in an anti-de Sitter background. In order to analyze the effect of gravity-fermion interaction (i.e., the effect of the inner structure of the branes) and scalar-fermion interaction to the spectrum of fermion KK modes, we consider three kinds of typical kink-fermion couplings. The spectra of left chiral fermions for these couplings consist of a bound zero mode and a series of gapless continuous massive KK modes, some discrete bound KK modes including zero mode (exist mass gaps), and a series of continuous massive KK modes, infinite discrete bound KK modes, respectively. The structures of the spectra are investigated in detail.

  8. A Newly Developed Fluorescence Model for C2H6 v5 and Application to Cometary Spectra Acquired with NIRSPEC at Keck II

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radeva, Yana L.; Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; A?Hearn, Michael F.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate rotational temperatures are essential for extracting production rates for parent volatiles in comets. Two strong bands of ethane (v7 at 2985.39/cm and v5 at 2895.67/cm) are seen in infrared cometary spectra, but the Q-branches of v7 are not resolved by current instruments and cannot provide an accurate rotational temperature with current models.We developed a fluorescence model for the C2H6 v5 band that can be used to derive a rotational temperature.We applied our C2H6 5 model to high-resolution infrared spectra of the comets C/2004 Q2 Machholz and C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR), acquired with the Near-infrared Echelle Spectrograph on the Keck II telescope. We demonstrate agreement among the rotational temperatures derived from C2H6 v5 and other species, and between mixing ratios derived from C2H6 v5 and C2H6 v7. As a symmetric hydrocarbon, C2H6 is observed only in the infrared, and it is now the fifth molecule (along with H2O, HCN, CO, and H2CO) for which we can derive a reliable rotational temperature from cometary infrared spectra.

  9. A Newly Developed Fluorescence Model for C2H6 ν5 and Application to Cometary Spectra Acquired with NIRSPEC at Keck II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radeva, Yana L.; Mumma, Michael J.; Villanueva, Geronimo L.; A'Hearn, Michael F.

    2011-03-01

    Accurate rotational temperatures are essential for extracting production rates for parent volatiles in comets. Two strong bands of ethane (ν7 at 2985.39 cm-1 and ν5 at 2895.67 cm-1) are seen in infrared cometary spectra, but the Q-branches of ν7 are not resolved by current instruments and cannot provide an accurate rotational temperature with current models. We developed a fluorescence model for the C2H6 ν5 band that can be used to derive a rotational temperature. We applied our C2H6 ν5 model to high-resolution infrared spectra of the comets C/2004 Q2 Machholz and C/2000 WM1 (LINEAR), acquired with the Near-infrared Echelle Spectrograph on the Keck II telescope. We demonstrate agreement among the rotational temperatures derived from C2H6 ν5 and other species, and between mixing ratios derived from C2H6 ν5 and C2H6 ν7. As a symmetric hydrocarbon, C2H6 is observed only in the infrared, and it is now the fifth molecule (along with H2O, HCN, CO, and H2CO) for which we can derive a reliable rotational temperature from cometary infrared spectra.

  10. Evolution of organic aerosol mass spectra upon heating: implications for OA phase and partitioning behavior

    SciTech Connect

    UC Davis; Cappa, Christopher D.; Wilson, Kevin R.

    2010-10-28

    Vacuum Ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization mass spectrometry has been used to measure the evolution of chemical composition for two distinct organic aerosol types as they are passed through a thermodenuder at different temperatures. The two organic aerosol types considered are primary lubricating oil (LO) aerosol and secondary aerosol from the alpha-pinene + O3 reaction (alphaP). The evolution of the VUV mass spectra for the two aerosol types with temperature are observed to differ dramatically. For LO particles, the spectra exhibit distinct changes with temperature in which the lower m/z peaks, corresponding to compounds with higher vapor pressures, disappear more rapidly than the high m/z peaks. In contrast, the alphaP aerosol spectrum is essentially unchanged by temperature even though the particles experience significant mass loss due to evaporation. The variations in the LO spectra are found to be quantitatively in agreement with expectations from absorptive partitioning theory whereas the alphaP spectra suggest that the evaporation of alphaP derived aerosol appears to not be governed by partitioning theory. We postulate that this difference arises from the alphaP particles existing as in a glassy state instead of having the expected liquid-like behavior. To reconcile these observations with decades of aerosol growth measurements, which indicate that OA formation is described by equilibrium partitioning, we present a conceptual model wherein the secondary OA is formed and then rapidly converted from an absorbing form to a non-absorbing form. The results suggest that although OA growth may be describable by equilibrium partitioning theory, the properties of organic aerosol once formed may differ significantly from the properties determined in the equilibrium framework.

  11. A Sounding Rocket Mission Concept to Acquire High-Resolution Radiometric Spectra Spanning the 9 nm - 31 nm Wavelength Range

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krause, L. Habash; Cirtain, Jonathan; McGuirck, Michael; Pavelitz, Steven; Weber, Ed.; Winebarger, Amy

    2012-01-01

    When studying Solar Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV) emissions, both single-wavelength, two- dimensional (2D) spectroheliograms and multi-wavelength, one-dimensional (1D) line spectra are important, especially for a thorough understanding of the complex processes in the solar magnetized plasma from the base of the chromosphere through the corona. 2D image data are required for a detailed study of spatial structures, whereas radiometric (i.e., spectral) data provide information on relevant atomic excitation/ionization state densities (and thus temperature). Using both imaging and radiometric techniques, several satellite missions presently study solar dynamics in the EUV, including the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), Hinode, and the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO). The EUV wavelengths of interest typically span 9 nm to 31 nm, with the shorter wavelengths being associated with the hottest features (e.g., intense flares and bright points) and the longer wavelengths associated with cooler features (e.g., coronal holes and filaments). Because the optical components of satellite instruments degrade over time, it is not uncommon to conduct sounding rocket underflights for calibration purposes. The authors have designed a radiometric sounding rocket payload that could serve as both a calibration underflight for and a complementary scientific mission to the upcoming Solar Ultraviolet Imager (SUVI) mission aboard the GOES-R satellite (scheduled for a 2015 launch). The challenge to provide quality radiometric line spectra over the 9-31 nm range covered by SUVI was driven by the multilayer coatings required to make the optical components, including mirrors and gratings, reflective over the entire range. Typically, these multilayers provide useful EUV reflectances over bandwidths of a few nm. Our solution to this problem was to employ a three-telescope system in which the optical components were coated with multilayers that spanned three wavelength ranges to cover

  12. Towards automated discrimination of lipids versus peptides from full scan mass spectra

    PubMed Central

    Dittwald, Piotr; Nghia, Vu Trung; Harris, Glenn A.; Caprioli, Richard M.; Van de Plas, Raf; Laukens, Kris; Gambin, Anna; Valkenborg, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Although physicochemical fractionation techniques play a crucial role in the analysis of complex mixtures, they are not necessarily the best solution to separate specific molecular classes, such as lipids and peptides. Any physical fractionation step such as, for example, those based on liquid chromatography, will introduce its own variation and noise. In this paper we investigate to what extent the high sensitivity and resolution of contemporary mass spectrometers offers viable opportunities for computational separation of signals in full scan spectra. We introduce an automatic method that can discriminate peptide from lipid peaks in full scan mass spectra, based on their isotopic properties. We systematically evaluate which features maximally contribute to a peptide versus lipid classification. The selected features are subsequently used to build a random forest classifier that enables almost perfect separation between lipid and peptide signals without requiring ion fragmentation and classical tandem MS-based identification approaches. The classifier is trained on in silico data, but is also capable of discriminating signals in real world experiments. We evaluate the influence of typical data inaccuracies of common classes of mass spectrometry instruments on the optimal set of discriminant features. Finally, the method is successfully extended towards the classification of individual lipid classes from full scan mass spectral features, based on input data defined by the Lipid Maps Consortium. PMID:25414814

  13. Reduction of chemical formulas from the isotopic peak distributions of high-resolution mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Roussis, Stilianos G; Proulx, Richard

    2003-03-15

    A method has been developed for the reduction of the chemical formulas of compounds in complex mixtures from the isotopic peak distributions of high-resolution mass spectra. The method is based on the principle that the observed isotopic peak distribution of a mixture of compounds is a linear combination of the isotopic peak distributions of the individual compounds in the mixture. All possible chemical formulas that meet specific criteria (e.g., type and number of atoms in structure, limits of unsaturation, etc.) are enumerated, and theoretical isotopic peak distributions are generated for each formula. The relative amount of each formula is obtained from the accurately measured isotopic peak distribution and the calculated isotopic peak distributions of all candidate formulas. The formulas of compounds in simple spectra, where peak components are fully resolved, are rapidly determined by direct comparison of the calculated and experimental isotopic peak distributions. The singular value decomposition linear algebra method is used to determine the contributions of compounds in complex spectra containing unresolved peak components. The principles of the approach and typical application examples are presented. The method is most useful for the characterization of complex spectra containing partially resolved peaks and structures with multiisotopic elements.

  14. HST Spectra of White Dwarfs and the Mass-Radius Relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, S. R. G.; Barstow, M. A.; Casewell, S. L.; Holberg, J. B.; Bond, H. E.

    2017-03-01

    We present HST spectra of the white dwarf HR1358b which is one of a number of white dwarfs we are studying in Sirius-like binaries. These binaries give us the best chance yet to test the mass-radius relation through observations of the Balmer lines of white dwarfs. These observations can be used to measure the white dwarf mass using both the spectroscopic method and the gravitational red-shift method. One of the major challenges for this type of observation is scattered light from the main sequence star contaminating the white dwarf spectrum. We will discuss methods that have been developed to correct for scattered light in the spectrum of HR1358b and the effect this correction can have on the mass-radius measurements.

  15. De novo analysis of peptide tandem mass spectra by spectral graph partitioning.

    PubMed

    Bern, Marshall; Goldberg, David

    2006-03-01

    We report on a new de novo peptide sequencing algorithm that uses spectral graph partitioning. In this approach, relationships between m/z peaks are represented by attractive and repulsive springs, and the vibrational modes of the spring system are used to infer information about the peaks (such as "likely b-ion" or "likely y-ion"). We demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach by comparison with other de novo sequencers on test sets of ion-trap and QTOF spectra, including spectra of mixtures of peptides. On all datasets, we outperform the other sequencers. Along with spectral graph theory techniques, the new de novo sequencer EigenMS incorporates another improvement of independent interest: robust statistical methods for recalibration of time-of-flight mass measurements. Robust recalibration greatly outperforms simple least-squares recalibration, achieving about three times the accuracy for one QTOF dataset.

  16. Mass spectra in N=1 SQCD with additional colorless but flavored fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyak, Victor L.

    2017-01-01

    Considered is the N=1 supersymmetric QCD-like Φ -theory with SU(N_c) colors and 0< N_F<2N_c flavors of light quarks Q^i_a,{overline{Q}}^{ a}_j with equal small masses. In addition to quarks and gluons of the standard N=1 SQCD, it includes N^2_F colorless but flavored fields Φ ij, with the large mass parameter μ _{Φ } ≫ Λ _Q (Λ _Q is the scale factor of the gauge coupling), interacting with quarks through the Yukawa coupling in the superpotential. The mass spectra of this (direct) Φ -theory are first directly calculated in all vacua with the unbroken or spontaneously broken flavor symmetry U(N_F)→ U(n_1)× U(n_2) at 0mass spectra of both, this direct Φ -theory and its Seiberg's dual variant with SU(N_F-N_c) dual colors, the dΦ -theory, are calculated at 3N_c/2mass spectra of the direct Φ - and dual dΦ -theories are parametrically different, so that they are not equivalent. Besides it is shown in the direct Φ -theory that a qualitatively new phenomenon takes place: under appropriate conditions, the seemingly heavy and dynamically irrelevant fields Φ `turn back' and there appear two additional generations of light Φ -particles with small masses μ ^pole(Φ )≪ Λ _Q. Also considered is the X-theory which is the N=2 SQCD with SU(N_c) colors and 0< N_F<2N_c flavors of light quarks, broken down to N=1 by the large mass

  17. Spectral investigations of 2,5-difluoroaniline by using mass, electronic absorption, NMR, and vibrational spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kose, Etem; Karabacak, Mehmet; Bardak, Fehmi; Atac, Ahmet

    2016-11-01

    One of the most significant aromatic amines is aniline, a primary aromatic amine replacing one hydrogen atom of a benzene molecule with an amino group (NH2). This study reports experimental and theoretical investigation of 2,5-difluoroaniline molecule (2,5-DFA) by using mass, ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Fourier transform infrared and Raman (FT-IR and FT-Raman) spectra, and supported with theoretical calculations. Mass spectrum (MS) of 2,5-DFA is presented with their stabilities. The UV-vis spectra of the molecule are recorded in the range of 190-400 nm in water and ethanol solvents. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts are recorded in CDCl3 solution. The vibrational spectra are recorded in the region 4000-400 cm-1 (FT-IR) and 4000-10 cm-1 (FT-Raman), respectively. Theoretical studies are underpinned the experimental results as described below; 2,5-DFA molecule is optimized by using B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) basis set. The mass spectrum is evaluated and possible fragmentations are proposed based on the stable structure. The electronic properties, such as excitation energies, oscillator strengths, wavelengths, frontier molecular orbitals (FMO), HOMO and LUMO energies, are determined by time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). The electrostatic potential surface (ESPs), density of state (DOS) diagrams are also prepared and evaluated. In addition to these, reduced density gradient (RDG) analysis is performed, and thermodynamic features are carried out theoretically. The NMR spectra (1H and 13C) are calculated by using the gauge-invariant atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The vibrational spectra of 2,5-DFA molecule are obtained by using DFT/B3LYP method with 6-311++G(d,p) basis set. Fundamental vibrations are assigned based on the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes. The nonlinear optical properties (NLO) are also investigated. The theoretical and experimental results give a detailed description of

  18. Mass spectra deconvolution of low, medium, and high volatility biogenic secondary organic aerosol.

    PubMed

    Kostenidou, Evangelia; Lee, Byong-Hyoek; Engelhart, Gabriella J; Pierce, Jeffrey R; Pandis, Spyros N

    2009-07-01

    Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) consists of compounds with a wide range of volatilities and its ambient concentration is sensitive to this volatility distribution. Recent field studies have shown that the typical mass spectrum of ambient oxygenated organic aerosol (OOA) as measured by the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) is quite different from the SOA mass spectra reported in smog chamber experiments. Part of this discrepancy is due to the dependence of SOA composition on the organic aerosol concentration. High precursor concentrations lead to higher concentrations of the more volatile species in the produced SOA while at lower concentrations the less volatile compounds dominate the SOA composition. alpha-Pinene, beta-pinene, d-limonene, and beta-caryophyllene ozonolysis experiments were performed at moderate concentration levels. Using a thermodenuder the more volatile SOA species were removed achieving even lower SOA concentration. The less volatile fraction was then chemically characterized by an AMS. The signal fraction of m/z44, and thus the concentration of C02+, is significantly higher for the less volatile SOA. High NO(x) conditions result in less oxidized SOA than low NO(x) conditions, while increasing relative humidity levels results in more oxidized products for limonene but has little effect on alpha-and beta-pinene SOA. Combining a smog chamber with a thermodenuder model employing the volatility basis-set framework, the AMS SOA mass spectrum for each experiment and for each precursor is deconvoluted into low, medium, and high volatility component mass spectra. The spectrum of the surrogate component with the lower volatility is quite similar to that of ambient OOA.

  19. AUTOMATED DETERMINATION OF PRECURSOR ION, PRODUCT ION, AND NEUTRAL LOSS COMPOSITIONS AND DECONVOLUTION OF COMPOSITE MASS SPECTRA USING ION CORRELATION BASED ON EXACT MASSES AND RELATIVE ISOTOPIC ABUNDANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    After a dispersive event, rapid determination of elemental compositions of ions in mass spectra is essential for tentatively identifying compounds. A Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART)® ion source interfaced to a JEOL AccuTOF® mass spectrometer provided exact masses accurate to ...

  20. Using power spectrum analysis to evaluate (18)O-water labeling data acquired from low resolution mass spectrometers.

    PubMed

    Sadygov, Rovshan G; Zhao, Yingxin; Haidacher, Sigmund J; Starkey, Jonathan M; Tilton, Ronald G; Denner, Larry

    2010-08-06

    We describe a method for ratio estimations in (18)O-water labeling experiments acquired from low resolution isotopically resolved data. The method is implemented in a software package specifically designed for use in experiments making use of zoom-scan mode data acquisition. Zoom-scan mode data allow commonly used ion trap mass spectrometers to attain isotopic resolution, which makes them amenable to use in labeling schemes such as (18)O-water labeling, but algorithms and software developed for high resolution instruments may not be appropriate for the lower resolution data acquired in zoom-scan mode. The use of power spectrum analysis is proposed as a general approach that may be uniquely suited to these data types. The software implementation uses a power spectrum to remove high-frequency noise and band-filter contributions from coeluting species of differing charge states. From the elemental composition of a peptide sequence, we generate theoretical isotope envelopes of heavy-light peptide pairs in five different ratios; these theoretical envelopes are correlated with the filtered experimental zoom scans. To automate peptide quantification in high-throughput experiments, we have implemented our approach in a computer program, MassXplorer. We demonstrate the application of MassXplorer to two model mixtures of known proteins and to a complex mixture of mouse kidney cortical extract. Comparison with another algorithm for ratio estimations demonstrates the increased precision and automation of MassXplorer.

  1. [Investigation of JinKui ShenQi pills by ultraviolet spectra and tandem mass spectrometry].

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-lan; Sun, Zhi; Cheng, Bin; Ji, Yu-bin; Bai, Jing

    2008-08-01

    On the base of establishing the fingerprint of JinKui ShenQi pills, the ultraviolet spectra-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, method was used to identify the fingerprint. Seperation was performed on the Symmetry Shield RP18 (5 microm, 4. 6 mm X 15 mm) analytical column with mobile phase consisting of 1% acetic acid and acetonitrile with gradient elute at the flow rate of 1.0 mL x min(-1), and the ultraviolet detection wavelength was set at 248 nm. Using the above-mentioned chromatographic condition, the fingerprint of different samples was established and the same fingerprint was defined. The fingerprints of different samples were compared with similarity evaluation software published by Pharmacopeia committee codex (2004A). The mass spectrograph with API-ESI ionization source was used, setting the flow rate at 0.5 mL x min(-1) after splitting stream. The pressure of atomization room was 50 Psi, the flow rate of dry gas was 9.0 L x min(-1), the capillary voltage was 4 kV, and the transmission voltage was 70 V. The negative scanner mode was chosen, scan scope was 100-2000, using ion trap to analyze quasimolecular ion peak and the selected fragment ion, and TIC chromatography and second order mass chromatogram were recorded. The major constituents among in JinKui ShenQi pills from different origins were separated well by HPLC. Although there was difference among different origins, they showed nineteen identical characteristic absorption bands. Three fingerprints chemical compositions such as loganin, cinnamal and paeonol were identified based on the retention time and ultraviolet spectra of standard preparation. According to their ultraviolet spectra, molecular weight and fragmentation information, ten peaks in the fingerprint were identified by ultraviolet spectroscopy-mass, spectrometry/massg spectrometry. They are 1,2,3-tri-O-galloyl-glucose, loganin, paeoniflorin, 1,2,3,6-tetro-O-galloyl-glucose, soya-cerebroside, cornuside, and PGG, benzoyl

  2. An Accurate de novo Algorithm for Glycan Topology Determination from Mass Spectra.

    PubMed

    Dong, Liang; Shi, Bing; Tian, Guangdong; Li, YanBo; Wang, Bing; Zhou, MengChu

    2015-01-01

    Determining the glycan topology automatically from mass spectra represents a great challenge. Existing methods fall into approximate and exact ones. The former including greedy and heuristic ones can reduce the computational complexity, but suffer from information lost in the procedure of glycan interpretation. The latter including dynamic programming and exhaustive enumeration are much slower than the former. In the past years, nearly all emerging methods adopted a tree structure to represent a glycan. They share such problems as repetitive peak counting in reconstructing a candidate structure. Besides, tree-based glycan representation methods often have to give different computational formulas for binary and ternary glycans. We propose a new directed acyclic graph structure for glycan representation. Based on it, this work develops a de novo algorithm to accurately reconstruct the tree structure iteratively from mass spectra with logical constraints and some known biosynthesis rules, by a single computational formula. The experiments on multiple complex glycans extracted from human serum show that the proposed algorithm can achieve higher accuracy to determine a glycan topology than prior methods without increasing computational burden.

  3. Extracting temperature and transverse flow by fitting transverse mass spectra and HBT radii together

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Ronghua; Qian, Jing; Chen, Jianyi; Wu, Qingxin; Huo, Lei

    2017-03-01

    Single particle transverse mass spectra and HBT radii of identical pion and identical kaon are analyzed with a blast-wave parametrization under the assumptions of local thermal equilibrium and transverse expansion. Under the assumptions, temperature parameter T and transverse expansion rapidity ρ are sensitive to the shapes of transverse mass mT spectrum and HBT radius Rs(KT). Negative and positive correlations between T and ρ are observed by fitting mT spectrum and HBT radius Rs(KT), respectively. For a Monte Carlo simulation using the blast-wave function, T and ρ are extracted by fitting mT spectra and HBT radii together utilizing a combined optimization function χ2. With this method, T and ρ of the Monte Carlo sources can be extracted. Using this method for A Multi-Phase Transport (AMPT) model at Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) energy, the differences of T and ρ between pion and kaon are observed obviously, and the tendencies of T and ρ versus collision energy sNN are similar with the results extracted directly from the AMPT model.

  4. Predicting molecular formulas of fragment ions with isotope patterns in tandem mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingfen; Gao, Wen; Cai, Jinjin; He, Simin; Zeng, Rong; Chen, Runsheng

    2005-01-01

    A number of different approaches have been proposed to predict elemental component formulas (or molecular formulas) of molecular ions in low and medium resolution mass spectra. Most of them rely on isotope patterns, enumerate all possible formulas for an ion, and exclude certain formulas violating chemical constraints. However, these methods cannot be well generalized to the component prediction of fragment ions in tandem mass spectra. In this paper, a new method, FFP (Fragment ion Formula Prediction), is presented to predict elemental component formulas of fragment ions. In the FFP method, the prediction of the best formulas is converted into the minimization of the distance between theoretical and observed isotope patterns. And, then, a novel local search model is proposed to generate a set of candidate formulas efficiently. After the search, FFP applies a new multiconstraint filtering to exclude as many invalid and improbable formulas as possible. FFP is experimentally compared with the previous enumeration methods, and shown to outperform them significantly. The results of this paper can help to improve the reliability of de novo in the identification of peptide sequences.

  5. Increased throughput of proteomics analysis by multiplexing high-resolution tandem mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Ledvina, A R; Savitski, M M; Zubarev, A R; Good, D M; Coon, J J; Zubarev, R A

    2011-10-15

    High-resolution and high-accuracy Fourier transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) is becoming increasingly attractive due to its specificity. However, the speed of tandem FTMS analysis severely limits the competitive advantage of this approach relative to faster low-resolution quadrupole ion trap MS/MS instruments. Here we demonstrate an entirely FTMS-based analysis method with a 2.5-3.0-fold greater throughput than a conventional FT MS/MS approach. The method consists of accumulating together the MS/MS fragments ions from multiple precursors, with subsequent high-resolution analysis of the mixture. Following acquisition, the multiplexed spectrum is deconvoluted into individual MS/MS spectra which are then combined into a single concatenated file and submitted for peptide identification to a search engine. The method is tested both in silico using a database of MS/MS spectra as well as in situ using a modified LTQ Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The performance of the method in the experiment was consistent with theoretical expectations.

  6. Accurate and Efficient Resolution of Overlapping Isotopic Envelopes in Protein Tandem Mass Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Xiao, Kaijie; Yu, Fan; Fang, Houqin; Xue, Bingbing; Liu, Yan; Tian, Zhixin

    2015-01-01

    It has long been an analytical challenge to accurately and efficiently resolve extremely dense overlapping isotopic envelopes (OIEs) in protein tandem mass spectra to confidently identify proteins. Here, we report a computationally efficient method, called OIE_CARE, to resolve OIEs by calculating the relative deviation between the ideal and observed experimental abundance. In the OIE_CARE method, the ideal experimental abundance of a particular overlapping isotopic peak (OIP) is first calculated for all the OIEs sharing this OIP. The relative deviation (RD) of the overall observed experimental abundance of this OIP relative to the summed ideal value is then calculated. The final individual abundance of the OIP for each OIE is the individual ideal experimental abundance multiplied by 1 + RD. Initial studies were performed using higher-energy collisional dissociation tandem mass spectra on myoglobin (with direct infusion) and the intact E. coli proteome (with liquid chromatographic separation). Comprehensive data at the protein and proteome levels, high confidence and good reproducibility were achieved. The resolving method reported here can, in principle, be extended to resolve any envelope-type overlapping data for which the corresponding theoretical reference values are available. PMID:26439836

  7. Combinatorial Approach for Large-scale Identification of Linked Peptides from Tandem Mass Spectrometry Spectra*

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jian; Anania, Veronica G.; Knott, Jeff; Rush, John; Lill, Jennie R.; Bourne, Philip E.; Bandeira, Nuno

    2014-01-01

    The combination of chemical cross-linking and mass spectrometry has recently been shown to constitute a powerful tool for studying protein–protein interactions and elucidating the structure of large protein complexes. However, computational methods for interpreting the complex MS/MS spectra from linked peptides are still in their infancy, making the high-throughput application of this approach largely impractical. Because of the lack of large annotated datasets, most current approaches do not capture the specific fragmentation patterns of linked peptides and therefore are not optimal for the identification of cross-linked peptides. Here we propose a generic approach to address this problem and demonstrate it using disulfide-bridged peptide libraries to (i) efficiently generate large mass spectral reference data for linked peptides at a low cost and (ii) automatically train an algorithm that can efficiently and accurately identify linked peptides from MS/MS spectra. We show that using this approach we were able to identify thousands of MS/MS spectra from disulfide-bridged peptides through comparison with proteome-scale sequence databases and significantly improve the sensitivity of cross-linked peptide identification. This allowed us to identify 60% more direct pairwise interactions between the protein subunits in the 20S proteasome complex than existing tools on cross-linking studies of the proteasome complexes. The basic framework of this approach and the MS/MS reference dataset generated should be valuable resources for the future development of new tools for the identification of linked peptides. PMID:24493012

  8. Acquiring Structural Information on Virus Particles with Charge Detection Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Keifer, David Z.; Motwani, Tina; Teschke, Carolyn M.; Jarrold, Martin F.

    2016-01-01

    Charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS) is a single-molecule technique particularly well-suited to measuring the mass and charge distributions of heterogeneous, MDa-sized ions. In this work, CDMS has been used to analyze the assembly products of two coat protein variants of bacteriophage P22. The assembly products show broad mass distributions extending from 5 to 15 MDa for A285Y and 5 to 25 MDa for A285T coat protein variants. Because the charge of large ions generated by electrospray ionization depends on their size, the charge can be used to distinguish hollow shells from more compact structures. A285T was found to form T = 4 and T = 7 procapsids, and A285Y makes a small number of T = 3 and T = 4 procapsids. Owing to the decreased stability of the A285Y and A285T particles, chemical cross-linking was required to stabilize them for electrospray CDMS. PMID:27020925

  9. [Probabilistic calculations of biomolecule charge states that generate mass spectra of multiply charged ions].

    PubMed

    Raznikova, M O; Raznikov, V V

    2015-01-01

    In this work, information relating to charge states of biomolecule ions in solution obtained using the electrospray ionization mass spectrometry of different biopolymers is analyzed. The data analyses have mainly been carried out by solving an inverse problem of calculating the probabilities of retention of protons and other charge carriers by ionogenic groups of biomolecules with known primary structures. The approach is a new one and has no known to us analogues. A program titled "Decomposition" was developed and used to analyze the charge distribution of ions of native and denatured cytochrome c mass spectra. The possibility of splitting of the charge-state distribution of albumin into normal components, which likely corresponds to various conformational states of the biomolecule, has been demonstrated. The applicability criterion for using previously described method of decomposition of multidimensional charge-state distributions with two charge carriers, e.g., a proton and a sodium ion, to characterize the spatial structure of biopolymers in solution has been formulated. In contrast to known mass-spectrometric approaches, this method does not require the use of enzymatic hydrolysis or collision-induced dissociation of the biopolymers.

  10. Preliminary results of investigations into the use of artificial neural networks for discriminating gas chromatograph mass spectra of remote samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geller, Harold A.; Norris, Eugene; Warnock, Archibald, III

    1991-01-01

    Neural networks trained using mass spectra data from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) are studied. The investigations also included sample data from the gas chromatograph mass spectrometer (GCMS) instrument aboard the Viking Lander, obtained from the National Space Science Data Center. The work performed to data and the preliminary results from the training and testing of neural networks are described. These preliminary results are presented for the purpose of determining the viability of applying artificial neural networks in discriminating mass spectra samples from remote instrumentation such as the Mars Rover Sample Return Mission and the Cassini Probe.

  11. Acquiring Structural Information on Virus Particles with Charge Detection Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keifer, David Z.; Motwani, Tina; Teschke, Carolyn M.; Jarrold, Martin F.

    2016-06-01

    Charge detection mass spectrometry (CDMS) is a single-molecule technique particularly well-suited to measuring the mass and charge distributions of heterogeneous, MDa-sized ions. In this work, CDMS has been used to analyze the assembly products of two coat protein variants of bacteriophage P22. The assembly products show broad mass distributions extending from 5 to 15 MDa for A285Y and 5 to 25 MDa for A285T coat protein variants. Because the charge of large ions generated by electrospray ionization depends on their size, the charge can be used to distinguish hollow shells from more compact structures. A285T was found to form T = 4 and T = 7 procapsids, and A285Y makes a small number of T = 3 and T = 4 procapsids. Owing to the decreased stability of the A285Y and A285T particles, chemical cross-linking was required to stabilize them for electrospray CDMS. Graphical Abstract[Figure not available: see fulltext.

  12. Discovery of protein acetylation patterns by deconvolution of peptide isomer mass spectra

    PubMed Central

    Abshiru, Nebiyu; Caron-Lizotte, Olivier; Rajan, Roshan Elizabeth; Jamai, Adil; Pomies, Christelle; Verreault, Alain; Thibault, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) play important roles in the control of various biological processes including protein–protein interactions, epigenetics and cell cycle regulation. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics approaches enable comprehensive identification and quantitation of numerous types of PTMs. However, the analysis of PTMs is complicated by the presence of indistinguishable co-eluting isomeric peptides that result in composite spectra with overlapping features that prevent the identification of individual components. In this study, we present Iso-PeptidAce, a novel software tool that enables deconvolution of composite MS/MS spectra of isomeric peptides based on features associated with their characteristic fragment ion patterns. We benchmark Iso-PeptidAce using dilution series prepared from mixtures of known amounts of synthetic acetylated isomers. We also demonstrate its applicability to different biological problems such as the identification of site-specific acetylation patterns in histones bound to chromatin assembly factor-1 and profiling of histone acetylation in cells treated with different classes of HDAC inhibitors. PMID:26468920

  13. Discovery of protein acetylation patterns by deconvolution of peptide isomer mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Abshiru, Nebiyu; Caron-Lizotte, Olivier; Rajan, Roshan Elizabeth; Jamai, Adil; Pomies, Christelle; Verreault, Alain; Thibault, Pierre

    2015-10-15

    Protein post-translational modifications (PTMs) play important roles in the control of various biological processes including protein-protein interactions, epigenetics and cell cycle regulation. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics approaches enable comprehensive identification and quantitation of numerous types of PTMs. However, the analysis of PTMs is complicated by the presence of indistinguishable co-eluting isomeric peptides that result in composite spectra with overlapping features that prevent the identification of individual components. In this study, we present Iso-PeptidAce, a novel software tool that enables deconvolution of composite MS/MS spectra of isomeric peptides based on features associated with their characteristic fragment ion patterns. We benchmark Iso-PeptidAce using dilution series prepared from mixtures of known amounts of synthetic acetylated isomers. We also demonstrate its applicability to different biological problems such as the identification of site-specific acetylation patterns in histones bound to chromatin assembly factor-1 and profiling of histone acetylation in cells treated with different classes of HDAC inhibitors.

  14. Theoretical spectra of nonmagnetized low-mass X-ray binaries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Czerny, Bozena; Czerny, Michal; Grindlay, Jonathan E.

    1986-01-01

    Theoretical X-ray spectra of low-mass X-ray binaries with negligible magnetic fields are presented. The geometry of the X-ray emitting region, the energetic efficiency of the accretion in the disk and in the boundary layer which leads to a relation between the disk and the boundary layer luminosities, and the irradiation of the disk by the boundary layer are studied. The model of the radiation spectrum emerging from the neutron star and the innermost part of the disk is presented. The relativistic and Doppler effects and their influence on the spectrum as a function of inclination angle are discussed. A simple method for comparing the spectrum model with observations by studying the hardness ratio is given, and the results for three X-ray sources in globular clusters observed by the Einstein satellite are presented. The range of applicability of the spectrum models is also discussed.

  15. Energy spectra of massive two-body decay products and mass measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Franceschini, Roberto; Hong, Sungwoo; Kim, Doojin

    2016-04-26

    Here, we have recently established a new method for measuring the mass of unstable particles produced at hadron colliders based on the analysis of the energy distribution of a massless product from their two-body decays. The central ingredient of our proposal is the remarkable result that, for an unpolarized decaying particle, the location of the peak in the energy distribution of the observed decay product is identical to the (fixed) value of the energy that this particle would have in the rest-frame of the decaying particle, which, in turn, is a simple function of the involved masses. In addition, we utilized the property that this energy distribution is symmetric around the location of peak when energy is plotted on a logarithmic scale. The general strategy was demonstrated in several specific cases, including both beyond the standard model particles, as well as for the top quark. In the present work, we generalize this method to the case of a massive decay product from a two-body decay; this procedure is far from trivial because (in general) both the above-mentioned properties are no longer valid. Nonetheless, we propose a suitably modified parametrization of the energy distribution that was used successfully for the massless case, which can deal with the massive case as well. We test this parametrization on concrete examples of energy spectra of Z bosons from the decay of a heavier supersymmetric partner of top quark (stop) into a Z boson and a lighter stop. After establishing the accuracy of this parametrization, we study a realistic application for the same process, but now including dominant backgrounds and using foreseeable statistics at LHC14, in order to determine the performance of this method for an actual mass measurement. The upshot of our present and previous work is that, in spite of energy being a Lorentz-variant quantity, its distribution emerges as a powerful tool for mass measurement at hadron colliders.

  16. Energy spectra of massive two-body decay products and mass measurement

    DOE PAGES

    Agashe, Kaustubh; Franceschini, Roberto; Hong, Sungwoo; ...

    2016-04-26

    Here, we have recently established a new method for measuring the mass of unstable particles produced at hadron colliders based on the analysis of the energy distribution of a massless product from their two-body decays. The central ingredient of our proposal is the remarkable result that, for an unpolarized decaying particle, the location of the peak in the energy distribution of the observed decay product is identical to the (fixed) value of the energy that this particle would have in the rest-frame of the decaying particle, which, in turn, is a simple function of the involved masses. In addition, wemore » utilized the property that this energy distribution is symmetric around the location of peak when energy is plotted on a logarithmic scale. The general strategy was demonstrated in several specific cases, including both beyond the standard model particles, as well as for the top quark. In the present work, we generalize this method to the case of a massive decay product from a two-body decay; this procedure is far from trivial because (in general) both the above-mentioned properties are no longer valid. Nonetheless, we propose a suitably modified parametrization of the energy distribution that was used successfully for the massless case, which can deal with the massive case as well. We test this parametrization on concrete examples of energy spectra of Z bosons from the decay of a heavier supersymmetric partner of top quark (stop) into a Z boson and a lighter stop. After establishing the accuracy of this parametrization, we study a realistic application for the same process, but now including dominant backgrounds and using foreseeable statistics at LHC14, in order to determine the performance of this method for an actual mass measurement. The upshot of our present and previous work is that, in spite of energy being a Lorentz-variant quantity, its distribution emerges as a powerful tool for mass measurement at hadron colliders.« less

  17. Spectra, chromatograms, Metadata: mzML-the standard data format for mass spectrometer output.

    PubMed

    Turewicz, Michael; Deutsch, Eric W

    2011-01-01

    This chapter describes Mass Spectrometry Markup Language (mzML), an XML-based and vendor-neutral standard data format for storage and exchange of mass spectrometer output like raw spectra and peak lists. It is intended to replace its two precursor data formats (mzData and mzXML), which had been developed independently a few years earlier. Hence, with the release of mzML, the problem of having two different formats for the same purposes is solved, and with it the duplicated effort of maintaining and supporting two data formats. The new format has been developed by a broad-based consortium of major instrument vendors, software vendors, and academic researchers under the aegis of the Human Proteome Organisation (HUPO), Proteomics Standards Initiative (PSI), with full participation of the main developers of the precursor formats. This comprehensive approach helped mzML to become a generally accepted standard. Furthermore, the collaborative development insured that mzML has adopted the best features of its precursor formats. In this chapter, we discuss mzML's development history, its design principles and use cases, as well as its main building components. We also present the available documentation, an example file, and validation software for mzML.

  18. Increased Throughput of Proteomics Analysis by Multiplexing High-resolution Tandem Mass Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Ledvina, A. R.; Savitski, M. M.; Zubarev, A. R.; Good, D. M.; Coon, J. J.; Zubarev, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution and accuracy Fourier-transform mass spectrometry (FTMS) is becoming increasingly attractive due to its specificity. However, the speed of tandem FTMS analysis severely limits the competitive advantage of this approach relative to faster low-resolution quadrupole ion trap MS/MS instruments. Here we demonstrate an entirely FTMS-based analysis method with a 2.5–3.0 fold greater throughput than a conventional FT MS/MS approach. The method consists of accumulating together the MS/MS fragments ions from multiple precursors, with subsequent high-resolution analysis of the mixture. Following acquisition, the multiplexed spectrum is deconvoluted into individual MS/MS datasets which are separately submitted for peptide identification to a search engine. The method is tested both in silico using a database of MS/MS spectra as well as in situ using a modified LTQ-Orbitrap mass spectrometer. The performance of the method in the experiment was consistent with theoretical expectations. PMID:21913643

  19. Neutral losses: a type of important variables in prediction of branching degree for acyclic alkenes from mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangxiao; Fan, Wei; Cao, Dongsheng; Zeng, Maomao; Xiao, Hongbin; Liang, Yizeng

    2012-03-30

    Neutral losses are a type of important variables in mass spectral interpretation. Since it is hard to calculate or extract neutral losses from mass spectra, they are usually discarded. In this study, dissimilarity analysis was employed to extract mass spectral characteristics for predicting branching degree of acyclic alkenes. The relationships between branching degree and neutral loss were constructed under direction of experimental observation and mass spectral fragmentations. A branching degree predictor of acyclic alkenes was subsequently built based on the above relationships. After tested by the experimental data in previous studies, the predictor could correctly provide the branching degree from abundant ions of mass spectra. More importantly, this predictor was able to point out which acyclic alkenes could be predicted correctly or not.

  20. A Newly Developed Model for Fluorescence of C2H6 ν5 in Comets and Application to Infrared Spectra Acquired with NIRSPEC at Keck II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radeva, Yana L.; Mumma, M. J.; Villanueva, G. L.; A'Hearn, M. F.

    2010-01-01

    Exploring the compositional diversity of cometary nuclei is key to understanding the formation and evolution of the Solar System, and the origin of water and prebiotic organics on the Earth. For most polyatomic gases, a production rate can be obtained from measured ro-vibrational intensities if an accurate rotational temperature is available, and the comparison of temperatures displayed by individual molecular species can reveal additional insights into physics in the cometary inner coma. Until now, accurate temperatures could be derived for HCN, CO, and H2O, but not for ethane (C2H6). As a symmetric hydrocarbon, C2H6 is uniquely sampled in the infrared, but the fine rotational structure of the ν7 Q-branches at 3.3 μm cannot be resolved by current infrared spectrometers, ultimately limiting the retrievals of rotational temperatures from these lines. However, the complex ro-vibrational structure (P- and R-branches) of the ν5 band at 3.5 μm is resolved by the Near Infrared Echelle Spectrograph on the Keck II telescope (NIRSPEC). We developed a fluorescence model for the infrared ν5 band of C2H6, and applied it to interpret high-resolution infrared spectra acquired with NIRSPEC. We present rotational temperatures and production rates for C2H6 in multiple comets. We compare the extracted rotational temperatures for ethane with those obtained from simultaneous measurements of other species (H2O and HCN). We also compare mixing ratios derived from the C2H6 ν5 band with those derived from the previously analyzed (by NASA GSFC team members) ν7 band. This work now establishes a robust method for quantifying additional physical parameters for ethane in comets.

  1. Decay of COSAC and Ptolemy mass spectra at comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krüger, Harald; Goesmann, Fred; Giri, Chaitanya; Wright, Ian; Morse, Andrew; Bredehöft, Jan Hendrik; Ulamec, Stephan; Cozzoni, Barbara; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Gautier, Thomas; McKenna-Lawlor, Susan; Raulin, Francois; Steininger, Harald; Szopa, Cyril

    2017-03-01

    Context. The Rosetta lander Philae successfully landed on the nucleus of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko on 12 November 2014. Philae is equipped with two gas analysers: The Cometary Sampling and Composition experiment (COSAC) and the gas chromatograph and mass spectrometer Ptolemy. Aims: COSAC is designed for in situ analysis of organic molecules on 67P while Ptolemy is optimised to measure ratios of stable isotopes. Methods: On 12 to 14 November 2014, both instruments measured the organic composition of the comet nucleus material through seven measurements in sniffing mode during Philae's hopping and at its final landing site Abydos. We compare the temporal evolution of intensities of several ion species identified by both mass spectrometers. For COSAC, this is the first analysis of the temporal behaviour of the measured ion species. Results: All ion species showed the highest intensities in the first spectra measured by both instruments approximately 20 to 30 min after Philae's first touchdown at Agilkia, and a decay during the six consecutive measurements at Abydos. Both instruments measured an almost identical decay of the water peak (m/z 18), and CO (m/z 28) behaved similarly. In the COSAC measurements, the peak at m/z 44 decays much slower than all the other ion species, including the water peak. In particular, the m/z 44 peak decays much slower in the COSAC measurements than in the Ptolemy data. This supports our earlier interpretation that COSAC analysed, for the first time, a regolith sample from a cometary nucleus in situ, while Ptolemy measured cometary gas from the ambient coma. The m/z 44 peak measured by COSAC was likely dominated by organic species, whereas the peak measured by Ptolemy was interpreted to be mostly due to CO2. Ion species heavier than m/z 30 tend to decay somewhat slower in the COSAC measurements than in the Ptolemy data, which may be related to differences in the exhaust designs between both instruments.

  2. A combined nuclear magnetic resonance and computational study of monohydroxyflavones applied to product ion mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Burns, Darcy C; Ellis, David A; Li, Hongxia; Lewars, Errol G; March, Raymond E

    2007-01-01

    A method is presented for the estimation of 13C-chemical shifts for carbon atoms in protonated and deprotonated molecules; in principle, this method can be applied to ions in general. Experimental 13C-chemical shifts were found to vary linearly with computed atomic charges using the PM3 method. Pseudo-13C-chemical shifts for atoms in protonated and deprotonated molecules can be estimated from computed atomic charges for such atoms using the above linear relationship. The pseudo-13C-chemical shifts obtained were applied to the rationalization of product ion mass spectra of protonated and deprotonated molecules of flavone and 3-, 5-, 6-, 7-, 2'-, 3'-, and 4'-hydroxyflavones, where product ion formation is due to either cross-ring cleavage of the C-ring (retro-Diels-Alder reaction) or to cleavage of a C-ring bond followed by loss of either a small neutral molecule or a radical. The total product ion abundance ratio of C-ring cross cleavage to C-ring bond cleavage, gamma, varied by a factor of 660 for deprotonated monohydroxyflavones, i.e., from 0.014:1 to 9.27:1. The magnitude of gamma, which is dependent on the relative bond orders within the C-ring of the protonated and deprotonated molecules of monohydroxyflavones, can be rationalized on the basis of the magnitudes of the 13C- and 1H-chemical shifts as determined by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

  3. Measurement of branching fractions and mass spectra of B-->Kpipigamma.

    PubMed

    Aubert, B; Barate, R; Boutigny, D; Couderc, F; Karyotakis, Y; Lees, J P; Poireau, V; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Grauges, E; Palano, A; Pappagallo, M; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Battaglia, M; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Day, C T; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kukartsev, G; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Ronan, M T; Wenzel, W A; Barrett, M; Ford, K E; Harrison, T J; Hart, A J; Hawkes, C M; Morgan, S E; Watson, A T; Fritsch, M; Goetzen, K; Held, T; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Pelizaeus, M; Peters, K; Schroeder, T; Steinke, M; Boyd, J T; Burke, J P; Chevalier, N; Cottingham, W N; Kelly, M P; Cuhadar-Donszelmann, T; Fulsom, B G; Hearty, C; Knecht, N S; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Khan, A; Kyberd, P; Saleem, M; Teodorescu, L; Blinov, A E; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Druzhinin, V P; Golubev, V B; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Solodov, E P; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Bondioli, M; Bruinsma, M; Chao, M; Eschrich, I; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M; Mommsen, R K; Roethel, W; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Hartfiel, B L; Foulkes, S D; Gary, J W; Long, O; Shen, B C; Wang, K; Zhang, L; del Re, D; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Rahatlou, S; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Cunha, A; Dahmes, B; Hong, T M; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beck, T W; Eisner, A M; Flacco, C J; Heusch, C A; Kroseberg, J; Lockman, W S; Nesom, G; Schalk, T; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Spradlin, P; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Albert, J; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Narsky, I; Piatenko, T; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Andreassen, R; Jayatilleke, S; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Blanc, F; Bloom, P; Chen, S; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Ruddick, W O; Smith, J G; Ulmer, K A; Wagner, S R; Zhang, J; Chen, A; Eckhart, E A; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zeng, Q; Altenburg, D; Feltresi, E; Hauke, A; Spaan, B; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Dickopp, M; Klose, V; Lacker, H M; Nogowski, R; Otto, S; Petzold, A; Schott, G; Schubert, J; Schubert, K R; Schwierz, R; Sundermann, J E; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Grenier, P; Schrenk, S; Thiebaux, Ch; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Bard, D J; Clark, P J; Gradl, W; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Xie, Y; Andreotti, M; Azzolini, V; Bettoni, D; Bozzi, C; Calabrese, R; Cibinetto, G; Luppi, E; Negrini, M; Piemontese, L; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; de Sangro, R; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Buzzo, A; Capra, R; Contri, R; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S; Bailey, S; Brandenburg, G; Chaisanguanthum, K S; Morii, M; Won, E; Wu, J; Dubitzky, R S; Langenegger, U; Marks, J; Schenk, S; Uwer, U; Bhimji, W; Bowerman, D A; Dauncey, P D; Egede, U; Flack, R L; Gaillard, J R; Morton, G W; Nash, J A; Nikolich, M B; Taylor, G P; Vazquez, W P; Charles, M J; Mader, W F; Mallik, U; Mohapatra, A K; Cochran, J; Crawley, H B; Eyges, V; Meyer, W T; Prell, S; Rosenberg, E I; Rubin, A E; Yi, J; Arnaud, N; Davier, M; Giroux, X; Grosdidier, G; Höcker, A; Le Diberder, F; Lepeltier, V; Lutz, A M; Oyanguren, A; Petersen, T C; Pierini, M; Plaszczynski, S; Rodier, S; Roudeau, P; Schune, M H; Stocchi, A; Wormser, G; Cheng, C H; Lange, D J; Simani, M C; Wright, D M; Bevan, A J; Chavez, C A; Coleman, J P; Forster, I J; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, E; Gamet, R; George, K A; Hutchcroft, D E; Parry, R J; Payne, D J; Schofield, K C; Touramanis, C; Cormack, C M; Di Lodovico, F; Sacco, R; Brown, C L; Cowan, G; Flaecher, H U; Green, M G; Hopkins, D A; Jackson, P S; McMahon, T R; Ricciardi, S; Salvatore, F; Brown, D; Davis, C L; Allison, J; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Hodgkinson, M C; Lafferty, G D; Naisbit, M T; Williams, J C; Chen, C; Farbin, A; Hulsbergen, W D; Jawahery, A; Kovalskyi, D; Lae, C K; Lillard, V; Roberts, D A; Simi, G; Blaylock, G; Dallapiccola, C; Hertzbach, S S; Kofler, R; Koptchev, V B; Li, X; Moore, T B; Saremi, S; Staengle, H; Willocq, S; Cowan, R; Koeneke, K; Sciolla, G; Sekula, S J; Spitznagel, M; Taylor, F; Yamamoto, R K; Kim, H; Patel, P M; Robertson, S H; Lazzaro, A; Lombardo, V; Palombo, F; Bauer, J M; Cremaldi, L; Eschenburg, V; Godang, R; Kroeger, R; Reidy, J; Sanders, D A; Summers, D J; Zhao, H W; Brunet, S; Côté, D; Taras, P; Viaud, B; Nicholson, H; Cavallo, N; De Nardo, G; Fabozzi, F; Gatto, C; Lista, L; Monorchio, D; Paolucci, P; Piccolo, D; Sciacca, C; Baak, M; Bulten, H; Raven, G; Snoek, H L; Wilden, L; Jessop, C P; LoSecco, J M; Allmendinger, T; Benelli, G; Gan, K K; Honscheid, K; Hufnagel, D; Jackson, P D; Kagan, H; Kass, R; Pulliam, T; Rahimi, A M; Ter-Antonyan, R; Wong, Q K; Brau, J; Frey, R; Igonkina, O; Lu, M; Potter, C T; Sinev, N B; Strom, D; Strube, J; Torrence, E; Dorigo, A; Galeazzi, F; Margoni, M; Morandin, M; Posocco, M; Rotondo, M; Simonetto, F; Stroili, R; Voci, C; Benayoun, M; Briand, H; Chauveau, J; David, P; Del Buono, L; de la Vaissière, Ch; Hamon, O; John, M J J; Leruste, Ph; Malclès, J; Ocariz, J; Roos, L; Therin, G; Behera, P K; Gladney, L; Guo, Q H; Panetta, J; Biasini, M; Covarelli, R; Pacetti, S; Pioppi, M; Angelini, C; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bucci, F; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Cenci, R; Forti, F; Giorgi, M A; Lusiani, A; Marchiori, G; Morganti, M; Neri, N; Paoloni, E; Rama, M; Rizzo, G; Walsh, J; Haire, M; Judd, D; Wagoner, D E; Biesiada, J; Danielson, N; Elmer, P; Lau, Y P; Lu, C; Olsen, J; Smith, A J S; Telnov, A V; Bellini, F; Cavoto, G; D'Orazio, A; Di Marco, E; Faccini, R; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Gaspero, M; Li Gioi, L; Mazzoni, M A; Morganti, S; Piredda, G; Polci, F; Safai Tehrani, F; Voena, C; Schröder, H; Wagner, G; Waldi, R; Adye, T; De Groot, N; Franek, B; Gopal, G P; Olaiya, E O; Wilson, F F; Aleksan, R; Emery, S; Gaidot, A; Ganzhur, S F; Giraud, P-F; Graziani, G; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Kozanecki, W; Legendre, M; London, G W; Mayer, B; Vasseur, G; Yèche, Ch; Zito, M; Purohit, M V; Weidemann, A W; Wilson, J R; Yumiceva, F X; Abe, T; Allen, M T; Aston, D; Bartoldus, R; Berger, N; Boyarski, A M; Buchmueller, O L; Claus, R; Convery, M R; Cristinziani, M; Dingfelder, J C; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W; Fan, S; Field, R C; Glanzman, T; Gowdy, S J; Hadig, T; Halyo, V; Hast, C; Hryn'ova, T; Innes, W R; Kelsey, M H; Kim, P; Kocian, M L; Leith, D W G S; Libby, J; Luitz, S; Luth, V; Lynch, H L; Marsiske, H; Messner, R; Muller, D R; O'Grady, C P; Ozcan, V E; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Ratcliff, B N; Roodman, A; Salnikov, A A; Schindler, R H; Schwiening, J; Snyder, A; Stelzer, J; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Suzuki, K; Swain, S; Thompson, J M; Va'vra, J; Weaver, M; Weinstein, A J R; Wisniewski, W J; Wittgen, M; Wright, D H; Yarritu, A K; Yi, K; Young, C C; Burchat, P R; Edwards, A J; Majewski, S A; Petersen, B A; Roat, C; Ahmed, M; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Ernst, J A; Saeed, M A; Wappler, F R; Zain, S B; Bugg, W; Krishnamurthy, M; Spanier, S M; Eckmann, R; Ritchie, J L; Satpathy, A; Schwitters, R F; Izen, J M; Kitayama, I; Lou, X C; Ye, S; Bianchi, F; Bona, M; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Bomben, M; Bosisio, L; Cartaro, C; Cossutti, F; Della Ricca, G; Dittongo, S; Grancagnolo, S; Lanceri, L; Vitale, L; Martinez-Vidal, F; Panvini, R S; Banerjee, Sw; Bhuyan, B; Brown, C M; Fortin, D; Hamano, K; Kowalewski, R; Roney, J M; Sobie, R J; Back, J J; Harrison, P F; Latham, T E; Mohanty, G B; Band, H R; Chen, X; Cheng, B; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Eichenbaum, A M; Flood, K T; Graham, M; Hollar, J J; Johnson, J R; Kutter, P E; Li, H; Liu, R; Mellado, B; Mihalyi, A; Pan, Y; Prepost, R; Tan, P; von Wimmersperg-Toeller, J H; Wu, S L; Yu, Z; Neal, H

    2007-05-25

    We present a measurement of the partial branching fractions and mass spectra of the exclusive radiative penguin processes B-->Kpipigamma in the range m(Kpipi)<1.8 GeV/c(2). We reconstruct four final states: K(+)pi(-)pi(+)gamma, K(+)pi(-)pi(0)gamma, K(S)(0)pi(-)pi(+)gamma, and K(S)(0)pi(+)pi(0)gamma, where K(S)(0)-->pi(+)pi(-). Using 232 x 10(6) e(+)e(-)-->BB events recorded by the BABAR experiment at the SLAC PEP-II asymmetric-energy storage ring, we measure the branching fractions B(B(+)-->K(+)pi(-)pi(+)gamma)=[2.95+/-0.13(stat)+/-0.20(syst)] x 10(-5), B(B(0)-->K(+)pi(-)pi(0)gamma)=[4.07+/-0.22(stat)+/-0.31(syst)] x 10(-5), B(B(0)-->K(0)pi(+)pi(-)gamma)=[1.85+/-0.21(stat)+/-0.12(syst)] x 10(-5), and B(B(+)-->K(0)pi(+)pi(0)gamma)=[4.56+/-0.42(stat)+/-0.31(syst)] x 10(-5).

  4. Faster and more accurate graphical model identification of tandem mass spectra using trellises

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shengjie; Halloran, John T.; Bilmes, Jeff A.; Noble, William S.

    2016-01-01

    Tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) is the dominant high throughput technology for identifying and quantifying proteins in complex biological samples. Analysis of the tens of thousands of fragmentation spectra produced by an MS/MS experiment begins by assigning to each observed spectrum the peptide that is hypothesized to be responsible for generating the spectrum. This assignment is typically done by searching each spectrum against a database of peptides. To our knowledge, all existing MS/MS search engines compute scores individually between a given observed spectrum and each possible candidate peptide from the database. In this work, we use a trellis, a data structure capable of jointly representing a large set of candidate peptides, to avoid redundantly recomputing common sub-computations among different candidates. We show how trellises may be used to significantly speed up existing scoring algorithms, and we theoretically quantify the expected speedup afforded by trellises. Furthermore, we demonstrate that compact trellis representations of whole sets of peptides enables efficient discriminative learning of a dynamic Bayesian network for spectrum identification, leading to greatly improved spectrum identification accuracy. Contact: bilmes@uw.edu or william-noble@uw.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID:27307634

  5. FUV Spectra of Evolved Late-K and M Stars: Mass Loss Revisited and Stellar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Graham M.

    2002-01-01

    This is the final report for the FUSE Cycle 1 program A100: FUV Spectra of Evolved Late-K and M Stars: Mass Loss revisited and Stellar Activity. Targets alpha TrA (K3 II) and gamma Cru (M3 III) were originally assigned 25 ksec each, to be observed in the medium aperture. Once the in-flight performance and telescope alignment problems were known, the observations were reprogrammed to optimized the scientific return of the program. Alpha TrA was scheduled for 25 ksec observations in both the medium and large apertures. The principle aim of this program was to measure the stellar FUV line and continuum emission, in order to estimate the photoionization radiation field and to determine the level of stellar activity through the fluxes in the collisionally excited high temperature diagnostics: C III 977Angstroms and O VI 1032,1038Angstrom doublet. The medium aperture observations were obtained successfully while the large aperture observations were thought by Johns Hopkins University (JHU)to be lost to satellite problems. There was insufficient signal-to- noise in the medium aperture short wavelength Sic channels to do quantitative science.

  6. Controlling residual hydrogen gas in mass spectra during pulsed laser atom probe tomography.

    PubMed

    Kolli, R Prakash

    2017-01-01

    Residual hydrogen (H2) gas in the analysis chamber of an atom probe instrument limits the ability to measure H concentration in metals and alloys. Measuring H concentration would permit quantification of important physical phenomena, such as hydrogen embrittlement, corrosion, hydrogen trapping, and grain boundary segregation. Increased insight into the behavior of residual H2 gas on the specimen tip surface in atom probe instruments could help reduce these limitations. The influence of user-selected experimental parameters on the field adsorption and desorption of residual H2 gas on nominally pure copper (Cu) was studied during ultraviolet pulsed laser atom probe tomography. The results indicate that the total residual hydrogen concentration, HTOT, in the mass spectra exhibits a generally decreasing trend with increasing laser pulse energy and increasing laser pulse frequency. Second-order interaction effects are also important. The pulse energy has the greatest influence on the quantity HTOT, which is consistently less than 0.1 at.% at a value of 80 pJ.

  7. De Novo Sequencing of Top-Down Tandem Mass Spectra: A Next Step towards Retrieving a Complete Protein Sequence

    PubMed Central

    Vyatkina, Kira

    2017-01-01

    De novo sequencing of tandem (MS/MS) mass spectra represents the only way to determine the sequence of proteins from organisms with unknown genomes, or the ones not directly inscribed in a genome—such as antibodies, or novel splice variants. Top-down mass spectrometry provides new opportunities for analyzing such proteins; however, retrieving a complete protein sequence from top-down MS/MS spectra still remains a distant goal. In this paper, we review the state-of-the-art on this subject, and enhance our previously developed Twister algorithm for de novo sequencing of peptides from top-down MS/MS spectra to derive longer sequence fragments of a target protein. PMID:28248257

  8. DtaRefinery: a software tool for elimination of systematic errors from parent ion mass measurements in tandem mass spectra datasets

    SciTech Connect

    Petyuk, Vladislav A.; Mayampurath, Anoop M.; Monroe, Matthew E.; Polpitiya, Ashoka D.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Anderson, Gordon A.; Camp, David G.; Smith, Richard D.

    2009-12-16

    Hybrid two-stage mass spectrometers capable of both highly accurate mass measurement and MS/MS fragmentation have become widely available in recent years and have allowed for sig-nificantly better discrimination between true and false MS/MS pep-tide identifications by applying relatively narrow windows for maxi-mum allowable deviations for parent ion mass measurements. To fully gain the advantage of highly accurate parent ion mass meas-urements, it is important to limit systematic mass measurement errors. The DtaRefinery software tool can correct systematic errors in parent ion masses by reading a set of fragmentation spectra, searching for MS/MS peptide identifications, then fitting a model that can estimate systematic errors, and removing them. This results in a new fragmentation spectrum file with updated parent ion masses.

  9. AUTOMATED DECONVOLUTION OF COMPOSITE MASS SPECTRA OBTAINED WITH AN OPEN-AIR IONIZATIONS SOURCE BASED ON EXACT MASSES AND RELATIVE ISOTIPIC ABUNDANCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chemicals dispersed by accidental, deliberate, or weather-related events must be rapidly identified to assess health risks. Mass spectra from high levels of analytes obtained using rapid, open-air ionization by a Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART®) ion source often contain

  10. Vacuum ultraviolet photoionization mass spectra and cross-sections for volatile organic compounds at 10.5 eV.

    PubMed

    Kanno, Nozomu; Tonokura, Kenichi

    2007-08-01

    Vacuum ultraviolet single-photon ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (VUV-SPI-TOFMS) has been applied to the detection of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including aromatic, chlorinated, and oxygenated compounds. Photoionization mass spectra of 23 VOCs were measured using SPI-TOFMS at 10.5 eV (118 nm). The limits of detection of VOCs using SPI-TOFMS at 10.5 eV were estimated to be a few ppbv. The mass spectra of 20 VOCs exhibit only the parent ion and its isotopes' signals. The ionization processes of the VOCs were discussed on the basis of the reaction enthalpies predicted by the quantum chemical calculations. Absolute photoionization cross-sections for 23 VOCs, including 12 newly measured VOCs, at 10.5 eV were determined in comparison to the reported absolute photoionization cross-section of NO.

