Science.gov

Sample records for acquired pneumonia cap

  1. Procalcitonin and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children.

    PubMed

    Giulia, Bivona; Luisa, Agnello; Concetta, Scazzone; Bruna, Lo Sasso; Chiara, Bellia; Marcello, Ciaccio

    2015-12-07

    The role of procalcitonin (PCT) as a biomarker for sepsis in adults is well documented, while its role in infections affecting neonatal children remains controversial. Among these infections, Community-Acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been studied extensively, because it's the second cause of death in children in developing countries, and one of the most frequent causes of hospitalization in industrialized countries. The PubMed database and the Cochrane Library were used to search for the following keywords: CAP, procalcitonin, and children. Thirteen articles were studied to determine the role of PCT in CAP management, specifically its usefulness for distinguishing pneumococcal infections from viral and unknown infections, for predicting severity and the correct antibiotic treatment. This paper focuses on the studies performed to identify the best inflammatory biomarker for CAP management. Although there is an increase in studies confirming the usefulness of PCT in CAP management in children, further studies are needed to have better understanding of its role for pediatric CAP management.

  2. A prospective comparison of nursing- and healthcare-associated pneumonia (NHCAP) with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP).

    PubMed

    Fukuyama, Hajime; Yamashiro, Shin; Tamaki, Hitoshi; Kishaba, Tomoo

    2013-08-01

    Nursing- and healthcare-associated pneumonia (NHCAP) has been proposed by the Japanese Respiratory Society as a new category of pneumonia considering the characteristics of the Japanese medical care environment. It is necessary to ascertain the epidemiology and clinical outcomes of NHCAP. A prospective study was conducted of patients with pneumonia who were hospitalized at our hospital from August 2011 to July 2012. We compared 192 cases of NHCAP with 114 cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Compared with CAP, NHCAP had a higher disease severity, higher 30-day mortality rate (10.9 vs. 3.5 %, P = 0.022), and longer length of hospital stay (median, 12 vs. 8 days, P < 0.001). Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most frequent causative pathogen in both NHCAP and CAP (33.9 vs. 34.8 %, P = 0.896). The incidence of atypical pathogens in NHCAP was low (1.7 %). Multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens were isolated more frequently in NHCAP than in CAP, but there was no significant difference (11.0 vs. 4.5 %, P = 0.135). Among 192 NHCAP patients, 122 (63.5 %) were aspiration pneumonia. Aspiration pneumonia was associated with poor outcomes and was considered a major characteristic of NHCAP. Our study suggested that many patients with NHCAP do not need broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy targeting MDR pathogens. Excess mortality in NHCAP patients is the result of patient backgrounds or disease severity rather than the presence of MDR pathogens.

  3. Legionella community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) presenting with spontaneous bilateral pneumothoraces.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Pherez, Francisco Miled; Nouri, Yelda

    2008-01-01

    Legionnaires' disease is a common cause of non-zoonotic atypical community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Legionnaires' disease has varied manifestations but may be diagnosed clinically on the basis of its characteristic pattern of extra-organ involvement. In a patient with non-zoonotic CAP, the clinical and laboratory features in a patient with CAP pointing to the diagnosis of Legionnaires' disease include relative bradycardia, mental confusion/ encephalopathy, loose stools/diarrhea, abdominal pain, mild/transient increases in serum transaminases, decreased serum phosphorous, a highly elevated C-reactive protein (CRP), elevated creatinine phosphokinase (CPK), highly elevated serum ferritin levels, or microscopic hematuria. The radiologic manifestations of Legionnaires' disease are varied and no radiographic appearance is pathopneumonic. Patchy infiltrates in Legionnaires' disease are symmetrical and rapidly progressive even on appropriate anti-Legionella antimicrobial therapy. Spontaneous unilateral pneumothorax is a rare radiographic manifestation of Legionnaires' disease. We present a case of a young male who is presenting clinical finding was that of spontaneous bilateral pneumothoraces due to Legionella CAP. We believe this is the first reported case of Legionnaires' disease presenting as spontaneous bilateral pneumothoraces. Clinicians should be aware of the protean radiological manifestations of Legionnaires' disease. In patients presenting with CAP and unilateral or bilateral spontaneous pneumothorax, clinicians should have Legionnaires' disease in the differential diagnosis.

  4. The Most Common Detected Bacteria in Sputum of Patients with Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) Treated In Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Cukic, Vesna; Hadzic, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most common infective pulmonary disease. Objective: To show the most common detected bacteria in bacterial culture of sputum in patients with CAP hospitalized in Clinic for Pulmonary Diseases and TB “Podhrastovi” in four-year period: from 2012 to 2015. Material and methods: This is the retrospective analysis. Each patient gave sputum 3 days in a row when admitted to hospital. Sputum has been examined: bacterial culture with antibiotics sensitivity, Gram stain, Mycobacterium tuberculosis; in cases with high temperature blood cultures were done; when we were suspicious about bronchial carcinoma bronchoscopy with BAL (bronchoalveolar lavage) was done. We show analyzed patients according to age, sex, whether they had pneumonia or bronchopneumonia, bacteria isolated in sputum and in BAL. Results: 360 patients with CAP were treated in four-year period (247 males and 113 females). 167 or 43, 39 % had pneumonia (119 males and 48 females). Number of males was significantly bigger (χ2 = 30,186; p<0,001). 193 or 53, 61 % had bronchopneumonia (128 males and 65 females). Number of males was significantly bigger (χ2 = 20,556; p<0,001). Number of patients with negative bacterial culture of sputum (131–78, 44%) was significantly bigger than number of patients with positive culture (36–21, 56%) (χ2 = 50,042; p<0,001) in pneumonia. Number of patients with negative bacterial culture of sputum (154- 79, 79%) was significantly bigger than number of patients with positive culture (39- 20, 21%) (χ2 = 68,523; p<0,001) in bronchopneumonia. Streptococcus pneumoniae was significantly most common detected bacterium compared with the number of other isolated bacteria; in pneumonia (χ2 =33,222; p<0,001) and in bronchopneumonia (χ2 =51,231; p<0,001). Conclusion: It is very important to detect the bacterial cause of CAP to administrate the targeted antibiotic therapy. PMID:27994296

  5. The Lebanese Society for Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (LSIDCM) guidelines for adult community-acquired pneumonia (Cap) in Lebanon.

    PubMed

    Moghnieh, Rima; Yared Sakr, Nadine; Kanj, Souha S; Musharrafieh, Umayya; Husni, Rula; Jradeh, Mona; Al-Awar, Ghassan; Matar, Madona; Jureij, Wafa; Antoine, Saad; Azar, Eid; Abi Hanna, Pierre; Minari, Afaf; Hammoud, Jamale; Kfoury, Joumana; Mahfouz, Tahsin; Abou Chakra, Diaa; Zaatari, Mohamad; Tabbarah, Zuhayr A

    2014-01-01

    Adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality which is managed by different disciplines in a heterogeneous fashion. Development of consensus guidelines to standardize these wide variations in care has become a prime objective. The Lebanese Society of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology (LSIDCM) convened to set Lebanese national guidelines for the management of CAP since it is a major and a prevalent disease affecting the Lebanese population. These guidelines, besides being helpful in direct clinical practice, play a major role in establishing stewardship programs in hospitals in an effort to contain antimicrobial resistance on the national level. These guidelines are intended for primary care practitioners and emergency medicine physicians. They constitute an appropriate starting point for specialists' consultation being based on the available local epidemiological and resistance data. This document includes the following: 1/ Rationale and scope of the guidelines; 2/ Microbiology of CAP based on Lebanese data; 3/ Clinical presentation and diagnostic workup of CAP; 4/ Management and prevention strategies based on the IDSA/ATS Consensus Guidelines, 2007, and the ESCMID Guidelines, 2011, and tailored to the microbiological data in Lebanon; 5/ Comparison to regional guidelines. The recommendations made in this document were graded based on the strength of the evidence as in the 2007 IDSA/ATS Consensus Guidelines. Hopefully, these guidelines will be an important step towards standardization of CAP care in Lebanon and set the agenda for further research in this area.

  6. Community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Falguera, M; Ramírez, M F

    2015-11-01

    This article not only reviews the essential aspects of community-acquired pneumonia for daily clinical practice, but also highlights the controversial issues and provides the newest available information. Community-acquired pneumonia is considered in a broad sense, without excluding certain variants that, in recent years, a number of authors have managed to delineate, such as healthcare-associated pneumonia. The latter form is nothing more than the same disease that affects more frail patients, with a greater number of risk factors, both sharing an overall common approach.

  7. Prognostic implications of aspiration pneumonia in patients with community acquired pneumonia: A systematic review with meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Komiya, Kosaku; Rubin, Bruce K; Kadota, Jun-Ichi; Mukae, Hiroshi; Akaba, Tomohiro; Moro, Hiroshi; Aoki, Nobumasa; Tsukada, Hiroki; Noguchi, Shingo; Shime, Nobuaki; Takahashi, Osamu; Kohno, Shigeru

    2016-12-07

    Aspiration pneumonia is thought to be associated with a poor outcome in patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, there has been no systematic review regarding the impact of aspiration pneumonia on the outcomes in patients with CAP. This review was conducted using the MOOSE guidelines: Patients: patients defined CAP.

  8. Serum leptin levels in community acquired pneumonia (CAP) are related to nutritional status and not to acute phase reaction.

    PubMed

    Díez, María-Luisa; Santolaria, Francisco; Tejera, Alicia; Alemán, María-Remedios; González-Reimers, Emilio; Milena, Antonio; de la Vega, María-José; Martínez-Riera, Antonio

    2008-05-01

    To determine whether leptin in patients with CAP acts as a nutritional or as an inflammatory marker and whether leptin plays any role regarding survival, we included 222 patients diagnosed of CAP, 142 men and 80 women, median age 74 years. We did not find significant differences in serum leptin levels between CAP patients and healthy controls, even after adjusting by BMI. Serum leptin levels were directly related with BMI, body fat and muscle mass and inversely related with inflammatory markers, including pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Patients with positive blood cultures showed lower serum leptin and raised inflammatory markers. Although patients who died showed lower values of serum leptin, multivariate analysis showed that the prognostic value of low serum leptin levels depends on impaired nutritional status. In conclusion, we suggest that in CAP patients, leptin does not act as an inflammatory reactant but as a nutritional marker.

  9. Evolving trends in Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance: implications for therapy of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ronald N; Jacobs, Michael R; Sader, Helio S

    2010-09-01

    Pneumonia is a major infectious disease associated with significant morbidity, mortality and utilisation of healthcare resources. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the predominant pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), accounting for 20-60% of bacterial cases. Emergence of multidrug-resistant S. pneumoniae has become a significant problem in the management of CAP. Although pneumococcal conjugate vaccine usage in children has led to significant decreases in morbidity and mortality due to S. pneumoniae in all age groups, disease management has been further complicated by the unexpected increase in resistant serotypes, such as 19A, in some regions. Until rapid and accurate diagnostic tests become available, initial treatment of CAP will remain empirical. Thus, selection of appropriate antimicrobial therapy for CAP must be based on prediction of the most likely pathogens and their local antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. This article reviews information on antimicrobial resistance patterns amongst S. pneumoniae and implications for managing CAP.

  10. Community-acquired pneumonia among smokers.

    PubMed

    Almirall, Jordi; Blanquer, José; Bello, Salvador

    2014-06-01

    Recent studies have left absolutely no doubt that tobacco increases susceptibility to bacterial lung infection, even in passive smokers. This relationship also shows a dose-response effect, since the risk reduces spectacularly 10 years after giving up smoking, returning to the level of non-smokers. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the causative microorganism responsible for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) most frequently associated with smoking, particularly in invasive pneumococcal disease and septic shock. It is not clear how it acts on the progress of pneumonia, but there is evidence to suggest that the prognosis for pneumococcal pneumonia is worse. In CAP caused by Legionella pneumophila, it has also been observed that smoking is the most important risk factor, with the risk rising 121% for each pack of cigarettes smoked a day. Tobacco use may also favor diseases that are also known risk factors for CAP, such as periodontal disease and upper respiratory viral infections. By way of prevention, while giving up smoking should always be proposed, the use of the pneumococcal vaccine is also recommended, regardless of the presence of other comorbidities.

  11. Nursing home-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    El Solh, Ali A

    2009-02-01

    Nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) was first described in 1978. Since then there has been much written regarding NHAP and its management despite the lack of well-designed studies in this patient population. The most characteristic features of patients with NHAP are the atypical presentation, which may lead to delay in diagnosis and therapy. The microbial etiology of pneumonia encompasses a wide spectrum that spans microbes recovered from patients with community-acquired pneumonia to organisms considered specific only to nosocomial settings. Decision to transfer a nursing home patient to an acute care facility depends on a host of factors, which include the level of staffing available at the nursing home, patients' advance directives, and complexity of treatment. The presence of risk factors for multidrug-resistant pathogens dictates approach to therapy. Prevention remains the cornerstone of reducing the incidence of disease. Despite the advance in medical services, mortality from NHAP remains high.

  12. Biomarkers in Pediatric Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an infectious disease caused by bacteria, viruses, or a combination of these infectious agents. The severity of the clinical manifestations of CAP varies significantly. Consequently, both the differentiation of viral from bacterial CAP cases and the accurate assessment and prediction of disease severity are critical for effectively managing individuals with CAP. To solve questionable cases, several biomarkers indicating the etiology and severity of CAP have been studied. Unfortunately, only a few studies have examined the roles of these biomarkers in pediatric practice. The main aim of this paper is to detail current knowledge regarding the use of biomarkers to diagnose and treat CAP in children, analyzing the most recently published relevant studies. Despite several attempts, the etiologic diagnosis of pediatric CAP and the estimation of the potential outcome remain unsolved problems in most cases. Among traditional biomarkers, procalcitonin (PCT) appears to be the most effective for both selecting bacterial cases and evaluating the severity. However, a precise cut-off separating bacterial from viral and mild from severe cases has not been defined. The three-host protein assay based on C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), plasma interferon-γ protein-10 (IP-10), and micro-array-based whole genome expression arrays might offer more advantages in comparison with former biomarkers. However, further studies are needed before the routine use of those presently in development can be recommended. PMID:28218726

  13. Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Iannella, Hernán A; Luna, Carlos M

    2016-12-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) region. Poverty, socioeconomic factors, and malnutrition influence the incidence and outcome of CAP in LAC. In LAC, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent microorganism responsible for CAP, (incidence: 24-78%); the incidence of atypical microorganisms is similar to other regions of the world. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a growing problem in the LAC region, with the Caribbean being the second most affected area worldwide after Sub-Saharan Africa. Pneumococcal pneumonia remains the most common cause of CAP in HIV-infected patients, but Pneumocystis jirovecii and tuberculosis (TB) are also common in this population. The heterogeneity of the health care systems and social inequity between different countries in LAC, and even between different settings inside the same country, is a difficult issue. TB, including multidrug-resistant TB, is several times more common in South American and Central American countries compared with North America. Furthermore, hantaviruses circulating in the Americas (new world hantaviruses) generate a severe respiratory disease called hantavirus pulmonary syndrome, with an associated mortality as high as 50%. More than 30 hantaviruses have been reported in the Western Hemisphere, with more frequent cases registered in the southern cone (Argentina, Chile, Uruguay, Paraguay, Bolivia, and Brazil). Respiratory viruses (particularly influenza) remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. Low rates of vaccination (against influenza as well as pneumococcus) may heighten the risk of these infections in low- and middle-income countries.

  14. Community-Acquired Legionella pneumophila Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Viasus, Diego; Di Yacovo, Silvana; Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Verdaguer, Ricard; Manresa, Frederic; Dorca, Jordi; Gudiol, Francesc; Carratalà, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Legionella pneumophila has been increasingly recognized as a cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and an important public health problem worldwide. We conducted the present study to assess trends in epidemiology, diagnosis, clinical features, treatment, and outcomes of sporadic community-acquired L. pneumophila pneumonia requiring hospitalization at a university hospital over a 15-year period (1995–2010). Among 3934 nonimmunosuppressed hospitalized patients with CAP, 214 (5.4%) had L. pneumophila pneumonia (16 cases were categorized as travel-associated pneumonia, and 21 were part of small clusters). Since the introduction of the urinary antigen test, the diagnosis of L. pneumophila using this method remained stable over the years (p = 0.42); however, diagnosis by means of seroconversion and culture decreased (p < 0.001 and p = 0.001, respectively). The median age of patients with L. pneumophila pneumonia was 58.2 years (SD 13.8), and 76.4% were male. At least 1 comorbid condition was present in 119 (55.6%) patients with L. pneumophila pneumonia, mainly chronic heart disease, diabetes mellitus, and chronic pulmonary disease. The frequency of older patients (aged >65 yr) and comorbidities among patients with L. pneumophila pneumonia increased over the years (p = 0.06 and p = 0.02, respectively). In addition, 100 (46.9%) patients were classified into high-risk classes according to the Pneumonia Severity Index (groups IV–V). Twenty-four (11.2%) patients with L. pneumophila pneumonia received inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy at hospital admission. Compared with patients who received appropriate empirical antibiotic, patients who received inappropriate therapy more frequently had acute onset of illness (p = 0.004), pleuritic chest pain (p = 0.03), and pleural effusion (p = 0.05). The number of patients who received macrolides decreased over the study period (p < 0.001), whereas the number of patients who received levofloxacin increased (p

  15. Recent Developments in Pediatric Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    McCulloh, Russell J; Patel, Karisma

    2016-05-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the most common acute infectious cause of death in children worldwide. Consequently, research into the epidemiology, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of pediatric CAP spans the translational research spectrum. Herein, we aim to review the most significant findings reported by investigators focused on pediatric CAP research that has been reported in 2014 and 2015. Our review focuses on several key areas relevant to the clinical management of CAP. First, we will review recent advances in the understanding of CAP epidemiology worldwide, including the role of vaccination in the prevention of pediatric CAP. We also report on the expanding role of existing and emerging diagnostic technologies in CAP classification and management, as well as advances in optimizing antimicrobial use. Finally, we will review CAP management from the policy and future endeavors standpoint, including the influence of clinical practice guidelines on clinician management and patient outcomes, and future potential research directions that are in the early stages of investigation.

  16. [National consensus for management of community acquired pneumonia in adults].

    PubMed

    Saldías P, Fernando; Pérez C, Carlos

    2005-01-01

    Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an acute respiratory infection that affects pulmonary parenchyma, and is caused by community acquired microorganisms. In Chile, pneumonia represents the main cause of death due to infectious diseases and is the third specific cause of mortality in adults. In 1999, an experts committee in representation of "Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias", presented the first National Guidelines for the Treatment of Adult Community Acquired Pneumonia, mainly based in foreign experience and documents, and adapted it to our National Health System Organization. During the last decade, impressive epidemiological and technological changes have occurred, making the update of guidelines for treatment of NAC by several international scientific societies, necessary. These changes include: new respiratory pathogens that are being identified in CAP and affect adult patients (Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila); the increasing senescent adult population that carries multiple co-morbidities; the emergence of antimicrobial resistance among respiratory pathogens associated to massive antibiotic prescription; the development by the pharmaceutical industry of new drugs that are effective for pneumonia treatment (macrolides, ketolides and respiratory fluorquinolones); and the development of new diagnostic techniques for detection of antigens, antibodies, and bacterial DNA by molecular biology, useful in respiratory infections. Based on these antecedents, an Advisory Committee of "Sociedad Chilena de Enfermedades Respiratorias" and "Sociedad Chilena de Infectología" has reviewed the national and international evidence about CAP management in adults in order to update clinical recommendations for our country.

  17. Combination antibiotic therapy for community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Caballero, Jesus; Rello, Jordi

    2011-11-23

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common and potentially serious illness that is associated with morbidity and mortality. Although medical care has improved during the past decades, it is still potentially lethal. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most frequent microorganism isolated. Treatment includes mandatory antibiotic therapy and organ support as needed. There are several antibiotic therapy regimens that include β-lactams or macrolides or fluoroquinolones alone or in combination. Combination antibiotic therapy achieves a better outcome compared with monotherapy and it should be given in the following subset of patients with CAP: outpatients with comorbidities and previous antibiotic therapy, nursing home patients with CAP, hospitalized patients with severe CAP, bacteremic pneumococcal CAP, presence of shock, and necessity of mechanical ventilation. Better outcome is associated with combination therapy that includes a macrolide for wide coverage of atypical pneumonia, polymicrobial pneumonia, or resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Macrolides have shown different properties other than antimicrobial activity, such as anti-inflammatory properties. Although this evidence comes from observational, most of them retrospective and nonblinded studies, the findings are consistent. Ideally, a prospective, multicenter, randomized trial should be performed to confirm these findings.

  18. Antimicrobial Resistance and Clinical Outcomes in Nursing Home-Acquired Pneumonia, Compared to Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yun-Seong; Ryoo, Soo Ryeong; Byun, Seung Joo; Jeong, Yun-Jeong; Oh, Jin Young

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Patients with nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) should be treated as hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) according to guidelines published in 2005. However, controversy still exists on whether the high mortality of NHAP results from multidrug resistant pathogens or underlying disease. We aimed to outline differences and factors contributing to mortality between NHAP and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. Materials and Methods We retrospectively evaluated patients aged 65 years or older with either CAP or NHAP from 2008 to 2014. Patients with healthcare-associated pneumonia other than NHAP or HAP were excluded. Results Among 317 patients, 212 patients had CAP and 105 had NHAP. Patients with NHAP had higher mortality, more frequently used a ventilator, and had disease of higher severity than CAP. The incidences of aspiration, tube feeding, and poor functional status were higher in NHAP. Twenty three out of 54 NHAP patients and three out of 62 CAP patients had multidrug resistant pathogens (p<0.001). Eleven patients with NHAP died at discharge, compared to 7 patients with CAP (p=0.009). However, there was no association between mortality rate and presence of multidrug-resistant pathogens. The number of involved lobes on chest X-ray [odds ratio (OR)=1.708; 95% confidence interval (CI), 1.120 to 2.605] and use of mechanical ventilation (OR=9.537; 95% CI, 1.635 to 55.632) were significantly associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusion Patients with NHAP had higher mortality than patients with CAP. The excess mortality among patients with NHAP and CAP was related to disease severity but not to the presence of multidrug resistant pathogens. PMID:27873512

  19. Acute Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections in community-acquired pneumonia and exacerbations of COPD or asthma: therapeutic considerations.

    PubMed

    Meloni, F; Paschetto, E; Mangiarotti, P; Crepaldi, M; Morosini, M; Bulgheroni, A; Fietta, A

    2004-02-01

    Rates of acute Chlamydia pneumoniae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections were determined in 115 adults hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), purulent exacerbations of COPD and acute exacerbations of bronchial asthma, by means of serology and molecular methods. Results were compared with those obtained in a matched control group. Common respiratory pathogens were isolated by cultures in 22.5% and 22.2% of CAP and exacerbated COPD patients, respectively. Cultures from exacerbated asthma patients were always negative. Serological and molecular evidence of current C. pneumoniae infection was obtained in 10.0%, 8.9% and 3.3% of CAP, COPD and asthma cases. The corresponding rates of acute M. pneumoniae infection were 17.5%, 6.7% and 3.3%, respectively. Finally, no difference was found between typical and atypical pathogen rates. These findings highlight the importance of taking into account C. pneumoniae and M. pneumoniae infections in guiding the choice of empirical antibacterial treatment for CAP and purulent exacerbations of COPD.

  20. Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp. infection in community-acquired pneumonia, Germany, 2011-2012.

    PubMed

    Dumke, Roger; Schnee, Christiane; Pletz, Mathias W; Rupp, Jan; Jacobs, Enno; Sachse, Konrad; Rohde, Gernot

    2015-03-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Chlamydia spp., which are associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), are difficult to propagate, and can cause clinically indistinguishable disease patterns. During 2011-2012, we used molecular methods to test adult patients in Germany with confirmed CAP for infection with these 2 pathogens. Overall, 12.3% (96/783) of samples were positive for M. pneumoniae and 3.9% (31/794) were positive for Chlamydia spp.; C. psittaci (2.1%) was detected more frequently than C. pneumoniae (1.4%). M. pneumoniae P1 type 1 predominated, and levels of macrolide resistance were low (3.1%). Quarterly rates of M. pneumoniae-positive samples ranged from 1.5% to 27.3%, showing a strong epidemic peak for these infections, but of Chlamydia spp. detection was consistent throughout the year. M. pneumoniae-positive patients were younger and more frequently female, had fewer co-occurring conditions, and experienced milder disease than did patients who tested negative. Clinicians should be aware of the epidemiology of these pathogens in CAP.

  1. Prognostic implications of aspiration pneumonia in patients with community acquired pneumonia: A systematic review with meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Komiya, Kosaku; Rubin, Bruce K.; Kadota, Jun-ichi; Mukae, Hiroshi; Akaba, Tomohiro; Moro, Hiroshi; Aoki, Nobumasa; Tsukada, Hiroki; Noguchi, Shingo; Shime, Nobuaki; Takahashi, Osamu; Kohno, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    Aspiration pneumonia is thought to be associated with a poor outcome in patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, there has been no systematic review regarding the impact of aspiration pneumonia on the outcomes in patients with CAP. This review was conducted using the MOOSE guidelines: Patients: patients defined CAP. Exposure: aspiration pneumonia defined as pneumonia in patients who have aspiration risk. Comparison: confirmed pneumonia in patients who were not considered to be at high risk for oral aspiration. Outcomes: mortality, hospital readmission or recurrent pneumonia. Three investigators independently identified published cohort studies from PubMed, CENTRAL database, and EMBASE. Nineteen studies were included for this systematic review. Aspiration pneumonia increased in-hospital mortality (relative risk, 3.62; 95% CI, 2.65–4.96; P < 0.001, seven studies) and 30-day mortality (3.57; 2.18–5.86; P < 0.001, five studies). In contrast, aspiration pneumonia was associated with decreased ICU mortality (relative risk, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.26–0.60; P < 0.00001, four studies). Although there are insufficient data to perform a meta-analysis on long-term mortality, recurrent pneumonia, and hospital readmission, the few reported studies suggest that aspiration pneumonia is also associated with these poor outcomes. In conclusion, aspiration pneumonia was associated with both higher in-hospital and 30-day mortality in patients with CAP outside ICU settings. PMID:27924871

  2. Association between Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Chiner, Eusebi; Llombart, Mónica; Valls, Joan; Pastor, Esther; Sancho-Chust, José N.; Andreu, Ada Luz; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel; Barbé, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    Background We hypothesized that obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can predispose individuals to lower airway infections and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to upper airway microaspiration. This study evaluated the association between OSA and CAP. Methods We performed a case-control study that included 82 patients with CAP and 41 patients with other infections (control group). The controls were matched according to age, sex and body mass index (BMI). A respiratory polygraph (RP) was performed upon admission for patients in both groups. The severity of pneumonia was assessed according to the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI). The associations between CAP and the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), OSA, OSA severity and other sleep-related variables were evaluated using logistic regression models. The associations between OSA, OSA severity with CAP severity were evaluated with linear regression models and non-parametric tests. Findings No significant differences were found between CAP and control patients regarding anthropometric variables, toxic habits and risk factors for CAP. Patients with OSA, defined as individuals with an Apnea-Hypopnea Index (AHI) ≥10, showed an increased risk of CAP (OR = 2·86, 95%CI 1·29–6·44, p = 0·01). Patients with severe OSA (AHI≥30) also had a higher risk of CAP (OR = 3·18, 95%CI 1·11–11·56, p = 0·047). In addition, OSA severity, defined according to the AHI quartile, was also significantly associated with CAP (p = 0·007). Furthermore, OSA was significantly associated with CAP severity (p = 0·0002), and OSA severity was also associated with CAP severity (p = 0·0006). Conclusions OSA and OSA severity are associated with CAP when compared to patients admitted to the hospital for non-respiratory infections. In addition, OSA and OSA severity are associated with CAP severity. These results support the potential role of OSA in the pathogenesis of CAP and could have clinical implications. This link between OSA and infection risk

  3. [Ceftaroline fosamil in community-acquired and nosocomial pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Calbo, Esther; Zaragoza, Rafael

    2014-03-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common infection in developed countries and causes a large number of hospital admissions and deaths. In recent years, the incidence of this disease has increased, caused by progressive population aging. Following the introduction of the conjugate vaccine against Streptococcus pneumoniae, there have been significant epidemiological changes that require close monitoring because of the possible emergence of new patterns of resistance. This article aims to review the role of ceftaroline fosamil, a new parenteral cephalosporin with antibacterial activity against Gram-negative and Gram-positive pathogens, in the treatment of pneumonia. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have shown the efficacy of ceftaroline fosamil against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Additionally, ceftaroline has shown similar efficacy and safety to ceftriaxone in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia with severe prognosis (prognostic severity index III and IV) in two phase III clinical trials. Although a non-inferiority design was used for these clinical trials, some data suggest a superior efficacy of ceftaroline, with earlier clinical response and higher cure rate in infections caused by S. pneumoniae, making this drug particularly interesting for critically-ill patients admitted to the intensive care unit. Ceftaroline may also be considered for empirical and directed treatment of MRSA pneumonia.

  4. Recognising and managing community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Vanessa

    2015-11-18

    Pneumonia remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the UK and yet the seriousness of the disease is underestimated. Pneumonia can be life-threatening because the delicate tissues of the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries are susceptible to damage from the inflammatory response. This damage leads to consolidation that prevents the diffusion of oxygen and carbon dioxide, and this in turn can lead to respiratory failure. This article summarises guidance on the diagnosis and management of community-acquired pneumonia, and also includes information on the prevention of pneumonia. This information should be valuable to nurses working in a variety of clinical areas since patients with community-acquired pneumonia are encountered in primary, intermediate, secondary and critical care.

  5. Prevention of Community-Acquired Pneumonia with Available Pneumococcal Vaccines

    PubMed Central

    Principi, Nicola; Esposito, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) places a considerable burden on society. A substantial number of pediatric and adult CAP cases are due to Streptococcus pneumoniae, but fortunately there are effective vaccines available that have a significant impact on CAP-related medical, social, and economic problems. The main aim of this paper is to evaluate the published evidence concerning the impact of pneumococcal vaccines on the prevention of CAP in children and adults. Available data indicate that pneumococcal conjugate vaccines (PCVs) are effective in children, reducing all-cause CAP cases and bacteremic and nonbacteremic CAP cases. Moreover, at least for PCV7 and PCV13, vaccination of children is effective in reducing the incidence of CAP among adults. Recently use of PCV13 in adults alone or in combination with the pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine has been suggested and further studies can better define its effectiveness in this group of subjects. The only relevant problem for PCV13 is the risk of a second replacement phenomenon, which might significantly reduce its real efficacy in clinical practice. Protein-based pneumococcal vaccines might be a possible solution to this problem. PMID:28029140

  6. Gatifloxacin used for therapy of outpatient community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ronald N; Andes, David R; Mandell, Lionel A; Gothelf, Samantha; Ehrhardt, Anton F; Nicholson, Susan C

    2002-09-01

    Gatifloxacin is an advanced-generation fluoroquinolone with demonstrated efficacy and safety as therapy for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). As part of a phase IV postmarketing surveillance program (TeqCES), 136 outpatients with CAP whose sputum was culture-positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae were enrolled in an open-label trial of oral gatifloxacin 400 mg daily for 7 to 14 days. An antibiogram of isolates showed 100% susceptibility to gatifloxacin (MIC(90) 0.5 micro g/mL) and respective susceptibilities of 67%, 70%, and 80% to penicillin, erythromycin, and tetracycline. Clinical cure was achieved in 95.3% of evaluable patients, including seven patients infected with penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (MIC > or =2 micro g/mL). The bacteriologic eradication rate for S. pneumoniae was 94.5%. Diarrhea, nausea, and dizziness, the most common adverse events in CAP patients (<3%), were generally mild to moderate; no serious adverse events were recorded. These results support recommendations to treat CAP, particularly due to S. pneumoniae including multidrug-resistant strains, with the newer 8-methoxy-fluoroquinolone, gatifloxacin.

  7. [Community acquired pneumonia in children: Outpatient treatment and prevention].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, D; Andrés Martín, A; Tagarro García, A; Escribano Montaner, A; Figuerola Mulet, J; García García, J J; Moreno-Galdó, A; Rodrigo Gonzalo de Lliria, C; Ruiz Contreras, J; Saavedra Lozano, J

    2015-12-01

    There have been significant changes in community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children in the last decade. These changes relate to epidemiology and clinical presentation. Resistance to antibiotics is also a changing issue. These all have to be considered when treating CAP. In this document, two of the main Spanish pediatric societies involved in the treatment of CAP in children, propose a consensus concerning therapeutic approach. These societies are the Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and the Spanish Society of Paediatric Chest Diseases. The Advisory Committee on Vaccines of the Spanish Association of Paediatrics (CAV-AEP) has also been involved in the prevention of CAP. An attempt is made to provide up-to-date guidelines to all paediatricians. The first part of the statement presents the approach to ambulatory, previously healthy children. We also review the prevention with currently available vaccines. In a next second part, special situations and complicated forms will be addressed.

  8. Rapid urine antigen testing for Streptococcus pneumoniae in adults with community-acquired pneumonia: clinical use and barriers.

    PubMed

    Harris, Aaron M; Beekmann, Susan E; Polgreen, Philip M; Moore, Matthew R

    2014-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) is the most common bacterial etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adults, a leading cause of death. The majority of pneumococcal CAP is diagnosed by blood culture, which likely underestimates the burden of disease. The 2007 CAP guidelines recommend routine use of the rapid pneumococcal urinary antigen (UAg) test. To assess the how pneumococcal UAg testing is being used among hospitalized adult CAP patients and what barriers restrict its use, a Web-based survey was distributed in 2013 to 1287 infectious disease physician members of the Emerging Infectious disease Network of the Infectious Disease Society of America. Of 493 eligible responses, 65% use the pneumococcal UAg test. The primary barrier to UAg use was availability (46%). UAg users reported ordering fewer other diagnostic tests and tailoring antibiotic therapy. Increased access to UAg tests could improve pneumonia management and pneumococcal CAP surveillance.

  9. Treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lee, Young R; Houngue, Coovi; Hall, Ronald G

    2015-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is the sixth leading cause of death in the USA. Adherence to the 2007 Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society community-acquired pneumonia guidelines has been associated with improved clinical outcomes. However, choice between guideline-recommended treatments is at the discretion of the prescribing clinician. This review is intended to discuss the characteristics of these treatment options including dosing frequency, dose adjustment for renal/hepatic dysfunction, serious/common adverse events, drug interactions, lung penetration, pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic target and effect of obesity to help guide antimicrobial selection. An increasing portion of patients are receiving expanded empiric coverage for methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus as recommended by the American Thoracic Society and Infectious Diseases Society of America for healthcare-associated pneumonia. However, this expanded coverage may not be achieving the desired improvements in clinical outcomes. We expect this increasingly diverse spectrum of patients with pneumonia to eventually result in the merger of these two guidelines to include all patients with pneumonia.

  10. Severe community-acquired Enterobacter pneumonia: a plea for greater awareness of the concept of health-care-associated pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with Enterobacter community-acquired pneumonia (EnCAP) were admitted to our intensive care unit (ICU). Our primary aim was to describe them as few data are available on EnCAP. A comparison with CAP due to common and typical bacteria was performed. Methods Baseline clinical, biological and radiographic characteristics, criteria for health-care-associated pneumonia (HCAP) were compared between each case of EnCAP and thirty age-matched typical CAP cases. A univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine factors independently associated with ENCAP. Their outcome was also compared. Results In comparison with CAP due to common bacteria, a lower leukocytosis and constant HCAP criteria were associated with EnCAP. Empiric antibiotic therapy was less effective in EnCAP (20%) than in typical CAP (97%) (p < 0.01). A delay in the initiation of appropriate antibiotic therapy (3.3 ± 1.6 vs. 1.2 ± 0.6 days; p < 0.01) and an increase in duration of mechanical ventilation (8.4 ± 5.2 vs. 4.0 ± 4.3 days; p = 0.01) and ICU stay were observed in EnCAP patients. Conclusions EnCAP is a severe infection which is more consistent with HCAP than with typical CAP. This retrospectively suggests that the application of HCAP guidelines should have improved EnCAP management. PMID:21569334

  11. Aetiology of, and risk factors for, recurrent community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Vidal, C; Carratalà, J; Fernández-Sabé, N; Dorca, J; Verdaguer, R; Manresa, F; Gudiol, F

    2009-11-01

    Recurrent community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) requiring hospitalization is a matter of particular concern. However, current information on its prevalence, aetiology and risk factors is lacking. To address these issues, we performed an observational analysis of a prospective cohort of hospitalized adults with CAP. Recurrence was defined as two or more episodes of CAP 1 month apart within 3 years. Patients with severe immunosuppression or local predisposing factors were excluded. Of the 1556 patients, 146 (9.4%) had recurrent CAP. The most frequent causative organism was Streptococcus pneumoniae, both in patients with recurrent CAP and in those without recurrence. Haemophilus influenzae, other Gram-negative bacilli and aspiration pneumonia were more frequent among patients with recurrent CAP, whereas Legionella pneumophila was rarely identified in this group. Independent factors associated with recurrent CAP were greater age, lack of pneumococcal vaccination, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and corticosteroid therapy. In a sub-analysis of 389 episodes of pneumococcal pneumonia, the only independent risk factor for recurrence was lack of pneumococcal vaccination. Recurrence of CAP is not a rare clinical problem and it occurs mainly in the elderly, patients with COPD, and those receiving corticosteroids. Our study provides support for recommending pneumococcal vaccination for adults at risk of pneumonia, including those with a first episode of CAP.

  12. What is the role of respiratory viruses in community-acquired pneumonia?: What is the best therapy for influenza and other viral causes of community-acquired pneumonia?

    PubMed

    Pavia, Andrew T

    2013-03-01

    Respiratory viruses have long been appreciated as a cause of community acquired pneumonia (CAP), particularly among children, people with serious medical comorbidities, and military recruits. They are increasingly recognized as a cause of CAP among adults. Polymerase chain reaction-based testing has allowed detection of newer agents and improved the ability to detect such viral infections as influenza virus and rhinovirus. Coinfection with viruses and bacteria is common and it remains challenging to determine which patients have only viral infection as the cause of CAP. Better ways to diagnose viral CAP and to integrate detection into management, and better treatment options for noninfluenza respiratory viral infections are needed.

  13. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae: How Physical and Radiological Examination Contribute to Successful Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    Kishaba, Tomoo

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), particularly in young adults. Vital signs are usually normal except for temperature. On physical examination, general appearance is normal compared with that of typical pneumonia such as pneumococcal pneumonia patients. Mycoplasma sometimes causes ear infections such as otitis media. It is important to distinguish between typical pneumonia and atypical pneumonia such as mycoplasma pneumonia because having the right diagnosis allows for the use of the correct antibiotic to treat CAP while preventing development of drug-resistant bacteria and also decreasing medical cost. The symptoms and diagnosis of mycoplasma pneumonia is multi-fold. Auscultation of patients can demonstrate trace late inspiratory crackles or normal alveolar sounds; however, bilateral polyphonic wheezes can sometimes be heard because of bronchiolitis. With regard to radiological findings, a chest radiogragh often shows bilateral reticulonodular or patchy consolidation in both lower lobes. Pleural effusion is rarely observed in adult cases. Immunocompetent patients tend to reveal more extensive shadowing compared with immunocompromised patients. As serological diagnostic methods are not able to offer 100% reliable diagnosis, integration of physical and radiological examination is crucial to accurately diagnose mycoplasma pneumonia. Herein, I review the typical findings from physical examination and imaging patterns of patients with mycoplasma pneumonia. PMID:27379238

  14. [Nutritional status and mortality in community acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Pecci, María Soledad; Carlson, Damián; Montero-Tinnirello, Javier; Parodi, Roberto L; Montero, Antonio; Greca, Alcides A

    2010-01-01

    Pneumonias are a major cause of morbidity and mortality and their prognosis depends on many factors including nutritional status. This study analyzed the relationship between malnutrition and the risk of death in Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) patients. This is a prospective observational study. The Subjective Global Assessment (SGA) was used as a screening tool to appraise the nutritional status. Ninety-eight patients with CAP requiring hospitalization were included consecutively from October 2004 to September 2006. The clinical, bacteriological and laboratory features were recorded. Patient's nutritional condition was assessed using the SGA. The monitoring was performed until discharge, death or shunt. Persistent cough or fever, the presence of pleural effusion, malignancies or long hospitalization were associated with worse prognosis. Mortality increased in proportion to the degree of malnutrition. Thirty two CAP patients (32.65%) were classified as SGA-category A; 44 (44.90%) as SGA-B, and 22 (22.45%) as SGA-C. Pneumonia resulted in death in 3/32 SGA-A (9.37%), 8/44 SGA-B (18.18%) and 10/22 SGA-C patients. SGA-C patients showed significantly higher odds ratios for death in comparison to SGA-A patients (OR = 6.085, CI95%: 1.071-34.591; p = 0.042). Considering death as the outcome variable, SGA-A class had the highest negative predictive value (0.906), while SGA-C class showed the highest positive predictive value (0.455). These results link the nutritional status to the NAC evolution prognostic. SGA provides a simple estimation of the nutritional status and it is a good predictor of the risk of death in CAP patients.

  15. Advances in the prevention, management, and treatment of community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Pletz, Mathias W.; Rohde, Gernot G.; Welte, Tobias; Kolditz, Martin; Ott, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the infectious disease with the highest number of deaths worldwide. Nevertheless, its importance is often underestimated. Large cohorts of patients with CAP have been established worldwide and improved our knowledge about CAP by far. Therefore, current guidelines are much more evidence-based than ever before. This article discusses recent major studies and concepts on CAP such as the role of biomarkers, appropriate risk stratification to identify patients in need of hospitalisation or intensive care, appropriate empiric antibiotic therapy (including the impact of macrolide combination therapy and antibiotic stewardship), and CAP prevention with novel influenza and pneumococcal vaccines. PMID:26998243

  16. [Use of trovafloxacin therapy in community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Luna, C M; Gené, R J

    1999-01-01

    In community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) the pathogenic microorganism is unknown at the time of diagnosis. For that reason the antimicrobial therapy is empirical, based in the clinical picture and the presumptive causal microorganisms. Hospitalization is one of the most important decisions in patients with CAP. Clinical criteria appropriate to identifying those patients requiring hospital admission for antimicrobial administration and clinical control must be defined. The stratification of patients according to the presence of risk factors such as age and co-morbidities permit to predict which are the potential pathogenic microorganisms and their adequate therapy. Trovafloxacin covers all the presumed bacterial spectrum, pharmacokinetics, easiness to be administered and to pass to the oral route, advantageous for all the groups under consideration. Patients older than 65 years of age or with co-morbidities and those that need to be hospitalized receive clear benefits from this antibiotic.

  17. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Hospitalization among Children with Neurologic Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Millman, Alexander J.; Finelli, Lyn; Bramley, Anna M.; Peacock, Georgina; Williams, Derek J.; Arnold, Sandra R.; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Anderson, Evan J.; McCullers, Jonathan A.; Ampofo, Krow; Pavia, Andrew T.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Jain, Seema

    2016-01-01

    Objective To describe and compare the clinical characteristics, outcomes, and etiology of pneumonia among children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with neurologic disorders, non-neurologic underlying conditions, and no underlying conditions. Study design Children <18 years old hospitalized with clinical and radiographic CAP were enrolled at 3 US children’s hospitals. Neurologic disorders included cerebral palsy, developmental delay, Down syndrome, epilepsy, non-Down syndrome chromosomal abnormalities, and spinal cord abnormalities. We compared the epidemiology, etiology, and clinical outcomes of CAP in children with neurologic disorders with those with non-neurologic underlying conditions, and those with no underlying conditions using bivariate, age-stratified, and multivariate logistic regression analyses. Results From January 2010–June 2012, 2358 children with radiographically confirmed CAP were enrolled; 280 (11.9%) had a neurologic disorder (52.1% of these individuals also had non-neurologic underlying conditions), 934 (39.6%) had non-neurologic underlying conditions only, and 1144 (48.5%) had no underlying conditions. Children with neurologic disorders were older and more likely to require intensive care unit (ICU) admission than children with non-neurologic underlying conditions and children with no underlying conditions; similar proportions were mechanically ventilated. In age-stratified analysis, children with neurologic disorders were less likely to have a pathogen detected than children with non-neurologic underlying conditions. In multivariate analysis, having a neurologic disorder was associated with ICU admission for children ≥2 years of age. Conclusions Children with neurologic disorders hospitalized with CAP were less likely to have a pathogen detected and more likely to be admitted to the ICU than children without neurologic disorders. PMID:27017483

  18. The role of Streptococcus pneumoniae in community-acquired pneumonia among adults in Europe: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Rozenbaum, M H; Pechlivanoglou, P; van der Werf, T S; Lo-Ten-Foe, J R; Postma, M J; Hak, E

    2013-03-01

    The primary objective of this meta-analysis was to estimate the prevalence of adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae in Europe, adjusted for possible independent covariates. Two reviewers conducted a systematic literature search using PubMed on English-language articles that involved human subjects with CAP during the period from January 1990 to November 2011 across European countries. A mixed-effects meta-regression model was developed and populated with 24,410 patients obtained from 77 articles that met the inclusion criteria. The model showed that the observed prevalence of S. pneumoniae in CAP significantly varies between European regions, even after adjusting for explanatory covariates, including patient characteristics, diagnostic tests, antibiotic resistance, and health-care setting. The probability of detecting S. pneumoniae was substantially higher in studies that performed more frequently a diagnostic polymerase chain reaction assay compared to all the other diagnostic tests included. Furthermore, S. pneumoniae was more likely to be confirmed as the cause of a CAP in studies with intensive care unit patients as compared to those with hospital- or community-treated patients. This study provides estimates of the average observed prevalence of S. pneumoniae, which could be used for projecting the health and economic benefits of pneumococcal immunization.

  19. Inflammatory response in mixed viral-bacterial community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The role of mixed pneumonia (virus + bacteria) in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has been described in recent years. However, it is not known whether the systemic inflammatory profile is different compared to monomicrobial CAP. We wanted to investigate this profile of mixed viral-bacterial infection and to compare it to monomicrobial bacterial or viral CAP. Methods We measured baseline serum procalcitonin (PCT), C reactive protein (CRP), and white blood cell (WBC) count in 171 patients with CAP with definite etiology admitted to a tertiary hospital: 59 (34.5%) bacterial, 66 (39.%) viral and 46 (27%) mixed (viral-bacterial). Results Serum PCT levels were higher in mixed and bacterial CAP compared to viral CAP. CRP levels were higher in mixed CAP compared to the other groups. CRP was independently associated with mixed CAP. CRP levels below 26 mg/dL were indicative of an etiology other than mixed in 83% of cases, but the positive predictive value was 45%. PCT levels over 2.10 ng/mL had a positive predictive value for bacterial-involved CAP versus viral CAP of 78%, but the negative predictive value was 48%. Conclusions Mixed CAP has a different inflammatory pattern compared to bacterial or viral CAP. High CRP levels may be useful for clinicians to suspect mixed CAP. PMID:25073709

  20. Garenoxacin activity against isolates form patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Jones, Ronald N; Sader, Helio S; Stilwell, Matthew G; Fritsche, Thomas R

    2007-05-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) continues to cause significant morbidity worldwide, and the principal bacterial pathogens (Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae) have acquired numerous resistance mechanisms over the last few decades. CAP treatment guidelines have suggested the use of broader spectrum agents, such as antipneumococcal fluoroquinolones as the therapy for at-risk patient population. In this report, we studied 3087 CAP isolates from the SENTRY Antimicrobial Surveillance Program (1999-2005) worldwide and all respiratory tract infection (RTI) isolate population of pneumococci (14665 strains) grouped by antibiogram patterns against a new des-F(6)-quinolone, garenoxacin. Results indicated that garenoxacin was highly active against CAP isolates of S. pneumoniae (MIC(90), 0.06 microg/mL) and H. influenzae (MIC(90), < or =0.03 microg/mL). This garenoxacin potency was 8- to 32-fold greater than gatifloxacin, levofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin against the pneumococci and >99.9% of strains were inhibited at < or =1 microg/mL (proposed susceptible breakpoint). Garenoxacin MIC values were not affected by resistances among S. pneumoniae strains to penicillin or erythromycin; however, coresistances were high among the beta-lactams (penicillins and cephalosporins), macrolides, tetracyclines, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. Analysis of S. pneumoniae isolates with various antimicrobial resistance patterns to 6 drug classes demonstrated that garenoxacin was active against >99.9% (MIC, < or =1 microg/mL) of strains, and the most resistant pneumococci (6-drug resistance, 1051 strains or 7.2% of all isolates) were completely susceptible (100.0% at < or =1 microg/mL) to garenoxacin (MIC(90), 0.06 microg/mL). These results illustrate the high activity of garenoxacin against contemporary CAP isolates and especially against multidrug-resistant (MDR) S. pneumoniae that have created therapeutic dilemmas for all RTI presentations. Garenoxacin appears to be a

  1. Nursing home-acquired pneumonia. Treatment options.

    PubMed

    Marrie, T J; Slayter, K L

    1996-05-01

    Nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) is a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge, and antimicrobial therapy represents only 1 facet of the treatment of this disease. The nursing home population consists of a mixture of well, frail and dependent elderly. For some residents, supportive care may be the best therapeutic option. A variety of antimicrobial regimens have been proposed for the empirical therapy of NHAP; however, there are still very few data from controlled clinical trials that assess outcome. The clinical trials that have been completed support the concept that an early switch from intravenous to oral therapy can be successfully used to treat pneumonia affecting frail, often seriously ill, groups of patients. Annual influenza vaccine should be offered to all nursing home residents. This practice is about 50% effective in preventing hospitalisation and pneumonia, and about 80% effective in preventing death. The same level of evidence is not available to support the use of pneumococcal vaccine in this group; however, current practice suggests that all nursing home residents receive this vaccine on admission and once every 6 years thereafter. Frequently, knowledge about pneumonia is not applied as optimally as should be done. Care maps have been shown to reduce length of stay and shorten the time from emergency room entry until administration of antibiotic therapy by up to 3 hours. Areas for urgent research attention in patients with NHAP are: (a) proper studies to define the microbiological aetiology of NHAP (this requires bronchoscopy with sampling of the distal airways using a protected bronchial brush); (b) randomised controlled clinical trials of sufficient size to determine whether one antibiotic regimen is superior to another (currently most trials are designed to show that the agent under study is equivalent to a currently used agent); and (c) end-of-life decision making in the nursing home population.

  2. Adherence to Therapeutic Guidelines for Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Australian Hospitals

    PubMed Central

    Adler, NR; Weber, HM; Gunadasa, I; Hughes, AJ; Friedman, ND

    2014-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly in elderly patients, and is associated with a considerable economic burden on the healthcare system. The combination of high incidence and substantial financial costs necessitate accurate diagnosis and appropriate management of patients admitted with CAP. This article will discuss the rates of adherence to clinical guidelines, the use of severity scoring tools and the appropriateness of antimicrobial prescribing for patients diagnosed with CAP. The authors maintain that awareness of national and hospital guidelines is imperative to complement the physicians’ clinical judgment with evidence-based recommendations. Increased use of pneumonia severity assessment tools and greater adherence to therapeutic guidelines will enhance concordant antimicrobial prescribing for patients with CAP. A robust and multifaceted educational intervention, in combination with antimicrobial stewardship programs, may enhance compliance of CAP guidelines in clinical practice in Australia. PMID:25249765

  3. Impact of microbiological samples in the hospital management of community-acquired, nursing home-acquired and hospital-acquired pneumonia in older patients.

    PubMed

    Putot, A; Tetu, J; Perrin, S; Bailly, H; Piroth, L; Besancenot, J-F; Bonnotte, B; Chavanet, P; d'Athis, P; Charles, P-E; Sordet-Guépet, H; Manckoundia, P

    2016-03-01

    We investigated the positivity rate, the detection rates for non-covered pathogens and the therapeutic impact of microbiological samples (MS) in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) in elderly hospitalised patients. Patients aged 75 years and over with pneumonia and hospitalised between 1/1/2013 and 30/6/2013 in the departments of medicine (5) and intensive care (1) of our university hospital were included. Microbiological findings, intra-hospital mortality and one-year mortality were recorded. Among the 217 patients included, there were 138 CAP, 56 NHAP and 23 HAP. MS were performed in 89.9, 91.1 and 95.6 % of CAP, NHAP and HAP, respectively. Microbiological diagnosis was made for 29, 11.8 and 27.3 % of patients for CAP, NHAP and HAP, respectively (p = 0.05). Non-covered pathogens were detected for 8 % of CAP, 2 % of NHAP and 13.6 % of HAP (p = 0.1). The antimicrobial spectrum was significantly more frequently reduced when the MS were positive (46.7 % vs. 10.8 % when MS were negative, p = 10(-7)). The MS positivity rate was significantly lower in NHAP than in CAP and HAP. MS revealed non-covered pathogens in only 2 % of NHAP. These results show the poor efficiency and weak clinical impact of MS in the management of pneumonia in hospitalised older patients and suggest that their use should be rationalised.

  4. Use of serology and urine antigen detection to estimate the proportion of adult community-acquired pneumonia attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Watt, J P; Moïsi, J C; Donaldson, R L A; Reid, R; Ferro, S; Whitney, C G; Santosham, M; O'Brien, K L

    2010-12-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common cause of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) but existing diagnostic tools have limited sensitivity and specificity. We enrolled adults undergoing chest radiography at three Indian Health Service clinics in the Southwestern United States and collected acute and convalescent serum for measurement of PsaA and PspA titres and urine for pneumococcal antigen detection. Blood and sputum cultures were obtained at the discretion of treating physicians. We compared findings in clinical and radiographic CAP patients to those in controls without CAP. Urine antigen testing showed the largest differential between CAP patients and controls (clinical CAP 13%, radiographic CAP 17%, control groups 2%). Serological results were mixed, with significant differences between CAP patients and controls for some, but not all changes in titre. Based on urine antigen and blood culture results, we estimated that 11% of clinical and 15% of radiographic CAP cases were due to pneumococcus in this population.

  5. Fluoroquinolones in the management of community-acquired pneumonia in primary care.

    PubMed

    Wispelwey, Brian; Schafer, Katherine R

    2010-11-01

    A literature search was conducted to evaluate the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile of the respiratory fluoroquinolones (gemifloxacin, levofloxacin and moxifloxacin) and their efficacy and safety in the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Data show that CAP is a common presentation in primary care practice, and is associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality, particularly in the elderly. Although the causative pathogens differ depending on treatment setting and patient factors, Streptococcus pneumoniae is the primary pathogen in all treatment settings. As a class, the respiratory fluoroquinolones have a very favorable pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profile. Pharmacodynamic criteria suggest that moxifloxacin and gemifloxacin are more potent against S. pneumoniae, which may have the added benefit of reducing resistance selection and enhancing bacterial eradication. The respiratory fluoroquinolones are also generally well tolerated, and are first-line options for outpatient treatment of CAP in patients with comorbidities or previous antibiotic use.

  6. Classification algorithms to improve the accuracy of identifying patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia using administrative data.

    PubMed

    Yu, O; Nelson, J C; Bounds, L; Jackson, L A

    2011-09-01

    In epidemiological studies of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) that utilize administrative data, cases are typically defined by the presence of a pneumonia hospital discharge diagnosis code. However, not all such hospitalizations represent true CAP cases. We identified 3991 hospitalizations during 1997-2005 in a managed care organization, and validated them as CAP or not by reviewing medical records. To improve the accuracy of CAP identification, classification algorithms that incorporated additional administrative information associated with the hospitalization were developed using the classification and regression tree analysis. We found that a pneumonia code designated as the primary discharge diagnosis and duration of hospital stay improved the classification of CAP hospitalizations. Compared to the commonly used method that is based on the presence of a primary discharge diagnosis code of pneumonia alone, these algorithms had higher sensitivity (81-98%) and positive predictive values (82-84%) with only modest decreases in specificity (48-82%) and negative predictive values (75-90%).

  7. A preliminary study on the potential of Mycoplasma pneumoniae to induce dyskaryotic change in respiratory epithelium in adult community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    An, Shu-Chang; Yang, Dong-Hong; Luo, Chao-Feng; Chen, Xin; Liu, Guo-Tian; Weng, Yan; Liu, Jing-Zhe; Shang, Ying; Wang, Rui-Qin; Gao, Zhan-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to explore the cellular morphology of respiratory epithelium in Mycoplasma pneumonia (MpP) patients. Materials and Methods: The cast-off cell morphological findings from bronchoscopic brushings in MpP and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by typical pathogens were reviewed. Results: Compared with the CAP group, cellular dysplasia in respiratory tract epithelial brushings was significantly greater in MpP patients (P = 0.033). Conclusion: Unique biological characteristics and mechanisms of pathogenesis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae (Mp) may result in dyskaryotic changes in respiratory epithelium in adult MpP. PMID:28163727

  8. Predictors of Severe Sepsis among Patients Hospitalized for Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Antoni; Reyes, Soledad; Méndez, Raúl; Zalacaín, Rafael; Capelastegui, Alberto; Rajas, Olga; Borderías, Luis; Martin-Villasclaras, Juan; Bello, Salvador; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Rodríguez de Castro, Felipe; Rello, Jordi; Molinos, Luis; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe sepsis, may be present on hospital arrival in approximately one-third of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Objective To determine the host characteristics and micro-organisms associated with severe sepsis in patients hospitalized with CAP. Results We performed a prospective multicenter cohort study in 13 Spanish hospital, on 4070 hospitalized CAP patients, 1529 of whom (37.6%) presented with severe sepsis. Severe sepsis CAP was independently associated with older age (>65 years), alcohol abuse (OR, 1.31; 95% CI, 1.07–1.61), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR, 1.75; 95% CI, 1.50–2.04) and renal disease (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.21–2.03), whereas prior antibiotic treatment was a protective factor (OR, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.52–0.73). Bacteremia (OR, 1.37; 95% CI, 1.05–1.79), S pneumoniae (OR, 1.59; 95% CI, 1.31–1.95) and mixed microbial etiology (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.10–2.49) were associated with severe sepsis CAP. Conclusions CAP patients with COPD, renal disease and alcohol abuse, as well as those with CAP due to S pneumonia or mixed micro-organisms are more likely to present to the hospital with severe sepsis. PMID:26727202

  9. Role of Atypical Bacteria in Hospitalized Patients With Nursing Home-Acquired Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Meyer-Junco, Laura

    2016-10-01

    Background: Nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) has been identified as one of the leading causes of mortality and hospitalization for long-term care residents. However, current and previous pneumonia guidelines differ on the appropriate management of NHAP in hospitalized patients, specifically in regard to the role of atypical bacteria such as Chlamydiae pneumonia, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, and Legionella. Objectives: The purpose of this review is to evaluate clinical trials conducted in hospitalized patients with NHAP to determine the prevalence of atypical bacteria and thus the role for empiric antibiotic coverage of these pathogens in NHAP. Methods: Comprehensive MEDLINE (1966-April 2016) and Embase (1980-April 2016) searches were performed using the terms "atypical bacteria", "atypical pneumonia", "nursing-home acquired pneumonia", "pneumonia", "elderly", "nursing homes", and "long term care". Additional articles were retrieved from the review of references cited in the collected studies. Thirteen published clinical trials were identified. Results: In the majority of studies, atypical bacteria were infrequently identified in patients hospitalized with NHAP. However, when an active community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) cohort was available, the rate of atypical bacteria between NHAP and CAP study arms was similar. Only 3 studies in this review adhered to recommended strategies for investigating atypical bacteria; in 2 of these studies, C. pneumoniae was the most common pathogen identified in NHAP cohorts. Conclusion: Although atypical bacteria were uncommon in most NHAP studies in this review, suboptimal microbial investigations were commonly performed. To accurately describe the role of atypical bacteria in NHAP, more studies using validated diagnostic tests are needed.

  10. [Efficacy and safety of azithromycin infusion in patients with mild or moderate community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Noguchi, Shingo; Yatera, Kazuhiro; Kawanami, Toshinori; Yamasaki, Kei; Uchimura, Keigo; Hata, Ryosuke; Tachiwada, Takashi; Oda, Keishi; Hara, Kanako; Suzuki, Yu; Akata, Kentarou; Ogoshi, Takaaki; Tokuyama, Susumu; Inoue, Naoyuki; Nishida, Chinatsu; Orihashi, Takeshi; Yoshida, Yugo; Kawanami, Yukiko; Taura, Yusuke; Ishimoto, Hiroshi; Obata, Hideto; Tsuda, Toru; Yoshii, Chiharu; Mukae, Hiroshi

    2014-06-01

    Azithromycin (AZM) is one of 15-membered rings macrolide antibiotics with wide spectrum of antimicrobial efficacy for Gram-positive and -negative bacteria and also atypical bacteria. So far, there had been no reports of the prospective studies evaluating efficacy and safety of AZM infusion in patients with mild or moderate community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study was conducted to evaluate prospectively the efficacy and safety of AZM in patients with mild or moderate CAP. AZM 500 mg was intravenously administered once daily, and the clinical efficacy were evaluated by clinical symptoms, peripheral blood laboratory findings and chest X-rays. Sixty-four patients were firstly registered, and eventually 61 and 62 patients were enrolled for the evaluation of clinical efficacy and safety of AZM, respectively. The efficacy of AZM in 61 patients evaluated was 88.5%. In addition, the efficacies of AZM in each pneumonia severity index by A-DROP system by the Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS) guideline in CAP were 85.2% in mild and 91.2% in moderate. Furthermore, the efficacy of AZM in each differentiation between suspicion of bacterial pneumonia and that of atypical pneumonia by JRS guideline in CAP were 91.7% in suspicion of atypical pneumonia, and its efficacy was high than that of bacterial pneumonia. Nineteen patients (20 cases; 15 with liver dysfunction, 4 with diarrhea, 1 with vascular pain) out of 62 patients were reported to have possible adverse effects of AZM. All of the patients with these adverse effects demonstrated mild dysfunction and continued AZM treatment, and these dysfunctions normalized soon after cessation of AZM. In conclusion, AZM is effective drug for patients with mild or moderate CAP, and we believe that it may be one of effective choice in the treatment of CAP patients who need hospitalization.

  11. Community-acquired pneumonia due to Pasteurella multocida.

    PubMed

    Marinella, Mark A

    2004-12-01

    Most cases of community-acquired pneumonia result from infection with predictable common pathogens. However, rare patients develop pneumonia from unusual bacterial species such as Pasteurella multocida, a Gram-negative oral commensal of most dogs and cats. The majority of P. multocida infections involve skin and soft tissue and complicate a bite or scratch. I report the case of an elderly man who owned 16 cats and developed bacteremic pneumonia with P. multocida. .

  12. Antibiotic susceptibility in relation to genotype of Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae responsible for community-acquired pneumonia in children.

    PubMed

    Morozumi, Miyuki; Chiba, Naoko; Okada, Takafumi; Sakata, Hiroshi; Matsubara, Keita; Iwata, Satoshi; Ubukata, Kimiko

    2013-06-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae are the main pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We identified S. pneumoniae (n = 241), H. influenzae (n = 123), and M. pneumoniae (n = 54) as causative pathogens from clinical findings and blood tests from pediatric CAP patients (n = 903) between April 2008 and April 2009. Identification of genes mediating antimicrobial resistance by real-time PCR was performed for all isolates of these three pathogens, as was antibiotic susceptibility testing using an agar dilution method or broth microdilution method. The genotypic (g) resistance rate was 47.7 % for penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae (gPRSP) possessing abnormal pbp1a, pbp2x, and pbp2b genes, 62.6 % for β-lactamase-nonproducing, ampicillin-resistant (gBLNAR) H. influenzae possessing the amino acid substitutions Ser385Thr and Asn526Lys, and 44.4 % for macrolide-resistant M. pneumoniae (gMRMP) possessing a mutation of A2063G, A2064G, or C2617A. Serotype 6B (20.3 %) predominated in S. pneumoniae, followed by 19F (15.4 %), 14 (14.5 %), 23F (12.0 %), 19A (6.2 %), and 6C (5.4 %). Coverage for the isolates by heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) and PCV13, respectively, was calculated as 68.5 and 80.9 %. A small number of H. influenzae were identified as type b (6.5 %), type e (0.8 %), or type f (0.8 %); all others were nontypeable. Proper use of antibiotics based on information about resistance in CAP pathogens is required to control rapid increases in resistance. Epidemiological surveillance of pediatric patients also is needed to assess the effectiveness of PCV7 and Hib vaccines after their introduction in Japan.

  13. A case-control study of community-acquired Acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia and melioidosis pneumonia in northeast Thailand: an emerging fatal disease with unique clinical features.

    PubMed

    Patamatamkul, Samadhi; Klungboonkrong, Voravan; Praisarnti, Pakawas; Jirakiat, Kittitouch

    2017-01-01

    Acinetobacter baumannii is the emerging cause of severe and often fatal gram-negative, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP-AB) in Thailand. Due to its rarity, its specific clinical features are ill defined. In this retrospective study, we compared the demographic data, risk factors, clinical characteristics, radiographic pattern, and microbiological data between CAP-AB and Burkholderia pseudomallei CAP (CAP-BP) to identify the clinical features and risk factors of CAP-AB. CAP-AB was associated with a more productive cough and a shorter duration of symptoms, while CAP-BP was associated with more musculoskeletal symptoms. The white blood cell and neutrophil counts were significantly lower in the CAP-AB group. Gram staining of the sputum revealed a significantly higher amount of bacteria in the CAP-AB group. Lobar infiltration and unilateral right lung involvement were the most common radiographic patterns in the CAP-AB group. CAP-AB is associated with severe pneumonia and has unique clinical features that distinguish it from CAP-BP.

  14. Mortality of community-acquired pneumonia in Korea: assessed with the pneumonia severity index and the CURB-65 score.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye In; Kim, Shin Woo; Chang, Hyun Ha; Cha, Seung Ick; Lee, Jae Hee; Ki, Hyun Kyun; Cheong, Hae Suk; Yoo, Kwang Ha; Ryu, Seong Yeol; Kwon, Ki Tae; Lee, Byung Kee; Choo, Eun Ju; Kim, Do Jin; Kang, Cheol-In; Chung, Doo Ryeon; Peck, Kyong Ran; Song, Jae Hoon; Suh, Gee Young; Shim, Tae Sun; Kim, Young Keun; Kim, Hyo Youl; Moon, Chi Sook; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Park, Seong Yeon; Oh, Jin Young; Jung, Sook In; Park, Kyung Hwa; Yun, Na Ra; Yoon, Sung Ho; Sohn, Kyung Mok; Kim, Yeon-Sook; Jung, Ki Suck

    2013-09-01

    The pneumonia severity index (PSI) and CURB-65 are widely used tools for the prediction of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study was conducted to evaluate validation of severity scoring system including the PSI and CURB-65 scores of Korean CAP patients. In the prospective CAP cohort (participated in by 14 hospitals in Korea from January 2009 to September 2011), 883 patients aged over 18 yr were studied. The 30-day mortalities of all patients were calculated with their PSI index classes and CURB scores. The overall mortality rate was 4.5% (40/883). The mortality rates per CURB-65 score were as follows: score 0, 2.3% (6/260); score 1, 4.0% (12/300); score 2, 6.0% (13/216); score 3, 5.7% (5/88); score 4, 23.5% (4/17); and score 5, 0% (0/2). Mortality rate with PSI risk class were as follows: I, 2.3% (4/174); II, 2.7% (5/182); III, 2.3% (5/213); IV, 4.5% (11/245); and V, 21.7% (15/69). The subgroup mortality rate of Korean CAP patients varies based on the severity scores and CURB-65 is more valid for the lower scores, and PSI, for the higher scores. Thus, these variations must be considered when using PSI and CURB-65 for CAP in Korean patients.

  15. Use of the respiratory fluoroquinolones for the outpatient management of community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hans H.

    2004-01-01

    Background Approximately 4 million cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) occur in the United States each year, with the majority treated on an outpatient basis. The first fluoroquinolones (eg, ciprofloxacin) were used with caution for respiratory tract infections due to limited in vitro activity against common gram-positive pathogens. With the availability of levofloxacin, followed by gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin hydrochloride, which exhibited increased activity against gram-positive organisms, the fluoroquinolones have become a practical choice for the treatment of CAP. Objective The aim of this review was to compare the respiratory fluoroquinolones in the outpatient management of CAP. Methods We conducted a search for English-language articles (key terms: fluoroquinolone, levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, moxifloxacin, and pneumonia; years: 1996–2004). Data from published literature were reviewed regarding clinical and microbiologic efficacy and tolerability; pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties; and drug costs of levofloxacin, gatifloxacin, and moxifloxacin. Results The 3 fluoroquinolones reviewed showed comparable clinical and microbiologic efficacy for the treatment of CAP. In general, the fluoroquinolones were well tolerated, although some differences have been reported, including higher rates of gastrointestinal and other adverse events for gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin. Gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin exhibited greater in vitro potency than levofloxacin against Streptococcus pneumoniae. However, levofloxacin achieved a higher serum drug concentration than the other agents, allowing similar attainment of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic targets required for effective treatment. Conclusions The respiratory fluoroquinolones provided appropriate first line treatment in select patients with CAP on the basis of their microbiologic and clinical efficacy and their safety profiles. PMID:24764589

  16. Fluoroquinolones in community-acquired pneumonia: guide to selection and appropriate use.

    PubMed

    Frei, Christopher R; Labreche, Matthew J; Attridge, Russell T

    2011-04-16

    Fluoroquinolone use has dramatically increased since the introduction of the first respiratory fluoroquinolone in the late 1990s. Over a relatively brief period of time, the respiratory fluoroquinolones have supplanted other first-line options as the predominant community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) therapy in hospitals. This article discusses the rise of the fluoroquinolone era, debates the comparative effectiveness of fluoroquinolones for CAP therapy, examines fluoroquinolone resistance and adverse drug reactions, and discusses new trends in pneumonia epidemiology and outcomes assessment. Overall, published data suggest that fluoroquinolone monotherapy is associated with improved patient survival compared with β-lactam monotherapy and similar survival to β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy. Fluoroquinolone monotherapy may be associated with shorter hospital length of stay compared with β-lactam plus macrolide combination therapy, particularly in severe pneumonia or with high-dose therapy. There is insufficient evidence to conclude that any individual fluoroquinolone therapy is better than another with regards to patient mortality. Fluoroquinolones are generally well tolerated and Streptococcus pneumoniae resistance remains low; however, rare but serious adverse effects have been reported. Some members of the fluoroquinolone class have been removed from the market amidst safety concerns. Pneumonia classifications have changed and antipseudomonal fluoroquinolones may have a role in healthcare-associated pneumonia when administered in combination with other antipseudomonal and anti-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus therapies.

  17. Severity prediction rules in community acquired pneumonia: a validation study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, W; Lewis, S; Macfarlane, J

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The British Thoracic Society (BTS) developed a rule (BTSr) based on severity criteria to predict short term mortality in adults admitted to hospital with community acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, neither the BTSr nor a recent modification of it (mBTSr) have been validated in the UK. A case-control study was conducted in a typical UK population to determine the clinical factors predictive of mortality and to assess the performance of these rules.
METHODS—Cases were drawn from all patients with CAP who died in 1997 in five large hospitals in the Mid Trent area. Controls were randomly selected from survivors. Factors associated with mortality were identified following review of medical case notes and performance of the severity prediction rules assessed.
RESULTS—Age >65 years, temperature <37°C, respiratory rate >24 breaths/min, mental confusion, urea concentration of >7 mmol/l, sodium concentration of <135 mmol/l, and the presence of a pleural effusion, all determined on admission, were independently associated with in-hospital mortality on multivariate analysis. The BTSr was 52% sensitive and 79% specific in predicting death while the mBTSr displayed 66% sensitivity and 73% specificity.
CONCLUSIONS—The value of three of the four factors (presence of mental confusion, raised respiratory rate, raised urea) used in the mBTSr as predictors of mortality is confirmed. However, the BTSr and mBTSr did not perform as well in this validation study which included a high proportion (48%) of elderly patients (⩾75 years) compared with the derivation studies.

 PMID:10679541

  18. Hot Topics in Primary Care: Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia: Is There Anything New?

    PubMed

    Liu, Hans

    2017-04-01

    The management of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an ongoing challenge in the primary care setting. This is due, in part, to the fact that management guidelines in the United States were published nearly a decade ago. Furthermore, there has been a dearth of new treatments. But that may be about to change. Management guidelines are being updated by the Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA) and the American Thoracic Society (ATS) and are expected to be released this summer. In addition, several new antibiotics for the treatment of CAP are on the horizon.

  19. Efficacy of moxifloxacin for treatment of penicillin-, macrolide- and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae in community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Fogarty, C; Torres, A; Choudhri, S; Haverstock, D; Herrington, J; Ambler, J

    2005-11-01

    This pooled analysis of six prospective, multicentre trials aimed to determine the efficacy of moxifloxacin in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to penicillin-, macrolide- and multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (MDRSP). At a central laboratory, isolates were identified and antimicrobial susceptibility determined (microbroth dilution). MDRSP was defined as resistance > or =3 drug classes. Patients received oral or sequential intravenous/oral 400 mg moxifloxacin once daily for 7-14 days. The primary endpoint was clinical success at test-of-cure for efficacy-valid patients with proven pretherapy S. pneumoniae infection. Of 140 S. pneumoniae isolated (112 respiratory, 28 blood), 23 (16.4%) were penicillin resistant, 26 (18.6%) macrolide resistant and 31 (22.1%) MDRSP. The moxifloxacin MIC90 was 0.25 microg/ml. Clinical cure with moxifloxacin was 95.4% (125/131) overall, and 100% (21/21) for penicillin-, 95.7% (22/23) for macrolide- and 96.4% (27/28) for multidrug-resistant strains. Moxifloxacin provided excellent clinical and bacteriological cure rates in CAP due to drug-resistant pneumococci.

  20. [The functional properties and oxidative modification of plasma and neutrophil proteins in community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Stepovaia, E A; Petina, G V; Zhavoronok, T V; Riazantseva, N V; Ivanov, V V; Ageeva, T S; Tetenev, F F; Bezmenova, M A

    2010-03-01

    The functional properties of neutrophils (the activity of myeloperoxidase and the production of hydroxyl radical) were studied in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) predominantly with the alveolar and interstitial types of lung parenchymal infiltration. Protein oxidative modification was estimated from the content of protein carbonyl derivatives in neutrophilic leukocytes and plasma and from the plasma concentration of bityrosine and oxidized tryptophan in patients with CAP. The production of hydroxyl radical and the activity of myeloperoxidase in the neutrophils of patients with CAP were increased and did not depend on the type of lung tissue infiltration. The development of oxidative stress in CAP was accompanied by the substantiation activation of protein oxidative modification processes in the neutrophilic leukocytes and plasma.

  1. Increased risk of community-acquired pneumonia in COPD patients with comorbid cardiovascular disease

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Sheng-Hao; Perng, Diahn-Warng; Chen, Ching-Pei; Chai, Woei-Horng; Yeh, Chin-Shui; Kor, Chew-Teng; Cheng, Shih-Lung; Chen, Jeremy JW; Lin, Ching-Hsiung

    2016-01-01

    Background and objective COPD patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) have worse clinical outcomes, as compared to those without COPD. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a common comorbidity for COPD patients. Whether COPD with comorbid CVD will increase the risk of CAP is not well investigated. The incidence and factors associated with CAP in COPD patients with and without CVD were analyzed. Methods The medical records of patients with newly diagnosed COPD between 2007 and 2010 were reviewed. The patients’ characteristics, medical history of CVD, occurrence of CAP, and type of medication were recorded. Kaplan–Meier curves were used to assess the differences in cumulative incidence of CAP. Cox’s proportional hazards regression model was used to determine the adjusted hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals in relation to factors associated with CAP in COPD patients with and without CVD. Results Among 2,440 patients, 475 patients (19.5%) developed CAP during the follow-up period. COPD patients who developed CAP were significantly older, had lower forced expiratory volume in 1 second, frequent severe exacerbation and comorbid CVD, as well as received inhaled corticosteroid (ICS)-containing therapy than those without CAP. The cumulative incidence of CAP was higher in COPD patients with CVD compared to those without CVD. Patients who received ICS-containing therapy had significantly increased risk of developing CAP compared to those who did not. Conclusion For patients with COPD, comorbid CVD is an independent risk factor for developing CAP. ICS-containing therapy may increase the risk of CAP among COPD patients. PMID:27980402

  2. Utility of Plasma Osteopontin Levels in Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jer-Hwa; Hung, Wen-Yueh; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Yang, Shun-Fa; Chien, Ming-Hsien

    2016-01-01

    Osteopontin (OPN) is an essential cytokine involved in immune cell recruitment and an important regulator of inflammation. The purpose of this study was to examine differences in OPN plasma levels between before and after antibiotic treatment in hospitalized adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). OPN levels were measured in 93 patients with CAP and 54 healthy controls using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The CURB-65, Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI), and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) scores were used to determine the CAP severity in patients upon initial hospitalization. A decline in the number of white blood cells (WBCs) and neutrophils, and decreases in the levels of OPN and C-reactive protein (CRP) were observed after antibiotic treatment. Only the plasma level of OPN, but not CRP, was correlated with the severity of CAP based on the PSI (r = 0.514, p < 0.001), CURB-65 (r = 0.396, p < 0.001), and APACHE II scores (r = 0.473, p < 0.001). The OPN level also showed a significant correlation with the length of hospital stay (r = 0.210, p = 0.044). In conclusion, plasma level of OPN may act as diagnostic adjuvant biomarkers for CAP and further play a role in clinical assessment of the severity of CAP, which could potentially guide the development of treatment strategies. PMID:27647996

  3. Clinical Features, Etiology, and Outcomes of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Patients With Diabetes Mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Di Yacovo, Silvana; Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Viasus, Diego; Adamuz, Jordi; Oriol, Isabel; Gili, Francesca; Vilarrasa, Núria; García-Somoza, M. Dolors; Dorca, Jordi; Carratalà, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract We performed an observational analysis of a prospective cohort of immunocompetent hospitalized adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) to determine the epidemiology, clinical features, and outcomes of pneumonia in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). We also analyzed the risk factors for mortality and the impact of statins and other cardiovascular drugs on outcomes. Of 2407 CAP episodes, 516 (21.4%) occurred in patients with DM; 483 (97%) had type 2 diabetes, 197 (40%) were on insulin treatment, and 119 (23.9%) had end-organ damage related to DM. Patients with DM had different clinical features compared to the other patients. They were less likely to have acute onset, cough, purulent sputum, and pleural chest pain. No differences in etiology were found between study groups. Patients with DM had more inhospital acute metabolic complications, although the case-fatality rate was similar between the groups. Independent risk factors for mortality in patients with DM were advanced age, bacteremia, septic shock, and gram-negative pneumonia. Patients with end-organ damage related to DM had more inhospital cardiac events and a higher early case-fatality rate than did the overall population. The use of statins and other cardiovascular drugs was not associated with better CAP outcomes in patients with DM. In conclusion, CAP in patients with DM presents different clinical features compared to the features of patients without DM. PMID:23263718

  4. Usefulness of aetiological tests for guiding antibiotic therapy in community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Strålin, K

    2008-01-01

    The goal with antibiotic therapy in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is to cure the patient, ideally without causing side effects and without contributing to the further development of antibiotic resistance. Although patients with severe CAP should be treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, patients with non-severe CAP should preferably receive pathogen-directed therapy. Rapid aetiological tests, such as sputum Gram stain and urinary antigen tests, are useful for targeting initial pathogen-directed therapy. Non-rapid tests, such as cultures, can subsequently support a switch from initial broad-spectrum therapy to narrow-spectrum therapy and direct therapy changes in case of treatment failure. As conventional diagnostic methods often fail to identify the aetiology of CAP, PCR (polymerase chain reaction) tests for respiratory pathogens have become useful and should be further developed. Based on the test specificities, aetiological tests may provide diagnoses with varying reliability, i.e. definite aetiologies (e.g., blood culture and Legionella urinary antigen test), probable aetiologies (e.g., sputum culture and PCR for Mycoplasma pneumoniae), or possible aetiologies (e.g., culture of nasopharyngeal secretions and PCR for Streptococcus pneumoniae). A definite or probable aetiology can often be used to target antibiotic therapy.

  5. Clinical and bacteriological efficacies of sitafloxacin against community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae: nested cohort within a multicenter clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fujita, Jiro; Niki, Yoshihito; Kadota, Jun-Ichi; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Kaku, Mitsuo; Watanabe, Akira; Aoki, Nobuki; Hori, Seiji; Tanigawara, Yusuke; Cash, Haley L; Kohno, Shigeru

    2013-06-01

    We evaluated the clinical and bacteriological efficacy of oral sitafloxacin (STFX) in clinically diagnosed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Additionally, we cultured these patient samples to test the minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of levofloxacin (LVFX), moxifloxacin (MFLX), STFX, and penicillin G (PCG), as well as identified mutations in the quinolone resistance determinant regions (QRDRs) in LVFX-resistant strains. This study is a nested cohort from a prospective, multicenter clinical trial consisting of 139 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), from which 72 were included in this study. After diagnosis of CAP caused by S. pneumoniae, STFX (50 mg twice daily, or 100 mg once daily) was orally administered for 7 days. Sixty-five patient sputum samples were then cultured for MIC analysis. In a LVFX-resistant strain that was identified, mutations in the QRDRs of the gyrA, gyrB, parC, and parE genes were examined. Of 72 patients eligible for this study, S. pneumoniae was successfully cultured from the sputum of 65 patients, and only 7 patients were diagnosed by urinary antigen only. Clinical improvement of CAP was obtained in 65 of the 69 clinically evaluable patients (65/69, 94.2 %). Eradication of S. pneumoniae was observed in 62 patients of the 65 bacteriologically evaluable patients (62/65, 95.4 %). Additionally, STFX showed the lowest MIC distribution compared with LVFX, MFLX, and PCG, and no major adverse reactions were observed. STFX treatment in patients with CAP caused by S. pneumoniae was found to be highly effective both clinically (94.2 %) and bacteriologically (95.4 %).

  6. Community-acquired pneumonia: economics of inpatient medical care vis-à-vis clinical severity*,**

    PubMed Central

    Cupurdija, Vojislav; Lazic, Zorica; Petrovic, Marina; Mojsilovic, Slavica; Cekerevac, Ivan; Rancic, Nemanja; Jakovljevic, Mihajlo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To assess the direct and indirect costs of diagnosing and treating community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), correlating those costs with CAP severity at diagnosis and identifying the major cost drivers. Methods: This was a prospective cost analysis study using bottom-up costing. Clinical severity and mortality risk were assessed with the pneumonia severity index (PSI) and the mental Confusion-Urea-Respiratory rate-Blood pressure-age ≥ 65 years (CURB-65) scale, respectively. The sample comprised 95 inpatients hospitalized for newly diagnosed CAP. The analysis was run from a societal perspective with a time horizon of one year. Results: Expressed as mean ± standard deviation, in Euros, the direct and indirect medical costs per CAP patient were 696 ± 531 and 410 ± 283, respectively, the total per-patient cost therefore being 1,106 ± 657. The combined budget impact of our patient cohort, in Euros, was 105,087 (66,109 and 38,979 in direct and indirect costs, respectively). The major cost drivers, in descending order, were the opportunity cost (lost productivity); diagnosis and treatment of comorbidities; and administration of medications, oxygen, and blood derivatives. The CURB-65 and PSI scores both correlated with the indirect costs of CAP treatment. The PSI score correlated positively with the overall frequency of use of health care services. Neither score showed any clear relationship with the direct costs of CAP treatment. Conclusions: Clinical severity at admission appears to be unrelated to the costs of CAP treatment. This is mostly attributable to unwarranted hospital admission (or unnecessarily long hospital stays) in cases of mild pneumonia, as well as to over-prescription of antibiotics. Authorities should strive to improve adherence to guidelines and promote cost-effective prescribing practices among physicians in southeastern Europe. PMID:25750674

  7. Increasing burden of community-acquired pneumonia leading to hospitalisation, 1998–2014

    PubMed Central

    Fawcett, Nicola J; Wrightson, John M; Finney, John; Wyllie, David; Jeffery, Katie; Jones, Nicola; Shine, Brian; Clarke, Lorraine; Crook, Derrick; Walker, A Sarah; Peto, Timothy E A

    2016-01-01

    Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in many countries but few recent large-scale studies have examined trends in its incidence. Methods Incidence of CAP leading to hospitalisation in one UK region (Oxfordshire) was calculated over calendar time using routinely collected diagnostic codes, and modelled using piecewise-linear Poisson regression. Further models considered other related diagnoses, typical administrative outcomes, and blood and microbiology test results at admission to determine whether CAP trends could be explained by changes in case-mix, coding practices or admission procedures. Results CAP increased by 4.2%/year (95% CI 3.6 to 4.8) from 1998 to 2008, and subsequently much faster at 8.8%/year (95% CI 7.8 to 9.7) from 2009 to 2014. Pneumonia-related conditions also increased significantly over this period. Length of stay and 30-day mortality decreased slightly in later years, but the proportions with abnormal neutrophils, urea and C reactive protein (CRP) did not change (p>0.2). The proportion with severely abnormal CRP (>100 mg/L) decreased slightly in later years. Trends were similar in all age groups. Streptococcus pneumoniae was the most common causative organism found; however other organisms, particularly Enterobacteriaceae, increased in incidence over the study period (p<0.001). Conclusions Hospitalisations for CAP have been increasing rapidly in Oxfordshire, particularly since 2008. There is little evidence that this is due only to changes in pneumonia coding, an ageing population or patients with substantially less severe disease being admitted more frequently. Healthcare planning to address potential further increases in admissions and consequent antibiotic prescribing should be a priority. PMID:26888780

  8. Clinical Features, Etiology and Outcomes of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Patients with Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Gómez-Junyent, Joan; Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Viasus, Diego; Millat-Martínez, Pere; Simonetti, Antonella; Santos, Mª Salud; Ardanuy, Carmen; Dorca, Jordi; Carratalà, Jordi

    2014-01-01

    Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a frequent complication of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but previous studies are often contradictory. Objectives We aimed to ascertain the characteristics and outcomes of CAP in patients with COPD as well as to determine the risk factors for mortality and Pseudomonas aeruginosa pneumonia in COPD patients with CAP. We also describe the etiology and outcomes of CAP in COPD patients receiving chronic oxygen therapy at home and those receiving inhaled steroids. Methods An observational analysis of a prospective cohort of hospitalized adults with CAP (1995–2011) was performed. Results We documented 4121 CAP episodes, of which 983 (23.9%) occurred in patients with COPD; the median FEV1 value was 50%, and 57.8% were classified as stage III or IV in the GOLD classification. Fifty-eight per cent of patients were receiving inhaled steroids, and 14.6% chronic oxygen therapy at home. Patients with COPD presented specific clinical features. S. pneumoniae was the leading causative organism overall, but P. aeruginosa was more frequent in COPD (3.4 vs. 0.5%; p<0.001). Independent risk factors for case-fatality rate in patients with COPD were multilobar pneumonia, P. aeruginosa pneumonia, and high-risk PSI classes. Prior pneumococcal vaccination was found to be protective. FEV1 was an independent risk factor for P. aeruginosa pneumonia. Conclusions CAP in patients with COPD presents specific characteristics and risk factors for mortality. Prior pneumococcal vaccine has a beneficial effect on outcomes. P. aeruginosa pneumonia is associated with low FEV1 values and poor prognosis. PMID:25166349

  9. Severe community-acquired pneumonia and positive urinary antigen test for S. pneumoniae: amoxicillin is associated with a favourable outcome.

    PubMed

    Blanc, V; Mothes, A; Smetz, A; Timontin, I; Guardia, M D; Billiemaz, A; Dellamonica, J; Vassallo, M; Néri, D; Chadapaud, S; Toyer, A-L; Del Guidice, P; Fribourg, A; Léotard, S; Nicolle, I; Roger, P-M

    2015-12-01

    Positive urinary antigen tests (UAT) for pneumococcal infection in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) may lead to targeted antibiotic therapy. We report an audit aimed at defining the link between mortality and targeted therapy. We conducted a retrospective multicentre audit of patients with severe CAP for whom a UAT was positive for S. pneumoniae. Patients admitted from January 2010 to December 2013 to 8 medical centres (from A to H) were included. Co-morbidities were defined by the specific treatment administered before hospital care, or if the diagnosis was newly established during the hospital stay. We used the Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) to assess disease severity. Only patients with PSI > 90 were included. Antibiotic treatments and the PSI were extracted from patients' charts. Amoxicillin had to be prescribed as a targeted antibiotic treatment or at the time of antibiotic reassessment. A total of 389 patients were included. The mean (±STD) PSI score was 128 ± 29; 38.9% of the patients had a class 5 PSI score. Intensive care was required for 36.6% of the patients. Amoxicillin was initially prescribed in 47 cases (12.1%) and in 34 cases after reassessment (8.7%). In logistic regression analysis, we found three parameters associated with mortality: being hospitalised in institution D, class 5 PSI score, and metastatic cancer. In contrast, three antibiotic regimens were protective factors, including targeted therapy: OR = 0.09, p < 0.001. In the context of severe CAP with positive UAT for S. pneumoniae, targeted therapy was associated with a reduction in mortality.

  10. Community-acquired pneumonia: 2012 history, mythology, and science.

    PubMed

    Donowitz, Gerald R

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonia remains one of the major disease entities practicing physicians must manage. It is a leading cause of infection-related morbidity and mortality in all age groups, and a leading cause of death in those older than 65 years of age. Despite its frequency and importance, clinical questions have remained in the therapy of community-acquired pneumonia including when to start antibiotics, when to stop them, who to treat, and what agents to use. Answers to these questions have involved historical practice, mythology, and science-sometimes good science, and sometimes better science. How clinical decisions are made for patients with community-acquired pneumonia serves as an illustrative model for other problem areas of medicine and allows for insight as to how clinical decisions have been made and clinical practice established.

  11. Community-acquired pneumonia. A prospective outpatient study.

    PubMed

    Bochud, P Y; Moser, F; Erard, P; Verdon, F; Studer, J P; Villard, G; Cosendai, A; Cotting, M; Heim, F; Tissot, J; Strub, Y; Pazeller, M; Saghafi, L; Wenger, A; Germann, D; Matter, L; Bille, J; Pfister, L; Francioli, P

    2001-03-01

    We initiated a prospective study with a group of practitioners to assess the etiology, clinical presentation, and outcome of community-acquired pneumonia in patients diagnosed in the outpatient setting. All patients with signs and symptoms suggestive of pneumonia and an infiltrate on chest X-ray underwent an extensive standard workup and were followed over 4 weeks. Over a 4-year period, 184 patients were eligible, of whom 170 (age range, 15-96 yr; median, 43 yr) were included and analyzed. In 78 (46%), no etiologic agent could be demonstrated. In the remaining 92 patients, 107 etiologic agents were implicated: 43 were due to "pyogenic" bacteria (39 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 3 Haemophilus spp., 1 Streptococcus spp.), 39 were due to "atypical" bacteria (24 Mycoplasma pneumoniae, 9 Chlamydia pneumoniae, 4 Coxiella burnetii, 2 Legionella spp.), and 25 were due to viruses (20 influenza viruses and 5 other respiratory viruses). There were only a few statistically significant clinical differences between the different etiologic categories (higher age and comorbidities in viral or in episodes of undetermined etiology, higher neutrophil counts in "pyogenic" episodes, more frequent bilateral and interstitial infiltrates in viral episodes). There were 2 deaths, both in patients with advanced age (83 and 86 years old), and several comorbidities. Only 14 patients (8.2%) required hospitalization. In 6 patients (3.4%), the pneumonia episode uncovered a local neoplasia. This study shows that most cases of community-acquired pneumonia have a favorable outcome and can be successfully managed in an outpatient setting. Moreover, in the absence of rapid and reliable clinical or laboratory tests to establish a definite etiologic diagnosis at presentation, the spectrum of the etiologic agents suggest that initial antibiotic therapy should cover both S. pneumoniae and atypical bacteria, as well as possible influenza viruses during the epidemic season.

  12. Efficacy and safety of tigecycline versus levofloxacin for community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Tanaseanu, Cristina; Milutinovic, Slobodan; Calistru, Petre I; Strausz, Janos; Zolubas, Marius; Chernyak, Valeriy; Dartois, Nathalie; Castaing, Nathalie; Gandjini, Hassan; Cooper, C Angel

    2009-01-01

    Background Tigecycline, an expanded broad-spectrum glycylcycline, exhibits in vitro activity against many common pathogens associated with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), as well as penetration into lung tissues that suggests effectiveness in hospitalized CAP patients. The aim of the present study was to compare the efficacy and safety of intravenous (IV) tigecycline with IV levofloxacin in hospitalized adults with CAP. Methods In this prospective, double-blind, non-inferiority phase 3 trial, eligible patients with a clinical diagnosis of CAP supported by radiographic evidence were stratified by Fine Pneumonia Severity Index and randomized to tigecycline or levofloxacin for 7-14 days of therapy. Co-primary efficacy endpoints were clinical response in the clinically evaluable (CE) and clinical modified intent-to-treat (c-mITT) populations at test-of-cure (Day 10-21 post-therapy). Results Of the 428 patients who received at least one dose of study drug, 79% had CAP of mild-moderate severity according to their Fine score. Clinical cure rates for the CE population were 88.9% for tigecycline and 85.3% for levofloxacin. Corresponding c-mITT population rates were 83.7% and 81.5%, respectively. Eradication rates for Streptococcus pneumoniae were 92% for tigecycline and 89% for levofloxacin. Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhoea were the most frequently reported adverse events. Rates of premature discontinuation of study drug or study withdrawal because of any adverse event were similar for both study drugs. Conclusion These findings suggest that IV tigecycline is non-inferior to IV levofloxacin and is generally well-tolerated in the treatment of hospitalized adults with CAP. Trial registration NCT00081575 PMID:19740418

  13. Longitudinal analysis of pneumococcal antibodies during community-acquired pneumonia reveals a much higher involvement of Streptococcus pneumoniae than estimated by conventional methods alone.

    PubMed

    van Mens, Suzan P; Meijvis, Sabine C A; Endeman, Henrik; van Velzen-Blad, Heleen; Biesma, Douwe H; Grutters, Jan C; Vlaminckx, Bart J M; Rijkers, Ger T

    2011-05-01

    In up to half of all cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), no pathogen can be identified with conventional diagnostic methods. The most common identified causative agent is Streptococcus pneumoniae. In this study, pneumococcal antibody responses during CAP were analyzed to estimate the contribution of the pneumococcus to all cases of CAP for epidemiological purposes. Pneumococcal antibodies against 14 different serotypes were measured in serum of hospitalized CAP patients. Patients participated in one of two consecutive clinical trials in a general 600-bed teaching hospital in the Netherlands (between October 2004 and June 2009). A significant pneumococcal immune response was defined as at least a 2-fold increase in antibody concentrations against a single serotype between an early (day 1) and a late (day 30) serum sample of each patient with an end concentration above 0.35 μg/ml. A total of 349 adult CAP patients participated in two consecutive clinical trials. For 200 patients, sufficient serum samples were available to determine antibody responses: 62 pneumococcal pneumonia patients, 57 nonpneumococcal pneumonia patients, and 81 patients with an unidentified causative agent. A significant immune response was detected in 45% (28/62 patients) of pneumococcal pneumonia patients, in 5% (3/57) of nonpneumococcal pneumonia patients, and in 28% (23/81) of patients with an unidentified causative agent. The estimated contribution of pneumococci in patients with an unidentified causative agent was calculated to be 57% (95% confidence interval, 36 to 86%). A substantial fraction of pneumococcal pneumonia patients do not elicit a serotype-specific immune response.

  14. Viruses and bacteria in sputum samples of children with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Honkinen, M; Lahti, E; Österback, R; Ruuskanen, O; Waris, M

    2012-03-01

    Few comprehensive studies have searched for viruses and bacteria in children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We identified 76 children hospitalized for pneumonia. Induced sputum samples were analysed for 18 viruses by antigen detection and PCR, and for six bacteria by culture and PCR. Viruses were found in 72% of samples, bacteria in 91%, and both in 66%. Rhinovirus (30%), human bocavirus (18%) and human metapneumovirus (14%) were the most commonly detected viruses. Two viruses were found in 22% of samples and three in 8%. The most common bacteria found were Streptococcus pneumoniae (50%), Haemophilus influenzae (38%), and Moraxella catarrhalis (28%). Rhinovirus-S. pneumoniae was the most commonly found combination of virus and bacterium (16%). All six children with treatment failure had both viruses and bacteria detected in the sputum. Otherwise, we found no special clinical characteristics in those with mixed viral-bacterial detections. With modern molecular diagnostic techniques, there are high rates of both viral and bacterial identification in childhood CAP. The clinical significance of mixed viral-bacterial infections remains unclear, although we found a potential association between them and treatment failure.

  15. Clinical and laboratory features distinguishing pandemic H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia from interpandemic community-acquired pneumonia in adults

    PubMed Central

    Bewick, Thomas; Myles, Puja; Greenwood, Sonia; Nguyen-Van-Tam, Jonathan S; Brett, Stephen J; Semple, Malcolm G; Openshaw, Peter J; Bannister, Barbara; Read, Robert C; Taylor, Bruce L; McMenamin, Jim; Enstone, Joanne E; Nicholson, Karl G

    2011-01-01

    Background Early identification of patients with H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia is desirable for the early instigation of antiviral agents. A study was undertaken to investigate whether adults admitted to hospital with H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia could be distinguished clinically from patients with non-H1N1 community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods Between May 2009 and January 2010, clinical and epidemiological data of patients with confirmed H1N1 influenza infection admitted to 75 hospitals in the UK were collected by the Influenza Clinical Information Network (FLU-CIN). Adults with H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia were identified and compared with a prospective study cohort of adults with CAP hospitalised between September 2008 and June 2010, excluding those admitted during the period of the pandemic. Results Of 1046 adults with confirmed H1N1 influenza infection in the FLU-CIN cohort, 254 (25%) had H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia on admission to hospital. In-hospital mortality of these patients was 11.4% compared with 14.0% in patients with inter-pandemic CAP (n=648). A multivariate logistic regression model was generated by assigning one point for each of five clinical criteria: age ≤65 years, mental orientation, temperature ≥38°C, leucocyte count ≤12×109/l and bilateral radiographic consolidation. A score of 4 or 5 predicted H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia with a positive likelihood ratio of 9.0. A score of 0 or 1 had a positive likelihood ratio of 75.7 for excluding it. Conclusion There are substantial clinical differences between H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia and inter-pandemic CAP. A model based on five simple clinical criteria enables the early identification of adults admitted with H1N1 influenza-related pneumonia. PMID:21252388

  16. 75 FR 73107 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Hospital-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia: Developing Drugs for Treatment; Availability AGENCY... Pneumonia and Ventilator-Associated Bacterial Pneumonia: Developing Drugs for Treatment.'' The purpose of... antimicrobial drugs for the treatment of hospital- acquired bacterial pneumonia (HABP) and...

  17. Pneumococcal antimicrobial resistance: therapeutic strategy and management in community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Aspa, Javier; Rajas, Olga; de Castro, Felipe Rodríguez

    2008-02-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae has been consistently shown to represent the most frequent causative agent of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and pneumococcal antibiotic resistance towards different families of antibiotics continues to be a much-debated issue. Microbial resistance causes a great deal of confusion in choosing an empirical treatment for pneumonia and this makes it necessary to know which factors actually determine the real impact of antimicrobial resistance on the outcome of pneumococcal infections. Several different aspects have to be taken into account when analyzing this matter, such as the study design, the condition of the patient at the time of diagnosis, the choice of the initial antimicrobial regimen (combination or monotherapy) and the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic variables of the chosen antibiotic. It is generally accepted that in the treatment of beta-lactam-resistant pneumococcal infections, the use of standard antipneumococcal beta-lactam agents is unlikely to impact negatively on the outcome of CAP when appropriate agents are given in sufficient doses. As a general rule, for infections with penicillin-sensitive strains, penicillin or an aminopenicillin in a standard dosage will be effective; in the cases of strains with intermediate resistance, beta-lactam agents are still considered appropriate treatment although higher dosages are recommended; finally, infections with isolates of high-level penicillin resistance should be treated with alternative agents such as the third-generation cephalosporins or the new antipneumococcal fluoroquinolones. In areas of high prevalence of high-level macrolide resistance, empirical monotherapy with a macrolide is not optimal for the treatment of hospitalised patients with moderate or moderately-severe CAP. Fluoroquinolones are considered to be excellent antibiotics in the treatment of pneumococcal CAP in adults, but their general recommendation has been withheld due to fears of a widespread development

  18. Clinical Pathway and Monthly Feedback Improve Adherence to Antibiotic Guideline Recommendations for Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Almatar, Maher; Peterson, Gregory M.; Thompson, Angus; McKenzie, Duncan; Anderson, Tara; Zaidi, Syed Tabish R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Compliance with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) guidelines remains poor despite a substantial body of evidence indicating that guideline-concordant care improves patient outcomes. The aim of this study was to compare the relative effectiveness of a general educational and a targeted emergency department intervention on improving physicians’ concordance with CAP guidelines. Methods Two distinct interventions were implemented over specific time periods. The first intervention was educational, focusing on the development of local CAP guidelines and their dissemination through hospital-wide educational programmes. The second intervention was a targeted one for the emergency department, where a clinical pathway for the initial management of CAP patients was introduced, followed by monthly feedback to the emergency department (ED) physicians about concordance rates with the guidelines. Data on the concordance rate to CAP guidelines was collected from a retrospective chart review. Results A total of 398 eligible patient records were reviewed to measure concordance to CAP guidelines over the study period. Concordance rates during the baseline and educational intervention periods were similar (28.1% vs. 31.2%; p > 0.05). Significantly more patients were treated in accordance with the CAP guidelines after the ED focused intervention when compared to the baseline (61.5% vs. 28.1%; p < 0.05) or educational period (61.5% vs. 31.2%; p < 0.05). Conclusions A targeted intervention with a CAP clinical pathway and monthly feedback was a successful strategy to increase adherence to empirical antibiotic recommendations in CAP guidelines. PMID:27454581

  19. The Modern Diagnostic Approach to Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults.

    PubMed

    Chalmers, James D

    2016-12-01

    Respiratory tract infections, the majority of which are community acquired, are among the leading causes of death worldwide and a leading indication for hospital admission. The burden of disease demonstrates a "U"-shaped distribution, primarily affecting young children as the immune system matures, and older adults as the process of immunosenescence and accumulation of comorbidities leads to increased susceptibility to infection. Diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is traditionally based on demonstration of a new infiltrate on a chest radiograph in a patient presenting with an acute respiratory illness or sepsis. Advances in diagnosis have been slow, and although there are increasing data on the value of computed tomography or lung ultrasound as more sensitive diagnostic methodologies, they are not widely used as initial diagnostic tests. There are a wide range of differential diagnoses and pneumonia "mimics" which should be considered in patients presenting with CAP. Once the diagnosis of CAP has been made, identifying the causative microorganism is the next stage in the diagnostic process. Traditional culture-based approaches are relatively insensitive and achieve a positive diagnosis in only 30 to 70% of cases, even when rigorously applied. Urinary antigen tests, polymerase chain reaction assays, and even next-generation sequencing technologies have become available and are increasing the rates of positive diagnosis. In an era of increasing antimicrobial resistance, the accurate diagnosis of CAP and determining the causative pathogen are ever more important. Getting these both right is key in reducing both morbidity and mortality from CAP, and appropriate antimicrobial stewardship which is now an international healthcare priority.

  20. A Prospective Study of Inpatients to Determine Microbial Etiology and Therapeutic Outcome of Antibiotics for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Rehman, Sahar; Rehman, Kanwal; Akash, Muhammad Sajid Hamid

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is among the common diseases that causes illness and death world-wide. Limited data is available for the treatment of patients with CAP and/or medical outcome of CAP patients in Pakistan. This cross-sectional and prospective study was done to determine etiology of CAP patients and to evaluate the therapeutic effects of antibiotics commonly used in treating CAP patients in two different inner-city hospitals, Pakistan. Methods: The study was conducted on 200 hospitalized patients presenting clinical and radiographic evidences of CAP. The patients were assessed for the causative pathogen and their prescriptions were analyzed for the management and treatment of CAP and associated symptoms of pneumonia. Finally the medical outcomes were evaluated. Results: On establishing the microbial etiology of pneumonia among different CAP causing pathogens, K. pneumoniae was found to be the most identified causative agent (30%) followed by S. pneumoniae (23%). Majority of the patients received cephalosporin antibiotics (80%) followed by aminoglycosides (65%) and penicillins (50%) either as monotherapy or combination treatment. Therapeutic success was observed to occur in majority of the patients. The recovery of CAP patients occurred probably because they received antibiotics which are recommended by WHO and American Thoracic Society. Another reason for successful therapeutic outcome was found to be the significant patient compliance for treatment. Conclusion: There is a great need for such types of investigational studies to be conducted in developing countries which may guide the empirical therapy and help in defining proper treatment guidelines. PMID:23878792

  1. Impact of Macrolide Therapy in Patients Hospitalized With Pseudomonas aeruginosa Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Laserna, Elena; Sibila, Oriol; Fernandez, Juan Felipe; Maselli, Diego Jose; Mortensen, Eric M.; Anzueto, Antonio; Waterer, Grant

    2014-01-01

    Background: Several studies have described a clinical benefit of macrolides due to their immunomodulatory properties in various respiratory diseases. We aimed to assess the effect of macrolide therapy on mortality in patients hospitalized for Pseudomonas aeruginosa community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods: We performed a retrospective population-based study of > 150 hospitals in the US Veterans Health Administration. Patients were included if they had a diagnosis of CAP and P aeruginosa was identified as the causative pathogen. Patients with health-care-associated pneumonia and immunosuppression were excluded. Macrolide therapy was considered when administered within the first 48 h of admission. Univariate and multivariable analyses were performed using 30-day mortality as the dependent measure. Results: We included 402 patients with P aeruginosa CAP, of whom 171 (42.5%) received a macrolide during the first 48 h of admission. These patients were older and white. Macrolide use was not associated with lower 30-day mortality (hazard ratio, 1.14; 95% CI, 0.70-1.83; P = .5). In addition, patients treated with macrolides had no differences in ICU admission, use of mechanical ventilation, use of vasopressors, and length of stay (LOS) compared with patients not treated with macrolides. A subgroup analysis among patients with P aeruginosa CAP in the ICU showed no differences in baseline characteristics and outcomes. Conclusions: Macrolide therapy in the first 48 h of admission is not associated with decreased 30-day mortality, ICU admission, need for mechanical ventilation, and LOS in hospitalized patients with P aeruginosa CAP. Larger cohort studies should address the benefit of macrolides as immunomodulators in patients with P aeruginosa CAP. PMID:24458223

  2. The Incidence Rate and Economic Burden of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in a Working-Age Population

    PubMed Central

    Broulette, Jonah; Yu, Holly; Pyenson, Bruce; Iwasaki, Kosuke; Sato, Reiko

    2013-01-01

    Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is frequently associated with the very young and the elderly but is a largely underrecognized burden among working-age adults. Although the burden of CAP among the elderly has been established, there are limited data on the economic burden of CAP in the employed population. Objective To assess the economic impact of CAP in US working-age adults from an employer perspective by estimating the incidence rate and costs of healthcare, sick time, and short-term disability for this patient population. Methods This retrospective cohort study is based on data from 2 Truven Health Analytics databases. The study population consisted of commercially insured active employees aged 18 to 64 years, early retirees aged <65 years, and adult dependents of both cohorts. CAP was identified using medical claims with pneumonia diagnosis codes during the 2009 calendar year. Incidence rate, episode level, and annual costs were stratified by age and by risk based on the presence of comorbidities. Descriptive statistics were used to compare healthcare (ie, medical and pharmacy) costs, sick time, and short-term disability costs between the cohorts with and without CAP. Linear regression was used to estimate the average annual incremental healthcare cost in employed patients with inpatient or outpatient CAP versus individuals without CAP. Results Study eligibility was met by 12,502,017 employed individuals, including 123,920 with CAP and 12,378,097 without CAP; the overall incidence rate of CAP was 10.6 per 1000 person-years. Among individuals with and without CAP, the costs of healthcare, sick time, and short-term disability increased with advancing age and with higher risk status. The mean annual healthcare costs were $20,961 for patients with CAP and $3783 for individuals without CAP. Overall, the mean costs of sick time and short-term disability were $1129 and $1016, respectively, in active employees with CAP, and $853 and $322, respectively

  3. Characteristic of the Oxidative Stress in Blood of Patients in Dependence of Community-Acquired Pneumonia Severity

    PubMed Central

    Muravlyova, Larissa; Molotov–Luchankiy, Vilen; Bakirova, Ryszhan; Klyuyev, Dmitriy; Demidchik, Ludmila; Lee, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: At the present time the alternation of the oxidative metabolism is considered as one of the leading pathogenic mechanisms in the development and progression of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However the nature and direction of the oxidative protein changes in CAP patient’s blood had been almost unexplored. AIM: To define oxidative and modified proteins in erythrocytes and blood plasma of CAP patients. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood plasma and erythrocytes obtained from: 42 patients with moderate severity pneumonia, 12 patients with grave severity pneumonia and 32 healthy volunteers. Content of advanced oxidation protein products, malondialdehyde and reactive carbonyl derivatives were estimated as indicators of the oxidative stress and oxidative damage of proteins. RESULTS: In patients with grave severity the level of oxidative proteins and MDA in erythrocytes exceeded both: control values and similar meanings in CAP patients with moderate severity. The further growth of MDA in this group patients’ blood plasma was observed, but the level of oxidative proteins decreased in comparison with those in CAP patients with moderate severity. CONCLUSION: To sum up, our derived data show, that injury of erythrocytes’ redox-status and blood plasma components plays an essential role in development and progression CAP. PMID:27275344

  4. Ceftaroline in the management of complicated skin and soft tissue infections and community acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Mpenge, Mbiye A; MacGowan, Alasdair P

    2015-01-01

    Ceftaroline is a new parenteral cephalosporin approved by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) and the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of complicated skin and soft tissue infections (cSSTIs) including those due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Ceftaroline has broad-spectrum activity against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and exerts its bactericidal effects by binding to penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), resulting in inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. It binds to PBP 2a of MRSA with high affinity and also binds to all six PBPs in Streptococcus pneumoniae. In in vitro studies, ceftaroline demonstrated potent activity against Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA and vancomycin-intermediate isolates), Streptococcus pneumoniae (including multidrug resistant isolates), Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and many common gram-negative pathogens, excluding extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In Phase II and Phase III clinical trials, ceftaroline was noninferior to its comparator agents and demonstrated high clinical cure rates in the treatment of cSSTIs and CAP. It demonstrated favorable outcomes in patients treated for both regulatory-approved indications and unlicensed indications in a retrospective analysis. Ceftaroline is a safe and effective option for treatment in specific patient populations in which its efficacy and safety have been proven. This article reviews the challenges in the treatment of cSSTI and CAP, ceftaroline and its microbiology, pharmacology, efficacy, and safety data which support its use in treatment of cSSTIs and CAP. PMID:25897241

  5. Acute myocardial infarction versus other cardiovascular events in community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Aliberti, Stefano; Ramirez, Julio; Cosentini, Roberto; Valenti, Vincenzo; Voza, Antonio; Rossi, Paolo; Stolz, Daiana; Legnani, Delfino; Pesci, Alberto; Richeldi, Luca; Peyrani, Paula; Massari, Fernando Maria; Blasi, Francesco

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to define the prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and impact on clinical outcomes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) versus other cardiovascular events (CVEs) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This was an international, multicentre, observational, prospective study of CAP patients hospitalised in eight hospitals in Italy and Switzerland. Three groups were identified: those without CVEs, those with AMI and those with other CVEs. Among 905 patients, 21 (2.3%) patients experienced at least one AMI, while 107 (11.7%) patients experienced at least one other CVE. Patients with CAP and either AMI or other CVEs showed a higher severity of the disease than patients with CAP alone. Female sex, liver disease and the presence of severe sepsis were independent predictors for the occurrence of AMI, while female sex, age >65 years, neurological disease and the presence of pleural effusion predicted other CVEs. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher among those who experienced AMI in comparison to those experiencing other CVEs (43% versus 21%, p=0.039). The presence of AMI showed an adjusted odds ratio for in-hospital mortality of 3.57 (p=0.012) and for other CVEs of 2.63 (p=0.002). These findings on AMI versus other CVEs as complications of CAP may be important when planning interventional studies on cardioprotective medications.

  6. Acute myocardial infarction versus other cardiovascular events in community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Julio; Cosentini, Roberto; Valenti, Vincenzo; Voza, Antonio; Rossi, Paolo; Stolz, Daiana; Legnani, Delfino; Pesci, Alberto; Richeldi, Luca; Peyrani, Paula; Massari, Fernando Maria; Blasi, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to define the prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and impact on clinical outcomes of acute myocardial infarction (AMI) versus other cardiovascular events (CVEs) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This was an international, multicentre, observational, prospective study of CAP patients hospitalised in eight hospitals in Italy and Switzerland. Three groups were identified: those without CVEs, those with AMI and those with other CVEs. Among 905 patients, 21 (2.3%) patients experienced at least one AMI, while 107 (11.7%) patients experienced at least one other CVE. Patients with CAP and either AMI or other CVEs showed a higher severity of the disease than patients with CAP alone. Female sex, liver disease and the presence of severe sepsis were independent predictors for the occurrence of AMI, while female sex, age >65 years, neurological disease and the presence of pleural effusion predicted other CVEs. In-hospital mortality was significantly higher among those who experienced AMI in comparison to those experiencing other CVEs (43% versus 21%, p=0.039). The presence of AMI showed an adjusted odds ratio for in-hospital mortality of 3.57 (p=0.012) and for other CVEs of 2.63 (p=0.002). These findings on AMI versus other CVEs as complications of CAP may be important when planning interventional studies on cardioprotective medications. PMID:27730139

  7. Update on the combination effect of macrolide antibiotics in community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Emmet O'Brien, M; Restrepo, Marcos I; Martin-Loeches, Ignacio

    2015-09-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a leading cause of death from an infectious cause worldwide. Guideline-concordant antibiotic therapy initiated in a timely manner is associated with improved treatment responses and patient outcomes. In the post-antibiotic era, much of the morbidity and mortality of CAP is as a result of the interaction between bacterial virulence factors and host immune responses. In patients with severe CAP, or who are critically ill, there is a lot of emerging observational evidence demonstrating improved survival rates when treatment using combination therapy with a β-lactam and a macrolide is initiated, as compared to other antibiotic regimes without a macrolide. Macrolides in combination with a β-lactam antibiotic provide broader coverage for the atypical organisms implicated in CAP, and may contribute to antibacterial synergism. However, it has been postulated that the documented immunomodulatory effects of macrolides are the primary mechanism for improved patient outcomes through attenuation of bacterial virulence factors and host systemic inflammatory responses. Despite concerns regarding the limitations of observational evidence and the lack of confirmatory randomized controlled trials, the potential magnitude of mortality benefits estimated at 20-50% cannot be overlooked. In light of recent data from a number of trials showing that combination treatment with a macrolide and a suitable second agent is justified in all patients with severe CAP, such treatment should be obligatory for those admitted to an intensive care setting.

  8. British Thoracic Society community-acquired pneumonia care bundle: results of a national implementation project.

    PubMed

    Lim, Wei Shen; Rodrigo, Chamira; Turner, Alice M; Welham, Sally; Calvert, James M

    2016-03-01

    In 2013, 16 U.K. hospital trusts participated in a quality improvement programme involving implementation of a community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) care bundle. High-level data were collected on 14,962 patients admitted with CAP; bundle implementation increased from 1% in October 2012 to 20% by September 2013. Analysis of patient-level data on 2118 adults (median age 75.3 years) found that in the bundle-implementation group, significantly more patients received antibiotics within 4 h of admission (adjusted OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.08 to 2.14, p=0.016) and 30-day inpatient mortality was lower (8.8% vs. 13.6%; adjusted OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.37 to 0.95, p=0.03).

  9. Lung scintigraphy in differential diagnosis of peripheral lung cancer and community-acquired pneumonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivonogov, Nikolay G.; Efimova, Nataliya Y.; Zavadovsky, Konstantin W.; Lishmanov, Yuri B.

    2016-08-01

    Ventilation/perfusion lung scintigraphy was performed in 39 patients with verified diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and in 14 patients with peripheral lung cancer. Ventilation/perfusion ratio, apical-basal gradients of ventilation (U/L(V)) and lung perfusion (U/L(P)), and alveolar capillary permeability of radionuclide aerosol were determined based on scintigraphy data. The study demonstrated that main signs of CAP were increases in ventilation/perfusion ratio, perfusion and ventilation gradient on a side of the diseased lung, and two-side increase in alveolar capillary permeability rate for radionuclide aerosol. Unlike this, scintigraphic signs of peripheral lung cancer comprise an increase in ventilation/perfusion ratio over 1.0 on a side of the diseased lung with its simultaneous decrease on a contralateral side, normal values of perfusion and ventilation gradients of both lungs, and delayed alveolar capillary clearance in the diseased lung compared with the intact lung.

  10. Rationalised prescribing for community acquired pneumonia: a closed loop audit

    PubMed Central

    Clements, H.; Stephenson, T.; Gabriel, V.; Harrison, T.; Millar, M.; Smyth, A.; Tong, W.; Linton, C.

    2000-01-01

    AIMS—To audit the management of community acquired pneumonia before and after the introduction of a protocol. To determine the aetiology of pneumonia using routine investigations and polymerase chain reaction (PCR).
METHODS—Retrospective and prospective audit following the introduction of a management protocol. Prospective cases were investigated routinely and with PCR on blood and nasopharyngeal aspirate.
RESULTS—There was a significant increase in rational prescribing following introduction of the protocol with 75% of children receiving intravenous penicillin or erythromycin compared with 26% beforehand. Of 89 children in the prospective group, 51 microbiological diagnoses were achieved in 48 children. Seven children had Streptococcus pneumoniae infection, 14 had Mycoplasma infection, six had pertussis, and one had Chlamydia pneumoniae infection. Twenty three children had a viral cause of which respiratory syncytial virus was commonest.
CONCLUSIONS—Introduction of the protocol led to improved prescribing. PCR increased the diagnostic yield and the results support the management protocol.

 PMID:10999868

  11. New evidence of risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia: a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Almirall, J; Bolíbar, I; Serra-Prat, M; Roig, J; Hospital, I; Carandell, E; Agustí, M; Ayuso, P; Estela, A; Torres, A

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to identify risk factors for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), with special emphasis on modifiable risk factors and those applicable to the general population. A population-based, case-control study was conducted, with a target population of 859,033 inhabitants aged >14 yrs. A total of 1,336 patients with confirmed CAP were matched to control subjects by age, sex and primary centre over 1 yr. In the univariate analysis, outstanding risk factors were passive smoking in never-smokers aged >65 yrs, heavy alcohol intake, contact with pets, households with >10 people, contact with children, interventions on the upper airways and poor dental health. Risky treatments included amiodarone, N-acetylcysteine and oral steroids. Influenza and pneumococcal vaccine, and visiting the dentist were protective factors. Multivariable analysis confirmed cigarette smoking, usual contact with children, sudden changes of temperature at work, inhalation therapy (particularly containing steroids and using plastic pear-spacers), oxygen therapy, asthma and chronic bronchitis as independent risk factors. Interventions for reducing community-acquired pneumonia should integrate health habits and lifestyle factors related to household, work and community, together with individual clinical conditions, comorbidities and oral or inhaled regular treatments. Prevention would include vaccination, dental hygiene and avoidance of upper respiratory colonisation.

  12. Clinical evaluation of the need for carbapenems to treat community-acquired and healthcare-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Kamata, Kazuhiro; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Kanemoto, Koji; Tokuda, Yasuharu; Shiotani, Seiji; Hirose, Yumi; Suzuki, Masatsune; Ishikawa, Hiroichi

    2015-08-01

    Carbapenems have an overall broad antibacterial spectrum and should be protected against from the acquisition of drug resistance. The clinical advantages of carbapenem in cases of pneumonia have not been certified and the need for antipseudomonal antimicrobial agents to treat healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) remains controversial. We introduced an antimicrobial stewardship program for carbapenem and tazobactam/piperacillin use and investigated the effects of this program on the clinical outcomes of 591 pneumonia cases that did not require intensive care unit management, mechanical ventilation or treatment with vasopressor agents [221 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and 370 patients with HCAP]. Compared with the pre-intervention period, age, comorbidities and the severity and etiology of pneumonia did not differ during the intervention period. Carbapenems were rarely used during the intervention period in cases of pneumonia (CAP: 12% vs. 1%, HCAP: 13% vs. 1%), while antipseudomonal beta-lactam use was reduced from 33% to 8% among cases with HCAP. This reduction in the rate of carbapenem administration did not have an impact on the prognosis in the cases of CAP, and the in-hospital mortality was lower among the patients with HCAP during the intervention period (15% vs. 5%, p = 0.013). The causes of death in the cases of HCAP were not directly related to pneumonia during the intervention period. The current study shows that carbapenem use can be avoided in cases of CAP or HCAP that are not in a critical condition. The frequent use of antipseudomonal beta-lactams does not improve the clinical outcomes of HCAP.

  13. Respiratory Viral Detection in Children and Adults: Comparing Asymptomatic Controls and Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Self, Wesley H.; Williams, Derek J.; Zhu, Yuwei; Ampofo, Krow; Pavia, Andrew T.; Chappell, James D.; Hymas, Weston C.; Stockmann, Chris; Bramley, Anna M.; Schneider, Eileen; Erdman, Dean; Finelli, Lyn; Jain, Seema; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Grijalva, Carlos G.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The clinical significance of viruses detected in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is often unclear. Methods. We conducted a prospective study to identify the prevalence of 13 viruses in the upper respiratory tract of patients with CAP and concurrently enrolled asymptomatic controls with real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. We compared age-stratified prevalence of each virus between patients with CAP and controls and used multivariable logistic regression to calculate attributable fractions (AFs). Results. We enrolled 1024 patients with CAP and 759 controls. Detections of influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and human metapneumovirus were substantially more common in patients with CAP of all ages than in controls (AFs near 1.0). Parainfluenza and coronaviruses were also more common among patients with CAP (AF, 0.5–0.75). Rhinovirus was associated with CAP among adults (AF, 0.93) but not children (AF, 0.02). Adenovirus was associated with CAP only among children <2 years old (AF, 0.77). Conclusions. The probability that a virus detected with real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction in patients with CAP contributed to symptomatic disease varied by age group and specific virus. Detections of influenza, respiratory syncytial virus, and human metapneumovirus among patients with CAP of all ages probably indicate an etiologic role, whereas detections of parainfluenza, coronaviruses, rhinovirus, and adenovirus, especially in children, require further scrutiny. PMID:26180044

  14. Comprehensive Molecular Testing for Respiratory Pathogens in Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Gadsby, Naomi J.; Russell, Clark D.; McHugh, Martin P.; Mark, Harriet; Conway Morris, Andrew; Laurenson, Ian F.; Hill, Adam T.; Templeton, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. The frequent lack of a microbiological diagnosis in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) impairs pathogen-directed antimicrobial therapy. This study assessed the use of comprehensive multibacterial, multiviral molecular testing, including quantification, in adults hospitalized with CAP. Methods. Clinical and laboratory data were collected for 323 adults with radiologically-confirmed CAP admitted to 2 UK tertiary care hospitals. Sputum (96%) or endotracheal aspirate (4%) specimens were cultured as per routine practice and also tested with fast multiplex real-time polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) assays for 26 respiratory bacteria and viruses. Bacterial loads were also calculated for 8 bacterial pathogens. Appropriate pathogen-directed therapy was retrospectively assessed using national guidelines adapted for local antimicrobial susceptibility patterns. Results. Comprehensive molecular testing of single lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimens achieved pathogen detection in 87% of CAP patients compared with 39% with culture-based methods. Haemophilus influenzae and Streptococcus pneumoniae were the main agents detected, along with a wide variety of typical and atypical pathogens. Viruses were present in 30% of cases; 82% of these were codetections with bacteria. Most (85%) patients had received antimicrobials in the 72 hours before admission. Of these, 78% had a bacterial pathogen detected by PCR but only 32% were culture-positive (P < .0001). Molecular testing had the potential to enable de-escalation in number and/or spectrum of antimicrobials in 77% of patients. Conclusions. Comprehensive molecular testing significantly improves pathogen detection in CAP, particularly in antimicrobial-exposed patients, and requires only a single LRT specimen. It also has the potential to enable early de-escalation from broad-spectrum empirical antimicrobials to pathogen-directed therapy. PMID:26747825

  15. Community-acquired pneumonia at the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre: evaluation of a care protocol.

    PubMed

    Mocelin, Clei Angelo; dos Santos, Rodrigo Pires

    2013-01-01

    To assess the adequacy of medical prescriptions for community-acquired pneumonia at the emergency department of the Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre, we conducted a prospective cohort study, from January through April 2011. All patients with suspected pneumonia were selected from the first prescription of antimicrobials held in the emergency room. Patients with a description of pneumonia, community-acquired pneumonia, respiratory infection, or other issues related to community-acquired pneumonia were selected for review. Two-hundred and fifteen patients were studied. Adherence to the hospital care protocol was: 11.2% for the initial recommended tests (chest X-ray and collection of sputum sample), 34.4% for blood cultures, and 92.1% for the antimicrobial choice. Sixty percent of the prescriptions consisted of a combination of drugs, and the association of beta-lactam and macrolide was the most common. The Hospital Infection Control Committee evaluated patients' prescriptions within a median time of 23.5h (IQR 25-75%, 8-24). Negative evaluations accounted for 10% of prescriptions (n=59). Fourteen percent of the patients died during hospitalization. In the multivariate analysis, Pneumonia Severity Index Score and use of ampicillin+sulbactam alone were independently related to in-hospital mortality. There was a high adherence to the hospital's CAP protocol, in relation to antimicrobial choice. Severity score and use of ampicillin+sulbactam alone were independently associated to in-hospital death.

  16. Prescription of antibiotics in community-acquired pneumonia in children: are we following the recommendations?

    PubMed Central

    da Fonseca Lima, Eduardo Jorge; Lima, Débora Ellen Pessoa; Serra, George Henrique Cordeiro; Abreu e Lima, Maria Anaide Zacche S; de Mello, Maria Júlia Gonçalves

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the adequacy of antibiotic prescription in children hospitalized for pneumonia in a reference pediatric hospital in Brazil. Methods This was a cross-sectional study involving children aged between 1 month and 5 years who were hospitalized between October 2010 and September 2013. The classification of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was based on the clinical and radiological criteria of the World Health Organization (WHO). The analysis of antibiotic adequacy was performed according to the main guidelines on CAP treatment, which include the WHO guidelines, Brazilian Society of Pediatrics guidelines, and international guidelines (Pediatrics Infectious Diseases Society, the Infectious Disease Society of America, British Thoracic Society, and Consenso de la Sociedad latinoamericana de Infectología). A multivariate analysis was performed including variables that have statistical significance of P≤0.25 in the bivariate analysis. Results The majority of the 452 hospitalized children were classified as having severe or very severe CAP (85.18%), and inadequate empiric antimicrobial therapy was started in 26.10% (118/452) of them. Ampicillin was the most used empiric antibiotic therapy (62.17%) for pneumonia, followed by a combination of ampicillin and associated with gentamicin. The initially proposed regimen was modified in 29.6% of the patients, and the most frequent change was the replacement of ampicillin by oxacillin combined with chloramphenicol. The median hospitalization time was 8.5 days, and the lethality rate was 1.55%. There was no statistical difference in adequacy in relation to the severity of pneumonia or degree of malnutrition. In the bivariate analysis, inadequacy of antibiotic therapy regimen was higher in patients undergoing oxygen therapy (P<0.05), which was given to 219 patients (48.45%). Pleural effusion was observed in 118 patients (26.11%) and was associated with higher prescription inadequacy, and it was the only factor

  17. Efficacy and safety of moxifloxacin in community acquired pneumonia: a prospective, multicenter, observational study (CAPRIVI)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a major cause of morbidity, hospitalization, and mortality worldwide. Management of CAP for many patients requires rapid initiation of empirical antibiotic treatment, based on the spectrum of activity of available antimicrobial agents and evidence on local antibiotic resistance. Few data exist on the severity profile and treatment of hospitalized CAP patients in Eastern and Central Europe and the Middle East, in particular on use of moxifloxacin (Avelox®), which is approved in these regions. Methods CAPRIVI (Community Acquired Pneumonia: tReatment wIth AVelox® in hospItalized patients) was a prospective observational study in 12 countries: Croatia, France, Hungary, Kazakhstan, Jordan, Kyrgyzstan, Lebanon, Republic of Moldova, Romania, Russia, Ukraine, and Macedonia. Patients aged >18 years were treated with moxifloxacin 400 mg daily following hospitalization with a CAP diagnosis. In addition to efficacy and safety outcomes, data were collected on patient history and disease severity measured by CRB-65 score. Results 2733 patients were enrolled. A low severity index (i.e., CRB-65 score <2) was reported in 87.5% of CAP patients assessed (n = 1847), an unexpectedly high proportion for hospitalized patients. Moxifloxacin administered for a mean of 10.0 days (range: 2.0 to 39.0 days) was highly effective: 96.7% of patients in the efficacy population (n = 2152) improved and 93.2% were cured of infection during the study. Severity of infection changed from “moderate” or “severe” in 91.8% of patients at baseline to “no infection” or “mild” in 95.5% at last visit. In the safety population (n = 2595), 127 (4.9%) patients had treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) and 40 (1.54%) patients had serious TEAEs; none of these 40 patients died. The safety results were consistent with the known profile of moxifloxacin. Conclusions The efficacy and safety profiles of moxifloxacin at the recommended

  18. Valuable hematological indicators for the diagnosis and severity assessment of Chinese children with community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Ning, Jingjing; Shao, Xiaonan; Ma, Yibo; Lv, Darong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Chest X-ray is a “golden standard” for the diagnosis and severity assessment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, it cannot be used as routine examination of CAP in children. The present study aims to investigate the roles of prealbumin (PA) in CAP in children and further determine the usefulness of PA in diagnosis and severity assessment of CAP in children. This was a retrospective analysis of 174 cases of hospitalized children with CAP. The following indicators were recorded: vital sign, inflammatory indexes, PA, and respiratory pathogens immunoglobulin M antibody test results. A total of 33 healthy children were selected as the control group. The results of laboratory tests between CAP and control groups were compared. CAP group was further divided into mild CAP and severe CAP groups, and vital signs and laboratory examination results of 2 groups were compared. The total positive rate of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in this study was 27.4%, and there was no significant difference in different seasons (P = 0.356). Compared with controls, there was no significant difference between procalcitonin and C-reactive protein in CAP group (P = 0.355, 0.061). The white blood cell count, percentage of neutrophils, neutrophil count, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate in the CAP group were significantly higher than those in control group, and PA was significantly lower than that in the control group (all P < 0.05). In the traditional cutoff value (<170 mg/L), the sensitivity of PA for the diagnosis of CAP was 0.847, which was significant higher than traditional inflammatory indicators. Moreover, it was found that PA was an independent protective factor for CAP in children based on multivariate analysis (odds ratio: 0.974; 95% confidence interval: 0.956–0.993; P = 0.008). PA level in severe CAP group was significantly lower than in mild CAP group (P = 0.001). With a cutoff value of 125 mg/L, the sensitivity and specificity of PA for

  19. Community-acquired, health care-associated, and ventilator-associated pneumonia: three variations of a serious disease.

    PubMed

    Scott, Susan S; Kardos, Cynthia B

    2012-09-01

    Pneumonia affects millions of people every year in the United States. Hospital-acquired pneumonia is associated with a mortality rate as high as 50%. Pneumonia is classified according to where it was acquired or by the infecting organism. This article explores the similarities and differences in three types of pneumonia seen routinely in the intensive care unit: community-acquired pneumonia, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and health care-associated pneumonia.

  20. Isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis masquerading as community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Nazir, Salik; Lohani, Saroj; Tachamo, Niranjan; Siddiqui, Anam; Patel, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Isolated pulmonary valve endocarditis in intravenous drug users is a rarely reported phenomenon. We present the case of a 25-year-old male with history of intravenous drug use who presented with respiratory symptoms after failing outpatient treatment for community-acquired pneumonia. Further investigations identified multiple lung lesions with early cavitation, concerning for septic pulmonary embolism on computerized tomography scan, positive blood cultures with methicillin-susceptible staphylococcus aureus, and isolated vegetation of the pulmonic valve on transthoracic echocardiography. The patient had a complete recovery after being treated medically with intravenous oxacillin for a total of 6 weeks. PMID:27802862

  1. Impaired in vitro T-cell responses in patients with community acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Bay, M L; Mahuad, R D; Urízar, L A; Morini, J C; Bottassol, O A

    1997-01-01

    To evaluate the status of the cellular immune response of patients with community acquired pneumonia (CAP), 8 CAP cases were studied for their in vitro T-cell responses to concanavalin A (Con A), tuberculin, and candidin, as well as levels of major T-cell populations in peripheral blood. Assessment on admission revealed that CAP patients had significantly decreased responses to both antigen and mitogen driven lymphocyte proliferation when compared to age and sex matched controls. Studies performed upon 1 week of antibiotic treatment made evident, in turn, that clinical improvement was accompanied by a reestablishment of the in vitro responses to tuberculin and candidin, whereas the lymphoproliferation induced by Con A remained decreased as in its first evaluation. Data from admission and day 7 of treatment showed no significant differences as to the levels of peripheral T-cell subsets when compared to those of healthy controls. Our results indicate that CAP coincides with reduced in vitro T-cell responses to antigen and mitogen stimulation.

  2. Macrolides vs. quinolones for community-acquired pneumonia: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Skalsky, K; Yahav, D; Lador, A; Eliakim-Raz, N; Leibovici, L; Paul, M

    2013-04-01

    The relative efficacy, safety and ecological implications of macrolides vs. quinolones in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are debatable. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials comparing any macrolide vs. any quinolone for the treatment of CAP among adult inpatients or outpatients, as monotherapy or both in combination with a beta-lactam. We did not limit inclusion by pneumonia severity, publication status, language or date of publication. The primary outcomes assessed were 30-day all-cause mortality and treatment failure. Two authors independently extracted the data. Fixed effect meta-analysis of risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals was performed. Sixteen trials (4989 patients) fulfilling inclusion criteria were identified, mostly assessing outpatients with mild to moderate CAP. All-cause mortality was not significantly different for macrolides vs. quinolones, RR 1.03 (0.63-1.68, seven trials), with a low event rate (2%). Treatment failure was significantly lower with quinolones, RR 0.78 (0.67-0.91, 16 trials). The definition of failure used in the primary studies was not clearly representative of patients' benefit. Microbiological failure was lower with quinolones, RR 0.63 (0.49-0.81, 13 trials). All adverse events, adverse events requiring discontinuation and any premature antibiotic discontinuation were significantly more frequent with macrolides, mainly on account of gastrointestinal adverse events. Resistance development was not assessed in the trials. Randomized controlled trials show an advantage of quinolones in the treatment of CAP with regard to clinical cure without need for antibiotic modification at end of treatment and gastrointestinal adverse events. The clinical significance of this advantage is unclear.

  3. Defining community acquired pneumonia severity on presentation to hospital: an international derivation and validation study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, W; van der Eerden, M M; Laing, R; Boersma, W; Karalus, N; Town, G; Lewis, S; Macfarlane, J

    2003-01-01

    Background: In the assessment of severity in community acquired pneumonia (CAP), the modified British Thoracic Society (mBTS) rule identifies patients with severe pneumonia but not patients who might be suitable for home management. A multicentre study was conducted to derive and validate a practical severity assessment model for stratifying adults hospitalised with CAP into different management groups. Methods: Data from three prospective studies of CAP conducted in the UK, New Zealand, and the Netherlands were combined. A derivation cohort comprising 80% of the data was used to develop the model. Prognostic variables were identified using multiple logistic regression with 30 day mortality as the outcome measure. The final model was tested against the validation cohort. Results: 1068 patients were studied (mean age 64 years, 51.5% male, 30 day mortality 9%). Age ⩾65 years (OR 3.5, 95% CI 1.6 to 8.0) and albumin <30 g/dl (OR 4.7, 95% CI 2.5 to 8.7) were independently associated with mortality over and above the mBTS rule (OR 5.2, 95% CI 2.7 to 10). A six point score, one point for each of Confusion, Urea >7 mmol/l, Respiratory rate ⩾30/min, low systolic(<90 mm Hg) or diastolic (⩽60 mm Hg) Blood pressure), age ⩾65 years (CURB-65 score) based on information available at initial hospital assessment, enabled patients to be stratified according to increasing risk of mortality: score 0, 0.7%; score 1, 3.2%; score 2, 3%; score 3, 17%; score 4, 41.5% and score 5, 57%. The validation cohort confirmed a similar pattern. Conclusions: A simple six point score based on confusion, urea, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and age can be used to stratify patients with CAP into different management groups. PMID:12728155

  4. Etiology of community-acquired pneumonia in a population-based study: Link between etiology and patients characteristics, process-of-care, clinical evolution and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The etiologic profile of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) for each age group could be similar among inpatients and outpatients. This fact brings up the link between etiology of CAP and its clinical evolution and outcome. Furthermore, the majority of pneumonia etiologic studies are based on hospitalized patients, whereas there have been no recent population-based studies encompassing both inpatients and outpatients. Methods To evaluate the etiology of CAP, and the relationship among the different pathogens of CAP to patients characteristics, process-of-care, clinical evolution and outcomes, a prospective population-based study was conducted in Spain from April 1, 2006, to June 30, 2007. Patients (age >18) with CAP were identified through the family physicians and the hospital area. Results A total of 700 patients with etiologic evaluation were included: 276 hospitalized and 424 ambulatory patients. We were able to define the aetiology of pneumonia in 55.7% (390/700). The most frequently isolated organism was S. pneumoniae (170/390, 43.6%), followed by C. burnetti (72/390, 18.5%), M. pneumoniae (62/390, 15.9%), virus as a group (56/390, 14.4%), Chlamydia species (39/390, 106%), and L. pneumophila (17/390, 4.4%). The atypical pathogens and the S. pneumoniae are present in pneumonias of a wide spectrum of severity and age. Patients infected by conventional bacteria were elderly, had a greater hospitalization rate, and higher mortality within 30 days. Conclusions Our study provides information about the etiology of CAP in the general population. The microbiology of CAP remains stable: infections by conventional bacteria result in higher severity, and the S. pneumoniae remains the most important pathogen. However, atypical pathogens could also infect patients in a wide spectrum of severity and age. PMID:22691449

  5. [Nursing-home-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia--comparison of sputum cultures with Binax NOW Streptococcus pneumoniae urinary antigen assay].

    PubMed

    Rikimaru, Toru; Nishiyama, Mamoru; Yonemitsu, Junko; Nagabuchi, Masako; Shimada, Akiko; Koga, Takeharu; Aizawa, Hisamichi

    2008-11-01

    To clarify the clinical significance of Pneumococcal pneumonia in nursing-home-acquired pneumonia, we examined the positive disease rate of using sputum cultures and the Binax NOW Streptococcus pneumoniae urinary antigen assay in 154 nursing-home patients with pneumonia. These included 54 males and 100 females with a mean age of 86.2 years. Bacteriological findings for sputum culture in 130 patients showed Streptococcus pneumoniae to be cultured in 11 cases (8%). In 72 in whom the Streptococcus pneumoniae-urinary antigen test (Binax NOW) was done, the urinary-antigen-positive rate (26/72 ; 36%) was higher than the culture positive rate for S. pneumoniae. Both examinations were done in 64 patients, among whom 5 in whom S. pneumoniae was cultured also had positive results for the urinary antigen test. Almost half of those undergoing percutaneous endoscopic gastroscopy (PEG) tube nutrition had positive results for the urinary antigen test, but not all such patients had positive cultures for S. pneumoniae. Although the culture-positive rate for S. pneumoniae in sputum was low, we concluded that S. pneumoniae was frequently linked to nursing-home-acquired pneumonia, especially in "total-care" patients.

  6. Efficacy and safety of grepafloxacin 600 mg daily for 10 days in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Topkis, S; Swarz, H; Breisch, S A; Maroli, A N

    1997-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of grepafloxacin in treating patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was assessed in an open-label, noncomparative study. Patients (N = 273) received grepafloxacin 600 mg QD for 10 days. A total of 237 patients (87%) completed the study. In assessable patients, the clinical success rate at follow-up (4 to 6 weeks after the last dose) was 89% (211/238 patients). In microbiologically assessable patients, the eradication rate at follow-up was 95% (86/91 isolates). Grepafloxacin was highly effective in the treatment of bacterial CAP caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (irrespective of penicillin susceptibility), Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus and in the therapy of atypical pneumonia caused by Mycoplasma pneumoniae and Legionella pneumophila. Grepafloxacin was well tolerated, with the most frequently reported drug-related adverse events being taste perversion and nausea. Grepafloxacin 600 mg QD for 10 days was highly effective and well tolerated in the treatment of patients with CAP.

  7. Delirium is a predictor of in-hospital mortality in elderly patients with community acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Pieralli, Filippo; Vannucchi, Vieri; Mancini, Antonio; Grazzini, Maddalena; Paolacci, Giulia; Morettini, Alessandro; Nozzoli, Carlo

    2014-03-01

    Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common reason for hospitalization and death in elderly people. Many predictors of in-hospital outcome have been studied in the general population with CAP. However, data are lacking on the prognostic significance of conditions unique to older patients, such as delirium and the coexistence of multiple comorbidities. The aim of this study was to evaluate predictors of in-hospital outcome in elderly patients hospitalized for CAP. In this retrospective study, consecutive patients with CAP aged ≥65 years were enrolled between January 2011 and June 2012 in two general wards. Clinical and laboratory characteristics were collected from electronic medical records. The end-point of the study was the occurrence of in-hospital death. 443 patients (mean age 81.8 ± 7.5, range 65-99 years) were enrolled. More than 3 comorbidities were present in 31 % of patients. Mean confusion, blood urea nitrogen, respiratory rate, blood pressure and age ≥65 years (CURB-65) score was 2.5 ± 0.7 points. Mean length of stay was 7.6 ± 5.7 days. In-hospital death occurred in 54 patients (12.2 %). At multivariate analysis, independent predictors of in-hospital death were: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (OR 6.21, p = 0.005), occurrence of at least one episode of delirium (OR 5.69, p = 0.017), male sex (OR 5.10, p < 0.0001), and CURB-65 score (OR 3.98, p < 0.0001). Several predictors of in-hospital death (COPD, male gender, CURB-65) in patients with CAP older than 65 years are similar to those of younger patients. In this cohort of elderly patients, the occurrence of delirium was highly prevalent and represented a distinctive predictor of death.

  8. Soluble RAGE as a severity marker in community acquired pneumonia associated sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is considered the most important cause of death from infectious disease in developed countries. Severity assessment scores partially address the difficulties in identifying high-risk patients. A lack of specific and valid pathophysiologic severity markers affect early and effective sepsis therapy. HMGB-1, sRAGE and RAGE have been involved in sepsis and their potential as severity markers has been proposed. The aim of this study was to evaluate HMGB-1, RAGE and sRAGE levels in patients with CAP-associated sepsis and determine their possible association with clinical outcome. Method We evaluated 33 patients with CAP-associated sepsis admitted to the emergency room and followed in the medical wards. Severity assessment scores (CURB-65, PSI, APACHE II, SOFA) and serologic markers (HMGB-1, RAGE, sRAGE) were evaluated on admission. Results Thirty patients with a diagnosis of CAP-associated sepsis were enrolled in the study within 24 hours after admission. Fourteen (46.6%) had pandemic (H1N1) influenza A virus, 2 (6.6%) had seasonal influenza A and 14 other diagnoses. Of the patients in the study group, 16 (53.3%) had a fatal outcome. ARDS was observed in 17 (56.6%) and a total of 22 patients had severe sepsis on admission (73%). The SOFA score showed the greatest difference between surviving and non-surviving groups (P = .003) with similar results in ARDS patients (P = .005). sRAGE levels tended to be higher in non-surviving (P = .058) and ARDS patients (P = .058). Logistic regression modeling demonstrated that SOFA (P = .013) and sRAGE (P = .05) were the only variables that modified the probability of a fatal outcome. Conclusion The association of elevated sRAGE with a fatal outcome suggests that it may have an independent causal effect in CAP. SOFA scores were the only clinical factor with the ability to identify surviving and ARDS patients. PMID:22264245

  9. Prognostic value of on admission arterial PCO2 in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Yassin, Zeynab; Saadat, Mohammad; Abtahi, Hamidreza; Rahimi Foroushani, Abbas

    2016-01-01

    Background There is little data about the correlation between the outcome of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and the hypercapnic type respiratory failure. In this study we prospectively investigated the prognostic significance of first arterial CO2 tension in patients hospitalized with CAP. Methods In this prospective study patients with CAP, admitted to a general hospital were included. PaCO2 was measured for each subject in an arterial blood sample drawn in the first 2 hours and its correlations with three major outcomes were evaluated: intensive care unit (ICU) admission, duration of admission and mortality in 30 days. Results A total of 114 patients (mean age: 60.9±18.3; male: 51.8%) diagnosed with CAP were included. Significant relationship was not found between PaCO2 and mortality (P=0.544) or ICU admission (P=0.863). However advanced age, associated CHF, high BUN levels, high CURB-65 scores, associated pleural effusion in chest X-ray and being admitted to the ICU (P=0.012, 0.004, 0.003, <0.001, 0.045 and <0.001 respectively) were all significant prognostic factors of higher mortality risks. Prognostic factors for ICU admission were a history of malignancy (P=0.004), higher CURB-65 (P<0.001) scores and concomitant pleural effusion (P=0.028) in chest X-ray. Hypercapnic patients hospitalized for longer duration compared with normocapnic subjects. Furthermore, patients with lower pH (P=0.041) and pleural effusions (P=0.002) were hospitalized longer than the others. Conclusions There was less prominent prognostic value regarding on-admission PaCO2 in comparison to other factors such as CURB-65. Considering the inconsistent results of surveys conducted on prognostic value of PaCO2 for CAP outcomes, further investigations are required to reach a consensus on this matter. PMID:27867552

  10. Ceftaroline fosamil for community-acquired pneumonia and skin and skin structure infections: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    El Hajj, Maguy Saffouh; Turgeon, Ricky D; Wilby, Kyle John

    2017-02-01

    Background Ceftaroline is a parentally administered cephalosporin that has an in vitro expanded spectrum of activity compared with other cephalosporins yet data is conflicting regarding its place in therapy. Aim of the Review To compare the efficacy and safety of ceftaroline against standard antibiotic regimens for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and complicated skin and skin structure infections (cSSSIs). Method The databases of MEDLINE, EBSCO, and Embase were searched up to June 2016. Manual review of references was completed and experts in the field were contacted for unpublished data. Randomized controlled trials of ceftaroline in CAP or cSSSI populations were included. Outcomes included clinical cure, mortality, adverse events, serious adverse events, and discontinuation due to adverse events. Meta-analysis was used to pool results for these outcomes. We performed subgroup analyses for gram positive infections in CAP and infections caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in cSSSIs. Risk of bias was assessed for all studies. Results Six trials (three for each indication) were included, each of which had an unclear or high risk of bias in at least one domain. For CAP, ceftaroline was significantly more efficacious in achieving clinical cure than ceftriaxone [risk ratio (RR) 1.11, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.04-1.19; I(2) = 47%]. For cSSSIs, there was no significant difference in clinical cure between ceftaroline and vancomycin plus aztreonam (RR 1.01, 95% CI 0.97-1.05; I(2) = 0%). No differences were found for overall mortality, serious adverse events, discontinuation due to adverse events, and overall adverse events. Conclusion Ceftaroline is a viable therapeutic alternative for patients with CAP and cSSSIs, yet identified risks of bias and poor external validity preclude it from being recommended as a first-line agent.