  11. Measurement of Branching Fractions and Mass Spectra of B to K pi pi gamma

    SciTech Connect

    Aubert, B.; Barate, R.; Boutigny, D.; Couderc, F.; Karyotakis, Y.; Lees, J.P.; Poireau, V.; Tisserand, V.; Zghiche, A.; Grauges, E.; Palano, A.; Pappagallo, M.; Pompili, A.; Chen, J.C.; Qi, N.D.; Rong, G.; Wang, P.; Zhu, Y.S.; Eigen, G.; Ofte, I.; Stugu, B. /Bergen U. /LBL, Berkeley /UC, Berkeley /Birmingham U. /Ruhr U., Bochum /Bristol U. /British Columbia U. /Brunel U. /Novosibirsk, IYF /UC, Irvine /UCLA /UC, Riverside /UC, San Diego /UC, Santa Barbara /UC, Santa Cruz /Caltech /Cincinnati U. /Colorado U. /Colorado State U. /Dortmund U. /Dresden, Tech. U. /Ecole Polytechnique /Edinburgh U. /Ferrara U. /INFN, Ferrara /Frascati /Genoa U. /INFN, Genoa /Harvard U. /Heidelberg U. /Imperial Coll., London /Iowa U. /Iowa State U. /Orsay, LAL /LLNL, Livermore /Liverpool U. /Queen Mary, U. of London /Royal Holloway, U. of London /Louisville U. /Manchester U. /Maryland U. /Massachusetts U., Amherst /MIT, LNS /McGill U. /Milan U. /INFN, Milan /Mississippi U. /Montreal U. /Mt. Holyoke Coll. /Naples U. /INFN, Naples /NIKHEF, Amsterdam /Notre Dame U. /Ohio State U. /Oregon U. /INFN, Padua /Padua U. /Paris U., VI-VII /Pennsylvania U. /Perugia U. /INFN, Perugia /Pisa U. /Pisa, Scuola Normale Superiore /INFN, Pisa /Prairie View A-M /Princeton U. /Rome U. /INFN, Rome /Rostock U. /Rutherford /DAPNIA, Saclay /South Carolina U. /SLAC /Stanford U., Phys. Dept. /SUNY, Albany /Tennessee U. /Texas U. /Texas U., Dallas /Turin U. /INFN, Turin /Trieste U. /INFN, Trieste /Valencia U., IFIC /Vanderbilt U. /Victoria U. /Warwick U. /Wisconsin U., Madison /Yale U.

    2005-07-12

    The authors present a measurement of the partial branching fractions and mass spectra of the exclusive radiative penguin processes B {yields} K{pi}{pi}{gamma} in the range m{sub K{pi}{pi}} < 1.8 GeV/c{sup 2}. They reconstruct four final states: K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{gamma}, K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}, K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{gamma}, and K{sub S}{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}, where K{sub S}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}. Using 232 million e{sup +}e{sup -} {yields} B{bar B} events recorded by the BABAR experiment at the PEP-II asymmetric-energy storage ring, they measure the branching fractions {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup +}{gamma}) = (2.95 {+-} 0.13(stat.) {+-} 0.20(syst)) x 10{sup -5}, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}) = (4.07 {+-} 0.22(stat.) {+-} 0.31(syst.)) x 10{sup -5}, {Beta}(B{sup 0} {yields} K{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma}) = (1.85 {+-} 0.21(stat.) {+-} 0.12(syst.)) x 10{sup -5}, and {Beta}(B{sup +} {yields} K{sup 0}{pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup 0}{gamma}) = (4.56 {+-} 0.42(stat.) {+-} 0.31(syst.)) x 10{sup -5}.

  12. Real-time quadrupole mass spectrometer analysis of gas in boreholefluid samples acquired using the U-Tube sampling methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Freifeld, Barry M.; Trautz, Robert C.

    2006-01-11

    Sampling of fluids in deep boreholes is challenging becauseof the necessity to minimize external contamination and maintain sampleintegrity during recovery. The U-tube sampling methodology was developedto collect large volume, multiphase samples at in situ pressures. As apermanent or semi-permanent installation, the U-tube can be used forrapidly acquiring multiple samples or it may be installed for long-termmonitoring applications. The U-tube was first deployed in Liberty County,TX to monitor crosswell CO2 injection as part of the Frio CO2sequestration experiment. Analysis of gases (dissolved or separate phase)was performed in the field using a quadrupole mass spectrometer, whichserved as the basis for determining the arrival of the CO2 plume. Thepresence of oxygen and argon in elevated concentrations, along withreduced methane concentration, indicate sample alteration caused by theintroduction of surface fluids during borehole completion. Despiteproducing the well to eliminate non-native fluids, measurementsdemonstrate that contamination persists until the immiscible CO2injection swept formation fluid into the observationwellbore.

  13. Determination of Peptide and Protein Ion Charge States by Fourier Transformation of Isotope-Resolved Mass Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Tabb, Dave L; Shah, Manesh B; Strader, Michael B; Connelly, Heather M; Hettich, Robert {Bob} L; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B

    2006-01-01

    We report an automated method for determining charge states from high-resolution mass spectra. Fourier transforms of isotope packets from high-resolution mass spectra are compared to Fourier transforms of modeled isotopic peak packets for a range of charge states. The charge state for the experimental ion packet is determined by the model isotope packet that yields the best match in the comparison of the Fourier transforms. This strategy is demonstrated for determining peptide ion charge states from 'zoom scan' data from a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer, enabling the subsequent automated identification of singly-through quadruply-charged peptide ions, while reducing the numbers of conflicting identifications from ambiguous charge state assignments. We also apply this technique to determine the charges of intact protein ions from LC-FTICR data, demonstrating that it is more sensitive under these experimental conditions than two existing algorithms. The strategy outlined in this paper should be generally applicable to mass spectra obtained from any instrument capable of isotopic resolution.

  14. Characterization of signatures from organic compounds in CDA mass spectra of ice particles in Saturn's E-ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khawaja, Nozair; Postberg, Frank; Reviol, Rene; Srama, Ralf

    2015-04-01

    The major source of ice particles in Saturn's E-ring is Enceladus - a geological active moon of Saturn. Enceladus is emanating ice particles from its fractured south polar terrain (SPT), the so-called "Tiger Stripes". The source of Enceladus activity and many of the ice particles is a subsurface ocean. The Cosmic Dust Analyzer (CDA) onboard the Cassini spacecraft is sampling these icy particles and producing TOF mass spectra of cations of impinging particles [1]. Three compositional types of ice particles have been identified from CDA-mass spectra: (i) pure water ice (Type-1) (ii) organic rich (Type-2) (iii) salt rich (Type-3) [2][3]. These organic rich (Type-2) spectra are particularly abundant in the icy jets of Enceladus as we found out during the Cassini's Enceladus flybys (E17 and E18) in 2012 [4]. We present a compositional analysis of the CDA spectra of these organic rich icy grains sampled in the E ring. We have characterized hundreds of Type-2 spectra of impinging ice particles. These were recorded at different impact velocities causing different molecular fragmentation patterns observed in the mass spectra. We defined 3 typical impact speed intervals: (i) 4-7 km/s (ii) 8-11 km/s and (iii) 12-16km/s. Organic features best observed at slow (4-7 km/s) or at intermediate (8-11 km/s) impact velocity ranges. Several classes of organic rich spectra are identified. Classifying Type-2 spectra are according to their characteristic mass lines of possible organic species. We try to infer the composition of each class of organic rich spectra is inferred by using an experimental setup (IR-FL-MALDI) to simulate the CDA spectra of different compositional types. In the laboratory we have used infrared laser to disperse a micro-beam of a water solution [5]. The laser energy is adjusted to simulate different impact velocities of ice particles on the CDA. Four families of organic compounds including alcohols, fatty acids, amines and aromatic, with varying number of carbon

  15. ROSAT Energy Spectra of Low-Mass X-Ray Binaries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulz, N. S.

    1999-01-01

    The 0.1-2.4 keV bandpass of the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) offers an opportunity to study the very soft X-ray continuum of bright low-mass X-ray binaries (LMXBs). In 46 pointed observations, 23 LMXBs were observed with count rates between 0.4 and 165.4 counts s-1. The survey identified a total of 29 different luminosity levels, which are compared with observations and identified spectral states from other missions. The atoll source 4U 1705-44 was observed near Eddington luminosities in an unusually high intensity state. Spectral analysis provided a measure of the interstellar column density for all 49 observations. The sensitivity of spectral fits depends strongly on column density. Fits to highly absorbed spectra are merely insensitive toward any particular spectral model. Sources with column densities well below 1022 cm-2 are best fitted by power laws, while the blackbody model gives clearly worse fits to the data. Most single-component fits from sources with low column densities, however, are not acceptable at all. The inclusion of a blackbody component in eight sources can improve the fits significantly. The obtained emission radii of less than 5 km suggest emission from the neutron star surface. In 10 sources acceptable fits can only be achieved by including soft-line components. With a spectral resolution of the PSPC of 320-450 eV, between 0.6 and 1.2 keV unresolved broad-line features were detected around 0.65, 0.85, and 1.0 keV. The line fluxes range within 10-11 and 10-12 ergs cm-2 s-1, with equivalent widths between 24 and 210 eV. In LMC X-2, 2S 0918-549, and 4U 1254-690, line emission is indicated for the first time. The soft emission observed in 4U 0614+091 compares with recent ASCA results, with a new feature indicated at 1.31 keV. The deduced line fluxes in 4U 1820-30 and Cyg X-2 showed variability of a factor of 2 within timescales of 1-2 days. Average fluxes of line components in 4U 1820-30 varied by the same factor over a

  16. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF YOUNG BROWN DWARFS AND VERY LOW MASS STARS INFERRED FROM HIGH-RESOLUTION MODEL SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, Emily L.; Mclean, Ian S.; Barman, T.; Prato, L.; Kirkpatrick, J. Davy

    2010-01-01

    By comparing near-infrared spectra with atmospheric models, we infer the effective temperature, surface gravity, projected rotational velocity, and radial velocity for 21 very low mass stars and brown dwarfs. The unique sample consists of two sequences in spectral type from M6-M9, one of 5-10 Myr objects and one of >1 Gyr field objects. A third sequence is comprised of only {approx}M6 objects with ages ranging from <1 Myr to >1 Gyr. Spectra were obtained in the J band at medium (R {approx} 2000) and high (R {approx} 20,000) resolutions with NIRSPEC on the Keck II telescope. Synthetic spectra were generated from atmospheric structures calculated with the PHOENIX model atmosphere code. Using multi-dimensional least-squares fitting and Monte Carlo routines we determine the best-fit model parameters for each observed spectrum and note which spectral regions provide consistent results. We identify successes in the reproduction of observed features by atmospheric models, including pressure-broadened K I lines, and investigate deficiencies in the models, particularly missing FeH opacity, that will need to be addressed in order to extend our analysis to cooler objects. The precision that can be obtained for each parameter using medium- and high-resolution near-infrared spectra is estimated and the implications for future studies of very low mass stars and brown dwarfs are discussed.

  17. Suzaku spectra of the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1608-52

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lei, Yajuan; Zhang, Haotong; zhang, Yanxia

    2015-08-01

    We present the spectral analysis of the neutron-star low-mass X-ray binary 4U 1608-52 using data from four Suzaku observations in 2010 March. 4U 1608-52 is a transient atoll source, and the analyzed observations contain the “island” and “banana” states, corresponding transitional, and soft states. The spectra are fitted with the hybrid model for the soft states, which consists of two thermal components (a multicolor accretion disk and a single-temperature blackbody) plus a broken power law. The fitting results show that the continuum spectra evolve during the different states. Fe emission line is often detected in low-mass X-ray binary, however, no obviously Fe line is detected in the four observations of 4U 1608-52.

  18. Mass spectra of cyclic ethers formed in the low-temperature oxidation of a series of n-alkanes

    PubMed Central

    Herbinet, Olivier; Bax, Sarah; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Carré, Vincent; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    Cyclic ethers are important intermediate species formed during the low-temperature oxidation of hydrocarbons. Along with ketones and aldehydes, they could consequently represent a significant part of the heavy oxygenated pollutants observed in the exhaust gas of engines. Apart a few of them such as ethylene oxide and tetrahydrofuran, cyclic ethers have not been much studied and very few of them are available for calibration and identification. Electron impact mass spectra are available for very few of them, making their detection in the exhaust emissions of combustion processes very difficult. The main goal of this study was to complete the existing set of mass spectra for this class of molecules. Thus cyclic ethers have been analyzed in the exhaust gases of a jet-stirred reactor in which the low-temperature oxidation of a series of n-alkanes was taking place. Analyzes were performed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry and to MS/MS. The second goal of this study was to derive some rules for the fragmentation of cyclic ethers in electron impact mass spectrometry and allow the identification of these species when no mass spectrum is available. PMID:24092947

  19. Splitting mass spectra and muon g - 2 in Higgs-anomaly mediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Wen; Yokozaki, Norimi

    2016-11-01

    We propose a scenario where only the Higgs multiplets have direct couplings to a supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking sector. The standard model matter multiplets as well as the gauge multiples are sequestered from the SUSY breaking sector; therefore, their masses arise via anomaly mediation at the high energy scale with a gravitino mass of ∼ 100TeV. Due to renormalization group running effects from the Higgs soft masses, the masses of the third generation sfermions become O (10)TeV at the low energy scale, while the first and second generation sfermion masses are O (0.1- 1)TeV, avoiding the tachyonic slepton problem and flavor changing neutral current problem. With the splitting mass spectrum, the muon g - 2 anomaly is explained consistently with the observed Higgs boson mass of 125 GeV. Moreover, the third generation Yukawa couplings are expected to be unified in some regions.

  20. MODi: a powerful and convenient web server for identifying multiple post-translational peptide modifications from tandem mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sangtae; Na, Seungjin; Sim, Ji Woong; Park, Heejin; Jeong, Jaeho; Kim, Hokeun; Seo, Younghwan; Seo, Jawon; Lee, Kong-Joo; Paek, Eunok

    2006-07-01

    MOD(i) (http://modi.uos.ac.kr/modi/) is a powerful and convenient web service that facilitates the interpretation of tandem mass spectra for identifying post-translational modifications (PTMs) in a peptide. It is powerful in that it can interpret a tandem mass spectrum even when hundreds of modification types are considered and the number of potential PTMs in a peptide is large, in contrast to most of the methods currently available for spectra interpretation that limit the number of PTM sites and types being used for PTM analysis. For example, using MOD(i), one can consider for analysis both the entire PTM list published on the unimod webpage (http://www.unimod.org) and user-defined PTMs simultaneously, and one can also identify multiple PTM sites in a spectrum. MOD(i) is convenient in that it can take various input file formats such as .mzXML, .dta, .pkl and .mgf files, and it is equipped with a graphical tool called MassPective developed to display MOD(i)'s output in a user-friendly manner and helps users understand MOD(i)'s output quickly. In addition, one can perform manual de novo sequencing using MassPective.

  1. Tooth enamel EPR dosimetry: optimization of EPR spectra recording parameters and effect of sample mass on spectral sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Zhumadilov, Kassym; Ivannikov, Alexander; Skvortsov, Valeriy; Stepanenko, Valeriy; Zhumadilov, Zhaxybay; Endo, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi; Hoshi, Masaharu

    2005-12-01

    In order to improve the accuracy of the tooth enamel EPR dosimetry method, EPR spectra recording conditions were optimized. The uncertainty of dose determination was obtained as the mean square deviation of doses, determined with the use of a spectra deconvolution program, from the nominal doses for ten enamel samples irradiated in the range from 0 to 500 mGy. The spectra were recorded at different microwave powers and accumulation times. It was shown that minimal uncertainty is achieved at the microwave power of about 2 mW for a used spectrometer JEOL JES-FA100. It was found that a limit of the accumulation time exists beyond which uncertainty reduction is ineffective. At an established total time of measurement, reduced uncertainty is obtained by averaging the experimental doses determined from recorded spectra following intermittent sample shaking and sample tube rotation, rather than from one spectrum recorded at longer accumulation time. The effect of sample mass on the spectrometer's sensitivity was investigated in order to find out how to make appropriate corrections.

  2. iMet: A Network-Based Computational Tool To Assist in the Annotation of Metabolites from Tandem Mass Spectra.

    PubMed

    Aguilar-Mogas, Antoni; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Navarro, Miriam; Guimerà, Roger; Yanes, Oscar

    2017-03-21

    Structural annotation of metabolites relies mainly on tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) analysis. However, approximately 90% of the known metabolites reported in metabolomic databases do not have annotated spectral data from standards. This situation has fostered the development of computational tools that predict fragmentation patterns in silico and compare these to experimental MS/MS spectra. However, because such methods require the molecular structure of the detected compound to be available for the algorithm, the identification of novel metabolites in organisms relevant for biotechnological and medical applications remains a challenge. Here, we present iMet, a computational tool that facilitates structural annotation of metabolites not described in databases. iMet uses MS/MS spectra and the exact mass of an unknown metabolite to identify metabolites in a reference database that are structurally similar to the unknown metabolite. The algorithm also suggests the chemical transformation that converts the known metabolites into the unknown one. As a proxy for the structural annotation of novel metabolites, we tested 148 metabolites following a leave-one-out cross-validation procedure or by using MS/MS spectra experimentally obtained in our laboratory. We show that for 89% of the 148 metabolites at least one of the top four matches identified by iMet enables the proper annotation of the unknown metabolites. To further validate iMet, we tested 31 metabolites proposed in the 2012-16 CASMI challenges. iMet is freely available at http://imet.seeslab.net .

  3. Excited and exotic charmonium, D s and D meson spectra for two light quark masses from lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, Gavin K. C.; O'Hara, Cian; Moir, Graham; Peardon, Michael; Ryan, Sinéad M.; Thomas, Christopher E.; Tims, David

    2016-12-01

    We present highly-excited charmonium, D s and D meson spectra from dynamical lattice QCD calculations with light quarks corresponding to M π ˜ 240 MeV and compare these to previous results with M π ˜ 400 MeV. Utilising the distillation framework, large bases of carefully constructed interpolating operators and a variational procedure, we extract and reliably identify the continuum spin of an extensive set of excited mesons. These include states with exotic quantum numbers which, along with a number with non-exotic quantum numbers, we identify as having excited gluonic degrees of freedom and interpret as hybrid mesons. Comparing the spectra at the two different M π , we find only a mild light-quark mass dependence and no change in the overall pattern of states.

  4. AUTOMATED ELEMENTAL COMPOSITION DETERMINATION AND CORRELATION OF PRECURSOR WITH PRODUCT IONS BASED ON ORTHOGONAL ACCELERATION, TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTRA

    EPA Science Inventory

    For more than a decade in our laboratory, elemental compositions of ions in mass spectra havebeen routinely determined by measuring exact masses and relative isotopic abundances of ions in isotopicclusters using a GC coupled to a double focusing mass spectrometer.1 HPLC interfac...

  5. Evolved Late-Type Star FUV Spectra: Mass Loss and Fluorescence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Graham M.

    2005-01-01

    This proposal was for a detailed analysis of the far ultraviolet (FUV) photoionizing radiation that provides crucial input physics for mass loss studies, e.g., observations of the flux below 10448, allow us to constrain the Ca II/Ca III balance and make significant progress beyond previous optical studies on stellar mass loss and circumstellar photochemistry. Our targets selection provided good spectral-type coverage required to help unravel the Ca II/Ca III balance as the mass-loss rates increase by over three orders of magnitude from K5 III to M5 III. We also explored the relationship between the FUV radiation field and other UV diagnostics to allow us to empirically estimate the FUV radiation field for the vast majority of stars which are too faint to be observed with FUSE, and to improve upon their uncertain mass-loss rates.

  6. Proteomics of Soil and Sediment: Protein Identification by De Novo Sequencing of Mass Spectra Complements Traditional Database Searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S.; Rizzo, A. I.; Waldbauer, J.

    2014-12-01

    Proteomics has the potential to elucidate the metabolic pathways and taxa responsible for in situ biogeochemical transformations. However, low rates of protein identification from high resolution mass spectra have been a barrier to the development of proteomics in complex environmental samples. Much of the difficulty lies in the computational challenge of linking mass spectra to their corresponding proteins. Traditional database search methods for matching peptide sequences to mass spectra are often inadequate due to the complexity of environmental proteomes and the large database search space, as we demonstrate with soil and sediment proteomes generated via a range of extraction methods. One alternative to traditional database searching is de novo sequencing, which identifies peptide sequences without the need for a database. BLAST can then be used to match de novo sequences to similar genetic sequences. Assigning confidence to putative identifications has been one hurdle for the implementation of de novo sequencing. We found that accurate de novo sequences can be screened by quality score and length. Screening criteria are verified by comparing the results of de novo sequencing and traditional database searching for well-characterized proteomes from simple biological systems. The BLAST hits of screened sequences are interrogated for taxonomic and functional information. We applied de novo sequencing to organic topsoil and marine sediment proteomes. Peak-rich proteomes, which can result from various extraction techniques, yield thousands of high-confidence protein identifications, an improvement over previous proteomic studies of soil and sediment. User-friendly software tools for de novo metaproteomics analysis have been developed. This "De Novo Analysis" Pipeline is also a faster method of data analysis than constructing a tailored sequence database for traditional database searching.

  7. Proteomics of Soil and Sediment: Protein Identification by De Novo Sequencing of Mass Spectra Complements Traditional Database Searching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, S.; Rizzo, A. I.; Waldbauer, J.

    2015-12-01

    Proteomics has the potential to elucidate the metabolic pathways and taxa responsible for in situ biogeochemical transformations. However, low rates of protein identification from high resolution mass spectra have been a barrier to the development of proteomics in complex environmental samples. Much of the difficulty lies in the computational challenge of linking mass spectra to their corresponding proteins. Traditional database search methods for matching peptide sequences to mass spectra are often inadequate due to the complexity of environmental proteomes and the large database search space, as we demonstrate with soil and sediment proteomes generated via a range of extraction methods. One alternative to traditional database searching is de novo sequencing, which identifies peptide sequences without the need for a database. BLAST can then be used to match de novo sequences to similar genetic sequences. Assigning confidence to putative identifications has been one hurdle for the implementation of de novo sequencing. We found that accurate de novo sequences can be screened by quality score and length. Screening criteria are verified by comparing the results of de novo sequencing and traditional database searching for well-characterized proteomes from simple biological systems. The BLAST hits of screened sequences are interrogated for taxonomic and functional information. We applied de novo sequencing to organic topsoil and marine sediment proteomes. Peak-rich proteomes, which can result from various extraction techniques, yield thousands of high-confidence protein identifications, an improvement over previous proteomic studies of soil and sediment. User-friendly software tools for de novo metaproteomics analysis have been developed. This "De Novo Analysis" Pipeline is also a faster method of data analysis than constructing a tailored sequence database for traditional database searching.

  8. Synthesis of nanoparticles in helium droplets—A characterization comparing mass-spectra and electron microscopy data

    SciTech Connect

    Thaler, Philipp; Volk, Alexander; Lackner, Florian; Steurer, Johannes; Schnedlitz, Martin; Ernst, Wolfgang E.; Knez, Daniel; Haberfehlner, Georg

    2015-10-07

    Micrometer sized helium droplets provide an extraordinary environment for the growth of nanoparticles. The method promises great potential for the preparation of core-shell particles as well as one-dimensional nanostructures, which agglomerate along quantum vortices, without involving solvents, ligands, or additives. Using a new apparatus, which enables us to record mass spectra of heavy dopant clusters (>10{sup 4} amu) and to produce samples for transmission electron microscopy simultaneously, we synthesize bare and bimetallic nanoparticles consisting of various materials (Au, Ni, Cr, and Ag). We present a systematical study of the growth process of clusters and nanoparticles inside the helium droplets, which can be described with a simple theoretical model.

  9. Dielectron Mass Spectra in square root of sNN = 200 GeV Copper plus Copper Collisions at PHENIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, Sarah Catherine

    The dielectron mass spectrum consists of light vector meson decays, correlated heavy quark contributions and decays from other hadronic and photonic sources. Thermal radiation and modifications to the light vector mesons may provide additional signals at low masses above known hadronic sources. The PHENIX sNN = 200 GeV Au+Au and Cu+Cu analyses have measured a centrality dependent excess in the the low mass region between 0.15 GeV/c 2 and 0.75 GeV/c2. Between the φ and the J/ψ, in the intermediate mass range, the correlated heavy quark decays are the primary dielectron source; direct photons may augment this region as well. The Cu+Cu system is sensitive to the onset of the dielectron excess. By studying the Cu+Cu mass spectra and yields as a function of pair pT and collision centrality we obtain further understanding of its behavior. Comparisons to the PHENIX Au+Au and p+p measurements an extrapolations from theory are presented.

  10. Virial Black Hole Mass Estimates for 280,000 AGNs from the SDSS Broadband Photometry and Single-epoch Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozłowski, Szymon

    2017-01-01

    We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) Quasar Data Release 12 (DR12Q), containing nearly 300,000 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), to calculate the monochromatic luminosities at 5100, 3000, and 1350 Å, derived from the broadband extinction-corrected SDSS magnitudes. After matching these sources to their counterparts from the SDSS Quasar Data Release 7 (DR7Q), we find very high correlations between our luminosities and DR7Q spectra-based luminosities with minute mean offsets (∼0.01 dex) and dispersions of differences of 0.11, 0.10, and 0.12 dex, respectively, across a luminosity range of 2.5 dex. We then estimate the black hole (BH) masses of the AGNs using the broad line region radius–disk luminosity relations and the FWHM of the Mg ii and C iv emission lines, to provide a catalog of 283,033 virial BH mass estimates (132,451 for Mg ii, 213,071 for C iv, and 62,489 for both) along with the estimates of the bolometric luminosity and Eddington ratio for 0.1 < z < 5.5 and for roughly a quarter of the sky covered by SDSS. The BH mass estimates from Mg ii turned out to be closely matched to the ones from DR7Q with a dispersion of differences of 0.34 dex across a BH mass range of ∼2 dex. We uncovered a bias in the derived C iv FWHMs from DR12Q as compared to DR7Q, which we correct empirically. The C iv BH mass estimates should be used with caution because the C iv line is known to cause problems in the estimation of BH mass from single-epoch spectra. Finally, after the FWHM correction, the AGN BH mass estimates from C iv closely match the DR7Q ones (with a dispersion of 0.28 dex), and more importantly the Mg ii and C iv BH masses agree internally with a mean offset of 0.07 dex and a dispersion of 0.39 dex.

  11. Randomness in the dark sector: Emergent mass spectra and Dynamical Dark Matter ensembles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dienes, Keith R.; Fennick, Jacob; Kumar, Jason; Thomas, Brooks

    2016-04-01

    In general, nonminimal models of the dark sector such as Dynamical Dark Matter posit the existence of an ensemble of individual dark components with differing masses, cosmological abundances, and couplings to the Standard Model. Perhaps the most critical among these features is the spectrum of masses, as this goes a long way towards determining the cosmological abundances and lifetimes of the corresponding states. Many different underlying theoretical structures can be imagined for the dark sector, each giving rise to its own mass spectrum and corresponding density of states. In this paper, by contrast, we investigate the spectrum of masses that emerges statistically from underlying processes which are essentially random. We find a density of states n (m ) which decreases as a function of mass and actually has an upper limit mmax beyond which n (m )=0 . We also demonstrate that this "emergent" density of states is particularly auspicious from the perspective of the Dynamical Dark Matter framework, leading to cosmological abundances and decay widths that are suitably balanced against each other across the dark-matter ensemble. Thus randomness in the dark sector coexists quite naturally with Dynamical Dark Matter, and we examine the prospects for observing the signals of such scenarios in dark-matter indirect-detection experiments.

  12. BRIGHT RAY-LIKE FEATURES IN THE AFTERMATH OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS: WHITE LIGHT VERSUS ULTRAVIOLET SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Ciaravella, A.; Webb, D. F.; Giordano, S.; Raymond, J. C.

    2013-03-20

    Current sheets (CSs) are important signatures of magnetic reconnection in the eruption of confined solar magnetic structures. Models of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) involve formation of a CS connecting the ejected flux rope with the post-eruption magnetic loops. CSs have been identified in white light (WL) images of CMEs as narrow rays trailing the outward moving CME core, and in ultraviolet spectra as narrow bright features emitting the [Fe XVIII] line. In this work, samples of rays detected in WL images or in ultraviolet spectra have been analyzed. Temperatures, widths, and line intensities of the rays have been measured, and their correlation to the CME properties has been studied. The samples show a wide range of temperatures with hot, coronal, and cool rays. In some cases, the UV spectra support the identification of rays as CSs, but they show that some WL rays are cool material from the CME core. In many cases, both hot and cool material are present, but offset from each other along the Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer slit. We find that about 18% of the WL rays show very hot gas consistent with the CS interpretation, while about 23% show cold gas that we attribute to cool prominence material draining back from the CME core. The remaining events have ordinary coronal temperatures, perhaps because they have relaxed back to a quiescent state.

  13. CFM-ID: a web server for annotation, spectrum prediction and metabolite identification from tandem mass spectra

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Felicity; Pon, Allison; Wilson, Michael; Greiner, Russ; Wishart, David

    2014-01-01

    CFM-ID is a web server supporting three tasks associated with the interpretation of tandem mass spectra (MS/MS) for the purpose of automated metabolite identification: annotation of the peaks in a spectrum for a known chemical structure; prediction of spectra for a given chemical structure and putative metabolite identification—a predicted ranking of possible candidate structures for a target spectrum. The algorithms used for these tasks are based on Competitive Fragmentation Modeling (CFM), a recently introduced probabilistic generative model for the MS/MS fragmentation process that uses machine learning techniques to learn its parameters from data. These algorithms have been extensively tested on multiple datasets and have been shown to out-perform existing methods such as MetFrag and FingerId. This web server provides a simple interface for using these algorithms and a graphical display of the resulting annotations, spectra and structures. CFM-ID is made freely available at http://cfmid.wishartlab.com. PMID:24895432

  14. Mass Ordering of Spectra from Fragmentation of Saturated Gluon States in High-Multiplicity Proton-Proton Collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schenke, Björn; Schlichting, Sören; Tribedy, Prithwish; Venugopalan, Raju

    2016-10-01

    The mass ordering of mean transverse momentum ⟨pT⟩ and of the Fourier harmonic coefficient v2(pT) of azimuthally anisotropic particle distributions in high energy hadron collisions is often interpreted as evidence for the hydrodynamic flow of the matter produced. We investigate an alternative initial state interpretation of this pattern in high-multiplicity proton-proton collisions at the LHC. The QCD Yang-Mills equations describing the dynamics of saturated gluons are solved numerically with initial conditions obtained from the color-glass-condensate-based impact-parameter-dependent glasma model. The gluons are subsequently fragmented into various hadron species employing the well established Lund string fragmentation algorithm of the pythia event generator. We find that this initial state approach reproduces characteristic features of bulk spectra, in particular, the particle mass dependence of ⟨pT⟩ and v2(pT).

  15. Origin of Disagreements in Tandem Mass Spectra Interpretation by Search Engines.

    PubMed

    Tessier, Dominique; Lollier, Virginie; Larré, Colette; Rogniaux, Hélène

    2016-10-07

    Several proteomic database search engines that interpret LC-MS/MS data do not identify the same set of peptides. These disagreements occur even when the scores of the peptide-to-spectrum matches suggest good confidence in the interpretation. Our study shows that these disagreements observed for the interpretations of a given spectrum are almost exclusively due to the variation of what we call the "peptide space", i.e., the set of peptides that are actually compared to the experimental spectra. We discuss the potential difficulties of precisely defining the "peptide space." Indeed, although several parameters that are generally reported in publications can easily be set to the same values, many additional parameters-with much less straightforward user access-might impact the "peptide space" used by each program. Moreover, in a configuration where each search engine identifies the same candidates for each spectrum, the inference of the proteins may remain quite different depending on the false discovery rate selected.

  16. Modeling collision energy transfer in APCI/CID mass spectra of PAHs using thermal-like post-collision internal energy distributions.

    PubMed

    Solano, Eduardo A; Mohamed, Sabria; Mayer, Paul M

    2016-10-28

    The internal energy transferred when projectile molecular ions of naphthalene collide with argon gas atoms was extracted from the APCI-CID (atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization collision-induced dissociation) mass spectra acquired as a function of collision energy. Ion abundances were calculated by microcanonical integration of the differential rate equations using the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus rate constants derived from a UB3LYP/6-311G+(3df,2p)//UB3LYP/6-31G(d) fragmentation mechanism and thermal-like vibrational energy distributions pME,Tchar. The mean vibrational energy excess of the ions was characterized by the parameter Tchar ("characteristic temperature"), determined by fitting the theoretical ion abundances to the experimental breakdown graph (a plot of relative abundances of the ions as a function of kinetic energy) of activated naphthalene ions. According to these results, the APCI ion source produces species below Tchar = 1457 K, corresponding to 3.26 eV above the vibrational ground state. Subsequent collisions heat the ions up further, giving rise to a sigmoid curve of Tchar as a function of Ecom (center-of-mass-frame kinetic energy). The differential internal energy absorption per kinetic energy unit (dEvib/dEcom) changes with Ecom according to a symmetric bell-shaped function with a maximum at 6.38 ± 0.32 eV (corresponding to 6.51 ± 0.27 eV of vibrational energy excess), and a half-height full width of 6.30 ± 1.15 eV. This function imposes restrictions on the amount of energy that can be transferred by collisions, such that a maximum is reached as kinetic energy is increased. This behavior suggests that the collisional energy transfer exhibits a pronounced increase around some specific value of energy. Finally, the model is tested against the CID mass spectra of anthracene and pyrene ions and the corresponding results are discussed.

  17. Modeling collision energy transfer in APCI/CID mass spectra of PAHs using thermal-like post-collision internal energy distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solano, Eduardo A.; Mohamed, Sabria; Mayer, Paul M.

    2016-10-01

    The internal energy transferred when projectile molecular ions of naphthalene collide with argon gas atoms was extracted from the APCI-CID (atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization collision-induced dissociation) mass spectra acquired as a function of collision energy. Ion abundances were calculated by microcanonical integration of the differential rate equations using the Rice-Ramsperger-Kassel-Marcus rate constants derived from a UB3LYP/6-311G+(3df,2p)//UB3LYP/6-31G(d) fragmentation mechanism and thermal-like vibrational energy distributions p M (" separators=" E , T char ) . The mean vibrational energy excess of the ions was characterized by the parameter Tchar ("characteristic temperature"), determined by fitting the theoretical ion abundances to the experimental breakdown graph (a plot of relative abundances of the ions as a function of kinetic energy) of activated naphthalene ions. According to these results, the APCI ion source produces species below Tchar = 1457 K, corresponding to 3.26 eV above the vibrational ground state. Subsequent collisions heat the ions up further, giving rise to a sigmoid curve of Tchar as a function of Ecom (center-of-mass-frame kinetic energy). The differential internal energy absorption per kinetic energy unit (dEvib/dEcom) changes with Ecom according to a symmetric bell-shaped function with a maximum at 6.38 ± 0.32 eV (corresponding to 6.51 ± 0.27 eV of vibrational energy excess), and a half-height full width of 6.30 ± 1.15 eV. This function imposes restrictions on the amount of energy that can be transferred by collisions, such that a maximum is reached as kinetic energy is increased. This behavior suggests that the collisional energy transfer exhibits a pronounced increase around some specific value of energy. Finally, the model is tested against the CID mass spectra of anthracene and pyrene ions and the corresponding results are discussed.

  18. Mass spectra of neutral particles released during electrical breakdown of thin polymer films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kendall, B. R. F.

    1985-01-01

    A special type of time-of-flight mass spectrometer triggered from the breakdown event was developed to study the composition of the neutral particle flux released during the electrical breakdown of polymer films problem. Charge is fed onto a metal-backed polymer surface by a movable smooth platinum contact. A slowly increasing potential from a high-impedance source is applied to the contact until breakdown occurs. The breakdown characteristics is made similar to those produced by an electron beam charging system operating at similar potentials. The apparatus showed that intense instantaneous fluxes of neutral particles are released from the sites of breakdown events. For Teflon FEP films of 50 and 75 microns thickness the material released consists almost entirely of fluorocarbon fragments, some of them having masses greater than 350 atomic mass units amu, while the material released from a 50 micron Kapton film consists mainly of light hydrocarbons with masses at or below 44 amu, with additional carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide. The apparatus is modified to allow electron beam charging of the samples.

  19. Fitting of Hadron Mass Spectra and Contributions to Perturbation Theory of Conformal Quantum Field Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Acosta, German Aurelio

    The masses of observed hadrons are fitted according to the kinematic predictions of Conformal Relativity. The hypothesis gives a remarkably good fit. The isospin SU(2) gauge invariant Lagrangian L(,(pi)NN)(x,(lamda)) is used in the calculation of d(sigma)/d(OMEGA) to 2nd-order Feynman graphs for simplified models of (pi)N(--->)(pi)N. The resulting infinite mass sums over the nucleon (Conformal) families are done via the Generalized-Sommerfeld-Watson Transform Theorem. Even though the models are too simple to be realistic, they indicate that if (DELTA)-internal lines were to be included, 2nd-order Feynman graphs may reproduce the experimental data qualitatively. The energy -dependence of the propagator and couplings in Conformal QFT is different from that of ordinary QFT. Suggestions for further work are made in the areas of ultra-violet divergences and OPEC calculations.

  20. Reduction of metal adducts in oligonucleotide mass spectra in ion‐pair reversed‐phase chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gilar, Martin; Shion, Henry; Yu, Ying Qing; Chen, Weibin

    2016-01-01

    Rationale Electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI‐MS)‐based techniques commonly used in oligonucleotide analyses are known to be sensitive to alkali metal adduct formation. Adducts directly impact the sensitivity of MS‐based analyses as the available charge is distributed across the parent peak and adduct(s). The current study systematically evaluated common liquid chromatography (LC) components in LC/ESI‐MS configurations used in oligonucleotide analysis to identify metal adduct contributions from LC instrumentation. Methods A UPLC liquid chromatography system was configured with a single quadrupole MS detector (ACQUITY QDa, Waters Corp.) to monitor adduct formation in oligonucleotide separations. An ion‐pairing mobile phase comprised of 15 mM triethylamine and 400 mM hexafluoro‐2‐propanol was used in conjunction with an oligonucleotide separation column (Waters OST BEH C18, 2.1 mm × 50 mm) for all separations. A 10‐min method was used to provide statistical figures of merit and evaluate adduct formation over time. Results Trace alkali metal salts in the mobile phase and reagents were determined to be the main source of metal salt adducts in LC/ESI‐MS‐based configurations. Non‐specific adsorption sites located throughout the fluidic path contribute to adduct formation in oligonucleotide analyses. Ion‐pairing mobile phases prepared at neutral or slightly basic pH result in up to a 57% loss of spectral abundance to adduct formation in the current study. Conclusions Implementation of a short low pH reconditioning step was observed to effectively displace trace metal salts non‐specifically adsorbed to surfaces in the fluidic path and was able to maintain an average MS spectral abundance ≥94% with a high degree of repeatability (relative standard deviation (R.S.D.) 0.8%) over an extended time study. The proposed method offers the ability to rapidly regenerate adsorption sites with minimal impact on productivity while retaining

  1. Thermospray liquid-chromatography mass spectrometry of thiol radioprotective agents: Characteristics spectra. Scientific report

    SciTech Connect

    Walden, T.L.; Buchner, J.; Pizzitola, V.; Blakeley, W.F.

    1988-01-01

    Ethiofos (S-2(3-aminopropylamino)ethylphosphorothioic acid or WR-2721) is currently being evaluated in clinical radiotherapy trials (Kligerman et al., 1980) because of its potential for enhancing the efficacy of radiotherapy (Kligerman et al., 1980; Yuhas and Storer, 1969). For proper drug usage and pharmacological studies, it is necessary to assess the stability of the aminothiol and the presence of impurities or decomposition products. In addition, monitoring the plasma levels of WR-2721 and its metabolites should improve the therapeutic usefulness of WR-2721. Several high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) methodologies have been developed that are applicable for routine analysis of aminothiols and endogeneous cellular thiols (Newton et al., 1981; Swynnerton et al., 1984). One of these methodologies, electrochemical detection, permits the simultaneous detection of the free thiol and the disulfides (Swynnerton et al. 1984). Mass spectrometry (MS) is a sensitive technique that can confirm purity and provide useful structural information. Using a thermospray interface, samples can be introduced into the mass spectrometer from a liquid chromatograph (LC) (Vestal, 1984). The interface thermally nebulizes the eluant into a high-pressure region of the mass spectrometer where a variety of soft-ionization techniques may be used to ionize the analyte molecules. The feasibility of LC coupled to MS-detection was studied for the analysis of thiol-containing radioprotective agents, including glutathione, WR-2721, and WR-1065, the dephosphorylated sulfhydryl form of WR-2721, which has been shown to be its active radioprotective metabolite (Calabro-Jones et al., 1983).

  2. Cycloquest: Identification of cyclopeptides via database search of their mass spectra against genome databases

    PubMed Central

    Mohimani, Hosein; Liu, Wei-Ting; Mylne, Joshua S.; Poth, Aaron G.; Colgrave, Michelle L.; Tran, Dat; Selsted, Michael E.; Dorrestein, Pieter C.; Pevzner, Pavel A.

    2011-01-01

    Hundreds of ribosomally synthesized cyclopeptides have been isolated from all domains of life, the vast majority having been reported in the last 15 years. Studies of cyclic peptides have highlighted their exceptional potential both as stable drug scaffolds and as biomedicines in their own right. Despite this, computational techniques for cyclopeptide identification are still in their infancy, with many such peptides remaining uncharacterized. Tandem mass spectrometry has occupied a niche role in cyclopeptide identification, taking over from traditional techniques such as nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). MS/MS studies require only picogram quantities of peptide (compared to milligrams for NMR studies) and are applicable to complex samples, abolishing the requirement for time-consuming chromatographic purification. While database search tools such as Sequest and Mascot have become standard tools for the MS/MS identification of linear peptides, they are not applicable to cyclopeptides, due to the parent mass shift resulting from cyclization, and different fragmentation pattern of cyclic peptides. In this paper, we describe the development of a novel database search methodology to aid in the identification of cyclopeptides by mass spectrometry, and evaluate its utility in identifying two peptide rings from Helianthus annuus, a bacterial cannibalism factor from Bacillus subtilis, and a θ-defensin from Rhesus macaque. PMID:21851130

  3. Solid CO2 in low-mass young stellar objects. Comparison between Spitzer and laboratory spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ioppolo, S.; Sangiorgio, I.; Baratta, G. A.; Palumbo, M. E.

    2013-06-01

    Context. Solid interstellar CO2 is an abundant component of ice dust mantles. Its ubiquity towards quiescent molecular clouds, as well as protostellar envelopes, has recently been confirmed by the IRS (InfraRed Spectrograph) aboard the Spitzer Space Telescope. Although it has been shown that CO2 cannot be efficiently formed in the gas phase, the CO2 surface formation pathway is still unclear. To date several CO2 surface formation mechanisms induced by energetic (e.g., UV photolysis and cosmic ray irradiation) and non-energetic (e.g., cold atom addition) input have been proposed. Aims: Our aim is to investigate the contribution of cosmic ray irradiation to the formation of CO2 in different regions of the interstellar medium (ISM). To achieve this goal we compared quantitatively laboratory data with the CO2 bending mode band profile observed towards several young stellar objects (YSOs) and a field star by the Spitzer Space Telescope. Methods: All the experiments presented here were performed at the Laboratory for Experimental Astrophysics in Catania (Italy). The interstellar relevant samples were all irradiated with fast ions (30-200 keV) and subsequently annealed in a stainless steel high vacuum chamber (P < 10-7 mbar). Chemical and structural modifications of the ice samples were monitored by means of infrared spectroscopy. Laboratory spectra were then used to fit some thirty observational spectra. Results: A qualitative analysis shows that a good fit can be obtained with a minimum of two components. The choice of the laboratory components is based on the chemical-physical condition of each source. A quantitative analysis of the sources with known visual extinction (AV) and methanol abundances highlights that the solid carbon dioxide can be efficiently and abundantly formed after ion irradiation of interstellar ices in all the selected YSOs in a time compatible with cloud lifetimes (3 × 107 years). Only in the case of field stars can the expected CO2 column

  4. ULTRAVIOLET EMISSION-LINE CORRELATIONS IN HST/COS SPECTRA OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI: SINGLE-EPOCH BLACK HOLE MASSES

    SciTech Connect

    Tilton, Evan M.; Shull, J. Michael E-mail: michael.shull@colorado.edu

    2013-09-01

    Effective methods of measuring supermassive black hole masses in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are of critical importance to studies of galaxy evolution. While there has been much success in obtaining masses through reverberation mapping, the extensive observing time required by this method has limited the practicality of applying it to large samples at a variety of redshifts. This limitation highlights the need to estimate these masses using single-epoch spectroscopy of ultraviolet (UV) emission lines. We use UV spectra of 44 AGNs from HST/COS, the International Ultraviolet Explorer, and the Far Ultraviolet Spectroscopic Explorer of the C IV {lambda}1549, O VI {lambda}1035, O III] {lambda}1664, He II {lambda}1640, C II {lambda}1335, and Mg II {lambda}2800 emission lines and explore their potential as tracers of the broad-line region and supermassive black hole mass. The higher signal-to-noise ratio and better spectral resolution of the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph (COS) on the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) resolve AGN intrinsic absorption and produce more accurate line widths. From these, we test the viability of mass-scaling relationships based on line widths and luminosities and carry out a principal component analysis based on line luminosities, widths, skewness, and kurtosis. At L{sub 1450} {<=} 10{sup 45} erg s{sup -1}, the UV line luminosities correlate well with H{beta}, as does the 1450 A continuum luminosity. We find that C IV, O VI, and Mg II can be used as reasonably accurate estimators of AGN black hole masses, while He II and C II are uncorrelated.

  5. Constraining black hole masses in low-accreting active galactic nuclei using X-ray spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, I.; Gliozzi, M.; Hughes, C.; Titarchuk, L.

    2014-09-01

    In a recent work we demonstrated that a novel X-ray scaling method, originally introduced for Galactic black holes (BHs), can be reliably extended to estimate the mass of supermassive BHs accreting at a moderate to high level. Here we investigate the limits of applicability of this method to low-accreting active galactic nuclei (AGN), using a control sample with good-quality X-ray data and dynamically measured mass. For low-accreting AGN (LX/LEdd ≤ 10-4), because the basic assumption that the photon index positively correlates with the accretion rate no longer holds the X-ray scaling method cannot be used. Nevertheless, the inverse correlation in the Γ-LX/LEdd diagram, found in several low-accreting BHs and confirmed by this sample, can be used to constrain MBH within a factor of ˜10 from the dynamically determined values. We provide a simple recipe to determine MBH using solely X-ray spectral data, which can be used as a sanity check for MBH determination based on indirect optical methods.

  6. Dynamic Bayesian Network for Accurate Detection of Peptides from Tandem Mass Spectra.

    PubMed

    Halloran, John T; Bilmes, Jeff A; Noble, William S

    2016-08-05

    A central problem in mass spectrometry analysis involves identifying, for each observed tandem mass spectrum, the corresponding generating peptide. We present a dynamic Bayesian network (DBN) toolkit that addresses this problem by using a machine learning approach. At the heart of this toolkit is a DBN for Rapid Identification (DRIP), which can be trained from collections of high-confidence peptide-spectrum matches (PSMs). DRIP's score function considers fragment ion matches using Gaussians rather than fixed fragment-ion tolerances and also finds the optimal alignment between the theoretical and observed spectrum by considering all possible alignments, up to a threshold that is controlled using a beam-pruning algorithm. This function not only yields state-of-the art database search accuracy but also can be used to generate features that significantly boost the performance of the Percolator postprocessor. The DRIP software is built upon a general purpose DBN toolkit (GMTK), thereby allowing a wide variety of options for user-specific inference tasks as well as facilitating easy modifications to the DRIP model in future work. DRIP is implemented in Python and C++ and is available under Apache license at http://melodi-lab.github.io/dripToolkit .

  7. CycloBranch: De Novo Sequencing of Nonribosomal Peptides from Accurate Product Ion Mass Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novák, Jiří; Lemr, Karel; Schug, Kevin A.; Havlíček, Vladimír

    2015-07-01

    Nonribosomal peptides have a wide range of biological and medical applications. Their identification by tandem mass spectrometry remains a challenging task. A new open-source de novo peptide identification engine CycloBranch was developed and successfully applied in identification or detailed characterization of 11 linear, cyclic, branched, and branch-cyclic peptides. CycloBranch is based on annotated building block databases the size of which is defined by the user according to ribosomal or nonribosomal peptide origin. The current number of involved nonisobaric and isobaric building blocks is 287 and 521, respectively. Contrary to all other peptide sequencing tools utilizing either peptide libraries or peptide fragment libraries, CycloBranch represents a true de novo sequencing engine developed for accurate mass spectrometric data. It is a stand-alone and cross-platform application with a graphical and user-friendly interface; it supports mzML, mzXML, mgf, txt, and baf file formats and can be run in parallel on multiple threads. It can be downloaded for free from http://ms.biomed.cas.cz/cyclobranch/, where the User's manual and video tutorials can be found.

  8. Simultaneous factor analysis of organic particle and gas mass spectra: AMS and PTR-MS measurements at an urban site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slowik, J. G.; Vlasenko, A.; McGuire, M.; Evans, G. J.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2009-03-01

    During the winter component of the SPORT (Seasonal Particle Observations in the Region of Toronto) field campaign, particulate non-refractory chemical composition and concentration of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured by an Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS), respectively. Sampling was performed in downtown Toronto ~15 m from a major road. The mass spectra from the AMS and PTR-MS were combined into a unified dataset, which was analyzed using positive matrix factorization (PMF). The two instruments were given equal weight in the PMF analysis by application of a scaling factor to the uncertainties of each instrument. A residual based metric, Δesc, was used to evaluate the relative weight. The PMF analysis yielded a 5-factor solution that included factors characteristic of regional transport, local traffic emissions, charbroiling, and oxidative processing. The unified dataset provides information on particle and VOC sources and atmospheric processing that cannot be obtained from the datasets of the individual instruments, such as apportionment of oxygenated VOCs to direct emission sources vs. secondary reaction products, improved correlation of oxygenated aerosol factors with photochemical age, and increased detail regarding the composition of oxygenated organic aerosol factors. This analysis represents the first application of PMF to a unified AMS/PTR-MS dataset.

  9. Simultaneous factor analysis of organic particle and gas mass spectra: AMS and PTR-MS measurements at an urban site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slowik, J. G.; Vlasenko, A.; McGuire, M.; Evans, G. J.; Abbatt, J. P. D.

    2010-02-01

    During the winter component of the SPORT (Seasonal Particle Observations in the Region of Toronto) field campaign, particulate non-refractory chemical composition and concentration of selected volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured by an Aerodyne time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) and a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS), respectively. Sampling was performed in downtown Toronto ~15 m from a major road. The mass spectra from the AMS and PTR-MS were combined into a unified dataset, which was analysed using positive matrix factorization (PMF). The two instruments were given balanced weight in the PMF analysis by the application of a scaling factor to the uncertainties of each instrument. A residual based metric, Δesc, was used to evaluate the instrument relative weight within each solution. The PMF analysis yielded a 6-factor solution that included factors characteristic of regional transport, local traffic emissions, charbroiling and oxidative processing. The unified dataset provides information on emission sources (particle and VOC) and atmospheric processing that cannot be obtained from the datasets of the individual instruments: (1) apportionment of oxygenated VOCs to either direct emission sources or secondary reaction products; (2) improved correlation of oxygenated aerosol factors with photochemical age; and (3) increased detail regarding the composition of oxygenated organic aerosol factors. This analysis represents the first application of PMF to a unified AMS/PTR-MS dataset.

  10. An application of artificial intelligence to the interpretation of mass spectra.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buchanan, B. G.; Duffield, A. M.; Robertson, A. V.

    1971-01-01

    Description of the DENDRAL (Dendritic Algorithm) project, the objectives of which were to base the computer program on an alogorithm that generates an exhaustive, nonredundant list of all the structural isomers of a given chemical composition, and to devise a computer program that would perform an organic structure determination, given a molecular formula and a mass spectrum. This program is called 'Heuristic DENDRAL' and it operates by using the known structure/spectrum correlations to constrain the DENDRAL isomer generator to produce a single isomer for that composition. The collaboration of chemists and computer scientists has produced a tool of some practical utility from the chemical viewpoint, and an interesting program from the viewpoint of artificial intelligence.

  11. Rest-frame Optical Spectra and Black Hole Masses of 3 < z < 6 Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Hyunsung David; Im, Myungshin; Lee, Hyung Mok; Ohyama, Youichi; Woo, Jong-Hak; Fan, Xiaohui; Goto, Tomotsugu; Kim, Dohyeong; Kim, Ji Hoon; Kim, Minjin; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Nakagawa, Takao; Pearson, Chris; Serjeant, Stephen

    2015-06-01

    We present the rest-frame optical spectral properties of 155 luminous quasars at 3.3 < z < 6.4 taken with the AKARI space telescope, including the first detection of the Hα emission line as far out as z ∼ 6. We extend the scaling relation between the rest-frame optical continuum and the line luminosity of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) to the high-luminosity, high-redshift regime that has rarely been probed before. Remarkably, we find that a single log-linear relation can be applied to the 5100 Å and Hα AGN luminosities over a wide range of luminosity (1042 < L5100 < 1047 ergs s-1) or redshift (0 < z < 6), suggesting that the physical mechanism governing this relation is unchanged from z = 0 to 6, over five decades in luminosity. Similar scaling relations are found between the optical and the UV continuum luminosities or line widths. Applying the scaling relations to the Hβ black hole (BH) mass (MBH) estimator of local AGNs, we derive the MBH estimators based on the Hα, Mg ii, and C iv lines, finding that the UV-line-based masses are overall consistent with the Balmer-line-based, but with a large intrinsic scatter of 0.40 dex for the C iv estimates. Our 43 MBH estimates from Hα confirm the existence of BHs as massive as ∼ 1010 M⊙ out to z ∼ 5 and provide a secure footing for previous results from Mg ii-line-based studies that a rapid MBH growth has occurred in the early universe.

  12. New Photometry and Spectra of AB Doradus C: An Accurate Mass Determination of a Young Low-Mass Object with Theoretical Evolutionary Tracks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Close, Laird M.; Thatte, Niranjan; Nielsen, Eric L.; Abuter, Roberto; Clarke, Fraser; Tecza, Matthias

    2007-08-01

    We present new photometric and spectroscopic measurements for the unique, young, low-mass evolutionary track calibrator AB Dor C. While the new Ks photometry is similar to that we have previously published, the spectral type is found to be much earlier. Based on new H and K IFS spectra of AB Dor C from Thatte et al. (Paper I), we adopt a spectral type of M5.5+/-1.0 for AB Dor C. This is considerably earlier than the M8+/-1 previously estimated by Close et al. and Nielsen et al. yet is consistent with the M6+/-1 independently derived by Luhman & Potter. However, the spectrum presented in Paper I and analyzed here is a significant improvement over any previous spectrum of AB Dor C. We also present new astrometry for the system, which further supports a 0.090+/-0.005 Msolar mass for the system. Once armed with an accurate spectrum and Ks flux, we find L=0.0021+/-0.0005 Lsolar and Teff=2925+170-145 K for AB Dor C. These values are consistent with a ~75 Myr, 0.090+/-0.005 Msolar object like AB Dor C according to the DUSTY evolutionary tracks. Hence, masses can be estimated from the H-R diagram with the DUSTY tracks for young low-mass objects such as AB Dor C. However, we cautiously note that underestimates of the mass from the tracks can occur if one lacks a proper (continuum-preserved) spectrum or is relying on near-infrared fluxes alone. Based on observations made with ESO telescopes at the Paranal Observatories under program 276.C-5013.

  13. The mass spectra, hierarchy and cosmology of B-L MSSM heterotic compactifications

    SciTech Connect

    Ambroso, Michael; Ovrut, Burt A.

    2011-04-10

    The matter spectrum of the MSSM, including three right-handed neutrino supermultiplets and one pair of Higgs-Higgs conjugate superfields, can be obtained by compactifying the E₈ x E₈ heterotic string and M-theory on Calabi-Yau manifolds with specific SU(4) vector bundles. These theories have the standard model gauge group augmented by an additional gauged U(1)B-L. Their minimal content requires that the B-L gauge symmetry be spontaneously broken by a vacuum expectation value of at least one right-handed neutrino. In previous papers, we presented the results of a quasi-analytic renormalization group analysis showing that B-L gauge symmetry is indeed radiatively broken with an appropriate B-L/electroweak hierarchy. In this paper, we extend these results by 1) enlarging the initial parameter space and 2) explicitly calculating all renormalization group equations numerically. The regions of the initial parameter space leading to realistic vacua are presented and the B-L/electroweak hierarchy computed over these regimes. At representative points, the mass spectrum for all particles and Higgs fields is calculated and shown to be consistent with present experimental bounds. Some fundamental phenomenological signatures of a non-zero right-handed neutrino expectation value are discussed, particularly the cosmology and proton lifetime arising from induced lepton and baryon number violating interactions.

  14. The mass spectra, hierarchy and cosmology of B-L MSSM heterotic compactifications

    DOE PAGES

    Ambroso, Michael; Ovrut, Burt A.

    2011-04-10

    The matter spectrum of the MSSM, including three right-handed neutrino supermultiplets and one pair of Higgs-Higgs conjugate superfields, can be obtained by compactifying the E₈ x E₈ heterotic string and M-theory on Calabi-Yau manifolds with specific SU(4) vector bundles. These theories have the standard model gauge group augmented by an additional gauged U(1)B-L. Their minimal content requires that the B-L gauge symmetry be spontaneously broken by a vacuum expectation value of at least one right-handed neutrino. In previous papers, we presented the results of a quasi-analytic renormalization group analysis showing that B-L gauge symmetry is indeed radiatively broken with anmore » appropriate B-L/electroweak hierarchy. In this paper, we extend these results by 1) enlarging the initial parameter space and 2) explicitly calculating all renormalization group equations numerically. The regions of the initial parameter space leading to realistic vacua are presented and the B-L/electroweak hierarchy computed over these regimes. At representative points, the mass spectrum for all particles and Higgs fields is calculated and shown to be consistent with present experimental bounds. Some fundamental phenomenological signatures of a non-zero right-handed neutrino expectation value are discussed, particularly the cosmology and proton lifetime arising from induced lepton and baryon number violating interactions.« less

  15. Mass spectra of four-quark states in the hidden charm sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Smruti; Shah, Manan; Vinodkumar, P. C.

    2014-08-01

    Masses of the low-lying four-quark states in the hidden charm sector ( are calculated within the framework of a non-relativistic quark model. The four-body system is considered as two two-body systems such as diquark-antidiquark ( - and quark-antiquark-quark-antiquark ( - q molecular-like four-quark states. Here, the Cornell-type potential has been used for describing the two-body interactions among Q - q , - , Q - , Qq - and Q - q , with appropriate string tensions. Our present analysis suggests the following exotic states: X(3823) , Z c(3900) , X(3915) , Z c(4025) , (4040) , Z 1(4050) and X(4160) as Q - q molecular-like four-quark states, while Z c(3885) , X(3940) and Y(4140) as the diquark-antidiquark four-quark states. We have been able to assign the JPC values for many of the recently observed exotic states according to their structure. Apart from this, we have identified the charged state Z(4430) recently confirmed by LHCb as the first radial excitation of Zc(3885) with G = + 1 and Y(4360) state as the first radial excitation of Y(4008) with G = - 1 and the state as the first radial excitation of the state.

  16. Mass spectrometry of analytical derivatives. 2. "Ortho" and "Para" effects in electron ionization mass spectra of derivatives of hydroxy, mercapto and amino benzoic acids.

    PubMed

    Todua, Nino G; Mikaia, Anzor I

    2016-01-01

    Derivatives requiring either anhydrous or aqueous reaction conditions were prepared for robust and reliable gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) characterization of hydroxyl, mercapto, and amino benzoic acids Methylation and trialkylsilytation are employed for blocking the acidic function. Alkyl, trimethylsilyl, acetyl, perfluoroacyl and alkoxycarbonyl derivatization groups are introduced to hydroxyl, mercapto and amino functions. The electron ionization induced fragmentation characteristics of corresponding derivatives are explained by comparing the MS(1) spectra of unlabeled compounds to their (2)H and (13)C labeled analogs, and analysis of collision-induced dissociation data from MS(2) spectra. Competing fragmentation alternatives are identified and specific decomposition processes are detailed that characterize (a) ortho isomers due to interaction or vicinal functional substituents and (b) para isomers prone to forming para quinoid type structures. Skeletal and hydrogen rearrangements typical for methyl benzoates and the blocking groups are considered when discussing diagnostically important ions. Characteristic ions produced as a result of rearrangements in ortho isomers are classified, and skeletal rearrangements required to produce para quinoid type ions specific for para isomers are noted. Key ions for structure elucidation and differentiation of isomers for derivatives of substituted benzoic acids by GC/MS are suggested.

  17. Size Effect on Nuclear Gamma-Ray Energy Spectra Acquired by Different Sized CeBr3, LaBr3:Ce, and NaI:Tl Gamma-Ray Detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Guss, Paul; Reed, Michael; Yuan, Ding; Beller, Denis; Cutler, Matthew; Contreras, Chris; Mukhopadhyay, Sanjoy; Wilde, Scott UNLV

    2014-03-01

    Gamma-ray energy spectra were acquired for different sizes of cerium tribromide (CeBr3), cerium-doped lanthanum tribromide (LaBr3:Ce), and thallium-doped sodium iodide (NaI:Tl) detectors. A comparison was conducted of the energy resolution and detection efficiency of these scintillator detectors for different sizes of detectors. The results of this study are consistent with the observation that for each size detector, LaBr3:Ce offers better resolution than either a CeBr3 or NaI:Tl detector of the same size. In addition, CeBr3 and LaBr3:Ce detectors could resolve some closely spaced peaks in the spectra of several radioisotopes that NaI:Tl could not. As the detector size increased, all three detector materials exhibited higher efficiency, albeit with slightly reduced resolution. Significantly, the very low intrinsic activity of CeBr3 is also demonstrated in this study, which, when combined with energy resolution characteristics for a range of detector sizes, could lead to an improved ability to detect special nuclear materials compared to the other detectors.

  18. Statistical analysis of fragmentation patterns of electron ionization mass spectra of enolized-trimethylsilylated anabolic androgenic steroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fragkaki, A. G.; Angelis, Y. S.; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, A.; Koupparis, M.; Georgakopoulos, C.

    2009-08-01

    Anabolic androgenic steroids (AAS) are included in the List of prohibited substances of the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) as substances abused to enhance athletic performance. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS) plays an important role in doping control analyses identifying AAS as their enolized-trimethylsilyl (TMS)-derivatives using the electron ionization (EI) mode. This paper explores the suitability of complementary GC-MS mass spectra and statistical analysis (principal component analysis, PCA and partial least squares-discriminant analysis, PLS-DA) to differentiate AAS as a function of their structural and conformational features expressed by their fragment ions. The results obtained showed that the application of PCA yielded a classification among the AAS molecules which became more apparent after applying PLS-DA to the dataset. The application of PLS-DA yielded a clear separation among the AAS molecules which were, thus, classified as: 1-ene-3-keto, 3-hydroxyl with saturated A-ring, 1-ene-3-hydroxyl, 4-ene-3-keto, 1,4-diene-3-keto and 3-keto with saturated A-ring anabolic steroids. The study of this paper also presents structurally diagnostic fragment ions and dissociation routes providing evidence for the presence of unknown AAS or chemically modified molecules known as designer steroids.