  11. Positive urinary antigen tests for Streptococcus pneumoniae in community-acquired pneumonia: a 7-year retrospective evaluation of health care cost and treatment consequences.

    PubMed

    Engel, M F; van Velzen, M; Hoepelman, A I M; Thijsen, S; Oosterheert, J J

    2013-04-01

    A positive pneumococcal urinary antigen test (PUAT) for Streptococcus pneumoniae allows an early switch from empiric to targeted treatment in hospitalised community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. The economic and treatment consequences of this widespread implemented test are, however, unknown. We retrospectively evaluated all tests performed since its introduction in two teaching hospitals. Data on patient characteristics, treatment, admission and outcome were retrieved from the electronic patient files. Test benefits were expressed as the number of days that targeted therapy (i.e. penicillin) was administered to hospitalised CAP patients due to a positive PUAT. This calculation was based on the timing of the PUAT and the initiation of targeted therapy. Subsequently, we performed two direct cost analyses from a hospital perspective, first including tests performed for CAP only, and second including costs of all (excessive) tests. Between 2005 and 2012, 3,479 PUATs were performed, of which 1,907 (55 %) were for CAP. A total of 1,638 PUATs (86 %) were negative and 269 (14 %) were positive. Fifty-two (19 %) positive tests were excluded. In 75 (35 %) of the 217 remaining positive tests, a positive PUAT led to targeted treatment during 293 cumulative admission days. Testing costs for CAP only were €131 per targeted treatment day. These costs were €257 if local protocol dictated PUAT use for all CAP cases, as opposed to €72 if the test was reserved for severe cases only. When including all tests, PUAT costs were €254 per targeted treatment day. Therefore, improving the selective use of the PUAT in hospitalised CAP patients may lead to increased (cost-)efficiency.

  12. Systematic review and meta-analysis of a urine-based pneumococcal antigen test for diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Alison; Xie, Xuanqian; Teltscher, Marty; Dendukuri, Nandini

    2013-07-01

    Standard culture methods for diagnosis of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia take at least 24 h. The BinaxNOW urine-based test for S. pneumoniae (BinaxNOW-SP) takes only 15 min to conduct, potentially enabling earlier diagnosis and targeted treatment. This study was conducted to assess whether the use of BinaxNOW-SP at the time of hospital admission would provide adequate sensitivity and specificity for diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in adult patients. We searched PubMed, EMBASE/OVID, Cochrane Collaboration, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, INAHTA, and CADTH for diagnostic or etiologic studies of hospitalized predominately adult patients with clinically defined CAP that reported the diagnostic performance of BinaxNOW-SP versus cultures. Two authors independently extracted study details and diagnostic two-by-two tables. We found that 27 studies met our inclusion criteria, and three different reference standards were used between them. A bivariate meta-analysis of 12 studies using a composite of culture tests as the reference standard estimated the sensitivity of BinaxNOW-SP as 68.5% (95% credibility interval [CrI], 62.6% to 74.2%) and specificity as 84.2% (95% CrI, 77.5% to 89.3%). A meta-analysis of all 27 studies, adjusting for the imperfect and variable nature of the reference standard, gave a higher sensitivity of 74.0% (CrI, 66.6% to 82·3%) and specificity of 97.2% (CrI, 92.7% to 99.8%). The analysis showed substantial heterogeneity across studies, which did not decrease with adjustment for covariates. We concluded that the higher pooled sensitivity (compared to culture) and high specificity of BinaxNOW-SP suggest it would be a useful addition to the diagnostic workup for community-acquired pneumonia. More research is needed regarding the impact of BinaxNOW-SP on clinical practice.

  13. Rapidly fatal community-acquired pneumonia due to Klebsiella pneumoniae complicated with acute myocarditis and accelerated idioventricular rhythm.

    PubMed

    Chuang, Tzu-Yi; Lin, Chou-Jui; Lee, Shih-Wei; Chuang, Chun-Pin; Jong, Yuh-Shiun; Chen, Wen-Jone; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-08-01

    We describe a previously healthy 52-year-old man with rapidly fatal community-acquired pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae. The patient developed acute renal dysfunction, accelerated idioventricular rhythm (acute myocarditis), lactic acidosis and septic shock. He died within 15 hours after admission despite intravenous levofloxacin (750 mg daily) and aggressive medical treatment.

  14. Hospital-acquired pneumonia and bacteremia caused by Legionella pneumophila in an immunocompromised patient.

    PubMed

    Lai, C-C; Tan, C-K; Chou, C-H; Hsu, H-L; Huang, Y-T; Liao, C-H; Hsueh, P-R

    2010-04-01

    The Legionella species is an important cause of communityand hospital-acquired pneumonia. Bacteremic pneumonia caused by L. pneumophila is rarely reported. We describe the first reported case of hospital-acquired pneumonia and bacteremia caused by L. pneumophila from Taiwan in a patient with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura who received steroid treatment. The patient was successfully treated with ceftazidime and clindamycin initially, followed by ciprofloxacin for 14 days. The blood isolate was further confirmed by 16S rDNA sequence analysis.

  15. Usefulness of Midregional Proadrenomedullin to Predict Poor Outcome in Patients with Community Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Gordo-Remartínez, Susana; Sevillano-Fernández, José A.; Álvarez-Sala, Luis A.; Andueza-Lillo, Juan A.; de Miguel-Yanes, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Background midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) is a prognostic biomarker in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We sought to confirm whether MR-proADM added to Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) improves the potential prognostic value of PSI alone, and tested to what extent this combination could be useful in predicting poor outcome of patients with CAP in an Emergency Department (ED). Methods Consecutive patients diagnosed with CAP were enrolled in this prospective, single-centre, observational study. We analyzed the ability of MR-proADM added to PSI to predict poor outcome using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, logistic regression and risk reclassification and comparing it with the ability of PSI alone. The primary outcome was “poor outcome”, defined as the incidence of an adverse event (ICU admission, hospital readmission, or mortality at 30 days after CAP diagnosis). Results 226 patients were included; 33 patients (14.6%) reached primary outcome. To predict primary outcome the highest area under curve (AUC) was found for PSI (0.74 [0.64-0.85]), which was not significantly higher than for MR-proADM (AUC 0.72 [0.63-0.81, p > 0.05]). The combination of PSI and MR-proADM failed to improve the predictive potential of PSI alone (AUC 0.75 [0.65-0.85, p=0.56]). Ten patients were appropriately reclassified when the combined PSI and MR-proADM model was used as compared with the model of PSI alone. Net reclassification improvement (NRI) index was statistically significant (7.69%, p = 0.03) with an improvement percentage of 3.03% (p = 0.32) for adverse event, and 4.66% (P = 0.02) for no adverse event. Conclusion MR-proADM in combination with PSI may be helpful in individual risk stratification for short-term poor outcome of CAP patients, allowing a better reclassification of patients compared with PSI alone. PMID:26030588

  16. Clinical practice guidelines for hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia in adults

    PubMed Central

    Rotstein, Coleman; Evans, Gerald; Born, Abraham; Grossman, Ronald; Light, R Bruce; Magder, Sheldon; McTaggart, Barrie; Weiss, Karl; Zhanel, George G

    2008-01-01

    Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) are important causes of morbidity and mortality, with mortality rates approaching 62%. HAP and VAP are the second most common cause of nosocomial infection overall, but are the most common cause documented in the intensive care unit setting. In addition, HAP and VAP produce the highest mortality associated with nosocomial infection. As a result, evidence-based guidelines were prepared detailing the epidemiology, microbial etiology, risk factors and clinical manifestations of HAP and VAP. Furthermore, an approach based on the available data, expert opinion and current practice for the provision of care within the Canadian health care system was used to determine risk stratification schemas to enable appropriate diagnosis, antimicrobial management and nonantimicrobial management of HAP and VAP. Finally, prevention and risk-reduction strategies to reduce the risk of acquiring these infections were collated. Future initiatives to enhance more rapid diagnosis and to effect better treatment for resistant pathogens are necessary to reduce morbidity and improve survival. PMID:19145262

  17. Nursing home-acquired pneumonia presenting at the emergency department.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Rui; Oliveira, Sara; Almeida, André

    2016-10-01

    Nursing home-acquired pneumonia (NHAP) is one of the most common infections arising amongst nursing home residents, and its incidence is expected to increase as population ages. The NHAP recommendation for empiric broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, arising from the concept of healthcare-associated pneumonia, has been challenged by recent studies reporting low rates of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria. This single center study analyzes the results of NHAP patients admitted through the Emergency Department (ED) at a tertiary center during the year 2010. There were 116 cases, male gender corresponded to 34.5 % of patients and median age was 84 years old (IQR 77-90). Comorbidities were present in 69.8 % of cases and 48.3 % of patients had used healthcare services during the previous 90 days. In-hospital mortality rate was 46.6 % and median length-of-stay was 9 days. Severity assessment at the Emergency Department provided CURB65 index score and respective mortality (%) results: zero: n = 0; one: n = 7 (0 %); two: n = 18 (38.9 %); three: n = 26 (38.5 %); four: n = 30 (53.3 %); and five; n = 22 (68.2 %); and sepsis n = 50 (34.0 %), severe sepsis n = 43 (48.8 %) and septic shock n = 22 (72.7 %). Significant risk factors for in-hospital mortality in multivariate analysis were polypnea (p = 0.001), age ≥ 75 years (p = 0.02), and severe sepsis or shock (p = 0.03) at the ED. Microbiological testing in 78.4 % of cases was positive in 15.4 % (n = 15): methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (26.7 %), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (20.0 %), S. pneumoniae (13.3 %), Escherichia coli (13.3 %), others (26.7 %); the rate of MDR bacteria was 53.3 %. This study reveals high rates of mortality and MDR bacteria among NHAP hospital admissions supporting the use of empirical broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy in these patients.

  18. Risk factors for levofloxacin-nonsusceptible Streptococcus pneumoniae in community-acquired pneumococcal pneumonia: a nested case-control study.

    PubMed

    Kang, C-I; Song, J-H; Kim, S H; Chung, D R; Peck, K R; So, T M; Hsueh, P-R

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to evaluate the clinical features of community-onset levofloxacin-nonsusceptible pneumococcal pneumonia and to identify risk factors for levofloxacin resistance. Using the database of a surveillance study of community-acquired pneumococcal infections in Asian countries, we conducted a nested case-control study to identify risk factors for levofloxacin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae in community-acquired pneumonia in adults. Of 981 patients with pneumococcal pneumonia, 46 (4.7 %) had levofloxacin-nonsusceptible S. pneumoniae, of whom 39 evaluable cases were included in the analysis. All cases were from Korea, Taiwan, and Hong Kong. Among patients with levofloxacin-susceptible S. pneumoniae, 490 controls were selected based on patient country. Of the 39 cases of levofloxacin-nonsusceptible pneumococcal pneumonia, 23 (59.0 %) were classified as healthcare-associated, while 164 (33.5 %) of the 490 controls of levofloxacin-susceptible S. pneumoniae (P = 0.001) were classified as healthcare-associated. Multivariate analysis showed that previous treatment with fluoroquinolones, cerebrovascular disease, and healthcare-associated infection were significantly associated with levofloxacin-nonsusceptible pneumococcal pneumonia (all P < 0.05). Levofloxacin-nonsusceptible pneumococci pose an important new public health threat in our region, and more information on the emergence and spread of these resistant strains will be necessary to prevent spread throughout the population.

  19. Effects of a Syndrome-Specific Antibiotic Stewardship Intervention for Inpatient Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Haas, Michelle K.; Dalton, Kristen; Knepper, Bryan C.; Stella, Sarah A.; Cervantes, Lilia; Price, Connie S.; Burman, William J.; Mehler, Philip S.; Jenkins, Timothy C.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Syndrome-specific interventions are a recommended approach to antibiotic stewardship, but additional data are needed to understand their potential impact. We implemented an intervention to improve the management of inpatient community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and evaluated its effects on antibiotic and resource utilization. Methods. A stakeholder group developed and implemented a clinical practice guideline and order set for inpatient, non-intensive care unit CAP recommending a short course (5 days) of a fluoroquinolone-sparing antibiotic regimen in uncomplicated cases. Unless there was suspicion for complications or resistant pathogens, chest computed tomography (CT) and sputum cultures were discouraged. This was a retrospective preintervention postintervention study of patients hospitalized for CAP before (April 15, 2008–May 31, 2009) and after (July 1, 2011–July 31, 2012) implementation of the guideline. The primary comparison was the difference in duration of therapy during the baseline and intervention periods. Secondary outcomes included changes in use of levofloxacin, CT scans, and sputum culture. Results. One hundred sixty-six and 84 cases during the baseline and intervention periods, respectively, were included. From the baseline to intervention period, the median duration of therapy decreased from 10 to 7 days (P < .0001). Prescription of levofloxacin at discharge decreased from 60% to 27% of cases (P < .0001). Use of chest CT and sputum culture decreased from 47% to 32% of cases (P = .02) and 51% to 31% of cases (P = .03), respectively. The frequency of clinical failure between the 2 periods was similar. Conclusions. A syndrome-specific intervention for inpatient CAP was associated with shorter treatment durations and reductions in use of fluoroquinolones and low-yield diagnostic tests. PMID:27747254

  20. Phenotyping community-acquired pneumonia according to the presence of acute respiratory failure and severe sepsis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute respiratory failure (ARF) and severe sepsis (SS) are possible complications in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The aim of the study was to evaluate prevalence, characteristics, risk factors and impact on mortality of hospitalized patients with CAP according to the presence of ARF and SS on admission. Methods This was a multicenter, observational, prospective study of consecutive CAP patients admitted to three hospitals in Italy, Spain, and Scotland between 2008 and 2010. Three groups of patients were identified: those with neither ARF nor SS (Group A), those with only ARF (Group B) and those with both ARF and SS (Group C) on admission. Results Among the 2,145 patients enrolled, 45% belonged to Group A, 36% to Group B and 20% to Group C. Patients in Group C were more severe than patients in Group B. Isolated ARF was correlated with age (p < 0.001), COPD (p < 0.001) and multilobar infiltrates (p < 0.001). The contemporary occurrence of ARF and SS was associated with age (p = 0.002), residency in nursing home (p = 0.007), COPD (p < 0.001), multilobar involvement (p < 0.001) and renal disease (p < 0.001). 4.2% of patients in Group A died, 9.3% in Group B and 26% in Group C, p < 0.001. After adjustment, the presence of only ARF had an OR for in-hospital mortality of 1.85 (p = 0.011) and the presence of both ARF and SS had an OR of 6.32 (p < 0.001). Conclusions The identification of ARF and SS on hospital admission can help physicians in classifying CAP patients into three different clinical phenotypes. PMID:24593040

  1. Serum levels of immunoglobulins and severity of community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    de la Torre, Mari C; Torán, Pere; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Palomera, Elisabet; Güell, Estel; Vendrell, Ester; Yébenes, Joan Carles; Torres, Antoni; Almirall, Jordi

    2016-01-01

    Instruction There is evidence of a relationship between severity of infection and inflammatory response of the immune system. The objective is to assess serum levels of immunoglobulins and to establish its relationship with severity of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and clinical outcome. Methods This was an observational and cross-sectional study in which 3 groups of patients diagnosed with CAP were compared: patients treated in the outpatient setting (n=54), patients requiring in-patient care (hospital ward) (n=173), and patients requiring admission to the intensive care unit (ICU) (n=191). Results Serum total IgG (and IgG subclasses IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4), IgA and IgM were measured at the first clinical visit. Normal cutpoints were defined as the lowest value obtained in controls (≤680, ≤323, ≤154, ≤10, ≤5, ≤30 and ≤50 mg/dL for total IgG, IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, IgM and IgA, respectively). Serum immunoglobulin levels decreased in relation to severity of CAP. Low serum levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 showed a relationship with ICU admission. Low serum level of total IgG was independently associated with ICU admission (OR=2.45, 95% CI 1.4 to 4.2, p=0.002), adjusted by the CURB-65 severity score and comorbidities (chronic respiratory and heart diseases). Low levels of total IgG, IgG1 and IgG2 were significantly associated with 30-day mortality. Conclusions Patients with severe CAP admitted to the ICU showed lower levels of immunoglobulins than non-ICU patients and this increased mortality. PMID:27933180

  2. Expanded CURB-65: a new score system predicts severity of community-acquired pneumonia with superior efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jin-liang; Xu, Feng; Hui Zhou; Wu, Xue-jie; Shi, Ling-xian; Lu, Rui-qing; Farcomeni, Alessio; Venditti, Mario; Zhao, Ying-li; Luo, Shu-ya; Dong, Xiao-jun; Falcone, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Aim of this study was to develop a new simpler and more effective severity score for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. A total of 1640 consecutive hospitalized CAP patients in Second Affiliated Hospital of Zhejiang University were included. The effectiveness of different pneumonia severity scores to predict mortality was compared, and the performance of the new score was validated on an external cohort of 1164 patients with pneumonia admitted to a teaching hospital in Italy. Using age ≥ 65 years, LDH > 230 u/L, albumin < 3.5 g/dL, platelet count < 100 × 109/L, confusion, urea > 7 mmol/L, respiratory rate ≥ 30/min, low blood pressure, we assembled a new severity score named as expanded-CURB-65. The 30-day mortality and length of stay were increased along with increased risk score. The AUCs in the prediction of 30-day mortality in the main cohort were 0.826 (95% CI, 0.807–0.844), 0.801 (95% CI, 0.781–0.820), 0.756 (95% CI, 0.735–0.777), 0.793 (95% CI, 0.773–0.813) and 0.759 (95% CI, 0.737–0.779) for the expanded-CURB-65, PSI, CURB-65, SMART-COP and A-DROP, respectively. The performance of this bedside score was confirmed in CAP patients of the validation cohort although calibration was not successful in patients with health care-associated pneumonia (HCAP). The expanded CURB-65 is objective, simpler and more accurate scoring system for evaluation of CAP severity, and the predictive efficiency was better than other score systems. PMID:26987602

  3. [Community acquired pneumonia in children: an update for outpatients management].

    PubMed

    Wagner, Noémie; Gehri, Mario; Gervaix, Alain; Guinan, Stéphane; Barazzone-Argiroffo, Constance

    2016-02-17

    Pneumonia should be considered in febrile children with tachypnea and/or chest recession. Virus are the most common cause of pneumonia in children under 5 years old. Streptococcus pneumonia can be found at any age. Mycoplasma pneumonia is more frequent in older children. Systematic chest radiograph is not necessary but must be obtained in patients with hypoventilation and in those with failed initial antibiotic therapy. Mycoplasma pneumonia should be tested according to patient age and response to initial antibiotic. First line antibiotherapy is amoxicilline. Antibiotic treatment is frequently not necessary in children under 5 but should be considered depending on clinical presentation and C reactive protein value.

  4. [Case report: Löffler's syndrome due to Ascaris lumbricoides mimicking acute bacterial community--acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Acar, Ali; Oncül, Oral; Cavuşlu, Saban; Okutan, Oğuzhan; Kartaloğlu, Zafer

    2009-01-01

    In this study we present a patient with Loeffler's syndrome caused by Ascaris lumbricoides who presented with the clinical findings of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Our patient, who was twenty-five years old, and who had had symptoms such as coughing, expectorating, dyspnea and fever for approximately ten days, was hospitalized. We auscultated polyphonic rhonchuses at the both hemithoraxes. A chest X-ray revealed bilateral lower zone patch consolidation. Acute bacterial community acquired pneumonia (CAP) was diagnosed due to these findings and empirical antibiotic treatment was begun. Repeated sputum Gram stains were negative, and both sputum and blood cultures were sterile. A sputum smear was negative for acid-fast bacilli. The patient's fever and respiratory complaint did not respond to the empirical antibiotics therapy. During the course of advanced investigations, we measured peripheric eosinophilia, and high levels of total Eo and total IgE, and observed Ascaris lumbricoides eggs during stool examination. The patient was given a diagnosis of Loeffler's syndrome. Thereupon the patient was treated successfully with one dose of albendazol 400 mg. In conclusion, we suggest that Loeffler's syndrome must be considered early in the differential diagnosis for CAP when peripheric eosinophilia is seen in patients if they live in an endemic area for parasitic disease.

  5. Pro-adrenomedullin usefulness in the management of children with community-acquired pneumonia, a preliminar prospective observational study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In adult population with community acquired pneumonia high levels of pro-adrenomedullin (pro-ADM) have been shown to be predictors of worse prognosis. The role of this biomarker in pediatric patients had not been analyzed to date. The objective of this study is to know the levels of pro-ADM in children with community acquired pneumonia (CAP) and analyze the relation between these levels and the patients’ prognosis. Findings Prospective observational study including patients attended in the emergency service (January to October 2009) admitted to hospital with CAP and no complications at admission. The values for pro-ADM were analyzed in relation to: need for oxygen therapy, duration of oxygen therapy, fever and antibiotic therapy, complications, admission to the intensive care unit, and length of hospital stay. Fifty patients were included. Ten presented complications (7 pleural effusion). The median level of pro-ADM was 1.0065 nmol/L (range 0.3715 to 7.2840 nmol/L). The patients presenting complications had higher levels of pro-ADM (2.3190 vs. 1.1758 nmol/L, p = 0.013). Specifically, the presence of pleural effusion was associated with higher levels of pro-ADM (2.9440 vs. 1.1373 nmol/L, p < 0.001). Conclusions In our sample of patients admitted to hospital with CAP, pro-ADM levels are related to the development of complications during hospitalization. PMID:22818355

  6. The antibiotic treatment of community-acquired, atypical, and nosocomial pneumonias.

    PubMed

    Cunha, B A

    1995-05-01

    Optimal antibiotic regimens and duration of treatment are not universally agreed on for community-acquired or nosocomial pneumonias. Experience suggests that community-acquired pneumonias may be treated for less than 2 weeks with a combination of intravenous and oral antibiotics of appropriate spectrum that penetrate the lung, have a good safety profile, do not foster the development of resistance, and are cost-effective. After initial intravenous therapy, oral switch therapy may be begun as soon as the patient defervesces clinically, which is usually 3 days after admission. Switching to oral therapy does not invariably lead to earlier hospital discharge. There is no "standard of care" for pneumonias, but guidelines for empiric use have existed for decades. The least expensive beta-lactamase stable antibiotic should be used as monotherapy for the empiric treatment of community-acquired pneumonia. Because community-acquired atypical pneumonias are clinically distinct from bacterial pneumonias owing to their extrapulmonary features, clinicians should be able to differentiate atypical pneumonias from bacterial pneumonias, which permits prompt and appropriate treatment. Nosocomial pneumonias remain a difficult diagnostic challenge. Therapeutically the most important principle in treating nosocomial pneumonia is to provide for double-drug coverage against P. aeruginosa. Differentiation of respiratory tract colonization from respiratory tract invasion remains the central key issue in patients with pulmonary infiltrates acquired during hospitalization. Most patients complete their course of intravenous therapy for nosocomial pneumonia leaving little or no time for completion of their therapy by oral antibiotics. Hospital-acquired atypical pneumonias are largely limited to legionnaires' disease, which is a more difficult diagnosis than in the community-acquired setting. Clinicians taking care of patients with pneumonia should employ a simplified therapeutic approach using

  7. Seasonality, risk factors and burden of community-acquired pneumonia in COPD patients: a population database study using linked health care records

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Nicholas P; Coombs, Ngaire A; Johnson, Matthew J; Josephs, Lynn K; Rigge, Lucy A; Staples, Karl J; Thomas, Mike; Wilkinson, Tom MA

    2017-01-01

    Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is more common in patients with COPD than in the adult general population, with studies of hospitalized CAP patients consistently reporting COPD as a frequent comorbidity. However, despite an increasing recognition of its importance, large studies evaluating the incidence patterns over time, risk factors and burden of CAP in COPD are currently lacking. Methods A retrospective observational study using a large UK-based database of linked primary and secondary care records was conducted. Patients with a diagnosis of COPD aged ≥40 years were followed up for 5 years from January 1, 2010. CAP and exacerbation episodes were identified from hospital discharge data and primary care coding records, and rates were calculated per month, adjusting for mortality, and displayed over time. In addition, baseline factors predicting future risk of CAP and hospital admission with CAP were identified. Results A total of 14,513 COPD patients were identified: 13.4% (n=1,938) had ≥1 CAP episode, of whom 18.8% suffered from recurrent (≥2) CAP. Highest rates of both CAP and exacerbations were seen in winter. A greater proportion of frequent, compared to infrequent, exacerbators experienced recurrent CAP (5.1% versus 2.0%, respectively, P<0.001); 75.6% of CAP episodes were associated with hospital admission compared to 22.1% of exacerbations. Older age and increasing grade of airflow limitation were independently associated with increased odds of CAP and hospital admission with CAP. Other independent predictors of future CAP included lower body mass index, inhaled corticosteroid use, prior frequent exacerbations and comorbidities, including ischemic heart disease and diabetes. Conclusion CAP in COPD demonstrates clear seasonal patterns, with patient characteristics predictive of the odds of future CAP and hospital admission with CAP. Highlighting this burden of COPD-associated CAP during the winter period informs us of the likely triggers

  8. Rapid diagnostic testing for community-acquired pneumonia: can innovative technology for clinical microbiology be exploited?

    PubMed

    Yu, Victor L; Stout, Janet E

    2009-12-01

    Two nonsynchronous events have affected the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP): spiraling empiricism for CAP and the "golden era" of clinical microbiology. The development of broad-spectrum antibiotics has led to widespread empiric use without ascertaining the etiology of the infecting microbe. Unfortunately, this approach clashes with the second event, which is the advent of molecular-based microbiology that can identify the causative pathogen rapidly at the point of care. The urinary antigen is a most effective rapid test that has allowed targeted therapy for Legionnaire disease at the point of care. The high specificity (> 90%) allows the clinician to administer appropriate anti-Legionella therapy based on a single rapid test; however, its low sensitivity (76%) means that a notable number of cases of Legionnaire disease will go undiagnosed if other tests, especially culture, are not performed. Further, culture for Legionella is not readily available. If a culture is not performed, epidemiologic identification of the source of the bacterium cannot be ascertained by molecular fingerprinting of the patient and the putative source strain. We recommend resurrection of the basic principles of infectious disease, which are to identify the microbial etiology of the infection and to use narrow, targeted antimicrobial therapy. To reduce antimicrobial overuse with subsequent antimicrobial resistance, these basic principles must be applied in concert with traditional and newer tests in the clinical microbiology laboratory.

  9. [Duration of treatment and oral administrad on of antibiotics in community acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Bernal-Vargas, Mónica A; Cortés, Jorge A

    2016-04-01

    Community acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality around the world, with high treatment costs due to hospitalization and complications (adverse events due to medications, antibiotic resistance, healthcare associated infections, etc.). It has been proposed administration of short courses and early switch of intravenous administration to oral therapy to avoid costs and complications. There are recommendations about these topics in national and intemational guidelines, based on clinical trials which do not demónstrate diffe-rences in mortality and complications when there is an early change from intravenous administration to the oral route. There are no statistically significant differences in safety and resolution of the disease when short and long treatment schemes were compared. In this review we present the most important guidelines and clinical studies, taking into account the pharmacological differences between different medications. It is considered that early switch from intravenous to oral administration route and use of short cycles in CAP is safe and brings benefits to patients and institutions.

  10. Low T3 syndrome is a strong predictor of poor outcomes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jinliang; Wu, Xuejie; Lu, Fang; Zhao, Lifang; Shi, Lingxian; Xu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Low T3 syndrome was previously reported to be linked to poor clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive power of low T3 syndrome for clinical outcomes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Data for 503 patients were analyzed retrospectively, and the primary end point was 30-day mortality. The intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate and 30-day mortality were 8.3% and 6.4% respectively. The prevalence of low T3 syndrome differed significantly between survivors and nonsurvivors (29.1% vs 71.9%, P < 0.001), and low T3 syndrome was associated with a remarkable increased risk of 30-day mortality and ICU admission in patients with severe CAP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis produced an odds ratio of 2.96 (95% CI 1.14–7.76, P = 0.025) for 30-day mortality in CAP patients with low T3 syndrome. Survival analysis revealed that the survival rate among CAP patients with low T3 syndrome was lower than that in the control group (P < 0.01). Adding low T3 syndrome to the PSI and CURB-65 significantly increased the areas under the ROC curves for predicting ICU admission and 30-day mortality. In conclusion, low T3 syndrome is an independent risk factor for 30-day mortality in CAP patients. PMID:26928863

  11. The role of transthoracic ultrasonography in predicting the outcome of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized children

    PubMed Central

    Chen, I-Chen; Lin, Ming-Yen; Liu, Yi-Ching; Cheng, Hsiao-Chi; Wu, Jiunn-Ren; Hsu, Jong-Hau; Dai, Zen-Kong

    2017-01-01

    Transthoracic ultrasound (TUS) has recently become a valuable tool in the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). This study assessed the association between TUS findings and clinical outcome in children with CAP. The medical records of pediatric patients hospitalized with CAP who underwent transthoracic ultrasonography within 48 hours of admission were retrospectively reviewed. Associations between the TUS findings and patient outcome were analyzed, including intensive care unit (ICU) admission, length of hospital stay, and tube thoracotomy. The study enrolled 142 patients (median age, 60 months): 28 (19.7%) required ICU admission, 14 (9.89%) underwent tube thoracotomy, and 26 (18.3%) had a hospital stay > 9 days. Multifocal involvement seen by TUS were independently associated with ICU admission, a prolonged hospital stay, and tube thoracotomy (p = 0.0027, p = 0.02, and p = 0.0262, respectively). A pleural effusion and fluid bronchogram were independent predictors of a longer hospital stay (p = 0.003 and p = 0.006, respectively). In addition, a fluid bronchogram was an independent predictor of tube thoracotomy (p = 0.0262). Conclusion TUS findings of fluid bronchogram, multifocal involvement, and pleural effusion were associated with adverse outcomes, including longer hospital stay, ICU admission, and tube thoracotomy in hospitalized CAP children. Therefore, TUS is a novel tool for prognostic stratifications of CAP in hospitalized children. PMID:28301494

  12. Low T3 syndrome is a strong predictor of poor outcomes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinliang; Wu, Xuejie; Lu, Fang; Zhao, Lifang; Shi, Lingxian; Xu, Feng

    2016-03-01

    Low T3 syndrome was previously reported to be linked to poor clinical outcomes in critically ill patients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the predictive power of low T3 syndrome for clinical outcomes in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Data for 503 patients were analyzed retrospectively, and the primary end point was 30-day mortality. The intensive care unit (ICU) admission rate and 30-day mortality were 8.3% and 6.4% respectively. The prevalence of low T3 syndrome differed significantly between survivors and nonsurvivors (29.1% vs 71.9%, P < 0.001), and low T3 syndrome was associated with a remarkable increased risk of 30-day mortality and ICU admission in patients with severe CAP. Multivariate logistic regression analysis produced an odds ratio of 2.96 (95% CI 1.14-7.76, P = 0.025) for 30-day mortality in CAP patients with low T3 syndrome. Survival analysis revealed that the survival rate among CAP patients with low T3 syndrome was lower than that in the control group (P < 0.01). Adding low T3 syndrome to the PSI and CURB-65 significantly increased the areas under the ROC curves for predicting ICU admission and 30-day mortality. In conclusion, low T3 syndrome is an independent risk factor for 30-day mortality in CAP patients.

  13. Integrated results of 2 phase 3 studies comparing tigecycline and levofloxacin in community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Tanaseanu, Cristina; Bergallo, Carlos; Teglia, Osvaldo; Jasovich, Abel; Oliva, Maria Eugenia; Dukart, Gary; Dartois, Nathalie; Cooper, C Angel; Gandjini, Hassan; Mallick, Rajiv

    2008-07-01

    Tigecycline (TGC), a glycylcycline, has expanded activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative, anaerobic, and atypical bacteria. Two phase 3 studies were conducted. Hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were randomized to intravenous (IV) TGC (100 mg followed by 50 mg bid) or IV levofloxacin (LEV) (500 mg bid). In 1 study, patients could be switched to oral LEV after at least 3 days intravenously. The coprimary efficacy end points were as follows: clinical response in clinically evaluable (CE) and clinical modified intent-to-treat (c-mITT) populations at test-of-cure (TOC). The secondary end points were as follows: microbiologic efficacy and susceptibility to TGC for CAP bacteria. Safety evaluations were included. Eight hundred ninety-one were patients screened: 846 mITT (TGC 424, LEV 422), 574 CE (TGC 282, LEV 292). Most patients had Fine Pneumonia Severity Index II to IV (80.7% TGC, 74.4% LEV, mITT). At TOC (CE), TGC cured 253/282 patients (89.7%) and LEV cured 252/292 patients (86.3%); the absolute difference of TGC-LEV was 3.4% (95% confidence interval [CI], -2.2 to 9.1, noninferior [P < 0.001]). In c-mITT, TGC cured 319/394 patients (81.0%) and LEV cured 321/403 patients (79.7%); the absolute difference of TGC-LEV was 1.3% (95% CI -4.5 to 7.1, noninferior [P < 0.001]). The drug-related adverse events (AEs) of nausea (20.8% TGC versus 6.6% LEV) and vomiting (13.2% TGC versus 3.3% LEV) were significantly higher in TGC; elevated alanine aminotransferase (2.8% TGC versus 7.3% LEV) and aspartate aminotransferase (2.6% TGC versus 6.9% LEV) were significantly higher in LEV. Discontinuations for AEs were low (TGC, 26 patients [6.1%]; LEV, 34 patients [8.1%]). TGC appeared safe and achieved cure rates similar to LEV in hospitalized patients with CAP.

  14. Factors That Negatively Affect the Prognosis of Pediatric Community-Acquired Pneumonia in District Hospital in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Caggiano, Serena; Ullmann, Nicola; De Vitis, Elisa; Trivelli, Marzia; Mariani, Chiara; Podagrosi, Maria; Ursitti, Fabiana; Bertolaso, Chiara; Putotto, Carolina; Unolt, Marta; Pietravalle, Andrea; Pansa, Paola; Mphayokulela, Kajoro; Lemmo, Maria Incoronata; Mkwambe, Michael; Kazaura, Joseph; Duse, Marzia; Nieddu, Francesco; Azzari, Chiara; Cutrera, Renato

    2017-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is still the most important cause of death in countries with scarce resources. All children (33 months ± 35 DS) discharged from the Pediatric Unit of Itigi Hospital, Tanzania, with a diagnosis of CAP from August 2014 to April 2015 were enrolled. Clinical data were gathered. Dried blood spot (DBS) samples for quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for bacterial detection were collected in all 100 children included. Twenty-four percent of patients were identified with severe CAP and 11% died. Surprisingly, 54% of patients were admitted with a wrong diagnosis, which increased complications, the need for antibiotics and chest X-rays, and the length of hospitalization. Comorbidity, found in 32% of children, significantly increased severity, complications, deaths, need for chest X-rays, and oxygen therapy. Malnourished children (29%) required more antibiotics. Microbiologically, Streptococcus pneumonia (S. p.), Haemophilus influenza type b (Hib) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. a.) were the bacteria more frequently isolated. Seventy-five percent of patients had mono-infection. Etiology was not correlated with severity, complications, deaths, oxygen demand, or duration of hospitalization. Our study highlights that difficult diagnoses and comorbidities negatively affect clinical evolution. S. p. and Hib still play a large role; thus, implementation of current vaccine strategies is needed. DBS is a simple and efficient diagnostic method for bacterial identification in countries with scarce resources. PMID:28335406

  15. Human metapneumovirus associated with community-acquired pneumonia in children in Beijing, China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Guilan; Li, Jianguo; Xie, Zhengde; Liu, Chunyan; Guo, Li; Vernet, Guy; Shen, Kunling; Wang, Jianwei

    2013-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in children worldwide. However, few studies have been conducted on the infection of human metapneumovirus (hMPV) associated with pediatric community-acquired pneumonia in China. Nasopharyngeal aspirates were collected between July 2008 and June 2010 from 1,028 children, aged ≤16.5 years, who were diagnosed with community-acquired pneumonia in Beijing, China. Reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction was used to screen the samples for hMPV and common respiratory viruses. hMPV was detected in 6.3% of the patients with community-acquired pneumonia. This detection rate is the third highest for a respiratory virus in children with community-acquired pneumonia, after that of rhinovirus (30.9%) and respiratory syncytial virus (30.7%). The detection rate of hMPV in 2008/2009 (42/540, 7.8%) was significantly higher than in 2009/2010 (23/488, 4.7%; χ(2)  = 4.065, P = 0.044). The hMPV subtypes A2, B1, and B2 were found to co-circulate, with A2 being most prevalent. These results indicate that hMPV plays a substantial role in pediatric community-acquired pneumonia in China. Overall, these findings provide a better understanding of the epidemiological and clinical features of hMPV infections.

  16. Are proton pump inhibitors associated with the development of community-acquired pneumonia? A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Giuliano, Christopher; Wilhelm, Sheila M; Kale-Pradhan, Pramodini B

    2012-05-01

    This study was presented at the American College of Chest Physicians meeting in Pittsburgh (PA, USA) in October 2011. The study objective was to evaluate the association of proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The design was a meta-analysis of nine case-controlled and cohort studies. 120,863 pneumonia cases from 1987 to 2006 were included in the meta-analysis. PubMed and Ovid Medline were searched from inception through May 2011 by two investigators independently using keywords: PPI, pneumonia, CAP, anti-ulcer, antacid, omeprazole, esomeprazole, lansoprazole, pantoprazole and rabeprazole. This meta-analysis only included case-controlled and cohort studies that were published in full in English and evaluated PPI use and CAP incidence. Studies were excluded if they included the following patients: pediatric, Helicobacter pylori treatment and critically ill. Bibliographies of recent review articles and systematic reviews were hand-searched. Quality of studies was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale. Two investigators independently extracted data into standardized data collection forms that were confirmed by a third investigator. Data were analyzed based on current use of PPIs, duration of PPI use (<30 days or >180 days) and PPI dose (high vs low). Overall association of PPI and CAP was analyzed using the random effects model (Comprehensive Meta analysis(®) Version 2.0). Nine studies met all criteria for the primary outcome. Newcastle-Ottawa Quality Assessment Scale scores ranged from 4 to 8 out of 9. Current use of PPIs (odds ratio [OR]: 1.39; 95% CI: 1.09-1.76), PPI use <30 days (OR: 1.65; 95% CI: 1.25-2.19), PPI high dose (OR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.33-1.68) and PPI low dose (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.11-1.24) were significantly associated with CAP. There was no association between CAP and PPI use >180 days (OR: 1.10; 95% CI: 1.00-1.21). In conclusion, patients currently receiving PPIs, particularly <30 days or high dose

  17. Aetiology of community acquired pneumonia in Valencia, Spain: a multicentre prospective study.

    PubMed Central

    Blanquer, J; Blanquer, R; Borrás, R; Nauffal, D; Morales, P; Menéndez, R; Subías, I; Herrero, L; Redón, J; Pascual, J

    1991-01-01

    A year long multicentre prospective study was carried out in the Valencia region of Spain, to determine the cause of community acquired pneumonia. The study was based on 510 of 833 patients with pneumonia. Of these, 462 were admitted to hospital, where 31 patients died. A cause was established in only 281 cases--208 of bacterial, 60 of viral, and 13 of mixed infection. The most common microorganisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae (14.5%), Legionella sp (14%), Influenza virus (8%), and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (4%). There was a higher incidence of Legionella sp than in other studies. PMID:1908605

  18. Anthropometric measurements may be informative for nursing home-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Yardimci, Bulent; Aksoy, Sevki Murat; Ozkaya, Ismail; Demir, Tarik; Tezcan, Gulsen; Kaptanoglu, Aysegul Yildirim

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the relationship between anthropometric measurements and Nursing Home-Acquired Pneumonia (NHAP) risk. Methods: Consecutive patients of 65 years or elderly who were living in the Balikli Rum Hospital Nursing Homes were included in this prospective study. At the beginning of this study, the patients’ anthropometrics values were measured. The patients were followed for one year, and any incidences of pneumonia attacks were recorded. The relationship between the anthropometric measurements and pneumonia occurrences was analyzed. Results: There were 133 inmates at the initial assessments. Of 108 patients who were eligible for the study, 77 (72.2%) were female and 37 (27.8%) were male. The mean age of the group was 79.8±10.5. Patients were assigned to a group according to the presence of pneumonia during the one -year follow-up. There were 74 (55.6%) patients who had suffered from at least one attack of pneumonia during the follow-up period. The mean triceps skinfold was significantly thinner in the pneumonia group, and the mean handgrip measurements in both the dominant and non-dominant hands were significantly weaker in the pneumonia group. Furthermore, the frequency of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases (COPD) was significantly higher in this group (p < 0.001). Conclusions: The risk of pneumonia was high in the elderly population who live in nursing homes. Simple anthropometric values may be predictive of the potential for Nursing Home-Acquired Pneumonia. PMID:27375716

  19. The management of community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly

    PubMed Central

    Faverio, Paola; Aliberti, Stefano; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Suigo, Giulia; Lonni, Sara; Pesci, Alberto; Restrepo, Marcos I.

    2014-01-01

    Pneumonia is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The elderly population has exponentially increased in the last decades and the current epidemiological trends indicate that it is expected to further increase. Therefore, recognizing the special needs of older people is of paramount importance. In this review we address the main differences between elderly and adult patients with pneumonia. We focus on several aspects, including the atypical clinical presentation of pneumonia in the elderly, the methods to assess severity of illness, the appropriate setting of care, and the management of comorbidities. We also discuss how to approach the common complications of severe pneumonia, including acute respiratory failure and severe sepsis. Moreover, we debate whether or not elderly patients are at higher risk of infection due to multi-drug resistant pathogens and which risk factors should be considered when choosing the antibiotic therapy. We highlight the differences in the definition of clinical stability and treatment failure between adults and elderly patients. Finally, we review the main outcomes, preventive and supportive measures to be considered in elderly patients with pneumonia. PMID:24360244

  20. The management of community-acquired pneumonia in the elderly.

    PubMed

    Faverio, Paola; Aliberti, Stefano; Bellelli, Giuseppe; Suigo, Giulia; Lonni, Sara; Pesci, Alberto; Restrepo, Marcos I

    2014-04-01

    Pneumonia is one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the elderly. The elderly population has exponentially increased in the last decades and the current epidemiological trends indicate that it is expected to further increase. Therefore, recognizing the special needs of older people is of paramount importance. In this review we address the main differences between elderly and adult patients with pneumonia. We focus on several aspects, including the atypical clinical presentation of pneumonia in the elderly, the methods to assess severity of illness, the appropriate setting of care, and the management of comorbidities. We also discuss how to approach the common complications of severe pneumonia, including acute respiratory failure and severe sepsis. Moreover, we debate whether or not elderly patients are at higher risk of infection due to multi-drug resistant pathogens and which risk factors should be considered when choosing the antibiotic therapy. We highlight the differences in the definition of clinical stability and treatment failure between adults and elderly patients. Finally, we review the main outcomes, preventive and supportive measures to be considered in elderly patients with pneumonia.

  1. Predicting treatment failure in patients with community acquired pneumonia: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Treatment failure in community-acquired-pneumonia (CAP) patients is associated with a high mortality rate, and therefore are a matter of great concern in clinical management. Those patients have increased mortality and are a target population for randomized clinical trials. Methods A case–control study was performed in patients with CAP (non-failure cases vs. failure cases, discriminating by late and early failure). CRP, PCT, interleukin 1, 6, 8 and 10 and TNF were determined at days 1 and 3 of hospitalization. Results A total of 253 patients were included in this study where 83 patients presented treatment failure. Of these, 40 (48.2%) had early failure. A discriminative effect was found for a higher CURB-65 score among late failure patients (p = 0.004). A significant increase on day 1 of hospitalization in CRP (p < 0.001), PCT (p = 0.004), IL-6 (p < 0.001) and IL-8 (p = 0.02), and a decrease in IL-1 (p = 0.06) in patients with failure was observed compared with patients without failure. On day 3, only the increase in CRP (p < 0.001), PCT (p = 0.007) and IL-6 (p < 0.001) remained significant. Independent predictors for early failure were higher IL-6 levels on day 1 (OR = 1.78, IC = 1.2-2.6) and pleural effusion (OR = 2.25, IC = 1.0-5.3), and for late failure, higher PCT levels on day 3 (OR = 1.60, IC = 1.0-2.5), CURB-65 score ≥ 3 (OR = 1.43, IC = 1.0-2.0), and multilobar involvement (OR = 4.50, IC = 2.1-9.9). Conclusions There was a good correlation of IL-6 levels and CAP failure and IL-6 & PCT with late CAP failure. Pleural effusion and multilobar involvement were simple clinical predictors of early and late failure, respectively. Trial registration IRB Register: http://2009/5451. PMID:24996572

  2. The Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS) in Malawi: Implementation of Remote Source Data Verification

    PubMed Central

    Weston, William; Smedley, James; Bennett, Andrew; Mortimer, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Background Source data verification (SDV) is a data monitoring procedure which compares the original records with the Case Report Form (CRF). Traditionally, on-site SDV relies on monitors making multiples visits to study sites requiring extensive resources. The Cooking And Pneumonia Study (CAPS) is a 24- month village-level cluster randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of an advanced cook-stove intervention in preventing pneumonia in children under five in rural Malawi (www.capstudy.org). CAPS used smartphones to capture digital images of the original records on an electronic CRF (eCRF). In the present study, descriptive statistics are used to report the experience of electronic data capture with remote SDV in a challenging research setting in rural Malawi. Methods At three monthly intervals, fieldworkers, who were employed by CAPS, captured pneumonia data from the original records onto the eCRF. Fieldworkers also captured digital images of the original records. Once Internet connectivity was available, the data captured on the eCRF and the digital images of the original records were uploaded to a web-based SDV application. This enabled SDV to be conducted remotely from the UK. We conducted SDV of the pneumonia data (occurrence, severity, and clinical indicators) recorded in the eCRF with the data in the digital images of the original records. Result 664 episodes of pneumonia were recorded after 6 months of follow-up. Of these 664 episodes, 611 (92%) had a finding of pneumonia in the original records. All digital images of the original records were clear and legible. Conclusion Electronic data capture using eCRFs on mobile technology is feasible in rural Malawi. Capturing digital images of the original records in the field allows remote SDV to be conducted efficiently and securely without requiring additional field visits. We recommend these approaches in similar settings, especially those with health endpoints. PMID:27355447

  3. Comparative Outcome Analysis of Penicillin-Based Versus Fluoroquinolone-Based Antibiotic Therapy for Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chi-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Hui; Lin, Kuan-Yin; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Sheng, Wang-Huei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common but potentially life-threatening condition, but limited information exists on the effectiveness of fluoroquinolones compared to β-lactams in outpatient settings. We aimed to compare the effectiveness and outcomes of penicillins versus respiratory fluoroquinolones for CAP at outpatient clinics. This was a claim-based retrospective cohort study. Patients aged 20 years or older with at least 1 new pneumonia treatment episode were included, and the index penicillin or respiratory fluoroquinolone therapies for a pneumonia episode were at least 5 days in duration. The 2 groups were matched by propensity scores. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare the rates of hospitalizations/emergence service visits and 30-day mortality. A logistic model was used to compare the likelihood of treatment failure between the 2 groups. After propensity score matching, 2622 matched pairs were included in the final model. The likelihood of treatment failure of fluoroquinolone-based therapy was lower than that of penicillin-based therapy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.88; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.77–0.99), but no differences were found in hospitalization/emergence service (ES) visits (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95% CI, 0.92–1.74) and 30-day mortality (adjusted HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.30–1.62) between the 2 groups. The likelihood of treatment failure of fluoroquinolone-based therapy was lower than that of penicillin-based therapy for CAP on an outpatient clinic basis. However, this effect may be marginal. Further investigation into the comparative effectiveness of these 2 treatment options is warranted. PMID:26871827

  4. Biomarkers of Delirium in a Low-Risk Community-Acquired Pneumonia-Induced Sepsis.

    PubMed

    Tomasi, Cristiane Damiani; Vuolo, Francieli; Generoso, Jaqueline; Soares, Márcio; Barichello, Tatiana; Quevedo, João; Ritter, Cristiane; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe

    2017-01-01

    There are different theories about the pathophysiology of sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE), and the majority of our knowledge was derived from critically ill patients. 7In less severe sepsis, it is probable that neuroinflammation can be a major aspect of SAE development. We hypothesized that in non-severe septic patients, blood biomarkers of inflammation, endothelial activation, coagulation, and brain function would be different when compared to patients with and without brain dysfunction. A total of 30 patients presenting with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP)-induced sepsis were included of which 10 (33 %) developed SAE. Eight medical patients admitted to the general ward, except due to sepsis or infection, which developed delirium were included as delirium, non-sepsis group. From all measured biomarkers, only brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), regulated upon activation normal T cell expressed, and presumably secreted (RANTES), and interleukin (IL)-10 where significantly different when compared to SAE and sepsis groups. In addition, SAE patients presented higher levels of BDNF, vascular cellular adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-AB/BB and RANTES when compared to delirium patients. In conclusion, the profile of biomarkers differs between SAE, sepsis, and delirium patients, suggesting that pathways related to SAE are different from delirium and from sepsis itself.

  5. [Clinical and radiological diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia in adults].

    PubMed

    Gil D, Rodrigo; Fernández V, Patricia; Sabbagh P, Eduardo

    2005-01-01

    Community acquired pneumonia in adults is an acute disease characterized by worsening in general conditions, fever, chills, cough, mucopurulent sputum and dyspnea; associated with tachycardia, tachypnea, fever and focal signs in pulmonary examination. The probability of pneumonia in a patient with acute respiratory symptoms depends on the disease prevalence in the environment where it is acquired and on clinical features. It is estimated that pneumonia prevalence is 3-5% in patients with respiratory disease seen in outpatient facilities. Clinical diagnosis of pneumonia without radiological confirmation lacks specificity because clinical presentation (history and physical examination) does not allow to differentiate pneumonia from other acute respiratory diseases (upper respiratory infections, bronchitis, influenza). Diagnosis must be based in clinical-radiological findings: clinical history and physical examination suggest the presence of pulmonary infection but accurate diagnosis is established when chest X ray confirms the existence of pulmonary infiltrates. Clinical findings and chest X ray do not permit to predict with certainty the etiology of pulmonary infection. Radiology is useful to confirm clinical suspicion, it establishes pneumonia location, its extension and severity; furthermore, it allows differentiation between pneumonia and other diseases, to detect possible complications, and may be useful in follow up of high risk patients. The resolution of radiological infiltrates often ensues several weeks or months after clinical recovery, especially in the elderly and in multilobar pneumonia cared for in intensive care units.

  6. Retrospective epidemiological study for the characterization of community- acquired pneumonia and pneumococcal pneumonia in adults in a well-defined area of Badalona (Barcelona, Spain)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) has large impact on direct healthcare costs, especially those derived from hospitalization. This study determines impact, clinical characteristics, outcome and economic consequences of CAP in the adult (≥18 years) population attended in 6 primary-care centers and 2 hospitals in Badalona (Spain) over a two-year period. Methods Medical records were identified by codes from the International Classification of Diseases in databases (January 1st 2008-December 31st 2009). Results A total of 581 patients with CAP (55.6% males, mean age 57.5 years) were identified. Prevalence: 0.64% (95% CI: 0.5%-0.7%); annual incidence: 3.0 cases/1,000 inhabitants (95% CI: 0.2-0.5). Up to 241 (41.5%) required hospitalization. Hospital admission was associated (p<0.002) with liver disease (OR=5.9), stroke (OR=3.6), dementia (OR=3.5), COPD (OR=2.9), diabetes mellitus (OR=1.9) and age (OR=1.1 per year). Length of stay (4.4±0.3 days) was associated with PSI score (β=0.195), in turn associated with age (r=0.827) and Charlson index (r=0.497). Microbiological tests were performed in all inpatients but only in 35% outpatients. Among patients with microbiological tests, results were positive in 51.7%, and among them, S pneumoniae was identified in 57.5% cases. Time to recovery was 29.9±17.2 days. Up to 7.5% inpatients presented complications, 0.8% required ICU admission and 19.1% readmission. Inhospital mortality rate was 2.5%. Adjusted mean total cost was €2,332.4/inpatient and €698.6/outpatient (p<0.001). Patients with pneumococcal CAP (n=107) showed higher comorbidity and hospitalization (76.6%), higher PSI score, larger time to recovery and higher overall costs among inpatients. Conclusions Strategies preventing CAP, thus reducing hospital admissions could likely produce substantial costs savings in addition to the reduction of CAP burden. PMID:23114195

  7. Capsule Switching and Antimicrobial Resistance Acquired during Repeated Streptococcus pneumoniae Pneumonia Episodes.

    PubMed

    Chang, Bin; Nariai, Akiyoshi; Sekizuka, Tsuyoshi; Akeda, Yukihiro; Kuroda, Makoto; Oishi, Kazunori; Ohnishi, Makoto

    2015-10-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae colonizes the nasopharyngeal mucus in healthy people and causes otitis media, pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis. In this study, we analyzed an S. pneumoniae strain that caused 7 repeated pneumonia episodes in an 80-month-old patient with cerebral palsy during a period of 25 months. A total of 10 S. pneumoniae strains were obtained from sputum samples, and serotype 6B was isolated from samples from the first 5 episodes, whereas serotype 6A was isolated from samples from the last 2. Whole-genome sequencing showed clonality of the 10 isolates with 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the genomes. Among these SNPs, one single point mutation in the wciP gene was presumed to relate to the serotype switching from 6B to 6A, and the other mutations in parC and gyrA were related to fluoroquinolone resistance. These results suggested that an S. pneumoniae strain, which asymptomatically colonized the patient's nasopharynx or was horizontally transmitted from an asymptomatic carrier, caused the repeated pneumonia events. Phenotypic variations in the capsule type and antimicrobial susceptibility occurred during the carrier state. Hyporesponsiveness to serotypes 6B and 6A of S. pneumoniae was found even after vaccination with the 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine and the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine. After an additional vaccination with the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine, opsonic activities for both serotypes 6A and 6B significantly increased and are expected to prevent relapse by the same strain.

  8. Relationship between the Use of Inhaled Steroids for Chronic Respiratory Diseases and Early Outcomes in Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Almirall, Jordi; Bolíbar, Ignasi; Serra-Prat, Mateu; Palomera, Elisabet; Roig, Jordi; Hospital, Imma; Carandell, Eugenia; Agustí, Mercè; Ayuso, Pilar; Estela, Andreu; Torres, Antoni

    2013-01-01

    Background The role of inhaled steroids in patients with chronic respiratory diseases is a matter of debate due to the potential effect on the development and prognosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We assessed whether treatment with inhaled steroids in patients with chronic bronchitis, COPD or asthma and CAP may affect early outcome of the acute pneumonic episode. Methods Over 1-year period, all population-based cases of CAP in patients with chronic bronchitis, COPD or asthma were registered. Use of inhaled steroids were registered and patients were followed up to 30 days after diagnosis to assess severity of CAP and clinical course (hospital admission, ICU admission and mortality). Results Of 473 patients who fulfilled the selection criteria, inhaled steroids were regularly used by 109 (23%). In the overall sample, inhaled steroids were associated with a higher risk of hospitalization (OR=1.96, p = 0.002) in the bivariate analysis, but this effect disappeared after adjusting by other severity-related factors (adjusted OR=1.08, p=0.787). This effect on hospitalization also disappeared when considering only patients with asthma (OR=1.38, p=0.542), with COPD alone (OR=4.68, p=0.194), but a protective effect was observed in CB patients (OR=0.15, p=0.027). Inhaled steroids showed no association with ICU admission, days to clinical recovery and mortality in the overall sample and in any disease subgroup. Conclusions Treatment with inhaled steroids is not a prognostic factor in COPD and asthmatic patients with CAP, but could prevent hospitalization for CAP in patients with clinical criteria of chronic bronchitis. PMID:24039899

  9. Empirical therapy of community-acquired pneumonia: macrolides are not ideal choices.

    PubMed

    Bartlett, J G

    1997-12-01

    Macrolides are a rational option for patients with community-acquired pneumonia managed as outpatients. For hospitalized patients, they may be used to supplement other drugs, usually betalactams, because of their excellent activity versus Legionella, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae. The reason for lack of confidence for macrolides as single agents in hospitalized patients, especially for seriously ill patients, is the lack of studies confirming good results for seriously ill patients, and relatively poor in vitro activity against some important pathogens. Resistance is noted to erythromycin, clarithromycin, and azithromycin by 10% to 15% of Streptococcus pneumoniae, about 40% of penicillin resistant S pneumoniae, most Fusobacteria, some Streptococcus aureus, and all gram-negative bacilli.

  10. Legionella-like and other amoebal pathogens as agents of community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Marrie, T. J.; Raoult, D.; La Scola, B.; Birtles, R. J.; de Carolis, E.

    2001-01-01

    We tested serum specimens from three groups of patients with pneumonia by indirect immunofluorescence against Legionella-like amoebal pathogens (LLAPs) 1-7, 9, 10, 12, 13; Parachlamydia acanthamoeba strains BN 9 and Hall's coccus; and Afipia felis. We found that LLAPs play a role (albeit an infrequent one) in community-acquired pneumonia, usually as a co-pathogen but sometimes as the sole identified pathogen. PMID:11747734

  11. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among U.S. Children

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Seema; Williams, Derek J.; Arnold, Sandra R.; Ampofo, Krow; Bramley, Anna M.; Reed, Carrie; Stockmann, Chris; Anderson, Evan J.; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Self, Wesley H.; Zhu, Yuwei; Patel, Anami; Hymas, Weston; Chappell, James D.; Kaufman, Robert A.; Kan, J. Herman; Dansie, David; Lenny, Noel; Hillyard, David R.; Haynes, Lia M.; Levine, Min; Lindstrom, Stephen; Winchell, Jonas M.; Katz, Jacqueline M.; Erdman, Dean; Schneider, Eileen; Hicks, Lauri A.; Wunderink, Richard G.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Pavia, Andrew T.; McCullers, Jonathan A.; Finelli, Lyn

    2015-01-01

    Background U.S. incidence estimates of pediatric community-acquired pneumonia hospitalizations based on prospective data collection are limited. Updated estimates with radiographic confirmation and current laboratory diagnostics are needed. Methods We conducted active population-based surveillance for community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among children <18 years in three hospitals in Memphis, Nashville, and Salt Lake City. We excluded children with recent hospitalization and severe immunosuppression. Blood and respiratory specimens were systematically collected for pathogen detection by multiple modalities. Chest radiographs were independently reviewed by study radiologists. We calculated population-based incidence rates of community-acquired pneumonia hospitalizations, overall and by age and pathogen. Results From January 2010-June 2012, we enrolled 2638 (69%) of 3803 eligible children; 2358 (89%) had radiographic pneumonia. Median age was 2 years (interquartile range 1-6); 497 (21%) children required intensive care, and three (<1%) died. Among 2222 children with radiographic pneumonia and specimens available for both bacterial and viral testing, a viral and/or bacterial pathogen was detected in 1802 (81%); ≥1 virus in 1472 (66%), bacteria in 175 (8%), and bacterial-viral co-detection in 155 (7%). Annual pneumonia incidence was 15.7/10,000 children [95% confidence interval (CI) 14.9-16.5], with highest rates among children <2 years [62.2/10,000 (CI 57.6-67.1)]. Respiratory syncytial virus (37% vs. 8%), adenovirus (15% vs. 3%), and human metapneumovirus (15% vs. 8%) were more commonly detected in children <5 years compared with older children; Mycoplasma pneumoniae (19% vs. 3%) was more common in children ≥5 years. Conclusions Pediatric community-acquired pneumonia hospitalization burden was highest among the very young, with respiratory viruses most commonly detected. PMID:25714161

  12. Community-Acquired Moraxella catarrhalis Bacteremic Pneumonia: Two Case Reports and Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Prota, Miguel Angel; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; García-Clemente, Marta; Fole-Vázquez, David; Casan, Pere

    2016-01-01

    Moraxella (formerly Branhamella) catarrhalis was discovered at the end of the nineteenth century, and for many decades it was considered to be a harmless commensal of the upper respiratory tract. It is a Gram-negative, aerobic diplococcus considered to be the third most common pathogen isolated in childhood sinusitis and otitis media and in adult chronic lower respiratory disease, as well as an etiological agent of pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients or those with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Moraxella catarrhalis pneumonia is rarely associated with bacteremia. Here, we present two cases of community-acquired Moraxella catarrhalis bacteremic pneumonia. PMID:26989548

  13. Efficacy of a three day course of azithromycin in moderately severe community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Rizzato, G; Montemurro, L; Fraioli, P; Montanari, G; Fanti, D; Pozzoli, R; Magliano, E

    1995-03-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a 3 day course of azithromycin in low to moderately severe community-acquired pneumonia. Forty patients with low to moderately severe community-acquired pneumonia (29 males, 11 females, mean age 46 +/- 17 yrs; 20 pretreated with betalactams for 2-10 days with no results before admission to hospital; 18 with evidence of co-morbidity) were enrolled in an open, randomized study with azithromycin, 500 mg q.d. oral therapy for 3 days, versus clarithromycin, 250 mg b.i.d. oral therapy for 10 +/- 2 days. The aetiology of pneumonia was identified in 18 patients by serology (nine Mycoplasma pneumoniae, four Chlamydia pneumoniae, five Legionella pneumophila; one patient with chlamydial infection also had Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteraemia). A presumptive aetiological diagnosis was obtained with sputum culture in three other patients (one Haemophilus influenzae, two Haemophilus parainfluenzae), all strains were sole isolates with 10(8) Colony forming units (CFU), and with Gram stain in one patient with Streptococcus pneumoniae. All patients in the azithromycin group (one after a second 3 day course), and all but two (of those available for evaluation) of the clarithromycin group were cured. Defervescence occurred after 2.6 +/- 1.6 days, and chest roentgenogram cleared after 8.9 +/- 3.3 days, with no difference between the two groups. Tolerance was good, and there were no withdrawals from therapy.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. Efficacy and safety of azithromycin versus benzylpenicillin or erythromycin in community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Bohte, R; van't Wout, J W; Lobatto, S; Blussé van Oud Alblas, A; Boekhout, M; Nauta, E H; Hermans, J; van den Broek, P J

    1995-03-01

    Azithromycin, a recently introduced antibiotic, offers the potential advantages of short-course administration and lower toxicity compared to other macrolides. Approved for the treatment of mild pneumonia, this drug was investigated in a study of patients hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia. In an open-labelled randomized study, oral azithromycin was compared with intravenous benzylpenicillin in patients suspected to have pneumococcal pneumonia. Azithromycin was also compared with erythromycin, both administered orally, in all other patients. Three hundred thirty-four patients with community-acquired pneumonia were hospitalized, 108 of whom were randomized; 104 could be evaluated. A need for intravenous therapy was the most common reason for exclusion. In the pneumococcal group, 35 patients received azithromycin and 29 benzylpenicillin. The clinical and radiological success rate achieved with azithromycin (83%) was considerably higher than that achieved with benzylpenicillin (66%), though the difference was not significant. In the non-pneumococcal group, 19 patients received azithromycin and 21 erythromycin; no differences in the success rate were found (79% and 76%, respectively). Eight patients on azithromycin had a blood culture positive for Streptococcus pneumoniae; in three of these patients therapy was changed. None of the five patients with pneumococcal bacteraemia who received benzylpenicillin required a change in therapy. It is concluded that oral azithromycin, administered as short-course therapy, is an appropriate antibiotic for treating patients with community-acquired pneumonia. However, it is not yet certain that azithromycin is a good choice for patients with pneumococcal bacteraemia.

  15. Efficacy of a new pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanate (2000/125 mg) in adults with community-acquired pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, including penicillin-resistant strains.

    PubMed

    File, Thomas M; Garau, Javier; Jacobs, Michael R; Wynne, Brian; Twynholm, Monique; Berkowitz, Elchonon

    2005-02-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common respiratory illness, frequently caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. The prevalence of S. pneumoniae resistance to common antimicrobials has increased over recent years. A new pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation of amoxicillin/clavulanate (2000/125 mg) has been developed, designed to combat infections caused by S. pneumoniae, including penicillin-resistant (PRSP, penicillin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) >or=2mg/l) isolates, and those with elevated amoxicillin/clavulanic acid MICs, while maintaining coverage of beta-lactamase-producing pathogens. A pooled efficacy analysis of four randomized (1:1) and one non-comparative clinical trials of amoxicillin/clavulanate, 2000/125 mg, given twice daily, was conducted in adult patients with CAP. Comparator agents were conventional amoxicillin/clavulanate formulations. At follow-up (days 16-39), efficacy (eradication of the initial pathogen or clinical cure in patients for whom no repeat culture was performed) in patients with S. pneumoniae infection was 92.3% (274/297) for amoxicillin/clavulanate, 2000/125 mg and 85.2% (46/54) for comparators (P=0.11). Twenty-four of 25 PRSP-infected patients receiving amoxicillin/clavulanate, 2000/125 mg were treated successfully. Both amoxicillin/clavulanate, 2000/125 mg and comparators were well tolerated, with few patients withdrawing from the studies.

  16. The value of signs and symptoms in differentiating between bacterial, viral and mixed aetiology in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Huijskens, Elisabeth G W; Koopmans, Marion; Palmen, Fernand M H; van Erkel, Adriana J M; Mulder, Paul G H; Rossen, John W A

    2014-03-01

    Current diagnostics for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) include testing for a wide range of pathogens, which is costly and not always informative. We compared clinical and laboratory parameters of patients with CAP caused by different groups of pathogens to evaluate the potential for targeted diagnostics and directed treatment. In a prospective study, conducted between April 2008 and April 2009, adult patients with CAP were tested for the presence of a broad range of possible respiratory pathogens using bacterial cultures, PCR, urinary antigen testing and serology. Of 408 patients with CAP, pathogens were detected in 263 patients (64.5%). Streptococcus pneumoniae and influenza A virus were the most frequently identified bacterial and viral pathogens, respectively. Age had a significant effect on the prediction of aetiology (P = 0.054), with an increase in the relative contribution of viruses with advancing age. Multivariate analyses further showed that the presence of cough increased the likelihood of detecting a viral pathogen [odds ratio (OR) 5.536, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.130-14.390], the presence of immunodeficiency decreased the likelihood of detecting a bacterial pathogen (OR 0.595, 95 % CI 0.246-1.437) and an increase in pneumonia severity index score increased the likelihood of detecting a pathogen in general. Although several variables were independently associated with the detection of a pathogen group, substantial overlap meant there were no reliable clinical predictors to distinguish aetiologies. Therefore, testing for common respiratory pathogens is still necessary to optimize treatment.

  17. [Summary of the Consensus for management of community acquired pneumonia in adults].

    PubMed

    2005-08-01

    This is an update of the Consensus for treatment of community acquired pneumonia in adults, prepared by the Chilean Society of Respiratory Diseases and the Chilean Society of Infectious Diseases. These norms were prepared by thirty specialists in respiratory diseases, internal medicine, infectious diseases, microbiology, intensive medicine and radiology. The purpose of the document is to norm the management of immunocompetent adults with community acquired pneumonia, by the public and private health systems of our country. The complete document will be published in June, in the respective journals of the Societies of Respiratory and Infectious Diseases. This is a summary to obtain a better diffusion of these norms among internists and general practitioners.

  18. Costs and health care resource utilization among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with newly acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Junji; Li, Yunfeng; Tian, Haijun; Goodman, Michael J; Gabriel, Susan; Nazareth, Tara; Turner, Stuart J; Arcona, Stephen; Kahler, Kristijan H

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk for lung infections and other pathologies (eg, pneumonia); however, few studies have evaluated the impact of pneumonia on health care resource utilization and costs in this population. The purpose of this study was to estimate health care resource utilization and costs among COPD patients with newly acquired pneumonia compared to those without pneumonia. Methods A retrospective claims analysis using Truven MarketScan® Commercial and Medicare databases was conducted. COPD patients with and without newly acquired pneumonia diagnosed between January 1, 2004 and September 30, 2011 were identified. Propensity score matching was used to create a 1:1 matched cohort. Patient demographics, comorbidities (measured by Charlson Comorbidity Index), and medication use were evaluated before and after matching. Health care resource utilization (ie, hospitalizations, emergency room [ER] and outpatient visits), and associated health care costs were assessed during the 12-month follow-up. Logistic regression was conducted to evaluate the risk of hospitalization and ER visits, and gamma regression models and two-part models compared health care costs between groups after matching. Results In the baseline cohort (N=467,578), patients with newly acquired pneumonia were older (mean age: 70 versus [vs] 63 years) and had higher Charlson Comorbidity Index scores (3.3 vs 2.6) than patients without pneumonia. After propensity score matching, the pneumonia cohort was nine times more likely to have a hospitalization (odds ratio; 95% confidence intervals [CI] =9.2; 8.9, 9.4) and four times more likely to have an ER visit (odds ratio; 95% CI =4.4; 4.3, 4.5) over the 12-month follow-up period compared to the control cohort. The estimated 12-month mean hospitalization costs ($14,353 [95% CI: $14,037–$14,690]), outpatient costs ($6,891 [95% CI: $6,706–$7,070]), and prescription drug costs ($1,104 [95% CI

  19. Pneumococcal Conjugated Vaccine Reduces the High Mortality for Community-Acquired Pneumonia in the Elderly: an Italian Regional Experience

    PubMed Central

    Gallo, Tolinda; Furlan, Patrizia; Romor, Pierantonio; Bertoncello, Chiara; Buja, Alessandra; Baldovin, Tatjana

    2016-01-01

    Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an important cause of illness and death worldwide, particularly among the elderly. Previous studies on the factors associated with mortality in patients hospitalized for CAP revealed a direct association between the type of microorganism involved, the characteristics of the patient and mortality. Vaccination status against pneumococcal disease was not considered. We conducted a retrospective analysis on the mortality rates after a first hospitalization for CAP in north-east Italy with a view to examining especially the role of anti-pneumococcal vaccination as a factor associated with pneumonia-related mortality at one year. Method Between 2012–2013, patients aged 65+ hospitalized with a primary diagnosis of CAP, identified based on International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes 481–486, were enrolled in the study only once. Patients were divided into three groups by pneumococcal vaccination status: 1) 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV13) prior to their hospitalization; 2) 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) within 5 years before hospitalization and 3) unvaccinated or PPV23 more than 5 years prior to admission. Gender, age, length of hospital stay and influenza vaccination were considered. Comorbidities were ascertained by means of a properly coded diagnosis. Every patient was followed up for 1 year and the outcome investigated was mortality for any cause and for pneumonia. Results A total of 4,030 patient were included in the study; mean age at the time of admission to hospital was 84.3±7.7; 50.9% were female. 74.2% of subjects had at least one comorbidity; 73.7% has been vaccinated against influenza. Regard to pneumococcal vaccine, 80.4% of patients were not vaccinated, 14.5% vaccinated with PPV23 and 5.1% with PCV13. The 1-year survival rates after hospitalization for pneumonia were 83.6%, 85.9% and 89.3% in the unvaccinated, PPV23 and PCV13

  20. Corticosteroids in the adjunctive therapy of community-acquired pneumonia: an appraisal of recent meta-analyses of clinical trials

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Ronald

    2016-01-01

    Improving the outcome of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is an ongoing challenge, even in the setting of significant advances in antimicrobial chemotherapy and critical care. Recognition of the underlying involvement of inflammation-mediated organ dysfunction as a determinant of adverse outcomes in CAP has aroused intense interest in the protective potential of adjunctive anti-inflammatory therapies in CAP, particularly the role of corticosteroids (CS). This is the primary topic of the current review which is focused on an evaluation of the latest meta-analyses encompassing both recent and earlier clinical trials, with particular emphasis on the stringent meta-analysis undertaken by Siemieniuk and colleagues (Ann Intern Med 2015;163:519–528). The review highlights the findings and recommendations of these and related published commentaries/critiques, while providing a brief description of those sub-groups of patients who seemingly stand to benefit most from CS therapy. This is preceded by an overview of the mechanisms of the anti-inflammatory activities of CS, the interactions of these agents with macrolide antibiotics, and the potential benefits and risks of short-term administration of CS, concluding with a succinct appraisal of priority issues for ongoing and future research. PMID:27076965

  1. A GeXP-Based Assay for Simultaneous Detection of Multiple Viruses in Hospitalized Children with Community Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le; Zhao, Mengchuan; Shi, Zhongren; Feng, Zhishan; Guo, Weiwei; Yang, Shuo; Liu, Lanping; Li, Guixia

    2016-01-01

    The GeXP-based assay has recently been developed for simultaneous detection of multiple pathogens. So far, the application of the GeXP assay to test larger clinical samples has hardly been reported. Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the leading cause of death in children worldwide and a substantial proportion of childhood CAP is caused by viruses. Rapid and accurate diagnosis of virus infection is important for the clinical management of CAP. In this study, we explored the GeXP assay for simultaneous detection of 20 types/subtypes of viruses in hospitalized children with CAP. A total of 1699 nasopharyngeal swabs were prospectively collected and viral nucleic acid was extracted and assayed. Using viral genomic DNA or RNA as template, we showed that at the concentration of 104 copies of DNA or RNA of each virus/μl, all 20 target viruses were simultaneously identified by the GeXP assay. Fifteen control microorganisms, in contrast, failed to be amplified by the assay. About 65% of cases tested in this study had viral infection, with patients aged <3 years having a 70% positive rate, significantly higher than that in patients aged > 3 years (40%). The most frequently detected virus was RSV followed by PIV3, HRV, ADV and HBoV. Seasonal distribution analysis revealed that RSV was the most predominant in autumn and winter, while in spring and summer PIV3 and RSV were the most frequently identified with similar positive percentages. One hundred twenty randomly-chosen samples tested by the GeXP assay were re-evaluated by mono-RT-PCR, the results showed 97.5% diagnosis agreement between these 2 methods. Our findings suggest that the GeXP assay could be a valuable diagnostic tool for virus infection in pediatric patients with CAP. PMID:27627439

  2. Hospitalisation with community-acquired pneumonia among patients with type 2 diabetes: an observational population-based study in Spain from 2004 to 2013

    PubMed Central

    López-de-Andrés, Ana; de Miguel-Díez, Javier; Jiménez-Trujillo, Isabel; Hernández-Barrera, Valentín; de Miguel-Yanes, José M; Méndez-Bailón, Manuel; Pérez-Farinós, Napoleón; Salinero-Fort, Miguel Á ngel; Jiménez-García, Rodrigo

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To describe trends in the incidence and outcomes of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) hospitalisations among patients with or without diabetes in Spain (2004–2013). Design Retrospective, observational study using the Spanish National Hospital Discharge Database (Conjunto Mínimo Básico de Datos (CMBD)). Setting Spain. Participants We used national hospital discharge data to select all hospital admissions for CAP. Main outcome measures Incidence was calculated overall and stratified by diabetes status: type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and no diabetes. Results We identified 901 136 admissions for CAP (24.8% with T2DM). Incidence rates of CAP increased significantly in patients with T2DM over time. The incidence was higher among people with T2DM for all time periods. Patients with T2DM were older and had higher comorbidity index than non-diabetics. Streptococcus pneumoniae decreased over time for both groups. Time trend analyses showed significant decreases in mortality during admission for CAP for patients with and without T2DM. Factors associated with higher mortality in both groups included: older age, higher comorbidity, mechanical ventilation, red cell transfusion, readmission and Staphylococcus aureus detection. Diabetes was associated with a lower in-hospital mortality (OR 0.92, 95% CI 0.91 to 0.94) after a CAP hospitalisation. Conclusions CAP incidence rates were higher and increased over time at a higher rate among patients with T2DM. Mortality decreased over time in all groups. The presence of diabetes is not a risk factor for death during admission for CAP. PMID:28057653

  3. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from vaccinated and non-vaccinated patients with a clinically confirmed diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Lismond, Ann; Carbonnelle, Sylviane; Verhaegen, Jan; Schatt, Patricia; De Bel, Annelies; Jordens, Paul; Jacobs, Frédérique; Dediste, Anne; Verschuren, Frank; Huang, Te-Din; Tulkens, Paul M; Glupczynski, Youri; Van Bambeke, Françoise

    2012-03-01

    We assessed the in vitro susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from patients with confirmed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) to β-lactams, macrolides and fluoroquinolones and the association of non-susceptibility and resistance with serotypes/serogroups (STs/SGs), patient's risk factors and vaccination status. Samples (blood or lower respiratory tract) were obtained in 2007-2009 from 249 patients (from seven hospitals in Belgium) with a clinical and radiological diagnosis of CAP [median age 61 years (11.6% aged <5 years); 85% without previous antibiotic therapy; 86% adults with level II Niederman's severity score]. MIC determination (EUCAST breakpoints) showed for: (i) amoxicillin, 6% non-susceptible; cefuroxime (oral), 6.8% resistant; (ii) macrolides: 24.9% erythromycin-resistant [93.5% erm(B)-positive] but 98.4% telithromycin-susceptible; and (iii) levofloxacin and moxifloxacin, all susceptible. Amongst SGs: ST14, all resistant to macrolides and most intermediate to β-lactams; SG19 (>94% ST19A), 73.5% resistant to macrolides and 18-21% intermediate to β-lactams; and SG6, 33% resistant to clarithromycin. Apparent vaccine failures: 3/17 for 7-valent vaccine (children; ST6B, 23F); 16/29 for 23-valent vaccine (adults ST3, 7F, 12F, 14, 19A, 22F, 23F, 33F). Isolates from nursing home residents, hospitalised patients and patients with non-respiratory co-morbidities showed increased MICs for amoxicillin, all β-lactams, and β-lactams and macrolides, respectively. Regarding antibiotic susceptibilities: (i) amoxicillin is still useful for empirical therapy but with a high daily dose; (ii) cefuroxime axetil and macrolides (but not telithromycin) are inappropriate for empirical therapy; and (iii) moxifloxacin and levofloxacin are the next 'best empirical choice' (no resistant isolates) but levofloxacin will require 500 mg twice-daily dosing for effective coverage.

  4. [MIPS: multicenter Italian pneumonia study. Results of an observational, prospective and multicenter study on the clinical approach to community-acquired pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Artom, A; Artom, P; Rattenni, S; Castello, C; Lo Pinto, G

    2004-09-01

    In a survey of 25 Divisions of Internal Medicine and Pneumology throughout Italy, our study aimed to ascertain the diagnostic and therapeutic pathway, the gravity in accordance with Fine's score (PSI), the median hospital length of stay and mortality rate among patients consecutively hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), from January 1 to March 31, 2002. Overall 407 patients were evaluated, with a mean age of 69 years; the following Fine's scores: 28% less than 70, 21.4% between 71 and 90, 31.25% between 91 and 130, 19.4% more than130. A single chest radiography was performed in 27.2% of the patients, two chest radiographs in 55.2% of the patients, more than two chest radiographs in 13.2% of the patients. A CT scan of the thorax was performed in 20.1% of the patients; arterial blood gas tensions were measured in 73.4% of the patients. Antibiotics were used as follows: beta-lactams in 46.5% of the patients, fluoroquinolones in 30% of the patients, macrolides in 13.2% of the patients, glycopeptides in 2.2% of the patients, others in 2.9% of the patients. Mean hospital stay was 11 days; the 30-day in-hospital mortality was 9.6%. This study showed that a large number of patients with low-risk CAP were unnecessarily hospitalized.

  5. Management of severe community-acquired pneumonia in Brazil: a secondary analysis of an international survey

    PubMed Central

    Rabello, Lígia; Conceição, Catarina; Ebecken, Katia; Lisboa, Thiago; Bozza, Fernando Augusto; Soares, Márcio; Póvoa, Pedro; Salluh, Jorge Ibrain Figueira

    2015-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate Brazilian physicians’ perceptions regarding the diagnosis, severity assessment, treatment and risk stratification of severe community-acquired pneumonia patients and to compare those perceptions to current guidelines. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional international anonymous survey among a convenience sample of critical care, pulmonary, emergency and internal medicine physicians from Brazil between October and December 2008. The electronic survey evaluated physicians’ attitudes towards the diagnosis, risk assessment and therapeutic interventions for patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia. Results A total of 253 physicians responded to the survey, with 66% from Southeast Brazil. The majority (60%) of the responding physicians had > 10 years of medical experience. The risk assessment of severe community-acquired pneumonia was very heterogeneous, with clinical evaluation as the most frequent approach. Although blood cultures were recognized as exhibiting a poor diagnostic performance, these cultures were performed by 75% of respondents. In contrast, the presence of urinary pneumococcal and Legionella antigens was evaluated by less than 1/3 of physicians. The vast majority of physicians (95%) prescribe antibiotics according to a guideline, with the combination of a 3rd/4th generation cephalosporin plus a macrolide as the most frequent choice. Conclusion This Brazilian survey identified an important gap between guidelines and clinical practice and recommends the institution of educational programs that implement evidence-based strategies for the management of severe community-acquired pneumonia. PMID:25909314

  6. Community-Acquired Pneumonia Requiring Hospitalization among U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Jain, S.; Self, W.H.; Wunderink, R.G.; Fakhran, S.; Balk, R.; Bramley, A.M.; Reed, C.; Grijalva, C.G.; Anderson, E.J.; Courtney, D.M.; Chappell, J.D.; Qi, C.; Hart, E.M.; Carroll, F.; Trabue, C.; Donnelly, H.K.; Williams, D.J.; Zhu, Y.; Arnold, S.R.; Ampofo, K.; Waterer, G.W.; Levine, M.; Lindstrom, S.; Winchell, J.M.; Katz, J.M.; Erdman, D.; Schneider, E.; Hicks, L.A.; McCullers, J.A.; Pavia, A.T.; Edwards, K.M.; Finelli, L.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Community-acquired pneumonia is a leading infectious cause of hospitalization and death among U.S. adults. Incidence estimates of pneumonia confirmed radio-graphically and with the use of current laboratory diagnostic tests are needed. METHODS We conducted active population-based surveillance for community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among adults 18 years of age or older in five hospitals in Chicago and Nashville. Patients with recent hospitalization or severe immunosuppression were excluded. Blood, urine, and respiratory specimens were systematically collected for culture, serologic testing, antigen detection, and molecular diagnostic testing. Study radiologists independently reviewed chest radiographs. We calculated population-based incidence rates of community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization according to age and pathogen. RESULTS From January 2010 through June 2012, we enrolled 2488 of 3634 eligible adults (68%). Among 2320 adults with radiographic evidence of pneumonia (93%), the median age of the patients was 57 years (interquartile range, 46 to 71); 498 patients (21%) required intensive care, and 52 (2%) died. Among 2259 patients who had radio-graphic evidence of pneumonia and specimens available for both bacterial and viral testing, a pathogen was detected in 853 (38%): one or more viruses in 530 (23%), bacteria in 247 (11%), bacterial and viral pathogens in 59 (3%), and a fungal or mycobacterial pathogen in 17 (1%). The most common pathogens were human rhinovirus (in 9% of patients), influenza virus (in 6%), and Streptococcus pneumoniae (in 5%). The annual incidence of pneumonia was 24.8 cases (95% confidence interval, 23.5 to 26.1) per 10,000 adults, with the highest rates among adults 65 to 79 years of age (63.0 cases per 10,000 adults) and those 80 years of age or older (164.3 cases per 10,000 adults). For each pathogen, the incidence increased with age. CONCLUSIONS The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia

  7. Factors associated with 30-day mortality in elderly inpatients with community acquired pneumonia during 2 influenza seasons.

    PubMed

    Torner, Núria; Izquierdo, Conchita; Soldevila, Núria; Toledo, Diana; Chamorro, Judith; Espejo, Elena; Fernández-Sierra, Amelia; Domínguez, Angela

    2017-02-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) refers to pneumonia unrelated to hospitals or extended-care facilities. The aim of this study was to determine factors associated with 30-day mortality in patients with CAP aged ≥ 65 y admitted to 20 hospitals in 7 Spanish regions during the 2013-14 and 2014-15 influenza seasons. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with 30-day mortality. The adjusted model included variables selected by backward elimination with a cut off of < 0.02. A total of 1928 CAP cases were recorded; 60.7% were male, 46.67% were aged 75-84 years, and 30-day mortality was 7.6% (n = 146). Pneumococcal vaccination had a significant protective effect (OR 0.68, 95% CI, 0.48-0.96; p = 0.03) and influenza vaccination in any 3 preceding seasons slight protective effect against CAP (OR 0.72, 95% CI, 0.51-1.02;p = 0.06). Factors significantly associated with 30-day mortality were having a degree of dependence (aOR 3.67, 95% CI, 2.34-5.75; p < 0,001); age ≥ 85 y (OR 3.01, 95% CI, 1.71-5.30; p < 0.001), liver impairment (aOR 2.41, 95% CI, 1.10-5.31; p = 0.03); solid organ neoplasm (aOR 2.24, 95% CI, 1.46-3.45; p < 0.001), impaired cognitive function (aOR 1.93, 95% CI, 1.22-3.05; p = 0.005), and ICU admittance (aOR2.56, 95% CI, 1.27-5.16; p = 0.009); length of stay (aOR 1.56, 95% CI, 1.02 - 2.40; p = 0.04) and cardio-respiratory resuscitation (aOR 7.75, 95% CI, 1.20 - 49.98; p = 0.03). No association was observed for other comorbidities such as chronic pulmonary obstructive disease (COPD) or heart conditions in the adjusted model. Offering both pneumococcal and influenza vaccination to the elderly may improve 30-day mortality in patients with CAP.

  8. Variation in management of community-acquired pneumonia requiring admission to Alberta, Canada hospitals.

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Y.; Marrie, T. J.; Carriere, K. C.; Predy, G.; Houston, C.; Ness, K.; Johnson, D. H.

    2003-01-01

    Previous studies have shown small area variation in the rate of admission to hospital for patients with community-acquired pneumonia. We determined the rates of admission and length of stay for patients with community-acquired pneumonia in Alberta and the factors influencing admission rates and length of stay. Using hospital abstracts, hospital admissions for community-acquired pneumonia from 1 April 1994 to 31 March 1999 were compared. We classified Alberta hospitals according to geographical regions, by the number of beds, and by number of community-acquired pneumonia cases. There were 12,000 annual hospital discharges for community-acquired pneumonia costing over $40 million per year. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 12% and the 1 year mortality rate was 26%. Compared with rural hospitals, regional and metropolitan hospitals admitted patients with greater severity of illness as demonstrated by greater in-hospital mortality, cost per case and comorbidity. Age-sex adjusted hospital discharge rates were significantly below the provincial average in both urban regions. Hospital discharge rates for residents in all rural regions and 4 of 5 regions with a regional hospital were significantly higher than the provincial average. After adjusting for comorbidity, the relative risk for a longer length of stay was 22% greater in regional hospitals and about 30% greater in urban hospitals compared to rural hospitals. Seasonal variation in the admission rate was evident, with higher rates in the winter of each year. We conclude that rural hospitals would be likely to benefit from a protocol to help with the admission decision and urban hospitals from a programme to reduce length of stay. PMID:12613744

  9. IL-6 and TNF-α serum levels are associated with early death in community-acquired pneumonia patients.

    PubMed

    Bacci, M R; Leme, R C P; Zing, N P C; Murad, N; Adami, F; Hinnig, P F; Feder, D; Chagas, A C P; Fonseca, F L A

    2015-05-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is amongst the leading causes of death worldwide. As inflammatory markers, cytokines can predict outcomes, if interpreted together with clinical data and scoring systems such as CURB-65, CRB, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II). The aim of this study was to determine the impact of inflammatory biomarkers on the early mortality of hospitalized CAP patients. Twenty-seven CAP patients needing hospitalization were enrolled for the study and samples of interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP), and homocystein were collected at the time of admission (day 1) as well as on the seventh day of the treatment. There was a significant reduction in the levels of IL-6 between the first and the second collections. Median IL-6 values decreased from 24 pg/mL (day 1) to 8 pg/mL (day 7) (P=0.016). The median levels of TNF-α were higher in patients: i) with acute kidney injury (AKI) (P=0.045), ii) requiring mechanical ventilation (P=0.040), iii) with short hospital stays (P=0.009), iv) admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) (P=0.040), v) who died early (P=0.003), and vi) with worse CRB scores (P=0.013). In summary, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were associated with early mortality of CAP patients. Longer admission levels demonstrated greater likelihood of early death and overall mortality, necessity of mechanical ventilation, and AKI.

  10. Hypocapnia and Hypercapnia Are Predictors for ICU Admission and Mortality in Hospitalized Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Laserna, Elena; Sibila, Oriol; Aguilar, Patrick R.; Mortensen, Eric M.; Anzueto, Antonio; Blanquer, Jose M.; Sanz, Francisco; Rello, Jordi; Marcos, Pedro J.; Velez, Maria I.; Aziz, Nivin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of our study was to examine in patients hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) the association between abnormal Paco2 and ICU admission and 30-day mortality. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted at two tertiary teaching hospitals. Eligible subjects were admitted with a diagnosis of CAP. Arterial blood gas analyses were obtained with measurement of Paco2 on admission. Multivariate analyses were performed using 30-day mortality and ICU admission as the dependent measures. Results: Data were abstracted on 453 subjects with a documented arterial blood gas analysis. One hundred eighty-nine patients (41%) had normal Paco2 (35-45 mm Hg), 194 patients (42%) had a Paco2 < 35 mm Hg (hypocapnic), and 70 patients (15%) had a Paco2 > 45 mm Hg (hypercapnic). In the multivariate analysis, after adjusting for severity of illness, hypocapnic patients had greater 30-day mortality (OR = 2.84; 95% CI, 1.28-6.30) and a higher need for ICU admission (OR = 2.88; 95% CI, 1.68-4.95) compared with patients with normal Paco2. In addition, hypercapnic patients had a greater 30-day mortality (OR = 3.38; 95% CI, 1.38-8.30) and a higher need for ICU admission (OR = 5.35; 95% CI, 2.80-10.23). When patients with COPD were excluded from the analysis, the differences persisted between groups. Conclusion: In hospitalized patients with CAP, both hypocapnia and hypercapnia were associated with an increased need for ICU admission and higher 30-day mortality. These findings persisted after excluding patients with CAP and with COPD. Therefore, Paco2 should be considered for inclusion in future severity stratification criteria to appropriate identified patients who will require a higher level of care and are at risk for increased mortality. PMID:22677348

  11. Causes of non-adherence to therapeutic guidelines in severe community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Gattarello, Simone; Ramírez, Sergio; Almarales, José Rafael; Borgatta, Bárbara; Lagunes, Leonel; Encina, Belén; Rello, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the adherence to Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines and the causes of lack of adherence during empirical antibiotic prescription in severe pneumonia in Latin America. Methods A clinical questionnaire was submitted to 36 physicians from Latin America; they were asked to indicate the empirical treatment in two fictitious cases of severe respiratory infection: community-acquired pneumonia and nosocomial pneumonia. Results In the case of communityacquired pneumonia, 11 prescriptions of 36 (30.6%) were compliant with international guidelines. The causes for non-compliant treatment were monotherapy (16.0%), the unnecessary prescription of broad-spectrum antibiotics (40.0%) and the use of non-recommended antibiotics (44.0%). In the case of nosocomial pneumonia, the rate of adherence to the Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines was 2.8% (1 patient of 36). The reasons for lack of compliance were monotherapy (14.3%) and a lack of dual antibiotic coverage against Pseudomonas aeruginosa (85.7%). If monotherapy with an antipseudomonal antibiotic was considered adequate, the antibiotic treatment would be adequate in 100% of the total prescriptions. Conclusion The compliance rate with the Infectious Disease Society of America/American Thoracic Society guidelines in the community-acquired pneumonia scenario was 30.6%; the most frequent cause of lack of compliance was the indication of monotherapy. In the case of nosocomial pneumonia, the compliance rate with the guidelines was 2.8%, and the most important cause of non-adherence was lack of combined antipseudomonal therapy. If the use of monotherapy with an antipseudomonal antibiotic was considered the correct option, the treatment would be adequate in 100% of the prescriptions. PMID:25909312

  12. Tigecycline versus levofloxacin for the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: European experience.

    PubMed

    Dartois, N; Castaing, N; Gandjini, H; Cooper, A

    2008-10-01

    Tigecycline (TGC), a first-in-class glycylcycline that has been approved for treating complicated skin and skin structure infections and complicated intra-abdominal infections, has an expanded spectrum of activity against Gram-positive, Gram-negative, anaerobic, and atypical bacteria, including resistant strains. The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy and safety of TGC with levofloxacin (LEV) in adult hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in a randomised, doubleblind, phase 3 multinational trial. This analysis evaluated TGC efficacy and safety in the European region. Hospitalised patients from 53 centres in 18 countries received 7-14 days of i.v. TGC (100-mg loading dose followed by 50 mg every 12 hours) or i.v. LEV (500 mg once or twice daily). Co-primary efficacy endpoints were clinical response in clinically evaluable (CE) and clinical modified intent-to-treat (c-mITT) populations at test-of-cure (TOC). Results indicated that 358 patients received at least 1 dose of study medication (mITT: TGC 177, LEV 181), 245 were CE (TGC 125, LEV 120). Demographics were similar in both groups and the majority of patients had a Fine Pneumonia Severity Index of II to IV (84.4% TGC, 78.2% LEV, mITT). At TOC (CE), TGC cured 112/125 patients (89.6%; 95% CI 82.9, 94.3) and LEV cured 103/120 patients (85.8%; 95% CI 78.3, 91.5), absolute difference of TGC-LEV 3.8% (95% CI -5.3, 12.8; test for noninferiority p<0.001). For those CE patients with a Fine score of

  13. Moxifloxacin pharmacokinetic profile and efficacy evaluation in empiric treatment of community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Öbrink-Hansen, Kristina; Hardlei, Tore Forsingdal; Brock, Birgitte; Jensen-Fangel, Søren; Kragh Thomsen, Marianne; Petersen, Eskild; Kreilgaard, Mads

    2015-04-01

    When antimicrobials are used empirically, pathogen MICs equal to clinical breakpoints or epidemiological cutoff values must be considered. This is to ensure that the most resistant pathogen subpopulation is appropriately targeted to prevent emergence of resistance. Accordingly, we determined the pharmacokinetic (PK) profile of moxifloxacin at 400 mg/day in 18 patients treated empirically for community-acquired pneumonia. We developed a population pharmacokinetic model to assess the potential efficacy of moxifloxacin and to simulate the maximal MICs for which recommended pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PK-PD) estimates are obtained. Moxifloxacin plasma concentrations were determined the day after therapy initiation using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography. Peak drug concentrations (Cmax) and area under the free drug concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h (fAUC0-24) values predicted for each patient were evaluated against epidemiological cutoff MIC values for Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Legionella pneumophila. PK-PD targets adopted were a Cmax/MIC of ≥12.2 for all pathogens, an fAUC0-24/MIC of >34 for S. pneumoniae, and an fAUC0-24/MIC of >75 for H. influenzae and L. pneumophila. Individual predicted estimates for Cmax/MIC and fAUC0-24/MIC as well as simulated maximal MICs resulting in target attainment for oral and intravenous administration of the drug were suitable for S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae but not for L. pneumophila. These results indicate that caution must be taken when moxifloxacin is used as monotherapy to treat community-acquired pneumonia caused by L. pneumophila. In conclusion, this report reveals key information relevant to the empirical treatment of community-acquired pneumonia while highlighting the robust and flexible nature of this population pharmacokinetic model to predict therapeutic success. (Clinical Trials Registration no. NCT01983839.).

  14. Identification of Bacterial and Viral Codetections With Mycoplasma pneumoniae Using the TaqMan Array Card in Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Diaz, Maureen H; Cross, Kristen E; Benitez, Alvaro J; Hicks, Lauri A; Kutty, Preeta; Bramley, Anna M; Chappell, James D; Hymas, Weston; Patel, Anami; Qi, Chao; Williams, Derek J; Arnold, Sandra R; Ampofo, Krow; Self, Wesley H; Grijalva, Carlos G; Anderson, Evan J; McCullers, Jonathan A; Pavia, Andrew T; Wunderink, Richard G; Edwards, Kathryn M; Jain, Seema; Winchell, Jonas M

    2016-03-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected in a number of patients with community-acquired pneumonia in a recent prospective study. To assess whether other pathogens were also detected in these patients, TaqMan Array Cards were used to test 216 M pneumoniae-positive respiratory specimens for 25 additional viral and bacterial respiratory pathogens. It is interesting to note that 1 or more codetections, predominantly bacterial, were identified in approximately 60% of specimens, with codetections being more common in children.

  15. Identification of Bacterial and Viral Codetections With Mycoplasma pneumoniae Using the TaqMan Array Card in Patients Hospitalized With Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Maureen H.; Cross, Kristen E.; Benitez, Alvaro J.; Hicks, Lauri A.; Kutty, Preeta; Bramley, Anna M.; Chappell, James D.; Hymas, Weston; Patel, Anami; Qi, Chao; Williams, Derek J.; Arnold, Sandra R.; Ampofo, Krow; Self, Wesley H.; Grijalva, Carlos G.; Anderson, Evan J.; McCullers, Jonathan A.; Pavia, Andrew T.; Wunderink, Richard G.; Edwards, Kathryn M.; Jain, Seema; Winchell, Jonas M.

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae was detected in a number of patients with community-acquired pneumonia in a recent prospective study. To assess whether other pathogens were also detected in these patients, TaqMan Array Cards were used to test 216 M pneumoniae-positive respiratory specimens for 25 additional viral and bacterial respiratory pathogens. It is interesting to note that 1 or more codetections, predominantly bacterial, were identified in approximately 60% of specimens, with codetections being more common in children. PMID:27191004

  16. Using cluster analysis of cytokines to identify patterns of inflammation in hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Wiemken, Timothy L; Kelley, Robert R; Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Mattingly, William A.; Arnold, Forest W.; Furmanek, Stephen P; Restrepo, Marcos I; Chalmers, James D; Peyrani, Paula; Cavallazzi, Rodrigo; Bordon, Jose; Aliberti, Stefano; Ramirez, Julio A.

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are believed to have an exaggerated inflammatory response to bacterial infection. Therapies aiming to modulate the inflammatory response have been largely unsuccessful, perhaps reflecting that CAP is a heterogeneous disorder that cannot be modulated by a single anti-inflammatory approach. We hypothesize that the host inflammatory response to pneumonia may be characterized by distinct cytokine patterns, which can be harnessed for personalized therapies. Methods Here, we use hierarchical cluster analysis of cytokines to examine if patterns of inflammatory response in 13 hospitalized patients with CAP can be defined. This was a secondary data analysis of the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Inflammatory Study Group (CAPISG) database. The following cytokines were measured in plasma and sputum on the day of admission: interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), IL-6, CXCL8 (IL-8), IL-10, IL-12p40, IL-17, interferon (IFN)γ, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)α, and CXCL10 (IP-10). Hierarchical agglomerative clustering algorithms were used to evaluate clusters of patients within plasma and sputum cytokine determinations. Results A total of thirteen patients were included in this pilot study. Cluster analysis identified distinct inflammatory response patterns of cytokines in the plasma, sputum, and the ratio of plasma to sputum. Conclusions Inflammatory response patterns in plasma and sputum can be identified in hospitalized patients with CAP. Characterization of the local and systemic inflammatory response may help to better discriminate patients for enrollment into clinical trials of immunomodulatory therapies. PMID:28393141

  17. Effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination in preventing community-acquired pneumonia hospitalization and severe outcomes in the elderly in Spain.

    PubMed

    Domínguez, Àngela; Soldevila, Núria; Toledo, Diana; Torner, Núria; Force, Luis; Pérez, María José; Martín, Vicente; Rodríguez-Rojas, Lourdes; Astray, Jenaro; Egurrola, Mikel; Sanz, Francisco; Castilla, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Pneumococcal pneumonia is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly, but investigation of the etiological agent of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not possible in most hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (PPSV23) in preventing CAP hospitalization and reducing the risk of intensive care unit admission (ICU) and fatal outcomes in hospitalized people aged ≥65 years. We made a multicenter case-control study in 20 Spanish hospitals during 2013-2014 and 2014-2015. We selected patients aged ≥65 years hospitalized with a diagnosis of pneumonia and controls matched by sex, age and date of hospitalization. Multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression to estimate vaccine effectiveness and unconditional logistic regression to evaluate the reduction in the risk of severe and fatal outcomes. 1895 cases and 1895 controls were included; 13.7% of cases and 14.4% of controls had received PPSV23 in the last five years. The effectiveness of PPSV23 in preventing CAP hospitalization was 15.2% (95% CI -3.1-30.3). The benefit of PPSV23 in avoiding ICU admission or death was 28.1% (95% CI -14.3-56.9) in all patients, 30.9% (95% CI -32.2-67.4) in immunocompetent patients and 26.9% (95% CI -38.6-64.8) in immunocompromised patients. In conclusion, PPSV23 showed a modest trend to avoidance of hospitalizations due to CAP and to the prevention of death or ICU admission in elderly patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of CAP.

  18. Effectiveness of 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination in preventing community-acquired pneumonia hospitalization and severe outcomes in the elderly in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Soldevila, Núria; Toledo, Diana; Torner, Núria; Force, Luis; Pérez, María José; Martín, Vicente; Rodríguez-Rojas, Lourdes; Astray, Jenaro; Egurrola, Mikel; Sanz, Francisco; Castilla, Jesús

    2017-01-01

    Pneumococcal pneumonia is a serious cause of morbidity and mortality in the elderly, but investigation of the etiological agent of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not possible in most hospitalized patients. The aim of this study was to estimate the effect of pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination (PPSV23) in preventing CAP hospitalization and reducing the risk of intensive care unit admission (ICU) and fatal outcomes in hospitalized people aged ≥65 years. We made a multicenter case-control study in 20 Spanish hospitals during 2013–2014 and 2014–2015. We selected patients aged ≥65 years hospitalized with a diagnosis of pneumonia and controls matched by sex, age and date of hospitalization. Multivariate analysis was performed using conditional logistic regression to estimate vaccine effectiveness and unconditional logistic regression to evaluate the reduction in the risk of severe and fatal outcomes. 1895 cases and 1895 controls were included; 13.7% of cases and 14.4% of controls had received PPSV23 in the last five years. The effectiveness of PPSV23 in preventing CAP hospitalization was 15.2% (95% CI -3.1–30.3). The benefit of PPSV23 in avoiding ICU admission or death was 28.1% (95% CI -14.3–56.9) in all patients, 30.9% (95% CI -32.2–67.4) in immunocompetent patients and 26.9% (95% CI -38.6–64.8) in immunocompromised patients. In conclusion, PPSV23 showed a modest trend to avoidance of hospitalizations due to CAP and to the prevention of death or ICU admission in elderly patients hospitalized with a diagnosis of CAP. PMID:28187206

  19. Mycoplasma pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    Walking pneumonia; Community-acquired pneumonia - mycoplasma; Community-acquired pneumonia - atypical ... Mycoplasma pneumonia usually affects people younger than 40. People who live or work in crowded areas such ...

  20. Evaluation of Patients with Community-Acquired Pneumonia Caused by Zoonotic Pathogens in an Area with a High Density of Animal Farms.

    PubMed

    Huijskens, E G W; Smit, L A M; Rossen, J W A; Heederik, D; Koopmans, M

    2016-03-01

    Intensive animal farming could potentially lead to outbreaks of infectious diseases. Clinicians are at the forefront of detecting unusual diseases, but the lack of specificity of zoonotic disease symptoms makes this a challenging task. We evaluated patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with known and unknown aetiology in an area with a high livestock density and a potential association with animal farms in the proximity. Between 2008 and 2009, a period coinciding with a large Q fever outbreak in the Netherlands, patients with CAP were tested for the presence of possible respiratory pathogens. The presence and number of farm animals within 1 km of the patients' home address were assessed using geographic information system (GIS) and were compared between cases and age-matched control subjects. Of 408 patients with CAP, pathogens were detected in 275 (67.4%) patients. The presence of sheep and the number of goats were associated with CAP caused by Coxiella burnetii in a multiple logistic regression model (P < 0.05). CAP with unknown aetiology was not associated with the presence of animal farms (P > 0.10). The use of GIS in combination with aetiology of CAP could be potentially used to target diagnostics and to identify outbreaks of rare zoonotic disease.

  1. Critical appraisal of ceftaroline in the management of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and skin infections

    PubMed Central

    Goodman, Julian J; Martin, Stanley I

    2012-01-01

    Ceftaroline is a novel broad-spectrum cephalosporin β-lactam antibiotic with activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) as well as multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae among other routine Gram positive and Gram negative organisms. It has been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSIs). Ceftaroline is approved for treatment of ABSSSI due to MRSA, however currently there are no data for pneumonia due to MRSA in humans. Herein we review the major clinical trials as well as ceftaroline microbiology, pharmacokinetics, and safety, followed by a look at further directions for investigation of this new agent. PMID:22547933

  2. Community-acquired bacterial pneumonias in homosexual men: presumptive evidence for a defect in host resistance.

    PubMed

    Murata, G H; Ault, M J; Meyer, R D

    Over a three year period, we encountered seven homosexual men who developed pneumonias due to S. pneumoniae or H. influenzae in the absence of apparent risk factors. When compared to heterosexual controls, the homosexual group had a much higher frequency of bacteremia, complicated primary infections, multilobar involvement, required longer antibiotic therapy, and took longer to defervesce. Three of our seven homosexual patients fulfilled criteria for the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS); two of the others had generalized lymphadenopathy and the other two likely AIDS-related abnormalities. Overall they presented with a spectrum of clinical findings. Two of the patients developed other opportunistic infections associated with AIDS. Since recovery from these pyogenic pneumonias requires an appropriate antibody response, our patients may have had a defect in B-cell function. Moreover, these observations suggest that functional B-cell abnormalities may occur in AIDS and syndromes premonitory of AIDS.

  3. The Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS) in Malawi: A Nested Pilot of Photovoice Participatory Research Methodology

    PubMed Central

    Ardrey, Jane; Desmond, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    The Cooking and Pneumonia Study (CAPS) is a village-level randomised controlled trial of an advanced cookstove intervention to prevent pneumonia in children under the age of 5 in rural Malawi (www.capstudy.org). The trial offers a unique opportunity to gain understanding about the social and cultural factors that may facilitate sustained use of improved cookstoves. In January 2015, the use of Photovoice as a participatory research methodology was piloted at the CAPS Chikhwawa site. Photovoice is a photographic technique that allows communities (including women and marginalised groups) to share knowledge about their perspectives and priorities. Four households were given digital cameras and asked to collect images over 24–48 hours and were then interviewed on film about their selection. This resulted in over 400 images and a one hour long film that revealed community concerns and could be thematically analysed. The collection of interview data through film was useful for capturing discussion and was acceptable to participants. Photovoice is a feasible participatory research methodology that can play a valuable role in qualitative studies of improved cookstove adoption in challenging resource poor settings. PMID:27254291

  4. Fluorocycline TP-271 Is Potent against Complicated Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Fyfe, Corey; O’Brien, William; Hackel, Meredith; Minyard, Mary Beth; Waites, Ken B.; Dubois, Jacques; Murphy, Timothy M.; Slee, Andrew M.; Weiss, William J.; Sutcliffe, Joyce A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT TP-271 is a novel, fully synthetic fluorocycline antibiotic in clinical development for the treatment of respiratory infections caused by susceptible and multidrug-resistant pathogens. TP-271 was active in MIC assays against key community respiratory Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC90 = 0.03 µg/ml), methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA; MIC90 = 0.25 µg/ml), methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA; MIC90 = 0.12 µg/ml), Streptococcus pyogenes (MIC90 = 0.03 µg/ml), Haemophilus influenzae (MIC90 = 0.12 µg/ml), and Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC90 ≤0.016 µg/ml). TP-271 showed activity (MIC90 = 0.12 µg/ml) against community-acquired MRSA expressing Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL). MIC90 values against Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, and Chlamydia pneumoniae were 0.004, 1, and 4 µg/ml, respectively. TP-271 was efficacious in neutropenic and immunocompetent animal pneumonia models, generally showing, compared to the burden at the start of dosing, ~2 to 5 log10 CFU reductions against MRSA, S. pneumoniae, and H. influenzae infections when given intravenously (i.v.) and ~1 to 4 log10 CFU reductions when given orally (p.o.). TP-271 was potent against key community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) pathogens and was minimally affected, or unaffected, by tetracycline-specific resistance mechanisms and fluoroquinolone or macrolide drug resistance phenotypes. IMPORTANCE Rising resistance rates for macrolides, fluoroquinolones, and β-lactams in the most common pathogens associated with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) are of concern, especially for cases of moderate to severe infections in vulnerable populations such as the very young and the elderly. New antibiotics that are active against multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus are needed for use in the empirical treatment of the most severe forms of this disease. TP-271 is a promising

  5. Considerations unique to pediatrics for clinical trial design in hospital-acquired pneumonia and ventilator-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Bradley, John S

    2010-08-01

    Background. A need exists for new antimicrobial agents to treat neonates, infants, and children for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) caused by nosocomial antibiotic-resistant pathogens. Current and clear guidance on approval of new agents for all pediatric age groups is lacking. Methods. Studies on HAP and VAP in the neonatal and pediatric age groups were collected using PubMed (National Library of Medicine). Published articles were reviewed for pediatric-specific definitions of HAP and VAP, diagnostic techniques, rates of disease, risk factors, characteristics, and outcomes. Results. Definitions of HAP and VAP in neonatal and pediatric age groups vary considerably. No well-studied, sensitive, and specific microbiologic testing techniques exist. Morbidity and mortality associated with VAP in neonates, infants, and children have been documented. Conclusions. Investigation and approval of new agents for HAP and VAP in all pediatric age groups is needed. A uniform definition of HAP and VAP is required that is relevant for clinical trials and balances the risks of experimental therapy and sampling procedures for study patients with potential benefits for both the patient under investigation and the hospitalized children who may develop nosocomial pneumonia.

  6. Preterm Labor and Maternal Hypoxia in Patients With Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Pinell, Phillip; Martens, Mark G.; Faro, Sebastian

    1996-01-01

    Objective: We sought to determine if preterm labor is associated with the degree of maternal hypoxia in pregnant women with community-acquired pneumonia but no other maternal diseases. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all antepartum patients admitted with a diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia to an inner-city university hospital between 1983 and 1987. Included in this review were only the patients with radiologically confirmed diagnose of pneumonia and documented arterial blood gases on room air at the time of admission, but no other maternal diseases. Results: A total of 22 cases were identified. There was no maternal mortality, but there were 2 patients (9%) who developed respiratory failure requiring mechanical ventilation. Bacteremia with Streptococcus pneumoniae was documented in 1 patient (5%). Preterm labor complicated 5 cases (23%) and led to preterm delivery in 3 patients (14%). Terbutaline tocolysis was instituted in 3 patients, but was discontinued in 1 patient who was allowed to deliver because of her worsening condition. Preterm labor was associated with the WBC count on admission, usually > 18,000/mm3, but no statistically significant correlation with the severity of maternal hypoxia was noted. Five patients (23%) were incorrectly diagnosed at the time of admission, 4 with an initial diagnosis of pyelonephritis and 1 with an initial diagnosis of cholecystitis. Conclusions: Community-acquired pneumonia in the antepartum period is responsible for significant maternal and fetal complications even in the absence of other maternal diseases. Preterm labor and delivery remain frequent, and tocolysis should be used cautiously. At the time of admission, the diagnosis may be difficult. The degree of maternal hypoxia on admission does not correlate with the presence of preterm labor. PMID:18476096

  7. Multiple pathogens in adult patients admitted with community-acquired pneumonia: a one year prospective study of 346 consecutive patients.

    PubMed Central

    Lieberman, D.; Schlaeffer, F.; Boldur, I.; Lieberman, D.; Horowitz, S.; Friedman, M. G.; Leiononen, M.; Horovitz, O.; Manor, E.; Porath, A.

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the causes of community-acquired pneumonia in adult patients admitted to hospital. METHODS: A prospective study was performed on 346 consecutive adult patients (54% men) of mean (SD) 49.3 (19.5) years (range 17-94) admitted to a university affiliated regional hospital in southern Israel with community-acquired pneumonia over a period of one year. Convalescent serum samples were obtained from 308 patients (89%). The aetiological diagnosis for community-acquired pneumonia was based on positive blood cultures and/or significant changes in antibody titres to Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, respiratory viruses, Coxiella burnetii, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, and Legionella sp. RESULTS: The aetiology of community-acquired pneumonia was identified in 279 patients (80.6%). The distribution of causal agents was as follows: S pneumoniae, 148 patients (42.8%); M pneumoniae, 101 (29.2%); C pneumoniae, 62 (17.9%); Legionella sp, 56 (16.2%); respiratory viruses, 35 (10.1%); C burnetii, 20 (5.8%); H influenzae 19 (5.5%); and other causes, 21 patients (6.0%). In patients above the age of 55 years C pneumoniae was the second most frequent aetiological agent (25.5%). In 133 patients (38.4%) more than one causal agent was found. CONCLUSIONS: The causal agents for community-acquired pneumonia in Israel are different from those described in other parts of the world. In many of the patients more than one causal agent was found. In all these patients treatment should include a macrolide antibiotic, at least in the first stage of their illness. PMID:8711652

  8. Ampicillin versus cefamandole as initial therapy for community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, D J; Calderwood, S B; Karchmer, A W; Pennington, J E

    1987-01-01

    One hundred seven patients with community-acquired pneumonia thought to be of bacterial etiology by the admitting physician but whose initial sputum Gram stain was inadequate to direct specific therapy were randomized to receive either intravenous ampicillin or cefamandole as empiric therapy. Patients were excluded if the initial sputum Gram stain was highly suggestive of infection with Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, or an enteric gram-negative bacillus. The two study groups had comparable demographic and presenting clinical features. The mean age of the patients evaluable for determination of clinical efficacy was 69 years, and greater than 75% had at least one serious underlying medical disorder. In the 90 evaluable patients, there were 11 therapeutic failures (12%), including 5 deaths (5%). Cefamandole, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, was not more efficacious than ampicillin in producing a satisfactory clinical response or in shortening the duration of parenteral therapy. Patients received an average of only 4 days of intravenous antibiotics before changeover to oral therapy and were hospitalized for a mean of 7 days. No patient experienced a relapse of pneumonia following successful completion of parenteral drug therapy. We conclude that cefamandole is not a more effective agent than ampicillin for empiric therapy of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia of uncertain etiology. PMID:3304156

  9. Community-Acquired Pyelonephritis in Pregnancy Caused by KPC-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, Asma; Naeger Murphy, Nina; Wiest, Peter; Osborn, Melissa; Garber, Kathleen; Hecker, Michelle; Hurless, Kelly; Rudin, Susan D.; Jacobs, Michael R.; Kalayjian, Robert C.; Salata, Robert A.; van Duin, David; Harris, Patrick N. A.

    2015-01-01

    Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) usually infect patients with significant comorbidities and health care exposures. We present a case of a pregnant woman who developed community-acquired pyelonephritis caused by KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae. Despite antibiotic treatment, she experienced spontaneous prolonged rupture of membranes, with eventual delivery of a healthy infant. This report demonstrates the challenge that CRE may pose to the effective treatment of common infections in obstetric patients, with potentially harmful consequences to maternal and neonatal health. PMID:26185273

  10. Outcome of community-acquired pneumonia: influence of age, residence status and antimicrobial treatment.

    PubMed

    Kothe, H; Bauer, T; Marre, R; Suttorp, N; Welte, T; Dalhoff, K

    2008-07-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia remains a major cause of mortality in developed countries. There is much discrepancy in the literature regarding factors influencing the outcome in the elderly population. Data were derived from a multicentre prospective study initiated by the German Competence Network for Community-Acquired Pneumonia. Patients with community-acquired pneumonia (n = 2,647; 1,298 aged < 65 yrs and 1,349 aged > or = 65 yrs) were evaluated, of whom 72.3% were hospitalised and 27.7% treated in the community. Clinical history, residence status, course of disease and antimicrobial treatment were prospectively documented. Microbiological investigations included cultures and PCR of respiratory samples and blood cultures. Factors related to mortality were included in multivariate analyses. The overall 30-day mortality was 6.3%. Elderly patients exhibited a significantly higher mortality rate that was independently associated with the following: age; residence status; confusion, urea, respiratory frequency and blood pressure (CURB) score; comorbid conditions; and failure of initial therapy. Increasing age remained predictive of death in the elderly. Nursing home residents showed a four-fold increased mortality rate and an increased rate of gram-negative bacillary infections compared with patients dwelling in the community. The CURB score and cerebrovascular disease were confirmed as independent predictors of death in this subgroup. Age and residence status are independent risk factors for mortality after controlling for comorbid conditions and disease severity. Failure of initial therapy was the only modifiable prognostic factor.

  11. Antibacterial activity and PK/PD of ceftriaxone against penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae isolates from patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ohno, Akira; Ishii, Yoshikazu; Kobayashi, Intetsu; Yamaguchi, Keizo

    2007-10-01

    The suitability of ceftriaxone for penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (PRSP) and ampicillin-resistant Haemophilus influenzae (especially beta-lactamase-negative ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) H. influenzae) and the relationship between in vitro antimicrobial activities and pharmacokinetic parameters were evaluated. The values for percentage of time above the MIC (%T>MIC) for ceftriaxone, cefotiam, flomoxef, sulbactam/cefoperazone, sulbactam/ampicillin, and meropenem, using 400 S. pneumoniae isolates and 430 H. influenzae isolates from patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) from more than 100 geographically diverse medical centers during January to July of 2005, were calculated by measuring the MIC for each isolate and by using patameters of pharmacokinetics. A broth microdilution method was used to determine the MIC, using the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Meropenem showed the lowest MIC against penicillin-susceptible S. pneumoniae, followed by sulbactam/cefoperazone and ceftriaxone. Ceftriaxone had the best activity against penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae and beta-lactamase-negative and beta-lactamase-producing ampicillin-resistant H. influenzae. Ceftriaxone was unique, showing a long elimination half-life and low MIC values where its serum level duration time was above the MIC for longer than other cephalosporins. Accordingly, the %T>MIC of ceftriaxone for a once-daily administration greatly exceeded the efficacy levels of those for the other antibacterial agents tested. Ceftriaxone has an excellent balance between in vitro antimicrobial activities and pharmacokinetic profiles; and therefore remains effective as a therapeutic agent against PRSP and BLNAR H. influenzae in CAP.

  12. Antibiotic expected effectiveness and cost under real life microbiology: evaluation of ertapenem and ceftriaxone in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia for elderly patients in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Grau, Santiago; Lozano, Virginia; Valladares, Amparo; Cavanillas, Rafael; Xie, Yang; Nocea, Gonzalo

    2014-01-01

    Background Clinical efficacy of antibiotics may be affected by changes in the susceptibility of microorganisms to antimicrobial agents. The purpose of this study is to assess how these changes could affect the initial efficacy of ertapenem and ceftriaxone in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in elderly patients and the potential consequences this may have in health care costs. Methods Initial efficacy in elderly was obtained from a combined analysis of two multicenter, randomized studies. An alternative scenario was carried out using initial efficacy data according to the pneumonia severity index (PSI). Country-specific pathogens distribution was obtained from a national epidemiological study, and microbiological susceptibilities to first- and second-line therapies were obtained from Spanish or European surveillance studies. A decision analytic model was used to compare ertapenem versus ceftriaxone for CAP inpatient treatment. Inputs of the model were the expected effectiveness previously estimated and resource use considering a Spanish national health system perspective. Outcomes include difference in proportion of successfully treated patients and difference in total costs between ertapenem and ceftriaxone. The model performed one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Results First-line treatment of CAP with ertapenem led to a higher proportion of successfully treated patients compared with ceftriaxone in Spain. One-way sensitivity analysis showed that length of stay was the key parameter of the model. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis showed that ertapenem can be a cost-saving strategy compared with ceftriaxone, with a 59% probability of being dominant (lower costs with additional health benefits) for both, elderly patients (>65 years) and patients with PSI >3. Conclusion The incorporation of the current antimicrobial susceptibility into the initial clinical efficacy has a significant impact in outcomes and costs in CAP treatment. The

  13. Randomized, double-blind, comparative study of grepafloxacin and amoxycillin in the treatment of patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, B; Dutchman, D A; Pettit, R; Maroli, A

    1997-12-01

    This randomized, multicentre, double-blind, double-dummy study assessed the efficacy and safety of 7 or 10 day regimens of grepafloxacin, 600 mg od, compared with amoxycillin, 500 mg tds, in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). A total of 264 patients were recruited at 43 centres (127 received grepafloxacin and 137 received amoxycillin), of whom 207 patients (78%) completed the study. Clinical and microbiological efficacy were assessed at the end-of-treatment visit (3-5 days after the last dose) and at the follow-up visit (28-42 days after the last dose). At follow-up, patients in the evaluable population treated with grepafloxacin demonstrated a clinical response rate (76%; 87/114) equivalent to that seen with amoxycillin (74%, 85/111, 95% CI = -12%, 10%) while, in the intent-to-treat population with a documented bacterial pathogen, the clinical success rate in the grepafloxacin group (78%, 29/37) was significantly higher than in the amoxycillin group (58%, 28/48), 95% CI = 2%, 43%). In patients from the evaluable population in whom the pathogens were documented the clinical success rate favoured grepafloxacin, compared with amoxycillin (79%, 26/33 versus 63%, 26/42, respectively; 95% CI = -5.2%, 38.1%). Microbiological eradication with grepafloxacin was statistically superior to amoxycillin in the evaluable population; the success rate was 89% (32/36) in the grepafloxacin group compared with 71% (32/45) for the amoxycillin group (95% CI = 2%, 37%). The pathogens most commonly isolated from patients were Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis and Streptococcus pneumoniae. The success rates for infections caused by S. pneumoniae and H. influenzae at follow-up were higher with grepafloxacin than with amoxycillin. Grepafloxacin was well tolerated, with a safety profile comparable to that of amoxycillin. The therapeutic judgement of patients and investigators at the patient's last visit, as well as the assessment of individual respiratory signs

  14. Vitamin D Status and Long-Term Mortality in Community-Acquired Pneumonia: Secondary Data Analysis from a Prospective Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Holter, Jan C.; Ueland, Thor; Norseth, Jon; Brunborg, Cathrine; Frøland, Stig S.; Husebye, Einar; Aukrust, Pål; Heggelund, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background Low vitamin D status has been associated with short-term (30-day) mortality in hospitalized adults with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Data on its prevalence in these patients are scarce, and impact on long-term prognosis is unknown. We examined the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy and their effect on long-term mortality in hospitalized adults with CAP. Methods Secondary follow-up analysis of data from a prospectively recruited (January 2008–January 2011) well-defined cohort of 241 hospital survivors of CAP (Norway, latitude 60°N). Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels, demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were measured within 48 hours of admission. The etiology of CAP was established in 63% of patients through extensive microbiological investigations. Mortality data were obtained from the national Cause of Death Registry. Explanatory strategy and Cox regression models were used to explore the association between vitamin D status and all-cause mortality. Results Median age was 66 years. Eighty-seven (36%) patients were vitamin D deficient (<30 nmol/L), 81 (34%) were inadequate (30–49 nmol/L), and 73 (30%) were sufficient (≥50 nmol/L). Seventy-two patients died over a median of 1839 days (range 1–2520 days), corresponding to cumulative 5-year survival rates of 66.2% (95% CI 56.2–76.2%), 77.0% (67.6–86.4%), and 77.8% (67.8–87.8%) for vitamin D deficient, inadequate, and sufficient patients, respectively. After adjusting for confounders (age, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, immunocompromization and season), vitamin D deficiency, but not inadequacy, was significantly associated with higher mortality compared to patients with sufficiency (HR 1.91, 95% CI 1.06–3.45; P = .031). Conclusions There is a high prevalence of vitamin D deficiency and inadequacy among hospitalized adults with CAP. The results of this study also suggest that vitamin D deficiency is associated with an increased risk of mortality way beyond

  15. Risk of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Patients with a Diagnosis of Pernicious Anemia: A Population-Based Retrospective Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Almario, Christopher V.; Metz, David C.; Haynes, Kevin; Yang, Yu-Xiao

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pernicious anemia (PA) is an autoimmune disease that causes achlorhydria or profound hypochlorhydria. We conducted a population-based study to determine whether individuals with PA are at increased risk for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods We performed a retrospective cohort study using The Health Improvement Network (THIN) from the United Kingdom (1993 to 2009). The eligible study cohort included individuals 18 years of age or older and with at least 1 year of THIN follow-up. The exposed group consisted of individuals with a diagnosis code for PA. The unexposed group consisted of individuals without a diagnosis of PA and was frequency matched with the exposed group with respect to age, sex, and practice site. Cox regression analysis was used to determine the hazard ratio (HR) with 95% confidence interval (CI) for CAP associated with PA, accounting for a comprehensive list of potential confounders. Results The study included 13,605 individuals with PA and 50,586 non-PA subjects. The crude incidence rate of CAP was 9.4 per 1000 person-years for those with PA, versus 6.4 per 1000 person-years for those without PA. The multivariable adjusted HR for CAP associated with PA was 1.18, 95% CI 1.08 – 1.29. Conclusions In this large population-based cohort study, individuals with PA and presumed chronic achlorhydria were at increased risk for CAP. PMID:26225868

  16. Comparison of Immunoglobulin G Subclass Concentrations in Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Severe Pandemic 2009 Influenza A (H1N1) Infection

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Claire L.; Holmes, Natasha E.; Grayson, M. Lindsay; Torresi, Joseph; Johnson, Paul D. R.; Cheng, Allen C.

    2012-01-01

    We compared immunoglobulin G (IgG) subclasses in patients with severe noninfluenza community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) to those in patients with severe pandemic 2009 influenza (H1N1) virus infection. Low IgG1 and IgG2 levels occurred often in the CAP group; however, H1N1 patients had lower IgG1 and IgG2 levels (5.4 versus 3.3 g/liter [P = 0.008] and 2.5 versus 1.2 g/liter [P < 0.001], respectively). Low IgG2 levels may be specifically linked to severe H1N1; however, it is not clear whether this association is related to H1N1 or to other features of severity. PMID:22237894

  17. A questionnaire study of injections prescribed and dispensed for patients diagnosed with mild/moderate community-acquired pneumonia in Mongolia.

    PubMed

    Dorj, Gereltuya; Hendrie, Delia; Parsons, Richard W; Sunderland, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The study aimed to determine the extent of and factors influencing the prescribing of injections for the treatment of mild/moderate community acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Mongolia. Methods. Questionnaires were developed and administered to medication providers (34 Pharmacists, 27 pharmacy technicians) and prescribers (22 general doctors and 49 medical specialists) working in Mongolia. Results. Cefalosporins were prescribed for patients with mild pneumonia and doctors tended to prescribe injectable cefalosporins (cefazolin) rather than oral dosage forms. This was supported by the questionnaire study with pharmacists and pharmacy technicians. Additionally, 23 pharmacists and pharmacy technicians indicated that OTC injectable cefalosporins (37.7%) and injectable aminopenicillins (33,9%) were frequently sold by pharmacies for the treatment of mild/moderate CAP. Doctors and particularly pharmacists in the questionnaire studies indicated choosing an injection was to avoid non-compliance problems. Conclusion. High levels of injectable prescribing of antibiotics were found in non-hospitalized patients with CAP in Mongolia. This prevalence level indicated that inappropriate injection prescribing is a public health hazard for Mongolia and requires consideration by the appropriate authorities.

  18. Association between hospitalization with community acquired laboratory-confirmed influenza pneumonia and prior receipt of influenza vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Grijalva, Carlos G.; Zhu, Yuwei; Williams, Derek J.; Self, Wesley H.; Ampofo, Krow; Pavia, Andrew T.; Stockmann, Chris R.; McCullers, Jonathan; Arnold, Sandra R.; Wunderink, Richard G.; Anderson, Evan J.; Lindstrom, Stephen; Fry, Alicia M.; Foppa, Ivo M.; Finelli, Lyn; Bramley, Anna M.; Jain, Seema; Griffin, Marie R.; Edwards, Kathryn M.

    2015-01-01

    Importance Few studies have evaluated the relationship between influenza vaccination and pneumonia, a serious complication of influenza infection. Objective Assess the association between influenza vaccination status and hospitalization for community-acquired laboratory-confirmed influenza pneumonia. Design, Setting and Participants The Etiology of Pneumonia in the Community (EPIC) study was a prospective observational multicenter study of hospitalizations for community-acquired pneumonia conducted from January 2010 through June 2012 in four US sites. We used EPIC study data from patients ≥6 months of age with laboratory-confirmed influenza infection and verified vaccination status during the influenza seasons, and excluded patients with recent hospitalization, from chronic care residential facilities, and with severe immunosuppression. Logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios, comparing the odds of vaccination between influenza-positive (cases) and influenza-negative (controls) pneumonia patients, controlling for demographics, co-morbidities, season, study site and timing of disease onset. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated as (1-odds ratio) × 100%. Exposure Influenza vaccination, verified through record review. Outcome Influenza pneumonia, confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction performed on nasal/oropharyngeal swabs. Results Overall, 2767 patients hospitalized for pneumonia were eligible for the study; 162 (5.9%) were influenza positive. Twenty-eight (17%) of 162 cases with influenza-associated pneumonia and 766 (29%) of 2605 controls with influenza-negative pneumonia had been vaccinated. The adjusted odds ratio of prior influenza vaccination between cases and controls was 0.43 (95% CI 0.28–0.68 [estimated vaccine effectiveness 56.7% (95% CI 31.9–72.5)]). Conclusions and relevance Among children and adults hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia, those with laboratory confirmed influenza

  19. Prevalance of antibodies to 15 antigens of Legionellaceae in patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    McIntyre, M.; Kurtz, J. B.; Selkon, J. B.

    1990-01-01

    Sera from 252 patients with community-acquired pneumonia were examined for the presence of antibodies to 15 antigens of 7 Legionella spp. by indirect immunofluorescent antibody testing. The sera had been collected as part of the British Thoracic Society/Public Health Laboratory Service study of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. We also examined sera from 20 patients with gram-negative sepsis. Using a limited range of antigens of L. pneumophila, nine cases of legionellosis were diagnosed in the original study. However, using antigens to other Legionella spp., we identified two further cases, caused by L. micdadei and L. gormanii respectively. Twenty-six other patients had titres of 16 or 32 to one or more antigens, most commonly L. bozemanii serogroup 1, L. micdadei and L. dumoffi. None of the patients with non-legionella pneumonia, however, had significant changes in legionella antibody titres. All of the patients with Gram-negative sepsis had titres of less than 16. PMID:2407543

  20. Comparison of gatifloxacin and levofloxacin administered at various dosing regimens to hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia: pharmacodynamic target attainment study using North American surveillance data for Streptococcus pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Noreddin, Ayman M; Hoban, Daryl J; Zhanel, George G

    2005-08-01

    This work aimed at determining the target attainment potential of gatifloxacin and levofloxacin in specific age-related patient populations such as elderly (> or =65 years) versus younger (<65 years) hospitalised patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Previously described population pharmacokinetic models of gatifloxacin and levofloxacin administration in patients with serious CAP were utilised to simulate gatifloxacin and levofloxacin pharmacokinetics. Pharmacokinetic simulations and susceptibility data for Streptococcus pneumoniae from the ongoing national surveillance study, Canadian Respiratory Organism Susceptibility Study (CROSS), were then used to produce pharmacodynamic indices of free-drug area under the curve over 24h relative to the minimum inhibitory concentration (free-drug AUC(0-24)/MIC(all)). Monte Carlo simulations were then used to analyse target attainment both of gatifloxacin and levofloxacin to achieve free-drug AUC(0-24)/MIC(all)> or =30 against S. pneumoniae in patients with CAP. Dosing regimens for gatifloxacin were 400 mg once daily (qd) administered to younger patients (<65 years) and gatifloxacin 200 mg qd to elderly patients (> or =65 years). Dosing regimens for levofloxacin were simulated as 500 mg, 750 mg and 1000 mg qd administered to elderly patients as well as younger patients. Monte Carlo simulations using gatifloxacin 400mg against S. pneumoniae yielded probabilities of achieving free-drug AUC(0-24)/MIC(all) of 30 of 96.6% for all patients, 92.3% for younger patients and 97.7% for elderly patients. When administered to elderly patients, a reduced dose of gatifloxacin 200mg qd could achieve a target attainment potential of 91.4%. Monte Carlo simulation using levofloxacin 500 mg qd yielded probabilities of achieving free-drug AUC(0-24)/MIC(all) of 30 of 92.3% for all patients, 95.7% for elderly patients compared with 72.7% for younger patients. Using levofloxacin 750 mg and 1000 mg qd had probabilities of achieving free

  1. Risk Factors for Long-Term Mortality after Hospitalization for Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A 5-Year Prospective Follow-Up Study

    PubMed Central

    Holter, Jan C.; Ueland, Thor; Jenum, Pål A.; Müller, Fredrik; Brunborg, Cathrine; Frøland, Stig S.; Aukrust, Pål; Husebye, Einar; Heggelund, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Background Contributors to long-term mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remain unclear, with little attention paid to pneumonia etiology. We examined long-term survival, causes of death, and risk factors for long-term mortality in adult patients who had been hospitalized for CAP, with emphasis on demographic, clinical, laboratory, and microbiological characteristics. Methods Two hundred and sixty-seven consecutive patients admitted in 2008–2011 to a general hospital with CAP were prospectively recruited and followed up. Patients who died during hospital stay were excluded. Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data were collected within 48 hours of admission. Extensive microbiological work-up was performed to establish the etiology of CAP in 63% of patients. Mortality data were obtained from the Norwegian Cause of Death Registry. Cox regression models were used to identify independent risk factors for all-cause mortality. Results Of 259 hospital survivors of CAP (median age 66 years), 79 (30.5%) died over a median of 1,804 days (range 1–2,520 days). Cumulative 5-year survival rate was 72.9% (95% CI 67.4–78.4%). Standardized mortality ratio was 2.90 for men and 2.05 for women. The main causes of death were chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), vascular diseases, and malignancy. Independent risk factors for death were the following (hazard ratio, 95% CI): age (1.83 per decade, 1.47–2.28), cardiovascular disease (2.63, 1.61–4.32), COPD (2.09, 1.27–3.45), immunocompromization (1.98, 1.17–3.37), and low serum albumin level at admission (0.75 per 5g/L higher, 0.58–0.96), whereas active smoking was protective (0.32, 0.14–0.74); active smokers were younger than non-smokers (P < 0.001). Microbial etiology did not predict mortality. Conclusions Results largely confirm substantial comorbidity-related 5-year mortality after hospitalization for CAP and the impact of several well-known risk factors for death, and extend

  2. Community-acquired bacterial pneumonia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients: validation of severity criteria. The Grupo Andaluz para el Estudio de las Enfermedades Infecciosas.

    PubMed

    Cordero, E; Pachón, J; Rivero, A; Girón, J A; Gómez-Mateos, J; Merino, M D; Torres-Tortosa, M; González-Serrano, M; Aliaga, L; Collado, A; Hernández-Quero, J; Barrera, A; Nuño, E

    2000-12-01

    Severity criteria for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) have always excluded patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. A 1-yr, multicenter, prospective observational study of HIV-infected patients with bacterial CAP was done to validate the criteria used in the American Thoracic Society (ATS) guidelines for CAP, and to determine the prognosis-associated factors in the HIV-infected population with bacterial CAP. Overall, 355 cases were included, with an attributable mortality of 9.3%. Patients who met the ATS criteria had a longer hospital stay (p = 0.01), longer duration of fever (p < 0.001), and higher attributable mortality (13.1% versus 3.5%, p = 0.02) than those who did not. Three factors were independently related to mortality: CD4(+) cell count < 100/microl, radiologic progression of disease, and shock. Pleural effusion, cavities, and/or multilobar infiltrates at admission were independently associated with radiologic progression. A prognostic rule based on the five criteria of shock, CD4(+) cell count < 100/microl, pleural effusion, cavities, and multilobar infiltrates had a high negative predictive value for mortality (97.1%). The attributable mortality for severe pneumonia was 11.3%, as compared with 1.3% for nonsevere disease (p = 0.008). The ATS severity criteria are valid in HIV-infected patients with bacterial CAP. Our study provides the basis for identification of patients who may require hospitalization determined by clinical judgment and the five clinical criteria of shock, a CD4(+) cell count < 100/microl, pleural effusion, cavities, and multilobar involvement. These prognostic factors should be validated in independent cohort studies.

  3. Macrolides and community-acquired pneumonia: is quorum sensing the key?

    PubMed

    Wise, Matt P; Williams, David W; Lewis, Michael A O; Frost, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Combination therapy with two antimicrobial agents is superior to monotherapy in severe community-acquired pneumonia, and recent data suggest that addition of a macrolide as the second antibiotic might be superior to other combinations. This observation requires confirmation in a randomised control trial, but this group of antibiotics have pleiotropic effects that extend beyond bacterial killing. Macrolides inhibit bacterial cell-to-cell communication or quorum sensing, which not only might be an important mechanism of action for these drugs in severe infections but may also provide a novel target for the development of new anti-infective drugs.

  4. Seasonal patterns of viral and bacterial infections among children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia in a tropical region.

    PubMed

    Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana M; Cardoso, Maria-Regina A; Barral, Aldina; Araújo-Neto, César A; Oliveira, Juliana R; Sobral, Luciana S; Saukkoriipi, Annika; Paldanius, Mika; Vainionpää, Raija; Leinonen, Maija; Ruuskanen, Olli

    2010-12-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common cause of morbidity among children. Evidence on seasonality, especially on the frequency of viral and bacterial causative agents is scarce; such information may be useful in an era of changing climate conditions worldwide. To analyze the frequency of distinct infections, meteorological indicators and seasons in children hospitalized for CAP in Salvador, Brazil, nasopharyngeal aspirate and blood were collected from 184 patients aged < 5 y over a 21-month period. Fourteen microbes were investigated and 144 (78%) cases had the aetiology established. Significant differences were found in air temperature between spring and summer (p = 0.02) or winter (p < 0.001), summer and fall (p = 0.007) or winter (p < 0.001), fall and winter (p = 0.002), and on precipitation between spring and fall (p = 0.01). Correlations were found between: overall viral infections and relative humidity (p = 0.006; r = 0.6) or precipitation (p = 0.03; r = 0.5), parainfluenza and precipitation (p = 0.02; r = -0.5), respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and air temperature (p = 0.048; r = -0.4) or precipitation (p = 0.045; r = 0.4), adenovirus and precipitation (p = 0.02; r = 0.5), pneumococcus and air temperature (p = 0.04; r = -0.4), and Chlamydia trachomatis and relative humidity (p = 0.02; r = -0.5). The frequency of parainfluenza infection was highest during spring (32.1%; p = 0.005) and that of RSV infection was highest in the fall (36.4%; p < 0.001). Correlations at regular strength were found between several microbes and meteorological indicators. Parainfluenza and RSV presented marked seasonal patterns.

  5. A practical approach estimating etiologic agents using real-time PCR in pediatric inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takafumi; Morozumi, Miyuki; Sakata, Hiroshi; Takayanagi, Reiko; Ishiwada, Naruhiko; Sato, Yoshitake; Oishi, Tomohiro; Tajima, Takeshi; Haruta, Tunekazu; Kawamura, Naohisa; Ouchi, Kazunobu; Matsubara, Keita; Chiba, Naoko; Takahashi, Takashi; Iwata, Satoshi; Ubukata, Kimiko

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate pathogens in pediatric inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), an Acute Respiratory Diseases Study Group organized by ten Japanese medical institutions devised a rapid, reliable process based on real-time PCR results in nasopharyngeal swab samples plus admission blood test results. From April 2008 to April 2009, we enrolled 903 children with CAP based on chest radiographs and clinical findings who were hospitalized within 5 days of onset. Comprehensive real-time PCR was used to detect 6 bacteria and 11 respiratory viruses. The swab specimens also were used for bacterial cultures. After initial determination of presence or absence of viral and mycoplasmal infections, significant bacterial contributions were defined by bacterial identification, clinical efficacy of antimicrobial agent, and reference to blood test results. Children were stratified by age: below 1 year, 1 year, 2-5 years, or at least 6 years old. Among patients studied, 34.4 % were diagnosed with viral infection; 21.8 %, bacterial infection; 17.5 %, viral/bacterial co-infection; 5.9 %, mycoplasmal infection; 0.3 %, mycoplasmal/bacterial co-infection; and 1.7 %, viral/mycoplasmal co-infection. The remaining 18.4 % had unknown pathogens. Purely viral infection was suggested mainly in infants younger than 1 year; mycoplasmal infection typically occurred in children at least 6 years old. Our results suggest usefulness of real-time PCR for nasopharyngeal samples together with blood tests in estimating etiologic agents in clinical settings.

  6. Comparative Outcome Analysis of Penicillin-Based Versus Fluoroquinolone-Based Antibiotic Therapy for Community-Acquired Pneumonia: A Nationwide Population-Based Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chi-Chuan; Lin, Chia-Hui; Lin, Kuan-Yin; Chuang, Yu-Chung; Sheng, Wang-Huei

    2016-02-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common but potentially life-threatening condition, but limited information exists on the effectiveness of fluoroquinolones compared to β-lactams in outpatient settings. We aimed to compare the effectiveness and outcomes of penicillins versus respiratory fluoroquinolones for CAP at outpatient clinics.This was a claim-based retrospective cohort study. Patients aged 20 years or older with at least 1 new pneumonia treatment episode were included, and the index penicillin or respiratory fluoroquinolone therapies for a pneumonia episode were at least 5 days in duration. The 2 groups were matched by propensity scores. Cox proportional hazard models were used to compare the rates of hospitalizations/emergence service visits and 30-day mortality. A logistic model was used to compare the likelihood of treatment failure between the 2 groups.After propensity score matching, 2622 matched pairs were included in the final model. The likelihood of treatment failure of fluoroquinolone-based therapy was lower than that of penicillin-based therapy (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 0.88; 95% confidence interval [95%CI], 0.77-0.99), but no differences were found in hospitalization/emergence service (ES) visits (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.27; 95% CI, 0.92-1.74) and 30-day mortality (adjusted HR, 0.69; 95% CI, 0.30-1.62) between the 2 groups.The likelihood of treatment failure of fluoroquinolone-based therapy was lower than that of penicillin-based therapy for CAP on an outpatient clinic basis. However, this effect may be marginal. Further investigation into the comparative effectiveness of these 2 treatment options is warranted.

  7. The management of community-acquired pneumonia in infants and children older than 3 months of age: clinical practice guidelines by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

    PubMed

    Bradley, John S; Byington, Carrie L; Shah, Samir S; Alverson, Brian; Carter, Edward R; Harrison, Christopher; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Mace, Sharon E; McCracken, George H; Moore, Matthew R; St Peter, Shawn D; Stockwell, Jana A; Swanson, Jack T

    2011-10-01

    Evidenced-based guidelines for management of infants and children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were prepared by an expert panel comprising clinicians and investigators representing community pediatrics, public health, and the pediatric specialties of critical care, emergency medicine, hospital medicine, infectious diseases, pulmonology, and surgery. These guidelines are intended for use by primary care and subspecialty providers responsible for the management of otherwise healthy infants and children with CAP in both outpatient and inpatient settings. Site-of-care management, diagnosis, antimicrobial and adjunctive surgical therapy, and prevention are discussed. Areas that warrant future investigations are also highlighted.

  8. Executive summary: the management of community-acquired pneumonia in infants and children older than 3 months of age: clinical practice guidelines by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

    PubMed

    Bradley, John S; Byington, Carrie L; Shah, Samir S; Alverson, Brian; Carter, Edward R; Harrison, Christopher; Kaplan, Sheldon L; Mace, Sharon E; McCracken, George H; Moore, Matthew R; St Peter, Shawn D; Stockwell, Jana A; Swanson, Jack T

    2011-10-01

    Evidenced-based guidelines for management of infants and children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were prepared by an expert panel comprising clinicians and investigators representing community pediatrics, public health, and the pediatric specialties of critical care, emergency medicine, hospital medicine, infectious diseases, pulmonology, and surgery. These guidelines are intended for use by primary care and subspecialty providers responsible for the management of otherwise healthy infants and children with CAP in both outpatient and inpatient settings. Site-of-care management, diagnosis, antimicrobial and adjunctive surgical therapy, and prevention are discussed. Areas that warrant future investigations are also highlighted.

  9. Executive Summary: The Management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Infants and Children Older Than 3 Months of Age: Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society and the Infectious Diseases Society of America

    PubMed Central

    Byington, Carrie L.; Shah, Samir S.; Alverson, Brian; Carter, Edward R.; Harrison, Christopher; Kaplan, Sheldon L.; Mace, Sharon E.; McCracken, George H.; Moore, Matthew R.; St Peter, Shawn D.; Stockwell, Jana A.; Swanson, Jack T.