  19. A versatile detector system to measure the change states, mass compositions and energy spectra of interplanetary and magnetosphere ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gloeckler, G.

    1977-01-01

    An instrument is described for measuring the mass and charge state composition as well as the energy spectra and angular distributions of 0.5 to 350 kev/charge ions in interplanetary space and in magnetospheres of planets such as Jupiter and earth. Electrostatic deflection combined with a time-of-flight and energy measurement allows three-parameter analysis of output signals from which the mass, charge states, and energy are determined. Post-acceleration by 30 kV extends the energy range of the detector system into the solar wind and magnetosphere plasma regime. Isotopes of H and He are easily resolved as are individual elements up to Ne and the dominant elements up to and including Fe. This instrument has an extremely large dynamic range in intensity and is sensitive to rare elements even in the presence of high intensity radiation, and is adapted for interplanetary, deep-space, and out-of-the-ecliptic missions, as well as for flights on spacecraft orbiting Jupiter and earth.

  20. Retrieval of Precise Radial Velocities from Near-infrared High-resolution Spectra of Low-mass Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Peter; Plavchan, P.; Gagné, J.; Furlan, E.; Bottom, M.; Anglada-Escudé, G.; White, R.; Davison, C. L.; Beichman, C.; Brinkworth, C.; Johnson, J.; Ciardi, D.; Wallace, K.; Mennesson, B.; von Braun, K.; Vasisht, G.; Prato, L.; Kane, S. R.; Tanner, A.; Crawford, T. J.; Latham, D.; Rougeot, R.; Geneser, C. S.; Catanzarite, J.

    2016-10-01

    Given that low-mass stars have intrinsically low luminosities at optical wavelengths and a propensity for stellar activity, it is advantageous for radial velocity (RV) surveys of these objects to use near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths. In this work, we describe and test a novel RV extraction pipeline dedicated to retrieving RVs from low-mass stars using NIR spectra taken by the CSHELL spectrograph at the NASA Infrared Telescope Facility, where a methane isotopologue gas cell is used for wavelength calibration. The pipeline minimizes the residuals between the observations and a spectral model composed of templates for the target star, the gas cell, and atmospheric telluric absorption; models of the line-spread function, continuum curvature, and sinusoidal fringing; and a parameterization of the wavelength solution. The stellar template is derived iteratively from the science observations themselves without a need for separate observations dedicated to retrieving it. Despite limitations from CSHELL’s narrow wavelength range and instrumental systematics, we are able to (1) obtain an RV precision of 35 m s-1 for the RV standard star GJ 15 A over a time baseline of 817 days, reaching the photon noise limit for our attained signal-to-noise ratio; (2) achieve ˜3 m s-1 RV precision for the M giant SV Peg over a baseline of several days and confirm its long-term RV trend due to stellar pulsations, as well as obtain nightly noise floors of ˜2-6 m s-1 and (3) show that our data are consistent with the known masses, periods, and orbital eccentricities of the two most massive planets orbiting GJ 876. Future applications of our pipeline to RV surveys using the next generation of NIR spectrographs, such as iSHELL, will enable the potential detection of super-Earths and mini-Neptunes in the habitable zones of M dwarfs.

  1. reSpect: Software for Identification of High and Low Abundance Ion Species in Chimeric Tandem Mass Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shteynberg, David; Mendoza, Luis; Hoopmann, Michael R.; Sun, Zhi; Schmidt, Frank; Deutsch, Eric W.; Moritz, Robert L.

    2015-11-01

    Most shotgun proteomics data analysis workflows are based on the assumption that each fragment ion spectrum is explained by a single species of peptide ion isolated by the mass spectrometer; however, in reality mass spectrometers often isolate more than one peptide ion within the window of isolation that contribute to additional peptide fragment peaks in many spectra. We present a new tool called reSpect, implemented in the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP), which enables an iterative workflow whereby fragment ion peaks explained by a peptide ion identified in one round of sequence searching or spectral library search are attenuated based on the confidence of the identification, and then the altered spectrum is subjected to further rounds of searching. The reSpect tool is not implemented as a search engine, but rather as a post-search engine processing step where only fragment ion intensities are altered. This enables the application of any search engine combination in the iterations that follow. Thus, reSpect is compatible with all other protein sequence database search engines as well as peptide spectral library search engines that are supported by the TPP. We show that while some datasets are highly amenable to chimeric spectrum identification and lead to additional peptide identification boosts of over 30% with as many as four different peptide ions identified per spectrum, datasets with narrow precursor ion selection only benefit from such processing at the level of a few percent. We demonstrate a technique that facilitates the determination of the degree to which a dataset would benefit from chimeric spectrum analysis. The reSpect tool is free and open source, provided within the TPP and available at the TPP website.

  2. reSpect: Software for Identification of High and Low Abundance Ion Species in Chimeric Tandem Mass Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Shteynberg, David; Mendoza, Luis; Hoopmann, Michael R.; Sun, Zhi; Schmidt, Frank; Deutsch, Eric W.; Moritz, Robert L.

    2016-01-01

    Most shotgun proteomics data analysis workflows are based on the assumption that each fragment ion spectrum is explained by a single species of peptide ion isolated by the mass spectrometer; however, in reality mass spectrometers often isolate more than one peptide ion within the window of isolation that contributes to additional peptide fragment peaks in many spectra. We present a new tool called reSpect, implemented in the Trans-Proteomic Pipeline (TPP), that enables an iterative workflow whereby fragment ion peaks explained by a peptide ion identified in one round of sequence searching or spectral library search are attenuated based on the confidence of the identification, and then the altered spectrum is subjected to further rounds of searching. The reSpect tool is not implemented as a search engine, but rather as a post search engine processing step where only fragment ion intensities are altered. This enables the application of any search engine combination in the following iterations. Thus, reSpect is compatible with all other protein sequence database search engines as well as peptide spectral library search engines that are supported by the TPP. We show that while some datasets are highly amenable to chimeric spectrum identification and lead to additional peptide identification boosts of over 30% with as many as four different peptide ions identified per spectrum, datasets with narrow precursor ion selection only benefit from such processing at the level of a few percent. We demonstrate a technique that facilitates the determination of the degree to which a dataset would benefit from chimeric spectrum analysis. The reSpect tool is free and open source, provided within the TPP and available at the TPP website. PMID:26419769

  3. Massive processing of pyro-chromatogram mass spectra (py-GCMS) of soil samples using the PARAFAC2 algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cécillon, Lauric; Quénéa, Katell; Anquetil, Christelle; Barré, Pierre

    2015-04-01

    Due to its large heterogeneity at all scales (from soil core to the globe), several measurements are often mandatory to get a meaningful value of a measured soil property. A large number of measurements can therefore be needed to study a soil property whatever the scale of the study. Moreover, several soil investigation techniques produce large and complex datasets, such as pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) which produces complex 3-way data. In this context, straightforward methods designed to speed up data treatments are needed to deal with large datasets. GC-MS pyrolysis (py-GCMS) is a powerful and frequently used tool to characterize soil organic matter (SOM). However, the treatment of the results of a py-GCMS analysis of soil sample is time consuming (number of peaks, co-elution, etc.) and the treatment of large data set of py-GCMS results is rather laborious. Moreover, peak position shifts and baseline drifts between analyses make the automation of GCMS programs data treatment difficult. These problems can be fixed using the Parallel Factor Analysis 2 (PARAFAC 2, Kiers et al., 1999; Bro et al., 1999). This algorithm has been applied frequently on chromatography data but has never been applied to analyses of SOM. We developed a Matlab routine based on existing Matlab packages dedicated to the simultaneous treatment of dozens of pyro-chromatograms mass spectra. We applied this routine on 40 soil samples. The benefits and expected improvements of our method will be discussed in our poster. References Kiers et al. (1999) PARAFAC2 - PartI. A direct fitting algorithm for the PARAFAC2 model. Journal of Chemometrics, 13: 275-294. Bro et al. (1999) PARAFAC2 - PartII. Modeling chromatographic data with retention time shifts. Journal of Chemometrics, 13: 295-309.

  4. Multivariate analysis of electron detachment dissociation and infrared multiphoton dissociation mass spectra of heparan sulfate tetrasaccharides differing only in hexuronic acid stereochemistry.

    PubMed

    Oh, Han Bin; Leach, Franklin E; Arungundram, Sailaja; Al-Mafraji, Kanar; Venot, Andre; Boons, Geert-Jan; Amster, I Jonathan

    2011-03-01

    The structural characterization of glycosaminoglycan (GAG) carbohydrates by mass spectrometry has been a long-standing analytical challenge due to the inherent heterogeneity of these biomolecules, specifically polydispersity, variability in sulfation, and hexuronic acid stereochemistry. Recent advances in tandem mass spectrometry methods employing threshold and electron-based ion activation have resulted in the ability to determine the location of the labile sulfate modification as well as assign the stereochemistry of hexuronic acid residues. To facilitate the analysis of complex electron detachment dissociation (EDD) spectra, principal component analysis (PCA) is employed to differentiate the hexuronic acid stereochemistry of four synthetic GAG epimers whose EDD spectra are nearly identical upon visual inspection. For comparison, PCA is also applied to infrared multiphoton dissociation spectra (IRMPD) of the examined epimers. To assess the applicability of multivariate methods in GAG mixture analysis, PCA is utilized to identify the relative content of two epimers in a binary mixture.

  5. Fragmentation pathways of drugs of abuse and their metabolites based on QTOF MS/MS and MS(E) accurate-mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V; Hernández, Félix; Niessen, Wilfried M A

    2011-09-01

    A study of the fragmentation pathways of several classes of drugs of abuse (cannabinoids, ketamine, amphetamine and amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), cocaine and opiates) and their related substances has been made. The knowledge of the fragmentation is highly useful for specific fragment selection or for recognition of related compounds when developing MS-based analytical methods for the trace-level determination of these compounds in complex matrices. In this work, accurate-mass spectra of selected compounds were obtained using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, performing both MS/MS and MS(E) experiments. As regards fragmentation behavior, the mass spectra of both approaches were quite similar and were useful to study the fragmentation of the drugs investigated. Accurate-mass spectra of 37 drugs of abuse and related compounds, including metabolites and deuterated analogues, were studied in this work, and structures of fragment ions were proposed. The accurate-mass data obtained allowed to confirm structures and fragmentation pathways previously proposed based on nominal mass measurements, although new insights and structure proposals were achieved in some particular cases, especially for amphetamine and ATS, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) and opiates.

  6. Rapid, Automated Determination of Elemental Compositions of Ions in Mass Spectra Obtained with an Open-Air Ion Source (2 of 2)

    EPA Science Inventory

    An inexpensive autosampler for a DART/TOFMS provides mass spectra from analytes absorbed on 76 cotton swab, wipe samples in 7.5 min. A field sample carrier simplifies sample collection and provides swabs nearly ready for analysis to the lab. Applications of the high throughput pr...

  7. c2d Spitzer IRS spectra of embedded low-mass young stars: gas-phase emission lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lahuis, F.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Jørgensen, J. K.; Blake, G. A.; Evans, N. J.

    2010-09-01

    Context. A survey of mid-infrared gas-phase emission lines of H2, H2O and various atoms toward a sample of 43 embedded low-mass young stars in nearby star-forming regions is presented. The sources are selected from the Spitzer “Cores to Disks” (c2d) legacy program. Aims: The environment of embedded protostars is complex both in its physical structure (envelopes, outflows, jets, protostellar disks) and the physical processes (accretion, irradiation by UV and/or X-rays, excitation through slow and fast shocks) which take place. The mid-IR spectral range hosts a suite of diagnostic lines which can distinguish them. A key point is to spatially resolve the emission in the Spitzer-IRS spectra to separate extended PDR and shock emission from compact source emission associated with the circumstellar disk and jets. Methods: An optimal extraction method is used to separate both spatially unresolved (compact, up to a few hundred AU) and spatially resolved (extended, thousand AU or more) emission from the IRS spectra. The results are compared with the c2d disk sample and literature PDR and shock models to address the physical nature of the sources. Results: Both compact and extended emission features are observed. Warm (T_ex few hundred K) H2, observed through the pure rotational H2 S(0), S(1) and S(2) lines, and [S i] 25 μm emission is observed primarily in the extended component. [S i] is observed uniquely toward truly embedded sources and not toward disks. On the other hand hot (T_ex ⪆ 700 K) H2, observed primarily through the S(4) line, and [Ne ii] emission is seen mostly in the spatially unresolved component. [Fe ii] and [Si ii] lines are observed in both spatial components. Hot H2O emission is found in the spatially unresolved component of some sources. Conclusions: The observed emission on ≥1000 AU scales is characteristic of PDR emission and likely originates in the outflow cavities in the remnant envelope created by the stellar wind and jets from the embedded

  8. Combining Fits of The Optical Photometry and X-ray Spectra of the Low Mass X-ray Binary V1408 Aquilae.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomez, Sebastian; Mason, Paul A.; Robinson, Edward L.

    2015-01-01

    V1408 Aquilae is a binary system with a black hole primary accreting matter from a low mass secondary. We observed the system at the McDonald Observatory and collected 126 hours of high speed optical photometry on the source. We modeled the optical light curve using the XRbinary light curve synthesis software. The best fits to the optical light curve seem to suggest that the primary is a low mass black hole, however we cannot exclude some high mass solutions. Our models slightly favor a 3 solar mass primary at an inclination of about 13 degrees. In order to further constrain these parameters, and verify their validity we compared the fits of the optical light curve to fits to the X-ray spectra of the source. Using data from the Chandra Transmission Grating Catalog and Archive and the ISIS software analysis package we modeled the spectra of the source with a multi-temperature blackbody for a relativistic accretion disk around a spinning black hole and an additional photon power law component. The fits to the optical lightcurve and X-ray spectra are in agreement, from this we conclude that the case for V1408 Aql to be at a low inclination and harbor a low mass black hole is plausible.

  9. A mass spectrometric system for analyzing thermal desorption spectra of ion-implanted argon and cesium in tungsten. Ph.D. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wood, G. M., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    A mass spectrometric system for determining the characteristics of materials used in instrumental development and aerospace applications was developed. The desorption spectra of cesium that was ion-implanted into polycrystalline tungsten and the effects on the spectra of bombardment of the tungsten by low energy (70 eV) electrons were investigated. Work function changes were measured by the retarding potential diode method. Flash desorption characteristics were observed and gas-reaction mechanisms of the surface of heated metal filaments were studied. Desorption spectra were measured by linearly increasing the sample temperature at a selected rate, the temperature cycling being generated from a ramp-driven dc power supply, with the mass spectrometer tuned to a mass number of interest. Results of the study indicate an anomolous desorption mechanism following an electron bombardment of the sample surface. The enhanced spectra are a function of the post-bombardment time and energy and are suggestive of an increased concentration of cesium atoms, up to 10 or more angstroms below the surface.

  10. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  11. Absorption-mode Fourier transform mass spectrometry: the effects of apodization and phasing on modified protein spectra.

    PubMed

    Qi, Yulin; Li, Huilin; Wills, Rebecca H; Perez-Hurtado, Pilar; Yu, Xiang; Kilgour, David P A; Barrow, Mark P; Lin, Cheng; O'Connor, Peter B

    2013-06-01

    The method of phasing broadband Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) spectra allows plotting the spectra in the absorption-mode; this new approach significantly improves the quality of the data at no extra cost. Herein, an internal calibration method for calculating the phase function has been developed and successfully applied to the top-down spectra of modified proteins, where the peak intensities vary by 100×. The result shows that the use of absorption-mode spectra allows more peaks to be discerned within the recorded data, and this can reveal much greater information about the protein and modifications under investigation. In addition, noise and harmonic peaks can be assigned immediately in the absorption-mode.

  12. Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry for Ion Recovery and Clean-Up of MS and MS/MS Spectra Obtained from Low Abundance Viral Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, David J.; Crispin, Max; Bonomelli, Camille; Scrivens, Jim H.

    2015-07-01

    Many samples of complex mixtures of N-glycans released from small amounts of material, such as glycoproteins from viruses, present problems for mass spectrometric analysis because of the presence of contaminating material that is difficult to remove by conventional methods without involving sample loss. This study describes the use of ion mobility for extraction of glycan profiles from such samples and for obtaining clean CID spectra when targeted m/z values capture additional ions from those of the target compound. N-glycans were released enzymatically from within SDS-PAGE gels, from the representative recombinant glycoprotein, gp120 of the human immunodeficiency virus, and examined by direct infusion electrospray in negative mode followed by ion mobility with a Waters Synapt G2 mass spectrometer (Waters MS-Technologies, Manchester, UK). Clean profiles of singly, doubly, and triply charged N-glycans were obtained from samples in cases where the raw electrospray spectra displayed only a few glycan ions as the result of low sample concentration or the presence of contamination. Ion mobility also enabled uncontaminated CID spectra to be obtained from glycans when their molecular ions displayed coincidence with ions from fragments or multiply charged ions with similar m/z values. This technique proved to be invaluable for removing extraneous ions from many CID spectra. The presence of such ions often produces spectra that are difficult to interpret. Most CID spectra, even those from abundant glycan constituents, benefited from such clean-up, showing that the extra dimension provided by ion mobility was invaluable for studies of this type.

  13. Collective-coupling analysis of spectra of mass-7 isobars: {sup 7}He, {sup 7}Li, {sup 7}Be, and {sup 7}B

    SciTech Connect

    Canton, L.; Pisent, G.; Amos, K.; Karataglidis, S.; Svenne, J. P.; Knijff, D. van der

    2006-12-15

    A nucleon-nucleus interaction model has been applied to ascertain the underlying character of the negative-parity spectra of four isobars of mass-7, from neutron- to proton-emitter drip lines. With a single nuclear potential defined by a simple coupled-channel model, a multichannel algebraic scattering approach (MCAS) has been used to determine the bound and resonant spectra of the four nuclides, of which {sup 7}He and {sup 7}B are particle unstable. Incorporation of Pauli blocking into the model enables a description of all known spin-parity states of the mass-7 isobars. We have also obtained spectra of similar quality by using a large space no-core shell model. Additionally, we have studied {sup 7}Li and {sup 7}Be using a dicluster model. We have found a dicluster-model potential that can reproduce the lowest four states of the two nuclei, as well as the relevant low-energy elastic scattering cross sections. But, with this model, the rest of the energy spectra cannot be obtained.

  14. Measurement of Dielectron Invariant Mass Spectra in Au + Au Collisions at p sNN = 200GeV with HBD in PHENIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Jiayin

    Dileptons are emitted throughout the entire space-time evolution of heavy ion collisions. Being colorless, these electromagnetic probes do not participate in the final-state strong interactions during the passage through the hot medium, and retain the information on the conditions of their creation. This characteristic renders them valuable tools for studying the properties of the Quark Gluon Plasma created during ultra-relativistic heavy ion collisions. The invariant mass spectra of dileptons contain a wealth of information on every stage of the evolution of heavy ion collisions. At low mass, dilepton spectra consist mainly of light meson decays. The medium modification of the light vector mesons gives insight on the chiral symmetry restoration in heavy ion collisions. At intermediate and high mass, there are significant contributions from charm and bottom, with a minor contribution from QGP thermal radiation. The region was utilized to measure cross sections of open charm and open bottom, as well as quarkonium suppression as demonstrated by PHENIX. An earlier PHENIX measurement of dielectron spectra in heavy ion collisions, using data taken in 2004, shows significant deviations from the hadronic decay expectations. The measurement, however, suffered from an unfavorable signal to background ratio. Random combination of electron-positron pairs from unrelated sources, mostly Dalitz decay of pi0 and external conversion of decay photon to electrons, is the main contributor to the background. Mis-identified hadrons are another major background source. To improve the situation, the Hadron Blind Detector (HBD), a windowless proximity focusing Cerenkov detector, is designed to reduce this background by identifying electron tracks from photon conversions and pi. 0 Dalitzdecays. The detector has been installed and operated in PHENIX in 2009 and 2010, where reference p+p and Au+Au data sets were successfully taken. We will present the dielectron results from the analysis of

  15. Computer programs for the interpretation of low resolution mass spectra: Program for calculation of molecular isotopic distribution and program for assignment of molecular formulas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, R. A.; Kohl, F. J.

    1977-01-01

    Two FORTRAN computer programs for the interpretation of low resolution mass spectra were prepared and tested. One is for the calculation of the molecular isotopic distribution of any species from stored elemental distributions. The program requires only the input of the molecular formula and was designed for compatability with any computer system. The other program is for the determination of all possible combinations of atoms (and radicals) which may form an ion having a particular integer mass. It also uses a simplified input scheme and was designed for compatability with any system.

  16. Probing shock geometry via the charge to mass ratio dependence of heavy ion spectra from multiple spacecraft observations of the 2013 November 4 event

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Lulu; Li, Gang; Mason, Glenn M.; Cohen, Christina; Mewaldt, Richard; Desai, Mihir; Ebert, Rob; Al-Dayeh, Maher

    2016-12-01

    In large Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) events, ions can be accelerated at coronal mass ejection (CME)-driven shocks to very high energies. The spectra of heavy ions in many large SEP events show features such as roll-overs or spectral breaks. In some events when the spectra are plotted in terms of energy/nucleon, they can be shifted relative to each other to make the spectral breaks align. The amount of shift is charge to mass ratio (Q/A) dependent and varies from event to event. This can be understood if the spectra of heavy ions are organized by the diffusion coefficients (Cohen et al. 2005). In the work of Li et al. (2009), the Q/A dependence of the scaling is related to shock geometry when the CME-driven shock is close to the Sun. For events where multiple in-situ spacecraft observations exist, one may expect that different spacecraft are connected to different portions of the CME-driven shock that have different shock geometries, therefore yielding different Q/A dependence. In this work, we examine one SEP event which occurred on 2013 November 4. We study the Q/A dependence of the energy scaling for heavy ion spectra using helium, oxygen and iron ions. Observations from STEREO-A, STEREO-B and ACE are examined. We find that the scalings are different for different spacecraft. We suggest that this is because ACE, STEREO-A and STEREO-B are connected to different parts of the shock that have different shock geometries. Our analysis indicates that studying the Q/A scaling of in-situ particle spectra can serve as a powerful tool to remotely examine the shock geometry for large SEP events.

  17. Exact masses and chemical formulas of individual Suwannee River fulvic acids from ultrahigh resolution electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Stenson, Alexandra C; Marshall, Alan G; Cooper, William T

    2003-03-15

    Molecular formulas have been assigned for 4626 individual Suwannee River fulvic acids based on accurate mass measurements from ions generated by electrospray ionization and observed by ultrahigh-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR MS). Formula assignments were possible because of the mass accuracy of FTICR MS at high field (9.4 T) and the regular mass spacing patterns found in fulvic acid mixtures. Sorting the 4626 individually observed ions according to Kendrick mass defect and nominal mass series (z* score) revealed that all could be assigned to 1 of 266 distinct homologous series that differ in oxygen content and double bond equivalence. Tandem mass spectrometry based on infrared multiphoton dissociation identified labile fragments of fulvic acid molecules, whose chemical formulas led to plausible structures consistent with degraded lignin as a source of Suwannee River fulvic acids.

  18. Typical ultraviolet spectra in combination with diagnostic mass fragmentation analysis for the rapid and comprehensive profiling of chlorogenic acids in the buds of Lonicera macranthoides.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shui-Han; Hu, Xin; Shi, Shu-Yun; Huang, Lu-Qi; Chen, Wei; Chen, Lin; Cai, Ping

    2016-05-01

    A major challenge of profiling chlorogenic acids (CGA) in natural products is to effectively detect unknown or minor isomeric compounds. Here, we developed an effective strategy, typical ultraviolet (UV) spectra in combination with diagnostic mass fragmentation analysis based on HPLC-DAD-QTOF-MS/MS, to comprehensively profile CGA in the buds of Lonicera macranthoides. First, three CGA UV patterns were obtained by UV spectra screening. Second, 13 types of CGA classified by molecular weights were found by thorough analysis of CGA peaks using high-resolution MS. Third, selected ion monitoring (SIM) was carried out for each type of CGA to avoid overlooking of minor ones. Fourth, MS/MS spectra of each CGA were investigated. Then 70 CGA were identified by matching their UV spectra, accurate mass signals and fragmentation patterns with standards or previously reported compounds, including six caffeoylquinic acids (CQA), six diCQA, one triCQA, three caffeoylshikimic acids (CSA), six diCSA, one triCSA, three p-coumaroylquinic acids (pCoQA), four p-coumaroylcaffeoylquinic acids (pCoCQA), four feruloylquinic acids (FQA), five methyl caffeoylquinates (MCQ), three ethyl caffeoylquinates (ECQ), three dimethoxycinnamoylquinic acids (DQA), six caffeoylferuloylquinic acids (CFQA), six methyl dicaffeoylquinates (MdiCQ), four FQA glycosides (FQAG), six MCQ glycosides (MCQG), and three ethyl dicaffeoylquinates (EdiCQ). Forty-five of them were discovered from Lonicera species for the first time, and it is noted that CGA profiles were investigated for the first time in L. macranthoides. Results indicated that the developed method was a useful approach to explore unknown and minor isomeric compounds from complex natural products.

  19. Reduction in database search space by utilization of amino acid composition information from electron transfer dissociation and higher-energy collisional dissociation mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Thomas A; Kryuchkov, Fedor; Kjeldsen, Frank

    2012-08-07

    With high-mass accuracy and consecutively obtained electron transfer dissociation (ETD) and higher-energy collisional dissociation (HCD) tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), reliable (≥97%) and sensitive fragment ions have been extracted for identification of specific amino acid residues in peptide sequences. The analytical benefit of these specific amino acid composition (AAC) ions is to restrict the database search space and provide identification of peptides with higher confidence and reduced false negative rates. The 6706 uniquely identified peptide sequences determined with a conservative Mascot score of >30 were used to characterize the AAC ions. The loss of amino acid side chains (small neutral losses, SNLs) from the charge reduced peptide radical cations was studied using ETD. Complementary AAC information from HCD spectra was provided by immonium ions. From the ETD/HCD mass spectra, 5162 and 6720 reliable SNLs and immonium ions were successfully extracted, respectively. Automated application of the AAC information during database searching resulted in an average 3.5-fold higher confidence level of peptide identification. In addition, 4% and 28% more peptides were identified above the significance level in a standard and extended search space, respectively.

  20. Enhancing non-refractory aerosol apportionment from an urban industrial site through receptor modelling of complete high time-resolution aerosol mass spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, M. L.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Slowik, J. G.; Jeong, C.-H.; Healy, R. M.; Lu, G.; Mihele, C.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Brook, J. R.; Evans, G. J.

    2014-02-01

    Receptor modelling was performed on quadrupole unit mass resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS) sub-micron particulate matter (PM) chemical speciation measurements from Windsor, Ontario, an industrial city situated across the Detroit River from Detroit, Michigan. Aerosol and trace gas measurements were collected on board Environment Canada's CRUISER mobile laboratory. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was performed on the AMS full particle-phase mass spectrum (PMFFull MS) encompassing both organic and inorganic components. This approach was compared to the more common method of analysing only the organic mass spectra (PMFOrg MS). PMF of the full mass spectrum revealed that variability in the non-refractory sub-micron aerosol concentration and composition was best explained by six factors: an amine-containing factor (Amine); an ammonium sulphate and oxygenated organic aerosol containing factor (Sulphate-OA); an ammonium nitrate and oxygenated organic aerosol containing factor (Nitrate-OA); an ammonium chloride containing factor (Chloride); a hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) factor; and a moderately oxygenated organic aerosol factor (OOA). PMF of the organic mass spectrum revealed three factors of similar composition to some of those revealed through PMFFull MS: Amine, HOA and OOA. Including both the inorganic and organic mass proved to be a beneficial approach to analysing the unit mass resolution AMS data for several reasons. First, it provided a method for potentially calculating more accurate sub-micron PM mass concentrations, particularly when unusual factors are present, in this case, an Amine factor. As this method does not rely on a priori knowledge of chemical species, it circumvents the need for any adjustments to the traditional AMS species fragmentation patterns to account for atypical species, and can thus lead to more complete factor profiles. It is expected that this method would be even more useful for HR-ToF-AMS data, due to the ability

  1. Enhancing non-refractory aerosol apportionment from an urban industrial site through receptor modeling of complete high time-resolution aerosol mass spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, M. L.; Chang, R. Y.-W.; Slowik, J. G.; Jeong, C.-H.; Healy, R. M.; Lu, G.; Mihele, C.; Abbatt, J. P. D.; Brook, J. R.; Evans, G. J.

    2014-08-01

    Receptor modeling was performed on quadrupole unit mass resolution aerosol mass spectrometer (Q-AMS) sub-micron particulate matter (PM) chemical speciation measurements from Windsor, Ontario, an industrial city situated across the Detroit River from Detroit, Michigan. Aerosol and trace gas measurements were collected on board Environment Canada's Canadian Regional and Urban Investigation System for Environmental Research (CRUISER) mobile laboratory. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) was performed on the AMS full particle-phase mass spectrum (PMFFull MS) encompassing both organic and inorganic components. This approach compared to the more common method of analyzing only the organic mass spectra (PMFOrg MS). PMF of the full mass spectrum revealed that variability in the non-refractory sub-micron aerosol concentration and composition was best explained by six factors: an amine-containing factor (Amine); an ammonium sulfate- and oxygenated organic aerosol-containing factor (Sulfate-OA); an ammonium nitrate- and oxygenated organic aerosol-containing factor (Nitrate-OA); an ammonium chloride-containing factor (Chloride); a hydrocarbon-like organic aerosol (HOA) factor; and a moderately oxygenated organic aerosol factor (OOA). PMF of the organic mass spectrum revealed three factors of similar composition to some of those revealed through PMFFull MS: Amine, HOA and OOA. Including both the inorganic and organic mass proved to be a beneficial approach to analyzing the unit mass resolution AMS data for several reasons. First, it provided a method for potentially calculating more accurate sub-micron PM mass concentrations, particularly when unusual factors are present, in this case the Amine factor. As this method does not rely on a priori knowledge of chemical species, it circumvents the need for any adjustments to the traditional AMS species fragmentation patterns to account for atypical species, and can thus lead to more complete factor profiles. It is expected that this

  2. Multiple hydrogen bonds. Mass spectra of hydrogen bonded heterodimers. A comparison of ESI- and REMPI-ReTOF-MS.

    PubMed

    Taubitz, Jörg; Lüning, Ulrich; Grotemeyer, Jürgen

    2004-11-07

    Resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization-reflectron time of flight mass spectrometry is the analytical method of choice to observe hydrogen bonded supramolecules in the gas phase when protonation of basic centers competes with cluster formation.

  3. Emissions and ambient distributions of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) in a ponderosa pine ecosystem: interpretation of PTR-MS mass spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Karl, T.; Guenther, A.; Tyndall, G.; Orlando, J.; Harley, P.; Rasmussen, R.; Apel, E.

    2010-02-01

    Two proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry systems were deployed at the Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen-Southern Rocky Mountain 2008 field campaign (BEACHON-SRM08; July to September, 2008) at the Manitou Forest Observatory in a ponderosa pine woodland near Woodland Park, Colorado USA. The two PTR-MS systems simultaneously measured BVOC emissions and ambient distributions of their oxidation products. Here, we present mass spectral analysis in a wide range of masses (m/z 40+ to 210+) to assess our understanding of BVOC emissions and their photochemical processing inside of the forest canopy. The biogenic terpenoids, 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol (MBO, 50.2%) and several monoterpenes (MT, 33.5%) were identified as the dominant BVOC emissions from a transmission corrected mass spectrum (PTR-MS), averaged over the daytime (11 a.m. to 3 p.m., local time) of three days. To assess contributions of oxidation products of local BVOC, we calculate an oxidation product spectrum with the OH- and ozone-initiated oxidation product distribution mass spectra of two major BVOC emissions at the ecosystem (MBO and β-pinene) that were observed from laboratory oxidation experiments. The majority (~76%) of the total signal in the transmission corrected PTR-MS spectra could be explained by identified compounds. The remainder are attributed to oxidation products of BVOC emitted from nearby ecosystems and transported to the site, and oxidation products of unidentified BVOC emitted from the ponderosa pine ecosystem.

  4. Modelling the high-mass accretion rate spectra of GX 339-4: black hole spin from reflection?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolehmainen, Mari; Done, Chris; Díaz Trigo, María

    2011-09-01

    We extract all the XMM-Newton European Photon Imaging Camera (EPIC) pn burst mode spectra of GX 339-4, together with simultaneous/contemporaneous RXTE data. These include three disc-dominated and two soft intermediate spectra, and the combination of broad bandpass/moderate spectral resolution gives some of the best data on these bright soft states in black hole binaries. The disc-dominated spectra span a factor of 3 in luminosity, and all show that the disc emission is broader than the simplest multicolour disc model. This is consistent with the expected relativistic smearing and changing colour temperature correction produced by atomic features in the newest disc models. However, these models do not match the data at the 5 per cent level as the predicted atomic features are not present in the data, perhaps indicating that irradiation is important even when the high-energy tail is weak. Whatever the reason, this means that the data have smaller errors than the best physical disc models, forcing use of more phenomenological models for the disc emission. We use these for the soft intermediate state data, where previous analysis using a simple disc continuum found an extremely broad residual, identified as the red wing of the iron line from reflection around a highly spinning black hole. However, the iron line energy is close to where the disc and tail have equal fluxes, so using a broader disc continuum changes the residual 'iron line' profile dramatically. With a broader disc continuum model, the inferred line is formed outside of 30Rg, so it cannot constrain black hole spin. We caution that a robust determination of black hole spin from the iron line profile is very difficult where the disc makes a significant contribution at the iron line energy, i.e. in most bright black hole states.

  5. Extreme ultraviolet ionization of pure He nanodroplets: Mass-correlated photoelectron imaging, Penning ionization, and electron energy-loss spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Buchta, D.; Stienkemeier, F.; Mudrich, M.; Krishnan, S. R.; Moshammer, R.; Brauer, N. B.; Drabbels, M.; O’Keeffe, P.; Coreno, M.; Devetta, M.; Di Fraia, M.; Callegari, C.; Richter, R.; Prince, K. C.; Ullrich, J.

    2013-08-28

    The ionization dynamics of pure He nanodroplets irradiated by Extreme ultraviolet radiation is studied using Velocity-Map Imaging PhotoElectron-PhotoIon COincidence spectroscopy. We present photoelectron energy spectra and angular distributions measured in coincidence with the most abundant ions He{sup +}, He{sub 2}{sup +}, and He{sub 3}{sup +}. Surprisingly, below the autoionization threshold of He droplets, we find indications for multiple excitation and subsequent ionization of the droplets by a Penning-like process. At high photon energies we observe inelastic collisions of photoelectrons with the surrounding He atoms in the droplets.

  6. Emissions and ambient distributions of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (BVOC) in a Ponderosa pine ecosystem: interpretation of PTR-MS mass spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Karl, T.; Guenther, A.; Tyndall, G.; Orlando, J.; Harley, P.; Rasmussen, R.; Apel, E.

    2009-10-01

    Two proton-transfer-reaction mass spectrometry systems were deployed at the Bio-hydro-atmosphere interactions of Energy, Aerosols, Carbon, H2O, Organics and Nitrogen-Southern Rocky Mountain 2008 field campaign (BEACHON-SRM08; July to September 2008) at the Manitou Forest observatory in a Ponderosa pine woodland near Woodland Park, Colorado USA to simultaneously measure BVOC emissions and ambient distributions of their oxidation products. Here, we present mass spectral analysis in a wide range of masses (m/z=40+ to 210+) to assess our understanding of BVOC emissions and their photochemical process inside of the forest canopy. The biogenic terpenoids, 2-methyl-3-butene-2-ol (MBO, 50.2%) and several monoterpenes (MT, 33.5%) were identified as the dominant BVOC emissions from a transmission corrected mass spectrum, averaged over the daytime (11 am to 3 p.m., local time) of three days. To assess contributions of oxidation products of local BVOC, we calculate a oxidation product spectrum with the OH- and ozone-initiated oxidation product distribution mass spectra of two major BVOC at the ecosystem (MBO and β-pinene) that were observed from laboratory oxidation experiments. A majority (~73%) of the total signal could be explained by known compounds. The remainder are attributed to oxidation products of BVOC, emitted from nearby ecosystems and transported to the site, and oxidation products of unidentified BVOC emitted from the Ponderosa pine ecosystem.

  7. Studies on anabolic steroids. The mass spectra of 17 alpha-methyl-17 beta-hydroxy-1,4-androstadien-3-one (Dianabol) and its metabolites.

    PubMed

    Dürbeck, H W; Büker, I

    1980-10-01

    The metabolism of 17 alpha-methyl-17 beta-hydroxy-1,4-androstadien-3-one (dianabol) in human adults has been studied in detail by computer aided capillary gas chromatography mass spectrometry. After oral administration to man six metabolites were determined in the free fraction of the urine samples, the structures of which have been identified as 17-epidianabol, three isomers of 6-hydroxydianabol, 17 alpha-methyl-17 beta-hydroxy-1,4,6-androstatrien-3-one (delta 6-dianabol) and 18-nor-17,17-dimethyl-1,4,13(14)-androstatrien-3-one, respectively. In agreement with previous observations no measurable amounts of the administered drug itself could be detected in any of the urine samples investigated. The mass spectra of all metabolites and the main fragmentation processes are discussed in detail.

  8. Matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (UV-MALDI-TOF) mass spectra of N-acylated and N,O-acylated glycosylamines.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yasuto; Fukuyama, Yuko; Nonami, Hiroshi; Erra-Balsells, Rosa; Stortz, Carlos A; Cerezo, Alberto S; Matulewicz, María C

    2007-12-10

    Matrix-assisted ultraviolet laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UV-MALDI-TOF-MS) has shown to be a very useful technique for the study of the non-volatile and thermally non-stable N-acylated glycopyranosyl- and glycofuranosyl-amines. Of the several matrices tested, 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) was the most effective giving good spectra in the positive-ion mode. In the linear and reflectron modes, the [M+Na](+) ions appeared with high intensity. Their fragmentation patterns were investigated by post-source decay (PSD) UV-MALDI-TOF-MS showing mainly cross-ring cleavages. In addition, N,O-acylated glycopyranosyl- and glycofuranosyl-amines were also analyzed by this technique. PSD UV-MALDI-TOF-MS gave significant signals for several primary fragment ions, which were proposed but not detected, or observed with very low abundance, in electron ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS) experiments.

  9. Lily Pad Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The color image on the lower left from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the 'Lily Pad' bounce-mark area at Meridiani Planum, Mars. This image was acquired on the 3rd sol, or martian day, of Opportunity's mission (Jan.26, 2004). The upper left image is a monochrome (single filter) image from the rover's panoramic camera, showing regions from which spectra were extracted from the 'Lily Pad' area. As noted by the line graph on the right, the green spectra is from the undisturbed surface and the red spectra is from the airbag bounce mark.

  10. Search for narrow resonances in dilepton mass spectra in pp collisions at √{ s} = 7TeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatrchyan, S.; Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hammer, J.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Pernicka, M.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, C.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Wagner, P.; Waltenberger, W.; Walzel, G.; Widl, E.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Luyckx, S.; Maes, T.; Mucibello, L.; Ochesanu, S.; Roland, B.; Rougny, R.; Selvaggi, M.; Staykova, Z.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D'Hondt, J.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Charaf, O.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dero, V.; Gay, A. P. R.; Hreus, T.; Léonard, A.; Marage, P. E.; Reis, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Garcia, G.; Grunewald, M.; Klein, B.; Lellouch, J.; Marinov, A.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Vanelderen, L.; Verwilligen, P.; Walsh, S.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Lemaitre, V.; Liao, J.; Militaru, O.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Schul, N.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Alves, G. A.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; Martins, T.; Pol, M. E.; Souza, M. H. G.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Carvalho, W.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Oguri, V.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Silva Do Amaral, S. M.; Soares Jorge, L.; Sznajder, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dias, F. A.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Lagana, C.; Marinho, F.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Tcholakov, V.; Trayanov, R.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Jiang, C. H.; Liang, D.; Liang, S.; Meng, X.; Tao, J.; Wang, J.; Wang, X.; Wang, Z.; Xiao, H.; Xu, M.; Zang, J.; Zhang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Guo, S.; Guo, Y.; Li, W.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Teng, H.; Wang, S.; Zhu, B.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Osorio Oliveros, A. F.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Plestina, R.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Duric, S.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Morovic, S.; Attikis, A.; Galanti, M.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Ellithi Kamel, A.; Khalil, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Müntel, M.; Raidal, M.; Rebane, L.; Tiko, A.; Azzolini, V.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Heikkinen, A.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Ungaro, D.; Wendland, L.; Banzuzi, K.; Korpela, A.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Choudhury, S.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Millischer, L.; Nayak, A.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Shreyber, I.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Benhabib, L.; Bianchini, L.; Bluj, M.; Broutin, C.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Daci, N.; Dahms, T.; Dobrzynski, L.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Haguenauer, M.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Sabes, D.; Salerno, R.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Bloch, D.; Bodin, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Cardaci, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Drouhin, F.; Ferro, C.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Juillot, P.; Karim, M.; Le Bihan, A.-C.; Van Hove, P.; Fassi, F.; Mercier, D.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Bondu, O.; Boudoul, G.; Brun, H.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Sordini, V.; Tosi, S.; Tschudi, Y.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Anagnostou, G.; Beranek, S.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Heracleous, N.; Hindrichs, O.; Jussen, R.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.

    2012-08-01

    A search for narrow, high-mass resonances decaying to electron or muon pairs has been performed using pp collision data collected at √{ s} = 7TeV by the CMS experiment in 2011. The data sample corresponds to an integrated luminosity of approximately 5 fb-1. The event yields observed in the signal regions are consistent with predictions of the standard model backgrounds, and upper limits on the cross section times branching fraction for a resonance decaying to dileptons are extracted from a shape analysis of the dilepton invariant mass distribution. The resulting mass limits at 95% confidence level are 2330 GeV for the Z‧ in the Sequential Standard Model, 2000 GeV for the superstring-inspired Zψ‧ resonance, 890 (540) GeV for the Stueckelberg extension ZSt‧ with the mass parameter ɛ = 0.06 (0.04), and 2140 (1810) GeV for Kaluza-Klein gravitons with the coupling parameter k /MbarPl of 0.10 (0.05). These limits are the most stringent to date.

  11. Effect of Vaporizer Temperature on Ambient Non-Refractory Submicron Aerosol Composition and Mass Spectra Measured by the Aerosol Mass Spectrometer

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometers (AMS) are routinely operated with a constant vaporizer temperature (Tvap) of 600oC in order to facilitate quantitative detection of non-refractory submicron (NR-PM1) species. By analogy with other thermal desorption instrument...

  12. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Spectra of low-mass stars in Upper Sco (Lodieu+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lodieu, N.; Dobbie, P. D.; Hambly, N. C.

    2010-11-01

    Coordinates (J2000), ZYJHK photometry from the UKIDSS Galactic Clusters Survey, and proper motions derived from the UKIDSS/2MASS cross-match (in arcsec/yr) of stars in the AAOmega field-of-view ordered by increasing Z magnitude. The last column provides a tentative estimate of the spectral type. Data obtained with the AAOmega spectrograph on the Anglo-Australian telescope in May 2007. (4 data files).

  13. Structural Characterization of Methylenedianiline Regioisomers by Ion Mobility-Mass Spectrometry, Tandem Mass Spectrometry, and Computational Strategies: I. Electrospray Spectra of 2-Ring Isomers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Purified methylenedianiline (MDA) regioisomers were structurally characterized and differentiated using tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS), and IM-MS/MS in conjunction with computational methods. It was determined that protonation sites on the isomers can vary depending on the position of amino groups, and the resulting protonation sites play a role in the gas-phase stability of the isomer. We also observed differences in the relative distributions of protonated conformations depending on experimental conditions and instrumentation, which is consistent with previous studies on aniline in the gas phase. This work demonstrates the utility of a multifaceted approach for the study of isobaric species and elucidates why previous MDA studies may have been unable to detect and/or differentiate certain isomers. Such analysis may prove useful in the characterization of larger MDA multimeric species, industrial MDA mixtures, and methylene diphenyl diisocyanate (MDI) mixtures used in polyurethane synthesis. PMID:24678803

  14. Oil spill source identification by principal component analysis of electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Corilo, Yuri E; Podgorski, David C; McKenna, Amy M; Lemkau, Karin L; Reddy, Christopher M; Marshall, Alan G; Rodgers, Ryan P

    2013-10-01

    One fundamental challenge with either acute or chronic oil spills is to identify the source, especially in highly polluted areas, near natural oil seeps, when the source contains more than one petroleum product or when extensive weathering has occurred. Here we focus on heavy fuel oil that spilled (~200,000 L) from two suspected fuel tanks that were ruptured on the motor vessel (M/V) Cosco Busan when it struck the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge in November 2007. We highlight the utility of principal component analysis (PCA) of elemental composition data obtained by high resolution FT-ICR mass spectrometry to correctly identify the source of environmental contamination caused by the unintended release of heavy fuel oil (HFO). Using ultrahigh resolution electrospray ionization (ESI) Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry, we uniquely assigned thousands of elemental compositions of heteroatom-containing species in neat samples from both tanks and then applied principal component analysis. The components were based on double bond equivalents for constituents of elemental composition, CcHhN1S1. To determine if the fidelity of our source identification was affected by weathering, field samples were collected at various intervals up to two years after the spill. We are able to identify a suite of polar petroleum markers that are environmentally persistent, enabling us to confidently identify that only one tank was the source of the spilled oil: in fact, a single principal component could account for 98% of the variance. Although identification is unaffected by the presence of higher polarity, petrogenic oxidation (weathering) products, future studies may require removal of such species by anion exchange chromatography prior to mass spectral analysis due to their preferential ionization by ESI.

  15. Approach toward minimizing chemical interference in FAB mass spectra: the development and application of thermally - assisted FAB

    SciTech Connect

    Ackermann, B.L.

    1987-01-01

    Interferences with fast atom bombardment (FAB) mass spectrometry can be classified into two major categories. The first includes impurities which remain after analyte isolation/purification, and is especially problematic in samples of biological origin. The second type of chemical interference originates from the matrix used for FAB. An example of the first type, also known as sample-related interference, is presented in the context of the analysis of the urinary metabolites of the analgesic acetaminophen by means of the off-line combination of reverse phase HPLC and FAB. Recommendations are made for efficient use of these two methods with specific regard to minimizing chemical interferences. In addition, a method for calculating analyte signal to background (S/B) values is introduced as a means of evaluating the quality of the FAB mass spectrum. A method known as thermally-assisted FAB (TA-FAB) is introduced as a means of minimizing matrix-related background. Success to date has been achieved using aqueous saccharide solutions as TA-FAB matrices. Several important improvements to FAB result from thermal control of the matrix including a selection against matrix background, and the possibility of valid background subtraction. The development of TA-FAB is described in the context of applications of the technique to the analysis of several representative nonvolatile biomolecules including a series of cyclic tetrapeptide mycotoxins. In the final section, the hypothesis of ternary perculation (TP) is submitted to account for behavior observed during TA-FAB.

  16. Low-Energy Collision-Induced Dissociation Mass Spectra of Protonated p-Toluenesulfonamides Derived from Aliphatic Amines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bialecki, Jason B.; Weisbecker, Carl S.; Attygalle, Athula B.

    2014-06-01

    Collision-induced fragmentation of protonated N-alkyl- p-toluenesulfonamides primarily undergo either an elimination of the amine to form CH3-(C6H4)-SO2 + cation ( m/z 155) or an alkene to form a cation for the protonated p-toluenesulfonamide ( m/z 172). To comprehend the fragmentation pathways, several deuterated analogs of N-decyl- p-toluenesulfonamides were prepared and evaluated. Hypothetically, two mechanisms, both of which involve ion-neutral complexes, can be envisaged. In one mechanism, the S-N bond fragments to produce an intermediate [sulfonyl cation/amine] complex, which dissociates to afford the m/z 155 cation (Pathway A). In the other mechanism, the C-N bond dissociates to produce a different intermediate complex. The fragmentation of this [ p-toluenesulfonamide/carbocation] complex eliminates p-toluenesulfonamide and releases the carbocation (Pathway B). Computations carried out by the Hartree-Fock method suggested that the Pathway B is more favorable. However, a peak for the carbocation is observed only when the carbocation formed is relatively stable. For example, the spectrum of N-phenylethyl- p-toluenesulfonamide is dominated by the peak at m/z 105 for the incipient phenylethyl cation, which rapidly isomerizes to the remarkably stable methylbenzyl cation. The peaks for the carbocations are weak or absent in the spectra of most of N-alkyl- p-toluenesulfonamides because alkyl carbocations, such as the decyl cation, rearrange to more stable secondary cations by 1,2-hydride and alkyl shifts. The energy freed is not dissipated, but gets internalized, causing the carbocation to dissociate either by transferring a proton to the sulfonamide or by releasing smaller alkenes to form smaller carbocations. The loss of the positional integrity in this way was proven by deuterium labeling experiments.

  17. Ammonium ion binding to DNA G-quadruplexes: do electrospray mass spectra faithfully reflect the solution-phase species?

    PubMed Central

    Balthasart, Françoise; Plavec, Janez; Gabelica, Valérie

    2013-01-01

    G-quadruplex nucleic acids can bind ammonium ions in solution and these complexes can be detected by electrospray mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). However, because ammonium ions are volatile, the extent to which ESI-MS quantitatively could provide an accurate reflection of such solution-phase equilibria is unclear. Here we studied five G-quadruplexes having known solution-phase structure and ammonium ion binding constants: the bimolecular G-quadruplexes (dG4T4G4)2, (dG4T3G4)2 and (dG3T4G4)2, and the intramolecular G-quadruplexes dG4(T4G4)3 and dG2T2G2TGTG2T2G2 (thrombin binding aptamer). We found that not all mass spectrometers are equally suited to reflect the solution phase species. Ion activation can occur in the electrospray source, or in a high-pressure travelling wave ion mobility cell. When the softest instrumental conditions are used, ammonium ions bound between G-quartets, but also additional ammonium ions bound at specific sites outside the external G-quartets can be observed. However, even specifically bound ammonium ions are in some instances too labile to be fully retained in the gas phase structures, and although the ammonium ion distribution observed by ESI-MS shows biases at specific stoichiometries, the relative abundances in solution are not always faithfully reflected. Ion mobility spectrometry results show that all inter-quartet ammonium ions are necessary to preserve the G-quadruplex fold in the gas phase. Ion mobility experiments therefore help assigning the number of inner ammonium ions in the solution phase structure. PMID:23132414

  18. Estimation of Mass-Loss Rates from Emission Line Profiles in the UV Spectra of Cool Stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carpenter, K. G.; Robinson, R. D.; Harper, G. M.

    1999-01-01

    The photon-scattering winds of cool, low-gravity stars (K-M giants and supergiants) produce absorption features in the strong chromospheric emission lines. This provides us with an opportunity to assess important parameters of the wind, including flow and turbulent velocities, the optical depth of the wind above the region of photon creation, and the star's mass-loss rate. We have used the Lamers et al. Sobolev with Exact Integration (SEI) radiative transfer code along with simple models of the outer atmospheric structure to compute synthetic line profiles for comparison with the observed line profiles. The SEI code has the advantage of being computationally fast and allows a great number of possible wind models to be examined. We therefore use it here to obtain initial first-order estimates of the wind parameters. More sophisticated, but more time-consuming and resource intensive calculations will be performed at a later date, using the SEI-deduced wind parameters as a starting point. A comparison of the profiles over a range of wind velocity laws, turbulence values, and line opacities allows us to constrain the wind parameters, and to estimate the mass-loss rates. We have applied this analysis technique (using lines of Mg II, 0 I, and Fe II) so far to four stars: the normal K5-giant alpha Tau, the hybrid K-giant gamma Dra, the K5 supergiant lambda Vel, and the M-giant gamma Cru. We present in this paper a description of the technique, including the assumptions which go into its use, an assessment of its robustness, and the results of our analysis.

  19. The Visible Photodissociation Spectra of the Molecular Ions of Negative Carbonate, Negative Ozone, and Positive Ozone by Triple Quadrupole Mass Spectrometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiller, Joseph Francis, Jr.

    A modified version of the triple quadrupole photodissociation mass spectrometer utilizing a chemical ionization ion source and a nitrogen pumped tunable dye laser is described. The visible photodissociation spectra are reported for the processes. CO(,3)('-) + h(nu) (--->) O('-) + CO(,2). O(,3)('-) + h(nu) (--->) O('-) + O(,2). (--->) O(,2)('-) + O. O(,3)('+) + h(nu) (--->) O('+) + O(,2). (--->) O(,2)('+) + O. as absolute cross sections as functions of photon energy. Sequential two photon processes and excited state ion/neutral. reactions are observed directly for the visible excitation of CO(,3)('-). Rate constants and absolute cross sections are presented for these. reactions, and for the inferred fluorescent and relaxation processes. as well. Thresholds are located for three of these dissociations as. D(CO(,2)-O('-)) 2.258 (+OR-) 0.008 eV. D(O-O(,2)('-)) 2.410 (+OR-) 0.010 eV. D(O(,2)-O('+)) 1.860 (+OR-) 0.005 eV. Excited states of O(,3)('-) are identified, and vibrational analyses are included for the O(,3)('-) and O(,3)('+) spectra.

  20. Differentiation of microbial species and strains in coculture biofilms by multivariate analysis of laser desorption postionization mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Chhavi; Cui, Yang; Hofstetter, Theresa; Liu, Suet Yi; Bernstein, Hans C; Carlson, Ross P; Ahmed, Musahid; Hanley, Luke

    2013-11-21

    7.87 to 10.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon energies were used in laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) to analyze biofilms comprised of binary cultures of interacting microorganisms. The effect of photon energy was examined using both tunable synchrotron and laser sources of VUV radiation. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the MS data to differentiate species in Escherichia coli-Saccharomyces cerevisiae coculture biofilms. PCA of LDPI-MS also differentiated individual E. coli strains in a biofilm comprised of two interacting gene deletion strains, even though these strains differed from the wild type K-12 strain by no more than four gene deletions each out of approximately 2000 genes. PCA treatment of 7.87 eV LDPI-MS data separated the E. coli strains into three distinct groups, two "pure" groups, and a mixed region. Furthermore, the "pure" regions of the E. coli cocultures showed greater variance by PCA at 7.87 eV photon energies compared to 10.5 eV radiation. This is consistent with the expectation that the 7.87 eV photoionization selects a subset of low ionization energy analytes while 10.5 eV is more inclusive, detecting a wider range of analytes. These two VUV photon energies therefore give different spreads via PCA and their respective use in LDPI-MS constitute an additional experimental parameter to differentiate strains and species.

  1. Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... They Work Kidney Disease A-Z Acquired Cystic Kidney Disease What is acquired cystic kidney disease? Acquired cystic kidney disease happens when a ... cysts. What are the differences between acquired cystic kidney disease and polycystic kidney disease? Acquired cystic kidney ...

  2. Differentiation of Microbial Species and Strains in Coculture Biofilms by Multivariate Analysis of Laser Desorption Postionization Mass Spectra

    SciTech Connect

    University of Illinois at Chicago; Montana State University; Bhardwaj, Chhavi; Cui, Yang; Hofstetter, Theresa; Liu, Suet Yi; Bernstein, Hans C.; Carlson, Ross P.; Ahmed, Musahid; Hanley, Luke

    2013-04-01

    7.87 to 10.5 eV vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photon energies were used in laser desorption postionization mass spectrometry (LDPI-MS) to analyze biofilms comprised of binary cultures of interacting microorganisms. The effect of photon energy was examined using both tunable synchrotron and laser sources of VUV radiation. Principal components analysis (PCA) was applied to the MS data to differentiate species in Escherichia coli-Saccharomyces cerevisiae coculture biofilms. PCA of LDPI-MS also differentiated individual E. coli strains in a biofilm comprised of two interacting gene deletion strains, even though these strains differed from the wild type K-12 strain by no more than four gene deletions each out of approximately 2000 genes. PCA treatment of 7.87 eV LDPI-MS data separated the E. coli strains into three distinct groups two ?pure? groups and a mixed region. Furthermore, the ?pure? regions of the E. coli cocultures showed greater variance by PCA when analyzed by 7.87 eV photon energies than by 10.5 eV radiation. Comparison of the 7.87 and 10.5 eV data is consistent with the expectation that the lower photon energy selects a subset of low ionization energy analytes while 10.5 eV is more inclusive, detecting a wider range of analytes. These two VUV photon energies therefore give different spreads via PCA and their respective use in LDPI-MS constitute an additional experimental parameter to differentiate strains and species.

  3. X-Ray Spectra of the High-mass X-Ray Binary 4U 1700-37 Using BeppoSAX, Suzaku, and RXTE Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifina, Elena; Titarchuk, Lev; Shaposhnikov, Nikolai

    2016-04-01

    We present an X-ray spectral analysis of the high-mass binary 4U 1700-37 during its hard-soft state evolution. We use BeppoSAX, Suzaku, and Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer observations for this investigation. We argue that the X-ray broadband spectra during all of the spectral states can be adequately reproduced by a model consisting of a low-temperature blackbody component, two Comptonized components which are both due to the presence of a Compton cloud (CC) that up-scatters seed photons of Ts1 ≲ 1.4 keV and Ts2 < 1 keV, and an iron-line component. Using this model, we find that the photon power-law index is almost constant, Γ1 ∼ 2 for all spectral states. However, Γ2 shows behavior that is dependent on the spectral state. Namely, Γ2 is quasi-constant at the level of Γ2 ∼ 2 while the CC plasma temperature {{kT}}e(2) is less than 40 keV; on the other hand, Γ2 is in the range of 1.3 < Γ2 < 2 when {{kT}}e(2) is greater than 40 keV. We explain this quasi-stability of Γ during most of the hard-soft transitions of 4U 1700-37 in the framework of a model in which the resulting spectrum is described by two Comptonized components. We find that these Comptonized spectral components of the high-mass X-ray binaries 4U 1700-37 are similar to those previously found in neutron star (NS) sources. This index dependence versus both the mass accretion rate and kTe revealed in 4U 1700-37 is universal observational evidence for the presence of an NS in 4U 1700-37.

  4. The use of IR, magnetism, reflectance, and mass spectra together with thermal analyses in structure investigation of codeine phosphate complexes of d-block elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zayed, M. A.; El-shahat, M. F.; Abdullah, S. M.

    2005-06-01

    Codeine is an analgesic with uses similar to morphines, but it is of much less effect, i.e., it had a mild sedative effect; codeine is usually used as the phosphate form (Cod.P) and is often administrated by mouth with aspirin of paracetamol. Due to its serious use, if it is in large dose, attention is paid in this research to the synthesis and stereochemistry of new iron, cobalt, nickel, copper, and zinc complexes of this drug in both solution and the solid states. The spectra of these complexes in solution and the study of their stoichiometry refer to the formation of 1:1 ratio of metal (M) to ligand (L). The steriochemical structures of the solid complexes were studied on the basis of their analytical, spectroscopic, magnetic, and thermal data. Infrared spectra proved the presence of M sbnd O bonds. Magnetic susceptibility and solid reflectance spectral measurements were used to infer the structures. The prepared complexes were found to have the general formulae [ML(OH) x(H 2O) y](H 2O) zH 3PO 4, M: Co(II), Ni(II), and Cu(II), x = 1, y = 0, z = 0; M: Fe(II), x = 1, y = 2, z = 1; Fe(III), x = 2, y = 1, z = 0; Co(III), x = 0, y = 2, z = 1; Zn(II), x = 1, y = 0, z = 3; and L: (Cod.P) of the general formula C 18H 24NO 7P (anhydrate). Octahedral, tetrahedral, and square planer structures were proposed for these complexes depending upon the magnetic and reflectance data and were confirmed by detailed mass and thermal analyses comparative studies.

  5. Terrifying Landscapes: A Study of Scientific Research Into Understanding Motivations of Non-State Actors to Acquire and/or Use Weapons of Mass Destruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-22

    Terrorism, NonState Actors, and Weapons of Mass Destruction: An Exploration of the Pinkerton Database ”, in “NonState Actors, Terrorism, and Weapons of...for the broad research community. One such database is the Global Terrorism Database (GTD), which covers over 69,000 incidents since 1970...problems encountered in other databases around issues of consistency in counting methods, comprehensiveness of geopolitical coverage, and breadth of

  6. Mass

    SciTech Connect

    Quigg, Chris

    2007-12-05

    In the classical physics we inherited from Isaac Newton, mass does not arise, it simply is. The mass of a classical object is the sum of the masses of its parts. Albert Einstein showed that the mass of a body is a measure of its energy content, inviting us to consider the origins of mass. The protons we accelerate at Fermilab are prime examples of Einsteinian matter: nearly all of their mass arises from stored energy. Missing mass led to the discovery of the noble gases, and a new form of missing mass leads us to the notion of dark matter. Starting with a brief guided tour of the meanings of mass, the colloquium will explore the multiple origins of mass. We will see how far we have come toward understanding mass, and survey the issues that guide our research today.