    2011-01-01

    Evidenced-based guidelines for management of infants and children with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) were prepared by an expert panel comprising clinicians and investigators representing community pediatrics, public health, and the pediatric specialties of critical care, emergency medicine, hospital medicine, infectious diseases, pulmonology, and surgery. These guidelines are intended for use by primary care and subspecialty providers responsible for the management of otherwise healthy infants and children with CAP in both outpatient and inpatient settings. Site-of-care management, diagnosis, antimicrobial and adjunctive surgical therapy, and prevention are discussed. Areas that warrant future investigations are also highlighted. PMID:21890766

  10. Comparison of Luminex xTAG® RVP fast assay and real time RT-PCR for the detection of respiratory viruses in adults with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Luchsinger, Vivian; Prades, Yara; Ruiz, Mauricio; Pizarro, Rolando; Rossi, Patricio; Lizama, Luis; Garmendia, María Luisa; Meza, Angela; Larrañaga, Carmen; Avendaño, Luis F

    2016-07-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is the third cause of death worldwide. Viruses are frequently detected in adult CAP. Highly sensitive diagnostic techniques should be used due to poor viral shedding. Different sampling methods can affect viral detection, being necessary to establish the optimal type of sample for identifying respiratory viruses in adults. The detection rates of respiratory viruses by Luminex xTAG® RVP fast assay, real time RT-PCR (rtRT-PCR) (Sacace®), and immunofluorescence assay (IFA) in adult CAP were performed in nasopharyngeal swabs (NPS) and aspirates (NPA) from 179 hospitalized adults. Positivity was 47.5% for Luminex®, 42.5% for rtRT-PCR (P = 0.3), and 2.7% for IFA (2.7%) (P < 0.0). The sensitivity, specificity, and kappa coefficient of xTAG® RVP compared with rtRT-PCR were 84.2%, 79.6%, and 0.62%, respectively. Luminex® and rtRT-PCR detected 65 (58.0%) and 57 (50.9%) viruses in 112 NPA and 35 (34.3%) and 31 (30.4%) in 102 NPS, respectively (P < 0.01). xTAG® RVP is appropriate for detecting respiratory viruses in CAP adults. Both molecular techniques yielded better results with nasopharyngeal aspirate than swabs.

  11. Pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? Pneumonia KidsHealth > For Kids > Pneumonia A A A What's ... it from playing in the rain? What Is Pneumonia? Pneumonia (say: noo-MOW-nyuh) is an infection ...

  12. Pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Pneumonia KidsHealth > For Teens > Pneumonia A A A What's ... having to go to the hospital. What Is Pneumonia? Pneumonia (pronounced: noo-MOW-nyuh) is an infection ...

  13. Early switch therapy from intravenous sulbactam/ampicillin to oral garenoxacin in patients with community-acquired pneumonia: a multicenter, randomized study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kohno, Shigeru; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Tokimatsu, Issei; Hiramatsu, Kazufumi; Higa, Futoshi; Tateyama, Masao; Fujita, Jiro; Kadota, Jun-Ichi

    2013-12-01

    The switch from intravenous to oral antibiotic therapy is recommended for treating hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We performed a multicenter, randomized study to assess the benefit of switching from intravenous sulbactam/ampicillin (SBT/ABPC) to oral garenoxacin (GRNX) in patients with CAP. Among adult CAP patients who must be hospitalized for intravenous antibiotic treatment, those with Pneumonia Patient Outcomes Research Team (PORT) scores of II-IV (mild to moderate) were initially treated with intravenous SBT/ABPC (6 g/day) for 3 days. A total of 108 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria (improved respiratory symptoms, CRP < 15 mg/dl, adequately improved oral intake, fever ≤ 38 °C for ≥ 12 h), were divided into two groups based on the antibiotic administered, the GRNX (switch to GRNX 400 mg/day) and SBT/ABPC groups (continuous administration of SBT/ABPC), for 4 days. Improvement in clinical symptoms, chest radiographic findings, and clinical effectiveness were evaluated by a central review board. Improvement in clinical symptoms was 96.3 and 90.2% in the GRNX and SBT/ABPC groups, respectively. Improvement in chest radiographic findings was 94.4 and 90.2% and clinical effectiveness was 94.4 and 90.2% in the GRNX and SBT/ABPC groups, respectively. Microbiological efficacy was 90.9 and 69.2% in the GRNX and SBT/ABPC groups, respectively. There were no significant differences between the groups. Converting to GRNX was as effective as continuous SBT/ABPC treatment in mild to moderate CAP patients in whom initial intravenous antibiotic treatment was successful.

  14. Does empirical treatment of community-acquired pneumonia with fluoroquinolones delay tuberculosis treatment and result in fluoroquinolone resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis? Controversies and solutions.

    PubMed

    Shen, Gwan-Han; Tsao, Thomas Chang-Yao; Kao, Shang-Jyh; Lee, Jen-Jyh; Chen, Yen-Hsu; Hsieh, Wei-Chung; Hsu, Gwo-Jong; Hsu, Yen-Tao; Huang, Ching-Tai; Lau, Yeu-Jun; Tsao, Shih-Ming; Hsueh, Po-Ren

    2012-03-01

    The role of fluoroquinolones (FQs) as empirical therapy for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains controversial in countries with high tuberculosis (TB) endemicity owing to the possibility of delayed TB diagnosis and treatment and the emergence of FQ resistance in Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Although the rates of macrolide-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid-resistant Haemophilus influenzae have risen to alarming levels, the rates of respiratory FQ (RFQ) resistance amongst these isolates remain relatively low. It is reported that ca. 1-7% of CAP cases are re-diagnosed as pulmonary TB in Asian countries. A longer duration (≥ 7 days) of symptoms, a history of night sweats, lack of fever (> 38 °C), infection involving the upper lobe, presence of cavitary infiltrates, opacity in the lower lung without the presence of air, low total white blood cell count and the presence of lymphopenia are predictive of pulmonary TB. Amongst patients with CAP who reside in TB-endemic countries who are suspected of having TB, imaging studies as well as aggressive microbiological investigations need to be performed early on. Previous exposure to a FQ for >10 days in patients with TB is associated with the emergence of FQ-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates. However, rates of M. tuberculosis isolates with FQ resistance are significantly higher amongst multidrug-resistant M. tuberculosis isolates than amongst susceptible isolates. Consequently, in Taiwan and also in other countries with TB endemicity, a short-course (5-day) regimen of a RFQ is still recommended for empirical therapy for CAP patients if the patient is at low risk for TB.

  15. [The efficacy of switch therapy in community-acquired pneumonia in Japan].

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, N; Aoshima, M; Satoh, T; Chonabayashi, N

    2003-04-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of Switch therapy for community-acquired pneumonia, we conducted a prospective randomized controlled study in thirty-two hospitalized patients. These cases corresponded to Fine's risk classes II to IV. Using a table of random numbers, sixteen patients were assigned to a Switch therapy group, and the other sixteen, to a clinical pathway group. Both groups initially received intravenous antimicrobials. Within the Switch therapy group, when all the patients were afebrile for more than sixteen hours, their intravenous antimicrobials were switched to oral, and the patients were discharged on the following day. For all patients in the clinical pathway group, the critical pathway was defined as an eight-day planned hospitalization, with a time-task matrix formatted for disease treatment, laboratory testing, physical examination, oxygen saturation monitoring, ambulation, diet, patient education and clinical outcome. Switch therapy reduced the period of intravenous antimicrobial administration from 7.6 days to 4.0 days (p < 0.0001). The period required to switch to oral antimicrobials decreased from 8.3 days to 4.8 days (p < 0.0001); hospital stay length, from 9.8 days to 6.5 days (p = 0.0001); and medical resource utilization, from 330, 373 to 227,768 Japanese yen (p = 0.0002). No patient from either group required readmission. In conclusion, Switch therapy was more efficient than management with a clinical pathway for mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized patients.

  16. Pediatric community-acquired pneumonia treated with a three-day course of tebipenem pivoxil.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Hiroshi; Kuroki, Haruo; Ouchi, Kazunobu; Tajima, Takeshi; Iwata, Satoshi

    2017-02-24

    We evaluated the efficacy and safety of a 3-day treatment regimen of tebipenem pivoxil for pediatric community-acquired pneumonia. Tebipenem pivoxil was administered to 49 patients, and its effectiveness was evaluated in 36 patients 2-4 days after initiation of treatment. Thirty-two patients were cured 7-15 days after initiation of treatment. Body temperature was significantly lower on the day following initial administration (median 38.8 to 37.0 °C, n = 33). Leukocyte counts and C-reactive protein levels were significantly reduced by Day 2-4 of treatment (median 16,100 to 7800 white blood cells/μL, and 5.6 to 1.5 mg/dL, respectively; n = 28). Six of the 49 patients had mild diarrhea. Thus, we concluded that 3-day treatment with tebipenem pivoxil was safe and efficacious for treating pediatric community-acquired pneumonia.

  17. [Consensus guidelines for the management of community acquired pneumonia in the elderly patient].

    PubMed

    González Del Castillo, Juan; Martín-Sánchez, Francisco Javier; Llinares, Pedro; Menéndez, Rosario; Mujal, Abel; Navas, Enrique; Barberán, José

    2014-01-01

    The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia increases with age and is associated with an elevated morbidity and mortality due to the physiological changes associated with aging and a greater presence of chronic disease. Taking into account the importance of this disease from an epidemiological and prognostic point of view, and the enormous heterogeneity described in the clinical management of the elderly, we believe a specific consensus document regarding this patient profile is necessary. The purpose of the present work was to perform a review of the evidence related to the risk factors for the etiology, the clinical presentation, the management and the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in elderly patients with the aim of producing a series of specific recommendations based on critical analysis of the literature. This document is the result of the collaboration of different specialists representing the Spanish Society of Emergency Medicine and Emergency Care (SEMES), the Spanish Society of Geriatrics and Gerontology (SEGG), the Spanish Society of Chemotherapy (SEQ), the Spanish Society of Internal Medicine (SEMI), the Spanish Society of Respiratory Medicine and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR), Spanish Society of Home Hospitalization (SEHAD) and the Spanish Society of Infectious Disease and Clinical Microbiology (SEIMC).

  18. [Microbiologic spectrum and prognostic factors of hospital-acquired pneumonia cases].

    PubMed

    Sevinç, Can; Sahbaz, Sibel; Uysal, Ulker; Kilinç, Oğuz; Ellidokuz, Hülya; Itil, Oya; Gülay, Zeynep; Yunusoğlu, Sedat; Sargun, Serdar; Akkoyun, Kürşat Kaan; Uçan, Eyüp Sabri

    2007-01-01

    Nosocomial infections are an important cause of preventable morbidity and mortality; they also result in significant socioeconomic cost. Nosocomial pneumonia (NCP) is defined as pneumonia, which occurs 48 hours after hospitalization or after discharge from the hospital. It is the second or third most frequent infection among all hospital acquired infections, and the mortality of NCP is higher than the other hospital acquired infections. Patients, diagnosed as NCP were retrospectively analyzed in order to detect microbiological agent and prognostic factors. We evaluated 173 patients, 67.0% of them were male and 33.0% female. Comorbid diseases were present in 94.2% and a medical procedure had been applied in 75.1% of cases. A single agent was isolated in 79.2% of the cases while a mixt infection was present in 13.3%. In 7.5% of the cases, cultures were negative. Endotracheal aspirates were the most common materials (38.9%) used for detected microorganism and sputum cultures were used in 16.8% of the cases. Most commonly encountered microorganism were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter spp. and Staphylococcus aureus respectively. NCP developed on approximately 18th day of hospitalization. Overall mortality rate was 45.2%. The effects of diabetes mellitus and chronic pulmonary diseases on mortality rate were analized by logistic regression analysis and it's evaluated that the mortality rates increase 3.7 times with diabetes mellitus and 2.4 times with chronic pulmonary diseases. There was no effect of mechanical ventilation history on mortality.

  19. Impact of an Antibiotic Restriction Program on Antibiotic Utilization in the Treatment of Community Acquired Pneumonia in a Veterans Affairs Medical Center

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Mohammad D.; Cadle, Richard M.; Agbahiwe, Sylvester O.; Musher, Daniel M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose The impact of an Antibiotic Restriction Program (ARP) on the patterns of antibiotic use in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) was examined. We also evaluated the association between the ARP and the length of hospital stay in regard to CAP treatment and cost savings associated with the implementation of the ARP. Methods A retrospective cohort study of patients admitted with CAP was conducted at two six-month periods, one prior to the ARP and one after the ARP. The health system’s Computerized Patient Record System (CPRS) was used to obtain demographics, length of hospital stays, readmission rates, blood culture results, co–morbidities, antibiotic use, and durations of therapy. A total of 130 patients met the inclusion criteria for the final analyses. Average drug costs, employee salaries, and the cost of laboratory procedures were used to assess cost savings associated with the ARP. Results From a total of 132 antibiotics that were ordered to treat CAP in the pre-ARP period, 28 were restricted (21.2%). However, the number of restricted antibiotics ordered was significantly reduced to 12 out of 114 (10.2%) antibiotics ordered in the post-ARP period (P = 0.024). In post-ARP implementation, mean length of hospital stay was also significantly reduced from 7.6 to 5.8 days (P = 0.017), and although not statistically significant, 30-day readmission rates declined from 16.9% to 6.2% (P = 0.097). The ARP was also associated with $943 savings per patient treated for CAP. Conclusions In addition to a decrease in the antibiotic utilization and the mean length of hospital stay, the ARP may have yielded cost savings and reduced the readmission rates for those patients admitted and treated for CAP. PMID:21318422

  20. Inflammation biomarkers in blood as mortality predictors in community-acquired pneumonia admitted patients: Importance of comparison with neutrophil count percentage or neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio

    PubMed Central

    Curbelo, Jose; Luquero Bueno, Sergio; Galván-Román, José María; Ortega-Gómez, Mara; Rajas, Olga; Fernández-Jiménez, Guillermo; Vega-Piris, Lorena; Rodríguez-Salvanes, Francisco; Arnalich, Belén; Díaz, Ana; Costa, Ramón; de la Fuente, Hortensia; Lancho, Ángel; Suárez, Carmen; Ancochea, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Introduction The increase and persistence of inflammation in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients can lead to higher mortality. Biomarkers capable of measuring this inadequate inflammatory response are likely candidates to be related with a bad outcome. We investigated the association between concentrations of several inflammatory markers and mortality of CAP patients. Material and methods This was a prospective study of hospitalised CAP patients in a Spanish university hospital. Blood tests upon admittance and in the early-stage evolution (72–120 hours) were carried out, where C-reactive protein, procalcitonin, proadrenomedullin, copeptin, white blood cell, Lymphocyte Count Percentage (LCP), Neutrophil Count Percentage (NCP) and Neutrophil/Lymphocyte Ratio (NLR) were measured. The outcome variable was mortality at 30 and 90 days. Statistical analysis included logistic regression, ROC analysis and area-under-curve test. Results 154 hospitalised CAP patients were included. Patients who died during follow-up had higher levels of procalcitonin, copeptin, proadrenomedullin, lower levels of LCP, and higher of NCP and NLR. Remarkably, multivariate analysis showed a relationship between NCP and mortality, regardless of age, severity of CAP and comorbidities. AUC analysis showed that NLR and NCP at admittance and during early-stage evolution achieved a good diagnostic power. ROC test for NCP and NLR were similar to those of the novel serum biomarkers analysed. Conclusions NLR and NCP, are promising candidate predictors of mortality for hospitalised CAP patients, and both are cheaper, easier to perform, and at least as reliable as the new serum biomarkers. Future implementation of new biomarkers would require comparison not only with classic inflammatory parameters like White Blood Cell count but also with NLR and NCP. PMID:28301543

  1. Incidence of viral infection detected by PCR and real-time PCR in childhood community-acquired pneumonia: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Min; Cai, Feng; Wu, Xiaodong; Wu, Ting; Su, Xin; Shi, Yi

    2015-04-01

    Several studies examining the incidence of viral infection in childhood community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) utilizing polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or real-time PCR methods have been reported. We systematically searched Pubmed and Embase for studies reporting the incidence of respiratory viral infection in childhood CAP. The pooled incidences of viral infection were calculated with a random-effects model. Sources of heterogeneity were explored by subgroup analysis and a univariant metaregression analysis. We included 21 eligible reports in our study. We found significant heterogeneity on the incidence of viral infection in childhood CAP. The random effects pooled incidence was 57.4% (95% confidence interval (CI): 50.8-64.1). The pooled incidence of mixed infection was 29.3% (95%CI: 23.0-35.6) with considerable heterogeneity. The pooled incidence of mixed infection was 29.3% (95%CI: 23.0-35.6). Rhinovirus, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and bocavirus were found to be the three most common viruses in childhood CAP. We also demonstrated that respiratory viruses were detected in 76.1% of patients aged ≤ 1 year, 63.1% of patients aged 2-5 years and 27.9% of patients aged ≥ 6 years. We conclude that respiratory viruses are widely detected in paediatric patients with CAP by PCR or real-time PCR methods. More than half of viral infections are probably concurrent with bacterial infections. Rhinovirus, RSV and bocavirus are the three most frequent viruses identified in childhood CAP; the incidence of viral infection decreased with age.

  2. Impact of the pneumococcal 10-valent vaccine on reducing hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia in children

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Sandra Rodrigues; de Mello, Luane Marques; da Silva, Anderson Soares; Nunes, Altacílio Aparecido

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To describe and analyze the occurrence of hospitalizations for community-acquired pneumonia in children before and after the pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine implementation into the National Immunization Program. Methods: This is an ecological study that includes records of children younger than one year old, vaccinated and not vaccinated with the pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine in the periods pre- and post-inclusion of the vaccine in the National Immunization Program in the area covered by the Regional Health Superintendence of Alfenas, state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. Vaccination was considered as the exposure factor and hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia as the endpoint, using secondary annual data by municipality. The prevalence ratio and its 95% confidence interval (95%CI) were used to verify the association between variables. The Z test was used to calculate the difference between proportions. Results: Considering the 26 municipalities of the Regional Health Superintendence of Alfenas, there was a significant reduction in hospitalizations for community-acquired pneumonia in children younger than one year of age, with prevalence ratio (PR)=0.81 (95%CI: 0.74-0.89; p<0.05), indicating a 19% lower prevalence of hospitalization for community-acquired pneumonia in the post-vaccination period. Conclusions: The results suggest the effectiveness of the pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vaccine in preventing severe cases of community-acquired pneumonia in children younger than one year of age. PMID:27108092

  3. Value of bacterial antigen detection in the diagnostic yield of transthoracic needle aspiration in severe community acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Bella, F.; Tort, J.; Morera, M. A.; Espaulella, J.; Armengol, J.

    1993-01-01

    BACKGROUND--Transthoracic needle aspiration (TNA) with an ultrathin needle is a safe and highly specific procedure for obtaining a diagnosis in bacterial pneumonias, but its sensitivity is at best 70%. A study was performed to assess whether Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type b antigen detection by latex agglutination from the TNA sample enhanced the diagnostic yield. METHODS--Blood cultures, TNA with an ultrathin needle (culture, Gram stain, and latex agglutination), serological tests, and pneumococcal antigen detection in the urine by counterimmunoelectrophoresis were performed in samples from 18 of 23 consecutive patients with severe community acquired pneumonia. RESULTS--The causative organism was identified in 16 cases (88%): S pneumoniae (10 cases), S pneumoniae plus H influenzae (two cases), Legionella pneumophila (three cases), and Mycoplasma pneumoniae (one case). The investigation of antigens by latex agglutination in the pulmonary aspirate increased the diagnostic yield of TNA from 50% to 78% and provided a rapid diagnosis (in less than two hours) with therapeutic implications in seven cases. Its effectiveness was not modified by prior antibiotic therapy. CONCLUSIONS--A latex agglutination test on the pulmonary aspirate enhances the diagnostic yield of TNA in severe community acquired pneumonia. PMID:8303628

  4. [Prevention of acquired pneumonia during artificial ventilation (excluding the use of anti-infectious agents)].

    PubMed

    Fagon, J Y; Novara, A; Stephan, F; Girou, E; Tournier, B

    1997-01-01

    Nosocomial pneumonia remains a serious complication which occurs in patients who are artificially ventilated; as neither frequency nor important sequelae have altered recently inspite of the progress which has been achieved both with diagnosis and treatment. Preventative measures ought to be developed and realistically assessed before their introduction. Today it is indispensable to measure the impact of these measures, whether they have been previously or recently proposed by therapeutic trials. The current techniques proposed to prevent the appearance of nosocomial pneumonia are integrated in the usual conventional group of measures in the struggle against nosocomial infection which rests predominantly on standard approaches to hospital hygiene. These may be more specifically directed at good practical measures for the care of the ventilated patient. Regular toilet to the digestive and respiratory pathway, care of the ventilator material, absence of the changing of ventilation tubing during the stay. A certain number of measures are specifically suggested to prevent pneumonias: they have been imperfectly evaluated in clinical practice and remain controversial. Thus selective decontamination of the digestive system has not been dealt with her but also the sitting position, the utilisation of turning or oscillating beds, the continuous aspiration of oropharyngeal secretions or the use of Sucralfate as a means of prevention stress ulcers. Today, and until a complete evaluation of different techniques, the prevention of acquired pneumopathy during artificial ventilation rests above all on extremely simple measures; these cost little and are essentially meticulous care of the upper respiratory and digestive apparatus, to tracheal aspiration and physiotherapy which assure effective drainage and secretions, the use of the semi-sitting position, a well positioned gastric tube, in other words, basic care of the ventilated patient of a very good quality.

  5. Bottle-blowing in hospital-treated patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Björkqvist, M; Wiberg, B; Bodin, L; Bárány, M; Holmberg, H

    1997-01-01

    A study was carried out to determine whether bottle-blowing has any positive effects in patients with pneumonia. In a prospective open study 145 adults with untreated community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization were randomized to early mobilization (group A), to sit up and take 20 deep breaths on 10 occasions daily (group B), or to sit up and to blow bubbles in a bottle containing 10 cm water through a plastic tube 20 times on 10 occasions daily (group C). Peak expiratory flow (PEF), vital capacity (VC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and serum concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP) were determined on admission, and on days 4 and 42. Fever duration and hospital stay were recorded. In a subset of 16 patients, single breath diffusion capacity of carbon monoxide was measured on 3 occasions. The patients in group A were hospitalized for a mean of 5.3 days, group B for 4.6 days and group C for 3.9 days. Treatment was a significant factor (p = 0.037) in a Cox regression model, with group C significantly better than group A (p = 0.01). The number of days with fever was 2.3, 1.7 and 1.6 in groups A, B and C respectively. These differences were not significant (p = 0.28). No significant differences were found between the groups regarding CRP, PEF, VC, FEV1, or diffusion capacity. Intensive bottle-blowing shortens the hospital stay in patients with pneumonia. The underlying mechanism is not clear.

  6. Clinical prediction rules in community-acquired pneumonia: lies, damn lies and statistics.

    PubMed

    Abers, M S; Musher, D M

    2014-07-01

    A variety of prediction scores have been developed to identify at the time of presentation patients with community-acquired pneumonia at risk for intensive care unit (ICU) admission or death within 30 days. The effectiveness of each scoring score is typically assessed by calculation of the area under the receiver-operator characteristic curve (AUROC). Although this statistical parameter is helpful in determining the discriminatory value of a score, it assumes equal importance of false negatives and false positives in the tradeoff between sensitivity and specificity. Because patient safety takes precedence over cost, the balance between limiting false negatives (unnecessarily strict ICU admission policy) and false positives (unnecessarily liberal ICU admission policy) should favor the reduction of false negatives. Instead of using AUROC as the primary measure to evaluate prediction rules, we propose the use of sensitivity as a more appropriate alternative.

  7. Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Empyema Caused by Citrobacter koseri in an Immunocompetent Patient.

    PubMed

    Ariza-Prota, Miguel Angel; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; García-Clemente, Marta; Fernández, Ramón; Casan, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Citrobacter species, belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae, are environmental organisms commonly found in soil, water, and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. Citrobacter koseri is known to be an uncommon but serious cause of both sporadic and epidemic septicemia and meningitis in neonates and young infants. Most cases reported have occurred in immunocompromised hosts. The infections caused by Citrobacter are difficult to treat with usual broad spectrum antibiotics owing to rapid generation of mutants and have been associated with high death rates in the past. We believe this is the first case described in the literature of a community-acquired pneumonia and empyema caused by Citrobacter koseri in an immunocompetent adult patient.

  8. Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Empyema Caused by Citrobacter koseri in an Immunocompetent Patient

    PubMed Central

    Ariza-Prota, Miguel Angel; Pando-Sandoval, Ana; García-Clemente, Marta; Fernández, Ramón; Casan, Pere

    2015-01-01

    Citrobacter species, belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae, are environmental organisms commonly found in soil, water, and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans. Citrobacter koseri is known to be an uncommon but serious cause of both sporadic and epidemic septicemia and meningitis in neonates and young infants. Most cases reported have occurred in immunocompromised hosts. The infections caused by Citrobacter are difficult to treat with usual broad spectrum antibiotics owing to rapid generation of mutants and have been associated with high death rates in the past. We believe this is the first case described in the literature of a community-acquired pneumonia and empyema caused by Citrobacter koseri in an immunocompetent adult patient. PMID:26634165

  9. Detection of 11 common viral and bacterial pathogens causing community-acquired pneumonia or sepsis in asymptomatic patients by using a multiplex reverse transcription-PCR assay with manual (enzyme hybridization) or automated (electronic microarray) detection.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Swati; Wang, Lihua; Fan, Jiang; Kraft, Andrea; Bose, Michael E; Tiwari, Sagarika; Van Dyke, Meredith; Haigis, Robert; Luo, Tingquo; Ghosh, Madhushree; Tang, Huong; Haghnia, Marjan; Mather, Elizabeth L; Weisburg, William G; Henrickson, Kelly J

    2008-09-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and sepsis are important causes of morbidity and mortality. We describe the development of two molecular assays for the detection of 11 common viral and bacterial agents of CAP and sepsis: influenza virus A, influenza virus B, respiratory syncytial virus A (RSV A), RSV B, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Chlamydophila pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Legionella micdadei, Bordetella pertussis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Streptococcus pneumoniae. Further, we report the prevalence of carriage of these pathogens in respiratory, skin, and serum specimens from 243 asymptomatic children and adults. The detection of pathogens was done using both a manual enzyme hybridization assay and an automated electronic microarray following reverse transcription and PCR amplification. The analytical sensitivities ranged between 0.01 and 100 50% tissue culture infective doses, cells, or CFU per ml for both detection methods. Analytical specificity testing demonstrated no significant cross-reactivity among 19 other common respiratory organisms. One hundred spiked "surrogate" clinical specimens were all correctly identified with 100% specificity (95% confidence interval, 100%). Overall, 28 (21.7%) of 129 nasopharyngeal specimens, 11 of 100 skin specimens, and 2 of 100 serum specimens from asymptomatic subjects tested positive for one or more pathogens, with S. pneumoniae and S. aureus giving 89% of the positive results. Our data suggest that asymptomatic carriage makes the use of molecular assays problematic for the detection of S. pneumoniae or S. aureus in upper respiratory tract secretions; however, the specimens tested showed virtually no carriage of the other nine viral and bacterial pathogens, and the detection of these pathogens should not be a significant diagnostic problem. In addition, slightly less sensitive molecular assays may have better correlation with clinical disease in the case of CAP.

  10. Pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... and is often caused by a tiny microorganism, Mycoplasma pneumoniae (pronounced: my-co-PLAZ-ma noo-MO- ... help the doctor identify the type of pneumonia. Mycoplasma pneumoniae , for example, often causes headaches, sore throats, ...

  11. Nosocomial pneumonia in 27 ICUs in Europe: perspectives from the EU-VAP/CAP study.

    PubMed

    Koulenti, D; Tsigou, E; Rello, J

    2016-06-10

    We report on intensive care nosocomial pneumonia (NP) in Europe through a review of EU-VAP/CAP manuscripts: a prospective observational study, enrolling patients from 27 ICUs in nine European countries. From 2,436 eligible ICU patients, 827 cases presented NP, with 18.3 episodes of VAP per 1000 ventilator-days. Most common findings were worsening oxygenation, purulent respiratory secretions and temperature increase. At least three criteria from Clinical Pulmonary Infection score (CPIS) were present in 77.9 % of episodes, but only 0.2 % met six CPIS criteria. Diagnosis was confirmed mainly noninvasively (74.8 %), with half qualitative and quantitative cultures. The dominant isolate was S. aureus in Spain, France, Belgium and Ireland, P. aeruginosa in Italy and Portugal, Acinetobacter in Greece and Turkey, but Escherichia coli in Germany. NP resulted in 6 % higher mortality, longer ICU stay and duration of mechanical ventilation (12 and 10 days). COPD and age ≥45 years were not associated with higher VAP incidence but did correlate with increased mortality. Trauma had higher VAP incidence but lower mortality. Bacteremia (led by MRSA and Acinetobacter baumannii) was documented in 14.6 %, being associated with extra ICU stay and mortality. Vasopressors and ICUs with above 25 % prevalence of Potential Resistant Organisms (PRM) were independently associated with PRM, being documented in 50.7 % of patients with early-onset VAP without known risk factors. Most patients initially received combination therapy. Delay in appropriate antimicrobial choice significantly increased mortality, and LOS in survivors was six days longer (p < 0.05). In conclusion, NP management in Europe presents local differences and major shifts when compared to reports from North America, outcomes of randomized trials and general guidelines.

  12. Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia with Bacteremia Caused by Herbaspirillum aquaticum or Herbaspirillum huttiense in an Immune-Competent Adult

    PubMed Central

    Kimball, Joanna; Smith, L. Patrick; Salzer, William

    2015-01-01

    Herbaspirillum spp. are Gram-negative bacteria that inhabit soil and water. Infections caused by these organisms have been reported in immunocompromised hosts. We describe severe community-acquired pneumonia and bacteremia caused by Herbaspirillum aquaticum or H. huttiense in an immunocompetent adult male. PMID:26179298

  13. Pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumonia Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Pneumonia is an infection that inflames the air sacs in one or both lungs. The air sacs may fill with fluid or pus ( ... organisms, including bacteria, viruses and fungi, can cause pneumonia. Pneumonia can range in seriousness from mild to ...

  14. Human bocavirus infection diagnosed serologically among children admitted to hospital with community-acquired pneumonia in a tropical region.

    PubMed

    Nascimento-Carvalho, Cristiana M; Cardoso, Maria-Regina A; Meriluoto, Mira; Kemppainen, Kaisa; Kantola, Kalle; Ruuskanen, Olli; Hedman, Klaus; Söderlund-Venermo, Maria

    2012-02-01

    Human bocavirus (HBoV) is a human virus associated with respiratory disease in children. Limited information is available on acute infection with HBoV among children admitted to hospital with community-acquired pneumonia in tropical regions and the current diagnosis is inadequate. The aims were to diagnose and describe acute HBoV infections among children hospitalized for community-acquired pneumonia. In Salvador, Brazil, 277 children with community-acquired pneumonia were prospectively enrolled. Paired serum samples were tested by IgG, IgM, and IgG-avidity enzyme immunoassays (EIAs) using recombinant HBoV VP2. HBoV DNA was detected in nasopharyngeal aspirates and serum by a quantitative polymerase-chain reaction (PCR). HBoV DNA was detected in nasopharyngeal aspirates of 62/268 (23%) children and 156/273 (57%) were seropositive. Acute primary HBoV infection was reliably diagnosed (bearing at least two acute markers: Positive IgM, a fourfold increase/conversion of IgG, low IgG avidity or viremia) in 21 (8%) of 273 patients, 90% of 20 had HBoV DNA in nasopharyngeal aspirates, 83% with a high DNA load. The median age of infection with HBoV was 16 months, range 5-36. Community-acquired pneumonia was confirmed radiographically in 85% of 20 patients with acute HBoV infection diagnosed serologically. HBoV DNA was found in nasopharyngeal aspirates of 42/246(17%) children without an acute primary HBoV infection and available nasopharyngeal aspirate. Four children with HBoV secondary immune responses were detected, lacking both IgM and viremia. HBoV infection was diagnosed accurately in children aged 5-36 months with community-acquired pneumonia confirmed radiographically. PCR of nasopharyngeal aspirates is not a reliable marker of acute HBoV infection.

  15. End points in hospital-acquired pneumonia and/or ventilator-associated pneumonia clinical trials: food and drug administration perspective.

    PubMed

    Laessig, Katherine A

    2010-08-01

    Identification of reliable, reproducible, and precise end points for future studies of hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia is of paramount importance for approval of new therapeutic agents. As required by the Code of Federal Regulations 21 CFR 314.126, the methods of assessment of a subject's response (ie, end points) must be well defined and reliable. The study protocol and results should explain the variables measured, the methods of observation, and criteria used to assess response. Meeting these requirements has proven to be problematic in clinical trials for the evaluation of new products for the treatment of hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia because of the subjectivity of assessing a clinical response end point. There are multiple issues and caveats to consider when selecting appropriate end points for these trials.

  16. Diagnostic accuracy of pulmonary host inflammatory mediators in the exclusion of ventilator-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Hellyer, Thomas P; Conway Morris, Andrew; McAuley, Daniel F; Walsh, Timothy S; Anderson, Niall H; Singh, Suveer; Dark, Paul; Roy, Alistair I; Baudouin, Simon V; Wright, Stephen E; Perkins, Gavin D; Kefala, Kallirroi; Jeffels, Melinda; McMullan, Ronan; O'Kane, Cecilia M; Spencer, Craig; Laha, Shondipon; Robin, Nicole; Gossain, Savita; Gould, Kate; Ruchaud-Sparagano, Marie-Hélène; Scott, Jonathan; Browne, Emma M; MacFarlane, James G; Wiscombe, Sarah; Widdrington, John D; Dimmick, Ian; Laurenson, Ian F; Nauwelaers, Frans; Simpson, A John

    2015-01-01

    Background Excessive use of empirical antibiotics is common in critically ill patients. Rapid biomarker-based exclusion of infection may improve antibiotic stewardship in ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP). However, successful validation of the usefulness of potential markers in this setting is exceptionally rare. Objectives We sought to validate the capacity for specific host inflammatory mediators to exclude pneumonia in patients with suspected VAP. Methods A prospective, multicentre, validation study of patients with suspected VAP was conducted in 12 intensive care units. VAP was confirmed following bronchoscopy by culture of a potential pathogen in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) at >104 colony forming units per millilitre (cfu/mL). Interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), IL-8, matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8), MMP-9 and human neutrophil elastase (HNE) were quantified in BALF. Diagnostic utility was determined for biomarkers individually and in combination. Results Paired BALF culture and biomarker results were available for 150 patients. 53 patients (35%) had VAP and 97 (65%) patients formed the non-VAP group. All biomarkers were significantly higher in the VAP group (p<0.001). The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve for IL-1β was 0.81; IL-8, 0.74; MMP-8, 0.76; MMP-9, 0.79 and HNE, 0.78. A combination of IL-1β and IL-8, at the optimal cut-point, excluded VAP with a sensitivity of 100%, a specificity of 44.3% and a post-test probability of 0% (95% CI 0% to 9.2%). Conclusions Low BALF IL-1β in combination with IL-8 confidently excludes VAP and could form a rapid biomarker-based rule-out test, with the potential to improve antibiotic stewardship. PMID:25298325

  17. [Predictive value of history and physical examination for the diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia in adults: a literature review].

    PubMed

    Saldías, Fernando; Méndez, J Ignacio; Ramírez, David; Díaz, Orlando

    2007-04-01

    Distinguishing pneumonia from other causes of respiratory illnesses, such as bronchitis, influenza and upper respiratory tract infections, has important therapeutic and prognostic implications. This decision is usually made by clinical assessment alone or by performing a chest x-ray. The reference standard for diagnosing pneumonia is chest radiography, but many physicians rely on history and physical examination to diagnose or exclude this disease. A review of published studies of patients suspected of having pneumonia reveals that there are no individual clinical findings, or combination of findings, that can predict with certainty the diagnosis of pneumonia. Prediction rules have been recommended to guide the order of diagnostic tests, to maximize their clinical utility. Thus, some studies have shown that the absence of any vital sign abnormalities or any abnormalities on chest auscultation substantially reduces the likelihood of pneumonia to a point where further diagnostic evaluation may be unnecessary. This article reviews the literature on the appropriate use of the history and physical examination in diagnose community-acquired pneumonia.

  18. A Community-acquired Lung Abscess Attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae which Extended Directly into the Chest Wall

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Yuki; Tobino, Kazunori; Yasuda, Yuichiro; Sueyasu, Takuto; Nishizawa, Saori; Yoshimine, Kouhei; Munechika, Miyuki; Asaji, Mina; Yamaji, Yoshikazu; Tsuruno, Kosuke; Miyajima, Hiroyuki; Mukasa, Yosuke; Ebi, Noriyuki

    2017-01-01

    We herein report the case of 75-year-old Japanese female with a community-acquired lung abscess attributable to Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. penumoniae) which extended into the chest wall. The patient was admitted to our hospital with a painful mass on the left anterior chest wall. A contrast-enhanced chest computed tomography scan showed a lung abscess in the left upper lobe which extended into the chest wall. Surgical debridement of the chest wall abscess and percutaneous transthoracic tube drainage of the lung abscess were performed. A culture of the drainage specimen yielded S. pneumoniae. The patient showed a remarkable improvement after the initiation of intravenous antibiotic therapy. PMID:28049987

  19. Acquired factor V inhibitor in a patient receiving venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for Legionella pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Leung, Anne K H; Ng, George W Y; Sin, K C; Au, S Y; Lai, K Y; Lee, K L; Law, K I

    2015-04-01

    We report a rare complication of factor V deficiency in a patient having Legionella pneumonia. This patient also had other complications like severe acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute kidney injury, and septic shock that required venous-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support. This is the first reported case of acquired factor V deficiency in a patient receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation for Legionella pneumonia. With the combined use of intravenous immunoglobulin, rituximab and plasma exchange, we achieved rapid clearance of the factor V inhibitor within 1 week so as to allow safe decannulation of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation.

  20. Using Data-Driven Rules to Predict Mortality in Severe Community Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Chuang; Rosenfeld, Roni; Clermont, Gilles

    2014-01-01

    Prediction of patient-centered outcomes in hospitals is useful for performance benchmarking, resource allocation, and guidance regarding active treatment and withdrawal of care. Yet, their use by clinicians is limited by the complexity of available tools and amount of data required. We propose to use Disjunctive Normal Forms as a novel approach to predict hospital and 90-day mortality from instance-based patient data, comprising demographic, genetic, and physiologic information in a large cohort of patients admitted with severe community acquired pneumonia. We develop two algorithms to efficiently learn Disjunctive Normal Forms, which yield easy-to-interpret rules that explicitly map data to the outcome of interest. Disjunctive Normal Forms achieve higher prediction performance quality compared to a set of state-of-the-art machine learning models, and unveils insights unavailable with standard methods. Disjunctive Normal Forms constitute an intuitive set of prediction rules that could be easily implemented to predict outcomes and guide criteria-based clinical decision making and clinical trial execution, and thus of greater practical usefulness than currently available prediction tools. The Java implementation of the tool JavaDNF will be publicly available. PMID:24699007

  1. Undiagnosed Chronic Granulomatous Disease, Burkholderia cepacia complex Pneumonia, and Acquired Hemophagocytic Lymphohistiocytosis: A Deadly Association

    PubMed Central

    Maignan, Maxime; Verdant, Colin; Bouvet, Guillaume F.; Van Spall, Michael; Berthiaume, Yves

    2013-01-01

    Background. Chronic granulomatous disease is a rare inherited disorder of the phagocyte nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase. The clinical course of the disease is marked by recurrent infections, including Burkholderia cepacia complex infection. Case Report. Here we report the case of a 21-year-old male hospitalized for a Burkholderia cepacia complex pneumonia. Despite the broad spectrum antibiotic treatment, fever continued and patient's condition worsened. Anemia and thrombocytopenia developed together with hypofibrinogenemia. The patient died of multiple organ dysfunction 17 days after his admission. Autopsy revealed hemophagocytosis, suggesting the diagnosis of acquired hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis. DNA analysis showed a deletion in the p47phox gene, confirming the diagnosis of autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease. Discussion. In addition to chronic granulomatous disease, recent findings have demonstrated that Burkholderia cepacia complex can decrease activity of the NADPH oxidase. Interestingly, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is characterized by an impaired function of the T-cell mediated inflammation which is partly regulated by the NADPH oxidase. Physicians should therefore pay particular attention to this deadly association. PMID:24058739

  2. Gene expression profiling of mononuclear cells from patients with sepsis secondary to community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Severino, Patricia; Silva, Eliezer; Baggio-Zappia, Giovana Lotici; Brunialti, Milena Karina Colo; Nucci, Laura Alejandra; Junior, Otelo Rigato; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; Machado, Flavia Ribeiro; Salomao, Reinaldo

    2014-12-01

    Mechanisms governing the inflammatory response during sepsis involve crosstalk between diverse signaling pathways, but current knowledge provides an incomplete picture of the syndrome. Microarray-based expression profiling is a powerful approach for the investigation of complex clinical conditions such as sepsis. In this study, we investigated whole-genome expression profiles in mononuclear cells from septic patients admitted in intensive care units with community-acquired pneumonia. Blood samples were collected at the time of sepsis diagnosis and seven days later since we aimed to evaluate the role of biological processes or genes possibly involved in patient recovery. Here we provide a detailed description of the study design, including clinical information, experimental methods and procedures regarding data analysis. Metadata corresponding to microarray results deposited in the database Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) under the accession number GSE48080 are also described in this report. Our dataset allows the identification of genes possibly associated with host defense to infection as well as gene expression patterns associated with patient outcome.

  3. Pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... or another health care facility such as a nursing home or rehab facility. Pneumonia that affects people in ... You can help prevent pneumonia by following the measures below. Wash your hands often, especially: Before preparing ...

  4. Development and evaluation of a multiplex test for the detection of atypical bacterial DNA in community-acquired pneumonia during childhood.

    PubMed

    Carrillo, J A; Gutiérrez, J; García, F; Muñoz, A; Villegas, E; Rojas, J; Sorlózano, A; Rojas, A

    2009-05-01

    An incorrect or late diagnosis can lead to an increase in the morbidity and mortality caused by pneumonia, and the availability of a rapid and accurate microbiological test to verify the aetiology is imperative. This study evaluated a molecular test for the identification of the bacterial cause of atypical community-acquired pneumonia (ACAP). Fifty-four children with pneumonia were studied using bacteriological cultures, Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Coxiella burnetii, Chlamydophila pneumoniae and Legionella spp. serology, and Streptococcus pneumoniae and Legionella antigens. Simultaneously, the presence of bacterial and fungal DNA was tested for in respiratory secretion samples using the Vircell SL kit, including multiplex PCR and amplicon detection by means of line blots. There were 14 cases of ACAP caused by M. pneumoniae, with positive kit results for 13 of them, and two cases of Q-fever, with negative kit results for Coxiella burnetii. The test was negative in the remaining 38 cases (one staphylococcal pneumonia, 20 Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonias, and 17 probable viral pneumonias). The sensitivity of the test for the detection of M. pneumoniae was 92.8% and the specificity was 100%. The Vircell SL kit allows detection of M. pneumoniae DNA in respiratory secretion samples from children with ACAP.

  5. In vitro activity of tigecycline against patient isolates collected during phase 3 clinical trials for hospital acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Peter J; Tuckman, Margareta; Jones, C Hal

    2010-02-03

    The in vitro activity of tigecycline was evaluated against 819 baseline pathogens isolated from 383 patients enrolled in the phase 3 clinical trial investigating the efficacy of tigecycline in hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP). The trials were global, enrolling patients in 27 countries. Tigecycline was active against the most prevalent pathogens in HAP, including gram-positive and gram-negative strains (90% of MICs ≤2 µg/mL for the entire collection). The spectrum of activity of tigecycline included important pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant S. aureus), Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii/calcoaceticus complex, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Enterobacter cloacae. As reported previously, a few genera, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Proteeae, were generally less susceptible to tigecycline by comparison to other gram-negative pathogens. The excellent in vitro, expanded, broad-spectrum activity of tigecycline in the clinical isolates confirmed the potential utility of tigecycline for pathogens associated with with hospital acquired pneumonia infections.

  6. In vitro activity of tigecycline against patient isolates collected during phase 3 clinical trials for hospital acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Peter J.; Tuckman, Margareta; Jones, C. Hal

    2010-01-01

    The in vitro activity of tigecycline was evaluated against 819 baseline pathogens isolated from 383 patients enrolled in the phase 3 clinical trial investigating the efficacy of tigecycline in hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP). The trials were global, enrolling patients in 27 countries. Tigecycline was active against the most prevalent pathogens in HAP, including gram-positive and gram-negative strains (90% of MICs ≤2 µg/mL for the entire collection). The spectrum of activity of tigecycline included important pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus (including methicillin-resistant S. aureus), Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii/calcoaceticus complex, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumonia, and Enterobacter cloacae. As reported previously, a few genera, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and the Proteeae, were generally less susceptible to tigecycline by comparison to other gram-negative pathogens. The excellent in vitro, expanded, broad-spectrum activity of tigecycline in the clinical isolates confirmed the potential utility of tigecycline for pathogens associated with with hospital acquired pneumonia infections. PMID:24470884

  7. Efficacy and safety of temafloxacin versus those of amoxicillin in hospitalized adults with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed Central

    Carbon, C; Léophonte, P; Petitpretz, P; Chauvin, J P; Hazebroucq, J

    1992-01-01

    Temafloxacin, a new fluoroquinolone, was compared with amoxicillin in the treatment of adult hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia. In this double-blind, multicenter study, patients were randomly assigned to treatment with temafloxacin at 600 mg twice daily (n = 125) or amoxicillin at 500 mg three times daily (n = 121); the average duration of treatment was 10 days. Clinical recovery rates were similar for patients treated with temafloxacin and amoxicillin (89 and 85%), as were bacterial eradication rates (99 and 97%). This was also true for subgroups of patients with pneumococcal pneumonia (n = 100), nonpneumococcal pneumonia (n = 122), or atypical pneumonia (n = 12). Outcomes for temafloxacin- and amoxicillin-treated patients were also similar in terms of defervescence, improvement in leukocytosis, and radiographic evidence of infection. The frequency and severity of adverse events were similar in both groups, consisting primarily of digestive disorders and skin manifestations. We conclude that temafloxacin may be recommended as an alternative antibacterial drug for patients with suspected pneumococcal pneumonia who fail to respond to benzylpenicillin or amoxicillin when the incidence of multiresistant pneumococcal strains is low. In countries where the incidence of these strains is high, temafloxacin may also be recommended. PMID:1323954

  8. Are new antibiotics better than beta-lactams for non-critical inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia?

    PubMed

    Reyes B, Tomás; Ortega G, Marcos; Saldías P, Fernando

    2016-08-05

    Treatment for community-acquired pneumonia in immunocompetent adults is mainly empirical. Beta-lactam antibiotics have been traditionally considered first-line therapy. New antibiotics could be more effective but the evidence is not clear until now, and its use could entail greater costs, an increase in bacterial resistance and other adverse effects. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified six systematic reviews including 36 randomized trials addressing this question. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table following the GRADE approach. We concluded new antibiotics are not better than beta-lactam antibiotics for the treatment of non-critical inpatients with community-acquired pneumonia in relation to clinical failure or adverse effects.

  9. Solithromycin: A Novel Fluoroketolide for the Treatment of Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Zhanel, George G; Hartel, Erika; Adam, Heather; Zelenitsky, Sheryl; Zhanel, Michael A; Golden, Alyssa; Schweizer, Frank; Gorityala, Bala; Lagacé-Wiens, Philippe R S; Walkty, Andrew J; Gin, Alfred S; Hoban, Daryl J; Lynch, Joseph P; Karlowsky, James A

    2016-12-01

    Solithromycin is a novel fluoroketolide developed in both oral and intravenous formulations to address increasing macrolide resistance in pathogens causing community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP). When compared with its macrolide and ketolide predecessors, solithromycin has several structural modifications which increase its ribosomal binding and reduce its propensity to known macrolide resistance mechanisms. Solithromycin, like telithromycin, affects 50S ribosomal subunit formation and function, as well as causing frame-shift errors during translation. However, unlike telithromycin, which binds to two sites on the ribosome, solithromycin has three distinct ribosomal binding sites. Its desosamine sugar interacts at the A2058/A2059 cleft in domain V (as all macrolides do), an extended alkyl-aryl side chain interacts with base pair A752-U2609 in domain II (similar to telithromycin), and a fluorine at C-2 of solithromycin provides additional binding to the ribosome. Studies describing solithromycin activity against Streptococcus pneumoniae have reported that it does not induce erm-mediated resistance because it lacks a cladinose moiety, and that it is less susceptible than other macrolides to mef-mediated efflux due to its increased ribosomal binding and greater intrinsic activity. Solithromycin has demonstrated potent in vitro activity against the most common CABP pathogens, including macrolide-, penicillin-, and fluoroquinolone-resistant isolates of S. pneumoniae, as well as Haemophilus influenzae and atypical bacterial pathogens. Solithromycin displays multi-compartment pharmacokinetics, a large volume of distribution (>500 L), approximately 67% bioavailability when given orally, and serum protein binding of 81%. Its major metabolic pathway appears to follow cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4, with metabolites of solithromycin undergoing biliary excretion. Its serum half-life is approximately 6-9 h, which is sufficient for once-daily administration. Pharmacodynamic

  10. In vitro activity of tigecycline and occurrence of tetracycline resistance determinants in isolates from patients enrolled in phase 3 clinical trials for community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Bradford, P A; Petersen, P J; Tuckman, M; Jones, C H

    2008-09-01

    The in vitro activity of tigecycline was evaluated against baseline pathogens isolated from patients enrolled in phase 3 clinical trials for community-acquired pneumonia conducted in 29 countries worldwide. Tigecycline was active against the most prevalent pathogens, including Streptococcus pneumoniae (MIC(90) 0.06 mg/L), Staphylococcus aureus (MIC(90) 0.25 mg/L), Haemophilus influenzae (MIC(90) 0.5 mg/L) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MIC(90) 1 mg/L). Twelve isolates of S. pneumoniae expressing tet(M) and two isolates of K. pneumoniae producing extended-spectrum beta-lactamases isolated during the study were susceptible to tigecycline. The excellent in vitro activity of tigecycline against these clinical isolates confirmed its potential utility against pathogens associated with community-acquired pneumonia.

  11. Granzyme A impairs host defense during Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia.

    PubMed

    van den Boogaard, Florry E; van Gisbergen, Klaas P J M; Vernooy, Juanita H; Medema, Jan P; Roelofs, Joris J T H; van Zoelen, Marieke A D; Endeman, Henrik; Biesma, Douwe H; Boon, Louis; Van't Veer, Cornelis; de Vos, Alex F; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-08-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the most common causative pathogen in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Granzyme A (GzmA) is a serine protease produced by a variety of cell types involved in the immune response. We sought to determine the role of GzmA on the host response during pneumococcal pneumonia. GzmA was measured in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) harvested from CAP patients from the infected and contralateral uninfected side and in lung tissue slides from CAP patients and controls. In CAP patients, GzmA levels were increased in BALF obtained from the infected lung. Human lungs showed constitutive GzmA expression by both parenchymal and nonparenchymal cells. In an experimental setting, pneumonia was induced in wild-type (WT) and GzmA-deficient (GzmA(-/-)) mice by intranasal inoculation of S. pneumoniae In separate experiments, WT and GzmA(-/-) mice were treated with natural killer (NK) cell depleting antibodies. Upon infection with S. pneumoniae, GzmA(-/-) mice showed a better survival and lower bacterial counts in BALF and distant body sites compared with WT mice. Although NK cells showed strong GzmA expression, NK cell depletion did not influence bacterial loads in either WT or GzmA(-/-) mice. These results implicate that GzmA plays an unfavorable role in host defense during pneumococcal pneumonia by a mechanism that does not depend on NK cells.

  12. Impaired acquired resistance of mice to Klebsiella pneumoniae infection induced by acute NO/sub 2/ exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bouley, G.; Azoulay-Dupuis, E.; Gaudebout, C.

    1985-12-01

    The natural resistance of nonimmunized C57B1/6 mice to an intraperitoneal Klebsiella pneumoniae challenge was not significantly affected by prior continuous exposure to 20 ppm NO/sub 2/ for 4 days. In contrast, the acquired resistance of mice immunized just before and infected just after NO/sub 2/ exposure was seriously impaired. This could not be explained by the loss of appetite (about 30%) observed in NO/sub 2/ treated mice, for neither the natural nor acquired resistance of control air exposure mice given approximately 70% ad libitum food and water were significantly modified.

  13. Risk of heart failure after community acquired pneumonia: prospective controlled study with 10 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Eurich, Dean T; Marrie, Thomas J; Minhas-Sandhu, Jasjeet K; Majumdar, Sumit R

    2017-02-13

    Objective To determine the attributable risk of community acquired pneumonia on incidence of heart failure throughout the age range of affected patients and severity of the infection.Design Cohort study.Setting Six hospitals and seven emergency departments in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada, 2000-02.Participants 4988 adults with community acquired pneumonia and no history of heart failure were prospectively recruited and matched on age, sex, and setting of treatment (inpatient or outpatient) with up to five adults without pneumonia (controls) or prevalent heart failure (n=23 060).Main outcome measures Risk of hospital admission for incident heart failure or a combined endpoint of heart failure or death up to 2012, evaluated using multivariable Cox proportional hazards analyses.Results The average age of participants was 55 years, 2649 (53.1%) were men, and 63.4% were managed as outpatients. Over a median of 9.9 years (interquartile range 5.9-10.6), 11.9% (n=592) of patients with pneumonia had incident heart failure compared with 7.4% (n=1712) of controls (adjusted hazard ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval 1.44 to 1.81). Patients with pneumonia aged 65 or less had the lowest absolute increase (but greatest relative risk) of heart failure compared with controls (4.8% v 2.2%; adjusted hazard ratio 1.98, 95% confidence interval 1.5 to 2.53), whereas patients with pneumonia aged more than 65 years had the highest absolute increase (but lowest relative risk) of heart failure (24.8% v 18.9%; adjusted hazard ratio 1.55, 1.36 to 1.77). Results were consistent in the short term (90 days) and intermediate term (one year) and whether patients were treated in hospital or as outpatients.Conclusion Our results show that community acquired pneumonia substantially increases the risk of heart failure across the age and severity range of cases. This should be considered when formulating post-discharge care plans and preventive strategies, and assessing downstream episodes of

  14. Compliance with severe sepsis bundles and its effect on patient outcomes of severe community-acquired pneumonia in a limited resources country

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai-Yan; Li, Yi-Min; Nong, Ling-Bo; Xu, Yuan-Da; He, Guo-Qing; Liu, Xiao-Qing; Jiang, Mei; Xiao, Zheng-Iun; Zhong, Nan-Shan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Validation of compliance with severe sepsis bundles is still needed. The purpose of this study was to determine compliance and its outcomes in severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients in a limited resources country. Material and methods A prospective cohort study of 212 severe CAP patients was carried out. The implementation programme was organized into two continuous phases. The primary outcomes were compliance and hospital mortality. Results Compliance with administration of antibiotics and vasopressors as well as plateau pressure on average < 30 cm H2O was high in both groups. In the bundles group, patients received more serum lactate monitoring (62.3% vs. 11.3%), more blood cultures (47.1% vs. 24.5%), more fluid resuscitation (63.2% vs. 26.4%) and volumes infused (1319.8 ±1107.4 ml vs. 461.9 ±799.3 ml), more inotropic dobutamine and/or packed red blood cells (21.7% vs. 10.0%), more low-dose steroids (56.5% vs. 15.0%), and more glucose control (51.9% vs. 6.6%) compared with such patients in the control group. The rates of total compliance with 6-hour, 24-hour, and 6/24-hour bundles in the prospective period were 47.1%, 51.9%, and 42.5%, respectively. Hospital mortality was reduced from 44.3% to 29.2% (p = 0.023) in the bundles group, and the compliant subgroup had a more than twofold decrease in mortality (17.8% vs. 37.7%, p = 0.003). Serum lactate measured, blood cultures, and fluid resuscitation showed independent relationships with decreased mortality. Conclusions Total compliance was relatively low, but the implementation of severe sepsis bundles could clearly reduce mortality from severe CAP. PMID:25395949

  15. Mortality, morbidity, and disease severity of patients with aspiration pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Lanspa, Michael J.; Jones, Barbara E.; Brown, Samuel M.; Dean, Nathan C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Aspiration pneumonia is a common syndrome, although less well characterized than other pneumonia syndromes. We describe a large population of patients with aspiration pneumonia. Methods In this retrospective population study, we queried the electronic medical record at a tertiary-care, university-affiliated hospital from 1996–2006. Patients were initially identified by ICD-9 code 507.x; subsequent physician chart review excluded patients with aspiration pneumonitis and those without a confirmatory radiograph. Patients with community-acquired aspiration pneumonia were compared to a contemporaneous population of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients. We compared CURB-65 predicted mortality with actual 30-day mortality. Results We identified 628 patients with aspiration pneumonia, of which 510 were community-acquired. Median age was 77, with 30-day mortality of 21%. Compared to CAP patients, patients with community-acquired aspiration pneumonia had more frequent inpatient admission (99% vs. 58%) and ICU admission (38% vs. 14%), higher Charlson comorbidity index (3 vs. 1), and higher prevalence of “do not resuscitate/intubate” orders (24% vs. 11%). CURB-65 predicted mortality poorly in aspiration pneumonia patients (AUC 0.66). Conclusions Patients with community-acquired aspiration pneumonia are older, have more comorbidities, and demonstrate higher mortality than CAP patients, even after adjustment for age and comorbidities. CURB-65 poorly predicts mortality in this population. PMID:23184866

  16. Risk factors for hospital admission in the 28 days following a community-acquired pneumonia diagnosis in older adults, and their contribution to increasing hospitalisation rates over time: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Millett, Elizabeth R C; De Stavola, Bianca L; Smeeth, Liam; Thomas, Sara L

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To determine factors associated with hospitalisation after community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) among older adults in England, and to investigate how these factors have contributed to increasing hospitalisations over time. Design Cohort study. Setting Primary and secondary care in England. Population 39 211 individuals from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink, who were eligible for linkage to Hospital Episode Statistics and mortality data, were aged ≥65 and had at least 1 CAP episode between April 1998 and March 2011. Main outcome measures The association between hospitalisation within 28 days of CAP diagnosis (a ‘post-CAP’ hospitalisation) and a wide range of comorbidities, frailty factors, medications and vaccinations. We examined the role of these factors in post-CAP hospitalisation trends. We also looked at trends in post-CAP mortality and length of hospitalisation over the study period. Results 14 comorbidities, 5 frailty factors and 4 medications/vaccinations were associated with hospitalisation (of 18, 12 and 7 considered, respectively). Factors such as chronic lung disease, severe renal disease and diabetes were associated with increased likelihood of hospitalisation, whereas factors such as recent influenza vaccination and a recent antibiotic prescription decreased the odds of hospitalisation. Despite adjusting for these and other factors, the average predicted probability of hospitalisation after CAP rose markedly from 57% (1998–2000) to 86% (2009–2010). Duration of hospitalisation and 28-day mortality decreased over the study period. Conclusions The risk factors we describe enable identification of patients at increased likelihood of post-CAP hospitalisation and thus in need of proactive case management. Our analyses also provide evidence that while comorbidities and frailty factors contributed to increasing post-CAP hospitalisations in recent years, the trend appears to be largely driven by changes in service provision and

  17. Influence of genetic variability at the surfactant proteins A and D in community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective, observational, genetic study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Genetic variability of the pulmonary surfactant proteins A and D may affect clearance of microorganisms and the extent of the inflammatory response. The genes of these collectins (SFTPA1, SFTPA2 and SFTPD) are located in a cluster at 10q21-24. The objective of this study was to evaluate the existence of linkage disequilibrium (LD) among these genes, and the association of variability at these genes with susceptibility and outcome of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We also studied the effect of genetic variability on SP-D serum levels. Methods Seven non-synonymous polymorphisms of SFTPA1, SFTPA2 and SFTPD were analyzed. For susceptibility, 682 CAP patients and 769 controls were studied in a case-control study. Severity and outcome were evaluated in a prospective study. Haplotypes were inferred and LD was characterized. SP-D serum levels were measured in healthy controls. Results The SFTPD aa11-C allele was significantly associated with lower SP-D serum levels, in a dose-dependent manner. We observed the existence of LD among the studied genes. Haplotypes SFTPA1 6A2 (P = 0.0009, odds ration (OR) = 0.78), SFTPA2 1A0 (P = 0.002, OR = 0.79), SFTPA1-SFTPA2 6A2-1A0 (P = 0.0005, OR = 0.77), and SFTPD-SFTPA1-SFTPA2 C-6A2-1A0 (P = 0.00001, OR = 0.62) were underrepresented in patients, whereas haplotypes SFTPA2 1A10 (P = 0.00007, OR = 6.58) and SFTPA1-SFTPA2 6A3-1A (P = 0.0007, OR = 3.92) were overrepresented. Similar results were observed in CAP due to pneumococcus, though no significant differences were now observed after Bonferroni corrections. 1A10 and 6A-1A were associated with higher 28-day and 90-day mortality, and with multi-organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) respectively. SFTPD aa11-C allele was associated with development of MODS and ARDS. Conclusions Our study indicates that missense single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes of SFTPA1, SFTPA2 and SFTPD are associated with susceptibility to CAP, and

  18. [Community acquired pneumonia and pulmonary hemorrhage in leptospirosis in the Buenos Aires metropolitan area].

    PubMed

    Seijo, Alfredo; Romer, Yamila; San Juan, Jorge; Prieto, Raúl; Nogueras, Mabel; De Vedia, Lautaro; Font Nine, Luis; Giamperetti, Sergio

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to report the epidemiological, clinical and diagnosis findings of pneumonia and pulmonary hemorrhage observed in patients with leptospirosis in the period January 2007 to October 2009. A 64% (20/31) of patients diagnosed with leptospirosis presented pneumonia. Fifteen of them (75%) had severe pneumonia, of which seven (35%) were pulmonary hemorrhage. In ten patients (32%) reason for consultation and clinical early stage was a secretory gastroenteritis with fever and abdominal pain. Jaundice was only expressed in eleven patients (35%). The technique of chain reaction (PCR) was useful for diagnosis in samples obtained post mortem. A strain classified in serogroup canicola was isolated from blood culture. Pneumonia was classified into three types: non-severe pneumonia course with little overall impact; severe pneumonia associated with systemic clinical forms with jaundice, renal failure, thrombocytopenia, and pulmonary hemorrhage, and of serious course, not associated with jaundice, kidney failure or thrombocytopenia. Antibiotic treatment started in the early stages of disease (average 3.2 days) had no influence on the development of severe pneumonia. It is puggested to consider three clinical forms of leptospirosis: anicteric, icteric (with its evolutionary variants) and pulmonary hemorrhage.

  19. Community-Acquired Bacteremic Acinetobacter Pneumonia in Tropical Australia Is Caused by Diverse Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii, with Carriage in the Throat in At-Risk Groups

    PubMed Central

    Anstey, Nicholas M.; Currie, Bart J.; Hassell, Marilyn; Palmer, Didier; Dwyer, Brian; Seifert, Harald

    2002-01-01

    Acinetobacter isolates from eight subjects with community-acquired Acinetobacter pneumonia (CAAP), a major cause of fatal community-acquired pneumonia in tropical Australia, were phenotypically and genotypically confirmed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis analysis to be broadly diverse Acinetobacter baumannii strains. Wet-season throat carriage of A. baumannii was found in 10% of community residents with excess levels of alcohol consumption, the major at-risk group for CAAP. PMID:11825997

  20. Pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... en español Pulmonía You're out in the rain, jumping around in puddles, and somebody yells, "Get ... you really catch it from playing in the rain? What Is Pneumonia? Pneumonia (say: noo-MOW-nyuh) ...

  1. Viral Infection Is Not Uncommon in Adult Patients with Severe Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Hyo-Lim; Hong, Sang-Bum; Ko, Gwang-Beom; Huh, Jin Won; Sung, Heungsup; Do, Kyung-Hyun; Kim, Sung-Han; Lee, Sang-Oh; Kim, Mi-Na; Jeong, Jin-Yong; Lim, Chae-Man; Kim, Yang Soo; Woo, Jun Hee; Koh, Younsuck; Choi, Sang-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Background Viral pathogens have not generally been regarded as important causes of severe hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), except in patients with hematologic malignancy or transplant recipients. We investigated the role and distribution of viruses in adult with severe HAP who required intensive care. Methods From March 2010 to February 2012, adult patients with severe HAP required admission to the intensive care unit (ICU), 28-bed medical ICU in a tertiary care hospital, were prospectively enrolled. Respiratory viruses were detected using multiplex reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and/or shell vial culture. Results A total of 262 patients were enrolled and 107 patients (40.8%) underwent bronchoscopic BAL for etiologic diagnosis. One hundred and fifty-six patients (59.5%) had bacterial infections and 59 patients (22.5%) had viral infections. Viruses were detected in BAL fluid specimens of 37 patients (62.7%, 37/59). The most commonly identified viruses were respiratory syncytial virus and parainfluenza virus (both 27.1%, 16/59), followed by rhinovirus (25.4%, 15/59), and influenza virus (16.9%, 10/59). Twenty-one patients (8.0%, 21/262) had bacterial-viral coinfections and Staphylococcus aureus was the most commonly coexisting bacteria (n = 10). Viral infection in non-immunocompromised patients was not uncommon (11.1%, 16/143), although it was not as frequent as that in immunocompromised patients (36.4%, 43/119). Non-immunocompromised patients were significantly older than immunocompromised patients and had significantly higher rates of underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, tuberculous destroyed lung and chronic kidney disease. The 28 day mortalities of patients with bacterial infections, viral infections and bacterial-viral coinfections were not significantly different (29.5%, 35.6% and 19.0%, respectively; p = 0.321). Conclusions Viral pathogens are not uncommon in adult patients with severe HAP who required ICU admission

  2. Telavancin versus Vancomycin for Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia due to Gram-positive Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Lalani, Tahaniyat; Corey, G. Ralph; Kanafani, Zeina A.; Nannini, Esteban C.; Rocha, Marcelo G.; Rahav, Galia; Niederman, Michael S.; Kollef, Marin H.; Shorr, Andrew F.; Lee, Patrick C.; Lentnek, Arnold L.; Luna, Carlos M.; Fagon, Jean-Yves; Torres, Antoni; Kitt, Michael M.; Genter, Fredric C.; Barriere, Steven L.; Friedland, H. David; Stryjewski, Martin E.

    2011-01-01

    Background. Telavancin is a lipoglycopeptide bactericidal against gram-positive pathogens. Methods. Two methodologically identical, double-blind studies (0015 and 0019) were conducted involving patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) due to gram-positive pathogens, particularly methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). Patients were randomized 1:1 to telavancin (10 mg/kg every 24 h) or vancomycin (1 g every 12 h) for 7–21 days. The primary end point was clinical response at follow-up/test-of-cure visit. Results. A total of 1503 patients were randomized and received study medication (the all-treated population). In the pooled all-treated population, cure rates with telavancin versus vancomycin were 58.9% versus 59.5% (95% confidence interval [CI] for the difference, –5.6% to 4.3%). In the pooled clinically evaluable population (n = 654), cure rates were 82.4% with telavancin and 80.7% with vancomycin (95% CI for the difference, –4.3% to 7.7%). Treatment with telavancin achieved higher cure rates in patients with monomicrobial S. aureus infection and comparable cure rates in patients with MRSA infection; in patients with mixed gram-positive/gram-negative infections, cure rates were higher in the vancomycin group. Incidence and types of adverse events were comparable between the treatment groups. Mortality rates for telavancin-treated versus vancomycin-treated patients were 21.5% versus 16.6% (95% CI for the difference, –0.7% to 10.6%) for study 0015 and 18.5% versus 20.6% (95% CI for the difference, –7.8% to 3.5%) for study 0019. Increases in serum creatinine level were more common in the telavancin group (16% vs 10%). Conclusions. The primary end point of the studies was met, indicating that telavancin is noninferior to vancomycin on the basis of clinical response in the treatment of HAP due to gram-positive pathogens. PMID:21148517

  3. Community-acquired necrotizing pneumonia caused by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus ST30-SCCmecIVc-spat019-PVL positive in San Antonio de Areco, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Silvina; Murzicato, Sofía; Sandoval, Orlando; Fernández-Canigia, Liliana; Mollerach, Marta

    2015-01-01

    Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus is the first cause of skin and soft tissue infections, but can also produce severe diseases such as bacteremia, osteomyelitis and necrotizing pneumonia. Some S. aureus lineages have been described in cases of necrotizing pneumonia worldwide, usually in young, previously healthy patients. In this work, we describe a fatal case of necrotizing pneumonia due to community-acquired methicillin-resistant S. aureus clone ST30-SCCmecIVc-spat019-PVL positive in an immunocompetent adult patient.

  4. Influence of socioeconomic status on community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in elderly patients requiring hospitalization: a multicenter observational study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The associations between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in adults have been studied although studies did not always document a relationship. The aim of this multicenter observational study was to determine the association between socioeconomic status and community-acquired pneumonia outcomes in the elderly, in the context of a public health system providing universal free care to the whole population. Methods A total of 651 patients aged ≥65 years hospitalized due to community-acquired pneumonia through the emergency departments of five Spanish public hospitals were recruited and followed up between May 2005 and January 2007. The primary outcomes studied were: length of stay, intensive care unit admission, overall mortality and readmission. Socioeconomic status was measured using both individual and community data: occupation [categorized in six social groups (I, II, III, IVa, IVb and V)], educational level (≤ primary level or ≥ secondary level) and disposable family income of the municipality or district of residence [>12,500 € (high municipality family income) and ≤12,500 € (low municipality family income)]. The six social groups were further categorized as upper/middle social class (groups I-IVb) and lower class (group V). Bivariate and multivariate analyses were performed. OR and their 95% confidence intervals were calculated. All statistical tests were two tailed and statistical significance was established as p < 0.05. Results 17.7% of patients lived in a municipality or district with a high municipality family income and 63.6% were upper/middle social class (I-IVb). Only 15.7% of patients had a secondary education. The adjusted analysis showed no association between pneumonia outcomes and social class, educational level or municipality family income. However, length of stay increased significantly in patients in whom the factors, living alone and being a smoker or ex-smoker coincided (p < 0

  5. Community-acquired pneumonia in children: current challenges and future directions.

    PubMed

    Wallihan, Rebecca; Ramilo, Octavio

    2014-11-01

    Pneumonia is a commonly encountered illness and the leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age. Our current management strategies remain less than optimal in part because we do not have adequate tools to determine etiology, classify patients and predict their outcomes. Studies in the last decade have demonstrated that viruses are commonly detected in children with pneumonia, but on many occasions this is not sufficient to establish a clear etiologic diagnosis since bacterial coinfection cannot be excluded. Gene expression profile analysis provides a comprehensive assessment of the host response to infection. Preliminary data suggest that transcriptional profile analysis and measurement of Molecular Distance to Health (MDTH) scores allows more precise patient classification than current diagnostic techniques and laboratory markers. Application of this tool to the evaluation of children with pneumonia may enhance our clinical decision making process and ultimately improve patient outcomes.

  6. Improved survival among ICU-hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia by unidentified organisms: a multicenter case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rello, J; Diaz, E; Mañez, R; Sole-Violan, J; Valles, J; Vidaur, L; Zaragoza, R; Gattarello, S

    2017-01-01

    A retrospective analysis from prospectively collected data was conducted in intensive care units (ICUs) at 33 hospitals in Europe comparing the trend in ICU survival among adults with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to unknown organisms from 2000 to 2015. The secondary objective was to establish whether changes in antibiotic policies were associated with different outcomes. ICU mortality decreased (p = 0.02) from 26.9 % in the first study period (2000-2002) to 15.7 % in the second period (2008-2015). Demographic data and clinical severity at admission were comparable between groups, except for age over 65 years and incidence of cardiomyopathy. Over time, patients received higher rates of combination therapy (94.3 vs. 77.2 %; p < 0.01) and early (<3 h) antibiotic delivery (72.9 vs. 50.3 %; p < 0.01); likewise, the 2008-2015 group was more likely to receive adequate antibiotic prescription [as defined by the Infectious Diseases Society of America/American Thoracic Society (IDSA/ATS) guidelines] than the 2000-2002 group (70.7 vs. 48.2 %; p < 0.01). Multivariate analysis showed an independent association between decreased ICU mortality and early (<3 h) antibiotic administration [odds ratio (OR) 3.48 [1.70-7.15], p < 0.01] or adequate antibiotic prescription according to guidelines (OR 2.22 [1.11-4.43], p = 0.02). In conclusion, our findings suggest that ICU mortality in severe CAP due to unidentified organisms has decreased in the last 15 years. Several changes in management and better compliance with guidelines over time were associated with increased survival.

  7. A tailored implementation strategy to reduce the duration of intravenous antibiotic treatment in community-acquired pneumonia: a controlled before-and-after study.