  7. Search for physics beyond the standard model in dilepton mass spectra in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Bergauer, T.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Fabjan, C.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Kiesenhofer, W.; Knünz, V.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Taurok, A.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C. -E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Bansal, M.; Bansal, S.; Cornelis, T.; De Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Luyckx, S.; Ochesanu, S.; Rougny, R.; Van De Klundert, M.; Van Haevermaet, H.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Van Spilbeeck, A.; Blekman, F.; Blyweert, S.; D’Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Maes, M.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; Van Doninck, W.; Van Mulders, P.; Van Onsem, G. P.; Villella, I.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; De Lentdecker, G.; Dobur, D.; Favart, L.; Gay, A. P. R.; Grebenyuk, A.; Léonard, A.; Mohammadi, A.; Perniè, L.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Thomas, L.; Vander Velde, C.; Vanlaer, P.; Wang, J.; Zenoni, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Costantini, S.; Crucy, S.; Dildick, S.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Mccartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva Diblen, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Thyssen, F.; Tytgat, M.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bruno, G.; Castello, R.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; Da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; du Pree, T.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Nuttens, C.; Pagano, D.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Vizan Garcia, J. M.; Beliy, N.; Caebergs, T.; Daubie, E.; Hammad, G. H.; Aldá Júnior, W. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Dos Reis Martins, T.; Mora Herrera, C.; Pol, M. E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; Da Costa, E. M.; De Jesus Damiao, D.; De Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca De Souza, S.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado Da Silva, W. L.; Santaolalla, J.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Bernardes, C. A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Aleksandrov, A.; Genchev, V.; Iaydjiev, P.; Marinov, A.; Piperov, S.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Hadjiiska, R.; Kozhuharov, V.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Tao, J.; Wang, Z.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Zou, W.; Avila, C.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Polic, D.; Puljak, I.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Mekterovic, D.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; Assran, Y.; Elgammal, S.; Mahmoud, M. A.; Radi, A.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Eerola, P.; Fedi, G.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Kortelainen, M. J.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Dalchenko, M.; Dobrzynski, L.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Mironov, C.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Paganini, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Veelken, C.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J. -L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J. -M.; Chabert, E. C.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Fontaine, J. -C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.; Le Bihan, A. -C.; Van Hove, P.; Gadrat, S.; Beauceron, S.; Beaupere, N.; Boudoul, G.; Bouvier, E.; Brochet, S.; Carrillo Montoya, C. A.; Chasserat, J.; Chierici, R.; Contardo, D.; Depasse, P.; El Mamouni, H.; Fan, J.; Fay, J.; Gascon, S.; Gouzevitch, M.; Ille, B.; Kurca, T.; Lethuillier, M.; Mirabito, L.; Perries, S.; Ruiz Alvarez, J. D.; Sabes, D.; Sgandurra, L.; Sordini, V.; Vander Donckt, M.; Verdier, P.; Viret, S.; Xiao, H.; Tsamalaidze, Z.; Autermann, C.; Beranek, S.; Bontenackels, M.; Edelhoff, M.; Feld, L.; Hindrichs, O.; Klein, K.; Ostapchuk, A.; Perieanu, A.; Raupach, F.; Sammet, J.; Schael, S.; Weber, H.; Wittmer, B.; Zhukov, V.; Ata, M.; Brodski, M.; Dietz-Laursonn, E.; Duchardt, D.; Erdmann, M.; Fischer, R.; Güth, A.; Hebbeker, T.; Heidemann, C.; Hoepfner, K.; Klingebiel, D.; Knutzen, S.; Kreuzer, P.; Merschmeyer, M.; Meyer, A.; Millet, P.; Olschewski, M.; Padeken, K.; Papacz, P.; Pook, T.; Reithler, H.; Schmitz, S. A.; Sonnenschein, L.; Teyssier, D.; Thüer, S.; Weber, M.; Cherepanov, V.; Erdogan, Y.; Flügge, G.; Geenen, H.; Geisler, M.; Haj Ahmad, W.; Heister, A.; Hoehle, F.; Kargoll, B.; Kress, T.; Kuessel, Y.; Künsken, A.; Lingemann, J.; Nowack, A.; Nugent, I. M.; Perchalla, L.; Pooth, O.; Stahl, A.; Asin, I.; Bartosik, N.; Behr, J.; Behrenhoff, W.; Behrens, U.; Bell, A. J.; Bergholz, M.; Bethani, A.; Borras, K.; Burgmeier, A.; Cakir, A.; Calligaris, L.; Campbell, A.; Choudhury, S.; Costanza, F.; Diez Pardos, C.; Dooling, S.; Dorland, T.; Eckerlin, G.; Eckstein, D.; Eichhorn, T.; Flucke, G.; Garay Garcia, J.; Geiser, A.; Gunnellini, P.; Hauk, J.; Hempel, M.; Horton, D.; Jung, H.; Kalogeropoulos, A.; Kasemann, M.; Katsas, P.; Kieseler, J.; Kleinwort, C.; Krücker, D.; Lange, W.; Leonard, J.; Lipka, K.; Lobanov, A.; Lohmann, W.; Lutz, B.; Mankel, R.; Marfin, I.; Melzer-Pellmann, I. -A.; Meyer, A. B.; Mittag, G.; Mnich, J.; Mussgiller, A.; Naumann-Emme, S.; Nayak, A.; Novgorodova, O.; Ntomari, E.; Perrey, H.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Raspereza, A.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Roland, B.; Ron, E.; Sahin, M. Ö.; Salfeld-Nebgen, J.; Saxena, P.; Schmidt, R.; Schoerner-Sadenius, T.; Schröder, M.; Seitz, C.; Spannagel, S.; Vargas Trevino, A. D. R.; Walsh, R.; Wissing, C.; Aldaya Martin, M.; Blobel, V.; Centis Vignali, M.; Draeger, A. R.; Erfle, J.; Garutti, E.; Goebel, K.; Görner, M.; Haller, J.; Hoffmann, M.; Höing, R. S.; Kirschenmann, H.; Klanner, R.; Kogler, R.; Lange, J.; Lapsien, T.; Lenz, T.; Marchesini, I.; Ott, J.; Peiffer, T.; Pietsch, N.; Poehlsen, J.; Poehlsen, T.; Rathjens, D.; Sander, C.; Schettler, H.; Schleper, P.; Schlieckau, E.; Schmidt, A.; Seidel, M.; Sola, V.; Stadie, H.; Steinbrück, G.; Troendle, D.; Usai, E.; Vanelderen, L.; Vanhoefer, A.; Barth, C.; Baus, C.; Berger, J.; Böser, C.; Butz, E.; Chwalek, T.; De Boer, W.; Descroix, A.; Dierlamm, A.; Feindt, M.; Frensch, F.; Giffels, M.; Hartmann, F.; Hauth, T.; Husemann, U.; Katkov, I.; Kornmayer, A.; Kuznetsova, E.; Lobelle Pardo, P.; Mozer, M. U.; Müller, Th.; Nürnberg, A.; Quast, G.; Rabbertz, K.; Ratnikov, F.; Röcker, S.; Simonis, H. J.; Stober, F. M.; Ulrich, R.; Wagner-Kuhr, J.; Wayand, S.; Weiler, T.; Wolf, R.; Anagnostou, G.; Daskalakis, G.; Geralis, T.; Giakoumopoulou, V. A.; Kyriakis, A.; Loukas, D.; Markou, A.; Markou, C.; Psallidas, A.; Topsis-Giotis, I.; Agapitos, A.; Kesisoglou, S.; Panagiotou, A.; Saoulidou, N.; Stiliaris, E.; Aslanoglou, X.; Evangelou, I.; Flouris, G.; Foudas, C.; Kokkas, P.; Manthos, N.; Papadopoulos, I.; Paradas, E.; Bencze, G.; Hajdu, C.; Hidas, P.; Horvath, D.; Sikler, F.; Veszpremi, V.; Vesztergombi, G.; Zsigmond, A. J.; Beni, N.; Czellar, S.; Karancsi, J.; Molnar, J.; Palinkas, J.; Szillasi, Z.; Raics, P.; Trocsanyi, Z. L.; Ujvari, B.; Swain, S. K.; Beri, S. B.; Bhatnagar, V.; Gupta, R.; Bhawandeep, U.; Kalsi, A. K.; Kaur, M.; Kumar, R.; Mittal, M.; Nishu, N.; Singh, J. B.; Kumar, Ashok; Kumar, Arun; Ahuja, S.; Bhardwaj, A.; Choudhary, B. C.; Kumar, A.; Malhotra, S.; Naimuddin, M.; Ranjan, K.; Sharma, V.; Banerjee, S.; Bhattacharya, S.; Chatterjee, K.; Dutta, S.; Gomber, B.; Jain, Sa.; Jain, Sh.; Khurana, R.; Modak, A.; Mukherjee, S.; Roy, D.; Sarkar, S.; Sharan, M.; Abdulsalam, A.; Dutta, D.; Kailas, S.; Kumar, V.; Mohanty, A. K.; Pant, L. M.; Shukla, P.; Topkar, A.; Aziz, T.; Banerjee, S.; Bhowmik, S.; Chatterjee, R. M.; Dewanjee, R. K.; Dugad, S.; Ganguly, S.; Ghosh, S.; Guchait, M.; Gurtu, A.; Kole, G.; Kumar, S.; Maity, M.; Majumder, G.; Mazumdar, K.; Mohanty, G. B.; Parida, B.; Sudhakar, K.; Wickramage, N.; Bakhshiansohi, H.; Behnamian, H.; Etesami, S. M.; Fahim, A.; Goldouzian, R.; Khakzad, M.; Mohammadi Najafabadi, M.; Naseri, M.; Paktinat Mehdiabadi, S.; Rezaei Hosseinabadi, F.; Safarzadeh, B.; Zeinali, M.; Felcini, M.; Grunewald, M.; Abbrescia, M.; Barbone, L.; Calabria, C.; Chhibra, S. S.; Colaleo, A.; Creanza, D.; De Filippis, N.; De Palma, M.; Fiore, L.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Maggi, M.; My, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Pompili, A.; Pugliese, G.; Radogna, R.; Selvaggi, G.; Sharma, A.; Silvestris, L.; Venditti, R.; Zito, G.; Abbiendi, G.; Benvenuti, A. C.; Bonacorsi, D.; Braibant-Giacomelli, S.; Brigliadori, L.; Campanini, R.; Capiluppi, P.; Castro, A.; Cavallo, F. R.; Codispoti, G.; Cuffiani, M.; Dallavalle, G. M.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fasanella, D.; Giacomelli, P.; Grandi, C.; Guiducci, L.; Marcellini, S.; Masetti, G.; Montanari, A.; Navarria, F. L.; Perrotta, A.; Primavera, F.; Rossi, A. M.; Rovelli, T.; Siroli, G. P.; Tosi, N.; Travaglini, R.; Albergo, S.; Cappello, G.; Chiorboli, M.; Costa, S.; Giordano, F.; Potenza, R.; Tricomi, A.; Tuve, C.; Barbagli, G.; Ciulli, V.; Civinini, C.; D’Alessandro, R.; Focardi, E.; Gallo, E.; Gonzi, S.; Gori, V.; Lenzi, P.; Meschini, M.; Paoletti, S.; Sguazzoni, G.; Tropiano, A.; Benussi, L.; Bianco, S.; Fabbri, F.; Piccolo, D.; Ferretti, R.; Ferro, F.; Lo Vetere, M.; Robutti, E.; Tosi, S.; Dinardo, M. E.; Fiorendi, S.; Gennai, S.; Gerosa, R.; Ghezzi, A.; Govoni, P.; Lucchini, M. T.; Malvezzi, S.; Manzoni, R. A.; Martelli, A.; Marzocchi, B.; Menasce, D.; Moroni, L.; Paganoni, M.; Pedrini, D.; Ragazzi, S.; Redaelli, N.; Tabarelli de Fatis, T.; Buontempo, S.; Cavallo, N.; Di Guida, S.; Fabozzi, F.; Iorio, A. O. M.; Lista, L.; Meola, S.; Merola, M.; Paolucci, P.; Azzi, P.; Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; Branca, A.; Carlin, R.; Checchia, P.; Dall’Osso, M.; Dorigo, T.; Dosselli, U.; Galanti, M.; Gasparini, F.; Gasparini, U.; Giubilato, P.; Gozzelino, A.; Kanishchev, K.; Lacaprara, S.; Margoni, M.; Meneguzzo, A. T.; Pazzini, J.; Pozzobon, N.; Ronchese, P.; Simonetto, F.; Torassa, E.; Tosi, M.; Zotto, P.; Zucchetta, A.; Zumerle, G.; Gabusi, M.; Ratti, S. P.; Re, V.; Riccardi, C.; Salvini, P.; Vitulo, P.; Biasini, M.; Bilei, G. M.; Ciangottini, D.; Fanò, L.; Lariccia, P.; Mantovani, G.; Menichelli, M.; Saha, A.; Santocchia, A.; Spiezia, A.; Androsov, K.; Azzurri, P.; Bagliesi, G.; Bernardini, J.; Boccali, T.; Broccolo, G.; Castaldi, R.; Ciocci, M. A.; Dell’Orso, R.; Donato, S.; Fiori, F.; Foà, L.; Giassi, A.; Grippo, M. T.; Ligabue, F.; Lomtadze, T.; Martini, L.; Messineo, A.; Moon, C. S.; Palla, F.; Rizzi, A.; Savoy-Navarro, A.; Serban, A. T.; Spagnolo, P.; Squillacioti, P.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Vernieri, C.; Barone, L.; Cavallari, F.; D’imperio, G.; Del Re, D.; Diemoz, M.; Grassi, M.; Jorda, C.; Longo, E.; Margaroli, F.; Meridiani, P.; Micheli, F.; Nourbakhsh, S.; Organtini, G.; Paramatti, R.; Rahatlou, S.; Rovelli, C.; Santanastasio, F.; Soffi, L.; Traczyk, P.; Amapane, N.; Arcidiacono, R.; Argiro, S.; Arneodo, M.; Bellan, R.; Biino, C.; Cartiglia, N.; Casasso, S.; Costa, M.; Degano, A.; Demaria, N.; Finco, L.; Mariotti, C.; Maselli, S.; Migliore, E.; Monaco, V.; Musich, M.; Obertino, M. M.; Ortona, G.; Pacher, L.; Pastrone, N.; Pelliccioni, M.; Pinna Angioni, G. L.; Potenza, A.; Romero, A.; Ruspa, M.; Sacchi, R.; Solano, A.; Staiano, A.; Tamponi, U.; Belforte, S.; Candelise, V.; Casarsa, M.; Cossutti, F.; Della Ricca, G.; Gobbo, B.; La Licata, C.; Marone, M.; Schizzi, A.; Umer, T.; Zanetti, A.; Chang, S.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Nam, S. K.; Kim, D. H.; Kim, G. N.; Kim, M. S.; Kong, D. J.; Lee, S.; Oh, Y. D.; Park, H.; Sakharov, A.; Son, D. C.; Kim, T. J.; Kim, J. Y.; Song, S.; Choi, S.; Gyun, D.; Hong, B.; Jo, M.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.; Lee, B.; Lee, K. S.; Park, S. K.; Roh, Y.; Yoo, H. D.; Choi, M.; Kim, J. H.; Park, I. C.; Ryu, G.; Ryu, M. S.; Choi, Y.; Choi, Y. K.; Goh, J.; Kim, D.; Kwon, E.; Lee, J.; Seo, H.; Yu, I.; Juodagalvis, A.; Komaragiri, J. R.; Ali, M. A. B. Md; Castilla-Valdez, H.; De La Cruz-Burelo, E.; Heredia-de La Cruz, I.; Hernandez-Almada, A.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Sanchez-Hernandez, A.; Carrillo Moreno, S.; Vazquez Valencia, F.; Pedraza, I.; Salazar Ibarguen, H. A.; Casimiro Linares, E.; Morelos Pineda, A.; Krofcheck, D.; Butler, P. H.; Reucroft, S.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmad, M.; Hassan, Q.; Hoorani, H. R.; Khalid, S.; Khan, W. A.; Khurshid, T.; Shah, M. A.; Shoaib, M.; Bialkowska, H.; Bluj, M.; Boimska, B.; Frueboes, T.; Górski, M.; Kazana, M.; Nawrocki, K.; Romanowska-Rybinska, K.; Szleper, M.; Zalewski, P.; Brona, G.; Bunkowski, K.; Cwiok, M.; Dominik, W.; Doroba, K.; Kalinowski, A.; Konecki, M.; Krolikowski, J.; Misiura, M.; Olszewski, M.; Wolszczak, W.; Bargassa, P.; Beirão Da Cruz E Silva, C.; Faccioli, P.; Ferreira Parracho, P. G.; Gallinaro, M.; Lloret Iglesias, L.; Nguyen, F.; Rodrigues Antunes, J.; Seixas, J.; Varela, J.; Vischia, P.; Golutvin, I.; Gorbunov, I.; Kamenev, A.; Karjavin, V.; Konoplyanikov, V.; Kozlov, G.; Lanev, A.; Malakhov, A.; Matveev, V.; Moisenz, P.; Palichik, V.; Perelygin, V.; Savina, M.; Shmatov, S.; Shulha, S.; Skatchkov, N.; Smirnov, V.; Zarubin, A.; Golovtsov, V.; Ivanov, Y.; Kim, V.; Levchenko, P.; Murzin, V.; Oreshkin, V.; Smirnov, I.; Sulimov, V.; Uvarov, L.; Vavilov, S.; Vorobyev, A.; Vorobyev, An.; Andreev, Yu.; Dermenev, A.; Gninenko, S.; Golubev, N.; Kirsanov, M.; Krasnikov, N.; Pashenkov, A.; Tlisov, D.; Toropin, A.; Epshteyn, V.; Gavrilov, V.; Lychkovskaya, N.; Popov, V.; Safronov, G.; Semenov, S.; Spiridonov, A.; Stolin, V.; Vlasov, E.; Zhokin, A.; Andreev, V.; Azarkin, M.; Dremin, I.; Kirakosyan, M.; Leonidov, A.; Mesyats, G.; Rusakov, S. V.; Vinogradov, A.; Belyaev, A.; Boos, E.; Bunichev, V.; Dubinin, M.; Dudko, L.; Gribushin, A.; Klyukhin, V.; Kodolova, O.; Lokhtin, I.; Obraztsov, S.; Perfilov, M.; Savrin, V.; Snigirev, A.; Azhgirey, I.; Bayshev, I.; Bitioukov, S.; Kachanov, V.; Kalinin, A.; Konstantinov, D.; Krychkine, V.; Petrov, V.; Ryutin, R.; Sobol, A.; Tourtchanovitch, L.; Troshin, S.; Tyurin, N.; Uzunian, A.; Volkov, A.; Adzic, P.; Ekmedzic, M.; Milosevic, J.; Rekovic, V.; Alcaraz Maestre, J.; Battilana, C.; Calvo, E.; Cerrada, M.; Chamizo Llatas, M.; Colino, N.; De La Cruz, B.; Delgado Peris, A.; Domínguez Vázquez, D.; Escalante Del Valle, A.; Fernandez Bedoya, C.; Fernández Ramos, J. P.; Flix, J.; Fouz, M. C.; Garcia-Abia, P.; Gonzalez Lopez, O.; Goy Lopez, S.; Hernandez, J. M.; Josa, M. I.; Navarro De Martino, E.; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A.; Puerta Pelayo, J.; Quintario Olmeda, A.; Redondo, I.; Romero, L.; Soares, M. S.; Albajar, C.; de Trocóniz, J. F.; Missiroli, M.; Moran, D.; Brun, H.; Cuevas, J.; Fernandez Menendez, J.; Folgueras, S.; Gonzalez Caballero, I.; Brochero Cifuentes, J. A.; Cabrillo, I. J.; Calderon, A.; Duarte Campderros, J.; Fernandez, M.; Gomez, G.; Graziano, A.; Lopez Virto, A.; Marco, J.; Marco, R.; Martinez Rivero, C.; Matorras, F.; Munoz Sanchez, F. J.; Piedra Gomez, J.; Rodrigo, T.; Rodríguez-Marrero, A. Y.; Ruiz-Jimeno, A.; Scodellaro, L.; Vila, I.; Vilar Cortabitarte, R.; Abbaneo, D.; Auffray, E.; Auzinger, G.; Bachtis, M.; Baillon, P.; Ball, A. H.; Barney, D.; Benaglia, A.; Bendavid, J.; Benhabib, L.; Benitez, J. F.; Bernet, C.; Bloch, P.; Bocci, A.; Bonato, A.; Bondu, O.; Botta, C.; Breuker, H.; Camporesi, T.; Cerminara, G.; Colafranceschi, S.; D’Alfonso, M.; d’Enterria, D.; Dabrowski, A.; David, A.; De Guio, F.; De Roeck, A.; De Visscher, S.; Di Marco, E.; Dobson, M.; Dordevic, M.; Dorney, B.; Dupont-Sagorin, N.; Elliott-Peisert, A.; Eugster, J.; Franzoni, G.; Funk, W.; Gigi, D.; Gill, K.; Giordano, D.; Girone, M.; Glege, F.; Guida, R.; Gundacker, S.; Guthoff, M.; Hammer, J.; Hansen, M.; Harris, P.; Hegeman, J.; Innocente, V.; Janot, P.; Kousouris, K.; Krajczar, K.; Lecoq, P.; Lourenço, C.; Magini, N.; Malgeri, L.; Mannelli, M.; Marrouche, J.; Masetti, L.; Meijers, F.; Mersi, S.; Meschi, E.; Moortgat, F.; Morovic, S.; Mulders, M.; Musella, P.; Orsini, L.; Pape, L.; Perez, E.; Perrozzi, L.; Petrilli, A.; Petrucciani, G.; Pfeiffer, A.; Pierini, M.; Pimiä, M.; Piparo, D.; Plagge, M.; Racz, A.; Rolandi, G.; Rovere, M.; Sakulin, H.; Schäfer, C.; Schwick, C.; Sharma, A.; Siegrist, P.; Silva, P.; Simon, M.; Sphicas, P.; Spiga, D.; Steggemann, J.; Stieger, B.; Stoye, M.; Takahashi, Y.; Treille, D.; Tsirou, A.; Veres, G. I.; Wardle, N.; Wöhri, H. K.; Wollny, H.; Zeuner, W. D.; Bertl, W.; Deiters, K.; Erdmann, W.; Horisberger, R.; Ingram, Q.; Kaestli, H. C.; Kotlinski, D.; Langenegger, U.; Renker, D.; Rohe, T.; Bachmair, F.; Bäni, L.; Bianchini, L.; Buchmann, M. A.; Casal, B.; Chanon, N.; Dissertori, G.; Dittmar, M.; Donegà, M.; Dünser, M.; Eller, P.; Grab, C.; Hits, D.; Hoss, J.; Lustermann, W.; Mangano, B.; Marini, A. C.; Martinez Ruiz del Arbol, P.; Masciovecchio, M.; Meister, D.; Mohr, N.; Nägeli, C.; Nessi-Tedaldi, F.; Pandolfi, F.; Pauss, F.; Peruzzi, M.; Quittnat, M.; Rebane, L.; Rossini, M.; Starodumov, A.; Takahashi, M.; Theofilatos, K.; Wallny, R.; Weber, H. A.; Amsler, C.; Canelli, M. F.; Chiochia, V.; De Cosa, A.; Hinzmann, A.; Hreus, T.; Kilminster, B.; Lange, C.; Millan Mejias, B.; Ngadiuba, J.; Robmann, P.; Ronga, F. J.; Taroni, S.; Verzetti, M.; Yang, Y.; Cardaci, M.; Chen, K. H.; Ferro, C.; Kuo, C. M.; Lin, W.; Lu, Y. J.; Volpe, R.; Yu, S. S.; Chang, P.; Chang, Y. H.; Chang, Y. W.; Chao, Y.; Chen, K. F.; Chen, P. H.; Dietz, C.; Grundler, U.; Hou, W. -S.; Kao, K. Y.; Lei, Y. J.; Liu, Y. F.; Lu, R. -S.; Majumder, D.; Petrakou, E.; Tzeng, Y. M.; Wilken, R.; Asavapibhop, B.; Singh, G.; Srimanobhas, N.; Suwonjandee, N.; Adiguzel, A.; Bakirci, M. N.; Cerci, S.; Dozen, C.; Dumanoglu, I.; Eskut, E.; Girgis, S.; Gokbulut, G.; Gurpinar, E.; Hos, I.; Kangal, E. E.; Kayis Topaksu, A.; Onengut, G.; Ozdemir, K.; Ozturk, S.; Polatoz, A.; Sunar Cerci, D.; Tali, B.; Topakli, H.; Vergili, M.; Akin, I. V.; Bilin, B.; Bilmis, S.; Gamsizkan, H.; Karapinar, G.; Ocalan, K.; Sekmen, S.; Surat, U. E.; Yalvac, M.; Zeyrek, M.; Gülmez, E.; Isildak, B.; Kaya, M.; Kaya, O.; Cankocak, K.; Vardarlı, F. I.; Levchuk, L.; Sorokin, P.; Brooke, J. J.; Clement, E.; Cussans, D.; Flacher, H.; Goldstein, J.; Grimes, M.; Heath, G. P.; Heath, H. F.; Jacob, J.; Kreczko, L.; Lucas, C.; Meng, Z.; Newbold, D. M.; Paramesvaran, S.; Poll, A.; Senkin, S.; Smith, V. J.; Williams, T.; Bell, K. W.; Belyaev, A.; Brew, C.; Brown, R. M.; Cockerill, D. J. A.; Coughlan, J. A.; Harder, K.; Harper, S.; Olaiya, E.; Petyt, D.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C. H.; Thea, A.; Tomalin, I. R.; Womersley, W. J.; Worm, S. D.; Baber, M.; Bainbridge, R.; Buchmuller, O.; Burton, D.; Colling, D.; Cripps, N.; Cutajar, M.; Dauncey, P.; Davies, G.; Della Negra, M.; Dunne, P.; Ferguson, W.; Fulcher, J.; Futyan, D.; Gilbert, A.; Hall, G.; Iles, G.; Jarvis, M.; Karapostoli, G.; Kenzie, M.; Lane, R.; Lucas, R.; Lyons, L.; Magnan, A. -M.; Malik, S.; Mathias, B.; Nash, J.; Nikitenko, A.; Pela, J.; Pesaresi, M.; Petridis, K.; Raymond, D. M.; Rogerson, S.; Rose, A.; Seez, C.; Sharp, P.; Tapper, A.; Vazquez Acosta, M.; Virdee, T.; Zenz, S. C.; Cole, J. E.; Hobson, P. R.; Khan, A.; Kyberd, P.; Leggat, D.; Leslie, D.; Martin, W.; Reid, I. D.; Symonds, P.; Teodorescu, L.; Turner, M.; Dittmann, J.; Hatakeyama, K.; Kasmi, A.; Liu, H.; Scarborough, T.; Charaf, O.; Cooper, S. I.; Henderson, C.; Rumerio, P.; Avetisyan, A.; Bose, T.; Fantasia, C.; Lawson, P.; Richardson, C.; Rohlf, J.; John, J. St.; Sulak, L.; Alimena, J.; Berry, E.; Bhattacharya, S.; Christopher, G.; Cutts, D.; Demiragli, Z.; Dhingra, N.; Ferapontov, A.; Garabedian, A.; Heintz, U.; Kukartsev, G.; Laird, E.; Landsberg, G.; Luk, M.; Narain, M.; Segala, M.; Sinthuprasith, T.; Speer, T.; Swanson, J.; Breedon, R.; Breto, G.; Calderon De La Barca Sanchez, M.; Chauhan, S.; Chertok, M.; Conway, J.; Conway, R.; Cox, P. T.; Erbacher, R.; Gardner, M.; Ko, W.; Lander, R.; Miceli, T.; Mulhearn, M.; Pellett, D.; Pilot, J.; Ricci-Tam, F.; Searle, M.; Shalhout, S.; Smith, J.; Squires, M.; Stolp, D.; Tripathi, M.; Wilbur, S.; Yohay, R.; Cousins, R.; Everaerts, P.; Farrell, C.; Hauser, J.; Ignatenko, M.; Rakness, G.; Takasugi, E.; Valuev, V.; Weber, M.; Burt, K.; Clare, R.; Ellison, J.; Gary, J. W.; Hanson, G.; Heilman, J.; Ivova Rikova, M.; Jandir, P.; Kennedy, E.; Lacroix, F.; Long, O. R.; Luthra, A.; Malberti, M.; Nguyen, H.; Olmedo Negrete, M.; Shrinivas, A.; Sumowidagdo, S.; Wimpenny, S.; Andrews, W.; Branson, J. G.; Cerati, G. B.; Cittolin, S.; D’Agnolo, R. T.; Evans, D.; Holzner, A.; Kelley, R.; Klein, D.; Lebourgeois, M.; Letts, J.; Macneill, I.; Olivito, D.; Padhi, S.; Palmer, C.; Pieri, M.; Sani, M.; Sharma, V.; Simon, S.; Sudano, E.; Tadel, M.; Tu, Y.; Vartak, A.; Welke, C.; Würthwein, F.; Yagil, A.; Barge, D.; Bradmiller-Feld, J.; Campagnari, C.; Danielson, T.; Dishaw, A.; Dutta, V.; Flowers, K.; Franco Sevilla, M.; Geffert, P.; George, C.; Golf, F.; Gouskos, L.; Incandela, J.; Justus, C.; Mccoll, N.; Richman, J.; Stuart, D.; To, W.; West, C.; Yoo, J.; Apresyan, A.; Bornheim, A.; Bunn, J.; Chen, Y.; Duarte, J.; Mott, A.; Newman, H. B.; Pena, C.; Rogan, C.; Spiropulu, M.; Timciuc, V.; Vlimant, J. R.; Wilkinson, R.; Xie, S.; Zhu, R. Y.; Azzolini, V.; Calamba, A.; Carlson, B.; Ferguson, T.; Iiyama, Y.; Paulini, M.; Russ, J.; Vogel, H.; Vorobiev, I.; Cumalat, J. P.; Ford, W. T.; Gaz, A.; Luiggi Lopez, E.; Nauenberg, U.; Smith, J. G.; Stenson, K.; Ulmer, K. A.; Wagner, S. R.; Alexander, J.; Chatterjee, A.; Chu, J.; Dittmer, S.; Eggert, N.; Mirman, N.; Nicolas Kaufman, G.; Patterson, J. R.; Ryd, A.; Salvati, E.; Skinnari, L.; Sun, W.; Teo, W. D.; Thom, J.; Thompson, J.; Tucker, J.; Weng, Y.; Winstrom, L.; Wittich, P.; Winn, D.; Abdullin, S.; Albrow, M.; Anderson, J.; Apollinari, G.; Bauerdick, L. A. T.; Beretvas, A.; Berryhill, J.; Bhat, P. C.; Bolla, G.; Burkett, K.; Butler, J. N.; Cheung, H. W. K.; Chlebana, F.; Cihangir, S.; Elvira, V. D.; Fisk, I.; Freeman, J.; Gao, Y.; Gottschalk, E.; Gray, L.; Green, D.; Grünendahl, S.; Gutsche, O.; Hanlon, J.; Hare, D.; Harris, R. M.; Hirschauer, J.; Hooberman, B.; Jindariani, S.; Johnson, M.; Joshi, U.; Kaadze, K.; Klima, B.; Kreis, B.; Kwan, S.; Linacre, J.; Lincoln, D.; Lipton, R.; Liu, T.; Lykken, J.; Maeshima, K.; Marraffino, J. M.; Martinez Outschoorn, V. I.; Maruyama, S.; Mason, D.; McBride, P.; Merkel, P.; Mishra, K.; Mrenna, S.; Musienko, Y.; Nahn, S.; Newman-Holmes, C.; O’Dell, V.; Prokofyev, O.; Sexton-Kennedy, E.; Sharma, S.; Soha, A.; Spalding, W. J.; Spiegel, L.; Taylor, L.; Tkaczyk, S.; Tran, N. V.; Uplegger, L.; Vaandering, E. W.; Vidal, R.; Whitbeck, A.; Whitmore, J.; Yang, F.; Acosta, D.; Avery, P.; Bortignon, P.; Bourilkov, D.; Carver, M.; Cheng, T.; Curry, D.; Das, S.; De Gruttola, M.; Di Giovanni, G. P.; Field, R. D.; Fisher, M.; Furic, I. K.; Hugon, J.; Konigsberg, J.; Korytov, A.; Kypreos, T.; Low, J. F.; Matchev, K.; Milenovic, P.; Mitselmakher, G.; Muniz, L.; Rinkevicius, A.; Shchutska, L.; Snowball, M.; Sperka, D.; Yelton, J.; Zakaria, M.; Hewamanage, S.; Linn, S.; Markowitz, P.; Martinez, G.; Rodriguez, J. L.; Adams, T.; Askew, A.; Bochenek, J.; Diamond, B.; Haas, J.; Hagopian, S.; Hagopian, V.; Johnson, K. F.; Prosper, H.; Veeraraghavan, V.; Weinberg, M.; Baarmand, M. M.; Hohlmann, M.; Kalakhety, H.; Yumiceva, F.; Adams, M. R.; Apanasevich, L.; Bazterra, V. E.; Berry, D.; Betts, R. R.; Bucinskaite, I.; Cavanaugh, R.; Evdokimov, O.; Gauthier, L.; Gerber, C. E.; Hofman, D. J.; Khalatyan, S.; Kurt, P.; Moon, D. H.; O’Brien, C.; Silkworth, C.; Turner, P.; Varelas, N.; Albayrak, E. A.; Bilki, B.; Clarida, W.; Dilsiz, K.; Duru, F.; Haytmyradov, M.; Merlo, J. -P.; Mermerkaya, H.; Mestvirishvili, A.; Moeller, A.; Nachtman, J.; Ogul, H.; Onel, Y.; Ozok, F.; Penzo, A.; Rahmat, R.; Sen, S.; Tan, P.; Tiras, E.; Wetzel, J.; Yetkin, T.; Yi, K.; Barnett, B. A.; Blumenfeld, B.; Bolognesi, S.; Fehling, D.; Gritsan, A. V.; Maksimovic, P.; Martin, C.; Swartz, M.; Baringer, P.; Bean, A.; Benelli, G.; Bruner, C.; Kenny, R. P.; Malek, M.; Murray, M.; Noonan, D.; Sanders, S.; Sekaric, J.; Stringer, R.; Wang, Q.; Wood, J. S.; Chakaberia, I.; Ivanov, A.; Khalil, S.; Makouski, M.; Maravin, Y.; Saini, L. K.; Shrestha, S.; Skhirtladze, N.; Svintradze, I.; Gronberg, J.; Lange, D.; Rebassoo, F.; Wright, D.; Baden, A.; Belloni, A.; Calvert, B.; Eno, S. C.; Gomez, J. A.; Hadley, N. J.; Kellogg, R. G.; Kolberg, T.; Lu, Y.; Marionneau, M.; Mignerey, A. C.; Pedro, K.; Skuja, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Tonwar, S. C.; Apyan, A.; Barbieri, R.; Bauer, G.; Busza, W.; Cali, I. A.; Chan, M.; Di Matteo, L.; Gomez Ceballos, G.; Goncharov, M.; Gulhan, D.; Klute, M.; Lai, Y. S.; Lee, Y. -J.; Levin, A.; Luckey, P. D.; Ma, T.; Paus, C.; Ralph, D.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Stöckli, F.; Sumorok, K.; Velicanu, D.; Veverka, J.; Wyslouch, B.; Yang, M.; Zanetti, M.; Zhukova, V.; Dahmes, B.; Gude, A.; Kao, S. C.; Klapoetke, K.; Kubota, Y.; Mans, J.; Pastika, N.; Rusack, R.; Singovsky, A.; Tambe, N.; Turkewitz, J.; Acosta, J. G.; Oliveros, S.; Avdeeva, E.; Bloom, K.; Bose, S.; Claes, D. R.; Dominguez, A.; Gonzalez Suarez, R.; Keller, J.; Knowlton, D.; Kravchenko, I.; Lazo-Flores, J.; Malik, S.; Meier, F.; Snow, G. R.; Zvada, M.; Dolen, J.; Godshalk, A.; Iashvili, I.; Kharchilava, A.; Kumar, A.; Rappoccio, S.; Alverson, G.; Barberis, E.; Baumgartel, D.; Chasco, M.; Haley, J.; Massironi, A.; Morse, D. M.; Nash, D.; Orimoto, T.; Trocino, D.; Wang, R. -J.; Wood, D.; Zhang, J.; Hahn, K. A.; Kubik, A.; Mucia, N.; Odell, N.; Pollack, B.; Pozdnyakov, A.; Schmitt, M.; Stoynev, S.; Sung, K.; Velasco, M.; Won, S.; Brinkerhoff, A.; Chan, K. M.; Drozdetskiy, A.; Hildreth, M.; Jessop, C.; Karmgard, D. J.; Kellams, N.; Lannon, K.; Luo, W.; Lynch, S.; Marinelli, N.; Pearson, T.; Planer, M.; Ruchti, R.; Valls, N.; Wayne, M.; Wolf, M.; Woodard, A.; Antonelli, L.; Brinson, J.; Bylsma, B.; Durkin, L. S.; Flowers, S.; Hart, A.; Hill, C.; Hughes, R.; Kotov, K.; Ling, T. Y.; Puigh, D.; Rodenburg, M.; Smith, G.; Winer, B. L.; Wolfe, H.; Wulsin, H. W.; Driga, O.; Elmer, P.; Hebda, P.; Hunt, A.; Koay, S. A.; Lujan, P.; Marlow, D.; Medvedeva, T.; Mooney, M.; Olsen, J.; Piroué, P.; Quan, X.; Saka, H.; Stickland, D.; Tully, C.; Werner, J. S.; Zuranski, A.; Brownson, E.; Mendez, H.; Ramirez Vargas, J. E.; Barnes, V. E.; Benedetti, D.; Bortoletto, D.; De Mattia, M.; Gutay, L.; Hu, Z.; Jha, M. K.; Jones, M.; Jung, K.; Kress, M.; Leonardo, N.; Lopes Pegna, D.; Maroussov, V.; Miller, D. H.; Neumeister, N.; Radburn-Smith, B. C.; Shi, X.; Shipsey, I.; Silvers, D.; Svyatkovskiy, A.; Wang, F.; Xie, W.; Xu, L.; Zablocki, J.; Zheng, Y.; Parashar, N.; Stupak, J.; Adair, A.; Akgun, B.; Ecklund, K. M.; Geurts, F. J. M.; Li, W.; Michlin, B.; Padley, B. P.; Redjimi, R.; Roberts, J.; Zabel, J.; Betchart, B.; Bodek, A.; Covarelli, R.; de Barbaro, P.; Demina, R.; Eshaq, Y.; Ferbel, T.; Garcia-Bellido, A.; Goldenzweig, P.; Han, J.; Harel, A.; Khukhunaishvili, A.; Petrillo, G.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Ciesielski, R.; Demortier, L.; Goulianos, K.; Lungu, G.; Mesropian, C.; Arora, S.; Barker, A.; Chou, J. P.; Contreras-Campana, C.; Contreras-Campana, E.; Duggan, D.; Ferencek, D.; Gershtein, Y.; Gray, R.; Halkiadakis, E.; Hidas, D.; Kaplan, S.; Lath, A.; Panwalkar, S.; Park, M.; Patel, R.; Salur, S.; Schnetzer, S.; Somalwar, S.; Stone, R.; Thomas, S.; Thomassen, P.; Walker, M.; Rose, K.; Spanier, S.; York, A.; Bouhali, O.; Castaneda Hernandez, A.; Eusebi, R.; Flanagan, W.; Gilmore, J.; Kamon, T.; Khotilovich, V.; Krutelyov, V.; Montalvo, R.; Osipenkov, I.; Pakhotin, Y.; Perloff, A.; Roe, J.; Rose, A.; Safonov, A.; Sakuma, T.; Suarez, I.; Tatarinov, A.; Akchurin, N.; Cowden, C.; Damgov, J.; Dragoiu, C.; Dudero, P. R.; Faulkner, J.; Kovitanggoon, K.; Kunori, S.; Lee, S. W.; Libeiro, T.; Volobouev, I.; Appelt, E.; Delannoy, A. G.; Greene, S.; Gurrola, A.; Johns, W.; Maguire, C.; Mao, Y.; Melo, A.; Sharma, M.; Sheldon, P.; Snook, B.; Tuo, S.; Velkovska, J.; Arenton, M. W.; Boutle, S.; Cox, B.; Francis, B.; Goodell, J.; Hirosky, R.; Ledovskoy, A.; Li, H.; Lin, C.; Neu, C.; Wood, J.; Clarke, C.; Harr, R.; Karchin, P. E.; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C.; Lamichhane, P.; Sturdy, J.; Belknap, D. A.; Carlsmith, D.; Cepeda, M.; Dasu, S.; Dodd, L.; Duric, S.; Friis, E.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Herndon, M.; Hervé, A.; Klabbers, P.; Lanaro, A.; Lazaridis, C.; Levine, A.; Loveless, R.; Mohapatra, A.; Ojalvo, I.; Perry, T.; Pierro, G. A.; Polese, G.; Ross, I.; Sarangi, T.; Savin, A.; Smith, W. H.; Taylor, D.; Verwilligen, P.; Vuosalo, C.; Woods, N.

    2015-04-07

    Dimuon and dielectron mass spectra, obtained from data resulting from proton-proton collisions at 8 TeV and recorded by the CMS experiment, are used to search for both narrow resonances and broad deviations from standard model predictions. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 20.6 (19.7) fb–1 for the dimuon (dielectron) channel. No evidence for non-standard-model physics is observed and 95% confidence level limits are set on parameters from a number of new physics models. The narrow resonance analyses exclude a Sequential Standard Model Z SSM ' resonance lighter than 2.90 TeV, a superstring-inspired Z ψ ' lighter than 2.57 TeV, and Randall-Sundrum Kaluza-Klein gravitons with masses below 2.73, 2.35, and 1.27 TeV for couplings of 0.10, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively. A notable feature is that the limits have been calculated in a model-independent way to enable straightforward reinterpretation in any model predicting a resonance structure. The observed events are also interpreted within the framework of two non-resonant analyses: one based on a large extra dimensions model and one based on a quark and lepton compositeness model with a left-left isoscalar contact interaction. Lower limits are established on MS, the scale characterizing the onset of quantum gravity, which range from 4.9 to 3.3 TeV, where the number of additional spatial dimensions varies from 3 to 7. Thus lower limits on Λ, the energy scale parameter for the contact interaction, are found to be 12.0 (15.2) TeV for destructive (constructive) interference in the dimuon channel and 13.5 (18.3) TeV in the dielectron channel.

  8. Search for physics beyond the standard model in dilepton mass spectra in proton-proton collisions at √s = 8 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; ...

    2015-04-07

    Dimuon and dielectron mass spectra, obtained from data resulting from proton-proton collisions at 8 TeV and recorded by the CMS experiment, are used to search for both narrow resonances and broad deviations from standard model predictions. The data correspond to an integrated luminosity of 20.6 (19.7) fb–1 for the dimuon (dielectron) channel. No evidence for non-standard-model physics is observed and 95% confidence level limits are set on parameters from a number of new physics models. The narrow resonance analyses exclude a Sequential Standard Model Z SSM ' resonance lighter than 2.90 TeV, a superstring-inspired Z ψ ' lighter than 2.57more » TeV, and Randall-Sundrum Kaluza-Klein gravitons with masses below 2.73, 2.35, and 1.27 TeV for couplings of 0.10, 0.05, and 0.01, respectively. A notable feature is that the limits have been calculated in a model-independent way to enable straightforward reinterpretation in any model predicting a resonance structure. The observed events are also interpreted within the framework of two non-resonant analyses: one based on a large extra dimensions model and one based on a quark and lepton compositeness model with a left-left isoscalar contact interaction. Lower limits are established on MS, the scale characterizing the onset of quantum gravity, which range from 4.9 to 3.3 TeV, where the number of additional spatial dimensions varies from 3 to 7. Thus lower limits on Λ, the energy scale parameter for the contact interaction, are found to be 12.0 (15.2) TeV for destructive (constructive) interference in the dimuon channel and 13.5 (18.3) TeV in the dielectron channel.« less

  9. Comparing Multiple Reaction Monitoring and Sequential Window Acquisition of All Theoretical Mass Spectra for the Relative Quantification of Barley Gluten in Selectively Bred Barley Lines.

    PubMed

    Colgrave, Michelle L; Byrne, Keren; Blundell, Malcolm; Heidelberger, Sibylle; Lane, Catherine S; Tanner, Gregory J; Howitt, Crispin A

    2016-09-20

    Celiac disease (CD) is a disease of the small intestine that occurs in genetically susceptible subjects triggered by the ingestion of cereal gluten proteins for which the only treatment is strict adherence to a life-long gluten-free diet. Barley contains four gluten protein families, and the existence of barley genotypes that do not accumulate the B-, C-, and D-hordeins paved the way for the development of an ultralow gluten phenotype. Using conventional breeding strategies, three null mutations behaving as recessive alleles were combined to create a hordein triple-null barley variety. Proteomics has become an invaluable tool for characterization and quantification of the protein complement of cereal grains. In this study multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mass spectrometry, viewed as the gold standard for peptide quantification, was compared to the data-independent acquisition strategy known as SWATH-MS (sequential window acquisition of all theoretical mass spectra). SWATH-MS was comparable (p < 0.001) to MRM-MS for 32/33 peptides assessed across the four families of hordeins (gluten) in eight barley lines. The results of SWATH-MS analysis further confirmed the absence of the B-, C-, and D-hordeins in the triple-null barley line and showed significantly reduced levels ranging from <1% to 16% relative to wild-type (WT) cv Sloop for the minor γ-hordein class. SWATH-MS represents a valuable tool for quantitative proteomics based on its ability to generate reproducible data comparable with MRM-MS, but has the added benefits of allowing reinterrogation of data to improve analytical performance, ask new questions, and in this case perform quantification of trypsin-resistant proteins (C-hordeins) through analysis of their semi- or nontryptic fragments.

  10. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight tandem mass spectra of poly(butylene adipate).

    PubMed

    Rizzarelli, Paola; Puglisi, Concetto; Montaudo, Giorgio

    2006-01-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS) was employed to analyze four poly(butylene adipate) (PBAd) oligomers and to investigate their fragmentation pathways as a continuation of our work on the MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS study of synthetic polymers. MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS analysis was performed on oligomers terminated by carboxyl and hydroxyl groups, methyl adipate and hydroxyl groups, dihydroxyl groups, and dicarboxyl groups. The sodium adducts of these oligomers were selected as precursor ions. Different end groups do not influence the fragmentation of sodiated polyester oligomers and similar series of product ions were observed in all the MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS/MS spectra. According to the structures of the most abundant product ions identified in the present work, three fragmentation pathways have been proposed to occur most frequently in PBAd: beta-hydrogen-transfer rearrangement, leading to the selective cleavage of the --O--CH(2)-- bonds; --CH(2)--CH(2)-- (beta--beta) bond cleavage in the adipate moiety; and ester bond scission.

  11. A Simple Approach for Obtaining High Resolution, High Sensitivity ¹H NMR Metabolite Spectra of Biofluids with Limited Mass Supply

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jian Zhi; Rommereim, Donald N.; Wind, Robert A.; Minard, Kevin R.; Sears, Jesse A.

    2006-11-01

    A simple approach is reported that yields high resolution, high sensitivity ¹H NMR spectra of biofluids with limited mass supply. This is achieved by spinning a capillary sample tube containing a biofluid at the magic angle at a frequency of about 80Hz. A 2D pulse sequence called ¹H PASS is then used to produce a high-resolution ¹H NMR spectrum that is free from magnetic susceptibility induced line broadening. With this new approach a high resolution ¹H NMR spectrum of biofluids with a volume less than 1.0 µl can be easily achieved at a magnetic field strength as low as 7.05T. Furthermore, the methodology facilitates easy sample handling, i.e., the samples can be directly collected into inexpensive and disposable capillary tubes at the site of collection and subsequently used for NMR measurements. In addition, slow magic angle spinning improves magnetic field shimming and is especially suitable for high throughput investigations. In this paper first results are shown obtained in a magnetic field of 7.05T on urine samples collected from mice using a modified commercial NMR probe.

  12. Mass Spectra and Yields of Intact Charged Biomolecules Ejected by Massive Cluster Impact for Bioimaging in a Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Microscope.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jitao; Franzreb, Klaus; Aksyonov, Sergei A; Williams, Peter

    2015-11-03

    Impacts of massive, highly charged glycerol clusters (≳10(6) Da, ≳ ± 100 charges) have been used to eject intact charged molecules of peptides, lipids, and small proteins from pure solid samples, enabling imaging using these ion species in a time-of-flight secondary ion microscope with few-micrometer spatial resolution. Here, we report mass spectra and useful ion yields (ratio of intact charged molecules detected to molecules sputtered) for several molecular species-two peptides, bradykinin and angiotensin II; two lipids, phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin; Irganox 1010 (a detergent); insulin; and rhodamine B-and show that useful ion yields are high enough to enable bioimaging of peptides and lipids in biological samples with few-micrometer resolution and acceptable signals. For example, several hundred molecular ion counts should be detectable from a 3 × 3 μm(2) area of a pure lipid bilayer given appropriate instrumentation or tens of counts from a minor constituent of such a layer.

  13. Correlating mass physical properties with ALOS reflectance spectra for intertidal sediments from the Ba Lat Estuary (northern Vietnam): an exploratory laboratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ngoc, Nguyen Thi; Koike, Katsuaki; Tue, Nguyen Tai

    2013-08-01

    Characterization of the sediment composition of tidal flats and monitoring of their spatiotemporal changes has become an important part of the sustainable management of coastal environments. To accurately classify sediments through remote sensing, a comprehensive understanding of sediment reflectance spectra is indispensable. The present laboratory-based study explores the performance of the high spatial resolution (10 × 10 m) Advanced Land Observing Satellite (ALOS) launched in 2006. Relationships between reflectance spectra (bands 1 to 4) and four typical mass physical properties were investigated under wet and dry experimental conditions for intertidal sediments sampled near the Ba Lat Estuary in northern Vietnam. Reflectance in the near-infrared region corresponding to ALOS band 4 (0.76-0.89 μm) was found (1) to have a strong negative correlation with sand content (dry wt%) under both wet and dry conditions (linear correlation coefficient r = -0.7859 and -0.8094, respectively), (2) to increase with decreasing relative water content (%) in a given sediment type (r = -0.7748 to -0.9367 for mud, sandy mud, muddy sand, and sand), (3) to have a positive correlation with organic matter content (r = 0.7610 and 0.6460 under wet and dry conditions for contents >0.20 dry wt%), and (4) to be insignificantly correlated with mineral composition assessed in terms of contents (wt%) of quartz, clay minerals, and mica group minerals. Positive relationships between reflectance and water content for the pooled data of all sediment types (r = 0.6395) or organic matter content contrast with previous findings, and can be attributed to close interrelationships between these properties and the predominance of sand content as controlling factor of reflectance. This study clarifies that ALOS band 4 provides the most useful imagery for intertidal monitoring because its reflectance, as simulated using the laboratory data, shows the strongest correlation with sand content. In a next step

  14. An Automated, Low Mass, Low Power Drill for Acquiring Subsurface Samples of Ground Ice for Astrobiology Studies on Earth and on Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, G. A.; McKay, C.; George, J.; Derkowski, G.; Cooper, G.; Zacny, K.; Baker, R. Fincher; Pollard, W.; Clifford, S.

    2003-01-01

    As a project that is part of NASA s Astrobiology Technology & Instrument Development Program (ASTID), we are developing a low mass (approx.20kg) drill that will be operated without drilling fluids and at very low power levels (approx.60 watts electrical) to access and retrieve samples from permafrost regions of Earth and Mars. The drill, designed and built as a joint effort by NASA JSC and Baker-Hughes International, takes the form of a down-hole unit attached to a cable so that it can, in principle, be scaled easily to reach significant depths. A parallel laboratory effort is being carried out at UC Berkeley to characterize the physics of dry drilling under martian conditions of pressure, temperature and atmospheric composition. Data from the UCB and JSC laboratory experiments are being used as input to a drill simulation program which is under development to provide autonomous control of the drill. The first Arctic field test of the unit is planned for May 2004. A field expedition to Eureka on Ellesmere Island in Spring 2003 provided an introduction for several team members to the practical aspects of drilling under Arctic conditions. The field effort was organized by Wayne Pollard of McGill University and Christopher McKay of NASA ARC. A conventional science drill provided by New Zealand colleagues was used to recover ground ice cores for analysis of their microbial content and also to develop techniques using tracers to track the depth of penetration of contamination from the core surface into the interior of the samples.

  15. Inequality spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliazar, Iddo

    2017-03-01

    Inequality indices are widely applied in economics and in the social sciences as quantitative measures of the socioeconomic inequality of human societies. The application of inequality indices extends to size-distributions at large, where these indices can be used as general gauges of statistical heterogeneity. Moreover, as inequality indices are plentiful, arrays of such indices facilitate high-detail quantification of statistical heterogeneity. In this paper we elevate from arrays of inequality indices to inequality spectra: continuums of inequality indices that are parameterized by a single control parameter. We present a general methodology of constructing Lorenz-based inequality spectra, apply the general methodology to establish four sets of inequality spectra, investigate the properties of these sets, and show how these sets generalize known inequality gauges such as: the Gini index, the extended Gini index, the Rényi index, and hill curves.

  16. Rock Outcrop Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The color image on the lower left shows a rock outcrop at Meridiani Planum, Mars. This image was taken by the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity, looking north, and was acquired on the 4th sol, or martian day, of the rover's mission (Jan. 27, 2004). The yellow box outlines an area detailed in the top left image, which is a monochrome (single filter) image from the rover's panoramic camera. The top image uses solid colors to show several regions on or near the rock outcrop from which spectra were extracted: the dark soil above the outcrop (yellow), the distant horizon surface (aqua), a bright rock in the outcrop (green), a darker rock in the outcrop (red), and a small dark cobblestone (blue). Spectra from these regions are shown in the plot to the right.

  17. Acquired Idiopathic Generalized Anhidrosis.

    PubMed

    Gangadharan, Geethu; Criton, Sebastian; Surendran, Divya

    2015-01-01

    Acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis is a rare condition, where the exact pathomechanism is unknown. We report a case of acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis in a patient who later developed lichen planus. Here an autoimmune-mediated destruction of sweat glands may be the probable pathomechanism.

  18. LABORATORY-ACQUIRED MYCOSES

    DTIC Science & Technology

    laboratory- acquired mycoses . Insofar as possible, the etiological fungus, type of laboratory, classification of personnel, type of work conducted, and other...pertinent data have been listed in this study. More than 288 laboratory- acquired mycoses are described here, including 108 cases of

  19. Acquired inflammatory demyelinating neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Ensrud, E R; Krivickas, L S

    2001-05-01

    The acquired demyelinating neuropathies can be divided into those with an acute onset and course and those with a more chronic course. The acute neuropathies present as Guillain-Barré syndrome and include acute inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (AIDP), Miller Fisher syndrome, acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), acute motor and sensory axonal neuropathy (AMSAN), and acute pandysautonomia. The chronic neuropathies are collectively known as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) and include MADSAM (multifocal acquired demyelinating sensory and motor neuropathy, also know as Lewis-Sumner syndrome) and DADS (distal acquired demyelinating symmetric neuropathy) as variants. The clinical features, pathology, pathogenesis, diagnosis, treatment, rehabilitation, and prognosis of these neuropathies are discussed.

  20. Acquired color vision deficiency.

    PubMed

    Simunovic, Matthew P

    2016-01-01

    Acquired color vision deficiency occurs as the result of ocular, neurologic, or systemic disease. A wide array of conditions may affect color vision, ranging from diseases of the ocular media through to pathology of the visual cortex. Traditionally, acquired color vision deficiency is considered a separate entity from congenital color vision deficiency, although emerging clinical and molecular genetic data would suggest a degree of overlap. We review the pathophysiology of acquired color vision deficiency, the data on its prevalence, theories for the preponderance of acquired S-mechanism (or tritan) deficiency, and discuss tests of color vision. We also briefly review the types of color vision deficiencies encountered in ocular disease, with an emphasis placed on larger or more detailed clinical investigations.

  1. Mass loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldberg, Leo

    1987-01-01

    Observational evidence for mass loss from cool stars is reviewed. Spectra line profiles are used for the derivation of mass-loss rates with the aid of the equation of continuity. This equation implies steady mass loss with spherical symmetry. Data from binary stars, Mira variables, and red giants in globular clusters are examined. Silicate emission is discussed as a useful indicator of mass loss in the middle infrared spectra. The use of thermal millimeter-wave radiation, Very Large Array (VLA) measurement of radio emission, and OH/IR masers are discussed as a tool for mass loss measurement. Evidence for nonsteady mass loss is also reviewed.

  2. A REVISED CALIBRATION OF THE VIRIAL MASS ESTIMATOR FOR BLACK HOLES IN ACTIVE GALAXIES BASED ON SINGLE-EPOCH Hβ SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, Luis C.; Kim, Minjin

    2015-08-20

    The masses of supermassive black holes (BHs) in broad-line active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can be measured through reverberation mapping, but this method currently cannot be applied to very large samples or to high-redshift AGNs. As a practical alternative, one can devise empirical scaling relations, based on the correlation between broad-line region size and AGN luminosity and the relation between BH mass and bulge stellar velocity dispersion, to estimate the virial masses of BHs from single-epoch spectroscopy. We present a revised calibration of the BH mass estimator for the commonly used Hβ emission line. Our new calibration takes into account the recent determination of the virial coefficient for pseudo and classical bulges.

  3. DETERMINATION OF ION AND NEUTRAL LOSS COMPOSITIONS AND DECONVOLUTION OF PRODUCT ION MASS SPECTRA USING AN ORTHOGONAL ACCELERATION, TIME-OF-FLIGHT MASS SPECTROMETER AND AN ION CORRELATION PROGRAM

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exact masses of monoisotopic ions and the relative isotopic abundances (RIAs) of ions greater in mass by 1 and 2 Da than the monoisotopic ion are independent and complementary physical properties useful for istinguishing among ion compositions possible for a given nominal mass. U...

  4. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Besser, Martin W; MacDonald, Stephen G

    2016-01-01

    Acquired hypofibrinogenemia is most frequently caused by hemodilution and consumption of clotting factors. The aggressive replacement of fibrinogen has become one of the core principles of modern management of massive hemorrhage. The best method for determining the patient’s fibrinogen level remains controversial, and particularly in acquired dysfibrinogenemia, could have major therapeutic implications depending on which quantification method is chosen. This review introduces the available laboratory and point-of-care methods and discusses the relative advantages and limitations. It also discusses current strategies for the correction of hypofibrinogenemia. PMID:27713652

  5. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach.

  6. Analysis of writing inks on paper using direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Jones, Roger W; McClelland, John F

    2013-09-10

    Ink analysis is central to questioned document examination. We applied direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART MS) to ballpoint, gel, and fluid writing ink analysis. DART MS acquires the mass spectrum of an ink while it is still on a document without altering the appearance of the document. Spectra were acquired from ink on a variety of papers, and the spectrum of the blank paper could be subtracted out to produce a cleanly isolated ink spectrum in most cases. Only certain heavy or heavily processed papers interfered. The time since an ink is written on paper has a large effect on its spectrum. DART spectra change radically during the first few months after an ink is written as the more volatile components evaporate, but the spectra stabilize after that. A library-search study involving 166 well-aged inks assessed the ability to identify inks from their DART spectra. The aggregate success rate was 92%.

  7. Reflectance Spectra of Space Debris in GEO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schildknecht, T.; Vannanti, A.; Krag, H.; Erd, C.

    The space debris environment in the Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) region is mostly investigated by means of optical surveys. Such surveys revealed a considerable amount of debris in the size range of 10 centimeter to one meter. Some of these debris exhibit particularly high area-to-mass ratios as derived from the evolution of their orbits. In order to understand the nature and eventually the origin of these objects, observations allowing to derive physical characteristics like size, shape and material are required. Information on the shape and the attitude motion of a debris piece may be obtained by photometric light curves. The most promising technique to investigate the surface material properties is reflectance spectroscopy. This paper discusses preliminary results obtained from spectrometric observations of space debris in GEO. The observations were acquired at the 1-meter ESA Space Debris Telescope (ESASDT) on Tenerife with a low-resolution spectrograph in the wavelength range of 450-960 nm. The target objects were space debris of different types with brightness as small as magnitude 15. Some simple-shaped, intact "calibration objects" with known surface materials like the MSG-2 satellites were also observed. The spectra show shape variations expected to be caused by the different physical properties of the objects. The determination of the possible materials is still in a preliminary phase. Limitations of the acquisition process of the spectra and the subsequent analysis are discussed. Future steps planned for a better characterization of the debris from the observed data are briefly outlined.

  8. Acquired Brain Injury Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Stacey Hunter

    This paper reviews the Acquired Brain Injury (ABI) Program at Coastline Community College (California). The ABI Program is a two-year, for-credit educational curriculum designed to provide structured cognitive retraining for adults who have sustained an ABI due to traumatic (such as motor vehicle accident or fall) or non-traumatic(such as…

  9. Zero kinetic energy spectroscopy: mass-analyzed threshold ionization spectra of chromium sandwich complexes with alkylbenzenes, (η(6)-RPh)(2)Cr (R = Me, Et, i-Pr, t-Bu).

    PubMed

    Ketkov, Sergey Y; Selzle, Heinrich L; Cloke, F Geoffrey N; Markin, Gennady V; Shevelev, Yury A; Domrachev, Georgy A; Schlag, Edward W

    2010-10-28

    For over 25 years zero kinetic energy (ZEKE) spectroscopy has yielded a rich foundation of high-resolution results of molecular ions. This was based on the discovery in the late 60's of long-lived ion states throughout the ionization continuum of molecular ions. Here, an example is chosen from another fundamental system pioneered at this university. The mass-analyzed threshold ionization (MATI) spectra of jet-cooled chromium bisarene complexes (η(6)-RPh)(2)Cr (R = Me (1), Et (2), i-Pr (3), and t-Bu (4)) have been measured and interpreted on the basis of DFT calculations. The MATI spectra of complexes 1 and 2 appear to reveal features arising from ionizations of the isomers formed by the rotation of one arene ring relative to the other. The 1 and 2 MATI spectra show two intense peaks corresponding to the 0(0)(0) ionizations with inverse intensity ratios. As indicated by the DFT calculations, the intensity ratio change on going from 1 to 2 results from different isomers contributing to each MATI peak. The ionization energies corresponding to the 0(0)(0) peaks are 42746 ± 5 and 42809 ± 5 cm(-1) for compound 1 and 42379 ± 5 and 42463 ± 5 cm(-1) for complex 2. The 1 and 2 spectra show also the weaker features representing transitions to the vibrationally excited cationic levels, the signals of individual rotamers being detected and assigned on the basis of calculated vibrational frequencies. The MATI spectra of compounds 3 and 4 reveal only one strong peak because of close ionization potentials of the isomers contributing to the MATI signal. The 3 and 4 ionization energies are 42104 ± 5 and 41917 ± 5 cm(-1), respectively. The precise values of ionization energies obtained from the MATI spectra reveal a nonlinear dependence of the IE on the number of Me groups in the alkyl substituents of (η(6)-RPh)(2)Cr. This can be explained by an increase in the molecular zero point energies on methylation of the substituents.