    PubMed

    Engel, M F; Bruns, A H W; Hulscher, M E J L; Gaillard, C A J M; Sankatsing, S U C; Teding van Berkhout, F; Emmelot-Vonk, M H; Kuck, E M; Steeghs, M H M; den Breeijen, J H; Stellato, R K; Hoepelman, A I M; Oosterheert, J J

    2014-11-01

    We previously showed that 40 % of clinically stable patients hospitalised for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) are not switched to oral therapy in a timely fashion because of physicians' barriers. We aimed to decrease this proportion by implementing a novel protocol. In a multi-centre controlled before-and-after study, we evaluated the effect of an implementation strategy tailored to previously identified barriers to an early switch. In three Dutch hospitals, a protocol dictating a timely switch strategy was implemented using educational sessions, pocket reminders and active involvement of nursing staff. Primary outcomes were the proportion of patients switched timely and the duration of intravenous antibiotic therapy. Length of hospital stay (LOS), patient outcome, education effects 6 months after implementation and implementation costs were secondary outcomes. Statistical analysis was performed using mixed-effects models. Prior to implementation, 146 patients were included and, after implementation, 213 patients were included. The case mix was comparable. The implementation did not change the proportion of patients switched on time (66 %). The median duration of intravenous antibiotic administration decreased from 4 days [interquartile range (IQR) 2-5] to 3 days (IQR 2-4), a decrease of 21 % [95 % confidence interval (CI) 11 %; 30 %) in the multi-variable analysis. LOS and patient outcome were comparable before and after implementation. Forty-three percent (56/129) of physicians attended the educational sessions. After 6 months, 24 % (10/42) of the interviewed attendees remembered the protocol's main message. Cumulative implementation costs were 5,798 (20/reduced intravenous treatment day). An implementation strategy tailored to previously identified barriers reduced the duration of intravenous antibiotic administration in hospitalised CAP patients by 1 day, at minimal cost.

  8. Pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... the flu Your doctor will use your medical history, a physical exam, and lab tests to diagnose pneumonia. Treatment depends on what kind you have. If bacteria are the cause, antibiotics should help. If you ...

  9. Low prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistant strains and resistance precursor strains in Streptococcus pneumoniae from patients with community-acquired pneumonia despite high fluoroquinolone usage.

    PubMed

    Pletz, Mathias W; van der Linden, Mark; von Baum, Heike; Duesberg, Christoph B; Klugman, Keith P; Welte, Tobias

    2011-01-01

    We investigated the usage of fluoroquinolones and the prevalence of fluoroquinolone resistant pneumococci and their precursors (first step mutants and efflux expressing isolates) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, who were enroled into the German CAPNETZ surveillance study from 2002 to 2006 before the introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (n=5780). Thirty-eight percent of all outpatients received fluoroquinolones. Moxifloxacin accounted for 70%, levofloxacin for 19% and ciprofloxacin for 9% of all fluoroquinolone prescriptions. One hundred and sixty-three pneumococcal isolates from 556 patients with pneumococcal pneumonia were analyzed for fluoroquinolone resistance, efflux phenotype, prevalence of mutations within the quinolone-resistance determining regions and clonality. None of the isolates exhibited fluoroquinolone resistance, 1.2% of the isolates contained a first step mutation and 6.7% exhibited an efflux phenotype. There was no clonal relationship among these strains at increased risk for fluoroquinolone resistance. The absence of fluoroquinolone resistance in the context of high fluoroquinolone usage might be explained by the high proportion of third-generation fluoroquinolones with enhanced activity against pneumococci.

  10. Prevalence of Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolates in Nosocomial and Community-Acquired Urinary Tract Infections

    PubMed Central

    Latifpour, Mohammad; Gholipour, Abolfazl; Damavandi, Mohammad Sadegh

    2016-01-01

    Background Klebsiella pneumoniae is a family member of Enterobacteriaceae. Isolates of K. pneumoniae produce enzymes that cause decomposition of third generation cephalosporins. These enzymes are known as extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL). Resistance of K. pneumoniae to beta-lactamase antibiotics is commonly mediated by beta-lactamase genes. Objectives The aim of this study was to identify the ESBL produced by K. pneumoniae isolates that cause community-acquired and nosocomial urinary tract infections within a one-year period (2013 to 2014) in Kashani and Hajar university hospitals of Shahrekord, Iran. Patients and Methods From 2013 to 2014, 150 strains of K. pneumoniae isolate from two different populations with nosocomial and community-acquired infections were collected. The strains were then investigated by double disk synergism and multiplex polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Results The study population of 150 patients with nosocomial and community-acquired infections were divided to two groups of 75 each. We found that 48 of the K. pneumoniae isolates in the patients with nosocomial infection and 39 isolates in those with community-acquired infections produced ESBL. The prevalence of TEM1, SHV1 and VEB1 in ESBL-producing isolates in nosocomial patients was 24%, 29.3% and 10.6%, and in community-acquired patients, 17.3%, 22.7% and 8%, respectively. Conclusions The prevalence of ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolate is of great concern; therefore, continuous investigation seems essential to monitor ESBL-producing bacteria in patients with nosocomial and community-acquired infections. PMID:27226874

  11. Acquired resistance to innate immune clearance promotes Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 pulmonary infection

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Danielle; Peñaloza, Hernán; Wang, Zheng; Wickersham, Matthew; Parker, Dane; Patel, Purvi; Koller, Antonius; Chen, Emily I.; Bueno, Susan M.; Uhlemann, Anne-Catrin; Prince, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Adaptive changes in the genome of a locally predominant clinical isolate of the multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae ST258 (KP35) were identified and help to explain the selection of this strain as a successful pulmonary pathogen. The acquisition of 4 new ortholog groups, including an arginine transporter, enabled KP35 to outcompete related ST258 strains lacking these genes. KP35 infection elicited a monocytic response, dominated by Ly6Chi monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells that lacked phagocytic capabilities, expressed IL-10, arginase, and antiinflammatory surface markers. In comparison with other K. pneumoniae strains, KP35 induced global changes in the phagocytic response identified with proteomics, including evasion of Ca2+ and calpain activation necessary for phagocytic killing, confirmed in functional studies with neutrophils. This comprehensive analysis of an ST258 K. pneumoniae isolate reveals ongoing genetic adaptation to host microenvironments and innate immune clearance mechanisms that complements its repertoire of antimicrobial resistance genes and facilitates persistence in the lung. PMID:27777978

  12. The effect of simvastatin on inflammatory cytokines in community-acquired pneumonia: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Viasus, Diego; Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Simonetti, Antonella F; Dorca, Jordi; Llopis, Ferran; Mestre, Mariona; Morandeira-Rego, Francisco; Carratalà, Jordi

    2015-01-01

    Objectives It has been suggested that statins have an effect on the modulation of the cytokine cascade and on the outcome of patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The aim of this prospective, randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was to determine whether statin therapy given to hospitalised patients with CAP improves clinical outcomes and reduces the concentration of inflammatory cytokines. Setting A tertiary teaching hospital in Barcelona, Spain. Participants Thirty-four patients were randomly assigned and included in an intention-to-treat analysis (19 to the simvastatin group and 15 to the placebo group). Intervention Patients were randomly assigned to receive 20 mg of simvastatin or placebo administered in the first 24 h of hospital admission and once daily thereafter for 4 days. Outcome Primary end point was the time from hospital admission to clinical stability. The secondary end points were serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines and partial pressure of arterial oxygen/fractional inspired oxygen (PaO2/FiO2) at 48 h after treatment administration. Results The trial was stopped because enrolment was much slower than originally anticipated. The baseline characteristics of the patients and cytokine concentrations at the time of enrolment were similar in the two groups. No significant differences in the time from hospital admission to clinical stability were found between study groups (median 3 days, IQR 2–5 vs 3 days, IQR 2–5; p=0.47). No significant differences in PaO2/FiO2 (p=0.37), C reactive protein (p=0.23), tumour necrosis factor-α (p=0.58), interleukin 6 (IL-6; p=0.64), and IL-10 (p=0.61) levels at 48 h of hospitalisation were found between simvastatin and placebo groups. Similarly, transaminase and total creatine kinase levels were similar between study groups at 48 h of hospitalisation (p=0.19, 0.08 and 0.53, respectively). Conclusions Our results suggest that the use of simvastatin, 20 mg once daily

  13. Risk stratification of early admission to the intensive care unit of patients with no major criteria of severe community-acquired pneumonia: development of an international prediction rule

    PubMed Central

    Renaud, Bertrand; Labarère, José; Coma, Eva; Santin, Aline; Hayon, Jan; Gurgui, Mercé; Camus, Nicolas; Roupie, Eric; Hémery, François; Hervé, Jérôme; Salloum, Mirna; Fine, Michael J; Brun-Buisson, Christian

    2009-01-01

    Introduction To identify risk factors for early (< three days) intensive care unit (ICU) admission of patients hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and not requiring immediate ICU admission, and to stratify the risk of ICU admission on days 1 to 3. Methods Using the original data from four North American and European prospective multicentre cohort studies of patients with CAP, we derived and validated a prediction rule for ICU admission on days 1 to 3 of emergency department (ED) presentation, for patients presenting with no obvious reason for immediate ICU admission (not requiring immediate respiratory or circulatory support). Results A total of 6560 patients were included (4593 and 1967 in the derivation and validation cohort, respectively), 303 (4.6%) of whom were admitted to an ICU on days 1 to 3. The Risk of Early Admission to ICU index (REA-ICU index) comprised 11 criteria independently associated with ICU admission: male gender, age younger than 80 years, comorbid conditions, respiratory rate of 30 breaths/minute or higher, heart rate of 125 beats/minute or higher, multilobar infiltrate or pleural effusion, white blood cell count less than 3 or 20 G/L or above, hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation < 90% or arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2) < 60 mmHg), blood urea nitrogen of 11 mmol/L or higher, pH less than 7.35 and sodium less than 130 mEq/L. The REA-ICU index stratified patients into four risk classes with a risk of ICU admission on days 1 to 3 ranging from 0.7 to 31%. The area under the curve was 0.81 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.78 to 0.83) in the overall population. Conclusions The REA-ICU index accurately stratifies the risk of ICU admission on days 1 to 3 for patients presenting to the ED with CAP and no obvious indication for immediate ICU admission and therefore may assist orientation decisions. PMID:19358736

  14. High prevalence of multidrug-resistant Pneumococcal molecular epidemiology network clones among Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia in Japan.

    PubMed

    Imai, S; Ito, Y; Ishida, T; Hirai, T; Ito, I; Maekawa, K; Takakura, S; Iinuma, Y; Ichiyama, S; Mishima, M

    2009-11-01

    A total of 141 Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates from patients with community-acquired pneumonia were collected from May 2003 through October 2004. The strains were tested for antimicrobial agent susceptibility, serotype and genotype by multilocus sequence typing (MLST) and the presence of the pilus rlrA islet. MLST analysis identified 49 sequence types (STs), of which 19 were novel. eBURST analysis using the MLST database (3773 STs) grouped the isolates into 27 clonal complexes and three singletons. A total of 92 (65.2%) isolates were related to ten of the 43 international Pneumococcal Molecular Epidemiology Network (PMEN) clones; major clones found were multidrug-resistant Netherlands(3)-31 [clonal complex (CC) 180], Taiwan(19F)-14 (CC271), Taiwan(23F)-15 (CC242), and Colombia(23F)-26 (CC138) (the latter new to Asia). We adopted univariate and multiple logistic regression models to identify factors associated with PMEN CCs. Multivariate analysis showed that multidrug resistance (OR 6.3; 95% CI 2.0-22.9), carriage serogroups (OR 7.2; 95% CI 2.5-23.7), prevalence of rlrA (OR 12.6; 95% CI 3.6-59.7) and central nervous system-related disorders (OR 7.7; 95% CI 1.8-48.4) were independently associated with PMEN CCs. Our data indicate that multidrug-resistant PMEN clones are highly prevalent, contributing to the high frequency of resistance to antimicrobial agents in Japan, and suggest that certain predisposing factors in patients contribute to the high frequency of these clones.

  15. Impact of Candida spp. isolation in the respiratory tract in patients with intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Terraneo, S; Ferrer, M; Martín-Loeches, I; Esperatti, M; Di Pasquale, M; Giunta, V; Rinaudo, M; de Rosa, F; Li Bassi, G; Centanni, S; Torres, A

    2016-01-01

    In immunocompetent patients with nosocomial pneumonia, the relationship between Candida spp. isolation in respiratory samples and outcomes or association with other pathogens is controversial. We therefore compared the characteristics and outcomes of patients with intensive care unit-acquired pneumonia (ICUAP), with or without Candida spp. isolation in the respiratory tract. In this prospective non-interventional study, we assessed 385 consecutive immunocompetent patients with ICUAP, according to the presence or absence of Candida spp. in lower respiratory tract samples. Candida spp. was isolated in at least one sample in 82 (21%) patients. Patients with Candida spp. had higher severity scores and organ dysfunction at admission and at onset of pneumonia. In multivariate analysis, previous surgery, diabetes mellitus and higher Simplified Acute Physiology Score II at ICU admission independently predicted isolation of Candida spp. There were no significant differences in the rate of specific aetiological pathogens, the systemic inflammatory response, and length of stay between patients with and without Candida spp. Mortality was also similar, even adjusted for potential confounders in propensity-adjusted multivariate analyses (adjusted hazard ratio 1.08, 95% CI 0.57-2.05, p 0.80 for 28-day mortality and adjusted hazard ratio 1.38, 95% CI 0.81-2.35, p 0.24 for 90-day mortality). Antifungal therapy was more frequently prescribed in patients with Candida spp. in respiratory samples but did not influence outcomes. Candida spp. airway isolation in patients with ICUAP is associated with more initial disease severity but does not influence outcomes in these patients, regardless of the use or not of antifungal therapy.

  16. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia: a comparison between patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome and patients with other immunodeficiencies.

    PubMed

    Kovacs, J A; Hiemenz, J W; Macher, A M; Stover, D; Murray, H W; Shelhamer, J; Lane, H C; Urmacher, C; Honig, C; Longo, D L

    1984-05-01

    Clinical features of 49 episodes of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome were compared with those of 39 episodes in patients with other immunosuppressive diseases. At presentation patients with the syndrome were found to have a longer median duration of symptoms (28 days versus 5 days, p = 0.0001), lower mean respiratory rate (23.4 versus 30, p = 0.005), and higher median room air arterial oxygen tension (69 mm Hg versus 52 mm Hg, p = 0.0002). The survival rate from 1979 to 1983 was similar for the two groups (57% and 50% respectively). Patients with the syndrome had a higher incidence of adverse reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (22 of 34 versus 2 of 17, p = 0.0007). Survivors with the syndrome at initial presentation had a significantly lower respiratory rate, and higher room air arterial oxygen tension, lymphocyte count, and serum albumin level compared to nonsurvivors. Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia presents as a more insidious disease process in patients with the syndrome, and drug therapy in these patients is complicated by frequent adverse reactions.

  17. The utility of administrative data in helping the clinician understand and treat community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Johnson, David

    2005-03-01

    We illustrate the benefits and limitations of administrative data when trying to understand diseases such as CAP. Administrative data provide an understanding of care provided or risk factors in unselected patients under actual practice conditions. Administrative data can supplement understandings gained from randomized trials in a timely and cost-efficient manner using data previously collected. As the use of administrative data increases, the type of data collected will change to reflect these new uses. Administrative data use may represent a practical solution in monitoring quality of care for entire populations.

  18. Amoxicillin plus temocillin as an alternative empiric therapy for the treatment of severe hospital-acquired pneumonia: results from a retrospective audit.

    PubMed

    Habayeb, H; Sajin, B; Patel, K; Grundy, C; Al-Dujaili, A; Van de Velde, S

    2015-08-01

    A formulary decision was made at a large provider of acute hospital services in Surrey to replace piperacillin/tazobactam with amoxicillin+temocillin for the empiric treatment of severe hospital-acquired pneumonia. This decision was made because the use of broad-spectrum-β-lactam antibiotics is a known risk factor for Clostridium difficile infection (CDI) and for the selection of resistance. After the antibiotic formulary was changed, a retrospective audit was conducted to assess the effect of this change. Data from patients hospitalised between January 2011 and July 2012 for severe hospital-acquired pneumonia and treated empirically with piperacillin/tazobactam or amoxicillin+temocillin were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical characteristics of patients, data related to the episode of pneumonia, clinical success and incidence of significant diarrhoea and CDI were analysed. One hundred ninety-two episodes of severe hospital-acquired pneumonia in 188 patients were identified from hospital records. Ninety-eight patients received piperacillin/tazobactam and 94 amoxicillin+temocillin. At baseline, the two treatment groups were comparable, except that more patients with renal insufficiency were treated with piperacillin/tazobactam. Clinical success was comparable (80 versus 82 %; P = 0.86), but differences were observed between piperacillin/tazobactam and amoxicillin+temocillin for the rates of significant diarrhoea (34 versus 4 %, respectively; P < 0.0001) and for CDI (7 versus 0 %, respectively; P < 0.0028). This preliminary study suggests that the combination amoxicillin+temocillin is a viable alternative to piperacillin/tazobactam for the treatment of severe hospital-acquired pneumonia. This combination appears to be associated with fewer gastrointestinal adverse events. Further studies are needed to evaluate the place of amoxicillin+temocillin as empiric treatment of severe hospital-acquired pneumonia.

  19. Pneumonia treated in the internal medicine department: focus on healthcare-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Giannella, M; Pinilla, B; Capdevila, J A; Martínez Alarcón, J; Muñoz, P; López Álvarez, J; Bouza, E

    2012-08-01

    Patients with pneumonia treated in the internal medicine department (IMD) are often at risk of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). The importance of HCAP is controversial. We invited physicians from 72 IMDs to report on all patients with pneumonia hospitalized in their department during 2 weeks (one each in January and June 2010) to compare HCAP with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). We analysed 1002 episodes of pneumonia: 58.9% were CAP, 30.6% were HCAP and 10.4% were HAP. A comparison between CAP, HCAP and HAP showed that HCAP patients were older (77, 83 and 80.5 years; p < 0.001), had poorer functional status (Barthel 100, 30 and 65; p < 0.001) and had more risk factors for aspiration pneumonia (18, 50 and 34%; p < 0.001). The frequency of testing to establish an aetiological diagnosis was lower among HCAP patients (87, 72 and 79; p < 0.001), as was adherence to the therapeutic recommendations of guidelines (70, 23 and 56%; p < 0.001). In-hospital mortality increased progressively between CAP, HCAP and HAP (8, 19 and 27%; p < 0.001). Streptococcus pneumoniae was the main pathogen in CAP and HCAP. Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) caused 17 and 12.3% of HCAP. In patients with a confirmed aetiological diagnosis, the independent risk factors for pneumonia due do difficult-to-treat microorganisms (Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa or MRSA) were HCAP, chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases and higher Port Severity Index. Our data confirm the importance of maintaining high awareness of HCAP among patients treated in IMDs, because of the different aetiologies, therapy requirements and prognosis of this population.

  20. Epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia and implications for vaccination of children living in developing and newly industrialized countries: A systematic literature review

    PubMed Central

    DeAntonio, Rodrigo; Yarzabal, Juan-Pablo; Cruz, James Philip; Schmidt, Johannes E.; Kleijnen, Jos

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This systematic review evaluated the epidemiology of community-acquired pneumonia in children <6 y of age within 90 developing and newly industrialized countries. Literature searches (1990–2011), based on MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, CAB Global Health, WHO, UNICEF, country-specific websites, conferences, health-technology-assessment agencies, and the reference lists of included studies, yielded 8,734 records; 62 of 340 studies were included in this review. The highest incidence rate among included studies was 0.51 episodes/child-year, for children <5 y of age in Bangladesh. The highest prevalence was in Chinese children <6 months of age (37.88%). The main bacterial pathogens were Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Mycoplasma pneumoniae and the main viral pathogens were respiratory syncytial virus, adenovirus and rhinovirus. Community-acquired pneumonia remains associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. Improved and efficient surveillance and documentation of the epidemiology and burden of community-acquired pneumonia across various geographical regions is warranted. PMID:27269963

  1. Sensitivity and Specificity of Soluble Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid Cells-1, Midregional Proatrial Natriuretic Peptide and Midregional Proadrenomedullin for Distinguishing Etiology and to Assess Severity in Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Susanna; Di Gangi, Maria; Cardinale, Fabio; Baraldi, Eugenio; Corsini, Ilaria; Da Dalt, Liviana; Tovo, Pier Angelo; Correra, Antonio; Villani, Alberto; Sacco, Oliviero; Tenero, Laura; Dones, Piera; Gambino, Monia; Zampiero, Alberto; Principi, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    Study Design This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of soluble triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells-1 (sTREM-1), midregional proatrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) and midregional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) to distinguish bacterial from viral community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and to identify severe cases in children hospitalized for radiologically confirmed CAP. Index test results were compared with those derived from routine diagnostic tests, i.e., white blood cell (WBC) counts, neutrophil percentages, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and procalcitonin (PCT) levels. Methods This prospective, multicenter study was carried out in the most important children’s hospitals (n = 11) in Italy and 433 otherwise healthy children hospitalized for radiologically confirmed CAP were enrolled. Among cases for whom etiology could be determined, CAP was ascribed to bacteria in 235 (54.3%) children and to one or more viruses in 111 (25.6%) children. A total of 312 (72.2%) children had severe disease. Results CRP and PCT had the best performances for both bacterial and viral CAP identification. The cut-off values with the highest combined sensitivity and specificity for the identification of bacterial and viral infections using CRP were ≥7.98 mg/L and ≤7.5 mg/L, respectively. When PCT was considered, the cut-off values with the highest combined sensitivity and specificity were ≥0.188 ng/mL for bacterial CAP and ≤0.07 ng/mL for viral CAP. For the identification of severe cases, the best results were obtained with evaluations of PCT and MR-proANP. However, in both cases, the biomarker cut-off with the highest combined sensitivity and specificity (≥0.093 ng/mL for PCT and ≥33.8 pmol/L for proANP) had a relatively good sensitivity (higher than 70%) but a limited specificity (of approximately 55%). Conclusions This study indicates that in children with CAP, sTREM-1, MR-proANP, and MR-proADM blood levels have poor abilities to differentiate

  2. [Usefulness of clinical pathway for community-acquired pneumonia as both an educational and a cost-management tool--an intervention study to compare the usefulness of management with a critical pathway to historical control of conventional management].

    PubMed

    Aoshima, Masahiro; Satoh, Tadashi; Uchiyama, Noboru; Chonabayashi, Naohiko

    2002-08-01

    To delineate the usefulness of a clinical pathway for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) as an educational tool as well as a cost management tool, we conducted a prospective controlled trial including a historical control group. Consecutive CAP patients classified under Category 3 of the American Thoracic Society and admitted to our hospital were evaluated. Using the clinical pathway method, 42 patients were managed between April and December 2000 as the intervention group, and 33 patients received conventional management between April and December 1999 as a historical control. For the intervention group, the clinical pathway, which was a time-task matrix formatted with consideration for guidance for disease treatment, laboratory tests, physical examinations, oxygen saturation monitoring, ambulation, diet, education for the patient and clinical outcomes, was implemented. We determined (1) educational effect, measured using reduction of delay caused by physicians; (2) quality of clinical practice, measured using the success rate of the initial antimicrobial therapy and readmission rate; and (3) economic efficacy, measured using health care cost and length of hospital stay. The delay caused by physicians was reduced by 16% in the Intervention Group (5% vs. 21%; p = 0.045). The success rates of initial antimicrobial therapy in the two groups were similar (85.7% vs. 84.8%). In the intention-to-treat set, the median value of health care cost was reduced by yen 48,055 (yen 277,460 vs. yen 325,515; p = 0.017) and the median length of a hospital stay was shortened by 3 days (8 vs. 11 days; p = 0.0007) in the Intervention Group. In conclusion, the clinical pathway had an educational effect on physicians regarding the management of hospitalized patients with community-acquired pneumonia as well as on the cost management.

  3. The efficacy and safety of amoxicillin-clavulanic acid 1000/125mg twice daily extended release (XR) tablet for the treatment of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia in adults.

    PubMed

    Prabhudesai, P P; Jain, Sanjay; Keshvani, Aziz; Kulkarni, K P

    2011-02-01

    This study was designed to demonstrate the efficacy and safety of pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin/clavulanic acid 2000 mg/125 mg extended release formulation (ER), than conventional formulations against community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens, particularly Streptococcus pneumoniae, with reduced susceptibility to amoxicillin. This is an open labelled, multicentric, prospective, interventional study carried out across India from June 2008 to March 2009. The study included adult patients (>18 years), weighing between 40 to 60 kg with radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Primary efficacy parameters were clinical response (fever, cough severity, sputum characteristics and improvement in dyspnoea grades) and laboratory parameters. Secondary efficacy parameters were radiological and bacteriological findings at the end of therapy. A total, 727 clinically and radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia patients were enrolled in this study. Eighteen patients were lost to follow-up during study and 709 completed the study as per the study protocol. There was a significant improvement in clinical as well as laboratory parameters at the end of therapy. There was a significant improvement in fever, cough severity, sputum characteristic and dyspnoea grades from 101.88 +/- 1.55, 2.18 +/- 0.76, 1.75 +/- 0.77 and 1.91 +/- 1.23 to 98.14 +/- 0.87 (p < 0.0001), 0.24 +/- 0.45 (p < 0.0001), 0.14 +/- 0.39 (p < 0.0001) and 0.20 +/- 0.47 (p < 0.0001) respectively. Laboratory parameters such as total WBC count and neutrophil percentage decreased significantly from 15317 +/- 662 and 80 +/- 9 to 9067 +/- 558 (p < 0.0001) and 67 +/- 9 (p < 0.0001) respectively at the end of treatment. Bacteriological success and radiological success for amoxicillin-clavulanate 1,000/62.5 mg at the end of treatment was 94.33% (150 of 159) and 98.7% (700 of 709) respectively. Mild to moderate diarrhoea was reported in 61/709 patients (8.6%). Amoxicillin

  4. NXL-103, a combination of flopristin and linopristin, for the potential treatment of bacterial infections including community-acquired pneumonia and MRSA.

    PubMed

    Politano, Amani D; Sawyer, Robert G

    2010-02-01

    Novexel is developing the novel, orally active, semisynthetic streptogramin NXL-103, which has potential therapeutic application in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia, community- or hospital-acquired MRSA, vancomycin-resistant enterococcus, and acute bacterial skin and soft tissue infections. NXL-103 is a combination of streptogramin A:streptogramin B components, initially developed in a 70:30 dose ratio. In multiple in vitro studies, NXL-103 demonstrated potent activity against different types of bacteria, such as Staphylococcus aureus (including MRSA), Streptococcus pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, Enterococcus faecium, Enterococcus faecalis, Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae. NXL-103 was not affected by the resistance profiles of bacteria against other commonly used antibiotics. In phase I clinical trials, NXL-103 achieved bactericidal levels in plasma and was generally well tolerated, with side effects primarily on the gastrointestinal system. The first phase II trial conducted to evaluate the efficacy of NXL-103 against community-acquired pneumonia revealed that the compound was comparable with amoxicillin. NXL-103 has promise to become an important agent in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia and complex skin and soft tissue infections, pending further development.

  5. Impact of Infectious Diseases Society of America/Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society guidelines on treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized children.

    PubMed

    Ross, Rachael K; Hersh, Adam L; Kronman, Matthew P; Newland, Jason G; Metjian, Talene A; Localio, A Russell; Zaoutis, Theoklis E; Gerber, Jeffrey S

    2014-03-01

    We examined the impact of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America guidelines that recommend ampicillin or amoxicillin for children hospitalized with community-acquired pneumonia. Prescribing of ampicillin/amoxicillin increased following guideline publication, but remains low. Cephalosporin and macrolide prescribing decreased but remains common. Further studies exploring outcomes of and reasons for compliance with guidelines are warranted.

  6. The management of severe community acquired pneumonia in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Liapikou, Adamantia; Rosales-Mayor, Edmundo; Torres, Antoni

    2014-06-01

    Severe CAP (SCAP), accounting for 6% of admissions to intensive care units (ICUs) needs early diagnosis and aggressive interventions at the most proximal point of disease presentation. The prognostic scores as the ATS/IDSA rule, the systolic blood pressure, multilobar infiltrates, albumin, respiratory rate, tachycardia, confusion, oxygen and pH or SCAP system are appropriate in early identification of eligible patients requiring admission to ICU. Then the recommended initial resuscitation in SCAP in the ICU consists of fluid volume intake titrated to specific goals after a fluid challenge and hemodynamic optimization. The first selection of antimicrobial therapy should be started in the first hour and would be broad enough to cover all likely pathogens. Combination therapy may be useful in patients with non refractory septic shock and severe sepsis pneumococcal bacteremia as well. After 6 hours the patient would be reevaluated in terms of hemodynamic stability and antibiotic and therapy. Future developments will focus on sepsis biomarkers, molecular diagnostic techniques and the development of novel therapeutic immunomodulaty agents.

  7. Molecular Epidemiology of Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae Causing Community-Acquired Pneumonia in Adults

    PubMed Central

    Puig, Carmen; Calatayud, Laura; Martí, Sara; Tubau, Fe; Garcia-Vidal, Carolina; Carratalà, Jordi; Liñares, Josefina; Ardanuy, Carmen

    2013-01-01

    Nontypeable Haemophilus influenzae (NTHi) is an opportunistic pathogen which causes a variety of respiratory infections. The objectives of the study were to determine its antimicrobial susceptibility, to characterize the β-lactam resistance, and to establish a genetic characterization of NTHi isolates. Ninety-five NTHi isolates were analyzed by pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) and multi locus sequence typing (MLST). Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by microdilution, and the ftsI gene (encoding penicillin-binding protein 3, PBP3) was PCR amplified and sequenced. Thirty (31.6%) isolates were non-susceptible to ampicillin (MIC≥2 mg/L), with 10 of them producing β-lactamase type TEM-1 as a resistance mechanism. After ftsI sequencing, 39 (41.1%) isolates showed amino acid substitutions in PBP3, with Asn526→ Lys being the most common (69.2%). Eighty-four patients were successfully treated with amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, ceftriaxone and levofloxacin. Eight patients died due either to aspiration or complication of their comorbidities. In conclusion, NTHi causing CAP in adults shows high genetic diversity and is associated with a high rate of reduced susceptibility to ampicillin due to alterations in PBP3. The analysis of treatment and outcomes demonstrated that NTHi strains with mutations in the ftsI gene could be successfully treated with ceftriaxone or fluoroquinolones. PMID:24349303

  8. Successful recovery of MERS CoV pneumonia in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Shalhoub, Sarah; AlZahrani, Abdulwahab; Simhairi, Raed; Mushtaq, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus (MERS CoV) may cause severe pneumonia with significant morbidity and mortality, particularly in patients with multiple comorbid condition. MERS CoV pneumonia has not been previously reported in patients with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV). Herein, we report a case of MERS CoV pneumonia with a successful outcome in a patient recently diagnosed with HIV.

  9. Lower mortality among patients with community-acquired pneumonia treated with a macrolide plus a beta-lactam agent versus a beta-lactam agent alone.

    PubMed

    García Vázquez, E; Mensa, J; Martínez, J A; Marcos, M A; Puig, J; Ortega, M; Torres, A

    2005-03-01

    A cohort of 1,391 patients with community-acquired pneumonia of unknown etiology, atypical pneumonia, Legionella pneumophila pneumonia, viral pneumonia, or pneumococcal pneumonia was studied according to a standard protocol to analyse whether the addition of a macrolide to beta-lactam empirical treatment decreases mortality rates. Patients admitted to the intensive care unit were excluded. Severity was assessed using the PORT score. An etiological diagnosis was achieved in 498 (35.8%) patients (292 infections due to Streptococcus pneumoniae). Treatment was chosen by the attending physician according to his/her own criteria: beta-lactam agent in 270 and beta-lactam agent plus a macrolide in 918 cases. The mortality rate was 13.3% in the group treated with a beta-lactam agent alone and 6.9% in the group treated with a beta-lactam agent plus a macrolide (p=0.001). The percentage of PORT-group V patients was 32.6% in the group treated with a beta-lactam agent alone compared to 25.7% in the group who received a beta-lactam agent plus a macrolide (p=0.02). After controlling for PORT score, the odds of fatal outcome was two times higher in patients treated with a beta-lactam agent alone than in those treated with a beta-lactam agent plus a macrolide (adjusted OR = 2, 95%CI 1.24-3.23). The results suggest that the addition of a macrolide to an initial beta-lactam-based antibiotic regimen is associated with lower mortality in patients with community-acquired pneumonia, independent of severity of infection, thus supporting the recommendation of a beta-lactam-agent plus a macrolide as empirical therapy.

  10. Distribution of virulence genes and genotyping of CTX-M-15-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae isolated from patients with community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI).

    PubMed

    Ranjbar, Reza; Memariani, Hamed; Sorouri, Rahim; Memariani, Mojtaba

    2016-11-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is one of the most important agents of community-acquired urinary tract infection (CA-UTI). In addition to extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), a number of virulence factors have been shown to play an important role in the pathogenesis of K. pneumoniae, including capsule, siderophores, and adhesins. Little is known about the genetic diversity and virulence content of the CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae isolated from CA-UTI in Iran. A total of 152 K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from CA-UTI patients in Tehran from September 2015 through April 2016. Out of 152 isolates, 40 (26.3%) carried blaCTX-M-15. PCR was performed for detection of virulence genes in CTX-M-15-producing isolates. Furthermore, all of these isolates were subjected to multiple-locus variable-number of tandem repeat (VNTR) analysis (MLVA). Using MLVA method, 36 types were identified. CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae isolates were grouped into 5 clonal complexes (CCs). Of these isolates, mrkD was the most prevalent virulence gene (95%), followed by kpn (60%), rmpA (37.5%), irp (35%), and magA (2.5%). No correlation between MLVA types or CCs and virulence genes or antibiotic resistance patterns was observed. Overall, it is thought that CTX-M-15-producing K. pneumoniae strains isolated from CA-UTI have arisen from different clones.

  11. Update on the pathogenesis and management of pneumonia in the elderly-roles of aspiration pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Teramoto, Shinji; Yoshida, Kazufumi; Hizawa, Nobuyuki

    2015-09-01

    Pneumonia in the elderly results in the highest mortality among cases of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). The pathophysiology of pneumonia in the elderly is primarily due to aspiration pneumonia (ASP). ASP comprises two pathological conditions: airspace infiltration with bacterial pathogens and dysphagia-associated miss-swallowing. The first-line therapy for the treatment of bacterial pneumonia in the elderly is a narrow spectrum of antibiotics, including sulbactam/ampicillin, which are effective against major lower respiratory infection pathogens and anaerobes. The bacterial pathogens of ASP cases of pneumonia in the elderly are similar to those associated with adult CAP. In addition to an appropriate course of antibiotics, pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic approaches for dysphagia and upper airway management are necessary for the treatment and prevention of pneumonia. Swallowing rehabilitation, oral health care, pneumococcal vaccination, gastroesophageal reflux management, and a head-up position during the night are necessary for the treatment and prevention of repeated episodes of pneumonia in elderly patients. In addition, tuberculosis should always be considered for the differential diagnosis of pneumonia in this patient population.

  12. Population pharmacokinetics of ceftaroline in patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections or community-acquired bacterial pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Van Wart, Scott A; Forrest, Alan; Khariton, Tatiana; Rubino, Christopher M; Bhavnani, Sujata M; Reynolds, Daniel K; Riccobene, Todd; Ambrose, Paul G

    2013-11-01

    Ceftaroline, the active form of ceftaroline fosamil, is a broad-spectrum cephalosporin antibiotic. A population pharmacokinetic (PPK) model for ceftaroline was developed in NONMEM® using data from 185 healthy subjects and 92 patients with acute bacterial skin and skin structure infection (ABSSSI). Data from 128 patients with community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) were used for external model validation. Healthy subjects received 50-2,000 mg ceftaroline fosamil via intravenous (IV) infusion over 1 hour or intramuscular (IM) injection q12h or q24h. ABSSSI and CABP patients received 600 mg of ceftaroline fosamil IV over 1 hour q12h. A three-compartment model with zero-order IV or parallel first-order IM input and first-order elimination described ceftaroline fosamil PK. A two-compartment model with first-order conversion of prodrug to ceftaroline and parallel linear and saturable elimination described ceftaroline PK. Creatinine clearance was the primary determinant of ceftaroline exposure. Good agreement between the observed data and both population (r(2)  = 0.93) and individual post-hoc (r(2)  = 0.98) predictions suggests the PPK model can adequately approximate ceftaroline PK using covariate information. Such a PPK model can evaluate dose adjustments for patients with renal impairment and generate ceftaroline exposures for use in pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic assessments of efficacy in patients with ABSSSI or CABP.

  13. Management of Adults With Hospital-acquired and Ventilator-associated Pneumonia: 2016 Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society.

    PubMed

    Kalil, Andre C; Metersky, Mark L; Klompas, Michael; Muscedere, John; Sweeney, Daniel A; Palmer, Lucy B; Napolitano, Lena M; O'Grady, Naomi P; Bartlett, John G; Carratalà, Jordi; El Solh, Ali A; Ewig, Santiago; Fey, Paul D; File, Thomas M; Restrepo, Marcos I; Roberts, Jason A; Waterer, Grant W; Cruse, Peggy; Knight, Shandra L; Brozek, Jan L

    2016-09-01

    It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. IDSA considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.These guidelines are intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for patients at risk for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), including specialists in infectious diseases, pulmonary diseases, critical care, and surgeons, anesthesiologists, hospitalists, and any clinicians and healthcare providers caring for hospitalized patients with nosocomial pneumonia. The panel's recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of HAP and VAP are based upon evidence derived from topic-specific systematic literature reviews.

  14. Rationale and design of the CAPAMIS study: Effectiveness of pneumococcal vaccination against community-acquired pneumonia, acute myocardial infarction and stroke

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The 23-valent polysaccharide pneumococcal vaccine (PPV-23) is recommended for elderly and high-risk people, although its effectiveness is controversial. Some studies have reported an increasing risk of acute vascular events among patients with pneumonia, and a recent case-control study has reported a reduction in the risk of myocardial infarction among patients vaccinated with PPV-23. Given that animal experiments have shown that pneumococcal vaccination reduces the extent of atherosclerotic lesions, it has been hypothesized that PPV-23 could protect against acute vascular events by an indirect effect preventing pneumonia or by a direct effect on oxidized low-density lipoproteins. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of PPV-23 in reducing the risk of pneumonia and acute vascular events (related or nonrelated with prior pneumonia) in the general population over 60 years. Methods/Design Cohort study including 27,000 individuals 60 years or older assigned to nine Primary Care Centers in the region of Tarragona, Spain. According to the reception of PPV-23 before the start of the study, the study population will be divided into vaccinated and nonvaccinated groups, which will be followed during a consecutive 30-month period. Primary Care and Hospitals discharge databases will initially be used to identify study events (community-acquired pneumonia, hospitalisation for acute myocardial infarction and stroke), but all cases will be further validated by checking clinical records. Multivariable Cox regression analyses estimating hazard ratios (adjusted for age, sex and comorbidities) will be used to estimate vaccine effectiveness. Discussion The results of the study will contribute to clarify the controversial effect of the PPV-23 in preventing community-acquired pneumonia and they will be critical in determining the posible role of pneumococcal vaccination in cardiovascular prevention. PMID:20085658

  15. The efficacy of high-dose penicillin for community-acquired pneumonia diagnosed by pneumococcal urine antigen test.

    PubMed

    Oka, Hideaki; Ueda, Atsuhisa; Watanuki, Yuji; Tsukiji, Jun; Kuroda, Hideyo; Akashi, Syunsuke; Hirai, Yoshihiro; Fuyuki, Toshiharu; Kaneko, Takeshi; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki

    2009-04-01

    We analyzed the efficacy of both the Streptococcus pneumoniae urine antigen test as a quick diagnostic tool and the administration of high-dose penicillin in response to a positive S. pneumoniae urine antigen test. We conducted a retrospective analysis of 48 cases of pneumococcal pneumonia, in which the patients were treated with high-dose penicillin. All the cases were diagnosed by a positive urine antigen test. Treatment with high-dose penicillin was effective in 43 of the 48 patients. This treatment was also effective in 12 of 16 culture-confirmed cases with low susceptibility to penicillin. Eleven patients who were positive for the S. pneumoniae urine antigen test but culture-negative showed clinical improvement with high-dose penicillin. Pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae appeared to be treated safely and effectively with high-dose penicillin based on positive results of the urine antigen test, as penicillin resistance was unlikely to be a problem.

  16. A Case of Influenza A (H3N2) Complicated by Community-Acquired Pneumonia and Death in a Young Healthy Adult during the 2013–2014 Season

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Lauren F.; Anderson, Benjamin D.; Gray, Gregory C.

    2017-01-01

    With multiple available vaccines and antivirals, seasonal influenza A is typically a self-limited acutely debilitating illness in young healthy adults. Here, we illustrate unexpected morbidity and mortality in a relatively young and healthy patient seen at a large tertiary care academic medical center for seasonal influenza A (H3N2) complicated by community-acquired pneumonia, hypoxic respiratory failure, septic shock, and death. PMID:28229066

  17. Patterns of gene expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and outcomes from patients with sepsis secondary to community acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Severino, Patricia; Silva, Eliézer; Baggio-Zappia, Giovana Lotici; Brunialti, Milena Karina Coló; Nucci, Laura Alejandra; Rigato, Otelo; da Silva, Ismael Dale Cotrim Guerreiro; Machado, Flávia Ribeiro; Salomao, Reinaldo

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms governing the inflammatory response during sepsis have been shown to be complex, involving cross-talk between diverse signaling pathways. Current knowledge regarding the mechanisms underlying sepsis provides an incomplete picture of the syndrome, justifying additional efforts to understand this condition. Microarray-based expression profiling is a powerful approach for the investigation of complex clinical conditions such as sepsis. In this study, we investigate whole-genome expression profiles in mononuclear cells from survivors (n = 5) and non-survivors (n = 5) of sepsis. To circumvent the heterogeneity of septic patients, only patients admitted with sepsis caused by community-acquired pneumonia were included. Blood samples were collected at the time of sepsis diagnosis and seven days later to evaluate the role of biological processes or genes possibly involved in patient recovery. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) profiling discriminated between patients with early sepsis and healthy individuals. Genes with differential expression were grouped according to Gene Ontology, and most genes related to immune defense were up-regulated in septic patients. Additionally, PCA in the early stage was able to distinguish survivors from non-survivors. Differences in oxidative phosphorylation seem to be associated with clinical outcome because significant differences in the expression profile of genes related to mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC) I-V were observed between survivors and non-survivors at the time of patient enrollment. Global gene expression profiles after seven days of sepsis progression seem to reproduce, to a certain extent, patterns collected at the time of diagnosis. Gene expression profiles comparing admission and follow-up samples differed between survivors and non-survivors, with decreased expression of genes related to immune functions in non-survivors. In conclusion, genes related to host defense and inflammatory response

  18. Risk factors for infection with multidrug-resistant bacteria in non-ventilated patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia*,**

    PubMed Central

    Seligman, Renato; Ramos-Lima, Luis Francisco; Oliveira, Vivian do Amaral; Sanvicente, Carina; Sartori, Juliana; Pacheco, Elyara Fiorin

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify risk factors for the development of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in non-ventilated patients. METHODS: This was a retrospective observational cohort study conducted over a three-year period at a tertiary-care teaching hospital. We included only non-ventilated patients diagnosed with HAP and presenting with positive bacterial cultures. Categorical variables were compared with chi-square test. Logistic regression analysis was used to determine risk factors for HAP caused by MDR bacteria. RESULTS: Of the 140 patients diagnosed with HAP, 59 (42.1%) were infected with MDR strains. Among the patients infected with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and those infected with methicillin-susceptible S. aureus, mortality was 45.9% and 50.0%, respectively (p = 0.763). Among the patients infected with MDR and those infected with non-MDR gram-negative bacilli, mortality was 45.8% and 38.3%, respectively (p = 0.527). Univariate analysis identified the following risk factors for infection with MDR bacteria: COPD; congestive heart failure; chronic renal failure; dialysis; urinary catheterization; extrapulmonary infection; and use of antimicrobial therapy within the last 10 days before the diagnosis of HAP. Multivariate analysis showed that the use of antibiotics within the last 10 days before the diagnosis of HAP was the only independent predictor of infection with MDR bacteria (OR = 3.45; 95% CI: 1.56-7.61; p = 0.002). CONCLUSIONS: In this single-center study, the use of broad-spectrum antibiotics within the last 10 days before the diagnosis of HAP was the only independent predictor of infection with MDR bacteria in non-ventilated patients with HAP. PMID:23857697

  19. Hospital-acquired pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... to measure oxygen levels in the blood Blood cultures , to see if the infection has spread to ... to measure oxygen levels in the blood Sputum culture or sputum gram stain , to check what germs ...

  20. Pneumonia - children - community acquired

    MedlinePlus

    ... is getting into your child's blood from the lungs Blood culture and sputum culture to look for the ... Fluid around the lung , which can become infected Lung abscesses Bacteria in blood (bacteremia) The provider may order another x-ray. ...

  1. Evaluation of the BinaxNOW® Streptococcus pneumoniae antigen test on fresh, frozen and concentrated urine samples in elderly patients with and without community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Saukkoriipi, Annika; Pascal, Thierry; Palmu, Arto A

    2016-02-01

    We evaluated the BinaxNOW® urine antigen test in elderly. For fresh un-concentrated urine samples, the sensitivity for pneumococcal pneumonia was 63% and specificity 97%. After freezing and concentration, the results comparable to positive control line in intensity at 60 min gave high sensitivity (81%) with no loss in specificity (96%).

  2. Development and laboratory evaluation of a real-time PCR assay for detecting viruses and bacteria of relevance for community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Edin, Alicia; Granholm, Susanne; Koskiniemi, Satu; Allard, Annika; Sjöstedt, Anders; Johansson, Anders

    2015-05-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia may present with similar clinical symptoms, regardless of viral or bacterial cause. Diagnostic assays are needed to rapidly discriminate between causes, because this will guide decisions on appropriate treatment. Therefore, a quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) assay with duplex reactions targeting eight bacteria and six viruses was developed. Technical performance was examined with linear plasmids. Upper and lower respiratory tract specimens were used to compare the qPCR assay with standard microbiological methods. The limit of detection was 5 to 20 DNA template copies with approximately 1000-fold differences in concentrations of the two competing templates. SDs for positive controls were <5%. The use of the qPCR assay resulted in 113 positive identifications in 94 respiratory specimens compared with 38 by using standard diagnostics. Diagnostic accuracy of the qPCR assay varied between 60% positive agreement with standard tests for Streptococcus pneumoniae and 100% for Mycoplasma pneumoniae, Moraxella catarrhalis, and Staphylococcus aureus. Negative percentage of agreement was >95% for M. pneumoniae, Streptococcus pyogenes, respiratory syncytial virus, and influenza A virus; whereas it was only 56% for Haemophilus influenzae. Multiple microbial agents were identified in 19 of 44 sputum and 19 of 50 nasopharynx specimens. We conclude that in parallel qPCR detection of the targeted respiratory bacteria and viruses is feasible. The results indicate good technical performance of the assay in clinical specimens.

  3. Randomized, multicentre study of the efficacy and tolerance of azithromycin versus clarithromycin in the treatment of adults with mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia. Azithromycin Study Group.

    PubMed

    O'Doherty, B; Muller, O

    1998-12-01

    Adults with mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia were treated with azithromycin (500 mg once daily for 3 days) or clarithromycin (250 mg twice daily for 10 days) and clinically assessed between days 3 and 7 and days 12 and 16. Patients classified as improved at the day 12-16 visit were also evaluated between days 19 and 23. Two hundred three patients were treated (101 with azithromycin, 102 with clarithromycin). A satisfactory clinical response was recorded at the end of therapy in 83 of 88 (94%) evaluable azithromycin-treated and 84 of 88 (95%) evaluable clarithromycin-treated patients (P=0.518). At day 19-23, only one patient in each treatment group had relapsed. Thirty-one of 32 (97%) pathogens isolated from patients in the azithromycin group were eradicated, compared with 32 of 35 (91%) isolated from clarithromycin patients. In all patients with atypical pneumonia, the clinical response was satisfactory at follow-up. Incidences of treatment-related adverse events were similar for the two groups (P=0.815). Two (2%) clarithromycin patients discontinued therapy due to severe treatment-related adverse events; none in the azithromycin group did. This study shows that a 3-day, once-daily course of azithromycin is as clinically effective and well tolerated as a 10-day, twice-daily course of clarithromycin in the treatment of mild to moderate community-acquired pneumonia.

  4. CMV - pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Bone marrow transplant Breathing difficulty Chemotherapy CMV retinitis HIV/AIDS Immune response Mononucleosis Pneumonia - adults (community acquired) WBC count Patient Instructions Pneumonia in adults - discharge Review Date 12/10/2015 Updated by: Jatin M. Vyas, MD, PhD, Assistant ...

  5. Nosocomial pneumonia: lessons learned.

    PubMed

    Nair, Girish B; Niederman, Michael S

    2013-07-01

    Nosocomial pneumonia remains a significant cause of hospital-acquired infection, imposing substantial economic burden on the health care system worldwide. Various preventive strategies have been increasingly used to prevent the development of pneumonia. It is now recognized that patients with health care-associated pneumonia are a heterogeneous population and that not all are at risk for infection with nosocomial pneumonia pathogens, with some being infected with the same organisms as in community-acquired pneumonia. This review discusses the risk factors for nosocomial pneumonia, controversies in its diagnosis, and approaches to the treatment and prevention of nosocomial and health care-associated pneumonia.

  6. Chronic pneumonia due to Klebsiella oxytoca mimicking pulmonary tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Gera, Kamal; Roshan, Rahul; Varma-Basil, Mandira; Shah, Ashok

    2015-01-01

    Klebsiella species infrequently cause acute community acquired pneumonia (CAP). The chronic form of the disease caused by K. pneumoniae (Friedlander's bacillus) was occasionally seen in the pre-antibiotic era. K. oxytoca is a singularly uncommon cause of CAP. The chronic form of the disease caused by K. oxytoca has been documented only once before. A 50-year-old immunocompetent male smoker presented with haemoptysis for 12 months. Imaging demonstrated a cavitary lesion in the right upper lobe with emphysematous changes. Sputum stains and cultures for Mycobacterium tuberculosis were negative. However, three sputum samples for aerobic culture as well as bronchial aspirate cultured pure growth of K. oxytoca. A diagnosis of chronic pneumonia due to K. oxytoca was established and with appropriate therapy, the patient was largely asymptomatic. The remarkable clinical and radiological similarity to pulmonary tuberculosis can result in patients with chronic Klebsiella pneumonia erroneously receiving anti-tuberculous therapy.

  7. Clinical and economic burden of pneumonia among adults in Latin America.

    PubMed

    Isturiz, Raul E; Luna, Carlos M; Ramirez, Julio

    2010-10-01

    The clinical and economic burden of adult community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Latin America is not well known. We conducted a literature review to describe the etiology, incidence, hospitalization, morbidity and mortality, antibiotic resistance, costs associated with care, and the potential benefits of pneumococcal vaccination in the reduction of adult CAP in Latin America. Data that were published during the period from January 1970 through August 2008 were identified via the Web sites and databases of the Pan American Health Organization, Latin American health agencies, and the US National Institutes of Health, National Library of Medicine (MEDLINE). Streptococcus pneumoniae was identified as the most common pathogen, accounting for up to 35% of CAP cases. The mean rate of CAP due to penicillin-resistant S. pneumoniae was 39%. The mortality in Latin America due to lower respiratory tract infections has been reported to be 6%, compared with 4% in developed regions, and CAP was the third most frequent cause of death in adults in 31 Latin American countries in 2001-2003. Although S. pneumoniae caused the majority of CAP, similar to other regions of the world, mortality due to CAP in Latin America was substantially greater than that in developed countries. This review demonstrates the need to facilitate standardized surveillance and reporting systems to monitor the burden of CAP and to implement prevention strategies to decrease the clinical and economic burden of CAP in Latin American adults.

  8. COMPARATIVE EFFICACY AND SAFETY OF CEFIXIME AND CIPROFLOXACIN IN THE MANAGEMENT OF ADULTS WITH COMMUNITY-ACQUIRED PNEUMONIA IN IBADAN, NIGERIA

    PubMed Central

    Ige, O.M.; Okesola, A.O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Initial antibiotic therapy in upper and lower respiratory tract infections is usually empirical. However, the decreasing susceptibility of respiratory pathogens to antibacterials have raised concerns about the decreasing efficacy of currently available antibiotics. Objective: This study was conducted to compare the efficacy and safety of cefixime and ciprofloxacin in the empirical treatment of community-acquired pneumonia among adult Nigerian patients in Ibadan. Method: This was an open-labelled, randomized, parallel-group study of seventy-three (73) radiologically and bacteriologically confirmed adult cases of community-acquired pneumonia, between July 1 and September 31, 2011 at two health care facilities in Ibadan, Nigeria. All of these patients had severity index (CURB 65) scores of either 1 or 2. They were treated with either Cefixime, 400mg twice daily or Ciprofloxacin 500mg twice daily for 14 days. They were evaluated four times during the course of their treatment for clinical responses, radiological and bacteriological clearances and safety of therapy. Results: There were 39 (53.4%) patients in the Cefixime group and 34(46.6%) in Ciprofloxacin group. On day 7, patients on cefixime had a statistically significant lower temperature than patients on ciprofloxacin (P<0.01). By day 14, only 10.3% of patients in cefixime group still had persistent residual radiological changes compared to 38.2% in the ciprofloxacin group (P < 0.01). Bacteria cure was obtained in 96% of the patients in the cefixime group and 83% in the ciprofloxacin group. Conclusion: Cefixime was found to be superior to ciprofloxacin in terms of efficacy in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults in Nigeria. However, both antibiotics were well-tolerated by all the patients as there were no reports or documentation of adverse events. PMID:27162517

  9. Clinical efficacy of carbapenems on hospital-acquired pneumonia in accordance with the Japanese Respiratory Society Guidelines for management of HAP.

    PubMed

    Ito, Masaru; Kaneko, Takeshi; Goto, Hideto; Yamaguchi, Nobuhiro; Fujisawa, Shin; Ono, Shigeru; Morita, Satoshi; Miyazawa, Naoki; Kanamori, Heiwa; Watanuki, Yuji; Ishigatsubo, Yoshiaki

    2011-12-01

    Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) is the second most common cause of hospital-acquired infection and is the leading cause of death. In 2002, the Japanese Respiratory Society (JRS) published guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of HAP (JRS GL 2002). In these guidelines, treatment with carbapenems is recommended for all disease types of HAP, excluding cases of mild or moderate pneumonia with no risk factors, and cases with early-onset ventilation-acquired pneumonia. To evaluate the efficacy of carbapenems on HAP in accordance with JRS GL 2002, we conducted a prospective study of HAP patients treated with carbapenems based on JRS GL 2002. The results of this study were also analyzed based on the revised guidelines published in June 2008 (JRS GL 2008), and the validity of the new guidelines was examined. Of the 33 subjects, 19 were judged as responders to the treatment, corresponding to a response rate of 57.6%. There were 3 deaths, corresponding to a mortality rate of 9.1%. The efficacy of carbapenems for the treatment of HAP based on JRS GL 2002 was confirmed. The severity rating system in JRS GL 2002 has a tendency to overestimate the severity of the cases and may lead to overtreatment in some cases. On the other hand, the severity rating system by JRS GL 2008 seemed to be more accurate and closely correlated with the efficacy of the treatment. It is suggested that JRS GL 2008 is more useful in clinical practice for accurately judging the severity of the disease and initiating appropriate subsequent antibiotic therapy.

  10. Nursing home residence is the main risk factor for increased mortality in healthcare-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Depuydt, P; Putman, B; Benoit, D; Buylaert, W; De Paepe, P

    2011-02-01

    Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is considered to represent a category of disease distinct from community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). We describe the incidence and characteristics of HCAP compared with CAP in patients hospitalised through the emergency department (ED). Pneumonia diagnosed at the ED of Ghent University Hospital from 1 November 2006 to 31 October 2007 was retrospectively categorised as CAP or HCAP according to the definition of the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America. We categorised 287 episodes of pneumonia, diagnosed in 269 patients, as CAP [159 (55%)] or HCAP [128 (45%)]. Patients with HCAP were older [75 years (range: 64-83) vs 68 (41-78); P < 0.001], had more comorbidity, and had more severe pneumonia [CURB-65: 2 (1-3) vs 1 (0-2); P < 0.001] in comparison to patients with CAP. Patients with HCAP had more frequently an unfavourable clinical course (27% vs 15%; P < 0.01) and a longer hospital stay (12 days vs 9 days; P<0.001) compared with patients with CAP. In multivariate regression analysis, nursing home residence (odds ratio: 2.96; 95% confidence interval: 1.12-7.84; P = 0.03) but not HCAP was an independent predictor for in-hospital mortality. In conclusion, a high percentage (45%) of patients hospitalised with pneumonia through the ED was classified as HCAP. Classification as HCAP was associated with an unfavourable clinical course. Nursing home residence was an independent predictor for increased mortality.

  11. Is β-Lactam Plus Macrolide More Effective than β-Lactam Plus Fluoroquinolone among Patients with Severe Community-Acquired Pneumonia?: a Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Adding either macrolide or fluoroquinolone (FQ) to β-lactam has been recommended for patients with severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, due to the limited evidence available, there is a question as to the superiority of the two combination therapies. The MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register, Scopus, and Web of Science databases were searched for systematic review and meta-analysis. A total of eight trials were analyzed. The total number of patients in the β-lactam plus macrolide (BL-M) and β-lactam plus fluoroquinolone (BL-F) groups was 2,273 and 1,600, respectively. Overall mortality of the BL-M group was lower than that of the BL-F group (19.4% vs. 26.8%), which showed statistical significance (odds ratio [OR], 0.68; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.49 to 0.94; P = 0.02). Length of hospital stay was reduced in the BL-M group compared to the BL-F group (mean difference, −3.05 days; 95% CI, −6.01 to −0.09; P = 0.04). However, there was no significant difference in length of intensive care unit (ICU) stay between the two groups. Among patients with severe CAP, BL-M therapy may better reduce overall mortality and length of hospital stay than BL-F therapy. However, we could not elicit strong conclusions from the available trials due to high risk of bias and methodological limitations. PMID:27914135

  12. Focus on JNJ-Q2, a novel fluoroquinolone, for the management of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Travis M; Johnson, Steven W; DiMondi, V Paul; Wilson, Dustin T

    2016-01-01

    JNJ-Q2 is a novel, fifth-generation fluoroquinolone that has excellent in vitro and in vivo activity against a variety of Gram-positive and Gram-negative organisms. In vitro studies indicate that JNJ-Q2 has potent activity against pathogens responsible for acute bacterial skin and skin structure infections (ABSSSI) and community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP), such as Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pneumoniae. JNJ-Q2 also has been shown to have a higher barrier to resistance compared to other agents in the class and it remains highly active against drug-resistant organisms, including methicillin-resistant S. aureus, ciprofloxacin-resistant methicillin-resistant S. aureus, and drug-resistant S. pneumoniae. In two Phase II studies, the efficacy of JNJ-Q2 was comparable to linezolid for ABSSSI and moxifloxacin for CABP. Furthermore, JNJ-Q2 was well tolerated, with adverse event rates similar to or less than other fluoroquinolones. With an expanded spectrum of activity and low potential for resistance, JNJ-Q2 shows promise as an effective treatment option for ABSSSI and CABP. Considering its early stage of development, the definitive role of JNJ-Q2 against these infections and its safety profile will be determined in future Phase III studies. PMID:27354817

  13. Dissemination of multidrug-resistant blaCTX-M-15/IncFIIk plasmids in Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates from hospital- and community-acquired human infections in Tunisia.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Wejdene; Grami, Raoudha; Ben Haj Khalifa, Anis; Dahmen, Safia; Châtre, Pierre; Haenni, Marisa; Aouni, Mahjoub; Madec, Jean-Yves

    2015-11-01

    This study investigated the molecular features of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from hospital- and community-acquired (HA/CA) infections in the region of Mahdia, Tunisia. Among 336 K. pneumoniae isolates recovered from both clinical contexts between July 2009 and December 2011, 49 and 15 were ESBL producers and originated from clinical and community sources, respectively. All isolates produced the CTX-M-15 enzyme. As shown by Southern blot on S1 nuclease treatment followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) gels, the blaCTX-M-15 gene was carried on IncFII (n=4), IncFIIk (n=25), IncL/M (n=4), IncK (n=1), or untypeable (n=15) plasmids in HA isolates. In CA isolates, the blaCTX-M-15 gene was carried on IncFIIk (n=6), IncFII (n=1), IncHI1 (n=1), or untypeable (n=7) plasmids. In all, 23 and 11 PFGE types were found among the HA and CA isolates. Multilocus sequence typing on representative isolates shows diverse sequence types (STs), such as ST307, ST101, ST39, ST4, ST140, ST15, and ST307 in HA isolates and ST101, ST664, and ST323 in CA isolates. This study is the first comprehensive report of ESBL plasmids in K. pneumoniae from HA and CA infections in Tunisia.

  14. Hospital acquired pneumonia: comparison of culture and real-time PCR assays for detection of Legionella pneumophila from respiratory specimens at Tehran hospitals.

    PubMed

    Fard, Somayeh Yasliani; Nomanpour, Bizhan; Fatolahzadeh, Bahram; Mobarez, Ashraf Mohebati; Darban-Sarokhalil, Davood; Fooladi, Abbas Ali Imani; Leeuwen, Willem B; Feizabadi, Mohammad Mehdi

    2012-09-01

    Legionella pneumophila is an important etiological agent in both hospital and community acquired pneumonia. The sensitivity of culture for isolation of L. pneumophila from clinical specimens is low and time consuming. Similar problem also exists when the method of direct immunofluorescence is used. To detect this organism quantitatively from respiratory specimens, a Taq Man based real-time PCR targeting the mip sequence was developed. Both real-time PCR and culture methods were applied on 262 respiratory specimens from 262 ICU patients with pneumonia admitted to 5 different hospitals in Tehran. The results of real-time PCR were compared with those obtained by culture. Real-time PCR and culture found 12 and 4 specimens, respectively, as positive for L. pneumophila. Its technical specificity (100%) was checked against a panel of microorganisms consisting of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Our real-time PCR assay showed high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (96.9%) and could detect 200 organisms per ml from respiratory specimens. Using real-time PCR as a screening method, the frequency of nosocomial pneumonia with L. pneumophila at Tehran hospitals was estimated as 4.58%.

  15. Utility of /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy and bronchial washings in the diagnosis and treatment of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Tuazon, C.U.; Delaney, M.D.; Simon, G.L.; Witorsch, P.; Varma, V.M.

    1985-11-01

    Twenty patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) and suspected Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia were evaluated by /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy and fiberoptic bronchoscopy for initial diagnosis and response to therapy. Lung uptake of /sup 67/Ga was demonstrated in 100% of AIDS patients with P. carinii pneumonia, including those with subclinical infection. Fiberoptic bronchoscopy identified P. carinii in the bronchial washings of 100% of cases (19 patients), whereas only 13 of 16 (81%) patients had P. carinii in lung tissue obtained by transbronchial biopsy. Repeat fiberoptic bronchoscopy was performed in 16 of 20 patients. After 2 to 4 wk of therapy, P. carinii was identified in bronchial washings in 8 of 16 (50%) patients and in transbronchial biopsy in 1 of 10 (10%) patients examined. Bronchial washing has a higher yield than transbronchial biopsy in demonstrating P. carinii in patients with AIDS and may evolve as the procedure of choice in such patients. Based on the clinical course and results of /sup 67/Ga scintigraphy and fiberoptic bronchoscopy in AIDS patients with P. carinii pneumonia, optimal therapy may require at least 3 wk of treatment.

  16. Chloramphenicol versus ampicillin plus gentamicin for community acquired very severe pneumonia among children aged 2-59 months in low resource settings: multicentre randomised controlled trial (SPEAR study)

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Objective To evaluate whether five days’ treatment with injectable ampicillin plus gentamicin compared with chloramphenicol reduces treatment failure in children aged 2-59 months with community acquired very severe pneumonia in low resource settings. Design Open label randomised controlled trial. Setting Inpatient wards within tertiary care hospitals in Bangladesh, Ecuador, India, Mexico, Pakistan, Yemen, and Zambia. Participants Children aged 2-59 months with WHO defined very severe pneumonia. Intervention Chloramphenicol versus a combination of ampicillin plus gentamicin. Main outcome measures Primary outcome measure was treatment failure at five days. Secondary outcomes were treatment failure defined similarly among all participants evaluated at 48 hours and at 10 and 21 days. Results More children failed treatment with chloramphenicol at day 5 (16% v 11%; relative risk 1.43, 95% confidence interval 1.03 to 1.97) and also by days 10 and 21. Overall, 112 bacterial isolates were obtained from blood and lung aspirates in 110 children (11.5%), with the most common organisms being Staphylococcus aureus (n=47) and Streptococcus pneumoniae (n=22). In subgroup analysis, bacteraemia with any organism increased the risk of treatment failure at 21 days in the chloramphenicol group (2.09, 1.41 to 3.10) but not in the ampicillin plus gentamicin group (1.12, 0.59 to 2.13). Similarly, isolation of S pneumoniae increased the risk of treatment failure at day 21 (4.06, 2.73 to 6.03) and death (5.80, 2.62 to 12.85) in the chloramphenicol group but not in the ampicillin plus gentamicin group. No difference was found in treatment failure for children with S aureus bacteraemia in the two groups, but the power to detect a difference in this subgroup analysis was low. Independent predictors of treatment failure by multivariate analysis were hypoxaemia (oxygen saturation <90%), receiving chloramphenicol, being female, and poor immunisation status. Conclusion Injectable ampicillin plus

  17. TGF-β Blood Levels Distinguish Between Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 Virus Sepsis and Sepsis due to Other Forms of Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Rendón-Ramirez, Erick J; Ortiz-Stern, Alejandro; Martinez-Mejia, Corazon; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C; Rendon, Adrian; Mata-Tijerina, Viviana L; Rosas-Taraco, Adrian G

    2015-06-01

    There is a strong interest in finding adequate biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus infection. In this study, serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and laboratory markers were evaluated to assess their usefulness as biomarkers of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and their association with fatal cases. Serum samples of consecutive patients with a clinical presentation suggestive of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and progression to sepsis were evaluated. Serum inflammatory cytokines and routine laboratory tests were performed and correlated with positivity for influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 influenza by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and the results of three clinical severity scores (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [SOFA], CURB-65, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II [APACHE II]). High SOFA scores and some of its individual components, but not CURB-65 or APACHE II scores, correlate with fatal cases regardless of etiology. Total and unconjugated bilirubin, Ca(++), Cl(-), prothrombin times, and partial thromboplastin times discriminate influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 from other causes of community-acquired pneumonia. High levels of IL-8, IL-10, and IL-17 were increased in influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients when compared with controls (p<0.05). IL-6 levels were significantly elevated in influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients and non-(H1N1)pdm09 patients when compared with controls (p<0.05). TGF-β serum levels discern between healthy controls, influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients, and patients with other causes of community-acquired pneumonia. TGF-β levels were negatively correlated with SOFA on admission in influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients. TGF-β levels are a useful tool for differentiating influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 from other causes of pneumonia progressing to sepsis.

  18. Rhodoccocus Equi Pneumonia and Paradoxical Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in a Patient with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)

    PubMed Central

    Zijoo, Ritika; Dirweesh, Ahmed; Karabulut, Nigahus

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 47 Final Diagnosis: Rhodococcus equi pneumonia • paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome Symptoms: Cough • fever • shorthness of breath Medication: — Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Infectious Diseases Objective: Rare co-existance of disease or pathology Background: Pulmonary infections are a major cause of mortality and morbidity in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and can progress rapidly to respiratory failure and death without appropriate therapy. Herein, we present a rare case of an advanced HIV infection and Rhodoccocus equi (R. equi) pneumonia in a young male who had severe paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Case Report: A 47-year-old nonsmoking Hispanic man with advanced HIV infection presented with severe acute necrotizing pneumonia secondary to R. equi. Although his initial response to antimicrobial therapy was optimal, he became symptomatic again in spite of continuation of antibiotics as he developed severe paradoxical IRIS 3 weeks after starting a new highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Conclusions: The diagnosis of IRIS remains challenging because of the wide variations in the clinical presentation and etiologies. In spite of its rarity as an opportunistic pathogen, we recommend that R. equi, an intracellular pathogen, be included in the differential list of pathogens associated with IRIS. PMID:28100903

  19. High-resolution chirp seismic reflection data acquired from the Cap de Creus shelf and canyon area, Gulf of Lions, Spain in 2004

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Grossman, Eric E.; Hart, Patrick E.; Field, Michael E.; Triezenberg, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Seismic reflection data were collected from the Cap de Creus shelf and canyon in the southwest portion of the Gulf of Lions in October 2004. The data were acquired using the U.S. Geological Survey`s (USGS) high-resolution Edgetech CHIRP 512i seismic reflection system aboard the R/V Oceanus. Data from the shipboard 3.5 kHz echosounder were also collected but are not presented here. The seismic reflection data were collected as part of EuroSTRATAFORM funded by the Office of Naval Research. In October 2004, more than 200 km of high resolution seismic reflection data were collected in water depths ranging 30 m - 600 m. All data were recorded with a Delph Seismic PC-based digital recording system and processed with Delph Seismic software. Processed sections were georeferenced into tiff images for digital archive, processing and display. Penetration ranged 20-80 m. The data feature high quality vertical cross-section imagery of numerous sequences of Quaternary seismic stratigraphy. The report includes trackline maps showing the location of the data, as well as both digital data files (SEG-Y) and images of all of the profiles. The data are of high quality and provide new information on the location and thickness of sediment deposits overlying a major erosion surface on the Cap de Creus shelf; they also provide new insight into sediment processes on the walls and in the channel of Cap de Creus Canyon. These data are under study by researchers at the US Geological Survey, the University of Barcelona, and Texas A and M University. Copies of the data are available to all researchers.

  20. Healthcare-associated Pneumonia and Aspiration Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Komiya, Kosaku; Ishii, Hiroshi; Kadota, Jun-ichi

    2015-01-01

    Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a new concept of pneumonia proposed by the American Thoracic Society/Infectious Diseases Society of America in 2005. This category is located between community-acquired pneumonia and hospital-acquired pneumonia with respect to the characteristics of the causative pathogens and mortality, and primarily targets elderly patients in healthcare facilities. Aspiration among such patients is recognized to be a primary mechanism for the development of pneumonia, particularly since the HCAP guidelines were published. However, it is difficult to manage patients with aspiration pneumonia because the definition of the condition is unclear, and the treatment is associated with ethical aspects. This review focused on the definition, prevalence and role of aspiration pneumonia as a prognostic factor in published studies of HCAP and attempted to identify problems associated with the concept of aspiration pneumonia. PMID:25657850

  1. Severe Hyponatremia due to Levofloxacin Treatment for Pseudomonas aeruginosa Community-Acquired Pneumonia in a Patient with Oropharyngeal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Blaga, Sorin Nicu

    2016-01-01

    Hyponatremia (serum Na levels of <135 mEq/L) is the most common electrolyte imbalance encountered in clinical practice, affecting up to 15–28% of hospitalized patients. This case report refers to a middle-aged man with severe hyponatremia due to Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion related to four possible etiological factors: glossopharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, cisplatin treatment, right basal pneumonia with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and the treatment with Levofloxacin. This case report discusses a rare complication of common conditions and of a common treatment. To our knowledge this is the first case of hyponatremia related to Levofloxacin and the second related to fluoroquinolones. PMID:27847519

  2. Fatal Community-acquired Pneumonia in Children Caused by Re-emergent Human Adenovirus 7d Associated with Higher Severity of Illness and Fatality Rate

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhiwu; Zeng, Zhiwei; Zhang, Jing; Pan, Yuxian; Chen, Manjun; Guo, Yonghui; Yu, Nan; Chodosh, James; Fu, Ning; Che, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Qiwei

    2016-01-01

    Human adenoviruses (HAdVs) are highly contagious pathogens causing acute respiratory disease (ARD), such as community-acquired pneumonia. HAdV-7d, a re-emergent genomic variant, has been recently reported in Asia and the United States after a several-decade absence. However, whether HAdV-7d is associated with higher severity than other types is currently unclear. In this study, the clinical and epidemiological investigation showed that fever, cough, and sore throat were the three most common respiratory symptoms of HAdV infections. HAdV-7 caused longer duration of fever, higher morbidity of tachypnea/dyspnea, pleural effusion, diarrhea, hepatosplenomegaly, consciousness alteration, as well as higher rates of pneumonia, mechanical ventilation and higher fatality rate (28.6%) than other types, particularly HAdV-3 and HAdV-2. The genomes of seven HAdV-7d isolates from mild, severe, and fatal cases were sequenced and highly similar with each other. Surprisingly, two isolates (2011, 2012) had 100% identical genomes with an earlier strain from a fatal ARD outbreak in China (2009), which elucidates the virus origin and confirms the unexpected HAdV genomic conservation and stability. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that L1 52/55-kDa DNA packaging protein may be associated with the higher severity of illness and fatality rate of HAdV-7. Clinicians need to be aware of HAdVs in children with ARD. PMID:27848998

  3. [The diagnostic evaluation of rapid sputum technics for Pneumococcus in community-acquired pneumonia. The usefulness of Bayes theorem for clinical application].

    PubMed

    Menéndez Villanueva, R

    1995-01-01

    This study aimed to quantify the diagnostic value of immunological techniques and methods for rapid analysis of sputum for pneumococcus, using sensitivity and specificity values reported in the literature to calculate positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV) according to Bayes formulas. Diagnostic gains of the test are calculated and compared to pretext probability. We located articles reporting sensitivity and specificity of counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIE), coagglutination (CoA) and latex agglutination (LA) tests. We also calculated the probability ratios for the three tests. LA achieved the best overall diagnostic utility rating. CoA had the highest PPV, whereas LA offered the highest NPV. CIE was the least useful. These three tests are more useful at intermediate levels of prevalence of pneumococcus, which coincide with estimate in our population. We conclude that LA and CoA are of greater diagnostic utility for community acquired pneumonia, as they are useful for determining prevalence as well as for deciding initial antibiotic treatment.

  4. Application of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay to detect Legionella pneumophila in patients of community-acquired pneumonia in a tertiary care hospital.

    PubMed

    Angrup, A; Chaudhry, R; Sharma, S; Valavane, A; Passi, K; Padmaja, K; Javed, S; Dey, A B; Dhawan, B; Kabra, S K

    2016-01-01

    Legionella pneumophila is one of the important pathogen responsible for community -acquired pneumonia attributing for 1-5% of cases. Since early and accurate therapy reduces mortality, rapid and reliable diagnostic methods are needed. A total of 134 samples of blood, urine and respiratory tract fluids were collected. Blood was tested for IgG, IgM and IgA antibodies using commercially available kits. A total of 8 (6%) samples were found to be positive for L. pneumophila by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), compared to conventional PCR where 6 (4.4%) samples were positive. Serology was positive in a total of 32 (23%) cases though only 3 (2.2%) of the PCR-positive cases were positive by serology as well. These results suggest that real-time PCR can detect Legionella infection early in the course of the disease before serological response develops.

  5. [Recommendations for prevention of community-acquired pneumonia with bacteremia as the leading form of invasive pneumococcal infections in the population of people over 50 years of age and risk groups above 19 years of age].

    PubMed

    Albrecht, Piotr; Antczak, Adam; Hryniewicz, Waleria; Skoczyńska, Anna; Radzikowski, Andrzej; Kedziora-Kornatowska, Kornelia; Bernatowska, Ewa; Stompór, Tomasz; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Gyrczuk, Ewa; Imiela, Jacek; Jedrzejczak, Wiesław; Windak, Adam

    2014-02-01

    Invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) is a main cause of mortality associated with pneumococcal infections. Although, IPD is regarding mainly small children and persons in the age > 65 years, the investigations showed that because of IPD exactly sick persons are burdened with the greatest mortality in the older age, rather than of children. The most frequent form of IPD is community acquired pneumonia (CAP) with the bacteremia. The presence of even a single additional risk factor is increasing the probability of the unfavorable descent of pneumococcal infection. The risk factors for IPD and/or pneumonia with bacteremia apart from the age are among others asthma (> 2 x), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), sarcoidosis (4 x), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (5 x), bronchiectases (2 x), allergic alveolitis (1.9 x) and pneumoconiosis (2 x), type 1 diabetes (4.4 x), type 2 diabetes (1.2 x), autoimmune diseases (e.g. rheumatoid arthritis (4.2 to 14.9 x), kidney failure with the necessity to dialysis (12 x), immunosuppression, cardiovascular disease, alcoholism and cancers. Examinations show that the best method of IPD and CAP preventing are pneumococcal vaccinations. On the market for ages 23-valent polysaccharide vaccine (PPV23) is available covering close the 90% of IPD triggering stereotypes. Her role in preventing CAP is uncertain and the immunological answer after vaccination at older persons and after revaccination is weak. Widely discussed disadvantageous effects of growing old of the immunological system show on the benefit from applying the immunization inducing the immunological memory, i.e. of conjugated vaccines which are activating the T-dependent reply and are ensuring the readiness for the effective secondary response. Examinations so far conducted with conjugated 7-valent and 13-valent (PCV13) vaccines at persons in the age > 50 years are confirming these expectations. Also sick persons can take benefits from PCV13 applying back from so-called IPD

  6. TGF-β Blood Levels Distinguish Between Influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 Virus Sepsis and Sepsis due to Other Forms of Community-Acquired Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Rendón-Ramirez, Erick J.; Ortiz-Stern, Alejandro; Martinez-Mejia, Corazon; Salinas-Carmona, Mario C.; Rendon, Adrian; Mata-Tijerina, Viviana L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract There is a strong interest in finding adequate biomarkers to aid in the diagnosis and prognosis of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 virus infection. In this study, serum levels of inflammatory cytokines and laboratory markers were evaluated to assess their usefulness as biomarkers of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and their association with fatal cases. Serum samples of consecutive patients with a clinical presentation suggestive of influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 and progression to sepsis were evaluated. Serum inflammatory cytokines and routine laboratory tests were performed and correlated with positivity for influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 influenza by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and the results of three clinical severity scores (Sequential Organ Failure Assessment [SOFA], CURB-65, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II [APACHE II]). High SOFA scores and some of its individual components, but not CURB-65 or APACHE II scores, correlate with fatal cases regardless of etiology. Total and unconjugated bilirubin, Ca++, Cl−, prothrombin times, and partial thromboplastin times discriminate influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 from other causes of community-acquired pneumonia. High levels of IL-8, IL-10, and IL-17 were increased in influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients when compared with controls (p<0.05). IL-6 levels were significantly elevated in influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients and non-(H1N1)pdm09 patients when compared with controls (p<0.05). TGF-β serum levels discern between healthy controls, influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients, and patients with other causes of community-acquired pneumonia. TGF-β levels were negatively correlated with SOFA on admission in influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 patients. TGF-β levels are a useful tool for differentiating influenza A (H1N1)pdm09 from other causes of pneumonia progressing to sepsis. PMID:25923384

  7. [Community acquired pneumonia in children: Treatment of complicated cases and risk patients. Consensus statement by the Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases (SEIP) and the Spanish Society of Paediatric Chest Diseases (SENP)].

    PubMed

    Moreno-Pérez, D; Andrés Martín, A; Tagarro García, A; Escribano Montaner, A; Figuerola Mulet, J; García García, J J; Moreno-Galdó, A; Rodrigo Gonzalo de Lliria, C; Saavedra Lozano, J

    2015-09-01

    The incidence of community-acquired pneumonia complications has increased during the last decade. According to the records from several countries, empyema and necrotizing pneumonia became more frequent during the last few years. The optimal therapeutic approach for such conditions is still controversial. Both pharmacological management (antimicrobials and fibrinolysis), and surgical management (pleural drainage and video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery), are the subject of continuous assessment. In this paper, the Spanish Society of Paediatric Infectious Diseases and the Spanish Society of Paediatric Chest Diseases have reviewed the available evidence. Consensus treatment guidelines are proposed for complications of community-acquired pneumonia in children, focusing on parapneumonic pleural effusion. Recommendations are also provided for the increasing population of patients with underlying diseases and immunosuppression.

  8. Recurrent pneumonia: a review with focus on clinical epidemiology and modifiable risk factors in elderly patients.

    PubMed

    Dang, T T; Majumdar, S R; Marrie, T J; Eurich, D T

    2015-01-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the most common reasons for physician visits and hospitalizations in North America. Rates of CAP increase with age and CAP is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, especially in the elderly. Though there is much written about the epidemiology and risk factors of incident (first episode) pneumonia, much less is known about recurrent pneumonia. Rates of recurrent pneumonia within 3-5-years of an episode of CAP are 9-12% with a median time to recurrence of 123-317 days and mortality ranging from 4 to 10%. Age ≥65-years-old and impaired functional status are the only patient characteristics that are independently associated with increased risk of recurrence. In terms of modifiable risk factors, only the use of proton-pump inhibitors and systemic and inhaled corticosteroids have consistently been associated with increased risk of recurrent pneumonia, while angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors may exert a protective effect. Many chronic medical conditions typically associated with increased incident pneumonia-such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), neurological disease (resulting in dysphagia or silent aspiration), and heart failure-were not associated with increased risk of recurrent pneumonia. However, those who are immune-suppressed (e.g., immunoglobulin deficiencies) may be at increased risk of recurrent pneumonia. In summary, among those who survive an episode of pneumonia, recurrence is not uncommon, particularly in the elderly. Following recovery from an episode of pneumonia, patients should be evaluated for risk factors that would predispose to a second episode including seeking evidence of immunosuppression in younger patients and medication optimization, particularly in the elderly.

  9. Impact of intensive-care-unit(ICU)-acquired ventilator-associated pneumonia(VAP) on hospital mortality: a matched-paired case-control study.

    PubMed

    Uno, Hideo; Takezawa, Jun; Yatsuya, Hiroshi; Suka, Machi; Yoshida, Katsumi

    2007-01-01

    The effect of ICU-acquired ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) on hospital mortality is still a controversial issue in many countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of ICU-acquired VAP on hospital mortality in a Japanese university hospital. Our study population was comprised of patients aged 16 years or older who were admitted to our ICU and received mechanical ventilation for more than 48 hours during a period of 42 months as of December 2003. To evaluate whether VAP was an independent risk factor for hospital mortality after controlling for other clinical factors, patients with fatal outcomes (cases) were compared to those who survived (controls). From 587 eligible patients, we analyzed 75 cases and 150 controls who were successfully matched on sex, age, and the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) score using conditional logistic regression models. Univariate analysis demonstrated that hemodialysis (odds ratio [OR], 2.24; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-4.15; p = 0.01), surgical site infection (OR, 2.45; 95% CI, 1.22-4.91; p = 0.01), and VAP (OR, 2.69; 95% CI, 1.55-4.69; p < 0.001) were significantly associated with hospital mortality. After adjusting for confounding factors, multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis showed that hemodialysis (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.06-3.94; p = 0.03) and VAP (OR, 2.20; 95% CI, 1.10-4.39; p = 0.03) were independently associated with hospital mortality. In conclusion, these data suggest that ICU-acquired VAP significantly affects hospital mortality.

  10. Effect of Prior Atorvastatin Treatment on the Frequency of Hospital Acquired Pneumonia and Evolution of Biomarkers in Patients with Acute Ischemic Stroke: A Multicenter Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yuetian

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To investigate whether prior treatment of atorvastatin reduces the frequency of hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP). Methods. Totally, 492 patients with acute ischemic stroke and Glasgow Coma Scale ≤ 8 were enrolled in this study. Subjects were assigned to prior atorvastatin treatment group (n = 268, PG) and no prior treatment group (n = 224, NG). All the patients were given 20 mg atorvastatin every night during their hospital stay. HAP frequency and 28-day mortality were measured. Levels of inflammatory biomarkers [white blood cell (WBC), procalcitonin (PCT), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-6 (IL-6)] were tested. Results. There was no significant difference in the incidence of HAP between PG and NG (25.74% versus. 24.55%, p > 0.05) and 28-day mortality (50.72% versus 58.18%, p > 0.05). However, prior statin treatment did modify the mortality of ventilator associated pneumonia (VAP) (36.54% versus 58.14%, p = 0.041) and proved to be a protective factor (HR, 0.564; 95% CI, 0.310~0.825, p = 0.038). Concentrations of TNF-α and IL-6 in PG VAP cases were lower than those in NG VAP cases (p < 0.01). Conclusions. Prior atorvastatin treatment in patients with ischemic stroke was associated with a lower concentration of IL-6 and TNF-α and improved the outcome of VAP. This clinical study has been registered with ChiCTR-ROC-17010633 in Chinese Clinical Trial Registry. PMID:28357403

  11. The Queensland experience of participation in a national drug use evaluation project, Community-acquired pneumonia – towards improving outcomes nationally (CAPTION)

    PubMed Central

    Pulver, Lisa K; Tett, Susan E; Coombes, Judith

    2009-01-01

    Background Multicentre drug use evaluations are described in the literature infrequently and usually publish only the results. The purpose of this paper is to describe the experience of Queensland hospitals participating in the Community-Acquired Pneumonia Towards Improving Outcomes Nationally (CAPTION) project, specifically evaluating the implementation of this project, detailing benefits and drawbacks of involvement in a national drug use evaluation program. Methods Emergency departments from nine hospitals in Queensland, Australia, participated in CAPTION, a national quality improvement project, conducted in 37 Australian hospitals. CAPTION was aimed at optimising prescribing in the management of Community-Acquired Pneumonia according to the recommendations of the Australian Therapeutic Guidelines: Antibiotic 12th edition. The project involved data collection, and evaluation, feedback of results and a suite of targeted educational interventions including audit and feedback, group presentations and academic detailing. A baseline audit and two drug use evaluation cycles were conducted during the 2-year project. The implementation of the project was evaluated using feedback forms after each phase of the project (audit or intervention). At completion a group meeting with the hospital coordinators identified positive and negative elements of the project. Results Evaluation by hospitals of their participation in CAPTION demonstrated both benefits and drawbacks. The benefits were grouped into the impact on the hospital dynamic such as; improved interdisciplinary working relationships (e.g. between pharmacist and doctor), recognition of the educational/academic role of the pharmacist, creation of ED Pharmacist positions and enhanced involvement with the National Prescribing Service, and personal benefits. Personal benefits included academic detailing training for participants, improved communication skills and opportunities to present at conferences. The principal

  12. A randomized, open, multicenter clinical study on the short course of intravenous infusion of 750 mg of levofloxacin and the sequential standard course of intravenous infusion/oral administration of 500 mg of levofloxacin for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Tiemei; Chen, Liang-An; Wang, Ping; Tian, Guizhen; Ye, Feng; Zhu, Huili; He, Bei; Zhang, Baiying; Shao, Changzhou; Jie, Zhijun; Gao, Xiwen; Wang, Dongxia; Song, Weidong; Pan, Zhijie; Chen, Jin; Zhang, Xingyi; Gao, Zhancheng; Chen, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Background To compare 5-day regimen of levofloxacin 750 mg IV daily with 7–14-day conventional regimen of levofloxacin 500 mg intravenous to oral (IV/PO) daily for treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in Chinese population. Methods This was a non-inferiority study to assess the difference of clinical efficacy at the end of treatment (EOT) between two regimens. Adult CAP patients with CURB-65 score 0–2 were enrolled from 17 hospitals in China from November 2012 to July 2014. The subjects were randomized into levofloxacin 750 or 500 mg group and the clinical data were collected. Sputum and blood specimens were sent for bacterial culture. The urinary antigen of Streptococcus pneumoniae (S. pneumoniae) was detected as well. At EOT, the clinical efficacy (primary endpoint), microbiological efficacy and safety were evaluated. Results A total of 457 patients were enrolled. Intent-to-treat (ITT) for primary endpoint analysis and per-protocol set (PPS) populations were 448 and 427 patients respectively. The therapeutic durations were 4.86 and 10.35 days and the mean drug exposure was 3,641.4 and 5,169.6 mg in 750 and 500 mg groups respectively. The clinical efficacy rate was 91.40% (202/221) in 750 mg group and 94.27% (214/227) in 500 mg group (ITT, P=0.2449). The difference in clinical efficacy rate was −2.87 (95% CI: −7.64, 1.90) between the two groups. The non-inferiority hypothesis of two groups was tenable (Δ=10%). The bacterial eradication rate was 100.00% in both groups. The most common drug-related clinical adverse events were injection site and gastrointestinal reactions. The most common drug-related laboratory abnormalities were WBC decrease and ALT/AST elevation. No statistical difference was found between two groups (P>0.05). Conclusions The 5-day regimen of levofloxacin 750 mg daily is non-inferior to 7–14-day conventional regimen of 500 mg daily in clinical efficacy for treatment of mild to moderate Chinese CAP population. The short

  13. Incidence of childhood pneumonia and serotype and sequence-type distribution in Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, J; Ishiwada, N; Wada, A; Chang, B; Hishiki, H; Kurosaki, T; Kohno, Y

    2012-06-01

    The 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) is reported to decrease the incidence of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in children. To determine the annual incidence of CAP before the introduction of PCV7, we counted the number of children hospitalized with CAP between 2008 and 2009 in Chiba City, Japan. We investigated serotype and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) for Streptococcus pneumoniae isolates in CAP cases. The annual incidence of hospitalized CAP in children aged <5 years was 17.6 episodes/1000 child-years. In 626 episodes, S. pneumoniae was dominant in 14.7% and 0.8% of sputum and blood samples, respectively. The most common serotypes were 6B, 23F and 19F. The coverage rates of PCV7 were 66.7% and 80% in sputum samples and blood samples, respectively. MLST analysis revealed 37 sequence types. Furthermore, 54.1% of the sputum isolates and 40% of the blood isolate were related to international multidrug-resistant clones.

  14. Biological features of biofilm-forming ability of Acinetobacter baumannii strains derived from 121 elderly patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Duchao; Xia, Jingjing; Xu, Yaping; Gong, Meiliang; Zhou, Yu; Xie, Lixin; Fang, Xiangqun

    2016-02-01

    This study is to investigate a biological activity of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates from sputum specimens of 121 elderly patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia. The ability of the isolates to form biofilms was quantitatively assessed by crystal violet staining, and adhesive property was examined using Giemsa staining. Biofilm-forming ability by the isolates was employed to test antimicrobial resistance and examine sources and clinical manifestations. The isolates grew as biofilm on abiotic surface at the indicated temperatures after a 48 h of incubation. 27.3 % of the isolates were strongly biofilm-positive in the samples, and 84.8 % displayed high adhesion ability (P < 0.05). All of the isolates showed antibiotic resistance at different levels, and the isolates produced strong biofilm exhibited low-level resistance to gentamicin, minocycline and ceftazidime (P < 0.05). The patients' experience in ICU, use of antibiotics and estimation of APACHE II (<17) were related to incidence of strong biofilm formation with no clinical manifestations found in the study. All clinical isolates are able to form biofilms which refer to adhesive efficiency and antibiotic resistance. Patient experiences in ICU surveillance, use of antibiotics and APACHE II scores are involved in biofilm-forming ability by the nosocomial pathogen derived from the hospitalized patients.

  15. Risk factors for hospital-acquired pneumonia caused by carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria in critically ill patients: a multicenter study in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tark; Chong, Yong Pil; Park, Seong Yeon; Jeon, Min-Hyok; Choo, Eun Joo; Chung, Jin-Won; Lee, Hyun Kyung; Moon, Chisook; Kim, Dong-Min; Peck, Kyong Ran; Kim, Yang Soo

    2014-04-01

    We performed a case-control study to identify risk factors of carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteria (CRGNB) as an increasing cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP). The study included critically ill adult patients with HAP whose microbial etiology was identified at eight tertiary centers in Korea between June 2008 and December 2009. Eighty two patients with 86 isolates of CRGNB (62 Acinetobacter baumannii, 14 Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and 10 Stenotrophomonas maltophilia) were included in the case group, and 122 patients with carbapenem-susceptible Gram-negative bacteria were included in the control group. Diabetes mellitus (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 2.82, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.25-6.38), radiologic score ≥5 (aOR 4.56, 95% CI 2.36-8.81), prior fluoroquinolone (aOR 2.39. 95% CI = 1.07-5.35), or carbapenem usage (aOR 2.82, 95% CI 1.75-17.83) were found to be independent risk factors. Fluoroquinolone and carbapenem should be cautiously used to avoid HAP caused by CRGNB.

  16. Executive Summary: Management of Adults With Hospital-acquired and Ventilator-associated Pneumonia: 2016 Clinical Practice Guidelines by the Infectious Diseases Society of America and the American Thoracic Society.

    PubMed

    Kalil, Andre C; Metersky, Mark L; Klompas, Michael; Muscedere, John; Sweeney, Daniel A; Palmer, Lucy B; Napolitano, Lena M; O'Grady, Naomi P; Bartlett, John G; Carratalà, Jordi; El Solh, Ali A; Ewig, Santiago; Fey, Paul D; File, Thomas M; Restrepo, Marcos I; Roberts, Jason A; Waterer, Grant W; Cruse, Peggy; Knight, Shandra L; Brozek, Jan L

    2016-09-01

    It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. IDSA considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.These guidelines are intended for use by healthcare professionals who care for patients at risk for hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) and ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), including specialists in infectious diseases, pulmonary diseases, critical care, and surgeons, anesthesiologists, hospitalists, and any clinicians and healthcare providers caring for hospitalized patients with nosocomial pneumonia. The panel's recommendations for the diagnosis and treatment of HAP and VAP are based upon evidence derived from topic-specific systematic literature reviews.

  17. Alpha-catenin-Dependent Recruitment of the Centrosomal Protein CAP350 to Adherens Junctions Allows Epithelial Cells to Acquire a Columnar Shape

    PubMed Central

    Zurbano, Angel; Formstecher, Etienne; Martinez-Morales, Juan R.; Bornens, Michel; Rios, Rosa M.

    2015-01-01

    Epithelial morphogenesis involves a dramatic reorganisation of the microtubule cytoskeleton. How this complex process is controlled at the molecular level is still largely unknown. Here, we report that the centrosomal microtubule (MT)-binding protein CAP350 localises at adherens junctions in epithelial cells. By two-hybrid screening, we identified a direct interaction of CAP350 with the adhesion protein α-catenin that was further confirmed by co-immunoprecipitation experiments. Block of epithelial cadherin (E-cadherin)-mediated cell-cell adhesion or α-catenin depletion prevented CAP350 localisation at cell-cell junctions. Knocking down junction-located CAP350 inhibited the establishment of an apico-basal array of microtubules and impaired the acquisition of columnar shape in Madin-Darby canine kidney II (MDCKII) cells grown as polarised epithelia. Furthermore, MDCKII cystogenesis was also defective in junctional CAP350-depleted cells. CAP350-depleted MDCKII cysts were smaller and contained either multiple lumens or no lumen. Membrane polarity was not affected, but cortical microtubule bundles did not properly form. Our results indicate that CAP350 may act as an adaptor between adherens junctions and microtubules, thus regulating epithelial differentiation and contributing to the definition of cell architecture. We also uncover a central role of α-catenin in global cytoskeleton remodelling, in which it acts not only on actin but also on MT reorganisation during epithelial morphogenesis. PMID:25764135

  18. Low-pathogenicity Mycoplasma spp. alter human monocyte and macrophage function and are highly prevalent among patients with ventilator-acquired pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, T J; Gadsby, N J; Templeton, K E; McMullan, R; McKenna, J P; Rennie, J; Robb, C T; Walsh, T S; Rossi, A G; Conway Morris, A; Simpson, A J

    2016-01-01

    Background Ventilator-acquired pneumonia (VAP) remains a significant problem within intensive care units (ICUs). There is a growing recognition of the impact of critical-illness-induced immunoparesis on the pathogenesis of VAP, but the mechanisms remain incompletely understood. We hypothesised that, because of limitations in their routine detection, Mycoplasmataceae are more prevalent among patients with VAP than previously recognised, and that these organisms potentially impair immune cell function. Methods and setting 159 patients were recruited from 12 UK ICUs. All patients had suspected VAP and underwent bronchoscopy and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). VAP was defined as growth of organisms at >104 colony forming units per ml of BAL fluid on conventional culture. Samples were tested for Mycoplasmataceae (Mycoplasma and Ureaplasma spp.) by PCR, and positive samples underwent sequencing for speciation. 36 healthy donors underwent BAL for comparison. Additionally, healthy donor monocytes and macrophages were exposed to Mycoplasma salivarium and their ability to respond to lipopolysaccharide and undertake phagocytosis was assessed. Results Mycoplasmataceae were found in 49% (95% CI 33% to 65%) of patients with VAP, compared with 14% (95% CI 9% to 25%) of patients without VAP. Patients with sterile BAL fluid had a similar prevalence to healthy donor BAL fluid (10% (95% CI 4% to 20%) vs 8% (95% CI 2% to 22%)). The most common organism identified was M. salivarium. Blood monocytes from healthy volunteers incubated with M. salivarium displayed an impaired TNF-α response to lipopolysaccharide (p=0.0003), as did monocyte-derived macrophages (MDMs) (p=0.024). MDM exposed to M. salivarium demonstrated impaired phagocytosis (p=0.005). Discussion and conclusions This study demonstrates a high prevalence of Mycoplasmataceae among patients with VAP, with a markedly lower prevalence among patients with suspected VAP in whom subsequent cultures refuted the diagnosis. The most

  19. Hospital Acquired Pneumonia Due to Achromobacter spp. in a Geriatric Ward in China: Clinical Characteristic, Genome Variability, Biofilm Production, Antibiotic Resistance and Integron in Isolated Strains

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chao; Pan, Fei; Guo, Jun; Yan, Weifeng; Jin, Yi; Liu, Changting; Qin, Long; Fang, Xiangqun

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP) due to Achromobacter has become a substantial concern in recent years. However, HAP due to Achromobacter in the elderly is rare. Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on 15 elderly patients with HAP due to Achromobacter spp., in which the sequence types (STs), integrons, biofilm production and antibiotic resistance of the Achromobacter spp. were examined. Results: The mean age of the 15 elderly patients was 88.8 ± 5.4 years. All patients had at least three underlying diseases and catheters. Clinical outcomes improved in 10 of the 15 patients after antibiotic and/or mechanical ventilation treatment, but three patients had chronic infections lasting more than 1 year. The mortality rate was 33.3% (5/15). All strains were resistant to aminoglycosides, aztreonam, nitrofurantoin, and third- and fourth-generation cephalosporins (except ceftazidime and cefoperazone). Six new STs were detected. The most frequent ST was ST306. ST5 was identified in two separate buildings of the hospital. ST313 showed higher MIC in cephalosporins, quinolones and carbapenems, which should be more closely considered in clinical practice. All strains produced biofilm and had integron I and blaOXA-114-like. The main type was blaOXA-114q. The variable region of integron I was different among strains, and the resistance gene of the aminoglycosides was most commonly inserted in integron I. Additionally, blaPSE-1 was first reported in this isolate. Conclusion: Achromobacter spp. infection often occurs in severely ill elders with underlying diseases. The variable region of integrons differs, suggesting that Achromobacter spp. is a reservoir of various resistance genes. PMID:27242678

  20. Validation of an Immunodiagnostic Assay for Detection of 13 Streptococcus pneumoniae Serotype-Specific Polysaccharides in Human Urine

    PubMed Central

    Huijts, Susanne M.; Wu, Kangjian; Souza, Victor; Passador, Sherry; Tinder, Chunyan; Song, Esther; Elfassy, Arik; McNeil, Lisa; Menton, Ronald; French, Roger; Callahan, Janice; Webber, Chris; Gruber, William C.; Bonten, Marc J. M.; Jansen, Kathrin U.

    2012-01-01

    To improve the clinical diagnosis of pneumococcal infection in bacteremic and nonbacteremic community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), a Luminex technology-based multiplex urinary antigen detection (UAD) diagnostic assay was developed and validated. The UAD assay can simultaneously detect 13 different serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae by capturing serotype-specific S. pneumoniae polysaccharides (PnPSs) secreted in human urine. Assay specificity is achieved by capturing the polysaccharides with serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) on spectrally unique microspheres. Positivity for each serotype was based on positivity cutoff values calculated from a standard curve run on each assay plate together with positive- and negative-control urine samples. The assay is highly specific, since significant signals are detected only when each PnPS was paired with its homologous MAb-coated microspheres. Validation experiments demonstrated excellent accuracy and precision. The UAD assay and corresponding positivity cutoff values were clinically validated by assessing 776 urine specimens obtained from patients with X-ray-confirmed CAP. The UAD assay demonstrated 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity using samples obtained from patients with bacteremic, blood culture-positive CAP. Importantly, the UAD assay identified Streptococcus pneumoniae (13 serotypes) in a proportion of individuals with nonbacteremic CAP, a patient population for which the pneumococcal etiology of CAP was previously difficult to assess. Therefore, the UAD assay provides a specific, noninvasive, sensitive, and reproducible tool to support vaccine efficacy as well as epidemiological evaluation of pneumococcal disease, including CAP, in adults. PMID:22675155

  1. Validation of an immunodiagnostic assay for detection of 13 Streptococcus pneumoniae serotype-specific polysaccharides in human urine.

    PubMed

    Pride, Michael W; Huijts, Susanne M; Wu, Kangjian; Souza, Victor; Passador, Sherry; Tinder, Chunyan; Song, Esther; Elfassy, Arik; McNeil, Lisa; Menton, Ronald; French, Roger; Callahan, Janice; Webber, Chris; Gruber, William C; Bonten, Marc J M; Jansen, Kathrin U

    2012-08-01

    To improve the clinical diagnosis of pneumococcal infection in bacteremic and nonbacteremic community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), a Luminex technology-based multiplex urinary antigen detection (UAD) diagnostic assay was developed and validated. The UAD assay can simultaneously detect 13 different serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae by capturing serotype-specific S. pneumoniae polysaccharides (PnPSs) secreted in human urine. Assay specificity is achieved by capturing the polysaccharides with serotype-specific monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) on spectrally unique microspheres. Positivity for each serotype was based on positivity cutoff values calculated from a standard curve run on each assay plate together with positive- and negative-control urine samples. The assay is highly specific, since significant signals are detected only when each PnPS was paired with its homologous MAb-coated microspheres. Validation experiments demonstrated excellent accuracy and precision. The UAD assay and corresponding positivity cutoff values were clinically validated by assessing 776 urine specimens obtained from patients with X-ray-confirmed CAP. The UAD assay demonstrated 97% sensitivity and 100% specificity using samples obtained from patients with bacteremic, blood culture-positive CAP. Importantly, the UAD assay identified Streptococcus pneumoniae (13 serotypes) in a proportion of individuals with nonbacteremic CAP, a patient population for which the pneumococcal etiology of CAP was previously difficult to assess. Therefore, the UAD assay provides a specific, noninvasive, sensitive, and reproducible tool to support vaccine efficacy as well as epidemiological evaluation of pneumococcal disease, including CAP, in adults.

  2. Retrospective investigation of the clinical effects of tazobactam/piperacillin and sulbactam/ampicillin on aspiration pneumonia caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Hiroki; Sakai, Kunihiko; Cho, Hiromi; Kimura, Yuka; Tetsuka, Takafumi; Nakajima, Haruhiko; Ito, Kazuhiko

    2012-10-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important causative bacterium of aspiration pneumonia in many elderly patients. We retrospectively investigated the clinical effects of the early treatment of aspiration pneumonia and background factors in 24 patients from whom Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated. Sulbactam/ampicillin (SBT/ABPC) was selected for early treatment in 12 of the 24 patients diagnosed with aspiration pneumonia, and tazobactam/piperacillin (TAZ/PIPC) was selected for the other patients. The effective rates and success rates of early treatment were significantly higher in the TAZ/PIPC group than in the SBT/ABPC group (p = 0.003 and 0.027, respectively). Although no significant difference was noted because of the limited number of cases, the survival rates after 30 days were 91.7 and 58.3 % in the TAZ/PIPC and SBT/ABPC groups, respectively. Several bacteria isolated with Klebsiella pneumoniae were resistant bacteria, such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and no anaerobe or extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae was isolated. Thirteen and 11 of the 24 cases were classified as healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), respectively, with no case classified as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). As population aging progresses, the frequency of aspiration pneumonia classified as HCAP will increase. To cover anaerobes, it is necessary to select antibacterial drugs, such as TAZ/PIPC, for early treatment in consideration of resistant gram-negative bacteria to improve the outcome, and not drugs with weak activity against these bacteria.

  3. Necrotizing Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Nicolaou, Elitsa V; Bartlett, Allison H

    2017-02-01

    Necrotizing pneumonia refers to the development of necrosis, liquefication, and cavitation of the lung parenchyma from an infectious pathogen. Nearly 4% of all community-acquired pneumonias are necrotizing, although studies retrospectively evaluating the incidence have found it to be increasing during the past 20 years. Common presenting symptoms include fever, tachypnea, and cough, and most of those afflicted also develop complications such as parapneumonic effusions, empyemas, or bronchopleural fistulae. When compared to age-matched controls with parapneumonic effusions or severe pneumonias without a necrotizing component, those with necrotizing pneumonia have been shown to have more elevated white blood cell counts and inflammatory markers that take longer to normalize, a longer duration of symptoms despite initiation of therapy, and a longer hospital stay. Despite the high incidence of complications during the acute phase of illness, the overall prognosis of necrotizing pneumonia has been shown to be promising, with nearly all children surviving the illness. [Pediatr Ann. 2017;46(2):e65-e68.].

  4. [Nosocomial pneumonia].

    PubMed

    Díaz, Emili; Martín-Loeches, Ignacio; Vallés, Jordi

    2013-12-01

    The hospital acquired pneumonia (HAP) is one of the most common infections acquired among hospitalised patients. Within the HAP, the ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is the most common nosocomial infection complication among patients with acute respiratory failure. The VAP and HAP are associated with increased mortality and increased hospital costs. The rise in HAP due to antibiotic-resistant bacteria also causes an increase in the incidence of inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy, with an associated increased risk of hospital mortality. It is very important to know the most common organisms responsible for these infections in each hospital and each Intensive Care Unit, as well as their antimicrobial susceptibility patterns, in order to reduce the incidence of inappropriate antibiotic therapy and improve the prognosis of patients. Additionally, clinical strategies aimed at the prevention of HAP and VAP should be employed in hospital settings caring for patients at risk for these infections.

  5. Atypical pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    Bacteria that cause atypical pneumonia include: Mycoplasma pneumonia is caused by the bacteria Mycoplasma pneumoniae . It often affects people younger than age 40. Pneumonia due to Chlamydophila pneumoniae bacteria ...

  6. Mycoplasma pneumoniae: Current Knowledge on Nucleic Acid Amplification Techniques and Serological Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Loens, Katherine; Ieven, Margareta

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae (M. pneumoniae) belongs to the class Mollicutes and has been recognized as a common cause of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), including community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), that occur worldwide and in all age groups. In addition, M. pneumoniae can simultaneously or sequentially lead to damage in the nervous system and has been associated with a wide variety of other acute and chronic diseases. During the past 10 years, the proportion of LRTI in children and adults, associated with M. pneumoniae infection has ranged from 0 to more than 50%. This variation is due to the age and the geographic location of the population examined but also due to the diagnostic methods used. The true role of M. pneumoniae in RTIs remains a challenge given the many limitations and lack of standardization of the applied diagnostic tool in most cases, with resultant wide variations in data from different studies. Correct and rapid diagnosis and/or management of M. pneumoniae infections is, however, critical to initiate appropriate antibiotic treatment and is nowadays usually done by PCR and/or serology. Several recent reviews, have summarized current methods for the detection and identification of M. pneumoniae. This review will therefore provide a look at the general principles, advantages, diagnostic value, and limitations of the most currently used detection techniques for the etiological diagnosis of a M. pneumoniae infection as they evolve from research to daily practice. PMID:27064893

  7. Tracking Cefoperazone/Sulbactam Resistance Development In vivo in A. baumannii Isolated from a Patient with Hospital-Acquired Pneumonia by Whole-Genome Sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaofen; Zheng, Huajun; Zhang, Weipeng; Shen, Zhen; Zhao, Miao; Chen, Yuancheng; Sun, Li; Shi, Jun; Zhang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Cefoperazone/sulbactam has been shown to be efficacious for the treatment of infections caused by Acinetobacter baumannii; however, the mechanism underlying resistance to this synergistic combination is not well understood. In the present study, two A. baumannii isolates, AB1845 and AB2092, were isolated from a patient with hospital-acquired pneumonia before and after 20 days of cefoperazone/sulbactam therapy (2:1, 3 g every 8 h with a 1-h infusion). The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of cefoperazone/sulbactam for AB1845 and AB2092 was 16/8 and 128/64 mg/L, respectively. Blood samples were collected on day 4 of the treatment to determine the concentration of cefoperazone and sulbactam. The pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PK/PD) indices (%T>MIC) were calculated to evaluate the dosage regimen and resistance development. The results showed that %T>MIC of cefoperazone and sulbactam was 100% and 34.5% for AB1845, and 0% and 0% for AB2092, respectively. Although there was no available PK/PD target for sulbactam, it was proposed that sulbactam should be administered at higher doses or for prolonged infusion times to achieve better efficacy. To investigate the mechanism of A. baumannii resistance to the cefoperazone/sulbactam combination in vivo, whole-genome sequencing of these two isolates was further performed. The sequencing results showed that 97.6% of the genome sequences were identical and 33 non-synonymous mutations were detected between AB1845 and AB2092. The only difference of these two isolates was showed in sequencing coverage comparison. There was a 6-kb amplified DNA fragment which was three times higher in AB2092, compared with AB1845. The amplified DNA fragment containing the blaOXA-23 gene on transposon Tn2009. Further quantitative real-time PCR results demonstrated that gene expression at the mRNA level of blaOXA-23 was >5 times higher in AB2092 than in AB1845. These results suggested that the blaOXA-23 gene had higher expression level in AB2092

  8. Impact of surveillance of hospital-acquired infections on the incidence of ventilator-associated pneumonia in intensive care units: a quasi-experimental study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction The preventive impact of hospital-acquired infection (HAI) surveillance is difficult to assess. Our objective was to investigate the effect of HAI surveillance disruption on ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) incidence. Methods A quasi-experimental study with an intervention group and a control group was conducted between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2010 in two intensive care units (ICUs) of a university hospital that participated in a national HAI surveillance network. Surveillance was interrupted during the year 2007 in unit A (intervention group) and was continuous in unit B (control group). Period 1 (pre-test period) comprised patients hospitalized during 2004 to 2006, and period 2 (post-test period) involved patients hospitalized during 2008 to 2010. Patients hospitalized ≥48 hours and intubated during their stay were included. Multivariate Poisson regression was fitted to ascertain the influence of surveillance disruption. Results A total of 2,771 patients, accounting for 19,848 intubation-days at risk, were studied; 307 had VAP. The VAP attack rate increased in unit A from 7.8% during period 1 to 17.1% during period 2 (P <0.001); in unit B, it was 7.2% and 11.2% for the two periods respectively (P = 0.17). Adjusted VAP incidence rose in unit A after surveillance disruption (incidence rate ratio = 2.17, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 4.47, P = 0.036), independently of VAP trend; no change was observed in unit B. All-cause mortality and length of stay increased (P = 0.028 and P = 0.038, respectively) in unit A between periods 1 and 2. In unit B, no change in mortality was observed (P = 0.22), while length of stay decreased between periods 1 and 2 (P = 0.002). Conclusions VAP incidence, length of stay and all-cause mortality rose after HAI surveillance disruption in ICU, which suggests a specific effect of HAI surveillance on VAP prevention and reinforces the role of data feedback and counselling as a mechanism to facilitate performance

  9. Increased incidence of adult pneumococcal pneumonia during school holiday periods

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, Chamira; Bewick, Thomas; Sheppard, Carmen; Greenwood, Sonia; McKeever, Tricia M.; Slack, Mary; Lim, Wei Shen

    2017-01-01

    Child contact is a recognised risk factor for adult pneumococcal disease. Peaks in invasive pneumococcal disease incidence observed during winter holidays may be related to changes in social dynamics. This analysis was conducted to examine adult pneumococcal community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) incidence during school holiday periods. Between September 2008 and 2013, consecutive adults admitted to hospitals covering the Greater Nottingham area with a diagnosis of CAP were studied. Pneumococcal pneumonia was detected using culture and antigen detection methods. Of 2221 adults studied, 575 (25.9%) were admitted during school holidays and 643 (29.0%) had pneumococcal CAP. CAP of pneumococcal aetiology was significantly more likely in adults admitted during school holidays compared to term time (35.3% versus 26.7%; adjusted OR 1.38, 95% CI 1.11–1.72, p=0.004). Over the 5-year period, the age-adjusted incidence of hospitalised pneumococcal CAP was higher during school holidays compared to term time (incident rate ratio 1.35, 95% CI 1.14–1.60, p<0.001); there was no difference in rates of all-cause CAP or non-pneumococcal CAP. Reported child contact was higher in individuals with pneumococcal CAP admitted during school holidays compared to term time (42.0% versus 33.7%, OR 1.43, 95% CI 1.00–2.03, p=0.046). Further study of transmission dynamics in relation to these findings and to identify appropriate intervention strategies is warranted. PMID:28326311

  10. Current perspective of the HCAP problem: is it CAP or is it HAP?

    PubMed

    Polverino, Eva; Torres, Antoni

    2009-04-01

    The number of individuals receiving health care outside the hospital setting, including home wound care or infusion therapy, dialysis, nursing homes, and similar settings is constantly increasing. One of the most frequent causes of hospitalization and mortality in these patients is pneumonia. Hence a new class of pneumonia has been identified: healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). The last American Thoracic Society/Infectious Disease Society of America (ATS/IDSA) guidelines define specific criteria to identify HCAP; however, the clinical practice suggests that the presence of indwelling devices (permanent catheters, etc.) may also be considered an additional criterion. Different studies have shown that, in comparison with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients, HCAP patients are significantly older, have a higher number of comorbidities (cerebrovascular diseases, congestive heart failure, dementia, and diabetes mellitus) and show worse functional status before admission. It has also been observed that HCAP differs from CAP in terms of clinical presentation, risk factors, etiology, prognostics, and, likely, therapeutic approach. The clinical presentation of HCAP is often unusual because it is frequently conditioned by advanced age, multiple chronic comorbidities, and neurological disorders. Classic respiratory symptoms of pneumonia are often mild in HCAP, whereas extrapulmonary manifestations, including mental confusion and gastrointestinal disorders, are frequent. HCAP patients, commonly present a worse clinical presentation (hypoxemia, altered consciousness, Fine score, multilobar infiltrates, etc.) than CAP, and a mortality rate close to that of hospital-acquired pneumonia. Many studies have attributed these findings to a nosocomial etiology [methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, etc.] with a high frequency of multidrug-resistant infections (MRIs), even though this remains controversial. Further investigation on

  11. Aspiration pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    Anaerobic pneumonia; Aspiration of vomitus; Necrotizing pneumonia; Aspiration pneumonitis ... The type of bacteria that caused the pneumonia depends on: Your ... facility, for example) Whether you were recently hospitalized ...

  12. Amoxicillin is effective against penicillin-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae strains in a mouse pneumonia model simulating human pharmacokinetics.

    PubMed

    Abgueguen, Pierre; Azoulay-Dupuis, Esther; Noel, Violaine; Moine, Pierre; Rieux, Veronique; Fantin, Bruno; Bedos, Jean-Pierre

    2007-01-01

    High-dose oral amoxicillin (3 g/day) is the recommended empirical outpatient treatment of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in many European guidelines. To investigate the clinical efficacy of this treatment in CAP caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae strains with MICs of amoxicillin > or =2 microg/ml, we used a lethal bacteremic pneumonia model in leukopenic female Swiss mice with induced renal failure to replicate amoxicillin kinetics in humans given 1 g/8 h orally. Amoxicillin (15 mg/kg of body weight/8 h subcutaneously) was given for 3 days. We used four S. pneumoniae strains with differing amoxicillin susceptibility and tolerance profiles. Rapid bacterial killing occurred with an amoxicillin-susceptible nontolerant strain: after 4 h, blood cultures were negative and lung homogenate counts under the 2 log(10) CFU/ml detection threshold (6.5 log(10) CFU/ml in controls, P < 0.01). With an amoxicillin-intermediate nontolerant strain, significant pulmonary bacterial clearance was observed after 24 h (4.3 versus 7.9 log(10) CFU/ml, P < 0.01), and counts were undetectable 12 h after treatment completion. With an amoxicillin-intermediate tolerant strain, 24-h bacterial clearance was similar (5.4 versus 8.3 log(10) CFU/ml, P < 0.05), but 12 h after treatment completion, lung homogenates contained 3.3 log(10) CFU/ml. Similar results were obtained with an amoxicillin-resistant and -tolerant strain. Day 10 survival rates were usually similar across strains. Amoxicillin with pharmacokinetics simulating 1 g/8 h orally in humans is bactericidal in mice with pneumonia due to S. pneumoniae for which MICs were 2 to 4 microg/ml. The killing rate depends not only on resistance but also on tolerance of the S. pneumoniae strains.

  13. Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and identification of pneumococcal serotypes by real-time polymerase chain reaction using blood samples from Italian children ≤ 5 years of age with community-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Marchese, Anna; Esposito, Susanna; Coppo, Erika; Rossi, Giovanni A; Tozzi, Alberto; Romano, Mariateresa; Da Dalt, Liviana; Schito, Gian Carlo; Principi, Nicola

    2011-09-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is a leading cause of severe life-threatening infections. Laboratory identification and serotyping of this pathogens is desirable to monitor vaccine impact and coverage; however, especially in pediatric patients, the yield of traditional microbiological diagnostic procedures can be very low. The aim of this study was to develop real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based assays to be performed directly on blood samples to identify the most common capsular serotypes causing pneumonia in Italian children (≤ 5 years of ages) after the introduction of the 7-valent conjugate vaccine. Our real-time PCR-based assays showed high sensitivity (at least 35 fg of pneumococcal DNA), and they were validated with 49 well-characterized pneumococcal isolates, 8 nonpneumococcal isolates, 13 simulated blood clinical samples loaded with S. pneumoniae of known serotypes, and 46 blood clinical samples. All the strains tested and the simulated blood clinical samples were correctly typed by the technique. Real-time PCR allowed serotyping in 37/46 children ≤ 5 years of age (80.4%) in whom pneumonia was diagnosed in four Italian hospitals. Non-PCV7 serotypes accounted for at least 47.8% (22/46) of cases, serotype 19A being the most common (34.7%, 16/46). Although, it is not known at present whether the incidence of 19A serotype is attributable to the use of PCV7 only, expanding pneumococcal serotype coverage has clearly the potential to prevent a larger number of pneumonias in Italian children less than ≤ 5 years of age. Molecular methods are of increasing importance in the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia and in monitoring serotype distribution and replacement.

  14. Efficacy and safety of azithromycin 1 g once daily for 3 days in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia: an open-label randomised comparison with amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily for 7 days.

    PubMed

    Paris, R; Confalonieri, M; Dal Negro, R; Ligia, G P; Mos, L; Todisco, T; Rastelli, V; Perna, G; Cepparulo, M

    2008-02-01

    This randomised, open-label, non-inferiority study was designed to demonstrate that a 3-day course of oral azithromycin 1 g once daily was at least as effective as a standard 7-day course of oral amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily in the treatment of outpatients with community-acquired pneumonia (Fine class I and II). In total, 267 patients with clinically and radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia were randomly assigned to receive either the azithromycin (n=136) or the amoxicillin-clavulanate (n=131) regimen. At screening, 60/136 (58.8%) and 61/131 (62.9%) respectively had at least one pathogen identified by sputum culture, PCR, or serology. The primary endpoint was the clinical response in the intent-to-treat population at the end of therapy (day 8 to 12). Clinical success rates were 126/136 (92.6%) for azithromycin and 122/131 (93.1%) for amoxicillin-clavulanate (treatment difference: - 0.48%; 95% confidence interval: - 5.66%; 4.69%). Clinical and radiological success rates at follow-up (day 22-26) were consistent with the end of therapy results, no patient reporting clinical relapse. Bacteriological success rates at the end of therapy were 32/35 (91.4%) for azithromycin and 30/33 (90.9%) for amoxicillin-clavulanate (treatment difference: 0.52%; 95% confidence interval - 10.81%; 11.85%). Both treatment regimens were well tolerated: the overall incidence of adverse events was 34/136 (25.0%) for azithromycin and 22/132 (16.7%) for amoxicillin-clavulanate. In both treatment groups, the most commonly reported events were gastrointestinal symptoms. Azithromycin 1g once daily for 3 days is at least as effective as amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily for 7 days in the treatment of adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia.

  15. Cervical Cap

    MedlinePlus

    ... check the cervical cap's position before sex. Squat, bear down, insert your finger into your vagina and ... two days. To remove the cervical cap, squat, bear down and rotate the cap. Relax your muscles ...

  16. [Capping strategies in RNA viruses].

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Mickaël; Ferron, François; Imbert, Isabelle; Gluais, Laure; Selisko, Barbara; Coutard, Bruno; Canard, Bruno; Decroly, Etienne

    2012-04-01

    Most viruses use the mRNA-cap dependent cellular translation machinery to translate their mRNAs into proteins. The addition of a cap structure at the 5' end of mRNA is therefore an essential step for the replication of many virus families. Additionally, the cap protects the viral RNA from degradation by cellular nucleases and prevents viral RNA recognition by innate immunity mechanisms. Viral RNAs acquire their cap structure either by using cellular capping enzymes, by stealing the cap of cellular mRNA in a process named "cap snatching", or using virus-encoded capping enzymes. Many viral enzymes involved in this process have recently been structurally and functionally characterized. These studies have revealed original cap synthesis mechanisms and pave the way towards the development of specific inhibitors bearing antiviral drug potential.

  17. Prevalence and correlates of treatment failure among Kenyan children hospitalised with severe community-acquired pneumonia: a prospective study of the clinical effectiveness of WHO pneumonia case management guidelines

    PubMed Central

    Agweyu, Ambrose; Kibore, Minnie; Digolo, Lina; Kosgei, Caroline; Maina, Virginia; Mugane, Samson; Muma, Sarah; Wachira, John; Waiyego, Mary; Maleche-Obimbo, Elizabeth

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the extent and pattern of treatment failure (TF) among children hospitalised with community-acquired pneumonia at a large tertiary hospital in Kenya. Methods We followed up children aged 2–59 months with WHO-defined severe pneumonia (SP) and very severe pneumonia (VSP) for up to 5 days for TF using two definitions: (i) documentation of pre-defined clinical signs resulting in change of treatment (ii) primary clinician's decision to change treatment with or without documentation of the same pre-defined clinical signs. Results We enrolled 385 children. The risk of TF varied between 1.8% (95% CI 0.4–5.1) and 12.4% (95% CI 7.9–18.4) for SP and 21.4% (95% CI 15.9–27) and 39.3% (95% CI 32.5–46.4) for VSP depending on the definition applied. Higher rates were associated with early changes in therapy by clinician in the absence of an obvious clinical rationale. Non-adherence to treatment guidelines was observed for 70/169 (41.4%) and 67/201 (33.3%) of children with SP and VSP, respectively. Among children with SP, adherence to treatment guidelines was associated with the presence of wheeze on initial assessment (P = 0.02), while clinician non-adherence to guideline-recommended treatments for VSP tended to occur in children with altered consciousness (P < 0.001). Using propensity score matching to account for imbalance in the distribution of baseline clinical characteristics among children with VSP revealed no difference in TF between those treated with the guideline-recommended regimen vs. more costly broad-spectrum alternatives [risk difference 0.37 (95% CI −0.84 to 0.51)]. Conclusion Before revising current pneumonia case management guidelines, standardised definitions of TF and appropriate studies of treatment effectiveness of alternative regimens are required. Objectif Déterminer l'ampleur et les caractéristiques de l’échec du traitement (ET) chez les enfants hospitalisés avec une pneumonie acquise dans la communauté dans

  18. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic analysis to evaluate ceftaroline fosamil dosing regimens for the treatment of community-acquired bacterial pneumonia and complicated skin and skin-structure infections in patients with normal and impaired renal function.

    PubMed

    Canut, A; Isla, A; Rodríguez-Gascón, A

    2015-04-01

    In this study, the probability of pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic target attainment (PTA) of ceftaroline against clinical isolates causing community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) and complicated skin and skin-structure infection (cSSSI) in Europe was evaluated. Three dosing regimens were assessed: 600 mg every 12 h (q12 h) as a 1-h infusion (standard dose) or 600 mg every 8 h (q8 h) as a 2-h infusion in virtual patients with normal renal function; and 400 mg q12 h as a 1-h infusion in patients with moderate renal impairment. Pharmacokinetic and microbiological data were obtained from the literature. The PTA and the cumulative fraction of response (CFR) were calculated by Monte Carlo simulation. In patients with normal renal function, the ceftaroline standard dose (600 mg q12 h as a 1-h infusion) can be sufficient to treat CABP due to ceftazidime-susceptible (CAZ-S) Escherichia coli, CAZ-S Klebsiella pneumoniae, meticillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis (CFR>90%). However, against meticillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), the CFR was 72%. In cSSSI, the CFR was also <80% for MRSA. Administration of ceftaroline 600 mg q8 h as a 2-h infusion or 400 mg q12 h as a 1-h infusion in patients with moderate renal insufficiency provided a high probability of treatment success (CFR ca. 100%) for most micro-organisms causing CABP and cSSSI, including MRSA and penicillin-non-susceptible S. pneumoniae. These results suggest that in patients with normal renal function, ceftaroline 600 mg q8 h as a 2-h infusion may be a better option than the standard dose, especially if the MRSA rate is high.

  19. Detection of antibody responses against Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Moraxella catarrhalis proteins in children with community-acquired pneumonia: effects of combining pneumococcal antigens, pre-existing antibody levels, sampling interval, age, and duration of illness.

    PubMed

    Borges, I C; Andrade, D C; Vilas-Boas, A-L; Fontoura, M-S H; Laitinen, H; Ekström, N; Adrian, P V; Meinke, A; Cardoso, M-R A; Barral, A; Ruuskanen, O; Käyhty, H; Nascimento-Carvalho, C M

    2015-08-01

    We evaluated the effects of combining different numbers of pneumococcal antigens, pre-existing antibody levels, sampling interval, age, and duration of illness on the detection of IgG responses against eight Streptococcus pneumoniae proteins, three Haemophilus influenzae proteins, and five Moraxella catarrhalis proteins in 690 children aged <5 years with pneumonia. Serological tests were performed on acute and convalescent serum samples with a multiplexed bead-based immunoassay. The median sampling interval was 19 days, the median age was 26.7 months, and the median duration of illness was 5 days. The rate of antibody responses was 15.4 % for at least one pneumococcal antigen, 5.8 % for H. influenzae, and 2.3 % for M. catarrhalis. The rate of antibody responses against each pneumococcal antigen varied from 3.5 to 7.1 %. By multivariate analysis, pre-existing antibody levels showed a negative association with the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae antigens; the sampling interval was positively associated with the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae antigens. A sampling interval of 3 weeks was the optimal cut-off for the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae proteins. Duration of illness was negatively associated with antibody responses against PspA. Age did not influence antibody responses against the investigated antigens. In conclusion, serological assays using combinations of different pneumococcal proteins detect a higher rate of antibody responses against S. pneumoniae compared to assays using a single pneumococcal protein. Pre-existing antibody levels and sampling interval influence the detection of antibody responses against pneumococcal and H. influenzae proteins. These factors should be considered when determining pneumonia etiology by serological methods in children.

  20. Precision medicine for the treatment of severe pneumonia in intensive care.

    PubMed

    Rello, Jordi; Perez, Antonio

    2016-01-01

    Despite advances in its management, community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) remains the most important cause of sepsis-related mortality and the reason for many ICU admissions. Severity assessment is the cornerstone of CAP patient management and the attempts to ensure the best site of care and therapy. Survival depends on a combination of host factors (genetic, age, comorbidities, defenses), pathogens (virulence, serotypes) and drugs. To reduce CAP mortality, early adequate antibiotic therapy is fundamental. The use of combination therapy with a macrolide seems to improve the clinical outcome in the subset of patients with high inflammation due to immunomodulation. Guidelines on antibiotic therapy have been associated with beneficial effects, and studies of newer adjunctive drugs have produced promising results. This paper discusses the current state of knowledge regarding of precision medicine and the treatment of severe CAP patients.

  1. KPC-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae enteric colonization acquired during intensive care unit stay: the significance of risk factors for its development and its impact on mortality.

    PubMed

    Papadimitriou-Olivgeris, Matthaios; Marangos, Markos; Fligou, Fotini; Christofidou, Myrto; Sklavou, Christina; Vamvakopoulou, Sophia; Anastassiou, Evangelos D; Filos, Kriton S

    2013-10-01

    A prospective observational study of 226 intensive care unit (ICU) patients was conducted during a 25-month period. Rectal samples were taken at day 1, 4, and 7 and, afterwards, once weekly. Klebsiella pneumoniae was identified using standard techniques, whereas the presence of bla(KPC) gene was confirmed by PCR. During ICU stay, 72.6% of the patients were colonized with Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemases (KPC)-producing K. pneumoniae (KPC-Kp). Male gender, prior bed occupants, and patients in nearby beds colonized with KPC-Kp, tracheotomy, number of invasive catheters inserted, and number of antibiotics administered were the major risk factors for KPC-Kp colonization. ICU mortality (35.4%) was significantly related to Simplified Acute Physiology II score and respiratory insufficiency upon admission, cortisone administration, aminoglycoside administration, confirmed KPC-Kp infection, and severe sepsis or septic shock. The high prevalence of KPC-Kp enteric carriage in ICU patients and the significant mortality associated with KPC-Kp infection dictate the importance of early identification and isolation of such carriers.

  2. Genetic dissection of host immune response in pneumonia development and progression

    PubMed Central

    Smelaya, Tamara V.; Belopolskaya, Olesya B.; Smirnova, Svetlana V.; Kuzovlev, Artem N.; Moroz, Viktor V.; Golubev, Arkadiy M.; Pabalan, Noel A.; Salnikova, Lyubov E.

    2016-01-01

    The role of host genetic variation in pneumonia development and outcome is poorly understood. We studied common polymorphisms in the genes of proinflammatory cytokines (IL6 rs1800795, IL8 rs4073, IL1B rs16944), anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL10 rs1800896, IL4 rs2243250, IL13 rs20541) and toll-like receptors (TLR2 rs5743708 and rs4696480, TLR4 rs4986791, TLR9 rs352139, rs5743836 and rs187084) in patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (390 cases, 203 controls) and nosocomial pneumonia (355 cases, 216 controls). Experimental data were included in a series of 11 meta-analyses and eight subset analyses related to pneumonia susceptibility and outcome. TLR2 rs5743708 minor genotype appeared to be associated with CAP/Legionnaires’ disease/pneumococcal disease. In CAP patients, the IL6 rs1800795-C allele was associated with severe sepsis/septic shock/severe systemic inflammatory response, while the IL10 rs1800896-A allele protected against the development of these critical conditions. To contribute to deciphering of the above results, we performed an in silico analysis and a qualitative synthesis of literature data addressing basal and stimulated genotype-specific expression level. This data together with database information on transcription factors’ affinity changes caused by SNPs in putative promoter regions, the results of linkage disequilibrium analysis along with SNPs functional annotations supported assumptions about the complexity underlying the revealed associations. PMID:27725770

  3. National Study of Antibiotic Use in Emergency Department Visits for Pneumonia, 1993 Through 2008

    PubMed Central

    Neuman, Mark I.; Ting, Sarah A.; Meydani, Ahou; Mansbach, Jonathan M.; Camargo, Carlos A.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives The Infectious Disease Society of America (IDSA) and American Thoracic Society (ATS) developed guidelines for the management of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP); however, there are sparse data on actual rates of antibiotic use in the emergency department (ED) setting. Methods Data were obtained from the National Hospital Ambulatory Medical Care Survey for ED visits during 1993 through 2008 for adults with a diagnosis of pneumonia. Results During the study period there were an estimated 23,252,000 pneumonia visits, representing 1.8% of all ED visits. The visit rate for pneumonia during this 15-year period may have increased (P trend = 0.055). Overall, 66% of adult patients with a primary diagnosis of pneumonia had documentation of an antibiotic administered while in the ED. There was an increase in antibiotic administration for adults with pneumonia from 1993 through 2008 (49% to 80%; P trend < 0.001). Specifically, there was an increase in use of macrolides from 1993 to 2006 (20% to 30%, P trend < 0.001) and a marked increase in use of quinolones from 0% to 39% from 1993 through 2008 (P trend < 0.001). Penicillin and cephalosporin use remained stable. Use of an antibiotic consistent with 2007 IDSA/ATS guidelines increased from 22% (95% CI = 16% to 27%) of cases in 1993–1994, to 68% (95% CI = 63% to 73%) of cases in 2007–2008 (P trend < 0.001). Conclusions ED visit rates for pneumonia increased slightly from 1993 through 2008. Although antibiotic administration in the ED has increased for adults with community-acquired pneumonia, guideline-concordant antibiotics may not be consistently administered. PMID:22594360

  4. TARGETed surveillance: susceptibility of Streptococcus pneumoniae isolated from community-acquired respiratory tract infections in 2003 to fluoroquinolones and other agents.

    PubMed

    Morrissey, I; Colclough, A; Northwood, J

    2007-10-01

    We assessed antibiotic resistance in Streptococcus pneumoniae collected worldwide in 2003. Resistance to clarithromycin was the highest overall (34.1%) followed by penicillin G (22.1%). Patient age and/or country of origin had the greatest effect on susceptibility. Resistance was highest in children<6 years of age and in patients from South Africa or France. Resistance to penicillin or amoxicillin/clavulanic acid decreased in adults and was low in Germany. Fluoroquinolone resistance was very low overall, but 3.0% levofloxacin resistance (2.6% gatifloxacin and 0.4% moxifloxacin) was observed in Italy. Interestingly, many isolates with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) at the top of the fluoroquinolone susceptibility breakpoints possessed single quinolone resistance-determining region (QRDR) mutations. Care should be taken when treating fluoroquinolone-susceptible isolates with a higher MIC, which are likely to harbour QRDR mutations and may become fully resistant and cause treatment failure. We concur with the conclusions of other recent studies that suggest fluoroquinolone breakpoints should be lowered to ensure these isolates are categorised as resistant. Fluoroquinolones would still remain an important alternative treatment for respiratory tract infections (albeit for adults only), with moxifloxacin being the most potent fluoroquinolone tested in this study.

  5. Clinical characteristics of healthcare-associated pneumonia in a public hospital in a metropolitan area of Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugisaki, Midori; Enomoto, Tatsuji; Shibuya, Yasuhiro; Matsumoto, Aki; Saitoh, Hitoshi; Shingu, Akiko; Narato, Ritsuko; Nomura, Koichiro

    2012-06-01

    Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a new category that is essential in the present aging society. Knowing the different characteristics and outcomes between patients with HCAP and community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) would help physicians manage and treat HCAP patients. Although HCAP is thought to be heterogeneous in regions, there are no reports from a metropolitan area in Japan. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical findings of all consecutive pneumonia patients who required hospitalized care in our hospital between April 2006 and March 2010. There were 184 (35.0%) patients with HCAP and 342 (65.0%) patients with CAP. Previous hospitalization within 90 days of the infection was the most common criterion for HCAP (63.0%). HCAP patients were significantly older than CAP patients (82.5 vs. 70.0 years, P < 0.001). The percentage of patients with poor functional status was higher in HCAP than CAP (64.0% vs. 26.6%, P < 0.001). Hospital mortality was significantly higher in HCAP patients than in CAP patients (15.8% vs. 5.0%, P < 0.001). Low levels of serum albumin (odds ratio, 0.126; 95% CI, 0.025-0.640; P = 0.012) and high scores in the ADROP (age, dehydration, respiratory failure, orientation, and blood pressure) system (odds ratio, 2.846; 95% CI, 1.449-5.587; P = 0.002) were the risk factors for HCAP mortality. In conclusion, patients with HCAP have different epidemiological characteristics compared with those with CAP in a metropolitan area of Japan. Outcomes and risk factors for mortality of patients with HCAP included poor nutritional status and high severity scores on the pneumonia severity scoring system.

  6. Pneumococcal colonisation density: a new marker for disease severity in HIV-infected adults with pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Albrich, Werner C; Madhi, Shabir A; Adrian, Peter V; van Niekerk, Nadia; Telles, Jean-Noel; Ebrahim, N; Messaoudi, Melina; Paranhos-Baccalà, Glaucia; Giersdorf, Sven; Vernet, Guy; Mueller, Beat; Klugman, Keith P

    2014-01-01

    Objective A high genomic load of Pneumococcus from blood or cerebrospinal fluid has been associated with increased mortality. We aimed to analyse whether nasopharyngeal colonisation density in HIV-infected patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is associated with markers of disease severity or poor outcome. Methods Quantitative lytA real-time PCR was performed on nasopharyngeal swabs in HIV-infected South African adults hospitalised for acute CAP at Chris Hani Baragwanath Hospital, Soweto, South Africa. Pneumonia aetiology was considered pneumococcal if any sputum culture or Gram stain, urinary pneumococcal C-polysaccharide-based antigen, blood culture or whole blood lytA real-time PCR revealed pneumococci. Results There was a moderate correlation between the mean nasopharyngeal colonisation densities and increasing CURB65 scores among all-cause patients with pneumonia (Spearman correlation coefficient r=0.15, p=0.06) or with the Pitt bacteraemia score among patients with pneumococcal bacteraemia (p=0.63). In patients with pneumococcal pneumonia, nasopharyngeal pneumococcal colonisation density was higher among non-survivors than survivors (7.7 vs 6.1 log10 copies/mL, respectively, p=0.02) and among those who had pneumococci identified from blood cultures and/or by whole blood lytA real-time PCR than those with non-bacteraemic pneumococcal pneumonia (6.6 vs 5.6 log10 copies/mL, p=0.03). Nasopharyngeal colonisation density correlated positively with the biomarkers procalcitonin (Spearman correlation coefficient r=0.37, p<0.0001), proadrenomedullin (r=0.39, p=0.008) and copeptin (r=0.30, p=0.01). Conclusions In addition to its previously reported role as a diagnostic tool for pneumococcal pneumonia, quantitative nasopharyngeal colonisation density also correlates with mortality and prognostic biomarkers. It may also be useful as a severity marker for pneumococcal pneumonia in HIV-infected adults. PMID:25113557

  7. Randomized, Double-Blind, Multicenter Phase 2 Study Comparing the Efficacy and Safety of Oral Solithromycin (CEM-101) to Those of Oral Levofloxacin in the Treatment of Patients with Community-Acquired Bacterial Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Oldach, David; Clark, Kay; Schranz, Jennifer; Das, Anita; Craft, J Carl; Scott, Drusilla; Jamieson, Brian D.

    2013-01-01

    Solithromycin, a new macrolide, and the first fluoroketolide in clinical development, with activity against macrolide-resistant bacteria, was tested in 132 patients with moderate to moderately severe community-acquired bacterial pneumonia (CABP) in a multicenter, double-blind, randomized phase 2 study. Patients were enrolled and randomized (1:1) to either 800 mg solithromycin orally (PO) on day 1, followed by 400 mg PO daily on days 2 to 5, or 750 mg levofloxacin PO daily on days 1 to 5. Efficacy outcome rates of clinical success at the test-of-cure visit 4 to 11 days after the last dose of study drug were comparable in the intent-to-treat (ITT) (84.6% for solithromycin versus 86.6% for levofloxacin) and microbiological-intent-to-treat (micro-ITT) (77.8% for solithromycin versus 71.4% for levofloxacin) populations. Early response success rates at day 3, defined as improvement in at least two cardinal symptoms of pneumonia, were also comparable (72.3% for solithromycin versus 71.6% for levofloxacin). More patients treated with levofloxacin than with solithromycin experienced treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) during the study (45.6% versus 29.7%). The majority of TEAEs were mild or moderate gastrointestinal symptoms and included nausea (1.6% for solithromycin; 10.3% for levofloxacin), diarrhea (7.8% for solithromycin; 5.9% for levofloxacin), and vomiting (0% for solithromycin; 4.4% for levofloxacin). Six patients, all of whom received levofloxacin, discontinued the study drug due to an adverse event. Solithromycin demonstrated comparable efficacy and favorable safety relative to levofloxacin. These findings support a phase 3 study of solithromycin for the treatment of CABP. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01168713.) PMID:23507282

  8. In vitro activities of tedizolid compared with other antibiotics against Gram-positive pathogens associated with hospital-acquired pneumonia, skin and soft tissue infection and bloodstream infection collected from 26 hospitals in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuguang; Guo, Yu; Zhao, Chunjiang; Chen, Hongbin; Hu, Bijie; Chu, Yunzhuo; Zhang, Zhijie; Hu, Yunjian; Liu, Zhiyong; Du, Yan; Gui, Qiaodi; Ji, Ping; Zeng, Ji; Cao, Bin; Fu, Quan; Zhang, Rong; Wang, Zhongxin; Zhuo, Chao; Feng, Xianju; Jia, Wei; Jin, Yan; Xu, Xuesong; Liao, Kang; Ni, Yuxing; Yu, Yunsong; Xu, Xiuli; Hu, Zhidong; Lei, Jin-E; Yang, Qing; Wang, Hui

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activities of tedizolid, linezolid and other comparators against clinically significant Gram-positive cocci isolates from hospital-acquired pneumonia (HAP), skin and soft tissue infection (SSTI) and bloodstream infection (BSI), 2140 nonduplicate isolates (23.7 % isolated from HAP, 46.8 % from SSTI and 29.5 % from BSI) were consecutively collected in 26 hospitals in 17 cities across China during 2014. These pathogens included 632 methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, 867 methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcusaureus, 299 coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CoNS), 104 Enterococcus faecalis, 99 Enterococcusfaecium, 13 Streptococcus pneumoniae, 23 α-haemolytic Streptococcus and 103 β-haemolytic Streptococcus. MICs of routine clinical antibiotics were determined by broth microdilution method according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines 2015. Tedizolid, linezolid, vancomycin, daptomycin, teicoplanin and tigecycline showed high in vitro activity against Gram-positive pathogens (≥98.0 % susceptible), and tedizolid exhibited four- to eight fold greater activity than linezolid against the pathogens tested, with MIC90s of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, α-haemolytic Streptococcus and β-haemolytic Streptococcus (0.25 vs 2 µg ml-1); methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcu saureus, E. faecalis and E. faecium (0.5 vs 2 µg ml-1); methicillin-resistant CoNS and methicillin-sensitive CoNS (0.25 vs 1 µg ml-1); and Streptococcuspneumoniae (0.125 vs 0.5 µg ml-1). Tedizolid MIC90s associated with different infections did not show significant differences, and the drug exhibited excellent activity against surveyed Gram-positive pathogens associated with HAP, SSTI and BSI, including linezolid-nonsusceptible strains. These data suggest that tedizolid could be an alternative to linezolid for the treatment of infections caused by Gram-positive organisms.

  9. Pneumonia in renal transplant patients.

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, D. M.; Marrie, T. J.; Janigan, D. T.; MacKeen, A. D.; Belitsky, P.; MacDonald, A. S.; Lannon, S. G.; Cohen, A. D.

    1983-01-01

    Between January 1976 and March 1982, 28 episodes of pneumonia occurred in 26 renal transplant patients. The overall mortality rate was 46%. Of the 16 patients with nosocomial pneumonia 9 (56%) died, whereas of the 12 patients with community-acquired pneumonia 4 (33%) died. In all 9 cases of unknown cause the response to empiric treatment was prompt, whereas in 4 of the 10 cases of monomicrobial pneumonia and 8 of the 9 cases of polymicrobial pneumonia the patient died. Cytomegalovirus was the sole cause of the pneumonia in two patients and a contributing cause, along with aerobic gram-negative bacteria, in another five, four of whom also had a fungal infection. Two patients, both of whom survived, had nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. PMID:6342741

  10. Prognostic value of procalcitonin in pneumonia: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Dan; Su, Long-Xiang; Guan, Wei; Xiao, Kun; Xie, Li-Xin

    2016-02-01

    This meta-analysis was performed to determine the accuracy of procalcitonin (PCT) in predicting mortality in pneumonia patients with different pathogenic features and disease severities. A systematic search of English-language articles was performed using PubMed, Embase, Web of Knowledge and the Cochrane Library to identify studies. The diagnostic value of PCT in predicting prognosis was determined using a bivariate meta-analysis model. The Q-test and I(2) index were used to test heterogeneity. A total of 21 studies comprising 6007 patients were included. An elevated PCT level was a risk factor for death from community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) (risk ratio (RR) 4.38, 95% confidence interval (CI) 2.98-6.43), particularly in patients with a low CURB-65 score. The commonly used cut-off, 0.5 ng/mL, had low sensitivity (SEN) and was not able to identify patients at high risk of dying. Furthermore, the PCT assay with functional SEN <0.1 ng/mL was necessary to predict mortality in CAP in the clinic. For critically ill patients, an elevated PCT level was associated with an increased risk of mortality (RR 4.18, 95% CI: 3.19-5.48). The prognostic performance was nearly equal between patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) and patients with CAP.

  11. Pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic profiling of delafloxacin in a murine lung model against community-acquired respiratory tract pathogens.