  10. Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry for Extracting Spectra of N-Glycans Directly from Incubation Mixtures Following Glycan Release: Application to Glycans from Engineered Glycoforms of Intact, Folded HIV gp120

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harvey, David J.; Sobott, Frank; Crispin, Max; Wrobel, Antoni; Bonomelli, Camille; Vasiljevic, Snezana; Scanlan, Christopher N.; Scarff, Charlotte A.; Thalassinos, Konstantinos; Scrivens, James H.

    2011-03-01

    The analysis of glycosylation from native biological sources is often frustrated by the low abundances of available material. Here, ion mobility combined with electrospray ionization mass spectrometry have been used to extract the spectra of N-glycans released with PNGase F from a serial titration of recombinantly expressed envelope glycoprotein, gp120, from the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Analysis was also performed on gp120 expressed in the α-mannosidase inhibitor, and in a matched mammalian cell line deficient in GlcNAc transferase I. Without ion mobility separation, ESI spectra frequently contained no observable ions from the glycans whereas ions from other compounds such as detergents and residual buffer salts were abundant. After ion mobility separation on a Waters T-wave ion mobility mass spectrometer, the N-glycans fell into a unique region of the ion mobility/ m/z plot allowing their profiles to be extracted with good signal:noise ratios. This method allowed N-glycan profiles to be extracted from crude incubation mixtures with no clean-up even in the presence of surfactants such as NP40. Furthermore, this technique allowed clear profiles to be obtained from sub-microgram amounts of glycoprotein. Glycan profiles were similar to those generated by MALDI-TOF MS although they were more susceptible to double charging and fragmentation. Structural analysis could be accomplished by MS/MS experiments in either positive or negative ion mode but negative ion mode gave the most informative spectra and provided a reliable approach to the analysis of glycans from small amounts of glycoprotein.

  11. Hospital-acquired thrombocytopenia.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Christine M; Cuker, Adam

    2014-10-01

    The development of thrombocytopenia is common in hospitalized patients and is associated with increased mortality. Frequent and important causes of thrombocytopenia in hospitalized patients include etiologies related to the underlying illness for which the patient is admitted, such as infection and disseminated intravascular coagulation, and iatrogenic etiologies such as drug-induced immune thrombocytopenia, heparin-induced thrombocytopenia, posttransfusion purpura, hemodilution, major surgery, and extracorporeal circuitry. This review presents a brief discussion of the pathophysiology, distinguishing clinical features, and management of these etiologies, and provides a diagnostic approach to hospital-acquired thrombocytopenia that considers the timing and severity of the platelet count fall, the presence of hemorrhage or thrombosis, the clinical context, and the peripheral blood smear. This approach may offer guidance to clinicians in distinguishing among the various causes of hospital-acquired thrombocytopenia and providing management appropriate to the etiology.

  12. Desmosomes in acquired disease

    PubMed Central

    Stahley, Sara N.; Kowalczyk, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    Desmosomes are cell-cell junctions that mediate adhesion and couple the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to sites of cell-cell contact. This architectural arrangement functions to integrate adhesion and cytoskeletal elements of adjacent cells. The importance of this robust adhesion system is evident in numerous human diseases, both inherited and acquired, that occur when desmosome function is compromised. This review focuses on autoimmune and infectious diseases that impair desmosome function. In addition, we discuss emerging evidence that desmosomal genes are often misregulated in cancer. The emphasis of our discussion is placed on how human diseases inform our understanding of basic desmosome biology, and in turn, how fundamental advances in the cell biology of desmosomes may lead to new treatments for acquired diseases of the desmosome. PMID:25795143

  13. Desmosomes in acquired disease.

    PubMed

    Stahley, Sara N; Kowalczyk, Andrew P

    2015-06-01

    Desmosomes are cell-cell junctions that mediate adhesion and couple the intermediate filament cytoskeleton to sites of cell-cell contact. This architectural arrangement integrates adhesion and cytoskeletal elements of adjacent cells. The importance of this robust adhesion system is evident in numerous human diseases, both inherited and acquired, which occur when desmosome function is compromised. This review focuses on autoimmune and infectious diseases that impair desmosome function. In addition, we discuss emerging evidence that desmosomal genes are often misregulated in cancer. The emphasis of our discussion is placed on the way in which human diseases can inform our understanding of basic desmosome biology and in turn, the means by which fundamental advances in the cell biology of desmosomes might lead to new treatments for acquired diseases of the desmosome.

  14. Storm Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    portion is defined by the day/night boundary (known as the terminator).

    These two images illustrate only a small fraction of the information contained in a single LEISA scan, highlighting just one aspect of the power of infrared spectra for atmospheric studies.

  15. NASA Fuse Cycle 1 Program A100. FUV Spectra of Evolved Late-K and M Stars: Mass Loss revisited and Stellar Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harper, Graham M.

    2002-01-01

    Program A100 was awarded 50 ksec of FUSE observing time. Targets alpha TrA (K3 II) and gamma Cru (N13 III) were originally assigned 25 ksec each, to be observed in the medium aperture. Once the in-flight performance and telescope alignment problems were known, the observations were reprogrammed to optimized the scientific return of the program. alpha TrA was scheduled for 25 ksec observations in both the medium and large apertures. The principle aim of this program was to measure the stellar FUV line and continuum emission, in order to estimate the photoionization radiation field and to determine the level of stellar activity through the fluxes in the collisionally excited high temperature diagnostics: C III 977A and O VI 1032,1038A doublet. The medium aperture observations were obtained successfully while the large aperture observations were thought by Johns Hopkins University (JHU)to be lost to satellite problems. There was insufficient signal-to noise in the medium aperture short wavelength SiC channels to do quantitative science. The long wavelength LiF spectra are of high signal-to-noise (SN) and show pronounced emission lines near lambdalambda1100 - 1140A. Emission had been observed at these wavelength in low resolution and low SN ORFEUS-SPAS 11 spectra obtained by Dupree & Brickhouse (1998 ApJ 500, L33), however, they were unable to identify these features. One of the first problems faced in the early FUSE mission was establishing a reliable wavelength scale, especially between the different channels. With the medium aperture data in hand we decided to identify the features and thereby establish an absolute wavelength scale for the channels where the emission occurred. We first established that the emission was fluorescent. and then we constructed a fluorescent line formation model for all neutrals. and singly ionized species with atomic numbers up to 28, and the H2 molecule. We used datasets of radiative rates and energy levels which were as complete as

  16. Bootstrap classification and point-based feature selection from age-staged mouse cerebellum tissues of matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectra using a fuzzy rule-building expert system.

    PubMed

    Harrington, Peter B; Laurent, Claudine; Levinson, Douglas F; Levitt, Pat; Markey, Sanford P

    2007-09-19

    A bootstrap method for point-based detection of candidate biomarker peaks has been developed from pattern classifiers. Point-based detection methods are advantageous in comparison to peak-based methods. Peak determination and selection are problematic when spectral peaks are not baseline resolved or on a varying baseline. The benefit of point-based detection is that peaks can be globally determined from the characteristic features of the entire data set (i.e., subsets of candidate points) as opposed to the traditional method of selecting peaks from individual spectra and then combining the peak list into a data set. The point-based method is demonstrated to be more effective and efficient using a synthetic data set when compared to using Mahalanobis distance for feature selection. In addition, probabilities that characterize the uniqueness of the peaks are determined. This method was applied for detecting peaks that characterize age-specific patterns of protein expression of developing and adult mouse cerebella from matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) data. The mice comprised three age groups: 42 adults, 19 14-day-old pups, and 16 7-day-old pups. Three sequential spectra were obtained from each tissue section to yield 126, 57 and 48 spectra for adult, 14-day-old pup, and 7-day-old pup spectra, respectively. Each spectrum comprised 71,879 mass measurements in a range of 3.5-50 kDa. A previous study revealed that 846 unique peaks were detected that were consistent for 50% of the mice in each age group (C. Laurent, D.F. Levinson, S.A. Schwartz, P.B. Harrington, S.P. Markey, R.M. Caprioli, P. Levitt, Direct profiling of the cerebellum by MALDI MS: a methodological study in postnatal and adult mouse, J. Neurosci. Res. 81 (2005) 613-621.). A fuzzy rule-building expert system (FuRES) was applied to investigate the correlation of age with features in the MS data. FuRES detected two outlier pup-14 spectra. Prediction was evaluated

  17. An ultra-tolerant database search reveals that a myriad of modified peptides contributes to unassigned spectra in shotgun proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Chick, Joel M.; Kolippakkam, Deepak; Nusinow, David P.; Zhai, Bo; Rad, Ramin; Huttlin, Edward L.; Gygi, Steven P.

    2015-01-01

    Fewer than half of all tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) spectra acquired in shotgun proteomics experiments are typically matched to a peptide with high confidence. Here we determine the identity of unassigned peptides using an ultra-tolerant Sequest database search that allows peptide matching even with modifications of unknown masses up to ±500 Da. In a proteome-wide dataset on HEK293 cells (9,513 proteins and 396,736 peptides), this approach matched an additional 184,000 modified peptides, which were linked to biological and chemical modifications representing 523 distinct mass bins, including phosphorylation, glycosylation, and methylation. We localized all unknown modification masses to specific regions within a peptide. Known modifications were assigned to the correct amino acids with frequencies often >90%. We conclude that at least one third of unassigned spectra arise from peptides with substoichiometric modifications. PMID:26076430

  18. Interpretation of the ion mass spectra in the mass per charge range 25-35 amu/e obtained in the inner coma of Halley's comet by the HIS-sensor of the Giotto IMS experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiss, J.; Altwegg, K.; Anders, E.; Balsiger, H.; Meier, A.; Shelley, E. G.; Ip, W.-H.; Rosenbauer, H.; Neugebauer, M.

    1991-01-01

    The IMS-HIS double-focusing mass spectrometer that flew on the Giotto spacecraft covered the mass per charge range from 12 to 56 (amu/e). By comparing flight data, calibration data and results of model calculations of the ion population in the inner coma, the absolute mass scale is established, and ions in the mass range 25 to 35 are identified. Ions resulting from protonation of molecules with high proton affinity are relatively abundant, enabling us to estimate relative source strengths for H2CO, CH3OH, HCN, and H2S, providing for the first time a positive in situ measurement of methanol. Also, upper limits for NO and some hydrocarbons are derived.

  19. Interpretation of the ion mass spectra in the mass range 25-35 obtained in the inner coma of Halley's comet by the HIS-sensor of the Giotto IMS Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geiss, J.; Altwegg, K.; Anders, E.; Balsiger, H.; Ip, W.-H.; Meier, A.; Neugebauer, M.; Rosenbauer, H.; Shelley, E. G.

    1991-01-01

    The IMS-HIS double-focussing mass spectrometer that flew on the Giotto spacecraft covered the mass per charge range from 12 to 56 (AMU/e). By comparing flight data, calibration data, and results of model calculations of the ion population in the inner coma, the absolute mass scale is established, and ions in the mass range 25 to 35 are identified. Ions resulting from protonation of molecules with high proton affinity are relatively abundant, enabling us to estimate relative source strengths for H2CO, CH3OH, HCN, and H2S, providing for the first time a positive in situ measurement of methanol. Also, upper limits for NO and some hydrocarbons are derived.

  20. Mass spectra of the heavy baryons {lambda}{sub Q} and {sigma}{sub Q}{sup (*)} from QCD sum rules

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jianrong; Huang Mingqiu

    2008-05-01

    We use QCD sum rule approach to calculate the masses of the ground-state {lambda}{sub Q} and {sigma}{sub Q}{sup (*)} baryons. Contributions of the operators up to dimension six are included in operator product expansion. The resulting heavy baryonic masses from the calculations are m{sub {lambda}{sub b}}=5.69{+-}0.13 GeV, and m{sub {lambda}{sub c}}=2.31{+-}0.19 GeV for {lambda}{sub Q}; m{sub {sigma}{sub b}}=5.73{+-}0.21 GeV, m{sub {sigma}{sub b}}{sub *}=5.81{+-}0.19 GeV, m{sub {sigma}{sub c}}=2.40{+-}0.31 GeV and m{sub {sigma}{sub c}}{sub *}=2.56{+-}0.24 GeV for {sigma}{sub Q}{sup (*)}, respectively, which are in good agreement with the experimental values.

  1. Background correction in separation techniques hyphenated to high-resolution mass spectrometry - Thorough correction with MS scans recorded as profile spectra.

    PubMed

    Erny, Guillaume L; Acunha, Tanize; Simó, Carolina; Cifuentes, Alejandro; Alves, Arminda

    2017-03-01

    Separation techniques hyphenated with high-resolution mass spectrometry have been a true revolution in analytical separation techniques. Such instruments not only provide unmatched resolution, but they also allow measuring the peaks accurate masses that permit identifying monoisotopic formulae. However, data files can be large, with a major contribution from background noise and background ions. Such unnecessary contribution to the overall signal can hide important features as well as decrease the accuracy of the centroid determination, especially with minor features. Thus, noise and baseline correction can be a valuable pre-processing step. The methodology that is described here, unlike any other approach, is used to correct the original dataset with the MS scans recorded as profiles spectrum. Using urine metabolic studies as examples, we demonstrate that this thorough correction reduces the data complexity by more than 90%. Such correction not only permits an improved visualisation of secondary peaks in the chromatographic domain, but it also facilitates the complete assignment of each MS scan which is invaluable to detect possible comigration/coeluting species.

  2. Profiling and classification of French propolis by combined multivariate data analysis of planar chromatograms and scanning direct analysis in real time mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Chasset, Thibaut; Häbe, Tim T; Ristivojevic, Petar; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2016-09-23

    Quality control of propolis is challenging, as it is a complex natural mixture of compounds, and thus, very difficult to analyze and standardize. Shown on the example of 30 French propolis samples, a strategy for an improved quality control was demonstrated in which high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) fingerprints were evaluated in combination with selected mass signals obtained by desorption-based scanning mass spectrometry (MS). The French propolis sample extracts were separated by a newly developed reversed phase (RP)-HPTLC method. The fingerprints obtained by two different detection modes, i.e. after (1) derivatization and fluorescence detection (FLD) at UV 366nm and (2) scanning direct analysis in real time (DART)-MS, were analyzed by multivariate data analysis. Thus, RP-HPTLC-FLD and RP-HPTLC-DART-MS fingerprints were explored and the best classification was obtained using both methods in combination with pattern recognition techniques, such as principal component analysis. All investigated French propolis samples were divided in two types and characteristic patterns were observed. Phenolic compounds such as caffeic acid, p-coumaric acid, chrysin, pinobanksin, pinobanksin-3-acetate, galangin, kaempferol, tectochrysin and pinocembrin were identified as characteristic marker compounds of French propolis samples. This study expanded the research on the European poplar type of propolis and confirmed the presence of two botanically different types of propolis, known as the blue and orange types.

  3. Acquired Factor V Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Hirai, Daisuke; Yamashita, Yugo; Masunaga, Nobutoyo; Katsura, Toshiaki; Akao, Masaharu; Okuno, Yoshiaki; Koyama, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitors directed against factor V rarely occur, and the clinical symptoms vary. We herein report the case of a patient who presented with a decreased factor V activity that had decreased to <3 %. We administered vitamin K and 6 units of fresh frozen plasma, but she thereafter developed an intracerebral hemorrhage. It is unclear whether surgery >10 years earlier might have caused the development of a factor V inhibitor. The treatment of acquired factor V inhibitors is mainly the transfusion of platelet concentrates and corticosteroids. Both early detection and the early initiation of the treatment of factor V inhibitor are thus considered to be important. PMID:27746446

  4. H2CN+ and H2CNH+: New insight into the structure and dynamics from mass-selected threshold photoelectron spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzmeier, Fabian; Lang, Melanie; Hader, Kilian; Hemberger, Patrick; Fischer, Ingo

    2013-06-01

    In this paper, we reinvestigate the photoionization of nitrogen containing reactive intermediates of the composition H2CN and H2CNH, molecules of importance in astrochemistry and biofuel combustion. In particular, H2CN is also of considerable interest to theory, because of its complicated potential energy surface. The species were generated by flash pyrolysis, ionized with vacuum ultraviolet synchrotron radiation, and studied by mass-selected threshold photoelectron (TPE) spectroscopy. In the mass-selected TPE-spectrum of m/z = 28, contributions of all four isomers of H2CN were identified. The excitation energy to the triplet cation of the methylene amidogen radical H2CN was determined to be 12.32 eV. Considerable activity in the C-N mode of the cation is visible. Furthermore, we derived values for excitation into the triplet cations of 11.72 eV for cis-HCNH, 12.65 eV for trans-HCNH, and 11.21 eV for H2NC. The latter values are probably accurate to within one vibrational quantum. The spectrum features an additional peak at 10.43 eV that corresponds to excitation into the C2v-symmetric H2CN+. As this structure constitutes a saddle point, the peak is assigned to an activated complex on the singlet potential energy surface of the cation, corresponding to a hydrogen atom migration. For methanimine, H2CNH, the adiabatic ionization energy IEad was determined to be 9.99 eV and the vibrational structure of the spectrum was analyzed in detail. The uncertainty of earlier values that simply assigned the signal onset to the IEad is thus considerably reduced. The spectrum is dominated by the H-N-C bending mode ν1+ and the rocking mode ν3+. All experimental data were supported by calculations and Franck-Condon simulations.

  5. Charged hadron spectra in gold-on-gold collisions at centre-of-mass energy per nucleon pair of 130 GeV

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon de La Barca Sanchez, Manuel

    The collision of high energy heavy ions is the most promising laboratory for the study of nuclear matter at high energy density and for creation of the Quark-Gluon Plasma. A new era in this field began with the operation and first collisions of Au nuclei in the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) at Brookhaven National Laboratory during 2000. This work concentrates on measurement of global hadronic observables in Au + Au interactions at a centre-of-mass energy of sNN = 130 GeV, which mainly address conditions in the final state of the collision. The minimum bias multiplicity distribution, the transverse momentum (p⊥), and pseudorapidity (η) distributions for charged hadrons (h-, h+) are presented. Results on identified π- transverse mass ( m⊥) and rapidity (y) distributions are also discussed. The data were taken with the STAR detector with emphasis on particles near mid-rapidity. We find that the multiplicity density at mid-rapidity for the 5% most central interactions is dNh- /dh|h=0 = 280 +/- 1stat +/- 20syst, an increase per participant of 38% relative to pp¯ collisions at similar energy. The mean transverse momentum is 0.508 +/- 0.012 GeV/c and is larger than in Pb + Pb collisions at lower energies. The scaling of the h- yield per participant nucleon pair, obtained via a ratio of Au + Au to pp¯ p ⊥ distributions, is a strong function of p ⊥. The pseudorapidity distribution is almost constant within |η| < 1. The π- rapidity distribution is also flat around mid-rapidity in the region |y| < 0.8, with a yield of pions for central collisions of dNp- /dy|y=0 = 287 +/- 1stat +/- 21syst. However, the slope of the m⊥ distributions is not the same for different rapidity bins, suggesting that boost-invariance is not fully achieved in the collisions.

  6. [Acquired coagulant factor inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Nogami, Keiji

    2015-02-01

    Acquired coagulation factor inhibitors are an autoimmune disease causing bleeding symptoms due to decreases in the corresponding factor (s) which result from the appearance of autoantibodies against coagulation factors (inhibitor). This disease is quite different from congenital coagulation factor deficiencies based on genetic abnormalities. In recent years, cases with this disease have been increasing, and most have anti-factor VIII autoantibodies. The breakdown of the immune control mechanism is speculated to cause this disease since it is common in the elderly, but the pathology and pathogenesis are presently unclear. We herein describe the pathology and pathogenesis of factor VIII and factor V inhibitors. Characterization of these inhibitors leads to further analysis of the coagulation process and the activation mechanisms of clotting factors. In the future, with the development of new clotting examination method (s), we anticipate that further novel findings will be obtained in this field through inhibitor analysis. In addition, detailed elucidation of the coagulation inhibitory mechanism possibly leading to hemostatic treatment strategies for acquired coagulation factor disorders will be developed.

  7. Towards understanding the tandem mass spectra of protonated oligopeptides. 2: The proline effect in collision-induced dissociation of protonated Ala-Ala-Xxx-Pro-Ala (Xxx = Ala, Ser, Leu, Val, Phe, and Trp).

    PubMed

    Bleiholder, Christian; Suhai, Sándor; Harrison, Alex G; Paizs, Béla

    2011-06-01

    The product ion spectra of proline-containing peptides are commonly dominated by y(n) ions generated by cleavage at the N-terminal side of proline residues. This proline effect is investigated in the current work by collision-induced dissociation (CID) of protonated Ala-Ala-Xxx-Pro-Ala (Xxx includes Ala, Ser, Leu, Val, Phe, and Trp) in an electrospray/quadrupole/time-of-flight (QqTOF) mass spectrometer and by quantum chemical calculations on protonated Ala-Ala-Ala-Pro-Ala. The CID spectra of all investigated peptides show a dominant y(2) ion (Pro-Ala sequence). Our computational results show that the proline effect mainly arises from the particularly low threshold energy for the amide bond cleavage N-terminal to the proline residue, and from the high proton affinity of the proline-containing C-terminal fragment produced by this cleavage. These theoretical results are qualitatively supported by the experimentally observed y(2)/b(3) abundance ratios for protonated Ala-Ala-Xxx-Pro-Ala (Xxx = Ala, Ser, Leu, Val, Phe, and Trp). In the post-cleavage phase of fragmentation the N-terminal oxazolone fragment with the Ala-Ala-Xxx sequence and Pro-Ala compete for the ionizing proton for these peptides. As the proton affinity of the oxazolone fragment increases, the y(2)/b(3) abundance ratio decreases.

  8. Acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Heather D; Macgregor, Jennifer L; Nord, Kristin M; Tyring, Stephen; Rady, Peter; Engler, Danielle E; Grossman, Marc E

    2009-02-01

    Epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) is a rare autosomal recessive genodermatosis with an increased susceptibility to specific human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes. Classically, this viral infection leads to the development of tinea versicolor-like macules on the trunk, neck, arms, and face during childhood, and over time, these lesions can progress to squamous cell carcinoma. More recently, an EV-like syndrome has been described in patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity. We describe two cases of EV-like syndrome in HIV-positive patients, review all previously reported cases of EV in patients with impaired cell-mediated immunity, introduce the term "acquired epidermodysplasia verruciformis" to describe EV developing in the immunocompromised host and examine the limited treatment options for these patients.

  9. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N. J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1983-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of utmost importance. PMID:6342737

  10. AIDS: acquired immunodeficiency syndrome *

    PubMed Central

    Gilmore, N.J.; Beaulieu, R.; Steben, M.; Laverdière, M.

    1992-01-01

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, or AIDS, is a new illness that occurs in previously healthy individuals. It is characterized by immunodeficiency, opportunistic infections and unusual malignant diseases. Life-threatening single or multiple infections with viruses, mycobacteria, fungi or protozoa are common. A rare neoplasm, Kaposi's sarcoma, has developed in approximately one third of patients with AIDS. More than 800 cases of AIDS have been reported in North America, over 24 of them in Canada. The majority of patients are male homosexuals, although AIDS has also developed in abusers of intravenously administered drugs, Haitian immigrants, individuals with hemophilia, recipients of blood transfusions, prostitutes, and infants, spouses and partners of patients with AIDS. The cause of AIDS is unknown, but the features are consistent with an infectious process. Early diagnosis can be difficult owing to the nonspecific symptoms and signs of the infections and malignant diseases. Therefore, vigilance by physicians is of the utmost importance. PMID:1544049

  11. The Paragon Algorithm, a next generation search engine that uses sequence temperature values and feature probabilities to identify peptides from tandem mass spectra.

    PubMed

    Shilov, Ignat V; Seymour, Sean L; Patel, Alpesh A; Loboda, Alex; Tang, Wilfred H; Keating, Sean P; Hunter, Christie L; Nuwaysir, Lydia M; Schaeffer, Daniel A

    2007-09-01

    The Paragon Algorithm, a novel database search engine for the identification of peptides from tandem mass spectrometry data, is presented. Sequence Temperature Values are computed using a sequence tag algorithm, allowing the degree of implication by an MS/MS spectrum of each region of a database to be determined on a continuum. Counter to conventional approaches, features such as modifications, substitutions, and cleavage events are modeled with probabilities rather than by discrete user-controlled settings to consider or not consider a feature. The use of feature probabilities in conjunction with Sequence Temperature Values allows for a very large increase in the effective search space with only a very small increase in the actual number of hypotheses that must be scored. The algorithm has a new kind of user interface that removes the user expertise requirement, presenting control settings in the language of the laboratory that are translated to optimal algorithmic settings. To validate this new algorithm, a comparison with Mascot is presented for a series of analogous searches to explore the relative impact of increasing search space probed with Mascot by relaxing the tryptic digestion conformance requirements from trypsin to semitrypsin to no enzyme and with the Paragon Algorithm using its Rapid mode and Thorough mode with and without tryptic specificity. Although they performed similarly for small search space, dramatic differences were observed in large search space. With the Paragon Algorithm, hundreds of biological and artifact modifications, all possible substitutions, and all levels of conformance to the expected digestion pattern can be searched in a single search step, yet the typical cost in search time is only 2-5 times that of conventional small search space. Despite this large increase in effective search space, there is no drastic loss of discrimination that typically accompanies the exploration of large search space.

  12. Acquired aplastic anemia.

    PubMed

    Keohane, Elaine M

    2004-01-01

    Acquired aplastic anemia (AA) is a disorder characterized by a profound deficit of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, bone marrow hypocellularity, and peripheral blood pancytopenia. It primarily affects children, young adults, and those over 60 years of age. The majority of cases are idiopathic; however, idiosyncratic reactions to some drugs, chemicals, and viruses have been implicated in its etiology. An autoimmune T-cell reaction likely causes the stem cell depletion, but the precise mechanism, as well as the eliciting and target antigens, is unknown. Symptoms vary from severe life-threatening cytopenias to moderate or non-severe disease that does not require transfusion support. The peripheral blood typically exhibits pancytopenia, reticulocytopenia, and normocytic or macrocytic erythrocytes. The bone marrow is hypocellular and may exhibit dysplasia of the erythrocyte precursors. First line treatment for severe AA consists of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in young patients with HLA identical siblings, while immunosuppression therapy is used for older patients and for those of any age who lack a HLA matched donor. Patients with AA have an increased risk of developing paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH), myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), or acute leukemia. Further elucidation of the pathophysiology of this disease will result in a better understanding of the interrelationship among AA, PNH, and MDS, and may lead to novel targeted therapies.

  13. Acquired spatial dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Siéroff, E

    2015-08-10

    Acquired spatial dyslexia is a reading disorder frequently occurring after left or right posterior brain lesions. This article describes several types of spatial dyslexia with an attentional approach. After right posterior lesions, patients show left neglect dyslexia with errors on the left side of text, words, and non-words. The deficit is frequently associated with left unilateral spatial neglect. Severe left neglect dyslexia can be detected with unlimited exposure duration of words or non-words. Minor neglect dyslexia is detected with brief presentation of bilateral words, one in the left and one in the right visual field (phenomenon of contralesional extinction). Neglect dyslexia can be explained as a difficulty in orienting attention to the left side of verbal stimuli. With left posterior lesions, spatial dyslexia is also frequent but multiform. Right neglect dyslexia is frequent, but right unilateral spatial neglect is rare. Attentional dyslexia represents difficulty in selecting a stimulus, letter or word among other similar stimuli; it is a deficit of attentional selection, and the left hemisphere plays a crucial role in selection. Two other types of spatial dyslexia can be found after left posterior lesions: paradoxical ipsilesional extinction and stimulus-centred neglect dyslexia. Disconnections between left or right parietal attentional areas and the left temporal visual word form area could explain these deficits. Overall, a model of attention dissociating modulation, selection control, and selection positioning can help in understanding these reading disorders.

  14. Quality evaluation of tandem mass spectral libraries.

    PubMed

    Oberacher, Herbert; Weinmann, Wolfgang; Dresen, Sebastian

    2011-06-01

    Tandem mass spectral libraries are gaining more and more importance for the identification of unknowns in different fields of research, including metabolomics, forensics, toxicology, and environmental analysis. Particularly, the recent invention of reliable, robust, and transferable libraries has increased the general acceptance of these tools. Herein, we report on results obtained from thorough evaluation of the match reliabilities of two tandem mass spectral libraries: the MSforID library established by the Oberacher group in Innsbruck and the Weinmann library established by the Weinmann group in Freiburg. Three different experiments were performed: (1) Spectra of the libraries were searched against their corresponding library after excluding either this single compound-specific spectrum or all compound-specific spectra prior to searching; (2) the libraries were searched against each other using either library as reference set or sample set; (3) spectra acquired on different mass spectrometric instruments were matched to both libraries. Almost 13,000 tandem mass spectra were included in this study. The MSforID search algorithm was used for spectral matching. Statistical evaluation of the library search results revealed that principally both libraries enable the sensitive and specific identification of compounds. Due to higher mass accuracy of the QqTOF compared with the QTrap instrument, matches to the MSforID library were more reliable when comparing spectra with both libraries. Furthermore, only the MSforID library was shown to be efficiently transferable to different kinds of tandem mass spectrometers, including "tandem-in-time" instruments; this is due to the coverage of a large range of different collision energy settings-including the very low range-which is an outstanding characteristics of the MSforID library.

  15. Mass spectra of tetrahydroisoquinoline-fused 1,3,2-O,N,P- and 1,2,3-O,S,N-heterocycles: influence of ring size and fusion, of present heteroatoms, substituent effects and of the stereochemistry on fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Starke, Ines; Schuster, Ildikó; Fülöp, Ferenc; Kleinpeter, Erich

    2008-05-01

    The electron ionization (EI) mass spectra of a variety of stereoisomeric tricyclic 1,3,2-oxazaphosphino[4,3-a]isoquinolines (1-4), 1,2,3-oxathiazino[4,3-a]isoquinoline-4-oxides (5-7) and the -4,4-dioxides (8-10) of oxazaphospholo- and oxathiazolo[4,3-a]- (11, 12, 15 and 16) and -[3,4-b]isoquinolines (13, 14 and 17) were recorded. Ring size and fusion, the different heteroatoms (P and S) and substituents on the ring systems strongly influence the mass spectra. In addition, mass spectra of the stereoisomers of compounds 1, 2 and 13, 14 revealed stereochemically relevant differences which are not observed for the other pairs of isomers.

  16. Search for narrow resonances in dilepton mass spectra in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 13 TeV and combination with 8 TeV data

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan; et al.

    2016-09-17

    A search for narrow resonances in dielectron and dimuon invariant mass spectra has been performed using data obtained from proton-proton collisions at $ \\sqrt{s} = $ 13 TeV collected with the CMS detector. The integrated luminosity for the dielectron sample is 2.7 fb$^{-1}$ and for the dimuon sample 2.9 fb$^{-1}$. The sensitivity of the search is increased by combining these data with a previously analysed set of data obtained at $ \\sqrt{s} = $ 8 TeV and corresponding to a luminosity of 20 fb$^{-1}$. No evidence for non-standard-model physics is found, either in the 13 TeV data set alone, or in the combined data set. Upper limits on the product of production cross section and branching fraction have also been calculated in a model-independent manner to enable interpretation in models predicting a narrow dielectron or dimuon resonance structure. Limits are set on the masses of hypothetical particles that could appear in new-physics scenarios. For the $\\mathrm{Z}'_{\\text{SSM}}$ particle, which arises in the sequential standard model, and for the superstring inspired $\\mathrm{Z}'_{\\psi}$ particle, 95% confidence level lower mass limits for the combined data sets and combined channels are found to be 3.37 and 2.82 TeV, respectively. The corresponding limits for Kaluza-Klein gravitons arising in the Randall-Sundrum model of extra dimensions with coupling parameters 0.01 and 0.10 are 1.46 and 3.11 TeV, respectively. These results significantly extend previous limits.

  17. Search for narrow resonances in dilepton mass spectra in proton-proton collisions at $$\\sqrt{s}$$ = 13 TeV and combination with 8 TeV data

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2017-02-14

    A search for narrow resonances in dielectron and dimuon invariant mass spectra has been performed using data obtained from proton-proton collisions atmore » $$ \\sqrt{s} = $$ 13 TeV collected with the CMS detector. The integrated luminosity for the dielectron sample is 2.7 fb$$^{-1}$$ and for the dimuon sample 2.9 fb$$^{-1}$$. The sensitivity of the search is increased by combining these data with a previously analysed set of data obtained at $$ \\sqrt{s} = $$ 8 TeV and corresponding to a luminosity of 20 fb$$^{-1}$$. No evidence for non-standard-model physics is found, either in the 13 TeV data set alone, or in the combined data set. Upper limits on the product of production cross section and branching fraction have also been calculated in a model-independent manner to enable interpretation in models predicting a narrow dielectron or dimuon resonance structure. Limits are set on the masses of hypothetical particles that could appear in new-physics scenarios. For the $$\\mathrm{Z}'_{\\text{SSM}}$$ particle, which arises in the sequential standard model, and for the superstring inspired $$\\mathrm{Z}'_{\\psi}$$ particle, 95% confidence level lower mass limits for the combined data sets and combined channels are found to be 3.37 and 2.82 TeV, respectively. The corresponding limits for Kaluza-Klein gravitons arising in the Randall-Sundrum model of extra dimensions with coupling parameters 0.01 and 0.10 are 1.46 and 3.11 TeV, respectively. Lastly, these results significantly extend previous limits.« less

  18. Bar Coding MS(2) Spectra for Metabolite Identification.

    PubMed

    Spalding, Jonathan L; Cho, Kevin; Mahieu, Nathaniel G; Nikolskiy, Igor; Llufrio, Elizabeth M; Johnson, Stephen L; Patti, Gary J

    2016-03-01

    Metabolite identifications are most frequently achieved in untargeted metabolomics by matching precursor mass and full, high-resolution MS(2) spectra to metabolite databases and standards. Here we considered an alternative approach for establishing metabolite identifications that does not rely on full, high-resolution MS(2) spectra. First, we select mass-to-charge regions containing the most informative metabolite fragments and designate them as bins. We then translate each metabolite fragmentation pattern into a binary code by assigning 1's to bins containing fragments and 0's to bins without fragments. With 20 bins, this binary-code system is capable of distinguishing 96% of the compounds in the METLIN MS(2) library. A major advantage of the approach is that it extends untargeted metabolomics to low-resolution triple quadrupole (QqQ) instruments, which are typically less expensive and more robust than other types of mass spectrometers. We demonstrate a method of acquiring MS(2) data in which the third quadrupole of a QqQ instrument cycles over 20 wide isolation windows (coinciding with the location and width of our bins) for each precursor mass selected by the first quadrupole. Operating the QqQ instrument in this mode yields diagnostic bar codes for each precursor mass that can be matched to the bar codes of metabolite standards. Furthermore, our data suggest that using low-resolution bar codes enables QqQ instruments to make MS(2)-based identifications in untargeted metabolomics with a specificity and sensitivity that is competitive to high-resolution time-of-flight technologies.

  19. Mass determination of megadalton-DNA Electrospray Ions usingCharge Detection Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Schultz, Jocelyn C.; Hack, Christopher; Benner, Henry W.

    1997-10-01

    Charge detection mass spectrometry (CD-MS) has been used to determine the mass of double-stranded, circular DNA and single-stranded, circular DNA in the range of 2500 to 8000 base pairs (1.5-5.0 MDa). Simultaneous measurement of the charge and velocity of an electrostatically accelerated ion allows a mass determination of the ion, with instrument calibration determined independently of samples. Positive ion mass spectra of electrosprayed commercial DNA samples supplied in tris(hydroxymethyl)ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid buffer, diluted in 50 vol. percent acetonitrile, were obtained without cleanup of the sample. ACD mass spectrum constructed from 3000 ion measurements takes 10 min to acquire and yields the DNA molecular mass directly (mass resolution = 6). The data collected represent progress toward a more automatable alternative to sizing of DNA by gel electrophoresis. In addition to the mass spectra, CD-MS generates charge versus mass plots, which provide another means to investigate the creation and fate of large electrospray ions.

  20. Acquired reactive perforating collagenosis

    PubMed Central

    Fei, Chengwen; Wang, Yao; Gong, Yu; Xu, Hui; Yu, Qian; Shi, Yuling

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Reactive perforating collagenosis (RPC) is a rare form of transepithelial elimination, in which altered collagen is extruded through the epidermis. There are 2 types of RPC, acquired RPC (ARPC) and inherited RPC, while the latter is extremely rare. Here we report on 1 case of ARPC. Methods: A 73-year-old female was presented with strongly itchy papules over her back and lower limbs for 3 months. She denied the history of oozing or vesiculation. A cutaneous examination showed diffusely distributed multiple well-defined keratotic papules, 4 to 10 mm in diameter, on the bilateral lower limbs and back as well as a few papules on her chest and forearm. Scratching scars were over the resolved lesions while Koebner phenomenon was negative. The patient had a history of type 2 diabetes for 15 years. Laboratory examinations showed elevated blood glucose level. Skin lesion biopsy showed a well-circumscribed area of necrosis filled with a keratotic plug. Parakeratotic cells and lymphocytic infiltration could be seen in the necrosed area. In dermis, sparse fiber bundles were seen perforating the epidermis. These degenerated fiber bundles were notarized as collagen fiber by elastic fiber stain, suggesting a diagnosis of RPC. Results: Then a diagnosis of ARPC was made according to the onset age and the history of diabetes mellitus. She was treated with topical application of corticosteroids twice a day and oral antihistamine once a day along with compound glycyrrhizin tablets 3 times a day. And the blood glucose was controlled in a satisfying range. Two months later, a significant improvement was seen in this patient. Conclusion: Since there is no efficient therapy to RPC, moreover, ARPC is considered to be associated with some systemic diseases, the management of the coexisting disease is quite crucial. The patient in this case received a substantial improvement due to the control of blood glucose and application of compound glycyrrhizin tablets. PMID

  1. Photon spectra from WIMP annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Cembranos, J. A. R.; Cruz-Dombriz, A. de la; Dobado, A.; Maroto, A. L.; Lineros, R. A.

    2011-04-15

    If the present dark matter in the Universe annihilates into standard model particles, it must contribute to the fluxes of cosmic rays that are detected on the Earth and, in particular, to the observed gamma-ray fluxes. The magnitude of such a contribution depends on the particular dark matter candidate, but certain features of the produced photon spectra may be analyzed in a rather model-independent fashion. In this work we provide the complete photon spectra coming from WIMP annihilation into standard model particle-antiparticle pairs obtained by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. We present results for each individual annihilation channel and provide analytical fitting formulas for the different spectra for a wide range of WIMP masses.

  2. A combined strategy of mass fragmentation, post-column cobalt complexation and shift in ultraviolet absorption spectra to determine the uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase metabolism profiling of flavones after oral administration of a flavone mixture in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiang; Wang, Liping; Dai, Peimin; Zeng, Xuejun; Qi, Xiaoxiao; Zhu, Lijun; Yan, Tongmeng; Wang, Ying; Lu, Linlin; Hu, Ming; Wang, Xinchun; Liu, Zhongqiu

    2015-05-22

    The use of dietary flavones is becoming increasingly popular for their prevention of cancers, cardiovascular diseases, and other diseases. Despite many pharmacokinetic studies on flavone mixtures, the position(s) of glucuronidation sites on the flavone skeleton in vivo remain(s) uncertain because of the lack of a convenient method to differentiate the isomers in biological samples. Accordingly, this study aimed to develop a new strategy to identify the position of the mono-O-glucuronide of flavones in vivo and to simultaneously determine the parent agent and its major metabolites responsible for complex pharmacokinetic characteristics. The novel strategy involves accurate mass measurements of flavone glucuronides, their [Co(II) (flavone glucuronide-H) (4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline)2](+) complexes generated via the post-column addition of CoBr2 and 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline, and their mass spectrometric fragmentation by UPLC-DAD-Q-TOF and the comparison of retention times with biosynthesized standards of different isomers that were identified by analyzing the shift in UV spectra compared with the spectra of their respective aglycones. We successfully generated a metabolite profiling of flavones in rat plasma after oral administration of a flavone mixture from Dracocephalum moldavica L., which was used here as the model to demonstrate the strategy. Twelve flavone glucuronides, which were glucuronidated derivatives of acacetin, apigenin, luteolin, diosmetin, chrysoeriol and cirsimaritin, were detected and identified. Glucuronidation of the flavone skeleton at the 3'-/7-position was more prevalent, however, luteolin 4'-glucuronide levels exceeded luteolin 7-glucuronide levels. Based on the UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) metabolism profiling of flavones in rat plasma, six main compounds (tilianin, acacetin 7-glucuronide, apigenin 7-glucuronide, luteolin 3'-glucuronide, acacetin, and apigenin) were selected as pharmacokinetic markers. Pharmacokinetic

  3. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B.; Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E.; Cid Fernandes, R. E-mail: abml@iac.es E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  4. Synthesis and Mass Spectra of Butenyltin Compounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-01

    California 92152-5000 E . G. SCHWEIZER, CAPT, USN R. M . HILLYER Commander Technical Director ADMINISTRATIVE INFORMATION This work was funded by the Office...to m /z intensities .................................... 8 Accesion For _ NTIS GRA&I 6~ Unannounced By coy .. / A,-’iabdl;ty C,.ts " t0IAvail ai,dlo...12.5 m by 0.2 mm-I.D. HP-1 fused-silica capillary column with a 0.33-gm coating thickness. Helium carrier gas was used at a head pressure of 40 kPa

  5. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acquiring and acquired persons. 801.2 Section 801.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.2...

  6. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquiring and acquired persons. 801.2 Section 801.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.2...

  7. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acquiring and acquired persons. 801.2 Section 801.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.2...

  8. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acquiring and acquired persons. 801.2 Section 801.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.2...

  9. 16 CFR 801.2 - Acquiring and acquired persons.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acquiring and acquired persons. 801.2 Section 801.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES, REGULATIONS, STATEMENTS AND INTERPRETATIONS UNDER THE HART-SCOTT-RODINO ANTITRUST IMPROVEMENTS ACT OF 1976 COVERAGE RULES § 801.2...

  10. Delineation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolates from cystic fibrosis patients by fatty acid methyl ester profiles and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectra using hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis.

    PubMed

    Vidigal, Pedrina Gonçalves; Mosel, Frank; Koehling, Hedda Luise; Mueller, Karl Dieter; Buer, Jan; Rath, Peter Michael; Steinmann, Joerg

    2014-12-01

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an opportunist multidrug-resistant pathogen that causes a wide range of nosocomial infections. Various cystic fibrosis (CF) centres have reported an increasing prevalence of S. maltophilia colonization/infection among patients with this disease. The purpose of this study was to assess specific fingerprints of S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients (n = 71) by investigating fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) through gas chromatography (GC) and highly abundant proteins by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), and to compare them with isolates obtained from intensive care unit (ICU) patients (n = 20) and the environment (n = 11). Principal component analysis (PCA) of GC-FAME patterns did not reveal a clustering corresponding to distinct CF, ICU or environmental types. Based on the peak area index, it was observed that S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients produced significantly higher amounts of fatty acids in comparison with ICU patients and the environmental isolates. Hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) based on the MALDI-TOF MS peak profiles of S. maltophilia revealed the presence of five large clusters, suggesting a high phenotypic diversity. Although HCA of MALDI-TOF mass spectra did not result in distinct clusters predominantly composed of CF isolates, PCA revealed the presence of a distinct cluster composed of S. maltophilia isolates from CF patients. Our data suggest that S. maltophilia colonizing CF patients tend to modify not only their fatty acid patterns but also their protein patterns as a response to adaptation in the unfavourable environment of the CF lung.

  11. Method for calibrating mass spectrometers

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, Gordon A [Benton City, WA; Brands, Michael D [Richland, WA; Bruce, James E [Schwenksville, PA; Pasa-Tolic, Ljiljana [Richland, WA; Smith, Richard D [Richland, WA

    2002-12-24

    A method whereby a mass spectra generated by a mass spectrometer is calibrated by shifting the parameters used by the spectrometer to assign masses to the spectra in a manner which reconciles the signal of ions within the spectra having equal mass but differing charge states, or by reconciling ions having known differences in mass to relative values consistent with those known differences. In this manner, the mass spectrometer is calibrated without the need for standards while allowing the generation of a highly accurate mass spectra by the instrument.

  12. Reactor Neutrino Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayes, Anna C.; Vogel, Petr

    2016-10-01

    We present a review of the antineutrino spectra emitted from reactors. Knowledge of these spectra and their associated uncertainties is crucial for neutrino oscillation studies. The spectra used to date have been determined either by converting measured electron spectra to antineutrino spectra or by summing over all of the thousands of transitions that make up the spectra, using modern databases as input. The uncertainties in the subdominant corrections to β-decay plague both methods, and we provide estimates of these uncertainties. Improving on current knowledge of the antineutrino spectra from reactors will require new experiments. Such experiments would also address the so-called reactor neutrino anomaly and the possible origin of the shoulder observed in the antineutrino spectra measured in recent high-statistics reactor neutrino experiments.

  13. Optical Spectra of Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, T. D.; Biagi, C. J.; Hill, J. D.; Jordan, D. M.; Uman, M. A.; Christian, H. J., Jr.

    2009-12-01

    In August 2009, the first optical spectra of triggered lightning flashes were acquired. Data from two triggered lightning flashes were obtained at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in north-central Florida. The spectrometer that was used has an average dispersion of 260 Å/mm resulting in an average resolution of 5 Å when mated to a Photron (SA1.1) high-speed camera. The spectra captured with this system had a free spectral range of 3800-8000 Å. The spectra were captured at 300,000 frames per second. The spectrometer's vertical field of view was 3 m at an altitude 50 m above the launch tower, intended to view the middle of the triggering wire. Preliminary results show that the copper spectrum dominated the earliest part of the flash and copper lines persisted during the total lifetime of the detectable spectrum. Animations over the lifetime of the stroke from the initial wire illumination to multiple return strokes show the evolution of the spectrum. In addition, coordinated high speed channel base current, electric field and imagery measurements of the exploding wire, downward leaders, and return strokes were recorded. Quantitative analysis of the spectral evolution will be discussed in the context of the overall flash development.

  14. The structure of BPS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longhi, Pietro

    In this thesis we develop and apply novel techniques for analyzing BPS spectra of supersymmetric quantum field theories of class S. By a combination of wall-crossing, spectral networks and quiver methods we explore the BPS spectra of higher rank four-dimensional N = 2 super Yang-Mills, uncovering surprising new phenomena. Focusing on the SU(3) case, we prove the existence of wild BPS spectra in field theory, featuring BPS states of higher spin whose degeneracies grow exponentially with the energy. The occurrence of wild BPS states is surprising because it appears to be in tension with physical expectations on the behavior of the entropy as a function of the energy scale. The solution to this puzzle comes from realizing that the size of wild BPS states grows rapidly with their mass, and carefully analyzing the volume-dependence of the entropy of BPS states. We also find some interesting structures underlying wild BPS spectra, such as a Regge-like relation between the maximal spin of a BPS multiplet and the square of its mass, and the existence of a universal asymptotic distribution of spin-j irreps within a multiplet of given charge. We also extend the spectral networks construction by introducing a refinement in the topological classification of 2d-4d BPS states, and identifying their spin with a topological invariant known as the "writhe of soliton paths". A careful analysis of the 2d-4d wall-crossing behavior of this refined data reveals that it is described by motivic Kontsevich-Soibelman transformations, controlled by the Protected Spin Character, a protected deformation of the BPS index encoding the spin of BPS states. Our construction opens the way for the systematic study of refined BPS spectra in class S theories. We apply it to several examples, including ones featuring wild BPS spectra, where we find an interesting relation between spectral networks and certain functional equations. For class S theories of A 1 type, we derive an alternative technique for

  15. Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) of an Organothiophosphate at Ultrahigh Resolution by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry and Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Prokai, Laszlo; Stevens, Stanley M.

    2016-01-01

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) is a recently developed ambient ionization technique for mass spectrometry to enable rapid and sensitive analyses with little or no sample preparation. After swab-based field sampling, the organothiophosphate malathion was analyzed using DART-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Mass resolution was documented to be over 800,000 in full-scan MS mode and over 1,000,000 for an MS/MS product ion produced by collision-induced dissociation of the protonated analyte. Mass measurement accuracy below 1 ppm was obtained for all DART-generated ions that belonged to the test compound in the mass spectra acquired using only external mass calibration. This high mass measurement accuracy, achievable at present only through FTMS, was required for unequivocal identification of the corresponding molecular formulae. PMID:26784186

  16. Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) of an Organothiophosphate at Ultrahigh Resolution by Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry and Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Prokai, Laszlo; Stevens, Stanley M

    2016-01-16

    Direct analysis in real time (DART) is a recently developed ambient ionization technique for mass spectrometry to enable rapid and sensitive analyses with little or no sample preparation. After swab-based field sampling, the organothiophosphate malathion was analyzed using DART-Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance (FT-ICR) mass spectrometry (MS) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). Mass resolution was documented to be over 800,000 in full-scan MS mode and over 1,000,000 for an MS/MS product ion produced by collision-induced dissociation of the protonated analyte. Mass measurement accuracy below 1 ppm was obtained for all DART-generated ions that belonged to the test compound in the mass spectra acquired using only external mass calibration. This high mass measurement accuracy, achievable at present only through FTMS, was required for unequivocal identification of the corresponding molecular formulae.

  17. Correcting peak deformation in Rosetta's ROSINA/DFMS mass spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Keyser, Johan; Dhooghe, Frederik; Gibbons, Andrew; Altwegg, Kathrin; Balsiger, Hans; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Briois, Christelle; Calmonte, Ursina; Cessateur, Gaël; Equeter, Eddy; Fiethe, Björn; Fuselier, Stephen; Gombosi, Tamas; Gunell, Herbert; Hässig, Myrttha; Le Roy, Léna; Maggiolo, Romain; Neefs, Eddy; Rubin, Martin; Sémon, Thierry

    2016-04-01

    The Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer (DFMS), part of the ROSINA instrument package aboard the European Space Agency's Rosetta spacecraft visiting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, experiences minor deformation of the mass peaks in the high resolution spectra acquired for m/Z = 16, 17, and to a lesser extent 18. A numerical deconvolution technique has been developed with a two-fold purpose. A first goal is to verify whether the most likely cause of the issue, a lack of stability of one of the electric potentials in the electrostatic analyser, can indeed be held responsible for it. The second goal is to correct for the deformation, in view of the important species located around these masses, and to allow a standard further treatment of the spectra in the automated DFMS data processing chain.

  18. Mass spectrometry.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burlingame, A. L.; Johanson, G. A.

    1972-01-01

    Review of the current state of mass spectrometry, indicating its unique importance for advanced scientific research. Mass spectrometry applications in computer techniques, gas chromatography, ion cyclotron resonance, molecular fragmentation and ionization, and isotope labeling are covered. Details are given on mass spectrometry applications in bio-organic chemistry and biomedical research. As the subjects of these applications are indicated alkaloids, carbohydrates, lipids, terpenes, quinones, nucleic acid components, peptides, antibiotics, and human and animal metabolisms. Particular attention is given to the mass spectra of organo-inorganic compounds, inorganic mass spectrometry, surface phenomena such as secondary ion and electron emission, and elemental and isotope analysis. Further topics include mass spectrometry in organic geochemistry, applications in geochronology and cosmochemistry, and organic mass spectrometry.

  19. Nanospray ion mobility mass spectrometry of selected high mass species.

    PubMed

    Campuzano, Iain; Giles, Kevin

    2011-01-01

    The introduction of electrospray ionization (ESI) and in particular nano-electrospray (nESI) has enabled the routine mass spectrometric (MS) analysis of large protein complexes in native aqueous buffers. Time-of-flight (ToF) mass spectrometers, in particular the hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight (Q-ToF) instruments, are well suited to the analysis of large protein complexes. When ionized under native-MS conditions, protein complexes routinely exhibit multiple charge states in excess of m/z 6,000, well above the standard mass range of many quadrupole or ion cyclotron-based instruments. The research area of native MS has expanded considerably in the last decade and has shown particular relevance in the area of protein structure determination. Researchers are now able to routinely measure intact MS spectra of protein complexes above 1 MDa in mass. The advent of ion mobility mass spectrometry (IM-MS), in combination with molecular dynamics (MD) studies, is now allowing researchers to infer the shape of the protein complex being analyzed. Herein, we describe how to acquire IM-MS data that ranges from inorganic salt clusters of caesium iodide (CsI) to large biomolecular complexes such as the chaperone protein GroEL.

  20. High-Speed Tandem Mass Spectrometric in Situ Imaging by Nanospray Desorption Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Lanekoff, Ingela T.; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E.; Thomas, Mathew; Short, Joshua TL; Carson, James P.; Cha, Jeeyeon; Dey, Sudhansu K.; Yang, Pengxiang; Prieto Conaway, Maria C.; Laskin, Julia

    2013-10-15

    Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), high-resolution mass analysis (m/m=17,500 at m/z 200), and rapid spectral acquisition enabled simultaneous imaging and identification of more than 300 molecules from 92 selected m/z windows (± 1 Da) with a spatial resolution of better than 150 um. Uterine sections of implantation sites on day 6 of pregnancy were analyzed in the ambient environment without any sample pre-treatment. MS/MS imaging was performed by scanning the sample under the nano-DESI probe at 10 um/s while acquiring higher-energy collision-induced dissociation (HCD) spectra for a targeted inclusion list of 92 m/z values at a rate of ~6.3 spectra/s. Molecular ions and their corresponding fragments, separated using high-resolution mass analysis, were assigned based on accurate mass measurement. Using this approach, we were able to identify and image both abundant and low-abundance isobaric species within each m/z window. MS/MS analysis enabled efficient separation and identification of isobaric sodium and potassium adducts of phospholipids. Furthermore, we identified several metabolites associated with early pregnancy and obtained the first 2D images of these molecules.

  1. High-speed tandem mass spectrometric in situ imaging by nanospray desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lanekoff, Ingela; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin; Thomas, Mathew; Short, Joshua; Carson, James P; Cha, Jeeyeon; Dey, Sudhansu K; Yang, Pengxiang; Prieto Conaway, Maria C; Laskin, Julia

    2013-10-15

    Nanospray desorption electrospray ionization (nano-DESI) combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), high-resolution mass analysis of the fragment ions (m/Δm = 17 500 at m/z 200), and rapid spectral acquisition enabled simultaneous imaging and identification of a large number of metabolites and lipids from 92 selected m/z windows (±1 Da) with a spatial resolution of better than 150 μm. Mouse uterine sections of implantation sites on day 6 of pregnancy were analyzed in the ambient environment without any sample pretreatment. MS/MS imaging was performed by scanning the sample under the nano-DESI probe at 10 μm/s, while higher-energy collision-induced dissociation (HCD) spectra were acquired for a targeted inclusion list of 92 m/z values at a rate of ∼6.3 spectra/s. Molecular ions and their corresponding fragments, separated by high-resolution mass analysis, were assigned on the basis of accurate mass measurement. Using this approach, we were able to identify and image both abundant and low-abundance isobaric and isomeric species within each m/z window. MS/MS analysis enabled efficient separation and identification of isomeric and isobaric phospholipids that are difficult to separate in full-scan mode. Furthermore, we identified several metabolites associated with early pregnancy and obtained the first 2D images of these molecules.

  2. Crack spectra analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tiernan, M.

    1980-09-01

    Crack spectra derived from velocity data have been shown to exhibit systematics which reflect microstructural and textural differences between samples (Warren and Tiernan, 1980). Further research into both properties and information content of crack spectra have yielded the following: Spectral features are reproducible even at low pressures; certain observed spectral features may correspond to non-in-situ crack populations created during sample retrieval; the functional form of a crack spectra may be diagnostic of the sample's grain texture; hysteresis is observed in crack spectra between up and down pressure runs - it may be due to friction between the faces of closed crack populations.

  3. Photographic spectra of fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovička, J.

    2016-01-01

    Two methods of spectroscopy of meteors using image intensified video cameras and classical photographic film cameras are compared. Video cameras provide large number of low resolution spectra of meteors of normal brightness, which can be used for statistical studies. Large format film cameras have been used through the history and provide high resolution spectra, which can be used to derive temperature, density and absolute abundances of various elements in the radiating plasma. The sensitivity of films is, however, low and only spectra of bright meteors (fireballs) can be studied. Examples of photographic fireball spectra are provided.

  4. Musicality: instinct or acquired skill?

    PubMed

    Marcus, Gary F

    2012-10-01

    Is the human tendency toward musicality better thought of as the product of a specific, evolved instinct or an acquired skill? Developmental and evolutionary arguments are considered, along with issues of domain-specificity. The article also considers the question of why humans might be consistently and intensely drawn to music if musicality is not in fact the product of a specifically evolved instinct.

  5. Duplicated Information Acquired by Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Carl M.

    The object of this study is to make a start toward determining the extent of duplicated information that is being acquired in spite of customary precautions to avoid it. Referring to a specific case, the percentages in Table II show the frequency of appearance in five other works of 19 items in Mitchell's "Encyclopedia of American Politics." While…

  6. Acquired aplastic anemia in children.

    PubMed

    Hartung, Helge D; Olson, Timothy S; Bessler, Monica

    2013-12-01

    This article provides a practice-based and concise review of the etiology, diagnosis, and management of acquired aplastic anemia in children. Bone marrow transplantation, immunosuppressive therapy, and supportive care are discussed in detail. The aim is to provide the clinician with a better understanding of the disease and to offer guidelines for the management of children with this uncommon yet serious disorder.

  7. Acquiring information about neutrino parameters by detecting supernova neutrinos

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Ming-Yang; Guo, Xin-Heng; Young, Bing-Lin

    2010-08-01

    We consider the supernova shock effects, the Mikheyev-Smirnov-Wolfenstein effects, the collective effects, and the Earth matter effects in the detection of type II supernova neutrinos on the Earth. It is found that the event number of supernova neutrinos depends on the neutrino mass hierarchy, the neutrino mixing angle {theta}{sub 13}, and neutrino masses. Therefore, we propose possible methods to identify the mass hierarchy and acquire information about {theta}{sub 13} and neutrino masses by detecting supernova neutrinos. We apply these methods to some current neutrino experiments.

  8. Quantum synchrotron spectra from semirelativistic electrons in teragauss magnetic fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brainerd, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    Synchrotron spectra are calculated from quantum electrodynamic transition rates for thermal and power-law electron distributions. It is shown that quantum effects appear in thermal spectra when the photon energy is greater than the electron temperature, and in power-law spectra when the electron energy in units of the electron rest mass times the magnetic field strength in units of the critical field strength is of order unity. These spectra are compared with spectra calculated from the ultrarelativistic approximation for synchrotron emission. It is found that the approximation for the power-law spectra is good, and the approximation for thermal spectra produces the shape of the spectrum accurately but fails to give the correct normalization. Single photon pair creation masks the quantum effects for power-law distributions, so only modifications to thermal spectra are important for gamma-ray bursts.

  9. Nursing home-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    El Solh, Ali A

    2009-02-01

    Nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) was first described in 1978. Since then there has been much written regarding NHAP and its management despite the lack of well-designed studies in this patient population. The most characteristic features of patients with NHAP are the atypical presentation, which may lead to delay in diagnosis and therapy. The microbial etiology of pneumonia encompasses a wide spectrum that spans microbes recovered from patients with community-acquired pneumonia to organisms considered specific only to nosocomial settings. Decision to transfer a nursing home patient to an acute care facility depends on a host of factors, which include the level of staffing available at the nursing home, patients' advance directives, and complexity of treatment. The presence of risk factors for multidrug-resistant pathogens dictates approach to therapy. Prevention remains the cornerstone of reducing the incidence of disease. Despite the advance in medical services, mortality from NHAP remains high.

  10. Occupationally Acquired American Cutaneous Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Felinto de Brito, Maria Edileuza; Andrade, Maria Sandra; de Almeida, Éricka Lima; Medeiros, Ângela Cristina Rapela; Werkhäuser, Roberto Pereira; de Araújo, Ana Isabele Freitas; Brandão-Filho, Sinval Pinto; Paiva de Almeida, Alzira Maria; Gomes Rodrigues, Eduardo Henrique

    2012-01-01

    We report two occupationally acquired cases of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL): one accidental laboratory autoinoculation by contaminated needlestick while handling an ACL lesion sample, and one acquired during field studies on bird biology. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays of patient lesions were positive for Leishmania, subgenus Viannia. One isolate was obtained by culture (from patient 2 biopsy samples) and characterized as Leishmania (Viannia) naiffi through an indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) with species-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and by multilocus enzyme electrophoresis (MLEE). Patients were successfully treated with N-methyl-glucamine. These two cases highlight the potential risks of laboratory and field work and the need to comply with strict biosafety procedures in daily routines. The swab collection method, coupled with PCR detection, has greatly improved ACL laboratory diagnosis. PMID:23227369

  11. Single-particle mass spectrometry of polystyrene microspheres and diamond nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Cai, Y; Peng, W P; Kuo, S J; Lee, Y T; Chang, H C

    2002-01-01

    High-resolution mass spectra of single submicrometer-sized particles are obtained using an electrospray ionization source in combination with an audio frequency quadrupole ion-trap mass spectrometer. Distinct from conventional methods, light scattering from a continuous Ar-ion laser is detected for particles ejected out of the ion trap. Typically, 10 particles are being trapped and interrogated in each measurement. With the audio frequency ion trap operated in a mass-selective instability mode, analysis of the particles reveals that they all differ in mass-to-charge ratio (m/z), and the individual peak in the observed mass spectrum is essentially derived from one single particle. A histogram of the spectra acquired in 10(2) repetitions of the experiment is equivalent to the single spectrum that would be observed when an ion ensemble of 10(3) particles is analyzed simultaneously using the single-particle mass spectrometer (SPMS). To calibrate such single-particle mass spectra, secular frequencies of the oscillatory motions of the individual particle within the trap are measured, and the trap parameter qz at the point of ejection is determined. A mass resolution exceeding 10(4) can readily be achieved in the absence of ion ensemble effect. We demonstrate in this work that the SPMS not only allows investigations of monodisperse polystyrene microspheres, but also is capable of detecting diamond nanoparticles with a nominal diameter of 100 nm, as well.