    PubMed

    Thabit, Abrar K; Crandon, Jared L; Nicolau, David P

    2016-11-01

    Increasing antimicrobial resistance in community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) pathogens has contributed to infection-related morbidity and mortality. Delafloxacin is a novel fluoroquinolone with broad-spectrum activity against Gram-positive and -negative organisms, including Streptococcus pneumoniae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). This study aimed to define the pharmacodynamic profile of delafloxacin against CAP pathogens using a neutropenic murine lung infection model. Five S. pneumoniae, 2 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), 2 MRSA and 2 Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were studied. Delafloxacin doses varied from 0.5 mg/kg/day to 640 mg/kg/day and were given as once-daily to every 3 h regimens over the 24-h treatment period. Efficacy was measured as the change in log10 CFU at 24 h compared with 0-h controls. Plasma and bronchopulmonary pharmacokinetic studies were conducted. Delafloxacin demonstrated potent in vitro and in vivo activity. Delafloxacin demonstrated high penetration into the lung compartment, as epithelial lining fluid concentrations were substantially higher than free drug in plasma. The ratio of the area under the free drug concentration-time curve to the minimum inhibitory concentration of the infecting organism (fAUC/MIC) was the parameter that best correlated with the efficacy of the drug, and the magnitude required to achieve 1 log10 CFU reduction was 31.8, 24.7, 0.4 and 9.6 for S. pneumoniae, MRSA, MSSA and K. pneumoniae, respectively. The observed in vivo efficacy of delafloxacin was supported by the high pulmonary disposition of the compound. The results derived from this pre-clinical lung model support the continued investigation of delafloxacin for the treatment of community-acquired lower respiratory tract infections.

  12. Changes in physical function after hospitalization in patients with nursing and healthcare-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tadashi; Miyashita, Naoyuki; Kawai, Yasuhiro; Horita, Nobuyuki; Yano, Shoichiro; Oka, Yuko; Oda, Takashi; Okimoto, Niro

    2016-10-01

    To clarify the functional changes after hospitalization due to pneumonia in elderly Japanese patients, we investigated the changes in physical functioning, nutritional routes, and diet that occurred after hospitalization in patients with nursing and healthcare-associated pneumonia (NHCAP). We analyzed 405 patients with NHCAP and compared findings with 448 patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Among the NHCAP patients, 140 (34%) patients showed a decline in activities of daily living function between baseline and discharge. After hospital discharge, 149 (37%) NHCAP patients did not return to the same residence location compared with where they were living prior to hospital admission. The frequency of this outcome was significantly higher in NHCAP patients than in CAP patients (p < 0.0001). After 6 months' follow-up, of the patients who transferred to different hospitals, 41 (73%) patients with CAP had returned to their own home, but only 16 (20%) patients with NHCAP could return home (p < 0.0001). Rates of alteration of nutritional route and type of diet from oral nutrition were significantly higher in NHCAP patients compared with CAP patients (22% vs 4%, p < 0.0001). Our results demonstrated that approximately one-third of hospitalized patients with NHCAP showed a decline in physical function. In addition, approximately one-fifth of NHCAP patients had changed their route of nutrition and type of diet. Our results indicated that physicians should attach greater importance to preventative measures against NHCAP rather than relying on antibiotic therapy post-infection in the management of pneumonia in elderly patients in order to extend their healthy life expectancy.

  13. Prevention of ventilator-associated pneumonia, mortality and all intensive care unit acquired infections by topically applied antimicrobial or antiseptic agents: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials in intensive care units

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Given the high morbidity and mortality attributable to ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) in intensive care unit (ICU) patients, prevention plays a key role in the management of patients undergoing mechanical ventilation. One of the candidate preventive interventions is the selective decontamination of the digestive or respiratory tract (SDRD) by topical antiseptic or antimicrobial agents. We performed a meta-analysis to investigate the effect of topical digestive or respiratory tract decontamination with antiseptics or antibiotics in the prevention of VAP, of mortality and of all ICU-acquired infections in mechanically ventilated ICU patients. Methods A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials was performed. The U.S. National Library of Medicine's MEDLINE database, Embase, and Cochrane Library computerized bibliographic databases, and reference lists of selected studies were used. Selection criteria for inclusion were: randomised controlled trials (RCTs); primary studies; examining the reduction of VAP and/or mortality and/or all ICU-acquired infections in ICU patients by prophylactic use of one or more of following topical treatments: 1) oropharyngeal decontamination using antiseptics or antibiotics, 2) gastrointestinal tract decontamination using antibiotics, 3) oropharyngeal plus gastrointestinal tract decontamination using antibiotics and 4) respiratory tract decontamination using antibiotics; reported enough data to estimate the odds ratio (OR) or risk ratio (RR) and their variance; English language; published through June 2010. Results A total of 28 articles met all inclusion criteria and were included in the meta-analysis. The overall estimate of efficacy of topical SDRD in the prevention of VAP was 27% (95% CI of efficacy = 16% to 37%) for antiseptics and 36% (95% CI of efficacy = 18% to 50%) for antibiotics, whereas in none of the meta-analyses conducted on mortality was a significant effect found. The effect of topical SDRD in the

  14. Pneumonia (image)

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumonia is an inflammation of the lungs caused by an infection. Many different organisms can cause it, including bacteria, viruses, and fungi. Pneumonia is a common illness that affects millions of ...

  15. Clinical, Laboratory and Radiographic Features of Patients with Pneumonia and Parapneumonic Effusions

    PubMed Central

    Petrusevska-Marinkovic, Sanja; Kondova-Topuzovska, Irena; Milenkovic, Zvonko; Kondov, Goran; Anastasovska, Ankica

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Parapneumonic effusions complicating pneumonia are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. AIM: To determine the role of the clinical, laboratory and radiographic features to the differential diagnosis of patients with community- acquired pneumonia (CAP) without effusion, uncomplicated parapneumonic effusion (UCPPE) and complicated parapneumonic effusion (CPPE). MATERIAL AND METHODS: We analysed 148 patients with CAP without effusion, 50 with UCPPE and 44 with CPPE. In three groups of patients, the majority was male patients (58.11%, 58%, 61.36%) consequently. RESULTS: The chronic heart failure was the most common comorbidity in a group with CAP (28; 18.92%) and UCPPE (7; 14%), alcoholism (12;12.77%) in a group with CPPE. Patients with CPPE had significantly longer fever compared to patients with CAP without effusion (p = 0.003). Pleuritic chest pain (86.36%) and dyspnea (88.64%) were the most common symptoms in CPPE, then to group with UCPPE (60%; 52%), and in CAP without effusion (25.68%; 47,97%). Diffuse pulmonary changes were detected more frequently in the group with CAP without effusion compared with the group with CPPE (64.86 % vs. 27.27 %), while the segment lung changes were more common in patients with CPPE (50% vs. 20.27%). Patients with CPPE were significant with higher erythrocytes sedimentation rate (ESR), white blood cells (WBC) and serum C- reactive protein (CRP) than it the other two groups (p = 0.00090, p = 0.01, p= 0.000065). CONCLUSION: Proper analysis of clinical, laboratory and radiographic features of patients with CAP and parapneumonic effusion can prevent mismanagement in these patients and will reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:27703568

  16. Safety and tolerability of ertapenem versus ceftriaxone in a double-blind study performed in children with complicated urinary tract infection, community-acquired pneumonia or skin and soft-tissue infection.

    PubMed

    Arguedas, Adriano; Cespedes, Jaime; Botet, Francesc Aseni; Blumer, Jeffrey; Yogev, Ram; Gesser, Richard; Wang, Jean; West, Joseph; Snyder, Theresa; Wimmer, Wendy

    2009-02-01

    The carbapenem antibiotic ertapenem has been shown to be safe, well tolerated and effective in treating adults with complicated urinary tract infection, skin and soft-tissue infection and community-acquired pneumonia. In this study, we evaluated ertapenem for treating these infections in children in a randomised, double-blind, active-controlled clinical trial. The primary outcome was the incidence of clinical and laboratory drug-related serious adverse events (AEs). Children were randomised in a 3:1 ratio (ertapenem:ceftriaxone) stratified by index infection and age to receive ertapenem or ceftriaxone; 303 children received ertapenem and 100 children received ceftriaxone. The median duration of parenteral therapy was 4 days for both treatments. The most commonly reported drug-related clinical AEs during parenteral therapy were diarrhoea (5.9% ertapenem, 10% ceftriaxone), infusion site erythema (3% ertapenem, 2% ceftriaxone) and infusion site pain (5% ertapenem, 1% ceftriaxone). One child in each group reported a serious drug-related clinical AE. No serious drug-related laboratory AEs were reported. In children aged 3 months to 17 years, ertapenem was well tolerated and had a comparable safety profile to that of ceftriaxone.

  17. Development and validation of a fast micro-extraction by packed sorbent UHPLC-PDA method for the simultaneous determination of linezolid and ciprofloxacin in human plasma from patients with hospital-acquired pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Ferrone, Vincenzo; Carlucci, Maura; Cotellese, Roberto; Raimondi, Paolo; Cichella, Annadomenica; Marco, Lorenzo Di; Carlucci, Giuseppe

    2017-03-01

    An ultra high-performance liquid chromatographic (UHPLC) method with PDA detection was developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of linezolid and ciprofloxacin in human plasma and applied in hospital acquired pneumonia patients (HAP). The method uses a semi-automated microextraction by packed sorbent for sample preparation. All parameters in the extraction step (pH, sample volume, sample dilution and number of aspiration - ejection cycles) and in the desorption step (percentage of acetonitrile in the solvent of elution and number of aspirations of elution solvent through the device) were statistically significant when the recovery was used as response. The method showed good linearity with correlation coefficients, r(2)>0.9995 for the two drugs, as well as high precision (RSD%<9.77% in each case), accuracy ranged from -6.2% to +8.2. The limit of quantification of the two drugs was established at 0.01 and 0.02μg/mL for ciprofloxacin and linezolid, respectively. Linezolid, ciprofloxacin and internal standard were extracted from human plasma with a mean recovery ranging from 92.4% to 97.4%. During validation, the concentrations of linezolid and ciprofloxacin were found to be stable after 3 freeze-thaw cycles and for at least 24h after extraction. This method will subsequently be used to quantify the drugs dosage in patients with HAP to establish if the dosage regimen given is sufficient to eradicate the infection at the target site.

  18. Pneumonia presenting with organ dysfunctions: Causative microorganisms, host factors and outcome.

    PubMed

    Menéndez, Rosario; Montull, Beatriz; Reyes, Soledad; Amara-Elori, Isabel; Zalacain, Rafael; Capelastegui, Alberto; Aspa, Javier; Borderías, Luis; Martín-Villasclaras, Juan J; Bello, Salvador; Alfageme, Inmaculada; Rodríguez de Castro, Felipe; Rello, Jordi; Molinos, Luis; Ruiz-Manzano, Juan; Torres, Antoni

    2016-11-01

    Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a serious infection that may occasionally rapidly evolve provoking organ dysfunctions. We aimed to characterize CAP presenting with organ dysfunctions at the emergency room, with regard to host factors and causative microorganisms, and its impact on 30-day mortality. 460 of 4070 (11.3%) CAP patients had ≥2 dysfunctions at diagnosis, with a 30-day mortality of 12.4% vs. 3.4% in those with one or no dysfunctions. Among them, the most frequent causative microorganisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae, gram-negatives and polymicrobial etiology. Independent host risk factors for presenting with ≥2 dysfunctions were: liver (OR 2.97) and renal diseases (OR 3.91), neurological disorders (OR 1.86), and COPD (OR 1.30). Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (OR 6.41) and bacteraemic episodes (OR 1.68) had the higher independent risk among microorganisms. The number of organ dysfunctions vs. none increased at 30-day mortality: three organs (OR 11.73), two organs (OR 4.29), and one organ (OR 2.42) whereas Enterobacteria (OR 3.73) were also independently related to mortality. The number of organ dysfunctions was the strongest 30-day mortality risk factor while Enterobacteriaceae was also associated with poorer outcome. The assessment of organ dysfunctions in CAP should be implemented for management, allocation and treatment decisions on initial evaluation.

  19. Cusp Cap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A brightening at one or other of the tips—cusps—of the crescent phase of Venus, as seen from Earth. Cusp caps were first reported by the German amateur astronomer Baron Franz Paula von Gruithuisen in 1813, and have been recorded by telescopic observers ever since. They were named by analogy with the Earth's polar caps; early observers fancied they were seeing glimpses of a possibly Earth-like sur...

  20. Following in real time the impact of pneumococcal virulence factors in an acute mouse pneumonia model using bioluminescent bacteria.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Malek; Abdullah, Mohammed R; Schulz, Christian; Kohler, Thomas; Pribyl, Thomas; Jensch, Inga; Hammerschmidt, Sven

    2014-02-23

    Pneumonia is one of the major health care problems in developing and industrialized countries and is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Despite advances in knowledge of this illness, the availability of intensive care units (ICU), and the use of potent antimicrobial agents and effective vaccines, the mortality rates remain high(1). Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and one of the most common causes of bacteremia in humans. This pathogen is equipped with an armamentarium of surface-exposed adhesins and virulence factors contributing to pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD). The assessment of the in vivo role of bacterial fitness or virulence factors is of utmost importance to unravel S. pneumoniae pathogenicity mechanisms. Murine models of pneumonia, bacteremia, and meningitis are being used to determine the impact of pneumococcal factors at different stages of the infection. Here we describe a protocol to monitor in real-time pneumococcal dissemination in mice after intranasal or intraperitoneal infections with bioluminescent bacteria. The results show the multiplication and dissemination of pneumococci in the lower respiratory tract and blood, which can be visualized and evaluated using an imaging system and the accompanying analysis software.

  1. Chlamydia pneumoniae Infection Among Basic Underwater Demolition/SEAL (BUD/S) Trainees, Coronado, California, July 2008

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    including Streptococcus pneumoniae , Chlamydophila pneu- moniae, Mycoplasma pneumoniae , Legionella pneumophila, and Bordetella pertussis . 3 CAP...populations are adenovirus, infl uenza virus, group A streptococcus , and bacterial pneumonias . 5 Although this phenomenon is not completely understood...respiratory infections than benzathine penicillin G pro- phylaxis. 24 Immunity to C pneumoniae is often incomplete, and recurrence can occur with some

  2. Microfluidic Platform versus Conventional Real-time PCR for the Detection of Mycoplasma pneumoniae in Respiratory Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Wulff-Burchfield, Elizabeth; Schell, Wiley A.; Eckhardt, Allen E.; Pollack, Michael G.; Hua, Zhishan; Rouse, Jeremy L.; Pamula, Vamsee K.; Srinivasan, Vijay; Benton, Jonathan L.; Alexander, Barbara D.; Wilfret, David A.; Kraft, Monica; Cairns, Charles; Perfect, John R.; Mitchell, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Rapid, accurate diagnosis of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) due to Mycoplasma pneumoniae is compromised by low sensitivity of culture and serology. PCR has emerged as a sensitive method to detect M. pneumoniae DNA in clinical specimens. However, conventional real-time PCR is not cost-effective for routine out-patient or implementation. Here, we evaluate a novel microfluidic real-time PCR platform (Advanced Liquid Logic, Inc.) that is rapid, portable, and fully automated. We enrolled patients with CAP and extracted DNA from nasopharyngeal wash (NPW) specimens using a biotinylated capture probe and streptavidin-coupled magnetic beads. Each extract was tested for M. pneumoniae-specific DNA by real-time PCR on both conventional and microfluidic platforms using Taqman probe and primers. Three of 59 (5.0%) NPWs were positive, and agreement between the methods was 98%. The microfluidic platform was equally sensitive but three times faster and offers an inexpensive and convenient diagnostic test for microbial DNA. PMID:20227222

  3. Acinetobacter Pneumonia: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Hartzell, Joshua D.; Kim, Andrew S.; Kortepeter, Mark G.; Moran, Kimberly A.

    2007-01-01

    Acinetobacter species are becoming a major cause of nosocomial infections, including hospital-acquired and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Acinetobacter species have become increasingly resistant to antibiotics over the past several years and currently present a significant challenge in treating these infections. Physicians now rely on older agents, such as polymyxins (colistin), for treatment. This paper reviews the epidemiology, treatment, and prevention of this emerging pathogen. PMID:18092011

  4. [Bacterial pneumonia in the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome].

    PubMed

    Hernández-Flix, S; Castella, J; Puzo, C; Ausina, V; Rodo, M; Mayos, M; Cornudella, R

    1992-04-01

    Sixty five patients with AIDS and clinical and/or radiological evidence of pulmonary infection underwent 78 bronchofibroscopies (BF) with protected brushing and bronchoalveolar washing-out. Out of the 78 BF, bacterial infection was diagnosed in 30 cases and associated opportunistic infection in 12 cases. The 18 cases of exclusively bacterial infection accounted for 23% of the total and most of them were due by H. influenzae and pneumococcus. Just in one patient, the thoracic radiography showed a localized infiltration. Given the high incidence of bacterial infections observed, along with the relevance of myxoid infections (opportunistic and pyogenic bacteria) and the low specificity of the thoracic radiography, bronchoalveolar washing-out and protected brushing in the same BF is a recommended practice.

  5. Severity assessment tools in ICU patients with 2009 influenza A (H1N1) pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Pereira, J M; Moreno, R P; Matos, R; Rhodes, A; Martin-Loeches, I; Cecconi, M; Lisboa, T; Rello, J

    2012-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if severity assessment tools (general severity of illness and community-acquired pneumonia specific scores) can be used to guide decisions for patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) due to pandemic influenza A pneumonia. A prospective, observational, multicentre study included 265 patients with a mean age of 42 (±16.1) years and an ICU mortality of 31.7%. On admission to the ICU, the mean pneumonia severity index (PSI) score was 103.2 ± 43.2 points, the CURB-65 score was 1.7 ± 1.1 points and the PIRO-CAP score was 3.2 ± 1.5 points. None of the scores had a good predictive ability: area under the ROC for PSI, 0.72 (95% CI, 0.65-0.78); CURB-65, 0.67 (95% CI, 0.59-0.74); and PIRO-CAP, 0.64 (95% CI, 0.56-0.71). The PSI score (OR, 1.022 (1.009-1.034), p 0.001) was independently associated with ICU mortality; however, none of the three scores, when used at ICU admission, were able to reliably detect a low-risk group of patients. Low risk for mortality was identified in 27.5% of patients using PIRO-CAP, but above 40% when using PSI (I-III) or CURB65 (<2). Observed mortality was 13.7%, 13.5% and 19.4%, respectively. Pneumonia-specific scores undervalued severity and should not be used as instruments to guide decisions in the ICU.

  6. Viral pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... Names Pneumonia - viral; Walking pneumonia - viral Images Lungs Respiratory system References Lee FE, Treanor JJ. Viral infections. In: Broaddus VC, Mason RJ, Ernst JD, et al, eds. Murray and Nadel's Textbook of Respiratory Medicine . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016: ...

  7. Unusual case of non-resolving necrotizing pneumonia: A last resort measure for cure.

    PubMed

    Salahuddin, Naseem; Baig-Ansari, Naila; Fatimi, Saulat Hasnain

    2016-06-01

    To our knowledge, this is an unusual case of a community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) with sepsis secondary to Streptococcus pneumoniae that required lung resection for a non-resolving consolidation. A 74 year old previously healthy woman, presented with acute fever, chills and pleuritic chest pain in Emergency Department (ED). A diagnosis of CAP was established with a Pneumonia Severity Index CURB-65 score of 5/5. In the ER, she was promptly and appropriately managed with antibiotics and aggressive supportive therapy. She remained on ten days of intravenous antibiotics. However, 48 hours post antibiotic course, she returned to ER with fever and signs of sepsis. Despite timely and appropriate management, the consolidated lobe remained the focus of sepsis for over four weeks. The patient recovered after the offending lobe was resected. Histopathology of the lung tissue revealed acute and chronic inflammation. However, no malignancy, bacterial infection or broncho-pleural fistula was found. Eighteen months post-surgery, the patient remains well.

  8. Apical cap

    SciTech Connect

    McLoud, T.C.; Isler, R.J.; Novelline, R.A.; Putman, C.E.; Simeone, J.; Stark, P.

    1981-08-01

    Apical caps, either unilateral or bilateral, are a common feature of advancing age and are usually the result of subpleural scarring unassociated with other diseases. Pancoast (superior sulcus) tumors are a well recognized cause of unilateral asymmetric apical density. Other lesions arising in the lung, pleura, or extrapleural space may produce unilateral or bilateral apical caps. These include: (1) inflammatory: tuberculosis and extrapleural abscesses extending from the neck; (2) post radiation fibrosis after mantle therapy for Hodgkin disease or supraclavicular radiation in the treatment of breast carcinoma; (3) neoplasm: lymphoma extending from the neck or mediastinum, superior sulcus bronchogenic carcinoma, and metastases; (4) traumatic: extrapleural dissection of blood from a ruptured aorta, fractures of the ribs or spine, or hemorrhage due to subclavian line placement; (5) vascular: coarctation of the aorta with dilated collaterals over the apex, fistula between the subclavian artery and vein; and (6) miscellaneous: mediastinal lipomatosis with subcostal fat extending over the apices.

  9. [Importance of Chlamydia pneumoniae as a new respiratory pathogen].

    PubMed

    Bartolomé, C; Mata, M; Bernárdez, I

    1996-03-01

    The incidence of Chlamydia pneumoniae as a cause of respiratory tract infection was evaluated in a one-year prospective study in 142 patients with community-acquired pneumonia. An indirect immunofluorescence method which detects antibodies in acute and convalescent serum samples was used. Serological evidence of current infection was a four-fold rise in IgG antibody titer or a positive IgM fraction. C. pneumoniae was the causative pathogen in nine patients. This result is similar to those obtained in other studies and suggests that C. pneumoniae is a common etiological agent of community-acquired pneumonia in the studied area.

  10. [Pneumonia due to Pseudomonas aeruginosa].

    PubMed

    Vallés, Jordi; Mariscal, Dolors

    2005-12-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading causes of Gram-negative nosocomial pneumonia. It is the most common cause of ventilator-associated pneumonia and carries the highest mortality among hospital-acquired infections. P. aeruginosa produces a large number of toxins and surface components that make it especially virulent compared with other microorganisms. These include pili, flagella, membrane bound lipopolysaccharide, and secreted products such as exotoxins A, S and U, elastase, alkaline protease, cytotoxins and phospholipases. The most common mechanism of infection in mechanically ventilated patients is through aspiration of upper respiratory tract secretions previously colonized in the process of routine nursing care or via contaminated hands of hospital personnel. Intravenous therapy with an antipseudomonal regimen should be started immediately when P. aeruginosa pneumonia is suspected or confirmed. Empiric therapy with drugs active against P. aeruginosa should be started, especially in patients who have received previous antibiotics or present late-onset pneumonia.

  11. Hydrocarbon pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    Pneumonia - hydrocarbon ... Coughing Fever Shortness of breath Smell of a hydrocarbon product on the breath Stupor (decreased level of ... Most children who drink or inhale hydrocarbon products and develop ... hydrocarbons may lead to rapid respiratory failure and death.

  12. Mammalian CAP interacts with CAP, CAP2, and actin.

    PubMed

    Hubberstey, A; Yu, G; Loewith, R; Lakusta, C; Young, D

    1996-06-01

    We previously identified human CAP, a homolog of the yeast adenylyl cyclase-associated protein. Previous studies suggest that the N-terminal and C-terminal domains of CAP have distinct functions. We have explored the interactions of human CAP with various proteins. First, by performing yeast two-hybrid screens, we have identified peptides from several proteins that interact with the C-terminal and/or the N-terminal domains of human CAP. These peptides include regions derived from CAP and BAT3, a protein with unknown function. We have further shown that MBP fusions with these peptides can associate in vitro with the N-terminal or C-terminal domains of CAP fused to GST. Our observations indicate that CAP contains regions in both the N-terminal and C-terminal domains that are capable of interacting with each other or with themselves. Furthermore, we found that myc-epitope-tagged CAP coimmunoprecipitates with HA-epitope-tagged CAP from either yeast or mammalian cell extracts. Similar results demonstrate that human CAP can also interact with human CAP2. We also show that human CAP interacts with actin, both by the yeast two-hybrid test and by coimmunoprecipitation of epitope-tagged CAP from yeast or mammalian cell extracts. This interaction requires the C-terminal domain of CAP, but not the N-terminal domain. Thus CAP appears to be capable of interacting in vivo with other CAP molecules, CAP2, and actin. We also show that actin co-immunoprecipitates with HA-CAP2 from mammalian cell extracts.

  13. Proton pump inhibitor-associated pneumonia: Not a breath of fresh air after all?

    PubMed

    Fohl, Alexander L; Regal, Randolph E

    2011-06-06

    Over the past two decades, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have emerged as highly effective and relatively safe agents for the treatment of a variety of gastrointestinal disorders. Unfortunately, this desirable pharmacological profile has also contributed to superfluous and widespread use in both the inpatient and outpatient settings. While generally well-tolerated, research published over the last decade has associated these agents with increased risks of Clostridium difficile disease, fractures likely due to calcium malabsorption and both community-acquired (CAP) and hospital-acquired pneumonias (HAP). The mechanism behind PPI-associated pneumonia may be multifactorial, but is thought to stem from compromising the stomach's "acid mantle" against gastric colonization of acid-labile pathogenic bacteria which then may be aspirated. A secondary postulate is that PPIs, through their inhibition of extra-gastric H(+)/K(+)-ATPase enzymes, may reduce the acidity of the upper aerodigestive tract, thus resulting in increased bacterial colonization of the larynx, esophagus and lungs. To date, several retrospective case control studies have been published looking at the association between PPI use and CAP. Some studies found a temporal relationship between PPI exposure and the incidence of pneumonia, but only two could define a dose-response relationship. Furthermore, other studies found an inverse correlation between duration of PPI use and risk of CAP. In terms of HAP, we reviewed two retrospective cohort studies and one prospective study. One retrospective study in a medical ICU found no increased association of HAP in PPI-exposed patients compared to no acid-lowering therapy, while the other in cardiothoracic surgery patients showed a markedly increased risk compared to those receiving H(2)RAs. The one prospective study in ICU patients showed an increased risk of HAP with PPIs, but not with H(2)RAs. In conclusion, the current literature shows a slight trend toward an

  14. South Polar Residual Ice Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    This mosaic is composed of 18 Viking Orbiter images (6 each in red, green, and violet filters), acquired on September 28, 1977, during revolution 407 of Viking Orbiter 2. The south pole is located just off the lower left edge of the polar cap, and the 0 degree longitude meridian extends toward the top of the mosaic. The large crater near the right edge (named 'South') is about 100 km in diameter. These images were acquired during southern summer on Mars (Ls = 341 degrees); the sub-solar declination was 8 degrees S., and the south polar cap was nearing its final stage of retreat just prior to vernal equinox. The south residual cap is approximately 400 km across, and the exposed surface is thought to consist dominantly of carbon-dioxide frost. This is in contrast to the water-ice surface of the north polar residual cap. It is likely that water ice is present in layers that underlie the south polar cap and that comprise the surrounding layered terrains. Near the top of this image, irregular pits with sharp-rimmed cliffs appear 'etched', presumably by wind. A series of rugged mountains (extending toward the upper right corner of the image) are of unknown origin.

  15. Waning Cap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    14 June 2006 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows the outer edge of the south polar residual cap of Mars. During summer, the scarps that delineate the sides of the mesas, retreat (on average) by about 3 meters (10 feet) owing to the sublimation of solid carbon dioxide.

    Location near: 85.6oS, 349.8oW Image width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Summer

  16. Usefulness of gram-stained sputum obtained just after administration of antimicrobial agents as the earliest therapeutic indicator for evaluating the effectiveness of empiric therapy in community-acquired pneumonia caused by pneumococcus or Moraxella catarrhalis.

    PubMed

    Fujisaki, Ryuichi; Yamaoka, Toshimori; Yamamura, Michiko; Kawakami, Sayoko; Ono, Yasuo; Miyazawa, Yukihisa; Teramoto, Tamio; Nishiya, Hajime

    2013-06-01

    We present here three cases in which morphological changes and/or a decreased number of Streptococcus pneumoniae or Moraxella catarrhalis could be observed in gram-stained sputum obtained just after the first administration of an antimicrobial agent. Case 1 was a 53-year-old man with pneumonia caused by gram-positive diplococcus, identified as S. pneumoniae, who was administered 2 g of ampicillin over a period of 1 h. Gram-stained sputum showed smaller or gram-negative pneumococci at the completion of administration of the agent, a decreased number of cocci at 1 h after administration, and almost no cocci at 12 h after the completion of administration. Case 2 was a 72-year-old woman with pneumonia caused by diplococcus, identified as S. pneumoniae, who was administered 2 g of ampicillin over a period of 1 h. Gram-stained sputum showed weakly stained, small cocci at the completion of administration of the agent and few cocci at 1 h after the completion of administration. Case 3 was a 58-year-old woman with pneumonia caused by a gram-negative diplococcus, identified as Moraxella catarrhalis, who was administered 1 g of cefotaxime over a period of 30 min. Gram-stained sputum showed few extracellular cocci and some intracellular cocci inside neutrophils 1 h after administration and no cocci 2 h after the completion of administration. These three cases showed that gram-stained sputum obtained just after and/or 1 h after administration of the first antimicrobial agent were suitable as the quickest therapeutic indicator of the effectiveness of empiric therapy, with the effectiveness of the agent being shown much earlier than with markers such as the white blood cell count and C-reactive protein level.

  17. Draft Genome Sequences of Streptococcus pneumoniae with High-Level Resistance to Respiratory Fluoroquinolones.

    PubMed

    Keness, Yoram; Bisharat, Naiel

    2016-03-31

    Streptococcus pneumoniaeis the leading cause of community-acquired pneumonia. Levofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone used for treatment of severe community-acquired pneumonia. Here, we describe the draft genome sequences ofS. pneumoniaewith emerging resistance to levofloxacin, resulting in failure of treatment of pneumococcal pneumonia.

  18. Appropriateness of hospitalization for CAP-affected pediatric patients: report from a Southern Italy General Hospital

    PubMed Central

    Antonelli, Fabio; De Brasi, Daniele; Siani, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    Background Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is a common disease, responsible for significant healthcare expenditures, mostly because of hospitalization. Many practice guidelines on CAP have been developed, including admission criteria, but a few on appropriate hospitalization in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate appropriate hospital admission for CAP in a pediatric population. Methods We evaluated appropriate admission to a Pediatric Unit performing a retrospective analysis on CAP admitted pediatric patients from a Southern Italy area. Diagnosis was made based on clinical and radiological signs. Appropriate hospital admission was evaluated following clinical and non-clinical international criteria. Family ability to care children was assessed by evaluating social deprivation status. Results In 2 winter seasons 120 pediatric patients aged 1-129 months were admitted because of CAP. Median age was 28.7 months. Raised body temperature was scored in 68.3% of patients, cough was present in 100% of cases, and abdominal pain was rarely evidenced. Inflammatory indices (ESR and CRP) were found elevated in 33.3% of cases. Anti-Mycoplasma pneumoniae antibodies were found positive in 20.4%. Trans-cutaneous (TC) SaO2 was found lower than 92% in 14.6%. Dyspnoea was present in 43.3%. Dehydration requiring i.v. fluid supplementation was scored in 13.3%. Evaluation of familial ability to care their children revealed that 76% of families (derived from socially depressed areas) were "at social risk", thus not able to appropriately care their children. Furthermore, analysis of CAP patients revealed that "at social risk" people accessed E.D. and were hospitalized more frequently than "not at risk" patients (odds ratio = 3.59, 95% CI: 1,15 to 11,12; p = 0.01), and that admitted "at social risk" people presented without clinical signs of severity (namely dyspnoea, and/or SaO2 ≤ 92%, and/or dehydration) more frequently than "not at risk" population (p = 0.005). Conclusion

  19. Clinical Features of Severe or Fatal Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Izumikawa, Koichi

    2016-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is one of the most common causes of community-acquired pneumonia in children and young adults. The incidence of fulminant M. pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP) is relatively rare despite the high prevalence of M. pneumoniae infection. This literature review highlights the clinical features of fulminant MPP by examining the most recent data in epidemiology, clinical presentation, pathogenesis, and treatment. Fulminant MPP accounts for 0.5–2% of all MPP cases and primarily affects young adults with no underlying disease. Key clinical findings include a cough, fever, and dyspnea along with diffuse abnormal findings in radiological examinations. Levels of inflammatory markers such as white blood cells and C-reactive protein are elevated, as well as levels of lactate dehydrogenase, IL-18, aspartate transaminase, and alanine transaminase. The exact pathogenesis of fulminant MPP remains unclear, but theories include a delayed hypersensitivity reaction to M. pneumoniae and the contribution of delayed antibiotic administration to disease progression. Treatment options involve pairing the appropriate anti-mycoplasma agent with a corticosteroid that will downregulate the hypersensitivity response, and mortality rates are quite low in this treatment group. Further research is necessary to determine the exact pathogenesis of severe and fulminant types of MPP. PMID:27313568

  20. Necrotizing pneumonia in children: report of 41 cases between 2006 and 2011 in a French tertiary care center.

    PubMed

    Lemaître, Chloé; Angoulvant, François; Gabor, Flaviu; Makhoul, Juliette; Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Naudin, Jérôme; Alison, Marianne; Faye, Albert; Bingen, Edouard; Lorrot, Mathie

    2013-10-01

    Forty-one children hospitalized for necrotizing pneumonia were retrospectively analyzed. Necrotizing pneumonia represented 0.8% of community-acquired pneumonia and 6% of hospitalized community-acquired pneumonia. The chest radiograph revealed necrosis on admission in onethird of cases. Twenty-one cases (51%) were documented, including 13 Staphylococcus aureus, all Panton-Valentine leukocidin positive, 7 Streptococcus pneumoniae and 1 Fusobacterium nucleatum.

  1. Efficacy and Safety of Nemonoxacin versus Levofloxacin for Community-Acquired Pneumonia▿

    PubMed Central

    van Rensburg, Dirkie J. J.; Perng, Reury-Perng; Mitha, Ismail H.; Bester, Andrè J.; Kasumba, Joseph; Wu, Ren-Guang; Ho, Ming-Lin; Chang, Li-Wen; Chung, David T.; Chang, Yu-Ting; King, Chi-Hsin R.; Hsu, Ming-Chu

    2010-01-01

    Nemonoxacin, a novel nonfluorinated quinolone, exhibits potent in vitro and in vivo activities against community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) pathogens, including multidrug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae. Patients with mild to moderate CAP (n = 265) were randomized to receive oral nemonoxacin (750 mg or 500 mg) or levofloxacin (500 mg) once daily for 7 days. Clinical responses were determined at the test-of-cure visit in intent-to-treat (ITT), clinical per protocol (PPc), evaluable-ITT, and evaluable-PPc populations. The clinical cure rates for 750 mg nemonoxacin, 500 mg nemonoxacin, and levofloxacin were 89.9%, 87.0%, and 91.1%, respectively, in the evaluable-ITT population; 91.7%, 87.7%, and 90.3%, respectively, in the evaluable-PPc population; 82.6%, 75.3%, and 80.0%, respectively, in the ITT population; and 83.5%, 78.0%, and 82.3%, respectively, in the PPc population. Noninferiority to levofloxacin was demonstrated in both the 750-mg and 500-mg nemonoxacin groups for the evaluable-ITT and evaluable-PPc populations, and also in the 750 mg nemonoxacin group for the ITT and PPc populations. Overall bacteriological success rates were high for all treatment groups in the evaluable-bacteriological ITT population (90.2% in the 750 mg nemonoxacin group, 84.8% in the 500 mg nemonoxacin group, and 92.0% in the levofloxacin group). All three treatments were well tolerated, and no drug-related serious adverse events were observed. Overall, oral nemonoxacin (both 750 mg and 500 mg) administered for 7 days resulted in high clinical and bacteriological success rates in CAP patients. Further, good tolerability and excellent activity against common causative pathogens were demonstrated. Nemonoxacin (750 mg and 500 mg) once daily is as effective and safe as levofloxacin (500 mg) once daily for the treatment of CAP. PMID:20660689

  2. The definition of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is insufficient for the medical environment in Japan: a comparison of HCAP and nursing and healthcare-associated pneumonia (NHCAP).

    PubMed

    Kaku, Norihito; Yanagihara, Katsunori; Morinaga, Yoshitomo; Izumikawa, Koichi; Nagashima, Seiji; Kakeya, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro; Fukuda, Minoru; Takatani, Hiroshi; Fukuda, Masaaki; Hashiguchi, Kohji; Kohno, Shigeru

    2013-02-01

    Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) is a new concept of pneumonia, which was proposed in the ATS/IDSA guidelines. The guidelines explain that HCAP patients should be treated with broad-spectrum antimicrobial drugs directed at multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, in Japan, there are many elderly people who received in-home care service. These patients seemed to be consistent with the concept of HCAP, but they did not meet the definition of HCAP. Therefore, the Japanese Respiratory Society modified the definition of HCAP according to the medical environmental in Japan. We retrospectively observed HCAP patients and nursing home and healthcare-associated pneumonia (NHCAP) patients who were hospitalized during 24 months at the Japanese Red Cross Nagasaki Genbaku Hospital (Nagasaki, Japan). Patient background, disease severity, identified pathogens, initial antibiotic regimens, and outcomes were compared. A total of 108 patients (77 HCAP and 31 NHCAP except HCAP patients) were evaluated. Of NHCAP except HCAP patients, 27 (87.1 %) were above 3 in the ECOG PS score. There were almost no significant differences between the two groups in characteristics, pneumonia severity, identified bacteria, initial antibiotic regimens, and response rate of initial antibiotic therapy. Although the in-hospital mortality of HCAP patients and NHCAP except HCAP patients was 9.1 % and 19.4 %, respectively, this difference did not reach statistical significance (P > 0.05). Our study suggested that, in the criteria of HCAP, some Japanese patients, who were consistent with the concept of HCAP, were classified as community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). Therefore, there is a need to change the definition of HCAP according to the medical environment in Japan.

  3. Double-blind, randomized study of the efficacy and safety of oral pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin-clavulanate (2,000/125 milligrams) versus those of amoxicillin-clavulanate (875/125 milligrams), both given twice daily for 7 days, in treatment of bacterial community-acquired pneumonia in adults.

    PubMed

    File, T M; Lode, H; Kurz, H; Kozak, R; Xie, H; Berkowitz, E

    2004-09-01

    This randomized, double-blind, noninferiority trial was designed to demonstrate that pharmacokinetically enhanced amoxicillin-clavulanate (2,000/125 mg) was at least as effective clinically as amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg, both given twice daily for 7 days, in the treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in adults. In total, 633 clinically and radiologically confirmed community-acquired pneumonia patients (intent-to-treat population) were randomized to receive either oral amoxicillin-clavulanate 2,000/125 mg (n = 322) or oral amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg (n = 311). At screening, 160 of 633 (25.3%) patients had at least one typical pathogen isolated from expectorated or invasive sputum samples or blood culture (bacteriology intent-to-treat population). Streptococcus pneumoniae (58 of 160, 36.3%), methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus (34 of 160, 21.3%), and Haemophilus influenzae (33 of 160, 20.6%) were the most common typical causative pathogens isolated in both groups in the bacteriology intent-to-treat population. Clinical success in the clinical per protocol population at test of cure (days 16 to 37), the primary efficacy endpoint, was 90.3% (223 of 247) for amoxicillin-clavulanate 2,000/125 mg and 87.6% (198 of 226) for amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg (treatment difference, 2.7; 95% confidence interval, -3.0, 8.3). Bacteriological success at test of cure in the bacteriology per protocol population was 86.6% (58 of 67) for amoxicillin-clavulanate 2,000/125 mg and 78.4% (40 of 51) for amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg (treatment difference, 8.1%; 95% confidence interval, -5.8, 22.1). Both therapies were well tolerated. Amoxicillin-clavulanate 2,000/125 mg twice daily was shown to be as clinically effective as amoxicillin-clavulanate 875/125 mg twice daily for 7 days in the treatment of adult patients with community-acquired pneumonia, without a noted increase in the reported rate of adverse events.

  4. Repertoire of intensive care unit pneumonia microbiota.

    PubMed

    Bousbia, Sabri; Papazian, Laurent; Saux, Pierre; Forel, Jean Marie; Auffray, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Claude; Raoult, Didier; La Scola, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Despite the considerable number of studies reported to date, the causative agents of pneumonia are not completely identified. We comprehensively applied modern and traditional laboratory diagnostic techniques to identify microbiota in patients who were admitted to or developed pneumonia in intensive care units (ICUs). During a three-year period, we tested the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of patients with ventilator-associated pneumonia, community-acquired pneumonia, non-ventilator ICU pneumonia and aspiration pneumonia, and compared the results with those from patients without pneumonia (controls). Samples were tested by amplification of 16S rDNA, 18S rDNA genes followed by cloning and sequencing and by PCR to target specific pathogens. We also included culture, amoeba co-culture, detection of antibodies to selected agents and urinary antigen tests. Based on molecular testing, we identified a wide repertoire of 160 bacterial species of which 73 have not been previously reported in pneumonia. Moreover, we found 37 putative new bacterial phylotypes with a 16S rDNA gene divergence ≥ 98% from known phylotypes. We also identified 24 fungal species of which 6 have not been previously reported in pneumonia and 7 viruses. Patients can present up to 16 different microorganisms in a single BAL (mean ± SD; 3.77 ± 2.93). Some pathogens considered to be typical for ICU pneumonia such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Streptococcus species can be detected as commonly in controls as in pneumonia patients which strikingly highlights the existence of a core pulmonary microbiota. Differences in the microbiota of different forms of pneumonia were documented.

  5. Pneumocystis pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Gilroy, Shelley A; Bennett, Nicholas J

    2011-12-01

    Pneumocystis (carinii) jiroveci pneumonia can occur in immunocompromised individuals, especially hematopoietic stem and solid organ transplant recipients and those receiving immunosuppressive agents, and is the most common opportunistic infection in persons with advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. The Pneumocystis genus was initially mistaken as a trypanosome and later as a protozoan. Genetic analysis identified the organism as a unicellular fungus. Pneumocystis jiroveci is the species responsible for human infections. A slow indolent time course with symptoms of pneumonia progressing over weeks to months is characteristic in HIV-infected patients. Fulminant respiratory failure associated with fever and dry cough is typical in non-HIV-infected patients. Definitive diagnosis relies on histopathological testing of sputum, induced or sampled by fiberoptic bronchoscopy with bronchoalveolar lavage. The first-line drug for treatment and prevention is trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.

  6. Interleukin-10 -1082 G/A gene polymorphisms in Egyptian children with CAP

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Seham F.; Abdalhady, Mohamed A.; Elsaadany, Hosam F.; Elkomi, Mohamed A.; Elhindawy, Eman M.; Sarhan, Dina T.; Salam, Mohamed M.A.; Allah, Mayy A.N.; Emam, Ahmed A.; Noah, Maha A.; Abdelsalam, Nasser I.; Abdellatif, Sawsan H.; Rass, Anwar A.; Ismail, Sanaa M.; Gheith, Tarek; Aziz, Khalid A.; Hamed, Mohammed E.; Abdelrahman, Hind M.; Ahmed, Ahmed R.; Nabil, Rehab M.; Abdulmaksoud, Rehab S.; Yousef, Hala Y.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. Cytokines are involved in the pathogenesis of CAP. To date, only a few studies concerned the association of interleukin-10 (IL-10) gene polymorphisms with CAP. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether the -1082(G/A) polymorphism in the promoter region of the IL-10 gene is involved in susceptibility to and the outcome of CAP, and we also measured the serum level of IL-10 to assess its relation to such polymorphism. This was a case–control study included 100 patients with CAP, and matched with age, gender, and ethnicity of 100 healthy control children. IL-10 -1082(G/A) gene polymorphism was genotyped by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism, while the serum IL-10 levels were measured by ELISA method. Compared to the controls subjects, the frequencies of the IL-10 -1082 AA genotype and A allele were observed to be overrepresented in patients with CAP (51%; odds ratio [OR] = 2.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.5–5.3 for the AA genotype; P < 0.01) and (70%; OR: 1.95; 95% CI: 1.27–3.00 for the A allele; P < 0.01, respectively). We found that patients with the GG genotype had significantly higher serum IL-10 levels (46.7 ± 9.5 pg/mL) compared to those with AG genotype (21.8 ± 4.5 pg/mL) and AA genotype (11.5 ± 3.3 pg/mL); P < 0.01, respectively. Our data revealed a significant positive association between the -1082 GG genotype and susceptibility to severe sepsis, acute respiratory failure, and hospital mortality (OR: 3.8; 95% CI: 1.3–11.2; P < 0.01). We demonstrate for the first time, to the best of our knowledge, that IL-10 -1082 (G/A) gene polymorphism may contribute to susceptibility to CAP in Egyptian children. Moreover, we observed that the presence of a G allele or GG genotype at the -1082 position of the promoter region of the IL-10 gene constitute risk factors for developing severe sepsis

  7. Sources of heterogeneity in case-control studies on associations between statins, ACE-inhibitors, and proton pump inhibitors and risk of pneumonia.

    PubMed

    de Groot, Mark C H; Klungel, Olaf H; Leufkens, Hubert G M; van Dijk, Liset; Grobbee, Diederick E; van de Garde, Ewoudt M W

    2014-10-01

    The heterogeneity in case-control studies on the associations between community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) and ACE-inhibitors (ACEi), statins, and proton pump inhibitors (PPI) hampers translation to clinical practice. Our objective is to explore sources of this heterogeneity by applying a common protocol in different data settings. We conducted ten case-control studies using data from five different health care databases. Databases varied on type of patients (hospitalised vs. GP), level of case validity, and mode of exposure ascertainment (prescription or dispensing based). Identified CAP patients and controls were matched on age, gender, and calendar year. Conditional logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios (OR) for the associations between the drugs of interest and CAP. Associations were adjusted by a common set of potential confounders. Data of 38,742 cases and 118,019 controls were studied. Comparable patterns of variation between case-control studies were observed for ACEi, statins and PPI use and pneumonia risk with adjusted ORs varying from 1.04 to 1.49, 0.82 to 1.50 and 1.16 to 2.71, respectively. Overall, higher ORs were found for hospitalised CAP patients matched to population controls versus GP CAP patients matched to population controls. Prevalence of drug exposure was higher in dispensing data versus prescription data. We show that case-control selection and methods of exposure ascertainment induce bias that cannot be adjusted for and to a considerable extent explain the heterogeneity in results obtained in case-control studies on statins, ACEi and PPIs and CAP. The common protocol approach helps to better understand sources of variation in observational studies.

  8. Pneumocystis Pneumonia (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Pneumocystis Pneumonia KidsHealth > For Parents > Pneumocystis Pneumonia A A A What's in this article? About PCP Diagnosing PCP Treating PCP Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is an infection caused by Pneumocystis jiroveci , ...

  9. Pneumonia (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... kids under 6 years old. Take your child's temperature at least once each morning and each evening, ... Respiratory System Croup Fever and Taking Your Child's Temperature Influenza (Flu) Walking Pneumonia Word! Pneumonia Pneumonia Hib ...

  10. How Is Pneumonia Treated?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to cure the infection and prevent complications. Bacterial pneumonia Bacterial pneumonia is treated with medicines called antibiotics. ... fewer symptoms such as cough and fever. Viral pneumonia Antibiotics don't work when the cause of ...

  11. What Is Pneumonia?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Pneumonia Pneumonia is a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection of ... and trouble breathing. Many factors affect how serious pneumonia is, such as the type of germ causing ...

  12. [Neumonía acquired in the community. Practical guide elaborated by a committee intersocieties].

    PubMed

    Luna, Carlos M; Calmaggi, Aníbal; Caberloto, Oscar; Gentile, Jorge; Valentini, Ricardo; Ciruzzi, Julian; Clara, Liliana; Rizzo, Oscar; Lasdica, Sergio; Blumenfeld, Marcelo; Benchetrit, Guillermo; Famiglietti, Angela; Apezteguia, Carlos; Monteverde, Alfredo

    2003-01-01

    Clinical practice guidelines for community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) contribute to improve patient's management. CAP undergoes continuous changes in etiology, epidemiology and antimicrobial sensitivity, requiring periodic guidelines revisions. An inter-society committee designed this guidelines dividing it into several topics based on prior guidelines and recent clinical studies. CAP compromises annually more than 1% of the population; most of the cases only require outpatient care but others are severe cases, reaching the 6th cause of death in Argentina. The cases are distributed unevenly into ambulatory, admitted in the general ward or in the intensive care unit. There is no way to predict the etiology. Unfavorable outcome predictors include age, antecedents and physical, laboratory and radiography findings. Ten to 25% of inpatients need to be admitted to the intensive care unit at the onset or during the follow-up, for mechanical ventilation or hemodynamic support (severe CAP). Severe CAP is associated with high mortality and requires adequate and urgent therapy. Pregnant, COPD and nursing home patients require special recommendations. Diagnosis is clinical, while complementary methods are useful to define etiology and severity; chest X-ray is the only one universally recommended. Other studies, including microbiologic evaluation are particularly appropriate in the hospitalized patients. The initial therapy is empiric, it must begin early, using antimicrobials active against the target microorganisms, avoiding their inappropriate use which can lead to the development of resistance. Length of therapy must not be unnecessarily prolonged. Hydratation, nutrition, oxygen and therapy of complications must complement antibiotic treatment. Prevention is based on influenza prophylaxis, anti-pneumococcal vaccine, aspiration prevention and other general measures.

  13. A retrospective analysis of hospital discharge records for S. pneumoniae diseases in the elderly population of Florence, Italy, 2010-2012.

    PubMed

    Bechini, Angela; Taddei, Cristina; Barchielli, Alessandro; Levi, Miriam; Tiscione, Emilia; Santini, Maria Grazia; Niccolini, Fabrizio; Mechi, Maria Teresa; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Azzari, Chiara; Bonanni, Paolo; Boccalini, Sara

    2015-01-01

    Invasive pneumococcal diseases (IPD) and community acquired pneumonia (CAP) represent two of the major causes of out-patient visits, hospital admissions and deaths in the elderly. In Tuscany (Italy), in the Local Health Unit of Florence, a project aimed at implementing an active surveillance of pneumococcal diseases in the hospitalized elderly population started in 2013. The aim of this study is to show the results of the retrospective analysis (2010-2012) on hospital discharge records (HDRs) related to diseases potentially due to S. pneumoniae, using a selection of ICD9-CM codes. All ordinary hospitalizations (primary and secondary diagnoses) of the elderly population were included (11 245 HDRs). Among a population of about 200 000 inhabitants ≥65 y, the hospitalization rate (HR) increased with increasing age and was higher in males in all age groups. Almost all hospitalizations (95%) were due to CAP, only 5% were invasive diseases. Only few cases of CAP were specified as related to S. pneumoniae, the percentage was higher in case of meningitis (100%) or septicemia (22%). In-hospital deaths over the three-year period were 1703 (case fatality rate: 15%). The risk of dying, being hospitalized for a disease potentially attributable to pneumococcus (as primary diagnosis) increased significantly with age (P < 0.001), the odds ratio (OR) per increasing age year was 1.06 (95% CI 1.05-1.07) and was higher in patients with co-existing medical conditions with respect to patients without comorbidities. Currently, an active surveillance system on S. pneumoniae diseases with the inclusion of bio-molecular tests (RT-PCR), is a key step to assess the effectiveness of the PCV13 vaccine (13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine) in the elderly population after implementation of vaccination policies. The results of this study will provide the comparator baseline data for the evaluation of a possible immunization programme involving one or more cohorts of the elderly in

  14. Acquired hyperpigmentations*

    PubMed Central

    Cestari, Tania Ferreira; Dantas, Lia Pinheiro; Boza, Juliana Catucci

    2014-01-01

    Cutaneous hyperpigmentations are frequent complaints, motivating around 8.5% of all dermatological consultations in our country. They can be congenital, with different patterns of inheritance, or acquired in consequence of skin problems, systemic diseases or secondary to environmental factors. The vast majority of them are linked to alterations on the pigment melanin, induced by different mechanisms. This review will focus on the major acquired hyperpigmentations associated with increased melanin, reviewing their mechanisms of action and possible preventive measures. Particularly prominent aspects of diagnosis and therapy will be emphasized, with focus on melasma, post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation, periorbital pigmentation, dermatosis papulosa nigra, phytophotodermatoses, flagellate dermatosis, erythema dyschromicum perstans, cervical poikiloderma (Poikiloderma of Civatte), acanthosis nigricans, cutaneous amyloidosis and reticulated confluent dermatitis PMID:24626644

  15. Health care-associated pneumonia: an evidence-based review.

    PubMed

    Attridge, Russell T; Frei, Christopher R

    2011-08-01

    Health care-associated pneumonia is a relatively new classification of pneumonia that includes community-dwelling pneumonia patients having contact with the health care system. Current data indicate that health care-associated pneumonia patients present with more severe disease, are more likely to be infected with drug-resistant pathogens, and suffer increased mortality compared with community-acquired pneumonia patients. Guidelines recommend that these patients receive empiric antibiotics similar to those recommended for nosocomial pneumonia; however, it is not currently known if outcomes are improved when health care-associated pneumonia patients are treated with these therapies. In addition, the individual health care-associated pneumonia risk factors are based on limited data and are a poor predictor of patients likely to be infected with drug-resistant pathogens. Many questions remain on how to most appropriately care for this growing group of pneumonia patients. This review is an evidence-based discussion of current health care-associated pneumonia data, the individual health care-associated pneumonia risk factors, and limitations and additional considerations for the health care-associated pneumonia classification system.

  16. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome: Ga-67 citrate imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Woolfenden, J.M.; Carrasquillo, J.A.; Larson, S.M.; Simmons, J.T.; Masur, H.; Smith, P.D.; Shelhamer, J.H.; Ognibene, F.P.

    1987-02-01

    All gallium-67 citrate scans obtained in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) at the Clinical Center, National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, Md.) were retrospectively analyzed and correlated with the results of bronchoscopy, chest radiography, and endoscopy. There were 164 scans of 95 patients. Twenty scans were from patients with Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia; 19 were abnormal, for a sensitivity of 95%. Ga-67 uptake tended to be less in patients receiving therapy for P. carinii pneumonia. Chest radiographs were normal at least initially in three patients with abnormal scans and P. carinii pneumonia. Unusually prominent colonic activity was associated with infection in some patients. No lesions of Kaposi sarcoma showed tracer uptake. Gallium scanning is useful for detecting P. carinii pneumonia and other opportunistic infections in patients with AIDS, but it is not useful for localizing Kaposi sarcoma.

  17. Usefulness of PCR and Antigen Latex Agglutination Test with Samples Obtained by Transthoracic Needle Aspiration for Diagnosis of Pneumococcal Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    García, Amparo; Rosón, Beatriz; Pérez, José Luis; Verdaguer, Ricard; Dorca, Jordi; Carratalà, Jordi; Casanova, Aurora; Manresa, Frederic; Gudiol, Francesc

    1999-01-01

    In a large number of cases, the etiology of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) is not established. Some cases are probably caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. Transthoracic needle aspiration (TNA) culture has a limited sensitivity which might be improved by antigen detection or gene amplification techniques. We evaluated the capacity of a PCR assay and a latex agglutination test to detect S. pneumoniae in samples obtained by TNA from 95 patients with moderate-to-severe CAP. Latex agglutination and PCR had sensitivities of 52.2 and 91.3%, specificities of 88.7 and 83.3%, positive predictive values of 62.3 and 65.6%, and negative predictive values of 83.3 and 96.5%, respectively, when culture techniques were used as the “gold standard.” When we considered expanded criteria for the diagnosis of pneumococcal pneumonia as a standard for our calculations, latex agglutination and PCR had sensitivities of 53.6 and 89.7%, specificities of 93.0 and 90.0%, positive predictive values of 78.9 and 81.3%, and negative predictive values of 80.3 and 94.7%, respectively. The additional diagnosis provided by the PCR assay compared to latex agglutination was 12.2% (95% confidence interval of the difference from 0.4 to 20.1%). PCR was more sensitive than TNA culture, particularly in patients who had received prior antibiotic therapy (83.3 versus 33.3%). Although PCR is a very sensitive and specific technique, it has not proved to be cost-effective in clinical practice. Conversely, latex agglutination is a fast and simple method whose results might have significant implications for initial antibiotic therapy. PMID:9986837

  18. [Antibiotherapy for acute CAP in adults].

    PubMed

    Denes, E

    2006-01-01

    Community acquired pneumonia is one of the most frequent infections. With time, bacterial epidemiology and bacterial resistance evolve and new antibiotics become available. So an up-date on adequate antibiotic use is necessary. We reviewed the epidemiology of pneumonia and the evolution of bacterial resistance. We also collected data on new antibiotics which can be used for this infection such as levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, telithromycin, and pristinamycin. All these drugs are effective on bacteria involved in pneumonia. At this time, only few Streptococcus pneumoniae strains have developed resistance to these drugs. However, resistance to fluoroquinolones is not easily detected with common laboratory techniques. There is no effectiveness difference between the 2 new fluoroquinolones (levofloxacin, moxifloxacin) in clinical studies. However, in bacteriological and pharmacological studies, moxifloxacin seems to be more effective than levofloxacin (500 mg/day). For the treatment of pneumonia due to Legionella pneumophila, fluoroquinolones are now widely recommended. For Streptococcus pneumonia, amoxicillin remain the drug of choice, even for bacteria with a decreased susceptibility to penicillin. The importance of treating atypical pathogens remains to be documented.

  19. Granzymes A and B Regulate the Local Inflammatory Response during Klebsiella pneumoniae Pneumonia.

    PubMed

    García-Laorden, M Isabel; Stroo, Ingrid; Blok, Dana C; Florquin, Sandrine; Medema, Jan Paul; de Vos, Alex F; van der Poll, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of hospital-acquired pneumonia. Granzymes (gzms), mainly found in cytotoxic lymphocytes, have been implicated as mediators of infection and inflammation. We here sought to investigate the role of gzmA and gzmB in the host response to K. pneumoniae-induced airway infection and sepsis. For this purpose, pneumonia was induced in wild-type (WT) and gzmA-deficient (gzmA-/-), gzmB-/- and gzmAxB-/- mice by intranasal infection with K. pneumoniae. In WT mice, gzmA and gzmB were mainly expressed by natural killer cells. Pneumonia was associated with reduced intracellular gzmA and increased intracellular gzmB levels. Gzm deficiency had little impact on antibacterial defence: gzmA-/- and gzmAxB-/- mice transiently showed modestly higher bacterial loads in the lungs but not in distant organs. GzmB-/- and, to a larger extent, gzmAxB-/- mice displayed transiently increased lung inflammation, reflected in the semi-quantitative histology scores and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Most differences between gzm-deficient and WT mice had disappeared during late-stage pneumonia. Gzm deficiency did not impact on distant organ injury or survival. These results suggest that gzmA and gzmB partly regulate local inflammation during early pneumonia but eventually play an insignificant role during pneumosepsis by the common human pathogen K. pneumoniae.

  20. Bilateral optic papillitis following mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Milla, E; Zografos, L; Piguet, B

    1998-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an atypical bacterium that can cause a great variety of respiratory infections and be responsible for ocular involvement such as conjunctivitis, anterior uveitis and very rarely optic neuropathy. We report herein an additional case of bilateral optic disc swelling with profound visual loss following Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia and review the world literature on the ocular manifestations associated with this pathogen.

  1. Cap inflammation leads to higher plaque cap strain and lower cap stress: An MRI-PET/CT-based FSI modeling approach.

    PubMed

    Tang, Dalin; Yang, Chun; Huang, Sarayu; Mani, Venkatesh; Zheng, Jie; Woodard, Pamela K; Robson, Philip; Teng, Zhongzhao; Dweck, Marc; Fayad, Zahi A

    2017-01-04

    Plaque rupture may be triggered by extreme stress/strain conditions. Inflammation is also implicated and can be imaged using novel imaging techniques. The impact of cap inflammation on plaque stress/strain and flow shear stress were investigated. A patient-specific MRI-PET/CT-based modeling approach was used to develop 3D fluid-structure interaction models and investigate the impact of inflammation on plaque stress/strain conditions for better plaque assessment. 18FDG-PET/CT and MRI data were acquired from 4 male patients (average age: 66) to assess plaque characteristics and inflammation. Material stiffness for the fibrous cap was adjusted lower to reflect cap weakening causing by inflammation. Setting stiffness ratio (SR) to be 1.0 (fibrous tissue) for baseline, results for SR=0.5, 0.25, and 0.1 were obtained. Thin cap and hypertension were also considered. Combining results from the 4 patients, mean cap stress from 729 cap nodes was lowered by 25.2% as SR went from 1.0 to 0.1. Mean cap strain value for SR=0.1 was 0.313, 114% higher than that from SR=1.0 model. The thin cap SR=0.1 model had 40% mean cap stress decrease and 81% cap strain increase compared with SR=1.0 model. The hypertension SR=0.1 model had 19.5% cap stress decrease and 98.6% cap strain increase compared with SR=1.0 model. Differences of flow shear stress with 4 different SR values were limited (<10%). Cap inflammation may lead to large cap strain conditions when combined with thin cap and hypertension. Inflammation also led to lower cap stress. This shows the influence of inflammation on stress/strain calculations which are closely related to plaque assessment.

  2. Cradle Cap (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... extremes, oily skin, problems with the immune system, stress, and other skin disorders — can make it more likely that a child will get cradle cap. Symptoms Cradle cap looks different on every baby. It can be grouped ...

  3. Performance evaluation of MR-proadrenomedullin and other scoring systems in severe sepsis with pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Rollas, Kazım; Alagöz, Ali; Seğmen, Fatih; Sipit, Tuğrul

    2014-01-01

    Background In sepsis, risk assessment is as crucial as early and accurate diagnosis. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of mid-regional proadrenomedullin (MR-proADM) with other scoring systems in severe sepsis and septic shock patients due to community acquired pneumonia (CAP). Methods Patients were divided into 2 groups as severe sepsis and septic shock due to CAP (group 1, n=31) and only CAP group (group 2, n=26). Serum MR-proADM, procalcitonin (PCT), C-reactive protein (CRP), and d-dimer level were analyzed. Acute Physiological and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) II score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score, and Pneumonia Severity Index (PSI) were performed for all patients. Results There was no difference between groups in terms of serum MR-proADM levels (P=0.780). Serum MR-proADM was not found a significant value for the prediction of death within the 4 and 8 weeks in all patients. SOFA score was the most significant to predict mortality in 4 and 8 weeks (P<0.001). The combination of SOFA score and serum MR-proADM was a strong factor to predict death in 4 weeks (specifity 86.8% and sensitivity 66.7%). The combination of MR-proADM, SOFA score, and APACHE II score was found 75.0% sensitive and 71.4% specific to predict mortality within 4 weeks in group 1. Conclusions The MR-proADM does not correlate with mortality or disease severity to predict mortality. The combination of SOFA, APACHE II scores, and MR-proADM was efficient to predict prognosis and mortality rate in severe sepsis or septic shock patients. PMID:25093088

  4. [Thousand faces of Streptococcus pneumonia (pneumococcus) infections].

    PubMed

    Szabó, Bálint Gergely; Lénárt, Katalin Szidónia; Kádár, Béla; Gombos, Andrea; Dezsényi, Balázs; Szanka, Judit; Bobek, Ilona; Prinz, Gyula

    2015-11-01

    Incidence and mortality rates of infections caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) are high worldwide and in Hungary among paediatric as well as adult populations. Pneumococci account for 35-40% of community acquired adult pneumonias requiring hospitalization, while 25-30% of Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonias are accompanied by bacteraemia. 5-7% of all infections are fatal but this rate is exponentially higher in high risk patients and elderly people. Mortality could reach 20% among patients with severe invasive pneumococcal infections. Complications may develop despite administration of adequate antibiotics. The authors summarize the epidemiology of pneumococcal infections, pathogenesis of non-invasive and invasive disease and present basic clinical aspects through demonstration of four cases. Early risk stratification, sampling of hemocultures, administration of antibiotics and wider application of active immunization could reduce the mortality of invasive disease. Anti-pneumococcal vaccination is advisable for adults of ≥50 years and high risk patients of ≥18 years who are susceptible to pneumococcal disease.

  5. Role of Serum Mycoplasma pneumoniae IgA, IgM, and IgG in the Diagnosis of Mycoplasma pneumoniae-Related Pneumonia in School-Age Children and Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Lee, Wei-Ju; Huang, Eng-Yen; Tsai, Chih-Min; Kuo, Kuang-Che; Huang, Yi-Chuan; Hsieh, Kai-Sheng; Niu, Chen-Kuang; Yu, Hong-Ren

    2017-01-01

    Mycoplasma pneumoniae is an important causative pathogen of community-acquired pneumonia in children. Rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis of M. pneumoniae infection is important so that appropriate antibiotic treatment can be initiated to reduce the misuse of drugs and resistance rates. Anti-M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin M (IgM) is an indicator of recent primary infection but can persist for several months after initial infection. It has been suggested that anti-M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin A (IgA) can be a reliable indicator for recent M. pneumoniae infection in adults. We investigated the clinical diagnostic value of M. pneumoniae IgA in school-age children and adolescents with M. pneumoniae-related pneumonia. Eighty children with pneumonia and seropositive for M. pneumoniae IgM or with a 4-fold increase of anti-M. pneumoniae immunoglobulin G (IgG) were enrolled from May 2015 to March 2016. The titers of M. pneumoniae IgA, IgM, and IgG, the clinical features, and laboratory examinations of blood, C-reactive protein, and liver enzymes were analyzed. The initial positivity rates for M. pneumoniae IgM and IgA upon admission to the hospital were 63.6 and 33.8%, respectively. One week after admission, the cumulative positivity rates for M. pneumoniae IgM and IgA increased to 97.5 and 56.3%, respectively. Detection of M. pneumoniae IgM was more sensitive than detection of M. pneumoniae IgA for the diagnosis of M. pneumoniae-related pneumonia in school-age children and adolescents; however, paired sera are necessary for a more accurate diagnosis.

  6. Prevention strategies for healthcare-associated pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Morrow, Lee E

    2009-02-01

    Healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP) represents one of the largest subsets of patients with pneumonia. Based on epidemiological projections for the aging U.S. population, the number of hospitalizations for HCAP is expected to increase exponentially for the next several decades. The unique risk factors for colonization with resistant pathogens in these patients provide multiple opportunities for HCAP prevention. However, our current understanding of the most effective prevention measures is woefully inadequate and constitutes an extrapolation from studies done in community-acquired and hospital-acquired pneumonia patients. This review explores common prevention strategies that may be applicable to HCAP, highlights areas of controversy that require further study, and describes several areas of ongoing novel investigation.

  7. Clinical implications and treatment of multiresistant Streptococcus pneumoniae pneumonia.

    PubMed

    File, T M

    2006-05-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial cause of community-acquired respiratory tract infections. Prior to the 1970s this pathogen was uniformly susceptible to penicillin and most other antimicrobials. However, since the 1990s there has been a significant increase in drug-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae (DRSP) due, in large part, to increased use of antimicrobials. The clinical significance of this resistance is not definitely established, but appears to be most relevant to specific MICs for specific antimicrobials. Certain beta-lactams (amoxicillin, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone), the respiratory fluoroquinolones, and telithromycin are among several agents that remain effective against DRSP. Continued surveillance studies, appropriate antimicrobial usage campaigns, stratification of patients based on known risk factors for resistance, and vaccination programmes are needed to appropriately manage DRSP and limit its spread.

  8. The cervical cap.

    PubMed

    1988-10-07

    The US Food and Drug Administration has approved marketing of the Prentif cavity-rim cervical cap. This contraceptive device is being distributed in the US and Canada by Cervical Cap Ltd, Los Gatos, California. The Prentif cap is available in 4 sizes: 22, 25, 28, and 31 mm inside diameter, with a length of 1 1/4-1 1/2 inches. In a multicenter trial involving 522 diaphragm users and 581 cap users followed for 2 years, the cap was 82.6% effective and the diaphragm was 83.3% effective in preventing pregnancy. When pregnancies attributable to user failure were excluded, these rates were increased to 93.6% for the cap and 95.4% for the diaphragm. 4% of cap users compared with only 1.7% of diaphragm users in this study developed abnormal Pap smears after 3 months of use; in addition, a higher proportion of cap users became infected with Gardnerella vaginalis and Monilia. Theoretical hazards include toxic shock syndrome and endometriosis due to backflow of menstrual fluids. Cap users are advised to undergo a Pap test after 3 months of use and discontinue cap use if the results are abnormal. The cap should not be used during menstruation. Although the cap can be left in place for up to 48 hours, its position should be checked before and after each episode of intercourse. The cervical cap requires less spermicide than the diaphragm and is not as messy. In addition, it can be left in the vagina twice as long as the diaphragm, without additional spermicide. Since the cap is smaller than the diaphragm and does not cover the vaginal wall, some women find intercourse more pleasurable with this device.

  9. Persistent Pneumonia in an Infant

    PubMed Central

    Padilla, Kristen; Logan, Latania; Codispoti, Christopher; Jones, Carolyn

    2015-01-01

    A 4-month-old boy with past medical history of eczema presented with fever and cough; a chest radiograph showed lung consolidation, and he was initially treated with amoxicillin for presumed community-acquired pneumonia. After several days, his fever persisted. He was also profoundly anemic. Antibiotic coverage was broadened because of the concern for resistant organisms; he began to improve and was discharged from the hospital. However, at 5 months of age, his fever returned, and he continued to demonstrate lung consolidation on chest radiograph. Additionally, he had lost weight and continued to be anemic. Splenic cysts were noted on abdominal ultrasound. He was diagnosed with an unusual etiology for his pneumonia and improved with the appropriate therapy. An underlying immunodeficiency was suspected, but initial testing was nondiagnostic. At 12 months of age, he presented with another infection, and the final diagnosis was made. PMID:26122810

  10. Persistent Pneumonia in an Infant.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Kristen; Logan, Latania; Codispoti, Christopher; Jones, Carolyn; Van Opstal, Elizabeth

    2015-07-01

    A 4-month-old boy with past medical history of eczema presented with fever and cough; a chest radiograph showed lung consolidation, and he was initially treated with amoxicillin for presumed community-acquired pneumonia. After several days, his fever persisted. He was also profoundly anemic. Antibiotic coverage was broadened because of the concern for resistant organisms; he began to improve and was discharged from the hospital. However, at 5 months of age, his fever returned, and he continued to demonstrate lung consolidation on chest radiograph. Additionally, he had lost weight and continued to be anemic. Splenic cysts were noted on abdominal ultrasound. He was diagnosed with an unusual etiology for his pneumonia and improved with the appropriate therapy. An underlying immunodeficiency was suspected, but initial testing was nondiagnostic. At 12 months of age, he presented with another infection, and the final diagnosis was made.

  11. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  12. Claymax landfill cap

    SciTech Connect

    Selby, C.L.

    1989-12-15

    A commercial product called Claymax'' consisting of one-quarter inch of bentonite clay between two geotextile sheets is a candidate landfill cap to replace kaolin caps. A permeability apparatus incorporating a 20 foot water head was operated for 56 days to estimate a Claymax permeability of 2 {times} 10{sup {minus}9} cm/sec compared with 10{sup {minus}8}, the EPA max for a burial site cap. 1 fig.

  13. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia

    MedlinePlus

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000671.htm Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia is a fungal infection of the lungs. The ...

  14. Pneumonia - children - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000011.htm Pneumonia in children - discharge To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. Your child has pneumonia, which is an infection in the lungs. In ...

  15. The management of pneumonia in internal medicine.

    PubMed

    Bouza, E; Giannella, M; Pinilla, B; Pujol, R; Capdevila, J A; Muñoz, P

    2013-01-01

    Pneumonia generates a high workload for internal medicine departments. Management of this disease is challenging, because patients are usually elderly and have multiple comorbid conditions. Furthermore, the interpretation and adherence to guidelines are far from clear in this setting. We report the opinion of 43 internists especially interested in infectious diseases that were questioned at the 2011 XXXII National Conference of Spanish Society of Internal Medicine about the main issues involved in the management of pneumonia in the internal medicine departments, namely, classification, admission criteria, microbiological workup, therapeutic management, discharge policy, and prevention of future episodes. Participants were asked to choose between 2 options for each statement by 4 investigators. Consensus could not be reached in many cases. The most controversial issues concerned recognition and management of healthcare-associated pneumonia (HCAP). Most participants were aware of the differences in terms of underlying diseases, etiological distribution, and outcome of HCAP compared with community-acquired pneumonia, but only a minority agreed to manage HCAP as hospital-acquired pneumonia, as suggested by some guidelines. A clinical patient-to-patient approach proved to be the option preferred by internists in the management of HCAP.

  16. Klebsiella pneumoniae Siderophores Induce Inflammation, Bacterial Dissemination, and HIF-1α Stabilization during Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Holden, Victoria I.; Breen, Paul; Houle, Sébastien; Dozois, Charles M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Klebsiella pneumoniae is a Gram-negative pathogen responsible for a wide range of infections, including pneumonia and bacteremia, and is rapidly acquiring antibiotic resistance. K. pneumoniae requires secretion of siderophores, low-molecular-weight, high-affinity iron chelators, for bacterial replication and full virulence. The specific combination of siderophores secreted by K. pneumoniae during infection can impact tissue localization, systemic dissemination, and host survival. However, the effect of these potent iron chelators on the host during infection is unknown. In vitro, siderophores deplete epithelial cell iron, induce cytokine secretion, and activate the master transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein that controls vascular permeability and inflammatory gene expression. Therefore, we hypothesized that siderophore secretion by K. pneumoniae directly contributes to inflammation and bacterial dissemination during pneumonia. To examine the effects of siderophore secretion independently of bacterial growth, we performed infections with tonB mutants that persist in vivo but are deficient in siderophore import. Using a murine model of pneumonia, we found that siderophore secretion by K. pneumoniae induces the secretion of interleukin-6 (IL-6), CXCL1, and CXCL2, as well as bacterial dissemination t