  12. [Acquired disorders of color vision].

    PubMed

    Lascu, Lidia; Balaş, Mihaela

    2002-01-01

    This article is a general view of acquired disorders of color vision. The revision of the best known methods and of the etiopathogenic classification is not very important in ophthalmology but on the other hand, the detection of the blue defect advertise and associated ocular pathology. There is a major interest in serious diseases as multiple sclerosis, AIDS, diabetes melitus, when the first ocular sign can be a defect in the color vision.

  13. Definitive Identification of Laribacter hongkongensis Acquired in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Quig, David; Block, Mary Ann; Schreckenberger, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    Laribacter hongkongensis is a potential emerging pathogen associated with community-acquired gastroenteritis and traveler's diarrhea. We report the isolation of L. hongkongensis from the stool of a patient who had no history of travel outside the United States. The organism was identified by phenotypic tests, mass spectrometry, and gene sequencing. PMID:25948608

  14. Thin-layer chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry using particle suspension matrices.

    PubMed

    Crecelius, Anna; Clench, Malcolm R; Richards, Don S; Parr, Vic

    2002-06-07

    Particle suspension matrices have been successfully utilized for the analysis of tetracycline antibiotics by thin-layer chromatography-matrix-assisted laser desorption ionisation-time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TLC-MALDI-TOF-MS). Particles of different materials and sizes have been investigated (Co-UFP, TiN, TiO2, Graphite and Silicon) by applying particle suspensions to eluted TLC plates. Mass spectra and mass chromatograms have been recorded directly from the TLC plates. Strong cationization by sodium and potassium was obtained in the positive ion mode, with [M+Na-NH3]+ ions being the predominant signals. The TLC-MALDI mass spectra recorded from graphite suspensions showed the lowest background noise and the highest peak intensities from the range of suspension matrices studied. The mass accuracy from graphite films was improved by adding the peptide Phe-Phe to the graphite suspensions. This allowed internal recalibration of the TLC-MALDI mass spectra acquired during a run. One major potential advantage of TLC-MALDI-TOF-MS has been demonstrated in the analysis of chlortetracycline and tetracycline in a mixture of oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, tetracycline and minocycline. Examination of the TLC plate prior to MALDI analysis showed only an unresolved spot for chlortetracycline and tetracycline. However by investigation of the MALDI mass spectra and plotting of single ion chromatograms separate peaks for chlortetracycline and tetracycline could be obtained.

  15. Acquired Upper Extremity Growth Arrest.

    PubMed

    Gauger, Erich M; Casnovsky, Lauren L; Gauger, Erica J; Bohn, Deborah C; Van Heest, Ann E

    2016-09-29

    This study reviewed the clinical history and management of acquired growth arrest in the upper extremity in pediatric patients. The records of all patients presenting from 1996 to 2012 with radiographically proven acquired growth arrest were reviewed. Records were examined to determine the etiology and site of growth arrest, management, and complications. Patients with tumors or hereditary etiology were excluded. A total of 44 patients (24 boys and 20 girls) with 51 physeal arrests who presented at a mean age of 10.6 years (range, 0.8-18.2 years) were included in the study. The distal radius was the most common site (n=24), followed by the distal humerus (n=8), metacarpal (n=6), distal ulna (n=5), proximal humerus (n=4), radial head (n=3), and olecranon (n=1). Growth arrest was secondary to trauma (n=22), infection (n=11), idiopathy (n=6), inflammation (n=2), compartment syndrome (n=2), and avascular necrosis (n=1). Twenty-six patients (59%) underwent surgical intervention to address deformity caused by the physeal arrest. Operative procedures included ipsilateral unaffected bone epiphysiodesis (n=21), shortening osteotomy (n=10), lengthening osteotomy (n=8), excision of physeal bar or bone fragment (n=2), angular correction osteotomy (n=1), and creation of single bone forearm (n=1). Four complications occurred; 3 of these required additional procedures. Acquired upper extremity growth arrest usually is caused by trauma or infection, and the most frequent site is the distal radius. Growth disturbances due to premature arrest can be treated effectively with epiphysiodesis or osteotomy. In this series, the specific site of anatomic growth arrest was the primary factor in determining treatment. [Orthopedics. 201x; xx(x):xx-xx.].

  16. The inhibition of acquired fear.

    PubMed

    Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín; Vianna, Mónica M R; Bevilaqua, Lía R M

    2004-01-01

    A conditioned stimulus (CS) associated with a fearsome unconditioned stimulus (US) generates learned fear. Acquired fear is at the root of a variety of mental disorders, among which phobias, generalized anxiety, the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and some forms of depression. The simplest way to inhibit learned fear is to extinguish it, which is usually done by repeatedly presenting the CS alone, so that a new association, CS-"no US", will eventually overcome the previously acquired CS-US association. Extinction was first described by Pavlov as a form of "internal inhibition" and was recommended by Freud and Ferenczi in the 1920s (who called it "habituation") as the treatment of choice for phobic disorders. It is used with success till this day, often in association with anxiolytic drugs. Extinction has since then been applied, also successfully and also often in association with anxiolytics, to the treatment of panic, generalized anxiety disorders and, more recently, PTSD. Extinction of learned fear involves gene expression, protein synthesis, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors and signaling pathways in the hippocampus and the amygdala at the time of the first CS-no US association. It can be enhanced by increasing the exposure to the "no US" component at the time of behavioral testing, to the point of causing the complete uninstallment of the original fear response. Some theorists have recently proposed that reiteration of the CS alone may induce a reconsolidation of the learned behavior instead of its extinction. Reconsolidation would preserve the original memory from the labilization induced by its retrieval. If true, this would of course be disastrous for the psychotherapy of fear-motivated disorders. Here we show that neither the CS nor retrieval cause anything remotely like reconsolidation, but just extinction. In fact, our findings indicate that the reconsolidation hypothesis is essentially incorrect, at least for the form of contextual fear most

  17. Spectra of Surface Waves

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-03-22

    with a wave follower during Marsen. J. Gophysical Res. 88, 9844-9849. 11. Hughes, B.A., 1978. The effects on internal waves on surface waves : 2...Spectra of Surface Waves K. Watson March 1989 JSR-88-130 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. DTIC SELECTE JUN0 11989 0 JASONE The...Arlington, VA 22209 8503Z 11. TITLE (hlde Secvfty Cof.kaftn) SPECTRA OF SURFACE WAVES (U) 12. PERSONAL AUTHOfRS) K. Watson 13a. TYPE OF REPORT 13b. TIME

  18. Foodborne listeriosis acquired in hospitals.

    PubMed

    Silk, Benjamin J; McCoy, Morgan H; Iwamoto, Martha; Griffin, Patricia M

    2014-08-15

    Listeriosis is characterized by bacteremia or meningitis. We searched for listeriosis case series and outbreak investigations published in English by 2013, and assessed the strength of evidence for foodborne acquisition among patients who ate hospital food. We identified 30 reports from 13 countries. Among the case series, the median proportion of cases considered to be hospital-acquired was 25% (range, 9%-67%). The median number of outbreak-related illnesses considered to be hospital-acquired was 4.0 (range, 2-16). All patients were immunosuppressed in 18 of 24 (75%) reports with available data. Eight outbreak reports with strong evidence for foodborne acquisition in a hospital implicated sandwiches (3 reports), butter, precut celery, Camembert cheese, sausage, and tuna salad (1 report each). Foodborne acquisition of listeriosis among hospitalized patients is well documented internationally. The number of listeriosis cases could be reduced substantially by establishing hospital policies for safe food preparation for immunocompromised patients and by not serving them higher-risk foods.

  19. Quantitative Infrared Spectra of Vapor Phase Chemical Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Steven W.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Chu, P M.; Kleimeyer, J; Rowland, Brad; Gardner, Patrick J.

    2003-04-21

    Quantitative high resolution (0.1 cm -1) infrared spectra have been acquired for a number of pressure broadened (101.3 KPa N2), vapor phase chemicals including: Sarin (GB), Soman (GD), Tabun (GA), Cyclosarin (GF), VX, nitrogen mustard (HN3), sulfur mustard (HD) and Lewisite (L).

  20. Visible Spectra of Titanium Dioxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, V.; Nagarajan, R.; Maier, J. P.; Zhuang, X.; Le, A.; Steimle, T. C.

    2011-05-01

    Titanium oxide (TiO) has been extensively studied spectroscopically due to its astrophysical relevance. TiO is the main opacity source in the atmospheres of cool M-type stars in the visible and near infrared. In view of the high cosmic abundance of Ti and O, titanium dioxide (TiO2) is believed to play an important role in dust formation processes from the gas-phase in circumstellar shells of oxygen-rich stars. The electronic spectra of a cold molecular beam of TiO2 have been investigated using mass-resolved resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization and laser induced fluorescence spectroscopy. TiO2 was produced by laser ablation of a pure titanium rod in the presence of a supersonic expanding mixture of approximately 5% O2 in either helium or argon. The spectra were recorded in the region 17500 cm-1 to 22500 cm-1 and the bands assigned to the A1B2 ← X1A1 transition. The origin and harmonic vibrational constants for the A1B2 state were determined to be: T000 = 17593(5) cm-1, ω1 = 876(3) cm-1, ω2 = 184(1) cm-1, and ω3 = 316(2) cm-1. Further, the dispersed fluorescence of a few bands were recorded to obtain vibrational parameters for the X1A1 state.

  1. Quantum spectra and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce, Julio Cesar

    This work focuses on time-dependent quantum theory and methods for the study of the spectra and dynamics of atomic and molecular systems. Specifically, we have addressed the following two problems: (1) Development of a time-dependent spectral method for the construction of spectra of simple quantum systems. This includes the calculation of eigenenergies, the construction of bound and continuum eigenfunctions, and the calculation of photo cross-sections. Computational applications include the quadrupole photoabsorption spectra and dissociation cross-sections of molecular hydrogen from various vibrational states in its ground electronic potential-energy curve. This method is seen to provide an advantageous alternative, both from the computational and conceptual point of view, to existing standard methods. (2) Explicit time-dependent formulation of photoabsorption processes -- Analytical solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation are constructed and employed for the calculation of probability densities, momentum distributions, fluxes, transition rates, expectation values and correlation functions. These quantities are seen to establish the link between the dynamics and the calculated, or measured, spectra and cross-sections, and to clarify the dynamical nature of the excitation, transition and ejection processes. Numerical calculations on atomic and molecular hydrogen corroborate and complement the previous results, allowing the identification of different regimes during the photoabsorption process.

  2. Quantum Spectra and Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arce, Julio Cesar

    1992-01-01

    This work focuses on time-dependent quantum theory and methods for the study of the spectra and dynamics of atomic and molecular systems. Specifically, we have addressed the following two problems: (i) Development of a time-dependent spectral method for the construction of spectra of simple quantum systems--This includes the calculation of eigenenergies, the construction of bound and continuum eigenfunctions, and the calculation of photo cross-sections. Computational applications include the quadrupole photoabsorption spectra and dissociation cross-sections of molecular hydrogen from various vibrational states in its ground electronic potential -energy curve. This method is seen to provide an advantageous alternative, both from the computational and conceptual point of view, to existing standard methods. (ii) Explicit time-dependent formulation of photoabsorption processes --Analytical solutions of the time-dependent Schrodinger equation are constructed and employed for the calculation of probability densities, momentum distributions, fluxes, transition rates, expectation values and correlation functions. These quantities are seen to establish the link between the dynamics and the calculated, or measured, spectra and cross-sections, and to clarify the dynamical nature of the excitation, transition and ejection processes. Numerical calculations on atomic and molecular hydrogen corroborate and complement the previous results, allowing the identification of different regimes during the photoabsorption process.

  3. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  4. How Galaxies Acquire their Gas: A Map of Multiphase Accretion and Feedback in Gaseous Galaxy Halos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tumlinson, Jason

    2009-07-01

    We propose to address two of the biggest open questions in galaxy formation - how galaxies acquire their gas and how they return it to the IGM - with a concentrated COS survey of diffuse multiphase gas in the halos of SDSS galaxies at z = 0.15 - 0.35. Our chief science goal is to establish a basic set of observational facts about the physical state, metallicity, and kinematics of halo gas, including the sky covering fraction of hot and cold material, the metallicity of infall and outflow, and correlations with galaxy stellar mass, type, and color - all as a function of impact parameter from 10 - 150 kpc. Theory suggests that the bimodality of galaxy colors, the shape of the luminosity function, and the mass-metallicity relation are all influenced at a fundamental level by accretion and feedback, yet these gas processes are poorly understood and cannot be predicted robustly from first principles. We lack even a basic observational assessment of the multiphase gaseous content of galaxy halos on 100 kpc scales, and we do not know how these processes vary with galaxy properties. This ignorance is presently one of the key impediments to understanding galaxy formation in general. We propose to use the high-resolution gratings G130M and G160M on the Cosmic Origins Spectrograph to obtain sensitive column density measurements of a comprehensive suite of multiphase ions in the spectra of 43 z < 1 QSOs lying behind 43 galaxies selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. In aggregate, these sightlines will constitute a statistically sound map of the physical state and metallicity of gaseous halos, and subsets of the data with cuts on galaxy mass, color, and SFR will seek out predicted variations of gas properties with galaxy properties. Our interpretation of these data will be aided by state-of-the-art hydrodynamic simulations of accretion and feedback, in turn providing information to refine and test such models. We will also use Keck, MMT, and Magellan {as needed} to obtain

  5. MID Max: LC-MS/MS Method for Measuring the Precursor and Product Mass Isotopomer Distributions of Metabolic Intermediates and Cofactors for Metabolic Flux Analysis Applications.

    PubMed

    McCloskey, Douglas; Young, Jamey D; Xu, Sibei; Palsson, Bernhard O; Feist, Adam M

    2016-01-19

    The analytical challenges to acquire accurate isotopic data of intracellular metabolic intermediates for stationary, nonstationary, and dynamic metabolic flux analysis (MFA) are numerous. This work presents MID Max, a novel LC-MS/MS workflow, acquisition, and isotopomer deconvolution method for MFA that takes advantage of additional scan types that maximizes the number of mass isotopomer distributions (MIDs) that can be acquired in a given experiment. The analytical method was found to measure the MIDs of 97 metabolites, corresponding to 74 unique metabolite-fragment pairs (32 precursor spectra and 42 product spectra) with accuracy and precision. The compounds measured included metabolic intermediates in central carbohydrate metabolism and cofactors of peripheral metabolism (e.g., ATP). Using only a subset of the acquired MIDs, the method was found to improve the precision of flux estimations and number of resolved exchange fluxes for wild-type E. coli compared to traditional methods and previously published data sets.

  6. Sparticle spectra from Large-Volume String Compactifications

    SciTech Connect

    Conlon, Joseph P.

    2007-11-20

    Large-volume models are a promising approach to stabilising moduli and generating the weak hierarchy through TeV-supersymmetry. I describe the pattern of sparticle mass spectra that arises in these models.

  7. Bejel: acquirable only in childhood?

    PubMed

    Rothschild, Bruce M; Rothschild, Christine; Naples, Virginia; Billard, Michel; Panero, Barbara

    2006-10-01

    Bejel clearly has a long history in the Middle East and the Sudan, but was it transmitted to Europe? As the major manifestation of bejel is presence of periosteal reaction in 20-40% of afflicted populations, absence of significant population frequency of periosteal reaction in Europe would exclude that diagnosis. Examination of skeletal populations from continental Europe revealed no significant periosteal reaction at the time of and immediately subsequent to the Crusades. Thus, there is no evidence for bejel in Europe, in spite of clear contact (the mechanism of bejel transmission in children) between warring groups, at least during the Crusades. This supports the hypothesis that bejel is a childhood-acquired disease and apparently cannot be contracted in adulthood.

  8. Quantitative Infrared Spectra of Vapor Phase Chemical Agents

    SciTech Connect

    Sharpe, Steven W.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Chu, P. M.; Kleimeyer, J.; Rowland, Brad

    2003-08-01

    Quantitative, moderately high resolution (0.1 cm-1) infrared spectra have been acquired for a number of nitrogen broadened (1 atm N2) vapor phase chemicals including: Sarin (GB), Soman (GD), Tabun (GA), Cyclosarin (GF), VX, Nitrogen Mustard (HN3), Sulfur Mustard (HD), and Lewisite (L). The spectra are acquired using a heated, flow-through White Cell1 of 5.6 meter optical path length. Each reported spectrum represents a statistical fit to Beer’s law, which allows for a rigorous calculation of uncertainty in the absorption coefficients. As part of an ongoing collaboration with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), cross-laboratory validation is a critical aspect of this work. In order to identify possible errors in the Dugway flow-through system, quantitative spectra of isopropyl alcohol from both NIST and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are compared to similar data taken at Dugway proving Grounds (DPG).

  9. NIMS Radiance Point Spectra of Gaspra V1.0

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Granahan, J. C.

    2014-10-01

    This data volume contains radiometrically corrected point spectra of asteroid 951 as acquired by the Galileo spacecraft Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) on October 29, 1991. They record the spectra collected as the Galileo spacecraft approached the target asteroid. These data are products of the calibration of the raw data number files gap015tn.qub, gap035tn.qub, gap036tn.qub, gap037tn.qub, and gap038tn.qub (DATA SET ID ='GO-A-NIMS-3 TUBE-V1.0') with calibration factors acquired during the first Earth/Moon encounter of the Galileo mission. These raw data .qub files are archived in the Imaging Node of the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS). The calibrated spectra consist of radiance measurements for wavelengths between 0.7 - 5.2 micrometers.

  10. Quantitative infrared spectra of vapor phase chemical agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharpe, Steven W.; Johnson, Timothy J.; Chu, Pamela M.; Kleimeyer, James; Rowland, Brad

    2003-08-01

    Quantitative, high resolution (0.1 cm-1) infrared spectra have been acquired for a number of pressure broadened (101.3 KPa N2), vapor phase chemicals including: Sarin (GB), Soman (GD), Tabun (GA), Cyclosarin (GF), VX, nitrogen mustard (HN3), sulfur mustard (HD) and Lewisite (L). The spectra are acquired using a heated, flow-through White cell of 5.6 m optical path length. Each reported spectrum represents a statistical fit to Beer's law, which allows for a rigorous calculation of uncertainty in the absorption coefficients. As part of an ongoing collaboration with the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), cross-laboratory validation is a critical aspect of this work. In order to identify possible errors in the Dugway flow-through system, quantitative spectra of isopropyl alcohol from both NIST and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) are compared to similar data taken at the Dugway Proving Ground (DPG).

  11. THIRTY NEW LOW-MASS SPECTROSCOPIC BINARIES

    SciTech Connect

    Shkolnik, Evgenya L.; Hebb, Leslie; Cameron, Andrew C.; Liu, Michael C.; Neill Reid, I. E-mail: Andrew.Cameron@st-and.ac.u E-mail: mliu@ifa.hawaii.ed

    2010-06-20

    As part of our search for young M dwarfs within 25 pc, we acquired high-resolution spectra of 185 low-mass stars compiled by the NStars project that have strong X-ray emission. By cross-correlating these spectra with radial velocity standard stars, we are sensitive to finding multi-lined spectroscopic binaries. We find a low-mass spectroscopic binary fraction of 16% consisting of 27 SB2s, 2 SB3s, and 1 SB4, increasing the number of known low-mass spectroscopic binaries (SBs) by 50% and proving that strong X-ray emission is an extremely efficient way to find M-dwarf SBs. WASP photometry of 23 of these systems revealed two low-mass eclipsing binaries (EBs), bringing the count of known M-dwarf EBs to 15. BD-22 5866, the ESB4, was fully described in 2008 by Shkolnik et al. and CCDM J04404+3127 B consists of two mid-M stars orbiting each other every 2.048 days. WASP also provided rotation periods for 12 systems, and in the cases where the synchronization time scales are short, we used P{sub rot} to determine the true orbital parameters. For those with no P{sub rot}, we used differential radial velocities to set upper limits on orbital periods and semimajor axes. More than half of our sample has near-equal-mass components (q > 0.8). This is expected since our sample is biased toward tight orbits where saturated X-ray emission is due to tidal spin-up rather than stellar youth. Increasing the samples of M-dwarf SBs and EBs is extremely valuable in setting constraints on current theories of stellar multiplicity and evolution scenarios for low-mass multiple systems.

  12. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  13. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  14. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  15. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  16. 7 CFR 926.10 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... REQUIREMENTS APPLICABLE TO CRANBERRIES NOT SUBJECT TO THE CRANBERRY MARKETING ORDER § 926.10 Acquire. Acquire means to obtain cranberries by any means whatsoever for the purpose of handling cranberries....

  17. Acquired haemophilia in recipients of depot thioxanthenes.

    PubMed

    Stewart, A J; Manson, L M; Dasani, H; Beddall, A; Collins, P; Shima, M; Ludlam, C A

    2000-11-01

    We present two cases in which the occurrence of acquired haemophilia is associated with the use of depot preparations of the thioxanthenes zuclopenthixol and flupenthixol. These drugs have not previously been implicated in the aetiology of acquired haemophilia.

  18. Carbohydrate Structure Characterization by Tandem Ion Mobility Mass Spectrometry (IMMS)2

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongli; Bendiak, Brad; Siems, William F.; Gang, David R.; Hill, Herbert H.

    2013-01-01

    A high resolution ion mobility spectrometer was interfaced to a Synapt G2 high definition mass spectrometer (HDMS) to produce IMMS-IMMS analysis. The hybrid instrument contained an electro-spray ionization source, two ion gates, an ambient pressure linear ion mobility drift tube, a quadrupole mass filter, a traveling wave ion mobility spectrometer (TWIMS) and a time of flight mass spectrometer. The dual gate drift tube ion mobility spectrometer (DTIMS) could be used to acquire traditional IMS spectra, but also could selectively transfer specific mobility selected precursor ions to the Synapt G2 HDMS for mass filtration (quadrupole). The mobility and mass selected ions could then be introduced into a collision cell for fragmentation followed by mobility separation of the fragment ions with the traveling wave ion mobility spectrometer. These mobility separated fragment ions are finally mass analyzed using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This results in an IMMS-IMMS analysis and provides a method to evaluate the isomeric heterogeneity of precursor ions by both DTIMS and TWIMS, to acquire a mobility-selected and mass-filtered fragmentation pattern and to additionally obtain traveling wave ion mobility spectra of the corresponding product ions. This new IMMS2 instrument enables the structural diversity of carbohydrates to be studied in greater detail. The physical separation of isomeric oligosaccharide mixtures was achieved by both DTIMS and TWIMS, with DTIMS demonstrating higher resolving power (70~80) than TWIMS (30~40). Mobility selected MS/MS spectra were obtained, and TWIMS evaluation of product ions showed that isomeric forms of fragment ions existed for identical m/z values. PMID:23330948

  19. Carbohydrate structure characterization by tandem ion mobility mass spectrometry (IMMS)2.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongli; Bendiak, Brad; Siems, William F; Gang, David R; Hill, Herbert H

    2013-03-05

    A high resolution ion mobility spectrometer was interfaced to a Synapt G2 high definition mass spectrometer (HDMS) to produce IMMS-IMMS analysis. The hybrid instrument contained an electrospray ionization source, two ion gates, an ambient pressure linear ion mobility drift tube, a quadrupole mass filter, a traveling wave ion mobility spectrometer (TWIMS), and a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. The dual gate drift tube ion mobility spectrometer (DTIMS) could be used to acquire traditional IMS spectra but also could selectively transfer specific mobility selected precursor ions to the Synapt G2 HDMS for mass filtration (quadrupole). The mobility and mass selected ions could then be introduced into a collision cell for fragmentation followed by mobility separation of the fragment ions with the traveling wave ion mobility spectrometer. These mobility separated fragment ions are finally mass analyzed using a time-of-flight mass spectrometer. This results in an IMMS-IMMS analysis and provides a method to evaluate the isomeric heterogeneity of precursor ions by both DTIMS and TWIMS to acquire a mobility-selected and mass-filtered fragmentation pattern and to additionally obtain traveling wave ion mobility spectra of the corresponding product ions. This new IMMS(2) instrument enables the structural diversity of carbohydrates to be studied in greater detail. The physical separation of isomeric oligosaccharide mixtures was achieved by both DTIMS and TWIMS, with DTIMS demonstrating higher resolving power (70-80) than TWIMS (30-40). Mobility selected MS/MS spectra were obtained, and TWIMS evaluation of product ions showed that isomeric forms of fragment ions existed for identical m/z values.

  20. Acquiring Evolving Technologies: Web Services Standards

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-30

    2006 Carnegie Mellon University Acquiring Evolving Technologies : Web Services Standards Harry L. Levinson Software Engineering Institute Carnegie...Acquiring Evolving Technologies : Web Services Standards 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 2 Acquiring Evolving Technologies : Web Services Standards © 2006 Carnegie Mellon University Acquiring

  1. Consistent cosmic microwave background spectra from quantum depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Casadio, Roberto; Orlandi, Alessio; Kühnel, Florian E-mail: florian.kuhnel@fysik.su.se

    2015-09-01

    Following a new quantum cosmological model proposed by Dvali and Gomez, we quantitatively investigate possible modifications to the Hubble parameter and following corrections to the cosmic microwave background spectrum. In this model, scalar and tensor perturbations are generated by the quantum depletion of the background inflaton and graviton condensate respectively. We show how the inflaton mass affects the power spectra and the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Masses approaching the Planck scale would lead to strong deviations, while standard spectra are recovered for an inflaton mass much smaller than the Planck mass.

  2. Vibrational spectra of molecular fluids in nanopores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakcheev, V. G.; Morozov, V. B.

    2012-12-01

    Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) is applied for quantitative analysis of carbon dioxide phase composition in pores of nanoporous glass samples at nearcritical temperatures. Measurements of the 1388 1/cm Q-branch were made in a wide pressure range corresponding to coexistence of gas (gas-like), adsorbed and condensed phases within pores. At temperatures several degrees below the critical value, CARS spectra behavior is easy to interpret in terms of thermodynamic model of surface adsorption and capillary condensation. It allows estimating mass fractions of different phase components. Moreover, spectra measured at near critical temperatures 30.5 and 33°C have pronounced inhomogeneous shapes and indicate the presence of condensed phase in the volume of pores. The effect obviously reflects the fluid behaviour near the critical point in nanopores. Pores with smaller radii are filled with condensed phase at lower pressures. The analysis of the CARS spectra is informative for quantitative evaluation of phase composition in nanopores.

  3. Barnacle Bill Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These IMP spectra show the characteristics of the rock surface measured by the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (blue), the soil trapped in pits on the rock surface (red), and the deposit of bright drift on the top of the rock. The area measured by the APXS has the properties expected for nearly unweathered igneous rock, and the soil trapped in the pits is intermediate to the unweathered rock and the highly weathered drift material.

  4. CHARACTERIZING THE COOL KOIs. VI. H- AND K-BAND SPECTRA OF KEPLER M DWARF PLANET-CANDIDATE HOSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Muirhead, Philip S.; Becker, Juliette; Price, Ellen M.; Thorp, Rachel; Riddle, Reed; Feiden, Gregory A.; Rojas-Ayala, Bárbara; Vanderburg, Andrew; Johnson, John Asher; Law, Nicholas M.; Baranec, Christoph; Hamren, Katherine; Schlawin, Everett; Lloyd, James P.; Covey, Kevin R.

    2014-07-01

    We present H- and K-band spectra for late-type Kepler Objects of Interest (the {sup C}ool KOIs{sup )}: low-mass stars with transiting-planet candidates discovered by NASA's Kepler Mission that are listed on the NASA Exoplanet Archive. We acquired spectra of 103 Cool KOIs and used the indices and calibrations of Rojas-Ayala et al. to determine their spectral types, stellar effective temperatures, and metallicities, significantly augmenting previously published values. We interpolate our measured effective temperatures and metallicities onto evolutionary isochrones to determine stellar masses, radii, luminosities, and distances, assuming the stars have settled onto the main sequence. As a choice of isochrones, we use a new suite of Dartmouth predictions that reliably include mid-to-late M dwarf stars. We identify five M4V stars: KOI-961 (confirmed as Kepler 42), KOI-2704, KOI-2842, KOI-4290, and the secondary component to visual binary KOI-1725, which we call KOI-1725 B. We also identify a peculiar star, KOI-3497, which has Na and Ca lines consistent with a dwarf star but CO lines consistent with a giant. Visible-wavelength adaptive optics imaging reveals two objects within a 1 arcsec diameter; however, the objects' colors are peculiar. The spectra and properties presented in this paper serve as a resource for prioritizing follow-up observations and planet validation efforts for the Cool KOIs and are all available for download online using the ''data behind the figure'' feature.

  5. Correlations between heterocycle ring size and x-ray spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doomes, E. E.; McCarley, R. L.; Poliakoff, E. D.

    2003-08-01

    X-ray absorption spectra are reported for two classes of ring systems, cyclic polymethylene sulfides and organochromium ring compounds with phosphorus-complexing bidentate ligands. For the cyclic polymethylene sulfides, spectra were acquired in the region of the sulfur K-edge. For the organochromium complexes, spectra were acquired at both the chromium K-edge and at the phosphorus K-edge. These systems allow one to interrogate how the spectra evolve as the bond angle about the absorbing atom is varied. Systematic trends are observed as a function of ring size/bond angle. For the cyclic sulfides, the peaks in the continuum above the sulfur K-edge shift to higher energy and broaden with increasing ring size. These continuum features are assigned to shape resonances. In the chromium K-edge measurements, changes in the P-Cr-C bond angle do not influence the spectra appreciably, indicating that the four carbonyl groups dominate the photoelectron scattering processes. However, the phosphorus K-edge spectra are sensitive to changes in the endocyclic Cr-P-C bond angle. The trends observed in the phosphorus K-edge region for the organometallic continuum features are consistent with those observed for the cyclic polymethylene sulfides.

  6. Corticomotoneuronal function and hyperexcitability in acquired neuromyotonia.

    PubMed

    Vucic, Steve; Cheah, Benjamin C; Yiannikas, Con; Vincent, Angela; Kiernan, Matthew C

    2010-09-01

    Acquired neuromyotonia encompasses a group of inflammatory disorders characterized by symptoms reflecting peripheral nerve hyperexcitability, which may be clinically confused in the early stages with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Despite a clear peripheral nerve focus, it remains unclear whether the ectopic activity in acquired neuromyotonia receives a central contribution. To clarify whether cortical hyperexcitability contributes to development of clinical features of acquired neuromyotonia, the present study investigated whether threshold tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation could detect cortical hyperexcitability in acquired neuromyotonia, and whether this technique could differentiate acquired neuromyotonia from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Cortical excitability studies were undertaken in 18 patients with acquired neuromyotonia and 104 patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, with results compared to 62 normal controls. Short-interval intracortical inhibition in patients with acquired neuromyotonia was significantly different when compared to patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (averaged short interval intracortical inhibition acquired neuromyotonia 11.3 +/- 1.9%; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 2.6 +/- 0.9%, P < 0.001). In addition, the motor evoked potential amplitudes (acquired neuromyotonia 21.0 +/- 3.1%; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 38.1 +/- 2.2%, P < 0.0001), intracortical facilitation (acquired neuromyotonia -0.9 +/- 1.3%; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis -2.3 +/- 0.6%, P < 0.0001), resting motor thresholds (acquired neuromyotonia 62.2 +/- 1.6%; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 57.2 +/- 0.9%, P < 0.05) and cortical silent period durations (acquired neuromyotonia 212.8 +/- 6.9 ms; amyotrophic lateral sclerosis 181.1 +/- 4.3 ms, P < 0.0001) were significantly different between patients with acquired neuromyotonia and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Threshold tracking transcranial magnetic stimulation established corticomotoneuronal integrity

  7. Building relationships between plant traits and leaf spectra to reduce uncertainty in terrestrial ecosystem models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieberman-Cribbin, W.; Rogers, A.; Serbin, S.; Ely, K.

    2015-12-01

    Despite climate projections, there is uncertainty in how terrestrial ecosystems will respond to warming temperatures and increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentrations. Earth system models are used to determine how ecosystems will respond in the future, but there is considerable variation in how plant traits are represented within these models. A potential approach to reducing uncertainty is the establishment of spectra-trait linkages among plant species. These relationships allow the accurate estimation of biochemical characteristics of plants from their shortwave spectral profiles. Remote sensing approaches can then be implemented to acquire spectral data and estimate plant traits over large spatial and temporal scales. This paper describes a greenhouse experiment conducted at Brookhaven National Laboratory in which spectra-trait relationships were investigated for 8 different plant species. This research was designed to generate a broad gradient in plant traits, using a range of species grown in different sized pots with different soil type. Fertilizer was also applied in different amounts to generate variation in plant C and N status that will be reflected in the traits measured, as well as the spectra observed. Leaves were sampled at different developmental stages to increase variation. Spectra and plant traits were then measured and a partial least-squares regression (PLSR) modeling approach was used to establish spectra-trait relationships. Despite the variability in growing conditions and plant species, our PLSR models could be used to accurately estimate plant traits from spectral signatures, yielding model calibration R2 and root mean square error (RMSE) values, respectively, of 0.85 and 0.30 for percent nitrogen by mass (Nmass%), R2 0.78 and 0.75 for carbon to nitrogen (C:N) ratio, 0.87 and 2.39 for leaf mass area (LMA), and 0.76 R2 and 15.16 for water (H2O) content. This research forms the basis for establishing new and more comprehensive spectra

  8. Associative Learning Through Acquired Salience

    PubMed Central

    Treviño, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Most associative learning studies describe the salience of stimuli as a fixed learning-rate parameter. Presumptive saliency signals, however, have also been linked to motivational and attentional processes. An interesting possibility, therefore, is that discriminative stimuli could also acquire salience as they become powerful predictors of outcomes. To explore this idea, we first characterized and extracted the learning curves from mice trained with discriminative images offering varying degrees of structural similarity. Next, we fitted a linear model of associative learning coupled to a series of mathematical representations for stimulus salience. We found that the best prediction, from the set of tested models, was one in which the visual salience depended on stimulus similarity and a non-linear function of the associative strength. Therefore, these analytic results support the idea that the net salience of a stimulus depends both on the items' effective salience and the motivational state of the subject that learns about it. Moreover, this dual salience model can explain why learning about a stimulus not only depends on the effective salience during acquisition but also on the specific learning trajectory that was used to reach this state. Our mathematical description could be instrumental for understanding aberrant salience acquisition under stressful situations and in neuropsychiatric disorders like schizophrenia, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and addiction. PMID:26793078

  9. Inherited or acquired metabolic disorders.

    PubMed

    Eichler, Florian; Ratai, Eva; Carroll, Jason J; Masdeu, Joseph C

    2016-01-01

    This chapter starts with a description of imaging of inherited metabolic disorders, followed by a discussion on imaging of acquired toxic-metabolic disorders of the adult brain. Neuroimaging is crucial for the diagnosis and management of a number of inherited metabolic disorders. Among these, inherited white-matter disorders commonly affect both the nervous system and endocrine organs. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has enabled new classifications of these disorders that have greatly enhanced both our diagnostic ability and our understanding of these complex disorders. Beyond the classic leukodystrophies, we are increasingly recognizing new hereditary leukoencephalopathies such as the hypomyelinating disorders. Conventional imaging can be unrevealing in some metabolic disorders, but proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may be able to directly visualize the metabolic abnormality in certain disorders. Hence, neuroimaging can enhance our understanding of pathogenesis, even in the absence of a pathologic specimen. This review aims to present pathognomonic brain MRI lesion patterns, the diagnostic capacity of proton MRS, and information from clinical and laboratory testing that can aid diagnosis. We demonstrate that applying an advanced neuroimaging approach enhances current diagnostics and management. Additional information on inherited and metabolic disorders of the brain can be found in Chapter 63 in the second volume of this series.

  10. [Reflection on treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome by integrative medicine].

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-Ni

    2012-02-01

    The current situation of Chinese medicine and Western medicine treatment of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has made the integrative medicine treatment of AIDS an important treatment strategy. Integrative medicine treatment of AIDS has made certain achievements in clinical research, basic research, and other aspects. It has good mass foundation and curative efficacy, as well as insufficiency. I hope integrative medicine can be brought into full play in the treatment of AIDS and make breakthrough progress.

  11. 17 CFR 210.8-06 - Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired. 210.8-06 Section 210.8-06 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND... Statements of Smaller Reporting Companies § 210.8-06 Real estate operations acquired or to be acquired....

  12. SPECTRA. September 2011

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-09-01

    Transportation Services program with the Dragon capsule. (Credit: SpaceX /Chris Thompson) S p a c e c r a f t e n g in e e r in g spectra NRL...secondary payloads on board a Space Exploration Technologies ( SpaceX ), Inc., Falcon 9 launch vehicle. NRL’s nanosatellites are part of the CubeSat...Maryland. The primary payload launched aboard the SpaceX Falcon 9 was the Dragon capsule. Developed by SpaceX and sponsored by NASA’s Commercial Orbital

  13. Determinations of Photon Spectra

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-01-01

    COVERED O14. DATE OF REPORT (Year, Month, Day) 115. PAGE COUNT THESIS/ftFROW*W FROM TO 1989 1 54 16. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTATION A ?RQVk;U kOR 3UB LIC RELEASE...IAW AFR 190- 1 ERNEST A. HAYGOOD, 1st Lt, USAF Executive Officer, Civilian Institution ProQrams 17. COSATI CODES 18. SUBJECT TERMS (Continue on...spectra from measurements obtained with a sodium iodide counting system. A response matrix is computed by combining photon cross sections with

  14. Acquired immune deficiency syndrome: review.

    PubMed

    Scully, C; Cawson, R A; Porter, S R

    1986-07-19

    Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is reviewed for dental practitioners, with an emphasis on oral findings; the clinical course, diagnosis, reporting, treatment, prognosis, transmission, and epidemiology are also covered. HIV infection has an incubation period that may be associated with glandular fever, a prodrome called AIDS-Related Complex (ARC) characterized by lymphadenopathy, low fever, weight loss, night sweats, diarrhea, oral candidosis, nonproductive cough and recurrent infections. AIDS is characterized by opportunistic infections. Over 50% present with pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, 21% with Kaposi's sarcoma, and 6% have both. The AIDS virus causes direct neurological symptoms in some cases. Oral candidosis (thrush) in a young male without a local cause such as xerostomia or immune suppression is strongly suggestive of AIDS. Other oral manifestations are severe herpes simplex, varicella-zoster, Epstein-Barr virus, cytomegalovirus, venereal warts, aphthous ulceration, mycobacterial oral ulcers, oral histoplasmosis, sinusitis and osteomyelitis of the jaw. Hairy leukoplakia, usually seen on the lateral border of the tongue, is probably caused by Epstein-Barr virus. Kaposi's sarcoma, an endothelial cell tumor, is characteristic of AIDS, and in 50% of patients is oral or perioral. Cervical lymph node enlargement will be seen in those with ARC as well as AIDS. No guidelines have been issued by the Department of Health and Social Security for dental surgeons in the UK for reporting AIDS cases. Although HIV virions have been isolated from saliva, there are no known incidents of transmission via saliva. HIV is less likely to be transmitted by needle stick injuries than, for example hepatitis B (25% risk), especially if the blood is from a carrier rather than a full blown AIDS case.

  15. Clinicopathological associations of acquired erythroblastopenia

    PubMed Central

    Gunes, Gursel; Malkan, Umit Yavuz; Yasar, Hatime Arzu; Eliacik, Eylem; Haznedaroglu, Ibrahim Celalettin; Demiroglu, Haluk; Sayinalp, Nilgun; Aksu, Salih; Etgul, Sezgin; Aslan, Tuncay; Goker, Hakan; Ozcebe, Osman Ilhami; Buyukasik, Yahya

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Acquired erythroblastopenia (AE) is a rare clinical situation. It is characterized by the reduction of erythroid precursors in the bone marrow together with the low reticulocyte counts in the peripheral blood. Background: Main secondary causes of AE are drugs, Parvovirus B19 and other infectious reasons, lymphoid and myeloid neoplasia, autoimmune diseases, thymoma and pregnancy. The aim of this study is to assess the frequencies and clinical associations of AE via analyzing 12340 bone marrow samples in a retrospective manner. Material and method: Bone marrow aspirations which were obtained from patients who applied to Hacettepe University Hematology Clinic between 2002 and 2013, were analyzed retrospectively. Results: Thirty four erythroblastopenia cases were found. Patients ranged in age from 16 to 80 years with a median of 38 years. Fifteen patients were men (44%) and nineteen were women (56%). In these patients, detected causes of erythroblastopenia were MDS, idiopathic pure red cell aplasia (PRCA), parvovirus infection, post chemotherapy aplasia, plasma proliferative diseases, copper deficiency due to secondary amyloidosis, fever of unknown origin, hemophagocytic syndrome, enteric fever and legionella pneumonia. We found that between those reasons the most common causes of erythroblastopenia are MDS (17.7%) and idiopathic PRCA (17.7%). Discussion: As a result, erythroblastopenia in the bone marrow may be an early sign of MDS. In those AE cases possibility of being MDS must be kept in mind as it can be mistaken for PRCA. Conclusion: To conclude, in adults MDS without excess blast is one of the most common causes of erythroblastopenia in clinical practice and in case of erythroblastopenia the presence of MDS should be investigated. PMID:26885236

  16. VARIABILITY IN OPTICAL SPECTRA OF {epsilon} ORIONIS

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, Gregory B.; Morrison, Nancy D. E-mail: nmorris@utnet.utoledo.edu

    2013-04-15

    We present the results of a time series analysis of 130 echelle spectra of {epsilon} Ori (B0 Ia), acquired over seven observing seasons between 1998 and 2006 at Ritter Observatory. The equivalent widths of H{alpha} (net) and He I {lambda}5876 were measured and radial velocities were obtained from the central absorption of He I {lambda}5876. Temporal variance spectra (TVS) revealed significant wind variability in both H{alpha} and He I {lambda}5876. The He I TVS have a double-peaked profile consistent with radial velocity oscillations. A periodicity search was carried out on the equivalent width and radial velocity data, as well as on wavelength-binned spectra. This analysis has revealed several periods in the variability with timescales of two to seven days. Many of these periods exhibit sinusoidal modulation in the associated phase diagrams. Several of these periods were present in both H{alpha} and He I, indicating a possible connection between the wind and the photosphere. Due to the harmonic nature of these periods, stellar pulsations may be the origin of some of the observed variability. Periods on the order of the rotational period were also detected in the He I line in the 1998-1999 season and in both lines during the 2004-2005 season. These periods may indicate rotational modulation due to structure in the wind.

  17. Quasi-simultaneous acquisition of hard electron ionization and soft single-photon ionization mass spectra during GC/MS analysis by rapid switching between both ionization methods: analytical concept, setup, and application on diesel fuel.

    PubMed

    Eschner, Markus S; Gröger, Thomas M; Horvath, Thomas; Gonin, Marc; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2011-05-15

    This work describes the realization of rapid switching between hard electron ionization (EI) and soft single-photon ionization (SPI) integrated in a compact orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer. Vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV) photons of 9.8 eV (126 nm) emitted from the innovative electron-beam-pumped rare-gas excimer light source (EBEL) filled with argon are focused into the ion chamber by an ellipsoidal mirror optic for accomplishing of SPI. This novel orthogonal acceleration time-of-flight mass spectrometer with switching capability was hyphenated to one-dimensional gas chromatography (GC) and comprehensive two-dimensional (2D) gas chromatography (GC × GC) for the first time. Within this demonstration study, a maximum switching frequency of 80 Hz was applied for investigation of a mineral-oil-type diesel sample. This approach allows the quasi-simultaneous acquisition of complementary information about the fragmentation pattern (EI) as well as the molecular mass (SPI) of compounds within a single analysis. Furthermore, by application of a polar GC column for separation, the SPI data can be displayed in a 2D contour plot, leading to a comprehensive 2D characterization (GC × MS), whereas the typical group-type assignment for diesel is also met.

  18. Control spectra for Quito

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguiar, Roberto; Rivas-Medina, Alicia; Caiza, Pablo; Quizanga, Diego

    2017-03-01

    The Metropolitan District of Quito is located on or very close to segments of reverse blind faults, Puengasí, Ilumbisí-La Bota, Carcelen-El Inca, Bellavista-Catequilla and Tangahuilla, making it one of the most seismically dangerous cities in the world. The city is divided into five areas: south, south-central, central, north-central and north. For each of the urban areas, elastic response spectra are presented in this paper, which are determined by utilizing some of the new models of the Pacific Earthquake Engineering Research Center (PEER) NGA-West2 program. These spectra are calculated considering the maximum magnitude that could be generated by the rupture of each fault segment, and taking into account the soil type that exists at different points of the city according to the Norma Ecuatoriana de la Construcción (2015). Subsequently, the recurrence period of earthquakes of high magnitude in each fault segment is determined from the physical parameters of the fault segments (size of the fault plane and slip rate) and the pattern of recurrence of type Gutenberg-Richter earthquakes with double truncation magnitude (Mmin and Mmax) is used.

  19. Theoretical Studies of Molecular Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher (Technical Monitor); Freedman, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    This summary describes the research activities of the principal investigator during the reporting period. The research includes spectroscopy, management of molecular databases, and generation of spectral line profiles and opacity data. The spectroscopy research includes oxygen broadening of nitric oxide (NO), analysis of CO2 spectra, analysis of HNO3 spectra, and analysis of CO spectra.

  20. Uncontrolled variability in the extinction spectra of C60 nanoparticle suspensions.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xiaojun; Vikesland, Peter J

    2013-08-06

    To properly investigate the environmental transport, fate, and impact of fullerene C60 nanoparticles (nC60), it is necessary to reproducibly obtain nC60 suspensions and to accurately determine their concentration ([C60]). The results in the present study, however, clearly illustrate that the production of nC60 via extended mixing and via sonication are highly stochastic top-down processes subject to widely divergent end points. nC60 suspensions exhibit variable characteristics (e.g., [C60], average particle size, size distribution, etc.) that make it challenging, if not impossible, to acquire reproducible UV-vis extinction spectra. The mass extinction coefficient, which is the absorptivity of a suspension with [C60] = 1 mM obtained by normalizing UV-vis spectra by the mass concentration of C60 in the suspension, decreases with a given suspension's hydrodynamic diameter, whereas the particle extinction coefficient, which is the absorptivity of a suspension containing one mole of nC60 nanoparticles with the same size distribution as the target suspension and calculated based upon the suspension nanoparticle size distribution, increases with its number weighted average diameter. Other spectroscopic properties of nC60 (e.g., absorbance bandwidth, position of absorption maximum, and relative extinction intensity) also change with average particle size. As a result of the extant variability between samples, when UV-vis spectra are employed to calculate or represent [C60] for fullerene nanoparticle suspensions, extreme care must be taken and other colloidal properties of this suspension must be measured to obtain an accurate result.

  1. Proton Transfer Reaction Ion Trap Mass Spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Prazeller, Peter; Palmer, Peter T.; Boscaini, Elena; Jobson, B Tom T.; Alexander, M. Lizabeth

    2003-06-11

    Proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry is a relatively new field that has attracted a great deal of interest in the last few years. This technique uses H₃Oþ as a chemical ionization (CI) reagent to measure volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the parts per billion by volume (ppbv) to parts per trillion by volume (pptv) range. Mass spectra acquired with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) are simple because proton transfer chemical ionization is ‘soft’ and results in little or no fragmentation. Unfortunately, peak identification can still be difficult due to isobaric interferences. A possible solution to this problem is to couple the PTR drift tube to an ion trap mass spectrometer (ITMS). The use of an ITMS is appealing because of its ability to perform MS/MS and possibly distinguish between isomers and other isobars. Additionally, the ITMS duty cycle is much higher than that of a linear quadrupole so faster data acquisition rates are possible that will allow for detection of multiple compounds. Here we present the first results from a proton transfer reaction ion trap mass spectrometer (PTR-ITMS). The aim of this study was to investigate ion injection and storage efficiency of a simple prototype instrument in order to estimate possible detection limits of a second-generation instrument. Using this prototype a detection limit of 100 ppbv was demonstrated. Modifications are suggested that will enable further reduction in detection limits to the low-ppbv to high-pptv range. Furthermore, the applicability of MS/MS in differentiating between isobaric species was determined. MS/MS spectra of the isobaric compounds methyl vinyl ketone (MVK) and methacrolein (MACR) are presented and show fragments of different mass making differentiation possible, even when a mixture of both species is present in the same sample. However, MS/MS spectra of acetone and propanal produce fragments with the same molecular masses but with different intensity ratios

  2. Few layer graphene matrix for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Cho, Donghyun; Hong, Sangsu; Shim, Sangdeok

    2013-08-01

    We present the employment of few layer graphene (FLG) as a matrix for the analysis of low molecular weight polymeric compounds using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The practicality of FLG as a matrix for MALDI experiments is demonstrated by analyzing low molecular weight polymers, polar polyethylene glycol (PEG) of 1000 Da and nonpolar polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) of 650 Da. The high quality MS spectra without low-mass interference signals without any further sampling procedure were acquired.

  3. Cryptosporidiosis in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cooper, D A; Wodak, A; Marriot, D J; Harkness, J L; Ralston, M; Hill, A; Penny, R

    1984-10-01

    Cryptosporidiosis was found in a patient with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. The microbiological and morphological features of this newly recognized opportunistic infection are distinctive and diagnostic.

  4. Mass spectral studies of the carboxylic acid ionophore antibiotic griseochelin and its derivatives.

    PubMed

    Schade, W; Gräfe, U; Schmidt, J

    1988-04-01

    The electron impact (EI) mass spectra (75 eV) of the new carboxylic acid ionophore griseochelin and some of its derivatives are discussed. The mass spectral fragmentation was studied using exact mass measurements and deuterium labelling. Furthermore, the negative ion mass spectra (2-4 eV) of these compounds are compared with their EI mass spectra.

  5. Nebular spectra of pair-instability supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerkstrand, A.; Smartt, S. J.; Heger, A.

    2016-01-01

    If very massive stars (M ≳ 100 M⊙) can form and avoid too strong mass-loss during their evolution, they are predicted to explode as pair-instability supernovae (PISNe). One critical test for candidate events is whether their nucleosynthesis yields and internal ejecta structure, being revealed through nebular-phase spectra at t ≳ 1 yr, match those of model predictions. Here, we compute theoretical spectra based on model PISN ejecta at 1-3 yr post-explosion to allow quantitative comparison with observations. The high column densities of PISNe lead to complete gamma-ray trapping for t ≳ 2 yr which, combined with fulfilled conditions of steady state, leads to bolometric supernova luminosities matching the 56Co decay. Most of the gamma-rays are absorbed by the deep-lying iron and silicon/sulphur layers. The ionization balance shows a predominantly neutral gas state, which leads to emission lines of Fe I, Si I, and S I. For low-mass PISNe, the metal core expands slowly enough to produce a forest of distinct lines, whereas high-mass PISNe expand faster and produce more featureless spectra. Line blocking is complete below ˜5000 Å for several years, and the model spectra are red. The strongest line is typically [Ca II] λλ7291, 7323, one of few lines from ionized species. We compare our models with proposed PISN candidates SN 2007bi and PTF12dam, finding discrepancies for several key observables and thus no support for a PISN interpretation. We discuss distinct spectral features predicted by the models, and the possibility of detecting pair-instability explosions among non-superluminous supernovae.

  6. OVI absorbers in SDSS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Stephan

    with the ubiquitous Lya forest lines, and estimate the success rate of retrieving each individual candidate as a function of its redshift, the emission redshift of the quasar, the strength of the absorber and the measured S/N of the spectrum by modelling typical Ly forest spectra. These correction factors allow us to derive the 'incompleteness and S/N corrected' redshift number densities of O VI absorbers. We can place a secure lower limit for the contribution of O VI to the closure mass density at the redshifts probed here: O OV I (2.8 < z < 3.2) >= 1.9 × 10 - 8 h -1 . We show that the strong lines we probe account for over 65% of the mass in the O VI absorbers; the weak absorbers, while dominant in line number density, do not contribute significantly to the mass density. Making a conservative assumption about the ionisation fraction, [Special characters omitted.] , and adopting the Anders & Grevesse (1989) solar abundance values, we derive the mean metallicty of the gas probed in our search : z(2.8 < z < 3.2) >= 3.6 × 10 -4 h , in good agreement with other studies. These results demonstrate that large spectroscopic datasets such as SDSS can play an important role in QSO absorption line studies, in spite of the relatively low resolution. Lastly, we have performed a stacking analysis whereby we shift individual spectra back to the rest-frame of the absorber candidate, and derive a mean absorption spectrum for various subsamples. Besides further validating the reality of the absorbers themselves, i.e. ruling out spurious interlopers and other misclassifications, we can use these stacked spectra for a variety of purposes. First of all, we can judge the effects of additional cut criteria like a minimal strength for associated CIV absorption, and hence produce cleaner and better defined subsamples, increasing the strength of future proposals for high-resolution studies. Secondly, the stack itself contains valuable information about the gas probed in our search. We have

  7. Continuum Fitting HST QSO Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tytler, David; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method which we are using to fit and describe QSO spectra relies upon the fact that QSO continuum are generally very smooth and simple except for emission and absorption lines. To see this we need high signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of QSOs at low redshift which have relatively few absorption lines in the Lyman-a forest. We need a large number of such spectra to use as the basis set for the PCA analysis which will find the set of principal component spectra which describe the QSO family as a whole. We have found that too few HST spectra have the required S/N and hence we need to supplement them with ground based spectra of QSOs at higher redshift. We have many such spectra and we have been working to make them suitable for this analysis. We have concentrated on this topic since 12/15/01.

  8. Fuzzy Logic Classification of Imaging Laser Desorption Fourier Transform Mass Spectrometry Data

    SciTech Connect

    Timothy R. McJunkin; Jill R. Scott

    2008-06-01

    The fuzzy logic method is applied to classification of mass spectra obtained with an imaging internal source Fourier transform mass spectrometer (I2LD-FTMS). Traditionally, an operator uses the relative abundance of ions with specific mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios to categorize spectra. An operator does this by comparing the spectrum of m/z versus abundance of an unknown sample against a library of spectra from known samples. Automated positioning and acquisition allow the I2LD-FTMS to acquire data from very large grids, which would require classification of up to 3600 spectra per hour to keep pace with the acquisition. The tedious job of classifying numerous spectra generated in an I2LD-FTMS imaging application can be replaced by a fuzzy rule base if the cues an operator uses can be encapsulated. Appropriate methods for assigning fuzzy membership values for inputs (e.g., mass spectrum abundances) and choice of fuzzy inference operators to translate linguistic antecedent into confidence values for the consequence (or in this case the classification) is followed by using the maximum confidence and a necessary minimum threshold for making a crisp decision. This paper also describes a method for gathering statistics on ions, which are not currently used in the rule base, but which may be candidates for making the rule base more accurate and complete or to form new rule bases based on data obtained from known samples. A spatial method for classifying spectra with low membership values, based on neighboring sample classifications, is also presented.

  9. Automated Lipid A Structure Assignment from Hierarchical Tandem Mass Spectrometry Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Ying S.; Shaffer, Scott A.; Jones, Jace W.; Ng, Wailap V.; Ernst, Robert K.; Goodlett, David R.

    2011-05-01

    Infusion-based electrospray ionization (ESI) coupled to multiple-stage tandem mass spectrometry (MS n ) is a standard methodology for investigating lipid A structural diversity (Shaffer et al. J. Am. Soc. Mass. Spectrom. 18(6), 1080-1092, 2007). Annotation of these MS n spectra, however, has remained a manual, expert-driven process. In order to keep up with the data acquisition rates of modern instruments, we devised a computational method to annotate lipid A MS n spectra rapidly and automatically, which we refer to as hierarchical tandem mass spectrometry (HiTMS) algorithm. As a first-pass tool, HiTMS aids expert interpretation of lipid A MS n data by providing the analyst with a set of candidate structures that may then be confirmed or rejected. HiTMS deciphers the signature ions (e.g., A-, Y-, and Z-type ions) and neutral losses of MS n spectra using a species-specific library based on general prior structural knowledge of the given lipid A species under investigation. Candidates are selected by calculating the correlation between theoretical and acquired MS n spectra. At a false discovery rate of less than 0.01, HiTMS correctly assigned 85% of the structures in a library of 133 manually annotated Francisella tularensis subspecies novicida lipid A structures. Additionally, HiTMS correctly assigned 85% of the structures in a smaller library of lipid A species from Yersinia pestis demonstrating that it may be used across species.

  10. Temporal Evolution of Solar Energetic Particle Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Donald J.; Dalla, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    During solar flares and coronal mass ejections, Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) may be released into the interplanetary medium and near-Earth locations. The energy spectra of SEP events at 1 AU are typically averaged over the entire event or studied in a few snapshots. In this article we analyze the time evolution of the energy spectra of four large selected SEP events using a large number of snapshots. We use a multi-spacecraft and multi-instrument approach for the observations, obtained over a wide SEP energy range. We find large differences in the spectra at the beginning of the events as measured by different instruments. We show that over time, a wave-like structure is observed traveling through the spectra from the highest energies to the lowest energies, creating an "arch" shape that then straightens into a power law later in the event, after times on the order of 10 hours. We discuss the processes that determine SEP intensities and their role in shaping the spectral time evolution.

  11. Acquiring and Managing Electronic Journals. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Donnelyn; Yue, Paoshan

    Electronic journals are both a blessing and a curse for libraries. To be meaningful in the current information environment--to meet users' ever-increasing demands--libraries must acquire as many appropriate full text resources as possible, as quickly as possible, and make them easy to use. This Digest provides tips for acquiring and providing…

  12. Acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis: case report.

    PubMed

    Brantley, Elise I; Mutasim, Diya F; Heaton, Charles

    2011-01-01

    We report a case of acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis (AIGA) in a 56-year-old white woman. Acquired idiopathic generalized anhidrosis is an exceedingly rare group of heterogeneous disorders that has been almost exclusively reported in young Japanese males. Our case is unique in that AlGA may be underrecognized in this patient population.

  13. A Study of the Complexation of Mercury(II) with Dicysteinyl Tetrapeptides by Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mazlo, Johanna; Ngu-Schwemlein, Maria

    2016-01-08

    In this study we evaluated a method for the characterization of complexes, formed in different relative ratios of mercury(II) to dicysteinyl tetrapeptide, by electrospray ionization orbitrap mass spectrometry. This strategy is based on previous successful characterization of mercury-dicysteinyl complexes involving tripeptides by utilizing mass spectrometry among other techniques. Mercury(II) chloride and a dicysteinyl tetrapeptide were incubated in a degassed buffered medium at varying stoichiometric ratios. The complexes formed were subsequently analyzed on an electrospray mass spectrometer consisting of a hybrid linear ion- and orbi- trap mass analyzer. The electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) spectra were acquired in the positive mode and the observed peaks were then analyzed for distinct mercury isotopic distribution patterns and associated monoisotopic peak. This work demonstrates that an accurate stoichiometry of mercury and peptide in the complexes formed under specified electrospray ionization conditions can be determined by using high resolution ESI MS based on distinct mercury isotopic distribution patterns.

  14. Sequencing BPS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gukov, Sergei; Nawata, Satoshi; Saberi, Ingmar; Stošić, Marko; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincaré polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel "sliding" property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identification of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d {N}=2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. Lastly, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.

  15. Sequencing BPS spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Gukov, Sergei; Nawata, Satoshi; Saberi, Ingmar; Stošić, Marko; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-03-02

    In this article, we provide both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincar e polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel "sliding" property, which can be explained by using (re fined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identi fication of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d N = 2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. In conclusion, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.

  16. Sequencing BPS spectra

    DOE PAGES

    Gukov, Sergei; Nawata, Satoshi; Saberi, Ingmar; ...

    2016-03-02

    In this article, we provide both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explainmore » from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincar e polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel "sliding" property, which can be explained by using (re fined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identi fication of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d N = 2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. In conclusion, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.« less

  17. Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

  18. Laboratory simulation of dust spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allamandola, L. J.; Sandford, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    Laboratory studies of the IR spectra of interstellar dust are reviewed. Studies of the absorption spectra of dense molecular clouds are discussed, including methods to produce interstellar ice analogues, simulations of astronomical spectra, and IR absorption features caused by ices. Comparisons are made between observational and experimental results of interstellar dust studies. Also, the interstellar emission features associated with dusty regions exposed to UV radiation are examined, including bands related to PAHs and PAH-related materials. It is shown that interstellar spectra are more consistant with emission from free PAHs than with emission from particles.

  19. USING AN ACCURATE MASS, TRIPLE QUADRUPOLE MASS SPECTROMETER AND AN ION CORRELATION PROGRAM TO IDENTIFY COMPOUNDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Most compounds are not found in mass spectral libraries and must be identified by other means. Often, compound identities can be deduced from the compositions of the ions in their mass spectra and review of the chemical literature. Confirmation is provided by mass spectra and r...

  20. A Dynamic Noise Level Algorithm for Spectral Screening of Peptide MS/MS Spectra

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background High-throughput shotgun proteomics data contain a significant number of spectra from non-peptide ions or spectra of too poor quality to obtain highly confident peptide identifications. These spectra cannot be identified with any positive peptide matches in some database search programs or are identified with false positives in others. Removing these spectra can improve the database search results and lower computational expense. Results A new algorithm has been developed to filter tandem mass spectra of poor quality from shotgun proteomic experiments. The algorithm determines the noise level dynamically and independently for each spectrum in a tandem mass spectrometric data set. Spectra are filtered based on a minimum number of required signal peaks with a signal-to-noise ratio of 2. The algorithm was tested with 23 sample data sets containing 62,117 total spectra. Conclusions The spectral screening removed 89.0% of the tandem mass spectra that did not yield a peptide match when searched with the MassMatrix database search software. Only 6.0% of tandem mass spectra that yielded peptide matches considered to be true positive matches were lost after spectral screening. The algorithm was found to be very effective at removal of unidentified spectra in other database search programs including Mascot, OMSSA, and X!Tandem (75.93%-91.00%) with a small loss (3.59%-9.40%) of true positive matches. PMID:20731867

  1. A COMPARISON OF GADRAS SIMULATED AND MEASURED GAMMA RAY SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffcoat, R.; Salaymeh, S.

    2010-06-28

    Gamma-ray radiation detection systems are continuously being developed and improved for detecting the presence of radioactive material and for identifying isotopes present. Gamma-ray spectra, from many different isotopes and in different types and thicknesses of attenuation material and matrixes, are needed to evaluate the performance of these devices. Recently, a test and evaluation exercise was performed by the Savannah River National Laboratory that required a large number of gamma-ray spectra. Simulated spectra were used for a major portion of the testing in order to provide a pool of data large enough for the results to be statistically significant. The test data set was comprised of two types of data, measured and simulated. The measured data were acquired with a hand-held Radioisotope Identification Device (RIID) and simulated spectra were created using Gamma Detector Response and Analysis Software (GADRAS, Mitchell and Mattingly, Sandia National Laboratory). GADRAS uses a one-dimensional discrete ordinate calculation to simulate gamma-ray spectra. The measured and simulated spectra have been analyzed and compared. This paper will discuss the results of the comparison and offer explanations for spectral differences.

  2. HITRAN spectroscopy evaluation using solar occultation FTIR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toon, Geoffrey C.; Blavier, Jean-Francois; Sung, Keeyoon; Rothman, Laurence S.; E. Gordon, Iouli

    2016-10-01

    High resolution FTIR solar occultation spectra, acquired by the JPL MkIV Fourier transform spectrometer from balloon, covering 650-5650 cm-1 at 0.01 cm-1 resolution, are systematically analyzed using the last four versions of the HITRAN linelist (2000, 2004, 2008, 2012). The rms spectral fitting residuals are used to assess the quality and adequacy of the linelists as a function of wavenumber and altitude. Although there have been substantial overall improvements with each successive version of HITRAN, there are nevertheless a few spectral regions where the latest HITRAN version (2012) has regressed, or produces residuals that far exceed the noise level. A few of these instances are investigated further and their causes identified. We emphasize that fitting atmospheric spectra, in addition to laboratory spectra, should be part of the quality assurance for any new linelist before public release.

  3. Catalogue of representative meteor spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojáček, V.; Borovička, J.; Koten, P.; Spurný, P.; Štork, R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a library of low-resolution meteor spectra that includes sporadic meteors, members of minor meteor showers, and major meteor showers. These meteors are in the magnitude range from +2 to -3, corresponding to meteoroid sizes from 1 mm to10 mm. This catalogue is available online at the CDS for those interested in video meteor spectra.

  4. Projecting Spectra for Classroom Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip

    1991-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive spectrum projector that makes high-dispersion, high-efficiency diffraction gratings using a holographic process. Discusses classroom applications such as transmission spectra, absorption spectra, reflection characteristics of materials, color mixing, florescence and phosphorescence, and break up spectral colors. (MDH)

  5. High precision radial velocities with GIANO spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carleo, I.; Sanna, N.; Gratton, R.; Benatti, S.; Bonavita, M.; Oliva, E.; Origlia, L.; Desidera, S.; Claudi, R.; Sissa, E.

    2016-06-01

    Radial velocities (RV) measured from near-infrared (NIR) spectra are a potentially excellent tool to search for extrasolar planets around cool or active stars. High resolution infrared (IR) spectrographs now available are reaching the high precision of visible instruments, with a constant improvement over time. GIANO is an infrared echelle spectrograph at the Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG) and it is a powerful tool to provide high resolution spectra for accurate RV measurements of exoplanets and for chemical and dynamical studies of stellar or extragalactic objects. No other high spectral resolution IR instrument has GIANO's capability to cover the entire NIR wavelength range (0.95-2.45 μm) in a single exposure. In this paper we describe the ensemble of procedures that we have developed to measure high precision RVs on GIANO spectra acquired during the Science Verification (SV) run, using the telluric lines as wavelength reference. We used the Cross Correlation Function (CCF) method to determine the velocity for both the star and the telluric lines. For this purpose, we constructed two suitable digital masks that include about 2000 stellar lines, and a similar number of telluric lines. The method is applied to various targets with different spectral type, from K2V to M8 stars. We reached different precisions mainly depending on the H-magnitudes: for H ˜ 5 we obtain an rms scatter of ˜ 10 m s-1, while for H ˜ 9 the standard deviation increases to ˜ 50 ÷ 80 m s-1. The corresponding theoretical error expectations are ˜ 4 m s-1 and 30 m s-1, respectively. Finally we provide the RVs measured with our procedure for the targets observed during GIANO Science Verification.

  6. Comprehensive polyphenol profiling of a strawberry extract (Fragaria × ananassa) by ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    La Barbera, Giorgia; Capriotti, Anna Laura; Cavaliere, Chiara; Piovesana, Susy; Samperi, Roberto; Zenezini Chiozzi, Riccardo; Laganà, Aldo

    2017-03-01

    The aim of metabolic untargeted profiling is to detect and identify unknown compounds in a biological matrix to achieve the most comprehensive metabolic coverage. In phytochemical mixtures, however, the complexity of the sample could present significant difficulties in compound identification. In this case, the optimization of both the chromatographic and the mass-spectrometric conditions is supposed to be crucial for the detection and identification of the largest number of compounds. In this work, a systematic investigation of different chromatographic and mass-spectrometric conditions is presented to achieve a comprehensive untargeted profiling of a strawberry extract (Fragaria × ananassa). To fulfill this aim, an ultra-high-pressure liquid chromatography system coupled via an electrospray source to a hybrid quadrupole-Orbitrap mass spectrometer was used. Spectra were acquired in data-dependent mode, and several parameters were investigated to acquire the largest possible number of both mass spectrometry (MS) features and MS(2) mass spectra for unique metabolites. The main classes of polyphenols studied were flavonoids, phenolic acids, dihydrochalcones, ellagitannins, and proanthocyanidins. Method optimization allowed to us identify and tentatively identify 18 and 113 compounds, respectively, among which 74 have never been reported before in strawberries and, to the best of our knowledge, 22 of them have never been reported before. The results show the importance of an extended investigation of the chromatographic and mass-spectrometric method before a complete untargeted profiling of complex phytochemical mixtures.

  7. Beamstrahlung spectra in next generation linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Barklow, T.; Chen, P. ); Kozanecki, W. )

    1992-04-01

    For the next generation of linear colliders, the energy loss due to beamstrahlung during the collision of the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} beams is expected to substantially influence the effective center-of-mass energy distribution of the colliding particles. In this paper, we first derive analytical formulae for the electron and photon energy spectra under multiple beamstrahlung processes, and for the e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} and {gamma}{gamma} differential luminosities. We then apply our formulation to various classes of 500 GeV e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider designs currently under study.

  8. Cloud parallel processing of tandem mass spectrometry based proteomics data.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Yassene; Mostovenko, Ekaterina; Henneman, Alex A; Marissen, Rob J; Deelder, André M; Palmblad, Magnus

    2012-10-05

    Data analysis in mass spectrometry based proteomics struggles to keep pace with the advances in instrumentation and the increasing rate of data acquisition. Analyzing this data involves multiple steps requiring diverse software, using different algorithms and data formats. Speed and performance of the mass spectral search engines are continuously improving, although not necessarily as needed to face the challenges of acquired big data. Improving and parallelizing the search algorithms is one possibility; data decomposition presents another, simpler strategy for introducing parallelism. We describe a general method for parallelizing identification of tandem mass spectra using data decomposition that keeps the search engine intact and wraps the parallelization around it. We introduce two algorithms for decomposing mzXML files and recomposing resulting pepXML files. This makes the approach applicable to different search engines, including those relying on sequence databases and those searching spectral libraries. We use cloud computing to deliver the computational power and scientific workflow engines to interface and automate the different processing steps. We show how to leverage these technologies to achieve faster data analysis in proteomics and present three scientific workflows for parallel database as well as spectral library search using our data decomposition programs, X!Tandem and SpectraST.

  9. Properties of Martian Hematite at Meridiani Planum by Simultaneous Fitting of Mars Mossbauer Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, D. G.; Fleischer, I.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Morris, R. V.

    2010-01-01

    Mossbauer spectrometers [1] on the two Mars Exploration Rovers (MERs) have been making measurements of surface rocks and soils since January 2004, recording spectra in 10-K-wide temperature bins ranging from 180 K to 290 K. Initial analyses focused on modeling individual spectra directly as acquired or, to increase statistical quality, as sums of single-rock or soil spectra over temperature or as sums over similar rock or soil type [2, 3]. Recently, we have begun to apply simultaneous fitting procedures [4] to Mars Mossbauer data [5-7]. During simultaneous fitting (simfitting), many spectra are modeled similarly and fit together to a single convergence criterion. A satisfactory simfit with parameter values consistent among all spectra is more likely than many single-spectrum fits of the same data because fitting parameters are shared among multiple spectra in the simfit. Consequently, the number of variable parameters, as well as the correlations among them, is greatly reduced. Here we focus on applications of simfitting to interpret the hematite signature in Moessbauer spectra acquired at Meridiani Planum, results of which were reported in [7]. The Spectra. We simfit two sets of spectra with large hematite content [7]: 1) 60 rock outcrop spectra from Eagle Crater; and 2) 46 spectra of spherule-rich lag deposits (Table 1). Spectra of 10 different targets acquired at several distinct temperatures are included in each simfit set. In the table, each Sol (martian day) represents a different target, NS is the number of spectra for a given sol, and NT is the number of spectra for a given temperature. The spectra are indexed to facilitate definition of parameter relations and constraints. An example spectrum is shown in Figure 1, together with a typical fitting model. Results. We have shown that simultaneous fitting is effective in analyzing a large set of related MER Mossbauer spectra. By using appropriate constraints, we derive target-specific quantities and the

  10. Evolution and infrared spectra of brown dwarfs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lunine, Jonathan I.; Hubbard, William B.; Marley, Mark S.

    1986-01-01

    Self-consistent models are constructed for the structure, evolution, and observable properties of degenerately cooling objects, or 'brown dwarfs'. Model atmospheres composed of a range of likely gaseous and particulate opacity sources are calculated in order to provide a boundary condition for interior temperature-pressure profiles and to determine the emergent spectra for such objects. The radius derived from the interior models is combined with the emergent fluxes calculated from the atmosphere model to fit the data of McCarthy, Probst, and Low (1985) and to derive the luminosity and mass of VB 8B. The latter is found to be most probably an 0.05 solar mass object with effective temperature in the 1200-1500 K range and an atmosphere which very likely contains particulate absorbers. Key changes in chemical oxidation state and condensation of major constituents during the evolution of brown dwarfs are presented.

  11. Phonon spectra of alkali metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeković, S.; Vukajlović, F.; Veljković, V.

    1982-10-01

    In this work we used a simple local model pseudopotential which includes screening for the phonon spectra calculations of alkali metals. The results obtained are in very good agreement with experimental data. In some branches of phonon spectra the differences between theoretical and experimental results are within 1-2%, while the maximum error is about 6%. The suggested form of the pseudopotential allows us to describe the phonon spectra of Na, K and Rb with only one, and, at the same time, a unique, parameter. In this case, the maximum disagreements from experiment are 9% for Na, 8% for K and 7% for Rb.

  12. Use of Interrupted Helium Flow in the Analysis of Vapor Samples with Flowing Atmospheric-Pressure Afterglow-Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, Andrew P.; Zeiri, Offer M.; Ray, Steven J.; Hieftje, Gary M.

    2017-02-01

    The flowing atmospheric-pressure afterglow (FAPA) source was used for the mass-spectrometric analysis of vapor samples introduced between the source and mass spectrometer inlet. Through interrupted operation of the plasma-supporting helium flow, helium consumption is greatly reduced and dynamic gas behavior occurs that was characterized by schlieren imaging. Moreover, mass spectra acquired immediately after the onset of helium flow exhibit a signal spike before declining and ultimately reaching a steady level. This initial signal appears to be due to greater interaction of sample vapor with the afterglow of the source when helium flow resumes. In part, the initial spike in signal can be attributed to a pooling of analyte vapor in the absence of helium flow from the source. Time-resolved schlieren imaging of the helium flow during on and off cycles provided insight into gas-flow patterns between the FAPA source and the MS inlet that were correlated with mass-spectral data.

  13. [Hospital-acquired urinary tract infections].

    PubMed

    Adukauskiene, Dalia; Cicinskaite, Ilona; Vitkauskiene, Astra; Macas, Andrius; Tamosiūnas, Ramūnas; Kinderyte, Aida

    2006-01-01

    Urinary tract infections are responsible for 40-60% of all hospital-acquired infections. Increased age of patients and comorbid diseases render hospitalized patients more susceptible to infection. Almost 80% of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections are associated with urinary catheters, and only 5-10% of urinary infections are caused by invasive manipulations in the urogenital tract. Pathogens of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections are frequently multi-resistant, and antibiotic therapy can only be successful when the complicating factors are eliminated or urodynamic function is restored. For treatment of complicated hospital-acquired urinary tract infections, the antibiotics must exhibit adequate pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties: high renal clearance of unmetabolized form with good antimicrobial activity in both acidic and alkaline urine. For selection of empirical treatment of hospital-acquired urinary tract infections, it is necessary to evaluate localization of infection, its severity, possible isolates, and the most frequent pathogens in the department where patient is treated. The best choice for the starting the antimicrobial therapy is the cheapest narrow-spectrum effective antibiotic in the treatment of urinary tract infection until microbiological evaluation of pathogens will be received. Adequate management of urinary tract infections lowers the rate of complications, requirements for antibacterial treatment, selection of multi-resistant isolates and is cost effective.

  14. Spectra of volcanic rocks glasses as analogues of Mercury surface spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carli, C.; Capaccioni, F.; de Sanctis, M.; Filacchione, G.; Sgavetti, M.; di Genova, D.; Vona, A.; Visonà, D.; Ammannito, E.

    2010-12-01

    Remote-sensing studies have revealed that most of the inner planets surfaces are composed by magmatic effusive rocks as lava flows or pyroclastic deposits, that are the natural products of magma-rock dynamic systems controlled by T, P, oxygen fugacity and time. These materials generally contain a fair amount of volcanic glass, due to the magma rapid cooling once effused on the surface. The VNIR reflectance spectroscopy is one of the most relevant tools for remote-sensing studies and in the last decades gave important results identifying the presence of different Fe-Mg silicates, such as olivine and pyroxenes, on the planets surfaces. However, the mineralogical interpretation of the observed spectral features of several volcanic areas on the inner Solar System bodies is still matter of debate. In particular the presence of dark volcanic glass, which can dominate or not the rock texture, influences the spectra signatures. In fact samples with a glass-bearing groundmass have lower albedo and reduced band intensity of the spectra of samples with comparable mineral composition and intergranular texture. As a consequence, an important goal for studying the planetary crusts is to understand the spectral behavior of volcanic material, where chemical or physical parameters are different depending on geologic context and effusive processes. We present here preliminary laboratory activity to investigate VNIR reflectance spectra of several volcanic glasses. Reflectance spectra, in the wavelength range between 0.35- 2.50 μm, are measured on powders of magmatic rocks, having different composition and textures, at fine (<60 μm in diameter) and very fine (<10 μm) grain sizes. For each rock sample a corresponding “thermal shocked-sample” is produced by heating at 1300°C and P=1 atm and a glass-sample was produced by melting at 1500°C and P=1 atm, than quenching it in air. Reflectance spectra of powders of shocked and glass-samples were acquired at the same grain size, and

  15. Spectra ID of recent SN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challis, Peter

    2013-12-01

    P. Challis, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), on behalf of the CfA Supernova Group, report spectra (range 320-860 nm) of various SN obtained during Dec. 24-27 UT by P. Challis, S. Gottilla (MMTO.org), and E. Marin (MMTO.org) with the MMT 6.5-m telescope (+ Blue Channel). Cross-correlation with a library of supernova spectra using the "Supernova Identification" code (SNID; Blondin and Tonry 2007, Ap.J.

  16. Visible and Near-IR Reflectance Spectra of Mars Analogue Materials Under Arid Conditions for Interpretation of Martian Surface Mineralogy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Graff, T. G.; Achilles, C. N.; Agresti, D. G.; Ming, D. W.; Golden, D. C.

    2011-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectra from the hyper-spectral imagers MRO-CRISM and Mars Express OMEGA in martian orbit have signatures from Fe-bearing phases (e.g., olivine, pyroxene, and jarosite), H2O/OH-bearing phases (e.g., smectites and other phyllosilicates, sulfates, and high-SiO2 phases), and carbonate [e.g., 1-5]. Mineralogical assignments of martian spectral features are made on the basis of VNIR spectra acquired in the laboratory under appropriate environmental conditions on samples whose mineralogical composition is known. We report here additional results for our ongoing project [6] to acquire VNIR spectra under arid conditions.

  17. The absorption spectra of carbonates and their precursors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, C.; Chihara, H.; Suto, H.

    The carbonates calcite and dolomite have been discovered in the dust shells of evolved stars (Kemper et al. 2002) and young proto stars (Ceccarelli et al. 2002). The mechanism for carbonate formation with a aqueous or non-aqueous process were discussed in their papers. These processes have not yet been reproduced in a laboratory experiment. First of all, we measured the mass absorption spectra of varous carbonates were measured in the mid- and far-infrared region. These spectra show very strong and broad peaks in the far-infrared region. The calcite and dolomite have peaks at about 92 microns and 63 microns, respectively. The alternative process of carbonates has not yet been clear. We investigate the alternative process measuring the spectra of the precursors of carbonates. We will report the preliminary results and discuss about the alternative process comparing the measured spectra of the precursors with the observation.

  18. Lunar orbital mass spectrometer experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lord, W. P.

    1971-01-01

    The design, development, manufacture, test and calibration of five lunar orbital mass spectrometers with the four associated ground support equipment test sets are discussed. A mass spectrometer was installed in the Apollo 15 and one in the Apollo 16 Scientific Instrument Module within the Service Module. The Apollo 15 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 38 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit and 50 hours of data were collected during transearth coast. The Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was operated with collection of 76 hours of mass spectra data during lunar orbit. However, the Apollo 16 mass spectrometer was ejected into lunar orbit upon malfunction of spacecraft boom system just prior to transearth insection and no transearth coast data was possible.

  19. XMS: Cross-Platform Normalization Method for Multimodal Mass Spectrometric Tissue Profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golf, Ottmar; Muirhead, Laura J.; Speller, Abigail; Balog, Júlia; Abbassi-Ghadi, Nima; Kumar, Sacheen; Mróz, Anna; Veselkov, Kirill; Takáts, Zoltán

    2015-01-01

    Here we present a proof of concept cross-platform normalization approach to convert raw mass spectra acquired by distinct desorption ionization methods and/or instrumental setups to cross-platform normalized analyte profiles. The initial step of the workflow is database driven peak annotation followed by summarization of peak intensities of different ions from the same molecule. The resulting compound-intensity spectra are adjusted to a method-independent intensity scale by using predetermined, compound-specific normalization factors. The method is based on the assumption that distinct MS-based platforms capture a similar set of chemical species in a biological sample, though these species may exhibit platform-specific molecular ion intensity distribution patterns. The method was validated on two sample sets of (1) porcine tissue analyzed by laser desorption ionization (LDI), desorption electrospray ionization (DESI), and rapid evaporative ionization mass spectrometric (REIMS) in combination with Fourier transformation-based mass spectrometry; and (2) healthy/cancerous colorectal tissue analyzed by DESI and REIMS with the latter being combined with time-of-flight mass spectrometry. We demonstrate the capacity of our method to reduce MS-platform specific variation resulting in (1) high inter-platform concordance coefficients of analyte intensities; (2) clear principal component based clustering of analyte profiles according to histological tissue types, irrespective of the used desorption ionization technique or mass spectrometer; and (3) accurate "blind" classification of histologic tissue types using cross-platform normalized analyte profiles.

  20. Storage and retrieval of mass spectral information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hohn, M. E.; Humberston, M. J.; Eglinton, G.

    1977-01-01

    Computer handling of mass spectra serves two main purposes: the interpretation of the occasional, problematic mass spectrum, and the identification of the large number of spectra generated in the gas-chromatographic-mass spectrometric (GC-MS) analysis of complex natural and synthetic mixtures. Methods available fall into the three categories of library search, artificial intelligence, and learning machine. Optional procedures for coding, abbreviating and filtering a library of spectra minimize time and storage requirements. Newer techniques make increasing use of probability and information theory in accessing files of mass spectral information.

  1. Building and Searching Tandem Mass Spectral Libraries for Peptide Identification*

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Henry

    2011-01-01

    Spectral library searching is an emerging approach in peptide identifications from tandem mass spectra, a critical step in proteomic data analysis. Conceptually, the premise of this approach is that the tandem MS fragmentation pattern of a peptide under some fixed conditions is a reproducible fingerprint of that peptide, such that unknown spectra acquired under the same conditions can be identified by spectral matching. In actual practice, a spectral library is first meticulously compiled from a large collection of previously observed and identified tandem MS spectra, usually obtained from shotgun proteomics experiments of complex mixtures. Then, a query spectrum is then identified by spectral matching using recently developed spectral search engines. This review discusses the basic principles of the two pillars of this approach: spectral library construction, and spectral library searching. An overview of the software tools available for these two tasks, as well as a high-level description of the underlying algorithms, will be given. Finally, several new methods that utilize spectral libraries for peptide identification in ways other than straightforward spectral matching will also be described. PMID:21900153

  2. High Pressure Oxygen A-Band Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouin, Brian; Sung, Keeyoon; Yu, Shanshan; Lunny, Elizabeth M.; Bui, Thinh Quoc; Okumura, Mitchio; Rupasinghe, Priyanka; Bray, Caitlin; Long, David A.; Hodges, Joseph; Robichaud, David; Benner, D. Chris; Devi, V. Malathy; Hoo, Jiajun

    2015-06-01

    Composition measurements from remote sensing platforms require knowledge of air mass to better than the desired precision of the composition. Oxygen spectra allow determination of air mass since the mixing ratio of oxygen is fixed. The OCO-2 mission is currently retrieving carbon dioxide concentration using the oxygen A-band for air mass normalization. The 0.25% accuracy desired for the carbon dioxide concentration has pushed the state-of-the-art for oxygen spectroscopy. To produce atmospheric pressure A-band cross-sections with this accuracy requires a sophisticated line-shape model (Galatry or Speed-Dependent) with line mixing (LM) and collision induced absorption (CIA). Models of each of these phenomena exist, but an integrated self-consistent model must be developed to ensure accuracy. This presentation will describe the ongoing effort to parameterize these phenomena on a representative data set created from complementary experimental techniques. The techniques include Fourier transform spectroscopy (FTS), photo-acoustic spectroscopy (PAS) and cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS). CRDS data allow long-pathlength measurements with absolute intensities, providing lineshape information as well as LM and CIA, however the subtleties of the lineshape are diminished in the saturated line-centers. Conversely, the short paths and large dynamic range of the PAS data allow the full lineshape to be discerned, but with an arbitrary intensity axis. Finally, the FTS data provides intermediate paths and consistency across a broad pressure range. These spectra are all modeled with the Labfit software using first the spectral line database HITRAN, and then model values are adjusted and fitted for better agreement with the data.

  3. Cost of hospital-acquired infection.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mahmud; Tuckman, Howard P; Patrick, Robert H; Kountz, David S; Kohn, Jennifer L

    2010-01-01

    The authors assessed the costs of hospital-acquired infections using rigorous econometric methods on publicly available data, controlling for the interdependency of length of stay and the incidence of hospital acquired infection, and estimated the cost shares of different payers. They developed a system of equations involving length of stay, incidence of infection, and the total hospital care cost to be estimated using simultaneous equations system. The main data came from the State of New Jersey UB 92 for 2004, complimented with data from the Annual Survey of Hospitals by the American Hospital Association and the Medicare Cost Report of 2004. The authors estimated that an incidence of hospital acquired infection increases the hospital care cost of a patient by $10,375 and it increases the length of stay by 3.30 days, and that a disproportionately higher portion of the cost is attributable to Medicare. They conclude that reliable cost estimates of hospital-acquired infections can be made using publicly available data. Their estimate shows a much larger aggregate cost of $16.6 billion as opposed to $5 billion reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention but much less than $29 billion as reported elsewhere in the literature.

  4. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Acquire. 989.17 Section 989.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  5. How Did Light Acquire a Velocity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauginie, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    We discuss how light acquired a velocity through history, from the ancient Greeks to the early modern era. Combining abstract debates, models of light, practical needs, planned research and chance, this history illustrates several key points that should be brought out in science education.

  6. Sexually acquired Salmonella Typhi urinary tract infection.

    PubMed

    Wielding, Sally; Scott, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    We report a case of isolated urinary Salmonella enterica serotype Typhi in an HIV-positive man who has sex with men. He was clinically well and blood and stool cultures were negative, indicating that this may have been a sexually acquired urinary tract infection.

  7. Acquired nasal deformities in fighter pilots.

    PubMed

    Schreinemakers, Joyce R C; van Amerongen, Pieter; Kon, Moshe

    2010-07-01

    Fighter pilots may develop slowly progressive deformities of their noses during their flying careers. The spectrum of deformities that may be acquired ranges from soft tissue to osseous changes. The main cause is the varying pressure exerted by the oxygen mask on the skin and bony pyramid of the nose during flying.

  8. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Acquire. 989.17 Section 989.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  9. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Acquire. 989.17 Section 989.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  10. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Acquire. 989.17 Section 989.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  11. 7 CFR 989.17 - Acquire.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Acquire. 989.17 Section 989.17 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RAISINS PRODUCED FROM GRAPES GROWN...

  12. Eye Movement Correlates of Acquired Central Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schattka, Kerstin I.; Radach, Ralph; Huber, Walter

    2010-01-01

    Based on recent progress in theory and measurement techniques, the analysis of eye movements has become one of the major methodological tools in experimental reading research. Our work uses this approach to advance the understanding of impaired information processing in acquired central dyslexia of stroke patients with aphasia. Up to now there has…

  13. Group Treatment in Acquired Brain Injury Rehabilitation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bertisch, Hilary; Rath, Joseph F.; Langenbahn, Donna M.; Sherr, Rose Lynn; Diller, Leonard

    2011-01-01

    The current article describes critical issues in adapting traditional group-treatment methods for working with individuals with reduced cognitive capacity secondary to acquired brain injury. Using the classification system based on functional ability developed at the NYU Rusk Institute of Rehabilitation Medicine (RIRM), we delineate the cognitive…

  14. Acquiring a Second Language for School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collier, Virginia P.

    1995-01-01

    This report offers a conceptual model for use with language minority children who are entering a new school when they must acquire the language of the majority student population. The model has four development components or processes: sociocultural, linguistic, academic, and cognitive. These four components are described in detail. Research is…

  15. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    PubMed

    Gowda, Vykuntaraju K N; Sukanya, V; Shivananda

    2012-11-01

    A 7-year-old boy with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, receiving antiretroviral drugs for 2 years, presented with a recent onset of myoclonic jerks and cognitive deterioration. On examination, he manifested myoclonic jerks once every 10-15 seconds. His electroencephalogram indicated periodic complexes, and his cerebrospinal fluid tested positive for measles antibodies.

  16. 125 GeV Higgs boson mass and muon g -2 in 5D MSSM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okada, Nobuchika; Tran, Hieu Minh

    2016-10-01

    In the minimal supersymmetric standard model (MSSM), the tension between the observed Higgs boson mass and the experimental result of the muon g -2 measurement requires a large mass splitting between stops and smuons/charginos/neutralinos. We consider a five-dimensional (5D) framework of the MSSM with the Randall-Sundrum warped background metric, and show that such a mass hierarchy is naturally achieved in terms of geometry. In our setup, the supersymmetry is broken at the ultraviolet (UV) brane, while all the MSSM multiplets reside in the 5D bulk. An appropriate choice of the bulk mass parameters for the MSSM matter multiplets can naturally realize the sparticle mass hierarchy desired to resolve the tension. The gravitino is localized at the UV brane and hence becomes very heavy, while the gauginos spreading over the bulk acquire their masses suppressed by the fifth dimensional volume. As a result, the lightest sparticle neutralino is a candidate for the dark matter as usual in the MSSM. In addition to reproducing the SM-like Higgs boson mass of around 125 GeV and the measured value of the muon g -2 , we consider a variety of phenomenological constraints, and present the benchmark particle mass spectra that can be explored at the LHC Run-2 in the near future.

  17. Mass spectrometry of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colony, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Mass spectrometry is used for chemical analysis of aerospace materials and contaminants. Years of analytical aerospace experience have resulted in the development of specialized techniques of sampling and analysis which are required in order to optimize results. This work has resulted in the evolution of a hybrid method of indexing mass spectra which include both the largest peaks and the structurally significant peaks in a concise format. With this system, a library of mass spectra of aerospace materials was assembled, including the materials responsible for 80 to 90 percent of the contamination problems at Goddard Space Flight Center during the past several years.

  18. Distinguishing Vaccinium species by chemical fingerprinting based on NMR spectra, validated with spectra collected in different laboratories.

    PubMed

    Markus, Michelle A; Ferrier, Jonathan; Luchsinger, Sarah M; Yuk, Jimmy; Cuerrier, Alain; Balick, Michael J; Hicks, Joshua M; Killday, K Brian; Kirby, Christopher W; Berrue, Fabrice; Kerr, Russell G; Knagge, Kevin; Gödecke, Tanja; Ramirez, Benjamin E; Lankin, David C; Pauli, Guido F; Burton, Ian; Karakach, Tobias K; Arnason, John T; Colson, Kimberly L

    2014-06-01

    A method was developed to distinguish Vaccinium species based on leaf extracts using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Reference spectra were measured on leaf extracts from several species, including lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium), oval leaf huckleberry (Vaccinium ovalifolium), and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). Using principal component analysis, these leaf extracts were resolved in the scores plot. Analysis of variance statistical tests demonstrated that the three groups differ significantly on PC2, establishing that the three species can be distinguished by nuclear magnetic resonance. Soft independent modeling of class analogies models for each species also showed discrimination between species. To demonstrate the robustness of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for botanical identification, spectra of a sample of lowbush blueberry leaf extract were measured at five different sites, with different field strengths (600 versus 700 MHz), different probe types (cryogenic versus room temperature probes), different sample diameters (1.7 mm versus 5 mm), and different consoles (Avance I versus Avance III). Each laboratory independently demonstrated the linearity of their NMR measurements by acquiring a standard curve for chlorogenic acid (R(2) = 0.9782 to 0.9998). Spectra acquired on different spectrometers at different sites classifed into the expected group for the Vaccinium spp., confirming the utility of the method to distinguish Vaccinium species and demonstrating nuclear magnetic resonance fingerprinting for material validation of a natural health product.

  19. Distinguishing Vaccinium Species by Chemical Fingerprinting Based on NMR Spectra, Validated with Spectra Collected in Different Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Markus, Michelle A.; Ferrier, Jonathan; Luchsinger, Sarah M.; Yuk, Jimmy; Cuerrier, Alain; Balick, Michael J.; Hicks, Joshua M.; Killday, K. Brian; Kirby, Christopher W.; Berrue, Fabrice; Kerr, Russell G.; Knagge, Kevin; Gödecke, Tanja; Ramirez, Benjamin E.; Lankin, David C.; Pauli, Guido F.; Burton, Ian; Karakach, Tobias K.; Arnason, John T.; Colson, Kimberly L.

    2014-01-01

    A method was developed to distinguish Vaccinium species based on leaf extracts using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. Reference spectra were measured on leaf extracts from several species, including lowbush blueberry (Vaccinium angustifolium), oval leaf huckleberry (Vaccinium ovalifolium), and cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon). Using principal component analysis, these leaf extracts were resolved in the scores plot. Analysis of variance statistical tests demonstrated that the three groups differ significantly on PC2, establishing that the three species can be distinguished by nuclear magnetic resonance. Soft independent modeling of class analogies models for each species also showed discrimination between species. To demonstrate the robustness of nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy for botanical identification, spectra of a sample of lowbush blueberry leaf extract were measured at five different sites, with different field strengths (600 versus 700 MHz), different probe types (cryogenic versus room temperature probes), different sample diameters (1.7 mm versus 5 mm), and different consoles (Avance I versus Avance III). Each laboratory independently demonstrated the linearity of their NMR measurements by acquiring a standard curve for chlorogenic acid (R2 = 0.9782 to 0.9998). Spectra acquired on different spectrometers at different sites classifed into the expected group for the Vaccinium spp., confirming the utility of the method to distinguish Vaccinium species and demonstrating nuclear magnetic resonance fingerprinting for material validation of a natural health product. PMID:24963620

  20. Rapid Identification of the Foodborne Pathogen Trichinella spp. by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Neumann, Jennifer; Bahn, Peter; Reckinger, Sabine; Nöckler, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Human trichinellosis occurs through consumption of raw or inadequately processed meat or meat products containing larvae of the parasitic nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Currently, nine species and three genotypes are recognized, of which T. spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis have the highest public health relevance. To date, the differentiation of the larvae to the species and genotype level is based primarily on molecular methods, which can be relatively time consuming and labor intensive. Due to its rapidness and ease of use a matrix assisted laser desorption / ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) reference spectra database using Trichinella strains of all known species and genotypes was created. A formicacid/acetonitrile protein extraction was carried out after pooling 10 larvae of each Trichinella species and genotype. Each sample was spotted 9 times using α-cyano 4-hydoxy cinnamic acid matrix and a MicroFlex LT mass spectrometer was used to acquire 3 spectra (m/z 2000 to 20000 Da) from each spot resulting in 27 spectra/species or genotype. Following the spectra quality assessment, Biotyper software was used to create a main spectra library (MSP) representing nine species and three genotypes of Trichinella. The evaluation of the spectra generated by MALDI-TOF MS revealed a classification which was comparable to the results obtained by molecular methods. Also, each Trichinella species utilized in this study was distinct and distinguishable with a high confidence level. Further, different conservation methods such as freezing and conservation in alcohol and the host species origin of the isolated larvae did not have a significant influence on the generated spectra. Therefore, the described MALDI-TOF MS can successfully be implemented for both genus and species level identification and represents a major step forward in the use of this technique in foodborne parasitology.

  1. Rapid Identification of the Foodborne Pathogen Trichinella spp. by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Mayer-Scholl, Anne; Murugaiyan, Jayaseelan; Neumann, Jennifer; Bahn, Peter; Reckinger, Sabine; Nöckler, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Human trichinellosis occurs through consumption of raw or inadequately processed meat or meat products containing larvae of the parasitic nematodes of the genus Trichinella. Currently, nine species and three genotypes are recognized, of which T. spiralis, T. britovi and T. pseudospiralis have the highest public health relevance. To date, the differentiation of the larvae to the species and genotype level is based primarily on molecular methods, which can be relatively time consuming and labor intensive. Due to its rapidness and ease of use a matrix assisted laser desorption / ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) reference spectra database using Trichinella strains of all known species and genotypes was created. A formicacid/acetonitrile protein extraction was carried out after pooling 10 larvae of each Trichinella species and genotype. Each sample was spotted 9 times using α-cyano 4-hydoxy cinnamic acid matrix and a MicroFlex LT mass spectrometer was used to acquire 3 spectra (m/z 2000 to 20000 Da) from each spot resulting in 27 spectra/species or genotype. Following the spectra quality assessment, Biotyper software was used to create a main spectra library (MSP) representing nine species and three genotypes of Trichinella. The evaluation of the spectra generated by MALDI-TOF MS revealed a classification which was comparable to the results obtained by molecular methods. Also, each Trichinella species utilized in this study was distinct and distinguishable with a high confidence level. Further, different conservation methods such as freezing and conservation in alcohol and the host species origin of the isolated larvae did not have a significant influence on the generated spectra. Therefore, the described MALDI-TOF MS can successfully be implemented for both genus and species level identification and represents a major step forward in the use of this technique in foodborne parasitology. PMID:26999436

  2. Vibrational Spectra of Selected Monohalogenated Monocarboxylic Acids.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    HALOGENATED HYDROCARBONS, INFRARED SPECTRA), (*CARBOXYLIC ACIDS, *INFRARED SPECTRA), IODINE COMPOUNDS, CHLORINE COMPOUNDS, BROMINE COMPOUNDS, ACETIC ACID , ACETATES, MOLECULAR STRUCTURE, MOLECULAR ASSOCIATION

  3. Access to experimentally infeasible spectra by pure-shift NMR covariance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredi, André; Nolis, Pau; Cobas, Carlos; Parella, Teodor

    2016-09-01

    Covariance processing is a versatile processing tool to generate synthetic NMR spectral representations without the need to acquire time-consuming experimental datasets. Here we show that even experimentally prohibited NMR spectra can be reconstructed by introducing key features of a reference 1D CHn-edited spectrum into standard 2D spectra. This general procedure is illustrated with the calculation of experimentally infeasible multiplicity-edited pure-shift NMR spectra of some very popular homonuclear (ME-psCOSY and ME-psTOCSY) and heteronuclear (ME-psHSQC-TOCSY and ME-psHMBC) experiments.

  4. On the risk of false positive identification using multiple ion monitoring in qualitative mass spectrometry: large-scale intercomparisons with a comprehensive mass spectral library.

    PubMed

    Stein, Stephen E; Heller, David N

    2006-06-01

    Analysts involved in qualitative mass spectrometry have long debated the minimum data requirements for demonstrating that signals from an unknown sample are identical to those from a known compound. Often this process is carried out by comparing a few selected ions acquired by multiple ion monitoring (MIM), with due allowance for expected variability in response. In a few past experiments with electron-ionization mass spectrometry (EI-MS), the number of ions selected and the allowable variability in relative abundance were tested by comparing one spectrum against a library of mass spectra, where library spectra served to represent potential false positive signals in an analysis. We extended these experiments by carrying out large-scale intercomparisons between thousands of spectra and a library of one hundred thousand EI mass spectra. The results were analyzed to gain insights into the identification confidence associated with various numbers of selected ions. A new parameter was investigated for the first time, to take into account that a library spectrum with a different base peak than the search spectrum may still cause a false positive identification. The influence of peak correlation among the specific ions in all the library mass spectra was also studied. Our computations showed that (1) false positive identifications can result from similar compounds, or low-abundance peaks in unrelated compounds if the method calls for detection at very low levels; (2) a MIM method's identification confidence improves in a roughly continuous manner as more ions are monitored, about one order of magnitude for each additional ion selected; (3) full scan spectra still represent the best alternative, if instrument sensitivity is adequate. The use of large scale intercomparisons with a comprehensive library is the only way to provide direct evidence in support of these conclusions, which otherwise depend on the judgment and experience of individual analysts. There are

  5. Identification of isomers and control of ionization and dissociation processes using dual-mass-spectrometer scheme and genetic algorithm optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhou; Tong, Qiu-Nan; Zhang, Cong-Cong; Hu, Zhan

    2015-04-01

    Identification of acetone and its two isomers, and the control of their ionization and dissociation processes are performed using a dual-mass-spectrometer scheme. The scheme employs two sets of time of flight mass spectrometers to simultaneously acquire the mass spectra of two different molecules under the irradiation of identically shaped femtosecond laser pulses. The optimal laser pulses are found using closed-loop learning method based on a genetic algorithm. Compared with the mass spectra of the two isomers that are obtained with the transform limited pulse, those obtained under the irradiation of the optimal laser pulse show large differences and the various reaction pathways of the two molecules are selectively controlled. The experimental results demonstrate that the scheme is quite effective and useful in studies of two molecules having common mass peaks, which makes a traditional single mass spectrometer unfeasible. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (Grant No. 2013CB922200) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11374124).

  6. Realistic Earth matter effects and a method to acquire information about small θ13 in the detection of supernova neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Xin-Heng; Huang, Ming-Yang; Young, Bing-Lin

    2009-06-01

    In this paper, we first calculate the realistic Earth matter effects in the detection of type II supernova neutrinos at the Daya Bay reactor neutrino experiment which is currently under construction. It is found that the Earth matter effects depend on the neutrino incident angle θ, the neutrino mass hierarchy Δm312, the crossing probability at the high resonance region inside the supernova, PH, the neutrino temperature, Tα, and the pinching parameter in the neutrino spectrum, ηα. We also take into account the collective effects due to neutrino-neutrino interactions inside the supernova. With the expression for the dependence of PH on the neutrino mixing-angle θ13, we obtain the relations between θ13 and the event numbers for various reaction channels of supernova neutrinos. Using these relations, we propose a possible method to acquire information about θ13 smaller than 1.5°. Such a sensitivity cannot be achieved by the reactor neutrino deta at the Daya Bay experiment which has a sensitivity of the order of θ13˜3°. Furthermore, we apply this method to other neutrino experiments, i.e. Super-K, SNO, KamLAND, LVD, MinBooNE, Borexino, and Double-Chooz. We also study the energy spectra of the differential event numbers, dN/dE.

  7. Predicting charmonium and bottomonium spectra with a quark harmonic oscillator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Norbury, J. W.; Badavi, F. F.; Townsend, L. W.

    1986-01-01

    The nonrelativistic quark model is applied to heavy (nonrelativistic) meson (two-body) systems to obtain sufficiently accurate predictions of the spin-averaged mass levels of the charmonium and bottomonium spectra as an example of the three-dimensional harmonic oscillator. The present calculations do not include any spin dependence, but rather, mass values are averaged for different spins. Results for a charmed quark mass value of 1500 MeV/c-squared show that the simple harmonic oscillator model provides good agreement with experimental values for 3P states, and adequate agreement for the 3S1 states.

  8. Mass Spectrometry of Large, Fragile, and Involatile Molecules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busch, Kenneth L.; Cooks, R. Graham

    1982-01-01

    Desorption ionization (DI) is used to obtain mass spectra of molecules whose vaporization by heating may lead to thermal degradation. Discusses DI techniques, characteristics of DI mass spectra, ion production, current applications of DI in mass spectroscopy, developments in DI, and prospects for future evolution of new DI techniques. (Author/JN)

  9. Rapid discrimination of bacteria using a miniature mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Pulliam, Christopher J; Wei, Pu; Snyder, Dalton T; Wang, Xiao; Ouyang, Zheng; Pielak, Rafal M; Graham Cooks, R

    2016-03-07

    Bacteria colonies were analyzed using paper spray ionization coupled with a portable mass spectrometer. The spectra were averaged and processed using multivariate analysis to discriminate between different species of bacteria based on their unique phospholipid profiles. Full scan mass spectra and product ion MS/MS data were compared to those recorded using a benchtop linear ion trap mass spectrometer.

  10. [Acquired paraneoplastic hypertrichosis lanuginosa associated with scleroderma].

    PubMed

    Valda Rodriguez, L; Torrico Velasco, J; Zeballos Vasconcellos, R

    1990-01-01

    Acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa is universally recognized as an individual disease and seldom reported as a genuine paraneoplastic manifestation. We report the case of a 30-year old woman with acquired hypertrichosis lanuginosa. Due to the finding of a cervical lymph node metastasis, she was investigated for an internal neoplasm, but the original tumour could not be found by the usual methods. A bronchogenic carcinoma was discovered at autopsy. Beside hypertrichosis, this patient had other disorders not described in the literature as associated with that disease, viz.: progressive systemic scleroderma, fissured and hyperpigmented tongue, thrombocytopenia, galactorrhoea, axillary and pubic alopecia and overcurvature of toe nails. A review of similar cases in the literature provided clinical arguments in favour of the hormonal origin of this paraneoplastic hypertrichosis.

  11. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging.

    PubMed

    Leite, Andréa Farias de Melo; Mota, Américo; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaeté; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common-increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations.

  12. Clinical laboratory data: acquire, analyze, communicate, liberate.

    PubMed

    Azzazy, Hassan M E; Elbehery, Ali H A

    2015-01-01

    The availability of portable healthcare devices, which can acquire and transmit medical data to remote experts would dramatically affect healthcare in areas with poor infrastructure. Smartphones, which feature touchscreen computer capabilities and sophisticated cameras, have become widely available with over billion units shipped in 2013. In the clinical laboratory, smartphones have recently brought the capabilities of key instruments such as spectrophotometers, fluorescence analyzers and microscopes into the palm of the hand. Several research groups have developed sensitive and low-cost smartphone-based diagnostic assay prototypes for testing cholesterol, albumin, vitamin D, tumor markers, and the detection of infectious agents. This review covers the use of smartphones to acquire, analyze, communicate, and liberate clinical laboratory data. Smartphones promise to dramatically improve the quality and quantity of healthcare offered in resource-limited areas.

  13. Subcortical infarction resulting in acquired stuttering.

    PubMed

    Ciabarra, A M; Elkind, M S; Roberts, J K; Marshall, R S

    2000-10-01

    Stuttering is an uncommon presentation of acute stroke. Reported cases have often been associated with left sided cortical lesions, aphasia, and difficulties with other non-linguistic tests of rhythmic motor control. Three patients with subcortical lesions resulting in stuttering are discussed. In one patient the ability to perform time estimations with a computerised repetitive time estimation task was characterised. One patient had a pontine infarct with clinical evidence of cerebellar dysfunction. A second patient had a left basal ganglionic infarct and a disruption of timing estimation. A third patient had a left subcortical infarct and a mild aphasia. These findings expand the reported distribution of infarction that can result in acquired stuttering. Subcortical mechanisms of speech control and timing may contribute to the pathophysiology of acquired stuttering.

  14. Recognising and managing community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Vanessa

    2015-11-18

    Pneumonia remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the UK and yet the seriousness of the disease is underestimated. Pneumonia can be life-threatening because the delicate tissues of the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries are susceptible to damage from the inflammatory response. This damage leads to consolidation that prevents the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and this in turn can lead to respiratory failure. This article summarises guidance on the diagnosis and management of community-acquired pneumonia, and also includes information on the prevention of pneumonia. This information should be valuable to nurses working in a variety of clinical areas since patients with community-acquired pneumonia are encountered in primary, intermediate, secondary and critical care.

  15. Acquired versus familial demyelinative neuropathies in children.

    PubMed

    Miller, R G; Gutmann, L; Lewis, R A; Sumner, A J

    1985-01-01

    The electrophysiologic differences between chronic acquired demyelinative neuropathy and the demyelinative form of Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease have recently been reported. The present report extends these observations to include the genetically determined demyelinating neuropathies seen in metachromatic leukodystrophy, Krabbe's leukodystrophy, and Cockayne's syndrome. The electrophysiologic features of metachromatic leukodystrophy (five patients), Krabbe's (four patients), and Cockayne's syndrome (three patients) were all similar. There was uniform slowing of conduction (both in different nerves and in different nerve segments), and conduction block was not seen. These findings are consistent with a uniform degree of demyelination in multiple nerves and throughout the entire length of individual axons. Thus, uniform slowing of nerve conduction constitutes strong evidence for a familial demyelinative neuropathy, as opposed to the multifocal slowing seen in acute and chronic acquired demyelinative neuropathy.

  16. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging*

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Andréa Farias de Melo; Mota Jr., Américo; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaeté; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common-increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. PMID:27777479

  17. Evidence for Partial Melting in Reflectance Spectra of 433 Eros

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McFadden, L. A.; Goldman, Noah; Gaffey, M. J.; Izenberg, N. R.

    2005-01-01

    The NEAR Shoemaker spacecraft returned near-IR spectra of asteroid 433 Eros at spatial resolutions ranging from 2.5 to 100's km during its year-long orbital mission in 2000. Assuming modified Gaussian absorption bands represent the reflectance spectrum between 0.8-2.5 m we fit the average of all geometrically corrected spectra acquired by the near-IR spectrometer (NIS) with seven absorption bands. Interpretation of the absorption bands in terms of olivine and pyroxene minerals indicates that the surface of Eros contains olivine and two pyroxenes with compositions that are indicative of a partially melted assemblage. This partial melting must have occurred when the asteroid was part of a larger minor planet, prior to break up into its current elongated and irregular shape.

  18. AIS spectra of desert shrub canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, R.; Isaacson, D. L.; Schrumpf, B. J.; Ripple, W. J.; Lewis, A. J.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne Imaging Spectrometer (AIS) data were collected 30 August 1985 from a desert shrub community in central Oregon. Spectra from artificial targets placed on the test site and from bare soil, big sagebrush (Artemesia tridentata wyomingensis), silver sagebrush (Artemesia cana bolander), and exposed volcanic rocks were studied. Spectral data from grating position 3 (tree mode) were selected from 25 ground positions for analysis by Principal Factor Analysis (PFA). In this grating position, as many as six factors were identified as significant in contributing to spectral structure. Channels 74 through 84 (tree mode) best characterized between-class differences. Other channels were identified as nondiscriminating and as associated with such errors as excessive atmospheric absorption and grating positin changes. The test site was relatively simple with the two species (A. tridentata and A. cana) representing nearly 95% of biomass and with only two mineral backgrounds, a montmorillonitic soil and volcanic rocks. If, as in this study, six factors of spectral structure can be extracted from a single grating position from data acquired over a simple vegetation community, then AIS data must be considered rich in information-gathering potential.

  19. Brucella abortus Infection Acquired in Microbiology Laboratories

    PubMed Central

    Fiori, Pier Luigi; Mastrandrea, Scilla; Rappelli, Paola; Cappuccinelli, Piero

    2000-01-01

    We report an outbreak of laboratory-acquired Brucella abortus infection originating in the accidental breakage of a centrifuge tube. A total of 12 laboratory workers were infected (attack rate of 31%), with an incubation time ranging from 6 weeks to 5 months. Antibody titers were evaluated weekly in all personnel exposed, allowing the diagnosis of the infection in most cases before the onset of clinical symptoms, so that specific therapy could be administrated. PMID:10790142

  20. Acquiring Secure Systems Through Information Economics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    Introduction “For all future weapons systems that DoD will acquire or procure, DoD will mandate specific cybersecurity standards for weapons...systems to meet. Acquisition and procurement policy and practice will be updated to promote effective cybersecurity throughout a system’s life cycle...physical damage or injury Motivating Contractor Efforts - Contractors have different priorities than the DOD when it comes to cybersecurity - Classic

  1. Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ride, Sally

    2008-01-01

    Earth Knowledge Acquired by Middle School Students (EarthKAM), an education activity, allows middle school students to program a digital camera on board the International Space Station to photograph a variety of geographical targets for study in the classroom. Photos are made available on the web for viewing and study by participating schools around the world. Educators use the images for projects involving Earth Science, geography, physics, and social science.

  2. Acquired Antibiotic Resistance Genes: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    van Hoek, Angela H. A. M.; Mevius, Dik; Guerra, Beatriz; Mullany, Peter; Roberts, Adam Paul; Aarts, Henk J. M.

    2011-01-01

    In this review an overview is given on antibiotic resistance (AR) mechanisms with special attentions to the AR genes described so far preceded by a short introduction on the discovery and mode of action of the different classes of antibiotics. As this review is only dealing with acquired resistance, attention is also paid to mobile genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, and integrons, which are associated with AR genes, and involved in the dispersal of antimicrobial determinants between different bacteria. PMID:22046172

  3. Acquired ciliary circumscribed grey hair (ACCG).

    PubMed

    Romero, A G; Calatayud, J C

    2001-12-01

    Grey-haired areas usually occur due to aging or inheritance. A case is described of abrupt occurrence of a focal circumscribed grey-hair in the eyebrow region (a single hair) in a 27-year-old woman. The phenomenon was named acquired ciliary circumscribed grey-hair (ACCG). Qualitative and semiquantitative findings were obtained by microanalytical studies. In addition to morphological differences from control hair, the ACCG hair showed a high percentage of sulfur (99.8%) and absence of oligoelements.

  4. Rare presentation of spontaneous acquired diaphragmatic hernia.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Shweta; Bali, Roseleen Kaur; Das, Kamanasish; Sisodia, Anula; Dewan, R K; Singla, Rupak

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous acquired diaphragmatic hernia without any apparent history of trauma is a very rare condition and is very difficult to diagnose. We present a case of a 21-year-old male who presented with abdominal pain for one month and four episodes of vomiting for one day. Clinical suspicion, chest radiography with nasogastric tube in situ and computed tomography (CT) confirmed the diagnosis. The diaphragmatic defect was repaired surgically. The patient had an uneventful post-operative recovery.

  5. Severe Community-Acquired Bloodstream Infection with Acinetobacter ursingii in Person who Injects Drugs.

    PubMed

    Salzer, Helmut J F; Rolling, Thierry; Schmiedel, Stefan; Klupp, Eva-Maria; Lange, Christoph; Seifert, Harald

    2016-01-01

    We report a community-acquired bloodstream infection with Acinteobacter ursingii in an HIV-negative woman who injected drugs. The infection was successfully treated with meropenem. Species identification was performed by using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Improved identification of Acinetobacter spp. by using this method will help identify clinical effects of this underdiagnosed pathogen.

  6. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation.

    PubMed

    McMahon, Chris G; Jannini, Emmanuele A; Serefoglu, Ege C; Hellstrom, Wayne J G

    2016-08-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The literature contains a diverse range of biological and psychological etiological theories. Acquired PE is commonly due to sexual performance anxiety, psychological or relationship problems, erectile dysfunction (ED), and occasionally prostatitis and hyperthyroidism, consistent with the predominant organic etiology of acquired PE, men with this complaint are usually older, have a higher mean BMI and a greater incidence of comorbid disease including hypertension, sexual desire disorder, diabetes mellitus, chronic prostatitis, and ED compared to lifelong, variable and subjective PE.

  7. The pathophysiology of acquired premature ejaculation

    PubMed Central

    Jannini, Emmanuele A.; Serefoglu, Ege C.; Hellstrom, Wayne J. G.

    2016-01-01

    The second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine (ISSM) Committee for the Definition of Premature Ejaculation defined acquired premature ejaculation (PE) as a male sexual dysfunction characterized by a the development of a clinically significant and bothersome reduction in ejaculation latency time in men with previous normal ejaculatory experiences, often to about 3 minutes or less, the inability to delay ejaculation on all or nearly all vaginal penetrations, and the presence of negative personal consequences, such as distress, bother, frustration and/or the avoidance of sexual intimacy. The literature contains a diverse range of biological and psychological etiological theories. Acquired PE is commonly due to sexual performance anxiety, psychological or relationship problems, erectile dysfunction (ED), and occasionally prostatitis and hyperthyroidism, consistent with the predominant organic etiology of acquired PE, men with this complaint are usually older, have a higher mean BMI and a greater incidence of comorbid disease including hypertension, sexual desire disorder, diabetes mellitus, chronic prostatitis, and ED compared to lifelong, variable and subjective PE. PMID:27652216

  8. SIEMENS ADVANCED QUANTRA FTICR MASS SPECTROMETER FOR ULTRA HIGH RESOLUTION AT LOW MASS

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, W; Laura Tovo, L

    2008-07-08

    The Siemens Advanced Quantra Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance (FTICR) mass spectrometer was evaluated as an alternative instrument to large double focusing mass spectrometers for gas analysis. High resolution mass spectrometers capable of resolving the common mass isomers of the hydrogen isotopes are used to provide data for accurate loading of reservoirs and to monitor separation of tritium, deuterium, and helium. Conventional double focusing magnetic sector instruments have a resolution that is limited to about 5000. The Siemens FTICR instrument achieves resolution beyond 400,000 and could possibly resolve the tritium ion from the helium-3 ion, which differ by the weight of an electron, 0.00549 amu. Working with Y-12 and LANL, SRNL requested Siemens to modify their commercial Quantra system for low mass analysis. To achieve the required performance, Siemens had to increase the available waveform operating frequency from 5 MHz to 40 MHz and completely redesign the control electronics and software. However, they were able to use the previous ion trap, magnet, passive pump, and piezo-electric pulsed inlet valve design. NNSA invested $1M in this project and acquired four systems, two for Y-12 and one each for SRNL and LANL. Siemens claimed a $10M investment in the Quantra systems. The new Siemens Advanced Quantra demonstrated phenomenal resolution in the low mass range. Resolution greater than 400,000 was achieved for mass 2. The new spectrometer had a useful working mass range to 500 Daltons. However, experiments found that a continuous single scan from low mass to high was not possible. Two useful working ranges were established covering masses 1 to 6 and masses 12 to 500 for our studies. A compromise performance condition enabled masses 1 to 45 to be surveyed. The instrument was found to have a dynamic range of about three orders of magnitude and quantitative analysis is expected to be limited to around 5 percent without using complex fitting algorithms

  9. Computer Simulation of NMR Spectra.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellison, A.

    1983-01-01

    Describes a PASCAL computer program which provides interactive analysis and display of high-resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra from spin one-half nuclei using a hard-copy or monitor. Includes general and theoretical program descriptions, program capability, and examples of its use. (Source for program/documentation is included.)…

  10. Classical Trajectories and Quantum Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A.

    1996-01-01

    A classical model of the Schrodinger's wave packet is considered. The problem of finding the energy levels corresponds to a classical manipulation game. It leads to an approximate but non-perturbative method of finding the eigenvalues, exploring the bifurcations of classical trajectories. The role of squeezing turns out decisive in the generation of the discrete spectra.

  11. Discrimination of petroleum fluorescence spectra.

    PubMed

    Stelmaszewski, Adam

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents studies of the total spectra (fluorescence-excitation matrix) of petroleum with regard to the utilization of fluorescence for determining petroleum pollutants. Thorough testing of one group, comprising almost forty lubricating oils in the form of their hexane solutions, points out their discrimination.

  12. Workshop to establish databases of carbohydrate spectra

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The workshop was organized to formulate guidelines for establishing spectral databases of complex carbohydrates. The databases will enable the scientific community to avoid the great waste of research effort and funds that frequently occurs when carbohydrate chemists are forced to duplicate the structural characterization of previously characterized complex carbohydrates. Chemists waste their effort on repetitive characterizations because in the absence of spectral databases they are unaware they are analyzing a known molecule until they have completely determined its structure. Chemists will be able to avoid much of this wasted effort when the collections of mass and of nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra initiated at the workshop are subsequently developed into searchable databases. Then scientists only need query the databases with the spectrum or with information defining the spectrum of an unidentified carbohydrate to find out if it has been previously characterized.

  13. Features in the spectra of gamma-ray bursts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanek, Krzysztof Z.; Paczynski, Bohdan; Goodman, Jeremy

    1993-01-01

    Gravitational lensing of cosmological gamma-ray bursts by objects in the mass range about 10 exp 17 to 10 exp 20 g (femtolensing) may introduce complicated interference patterns that might be interpreted as absorption or emission lines in the bursts' spectra. This phenomenon, if detected, may be used as a unique probe of dark matter in the universe. The BATSE spectral data should allow one to detect such spectral features or to put significant upper limits on the cosmic density of a dark matter component that may be in the femtolensing range. Software to generate theoretical spectra has been developed, and it is accessible over the computer network with anonymous ftp.

  14. Principal Component Analysis of Arctic Solar Irradiance Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabbette, Maura; Pilewskie, Peter; Gore, Warren J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    During the FIRE (First ISCPP Regional Experiment) Arctic Cloud Experiment and coincident SHEBA (Surface Heat Budget of the Arctic Ocean) campaign, detailed moderate resolution solar spectral measurements were made to study the radiative energy budget of the coupled Arctic Ocean - Atmosphere system. The NASA Ames Solar Spectral Flux Radiometers (SSFRs) were deployed on the NASA ER-2 and at the SHEBA ice camp. Using the SSFRs we acquired continuous solar spectral irradiance (380-2200 nm) throughout the atmospheric column. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to characterize the several tens of thousands of retrieved SSFR spectra and to determine the number of independent pieces of information that exist in the visible to near-infrared solar irradiance spectra. It was found in both the upwelling and downwelling cases that almost 100% of the spectral information (irradiance retrieved from 1820 wavelength channels) was contained in the first six extracted principal components. The majority of the variability in the Arctic downwelling solar irradiance spectra was explained by a few fundamental components including infrared absorption, scattering, water vapor and ozone. PCA analysis of the SSFR upwelling Arctic irradiance spectra successfully separated surface ice and snow reflection from overlying cloud into distinct components.

  15. Shape effects on asteroid spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davalos, J.; Carvano, J.

    2014-07-01

    The objective of this work is to probe how the shape of a body like an asteroid could be modifying its observed spectra and the derived mineralogical interfaces based on spectral modeling. To model this effect, we construct an oblate ellipsoid with triangular facets, where each facet contributes to the overall reflectance. The synthetic spectra is generated by the isotropic multiple-scattering approximation (IMSA) reflectance model of Hapke (1993). First, we obtained optical constants by inverting the spectra of meteorites, obtained from the RELAB spectral database. These optical constants were found inverting the reflectance bidirectional equation of Hapke; this is made in two steps: (i) The first inversion is to find the single-scattering albedo π (ii) in the model of Hapke, this albedo is found under the regime of the geometric optics, where the particle size is much larger than the wavelength of the incident radiation. Here we assumed a constant value for the real part of the optical constant n=1.5. With these optical constants, we can construct synthetic spectra for any particle size. The phase function used is the double Henyey-Greenstein phase function and an accurate expression for the H-functions. We started with the ellipsoidal shape a=1.0, b=c=0.5 for two particle size 50 and 250 μ m, in this part, we found good differences in the BAR parameter between the two geometric models, this was done for 100 Eucrite meteorites spectra. In this first study, we found that the BAR parameter between the two models is bigger when the particle size increases. In the second part, we started with different ellipsoidal shapes and produced synthetic spectra for material with eucrite and diogenite composition with a phase angle of 20 degrees, incidence and emission angles of 10 degrees, and particle size at 250 μ m. All spectra was generated for four parameters of phase angle b=[0.2,0.4,0.6,0.8] taking the empirical relation between the phase constants of Hapke (2012

  16. 48 CFR 1845.502-70 - Contractor-acquired property.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Contractor-acquired... Possession of Contractors 1845.502-70 Contractor-acquired property. All contractor-acquired property must be... contractor-acquired. (2) Submission of DD Form 1419, DOD Industrial Plant Requisition, or equivalent...

  17. Digitally synthesized high purity, high-voltage radio frequency drive electronics for mass spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, R. T.; Mojarradi, M.; MacAskill, J. A.; Chutjian, A.; Darrach, M. R.; Madzunkov, S. M.; Shortt, B. J.

    2008-09-15

    Reported herein is development of a quadrupole mass spectrometer controller (MSC) with integrated radio frequency (rf) power supply and mass spectrometer drive electronics. Advances have been made in terms of the physical size and power consumption of the MSC, while simultaneously making improvements in frequency stability, total harmonic distortion, and spectral purity. The rf power supply portion of the MSC is based on a series-resonant LC tank, where the capacitive load is the mass spectrometer itself, and the inductor is a solenoid or toroid, with various core materials. The MSC drive electronics is based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA), with serial peripheral interface for analog-to-digital and digital-to-analog converter support, and RS232/RS422 communications interfaces. The MSC offers spectral quality comparable to, or exceeding, that of conventional rf power supplies used in commercially available mass spectrometers; and as well an inherent flexibility, via the FPGA implementation, for a variety of tasks that includes proportional-integral derivative closed-loop feedback and control of rf, rf amplitude, and mass spectrometer sensitivity. Also provided are dc offsets and resonant dipole excitation for mass selective accumulation in applications involving quadrupole ion traps; rf phase locking and phase shifting for external loading of a quadrupole ion trap; and multichannel scaling of acquired mass spectra. The functionality of the MSC is task specific, and is easily modified by simply loading FPGA registers or reprogramming FPGA firmware.

  18. Conformal symmetry and light flavor baryon spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirchbach, M.; Compean, C. B.

    2010-08-01

    The degeneracy among parity pairs systematically observed in the N and Δ spectra is interpreted to hint on a possible conformal symmetry realization in the light flavor baryon sector in line with AdS5/CFT4. The case is made by showing that all the observed N and Δ resonances with masses below 2500 MeV distribute fairly well each over the first levels of a unitary representation of the conformal group, a representation that covers the spectrum of a quark-diquark system, placed directly on a conformally compactified Minkowski spacetime, R1⊗S3, as approached from the AdS5 cone. The free geodesic motion on the S3 manifold is described by means of the scalar conformal equation there, which is of the Klein-Gordon-type. The equation is then gauged by the curved Coulomb potential that has the form of a cotangent function. Conformal symmetry is not exact, this because the gauge potential slightly modifies the conformal centrifugal barrier of the free geodesic motion. Thanks to this, the degeneracy between P11-S11 pairs from same level is relaxed, while the remaining states belonging to same level remain practically degenerate. The model describes the correct mass ordering in the P11-S11 pairs through the spectra as a combined effect of the above conformal symmetry breaking, on the one side, and a parity change of the diquark from a scalar at low masses, to a pseudoscalar at higher masses, on the other. The quality of the wave functions is illustrated by calculations of realistic mean square charge radii and electric charge form factors on the examples of the proton, and the protonic P11(1440), and S11(1535) resonances. The scheme also allows for a prediction of the dressing function of an effective instantaneous gluon propagator from the Fourier transform of the gauge potential. We find a dressing function that is finite in the infrared and tends to zero at infinity.

  19. Quantum confinement in metal nanofilms: Optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmelinskii, Igor; Makarov, Vladimir I.

    2016-05-01

    We report optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra of Au, Fe, Co and Ni polycrystalline nanofilms in the UV-vis-NIR range, featuring discrete bands resulting from transverse quantum confinement. The film thickness ranged from 1.1 to 15.6 nm, depending on the material. The films were deposited on fused silica substrates by sputtering/thermo-evaporation, with Fe, Co and Ni protected by a SiO2 film deposited on top. The results are interpreted within the particle-in-a-box model, with the box width equal to the mass thickness of the nanofilm. The transverse-quantized energy levels and transition energies scale as the inverse square of the film thickness. The calculated values of the effective electron mass are 0.93 (Au), 0.027 (Fe), 0.21 (Co) and 0.16 (Ni), in units of mo - the mass of the free electron, being independent on the film thickness. The uncertainties in the effective mass values are ca. 2.5%, determined by the film thickness calibration. The second calculated model parameter, the quantum number n of the HOMO, was thickness-independent in Au (5.00) and Fe (6.00), and increased with the film thickness in Co (from 7 to 9) and Ni (from 7 to 11). The transitions observed in the absorbance all start at the level n and correspond to Δn=+1, +2, +3, etc. The photoluminescence bands exhibit large Stokes shifts, shifting to higher energies with the increased excitation energy. The photoluminescence quantum yields grow linearly with the excitation energy, showing evidence of multiple exciton generation. A prototype Fe-SnO2 nanofilm photovoltaic cell demonstrated at least 90% quantum yield of photoelectrons at 77 K.

  20. Accurate mass - time tag library for LC/MS-based metabolite profiling of medicinal plants

    PubMed Central

    Cuthbertson, Daniel J.; Johnson, Sean R.; Piljac-Žegarac, Jasenka; Kappel, Julia; Schäfer, Sarah; Wüst, Matthias; Ketchum, Raymond E. B.; Croteau, Rodney B.; Marques, Joaquim V.; Davin, Laurence B.; Lewis, Norman G.; Rolf, Megan; Kutchan, Toni M.; Soejarto, D. Doel; Lange, B. Markus

    2013-01-01

    We report the development and testing of an accurate mass – time (AMT) tag approach for the LC/MS-based identification of plant natural products (PNPs) in complex extracts. An AMT tag library was developed for approximately 500 PNPs with diverse chemical structures, detected in electrospray and atmospheric pressure chemical ionization modes (both positive and negative polarities). In addition, to enable peak annotations with high confidence, MS/MS spectra were acquired with three different fragmentation energies. The LC/MS and MS/MS data sets were integrated into online spectral search tools and repositories (Spektraris and MassBank), thus allowing users to interrogate their own data sets for the potential presence of PNPs. The utility of the AMT tag library approach is demonstrated by the detection and annotation of active principles in 27 different medicinal plant species with diverse chemical constituents. PMID:23597491

  1. Phobos surface spectra mineralogical modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajola, M.; Lazzarin, M.; Dalle Ore, C. M.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Roush, T. L.; Pendleton, Y.; Bertini, I.; Magrin, S.; Carli, C.; La Forgia, F.; Barbieri, C.

    2014-04-01

    A mineralogical model composed of a mixture of Tagish Lake meteorite (TL) and Pyroxene Glass (PM80) was presented in [1] to explain the surface reflectance of Phobos from 0.25 to 4.0 μm. The positive results we obtained, when comparing the OSIRIS data [2] extended in wavelength to include the [3,4] spectra, forced us to perform a wider comparison between our TL-PM80 model and the CRISM and OMEGA Phobos spectra presented in [5]. Such spectra cover three different regions of interest (ROIs) situated in the Phobos sub-Mars hemisphere: the interior of the Stickney crater, its eastern rim, and its proximity terrain southeast of the Reldresal crater. We decided to vary the percentage mixture of the components of our model (80% TL, 20% PM80), between pure TL and pure PM80, by means of the radiative transfer code based on the [6] formulation of the slab approximation. Once this spectral range was derived, see Fig. 1, we attempted to compare it with the [5] spectra between 0.4 and 2.6 μm, i.e. below the thermal emitted radiation, to see if any spectral match was possible. We observed that CRISM scaled spectra above 1.10 μm fall within pure Tagish Lake composition and the [1] model. The CRISM data below 1.10 μm present more discrepancies with our models, in particular for the Stickney's rim spectrum. Nevertheless the TL and PM80 components seem to be good mineralogical candidates on Phobos. We performed the same analysis with the OMEGA data and, again, we found out that the Stickney's rim spectrum lies out of our model range, while the two remaining spectra still lie between pure TL and 80% TL - 20% PM80, but indicating that a different, more complicated mixture is expected in order to explain properly both the spectral trend and the possible absorption bands located above 2.0 μm. Within this analysis, we point out that a big fraction of TL material (modeled pure or present with a minimum percentage of 80% mixed together with 20% PM80) seems to explain Phobos spectral

  2. Osteoporosis: Peak Bone Mass in Women

    MedlinePlus

    ... higher in men than in women. Before puberty, boys and girls acquire bone mass at similar rates. After puberty, ... teenage boys to get enough calcium. Physical Activity. Girls and boys and young adults who exercise regularly generally achieve ...

  3. Acquired prosopagnosia without word recognition deficits.

    PubMed

    Susilo, Tirta; Wright, Victoria; Tree, Jeremy J; Duchaine, Bradley

    2015-01-01

    It has long been suggested that face recognition relies on specialized mechanisms that are not involved in visual recognition of other object categories, including those that require expert, fine-grained discrimination at the exemplar level such as written words. But according to the recently proposed many-to-many theory of object recognition (MTMT), visual recognition of faces and words are carried out by common mechanisms [Behrmann, M., & Plaut, D. C. ( 2013 ). Distributed circuits, not circumscribed centers, mediate visual recognition. Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 17, 210-219]. MTMT acknowledges that face and word recognition are lateralized, but posits that the mechanisms that predominantly carry out face recognition still contribute to word recognition and vice versa. MTMT makes a key prediction, namely that acquired prosopagnosics should exhibit some measure of word recognition deficits. We tested this prediction by assessing written word recognition in five acquired prosopagnosic patients. Four patients had lesions limited to the right hemisphere while one had bilateral lesions with more pronounced lesions in the right hemisphere. The patients completed a total of seven word recognition tasks: two lexical decision tasks and five reading aloud tasks totalling more than 1200 trials. The performances of the four older patients (3 female, age range 50-64 years) were compared to those of 12 older controls (8 female, age range 56-66 years), while the performances of the younger prosopagnosic (male, 31 years) were compared to those of 14 younger controls (9 female, age range 20-33 years). We analysed all results at the single-patient level using Crawford's t-test. Across seven tasks, four prosopagnosics performed as quickly and accurately as controls. Our results demonstrate that acquired prosopagnosia can exist without word recognition deficits. These findings are inconsistent with a key prediction of MTMT. They instead support the hypothesis that face

  4. [Iris heterochromia in acquired Horner's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Beynat, J; Soichot, P; Bidot, S; Dugas, B; Creuzot-Garcher, C; Bron, A

    2007-09-01

    Horner's syndrome (HS) is related to an interruption of the oculosympathetic nerve pathway. The classic clinical findings associated with this condition are ptosis, miosis, and enophthalmos. Heterochromia is typically described in congenital HS, but it is an uncommon finding in acquired HS. We report a case of post-traumatic HS associated with heterochromia. A literature review indicates that this type of heterochromia may be related to a reduction in the number of iris melanocytes. This mechanism may be the same in the physiological iris color modifications in adulthood.

  5. [Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome in pediatric patients].

    PubMed

    Molina Moguel, J L; Ruiz Illezcas, R; Forsbach Sánchez, S; Carreño Alvarez, S; Picco Díaz, I

    1990-12-01

    The object of this study was to determine how many of the patients treated at the Pediatric Odontology Clinic, a branch of the Maxillo-Facial Surgery Service at the Veinte de Noviembre Regional Hospital, ISSSTE, are VIH-positive of show serious manifestations of Acquired Immuno-Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS). For such purpose, 100 pediatric patients suffering from different systemic or local diseases were evaluated, the most common being hematological alterations. Results evidenced the presence of VIH in the blood of five of the pediatric subjects, all suffering from Hemophilia.

  6. Origins of species: acquired genomes and individuality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Margulis, L.

    1993-01-01

    Entire genomes with their accompanying protein synthetic systems are transferred throughout the biosphere primarily as bacteria and protists which become symbionts as they irreversibly integrate into pre-existing organisms to form more complex individuals. Individualization is stabilized by simultaneous transmission of once-separate heterologous genetic systems. The origin of new species is hypothesized to correlate with the acquisition, integration and subsequent inheritance of such acquired microbial genomes. These processes were recognized by Mereschkovsky ("Symbiogenesis" in Russian, 1909) and by Wallin ("Symbionticism", see p. 181, this issue).

  7. Common acquired causes of thrombosis in children.

    PubMed

    Tolbert, Jaszianne; Carpenter, Shannon L

    2013-08-01

    Compared to adults, venous thromboembolism in the pediatric population is a rare event. Cancer, cardiac disease, antiphospholipid antibodies, and indwelling catheters are established risk factors for thromboembolism in children. We examined the literature related to thrombophilia in children, childhood cancer and thrombosis, cardiac disease and thrombosis, and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome in children. Citations in identified articles yielded additional articles for review. We found that studies of acquired thrombophilia in children are limited. Current treatment for thromboembolism in children is based on adult data therefore optimal treatment in this population remains unclear.

  8. Acquired Congenital Malalignment of the Great Toenails

    PubMed Central

    Decker, Ashley; Scher, Richard K.; Avarbock, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Congenital malalignment is the lateral deviation of the nail plate along the longitudinal axis due to the lateral rotation of the nail matrix. The nail plate grows out in ridges caused by repeated microtrauma to the nail. Common complications include onychomycosis, Pseudomonas infection and acute or chronic paronychia. Treatment options range from conservative management to surgical options including realignment and nail matrixectomy. Congenital malalignment usually presents in infancy or childhood, but we present two cases of acquired malalignment occurring in the teenage years. PMID:27171597

  9. Review of direct neutrino mass experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Dragoun, O.

    2015-10-28

    Advantages and drawbacks of the kinematic methods of the neutrino mass determination are discussed. The meaning of the effective neutrino mass, resulting from measurements of the endpoint region of β-spectra is clarified. Current experimental constraints on the mass of active as well as sterile neutrinos are presented. Several new experiments are briefly outlined.

  10. Quantitative profiling of phospholipids by multiple precursor ion scanning on a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Ekroos, Kim; Chernushevich, Igor V; Simons, Kai; Shevchenko, Andrej

    2002-03-01

    A hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer featured with ion trapping capabilities was employed for quantitative profiling of total extracts of endogenous phospholipids. Simultaneous acquisition of precursor ion spectra of multiple fragment ions allowed detection of major classes of phospholipids in a single experiment. Relative changes in their concentration were monitored using a mixture of isotopically labeled endogenous lipids as a comprehensive internal standard. Precursor ion scanning spectra were acquired simultaneously for acyl anions of major fatty acids in negative ion mode and identified the fatty acid moieties and their relative position at the glycerol backbone in individual lipid species. Taken together, a combination of multiple precursor ion scans allowed quantitative monitoring of major perturbation in phospholipid composition and elucidating of molecular heterogeneity of individual lipid species.

  11. Hierarchical analysis of molecular spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.J.

    1996-03-01

    A novel representation of molecular spectra in terms of hierarchical trees has proven to be an important aid for the study of many significant problems in gas-phase chemical dynamics. Trees are generated from molecular spectra by monitoring the changes that occur in a spectrum as resolution is changed in a continuous manner. A tree defines a genealogy among all lines of a spectrum. This allows for a detailed understanding of the assignment of features of a spectrum that may be difficult to obtain any other way as well as an understanding of intramolecular energy transfer time scales, mechanisms, and pathways. The methodology has been applied to several problems: transition state spectroscopy, intramolecular energy transfer in highly excited molecules, high-resolution overtone spectroscopy, and the nature of the classical-quantum correspondence when there is classical chaos (``quantum chaos``).

  12. Eigenvectors of optimal color spectra.

    PubMed

    Flinkman, Mika; Laamanen, Hannu; Tuomela, Jukka; Vahimaa, Pasi; Hauta-Kasari, Markku

    2013-09-01

    Principal component analysis (PCA) and weighted PCA were applied to spectra of optimal colors belonging to the outer surface of the object-color solid or to so-called MacAdam limits. The correlation matrix formed from this data is a circulant matrix whose biggest eigenvalue is simple and the corresponding eigenvector is constant. All other eigenvalues are double, and the eigenvectors can be expressed with trigonometric functions. Found trigonometric functions can be used as a general basis to reconstruct all possible smooth reflectance spectra. When the spectral data are weighted with an appropriate weight function, the essential part of the color information is compressed to the first three components and the shapes of the first three eigenvectors correspond to one achromatic response function and to two chromatic response functions, the latter corresponding approximately to Munsell opponent-hue directions 9YR-9B and 2BG-2R.

  13. Preliminary Analysis of AIS Spectral Data Acquired from Semi-arid Shrub Communities in the Owens Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ustin, S. L.; Rock, B. N.

    1985-01-01

    Spectral characteristics of semic-arid plant communities using 128 channel airborne imaging spectrometer (AIS) data acquired on October 30, 1984. Both field and AIS spectra of vegetation were relatively featureless and differed from substrate spectra primarily in albedo. Unvegetated sand dunes were examined to assess spectral variation resulting from topographic irregularity. Although shrub cover as low as 10% could be detected on relatively flat surfaces, such differences were obscured in more heterogeneous terrain. Sagebrush-covered fans which had been scarred by fire were studied to determine the effect of changes in plant density on reflectance. Despite noise in the atmospherically corrected spectra, these provide better resolution of differences in plant density than spectra which are solar-corrected only. A high negative correlation was found between reflectance and plant cover in areas which had uniform substrates and vegetation types. A lower correlation was found where vegetation and substrates were more diverse.

  14. Accelerated Fitting of Stellar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Conroy, Charlie; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2016-07-01

    Stellar spectra are often modeled and fitted by interpolating within a rectilinear grid of synthetic spectra to derive the stars’ labels: stellar parameters and elemental abundances. However, the number of synthetic spectra needed for a rectilinear grid grows exponentially with the label space dimensions, precluding the simultaneous and self-consistent fitting of more than a few elemental abundances. Shortcuts such as fitting subsets of labels separately can introduce unknown systematics and do not produce correct error covariances in the derived labels. In this paper we present a new approach—Convex Hull Adaptive Tessellation (chat)—which includes several new ideas for inexpensively generating a sufficient stellar synthetic library, using linear algebra and the concept of an adaptive, data-driven grid. A convex hull approximates the region where the data lie in the label space. A variety of tests with mock data sets demonstrate that chat can reduce the number of required synthetic model calculations by three orders of magnitude in an eight-dimensional label space. The reduction will be even larger for higher dimensional label spaces. In chat the computational effort increases only linearly with the number of labels that are fit simultaneously. Around each of these grid points in the label space an approximate synthetic spectrum can be generated through linear expansion using a set of “gradient spectra” that represent flux derivatives at every wavelength point with respect to all labels. These techniques provide new opportunities to fit the full stellar spectra from large surveys with 15-30 labels simultaneously.

  15. Ultraviolet Spectra of Uranian Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roush, Ted

    1996-07-01

    The ultraviolet reflectance spectra of the icy satellites ofUranus are largely unknown. We propose to use the HubbleSpace Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph in order to obtainthe first high S/N UV spectra of Ariel, Titania, and Oberon.Because of our innovative targeting approach, we have alsobeen able to include Umbriel in our observational plans.These satellites sample almost the full range of UV albedosand UV/VIS colors exhibited by the large Uranian satellites.The spectral resolution and range will overlap with earth-based telescopic and spacecraft observations of these objectsallowing for comparisons of the UV data with existing visualand near-infrared spectra of these objects. These comparisonswill ultimately provide greater constraints on the relativelylow albedo spectrally neutral non-ice component on the Uraniansatellites. The existance of UV spectral features due tospecies such as O_3, H_2O_2 or carbon-rich macromolecules(e.g. polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons) can provide evidencefor modification of the surfaces via plasma or meteoriticbombardment, alteration by high-energy ultraviolet radiation,or accretion of particles from nearby sources such asplanetary rings or dust bands.

  16. FLUXEN portable equipment for direct X-ray spectra measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, S.; Bottigli, U.; Fauci, F.; Golosio, B.; Lo Presti, D.; Masala, G. L.; Oliva, P.; Raso, G.; Stumbo, S.; Tangaro, S.

    2004-02-01

    The proper use of imaging equipment in radiological units is based on an appropriate knowledge of the physical characteristics of the X-ray beam used. The FLUXEN PROJECT is working on a portable apparatus which, together with dedicated software, is able to perform an exact spectral reconstruction of the radiation produced in diagnostic X-ray tubes. The apparatus characterizes the energy spectrum of radiological tubes and also provides a measurement of the emitted flux. The acquisition system is based on a commercial CZT detector (3×3×2 mm 3), produced by AMPTEK, cooled by a Peltier cell, with a high efficiency in the diagnostic X-ray energy range and modified in the shaping electronics so as to obtain a faster response. The acquiring section lies on a NuDAQ I/O card with a sampling frequency of up to 20 MHz. The signal produced by the X-ray tube is wholly acquired and an off-line analysis is made so as to make possible an accurate recognition of pile-up events and a reconstruction of the emitted spectra. The reconstructed spectra of a General Electric Senographe DMR mammographic X-ray tube are shown.

  17. Acquired and congenital coronary artery abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Young, Ming-Lon; McLeary, Michael; Chan, Kak-Chen

    2017-01-01

    Sudden unexpected cardiac deaths in approximately 20% of young athletes are due to acquired or congenital coronary artery abnormalities. Kawasaki disease is the leading cause for acquired coronary artery abnormalities, which can cause late coronary artery sequelae including aneurysms, stenosis, and thrombosis, leading to myocardial ischaemia and ventricular fibrillation. Patients with anomalous left coronary artery from the pulmonary artery can develop adequate collateral circulation from the right coronary artery in the newborn period, which remains asymptomatic only to manifest in adulthood with myocardial ischaemia, ventricular arrhythmias, and sudden death. Anomalous origin of coronary artery from the opposite sinus occurs in 0.7% of the young general population aged between 11 and 15 years. If the anomalous coronary artery courses between the pulmonary artery and the aorta, sudden cardiac death may occur during or shortly after vigorous exercise, especially in patients where the anomalous left coronary artery originates from the right sinus of Valsalva. Symptomatic patients with evidence of ischaemia should have surgical correction. No treatment is needed for asymptomatic patients with an anomalous right coronary artery from the left sinus of Valsalva. At present, there is no consensus regarding how to manage asymptomatic patients with anomalous left coronary artery from the right sinus of Valsalva and interarterial course. Myocardial bridging is commonly observed in cardiac catheterisation and it rarely causes exercise-induced coronary syndrome or cardiac death. In symptomatic patients, refractory or β-blocker treatment and surgical un-bridging may be considered.

  18. Software for Acquiring Image Data for PIV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wernet, Mark P.; Cheung, H. M.; Kressler, Brian

    2003-01-01

    PIV Acquisition (PIVACQ) is a computer program for acquisition of data for particle-image velocimetry (PIV). In the PIV system for which PIVACQ was developed, small particles entrained in a flow are illuminated with a sheet of light from a pulsed laser. The illuminated region is monitored by a charge-coupled-device camera that operates in conjunction with a data-acquisition system that includes a frame grabber and a counter-timer board, both installed in a single computer. The camera operates in "frame-straddle" mode where a pair of images can be obtained closely spaced in time (on the order of microseconds). The frame grabber acquires image data from the camera and stores the data in the computer memory. The counter/timer board triggers the camera and synchronizes the pulsing of the laser with acquisition of data from the camera. PIVPROC coordinates all of these functions and provides a graphical user interface, through which the user can control the PIV data-acquisition system. PIVACQ enables the user to acquire a sequence of single-exposure images, display the images, process the images, and then save the images to the computer hard drive. PIVACQ works in conjunction with the PIVPROC program which processes the images of particles into the velocity field in the illuminated plane.

  19. [HIV infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Takamatsu, J

    1997-05-01

    On June 4, 1981, MMWR published a report about Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in homosexual men in Los Angeles. This was the first published report. A years later, this disease was named acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In the following year, Montangier et al in France discovered the causative agent, which they called lymphadenopathy virus (LAV), now known as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). In 1985, solid-phase enzymeimmunoassay for the detection of the antibody to HIV was developed. Since then, other new techniques for the identification of HIV infection have been become available. These include more sensitive methods (for example; polymerase chain reaction techniques). Although these techniques facilitate early and definite diagnosis of infection, these tests may fail to detect the antibody in sera during window period of infection or overdiagnose infection in sera contaminated with genes not related to HIV. Although preventing blood exposure is the primary means of preventing occupationally acquired human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, appropriate post-exposure management is an important element of workplace safety. Information suggesting that zidovudine (ZDV) postexposure prophylaxis (PEP) may reduce the risk for HIV transmission after occupational exposure to HIV infected blood prompted a Public Health Service (PHS) interagency working group, with expert consultation, and recommendations on PEP and management of occupational exposure to HIV in relation to these findings were discussed.

  20. Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young R; Houngue, Coovi; Hall, Ronald G

    2015-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is the sixth leading cause of death in the USA. Adherence to the 2007 Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society community-acquired pneumonia guidelines has been associated with improved clinical outcomes. However, choice between guideline-recommended treatments is at the discretion of the prescribing clinician. This review is intended to discuss the characteristics of these treatment options including dosing frequency, dose adjustment for renal/hepatic dysfunction, serious/common adverse events, drug interactions, lung penetration, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic target and effect of obesity to help guide antimicrobial selection. An increasing portion of patients are receiving expanded empiric coverage for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as recommended by the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America for healthcare-associated pneumonia. However, this expanded coverage may not be achieving the desired improvements in clinical outcomes. We expect this increasingly diverse spectrum of patients with pneumonia to eventually result in the merger of these two guidelines to include all patients with pneumonia.

  1. Clinicopathological correlation of acquired hyperpigmentary disorders.

    PubMed

    Patel, Anisha B; Kubba, Raj; Kubba, Asha

    2013-01-01

    Acquired pigmentary disorders are group of heterogenous entities that share single, most significant, clinical feature, that is, dyspigmentation. Asians and Indians, in particular, are mostly affected. Although the classic morphologies and common treatment options of these conditions have been reviewed in the global dermatology literature, the value of histpathological evaluation has not been thoroughly explored. The importance of accurate diagnosis is emphasized here as the underlying diseases have varying etiologies that need to be addressed in order to effectively treat the dyspigmentation. In this review, we describe and discuss the utility of histology in the diagnostic work of hyperpigmentary disorders, and how, in many cases, it can lead to targeted and more effective therapy. We focus on the most common acquired pigmentary disorders seen in Indian patients as well as a few uncommon diseases with distinctive histological traits. Facial melanoses, including mimickers of melasma, are thoroughly explored. These diseases include lichen planus pigmentosus, discoid lupus erythematosus, drug-induced melanoses, hyperpigmentation due to exogenous substances, acanthosis nigricans, and macular amyloidosis.

  2. The Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: current status.

    PubMed Central

    Quagliarello, V.

    1982-01-01

    A recently recognized syndrome of acquired immunodeficiency (Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome-AIDS) has arisen since June 1981. It has received international attention. The clinical spectrum consists of repeated opportunistic infections, rare malignancies, and autoimmune phenomena, occurring in previously healthy adults with no history of an immunologic disorder. The population subset at risk for this syndrome appears to be predominantly homosexual American males and intravenous drug abusers with rare cases being reported in heterosexuals, hemophiliacs, and foreign patients, especially Haitians. The immunologic aberrancy in all patients described appears limited to T-lymphocyte hyporesponsiveness and imbalance of T-helper and suppressor cells. This disordered immunoregulation is a consistent finding in all reported cases and appears to predispose to the opportunistic infections and malignancies which have been associated with a 40 percent mortality. The underlying factor responsible for the immunoregulatory defect is unknown but possible etiologies include a transmissible infectious agent, drug use, chronic antigen stimulation, and spermatozoa exposure. Treatment of the associated infections and malignancies has been a frustrating endeavor as many patients respond incompletely or relapse soon after successful treatment course. Preventive measures, including patient education, physician awareness, and immunomodulating agents, are discussed. PMID:6134399

  3. Multistage fragmentation of ion trap mass spectrometry system and pseudo-MS3 of triple quadrupole mass spectrometry characterize certain (E)-3-(dimethylamino)-1-arylprop-2-en-1-ones: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Abdelhameed, Ali S; Kadi, Adnan A; Abdel-Aziz, Hatem A; Angawi, Rihab F; Attwa, Mohamed W; Al-Rashood, Khalid A

    2014-01-01

    A new approach was recently introduced to improve the structure elucidation power of tandem mass spectrometry simulating the MS(3) of ion trap mass spectrometry system overcoming the different drawbacks of the latter. The fact that collision induced dissociation in the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer system provides richer fragment ions compared to those achieved in the ion trap mass spectrometer system utilizing resonance excitation. Moreover, extracting comprehensive spectra in the ion trap needs multistage fragmentation, whereas similar fragment ions may be acquired from one stage product ion scan using the triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The new strategy was proven to enhance the qualitative performance of tandem mass spectrometry for structural elucidation of different chemical entities. In the current study we are endeavoring to prove our hypothesis of the efficiency of the new pseudo-MS(3) technique via its comparison with the MS(3) mode of ion trap mass spectrometry system. Ten pharmacologically and synthetically important (E)-3-(dimethylamino)-1-arylprop-2-en-1-ones (enaminones 4a-j) were chosen as model compounds for this study. This strategy permitted rigorous identification of all fragment ions using triple quadrupole mass spectrometer with sufficient specificity. It can be used to elucidate structures of different unknown components. The data presented in this paper provide clear evidence that our new pseudo-MS(3) may simulate the MS(3) of ion trap spectrometry system.

  4. imzML: Imaging Mass Spectrometry Markup Language: A common data format for mass spectrometry imaging.

    PubMed

    Römpp, Andreas; Schramm, Thorsten; Hester, Alfons; Klinkert, Ivo; Both, Jean-Pierre; Heeren, Ron M A; Stöckli, Markus; Spengler, Bernhard

    2011-01-01

    Imaging mass spectrometry is the method of scanning a sample of interest and generating an "image" of the intensity distribution of a specific analyte. The data sets consist of a large number of mass spectra which are usually acquired with identical settings. Existing data formats are not sufficient to describe an MS imaging experiment completely. The data format imzML was developed to allow the flexible and efficient exchange of MS imaging data between different instruments and data analysis software.For this purpose, the MS imaging data is divided in two separate files. The mass spectral data is stored in a binary file to ensure efficient storage. All metadata (e.g., instrumental parameters, sample details) are stored in an XML file which is based on the standard data format mzML developed by HUPO-PSI. The original mzML controlled vocabulary was extended to include specific parameters of imaging mass spectrometry (such as x/y position and spatial resolution). The two files (XML and binary) are connected by offset values in the XML file and are unambiguously linked by a universally unique identifier. The resulting datasets are comparable in size to the raw data and the separate metadata file allows flexible handling of large datasets.Several imaging MS software tools already support imzML. This allows choosing from a (growing) number of processing tools. One is no longer limited to proprietary software, but is able to use the processing software which is best suited for a specific question or application. On the other hand, measurements from different instruments can be compared within one software application using identical settings for data processing. All necessary information for evaluating and implementing imzML can be found at http://www.imzML.org .

  5. Rapid acquisition of mean Raman spectra of eukaryotic cells for a robust single cell classification.

    PubMed

    Schie, Iwan W; Kiselev, Roman; Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen

    2016-11-14

    Raman spectroscopy has previously been used to identify eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. While prokaryotic cells are small in size and can be assessed by a single Raman spectrum, the larger size of eukaryotic cells and their complex organization requires the acquisition of multiple Raman spectra to properly characterize them. A Raman spectrum from a diffraction-limited spot at an arbitrary location within a cell results in spectral variations that affect classification approaches. To probe whole cells with Raman imaging at high spatial resolution is time consuming, because a large number of Raman spectra need to be collected, resulting in low cell throughput and impairing statistical analysis due to low cell numbers. Here we propose a method to overcome the effects of cellular heterogeneity by acquiring integrated Raman spectra covering a large portion of a cell. The acquired spectrum represents the mean macromolecular composition of a cell with an exposure time that is comparable to acquisition of a single Raman spectrum. Data sets were collected from T lymphocyte Jurkat cells, and pancreatic cell lines Capan1 and MiaPaca2. Cell classification by support vector machines was compared for single spectra, spectra of images and integrated Raman spectra of cells. The integrated approach provides better and more stable prediction for individual cells, and in the current implementation, the mean macromolecular information of a cell can be acquired faster than with the acquisition of individual spectra from a comparable region. It is expected that this approach will have a major impact on the implementation of Raman based cell classification.

  6. New Insights from Modeling of Core-collapse Supernova Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, D. John; Dessart, Luc

    2013-06-01

    With the advent of modern survey telescopes, research into supernovae (SNe) is making huge advances. The surveys are discovering thousands of SNe, identifying new classes of SNe, refining the statistics of SNe occurrence as a function of class and host galaxy properties, and allowing the direct identification of SNe progenitors. With these new observations comes the need for theoretical advances in modeling SNe spectra. In this presentation we discuss recent advances in modeling and interpreting the spectra of core-collapse SNe (Types Ib, Ic, and II) and pair-instability SNe. Recent investigations have revealed the importance of mixing nickel into the helium-rich layer for the excitation of He I lines in Type Ib and Ic supernovae. In particular, we were able to generate Ib and Ic like spectra from the same progenitor model - the only distinction in the SN ejecta is the amount of mixing. There is also now a general realization that most Ib and Ic SNe arise from intermediate mass stars (M < 20 Mo) which have undergone complex mass-transfer and mass-loss processes in a binary system. While some super-luminous SNe have been associated with the pair-production instability, detailed spectroscopic modeling has revealed that the observed post-maximum spectra are too blue, and this raises serious doubts as to their origin. With the advent of the mesa star, a publicly available stellar evolution code, we can now create our own SN progenitors with physically consistent structures. Importantly, we can alter the inputs to mesa star to check the influence of different evolutionary parameters on the structure of the pre-SN star, and its subsequent influence on the SN light curve and spectra. We have used mesa star to generate RSG progenitors for a star with an initial mass of 15 Mo, and have examined the influence of the assumed mixing length, metallicity, rotation, and mass-loss rate. All show measurable effects on the pre-SN progenitor, and on the resulting SN light curves and

  7. Overlapping spectra resolution using non-negative matrix factorization.

    PubMed

    Gao, Hong-Tao; Li, Tong-Hua; Chen, Kai; Li, Wei-Guang; Bi, Xian

    2005-03-31

    Non-negative matrix factorization (NMF), with the constraints of non-negativity, has been recently proposed for multi-variate data analysis. Because it allows only additive, not subtractive, combinations of the original data, NMF is capable of producing region or parts-based representation of objects. It has been used for image analysis and text processing. Unlike PCA, the resolutions of NMF are non-negative and can be easily interpreted and understood directly. Due to multiple solutions, the original algorithm of NMF [D.D. Lee, H.S. Seung, Nature 401 (1999) 788] is not suitable for resolving chemical mixed signals. In reality, NMF has never been applied to resolving chemical mixed signals. It must be modified according to the characteristics of the chemical signals, such as smoothness of spectra, unimodality of chromatograms, sparseness of mass spectra, etc. We have used the modified NMF algorithm to narrow the feasible solution region for resolving chemical signals, and found that it could produce reasonable and acceptable results for certain experimental errors, especially for overlapping chromatograms and sparse mass spectra. Simulated two-dimensional (2-D) data and real GUJINGGONG alcohol liquor GC-MS data have been resolved soundly by NMF technique. Butyl caproate and its isomeric compound (butyric acid, hexyl ester) have been identified from the overlapping spectra. The result of NMF is preferable to that of Heuristic evolving latent projections (HELP). It shows that NMF is a promising chemometric resolution method for complex samples.

  8. Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry: Coming of Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cotter, Robert J.

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the history and development of Plasma Desorption Mass Spectrometry to determine molecular weights and structures of proteins and polymers. Outlines theory, instrumentation, and sample preparation commonly used. Gives several examples of resulting spectra. (ML)

  9. [Clinical cases of acquired coagulation inhibitors].

    PubMed

    Yamane, T; Hino, M; Ota, K; Akahori, M; Hirai, M; Inoue, T; Mugitani, A; Tatsumi, N

    2000-12-01

    The acquired coagulation factor inhibitors are classified into alloantibodies, which appear in association with supplementary treatment for congenital coagulation factor deficiency, and autoantibodies, which are spontaneously produced. We report here 2 cases of acquired factor VIII inhibitor and 1 case of factor V inhibitor. Case 1: A 52-year-old woman noted swelling of the right parotid region in March 1988. Though contrast examination was scheduled, she was admitted for detailed examination due to a markedly prolonged coagulation time. An APTT correction test suggested that decreased factor VIII activity was due to the presence of an inhibitor. Since antinuclear antibody and SS-A antibody were positive and infiltration by lymphocytes in the salivary gland acini in a lip biopsy specimen was detected, Sjögren's syndrome was diagnosed. Case 2: A 33-year-old woman had normal delivery of her second child in February 1998. In June 1998, she suffered slight contusion in the left lower limb. The affected site became swollen and painful, making walking difficult. Since both upper limbs became markedly swollen after 1 week, she visited our hospital. Prolonged APTT and a marked decrease in factor VIII activity were observed. Factor VIII inhibitor titer was high at 19 Bethesda units. Case 3: A 64-year-old man had had asymptomatic macroscopic hematuria since the beginning of August 1998 but was placed under observation since no abnormal findings were observed on various imaging tests. However, he was admitted to Osaka City General Medical Center because of vesicular tamponade. Factor V activity was markedly decreased to 1.0%. PT correction test suggested that decreased factor V activity was due to the presence of an inhibitor. The underlying disease could not be determined in this case. In patients with acquired coagulation inhibitors, bleeding symptoms are reported to be mild in many cases, and severe bleeding is rare. However, cases of death without severe bleeding or

  10. Laser ablation/Fourier transform mass spectrometry of polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creasy, William R.; Brenna, J. T.

    1989-10-01

    Laser ablation/ionization followed by Fourier transform mass spectrometry is used to identify and characterize polymers. The mass spectra of several polymers are discussed, including polyimide, polyamic acid, Dupont Tefzel, and polyphenylene sulfide.

  11. A comb-sampling method for enhanced mass analysis in linear electrostatic ion traps

    SciTech Connect

    Greenwood, J. B.; Kelly, O.; Calvert, C. R.; Duffy, M. J.; King, R. B.; Belshaw, L.; Graham, L.; Alexander, J. D.; Williams, I. D.; Bryan, W. A.; Turcu, I. C. E.; Cacho, C. M.; Springate, E.

    2011-04-15

    In this paper an algorithm for extracting spectral information from signals containing a series of narrow periodic impulses is presented. Such signals can typically be acquired by pickup detectors from the image-charge of ion bunches oscillating in a linear electrostatic ion trap, where frequency analysis provides a scheme for high-resolution mass spectrometry. To provide an improved technique for such frequency analysis, we introduce the CHIMERA algorithm (Comb-sampling for High-resolution IMpulse-train frequency ExtRAaction). This algorithm utilizes a comb function to generate frequency coefficients, rather than using sinusoids via a Fourier transform, since the comb provides a superior match to the data. This new technique is developed theoretically, applied to synthetic data, and then used to perform high resolution mass spectrometry on real data from an ion trap. If the ions are generated at a localized point in time and space, and the data is simultaneously acquired with multiple pickup rings, the method is shown to be a significant improvement on Fourier analysis. The mass spectra generated typically have an order of magnitude higher resolution compared with that obtained from fundamental Fourier frequencies, and are absent of large contributions from harmonic frequency components.

  12. Moduli stabilization and the pattern of sparticle spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Kiwoon

    2008-11-23

    We discuss the pattern of low energy sparticle spectra which appears in some class of moduli stabilization scenario. In case that light moduli are stabilized by non-perturbative effects encoded in the superpotential and a phenomenologically viable de Sitter vacuum is obtained by a sequestered supersymmetry breaking sector, the anomaly-mediated soft terms become comparable to the moduli-mediated ones, leading to a quite distinctive pattern of low energy spacticle masses dubbed the mirage mediation pattern. We also discuss low energy sparticle masses in more general mixed-mediation scenario which includes a comparable size of gauge mediation in addition to the moduli and anomaly mediations.

  13. ACECARD. Acquire CoOmmodities Easily Card

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, E.E.

    1996-09-01

    Acquire Commodities Easily Card (AceCard) provides an automated end-user method to distribute company credit card charges to internal charge numbers. AceCard will allow cardholders to record card purchases in an on-line order log, enter multiple account distributions per order that can be posted to the General Ledger, track orders, and receipt information, and provide a variety of cardholder and administrative reports. Please note: Customers must contact Ed Soler (423)-576-6151, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, for help with the installation of the package. The fee for this installation help will be coordinated by the customer and Lockheed Martin and is in addition to cost of the package from ESTSC. Customers should contact Sandy Presley (423)-576-4708 for user help.

  14. Acquire CoOmmodities Easily Card

    SciTech Connect

    Soler, E. E.

    1998-05-29

    Acquire Commodities Easily Card (AceCard) provides an automated end-user method to distribute company credit card charges to internal charge numbers. AceCard will allow cardholders to record card purchases in an on-line order log, enter multiple account distributions per order that can be posted to the General Ledger, track orders, and receipt information, and provide a variety of cardholder and administrative reports. Please note: Customers must contact Ed Soler (423)-576-6151, Lockheed Martin Energy Systems, for help with the installation of the package. The fee for this installation help will be coordinated by the customer and Lockheed Martin and is in addition to cost of the package from ESTSC. Customers should contact Sandy Presley (423)-576-4708 for user help.

  15. Stereotypic movement disorder after acquired brain injury.

    PubMed

    McGrath, Cynthia M; Kennedy, Richard E; Hoye, Wayne; Yablon, Stuart A

    2002-05-01

    Stereotypic movement disorder (SMD) consists of repetitive, non-functional motor behaviour that interferes with daily living or causes injury to the person. It is most often described in patients with mental retardation. However, recent evidence indicates that this condition is common among otherwise normal individuals. This case study describes a patient with new-onset SMD occurring after subdural haematoma and brain injury. SMD has rarely been reported after acquired brain injury, and none have documented successful treatment. The current psychiatric literature regarding neurochemistry, neuroanatomy, and treatment of SMD are reviewed with particular application to one patient. Treatment options include serotonin re-uptake inhibitors, opioid antagonists and dopamine antagonists. SMD has been under-appreciated in intellectually normal individuals, and may also be unrecognized after brain injury. Further investigation is needed in this area, which may benefit other individuals with SMD as well.

  16. Innate and acquired bacteriophage-mediated immunity

    PubMed Central

    Barr, Jeremy J.; Youle, Merry; Rohwer, Forest

    2013-01-01

    We recently described a novel, non-host-derived, phage-mediated immunity active at mucosal surfaces, the main site of pathogen entry in metazoans. In that work, we showed that phage T4 adheres to mucus glycoproteins via immunoglobulin-like domains displayed on its capsid. This adherence positions the phage in mucus surfaces where they are more likely to encounter and kill bacteria, thereby benefiting both the phage and its metazoan host. We presented this phage-metazoan symbiosis based on an exclusively lytic model of phage infection. Here we extend our bacteriophage adherence to mucus (BAM) model to consider the undoubtedly more complex dynamics in vivo. We hypothesize how mucus-adherent phages, both lytic and temperate, might impact the commensal microbiota as well as protect the metazoan epithelium from bacterial invasion. We suggest that BAM may provide both an innate and an acquired antimicrobial immunity. PMID:24228227

  17. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and health care professionals.

    PubMed

    Menon, V; Bharucha, K

    1994-01-01

    As health care professionals, we face a grave risk of acquiring HIV infection in the course of our work. But how many of us really know the precautions to be applied in the hospital set up in dealing with HIV infected patients? A knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) study was conducted in Pune hospitals to assess the current status. Among the results 65% servants had not heard of AIDS, 85% nursing staff did not apply the Universal Safety Precautions (USP) approach, 13.5% resident thought that the HIV was not transmitted by blood, 30% consultants would avoid contact with an HIV positive patient. This study has shown that definite lacunae exist in knowledge specific to the particular population in question. A proposal for an education programme which is target specific and one of constant renewal is sought.

  18. Signal regulators of systemic acquired resistance

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Qing-Ming; Zhu, Shifeng; Kachroo, Pradeep; Kachroo, Aardra

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) is an important phytohormone that plays a vital role in a number of physiological responses, including plant defense. The last two decades have witnessed a number of breakthroughs related to biosynthesis, transport, perception and signaling mediated by SA. These findings demonstrate that SA plays a crictical role in both local and systemic defense responses. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is one such SA-dependent response. SAR is a long distance signaling mechanism that provides broad spectrum and long-lasting resistance to secondary infections throughout the plant. This unique feature makes SAR a highly desirable trait in crop production. This review summarizes the recent advances in the role of SA in SAR and discusses its relationship to other SAR inducers. PMID:25918514

  19. Acquired Localized Hypertrichosis Induced by Rivastigmine

    PubMed Central

    Imbernón-Moya, Adrian; Podlipnik, Sebastian; Burgos, Fernando; Vargas-Laguna, Elena; Aguilar-Martínez, Antonio; Fernández-Cogolludo, Eva; Gallego-Valdes, Miguel Angel

    2016-01-01

    Hypertrichosis is the excessive hair growth in any area of the skin surface. Acquired localized hypertrichosis may be secondary to multiple causes and there is a secondary form due to several drugs, which is usually reversible with discontinuation of the causative agent. Rivastigmine is a reversible and competitive inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase used for symptomatic treatment of Alzheimer dementia and Parkinson's disease. It has an adequate safety profile and cutaneous side effects are unusual. Irritant contact dermatitis, allergic dermatitis, baboon syndrome, and cutaneous rash due to rivastigmine have been reported. We report on a Caucasian 80-year-old male with personal history of Alzheimer's disease. The patient started therapy with oral rivastigmine one month prior to clinical presentation of localized hypertrichosis on both forearms. Norgalanthamine has been shown to promote hair growth activity via the proliferation of dermal papilla. Acetylcholinesterase inhibitors can induce hair growth. PMID:27073702

  20. Treatment of the acquired von Willebrand syndrome.

    PubMed

    Budde, Ulrich; Scheppenheim, Sonja; Dittmer, Rita

    2015-12-01

    Acquired von Willebrand syndrome (aVWS) accounts for 22% of patients with abnormal von Willebrand factor. Most patients with known pathophysiological mechanisms suffer from cardiovascular, myeloproliferative and lymphoproliferative disorders. Less frequent associations are of autoimmune origin, due to hyperfibrinolysis, adsorption to tumor cells, reduced synthesis and prolonged circulation. The mechanisms leading to aVWS is hitherto not known in patients with liver and kidney diseases, drug use, glycogen storage disease, virus infections and at least 18 other disease entities. Diagnosis is complicated by the battery of tests needed, and their inherent rather low sensitivity and specificity for aVWS. Thus, even in acute bleeding situations it may take days until a firm diagnosis is settled and specific therapies can be initiated. The main aim is to shed more light onto this, compared with inherited von Willebrand disease, rare disease which affects at least 2-3% of the older population.

  1. Intensive care unit-acquired weakness.

    PubMed

    Horn, J; Hermans, G

    2017-01-01

    When critically ill, a severe weakness of the limbs and respiratory muscles often develops with a prolonged stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), a condition vaguely termed intensive care unit-acquired weakness (ICUAW). Many of these patients have serious nerve and muscle injury. This syndrome is most often seen in surviving critically ill patients with sepsis or extensive inflammatory response which results in increased duration of mechanical ventilation and hospital length of stay. Patients with ICUAW often do not fully recover and the disability will seriously impact on their quality of life. In this chapter we discuss the current knowledge on the pathophysiology and risk factors of ICUAW. Tools to diagnose ICUAW, how to separate ICUAW from other disorders, and which possible treatment strategies can be employed are also described. ICUAW is finally receiving the attention it deserves and the expectation is that it can be better understood and prevented.

  2. Severe acquired anaemia in Africa: new concepts.

    PubMed

    van Hensbroek, Michael B; Jonker, Femkje; Bates, Imelda

    2011-09-01

    Severe anaemia is common in Africa. It has a high mortality and particularly affects young children and pregnant women. Recent research provides new insights into the mechanisms and causes of severe acquired anaemia and overturns accepted dogma. Deficiencies of vitamin B12 and vitamin A, but not of iron or folic acid, are associated with severe anaemia. Bacterial infections and, in very young children, hookworm infections are also common in severe anaemia. Irrespective of the aetiology, the mechanism causing severe anaemia is often red cell production failure. Severe anaemia in Africa is therefore a complex multi-factorial syndrome, which, even in an individual patient, is unlikely to be amenable to a single intervention. Policies and practices concerning anaemia diagnosis, treatment and prevention need to be substantially revised if we are to make a significant impact on the huge burden of severe anaemia in Africa.

  3. Acquiring case adaptation knowledge: A hybrid approach

    SciTech Connect

    Leake, D.B.; Kinley, A.; Wilson, D.

    1996-12-31

    The ability of case-based reasoning (CBR) systems to apply cases to novel situations depends on their case adaptation knowledge. However, endowing CBR systems with adequate adaptation knowledge has proven to be a very difficult task. This paper describes a hybrid method for performing case adaptation, using a combination of rule-based and case-based reasoning. It shows how this approach provides a framework for acquiring flexible adaptation knowledge from experiences with autonomous adaptation and suggests its potential as a basis for acquisition of adaptation knowledge from interactive user guidance. It also presents initial experimental results examining the benefits of the approach and comparing the relative contributions of case learning and adaptation learning to reasoning performance.

  4. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Simmons, J.T.; Masur, H.; Smith, P.D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Ognibene, F.P.

    1987-02-01

    All gallium-67 citrate scans obtained in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the results of bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and endoscopy. There were 164 scans of 95 patients. Twenty scans were from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 19 were abnormal, for a sensitivity of 95%. Ga-67 uptake tended to be less in patients receiving therapy for P. carinii pneumonia. Chest radiographs were normal at least initially in three patients with abnormal scans and P. carinii pneumonia. Unusually prominent colonic activity was associated with infection in some patients. No lesions of Kaposi sarcoma showed tracer uptake. Gallium scanning is useful for detecting P. carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS, but it is not useful for localizing Kaposi sarcoma.

  5. Action spectra for photosynthetic inhibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, M. M.; Flint, S.; Camp, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    The ultraviolet action spectrum for photosynthesis inhibition was determined to fall between that of the general DNA action spectrum and the generalized plant action spectrum. The characteristics of this action spectrum suggest that a combination of pronounced increase in effectiveness with decreasing wavelength, substantial specificity for the UV-B waveband, and very diminished response in the UV-A waveband result in large radiation amplification factors when the action spectra are used as weighting functions. Attempted determination of dose/response relationships for leaf disc inhibition provided inconclusive data from which to deconvolute an action spectrum.

  6. Two slow meteors with spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubs, Martin; Sposetti, Stefano; Spinner, Roger; Booz, Beat

    2017-01-01

    On January 2, 2017 two peculiar meteors (M20170102_001216 and M20170102_015202) were observed by several stations in Switzerland. Both had a long duration, slow velocity, similar brightness and a very similar radiant. As they appeared in a time interval of 100 minutes, a satellite was suspected as a possible origin of these two observations. A closer inspection however showed that this interpretation was incorrect. The two objects were slow meteors. Spectra were taken from both objects, which were nearly identical. Together this points to a common origin of the two meteors.

  7. The Optical Spectra of Aerosols.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-10-01

    espressione dell’ampiezza di diffusione in * avanti vengono fattorizzati. In questo modo la somma delle am- piezze di diftusione di "cluster" con...F1D-Ali35 687 THE OPTICAL SPECTRA OF REROSOLSOU) MESSINA UNIV (ITALY) i/i 1ST DI STRIJTTURA DELLA IIATERIA F BORIIHESE OCT 83 UNCLASSIFIED DRR78--85F...ELEMENT PROJECT, TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS * Istituto di Struttura della Materia 61102A-1T161102-BH57-01 Un iversita di Messina V~nina. Ttalv St

  8. Guidelines for prevention of hospital acquired infections

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Yatin; Gupta, Abhinav; Todi, Subhash; Myatra, SN; Samaddar, D. P.; Patil, Vijaya; Bhattacharya, Pradip Kumar; Ramasubban, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    These guidelines, written for clinicians, contains evidence-based recommendations for the prevention of hospital acquired infections Hospital acquired infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity and provide challenge to clinicians. Measures of infection control include identifying patients at risk of nosocomial infections, observing hand hygiene, following standard precautions to reduce transmission and strategies to reduce VAP, CR-BSI, CAUTI. Environmental factors and architectural lay out also need to be emphasized upon. Infection prevention in special subsets of patients - burns patients, include identifying sources of organism, identification of organisms, isolation if required, antibiotic prophylaxis to be used selectively, early removal of necrotic tissue, prevention of tetanus, early nutrition and surveillance. Immunodeficient and Transplant recipients are at a higher risk of opportunistic infections. The post tranplant timetable is divided into three time periods for determining risk of infections. Room ventilation, cleaning and decontamination, protective clothing with care regarding food requires special consideration. Monitoring and Surveillance are prioritized depending upon the needs. Designated infection control teams should supervise the process and help in collection and compilation of data. Antibiotic Stewardship Recommendations include constituting a team, close coordination between teams, audit, formulary restriction, de-escalation, optimizing dosing, active use of information technology among other measure. The recommendations in these guidelines are intended to support, and not replace, good clinical judgment. The recommendations are rated by a letter that indicates the strength of the recommendation and a Roman numeral that indicates the quality of evidence supporting the recommendation, so that readers can ascertain how best to apply the recommendations in their practice environments. PMID:24701065

  9. Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Iannella, Hernán A; Luna, Carlos M

    2016-12-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region. Poverty, socioeconomic factors, and malnutrition influence the incidence and outcome of CAP in LAC. In LAC, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent microorganism responsible for CAP, (incidence: 24-78%); the incidence of atypical microorganisms is similar to other regions of the world. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a growing problem in the LAC region, with the Caribbean being the second most affected area worldwide after Sub-Saharan Africa. Pneumococcal pneumonia remains the most common cause of CAP in HIV-infected patients, but Pneumocystis jirovecii and tuberculosis (TB) are also common in this population. The heterogeneity of the health care systems and social inequity between different countries in LAC, and even between different settings inside the same country, is a difficult issue. TB, including multidrug-resistant TB, is several times more common in South American and Central American countries compared with North America. Furthermore, hantaviruses circulating in the Americas (new world hantaviruses) generate a severe respiratory disease called hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, with an associated mortality as high as 50%. More than 30 hantaviruses have been reported in the Western Hemisphere, with more frequent cases registered in the southern cone (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Brazil). Respiratory viruses (particularly influenza) remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. Low rates of vaccination (against influenza as well as pneumococcus) may heighten the risk of these infections in low- and middle-income countries.

  10. Cosmic Ray Energetics and Mass (CREAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coutu, Stephane

    2005-01-01

    The CREAM instrument was flown on a Long Duration Balloon in Antarctica in December 2004 and January 2005, achieving a flight duration record of nearly 42 days. It detected and recorded cosmic ray primary particles ranging in type from hydrogen to iron nuclei and in energy from 1 TeV to several hundred TeV. With the data collected we will have the world's best measurement of the energy spectra and mass composition of nuclei in the primary cosmic ray flux at these energies, close to the astrophysical knee . The instrument utilized a thin calorimeter, a transition radiation detector and a timing charge detector, which also provided time-of-flight information. The responsibilities of our group have been with the timing charge detector (TCD), and with the data acquisition electronics and ground station support equipment. The TCD utilized fast scintillators to measure the charge of the primary cosmic ray before any interactions could take place within the calorimeter. The data acquisition electronics handled the output of the various detectors, in a fashion fully integrated with the payload bus. A space-qualified flight computer controlled the acquisition, and was used for preliminary trigger information processing and decision making. Ground support equipment was used to monitor the health of the payload, acquire and archive the data transmitted to the ground, and to provide real-time control of the instrument in flight.

  11. Method of processing positron lifetime spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Valuev, N.P.; Klimov, A.B.; Zhikharev, A.N.

    1985-05-01

    This paper describes a method for the processing of spectra of positron annihilation which permits a much more relaible determination of the lifetime during numerical processing of spectra by computer.

  12. Infrared Spectra of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Bakes, E. L. O.

    2000-01-01

    We have computed the synthetic infrared spectra of some polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons containing up to 54 carbon atoms. The species studied include ovalene, circumcoronene, dicoronylene, and hexabenzocoronene. We report spectra for anions, neutrals, cations, and multiply charged cations.

  13. Analysis of anionic metallized azo and formazan dyes by capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Poiger, T; Richardson, S D; Baughman, G L

    2000-07-21

    Capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry was applied to the separation of several anionic dyes containing copper(II), chromium(III), or cobalt(III) as part of the dye molecule. The dyes were separated using a 110 cm x 50 microm uncoated fused-silica capillary and a 5 mM ammonium acetate buffer (pH 9) containing 40% acetonitrile. Excellent separation efficiencies (N = 500,000 plates/column) and low detection limits of 20-50 pg (selected ion monitoring, S/N = 10) were achieved. Mass spectra were acquired at different cone voltages. At low cone voltages (low collision energies), sensitivity was maximized and the mass spectra contained only signals of the (multiply charged) molecular ions and low levels of sodium ion and proton adducts. At higher cone voltages, the 2:1 (ligand:metal) chromium and cobalt dyes showed losses of one of the two dye ligands, accompanied by a reduction of the metal. The copper dyes showed signals due to loss of SO2 and SO3-, but no release of metal. Azo cleavage, otherwise typical of azo dyes, was not observed with the metallized dyes.

  14. Flavonoids as matrices for MALDI-TOF mass spectrometric analysis of transition metal complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petkovic, Marijana; Petrovic, Biljana; Savic, Jasmina; Bugarcic, Zivadin D.; Dimitric-Markovic, Jasmina; Momic, Tatjana; Vasic, Vesna

    2010-02-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) is a suitable method for the analysis of inorganic and organic compounds and biomolecules. This makes MALDI-TOF MS convenient for monitoring the interaction of metallo-drugs with biomolecules. Results presented in this manuscript demonstrate that flavonoids such as apigenin, kaempferol and luteolin are suitable for MALDI-TOF MS analysis of Pt(II), Pd(II), Pt(IV) and Ru(III) complexes, giving different signal-to-noise ratios of the analyte peak. The MALDI-TOF mass spectra of inorganic complexes acquired with these flavonoid matrices are easy to interpret and have some advantages over the application of other commonly used matrices: a low number of matrix peaks are detectable and the coordinative metal-ligand bond is, in most cases, preserved. On the other hand, flavonoids do not act as typical matrices, as their excess is not required for the acquisition of MALDI-TOF mass spectra of inorganic complexes.

  15. MEASURING THE ULTIMATE HALO MASS OF GALAXY CLUSTERS: REDSHIFTS AND MASS PROFILES FROM THE HECTOSPEC CLUSTER SURVEY (HeCS)

    SciTech Connect

    Rines, Kenneth; Geller, Margaret J.; Kurtz, Michael J.; Diaferio, Antonaldo E-mail: diaferio@ph.unito.it

    2013-04-10

    The infall regions of galaxy clusters represent the largest gravitationally bound structures in a {Lambda}CDM universe. Measuring cluster mass profiles into the infall regions provides an estimate of the ultimate mass of these halos. We use the caustic technique to measure cluster mass profiles from galaxy redshifts obtained with the Hectospec Cluster Survey (HeCS), an extensive spectroscopic survey of galaxy clusters with MMT/Hectospec. We survey 58 clusters selected by X-ray flux at 0.1 < z < 0.3. The survey includes 22,680 unique MMT/Hectospec redshifts for individual galaxies; 10,145 of these galaxies are cluster members. For each cluster, we acquired high signal-to-noise spectra for {approx}200 cluster members and a comparable number of foreground/background galaxies. The cluster members trace out infall patterns around the clusters. The members define a very narrow red sequence. We demonstrate that the determination of velocity dispersion is insensitive to the inclusion of bluer members (a small fraction of the cluster population). We apply the caustic technique to define membership and estimate the mass profiles to large radii. The ultimate halo mass of clusters (the mass that remains bound in the far future of a {Lambda}CDM universe) is on average (1.99 {+-} 0.11)M{sub 200}, a new observational cosmological test in essential agreement with simulations. Summed profiles binned in M{sub 200} and in L{sub X} demonstrate that the predicted Navarro-Frenk-White form of the density profile is a remarkably good representation of the data in agreement with weak lensing results extending to large radius. The concentration of these summed profiles is also consistent with theoretical predictions.

  16. Martian Analogues Emissivity Spectra From the Berlin Emissivity Database (BED)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maturilli, A.; Helbert, J.; Moroz, L.

    2006-12-01

    Remote sensing infrared spectroscopy is the principal field of investigation for planetary surfaces composition. Past, present and future missions to bodies in the solar system include in their payload instruments measuring the emerging radiation in the infrared range. For the interpretation of the measured data an emissivity spectral library of planetary analog materials is needed. The Berlin Emissivity Database (BED) currently contains emissivity spectra of plagioclase and potassium feldspars, low Ca and high Ca pyroxenes, olivine, elemental sulphur, and Martian analogue minerals, measured in the wavelength range from 7 to 22 microns as a function of particle size. For each sample we measured the spectra of four particle size separates ranging from 0 to 250 microns. The device we used is built at DLR (Berlin) and is coupled to a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (Bruker IFS 88), purged with dry air and equipped with a cooled detector (MCT). All spectra were acquired with a spectral resolution of 4 cm-1. We present here the results of our analysis on well knew and characterized Martian analogue minerals: JSC Mars-1, Salten Skov, and Palagonite from Mauna Kea, Hawaii. We are currently working to upgrade our emissivity facility. A new spectrometer (Bruker VERTEX 80v) and new detectors will allow us to measure the emissivity of samples in the wavelength range from 1 to 50 microns, even in a vacuum environment.

  17. Preschoolers Acquire General Knowledge by Sharing in Pretense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Shelbie L.; Friedman, Ori

    2012-01-01

    Children acquire general knowledge about many kinds of things, but there are few known means by which this knowledge is acquired. In this article, it is proposed that children acquire generic knowledge by sharing in pretend play. In Experiment 1, twenty-two 3- to 4-year-olds watched pretense in which a puppet represented a "nerp" (an unfamiliar…

  18. 19 CFR 148.38 - Sale of articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sale of articles acquired abroad. 148.38 Section... § 148.38 Sale of articles acquired abroad. An article brought in under the $800 or $1,600 exemption for articles acquired abroad for personal or household use and subsequently sold is not dutiable or subject...

  19. 19 CFR 148.38 - Sale of articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sale of articles acquired abroad. 148.38 Section... § 148.38 Sale of articles acquired abroad. An article brought in under the $800 or $1,600 exemption for articles acquired abroad for personal or household use and subsequently sold is not dutiable or subject...

  20. 19 CFR 148.38 - Sale of articles acquired abroad.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sale of articles acquired abroad. 148.38 Section... § 148.38 Sale of articles acquired abroad. An article brought in under the $800 or $1,600 exemption for articles acquired abroad for personal or household use and subsequently sold is not dutiable or subject...